Citation
Effects of high intensity oceanic lighting discharges on the earth's ionsphere

Material Information

Title:
Effects of high intensity oceanic lighting discharges on the earth's ionsphere
Creator:
Barsikyan, Levon Aleksandorvich ( author )
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file. : ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Lighting -- Measurement ( lcsh )
Lighting -- Remote sensing ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Review:
Very Low Frequency (VLF 3-30 kHz) receivers are used to monitor the amplitude and phase of signals from powerful naval VLF communication transmitters. Since the VLF transmitter signals propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, they provide a method for remotely sensing ionospheric density changes. The effect of powerful natural oceanic lighting discharges on the ionosphere are investigated using VLF remote sensing and the Global Lighting Detection Network (GLD360). Ionospheric disturbances known as Lighting-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) events and Early/Fast events are investigated. A comprehensive numerical model of the electron precipitation process is used to compare to observation. Results are compared to previous research on lightning effects on the ionosphere.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Colorado Denver. Electrical engineering
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic resources.
General Note:
Department of Electrical Engineering
Statement of Responsibility:
by Levon Aleksandrovich Barsikyan.

Record Information

Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
879384862 ( OCLC )
ocn879384862

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY OCEANIC LIGHTNING DISCHARGES ON THE
EARTHS IONOSPHERE
By
LEVON ALEKSANDROVICH BARSIKYAN
B.S.E.E., University of Colorado Denver, 2011
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado Denver in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science
Electrical Engineering
2013


2013
LEVON ALEKSANDROVICH BARSIKYAN
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
11


This thesis for the Master of Science degree by
Levon Aleksandrovich Barsikyan
has been approved for the
Electrical Engineering Program
by
Mark Golkowski, Chair
Yiming Deng
Tim Lei
July 15,2013
in


Barsikyan, Levon Aleksandrovich (M.S., Electrical Engineering)
Effect of High Intensity Oceanic Lightning Discharges on the Earths Ionosphere
Masters Thesis directed by Associate Professor Mark Golkowski
ABSTRACT
Very Low Frequency (VLF 3-30 kHz) receivers are used to monitor the amplitude
and phase of signals from powerful naval VLF communication transmitters. Since the
VLF transmitter signals propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, they provide a
method for remotely sensing ionospheric density changes. The effect of powerful natural
oceanic lighting discharges on the ionosphere are investigated using VLF remote sensing
and the Global Lighting Detection Network (GLD360). Ionospheric disturbances known
as Lighting-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) events and Early/Fast events are
investigated. A comprehensive numerical model of the electron precipitation process is
used to compare to observation. Results are compared to previous research on lightning
effects on the ionosphere.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommended its publication
Approved: Mark Golkowski
iv


DEDICATION
To my family in Sochi, Russia and most of all to my father Aleksandr Leonovich
Barsikyan my mother Nadezhda Arutovna Barsikyan and my sister Ustina
Aleksandrovna Barsikyan.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank and express my deepest gratitude to my adviser Dr. Marek
Golkowski for providing me valuable support and having a positive impact on my life.
Nick Gross, for helping me with numerical modeling of LEP events in the WIPP
simulation. My magnificent parents, for believing and supporting me. My father,
Aleksandr Leonovich Barsikyan, for his influence and hard headedness that pushed me to
achieve a Masters of Science and teaching me to realize how important education is in
life. My mother, Nadezhda Arutovna Barsikyan, for her significant support influence and
caring love that guided me through college. My beautiful, smart and little sister, Ustina
Aleksandrovna Barsikyan, for being the best sister anyone can ask for and helping me
grow up.
vi


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION.................................................................1
Scientific Background.......................................................2
Matter and the Four States..................................................2
Plasma......................................................................3
The Ionosphere..............................................................3
The Magnetosphere...........................................................6
Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide..................................................8
VLF Radio Waves.............................................................9
VLF Propagation and Precipitation Events...................................10
Oceanic Lightning..........................................................12
Thesis Layout..............................................................12
Contributions..............................................................13
II. VLF HARDWARE AM) LEP EVENTS................................................14
Description of VLF Data....................................................14
Receiver Hardware and Location.............................................16
Data Processing and Analysis...............................................19
Signatures of LEP Events...................................................21
III. OCEANIC LEP EVENTS........................................................28
Vaisala Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360)..................................28
Oceanic LEP Events on Ithaca to NAU........................................29
Whistler Induced Particle Precipitation (WIPP).............................35
Results from the WIPP Simulation...........................................36
IV. SUMMARY....................................................................39
Summary and Conclusion.....................................................39
REFERENCES.....................................................................41
APPENDIX A.....................................................................44
vii


LIST OF FIGURES
1.1 Electron density profile of the ionosphere during the daytime and nighttime...........5
1.2 Magnetosphere in a nutshell..........................................................7
1.3 VLF Wave Propagation..................................................................8
1.4 VLF Remote Sensing....................................................................11
2.1 World Map Illustration of the location of VLF transmitters...........................15
2.2 Block diagram overview of VLF receiver system........................................18
2.3 Geographic realization of our receivers..............................................19
2.4 Effect of block averaging............................................................19
2.5 Event observed at Warsaw, VA on NLM.................................................23
2.6 Event observed at Warsaw, VA on NPM.................................................24
2.7 Event observed at Warsaw, VA on NLM.................................................25
2.8 Event observed at Ithaca, NY on NAU..................................................26
3.1 Geographic realization of lightning discharges from the GLD360 data..................28
3.2 Event 1 recorded on Ithaca to NAU path...............................................29
3.3 Event 2 recorded on Ithaca to NAU path...............................................30
3.4 Stem plot of peak current data from the GLD360 associated with Event 1...............31
3.5 Stem plot of peak current data from the GLD360 associated with Event 2...............32
3.6 Recovery rate analysis of Event 1 and Event 1........................................33
3.7 Map of the WIPP simulation caused by 388 kA event....................................36
viii


3.8 VLF signature of LEP Event seen at Palmer on NPM
37
IX


LIST OF TABLES
2.1 List of VLF Transmitters used in this work
16
x


CHAPTERI
INTRODUCTION
Lightning can be described as a high current electric discharge or a form of
plasma that exists within our environment. Although this phenomenon is short lived,
about 30 msec, the path length is measured in many kilometers. Lightning transpires
when a region of the atmosphere acquires an electric charge large enough that the electric
field affiliated with the charge causes electrical breakdown of the air. This natural
phenomenon is commonly produced from thunder clouds, although there are cases where
lightning has struck in sandstorms, snowstorms and clouds that are formed over spewing
volcanoes [Uman, 1969],
The effects of lightning are not generally broad but have major significance on
technology, like power lines, electric towers, buildings, and also signal processing and
the communication world. The topic of this thesis is the assessment of Narrowband data
from Very Low Frequency (VLF) receivers located at three sites, identification and
analysis of large over the land and over the ocean lighting-induced electron precipitation
events (LEP Events) and its effects on the ionosphere. We will analyze several events
found in very low frequency (VLF) recordings. This chapter will provide basic
background knowledge for the topic and the contributions of the present work.
1


Scientific Background
In this section we provide an introduction and basic background knowledge of
matter, its four states, and the plasma environment on Earth that is composed of two
ionized regions in the upper atmosphere: the ionosphere and magnetosphere.
Matter and the Four States
There are four fundamental states of matter: solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Each
state of matter is distinguished by qualitative distinctions and a particular value of
binding energy. That can be described as the mechanical energy required to dismantle a
whole into parts. Matter in the solid state maintains a permanent volume and shape where
the atoms and molecules are tightly bonded together in a crystal type structure. If the
average kinetic energy of the molecules in a solid is higher than the binding energy, the
crystal will separate directly into gas or a liquid. Unlike solids, properties of matter in the
liquid state can take shape when enclosed within a volume or a container where the
molecules are not as tightly bonded and exhibit mobility. For a liquid to change into gas
the kinetic energy has to exceed the binding energy of the van der Waals forces to break
the bonds. In the gaseous state, molecules of matter have very weak bonds and can move
around freely and adapt to volume and shape [Uman, 2011], Similarly, for matter in the
gaseous state to change into plasma the kinetic energy of the gaseous atoms and
molecules must be higher than the ionization potential of the atoms. In the plasma state,
matter has similar properties as gas, there is no definite shape and molecules can move
freely and fast. The distinction between plasmas and gases lies within the molecular
2


composition. Like gases, plasmas are composed of neutral atoms and molecules in
addition to a significant number of ionized atoms and unbounded electrons.
Plasma
It wasnt until 1879 when the existence of plasma was discovered by Sir William
Crookes using an experimental electrical discharge tube. In 1897, J.J. Thomson
discovered the nature of the matter, but it wasnt until 1928 the term plasma was
introduced by Irving Langmuir. The term was specifically referred to the region of
ionized gas where there was no presence of electromagnetic fields. When atoms and
molecules of a gas are raised to a high temperature, or exposed to a strong
electromagnetic field they become ionized. Ionization of the gaseous state can be
achieved by other means such as bombarding the substance with energetic electrons and
ions. Other means of ionization include exposure to ultra violet light and X-rays. When
ionization takes place the physical behavior of gases is controlled by electromagnetic
forces causing the free ions and electrons to conduct electricity.
When referring to plasma, we are talking about the most common visible matter in the
universe. Although our planets atmosphere is made up of non-ionized gas, ionized
environment exists in various forms. Sometimes these environments are short lived but
examples of their existence include lightning, fire and the aurora borealis.
The Ionosphere
Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases that acts as a life protecting absorber of
solar radiation. The ionosphere is a distinctive region in the upper atmosphere at altitudes
of 60 km 500 km. At about 60 km from the surface of the Earth atmospheric gas
3


absorbs the constant bombardment of ultraviolet radiation from the sun. During this
phenomenon, there is enough energy to ionize the molecules and atoms in this part of the
atmosphere making it in the plasma state.
The ionosphere consists of several distinctive ionization peaks, the D, E, and the F
regions due to the density and composition of the atmosphere at different altitudes.
Altitude plays a significant factor in the composition and density of the ionosphere,
because with increasing altitude the gaseous composition of the atmosphere becomes
thinner. At these heights free electrons can exist for short amount of time before they are
captured by positive ions. This is also called the attachment and recombination process
that is produced at different rates for each ionization peaks. These peaks otherwise known
as layers are characterized by electron densities that differ in magnitude during the
daytime and nighttime. This is due to the contribution of solar radiation during the
daytime. Figure 1 displays the electron density of the ionosphere for the daytime and
nighttime configuration. There are significant differences in the electron density during
the daytime and nighttime particularly in the D and E region due to the effect of solar
radiation.
4


Figure 1.1: Electron density of the ionosphere during the daytime and nighttime.
The D region can be considered as the lowest or the first region of the ionosphere,
starting at about 60 km and extending up to -100 km from the surface of the earth. The
recombination phenomenon in this layer is high and the ionization is low. This region of
the atmosphere contributes to loss of wave energy due to frequent electron collisions.
Overall the ionosphere can be used as a reflecting boundary for the propagation of low
frequency waves within the so called Earth-ionosphere waveguide. Propagation in this
waveguide can occur only for frequencies where the ionosphere plasma exhibits
properties of a good conductor. Plasma acts as a good conductor for frequencies lower
than the plasma frequency which is given by op
N q
e? Where Ne is the electron
£ome
5


density, qe is the electric charge, me is the electron mass and So is the permittivity of free
space.
In the ionosphere, plasma densities are such that extremely low frequency (ELF: 300 3
kFIz) waves or very low frequency (VLF: 3 kFIz 30 kFIz) waves have frequencies low
enough to be reflected by the medium. A common example of manmade signals in this
band is Navy communications with submarines. In this thesis we focus on the direct and
indirect effects of lightning discharges in the D region of the ionosphere. Specifically we
look at the ionospheric disturbances which occur during the nighttime over the Atlantic
Ocean.
The Magnetosphere
The magnetosphere refers to the outermost layer of the Earths atmosphere, in
which the motion of charged particles is dominated by Earths magnetic field. Overall,
the Earths magnetic field lines resemble a magnetic dipole. At higher altitudes
(thousands of kilometers), the field lines get significantly distorted by solar winds. The
magnetosphere is composed of several layers, the bow shock, magnetosheath and the
magnetopause. The bow shock is outermost layer of the magnetosphere or the boundary
between the magnetosphere and stellar medium. This is the boundary where the speed of
solar winds drops significantly as it draws near the magnetopause. The magnetosheath, in
between the bow shock and magnetopause, is an area contains a small amount of plasma
and high particle energy flux varying the direction and magnitude of the magnetic field.
The magnetopause is the region where the pressure of the Earths magnetic field is
balanced with the pressure of the solar winds. This is the region of the atmosphere that
6


changes size and shape with fluctuating pressure from the solar winds. Figure 1.2
displays an illustration of the magnetosphere.
Figure 1.2: Magnetosphere in a nutshell.
The main feature of the magnetosphere relevant to this thesis are the so called
radiation belts (or Van Allen Belts) which are highly energetic (keV MeV) protons and
electrons that are trapped in the Earths magnetic field. If the momentum of these
particles is disturbed, they will no longer be trapped in the magnetosphere and will
impinge and deposit their energy onto the ionosphere. This deposition of electron energy
from the radiation belts is known as energetic electron precipitation. Lighting induced
electron precipitation events are a product of very low frequency (VLF) energy radiation
from the lighting discharge that escape into the magnetosphere and subsequently produce
a precipitation event that leads to an ionospheric disturbance. A fraction of the VLF
energy from the lighting discharge gets injected into the magnetosphere and propagates
within as a whistler-mode wave. The whistler-mode wave interacts with trapped radiation
7


belt electrons via cyclotron resonance leading to pitch angle scattering of electrons,
causing some of those close to the loss cone to precipitate into the lower ionosphere
where they produce secondary ionization [Peter et al, 2007], Figure 1.3 illustrates the
process that results in LEP events.
Figure 1.3: Illustration of the left demonstrates the radiating VLF wave energy produced from a
lightning discharge. Illustration of the right depicts whistler mode interaction: (1) lighting
discharge occurs and a fraction of the VLF signal propagates into the magnetosphere as a whistler
mode wave (2) where the injected electrons interact with the trapped energetic radiation belt
electrons (3), and (4) the electrons precipitate back down to cause a secondary disturbance in the
D region of the ionosphere.
Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide
This section will provide basic knowledge of VLF radio waves and VLF
propagation and scattering. For ELF/VLF waves, the Earth-ionosphere waveguide can be
modeled as a parallel plate waveguide where the lower plate is the Earth and the upper
plate is the D region of the ionosphere. As discussed above, at these frequencies both of
these surfaces exhibit behavior of a good conductor.
8


VLF Radio Waves
Very Low Frequency (VLF) refers to a class of radio waves that range from 3
kHz to 30 kHz in frequency with wavelengths ranging from 10 to 100 kilometers.
Applications of VLF include underwater communication, radio navigation services, and
secure military communication. At these frequency ranges, radio waves can bounce of the
ionosphere and propagate within the Earth-Ionosphere waveguide and penetrate 40
meters into saltwater.
The importance of a large wavelength allows for propagation over large distances.
VLF radio waves can be used as a mechanism for sensing disturbances in the lower layer
of the ionosphere, the D region. At about 60 km in altitude, VLF radio waves are
reflected by the Earth and the ionosphere allowing them to travel around the globe similar
to waves in parallel plate waveguide. The propagation solutions are classified into
different types of mode: TE modes (Transverse Electric), TM modes (Transverse
Magnetic) and the TEM modes (Transverse ElectroMagnetic).
The benefits of VLF radio waves are stability, reliability, and long distance
propagation due to very low path attenuation. On the contrary, the frequency band of
VLF radio waves has high interferences such as atmospheric noise that are produced by
sferics and whistlers. Sferics is an electromagnetic impulse that is produced from
lightning discharges and can propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. Whistlers are
a product of sferics, when the electromagnetic energy from a lightning discharge escapes
from the Earth-ionosphere waveguide to enter and interact with electrons in the
magnetosphere to form a whistler signal.
9


VLF Propagation and VLF Remote Sensing
When a lightning discharge takes place the D region of the ionosphere is
disturbed by direct heating of electrons to change the ionization or by the energetic
electron precipitation described above. The disturbance typically happens within a few
hundred ms [Johnson, 2000], but the recovery rate of the ionosphere back to its normal
state can last from several seconds to several minutes. These disturbances cause changes
in the amplitude and phase of a propagated VLF signal. In some cases a disturbance can
be very rapid, within a few hundreds of ms, where the recovery rate is very fast and
almost non visible in the propagation path of the VLF signal. These sorts of events are
classified under early/fast events and are caused directly by the electromagnetic wave
from the lighting discharge. A different type of ionospheric disturbance is called an LEP
(Lightning induced Electron Precipitation) event and involves electromagnetic radiation
from the lightning traveling to the magnetosphere, interacting with energetic electrons
and causing those electrons to deposit their energy to the ionosphere. The main
distinction between early/fast and LEP events is not the recovery time but the cause of
the ionospheric disturbance. Only LEP events are caused by electrons precipitating or
raining from the magnetosphere. In the path of propagation LEP events can have a
recovery rate, in the context of amplitude/phase or the ionosphere, in the few seconds to a
few minutes range.
VLF remote sensing is the method used for measuring ionospheric disturbances
by analyzing measurements of VLF signals. Electromagnetic waves reflect when incident
upon conducting boundaries that can be guided inside an enclosed conducting material
[Johnson, 2000], The surface of the Earth and the lowest part of the ionosphere, D-region,
10


act as a good electrical conductor for VLF signals. This boundary is the so called Earth-
ionosphere waveguide that can be classified into two categories; the upper boundary
being the D-region and the Earth and Oceans as the lower boundary. The skin depth of
saltwater at 10 kHz is ~2.5 m (er = 81, a = 4 S/m) and -500 m for the surface of the
Earth (er = 3, a = 10-4 S/m). Below Figure 1.4 illustrates an overview of VLF remote
sensing. VLF signals injected into the Earth-ionosphere waveguide by VLF transmitters
are picked up by VLF receivers. Data recorded by the VLF receivers map the ionosphere
and any disturbances that occurred on any single transmitter to receiver path will be
shown on an amplitude and phase plot. Examples can be seen in Section 2.5 of Chapter 2.
Section 2.4 of Chapter 2 will cover the overview of VLF transmitters and receivers, the
hardware and analysis of the recorded VLF signals.
LOWER IONOSPHERE (-70-90 km)
Figure 1.4: System overview of VLF Remote Sensing. VLF signals traveling inside the Earth-
ionosphere waveguide sense ionospheric disturbances caused by lighting discharges that are
picked up by VLF receivers. Lighting discharges are classified undertow categories, direct or
indirect ionospheric disturbances.
11


Oceanic Lightning
Its only in the past decade that research in lighting activity has suggested that
lightning discharges over the ocean are more intense than over the land flashes. In
[Fullekrug et al, 2001] it is noted that lighting activity is higher over the continents, but
the majority of the most intense lighting flashes on Earth occur over the ocean in coastal
areas. In this published study the occurrence of lightning discharges over the continent
and the oceans was estimated and broken into two categories of dusk and dawn. Evidence
shows that at dawn approximately 37% of lighting discharges occurred over the ocean
and rest of the 63% occurred over continents. At dusk, approximately 85% of lightning
discharges occurred over the continent while only -15% occurred over the ocean. Its
also pointed out that of positive lightning discharges over the continent are more frequent
than negative lightning discharges.
Theses Layout
The present work is organized into 4 chapters:
Contents of Chapter 1, the present chapter, include relevant background
information for understanding LEP events and the motivation of this work.
Chapter 2 describes the VLF receivers hardware, location, data obtained from
these receivers and the analysis of this data in discovering VLF signatures of LEP events.
The discussion includes a summary of all interesting events found during my research for
this work.
12


Chapter 3 presents in depth analysis of high intensity oceanic lightning-induced
precipitation events particularly the events found on the amplitude and phase of the NAU
transmitter observed at the Ithaca, NY receiver. Lightning data is analyzed using the
GLD360 network to find exact time, date, location and peak current of the causative
events. Whistler Induced Particle Precipitation (WIPP) simulation was used to simulate
the interactions of unmoded low frequency electromagnetic signals (200 60 kHz) within
the magnetosphere.
Chapter 4 summarizes the results in Chapter 3and concludes with a discussion of
future work and the benefits of our findings on high intensity oceanic events.
Contributions
The contributions of this research can be summarized as follows:
1. Identification of multiple lighting associated VLF events in data from 3 sites over the
time span of two years
2. Quantification of effects of unique oceanic lighting events using VLF remote sensing
and numerical simulation.
13


CHAPTER II
INTRODUCTION
In this Chapter we discuss the backbone of our research; data, VLF transmitters
and receivers, hardware, location, data processing and analysis and wrap it up with VLF
signatures of LEP events.
The effects of lighting on the ionosphere are significant especially in the
communication world. Changes in the properties of the ionosphere caused by lighting can
cause additional propagation delay and phase distortion in satellite communication. A
single lightning strike has 10 Wattss peak power with duration of 50 psec equivalent to
50 MJ of energy. That amount has peak power equal to the entire grid of the United
States which at the time of this writing is approximately 4.2xl012 Watts average power.
An average of 50-100 lighting flashes occur each second worldwide. Very Low
Frequency (VLF) receivers can be used to monitor the effects of lighting activity on the
ionosphere. VLF remote sensing is based on high resolution measurements of the
amplitude and phase of propagating VLF signals generated by VLF transmitters
[Johnson, 2000], This chapter will provide a description of VLF transmitters and
receivers and geographical location used in this research.
Description of VLF Transmitters
The transmission of radio frequencies in the 3-30 kHz range is conducted by the
U.S. Navy for military communication with submarines and ships. The large wavelength
attributes to long distance propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide by overcoming
any geographical obstacles such as mountains. There are dozens of VLF transmitters that
14


are setup and operated around the world, but in this thesis we will only focus on the
transmitters located in North America. Each transmitter has a designated call sign that
corresponds to its location and a specific frequency that each one transmits. This thesis
focusses on the analysis of VLF signals transmitted from NAU, NLM and NPM
transmitters. The location of all VLF transmitters is shown in Figure 2.1.
Figure 2.1: World map illustration of the location of VLF transmitters. The relevant transmitters
in our study include: NPM (21.4 kHz), NLK (24.8 kHz), NLM (25.2 kHz), NAA (24 kHz), and
NAU (40.8 kHz).
We examine LEP events from six different VLF transmitter signals in this research that
are listed in Table 2.1. LEP events from each transmitter will be discussed in Chapter 3 of
this work, but we focus on two major LEP events that occur on the NAU to Ithaca path.
15


Table 2.1: List of VLF transmitters used in this work, along with locations, transmitting
frequency and power specifications.
Call Sign Location Frequency Latitude Longitude
(kHz) (N) (E)
NPM Lualuahei, HI 21.4 +21.420166 -158.151140
NLM La Moure, ND 25.2 +46.365990 -98.335638
NAU Aguada, Puerto 40.8 +18.398762 -67.177599
Rico
Receiver Hardware and Location
The setup of the VLF receivers in this work consisted of two orthogonal air-core,
wire loop antennas used to sense the magnetic field of north-south and east-west
channels, a preamplifier to match the impedance of the antenna and provide low noise
amplification through multiple gain stages, a line receiver that interfaces with the
preamplifier, computer and the GPS system. Overview of the system block diagram is
shown in Figure 2.2.
Single loop magnetic field antennas are typically used for receiving signals at low
frequencies and are typically small in size. For electric field antennas size varies with
wavelength, for magnetic loop antennas size is independent of wavelength and they are
easy to calibrate. The shape of the antenna is also an independent characteristic as long as
it takes a closed formation, in our case the shape is a pyramidal formation. The antennas
used in this system is 2.6 m tall, has an area of 1.695 m with .994/3, 1.005 mH input
16


impedance. It consists of 12 turns tightly raped around in a triangular formation around
PCB pipes and setup upright to form a pyramidal shape.
Once the antenna senses the VLF signal a voltage is induced and fed into a
preamplifier that has custom built transformers to match the impedance of the antenna
and provides low noise amplification through multiple gain stages. The transformers were
set up on the North-South and East-West channels for impedance matching, frequency
response and noise performance. Afterwards the signal travels from transmission cable
that can range from 100-300 meters to a line receiver located indoors. The line receiver is
the head-end of the system that is interfaced with the preamplifier, computer and the
GPS for timing. System inputs include North-South and East-West and GPS timing.
Outputs provide an analog signal, GPS timestamp to computer and power to the
preamplifier. Each channel includes a separate anti-aliasing filter card that is output to a
16-bit National Instrument DAQ connected directly via PCI to the computer. Data is
sampled at 100 kHz, with 16-bit data resolution, ~32 GB of data in a 24 hour period of
continuously sampled on both channels. Once the signal reaches the computer it is
converted to digital form through an A/D converter.
17


Figure 2.2: Block diagram overview of VLF Receiver system. Two magnetic loop antennas are
setup to pick up North-South and East West signal for six different channels.
VLF receivers can be setup and deployed anywhere, but because of noise being
high at these frequencies the ideal location would be in a rural area away from the cities.
The location of our receivers include: Ithaca NY, Warsaw VA, and Raleigh NC. A
geographical representation of these receivers is shown below in Figure 2.3.
18


Figure 2.3: Geographic realization of our VLF Receivers.
Data Processing and Analysis
The previous section discussed system overlay of the VLF receivers and the
location of VLF transmitters. In this section we will describe how raw data recorded by
these receivers is processed and analyzed. As VLF signals are traveling within the Earth-
ionosphere waveguide, our VLF receivers are configured to pick up signals within 300
Hz to 47 kHz frequencies. Additionally, the receivers record so called Narrowband files
that are mixed down and filtered amplitude and phase of specific frequency transmissions
of the VLF transmitters. Each transmitter has a unique frequency that is assigned to it.
Given their specific frequencies the transmitters can also be seen on spectrograms. The
two magnetic-field antennas are setup to pick up VLF signals from the North-South and
19


East-West, record and store data on a server with 7 TB of physical storage. Data is
sampled on a 24 hour period on both channels at a sampling frequency of 100 kHz.
Software has been developed to program sampling schedules, snippets of by obtaining
Narrowband signals from the Synoptic broadband signals and send spectrograms via
internet. Synoptic (1 minute out of 15 minutes) broadband signals typically range from 3
kHz to 47 kHz in bandwidth that is sampled at 100 kHz. In this work we only utilized
Narrowband data to identify and analyze LEP events. All data that is recorded and stored
are in .mat format for MATLAB processing. The Narrowband signals are composed of
two formats, low resolution and high resolution. The low resolution data is sampled at 1
Hz. High resolution is sampled at 50 Hz for amplitude and phase.
The .mat files are processed in MATLAB. The written code is a function where
the inputs are the path name, date, hour and block averaging number. The block
averaging number plays a key role in the resolution of the data and filtering of the nose
that allows for identification of events. Before the file gets processed it has already been
low pass filtered around the frequency of the VLF transmitter in question. To mitigate the
effect of impulsive noise in the data, a median filtering technique of variable length is
used that is referred to as block averaging. The degree of block averaging is specified by
the user before the data is processed. Lower block averaging number outputs a higher
resolution amplitude and phase data where noise is much higher, but for high intensity
LEP events sfericss can be identified. Chapter 3 will have an example and analysis of
high intensity oceanic LEP event with low and high block averaging number. Higher
block averaging number yields lower resolution amplitude and phase plots. Examples of
higher and lower block averaging effects can be seen in Figure 2.4.
20


NAU on N/S Ithaca24-JUL 2012UT
10 15 20
Time [min] after 8:00:01 UT
NAU on N/S Ithaca24-JUL 2012UT
Figure 2.4: Effect of block averaging. The top and bottom panels display the same amplitude
signal of the NAU transmitter observed at Ithaca, NY on a 30 minute time axis. The top panel is a
snapshot of a VLF signal sampled at a lower block averaging number of 2. The bottom panel is
the same VLF signal observed on the top panel but with a higher block averaging niunber of 50.
A block averaging number above 35 can be very beneficial in identifying visually
small LEP events in the presence of significant impulsive noise.
Signatures of LEP Events
Lightning-induced electron precipitation event signatures can have characteristics
of positive and negative amplitude drop. Figures 2.5 2.8 bellow display a show case of
21


large/small, continental/oceanic and positive/negative events. Positive amplitude increase
events are more rare as they signify a more complex change in the received mode
structure of the VLF signal. A negative amplitude drop means that the ionosphere was
changed in a way that reduced the amount of VLF signal getting to the receiver. While a
positive amplitude change means that the ionosphere was altered to allow more signal to
get through.
Lightning polarity is directly related to the direction of current flow between
cloud and ground. Negative cloud-to-ground discharges that are the most common occur
when negative current flows from cloud to ground. Positive cloud-to-ground discharges
occur when positive current flows cloud to ground. Figure 2.5 show a 30 minute time
span of VLF signal observed at Warsaw, VA on the North-South amplitude from the
NPM transmitter located in La Moure, ND. The top panel of Figure 2.5 displays a VLF
signal observed after 4:00 UT for a 30 minute time span showing ~8 event signatures. In
those events most signatures are negative discharges, but near 4:17 there is a positive
discharge. Two lower panels display the biggest events found within the 30 minute time
span near 4:08 and 4:18 UT. The event near 4:08 displays an interesting characteristic
with two lightning discharges occurring in succession of each other within a time span of
23 sec apart. Event 1 occurs at approximately at 4:08:35 with a negative drop in
amplitude of 3 dB, its initial recovery starts at -4:08:38 but the ionosphere does not fully
recover to its ambient state as another event transpires. The lightning discharge that
follows the initial LEP event has larger signal amplitude, above 4 dB, and a slower
recovery rate than the initial event. The plot on the bottom right panel displays a -3 dB
amplitude event near 4:18 UT. This LEP signature also displays interesting
22


characteristics specifically the recovery rate of the ionosphere. In Chapter 3 we will
discuss and analyze the recovery rates of LEP events.
NLM on N/S CBGS02-MAY 2012UT
NLM on N/S CBGS 02-MAY 2012 UT NLM on N/S CBGS02-MAY 2012UT
Figure 2.5: Lighting-induced precipitation (LEP) events observed at Warsaw, VA on the North-
South amplitude from NLM transmitter in La Moure, North Dakota. The two lower panels show
an enlarged time axes of two events near 4:08 and 4:19. LEP event near 4:08 has two consecutive
ionospheric disturbances on top of each other.
Figure 2.6 shows an observed LEP event at Warsaw VA on the North-South
channel of the NPM transmitter in Lualuahei, Hawaii. The amplitude of the event is in
the magnitude of ~6 dB positive drop. Following the initial event is another ionospheric
disturbance but hard to examine if its a signature of a sfreics or another LEP event.
Overall Figure 2.6 is an excellent visual example that displays sferics signatures. The
23


vertical lines can be considered as the sferics, but the event near 9:16 UT has positive
drop in amplitude with a recovery rate of a few tens of seconds.
NPM on N/S CBGS26-APR 2012UT
Figure 2.6: LEP event observed at Warsaw, VA on the North-South amplitude from NPM
transmitter in Lualuahei, HI. Lower panel shows an enlarged time axes of consecutive events near
9:16.
In Figure 2.7 we observed two LEP events at Warsaw, VA on the North-South
channel of the NLM transmitter located in La Moure, North Dakota. Two positive events
can be identified near 7:36 UT and 7:38 UT. Both LEP event signatures are ~6 dB in
amplitude and exhibit positive amplitude drops. The amplitude of the VLF signal at the
beginning of time on the top panel of the figure shows a slow change on the time scale of
~7 minutes. The amplitude change looks like its taking the form of a sinusoidal wave,
but this non lightning fluctuation of the ionosphere is not addressed in this work.
24


NLM on N/S CBGS24-JUL 2012UT
NLM on N/S CBGS 29-APR 2012 UT NLM on N/S CBGS29-APR 2012UT
26.5
CD
g
g 26
"S.
I 25.5
25
Figure 2.7: LEP signature observed at the Warsaw, VA on the North-South amplitude from NLM
transmitter in La Moure, ND. Lower panel shows an amplified time axes of the two events near
7:35 and 7:38.
The LEP event in Figure 2.8 was observed on the Ithaca, New York receiver on
the North-South Channel of the NAU transmitter located at Aguada, Puerto Rico. Two
large event signatures can be spotted near 8:02 and 8:14 UT on the top panel of Figure
2.8. The two panels on the bottom show both of the events on an enlarged time axes with
both exhibiting negative drop in amplitude. The first event near 8:02 UT exhibits
approximately 1.5 dB drop in amplitude, while the second near 8:14 UT shows a drop of 2
dB in amplitude.
25


NAU on N/S Ithaca24-JUL 2012UT
29
00 JM
28
0)
"O
3
^ 27 -
Q.
£
<
26
25

NAU on N/S Ithaca24-JUL 2012UT
10 15 20
Time [min] after 8:00:01 UT
NAU on N/S Ithaca 24-JUL2012 UT
Figure 2.8: High intensity oceanic LEP events observed at the Ithaca, NY receiver on the North-
South signal amplitude from NAU transmitter in Aguada, Puerto Rico. The two lower panels
show expanded time axes of two large events near 8:02 and 8:14.
Figures 2.5 2.8 were generated using MATLAB code with a block averaging
number of 50 for each figure. As previously discussed, higher block averaging number
yields lower resolution data. Lower resolution data includes less noise thus easing the
process of finding LEP event.
During the period of research over 400 ionospheric disturbances were recorded
over several months of data. A spreadsheet of all recorded events can be found in
Appendix C. All the events found were recorded either on Ithaca, NY receiver or on the
Warsaw, VA receiver. The third CU Denver receiver located in Raleigh, NC was not
utilized due to hardware issues that are now fixed. Appendix C provides a table of all the
26


recorded events including receiver location, date, time in UT, transmitter path, negative
or positive polarity, amplitude and block averaging number. Ionospheric disturbances
from lighting discharges were recorded on all the VLF transmitters in North America
even a few events spotted on DHO path from Germany, but most of the events that were
seen were on the path of NLK and NAU transmitters. The NLK transmitter is located in
Jim Creek Washington, which suggests that any event seen on this transmitter path at one
of the three CU Denver receivers located on the East Coast would have to be over the
continent lightning discharges. The transmission path of the NAU transmitter, located in
Puerto Rico, and our receivers lies over oceanic coastal areas.
27


CHAPTER III
OCEANIC LEP EVENTS
In this chapter we will expand our discussion of LEP events that were
examined in the previous chapter, describe the Vaisala Global Lightning Dataset
GLD360 and the role it plays in lightning research, as well as quantitative analysis of
LEP Events.
Vaisala Global Lightning Dataset GLD360
The Vaisala Global Lightning Dataset GLD360 is network that provides real-time
lightning data [Said et al, 2010], Its the first global and accurate lightning data system
for real-time lightning coverage, early detection and tracking of severe weather. The
lighting data includes cloud-to-ground discharges, date and time, latitude and longitude,
peak amplitude and polarity of the lightning discharges.
The GLD360 network was used in our works to pin point the location of lightning
discharges especially those over coastal areas. The examined LEP events in Figure 2.7
were observed by the GLD360 to provide accurate location, polarity and peak current.
Figure 3.1 shows the location of lighting discharges during the time of the two LEP
events near 8:02 UT and 8:14 UT.
28


Figure 3.1: Map showing lightning discharges from the GLD360 network associated with LEP
signatures shown in Figure 2.7. The events marked in red occurred after 8:02 UT and events
marked in blue occurred after 8:14 UT. All three VLF receivers are labeled with the path of
propagation shown from the NAU transmitter in Aguada, Puerto Rico.
Oceanic LEP Events on Ithaca to NAU
In Figure 2.7 we show the magnitude of the VLF signal versus time of two large
LEP events observed at Ithaca, NY on the North-South amplitude signal from NAU.
With confirmation from the GLD360 we are certain that this is an oceanic event that
occurred in the coastal area. Figure 3.1 shows a range of events that corresponds to the
location of both events. We predicted that the events were located in the cluster near the
NAU to Ithaca path. Iterating Figure 2.7 at a lower block averaging (N = 2) we were able
to pin point the sferics that caused the VLF signature for both LEP events and there exact
29


times. With this information we were able find the exact time of the events and
correspond them back to the GLD360 data for comparison. Originally it appeared the
timing in the VLF data was off by a second, but this was just a software bug where the
time stamp on the VLF files jumps to the next second. Our prediction was correct.
Let us classify the VLF signature of the LEP event near 8:02 UT as Event 1 and
Event 2 for the signature near 8:14 UT. Below are figures that correspond to each event
for reference. Both of the events can be classified as large because the amplitude decrease
is on the order of ~1 and ~2 dB.
NAU on N/S Ithaca24-JUL 2012UT
Figure 3.2: Event 1 recorded on Ithaca to NAU path. Amplitude drop seen to be greater than 1
dB.
30


NAU on N/S Ithaca 24-JUL2012 UT
Figure 3.3: Event 2 recorded on Ithaca to NAU path. Amplitude drop seen to be on greater than 2
dB.
Data observed by the GLD360 network associates Event 1 with a negative cloud-
to-ground discharge and a peak current of -13 kA. Event 2 was associated with positive
cloud-to-ground strike and a peak current of 388 kA. The polarity and peak current
values of the cloud-to-ground events associated with the LEP observed in Figure 3.1 are
shown in Figure 3.4 and 3.5.
31


60
Stem Plot
Figure 3.4 : Peak Current data from the GLD360 for lightning event associated near 8:02 UT. The
back vertical line is the time of the LEP event associated with a negative cloud-to-ground
discharge and -13 kA in peak current. Events shown in black (not red) are ones that were located
close to the NAU to Ithaca path.
At first we thought that the cause of Event 1 was due to a cluster of negative
cloud-to-grounds events that led to a large discharge. Our assumptions were incorrect but
evidence points to more interesting fact. After the causative LEP event there were five
lightning discharges that with positive and negative polarity that followed that were
around the same location.
32


Stem Plot
Figure 3.5: Peak Current data from the GLD360 for lightning event associated near 8:14 UT. The
back vertical line is the time of the LEP event associated with a positive cloud-to-ground
discharge and +388 kA in peak current. Events shown in black (not red) are ones that were
located close to the NAU to Ithaca path.
We were hoping to discover a pattern in such large events particularly like Event
2, a 388 kA peak current with a positive cloud-to-ground polarity. Such large events are
rarely observed the ocean let alone over continents. Our hopes were to see a cluster of
positive events near the location and time growing in peak current value to show that the
cause of the event was a built up of other lightning discharges. Unfortunately there was
only one positive cloud-to-ground event that followed the 388 kA discharge that was
fairly large in peak current value(70 kA) near the same location.
33


265
NAU on N/S Ithaca 29-Oct-2012 UT
NAU on N/S Ithaca 29-Oct-2012 UT
Figure 3.6: Recovery rate analysis of Event 1 and Event 2, over the ocean LEP events.
Part of the analysis we examined the characteristics of recovery rate. In the left
panel of Figure 3.6 we can see that the slope of the amplitude recovers to its ambient
position at multiple rates with the duration of time. We can observe that the initial
recovery is at a much higher magnitude than the rest of slope. In a published study by
Inan et al, [1988] similar observations of recovery rates were made and it was concluded
that the electron energies involved are in the MeV range. In such cases the high energy
portion of the flux penetrates to lower latitudes that the keV flux where the recovery rates
are slower.
Perturbations of both events were observed in the NAU phase as well as at the
Raleigh, NC receiver on several transmitting paths. The sferics were identified on the
North-South channel of the Ithaca, NY receiver from NLK, NPM, and DHO path as well
as on the Raleigh, NC receiver from NPM, NAU, DHO and NLK. The 388 kA event is
modeled in the Whistler Induced Particle Precipitation code to simulate the interactions
of energetic electrons in the magnetosphere which will be covered in the next section of
the chapter.
34


Whistler Induced Particle Precipitation (WIPP)
The purpose of the Whistler Induced Particle Precipitation (WIPP) simulation
code [Bortnik, 2004; Cotts 2011] is to simulate the interactions low frequency
electromagnetic signals (200 60 kHz) with energetic electrons in the magnetosphere.
When used for lightning simulation, the power of the signals are defined by the power
spectral density of the lightning strike and injected into the magnetosphere at 1000km.
The simulated magnetosphere is created from satellite data. A ray tracing code is
then applied to the magnetosphere with Landau damping [Bortnik, 2004], The signals are
then injected along the rays (along with using interpolation to acquire a higher resolution)
and the interaction between the signals and magnetosphere is calculated. The calculation
is performed for a set amount of time, typically 5 to 10 seconds, in which the signal will
have made multiple hops from one hemisphere to the other along the magnetic fields
lines and through multiple L-shells (the plasmapause plays a critical role in how high of
an L-shell the signal can travel to).
The most commonly used outputs of the WIPP simulation is the precipitated flux,
the electron number flux, and the rms pitch angle change, all of which are a function of
L-shell, time, and hemisphere.
There are many different parameters within the WIPP simulation that can be
changed. Some inputs are known measured values (e.g. peak current, latitude of the
strike). Other inputs are not as straight forward, and require experience and an
understanding of the what type of output is intended (e.g. whether the plasmasphere is
35


smooth or not, what magnetosphere model to use, using a square or sinusoidal loss cone,
the shape of the power spectral density from the strike).
Results from the WIPP Simulation
After running WIPP simulation we see that the strength of the precipitating flux
of Event 2 was large enough to be seen on all three receivers. For July 24, 2012 nothing
was seen on the Warsaw receivers as the transmitters were down that day. Figure 3.7
displays a map of the North and Southern hemisphere of the precipitating flux of
energetic electrons caused by the +388 kA event. The lightning impulse of the event
caused high power energetic waves to be injected into the magnetosphere, where they
obliquely propagate as whistler signals. Interacting with high energy electrons that cause
the pitch angle of the electrons to change and deposit some of them in the loss cone to
precipitate back down to the ionosphere. Precipitation occurs along the Earths magnetic
field lines, where high energy electrons can precipitate and cause events in two
hemispheres of the Earth.
36


Figure 3.7: Map of the WIPP simulation caused by the 388 kA positive cloud-to-ground
lightning discharge. Left panel shows the precipitation flux of the energetic electrons with the
black diamond showing the location of the event. Right panel shows the precipitation of energetic
electrons in the southern hemisphere.
Figure 3.7 is a simulation of the WIPP code that simulates the precipitation flux
caused by the +388 kA event. The less than 20 msec onset delay of the event from the
time of the lightning discharge suggest that the observation at Ithaca, NY may be an
Early/Fast event not an LEP event. The area of precipitating flux in the southern
hemisphere pointed us to further examining this event. We were able to obtain
Narrowband data from NPM (Hawaii) to Palmer, Antarctica where the path of
propagation goes straight through the densest area of the precipitating flux. The NPM to
Palmer path is shown in the right panel of Figure 3.7. The data was analyzed with a
block averaging of land estimated the time of an LEP event to be at 8:14:31.8.
Corresponding to this time we saw the perturbations on our Raleigh receivers to NAA
and Palmer to NPM. The key evidence that we are seeing local and conjugate LEP
events is that the attenuation of the VLF signal occurs first on the NAU to Raleigh path
and slightly later on the NPM to Palmer path. This implies that the lightning discharge
37


was large enough to cause a significant amount of electrons to enter the loss cone on the
first hop and immediately precipitate in the northern hemisphere and then the southern
hemisphere few msec later. Figure 3.8 displays the YLF signature of the LEP event seen
at NPM to Palmer receiver.
NPM N/S Palmer24-JUL 2012UT
Figure 3.8: VLF signature of the LEP event seen at Palmer on NPM. This is the same event seen
at Ithaca on NAU.
Our simulation shows that we should see precipitation of electrons on both
hemispheres with registered signatures of LEP events. Analysis of our data proves our
hypothesis correct. In fact, our data points to a new discovery in the characteristics of
oceanic LEP events in that for the first time effects of a single known lightning event
were seen simultaneously in both hemispheres.
38


CHAPTER IV
Summary and Conclusion
Historically oceanic lightning has received less attention than lightning discharges
over the continent. This is particularly due to the lack of accurate lightning detection
networks. With the development of the GLD360 the access to accurate data has been
more available. Lightning discharges can affect the ionosphere directly or indirectly.
Direct effect of the ionosphere alters the conductivity the instant of the discharge and is
classified as an Early/Fast event. On a plot of the Narrowband amplitude of a certain VLF
transmitter an Early/Fast event will have an onset delay less than 20 msec and onset
duration much less than 1 sec. The indirect effect, also called lighting-induced electron
precipitation (LEP) events, injects high power energetic waves into the magnetosphere
where they are propagated as whistler waves interact with energetic electrons. The
interaction of the propagating whistler wave and energetic electrons causes the pitch
angle of the electrons to change and deposit some of them in the loss cone to precipitate
back down to the ionosphere. Precipitation occurs in the northern and southern
hemisphere because the interaction of whistler waves and energetic electrons occurs
around the Earths magnetic field lines. LEP events have a greater onset delay than 20
msecs with a recovery rate of the ionosphere to its ambient level from several seconds to
several minutes.
This thesis involved the search for LEP and Early/Fast events in VLF data at three
CU Denver receiver locations on the East Coast of the United States. Although over 400
individual events were discovered in several months of data, we focused on a particularly
large events observed on the VLF receiver in Ithaca, New York on the path from the
39


NAU transmitter from Aguada, Puerto Rico. With access to individual lightning strike
information from the GLD360 network, specifically date, time, peak current and polarity,
we were able to discover high intensity oceanic lightning discharge responsible for the
ionospheric perturbation. The initial discovery of the +388 kA event along the coastal
area led us to believe that this was an LEP event until further investigation of the timing
of the lightning discharge and the VLF perturbation. Simulation with the WIPP code and
timing evidence pointed to the +388 kA event causing an Early/Fast event on the NAU to
Ithaca path and also precipitation of electrons in both hemispheres. The LEP event in the
southern hemisphere was confirmed with data on the NPM to Palmer, Antarctica path.
For the first time specific ionospheric perturbation in both hemispheres were identified to
be caused by a single large lighting event.
40


REFERENCES
Bortnik, Jacob. Precipitation Of Radiation Belt Electrons By Lightning-Generated
Magnetospherically Reflecting Whistler Waves. Thesis. Stanford University, 2005.
Cotts, Benjamin R.T. Global Quantification Of Lightning-Induced Electron Precipitation
Using Very Low Frequency Remote Sensing. Thesis. Stanford University, 2011.
Cotts, BRT., M. Golkowski, and R. C. Moore, "Ionospheric effects of whistler waves
from rocket-triggered lightning", Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 38, no. 24, 2011.
Fiillekrug, M., Price, C., Yair, Y., and Williams, E. R.: Letter to the Editor
Intense oceanic lightning, Ann. Geophys., 20, 133-137, doi:l0.5194/angeo-20-133-2002,
2002.
Golkowski, Marek. Magnetospheric Wave Injection By Modulated HF Heating Of The
Auroral Electrojet. Thesis. Stanford University, 2009.
Inan, Umran S., and Marek Golkowski. Principles of Plasma Physics for Engineers and
Scientists. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2011.
Inan, U. S., Burgess, W.C., Wolf, T.G., Shater, D.C., "Lightning-Associated Precipitation
of MeV Electrons from the Inner Radiation Belt." Geophysical Research Letters 15
(1988): 172-75.
41


Johnson, Michael Paul. VLF Imaging of Lightning-Induced Ionospheric Disturbances.
Thesis. Stanford University, 2000.
Johnson, M. VLF Imaging of Lighting-Induced Ionospheric Disturbances. Thesis.
Stanford University, 2000.
Moore, Michael C. ELF/VLF Wave Generation By Modidated HF Heating Of The
Auroral Electrojet. Thesis. Stanford University, 2007.
Peter, W. B., and U. S. Inan (2007), A quantitative comparison of lightning-induced
electron precipitation and VLF signal perturbations, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A12212,
doi: 10.1029/2006JA012165.
Peter, William Bolton. Quantitative Measurements Of Lightning-Induced Electron
Precipitation Using VLF Remote Sensing. Thesis. Stanford University, 2007.
Said, R. K., Cohen, M. B., Inan, U. S., Highly intense lightning over the oceans:
Estimated peak currents from global GLD360 observations, Journal of Geophysical
Research: Atmospheres, 2013, 118, 11
Said, R. K., U. S. Inan, and K. L. Cummins (2010), Long-range lightning geolocation
using a VLF radio atmospheric waveform bank, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D23108,
doi: 10.1029/2010JD013 863.
42


Salut, M. M., M. Abdullah, K. L. Graf, M. B. Cohen, B. R. T. Cotts, and S.
Kumar (2012), Long recovery VLF perturbations associated with lightning discharges, J.
Geophys. Res., 117, A08311, doi:10.1029/2012JA017567.
Uman, Martin A. Lighting. New York: MacGraw-Hill, 1969.
43


APPENDIX A
Site/Location Date Time UT Transmitter Positive/Nega tive Amplitude of Drop (dB)
Warsaw 4/7/2012 4:30 NPM on E/W Negative 5 dB
Warsaw 4/7/2012 4:33 NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 4/7/2012 4:30 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 6 dB
Warsaw 4/7/2012 6:42 NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB
Warsaw 4/7/2012 8:48 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 4/4/2012 2:43 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 1/22/2012 12:08 NAA on N/S Negative 10 dB
Ithaca 1/23/2012 8:36 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative 2 dB
Ithaca 1/23/2012 8:57:15 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .7 dB
Ithaca 1/23/2012 10:49 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 2 dB
Ithaca 1/23/2012 11:03 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 1/24/2012 6:58:50 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 1/25/2012 2:02 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative N/A
Ithaca 1/25/2012 7:24 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 1/25/2012 9:35 DHO on N/S Negative 8 dB
Ithaca 1/27/2012 9:54 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB
44


Ithaca 1/29/2012 5:31 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 1/29/2012 5:52 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 1/29/2012 5:57 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .7 dB
Ithaca 1/29/2012 6:08 NAA on N/S Positive .1 dB
Ithaca 1/29/2012 7:08 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 1/29/2012 7:51 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 1/29/2012 9:08 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .6 dB
Ithaca 1/29/2012 9:21 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1.5 dB
Ithaca 2/3/2012 18:27 DHO on N/S Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 2/7/2012 20:20 NAA on E/W Positive 2 dB
Ithaca 2/13/2012 2:23 DHO on N/S Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 2/15/2012 18:18 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB
Ithaca 2/17/2012 4:53 DHO on N/S Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 2/17/2012 16:39 NPM on N/S Negative 1.5 dB
Ithaca 2/17/2012 19:38 NAA on N/S Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 2/22/2012 6:20 NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 2/22/2012 6:13 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 2/26/2012 7:45 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Positive .6 dB
Ithaca 2/26/2012 7:55 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 2/26/2012 8:42 NPM on N/S | Positive .3 dB
45


NPM on E/W
Ithaca 2/27/2012 7:44 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 2/29/2012 3:43 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .4 dB
Ithaca 2/29/2012 5:19 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 2/29/2012 5:31 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 2/29/2012 6:39 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 2/29/2012 7:14 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 2/29/2012 10:25 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 2/29/2012 10:16 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 2/29/2012 11:27 NPM on E/W Negative .9 dB
Ithaca 3/1/2012 1:47 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 3/1/2012 2:22 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .4 dB
Ithaca 3/1/2012 2:25:45 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 3/1/2012 2:27 NAA on E/W Negative .1 dB
Ithaca 3/1/2012 2:35:50 NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 3/1/2012 4:47 NAA on E/W Negative 2 dB
Ithaca 3/1/2012 8:19 NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 3/1/2012 8:11 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB
46


Ithaca 3/1/2012 8:33 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 3/25/2012 5:32 NPM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 3/25/2012 9:26 NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 3/27/2012 4:18 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .1 dB
Ithaca 3/27/2012 4:26:50 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1.5 dB
Ithaca 3/27/2012 5:15 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Positive 2 dB
Ithaca 3/27/2012 5:17 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 3/27/2012 5:23 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .4 dB
Ithaca 3/27/2012 6:08 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 3/27/2012 6:19 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 3/27/2012 6:25 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 3/27/2012 6:27 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 3/27/2012 7:41 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 3/27/2012 8:19 NPM on E/W Negative .6 dB
Ithaca 3/27/2012 9:54 NPM on E/W Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 3/27/2012 9:57 NPM on E/W Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 4/1/2012 6:34 NAA on E/W Negative .1 dB
Ithaca 4/1/2012 7:44 NAA on E/W Negative .1 dB
Ithaca 4/3/2012 6:30 NLK on N/S | Negative .2 dB
47


NLK on E/W
Ithaca 4/3/2012 6:52 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .1 dB
Ithaca 4/3/2012 8:44 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB
Ithaca 4/7/2012 5:39 NPM on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 4/7/2012 5:39 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 4/12/2012 3:13 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 4/12/2012 9:48 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Ithaca 4/12/2012 9:56 NPM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Ithaca 4/13/2012 6:22 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .1 dB
Ithaca 4/13/2012 6:24 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .1 dB
Ithaca 4/13/2012 6:39 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB
Ithaca 4/13/2012 6:57 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 4/13/2012 7:13:30 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .1 dB
Ithaca 4/13/2012 7:17 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 4/13/2012 7:23 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB
Ithaca 4/13/2012 7:26:50 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 4/13/2012 7:27:30 NPM on N/S | Negative .3 dB
48


NPM on E/W
Ithaca 4/13/2012 7:47 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 4/13/2012 7:49:50 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .4 dB
Ithaca 4/13/2012 8:12 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 4/13/2012 8:47 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 4/13/2012 8:48 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 4/13/2012 9:34 NPM on E/W Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 4/13/2012 9:37 NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 4/13/2012 9:45 NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 4/13/2012 10:06 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 4/14/2012 1:38 NAAN/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 4/14/2012 1:43:50 NAAN/S Negative .1 dB
Ithaca 4/14/2012 5:26:30 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .4 dB
Ithaca 4/14/2012 6:52:45 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .4 dB
Ithaca 4/14/2012 6:54 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 4/14/2012 6:54:30 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .1 dB
Ithaca 4/14/2012 6:56 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 4/15/2012 6:19 NPM on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 4/15/2012 6:46 NPM on N/S Positive .5 dB
49


Ithaca 4/15/2012 6:28 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 4/15/2012 6:46 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 4/15/2012 7:50 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 4/15/2012 7:56 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 4/15/2012 7:50 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 4/15/2012 8:26 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 4/15/2012 8:13 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 4/15/2012 8:26 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .1 dB
Ithaca 4/16/2012 4:19 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 4/16/2012 4:23 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 4/16/2012 4:27 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 4/16/2012 4:34 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .1 dB
Ithaca 4/16/2012 4:47 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 4/16/2012 4:54:20 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 4/16/2012 5:21 NPM on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 4/16/2012 5:24:30 NPM on E/W Negative .2 dB
50


Ithaca 4/16/2012 5:03 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 4/16/2012 5:09:30 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .1 dB
Ithaca 4/16/2012 5:15 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 4/16/2012 5:21 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 4/16/2012 5:33 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 4/16/2012 5:46 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 4/16/2012 6:11 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 4/16/2012 9:54 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 4/18/2012 2:42:50 DHO on N/S Negative 1.5 dB
Ithaca 4/18/2012 6:44 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 4/18/2012 7:47 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca NO DATA 4/22/12 5/21/12
Ithaca 5/22/2012 2:26 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 5/22/2012 2:57 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 5/22/2012 7:45 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 5/22/2012 8:27 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 1/27/2012 8:19 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 1/27/2012 8:12 NLK on N/S | Negative .4 dB
51


NLK on E/W
Warsaw 1/27/2012 8:19 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 1/26/2012 15:56 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 1/25/2012 3:07 NAA on E/W Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 1/25/2012 3:19 NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 1/25/2012 3:31 NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 1/25/2012 6:35:30 NAA on N/S Positive .1 dB
Warsaw NO DATA 1/1/12 1/13/12
Warsaw 2/3/2012 5:18 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 5:47 NLM on E/W Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 6:03 NLM on E/W Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 6:08 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 6:27 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 6:43 NLM on E/W Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 6:48 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 6:55:50 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 7:38 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 8:11:45 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 8:19 NLM on E/W Positive .4 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 9:20:05 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 9:44 NLM on E/W Negative .6 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 10:03 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 10:13:45 NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 10:14:50 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 10:19 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 10:27 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 10:33:45 NLM on E/W Negative .1 dB
52


Warsaw 2/3/2012 10:45:30 NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 11:03 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 11:07 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 11:30 NLM on E/W Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 2/3/2012 11:44 NLM on E/W Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 2/4/2012 1:24 NLK on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 2/4/2012 1:42 NLK on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 2/4/2012 2:19 NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 2/4/2012 4:56 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/4/2012 6:14:30 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/4/2012 10:11 NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/4/2012 10:10 NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/6/2012 1:46 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 2/7/2012 8:45 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/7/2012 8:53 NLM on E/W Positive .4 dB
Warsaw 2/7/2012 9:05 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/8/2012 3:10 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/8/2012 3:30 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/8/2012 5:22 NAU on N/S Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 2/10/2012 10:18:30 NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/10/2012 11:15:45 NLK on N/S Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/11/2012 7:40 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 2/11/2012 7:50 NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/11/2012 7:54 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/11/2012 1:18 NLK on N/S Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/11/2012 8:13 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB
53


Warsaw 2/11/2012 8:23 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 2/11/2012 8:25 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .7 dB
Warsaw 2/11/2012 8:33 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 2/11/2012 9:05 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/11/2012 9:07 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .6 dB
Warsaw 2/11/2012 9:12 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .7 dB
Warsaw 2/11/2012 9:21 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .7 dB
Warsaw 2/11/2012 9:27 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 2/12/2012 1:43 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/12/2012 4:31 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 2/12/2012 10:36 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 2/12/2012 10:38 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .8 dB
Warsaw 2/13/2012 2:06 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 2/14/2012 5:16 NAU on E/W Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 2/15/2012 2:44:10 NAA on N/S Negative .15 dB
Warsaw 2/15/2012 3:56 NLM on N/S Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/15/2012 8:46 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 2/16/2012 5:53 NAA on N/S Positive .1 dB
54


Warsaw 2/16/2012 5:44 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/16/2012 5:53 NLK on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/16/2012 9:57 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/17/2012 5:11 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/18/2012 1:22 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 2/18/2012 2:12 NAA on N/S Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/18/2012 2:13 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 2/18/2012 2:17 NAA on N/S Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/18/2012 2:23 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 2/18/2012 7:07 NAU on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 1:18 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 3:40 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 2 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 3:17 NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 3:40 NAA on N/S Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 3:40 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 3:47 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 3:54:50 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 4:16 NLK on E/W Negative 2 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 5:09 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 5:09 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 6:23 NAA on N/S Negative .2 dB
55


Warsaw 2/19/2012 6:23 NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 8:18 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 8:18 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 9:21 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 9:24 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 9:35 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 10:36 NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 11:03 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 11:24 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 11:27 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 11:32 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 11:33 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 10:36 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 2/19/2012 11:58 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/20/2012 1:18 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/20/2012 1:19 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB
56


Warsaw 2/20/2012 1:33 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/20/2012 1:21 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 2/20/2012 1:23 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 2/20/2012 2:12 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/20/2012 2:19 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/20/2012 2:37 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .6 dB
Warsaw 2/20/2012 2:08 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 2/20/2012 2:08 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 2/20/2012 2:03 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 2/20/2012 3:09 NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 2/20/2012 3:34 NAA on N/S Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/20/2012 3:34 NLM on N/S Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/20/2012 3:53 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 2/20/2012 3:53 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive/Nega tive .3 dB
Warsaw 2/20/2012 3:58 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/21/2012 6:09 NAU on N/S Positive .4 dB
Warsaw 2/22/2012 5:15 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB
57


Warsaw 2/22/2012 5:21 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 2/22/2012 5:33 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 2/22/2012 5:40 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 2/22/2012 5:55 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 2/22/2012 6:13 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 2/22/2012 6:42 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 2/22/2012 8:18 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 2/22/2012 8:42 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 2/22/2012 9:32 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 1:17 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 1:19 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 1:23 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 1:29 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 1:37 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 1:52 NLM on N/S Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 2:11 NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB
58


Warsaw 2/23/2012 2:06 NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 2:11 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 2:11 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 2:17 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 4:42 NAU on N/S Positive .4 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 4:40 NLM on N/S Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 5:12 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 5:13 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 5:14 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 5:19 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 5:29 NLM on N/S Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 6:43 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 6:53 NAU on N/S Positive .4 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 6:55 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .6 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 5:56 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 7:03 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 7:42 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive 2 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 8:04 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 8:06 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 8:15 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 8:23 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB
59


Warsaw 2/23/2012 8:33 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 8:38 NAU on N/S Positive .7 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 8:54 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 9:07 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .6 dB
Warsaw 2/23/2012 9:58 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB
Warsaw 2/24/2012 4:49 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 2/24/2012 4:45 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/24/2012 4:49 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/24/2012 6:38 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .4 dB
Warsaw 2/24/2012 7:29 NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 2/24/2012 7:29 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 2/24/2012 7:32 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .8 dB
Warsaw 2/24/2012 7:29 NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 2/24/2012 7:57 NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 2/24/2012 8:05 NPM on E/W Negative 3 dB
Warsaw 2/24/2012 8:04:50 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 2/24/2012 8:14 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/24/2012 8:14 NAA on N/S | Negative .5 dB
60


NAA on E/W
Warsaw 2/25/2012 1:14 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 2/25/2012 1:19 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/25/2012 1:23 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/25/2012 2:23 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/25/2012 2:36 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/25/2012 2:38 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .7 dB
Warsaw 2/25/2012 3:53 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 2/25/2012 3:09 NLM on N/S Negative .7 dB
Warsaw 2/25/2012 3:18 NAA on N/S Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 2/25/2012 4:08 NAU on N/S Positive .8 dB
Warsaw 2/25/2012 4:59 NAU on N/S Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 2/25/2012 4:32 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 2/25/2012 5:05 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 2/25/2012 5:06 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 2/25/2012 5:08 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 2/25/2012 5:28 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 3 dB
Warsaw 2/25/2012 5:31 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 2 dB
Warsaw 2/25/2012 6:07 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive 1 dB
61


Warsaw 2/25/2012 9:11 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .8 dB
Warsaw 2/28/2012 1:32 NAU on N/S Negative .8 dB
Warsaw 2/28/2012 3:32 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 1:34 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 1:48 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 2 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 1:34 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 1:48 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 2 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 2:14 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 2:14 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 2:27 NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 2:58 NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 2:26 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 3:29 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 3:44 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 3:47 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 4:39 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 4:59 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .8 dB
62


Warsaw 3/1/2012 4:32 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 4:41 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 4:49 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 5:19:50 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 5:49 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 5:13:50 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 5:19 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 6:43 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 6:36 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 7:22 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 7:22 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 7:23 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 8:58 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 8:18 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/1/2012 8:56 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:43 NLK on N/S | Positive 2 dB
63


NLK on E/W
Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:48 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 2dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:20 NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:37 NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:04 NLM on E/W Positive .7 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:12 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .7 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:17 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:33 NLM on E/W Positive .4 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:36 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:42 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:48 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 2:11 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 2:33 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 2:57 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .8 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 2:57 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .8 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 3:04 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 3:10 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 3:19:50 NLK on N/S | Positive 2 dB
64


NLK on E/W
Warsaw 3/3/2012 3:01 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 3:04 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 3:10 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 3:19 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 5:14 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 5:19 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 5:23 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 5:49:50 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .6 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 5:53 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 5:50 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1.5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 5:12 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 6:49 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 6:51 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 7:04 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 7:20 NLM on N/S | Positive .5 dB
65


NLM on E/W
Warsaw 3/3/2012 7:54 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 8:14 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:09 NAA on N/S Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:17 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 2:23 NAA on N/S Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:32 NAA on N/S Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:37 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:06 NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:07 NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:25 NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:39 NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:49 NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 10:44 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1.5 dB
Warsaw 3/3/2012 10:44 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/4/2012 7:29 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 3/4/2012 7:26 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 3/4/2012 7:26 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .4 dB
Warsaw 3/4/2012 7:49 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .8 dB
Warsaw 3/4/2012 7:49 NLM on N/S | Positive .5 dB
66


NLM on E/W
Warsaw 3/4/2012 8:05 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 3/4/2012 8:06 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 3/4/2012 8:09 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 3/4/2012 8:23 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1.5 dB
Warsaw 3/4/2012 8:38 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1.7 dB
Warsaw 3/4/2012 9:15 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .8 dB
Warsaw 3/4/2012 4:42 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 3/6/2012 3:42 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 3/6/2012 6:15:45 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 3/8/2012 4:12:30 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 3/9/2012 9:01:45 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB
Warsaw 3/9/2012 9:02:50 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/9/2012 10:27 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .6 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 3:19 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 5:51 NLM on N/S | Negative 1 dB
67


NLM on E/W
Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:42 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:44 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:50:10 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:58 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:42 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:44 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:50:10 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:58 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:07 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .8 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:37 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:38 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:07 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:20 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:42 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:44 NAA on N/S | Negative .5 dB
68


NAA on E/W
Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:50:10 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:58 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 7:01:30 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 7:01:45 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 2 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 7:01:30 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 7:01:45 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 8:07 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 8:13 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 8:14 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1.2 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 8:13 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 8:14 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 9:25 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 9:33 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 3/10/2012 9:37 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 7/17/2012 1:41 NAA on N/S | Negative .2 dB
69


NAA on E/W
Ithaca 7/17/2012 1:44 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 7/17/2012 1:54 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 7/17/2012 1:54:30 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 7/17/2012 2:01 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .8 dB
Ithaca 7/17/2012 2:04 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 7/17/2012 2:04:50 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 7/17/2012 2:14 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 2 dB
Ithaca 7/17/2012 2:19 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 7/17/2012 3:17 NAA on N/S Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 7/18/2012 4:27 NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 7/18/2012 4:34 NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 7/18/2012 4:38 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 7/18/2012 4:54 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 7/18/2012 4:59 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 7/18/2012 5:03 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 7/18/2012 5:05:30 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB
70


Ithaca 7/18/2012 5:15:30 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 7/18/2012 6:24:50 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 7/18/2012 9:22 NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 7/19/2012 6:24 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 7/19/2012 7:34 NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 7/20/2012 14:06 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 7/20/2012 14:18 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 7/21/2012 6:17 NPM on E/W Negative .4 dB
Ithaca 7/21/2012 6:34 NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 7/21/2012 6:44:45 NPM on E/W Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 7/21/2012 7:26 NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 7/22/2012 3:58 NAU on N/S Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 7/22/2012 5:23 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 7/22/2012 5:53 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 7/22/2012 8:23 NPM on E/W Negative 1.8 dB
Ithaca 7/22/2012 8:28 NPM on E/W Negative .8 dB
Ithaca 7/22/2012 8:38 NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 7/22/2012 8:46 NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 7/22/2012 8:47 NPM on E/W Negative .8 dB
Ithaca 7/22/2012 8:55:10 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .1 dB
Ithaca 7/23/2012 6:59 NPM on E/W Negative 1.2 dB
Ithaca 7/24/2012 2:51:50 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 7/24/2012 5:41 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .8 dB
Ithaca 7/24/2012 6:17 NAU on N/S Negative .4 dB
71


Ithaca 7/24/2012 6:21 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .7 dB
Ithaca 7/24/2012 6:41 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 7/24/2012 6:44 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 7/24/2012 6:53 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive 1.5 dB
Ithaca 7/24/2012 7:24 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 7/24/2012 7:24:50 NAU on N/S Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 7/24/2012 7:26 NAU on N/S Positive .4 dB
Ithaca 7/24/2012 7:32 NAU on N/S Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 7/24/2012 7:33 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 7/24/2012 7:43 NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 7/24/2012 8:03 NAU on N/S Negative 1.5 dB
Ithaca 7/24/2012 8:14 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 2 dB
Ithaca 7/25/2012 1:39 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 7/25/2012 1:48 NAU on N/S Positive .7 dB
Ithaca 7/25/2012 8:11 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 3 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 3:49 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 2 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 4:06 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 4:46 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 5:43 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 5:58 NLM on N/S | Positive 1 dB
72


NLM on E/W
Ithaca 7/26/2012 6:09 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 6:48 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 7:02 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 3 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 7:10 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 3 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 7:15 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 5 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 7:47 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 7:44 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 7:59 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 8:07 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 3 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 8:11 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 2 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 8:18 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 3 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 8:25 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 2 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 8:27 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 4 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 8:36 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 2.5 dB
Ithaca 7/26/2012 8:43 NLM on N/S | Positive 3 dB
73


NLM on E/W
Ithaca 7/26/2012 8:59 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 2dB
Ithaca 7/27/2012 1:17 NAA on N/S Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 7/27/2012 5:27 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 7/27/2012 5:37 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 7/27/2012 5:46 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .8 dB
Ithaca 7/27/2012 7:00:30 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 7/27/2012 7:09 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Ithaca 7/27/2012 7:12 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 7/27/2012 9:34:30 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 7/27/2012 9:36 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 7/27/2012 9:43:30 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .4 dB
Ithaca 7/27/2012 9:50:30 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 3:01 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 3:39 NAU on N/S Negative .4 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 3:57 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 3:59 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 4:19 NAU on N/S Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 4:28 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB
74


Ithaca 7/28/2012 6:37 NPM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 6:41 NPM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 6:54 NPM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 6:33 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 6:45 NAU on N/S Negative .4 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 6:46 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 6:47 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 6:34:50 NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:04:30 NPM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:22 NPM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:04 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:18 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 3 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:19 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 2.5 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:21 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .8 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:39 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:41 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .8 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:43 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .8 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 8:26 NAU on N/S Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 7/28/2012 8:27 NAU on N/S Negative .7 dB
Ithaca 7/29/2012 7:09 NAU on N/S Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 7/29/2012 7:18 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 7/30/2012 1:36 NAU on N/S Positive .7 dB
Ithaca 7/31/2012 5:53 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
75


Ithaca 8/1/2012 3:07 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .8 dB
Ithaca 8/1/2012 3:50 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/1/2012 3:56 NAU on N/S Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 8/1/2012 4:05 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 8/1/2012 4:20 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 8/1/2012 5:12 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/1/2012 5:25 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB
Ithaca 8/1/2012 5:27 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB
Ithaca 8/1/2012 5:28 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB
Ithaca 8/2/2012 1:22 NAU on N/S Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 8/2/2012 5:37 NAU on N/S Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 8/2/2012 7:05 NAU on N/S Positive 2 dB
Ithaca 8/2/2012 7:14 NAU on N/S Positive 2 dB
Ithaca 8/2/2012 7:18 NAU on N/S Positive 3 dB
Ithaca 8/3/2012 6:36 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 8/4/2012 3:36 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 3 dB
Ithaca 8/4/2012 3:53 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 2 dB
Ithaca 8/4/2012 4:33 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 2 dB
Ithaca 8/4/2012 4:44 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 2 dB
Ithaca 8/4/2012 5:41 NLM on N/S | Negative 5 dB
76


NLM on E/W
Ithaca 8/4/2012 7:16 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 8/4/2012 10:02 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 8/4/2012 10:09 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/6/2012 1:38 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 8/6/2012 1:39 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 8/6/2012 1:41 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 8/6/2012 6:10 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 8/6/2012 6:18 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1.2 dB
Ithaca 8/7/2012 8:07 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/7/2012 8:12 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 8/7/2012 8:44 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 8/7/2012 8:47 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 10-Aug 5:53 NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/12/2012 1:22 NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 8/12/2012 1:26 NAA on E/W Positive .1 dB
Ithaca 8/13/2012 4:28 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 8/14/2012 7:59 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 8/14/2012 8:01 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 8/14/2012 8:02 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB
77


Ithaca 8/15/2012 2:53 NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 2:11 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive 1.5 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 3:39 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 3:47 NAU on N/S Positive .4 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 3:21 NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 3:48 NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 4:05 NAU on N/S Positive .7 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 4:17 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 4:19 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 4:21 NAU on N/S Positive .4 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 6:44:45 NAA on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 6:45:45 NAA on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 6:47:15 NAA on N/S Positive .7 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 6:49:15 NAA on N/S Positive .4 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 7:36 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 7:54 NAU on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 7:57 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 8:38 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 8:18 NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 8:19 NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 8/16/2012 8:24 NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 8/17/2012 2:27 NAU on N/S Positive .4 dB
Ithaca 8/17/2012 2:12 NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 8/17/2012 2:13 NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 8/17/2012 5:32 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 8/17/2012 5:49 NAU on N/S Negative .5 dB
78


Ithaca 8/17/2012 5:57 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 8/17/2012 8:21 NPM on E/W Negative 4dB
Ithaca 8/18/2012 5:04 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/18/2012 5:50 NAU on N/S Positive .8 dB
Ithaca 8/18/2012 5:56 NAU on N/S Positive .7 dB
Ithaca 8/18/2012 6:03 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/19/2012 5:45 NAU on N/S Positive .8 dB
Ithaca 8/19/2012 5:47 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .7 dB
Ithaca 8/19/2012 6:04 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 8/19/2012 6:22 NAU on N/S Positive .1 dB
Ithaca 8/19/2012 7:44 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/19/2012 7:58 NAU on N/S Positive .8 dB
Ithaca 8/19/2012 8:02 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 8/19/2012 8:06 NLM on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/19/2012 8:09 NLM on N/S Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 8/19/2012 8:17 NLM on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/19/2012 8:29 NLM on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/20/2012 3:29 NAU on N/S Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 8/20/2012 5:19 NAU on N/S Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 8/20/2012 5:56 NAU on N/S Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 8/20/2012 6:18 NAU on N/S Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 8/20/2012 7:24 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 8/20/2012 9:29 NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 8/20/2012 9:47 NPM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB
Ithaca 8/20/2012 13:03:30 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/21/2012 8:37:50 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB
79


Ithaca 8/21/2012 8:38:30 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1.5 dB
Ithaca 8/22/2012 15:28 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB
Ithaca 8/23/2012 5:52 NAU on N/S Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 8/23/2012 9:07 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 2 dB
Ithaca 8/24/2012 9:33 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .7 dB
Ithaca 8/24/2012 9:37 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/24/2012 9:49 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/25/2012 5:18 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 8/25/2012 5:27 NLM on N/S Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 8/25/2012 5:32 NLM on N/S Positive .1 dB
Ithaca 8/25/2012 5:32 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 8/25/2012 9:17 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 2 dB
Ithaca 8/26/2012 3:05 NAU on N/S Negative 1.5 dB
Ithaca 8/26/2012 3:09 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 8/26/2012 3:36 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/26/2012 4:03 NAU on N/S Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 8/26/2012 4:18 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB
Ithaca 8/26/2012 4:39 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB
Ithaca 8/26/2012 6:12 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
80


Ithaca 8/26/2012 6:18 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB
Ithaca 8/26/2012 6:19 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .3 dB
Ithaca 8/26/2012 6:22 NAU on N/S Positive .7 dB
Ithaca 8/26/2012 6:44 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 8/26/2012 6:48 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 8/26/2012 7:03 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 2 dB
Ithaca 8/26/2012 7:10 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1.5 dB
Ithaca 8/26/2012 7:51 NAU on N/S Positive .4 dB
Ithaca 8/27/2012 8:32 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB
Ithaca 8/27/2012 8:37 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/27/2012 8:56 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 8/27/2012 8:23 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB
Ithaca 8/27/2012 15:11 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 8/27/2012 15:32 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .2 dB
Ithaca 8/27/2012 16:08:30 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .1 dB
Ithaca 8/27/2012 16:08:45 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .1 dB
81


Ithaca 8/27/2012 16:13:50 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .1 dB
Ithaca 8/27/2012 20:15 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Ithaca 4/4/2012 2:43 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1.2 dB
Warsaw 4/6/2012 3:01 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 4/6/2012 3:35 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 4/6/2012 5:07 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 4/6/2012 5:17 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB
Warsaw 4/6/2012 5:28 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 4/6/2012 8:39 NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 4/6/2012 8:48 NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 4/6/2012 9:03 NAU on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 4/6/2012 9:09 NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 4/6/2012 9:49 NAU on E/W Positive .4 dB
Warsaw 4/7/2012 4:34 NAU on E/W Negative .6 dB
Warsaw 4/7/2012 6:04 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .4 dB
Warsaw 4/7/2012 6:09 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 4/7/2012 6:27 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 4/7/2012 6:34 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .3 dB
82


Warsaw 4/7/2012 6:43 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB
Warsaw 4/7/2012 6:47 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 4/7/2012 7:27 NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 4/7/2012 7:28 NAU on E/W Positive .4 dB
Warsaw 4/7/2012 7:37 NAU on E/W Positive .4 dB
Warsaw 4/10/2012 2:29 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .8 dB
Warsaw 4/10/2012 2:44 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .6 dB
Warsaw 4/10/2012 2:39 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 4/11/2012 2:20 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 4/11/2012 3:13 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 4/12/2012 7:07 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 4/12/2012 7:15 NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 4/12/2012 7:41 NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 4/12/2012 8:11 NAU on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 4/12/2012 8:39 NAU on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 4/12/2012 8:41 NAU on E/W Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 4/14/2012 10:18:50 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 10 dB
Warsaw 4/15/2012 3:44 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 5 dB
Warsaw 4/15/2012 4:28 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 4/15/2012 4:41 NLM on N/S | Positive .5 dB
83


NLM on E/W
Warsaw 4/15/2012 6:26 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 4/15/2012 6:09 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 4/15/2012 6:19 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .7 dB
Warsaw 4/15/2012 6:28 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 4/15/2012 9:55 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 4/18/2012 7:28 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 4/18/2012 8:22 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 4/18/2012 8:28 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 4/22/2012 6:43 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 4/26/2012 8:45 NLK on N/S Negative 5 dB
Warsaw 4/26/2012 8:45 NLM on N/S Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 4/26/2012 9:16 NPM on N/S Positive 3 dB
Warsaw 4/27/2012 2:42 NAA on N/S Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 4/27/2012 2:43 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .6 dB
Warsaw 4/27/2012 3:01 NAA on N/S Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 4/27/2012 3:07 NAA on N/S Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 4/27/2012 3:24 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 4/27/2012 3:37 NAA on N/S Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 4/27/2012 4:36 NAA on N/S Positive .1 dB
84


Warsaw 4/27/2012 4:39 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 4/27/2012 4:47 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 4/27/2012 7:02 NAU on E/W Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 4/27/2012 7:03 NAU on E/W Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 4/27/2012 7:06 NAU on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 4/29/2012 3:27 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 4/29/2012 3:27 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .1 dB
Warsaw 4/29/2012 3:39 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 4/29/2012 3:58 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .7 dB
Warsaw 4/29/2012 5:45 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 4/29/2012 6:33 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 4/29/2012 7:36 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 2 dB
Warsaw 4/29/2012 7:38 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1.5 dB
Warsaw 4/29/2012 7:36 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 4/29/2012 7:38 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 4/29/2012 7:38 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 5/1/2012 6:17 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 5/1/2012 6:25 NLM on N/S | Negative 1 dB
85


NLM on E/W
Warsaw 5/1/2012 9:30 NPM on N/S Negative 3 dB
Warsaw 5/2/2012 3:51 NLM on N/S Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 5/2/2012 3:53 NLM on N/S Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 5/2/2012 4:09 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 4 dB
Warsaw 5/2/2012 4:19 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 2 dB
Warsaw 5/2/2012 4:26 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 5/2/2012 4:28 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 2 dB
Warsaw 5/2/2012 8:53 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 5/2/2012 8:08 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .7 dB
Warsaw 5/2/2012 8:28 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .6 dB
Warsaw 5/3/2012 6:52 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 5/3/2012 7:16 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 5/5/2012 1:54:50 NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 5/5/2012 5:14 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 5/5/2012 5:16 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 5/6/2012 1:14 NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 5/6/2012 7:37 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB
86


Warsaw 5/6/2012 7:08 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 5/10/2012 6:17 NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 5/10/2012 6:46 NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB
Warsaw 5/10/2012 7:06 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB
Warsaw 5/10/2012 7:09 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 5/10/2012 7:31 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 5/10/2012 7:34 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB
Warsaw 5/10/2012 8:31 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB
Warsaw 5/10/2012 8:38 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 5/13/2012 5:36 NAU on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 5/13/2012 5:38 NAU on E/W Negative .7 dB
Warsaw 5/13/2012 5:53 NAU on E/W Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 5/13/2012 6:08 NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 5/13/2012 6:14 NAU on E/W Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 5/13/2012 6:29 NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 5/13/2012 7:06 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB
Warsaw 5/13/2012 8:21 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 5/13/2012 8:44 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 5/13/2012 8:46 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB
87


Warsaw 5/14/2012 3:14 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .2 dB
Warsaw 5/15/2012 7:04 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 5/15/2012 7:38 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB
Warsaw 5/17/2012 4:05 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 5/17/2012 4:18 NAA on N/S Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 5/17/2012 7:57 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .7 dB
Warsaw 5/19/2012 3:04 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 5/19/2012 3:37 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 5/19/2012 4:33 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 5/20/2012 6:32 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB
Warsaw 5/20/2012 6:43 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1.5 dB
Warsaw 5/21/2012 2:57 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 5/21/2012 3:04 NAU on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 5/21/2012 3:27 NLM on N/S Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 5/21/2012 4:07 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .3 dB
Warsaw 5/21/2012 4:27 NAU on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 5/21/2012 4:38 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB
88


Warsaw 5/21/2012 5:42 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 5/21/2012 5:56 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1.5 dB
Warsaw 5/21/2012 7:26 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 5/22/2012 6:07 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB
Warsaw 5/22/2012 6:13 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 5/22/2012 6:16 NAU on E/W Positive .4 dB
Warsaw 5/22/2012 6:08 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .3 dB
Warsaw 5/22/2012 6:27 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 2 dB
Warsaw 5/24/2012 3:42 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 5/24/2012 5:08 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 2 dB
Warsaw 5/25/2012 1:32 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 5/26/2012 5:28:10 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .4 dB
Warsaw 5/27/2012 1:48 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB
Warsaw 5/27/2012 4:11 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB
Warsaw 5/27/2012 4:23 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB
Warsaw 5/27/2012 4:31 NLM on N/S | Negative .2 dB
89


NLM on E/W
Warsaw 5/27/2012 17:12 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .3 dB
90


Full Text

PAGE 1

EFFECTS OF HIGH INTE N SITY OCEANIC LIGHTNING DISCHARGES ON THE By LEVON ALEKSANDROVICH BARSIKYAN B.S.E.E., University of Colorado Denver, 2011 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Electrical Engineering 2013

PAGE 2

ii 2013 LEVON ALEKSANDROVICH BARSIKYAN ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PAGE 3

iii This thesis for the Master of Science degree by Levon Aleksandrovich Barsikyan has been approved for the Electrical Engineering Program by Mark Golkowski, Chair Yiming Deng Tim Lei July 15, 2013

PAGE 4

iv Barsikyan, Levon Aleksandrovich (M.S., Electrical Engineering) ABSTRACT Very Low Frequency (VLF 3 30 kHz) receivers are used to monitor the amplitude and phase of signals from powerful naval VLF communication transmitters. Since the VLF transmitter signals propagate in the Earth ionosphere waveguide, they provide a method for remotely sensing ionospheric density changes. The effect of powerfu l natural oceanic lighting discharges on the ionosphere are investigated using VLF remote sensing and the Global Lighting Detection Network (GLD360) Ionospheric disturbances known as Lighting induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) events and Early/Fast even ts are investigated. A comprehensive numerical model of the electron precipitation process is used to compare to observation. Results are compared to previous research on lightning effects on the ionosphere. The form and content of this abstract are app roved. I r ecommended its publication App roved: Mark Golkowski

PAGE 5

v DEDICATION To my family in Sochi, Russia and most of all to my father Aleksandr Leonovich Barsikyan my mother Nadezhda Arutovna Barsikyan and my sister Ustina Aleksandrovna Barsikyan

PAGE 6

vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank and express my deep est gratitude to my adviser Dr. Marek Golkowski for providing me valuable support and havi ng a positive impact on my life. Nick Gross for helping me with numerical modeling of LEP events in the WIPP simulation My magnificent parents, for believing and supporting me. My father, Aleksandr Leonovich Barsikyan, for his influenc e and hard headedness that push ed me to life My mothe r, Nadezhda Arutovna Barsikyan, for her significant support influence and caring love that guided me through college. My beautiful, smart and little sister, Ustina Aleksandrovna Barsikyan, for being the best sister anyone can ask for and helping me grow up.

PAGE 7

vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 1 Scientific Background ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 2 Matter and the Four States ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 2 Plasma ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 3 The Ionosphere ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 3 The Magnetosphere ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 6 Earth Ionosphere Waveguide ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 8 VLF Radio Waves ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 9 VLF Propagation and Precipitation Events ................................ ................................ ............ 10 Oceanic Lightning ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 12 Thesis Layout ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 12 Contributions ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 13 II. VLF HARDWARE AND LEP EVENTS ................................ ................................ ................. 14 Description of VLF Data ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 14 Receiver Hardware and Location ................................ ................................ ........................... 1 6 Data Processing and Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ 19 Signatures of LEP Events ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 21 III. OCEANIC LEP EVENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 28 Vaisala Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360) ................................ ................................ ......... 28 Oceanic LEP Events on Ithaca to NAU ................................ ................................ ................. 29 Whistler Induced Particle Precipitation (WIPP) ................................ ................................ ..... 35 Results from the WIPP Simulation ................................ ................................ ......................... 36 IV. SUMMARY ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 39 Summary and Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 39 REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 41 APPENDIX A ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 44

PAGE 8

viii LIST OF FIGURES 1.1 Electron density profile of the ionosphere during the daytime and nighttime ........................... 5 1.2 Magnetosphere in a nutshell ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 7 1.3 VLF Wave Propagation ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 8 1.4 VLF Remote Sensing ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 11 2.1 World Map Illustration of the location of VLF transmitters ................................ .................... 15 2.2 Block diagram overview of VLF receiver system ................................ ................................ ... 18 2.3 Geographic realization of our receivers ................................ ................................ ................... 19 2.4 Effect of block averaging ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 19 2.5 Event observed at Warsaw, VA on NLM ................................ ................................ ................ 23 2.6 Event observed at Warsaw, VA on NPM ................................ ................................ ................ 24 2.7 Event observed at Warsaw, VA on NLM ................................ ................................ ................ 25 2.8 Event observed at Ithaca, NY on NAU ................................ ................................ .................... 26 3.1 Geographic realization of lightning discharges from the GLD360 data ................................ .. 28 3.2 Event 1 recorded on Ithaca to NAU path ................................ ................................ ................. 29 3.3 Event 2 reco rded on Ithaca to NAU path ................................ ................................ ................. 30 3.4 Stem plot of peak current data from the GLD360 associated with Event 1 ............................ 3 1 3.5 Stem plot of peak current data from the GLD360 associated with Event 2 ............................ 32 3.6 Recovery rate analysis of Event 1 and Event 1 ................................ ................................ ........ 33 3.7 Map of the WI PP simulation caused by 388 kA event ................................ ............................ 36

PAGE 9

ix 3.8 VLF signature of LEP Event seen at Palmer on NPM ................................ ............................. 37

PAGE 10

x LIST OF TABLES 2.1 List of VLF Transmitters used in this work ................................ ................................ ............. 16

PAGE 11

1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Lightning can be described as a high current electric discharge or a form of plasma that exists within our environment. Although this phenomenon is short lived about 30 msec the path length is measured in many kilometers. Lightning transpires when a region of the atmosphere acquires an electric charge large enough that the electric field affiliated with the charge causes electrical breakdown of the air. This natural phenomenon is commonly produced from thunder clouds, although there are cases where lightning has struck in sandstorms, snowstorms and clouds that are formed over spewing volcanoes [Uman, 1969] The effects of lightning are not generally broad but have major significance on technology, like power li nes, electric towers, buildings, and also signal processing and the communication world. The topic of this thesis is the assessment of Narrowband data from Very Low Frequency (VLF) receivers located at three sites identification and analysis of large over the land and over the ocean lighting induced electron pre cipitation events (LEP Events) and its effects on the ionosphere. We will analyze several events found in very low frequency (VLF) recordings This chapter will provide basic background knowledge for the topic and the contributions of the present work.

PAGE 12

2 Scientific Background In this section we provide an introduction and basic background knowledge of matter its four states and the plasma envi ronment on Earth that is composed of two ionized regions in the upper atmosphere: the ionosphere and magnetosphere. Matter and the Four States There are four fundamental states of matter: solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Each state of matter is distinguished by qualitative distinctions and a particular value of binding energy. That can be described as the mechanical energy required to dismantle a whole into parts. Matter in the solid state maintains a permanent volume and shape where the atoms an d molecules are tightly bonded together in a crystal type structure. If the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a solid is higher than the binding energy, the crystal will separate directly into gas or a liquid. Unlike solids, properties of matter in the liquid state can take shape when enclosed within a volume or a container where the molecules are not as tightly bonded and exhibit mobility. For a liquid to change into gas the kinetic energy has to exceed the binding energy of the van der Waals for ces to break the bonds. In the gaseous state, molecules of matter have very weak bonds and can move around freely and adapt to volume and shape [Uman, 2011] Similarly, for matter in the gaseous state to change into plasma the kinetic energy of the gaseous atoms and molecules must be higher than the ionization potential of the atoms. In the plasma state, matter has similar properties as gas, there is no definite shape and molecules can move freely and fast. The distinction between plasmas and gases lies wit hin the molecular

PAGE 13

3 composition. Like gases, plasmas are composed of neutral atoms and molecules in addition to a significant number of ionized atoms and unbounded electrons. Plasma lliam Crookes using an experimental electrical discharge tube. In 1897, J.J. Thomson introduced by Irving Langmuir. The term was specifically referred to the region of ioni zed gas where there was no presence of electromagnetic fields. When atoms and molecules of a gas are raised to a high temperature, or exposed to a strong electromagnetic field they become ionized. Ionization of the gaseous state can be achieved by other me ans such as bombarding the substance with energetic electrons and ions. Other means of ionization include exposure to ultra violet light and X rays. When ionization takes place the physical behavior of gases is controlled by electromagnetic forces causing the free ions and electrons to conduct electricity. When referring to plasma, we are talking about the most common visible matter in the ionized gas, ionized environment exists in various forms. Sometimes these environments are short lived but exa mples of their existence include lightning, fire and the aurora borealis. The I onosphere a life protecting absorber of solar radiation. The ionosphere is a distinctive region in the upper atmosphere at a ltitudes of 60 km 500 km. At about 60 km from the surface of the E arth atmospheric gas

PAGE 14

4 absorbs the constant bombardment of ultraviolet radiation from the sun During this phenomenon there is enough energy to ionize the molecules and atoms in this part of the atmosphere making it in the plasma state. The ionosphere consists of several distinctive ionization pea ks, the D, E, and the F region s due to the density and composition of the atmosphere at different altitudes. Altitude plays a signifi cant factor in the composition and density of the ionosphere, because with increasing altitude the gaseous composition of the atmosphere becomes thinner. At these heights free electrons can exist for short amount of time be fore they are captured by positi ve ions. This is also called the attachment and recombination process that is produced at different rates for each ionization peak s These peaks otherwise known as layers are characterized by electron densities that differ in magnitude during the daytime and nighttime. This is due to the contribution of s olar radiation during the daytime. Figure 1 displays the electron density of the ionosphere for the daytime and nighttime configuration. T here are significant differences in the electron density during the daytime and nighttime par ticularly in the D and E region due to the effect of solar radiation.

PAGE 15

5 Figure 1 .1 : Electron density of the ionosphere during the daytime and nighttime. The D region can be considered as the lowest or the first region of the ionosphere, starting at about 60 km and extending up to ~100 km from the surface of the earth. The recombination phenomenon in this layer is high and the ionization is low. This region of the atmosphere contributes to loss of wave energ y due to frequent electron collisions. Overall the ionosphere can be used as a reflecting boundary for the propagation of low frequency waves within the so called E arth ionosphere waveguide Propagation in this waveguide can occur only for frequencies where the ionosphere plasma exhibits properties of a good conductor. Plasma acts as a good conductor for frequencies lower than the plasma frequency which is given by Wher e N e is the electron

PAGE 16

6 density, q e is the electric charge, m e 0 is the permittivity of free space. In the ionosphere, plasma densities are such that extremely low frequency (ELF : 300 3 kHz ) waves or very low frequency (VLF: 3 kHz 30 kHz ) waves have frequencies low enough to be reflected by the medium A common example of manmade signals in this band is Navy communication s with submarines. In this thesis we focus on the direct and indirect effects of lightning discharges in the D region of the ionosphere Specifically we look at the ionospheric disturbances which occur during the nighttime over the Atlantic Ocean. The Magnetosphere The magnetosphere refers to the outermost layer of the atmosphere in which the motion of charged particles is dominated by Earth s magnetic field. Overall, magnetic field lines resemble a magnetic dipole. At higher altitudes (thousands of kilometers) the field lines get significantly distorted by solar winds The magnetosphere is composed of several layers, the bow shock, magnetosheath and the magnetopause. The bow shock is outermost layer of the magnetosphere or the boundary between the magnetosphere and stellar medium. T his is the boundary where the speed of solar winds drops significantly as it draws near the magnetopause. The magneto sheath in between the bow shock and magnetopause, is an area contains a small amount of plasma and high particle energy flux varying the direction and m agnitude of the magnetic field. balanced with the pressure of the solar winds. This is the region of the atmosphere that

PAGE 17

7 changes size and shape with flu ctuating pressure fro m the sola r winds. Figure 1.2 displays an illustration of the magnetosphere. Figure 1.2 : Magnetosphere in a nutshell. The main feature of the magnetosphere relevant to this thesis are the so called radiation belts (or Van Allen Belts) which are highly energetic (keV MeV) protons and particles is disturbed, they will no longer be trapped in the magnetosphere and will impinge and deposit their energy onto the ionosphere. This deposition of electron energy from the radiation belts is known as energetic electron precipitation. Lighting induced electron precipitation events are a product of very low frequency (VLF) energy radiation from the lighting discharge that escape into the magnetosphere and subsequently produce a precipitation event that leads to an ionospheric disturbance. A fraction of the VLF energy from the lighting discharge gets in jected into the magnetosphere and propagates within as a whis t ler m ode wave. The whistler mode wave interacts with trapped radiation

PAGE 18

8 belt electrons via cyclotron resonance leading to pitch angle scattering of electrons, causing som e of those close to the loss cone to precipitate into the lower ionosphere where they produc e secondary ionization [Peter et al, 2007] Figure 1.3 illustrates the process that results in LEP events. Figure 1.3: Illustration of the left demonstrates the radiating VLF wave energy produced from a lightning discharge. Illustration of the right dep icts whistler mode interaction: (1) lighting discharge occurs and a fraction of the VLF signal propagates into the magnetosphere as a whistler mode wave (2) where the injected electrons interact with the trapped energetic radiation belt electrons (3) and (4) the electrons precipitate back down to cause a secondary disturbance in the D region of the ionosphere. Earth Ionosphere Waveguide This section will provide basic knowledge of VLF radio waves and VLF propagation and scattering. For ELF/VLF waves, the Earth ionosphere waveguide can be modeled as a parallel plate waveguide where the lower plate is the Earth and the upper plate is the D region of the ionosphere. As discussed above, at these frequencies both of the se surface s exhibit behavior of a good conductor.

PAGE 19

9 VLF Radio Waves Very Low Frequency (VLF) refers to a class of radio waves that range from 3 kHz to 30 kHz in frequency with wavelengths ranging from 10 to 100 kilometers Applications of VLF include underwater communication, radio navigati on services, and secure military communication. At these frequency ranges, radio waves can bounce of the ionosphere and propagate within the Earth Ionosphere waveguide and penetrate 40 meters into saltwater The importance of a large wavelength allows for propagation over large distances. VLF radio waves can be used as a mechanism for sensing disturbances in the lower layer of the ionosphere, the D region. A t about 60 km in altitude, VLF radio waves are reflected by the E arth and the ionosphere allowing them to travel around the globe similar to waves in parallel plate waveguide The propagation solution s are classified into different types of mode: TE mode s (Transverse Electric), TM modes (Transverse Magnetic) and the TEM modes (Transverse ElectroMagnetic). The benefits of VLF radio waves are stability, reliability, and lo n g distance propagation due to very low path attenuation. On the contrary, the frequency band of VLF radio waves has high interferences such as atmospheric noise that are produced by sferics and whi s tlers. Sferics is an electromagnetic impulse that is prod uced from lightning discharges and can propagate in the Eart h ionosphere waveguide. Whistlers are a product of sferics when the electromagnetic energy from a lightning discharge escapes from the Earth ionosphere waveguide to enter and interact with electrons in the magnetosphere to form a whistler signal.

PAGE 20

10 VLF Propagation and VLF Remote Sensing When a lightning discharge takes place the D region of the ionosphere is disturbed by direct heating of electrons to change the ionization or by the e nergetic electron precipitation described above The disturbance typically happens within a few hundred ms [ Johnson, 2000 ], but the recovery rate of the ionosphere back to its normal state can last f rom several seconds to several minutes. These disturbances cause changes in the amplitude and phase of a propagated VLF signal. In some cases a disturbance can be very rapid, within a few hundreds of ms, where the recovery rate is very fast and almost non visible in the propagation path of the VLF signal. These sorts of events are and are caused directly by the electromagnetic w ave from the lighting discharge A different type of ionospheric disturbance is called an LEP (L ightning induced Electron Precipitation) event and involves electromagnetic radiation from the lightning traveling to the magn etosphere, interacting with energetic electrons and causing those electrons to deposit their energy to the ionosphere. The main distinction between early/fast and LEP events is not the recovery time but the cause of the ionospheric disturbanc raining from the magnetosphere. In the path of propagation LEP events can have a recovery rate, in the context of amplitude/phase or the ionosphere, in the few seconds to a few minutes range. VLF remote sensing is the method used for measuring i onospheric disturbance s by analyzing measurements of VLF signals. Electromagnetic waves reflect when incident upon conducting boundaries that can be guided inside a n enclosed conducting material [Johnson 2000]. The surface of the Earth and the lowest part of the ionosphere, D region,

PAGE 21

11 act as a good electrical conductor for VLF signals. This boundary is the so called Earth ionosphere waveguide that can be classified into two categories; the upper boundary being the D region and the Earth and Oceans as the lower boundary. The skin depth of saltwater at 10 kHz is ~2.5 m ( ) and ~500 m for the surface of the Earth ( ). Below Figure 1.4 illustrates a n overview of VLF remote sensing. VLF signals injected into the Earth ionosphere waveguide by VLF transmitters are picked up by VLF receivers. Data recorded by the VLF receivers map the ionosphere and any disturbances that occurred on any single transmitter to receiver path will be shown on a n amplitude and phase plot. Examples can be seen in Section 2.5 of Chapter 2. Section 2.4 of Chapter 2 will cover the overview of VLF transmitters and receivers, the hardware and analysis of the recorded VLF signals. Figure 1.4: System overview of VLF Remote Sensing VLF signals traveling inside the Earth ionosphere waveguide sense ionospheric disturbances caused by lighting discharges that are picked up by VLF receivers. Lighting discharges are classified under tow c ategories, direct or indirect ionospheric disturbances.

PAGE 22

12 Oceanic Lightning lightning discharges over the ocean are more intense than over the land flashes. In [Fullekrug et al 2001] it is noted that lighting activity is higher over the continents, but the majority of the most intense lighting flashes on Earth occur over the ocean i n coastal areas. In this published study the occurrence of lightning discharges over the co ntinent and the oceans was estimated and broken into two categories of dusk and dawn. Evidence shows that at dawn approximately 37% of lighting discharges occurred over the ocean and rest of the 63% occurred over continents. At dusk, approximately 85% of l ightning discharges occurred over the continent while only ~15% occurred over the ocean. also pointed out that of positive lightning discharges over the continent are more frequent than negative lightning discharges. Theses Layout The present work is organized into 4 chapter s : Contents of C hapter 1 the present chapter, include relevant background information for understanding LEP events and the motivation of this work. Chapter 2 these receivers and the analysis of this data in discove ring VLF signatures of LEP event s. The discussion includes a summary of all interesting events found during my research for this work.

PAGE 23

13 Chapter 3 presents in depth analysis of high intensity oceanic lightning induced precipitation events particularly the event s found on the amplitude and phase of the NAU transmitter observed at the Ithaca, NY receiver. Lightning data is analyzed using the GLD360 network to find exact time, date, location and peak current of the causative events. Whistler Induced Particle Precipitation ( WIPP ) simulation was used to simulate the interactions of unmoded low frequency electr omagnetic signals (200 60 kHz) within the magnetosphere. Chapter 4 summarizes the results in Chapter 3and concludes with a discussion of future work and the benefits of our findings on high intensity oceanic events. Contributions The contributions of this research can be summarized as follows: 1. Identification of multiple lighting associated VLF events in data from 3 sites over the time span of two years 2. Quantification of effects of u nique oceanic lighting event s using VLF remote se nsing and numer ical simulation.

PAGE 24

14 CHAPTER II INTRODUCTION In this Chapter we discuss the backbone of our research; data, VLF transmitters and receivers, hardware, location, data processing and analysis and wrap it up with VLF signatures of LEP events. The effects of lighting on the ionosphere are significant especially in the communication world. Changes in the properties of the ionosphere caused by lighting can cause additional propagation delay and phase distortion in satellite communication. A single lightning strike has 10 12 50 MJ of energy. That amount has peak power equal to the entire grid of the United States which at the time of this writing is approximately 4. 2 x 10 12 Watts average power. A n average of 50 100 lighting flashes occur each second worldwide. Very Low Frequency (VLF) receivers can be used to monitor the effects of lighting activity o n the ionosphere. VLF remote sensing is based on high resolution measurements of the amplitude and phase of propagating VLF signals generated by VLF transmitters [ Johnson, 2000 ]. This chapter will provide a description of VLF transmitters and receivers and geographical location used in this research. Description of VLF Transmitters The transmission of radio frequencies in the 3 30 kHz range is conducted b y the U.S. Navy for military communication with submarines and ships. The large wavelength attributes to long distance propagation in the Earth ionosphere waveguide by overcoming any geographical obstacles such as mountains. There are dozens of VLF transmitters that

PAGE 25

15 are setup and operated around the world, but in this thesis we will only focus on the transmitters located in North America. Each transmitter has a designate d call sign that corresponds to its location and a specific frequency that each one transmits This thesis focusses on the analysis of VLF signals transmitted from NAU, NLM and NPM transmitters. The location of all VLF tra nsmitters is shown in Figure 2.1 Figure 2.1 : World map illustration of the l oca tion of VLF transmitter s The relevant transmitters in our study include: NPM ( 21.4 kHz ), NLK ( 24.8 kHz ), NLM ( 25.2 kHz ), NAA ( 24 kHz ), and NAU (40.8 kHz) We examine LEP events from six different VLF transmitter signals in this research that are listed in Table 2.1. LEP events from each transmitter will be discussed in Chapter 3 of this work, but we focus on two major LEP events that occur on the NAU to Ithaca path

PAGE 26

16 Table 2.1: List of VLF transmitters used in this work, along with locations, transmitting frequency and power specifications. Call Sign Location Frequency (kHz) Latitude (N) Longitude (E) NPM Lualuahei, HI 21.4 +21.420166 158.151140 NLM La Moure, ND 25.2 +46.365990 98.335638 NAU Aguada, Puerto Rico 40.8 +18.398762 67.177599 Receiver Hardware and Location The setup of the VLF receivers i n this work consisted of two orthogon al air core, wire loop antennas used to sense the magnetic field of north so uth and ea st west channels, a preamplifier to match the impedance of the antenna and provide low noise amplificatio n through multiple gain stages, a line receiver that interfaces with the preamplifier, computer and the GPS system. Overview of the system block diagram is shown in Figure 2.2 Single loop magnetic field antennas are typically used for receiving signals at low frequencies and are typically small in size. For electric field antennas s ize varies with wavelength, for magne tic loop antennas size is independent of wavelength and they are easy to calibrate The shape of the antenna is also an independent characteristic as long as it takes a closed formation in our case the shape is a pyramidal formation The a ntennas used in this system is 2.6 m tall, has an area of 1.695 m 2 with .994 1.005 mH input

PAGE 27

17 impedance. It consists of 12 turns tightly raped around in a triangular formation around PCB pipes and setup upright to form a pyramidal shape. Once the antenna senses the VLF signal a voltage is induced and fed into a preamplifier that has custom built transformers to match the impedance of the antenna and provides low noise amplification through multiple gain stages. The transformers were set up on the Nor th South and East Wes t channels for impedance matching, frequency response and noise performance. Afterwards the signal travels from transmission cable that can range from 10 0 300 meters to a line receiver located indoors The line receiver is is interfaced with the preamplifier, computer and the GPS for timing. System inputs include North South and East West and GPS timing. Outputs provide an analog signal, GPS timestamp to computer and pow er to the preamplifier. Each channel includes a separate anti aliasing filter card that is output to a 16 bit National Instrument DAQ connected directly via PCI to the computer. Data is sampled at 100 kHz, with 16 bit data resolution ~32 GB of data in a 2 4 hour period of continuously sampled on both channels. Once the signal reaches the computer it is converted to digital form through a n A/D converter

PAGE 28

18 Figure 2.2 : Block diagram overview of VLF Receiver system Two magnetic loop antennas are setup to pick up North South and East West signal for six different channels. VLF receivers can be setup and deployed anywhere, but because of noise being high at these frequencies the ideal location would be in a rural area away from the citie s. T he location of our receivers include: Ithaca NY, Warsaw VA, and Raleigh NC. A geographical representation of these receivers is shown below in Figure 2.3.

PAGE 29

19 Figure 2.3: Geographic realization of our VLF Recei vers. Data Processing and Analysis The previous section discussed system overlay of the VLF receivers and the location of VLF transmitters. In this section we will describe how raw data recorded by these receivers is processed and analyzed As VLF signals are traveling within the Ear th ionosphere waveg uide our VLF receivers are configured to pi ck up signals within 300 Hz to 47 kHz frequencies. Additionally, the receivers record so called Narrowband files that are mixed down and filtered amplitude and phase of specific frequency transmission s of the VLF transmitters. Each transmitter has a unique frequency that is assigned to it Given their specific frequencies the transmitters can also be seen on sp ectrogram s The two magnetic field antennas are setup to pick up VLF s ignals from the North So uth and

PAGE 30

20 East West, record and store data on a server with 7 TB of physical storage Data is sampled o n a 24 hour period on both channels at a sampling frequency of 100 kHz. Software has been developed to program sampling schedules, snippets of by obtaining Narrowband signals from the Synoptic broadband signals and send spectrograms via internet. Synoptic (1 minute out of 15 minutes) broadband signals typically range fr om 3 kHz to 47 kHz in bandwidth that is sampled at 100 kHz In this work we only utilized Narrowband data to identify and analyze LEP events. All data that is recorded and stored are in .mat format for MATLAB processing. The Narrowband signal s are composed of two formats, low resolution and high resolution. The low resolution data is sampled at 1 Hz. High resolution is sampled at 50 Hz for amplitude and phase. The .mat files are processed in MATLAB. The written code is a function where the inputs are the path name, date, h our and block averaging number. The block averaging number plays a key role in the r e solution of the data and filtering of the nose that allows for identification of events Before the file gets processed it has already been low pass filtered around the frequency of the VLF transmitter in question. To mitigate the effect of i mpulsive noise in the data, a median filtering technique of variable length is used that is referred to as block averaging. The degree of b lock averaging is specified by the user before the data is processed. Lower block averaging number outputs a higher r esolution amplitude and phase data where noise is much higher, but for high intensity Chapter 3 will have an example and analysis of high intensity oceanic LEP event with low and high block averaging number. Higher block averaging number yields lower resolution amplitude and phase plots. Examples of higher and lower block averaging effects can be seen in Figure 2.4.

PAGE 31

21 Figure 2.4: Effect of block averaging. The top and bottom panel s display the same amplitude signal of the NAU transmitter observed at Ithaca, NY on a 30 minute time axis. The top panel is a snapshot of a VLF signal sampled at a lower block averaging number of 2 The b ottom panel is the same VLF signal observed on the top panel but with a hi gher block averaging number of 50. A block averaging number above 35 can be very beneficial i n identifying visually small LEP events in the presence of significant imp ul sive noise Signatures of LEP Event s Lightning induced electron precipitation event signatures can have characteristics of positive and negative amplitude drop. Figures 2.5 2.8 bellow display a show case of

PAGE 32

22 large/small, continental/oceanic and positive/negative events. Positive amplitude in crease events are more rare as they signify a more complex change in the received mode structure of the VLF signal A negative amplitude drop means that the ionosphere was changed in a way that reduced the amount of VLF signal getting to the receiver. Whil e a positive amplitude change means that the ionosphere was altered to allow more signal to get through. Lightning polarity is directly related to the direction of current flow between cloud and ground. Negative cloud to ground discharges that are the most common occur when negative curr ent flows from cloud to ground. Positive cloud to ground discharges occur when positive current flows cloud to ground. Figure 2.5 show a 30 minute time span of VLF signal observed at Warsaw, VA on the North South amplitude from the NPM transmitter located in La Moure, ND. The top pa nel of Figure 2.5 display s a VLF signal observed after 4:00 UT for a 30 minute time span showing ~8 event signatures In those events most signatures are negative discharges, but near 4:17 there is a positive discharge. Two lower panels display the biggest events found within the 30 minute time span near 4:08 and 4:18 UT. The event near 4:08 displays an interesting charac teristic with two lightning discharges occurring in succession of each other within a time span of 23 sec apart. Event 1 occurs at approximately at 4:08:35 with a negative drop in amplitude of 3 dB its initial recovery starts at ~4:08:38 but the ionospher e does not fully recover to its ambient state as another event transpires. The lightning discharge that follows the initial LEP event has larger signal amplitude above 4 dB, and a slower recovery rate than the initial event. The plot on the bottom right panel displays a ~ 3 dB amplitude event near 4:18 UT. This LEP signature also displays interesting

PAGE 33

23 characteristics specifically the recovery rate of the ionosphere. In Chapter 3 we will discuss and analyze the recovery rates of LEP events. Figure 2.5 : Lighting induced precipitation (LEP) events observed at Warsaw, VA on the North South amplitude from NLM transmitter in La Moure, North Dakota. The two lower panels show an enlarged time axes of two events near 4:08 and 4:19. LEP event near 4:08 has t wo consecutive ionospheric disturbances on top of each other Figure 2.6 shows an observed LEP event at Warsaw VA on the North South channel of the NPM transmitter in Lualuahei, Hawaii The amplitude of the event is in the magnitude of ~ 6 dB positive dr op. Following the initial event is another ionospheric disturbance other LEP event. Overall Figure 2.6 is a n excellent visual example that displays sferics signatures. The

PAGE 34

24 vertical lines can be considered as the sferics but the event near 9:16 UT has positive drop in amplitu de with a recovery rate of a few tens of seconds. Figure 2.6 : LEP event observed at Warsaw, VA on the North South amplitude from NPM transmitter in Lualuahei, HI. Lower panel shows an enlarged time axes of consecutive event s near 9:16. In Figure 2.7 we observed two LEP events at Warsaw, VA on the North South channel of the NLM transmitter located in La Moure, North Dakota. Two positive events can b e identified near 7:36 UT and 7:38 UT. Both LEP event signatures are ~ 6 dB in amplitude and exhibit positive amplitude drops. The amplitude of the VLF signal at the beginning of time on the top panel of the figure shows a slow change on the time scale of ~ 7 minutes The amplitude change but this non lightni n g fluctuation of the ionosphere is not addressed in this work.

PAGE 35

25 Figure 2.7 : LEP signature observed at the Warsaw, VA on the North South amplitude from NLM transmitter in La Moure, ND. Lower panel shows an amplified time axes of the two event s near 7:35 and 7:38. The LEP ev ent in Figure 2.8 was observed on the Ithaca, New York receiver on the North South Channel of the NAU transmitter located at Aguada, Puerto Rico. Two large event signatures can be spotted near 8:02 and 8:14 U T on the top panel of Figure 2.8 The two panels on the bottom show both of the events on an enlarged t ime axes with both exhibiting negative drop in amplitude The first event near 8:02 UT exhibits approximately 1.5 dB drop in amplitude, while the second near 8:14 UT shows a drop of 2 dB in amplitude.

PAGE 36

26 Figure 2.8 : High intensity oceanic LEP events observed at the Ithaca, NY receiver on the North South signal amplitude from NAU transmitter in Aguada, Puerto Rico. The two lower panels show expanded time axes of two l arge events near 8:02 and 8:14. Figures 2.5 2.8 were generated using MATLAB code with a block averaging number of 50 for each figure As previously discussed higher block averaging number yields lower resolution data. Lower resolution data includes less noise thus easing the process of finding LEP eve nt. During the period of research over 400 ionospheric disturbances were recorded over several months of data. A spreadsheet of all recorded events can be found in Appendix C. All t he events found were recorded either on Ithaca, NY receiver or on the War saw, VA receiver. The third CU Denver receiver located in Raleigh, NC was not utilized due to hardware issues that are now fixed. Appendix C provides a table of all the

PAGE 37

27 recorded events including receiver location, date, time in UT, transmitter path, negative or positive polarity, amplitude and block averaging number Ionospheric disturbances from lighting discharges were recorded on all the VLF transmitters in North America even a few e vents spotted on DHO path from Germany, but most of the events that were seen were on the path of NLK and NAU transmitters. The NLK transmitter is located in Jim Creek Washington, which suggests that any event seen on this transmitter path at one of the th ree CU Denver receivers located on the East Coast would have to be over the continent lightning discharges. T he transmission path of the NAU transmitter located in Puerto Rico, and our receivers lies over oceanic coastal areas.

PAGE 38

28 CHAPTER III OCEANIC LEP EVENTS In this chapter we will expand our discussion of LEP events that were e xamined in the previous chapter, describe the Vaisala Global Lightning Dataset GLD360 and the role it plays in lightning research, as well as quantitative analysis of LEP Events. Vaisala Global Lightning Dataset GLD 360 The Vaisala Global Lightning Dataset GLD360 is network that provides real time lightning data [Said et al, 2010] rate lightning data system for real time lightning coverage, early detection and tracking of severe weather. The lighting data includes cloud to ground discharges, date and time, latitude and longitude, peak amplitude and polarity of the lightning discharg e s The GLD360 network was used in our works to pin point the location of lightning discharges especially those over coastal areas. The examined LEP events in Figure 2.7 were observed by the GLD360 to provide accurate location, polarity and peak current. Figure 3.1 shows the location of lighting discharges during the time of the two LEP events near 8:02 UT and 8:14 UT.

PAGE 39

29 Figure 3.1: Map showing lightning discharges from the GLD360 network associated with LEP signatures shown in Figure 2.7. The events mark ed in red occurred after 8:02 UT and events marked in blue occurred after 8:14 UT. All three VLF receivers are labeled with the path of propagation shown from the NAU transmitter in Aguada, Puerto Rico. Oceanic LEP Events on Ithaca to NAU In Figure 2.7 we show the magnitude of the VLF signal versus time of two large LEP events observed at Ithaca, NY on the North South amplitude signal from NAU With confirmation from the GLD360 we are certain that this is an oceanic event that occurred in the coastal are a. Figure 3.1 shows a range of events that correspond s to the location of both events. We predicted that the events were located in the clust er near the NAU to Ithaca path. Iterating Figure 2.7 at a lower block averaging (N = 2) we were able to pin point the sferics that caused the VLF signature for both LE P events and there exact

PAGE 40

30 times. With this information we were able find the exact time of the events and correspond them back to the GLD360 data for comparison. Originally it appeared the timing in the V LF data was off by a second, but this was just a software bug where the time stamp on the VLF files jumps to the next second Our prediction was correct. Let us classify the VLF signature of the LEP event near 8:02 UT as E vent 1 and E vent 2 for the signat ure near 8:14 UT. Below are figures that correspond to each event for reference. Both of the events can be classified as large because the amplitude decrease is on the order of ~ 1 and ~ 2 dB. Figure 3.2: Event 1 recorded on Ithaca to NAU path. Amplitude drop seen to be greater than 1 dB.

PAGE 41

31 Figure 3.3: Event 2 recorded on Ithaca to NAU path. Amplitude drop seen to be on greater than 2 dB. Data observed by the GLD360 network associates Event 1 with a negative cloud to ground discharge and a peak current of 13 kA. Event 2 was associated with positive cloud to ground strike and a peak current of 388 kA. The polarity and peak current values of the cloud to ground events associated with the LEP observed in Fig ure 3.1 are show n in Figure 3.4 and 3.5.

PAGE 42

32 Figure 3.4: Peak Current data from the GLD360 for lightning event associated near 8:02 UT. The back vertical line is the time of the LEP event associated w ith a negative cloud to ground discharge and 13 kA in peak current. Events shown in black (not red) are ones that were located close to the NAU to Ithaca path. At first we thought that the cause of Event 1 was due to a cluster of negative cloud to grounds events that led to a large di scharge. Our assumptions were incorrect but evidence points to more interesting fact. After the causative LEP event there were five lightning discharges that with positive and negative polarity that followed that were around the same location.

PAGE 43

33 Figure 3.5 : Peak Current data from the GLD360 for lightning event associated near 8:14 UT. The back vertical line is the time of the LEP event associated with a positive cloud to ground discharge and +388 kA in peak current. Events shown in black (not red ) are ones that were located close to the NAU to Ithaca path. We were hoping to discover a pattern in such large events particularly like Event 2, a 388 kA peak current with a pos itive cloud to ground polarity Such large events are rarely observed the ocean let alon e over continents. Our hopes were to see a cluster of positive events near the location and time growing in peak current value to show that the cause of the event was a built up of other lightning discharges. Unfortunately there was only one positive cloud to ground event that followed the 388 kA discharge that was fairly large in peak current value (70 kA) near the same location.

PAGE 44

34 Figure 3.6: Recovery rate analysis of Event 1 and Event 2, over the ocean LEP events. Part of the analysis we examined the characteristics of recovery rate. In the left panel of Figure 3.6 we can see that the slope of the amplitude recovers to its ambient position at multiple rate s with the duration of time We can observe that the initial recovery is at a much higher magnitud e than the rest of slope. In a published study by Inan et al, [ 1988] similar observation s of recovery rates were made and it was concluded that the electron energies involved are in the MeV range. In such cases the high energy por tion of the flux penetrates to lower latitudes that the keV flux where the recovery rates are slower. Perturbations of both events were observed in the NAU phase as well as at the Raleigh, NC receiver on several transmitting paths. The sfer ified on the Nor t h South channel of the Ithaca, NY receiver from NLK, NPM, and DHO path as well as on the Raleigh, NC receiver from NPM, NAU, DHO and NLK. The 388 kA event is modeled in the Whistler Induced Particle Precipitation code to simulate the inter actions of energetic electrons in the magnetospher e which will be covered in the next section of the chapter.

PAGE 45

35 Whistler I nduced Particle Precipitation (WIPP) The purpose of the Whistler I nduced Particle Precipitation ( WIPP ) simulation code [Bortnik, 2004; Cotts 2011] is to simulate the interactions low frequency electromagnetic signals (200 60 kHz) with energetic electrons i n the magnetosphere. When used for lightning simulation, the power of the signals are defined by the power spectral density of the li ghtning strike and injected into the magnetosphere at 1000km. The simulated magnetosphere is created from satellite data. A ray tracing code is then applied to the magnetosphere with Landau damping [Bortnik, 2004] The signals are then injected along the rays (along with using interpolation to acquire a higher resolution) and the interaction between the signals and magnetosphere is calculated. The calculation is performed for a set amount of time, typically 5 to 10 s econds in which the signal will have ma de multiple hops from one hemisphere to the other along the magnetic fields lines and through multiple L shells (the plasmapause plays a critical role in how high of an L shell the signal can travel to). The most commonly used outputs of the WIPP simulatio n is the precipitated flux, the electron number flux, and the rms pitch angle change, all of which are a function of L shell, time, and hemisphere. There are many different parameters within the WIPP simulation that can be changed. Some inputs are known me asured values (e.g. peak current, latitude of the strike). Other inputs are not as straight forward, and require experience and an understanding of the what type of output is intended (e.g. whether the plasmasphere is

PAGE 46

36 smooth or not, what magnetosphere mode l to use, using a square or sinusoidal loss cone, the shape of the power spectral density from the strike). Results from the WIPP Simulation After running WIPP simulation we see that the strength of the precipitating flux of Event 2 was large e nough to be seen on all three recei vers. For July 24, 2012 nothing was seen on the Warsaw receivers as the t ransmitters were down that day. Figure 3.7 displays a map of the North and Southern hemisphere of the precipitating flux of energetic electrons caused by the + 388 kA event. The lightning impulse of the event caused high power energetic waves to be injected into the magnetosphere, where the y obliquely propagate as whist ler signals Interacting with high energy electrons that cause the pitch angle of the electrons to change and deposit some of them in the l oss cone to precipitate back do w n to the ionosphere Precipitation occurs along field lines, where high energy electrons can precipitate and cause events in two hemispheres of the Earth.

PAGE 47

37 Figure 3.7: Map of the WIPP simulation caused by the 388 kA positive cloud to ground lightning discharge. Left panel shows the precipitation flux of the energetic electrons with the black diamond showing the location of the event. Right panel shows the pre cipitation of energetic electrons in the southern hemisphere. Figure 3.7 is a simulation of the WIPP code that simulates the precipitation flux caused by the +388 kA event. The less than 20 msec onset delay of the event from the time of the lightning disch arge suggest that the observation at Ithaca, NY may be an Early/Fast event not an LEP event. The area of precipitating flux in the southern hemisphere pointed us to further examining this event. We were able to obtain Narrowband data from NPM (Hawaii) to P almer, Antarctica where the path of propagation goes straight through the densest area of the precipitating flux. The NPM to Palmer path is shown in the right panel of Figure 3.7. The data was analyzed with a block averaging of 1and estimated the time of an LEP event to be at 8:14:31.8. Corresponding to this time we saw the perturbations on our Raleigh receivers to NAA and Palmer to NPM. The key evidence that we are seeing local and conjugate LEP events is that the attenuation of the VLF signal occurs fi rst on the NAU to Raleigh path and slightly later on the NPM to Palmer path. This implies that the lightning discharge

PAGE 48

38 was large enough to cause a significant amount of electrons to enter the loss cone on the first hop and immediately precipitate in the no rthern hemisphere and then the southern hemisphere few msec later. Figure 3.8 displays the VLF signature of the LEP event seen at NPM to Palmer receiver. Figure 3.8: VLF signature of the LEP event seen at Palmer on NPM. This is the same event seen at Ithaca on NAU. Our simulation shows that we should see precipitation of electrons on both hemispheres with registered signatures of LEP events. Analysis of our data proves our hypothesis correct In fact, our data points to a new discovery in the charact eristics of oceanic LEP events in that for the first time effects of a single known lightning event were seen simultaneously in both hemispheres.

PAGE 49

39 CHAPTER IV Summary and Conclusion Historically oceanic lightning has received less attention than lightning discharges over the continent This is particularly due to the lack of accurate lightning detection networks. With the development of the GLD360 the access to accurate data has been more available Lightning discharges can affect the ionosphere directly or indirectly. Direct effect of the ionosphere alters the conductivity the instant of the discharge and is classified as an Early/Fast even t On a plot of the Narrowband amplitude of a certain VLF transmitter an Early/Fast event will have a n onset delay less than 20 msec and onset duration much less than 1 sec. The i ndirect effect, also called lighting induced electron precipitation ( LEP) eve nts injects high power energetic waves into the magnetosphere where they are propagated as whistler waves interact with energetic electrons The interaction of the propagating whistler wave and energetic electrons causes the pitch angle of the electrons to change and deposit some of them in the loss cone to precipitate back down to the ionosphere. Precipitation occurs in the northern and southern hemisphere be cause the interaction of whistler waves and energetic electrons occurs LEP event s have a greater onset delay than 20 msecs with a recovery rate of the ionosphere to its ambient level from several seconds to several minutes. This thesis involved the search for LEP and Early/Fast events in VLF data at three CU Denver receiver location s on the East Coast of the United States. Although over 400 individual events were discovered in several months of data, we focused on a particularly large events observed on the VLF receiver in Ithaca, New York on the path from the

PAGE 50

40 NAU transmitter from Aguada, Puerto Rico. With access to individual lightning strike information from the GLD360 network, specifically date, time, peak current and polarity, we were able to discover high intensity oceanic lightning discharge responsible for the ionospheric perturbation. The initial discovery of the +388 kA event along the coastal area led us to believe that this was an LEP event until further in vestigation of the timing of the lightning discharge and the VLF perturbation. Simulation with the WIPP code and timing evidence pointed to the +388 kA event causing an Early/Fast event on the NAU to Ithaca path and also precipitation of electrons in both hemispheres The LEP event in the southern hemisphere was confirmed with data on the NPM to Palmer, Antarctica path. For the first time specific ionospheric perturbation in both hemispheres were identified to be caused by a single large lighting eve nt.

PAGE 51

41 REFERENCES Bortnik, Jacob. Precipitation Of Radiation Belt Electrons By Lightning Generated Magnetospherically Reflecting Whistler Waves Thesis. Stanford University, 2005. Cotts, Benjamin R.T. Global Quantification Of Lightning Induced Electron Precipitation Using Very Low Frequency Remote Sensing Thesis. Stanford University, 2011. Ionospheric effects of whistler waves from rocket triggered lightning ", Geophysical Research Letters vol. 38, no. 24, 2011. Fllekrug M., Price, C., Yair, Y., and Williams, E. R.: Letter to the Editor Intense oceanic lightning, Ann. Geophys., 20, 133 137, doi:10.5194/angeo 20 133 2002, 2002. Golkowski, Marek. Magnetospheric Wave Injection By Modulated HF Heating Of The Auroral Electr ojet Thesis. Stanford University, 2009. Principles of Plasma Physics for Engineers and Scientists Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2011. Inan, U. S. Burgess, W.C., Wolf, T.G., Shater, D.C., "Lightning Associated Precipitation of MeV Electrons from the Inner Radiation Belt." Geophysical Research Letters 15 (1988): 172 75.

PAGE 52

42 Johnson, Michael Paul. VLF Imaging of Lightning Induced Ionospheric Disturbances Thesis. Stanford University, 2000. Johnson, M. VLF Imaging of Lighting Induced Ionospheric Disturbances Thesis. Stanford University, 2000. Moore, Michael C. ELF/VLF Wave Generation By Modulated HF Heating Of The Auroral Electrojet Thesis. Stanford University, 2007. Peter, W. B., and U. S. Inan (2007) A quantitative comparison of lightning induced electron precipitation and VLF signal perturbations, J. Geophys. Res ., 112, A12212, doi :10.1029/2006JA012165. Peter, William Bolton. Quantitative Measurements Of Lightning Induced Electron Precipitation Using VLF Remote Sensing Thesis. Stanford University, 2007. Said R. K. Cohen M. B. Inan U. S. Highly intense lightning over the oceans: Estimated peak currents from global GLD360 observations Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2013 118 11 Said, R. K., U. S. Inan, and K. L. Cummins (2010), Long range lightning geolocation using a VLF radio atmospheric waveform bank, J. Geophys. Res ., 115, D23108, doi:10.1029/2010JD013863.

PAGE 53

43 Salut, M. M. M. Abdullah K. L. Graf M. B. Cohen B. R. T. Cotts and S. Kumar ( 2012 ), Long recovery VLF perturbations associated with lightning discharges J. Geophys. Res. 117 A08311, doi: 10.1029/2012JA017567 Uman, Martin A. Lighting New York: MacGraw Hill, 1969.

PAGE 54

44 APPENDIX A Site/Location Date Time UT Transmitter Positive/Nega tive Amplitude of Drop (dB) Warsaw 4/7/2012 4:30 NPM on E/W Negative 5 dB Warsaw 4/7/2012 4:33 NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 4/7/2012 4:30 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 6 dB Warsaw 4/7/2012 6:42 NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB Warsaw 4/7/2012 8:48 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 4/4/2012 2:43 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 1/22/2012 12:08 NAA on N/S Negative 10 dB Ithaca 1/23/2012 8:36 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative 2 dB Ithaca 1/23/2012 8:57:15 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .7 dB Ithaca 1/23/2012 10:49 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 2 dB Ithaca 1/23/2012 11:03 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 1/24/2012 6:58:50 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 1/25/2012 2:02 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative N/A Ithaca 1/25/2012 7:24 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 1/25/2012 9:35 DHO on N/S Negative 8 dB Ithaca 1/27/2012 9:54 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB

PAGE 55

45 Ithaca 1/29/2012 5:31 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 1/29/2012 5:52 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 1/29/2012 5:57 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .7 dB Ithaca 1/29/2012 6:08 NAA on N/S Positive .1 dB Ithaca 1/29/2012 7:08 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 1/29/2012 7:51 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 1/29/2012 9:08 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .6 dB Ithaca 1/29/2012 9:21 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1.5 dB Ithaca 2/3/2012 18:27 DHO on N/S Negative 1 dB Ithaca 2/7/2012 20:20 NAA on E/W Positive 2 dB Ithaca 2/13/2012 2:23 DHO on N/S Negative 1 dB Ithaca 2/15/2012 18:18 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB Ithaca 2/17/2012 4:53 DHO on N/S Negative 1 dB Ithaca 2/17/2012 16:39 NPM on N/S Negative 1.5 dB Ithaca 2/17/2012 19:38 NAA on N/S Negative .2 dB Ithaca 2/22/2012 6:20 NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 2/22/2012 6:13 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 2/26/2012 7:45 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Positive .6 dB Ithaca 2/26/2012 7:55 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 2/26/2012 8:42 NPM on N/S | Positive .3 dB

PAGE 56

46 NPM on E/W Ithaca 2/27/2012 7:44 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 2/29/2012 3:43 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .4 dB Ithaca 2/29/2012 5:19 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 2/29/2012 5:31 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 2/29/2012 6:39 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 2/29/2012 7:14 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 2/29/2012 10:25 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 2/29/2012 10:16 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB Ithaca 2/29/2012 11:27 NPM on E/W Negative .9 dB Ithaca 3/1/2012 1:47 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 3/1/2012 2:22 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .4 dB Ithaca 3/1/2012 2:25:45 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 3/1/2012 2:27 NAA on E/W Negative .1 dB Ithaca 3/1/2012 2:35:50 NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 3/1/2012 4:47 NAA on E/W Negative 2 dB Ithaca 3/1/2012 8:19 NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 3/1/2012 8:11 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB

PAGE 57

47 Ithaca 3/1/2012 8:33 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 3/25/2012 5:32 NPM on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 3/25/2012 9:26 NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 3/27/2012 4:18 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .1 dB Ithaca 3/27/2012 4:26:50 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1.5 dB Ithaca 3/27/2012 5:15 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Positive 2 dB Ithaca 3/27/2012 5:17 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 3/27/2012 5:23 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .4 dB Ithaca 3/27/2012 6:08 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 3/27/2012 6:19 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 3/27/2012 6:25 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 3/27/2012 6:27 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 3/27/2012 7:41 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .3 dB Ithaca 3/27/2012 8:19 NPM on E/W Negative .6 dB Ithaca 3/27/2012 9:54 NPM on E/W Negative .3 dB Ithaca 3/27/2012 9:57 NPM on E/W Negative .3 dB Ithaca 4/1/2012 6:34 NAA on E/W Negative .1 dB Ithaca 4/1/2012 7:44 NAA on E/W Negative .1 dB Ithaca 4/3/2012 6:30 NLK on N/S | Negative .2 dB

PAGE 58

48 NLK on E/W Ithaca 4/3/2012 6:52 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .1 dB Ithaca 4/3/2012 8:44 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB Ithaca 4/7/2012 5:39 NPM on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 4/7/2012 5:39 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 4/12/2012 3:13 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 4/12/2012 9:48 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Positive .1 dB Ithaca 4/12/2012 9:56 NPM on E/W Positive .1 dB Ithaca 4/13/2012 6:22 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .1 dB Ithaca 4/13/2012 6:24 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .1 dB Ithaca 4/13/2012 6:39 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB Ithaca 4/13/2012 6:57 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 4/13/2012 7:13:30 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .1 dB Ithaca 4/13/2012 7:17 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 4/13/2012 7:23 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB Ithaca 4/13/2012 7:26:50 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .3 dB Ithaca 4/13/2012 7:27:30 NPM on N/S | Negative .3 dB

PAGE 59

49 NPM on E/W Ithaca 4/13/2012 7:47 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 4/13/2012 7:49:50 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .4 dB Ithaca 4/13/2012 8:12 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 4/13/2012 8:47 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .3 dB Ithaca 4/13/2012 8:48 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 4/13/2012 9:34 NPM on E/W Negative .3 dB Ithaca 4/13/2012 9:37 NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 4/13/2012 9:45 NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 4/13/2012 10:06 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 4/14/2012 1:38 NAA N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 4/14/2012 1:43:50 NAA N/S Negative .1 dB Ithaca 4/14/2012 5:26:30 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .4 dB Ithaca 4/14/2012 6:52:45 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .4 dB Ithaca 4/14/2012 6:54 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .3 dB Ithaca 4/14/2012 6:54:30 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .1 dB Ithaca 4/14/2012 6:56 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .3 dB Ithaca 4/15/2012 6:19 NPM on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 4/15/2012 6:46 NPM on N/S Positive .5 dB

PAGE 60

50 Ithaca 4/15/2012 6:28 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 4/15/2012 6:46 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 4/15/2012 7:50 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 4/15/2012 7:56 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 4/15/2012 7:50 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 4/15/2012 8:26 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 4/15/2012 8:13 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .3 dB Ithaca 4/15/2012 8:26 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .1 dB Ithaca 4/16/2012 4:19 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .3 dB Ithaca 4/16/2012 4:23 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 4/16/2012 4:27 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 4/16/2012 4:34 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .1 dB Ithaca 4/16/2012 4:47 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 4/16/2012 4:54:20 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 4/16/2012 5:21 NPM on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 4/16/2012 5:24:30 NPM on E/W Negative .2 dB

PAGE 61

51 Ithaca 4/16/2012 5:03 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 4/16/2012 5:09:30 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .1 dB Ithaca 4/16/2012 5:15 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 4/16/2012 5:21 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 4/16/2012 5:33 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 4/16/2012 5:46 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .3 dB Ithaca 4/16/2012 6:11 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 4/16/2012 9:54 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .3 dB Ithaca 4/18/2012 2:42:50 DHO on N/S Negative 1.5 dB Ithaca 4/18/2012 6:44 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 4/18/2012 7:47 NPM on N/S | NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca NO DATA 4/22/12 5/21/12 Ithaca 5/22/2012 2:26 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB Ithaca 5/22/2012 2:57 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB Ithaca 5/22/2012 7:45 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB Ithaca 5/22/2012 8:27 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB Warsaw 1/27/2012 8:19 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 1/27/2012 8:12 NLK on N/S | Negative .4 dB

PAGE 62

52 NLK on E/W Warsaw 1/27/2012 8:19 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 1/26/2012 15:56 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 1/25/2012 3:07 NAA on E/W Negative .1 dB Warsaw 1/25/2012 3:19 NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 1/25/2012 3:31 NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 1/25/2012 6:35:30 NAA on N/S Positive .1 dB Warsaw NO DATA 1/1/12 1/13/12 Warsaw 2/3/2012 5:18 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 5:47 NLM on E/W Negative .4 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 6:03 NLM on E/W Negative .1 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 6:08 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 6:27 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 6:43 NLM on E/W Negative .1 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 6:48 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 6:55:50 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 7:38 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 8:11:45 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 8:19 NLM on E/W Positive .4 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 9:20:05 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 9:44 NLM on E/W Negative .6 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 10:03 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 10:13:45 NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 10:14:50 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 10:19 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 10:27 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 10:33:45 NLM on E/W Negative .1 dB

PAGE 63

53 Warsaw 2/3/2012 10:45:30 NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 11:03 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 11:07 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 11:30 NLM on E/W Negative .1 dB Warsaw 2/3/2012 11:44 NLM on E/W Negative .1 dB Warsaw 2/4/2012 1:24 NLK on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 2/4/2012 1:42 NLK on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 2/4/2012 2:19 NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 2/4/2012 4:56 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/4/2012 6:14:30 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/4/2012 10:11 NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/4/2012 10:10 NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/6/2012 1:46 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 2/7/2012 8:45 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/7/2012 8:53 NLM on E/W Positive .4 dB Warsaw 2/7/2012 9:05 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/8/2012 3:10 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/8/2012 3:30 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/8/2012 5:22 NAU on N/S Positive .3 dB Warsaw 2/10/2012 10:18:30 NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/10/2012 11:15:45 NLK on N/S Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/11/2012 7:40 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .4 dB Warsaw 2/11/2012 7:50 NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/11/2012 7:54 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/11/2012 1:18 NLK on N/S Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/11/2012 8:13 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB

PAGE 64

54 Warsaw 2/11/2012 8:23 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 2/11/2012 8:25 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .7 dB Warsaw 2/11/2012 8:33 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 2/11/2012 9:05 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/11/2012 9:07 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .6 dB Warsaw 2/11/2012 9:12 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .7 dB Warsaw 2/11/2012 9:21 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .7 dB Warsaw 2/11/2012 9:27 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 2/12/2012 1:43 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/12/2012 4:31 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 2/12/2012 10:36 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 2/12/2012 10:38 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .8 dB Warsaw 2/13/2012 2:06 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB Warsaw 2/14/2012 5:16 NAU on E/W Negative .4 dB Warsaw 2/15/2012 2:44:10 NAA on N/S Negative .15 dB Warsaw 2/15/2012 3:56 NLM on N/S Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/15/2012 8:46 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB Warsaw 2/16/2012 5:53 NAA on N/S Positive .1 dB

PAGE 65

55 Warsaw 2/16/2012 5:44 NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/16/2012 5:53 NLK on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/16/2012 9:57 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/17/2012 5:11 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/18/2012 1:22 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB Warsaw 2/18/2012 2:12 NAA on N/S Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/18/2012 2:13 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB Warsaw 2/18/2012 2:17 NAA on N/S Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/18/2012 2:23 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB Warsaw 2/18/2012 7:07 NAU on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 1:18 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 3:40 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 2 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 3:17 NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 3:40 NAA on N/S Negative .2 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 3:40 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 3:47 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 3:54:50 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 4:16 NLK on E/W Negative 2 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 5:09 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 5:09 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 6:23 NAA on N/S Negative .2 dB

PAGE 66

56 Warsaw 2/19/2012 6:23 NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 8:18 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 8:18 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 9:21 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 9:24 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 9:35 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 10:36 NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 11:03 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 11:24 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 11:27 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 11:32 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 11:33 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 10:36 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 2/19/2012 11:58 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/20/2012 1:18 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/20/2012 1:19 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB

PAGE 67

57 Warsaw 2/20/2012 1:33 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/20/2012 1:21 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 2/20/2012 1:23 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 2/20/2012 2:12 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/20/2012 2:19 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/20/2012 2:37 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .6 dB Warsaw 2/20/2012 2:08 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 2/20/2012 2:08 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 2/20/2012 2:03 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 2/20/2012 3:09 NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 2/20/2012 3:34 NAA on N/S Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/20/2012 3:34 NLM on N/S Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/20/2012 3:53 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 2/20/2012 3:53 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive/Nega tive .3 dB Warsaw 2/20/2012 3:58 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/21/2012 6:09 NAU on N/S Positive .4 dB Warsaw 2/22/2012 5:15 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB

PAGE 68

58 Warsaw 2/22/2012 5:21 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 2/22/2012 5:33 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 2/22/2012 5:40 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .4 dB Warsaw 2/22/2012 5:55 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 2/22/2012 6:13 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 2/22/2012 6:42 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 2/22/2012 8:18 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .1 dB Warsaw 2/22/2012 8:42 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .1 dB Warsaw 2/22/2012 9:32 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 1:17 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .4 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 1:19 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 1:23 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 1:29 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 1:37 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 1:52 NLM on N/S Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 2:11 NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB

PAGE 69

59 Warsaw 2/23/2012 2:06 NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 2:11 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 2:11 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 2:17 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 4:42 NAU on N/S Positive .4 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 4:40 NLM on N/S Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 5:12 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 5:13 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 5:14 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 5:19 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 5:29 NLM on N/S Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 6:43 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 6:53 NAU on N/S Positive .4 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 6:55 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .6 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 5:56 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 7:03 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 7:42 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive 2 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 8:04 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 8:06 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 8:15 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 8:23 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB

PAGE 70

60 Warsaw 2/23/2012 8:33 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 8:38 NAU on N/S Positive .7 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 8:54 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 9:07 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .6 dB Warsaw 2/23/2012 9:58 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB Warsaw 2/24/2012 4:49 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 2/24/2012 4:45 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/24/2012 4:49 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/24/2012 6:38 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .4 dB Warsaw 2/24/2012 7:29 NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 2/24/2012 7:29 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 2/24/2012 7:32 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .8 dB Warsaw 2/24/2012 7:29 NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 2/24/2012 7:57 NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 2/24/2012 8:05 NPM on E/W Negative 3 dB Warsaw 2/24/2012 8:04:50 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 2/24/2012 8:14 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/24/2012 8:14 NAA on N/S | Negative .5 dB

PAGE 71

61 NAA on E/W Warsaw 2/25/2012 1:14 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 2/25/2012 1:19 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/25/2012 1:23 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/25/2012 2:23 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/25/2012 2:36 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/25/2012 2:38 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .7 dB Warsaw 2/25/2012 3:53 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 2/25/2012 3:09 NLM on N/S Negative .7 dB Warsaw 2/25/2012 3:18 NAA on N/S Negative .2 dB Warsaw 2/25/2012 4:08 NAU on N/S Positive .8 dB Warsaw 2/25/2012 4:59 NAU on N/S Positive 1 dB Warsaw 2/25/2012 4:32 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 2/25/2012 5:05 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Warsaw 2/25/2012 5:06 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB Warsaw 2/25/2012 5:08 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 2/25/2012 5:28 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 3 dB Warsaw 2/25/2012 5:31 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 2 dB Warsaw 2/25/2012 6:07 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive 1 dB

PAGE 72

62 Warsaw 2/25/2012 9:11 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .8 dB Warsaw 2/28/2012 1:32 NAU on N/S Negative .8 dB Warsaw 2/28/2012 3:32 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 1:34 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 1:48 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 2 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 1:34 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 1:48 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 2 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 2:14 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .1 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 2:14 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 2:27 NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 2:58 NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 2:26 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 3:29 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 3:44 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 3:47 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 4:39 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 4:59 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .8 dB

PAGE 73

63 Warsaw 3/1/2012 4:32 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 4:41 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 4:49 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 5:19:50 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .1 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 5:49 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .4 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 5:13:50 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 5:19 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 6:43 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 6:36 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 7:22 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 7:22 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 7:23 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 8:58 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 8:18 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/1/2012 8:56 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:43 NLK on N/S | Positive 2 dB

PAGE 74

64 NLK on E/W Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:48 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 2 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:20 NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:37 NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:04 NLM on E/W Positive .7 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:12 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .7 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:17 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:33 NLM on E/W Positive .4 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:36 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:42 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 1:48 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 2:11 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 2:33 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 2:57 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .8 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 2:57 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .8 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 3:04 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 3:10 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 3:19:50 NLK on N/S | Positive 2 dB

PAGE 75

65 NLK on E/W Warsaw 3/3/2012 3:01 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 3:04 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 3:10 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 3:19 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 5:14 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 5:19 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 5:23 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 5:49:50 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .6 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 5:53 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 5:50 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1.5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 5:12 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 6:49 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 6:51 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 7:04 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 7:20 NLM on N/S | Positive .5 dB

PAGE 76

66 NLM on E/W Warsaw 3/3/2012 7:54 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 8:14 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:09 NAA on N/S Negative .2 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:17 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 2:23 NAA on N/S Positive .5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:32 NAA on N/S Negative .2 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:37 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:06 NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:07 NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:25 NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:39 NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 9:49 NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 10:44 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1.5 dB Warsaw 3/3/2012 10:44 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/4/2012 7:29 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 3/4/2012 7:26 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 3/4/2012 7:26 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .4 dB Warsaw 3/4/2012 7:49 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .8 dB Warsaw 3/4/2012 7:49 NLM on N/S | Positive .5 dB

PAGE 77

67 NLM on E/W Warsaw 3/4/2012 8:05 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 3/4/2012 8:06 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 3/4/2012 8:09 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 3/4/2012 8:23 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1.5 dB Warsaw 3/4/2012 8:38 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1.7 dB Warsaw 3/4/2012 9:15 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .8 dB Warsaw 3/4/2012 4:42 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 3/6/2012 3:42 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 3/6/2012 6:15:45 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 3/8/2012 4:12:30 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 3/9/2012 9:01:45 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB Warsaw 3/9/2012 9:02:50 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/9/2012 10:27 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .6 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 3:19 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 5:51 NLM on N/S | Negative 1 dB

PAGE 78

68 NLM on E/W Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:42 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:44 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:50:10 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:58 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:42 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:44 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:50:10 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:58 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:07 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .8 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:37 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:38 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:07 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:20 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:42 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:44 NAA on N/S | Negative .5 dB

PAGE 79

69 NAA on E/W Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:50:10 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 6:58 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 7:01:30 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 7:01:45 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 2 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 7:01:30 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 7:01:45 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 8:07 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 8:13 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 8:14 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1.2 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 8:13 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .4 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 8:14 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 9:25 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 9:33 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 3/10/2012 9:37 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB Ithaca 7/17/2012 1:41 NAA on N/S | Negative .2 dB

PAGE 80

70 NAA on E/W Ithaca 7/17/2012 1:44 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 7/17/2012 1:54 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 7/17/2012 1:54:30 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 7/17/2012 2:01 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .8 dB Ithaca 7/17/2012 2:04 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 7/17/2012 2:04:50 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 7/17/2012 2:14 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative 2 dB Ithaca 7/17/2012 2:19 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB Ithaca 7/17/2012 3:17 NAA on N/S Negative .3 dB Ithaca 7/18/2012 4:27 NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 7/18/2012 4:34 NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 7/18/2012 4:38 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 7/18/2012 4:54 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 7/18/2012 4:59 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 7/18/2012 5:03 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 7/18/2012 5:05:30 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB

PAGE 81

71 Ithaca 7/18/2012 5:15:30 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 7/18/2012 6:24:50 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB Ithaca 7/18/2012 9:22 NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 7/19/2012 6:24 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 7/19/2012 7:34 NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB Ithaca 7/20/2012 14:06 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB Ithaca 7/20/2012 14:18 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB Ithaca 7/21/2012 6:17 NPM on E/W Negative .4 dB Ithaca 7/21/2012 6:34 NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 7/21/2012 6:44:45 NPM on E/W Negative .3 dB Ithaca 7/21/2012 7:26 NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 7/22/2012 3:58 NAU on N/S Positive 1 dB Ithaca 7/22/2012 5:23 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB Ithaca 7/22/2012 5:53 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB Ithaca 7/22/2012 8:23 NPM on E/W Negative 1.8 dB Ithaca 7/22/2012 8:28 NPM on E/W Negative .8 dB Ithaca 7/22/2012 8:38 NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 7/22/2012 8:46 NPM on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 7/22/2012 8:47 NPM on E/W Negative .8 dB Ithaca 7/22/2012 8:55:10 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .1 dB Ithaca 7/23/2012 6:59 NPM on E/W Negative 1.2 dB Ithaca 7/24/2012 2:51:50 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 7/24/2012 5:41 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .8 dB Ithaca 7/24/2012 6:17 NAU on N/S Negative .4 dB

PAGE 82

72 Ithaca 7/24/2012 6:21 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .7 dB Ithaca 7/24/2012 6:41 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 7/24/2012 6:44 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 7/24/2012 6:53 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive 1.5 dB Ithaca 7/24/2012 7:24 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 7/24/2012 7:24:50 NAU on N/S Positive .3 dB Ithaca 7/24/2012 7:26 NAU on N/S Positive .4 dB Ithaca 7/24/2012 7:32 NAU on N/S Positive .3 dB Ithaca 7/24/2012 7:33 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB Ithaca 7/24/2012 7:43 NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 7/24/2012 8:03 NAU on N/S Negative 1.5 dB Ithaca 7/24/2012 8:14 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 2 dB Ithaca 7/25/2012 1:39 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 7/25/2012 1:48 NAU on N/S Positive .7 dB Ithaca 7/25/2012 8:11 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 3 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 3:49 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 2 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 4:06 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 4:46 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 5:43 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 5:58 NLM on N/S | Positive 1 dB

PAGE 83

73 NLM on E/W Ithaca 7/26/2012 6:09 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 6:48 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 7:02 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 3 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 7:10 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 3 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 7:15 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 5 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 7:47 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 7:44 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 7:59 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 8:07 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 3 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 8:11 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 2 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 8:18 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 3 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 8:25 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 2 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 8:27 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 4 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 8:36 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 2.5 dB Ithaca 7/26/2012 8:43 NLM on N/S | Positive 3 dB

PAGE 84

74 NLM on E/W Ithaca 7/26/2012 8:59 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 2 dB Ithaca 7/27/2012 1:17 NAA on N/S Negative 1 dB Ithaca 7/27/2012 5:27 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 7/27/2012 5:37 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 7/27/2012 5:46 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .8 dB Ithaca 7/27/2012 7:00:30 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 7/27/2012 7:09 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB Ithaca 7/27/2012 7:12 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB Ithaca 7/27/2012 9:34:30 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .3 dB Ithaca 7/27/2012 9:36 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 7/27/2012 9:43:30 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .4 dB Ithaca 7/27/2012 9:50:30 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 3:01 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 3:39 NAU on N/S Negative .4 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 3:57 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 3:59 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 4:19 NAU on N/S Positive .3 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 4:28 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB

PAGE 85

75 Ithaca 7/28/2012 6:37 NPM on E/W Positive .1 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 6:41 NPM on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 6:54 NPM on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 6:33 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 6:45 NAU on N/S Negative .4 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 6:46 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 6:47 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 6:34:50 NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:04:30 NPM on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:22 NPM on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:04 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:18 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 3 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:19 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 2.5 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:21 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .8 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:39 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:41 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .8 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 7:43 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .8 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 8:26 NAU on N/S Negative .5 dB Ithaca 7/28/2012 8:27 NAU on N/S Negative .7 dB Ithaca 7/29/2012 7:09 NAU on N/S Positive .3 dB Ithaca 7/29/2012 7:18 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 7/30/2012 1:36 NAU on N/S Positive .7 dB Ithaca 7/31/2012 5:53 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB

PAGE 86

76 Ithaca 8/1/2012 3:07 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .8 dB Ithaca 8/1/2012 3:50 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/1/2012 3:56 NAU on N/S Positive .3 dB Ithaca 8/1/2012 4:05 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB Ithaca 8/1/2012 4:20 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB Ithaca 8/1/2012 5:12 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/1/2012 5:25 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB Ithaca 8/1/2012 5:27 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB Ithaca 8/1/2012 5:28 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB Ithaca 8/2/2012 1:22 NAU on N/S Positive 1 dB Ithaca 8/2/2012 5:37 NAU on N/S Positive 1 dB Ithaca 8/2/2012 7:05 NAU on N/S Positive 2 dB Ithaca 8/2/2012 7:14 NAU on N/S Positive 2 dB Ithaca 8/2/2012 7:18 NAU on N/S Positive 3 dB Ithaca 8/3/2012 6:36 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 8/4/2012 3:36 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 3 dB Ithaca 8/4/2012 3:53 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 2 dB Ithaca 8/4/2012 4:33 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 2 dB Ithaca 8/4/2012 4:44 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 2 dB Ithaca 8/4/2012 5:41 NLM on N/S | Negative 5 dB

PAGE 87

77 NLM on E/W Ithaca 8/4/2012 7:16 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB Ithaca 8/4/2012 10:02 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB Ithaca 8/4/2012 10:09 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/6/2012 1:38 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 8/6/2012 1:39 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 8/6/2012 1:41 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB Ithaca 8/6/2012 6:10 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 8/6/2012 6:18 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1.2 dB Ithaca 8/7/2012 8:07 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/7/2012 8:12 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB Ithaca 8/7/2012 8:44 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB Ithaca 8/7/2012 8:47 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 10 Aug 5:53 NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/12/2012 1:22 NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 8/12/2012 1:26 NAA on E/W Positive .1 dB Ithaca 8/13/2012 4:28 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 8/14/2012 7:59 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB Ithaca 8/14/2012 8:01 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB Ithaca 8/14/2012 8:02 NAU on N/S Negative .2 dB

PAGE 88

78 Ithaca 8/15/2012 2:53 NAA on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 2:11 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive 1.5 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 3:39 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 3:47 NAU on N/S Positive .4 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 3:21 NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 3:48 NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 4:05 NAU on N/S Positive .7 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 4:17 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 4:19 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 4:21 NAU on N/S Positive .4 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 6:44:45 NAA on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 6:45:45 NAA on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 6:47:15 NAA on N/S Positive .7 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 6:49:15 NAA on N/S Positive .4 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 7:36 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 7:54 NAU on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 7:57 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 8:38 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 8:18 NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 8:19 NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 8/16/2012 8:24 NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 8/17/2012 2:27 NAU on N/S Positive .4 dB Ithaca 8/17/2012 2:12 NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB Ithaca 8/17/2012 2:13 NLM on E/W Negative .3 dB Ithaca 8/17/2012 5:32 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB Ithaca 8/17/2012 5:49 NAU on N/S Negative .5 dB

PAGE 89

79 Ithaca 8/17/2012 5:57 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB Ithaca 8/17/2012 8:21 NPM on E/W Negative 4 dB Ithaca 8/18/2012 5:04 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/18/2012 5:50 NAU on N/S Positive .8 dB Ithaca 8/18/2012 5:56 NAU on N/S Positive .7 dB Ithaca 8/18/2012 6:03 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/19/2012 5:45 NAU on N/S Positive .8 dB Ithaca 8/19/2012 5:47 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .7 dB Ithaca 8/19/2012 6:04 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB Ithaca 8/19/2012 6:22 NAU on N/S Positive .1 dB Ithaca 8/19/2012 7:44 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/19/2012 7:58 NAU on N/S Positive .8 dB Ithaca 8/19/2012 8:02 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB Ithaca 8/19/2012 8:06 NLM on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/19/2012 8:09 NLM on N/S Positive .2 dB Ithaca 8/19/2012 8:17 NLM on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/19/2012 8:29 NLM on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/20/2012 3:29 NAU on N/S Negative .5 dB Ithaca 8/20/2012 5:19 NAU on N/S Negative .5 dB Ithaca 8/20/2012 5:56 NAU on N/S Negative .5 dB Ithaca 8/20/2012 6:18 NAU on N/S Negative 1 dB Ithaca 8/20/2012 7:24 NAU on N/S Negative .3 dB Ithaca 8/20/2012 9:29 NPM on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 8/20/2012 9:47 NPM on E/W Negative 1.5 dB Ithaca 8/20/2012 13:03:30 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/21/2012 8:37:50 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB

PAGE 90

80 Ithaca 8/21/2012 8:38:30 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1.5 dB Ithaca 8/22/2012 15:28 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB Ithaca 8/23/2012 5:52 NAU on N/S Positive .3 dB Ithaca 8/23/2012 9:07 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 2 dB Ithaca 8/24/2012 9:33 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .7 dB Ithaca 8/24/2012 9:37 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/24/2012 9:49 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/25/2012 5:18 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 8/25/2012 5:27 NLM on N/S Positive .3 dB Ithaca 8/25/2012 5:32 NLM on N/S Positive .1 dB Ithaca 8/25/2012 5:32 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive .2 dB Ithaca 8/25/2012 9:17 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 2 dB Ithaca 8/26/2012 3:05 NAU on N/S Negative 1.5 dB Ithaca 8/26/2012 3:09 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB Ithaca 8/26/2012 3:36 NAU on N/S Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/26/2012 4:03 NAU on N/S Positive .3 dB Ithaca 8/26/2012 4:18 NAU on N/S Positive .2 dB Ithaca 8/26/2012 4:39 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB Ithaca 8/26/2012 6:12 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB

PAGE 91

81 Ithaca 8/26/2012 6:18 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB Ithaca 8/26/2012 6:19 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .3 dB Ithaca 8/26/2012 6:22 NAU on N/S Positive .7 dB Ithaca 8/26/2012 6:44 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 8/26/2012 6:48 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 8/26/2012 7:03 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 2 dB Ithaca 8/26/2012 7:10 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1.5 dB Ithaca 8/26/2012 7:51 NAU on N/S Positive .4 dB Ithaca 8/27/2012 8:32 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB Ithaca 8/27/2012 8:37 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/27/2012 8:56 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 8/27/2012 8:23 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB Ithaca 8/27/2012 15:11 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 8/27/2012 15:32 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .2 dB Ithaca 8/27/2012 16:08:30 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .1 dB Ithaca 8/27/2012 16:08:45 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .1 dB

PAGE 92

82 Ithaca 8/27/2012 16:13:50 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .1 dB Ithaca 8/27/2012 20:15 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Ithaca 4/4/2012 2:43 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1.2 dB Warsaw 4/6/2012 3:01 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 4/6/2012 3:35 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 4/6/2012 5:07 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 4/6/2012 5:17 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB Warsaw 4/6/2012 5:28 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 4/6/2012 8:39 NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 4/6/2012 8:48 NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 4/6/2012 9:03 NAU on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 4/6/2012 9:09 NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 4/6/2012 9:49 NAU on E/W Positive .4 dB Warsaw 4/7/2012 4:34 NAU on E/W Negative .6 dB Warsaw 4/7/2012 6:04 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .4 dB Warsaw 4/7/2012 6:09 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 4/7/2012 6:27 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 4/7/2012 6:34 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .3 dB

PAGE 93

83 Warsaw 4/7/2012 6:43 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB Warsaw 4/7/2012 6:47 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 4/7/2012 7:27 NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 4/7/2012 7:28 NAU on E/W Positive .4 dB Warsaw 4/7/2012 7:37 NAU on E/W Positive .4 dB Warsaw 4/10/2012 2:29 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .8 dB Warsaw 4/10/2012 2:44 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .6 dB Warsaw 4/10/2012 2:39 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 4/11/2012 2:20 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 4/11/2012 3:13 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 4/12/2012 7:07 NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 4/12/2012 7:15 NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 4/12/2012 7:41 NLM on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 4/12/2012 8:11 NAU on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 4/12/2012 8:39 NAU on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 4/12/2012 8:41 NAU on E/W Negative .1 dB Warsaw 4/14/2012 10:18:50 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 10 dB Warsaw 4/15/2012 3:44 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 5 dB Warsaw 4/15/2012 4:28 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 4/15/2012 4:41 NLM on N/S | Positive .5 dB

PAGE 94

84 NLM on E/W Warsaw 4/15/2012 6:26 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 4/15/2012 6:09 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 4/15/2012 6:19 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .7 dB Warsaw 4/15/2012 6:28 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 4/15/2012 9:55 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 4/18/2012 7:28 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 4/18/2012 8:22 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 4/18/2012 8:28 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Negative .4 dB Warsaw 4/22/2012 6:43 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 4/26/2012 8:45 NLK on N/S Negative 5 dB Warsaw 4/26/2012 8:45 NLM on N/S Negative 1 dB Warsaw 4/26/2012 9:16 NPM on N/S Positive 3 dB Warsaw 4/27/2012 2:42 NAA on N/S Positive .2 dB Warsaw 4/27/2012 2:43 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .6 dB Warsaw 4/27/2012 3:01 NAA on N/S Positive .3 dB Warsaw 4/27/2012 3:07 NAA on N/S Positive .2 dB Warsaw 4/27/2012 3:24 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB Warsaw 4/27/2012 3:37 NAA on N/S Negative .2 dB Warsaw 4/27/2012 4:36 NAA on N/S Positive .1 dB

PAGE 95

85 Warsaw 4/27/2012 4:39 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB Warsaw 4/27/2012 4:47 NAA on N/S Negative .1 dB Warsaw 4/27/2012 7:02 NAU on E/W Negative .1 dB Warsaw 4/27/2012 7:03 NAU on E/W Negative .1 dB Warsaw 4/27/2012 7:06 NAU on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 4/29/2012 3:27 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 4/29/2012 3:27 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .1 dB Warsaw 4/29/2012 3:39 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .4 dB Warsaw 4/29/2012 3:58 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .7 dB Warsaw 4/29/2012 5:45 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .4 dB Warsaw 4/29/2012 6:33 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 4/29/2012 7:36 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 2 dB Warsaw 4/29/2012 7:38 NLK on N/S | NLK on E/W Positive 1.5 dB Warsaw 4/29/2012 7:36 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 4/29/2012 7:38 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 4/29/2012 7:38 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 5/1/2012 6:17 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 5/1/2012 6:25 NLM on N/S | Negative 1 dB

PAGE 96

86 NLM on E/W Warsaw 5/1/2012 9:30 NPM on N/S Negative 3 dB Warsaw 5/2/2012 3:51 NLM on N/S Positive 1 dB Warsaw 5/2/2012 3:53 NLM on N/S Negative 1 dB Warsaw 5/2/2012 4:09 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 4 dB Warsaw 5/2/2012 4:19 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 2 dB Warsaw 5/2/2012 4:26 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 5/2/2012 4:28 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 2 dB Warsaw 5/2/2012 8:53 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 5/2/2012 8:08 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .7 dB Warsaw 5/2/2012 8:28 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .6 dB Warsaw 5/3/2012 6:52 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 5/3/2012 7:16 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 5/5/2012 1:54:50 NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 5/5/2012 5:14 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 5/5/2012 5:16 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 5/6/2012 1:14 NAA on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 5/6/2012 7:37 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB

PAGE 97

87 Warsaw 5/6/2012 7:08 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 5/10/2012 6:17 NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 5/10/2012 6:46 NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB Warsaw 5/10/2012 7:06 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB Warsaw 5/10/2012 7:09 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 5/10/2012 7:31 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 5/10/2012 7:34 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB Warsaw 5/10/2012 8:31 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .8 dB Warsaw 5/10/2012 8:38 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 5/13/2012 5:36 NAU on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 5/13/2012 5:38 NAU on E/W Negative .7 dB Warsaw 5/13/2012 5:53 NAU on E/W Negative .4 dB Warsaw 5/13/2012 6:08 NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 5/13/2012 6:14 NAU on E/W Negative .4 dB Warsaw 5/13/2012 6:29 NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 5/13/2012 7:06 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 1 dB Warsaw 5/13/2012 8:21 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .4 dB Warsaw 5/13/2012 8:44 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .4 dB Warsaw 5/13/2012 8:46 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB

PAGE 98

88 Warsaw 5/14/2012 3:14 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .2 dB Warsaw 5/15/2012 7:04 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .4 dB Warsaw 5/15/2012 7:38 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .7 dB Warsaw 5/17/2012 4:05 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 5/17/2012 4:18 NAA on N/S Positive .5 dB Warsaw 5/17/2012 7:57 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .7 dB Warsaw 5/19/2012 3:04 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 5/19/2012 3:37 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 5/19/2012 4:33 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 5/20/2012 6:32 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1 dB Warsaw 5/20/2012 6:43 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1.5 dB Warsaw 5/21/2012 2:57 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 5/21/2012 3:04 NAU on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 5/21/2012 3:27 NLM on N/S Negative .4 dB Warsaw 5/21/2012 4:07 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .3 dB Warsaw 5/21/2012 4:27 NAU on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 5/21/2012 4:38 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB

PAGE 99

89 Warsaw 5/21/2012 5:42 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 5/21/2012 5:56 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive 1.5 dB Warsaw 5/21/2012 7:26 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 5/22/2012 6:07 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .5 dB Warsaw 5/22/2012 6:13 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 5/22/2012 6:16 NAU on E/W Positive .4 dB Warsaw 5/22/2012 6:08 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .3 dB Warsaw 5/22/2012 6:27 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative 2 dB Warsaw 5/24/2012 3:42 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 5/24/2012 5:08 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Negative 2 dB Warsaw 5/25/2012 1:32 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .4 dB Warsaw 5/26/2012 5:28:10 NAA on N/S | NAA on E/W Negative .4 dB Warsaw 5/27/2012 1:48 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .5 dB Warsaw 5/27/2012 4:11 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .2 dB Warsaw 5/27/2012 4:23 NLM on N/S | NLM on E/W Positive .1 dB Warsaw 5/27/2012 4:31 NLM on N/S | Negative .2 dB

PAGE 100

90 NLM on E/W Warsaw 5/27/2012 17:12 NAU on N/S | NAU on E/W Negative .3 dB