THE AGE OF MANSCAPING: CONTROLLING BODIES AND DEFINING MANHOOD IN THE 21st CENTUTY by Rachael Ann Boice B.A., University of Colorado Denver, 2009 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment Of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Sciences Master of Humanities and Social Sciences 2012
2 RACHAEL ANN BOICE ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
ii This t hesis for the Master of Social Sciences degree by Rachael Ann Boice has been approved for the Master of Humanities and Social Sciences by Marjorie LevineClark, Chair Bradford Mudge Candan Duran Aydintug Date: November 13, 2012
iii Boice, Rachael, Ann (M.S.S., Master of Humanities and Social Sciences) The Age of Manscaping: Controlling Bodies and D efining Manhood in the 21st Century Thesis directed by Marjorie LevineClark ABSTRACT Over the last thirty years male body hair removal has become increasingly common. Male body hair removal, or m anscaping, as it is often referred to in popular media has spawned a slew of controversy. Manscaping articles reveal a fear of losing real men suggesting that the meaning of manhood is changing. According to manscaping rhetoric strength, self mastery, the appearance of health, and active heterosexuality are a few of the many criteria of hegemonic masculinity in the 21st century As a new less hairy image of ma nhood takes hold across the world many groups struggle to adapt. But t he growing popularity of manscaping is one way that bodies are being com m odified and reduced to a means to personal identity and success. T he development of manscaping cor responds to a culture that rewards alienation, narcissism, fear and control. I begin my analysis with a reading of manscaping rhetoric from a wide variety of sources and social media. Next I analyze the deeper consequences and implications of the rhetoric. Using a var i ety of feminist, modern and post modern perspectives I assess the assumptions made by manscaping rhetoric as they impact gendered, raced, aged, classed, as well as plant and animal bodies. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend it s publication. Approved: Marjorie Levine Clark
iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank all those who confessed their body hair stories to me.
v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION...........1 The Task at Hand ...........1 The Problem: Changing Images of Manhood............3 Some History ...........................................................................................................5 II. WHAT MANSCAPING IS ..........8 Manscaped.........8 Perfectible........10 Shameful ..........11 Normal .........12 Political........ Civilized ........... Morally Good.......17 Healthy .........18 Moderate.. .............20 (Hetero) Sexual .........21 Mature ..........24 Manly .......25 III. CONSEQUENCES OF MANSCAPING PROPORTIONS ...........27 Against the Feminine .......28 Against Nature ..................30 Against the Weak .............33
vi Against the Body ...........36 Against Society .........39 Against Responsibility ..........40 IV. CONCLUSION...........44 Making Sense of I t All..........44 To What End?........................................................................................................45 So me Hope...........6 V. END NOTES .........50 VI. REFERENCES..........55
1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Dear Abby: Ive never seen a problem like mine in your column. Im a 33 year old normal man except that I have absolutely no hair on my chest, arms or legs. And that is where I want hair the most. I have plenty of hair on my head and a thick growth in my pubic hair, so I know I can grow hair, but Im so ashamed of my hairless body I avoid going to the beach. Is there some kind of treatment I can take to promote the growth of ha ir where I want it? I am miserable in my hairless state. I want to be like the other guys. Hairless in Hilo 1 The Task at Hand If you are old enough you might be able to sympathize with "Hairless in Hilo's" desire for body hair Today you would be hard pressed to find a celebrity, a sports star, or even an up and coming financial advisor sporting a hairy chest. The fact of the matter is, men are increasingly likely to remove their body hair. A 2008 Australian study found that 82.1% of gay men and 66.4% of straight men removed their pubic hair at least once.2 In 2009, marketing researchers found that men in the US spend as much as $2.3 billion a year on skin care and grooming products.3 And in India, marketers are anticipating a 20% annual growth rate of male grooming products by 2015.4 Salon owners are overwhelmed by the increasing rates of male customers while some have actually opened salons that cater exclusively to men.5 When Braun did a global study across seven countries they fo und very lucrative results: F ew women have positive associations with hairy, unpolished men. Just 5% saw such men as attractive, 4% considered them passionate and only 2% associated them with
2 success. In contrast, 37% women said the word 'ape' came to mind when they saw such men, while 25% saw them as sleazy. About 25% women thought hairy men are lazy or poor, and 23% assumed such men were uncultured.6 It is clear, hairy men are going out of fashion and they are being replaced by the new manscaped male. So what exactly is manscaping? The popularization of the term manscaping comes from the television show Queer E ye for the Straight Guy (20032007) but is usually understood as the trimming or removal of male body hair and sometimes includes the use of beaut ifying skin products M anscaping rituals and styles vary on a spectrum from light trimming of pubic hair before a big date to extravagant trimming, waxing, shaving, plucking and exfoliating routines But no matter the extremeness of manscaping, the body i s understood as a me ans of personal self expression, to display social status and value. The manscaper invests in his body like he would a business. His body must appear competitive, up to da te, clean, well designed, functional and lucrative. We can see the emergence of manscaping through a wide variety of medi a Before the term formally existed the male hairless body became popularized by the emergence of body building and prowrestling in the early 80s.7 Meanwhile, the hairless images of musicians like David Bowie, Michael Jackson and Prince proliferated in popular media. These icons opened new possibilities of what a man can look like. Today, self help books, YouT ube videos, infomercials and magazines speak bluntly of the virtues and even necessity of male body hair removal The image of the manscaped body has become ubiquitous in media and advertising Advertisements with exposed male bodies, regardless of the race, gender, and sexual orientation
3 of the target audience or model are almost universally going to be manscaped. To many men and women born after 1980, the manscaped body is the ideal male body The Problem: Changing I mages of M anhood Many manscaping articles have welcomed the development of manscaping as a step towards equality between men and women, or even gay and straight men. However I will argue that controlling bodies whether they are mens or womens, only am plifies an overall attitude of domination and commodification bodies Manscaping rhetoric from industry experts ,8 anti manscapers and pro manscapers expose s the fears and desires challenged and relieved by the development of manscaping. I will argue that the development of manscaping has only superficially challenged definitions hegemonic manhood and manliness continues to be defined against a set of interconnected and decidedly inferior others including but not limited to gay men, poor men, Jewish men, men of color, elderly men, children, animals, and all women. M anscaping controversy has risen out of the tensions implied by the new image of ideal m anhood. Writers, journalists, and marketers are surprised to find that men are removing their body hair and these groups are take positions on whether it is a good thing or a bad thing. Proman scap ing media include articles sponsored by various male grooming companies, popular mens and womens magazines, and freelance journalists who are excited to see men take up the habit. They believe that it is morally good, healthy, practical, a sign of ma turity, civility, and success. Meanwhile, a nti manscaping media is composed of bloggers and journalists fearing the feminization of men. They believe that men are become boyish, vain, and womanly. Manscaping is at the crux of debate between two images of m anhood. On one end we have a hairy, antiquated vision of manhood which suggests a simpler time when all men had to do was bring home the
4 bacon. A nd on the other end, we have the u pand coming manscaped vision of manhood which connotes ambiguity, complexity and compromise. The development of manscaping is a response to the fears and values around the changing image of hegemonic masculinity in the 21st century. It occurred contemporaneously with the outbreak of aids spurring a heightened fear of uncleanliness disease, and gay men. T he increasing acceptance of women nonwhites, and homosexuals in public and political spaces and positions of power ha s threatened male dominance over economics and politics. T he ris e of social media and the internet has changed the way that people meet, network, and gain social resources. And the disappearance of the middle class has put more men in economically precarious positions forcing them to find other ways to display their social status and ability to perform manhood besides being a breadwinner .9 The m eans of displaying manliness had to be transformed in order to accommoda te the se new threats to manhood. Manscaping is one way some men are trying to forge a new image of manliness Today, the body that appears young, healthy, hetero sexual, economically successful, and effortlessly maintained is the ideal body.10 What we see i n Ma nscaping rhetoric is one ideal masculinity taking over another. Connell and Messerschmidt describe this process as a "struggle for hegemony" wherein the means of becoming a man within a society are created and changed.11 Historically hegemonic masculinities have "embodied the currently most honored way of being a man, it required all other men to position themselves in relation to it, and it ideologically legitimated the global subordination of women to men."12 Today, the hegemonic masculinity c ontinues to be an ideal which most men do not and cannot achieve but nevertheless have a complex relationship to. H egemonic masculinity sets a standard according to cultural and historical values and material conditions for all who wish to achieve the most desirable and powerful social position of
5 manhood. The new manscaped vision of masculinity is being constructed through ma nscaping rhetoric as well as the bodies and beliefs of manscapers. And though many men may not manscape, or they may not call it "man scaping," there is an undeniable shift of signifiers taking place around male body hair and the means to achieve manhood. Some History Though manscaping is certainly a phenomenon of our time, many of these fears and desires in manscaping rhetoric build off historical associations of body hair and of manhood. For centuries, the ideal male body was one that has been able to signify affluence and social dominance. Throughout most of history pale fat bodies signified affluence while laboring bodies were tan fr om working in the fields and thin due to lack of proper nutrition. But, in the 19th and 20th century, as working class men moved from the field into the factory, tan skin and glistening muscles began signifying an affluent body.13 Suddenly, a tan muscular body meant that that person could go on vacations, had access to proper nutrition and had the time to participate in leisure activities such as sports, and exercise. The healthy body continued to be a symbol of affluence and leisure, but the symbols changed according to the differing material conditions of the laboring and affluent body. 14 I deal male body types went from lean and wiry in the 19th century to muscular tan bodies in the 20th century to now in the 21st century a thin, t oned, tanned and manscaped body For millennia, body hair has been an important means to display social positions B ody hair has served as a signi fier of gender, nationality, civility, and moral goodness As early as ancient Rome, Ovid declared untamed body hair on girls a sign of depravity.15 European colonialists cited inability to grow beard s as evidence for the inferiority of nonEuropean men to
6 justify their humiliation and enslavement.16After Darwin lack of body hair became a tool for evaluating and proving the evolutionary superiority of man over apes (and other human beings.)17 In the 18th century, Peter the Great levied a heavy tax on all Russian men who kept their beards in an effort to bring Russia in to the modern European age.18 In the 19th and 20th centuries masses swarmed to see bearded ladies while physicians diagnosed and treated overly hairy women with life threatening treatments like X rays.19 Today anxiety around excess and lack of body hair builds off of fears and as sociations that have developed at different times throughout western history Within the context of late capitalism, those fears and associations manifest into body hair maintenance rituals, product consumption, and self commodification on an extreme scale -Manscaping Male b ody hair maintenance has become an expression of personal identity and social value. Anti manscapers anxieties around the changing definitions of manhood are reified in the bodies of manscapers. Many men who were raised to be breadwinners are struggling to provide for their families with a single income. Men have lost many of their homo social spaces and must share work spaces, social spaces, and home responsibilities with women.20 And to make matters worse they have to compete with men of color, gay men, men across the world, and the images of perfectly sculpted (and hairless) men that are inescapable in porn ography advertising and media. I will show this by first describing and de constructing manscaping rhetoric This will illus trate what exactly manscaping means and why people are doing it encouraging it or ab staining from it. We will see how fears, old and new are called to task by manscaping rhetoric We will see that tensions and contradictions within manscaping rhetori c reveal the real issues of manscaping (and the new definition of manhood) In the second part of my analysis I will connect those main issues to larger social systems and examine the consequences of this
7 new manscaped image of manhood I will show how thi s new image of masculinity, just like past definitions, is forged against the bodie s of others, the less than men, and that nobody wins.
8 CHAPTER II WHAT MANSCAPING IS I would like to begin the first half of my analysi s with a comparison between two characters defined by their manscaping. The first is Christian Bales Patrick Bateman in American Psycho (2009) ; the second is Hugh Jackmans Wolverine of X men Origins: Wolverine (2009) Patrick Bateman appears first to us in his apartment, diligently maintaining his toned, tan, smooth, and hairless body. 21 He treats his body as a piece of work, a place for pride, and a means to profit and power. His character is rational, calculated, and wildly successful in every domain of his life, possibly barring psychological or psychological health. (His smallest decisions like where to eat and what to wear are important life decisions which require great thought and planning.) Wolverine on the other hand, is first and foremost a ma nbeast. He is hirsute, emotional and a Canadian wanderer His character is nonmaterialistic, confrontational and instinctual He is always ready for a fight and quick to put his life on the line for love .22 Both characters are heroes and villains in their own right. Both are reacting to systems of power and have found their place within that system. Bateman was born on top and must maintain that status at whatever physical, psychological, or emotional costs while Wolverine was born on the bottom a mutant rejected from society who mus t fight to defend what little he has These characters epitomize the deep associations between body hair maintenance, social status, and morality which will re emerge over and again throughout my analysis of manscaping rhetoric. Manscaped Sometimes we just dont deal with an unseemly problem until theres a bright and bouncy name for it. Such is the case with manscaping. 23
9 First things first, lets take a look at the term manscaping. Ther e has been a recent upsurge of neologisms around male appropri ation of behaviors and products deemed for women. The man purse as in a bag for men, bromance as in a romance between and for men, and even mantihose for male leg wear (as in pantyhose for men ). Some neologisms within manscaping rhetoric include the boyzillian or brozillian (the man version of the Brazilian wax) and heavage referring to male chest cleavage.24 Since we do not have an equivalently gendered term for female body hair removal, we are to assume that body hair removal is naturally a womans behavior and only exceptionally a male behavior. This assumption plays an important role in distinguishing between acceptable levels of male vanity and womanly levels of vanity. The scaping in manscaping refers consciously to landscaping. Mal e (and female) body hair is almost universally referred to in terms of plant overgrowth (j ungle, bush, and, forest ). The male body is terrain to be tamed, cleaned up, and ultimately civilized for the viewing of other s The Queer Eye originator of the term explains: Think of it as a wilderness. In the beginning, there are trees and forests and wild weeds everywhere. And then civilization comes along and somebody says, Im going to keep a garden. Im going to separate these flowers from the rest. All of a sudden, rather than this unruly growth, you have a landscaped world. In our case, body hair is the natural bounty, and what we need is a little manscaping.25 The male body here is made equivalent to a naturalistic space waiting to be civilized, tamed, and made presentable. And again, we are reminded that a little manscaping is needed -not too much to seem womanly, but definitely some.
10 Perfectible One of the most prominent assumptions within manscaping rhetoric is that the body is something in which we can and should invest our money, time, and energy I use the word invest intentionally because the body is literally a site of cultural, social, and economic value. Self help and advice articl es assume that the reader wants to improve himself and increase or maintain his self and social value. Thirty two year old Evan Scott is quoted in one article, I like to represent myself in a certain way, from no cloth e s to fully buttoned up, and I think that this is an extension of my overall presentation.26 Manscaping is something to be done to make you sexier, cleaner, and generally better. A true manscaper makes a ritual or habit of trimming, shaving, waxing, and plucking body hair as part of a larger image and lifestyle. It makes up a whole package where everything must be there in order to achieve absolute perfection. The ideal manscaper reveals muscle, not fat or bone, he smells good, he is tanned, and he of course knows which body hair is a cceptable in what quantities and where. Body hair, like the body itself, is a kind of accessory or clothing, designed and maintained. Men are encouraged to match the amount of chest hair they have with the hair on other parts of t heir body. Like choosing a suit or tie, there are better and worse combinations of body hair length, coverage, and rate of tapering. Some salons even offer men customized services where they can get their body hair trimmed and shaved to make their waist look thinner, pecks and geni tals appear bigger, and abs look more defined.27 The male body, naked, is no longer naked but designed, flexible and improvable. But what manscapers are actually striving to achieve is a perfect balance. Most of the anxieties around manscaping revolve around the idea of excess both excess hair (Wolverine) and excess concern (Bateman) Too much body ha ir is a problem but so is too much concern. T o
11 be too hairy is to be sloppy, impolite, dirty, unsexy, and with questionable social status. To be too hairless is to be too controlling, too vain, too feminine (or gay), or insecure. The body men must work for is one which appears effortlessly perfect This is our first contradiction. Shameful If you dont have a gift with synonym, sarcasm, and vague innuendo, most manscaping advice might be over your head. In manscaping rhetoric, male genitals are heavily coded. M anscaping is referred to as going bare down there,28 and below the belt clean up29 to deforesting the nether regions and clearing the table [to accentuate] the centerpiece,30 and even trimming the hedges to make the house look bigger.31 Meanwhile, male genitals are called happy areas32 and, tellingly, manhood.33 The coding of male body parts serves a couple purposes. It serves as form of comic relief. Since discourse on male body hair is still pretty new and the authors are trying to sell the idea to men who dont already manscape most writers, estheticians, and advertisers cho ose to use funny and unintimidating language to deflate the discomfort posed by talking seriously about the very real issue34 of male body hair. Because male body hair has only recently been considered a problem, many people use nonconfrontational and indir ect references to male body parts to both deflect anxiety and draw attention to this new problem to create shame but also make a call to action Secondly, coding the reasons for manscaping makes manscaping seem more exciting and taboo in other words, sexy. The coding emphasizes the sexual organs of the male body to promote the imagined sexual benefits of manscaping Although salons provide fairly straight forward services, when they actually bring up the penis coding is used. One salon owner manages to avoid talking about the male genitals while s peaking specifically about them. She explains that s ome men think theres an added perk of getting a Brazilian: an enlarging effect
12 for the main attraction. It accentuates it, because theres nothing to obscur e the, you know, implement down there .35 Despite actually doing the work of interacting with this part of the male anatomy regularly, to actually speak of the male genit als is off limits. This puts the penis and male sexuality, in a strange position of be ing both very important while the effort put into making it better or more effective is a shameful secret. Probably the most important shame associated with manscaping is the mere fact of ones manscaping. Though manscaping is considered essential, removing body hair is not something that a manscaper might openly discuss with his friends. In fact, much of the c oding, like doing the deed,36 or do their business37 implies certain discretion involved in manscaping. One salon owner even says one regular originally came in as part of a dare.38 In any case manscaping is something that men should do, but not feel prou d of. They should appear maintained but naturally and effortlessly so. To openly care or put real effort in to ones body or appearance might seem vain, feminine, or insecure. ( We will see more on this fact as we continue to traverse the meanings and impl ementation of manscaping.) Normal One of the most important things a salon owner or manscaping product seller can say is just how normal and popular manscaping is. One salon owner explains that he has a cross section of people, from body builder types to business people others explain that Its so across the board, its kind of surprising honestly, its everybody .39 One Cosmopolitan article reports that they found that out of 1,000 dudes polled, a whopping 95% admitted to manscaping.40 While th e term admitted in this quotation shows the shameful element of needing to manscape, the circulation of a statistic like this simultaneously normalizes the act in a powerful way. Men can stop feeling afr aid or ashamed of removing their body hair
13 M anscaping is not just okay, but it is what everyone else is doing. In the same Cosmo article, one twenty seven year old manscaper gives his personal testimony : On a spring break trip with my boys, I noticed that one guy in our group had what looked like a bush that was trying to escape from his swim trunksI told him to look around at the rest of us -no one else had anything like that going on. By the next day he had shaved.41 His story illustrates one way that men are lea r ning to manscape through one anot her This young man very cautiously avoids bringing up the actual act of manscaping and instead focuses on the expectation of a manscaped body through simple illustration. Everyone else had done it so should his friend. But what is the purpose of discussing the virtues of manscaping in womens j ournals like Cosmopolitan ? Women, just like men, are being taught to expect it. One journalist explains that Finally men realized if they present themselves for a date with a bus h, most likely they wont get a second chance.42 The normalizing force of expert opinions and polls influence how manscaping is perceived by both men and women. Therefore, not only other men but women too become important in enforcing the manscaped norm. Moderate There are also subtle ideological implications that come with manscaping (or refusing to manscape) A coffee table guidebook outlining pubic hair styles explains that: If you came of age in the 70s, or just wish you did, the Au Naturel is the style for you. To create it, just let yourself be as your creator made you. Dont shave, trim or even contemplate u se the time you used to spend on pubic hair maintenance to start a food co op in your community! 43
14 The decision to not manscape signifies a kind of social defiance and idealism that recalls the beards and long hair of the 60s. But now it is not just beards that signify political status, but all body hair. Manscaping separates those who are longing for the idealistic world of the 60s and those living in the real world where men have to manscape. Hippies and the far left are likely to reject manscaping for its consumerist, materialistic features. On the opposite end of the political spectrum, the idealized hairy man often brings up nosta lgic ideals of former manliness for anti manscapers They long for a time when men were manly and knew their place as breadwinner and knew how to handle and protect a woman. An infamous example anti manscaping women bring up is a centerfold of Burt Reynolds posing naked (and hairy) on a bear rug.44 It is not just Burts body hair that these antimanscaping women lust after, but a time when men were burly mature, breadwinners One woman recalls: The seventies and eighties were gloriously thatchy [sic] time to be alive: Burt Reynolds was almost indistinguishable from the bear rug on which he lolled in Cosmo but the financial upswing that was the bulk of the Clinton years seemed, sadly, to create a taste for smoother, more boyish men. 45 For this anti manscaping woma n, the economic comfort of the 90s marked the loss of strong virile men They were to be replaced by weaker, less mature, boyish men. Both the leftists and conservatives reject manscaping on the grounds of over feminization. They are both grieving an older (hairy) vision of manhood that represented a different kind of world. Meanwhile, the moderate man is much more likely pick up on ne w social queues and take up manscaping. This kind of mans ideology can be best understood through the term metro sexual. Manscaping dominates urban areas among white middle class men under thirty five (though as we w ill see later, not exclusively.) S ocial and political values differ among
15 manscapers and nonmanscapers for geographic, social class, and generational reasons. For those on the far left or right, m etro sexuality is typically used as a derogatory term, implying vanity or general lack of man liness (as in When you see hair nestling like a headless a squirrel on your beloveds chest you know you have a man in your bed. Not a metrosexual, but a Man.)46 But other s use the same term as an unprejudiced descriptive word .47 The metrosexual is not hung up on traditional definitions of manhood. He is able and willing to accommodate the changing demands of society including ma nscaping Civilized There is a very rich and curious tendency to equate the hair y man to an animal. Perhaps the reaso ns for this are obvious to some, but for critical folks like me, it is unclea r why this is such a big deal; a fter all, human beings are in fa ct animals with body hair. It is unclear in manscaping rhetoric whether animality is good or bad. Ha irless men are equated to rats while hairy men are bears, 48 gorillas ,49 or simply beasts. 50 No proof is really necessary to make these associations a hairy man is somehow self evidently more animal istic that a less hairy man. O ne advice column exclaims its a bear, its a beast, its big foot. No, its simply a very hairy man.51 In this case, a mans hairiness makes him akin to an animal or possibly even a monster. One promanscaper fears a momentary upsurge of hairy men (still manscaped, trimmed not shaved) in fashion and media says: The cavemean is back.52 For him, men who refuse to assimilate modern ideals of hairlessness are so uncivilized that they are comparable to pre humans M anscaping for pro manscapers seems to be a long awaited evolution of the social and civilized male. Even more curious though, the animalistic man (the nonmanscaper) is often described in terms of his sexuality. A hairy man will be more savage in bed while a manscaped man will be
16 restrained and well mannered. One ant i mans caper explains that our ve ry same Hugh Jackman (Wolverine) has unabashedly displayed his sexily untamed man fur and he is all the hotter for it and that chest hair has returned with a vengeance as the sign of sex appeal and virility.53 We are to assume the chest hair is sign of shameless sexuality. Meanwhile, o ne pro manscaping heterosexual woman tells her story about a failed partnership due to one mans refusal to manscape : He resented what he referred to as my attempts to feminize him. I was merely trying to civilize him. Humans are social creatures and our societies have advanced as body hair has retreated. A streamlined chest is not a sign of wimpishness but of sophistication.54 For pro manscapers, a manscaped man is a tame, polite and accommodating man while for antimanscapers hairlessness connotes a lack of virility and a victim of the feminizing forces of civilization. Both anti and pro manscapers have the same associations of body hair = animality, lack of body hair = civility, but they have fundamentally different values in re gards to these characteristics. In these cases the q uestion really isnt about whether manscaping is good or not but what makes a man. Morally Good What evil sprouts from the pits and pores of man! -Kyan Douglas, Grooming in Queer Eye for the Straight Guy Many pro manscaping men and women vow that manscaping is just the polite and considerate thing to do. Since we have already gat hered that, at least for promanscapers, unchecked body hair is genera lly considered offensive the manscaper is morally superior to the nonmanscaper. One pro manscaping woman explains that [Chest hair] is unpleasantly moist or
17 far too brillo pad like it leaves the female face scoured causing itchy, red blotches and leaves the hands with the unpleasant sensation of having uprooted a prickly shrub.55 A manscaped man understands how gross, painful, or otherwise inappropriate others (women specifically) find his body hair and has taken it upon himself to get rid of it no matter the cost. And dont forget, there is a cost, and some men dont have the guts the required comfort level or the financial means to have their various follicles regularly tended to.56 Some men must just arent strong (or financially secure) enough to make the sacrifice necessary to ensure the comfort of others. In many cases, manscaping is considered part of a mutual compromise. If he expects her to remover her offensive body hair, he should do the same. Whats good for the goose is good for the gander. If I have those expectations of someone else, I probably would want to return the favor 57 and [t] he vast majority say theyr e doing it because their wife or their girlfriend told them to do it the wives bring them saying If Im going to do it, you better do it as well.58 Now this makes the nonmanscaper l ook pretty inconsiderate compared to the egalitarian man scaper One Cosmopolitan article even warns: Guys who dont trim their pubic hair fall into two camps. T he first is the alpha male who thinks maintenance beyond shaving his face is gay the other type of guy is sweet but lazy.59 Meanwhile, the manscaper is depicted in quite a different light. The author e xplains that this type of guy knows whats expected of him and will be attentive without being over the top sensitive hell be conscious of what you like and how to satisfy you.60 He is the perfect man, and all he had to do was trim a little! The moral consequences for be ing a non manscaper are impressive. In many cases body hair can be a signal to a wide range of character flaws. One w oma n explains: Chest hair is often a poor cover for letting the male figure go to pot. These hairy slobs seem to be saying, look at me, I may be flabby but at least I have next years winner of
18 best garden at the Chelsea Flower show stuck to my front. These m en tend not only to booze but to over eat bacon sarnies and tubs of cookie dough ice cream behind y our back.61 So, i n case you havent figured it out yet, an unmanscaped man is a selfish, lazy, fat, boozehound. The reasons to manscape are really piling up, but we are just getting started! Healthy A man or woman sporting the short trim says to the world, Im clean, Im safe, and I dont have to take prescription meds to control a psychiatric condition Pablo Michell e Hip Snips: Your Co mplete Guide to Dazzling Pubic H air One of the most compelling contradictions within manscaping beliefs has to do with its supposed healthiness (usually physical health, but occasionally, a s in the case of the above quotation, mental.) While many prom anscapers and body hair experts believe that less body hair is more sanitary and health y than bodies with a lot of hair health professionals have identified a number health risks directly associated with the removal of body hair particularly pubic hair. Novice historians a nd even evolutionary biologists explain that humans preferred less body hair because it signaled health since lice were less likely to be present.62 But p ro m anscaper s use this logic to explain that removing body hair is cleaner, safer, and more hygienic. One promanscaping woman recalls with horror: In Dr. No, when a giant black tarantula lands on [Sean Connerys] naked front, I found it hard to distinguish the spider from his chest. Both were equally unappealing and pot entially unhealthy. Observing the torso of my hirsute former boyfriend, I was never quite sure what was hiding in all that undergrowth. Fleas? Lice? Some killer bug? Or, maybe nothing at alland that includes muscle .63
19 For this woman, body hair not only implies health on a couple levels. The first refers to the prehistoric man who evolved to have less body hair to reduce the risk of infestation (this explanation is still up for debate by the way.) The second is a more modern vision of health connected to mu sculature. Another woman explains that [ c hest hair] is totally uninviting and unhygienic .64 But even those who arent so deeply horrified by supposed disease ridden filth that is body hair agree that removing body hair makes them feel cleaner. One manscaper explains simply Its routine for me now I do the whole thing myself. I feel better, it looks better. I feel like Im cleaner, and its more sanitary.65 Now, this is all good and fine, except that even the responsible salo n owner has to (a nd occasionally does)66 admit that there are health risks associated with the removal of body hair. One doctor even wrote an article explaining that all doctors had a responsibility to encourage their patients not to remove their pubic hair because of the associated health risks. She explains that removing pubic hair not only increases the likelihood of staph infections, boils, abscesses, and pustules but that freshly shaved pubic areas and genitals are also more vulnerable to herpes infections due to the microscopic wounds being exposed to the virus carried by mouth or genitals. It follows that there ma y be vulnerability to spread other STIs, as well.67 Hair follicles that have been irritated by tweezing, shaving, and waxing result in microscopic wounds that can be easily infected. Folliculitis refers specifically to infection of hair follicles which can be caused by body hair removal. To add insult to injury, warm moist places, like those that grow hair on the human body, tend to already b e breeding grounds for bacteria .68 Hairless bodies can and perhaps should be more closely associated with infections and disease rather than health and sterility. So when a s a lon owner says of a client: he likes to feel clean 69 it is important to know that he just feel s clean and healthy whether or not he actually is
20 Practical According to manscaping discourse, what sets manscaping apart from female body hair removal is that manscaping is inherently practical, whereas what women do is aesthetic or vain Manscapers and manscaping product providers appeal to practicality as the primary reasoning for removing body hair. And importantly, the practical value of manscaping sets it distinctly apart from how and why women and gay men remove their body hair (we will talk more about why this is later .) One man scaper explains: M anscaping helps keep you cooler in the summer months, you use less deodorant Theres no need to get pretty with this thing as we are menjust stay clean and youre covered. 70 Men that manscape for purely aesthetic purposes are considered too feminine or vain. It is important for m anscapers to have on hand practical reasons for manscaping so as to avoid such accusation s One manscaper even goes so far as to explain: when body hair grows too long it can be troublesome and get tangled in clothing or even zippers.71 Though this may actually be a problem for some individuals, I hardly believe it in itself is a major factor in the development of manscaping. Any ex cuse, it seems, is a good excuse. Some benefits can seem superficial but are designed to heighten other features considered manly like muscles, heterosexuality, or the penis itself. One p ro manscaping man explains that [r] emoving chest hair allows for muscles to shine as their definition is more apparent t rimming your genital area will profit your personal hygiene, your appearance and it may even spice up your sex life.72 It is commonly understood that a major reason for removing body hair is to s how off a muscular or competitive body. This reasoning made the extreme manscaping done by body builders and professional athletes som e of the first acceptable instances of hetero -
21 masculine hairlessness.73 Because the male body was also extremely muscular the femininity of hairlessness could be forgiven or better yet, forgotten. (Hetero) Sexual Nobody likes wildly unchecked hair unless its post JBF[Just been fucked] hair! Petronella Wyatt and Tanya Gold, Hairy Chests or Polished Pecs? Though it may not seem obvious at first, manscaping rhetoric is a heterosexual affair.74 Why? Well, it might have something to do with the fact that homosexual men, and women for that matter, already know how and why to remove their body hair. No one is surprised or con fused at gay men removing their body hair, since, again, like women, they just naturally do it. We can see this clearly implied in one article titled Manscaping: Do Straight Men Really Shave Down There? where one woman explains her first experience wit h a manscaped body: I remember the first time I saw a man with shaved armpits at the gym, sometime in the early 2000s. I remember thinking: Gay? Not really getting that vibe. Vain? Hmmm, not really seeing an overly polished presentation and will you look at the shoes Ugh. What then?75 Body hair r emoval is only controversial when it is something straight men are doing It is also interesting to remember that the term manscaping was coined by the Fab Five of Queer Eye for the Straight Guy (20032007) This is literally a case where five gay men, who are presumed experts on something like manscaping, apply it, for seemingly the first time, to straight men. And it is in this context, where gay men are helping straight men get and satisfy women that the term manscaping was born. One UK salon owner even claims a new title for men who manscape the hetero politain because the emphasis is on the hetero, it stays well clear of the gay thing
22 L ads can be clean and vain and still very male.76 Manscaping is not only for straight men, but men who want to remain men, in other words, not gay. We can also see this in the way that m anscaping rhetoric exploits heterosexual mens desire to have sex with women as a primary reason to take up manscaping Over and over again men defend their seemingly effeminate behavior or appearance as truly m anly because those behaviors gain access to womens bodies. One salon owner explains: I ask every guy at my salon why he came in If hes straight, its alway s, alw ays to make his pubic hair more [their ellipsis] appetizing to his girlfriend or women in general.77 T he use of the word appetizing shapes an expectation that oral sex is a logical step for men to justify their partners and their own pubic hair removal. Manscaping provides the appearance and the expectation sex. Though there is some backlash against this homogeneous, hairless phenomenon from female bloggers and writers, women continue to be targeted by magazines like Cos mopolitan to expect or encourage their male partners to manscape. One article in C osmopolitan titled What H is M anscaping S tyle S ays A bout H im warns of the sexual downfalls of both over and under manscaped men. According to the article, men who manscape j ust a little ( again, not too much to seem vain) are ideal sexual partner s and boyfriend s W hile the nonmanscaper can b e expected to be a little lazy and unadventurous in bed, the over manscaper will be a big porn fan and a little insecure.78 But, again, there is another contradiction in the presumed heightened sexuality predicted by manscaping rhetoric We can see that manscaping actually restrains sexuality and the sexual organs in a couple ways. First, the gradation of waxing styles (up until all body hair is removed ) doesnt actually remove the hair closest to the genitals, but, rather, the edges of pubic hair growth to make the pubic region appear more contained and less expansive. Much like actual
23 landscaping, pubic hair is removed in order to clean up the edges of hair growth W axing techniques are not oriented towards giving greater genital access but rather give the appearance of a more controlled and maintained pubic area. The second thing is that waxing and shaving the genitals requires a twenty four hour abstention from sex in order to reduce the chances of irritation and infection ( not to mention the other heal th problems listed in the Healthy section). So the removal of body hair actually restricts sexual activity Manscaping is not about having more sex or having greater sexual abilities or pleasure, but rather, appearing to have a controlled and moderated sexuality. Mature If youve spent any time with a male over 35, you know [body hair] is a very real issue79 One of the more surpri sing demographics for salon owners is the arrival of men over thirty five But as one such man admits: As you get older, you get hairier 80 This fact forces one to realize a broad er concern with male body hair -you get more as you get older. Body hair makes its f irst appearance at puberty peaks around sixty and then dwindles again. Not such a big deal, unless you live in a time where the youthful body reigns supreme and youthful bodies are less hairy bodies. Youthfulness is heavily tied to other concepts central to manscaping rhetoric. Men believe they need to appear younger (and thus healthier) in order to appear sexual and thus successful. One New York salon owner, Eaglen, explains, 22 to 34 year olds are more comfortable with coming in for trea tment, because it ties in with their feeling that good presentation is linked to professional success while 35 50 year olds are not going to salons because they feel its not macho.81 Though there are generational tensions when manscaping becomes too feminine, men of all ages are concerned with appearing or maintaining their
24 youthful, competitive edge.82 Th e obsession with youthfulness, though it sometimes comes under the guise of health, virility, and economic success, is a major preoccupation a mong manscapers. To remove body hair is literally to remove the evidence of old age and restore a more youthful pre pubescent appearance. Despite this obsession with youth, t he concept of maturity also plays an important role in man scaping rhetoric. Pro m anscaping women want their men to be mature enough to take care of themselves (A streamlined chest is not a sign of wimpishness but of sophistication, and with it an ability to negotiate lifes pitfalls)83 while for anti m anscapers t here is no feeling li ke being nestled in forests of dark, warm fur, safe and loved and warm.84 W hat constitutes mature manhood swings between being self sustaining and having the ability to build strong emotional bonds. These two criteria of maturity are boundaries that men are expected to negotiate in order to achieve full manhood. They must be totally independent but be able to share the depths of their emotional life; be sensitive but not a wimp. Manly The main argument within anti manscaping discourse is an argument based on manliness. One salon owner interviewed in a New York Times article explains that Guys try it and look and go, its better than the mess I had down there And it is. You feel more confident. It actually makes you feel more masculine, instead of less masculine, to get waxed. It sounds like a oxymoron, but its not.85 This is an exceptional claim though. Manscapers and manscaping businesses emphasize practical, health, and sexual benefits and avoid the conversation about whether waxing, trimm ing or shaving is actually manly. Instead, the articles focus on explaining that manscaping isnt just for women, gay men, and porn star s They explain how much better your sex life will be how
25 much bigger you r muscles and penis will appear, and how everyone else is already doing it or expecting it They offer such a wide range of practical reasons to manscape, all of which are considered manly, normal, and good, that actual manliness doesnt have to be spoken of. They are using other signifiers of manliness to redefine what behaviors are necessary to achieve manhood. Manscaping rhetoric suggests that m anli ness is achieved by not being vain (like women), being mature (in both senses) and being in control We see some of these themes in pro manscaping statements like: r eal m en do g et Boyzilians and Manscape86 and anti manscaping comments like: w ax on, wax off -its something the Karate K id does. Not the karate m an.87 The thin line t hat constitutes manly manscaping is that it must be done for the right reasons and to the right degree. Manliness is a fragile and fuzzy (no pun intended) concept which manscapers and non manscapers are forced to navigate every day. The conflicting image s of what a real man should l ook like are what started manscaping rhetoric in the first place. The hyperbolic images drawn on the boundaries of acceptable manscaping reflect boundaries of what makes a man a man. To return to our original characters Wolverine represents the under manscaped man strong, emotional and independent He is a manly man in the most primitive sense while his opposite, Patrick Bateman, is manl y in the most modern of senses, adaptive, controlled, and calculated This tension i n contemporary definitions of hegemonic masculinity is at the crux of manscaping rhetoric. It is precisely on this tension that I build the next part of my analysis The manscaped image of manhood doesnt quite tur n older definitions manhood on their head. Rather, the manscaped body define s manliness as superior to and dominant over those deemed
26 less than men. It is against these nonmen that manscaped manliness measures itself These others are the feminine, the weak, the uncontrollable the boyish, and the brutish.
27 CHAPTER III CONSEQUENCES OF MANSCAPING PROPORTIONS The associations and contradictions present in manscaping rhetoric are not arbitrary or accidental. The themes running through manscaping rhetoric reveal the fears, beliefs, and desires of the greater manscaping culture at large, mainly, those around the redefining of manhood. T he desire to control and categorize the body is connected to a greater attitude of control and domination over the bodies of manscapers and all who fail to achieve manliness. Since the controversy of manscaping rhetoric revolves around whether or not manscaping is manly, the debate is really about the redefining of masculinity. But manscaping rhetoric shows that the new manscaped vis ion of manhood maintains the most important element of the former manhood that of social dominance What makes manhood continues to be defined in terms of better, stronger, and successful. Just like the former hairy vision of manhood, the manscaper strive s to achieve total control over weakness and the uncontrollable in themselves and those around them According to m anscaping rhetoric, manhood is achieved by being in control And it is those deemed less than men who must be controlled and demeaned in orde r to achieve ideal manliness. To analyze the implications of manscaping, I will b e evoking a variety of thinkers Though the implications do overlap, I have tried to break up my analysis according to the boundaries created within manscaping rhetoric. M y goal with this section is to show how something as simple and everyday as trimming pubic hair can expose the logic of ideologies and power structures Though manscaping certainly does mark a new vision of hegemonic masculinity taking over an older definition of hegemonic masculinity, it continues to define itself
28 against those it deems subordinate. In order to buy the reasoning for manscaping in manscapi ng rhetoric we must first make a few assumptions about what is good (control, manliness, heterosexuality, cleanliness, success) and what is bad (poor, sick, powerless, feminine, old.) It is these assumptions that shape the age of manscaping and keep manliness a title of power. Against the Feminine As we saw in the first section, there is a great deal of concern among manscapers and anti manscapers alike around the manliness or unmanliness of manscaping. The only reason this would be an issue is if there was a preconceived understanding that to be manly was both distinctly different and better than being feminine. In manscaping rhetoric, f or a man to be feminine is a bad thing. So it isnt a far reach to say that manscaping rhetoric is not an equalizing force between the roles and duties of men and women but plays on the fears that those distinctions might disappear. Rather than encouraging men to feminize themselves, manscaping rhetoric masculinizes the behavior that was once considered feminine. One way we c an see this is that the ways that men are expected to manscape are very different from the ways women remove their body hair For instance, men are rarely encouraged to shave or wax their underarm and leg hair Even the most extreme manscapers dont remove all their body hair. In fact, male models are actually encouraged to keep their leg hair and underarm hair .88 Men who remover their leg or underarm hair are assumed to be competitive athletes. Men remove only enough hair to extenuate their other manly feat ures (like the penis competitive edge, or defined muscles) while wom en are made completely hairless barring their head hair, eyebrows, eyelashes and perhaps on rare occasion, a small portion of pubic hair But t he removal of mens body hair is pref aced on the expectation that women will be removing at least at much body hair. Men who remove their pubic hair expect that their partners will be doing the same, whereas women who
29 remove their pubic hair do not have the same expectations of their male par tners.89 In this way, the sexual dimorphism between genders is preserved and womens bodies remain still the more problematic Theyre hair removal is not about control, but about avoiding masculinization. Where men must be weary not remove too much hair t o remain men, women must actively remove all evidence of their body hair to achieve femininity. The body in its natural hairy state is masculine while femininity requires work and modification of the body. Feminists of both the second and third wave have i dentified the emphasis of sexual dimorphism as a mechanism to control and maintain both patriarchy and heteronormativity. During the 1968 Miss America Pageant protest, Feminists attacked female body hair removal as one of the many expectations preserving female docility and objectification .90 The removal of body hair had been one part of making women vain, weak, and most of all, object s to be looked at.91 What made second wave feminists so ang ry was that this expectation actually made women expect these things from themselves while big industry and men profited. In the sixties and seventies many women rejected the behaviors of body hair removal (mostly just their leg and underarm hair ,)92 because, if men d idnt have to do it, then why should we? Flash for ward to the 1990s. Men are also expected to be concerned with their body hair Industries began targeting men as a serious market for beauty, anti aging, and grooming products 93 Manscaping is heralded as an equalizing force between the genders. Now that both men and women are held to physical standards of beauty, men and women are more equal now, right? Unfortunately, this view is increasingly popular within manscaping discourse a nd is used to justify womens vanity in the first place. Only once in my research did I encounter a comment from one reader that recognized this problem. The commentator was attacking an article written by a woman and self proclaimed feminist who compared mens concern with their body hair to
30 womens concern with being over weight. The commentator noticed that perhaps a more apt comparison is between mens concern with body hair and womens concern with their body hair.94 But very rarely are mens and womens body hair considered with the same social significance. After all, one grows out of a masculinized body, and the other a feminized one. And feminine bodies are just naturally better with no hair. Third wave feminism has some more answers for us. Judith B utler, a feminist and queer theorist argues that gender is inherently performative and everyday habits, embodiment, and life world orientation create s the appearance of two distinct genders.95 Ways of walki ng, speaking, touching, looking, and treating body hair are gendered. This explains why according to one study, underarm hair on a masculinized body is normal while that same hair on a feminized body is viewed as repulsive 96 To jumble up or confuse the dichotomy between practical, natural ly hairy men and vain, hairless women via manscaping or over manscaping is perceived by the anti manscapers to be a corrosive force that weakens the power relations established between men and women. It threatens the very foundations of patriarchy and hete ro normativity So when individuals express these fears via manscaping rhetoric with the careful delineation of not too much or just a little they are also perpetuating the forces that allow the dichotomous gender structure and that follows And the il lusion pro manscapers have of equalizing genders through male body hair removal only superficially obscures gender difference. As long as the dichotomous meanings and values of male body hair (remove just enough) and female body hair (remove as much as pos sible) re main the same, female bodies and ambiguously gendered bodies remain subordinate
31 Against Nature Eco feminis ts like Caroline Merchant take an additi onal level of comparison between the devaluation of womens bodies and the devaluation of nature. T he y argue that there is a deep connection between the ways that men have justified their domination and control of animals and the earth and the domination and control over marginalized human bodies. H istorically women people of color and deviant sexualities have been associated with both nature and the unnatural Throughout western history moral, political, and scientific authorities have understood the importance of controlling the forces of nature, womens bodies and nonprocreative sexuality as a way to civilize and advance human morals and societies.97 They believed that womens bodies and sexual desire were closely tied to the wild animal body and the chaotic rhythms of nature.98 T he need to control and dominate nature to ensure sur vival grew up out of and next to the need to control and dominate animalistic and worldly bodies in order to create civil order The same nature that determined European men to be superior to women and men of color also determined that same sex relationshi ps were deviant and unnatural. Nature has been used to justify the domination and subordination of bodies that do not abide by hegemonic ma sculine ideals. And body hair is one thing about the human body that not only directly recalls other animal bodies but sexuality itself (hence the focus on pubic hair). The development of manscaping is a continuation of controlling both mens and womens bodies as well their sexuality. Nature, as it has been identified within human bodies has been regulated both externa lly and int ernally Sigmund Freud argued that the development of civilization required the mastery of both nature on the outside and the nature that runs deep inside humans .99 For Freud the development of pre civilized man to become modern man, as well as babies to grow into adults required the systematic mastery over animalistic desires, namely the desire to kill and the desire
32 to have sex. The development of shame, conscience, and social conformity are all necessary steps for the successful civilized hum an being but are simultaneously the cause of neurosis and discontent. The super ego is the unique human ability to internally control the pre civilized desires expressed by the infantile Id. Freud was able to articulate the increasing tension and seeming contradiction between the distinctly civilized human and the primitive, sexual, violent animal from which we supposedly arose. Norbert Elias argues in The Civilizing Process that the development of western civilization was simultaneously the development of the self controlled and domesticated human.100 He explains that as humans have developed Social functions have become more and more differentiated under the pressure of competition...As more and more people must attune their conduct to that of others, the w eb of actions must be organized more and more strictly and accurately, if each individual action is to fulfill its social function. The individual is compelled to regulate his conduct in an inc reasingly differentiated, mo re even and more stable manner.101 F or Elias, Western civilization is characterized by the process by which humans replaced external controls over nature with more and more complex and internalized systems to regulate and control the threats that humans have encountered throughout their history. According to Elias, a significant moment in the development of western c ivilization occurred when bo dily functions and desires were regulated in the middle ages. He fi rst cites l aws prohibiting public sex and defecation Meanwhile detailed etiqu ette guides for court societies placed social class distinctions squarely on ones ability to control and maintain the body and its functions. For Elias, the end result of the ci vilizing process has resulted in the creation of docile creatures.
33 Civilization was first set against the environment and disease, then against other cultures and classes but now people are set against themselves, regulating their every instinct and bodi ly function. Manscaping is one way that the socially dominant display their status by means of regulating their natural bodily function of hair growth. The connection between the control of nature and the control of the body takes on another level when we consider the current ecological crisis that has developed in tandem with increasingly high standards of physical maintenance. Mathew Immergut makes the connection between the development of manscaping and increased awareness of ecological collapse (both occurring in the 1980s. )102 According to Immergut, the tension between the exploitation of nature and the fear of uncontrollable elements of the human body has created a simultaneous urge to control bodies and the environment even more. Immergut argues th at the fear of loss of control is overwhelming. Individuals are clinging to control what they can in a world where they feel like they are losing control at an incredible rate. Nature and the natural within (or just on the surface) of ones own body is one place where man can still establish his dominance. This is again, reflected in manscaping discourse as the male body is so commonly equated to a landscape that must be tended, controlled, and monitored. Against the Weak The need to control bodies and na ture also applies to the need to control the economically disadvantaged and ethnically inferior. It is clear from manscaping rhetoric that success and moral goodness are connected to a well maintained body. And the whole package implied by manscaping rhetoric shows the difficulty of achieving and maintaining a high value body.103 Though the signifiers of high social value have changed over the centuries, from white wigs, pale
34 skin, and a full beard to tailored suits and a tan toned and manscaped body, ther e is a particular body that dominates contemporary images of the successful man.104 And that image just so happens to be very difficult if not impossible to achieve, but that achievement lasts for only a short time in ones life. Even models and professional athletes have an expiration date. The maintenance of such a high value body takes a great deal of investment and luck. To achieve the high value body, one requires not only monetary resources, time, energy, proper nutrition, and means of employment but a lso the right parents. Culture, ethnicity and class play heavily into the potential actualization of the high class body. Bourdieu makes precisely this point when he explains how bodies literally become classed.105 He uses examples of diet to show this difference that working men prefer hearty, filling foods to balance their calorie output at work as well as the emphasis on physical power within labor environments while upper class men consider those foods not onl y fattening or unhealthy but also uncivilized. This makes more sense when we consider the surprising amount of manscaping rhetoric around Jewish bodies and the Jewish reclamation of excessive body hair. In the age of manscaping, body hair and love of it are signifiers of Jewishness Anti manscaping is a means of asserting cultural or ethnic difference. Jewish males and females point to their Jew ish heritage to explain and justify their body hair and its presence becomes a point of pride. As one anti mans caping woman explains, I am a Jewish wom an and making passionate love to textiles is in my genes.106 Meanw hile a young Jewish man learned to defend and reclaim his body hair as a sign of strength and virility : T he first time the shir t s came off during Birthright Israel the conversation quickly turned to manscaping. As much as it hurt to be objectified by a group of women, I was
35 ready to defend my manhood and maybe the heat made me delusional, but Im pretty sure my au natural look made the w omen swoon.107 For these two revaluati ng body hair is a means to fight back on the attack against the excessive body hair that sometimes comes with Jewish genes But more importantly, and perhaps only accidentally, these men and women are reclaiming body hair to emphasize a greater sense of cultural a nd ethnic difference and build a greater sense of community and solidarity among those of Jewish heritage. T he rejection of the hairless body causes other problems not just for anti manscaping Jews but also those within the Bear community Though these groups are reacting to a culture which marginalizes and demonizes their bodies (partly through their excess body hair) their praise of body hair can result in the same problem of racial and sexual exclusivity. One anti manscaping wom a n actually criticizes President Barack Obamas lack of chest hair, saying Id predicted a light but noticeable dusting; but even upon CSI level zooming, his skin appeared unsullied. Ah well, nothing will put hair on your chest like being elected president of the United States.108 She is actually inferring a lack of manhood in President Obama based not on his manscaping but on his presumably genetic lack of chest hair. As c ritics of the B ear community have argued, s etting strict pheno typical rules about what kind of body will or will not be allowed even if it is the opposite of what is dominantly valued, results in reactionary exclusivity.109 Manscaping rhetoric ( and its definitions of manhood) weeds out more than just minorities and the economically dis advantaged. Even individuals who are able to achieve the high value body do so only conditionally and for a limited time The economic crisis of late capitalism has c aused extreme class distinction s and increasingly devastating consequences of not keeping
36 up. To be considered successful one must be all consumed with the task and willing to do whatever it takes. Andrew Wernick speaks eloquently of the increasing demands and expectations placed on the competitive male body: Interpersonal exchange may be competitive, but it is certainly not free. Besides the persistence of inequalities between the sexes themselves, class differences and the status hierarchies based on them crucially mediate the search for personal satisfaction and ties, so that the whole process becomes (or remains) deeply enmeshed in the more general scramble for wealth power and status .110 Men striving for success find themselves satisfying the constant demands of others t hrough more and more rigorous and extreme lifestyles T hose who can keep up, and keep their face exfoliated and their body trim are recognized and treated as more successful and are more l ikely to advance their careers.111 And those who cant are doom ed to join the margins just out side manhood. Failure to be economically successful continues to be a major factor in achieving manhood, but now more is required to achieve that goal, including dieting, tanning, exercising, and manscaping. Against the Body Another not so recent mechan ism of control that is embodied by manscaping is its separati on of ones self from ones physical body. As we remember from the rhetoric, m anscaping posits the body as a means or a tool to be improved upon and put on display. The body disappears among ot her objects which can be reduced to their monetary or social value. As manscaping transcends the realm of superficial and inconsequential and enters the physical reality of economic security, the body becomes a machineto be used, and ex ploited
37 Karl Marx s theory of alienation spe aks directly to the consequences of such a framework. The devaluation of the body occurs throu gh the mechanization of bodies within the material conditions of capitalism. For Marx the labor ing class is alienated from its bodies as a necessary consequence of the means of production. 112 In Marxs time, factories and tools were owned by capitalists while the laborers sold their skills, time and energy required to produce goods. The laborers bodies were no longer owned by t he laborers; rather the labor er s bodies, labor, and life were purchased by the capitalist through wages. The biggest change between early capitalism and late capitalism is that late capitalism operates not through the production of goods but through the production of needs. Since production has been outsourced and mechanized laboring bodies of the first world have become selling bodies instead of producing bodies In late capitalism, outsourcing and technology focuses the economy in the first world on increasing the consumption of goods (as opposed to the production of those goods .)113 Laborers and marketers alike must find ways to manufacture and then sell desires and identities. Service sector and sales workers must be able to sell themselves in order to sell the actual good or service. U nder the material conditions of late capitalism the maintained and attractive body is a tool of production and a product to be consumed. W ithin late capitalism manscaping is a real economic and social investment. For Marx then and today, e veryday material conditions what kind of work is available and what that work requires of a person are part s of greater systems of control. And it is the proliferation of service sector middle management, and sales jobs114 that has influenced the kind of bodie s that are considered employable. A body that can sell products, desires, or identities is the ideal laboring body A beautiful, maintained body becomes literally a means of production, and manscaping is there to help
38 Nietzsche too provides a compelling perspective on the ways that modern ideologies rely on the devaluation of the body. When manscapers or salon owner s talk about the pain and sacrifice involved with manscaping i t is often with recognition that suffering is an essential part of improvement 115 In Beyond Good and Evil Nietzsche calls this particular form of devaluing the body asceticism. 116 For him, the inversion of values within Christianity is key to understanding the ways that modern masses have been taught t o view pain and suffering of the body as a means to becoming a good and worthy person. The asceti c is a person who punishes his body in order to grow closer to higher ideals The body is deprived and castigated s o that the soul can thrive. Nietzsche cites the Christian monk and the good Christian as explicitly putting a high value on suffering and controlling the body as a di rect means to goodness. Sex extravagant foods, fine clothing, and material excess are all bad to the good Christian; only lesser men and women give into their worldly desires and become attached to their bodies and material world. The crux of Nietzsches argument is that those in power created this inversion of values to control the masses It has and continues to serve as a powerful ideological tool to enslave them The masses won t demand better working conditions or more food if they believe that those things make them a worse person. The powerful deprive and use the masses, but convince them to do it to themselves and tha t doing so makes them better people. I n the age of manscaping, instead of working toward a good soul, the masses are learning to endure their pain and suffering for the goal of r eaching physical and economic perfection. The embrace of long work days, high stress, and bodily abuse in the form of dieting, exercise, and manscaping are contemporary forms of an ascetic value system translated to the material conditions of late capitalism. The intricate relationship between moral goodness, economic success, and physical perfection make asceticism a natural lifestyle choice. Body perfection
39 rituals are ways the successful man proves himself disciplined and good to both others and ones self. Manscaping rhetoric focus es on fears of looking lazy, fat, or out of control and relies on the high valuation of self control and self discipline to the point of asceticism. The use and devaluation of the body not only justifies and even glorifies the abuse of ones own body but also the abuse of other bodies.117 Against S ociety It may or may not be obvious by now but manscaping rituals require a certain awareness of the body as a thing to be looked at. And despite the rhetorics vehement claims of practicality over vanity, manscaping is superficial (in so far as it actual ly deals on the surface of things) and at least marginally narcissistic. Chistopher Lasch explores the causes and implications of narciss ism in a culture obsessed with s elf improvement, individualism and meaninglessness -America. According to Lasch, the m ovement of American culture after the 60 s became deeply concerned with changing the self as a means or equivalent to changing systems. The personal space of the body became increasingly public. The world became a mirror reflecting the in dividual back to hi s or herself Concern with the self and self improvement through jogging, dieting, therapy, self help literature, and presumably manscaping confuse or eradicate concern for social systems .118 The world and society are reduced to the individuals ability to e xpress oneself and affirm ones own position within society. Social problems become problems of the self and social action becomes a therapeutic ritual. Problems others are having within society become their personal problems. Lasch was writing in the la te 1970s when the commodification of the male body was just becoming noticeable and manscaping first appeared in films like Saturday Night Fever (1977).
40 Now, the disappeara nce of the boundaries between private and social spheres has become much more prominent. Social networking sights completely obscure the boundary between private and social life, and personal confessions in blogs and self help rhetoric dominate popular literature (hence my focus on this kind of literature to understand manscaping). Social problems are a matter of personal opinion and experience.119 Systems have literally become so personalized that people cannot distinguish between complex systems and their personal narrat ive s and inversely, how their pers onal narratives and preferences connect to larger systems of control. Personal physical maintenance, like manscaping, is not just confused with social action but actually translates in to real social consequences including class mobility mental health, mar riage, divorce and availability of support networks. 120 One important element Lasch notes about the n arcissistic personality concerns the relationship between the narcissist and the other. T he narcissist experiences him or herself as an object to be looked at by others. Narcissist s do not experience themselves or others as fully emotional beings because they are focused on performing their image for the consumption of equally superficial othe rs. T he narcissist uses the bodies and images of others to compare and justify his or her own body and beliefs. T he manscaper justifies his manscaping by valuing a nd judging the bodies of others, envying other manscaped bodies or ridiculing improper mansca ping habits in others.121 Manscapers/narcissists objectify themselv es and others in one swoop. Against Responsibility For the manscaper, morality is reduced to individuals striving to reflect an image, usually an impossible image, which is ultimately a matter of personal preference. In the age of manscaping, morality in the form of social responsibility cannot exist because everything is
41 personal and apt to change as soon as the next image demands ref lection. Post modernists like Ba udril l ard argue that morality los es its meaning when reality becomes a simulation, and that simulation has more consequence that the original.122 Images are privileged over flesh and biology. In the case of the development of manscaping, the ideal image of manhood dictates what ideologically dominant men do, and since right now real men manscape, those who wish to be ideologically dominant will manscape. Flesh begins resembling the images themselves, glossy, sterile, re produced, and homogenized. An other consequence of our imag e based culture can be illuminated through analyzing the ways that womens potential has been stu nted or stalled by idealized (and also impossible) images In her series Killing Us Softly Jean Ki lbourne discusses the pedophilia inherent in many advertisin g campaigns featuring infantilized women a nd sexualized young girls.123 Advertiser s repetitive use of hairless, emaciated, and usually digitally altered images of women in fragile and docile positions creates an impossible and damaging ideal for girls and women to strive for and boys and men to expect. With the prevalence of images of young men with little to no body hair, it is no coincidence that older men are becoming avid manscapers while yo ung men in their twentie s and early thirti es are manscaping to maintain their youthful appearance. O f course the meanings behind the hairless female and the less haired man cant be compared all the way across, but we can certainly see similar themes and fears manifesting in young men as in young women. I f idealized womens bodies appear pre pubescent, vulnerable, and weak then idealized mens bodi es are getting stall ed somewhere just after puberty, when they are just becoming consumers, are sexually driven, and are very impressionable. M en and boys must face the beefed up, glossy, tan, and hairless men with full heads of hair and novelty sized peni ses that surround them in pornography, media, and advertising.124 They, like so many
42 before them are being trained to feel inadequate next to the impossible ideals late capitalism has set before them. They get stalled in the self doubt in an emotional state that closely resembles adolescence. T he very real phenomenon of men waiting longer to gain financial independence, get married and start families is mirrored in the development of manscaping. T he re is a significant connection between the need to manscape, sexual availability, and successful manhood We can see this because so m uch of manscaping rhetoric tries to convince men that the only way they will gain access to womens bodies (and thus achie ve manhood) is to trim their pubic hair This focus on the perpetually sexually available man explains the popularity and high social value of being a noncommitted, up and coming guy The now antiquated ideal of the (whipped) family man is being replaced by the new image of the ideal man as single, sexual, and perpetually loosely committed. Michael Kimmels Guyland studies the extended periods of youth and difficulty transitioning to m anhood that have become increasingly noticeable over the last thirty years. Kimmel describes guyland as a kind of suspended animation between boyhood and manhood, guyland lies between the dependency and lack of autonomy of boyhood and the sacrifice and r esponsibility of manhood.125 Guyland and manscaping have developed concurrently and proliferate among the same demographicwhite, middle class, colleg e bound or educated, 1626 year old bachelors. Kimmel describes this group as having less and less incentive to begin a career and family, to settle down and to give up all the great things about being a single guy that are so readily available in this culture like video games, gambling, strip clubs, pornography, sports culture, and binge drinking just to name a few. And the development of manscaping is inextricably connected to this new developmental stage through being an element of the guy code that is holding
43 young men in a self and other destructive purgatory. The shaming, the com petitiveness, superficial sexuality, and even the homophobia are all elements Kimmel describes as part of the guy code which perpetuates guyland. The same hegemonic ideals that keep guys from becoming men keep them and everyone who wants to be like them manscaping.
44 CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION Making Sense of it A ll We have begun to get a picture of the complexity and pitfalls of achieving manhood in the 21st century The manscaper must navigate a narrow space which can be both self and other destructive. M en demean themselves and others according to a standard created by the same industries that profit off of their insecurities. They ridicule other men for being too vain, too fat, too hairy, and too lazy, but they must hold themselves to those same standards. To achieve the image of perfect manhood men must diet, exorcis e, tan, have the righ t kind of sex, and maintain body hair. He must avoid femininity, fear the forces of nature insi de and outside his body regulate his most basic desires and needs, alienate and demoralize himself, and live in everyday fear of his inevitable aging and death. To establish his superiority t he contemporary man must negotiate his place among ideologies and bodies with conflicting messages and impossibl e ideals. He, like everyone else must define himself by the fears and desires of his culture. I n the age of manscaping, we are fostering a very particular culture dominated by fear separation, and control W e are scrutinizing mens bodies in belief that the universalizing of self regulation creates equality b ut we are only justifying the scrutiny and management over all bodies. We use M anscaping to subvert and devalue the intimate connection between our bodies and our environment .126 W e are internalizing shame and control over our most basic desires and functions for the sake of social order.127 W e are embracing our own enslavement because we believe it will make us better people .128 W e are creating subclasses of subclasses in order to maintain a social hierar chy out of hope that we will someday be on top.129 W e have reduced the
45 complexities of our social world to ever changing fads and glossy images .130 And we are struggling to ignore ideals which fetishize irresponsibility, violence, and insecurity .131 O ur culture is sick and if we continue to look for the cure in rigorous self management we will continue to create ourselves in the image of late capitalism: a hyper reality where success is achieved through inequality, environmental crisis, and apathy towards extreme social injustices To What End? To understand manscaping in terms of systems of power we must heed the advice of Michel Foucault132. We must as w hat promanscaping forces trying to do, and w ho benefits from the development of manscaping? In the past, m onarchs, clergy, states, and the medical industry have used body hair to control and order bodies for their benefit.133 Now, industries including the entertainment, hygiene, fitness, and dating industries ha ve been the driving force s in creating the expectation of manscaping. S alons and companies that sell grooming products immediately benefit from the development of manscaping. But they are hardly capable of creating a cultural shift all on their own (especially since most salon owners are thems elves surprised to see how many men are utilizing their services.) I f we look at the greater health and beauty industry that encompass the entire package of body improvement, like dieting, exercise, cosmetics, fashion and tanning industries, we get closer to finding the core beneficiaries of the manscaped male. T hese industries are intricately connected to t he entertainment industry, including the unbelievably profitable sex and porn industries, the service industry where singles meet, mingle and try to i mpress one another (this includes bars, clubs, restaurants, and even major shopping centers .) But that still doesnt answer why the new hegemonic masculinity has taken the particular shape that it has.
46 When the majority of young, successful, ideologically dominant men are stressed out, making and spending as much money as they can, concerned about things like love handles, balding and back hair, and spending every waking hour trying to be better, a very par ticular society is created M anscaping is just one component of a complex culture that is designed to create self centered, docile and socially apathetic individual s, in other words, the perfect consumer In latecapitalism (often referred to as consumer capitalism) the most important element of economic success for the powerful is to produce consumers. The upper classes preserve their power by creating individuals who are totally invested in the creation of their personal identity through the constant consumption of products and services. T he few individual who own major media and industries want to create a population that will work as hard as they have to for as long as they need to in order to achieve the consumptive ideals that have been created fo r them. Advertising and media have normalized and profited from images of the manscaped man, the tan body, the hairless wom a n, the glossy haired woman of color ,134 and so many others. Industry profits on the creation needs and desires that did not previously exist in order to convince people that they are not good enough without them. They learn to enslave themselves under their own manufactured insecurities in hopes that they might be able to achieve perfection if only for a little while Some H ope Though I have made manscaping to be the root of evil, it is not evil in and of itself. It like any tool can be used for good or bad. Connell argue s that alternative masculinities and even ne wer hegemonic masculinities can be a way to corrode structures of hierarchy embedded in
47 definitions of manhood.135 T here are s everal ways that male body hair removal can be used to challenge the ills of late capitalism by challenging its definitions of manhood Since manhood under the ideology and economic conditions of late capitalism is focused on social superiority, invulnerability, economic security, and maximized profit, questioning those elements through manscapin g ( though the term itself would have to change ) can actually corrode the culture which late capitalism has built. For Marx, there is a certain inevitability that capitalism creates its own destruction.136 The contradictions within manscaping rhetoric reveal the contradictions of late capitalism. The means of appearing healthy -shaving, waxing, tanning, jogging, dieting actually cause damage to the body. The body is the cite were the contradictions in late capitalism play out. If the economically successful must appear healthy and happy, but are actually becoming less healthy and happy as a result the contradictions between appearance and the real limits of physical bodies reveal the failure of late capitalism. The pain and risk of manscaping is one way that men can come to realize the contradictory ideologies of late capitalism and thus become critical of its structure. A s men are allowed more and more space to explore their b odies in social spaces they can foster an orientation of self care instead of self mastery Confronting the body, its suppleness, and its limits might create a new appreciation for the body itself Men might be able to experience their bodies not just as a means to an end, a machine or an image, but as a fluid, mortal, affective, and expressive part of all their experiences, social and otherwise. They might even start to respect and honor the power of nature in the world as it is reflected in their bodies.
48 Manscaping might challenge mens beliefs and fears around femininity It might also, in turn, make women less rigid about the kind of people, occupations, and behaviors they consider manly and even challeng e their own beliefs and expectation of themselves. For Butler137, male body hair removal might serve as a bridge to allow men and women to explore the m alleability of gendered bodies and see the construction of gendered bodies. The challenging of gender might liberate the boundaries that trap both men and women in socially regimented behavior. Already men are becoming more open to take up and take seriously other activities that have been also been deemed womanly like childcare, crafts, design, and danc e. If men use manscaping as tool to challenge traditional gender signifiers, drawing on radical gender bending groups like drag kings, drag queens, and faeries,138 they too might find liberation from the rigid boundaries late capitalism has established for them. Also, the fluidity of symbols like body hair might increase critical thought and self exploration. If people learn to question the meaning, historical, and social context of their bodies they might learn that it does it does not make them or anyone else better or worse, just different T he acceptance of the identities of o thers might eliminate the need to compete with and judge others If individuals can embrace the play of signifiers like body hair, and personal identities (we see this potential in the sheer silliness of pejazziling the adornment of the male pubic area with small jewels ) then people may be pushed towards a more playful attitude towards identity and learn to respond to others and situations on a case by case basis Iden tifying and categorizing bodies could become so taxing that people might just accept themselves and others as they come and stop taking those categories so seriously. As bodies and lifestyles become more about personal preference and self expression then maybe, just maybe, we will experience ourselves others and nature as essentially fluid, supple and occasionally fuzzy
49 END NOTES 1 Hairless in Hilo, Dear Abbey Column, Montreal Star, February 20, 1979, quoted in Matthew Immergut. Manscaping: The Tangle of Nature, Culture, and Male Body Hair in The Body Reader ed. Lisa Jean Moore and Mary Kosut (New York University Press) 2010 2 Yolanda Martins, Marika Tiggemann, Libby Chrett, Hair Today, Gone Tomorrow: A Comparison of Body Hair Removal Practi ces in Gay and Heterosexual Men, Body Image (April 2008). 3 Nixar Souiden and Mariam Diagne, Emerald Article: C anadian and French Mens Consumption of cosmetics: a Comparison of Their Attitudes and Motivations, Journal of Consumer Marketing. 26, no. 2 (2009): 97109. 4 Writankar Mukherjee, As Indian men Sa y No t o Body Hair Philips, Pansonic, LOreal, Garnier, Oth ers Make Money August 18, 2012, http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2012 0818/news/33261702_1_male body consumer products hair (Accessed November 10, 2012). 5 There are male only salons in Denver, San Francisco, New York, and virtually every major city in the US, Canada, Australia and the UK. 6 Mukherjee, As Indian men Say No to Body Hair Philips, Pansonic, LOreal, Garnier, Others Make Money. 7 Alan M. Klein, Little Big Men: Bodybuilding Subculture and Gender Construction (SUNY Press) 1993 ch. 1 8 This title is thrown around pretty frequently in manscaping articles promoting the benefits of manscaping. These people are typically paid by companies who sell manscaping products or own salons. 9 Susan Faludi, Stiffed: The Betrayal of the American Man (New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.) 1999. 9 Marika Tiggemann, Muscular Ideal Media Images and Mens Body Image: Social Comparison Processing and Individual Vulnerability, Psychology of Men & Masculinity (2009) 10, no. 2 : 109119.Tiggemann found that young men are becoming more concerned about their appearance and have lower self evaluations when they compare their bodies to images of other men. 11 R. W. Connell & James W. Messerschmidt, "Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking th e Concept," Gender and Society 19 (2005) DOI 10.1177/0891243205278639:832833 12 Connell, "Hegemonic Masc ulinity: Rethinking the Concept: 832 13 Gail Bederman, Manliness and Civilization (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press) 1995 ch. 1. 14Michael Kimm el, Manhood in America ( Oxford University Press) 2012, ch. 1.; Bederman, Manliness and Civilization ch. 1. 15 In The Art of Love, Ovid declares I was about to warn you not to keep the stubborn he goat from your armpits and prevent your legs becoming rough with hard bristles! But I am not teaching girls from Mount Caucasus. Roman girls in this case were too civilized to have untamed body hair and should know better than the presumably less civilized girls from Mount Caucasus. Quoted in Carolyn D. Williams, That Wonderful Phaenomenon Female Body Hair and English Literary Tradition in The Last Taboo Edited by Karin Lesnik Oberste in (Manchester: Manchester University Press) 2006: 108. 16 Cynthia Eagle Russett, Sexual Science (Harvard University Press) 1989.; Johannes Endres and Joel David Golb, Diderot, Hogarth, and the Aesthetics of Depilation, Eighteenth Century Studies 38, no. 1 (Fall 2004). 17 Russett, Sexual Science: 78. 18 Endres Diderot, Hogarth, and the Aesthetics of Depilation: 31. 19 Rebecca Herzig, Removing Roots North American Hiroshima Maidens and the X Ray Technology and Culture 40, no. 41 (1999): 73 7. 20 Faludi, Stiffed : 9. 21 We see this in both the book and film both titled American Psycho. Bret Easton Elis, American Psycho, ( New York: Random House, Vintage Books) 1991; American Psycho directed by Mary Harron (Lions Gate Films) 2000, opening scene. 22 Donald McAlpine, Stan Lee, Richard Donner, Lauren Shuler Donner, Ralph Winter, Hugh Jackman, John Palermo, et al. X men Origins: Wolverine (2009) Directed by Gavin Hood (20th Century Fox) DVD 23 Ray Routhier, Manscaping; Popular makeover shows help convince men to Tackle hairy problem areas, Portland Press Herald (Maine), March 28, 2004, http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1 92822247.html (A ccessed November 10, 2012). 21 Beth Jarvis, Real Men Do Get 'Boyzilians' and 'Manscape,' June 28, 2012, http://bellehaven.patch.com/articles/man scaping and boyzilian (Accessed November 10, 2012). 25 Kyan Douglas, Grooming in Queer Eye for the Straight Guy (New York: Clarkson Potter Publishers) 2004: 102.
50 26 Rachel Felder, A He Wax f or Him, April 10, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/12/fashion/men turn to bikini waxing.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 (Accessed November 10, 2012). 27 Routhier, Manscaping; Po pular makeover shows help convince men to Tackle hairy problem areas, March 28, 2004. 28 m.blog [pseud], Man, Youre Hansome, April 29, 2012, http://marlomc.wordpress.com/2012/04/19/man youre hansome/ (Accessed November 10, 2012). 29 Robin Hilmantel, The New Male Grooming Obsession, http://www.cosmopolitan.com/sex love/dating advice/men shaving pubic hair?click=main_sr (Accessed July 20, 2012). 30 Malic White, End of Gender: He wax, She wax, We All Wax? April 24, 2012, http://bitchmagazine.org/post/end of gender he wax beauty hair gender sexuality manscaping (Accessed November 10, 2012). 31 Doug Wallace, Manscaping: Do Straight men Really Shave Down There, August 22, 2012, http://www.thekit.ca/beauty/body/manscaping dostraight men really shave down there/ (Accessed November 10, 2012). 32 Sexy Typewritter [pseud], Manscaping a Hairy Business, June 21, 2012, http://lifewise.canoe.ca/SexRomance/SexFiles/2012/06/20/19900406.html (Accessed November 10, 2012). 33 Jesse Klein, The Return of Chest Hair, December 16,, 2008, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2008/12/16/the return of chest hair.html (Accessed November 10, 2012). 34 Routhier, Manscaping; Popular Makeover Shows Help Convince Men to Tackle Hairy Problem Areas. 35 Felder, A He Wax for Him. 36 Typewri ter, Manscaping a Hairy Business. 37 Lizzie Crocker, Why Manscaping isnt Just for Porn Stars Anymore, December 29, 2 011, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/12/28/why manscaping isn t just for pornstars anymore.html (Accessed November 10, 2012). 38 Typewrit er, "Manscaping a Hairy Business. 39 Typewri ter, Manscaping a Hairy Business. 40 Hilmantel, The New Male Grooming Obsession. 41 Hilmantel, The New Male Grooming Obsession. 42 Type wri ter, Manscaping a Hairy Business. 43 Pablo Michelle, Hip Snips: Your Complete Guide to Dazzling Pubic Hair (Philadelphia: Quirk Books) 2010: 22. 44 Klein, The Return of Chest Hair. The Image referenced is a Burt Reynolds Nude, Cosmopolitan Magazine April 1972, Centerfold. 45 Klein, The Return of Chest Hair. 46 Petronella Wyatt and Tanya Gold, Hairy Chests or Polished Pecs?: After Years of Smoothies, The Hairy Chest is Back in Style. But Do Women Really Welcome The Return of the Human Rugs?, December 18, 2008, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article 1097851/Whats attractive -hairychests polished pecs.html (Accessed November 10, 2012).. 47 Routhier, Manscaping; Popular Makeover Shows Help Convince Men to Tackle Hairy Problem Areas. 48 Snarly[pseud], I Heart Hairy Men, November 8, 2007, http://www.jewcy.com/post/i_heart_hairy_men ( Accessed November 10, 2012). 49 Wyatt, Hairy Chests or Polished Pecs? 50 Chris Rovny, A Beauty or a Beast?, http://www.askmen.com/fashion/fashiontip/21_fashion_advice.html (Acc essed July 13, 2012). 51 Rovny, A Beauty or a Beast? 52 Wyatt, Hairy Chests or Polished Pecs? 53 Klien, The Return of Chest Hair. 54 Wyatt, Hairy Chests or Polished Pecs? 55 Wyatt, Hairy Chests or Polished Pecs? 56 Typewriter, Manscaping a Hairy Busin ess. 57 Felder, A He Wax for Him. 58 Felder, A He Wax for Him. 59 Eagleson, What his Manscaping Style Says About Him. 60 Eagleson, What his Manscaping Style Says About Him. 61 Wyatt, Hairy Chests or Polished Pecs?
51 62 Victoria Sherrow, Encyclopedia of Hair, A Cultural History Westport Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2006. 63 Wyatt, Hairy Chests or Polished Pecs? 64 Mukherjee, As Indian Men Say No to Body Hair Philips, Panasonic, LOreal, Garnier, Others Make Money. 65 Felder, A He Wax for Him. 66 Caile y Ward, Manager of Sugarmoon in Toronto explains in an interview in Sexy Typewriters Manscaping a Hairy Business ways of managing the risks associated with hair removal. 67 Anthony Santella, Bare necessity? Public Health Implications of Removing Pubic Hair, August 20, 2012, http://theconversation.edu.au/bare necessity public health implications of removing pubic hair 8737 (Accessed August 24, 2012). 68 Francisco A. Kerdel, Dermatology: Just the Facts. ( New York: McGraw Hill Professional) 2003. 69 Routhier, Manscaping; Popular Makeover Shows Help Convince Men to Tackle Hairy Problem Areas. 70 Typewriter, Manscaping a Hairy Business. 71 Rov n y, A Beauty or a Beast? 72 Rovny, A Beauty or a Beast? 73Alan Klein, Little Big Men: Bodybuilding Subculture and Gender Construction, State University of New York Press, 1993. 74 The only exception here have been articles written by and for the LGBTQ community concerning bear culture and the expectation of body hair as both limiting, potentially racially exclusive and overly gendered if not flat out misogynistic. But the fears wit hin this context are much more complex and usually critical in ways that most traditional manscaping rhetoric is not. For more on this topic, check out Peter Hennen, Faeries, Bears and Leatherman (University Of Chicago Press) 2008. 75 Wallace, Manscaping: Do Straight Men Really Shave Down There? 76 Male Grooming: Men Only. Design Week, April 2007, http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1 162443060.html (Accessed November 10, 2012) 77 Wyatt Hairy Chests or Polished Pecs? 78 Eagleson, What his Manscaping Style Says About Him. 79 Routhier, Manscaping; Popular Makeover Shows Help Convince Men to Tackle Hairy Problem Areas. 80 Routhier, Manscaping; Popular Makeover Shows Help Convince Men t o Tackle Hairy Problem Areas 81 Male Grooming: Men only. 82 Kathleen Slevin, Disciplining Bodies: The Aging Experiences of Older Heterosexual and Gay Men, in Doing Gender Diversity ed. by Rebecca Plante and Lis Maurer ( Westview Press ): 205212; We can also see this in the popularity of anti aging products and services for men, including Viagra, anti balding serums and surgeries, and you guessed it, body hair removal services to accommodate the mens fears of aging. 83 Wyatt, Hairy Chests or Polished Pec s? 84 Snarly, I Heart Hairy Men. 85 Felder, A He Wax For Him. 86 Jarvis, Do Real Men get Boyzilians and Manscape? 87 Dom Knight, Me n, Be Proud of Your Hairiness, July 26, 2012. http://www.stuff.co.nz/life style/beauty/7353848/Men be proudof your hairiness (Accessed November 10, 2012) 88 Shaving Mens Body Hair, http://www.c ampus.men.com/male modeling/shavingmens body hair.html (Accessed July 13, 2012) 89 J. M. Lewis, Caucasian Body Hair Management: A Key to Gender and Species Identification in the U.S. Culture? Journal of American Culture 10, no. 1 (1987). 90 John DEmilio and Estelle B. Freeman, Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America 2nd Edition Chicago: University of Chicogo Press, 1997. pp. 301325 explain this phenomenon. 91Ashley Hawkins, Reflections on Body Hair, Off Our Backs 34, no. 11/12 (November December, 2004); Robin Friebur, Shaving is the Pits, Off Our Backs 35, no. 5/6, (May June, 2005). 92 Facial hair and other hair growth was usually still removed as it was still considered too ugly while underarm and leg hair became political s ignifiers J. M. Lewis, Caucasian Body Hair Management: A Key to Gender and Species Identification in the U.S. Culture? Journal of American Culture 10, no. 1 (1987). 93 Andrew Wernick, From Voyeur to Narcissist, from Beyond Patriarchy ed. by Michael Kauf fman, (Canada: Oxford University Press) 1987: 290. 94 Lil Bit [pseud] comment on Paul Russel, Keep the Rug: An Appreciati on of Male Body Hair, April 17th, 2012 http://www.askmen.com/dating/he idi/hairy men.html (Accessed November 10, 2012). 95 Judith Butler, Gender Troubles (Psychology Press) 1990.
52 96 J.M. Lewis, Caucasian Body Hair Management: A Key to Gender and Species Identification in the U.S. Culture? Journal of American Culture 10, no. 1 (1987). 97 You can read more on this point in John DEmilio and Estelle Freedmans Intimate Matters History of Sexuality in America 2nd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press) 1997; Elizabeth Reis, American Sexual Histories ( Wiley Blackwell) 2012; Rachel Maines, The Technology of Orgasm (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press) 1999; and Anna Clarks The History of Sexuality in Europe (London: Rutledge) 2011. 98 Caroline Merchant, The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution (Harpers Collins) 1990. 99 Sigmund Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents trans. James Strachey (New York: W. W. Norton and Company) 1961. 100 Norbert Elias, Power and Civility: The Civilizing Process Volume II trans. Edmud Jophcott (New York: Pantheon Books) 1982. 101 Elias, Power and Civility 232. 102 Matthew Immergut. Manscaping: The Tangle of Nature, Culture, and Male Body Hair in The Body Reader ed. Lisa Jean Moore and Mary Kosut (New York University Press) 2010: 287 304. 103 The whole package can also be seen in another semiotic study done by Phillip Vannini and Aaron McCright. To Die For: The Semiotic seductive Power of the Tanned Body in The Body Reader ed. By Lisa Jean Moore and Mary Kosut. (New York: New York University Press) 2010: 228251 104 Bederman, Manliness and Civilization ; Johannes Endres and Joel David Golb, Diderot, Hogarth, and the Aesthetics of Depilation, Eighteenth Century Studies 38, no. 1 ( Fall 2004 ) 105 Pierre Bourdieu, Distinction: A Social Critique o f the Judgment of Taste (London: Routledge) 1984: 175177. 106 Wyatt, Hairy Chests or Polished Pecs? 107 Zach Goldbaum, Manscaping on Birthright, June 20, 2012, http://www.tabletmag.com/theroll/103707/manscapingonbirthright (Accessed November 10, 2012) 108 Klein, The Return of Chest Hair. 109 Peter Hennen, Faeries, Bears and Leatherman (Chicago: University Of Chicago Press) 2008. 110 Andrew Wernick, From Voyeur to Narcissist from Beyond Patriarchy ed. Michael Kauffman (Canada: Oxford University Press) 1987: 295. 111 Elder GH Jr. Appearance and Education in Marriage Mobility, American Sociological Review 34, no. 4 (Aug., 1969): 519533; Falkner et al Social, Educational, and Psychological Correlates of Weight Status in Adolescents, Obesity Research. 9, no. 1 (January 2000); Gortmaker S L et al. Social and Economic Consequences of Overweight in Adolescence and Young Adulthood. N ew England Journal of Medicine ( September 30, 1993); Phillip Vannini and Aaron McCright, To Die For: The Semiotic seductive Power of the Tanned Body in The Body Reader ed. Lisa Jean Moore and Mary Kosut (New York: New York University Press) 2010: 228251. 112 Karl Marx, Capital trans. Ben Fawkes (Penguin Books) 1990. 113 Fredric Jameson Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (Duke University Press) 1991. 114 Kimmel, Guyland, 34 35. 115 Typewrit er "Manscaping is a Hairy Business. 116 Friedrick Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil trans. Walter Kaufman (New York: Vintage books/Random House) 1989. 117 The separation of self and body, and then devaluation of the body has a great number of consequences including the proliferation of western medical sciences where the body is treated as a symptomatic to the mind and cannot allow for more holistic approach es. The lack of actual concern with health and focus on the appearance of health is another consequence. People would rather look healthy than actually be healthy. This explains how profitable food and drug industries have become, selling nutrient free foo d and mind altering drugs to cure much stress related problems. This is just to name a few. 118 Christopher Lasch, The Awareness Movement in Culture of Narcissis m (Warner Books) 1979 119 We can see this confusion explicitly in rhetoric around the recent Occupy Movement. Some of the unifying rhetorical themes of the movement revolved around personal narrative in the form of confession made public through signs posted on the internet. Meanwhile critics of the movement gave personal advice like Get a job or simply stop whining as a solution to vast social problems. 120 Elder GH Jr. Appearance and Education in Marriage Mobility. American Sociological Review 34, no. 4 (Aug., 1969): 519533; Falkner N.H. et al., Social, Educational, and Psychological Correlates of Weight Status in Adolescents Obesity Research, 9, no. 1 (January 2000); Gortmaker S.L. et al., Social and Economic
53 Consequences of Overweight in Adolescence and Young Adulthood. New England Journal of Medicine, ( September 30, 1993). 121 Hi lmantel, The New Male Grooming Obsession. 122 Jean Baudrillard, Simulacra and Simulation, trans. Sheila Faria (Michigan: Glaser University of Michigan Press) 1995. 123Jean Kilbourne, Infantilization & powerlessness," Killing Us Softly 4: Advertisings Image of Women (2010) DVD. 124Duane A. Hargreaves and Marika Tiggemann, Muscular Ideal Media Images and Mens Body Image: Social Comparison Processing and Individual Vulnerability, Psychology of Men & Masculinity 10, no. 2 (2009): 109 119. 125Kimmel, Guyland: 6. 126Immergut, Manscaping: The Tangle of Nature, Cul ture, and Male Body Hair." ; Merchant, The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution. 127Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents ; Norbert Elias, Power and Civility: The Civilizing Proce ss 128Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil 129Marx, Capital 130Lasch, Culture of Narcissis m. ; Baudrillard, Simulacra and Simulation. 131 Kimmel, Guyland.; Kilbourne, Killing Us Softly 4. 132 Michel Foucault, History of Sexuality Volume I: An Introduction, (New York: Vintage Books) 1990: 81 91. 133 Karin Lesnik Oberstein, The Last Taboo, (Manchester: Manchester University Press) 2006; Rachel Maines, The Technology of Orgasm (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press) 1999; Estelle Freedman and John DEmilio, Intimate Matters History of Sexuality in America 2nd ed. (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press) 1997. 134 Noliwe M. Rooks, Hair Raising: Beauty Culture, and African American Women (Rutgers University Press) 1996. 135 Michel Foucault, History of Sexuality Volume I: An Introduction, 159 ; Connell, "Hegemonic Masc ulinity: Rethinking the Concept 83 3. 136 Marx, Capital 137 Judith Butler, Gender Troubles 138 Peter Hennen, Faeries, Bears and Leatherman (University Of Chicago Press) 2008.; Terry Goldie, Dragging out the Queen: Male Femaling and Male Feminism in Revealing Male Bodies ed. Nancy Tuana (Indiana University Press) 2002. Faeries, Drag kings and queens often play on the mixing of gender signi fiers to corrode traditionally held beliefs about gendered bodies and sexualities.
54 REFERENCES Male Grooming: Men Only. Design Week, April 19, 2007, http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1162443060.html (Accessed November 10, 2012) Baudrillard, Jean. Simulacra and Simulation, Translated by Sheila Faria. Glaser University of Michigan Press, 1995. Bou rdieu, Pierre. Distinction : A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. London: Routledge, 1984. Bederman, Gail. Manliness and Civilization. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995. Bordo, Susan. Reading Slender Bodies, in Body and Flesh: A Philosophical Reader Edited by Donn Weldo. Blackwell Publishers, 1998. Butler, Judith. Gender Troubles Psychology Press, 1990. Clark, Anna. The History of Sexuality in Europe London: Rutledge 2011. Crocker, Lizzie. Why Manscaping isn t just for porn S tars Anymore. December 29, 2011, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/12/28/why manscaping isn t just forporn stars anymore.html ( a ccessed November 10, 2012) Connell, R. W. and Messerschmidt, James. "Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept." Gender and Society 19, 2005. DOI 10.1177/0891243205278639: 829859. DEmilio, John and Freedman, Estelle. Intimate Matters History of Sexu ality in America 2nd Edition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press 1997. Douglas, Kyan. Queer Eye for the Straight Guy New York: Clarkson Potter P ublishers, 2004. Eagleson, Holly. What his Manscaping Style Says about Him Cosmopolitan, December 16, 2008, http://www.cosmopolitan.com/sex love/tips moves/What His Down ThereGrooming Says?click=main_sr ( a ccessed July 20, 2012) Elder, G.H. Jr. Appearance and Education in Marriage Mobility American Sociological Review 34, no. 4 ( August, 1969) Elias, Norbert. Power and Civility: The Civilizing Process Volume II Translated by Edmund Jophcott New York: Pantheon Books, 1982. Eli s, Bret Easton. American Psycho. New York: Random House, Vintage Books. 1991. Endres, Johannes and Golb, Joel David. Diderot, Hogarth, and the Aesthetics of Depilation, Eighteenth Century Studies 38, no. 1, ( Fall 2004)
55 Falkner, N.H., NeumarkSztainer D ., Story M ., Jeffery R W ., Beuhring T ., and Resnick M D Social, Educational, and Psychological Correlates of Weight Status in Adolescents Obesity Research 9 No. 1 ( January 2000 ) Faludi, Susan. Stiffed: The Betrayal of the American Man. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1999. Felder, Rachel. A He Wax For Him April 10, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/12/fashion/men turn to bikini waxing.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 (Accessed November 10, 2012) Foucault, Michel. History of Sexuality Volume I: An Introduction. New York: Vintage Books, 1990. Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and Its Discontents Translated by James Strachey. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1961. Friebur, Robin. Shaving is the Pits, Off Our Backs 35, no. 5/6 ( May June, 2005) Goldbaum, Zach. Manscaping on Birthright June 20, 2012, http://www.tabletmag.com/the roll/103707/manscaping onbirthright (Accessed November 10, 2012) Goldie, Terry. Dragging out the Queen: Male Femaling and Male Feminism in Reveali ng Male Bodies edited by Nancy Tuana. Indiana University Press, 2002. Gortmaker, S.L., Must, A., Perrin, J.M., Sobol, A.M., Deitz, W.H. Social and Economic Consequences of Overweight in Adolescence and Young Adulthood, New England Journal of Medicine ( S eptember 30, 1993) Hamlin, Kimberly. The Case of the Bearded Woman: Hypertrichosis and the Construction of Gender in the Age of Darwin American Quarterly (2011). Harron, Mary, Guinevere Turner, Edward R. Pressman, Chris Hanley, Christian Halsey Solomon, John Cale, Andrzej Sekula, et al. 2005. American psycho.. [United States]: Lions Gate Home Entertainment. DVD. Hawkins, Ashley. Reflections on Body Hair, Off Our Backs 34, no. 11/12 ( November December, 2004 ) Hennen, Peter. Faeries, Bears and Leatherman. University Of Chicago Press, 2008. Herzig, Rebecca. Removing Roots North American Hiroshima Maidens and the X Ray Technology and Culture 40, no. 4 ( 1999) _____________ The Woman Beneath the Hair: Treating Hypertrichosis 18701930. MWSA 12 no. 3 ( Fall 2000)
56 Hilmantel, Robin. The New Male Grooming Obsession, Cosmopolitan, http://www.cosmopolitan.com/sex love/dating advice/men shaving pubic hair?click=main_sr (Accessed July 20, 2012) McAlpine, Donald M., Stan Lee, Richard Donner, Lauren Shuler Donner, Ralph Winter, Hugh Jackman, John Palermo, et al. 2009. X Men origins. Wolverine Beverly Hills, Calif: 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment. Immergut, Matthew. Manscaping: The Tangle of Nature, Culture, and Male Body Hair in The Body Reader Edited by Lisa Jean Moore and Mary Kosut. N ew York University Press, 2010. Jameson, Fredric. The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism Duke University Press, 1991. Jarvis, Beth. Do Real Men G et Boyzilians and Manscape? June 28, 2012, http://forthunt.patch.com/articles/man scaping and boyzilian (Accessed November 10, 2012) Kerdel, Francisco A., Dermatology: Just the F acts. New York: McGraw Hill Professional, 2003. Kilbourne, Jean, Sut Jhally, and David Rabinovitz. 2010. Killing U s Softly 4 A dvertising's I mage of W omen Northampton, MA: Media Education Foundation. Kimmel, Michael. Guyland. Ha r per Collins Publisher, 2008. Kimmel, Michael. Manhood in America. Oxford University Press, 2012. Klein, Alan. Little Big Men: Bodybuilding Subculture and Gender Construction. New York: State University of New York Press, 1993. Klein, Jes se. The Return of Chest Hair, December 16, 2008, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2008/12/16/the return of chest hair.html (Accessed November 10, 2012) Knight, Dom. Me n, Be Proud of Your Hairines s, July 26, 2012, http://www.stuff.co.nz/life style/beauty/7353848/Menbe proud of your hairiness (Accessed November 10, 2012) Lasch, Christopher. The Awareness Movement in Culture of Narcissis m. Warner Books, 1979. Lesnik Oberstein, Karin. The Last Taboo. Manchester: Manchester University Press 2006. Lewis, J.M. Caucasian Body Hair Management: A K ey to Gender and Species Iden tification in the U.S. Culture? Journal of American Culture 10, no. 1, (1987). Maines, Rachel. The Technology of Orgasm Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press 1999. Martins, Y., Tiggemann, and M., Chrett. Hair Today, Gone Tomorrow: A Comparison of Body Hair Removal Practices in Gay and Heterosexual Men Body Image ( April 2008)
57 Marx, Karl. Capital Translated by Ben Fawkes Penguin Books, 1990. M .blog [Pseudonym], Man, Youre Hansome, April 29, 2012, http://marlomc.wordpress.com/2012/04/19/manyoure hansome/ (Accessed November 10, 2012). Merchant, Caroline. The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution. Harpers Collins, 1990. Michell e Pablo. Hip Snips: Your Complete Guide to Dazzling Pubic Hair Philadelphia: Quirk Books, 2010. Mukher jee, Writankar. As Indian Men Say No to Body H air Philips Panasonic, LOreal, Garnier, Others Make M oney, August 18, 2012, http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2012 0818/news/33261702_1_male body consumer products hair (Accessed November 10, 2012) Nie tzsche, Friedrick. Beyond Good and Evil T ranslated by Walter Kaufman New York: Vintage books/Random House, 1989. Reis, Elizabeth. American Sexual Histories. Wiley Blackwell, 2012. Rosenthal, Angela. Raising Hair EighteenthCentury Studies Johns Hopkins Univers ity Press 38, no. 1 ( Fall 2004) Rooks, Noliwe. Hair Raising: Beauty Culture, and African American Women. Rutgers University Press 1996. Routhier, Ray. Manscaping; Popular Makeover S hows Help Convince Men to Tackle Hairy Problem A reas Portland Press Herald (Maine), March 28, 2004, http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P192822247.html (Accessed November 10, 2012). Rovny Chris. A Beauty or a Beast? http://www.askmen.com/fashion/fashiontip/21_fashion_advice.html ( Accessed July 13, 2012) Russel, Paul. Keep the Rug: an a ppreciation of Male Body Hair, April 17th, 2012, http://www.askmen.com/dating/heidi/hairy men.html (Accessed November 10, 2012) Russett, Cynthia Eagle. Sexual Science. Harvard University Press, 1989. Santella, Anthony. Bare necessity? Public Health Implications of Removing Pubic Hair August 20, 2012, http://theconversation.edu.au/bare necessity public health implications of remo ving pubic hair 8737 (A ccessed August 24, 2012) Sherrow, Victoria. Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History Westport Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2006.
58 Shilling, Chris. The Body and Social Theory 2nd E dition London: Sage Publications, 2003. Slevin, Kathleen. Disciplining Bodies: The Aging Experiences of Older Heterosexual and Gay Men in Doing Gender Diversity Edited by Rebecca Plante and Lis Maur er, Westview Press 2010. Snarly [Pseudonym] I Heart Hairy Men November 8, 2007, http://www.jewcy.com/post/i_heart_hairy_men (Accessed November 10, 2012) Typewriter, Sexy [pseud]. Manscaping a Hairy Business, June 21, 2012, http://lifewise.canoe.ca/SexRomance/SexFiles/2012/06/20/19900406.html (Accessed November 10, 2012). Souiden, Nixar and Diagne, Mariam. Emerald Article: Canadian and French M ens Consumption of cosmetics: a Comparison of Their Attitudes and Motivations Journal of Consumer Marketing 26, no. 2 (2009): 97109. Wallace, Doug Manscaping: Do Straight men Really Shave Down There, August 22, 2012, http://www.thekit.ca/beauty/body/manscaping do straight men really shavedownthere/ (Accessed November 10, 2012) Tiggemann, Marika. Muscular Ideal Media Ima ges and Mens Body Image: Social Comparison Processing and Individual Vulnerability Psychology of Men & Masculinity 10, no. 2 (2009) : 109119. Vannini, Phillip and McCright, Aa ron. To Die For: The Semiotic S eductive Power of the Tanned Body in The Body Reader Edited b y Lisa Jean Moore and Mary Kosut. New York: New York University Press 2010: 228251. Wernick, Andrew. From Voyeur to Narcissist from Beyond Patriarchy E dited b y Michael Kauffman. Canada: Oxford University Press, 1987 White, Malic. End of Gender: He wax, She wax, We All Wax? Bitch Magazine, April 24, 2012, http://bitchmagazine.org/post/end of gender he wax beauty hair gender s exuality manscaping (Accessed November 10, 2012) Wyatt, Petronella and Gold, Tanya. Hairy Chests or Polished Pecs?: After Years of Smoothies, the Hairy Chest is Back in Style. But Do Women Really Welcome the Return of the Human R ugs? December 18, 2008, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article 1097851/Whats attractive --hairy chests polishedpecs.html (Accessed November 10, 2012)