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Exploring intersectoral convergence of sustainable energy and disaster management for residential buildings in the U.S.

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Exploring intersectoral convergence of sustainable energy and disaster management for residential buildings in the U.S.
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Martel, J. C. ( author )
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Denver, CO
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Renewable energy sources ( lcsh )
Sustainable buildings ( lcsh )
Emergency management ( lcsh )
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Housing in the U.S. is a major focal point for both sustainability and disaster management. This study assesses intersectoral convergence of sustainable energy and disaster management affecting residential buildings in the U.S. using an interpretive content analysis and thematic text analysis of written materials. Twenty-four word combinations were searched for in 62 written materials to identify occurrences of convergence and to uncover how the terms are used in the separate policy fields. The disaster management and sustainable energy domains have some complementary public policies, actors, interest groups, regulatory systems, goals and desired outcomes; however, these two field have not adequately converged, missing opportunities for greater positive impact on society. Convergence is found is isolated examples. Namely, convergence is found in federal interagency collaboration, policies that are general enough to span both domains, and policies that address long-range actions rather than emergency response. One voluntary program, FORTIFIED Homes, was identified. The Center for Housing Policy is noted as a key interest group guiding the convergence of disaster and sustainable energy policy.
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Thesis (M.S.)--University of Colorado Denver. Public administration
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Includes bibliographic references.
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School of Public Affairs
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by J. C. Martel.

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Full Text
EXPLORING INTERSECTORAL CONVERGENCE OF SUSTAINABLE ENERGY
AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN THE U S.
by
J.C. MARTEL
B.S., Worcester State University, 2004
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillments
of the requirements for the degree of
Master in Public Administration
School of Public Affairs
2013


This thesis for the Master in Public Administration degree by
J.C. Martel
has been approved for the
School of Public Affairs
by
Brian Gerber, Chair
Deborah Thomas
Tanya Heikkila
July 31, 2013


Martel, J.C. (MPA, School of Public Affairs)
Exploring Intersectoral Convergence of Sustainable Energy and Disaster Management for
Residential Buildings in the U.S.
Thesis directed by Associate Professor Brian Gerber
ABSTRACT
Housing in the U.S. is a major focal point for both sustainability and disaster
management. This study assesses intersectoral convergence of sustainable energy and
disaster management affecting residential buildings in the U.S. using an interpretive
content analysis and thematic text analysis of written materials. Twenty-four word
combinations were searched for in 62 written materials to identify occurrences of
convergence and to uncover how the terms are used in the separate policy fields. The
disaster management and sustainable energy domains have some complementary public
policies, actors, interest groups, regulatory systems, goals and desired outcomes;
however, these two fields have not adequately converged, missing opportunities for
greater positive impact on society. Convergence is found in isolated examples. Namely,
convergence is found in federal interagency collaboration, policies that are general
enough to span both domains, and policies that address long-range actions rather than
emergency response. One voluntary program, FORTIFIED Homes, was identified. The
Center for Housing Policy is noted as a key interest group guiding the convergence of
disaster and sustainable energy policy.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend it publication.
Approved: Brian Gerber
m


CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION...................................................1
Common Benefits and Challenges..................................1
Public Policy...................................................3
Programs........................................................3
II. LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................5
Policy Convergence..............................................5
Sustainability and Disaster Management..........................7
III. RESEARCH PROCESS............................................11
Purpose of the Study...........................................11
Scope of the Study.............................................11
Research Design................................................12
IV. RESULTS......................................................19
Document Coding Results........................................19
Case Studies...................................................21
V. LIMITATIONS..................................................24
VI. FUTURE RESEARCH..............................................25
VII. CONCLUSION..................................................26
VIII. REFERENCES.................................................28
IX. APPENDIX...................................................37
A. Chi Test Results..............................................37
IV


LIST OF TABLES
Table
1. Energy Efficiency Solutions for Various Disaster Scenarios...................2
2. Research Design.............................................................13
3. Case Selection..............................................................16
4. Word Choices................................................................18
5. Text Search Results by Word Combination.....................................19
v


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
1. Phases of Disaster Management that integrate Sustainability.....................9
2. Research Design.................................................................14
3. Text Search Results: Nodes Compared by Number of Items Coded....................20
4. Text Search Results: Sources Compared to Number of Coding References............20
vi


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Housing in the U.S. is a major focal point for both sustainability and disaster
management. It was estimated that the 2005 Hurricane Katrina cost approximately $67
billion in housing alone, devastating 300,000 homes (Townsend, 2006, 7). The residential
building sector is responsible for at least 10 percent of the greenhouse gas emissions in
the U.S., mostly from electricity use and direct emissions from combustion fuels (EPA,
2013, Energy 3-1; EPA, 2013, Executive Summary). Therefore, decreasing emissions
from the residential sector at every opportunity is critical to mitigate anthropogenic
climate change. Since many homes need to be upgraded before or rebuilt after a disaster,
disasters can be seen as an opportunity to also upgrade the efficiency of the building to
reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, climate change interventions can be viewed
as a disaster mitigation strategy, since reducing greenhouse gas emissions will in turn,
reduce natural disasters caused by climate change.
Common Benefits and Challenges
Sustainable energy and disaster management share some common benefits and
challenges. In 2010, the Travelers Institute convened a meeting in Washington D.C to
discuss the topic, Opportunities for Integrating Disaster Mitigation and Energy Retrofit
Programs (Travelers Institute, 2010). Numerous common benefits and challenges were
identified in the meeting proceedings. Notably, a common need exists to revise the
national appraisal standards to appropriately value green and disaster resilient features of
a property. Indeed, some construction features, such as energy efficient and wind
resistant windows are hard to value by the naked eye of the appraiser so the appraisal


standards would need to account for this value. In addition, homeowners and builders
nationwide are making home improvements either for sustainability, disaster-resistance,
or both. In many instances, these upgrades involve the same workforce, government
agencies, and loan programs, yet in most instances sustainability and disaster upgrades
are not packaged together. Further, disaster-resistant and energy efficient homes have
common benefits, including great construction durability and performance (Table 1).
Streamlining program development and implementation could yield significant time and
cost savings to government administrators, businesses and households. The common end
goal is sustainable, durable buildings that protect human health, safety, and welfare.
Table 1. Energy Efficiency Solutions for Various Disaster Scenarios
Disaster Building system Issue Energy efficiency solution
Snow Roof Ice dams are formed by snow melting and re- forming Insulation stops ice dams from forming
Wildfires and windstorms Window Fire and windstorms can cause breakage Multi-pane windows reduce risk of breakage
Wildfires and windstorms Wall Fire and windstorms can cause falling or flying debris Structurally insulated walls are more resistant to falling or flying debris
Extreme cold Domestic hot water Pipes can freeze Insulated walls reduce risk of freezing pipes
Extreme cold Building envelope Causes occupant discomfort Insulation and air sealing keeps people warmer
Extreme heat Space cooling Causes urban heat island & smog Causes increased air conditioning use / utilities reach peak demand
Extreme heat Materials Causes urban heat island & smog Lighten roof & pavement colors reduces heat island and is more fire resistant
Extreme heat Passive cooling Causes urban heat island & smog; Tree density can reduce flooding Trees provide passive cooling
Fire Lighting Lights are difficult to see during fire LED lights are efficient and visible through smoke
(Adapted from Mills, 2003).
2


Public Policy
Over the past few years, numerous actions have been taken to intentionally
converge sustainable energy and disaster management policy. Florida Senator George
LeMieux proposed a bill to evolve the long-standing Weatherization Assistance Program
to allow for storm-resistant upgrades to qualify under the sustainable energy program.
Senator LeMieux proposed this bill in the 2009-2010 congressional session but the bill
died in committee (Senate Bill 2818 (2009) to amend WAP to include disaster-resistant
retrofits). Republican Representative Mario Diaz-Balart from Florida proposed the Safe
Building Code Incentive Act of 2011 during the 2009-2010 congressional session and
then re-introduced the bill in the 2011-2012 session (House Bill 2069 (2011) to amend
the Stafford Act to link additional funding to building code updates). This bill would
have amended the Stafford Act to provide an additional four percent of post-disaster
funding to states that adopt 2009 or 2012 building codes before a disaster hits. Those
codes have requirements for both disaster resilience and sustainable energy.
Programs
According to the Center for Housing Policys Issue Brief, Linking Efforts to
Improve Disaster Resistance and Energy Efficiency of Homes, as of 2009 there were no
programs in the U.S. that provided financial assistance for both disaster management and
sustainable energy. However, one was under development. The FORTIFIED Homes
program was developed in 2010 by the Insurance Institute for Business and Home Safety
to retrofit homes for both disaster resilience for winds, hail and hurricanes and to improve
energy efficiency. Fred Malik, program manager of the FORTIFIED Homes program,
says that Many homeowners are spending money to make their home greener and
3


often more energy efficient. The FORTIFIED Homes program maximizes these
investments by reducing disaster-related damage, keeping debris from damaged houses
out of landfills, and enabling homeowners to return home more quickly following a
disaster (IBHS, 2013a). There are some challenges to this type of program. The costs for
climate change mitigation and disaster management are immense. Adding an incremental
cost to an already costly endeavor can be daunting. IBHS reports that the average cost to
retrofit an existing home to their program standards costs $800-3000 per house (IBHS,
2012). As of 2013, incentives to participate in the FORTIFIED Home program were
available in Alabama, South Carolina, North Carolina and Mississippi (IBHS, 2013b).
In the program design and evaluation phases, one challenge is the way energy
programs are structured. Many energy programs are funded by utilities and evaluated
based on energy savings. The evaluation depends on the amount of energy saved
compared to the cost of the program. The savings to investment ratio would be much
lower if disaster resilient retrofits were included in the program. Since disaster resilient
features do not save money on building operations, it would be difficult to expand this
program model to include disaster resilient retrofits. A new evaluation model would have
to be used if this program model is to be widely adopted by regulated agencies (i.e.
utilities) that are subject to traditional energy program evaluations.
4


CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
The literature review is divided into two parts: policy convergence and the
interaction between sustainability and disaster management.
Policy Convergence
Policy convergence is a subfield of comparative policy studies (Bennett, 1991,
217). Convergence is the development of policy similarity over time (Bennett, 1991;
Unger and Van Waarden, 1995; Heichel et.al, 2005). Many theorists stress the
complexity of modern industrial society as a cause of policy convergence (Bennett,
1991). As more knowledge is constructed over time, there are opportunities to explore a
given field in the context of other disciplines. Most convergence literature examines
transnational occurrences between two or more countries, but there is also a subfield of
intersectoral convergence literature that examines two or more domains within a country.
Some scholars have pointed out that research methods to assess policy
convergence are widely varied, and that the research comes from various disciplines and
schools of thought (Bennett, 1991; Heichel et.al, 2005, Knill, 2005). Due to the variation
in approaches to policy convergence studies, Bennett (1991) defined categories for policy
convergence literature: goals; content; instruments; outcomes, impacts or consequences;
and style (218). For the purpose of this research, the following definitions are used:
Goals: desired outcomes for policy problems
Content: written language in policy documents
Instruments: tools available to administer the policy; in this case, programs
Outcomes, impacts or consequences: the results of implementation
5


Style: under what conditions the policy was formulated (consensual or conflicted,
anticipatory or reactive, etc.)
Bennett (1991) developed a framework to categorize fours ways in which
convergence occurs: emulation, where state officials copy action taken elsewhere; elite
networking, where convergence results from transnational policy communities;
harmonization through international regimes; and penetration by external actors and
interests (215). The penetration by external actors and interests is the root of this
research, as it is an exploration of sustainable energy actors and interests integrating into
disaster management.
Heichel et. al. (2005) built upon Bennetts research by categorizing literature by
goals, content, instruments, outcomes and style and then creating additional factors to
compare policy convergence literature. The factors for comparability are policy area or
field, geographic region, observation period (time span), and explanatory factors (2005,
818-819). Heichel et. al agreed with Bennett that most policy convergence studies do not
distinguish between which categories are assessed, a key limitation to comparing the
outcomes of the studies (829). In addition, the use of different research methods make
comparability difficult (Heichel et. al, 2005, 817). This paper defines which policy
category is being assessed for convergence.
Heichel et. al (2005) explains that explanations for limited convergence or
divergence are often rooted in national (institutional) factors (825). Moreover, Heichel
et. al (2005) explain that the level of convergence is often explained by the economic
pressure exerted by regulatory competition. The intensity of this pressure is assumed to
vary between policy fields. Besides, the strength of the political forces defending existing
6


levels of national regulation and social protection should also differ across policy fields
(826). Divergence of policy content can be a result of regulatory competition, cultural
perspectives on disasters versus environmental protection, and the intensity of pressure
associated with disasters versus climate change mitigation.
Sustainability and Disaster Management
In the U.S., the 1970s and 80s were significant decades for disaster and
sustainable energy policy. The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 was passed to streamline
disaster management and give the President authority to respond more quickly to
disasters. The Disaster Relief Act was amended to become the Robert T. Stafford
Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Stafford Act) in 1988. The Stafford Act,
in accordance with subsequent amendments, has authorized disaster relief programs such
as the Housing Voucher Choice Program and Disaster Housing Assistance Program.
Simultaneously, the 1973 oil embargo prompted policymakers to respond to high oil
prices and shortages by starting environmental programs to reduce energy usage.
Namely, the Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1976 authorized the long-
standing Weatherization Assistance Program. These public policies and programs marked
the beginning of contemporary sustainable energy policy and disaster management in the
US.
Over the past few decades, environmental policies have been integrated into other
policy fields, including disaster management (Kok et. al, 2008; Addle & Russel, 2013;
McEntire et. al, 2002, 270). The integration of sustainability into disaster theory dates
back to the 1980s. Geographer Kenneth Hewitt (1983) argued that disasters are not
necessarily unpredictable and unpreventable but rather clearly linked to human social
7


issues (McEntire, 2004, 195). This socio-ecological approach to disaster theory created a
platform to explore the social, economic and political components of disaster
management. Subsequently, University of Colorado Sociologist Dennis Mileti (1995)
attributed failures in the disaster paradigm to cultural, social and behavioral issues and
explicitly linked this concept to sustainability (McEntire, 2004, 196). More recently,
disaster management has moved toward a multi-disciplinary approach, which engages the
built environment discipline and environmental advocates (Haigh & Amaratunga, 2010,
12-15). McEntire et. al (2002) note the benefits of integrating sustainable development
principles to disaster studies: The sustainability concept adds to the understanding of the
complex relation between development and disasters. It indicates that development often
promotes disaster, disasters inhibit development, and better development practices are
needed to prevent disasters (271). Sustainable disaster management seeks to limit the
cycle of development causing disasters and disasters destroying development.
There are two windows of opportunity to integrate sustainability into long-range
planning for disaster management in the pre-disaster mitigation/risk reduction phase and
in the post-disaster recovery phase. As illustrated in Figure 2, sustainability in pre-
disaster planning is called sustainable hazard mitigation and in post-disaster recovery is
called sustainable disaster recovery (Heigh & Amaratunga, 2010). Sustainability may
also be integrated into emergency response. However, emergency response has a short-
term time horizon and risk theme whereas the pre- and post-hazard phases have long-
term time horizons and preventative themes. Berke has commented that "the interest
groups involved in [disaster] mitigation...and long-range disaster recovery are likely to be
closely associated with the interests of sustainable development advocates. However, for
8


those groups concerned with emergency preparedness and response issues (e.g. disaster
warning, search and rescue, evacuation, and sheltering) the relationship with sustainable
development would be less salient" (1995, 14-15). This statement supports that either
convergence is not relevant for all aspects of disaster management or there are other
reasons why sustainability is less suitable to emergency response, such as the socio-
cultural aspect (i.e. human emotions) involved in emergency response. The integration of
sustainable energy has most opportunity for integration in long-term disaster management
strategies.
Pre-hazard 0 During hazard O Post-hazard
sustainable hazard emergency * sustainable disaster
mitigation response recovery
V J ^ J ^ J
Figure 1. Phases of Disaster Management that integrate Sustainability
Sustainable hazards mitigation and sustainable disaster recovery and to a lesser
extent disaster resistance and disaster resilience have evolved to integrate sustainability
into disaster management (McEntire et. al, 2002). Disaster resistance is the ability to
resist a disaster (Geis, 2000, 152). Disaster resilience is most commonly presented as the
ability to recovery after a disaster (McEntire, et. al, 2002, 269; Mileti, 1999; Burby, et.
al., 2000; Haigh & Amaratunga, 2010; Lettieri et. al., 2009). Some critique the disaster
resilience paradigm because it may unintentionally imply a return to normalcy after
disaster (McEntire, et. al, 2002, 270). Some scholars argue that improving the
community to be more resilient is more desirable than returning to normal. Moreover,
McEntire, et. al. note, some scholars relate the term "resilience" to urban planning,
building location, and construction, while others do not (270). This is significant
because excluding diverse stakeholders and fields of study limits the opportunities to
9


integrate sustainability into disaster management (Pinkse & Kolk, 2012). Sustainable
hazards mitigation, on the other hand, is an evolution of disaster theory to include
sustainability concepts. Sustainable hazards mitigation was first theorized by Mileti in the
late 90s to address the need for more holistic policies that address development,
environment, poverty and other issues within disaster policy (McEntire, et. al, 2002, 270).
Sustainable disaster recovery is the differential process of restoring, rebuilding,
and reshaping the physical, social, economic, and natural environment through pre-event
planning and post-event actions (Smith & Wenger, 2007, 238). Perhaps the best
example of sustainable disaster recovery is Greensburg, Kansas. After a tornado
devastated this small town in 2007, the city council adopted a resolution that all buildings
would be built to national green building standards. The town developed wind energy
facilities and purchased carbon offsets for their conventional energy. In this example, a
local level policy supported the convergence of sustainable energy and disaster
management.
10


CHAPTER III
RESEARCH PROCESS
Purpose of the Study
This study is an exploration of public policies and agency-level programs to
identify if there is convergence of disaster management and sustainable energy in the
residential buildings sector. Many scholars and practitioners have examined the
intersection of climate change adaptation and disaster management, but much less
research has been conducted on the intersection of climate change mitigation and disaster
management (Mercer, 2010; Schipper & Pelling, 2006). The importance of this topic is to
avoid lost opportunities for sustainable energy development, to identify synergies
between sustainable energy and disaster management, and to explore the integration of
disaster management into traditional sustainable energy policies and programs.
Scope of the Study
Research on the relationship between disaster management and climate change
mitigation has been growing, mostly driven by research in sustainable development
(McEntire, 2004; Mileti et.al, 1995). In a housing context, climate change mitigation
involves reducing the environmental impact of residential buildings, mainly by reducing
greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, which is why residential energy was chosen
as the narrow scope for this study. In comparison, sustainable development has a broader
scope, including housing affordability, access to employment, health and safety, and
equality and justice issues. This study assesses the public policy domain for disaster
management only where it intersects with sustainable energy use in residential buildings.
The reason that this narrow topic was chosen is that innovative solutions are needed to
11


improve residential buildings for climate and disaster resistance; Residential buildings are
especially unique and important because they are mostly individually owned unlike
public buildings, and there are millions of them unlike commercial buildings.
Research Design
The hypothesis is that there will be some instances of convergence but not a fully
integrated approach in all cases. The assumption is that decreasing emissions is critical to
mitigate anthropogenic climate change, which in turn, decreases disasters. Disasters are
an opportunity to increase building efficiency and disaster resilience simultaneously.
More convergence has not occurred due to differences in the socio-cultural perspectives
of disasters and climate change mitigation, funding limitations in the policy
implementation stage, and a lack of cross-disciplinary knowledge in the policy initiation
stage.1 The hypothesis is tested using an interpretive content analysis and thematic text
analysis of written materials to identify if and in what forms there is convergence (see
Figure 2).
A deductive approach was used for the content analysis, as written materials
provided a means for testing the hypothesis (Berg, 2007, 245) An inductive approach was
used for the discussion, requiring immersion and reliance on general knowledge of the
topic; This was pursued by participating in online forums (Berg, 2007, 246; Center for
Housing Policy Online Forum, 2013; Home Energy Pros Online Forum, 2013). The level
of analysis is U.S. national policies, programs, and organizations. The U.S. was chosen
because it has very high per capita carbon emissions from buildings, ample
documentation for sustainable energy and disaster management, and a robust
infrastructure to implement the policies. The unit of observation is word combinations
1 Causality is not tested in this study.
12


Table 2. Research Design
Guiding assumption Decreasing emissions is critical to mitigate anthropogenic climate change, which in turn, decreases disasters. Disasters are an opportunity to increase building efficiency and disaster resilience simultaneously.
Hypothesis There will be some instances of convergence but not a fully integrated approach in all cases.
Research questions How have disaster management and sustainable energy converged in U.S. national policy, programs, and government agencies? In what forms has convergence occurred (i.e. public law, policy statements, programs)?
Operationalization Identification of word combinations in specific documents, followed by a thematic text analysis and content analysis of 4 policies
Methods Thematic text analysis of 24 word combinations in written materials on 20 policies, 28 programs, 12 agency-level programs, and 2 other materials to pinpoint examples of convergence Interpretive content analysis of 4 public policies (energy, disaster, and general/economic) to understand content and use of terms
13


14
Figure 2. Research Design


that represent concepts and themes. Generalization of some concepts such as the benefits
of convergence could extend to national, state or local policy in the U.S. or abroad, but the
findings of convergence are applicable only to U.S. national policy and programs.
Case Selection
A convenience sampling of policies, agency-level programs, and agency websites
was used. To begin, a list was created of relevant federal agencies and nongovernmental
organizations that are involved in housing, climate change, and disaster policy at the
national level. To find relevant policies and programs, the following web searches were
conducted: climate change policy united states, sustainable development policy united
states, and disaster policy united states. The DisasterAssistance.gov tab for Get Disaster
Assistance and then Browse by Federal Agency was also used to find relevant federal
agencies. The search resulted in the following federal agencies: U.S. Department of
Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of State, U.S. Forest
Services, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and U.S. Department of
Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Development, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Small Business
Administration, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Association, and U.S. Department
of Homeland Security. Each organizations website was visited to generate a list of all
relevant housing policies and programs. The criteria included public policies, program
descriptions, and program requirements that are national in scope only, not state or local.
See Table 3 for the final case selection.
2 Relevant here is defined as having at least two of these terms in the title: housing, home, energy, climate,
and disaster.
15


Table 3. Case Selection
Sources____________________________________________Type
1 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Public Law
2 Clean Air Act Public Law
3 Energy Conservation and Production Act Public Law
4 Energy Policy Act of 2005 Public Law
5 National Environmental Policy Act Public Law
6 Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 Public Law
7 Stafford Act Public Law
8 Safe Building Code Incentive Act of 2011 Public Law
9 Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Public Law
10 National Energy Conservation Policy Public Law
11 EPA Mission Program
12 LIHEAP Policy Manual Program
13 DOE Weatherization Innovation Guidance Program
14 DOE Better Buildings Challenge Program Program
15 DOE Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Program
16 DHS Disaster Assistance Program
17 DOE Building America Program
18 DOE Challenge Home Program
19 DOE Home Energy Score Program
20 DOE Residential Building Programs Program
21 DOE Solar Decathlon Program
22 ENERGY STAR Program Program
23 FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers Program
24 Fortified Homes Program
25 HUD Disaster Housing Assistance Program Program
26 HUD Public Housing Program Program
27 HUD Sustainable Housing Initiative Program
28 DOE Tribal Energy Program Program
29 EPA Voluntary Energy and Climate Programs Program
30 DOE Weatherization Assistance Program Program
31 Partnership for Sustainable Communities Program
32 HUD Community Development Block Grant Program Funding for states
33 DOE State Energy Program Program Funding for states
34 DOE Energy Efficiency/Conservation Block Grant Program Funding for states
35 FEMA Disaster Relief Fund Program Funding for public
36 HUD FHA Insured Energy Efficient Mortgages Program Funding for public
37 HUD Mortgage Insurance for Disaster Victims Program Funding for public
38 HUD Housing Choice Vouchers Program Funding for public
39 SBA Home and Personal Property Loans Program Funding for public
40 Executive Order 11988 Executive Order
16


Table 3 (cont.) 41 Executive Order 13212 Executive Order
42 Executive Order 13221 Executive Order
43 Executive Order 13352 Executive Order
44 Executive Order 13423 Executive Order
45 Executive Order 13514 Executive Order
46 Executive Order 11990 Executive Order
47 Executive Order 13423 Executive Order
48 Executive Order 12898 Executive Order
49 DHS Disasters Results Agency webpage
50 EPA Regulatory Initiatives Agency webpage
51 EPA Priorities Agency webpage
52 DHS Disaster Response and Recovery Agency webpage
53 DHS Disasters Overview Agency webpage
54 HUD Homepage Agency webpage
55 DHS Plan and Prepare for Disasters Agency webpage
56 USDA Sustainable Development Agency webpage
57 USD A Rural Development Agency webpage
58 DOS Global Climate Change Agency webpage
59 FEMA Fact Sheet Agency webpage
60 FEMA Presidential Policy Directive 8 Presidential Policy Directive
61 Blueprint for a Clean Secure Energy Future Presidential Blueprint
62 National Response Framework National Framework
Word Choice
The goal was to determine if words from the two categories (sustainable energy
and disaster management) are found in a single document, which would identify
occurrences in which the two domains have converged (Saldana, 2012). This method is
classified as a content analysis with an interpretive approach, which means the text is
coded to uncover patterns and the essence of the words (Miles & Huberman, 1994).
In the first stage, a sample of documents and webpages were reviewed to find
common words used in reference to climate change mitigation and disaster management in
the context of housing. Initially, word choices for climate change mitigation were energy,
conservation, sustainability, carbon, greenhouse, and climate. Word choices for disaster
management were disasters, prepare, recovery, relief and risk. Additionally, the general
17


terms, adaptation, mitigation and development were added to understand how the terms
are used in the documents since the terms can be used in both domains.
In the second stage, the documents and webpages were uploaded into the NVivo
qualitative analysis software. Public policy documents were uploaded as PDF documents.
The program descriptions and program requirements were uploaded using the NCapture
add-in to store webpages. In the third stage, a final Text Search Query was conducted on
various combinations of the selected words from the climate change mitigation and
disaster management domains using the following equation:
=VLOOKUP (wl...w24, pi :p62)
w=word combination; p=case
The purpose of the Text Search Queries was to identify specific text that addresses both
domains within the same document.
Table 4. Word Choices
Word Combinations
Climate + Adaptation
Climate + Development
Climate + Mitigation
Disaster + Adaptation
Disaster + Carbon
Disaster + Climate
Disaster + Conservation
Disaster + Development
Disaster + Energy
Disaster + Greenhouse
Disaster + Mitigation
Disaster + Sustainable
Prepare + Climate
Prepare + Energy
Prepare + Sustainable
Recovery + Climate
Recovery + Energy
Recovery + Sustainable
Relief + Climate
Relief + Energy
Relief + Sustainable
Risk + Climate
Risk + Energy
Risk + Sustainable
18


CHAPTER IV
RESULTS
Document Coding Results
A query on all word combinations is shown in the following data table (Table 5).
The sources are the case selctions that are listed in Table 3. The references refer to how
frequently the word combinations are found in the relevant sources. The Min and Max text
search results in the sources are 0 and 20, respectively. The Chi Square Test comparing
the text search results in the sources to the expected value of 10 (the average number)
resulted in p = 5.21603E-10 (Appendix 1). Because the value is less than .05, this
indicates that the word combinations were properly distributed among the sources.
Table 5. Text Search Results by Word Combination
Word Combination Sources References
Climate + Adaptation 3 3
Climate + Development 12 19
Climate + Mitigation 4 4
Disaster + Adaptation 0 0
Disaster + Carbon 2 2
Disaster + Climate 3 3
Disaster + Conservation 6 6
Disaster + Development 17 25
Disaster + Energy 8 16
Disaster + Greenhouse 2 2
Disaster + Mitigation 13 21
Disaster + Sustainable 3 3
Prepare + Climate 2 2
Prepare + Energy 7 31
Prepare + Sustainable 3 3
Recovery + Climate 8 9
Recovery + Energy 20 69
Recovery + Sustainable 10 12
Relief + Climate 2 2
Relief + Energy 6 22
Relief + Sustainable 4 4
Risk + Climate 4 5
Risk + Energy 11 36
Risk + Sustainable 4 7
19


Figure 3. Text Search Results: Nodes Compared by Number of Items Coded
The tree map is a visualization of the number of word combinations found in each
source (Figure 3). The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) contains the most word
combinations, followed by the Clean Air Act. The results were significant to narrow
which written materials to explore in more detail. Four policies were chosen for further
analysis: EPAct as an energy policy, ARRA as a general policy, and Stafford Act and
National Response Framework as disaster policies.
Figure 4. Text Search Results: Sources Compared to Number of Coding References
20


Case Studies
Energy Policy Act of2005
Recovery and Energy was the combination of terms found most frequently in the
sources. Recovery was used in unrelated ways in most of the documents. For example, in
EPAct 2005 Recovery was used in reference to oil spills and cost recovery. However, one
provision of EPAct 2005 was relevant to disaster management. Section 251 called for the
prioritization of funding for projects that have the greatest impact on reducing future
disaster losses (EPAct, 2005, Section 251). This provision may indirectly encourage the
use of a voluntary above code program such as FORTIFIED. This language promotes
sustainable energy and disaster programs to be used together. Additionally, EPAct 2005
funding was not considered to be duplicative funding for Federal natural disaster programs
(EPAct, 2005, Section 251). This statement is one example that disproves that
convergence is not occurring due to funding limitations.
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of2009
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 had the most word
combinations of Recovery and Energy. This policy instrument was intended to ignite
economic growth during the recession and includes provisions for both disaster recovery
and climate change mitigation. Some provisions were directed at rebuilding Louisiana
after Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which was the costliest natural disaster in the United
States with property damage alone estimated at $108 billion (Blake & Gibney, FAQ 5).
Other provisions were directed at improving energy efficiency and renewable energy
infrastructure, with $16 billion allocated for that purpose (ARRA, H.R.l 24, 2009).
Infrastructure, energy/environment and housing categories received a significant amount
21


of funding, some of which was used to rebuild communities after natural disasters and also
to mitigate climate change with sustainable energy projects. This is an example of a
funding mechanism that fosters convergence.
Stafford Act
The leading source containing Disaster and Development was the Stafford Act.
The Stafford Act clearly relates disaster management to climate change mitigation as it
encourages hazard mitigation measures to reduce losses from disasters, including
development of land use and construction regulations (Congress, Stafford Act, Section
101). Building codes are a key policy instrument where the two policy domains converge
because codes are typically updated as a package of requirements that include disaster
resistance and sustainable energy. Because of the way building code policies are
structured in the U.S., it would be difficult to update the codes for disasters and not for
energy. Additionally, the Stafford Act primarily applies to hazard mitigation and
emergency preparedness. At the policy implementation phase, the Stafford Act could
promote the use of off-grid electricity because of its performance during disasters
compared to the conventional electric grid (Mills, 2003, 1258). Further, the Stafford Act
requires numerous federal agencies to outline their roles and responsibilities in the
National Disaster Recovery Strategy. The National Disaster Recovery Strategy is an
example of policy implementation convergence, because it includes numerous federal
agencies that are also involved in sustainable energy, including HUD, EPA, DOA, and
SBA (Congress, Stafford Act, Section 682). In contrast, the National Disaster Housing
Strategy in the Stafford Act (Section 683) refers mostly to immediate housing for
vulnerable populations and does not include the EPA or DOE as contributing agencies.
22


Thus, the assumption that there is a lack of cross-disciplinary knowledge is disproven.
Rather, there is convergence when sustainable energy is applicable.
National Response Framework
In the National Response Framework, Recovery was generally used in conjunction
with response, response and recovery, but also specifically relating to community
recovery and transportation recovery. Relating to energy, the National Response
Framework documents the delegation of tasks for the DOE to have responsibility for the
energy infrastructure during disasters. The scope of the National Response Framework
relates to the emergency response phase of disaster management. As noted earlier, the
emergency response phase of disaster management is drastically different from the pre-
and post-disaster phases due to its short time horizon and risk theme. Moreover,
emergency response is highly emotionally charged, creating a strong social and cultural
component of disaster management that sustainable energy does not have. This could
affect convergence because interest groups and public citizens could argue that
communities are too overwhelmed to pursue sustainable energy goals during a disaster.
However, discussions on sustainable energy in the context of long-range planning may be
met with less resistance.
23


CHAPTER V
LIMITATIONS
The first limitation to the study is the unit of analysis. Both disaster and climate
change policy is largely localized. Plenty of scholars support that disaster and climate
change policy is more effective when decision-making is decentralized at the local level
rather than national in scope (El-Masri & Tipple, 172). National-lev el policies were
chosen because funding and program requirements are largely initiated at the national
level even though convergence may be more likely to occur at the local levels where
appropriate for specific communitys needs, such as in Greensburg, Kansas. The second
limitation to this study is the lack of identification and discussion of causality. Many
policy convergence studies reveal the causality of convergence whereas this study only
reveals the key findings of convergence. The third limitation is the number and scope of
the cases selected. This study does not include household waste, water or transportation,
which also contribute to the sustainability of housing. Also, some cases may be missing
from the analysis.
24


CHAPTER VI
FUTURE RESEARCH
Interviews would be useful to explore why convergence should or should not
occur. This study could also be expanded to include a regression model to understand
causality of convergence. Word combinations could be the dependent variable and the
following could be the independent variables: time horizon of the policy (permanent,
short-term, long-term); primary sponsor (democrat or republican); and domain (energy,
disaster, or other). Interviews with Senator LeMieux and Representative Diaz-Balart or
their staff about why the bills that they proposed did not pass could provide insight into
more barriers for convergence. Interviews with staff at the IBHS and Center for Housing
Policy or case studies on policy selection in Greensburg, Kansas and the effectiveness of
the FORTIFIED Homes Program would also be useful.
25


CHAPTER VII
CONCLUSION
The disaster management and sustainable energy domains have some
complementary public policies, actors, interest groups, regulatory systems, goals and
desired outcomes; however, these two fields have not adequately converged, missing
opportunities for greater positive impact on society. Convergence was identified in
numerous instances, explicitly and implicitly. Some cases of intersectoral convergence are
clearly stated, such as in the FORTIFIED Homes program and Senate Bill 2818 to amend
the Weatherization Assistance Program to include disaster retrofits. Other cases are not so
explicitly stated. For example the Stafford Act and Safe Building Code Incentive Act of
2011 require better construction regulations. This is an example where there is policy
convergence but it may be unintended because codes are adopted as a package containing
requirements for both disaster resistance and sustainable energy. The unintended, implicit
occurrences of policy convergence are particularly interesting because the benefits of
convergence can be achieved without instigating a clash of opposing interest groups.
Indeed, many federal agencies, including HUD, EPA, DOA, and SBA, address both
sustainable energy and disaster management, indicating convergence of policy instruments
and cross-disciplinary knowledge such as in the Stafford Act and National Disaster
Recovery Strategy. A general policy style such as the stimulus bill may have the most
opportunities for implicit, unintentional convergence rather than a policy that is situated in
just one domain. Policies that address actions before or after the disaster may more
suitably integrate with sustainable energy as opposed to policies that address the time
period when the disaster is occurring (e.g. National Response Framework) due to socio-
26


cultural perspectives. Policy content has been proposed to merge the two fields, such as
Florida Senator George LeMieuxs bill to evolve the long-standing Weatherization
Assistance Program to allow for storm-resistant upgrades to qualify under the program.
The Center for Housing Policy developed toolkits that contain guidance to integrate
climate change mitigation and disaster management goals within housing policies. The
FORTIFIED Homes program has requirements to retrofit homes for both disaster
resilience and household carbon emissions reduction. EPAct of 2005 supports
convergence by prioritizing funding for projects that reduce disaster losses, and allowing
EPAct funding to be used in conjunction with disaster programs. El-Masri & Tipple write,
In the case of disasters no single approach can be proposed, but there is a combination of
possibilities, which should be considered in accordance with the types of hazards, costs
and benefits, land market and socioeconomic conditions that characterize each situation
(2002, 164). While there has not yet been a fully integrated path forward, multiple
approaches have been taken to link sustainable energy and disaster management.
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Van Aalst, M. (2006). The impacts of climate change on the risk of natural disasters.
Disasters, 30(1), 5-18.
White House. (2013). President Obamas Blueprint for a Clean and Secure Energy Future.
Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/03/15/fact-sheet-
president-obama-s-blueprint-clean-and-secure-energy-future
36


APPENDIX
A. Chi Test Results
Word Combination Sources Expected
+ Climate + Adaptation 3 10
+ Climate + Development 12 10
+ Climate + Mitigation 4 10
+ Disaster + Adaptation 0 10
+ Disaster + Carbon 2 10
+ Disaster + Climate 3 10
+ Disaster + Conservation 6 10
+ Disaster + Development 17 10
+ Disaster + Energy 8 10
+ Disaster + Greenhouse 2 10
+ Disaster + Mitigation 13 10
+ Disaster + Sustainable 3 10
+ Prepare + Climate 2 10
+ Prepare + Energy 7 10
+ Prepare + Sustainable 3 10
+ Recovery + Climate 8 10
+ Recovery + Energy 20 10
+ Recovery + Sustainable 10 10
+ Relief + Climate 2 10
+ Relief + Energy 6 10
+ Relief + Sustainable 4 10
+ Risk + Climate 4 10
+ Risk + Energy 11 10
+ Risk + Sustainable 4 10
Chi Test Results 0.00000000052160298831
Equation CHITEST(B2:25,C2:25)
37


Full Text

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EXPLORING INTERSECTORAL CONVERGENCE OF SUSTAINABLE ENERGY AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS I N THE U.S. by J.C. MARTEL B.S., Worcester State University, 2004 A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillments of the requirements for the degree of Master in Public Administration School of Public Affairs 2013

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ii This thesis for the Master in Public Administration degree by J.C. Martel has been approved for the School of Public Affairs by Brian Gerber, Chair Deborah Thomas Tanya Heikkila July 31, 2013

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iii Martel, J.C. (MPA, School of Public Affairs) Exploring Intersectoral Convergence of Sustainable Energy and Disaster Management for Residential Buildings in the U.S. Thesis directed by Associate Professor Brian Gerbe r ABSTRACT Housing in the U.S. is a major focal point for both sustainability and disaster management. This study assesses intersectoral conve rgence of sustainable energy and disaster management affecting residential buildings in the U.S. using an interpretive content analysis and thematic text analysis of writ ten materials. Twenty-four word combinations were searched for in 62 written materi als to identify occurrences of convergence and to uncover how the terms are used i n the separate policy fields. The disaster management and sustainable energy domains have some complementary public policies, actors, interest groups, regulatory syste ms, goals and desired outcomes; however, these two fields have not adequately conve rged, missing opportunities for greater positive impact on society. Convergence is found in isolated examples. Namely, convergence is found in federal interagency collabo ration, policies that are general enough to span both domains, and policies that addr ess long-range actions rather than emergency response. One voluntary program, FORTIFIE D Homes, was identified. The Center for Housing Policy is noted as a key interes t group guiding the convergence of disaster and sustainable energy policy. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend it publication. Approved: Brian Gerber

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iv CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ................................... ................................................... ......................1Common Benefits and Challenges .................... ................................................... ........... 1Public Policy ..................................... ................................................... ........................... 3Programs .......................................... ................................................... ............................. 3II. LITERATURE REVIEW ............................. ................................................... ................5Policy Convergence ................................ ................................................... ...................... 5Sustainability and Disaster Management ............ ................................................... ......... 7III. RESEARCH PROCESS ............................. ................................................... ..............11Purpose of the Study .............................. ................................................... .................... 11Scope of the Study ................................ ................................................... ...................... 11Research Design ................................... ................................................... ...................... 12IV. RESULTS ....................................... ................................................... ..........................19Document Coding Results ........................... ................................................... ............... 19Case Studies ...................................... ................................................... ......................... 21V. LIMITATIONS .................................... ................................................... ......................24VI. FUTURE RESEARCH ............................... ................................................... ..............25VII. CONCLUSION ................................... ................................................... ....................26VIII. REFERENCES................................... ................................................... ....................28IX. APPENDIX....................................... ................................................... ........................37A. Chi Test Results ............................... ................................................... ..........................37

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v LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Energy Efficiency Solutions for Various Disaster Scenarios ........................................ ..22. Research Design................................. ................................................... .........................133. Case Selection ................................. ................................................... ............................164. Word Choices.................................... ................................................... ..........................185. Text Search Results by Word Combination......... ................................................... .......19

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vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Phases of Disaster Management that integrate Sus tainability ....................................... ..92. Research Design................................. ................................................... .........................143. Text Search Results: Nodes Compared by Number of Items Coded .............................204. Text Search Results: Sources Compared to Number of Coding References .................20

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Housing in the U.S. is a major focal point for both sustainability and disaster management. It was estimated that the 2005 Hurrican e Katrina cost approximately $67 billion in housing alone, devastating 300,000 homes (Townsend, 2006, 7). The residential building sector is responsible for at least 10 perc ent of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., mostly from electricity use and direct em issions from combustion fuels (EPA, 2013, Energy 3-1; EPA, 2013, Executive Summary). Th erefore, decreasing emissions from the residential sector at every opportunity is critical to mitigate anthropogenic climate change. Since many homes need to be upgrade d before or rebuilt after a disaster, disasters can be seen as an opportunity to also upg rade the efficiency of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, climate change interventions can be viewed as a disaster mitigation strategy, since reducing g reenhouse gas emissions will in turn, reduce natural disasters caused by climate change. Common Benefits and Challenges Sustainable energy and disaster management share so me common benefits and challenges. In 2010, the Travelers Institute conven ed a meeting in Washington D.C to discuss the topic, Opportunities for Integrating Disaster Mitigation a nd Energy Retrofit Programs (Travelers Institute, 2010). Numerous common benefi ts and challenges were identified in the meeting proceedings. Notably, a c ommon need exists to revise the national appraisal standards to appropriately value green and disaster resilient features of a property. Indeed, some construction features, suc h as energy efficient and wind resistant windows are hard to value by the naked ey e of the appraiser so the appraisal

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2 standards would need to account for this value. In addition, homeowners and builders nationwide are making home improvements either for sustainability, disaster-resistance, or both. In many instances, these upgrades involve the same workforce, government agencies, and loan programs, yet in most instances sustainability and disaster upgrades are not packaged together. Further, disaster-resist ant and energy efficient homes have common benefits, including great construction durab ility and performance (Table 1). Streamlining program development and implementation could yield significant time and cost savings to government administrators, business es and households. The common end goal is sustainable, durable buildings that protect human health, safety, and welfare. Table 1. Energy Efficiency Solutions for Various Di saster Scenarios Disaster Building system Issue Energy efficiency solution Snow Roof Ice dams are formed by snow melting and re-forming Insulation stops ice dams from forming Wildfires and windstorms Window Fire and windstorms can cause breakage Multi-pane windows reduce risk of breakage Wildfires and windstorms Wall Fire and windstorms can cause falling or flying debris Structurally insulated walls are more resistant to falling or flying debris Extreme cold Domestic hot water Pipes can freeze Insulated walls reduce risk of freezing pipes Extreme cold Building envelope Causes occupant discomfort Insulation and air sealing keeps people warmer Extreme heat Space cooling Causes urban heat island & smog Causes increased air conditioning use / utilities reach peak demand Extreme heat Materials Causes urban heat island & smog Lighten roof & pavement colors reduces heat island and is more fire resistant Extreme heat Passive cooling Causes urban heat island & smog; Tree density can reduce flooding Trees provide passive cooling Fire Lighting Lights are difficult to see during fire LED lights are efficient and visible through smoke (Adapted from Mills, 2003).

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3 Public Policy Over the past few years, numerous actions have been taken to intentionally converge sustainable energy and disaster management policy. Florida Senator George LeMieux proposed a bill to evolve the long-standing Weatherization Assistance Program to allow for storm-resistant upgrades to qualify un der the sustainable energy program. Senator LeMieux proposed this bill in the 2009-2010 congressional session but the bill died in committee (Senate Bill 2818 (2009) to amend WAP to include disaster-resistant retrofits). Republican Representative Mario Diaz-Ba lart from Florida proposed the Safe Building Code Incentive Act of 2011 during the 2009 -2010 congressional session and then re-introduced the bill in the 2011-2012 sessio n (House Bill 2069 (2011) to amend the Stafford Act to link additional funding to buil ding code updates). This bill would have amended the Stafford Act to provide an additio nal four percent of post-disaster funding to states that adopt 2009 or 2012 building codes before a disaster hits. Those codes have requirements for both disaster resilienc e and sustainable energy. Programs According to the Center for Housing Policy’s Issue Brief, Linking Efforts to Improve Disaster Resistance and Energy Efficiency o f Homes as of 2009 there were no programs in the U.S. that provided financial assist ance for both disaster management and sustainable energy. However, one was under developm ent. The FORTIFIED Homes program was developed in 2010 by the Insurance Inst itute for Business and Home Safety to retrofit homes for both disaster resilience for winds, hail and hurricanes and to improve energy efficiency. Fred Malik, program manager of t he FORTIFIED Homes program, says that “Many homeowners are spending money to ma ke their home “greener” and

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4 often more energy efficient. The FORTIFIED Homes pr ogram maximizes these investments by reducing disaster-related damage, ke eping debris from damaged houses out of landfills, and enabling homeowners to return home more quickly following a disaster” (IBHS, 2013a). There are some challenges to this type of program. The costs for climate change mitigation and disaster management a re immense. Adding an incremental cost to an already costly endeavor can be daunting. IBHS reports that the average cost to retrofit an existing home to their program standard s costs $800-3000 per house (IBHS, 2012). As of 2013, incentives to participate in the FORTIFIED Home program were available in Alabama, South Carolina, North Carolin a and Mississippi (IBHS, 2013b). In the program design and evaluation phases, one ch allenge is the way energy programs are structured. Many energy programs are f unded by utilities and evaluated based on energy savings. The evaluation depends on the amount of energy saved compared to the cost of the program. The savings to investment ratio would be much lower if disaster resilient retrofits were included in the program. Since disaster resilient features do not save money on building operations, it would be difficult to expand this program model to include disaster resilient retrofi ts. A new evaluation model would have to be used if this program model is to be widely ad opted by regulated agencies (i.e. utilities) that are subject to traditional energy p rogram evaluations.

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5 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW The literature review is divided into two parts: p olicy convergence and the interaction between sustainability and disaster man agement. Policy Convergence Policy convergence is a subfield of comparative po licy studies (Bennett, 1991, 217). Convergence is the development of policy simi larity over time (Bennett, 1991; Unger and Van Waarden, 1995; Heichel et.al, 2005). Many theorists stress the complexity of modern industrial society as a cause of policy convergence (Bennett, 1991). As more knowledge is constructed over time, there are opportunities to explore a given field in the context of other disciplines. Mo st convergence literature examines transnational occurrences between two or more count ries, but there is also a subfield of intersectoral convergence literature that examines two or more domains within a country. Some scholars have pointed out that research method s to assess policy convergence are widely varied, and that the researc h comes from various disciplines and schools of thought (Bennett, 1991; Heichel et.al, 2 005, Knill, 2005). Due to the variation in approaches to policy convergence studies, Bennet t (1991) defined categories for policy convergence literature: goals; content; instruments ; outcomes, impacts or consequences; and style (218). For the purpose of this research, the following definitions are used: Goals: desired outcomes for policy problems Content: written language in policy documents Instruments: tools available to administer the poli cy; in this case, programs Outcomes, impacts or consequences: the results of i mplementation

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6 Style: under what conditions the policy was formula ted (consensual or conflicted, anticipatory or reactive, etc.) Bennett (1991) developed a framework to categorize fours ways in which convergence occurs: “emulation, where state officia ls copy action taken elsewhere; elite networking, where convergence results from transnat ional policy communities; harmonization through international regimes; and pe netration by external actors and interests” (215). The penetration by external actor s and interests is the root of this research, as it is an exploration of sustainable en ergy actors and interests integrating into disaster management. Heichel et. al. (2005) built upon Bennett’s researc h by categorizing literature by goals, content, instruments, outcomes and style and then creating additional factors to compare policy convergence literature. The factors for comparability are policy area or field, geographic region, observation period (time span), and explanatory factors (2005, 818-819). Heichel et. al agreed with Bennett that m ost policy convergence studies do not distinguish between which categories are assessed, a key limitation to comparing the outcomes of the studies (829). In addition, the use of different research methods make comparability difficult (Heichel et. al, 2005, 817) This paper defines which policy category is being assessed for convergence. Heichel et. al (2005) explains that “explanations f or limited convergence or divergence are often rooted in national (institutio nal) factors” (825). Moreover, Heichel et. al (2005) explain that “the level of convergenc e is often explained by the economic pressure exerted by regulatory competition. The int ensity of this pressure is assumed to vary between policy fields. Besides, the strength o f the political forces defending existing

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7 levels of national regulation and social protection should also differ across policy fields” (826). Divergence of policy content can be a result of regulatory competition, cultural perspectives on disasters versus environmental prot ection, and the intensity of pressure associated with disasters versus climate change mit igation. Sustainability and Disaster Management In the U.S., the 1970s and 80s were significant dec ades for disaster and sustainable energy policy. The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 was passed to streamline disaster management and give the President authorit y to respond more quickly to disasters. The Disaster Relief Act was amended to b ecome the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Staff ord Act) in 1988. The Stafford Act, in accordance with subsequent amendments, has autho rized disaster relief programs such as the Housing Voucher Choice Program and Disaster Housing Assistance Program. Simultaneously, the 1973 oil embargo prompted polic ymakers to respond to high oil prices and shortages by starting environmental prog rams to reduce energy usage. Namely, the Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1976 authorized the longstanding Weatherization Assistance Program. These p ublic policies and programs marked the beginning of contemporary sustainable energy po licy and disaster management in the U.S. Over the past few decades, environmental policies h ave been integrated into other policy fields, including disaster management (Kok e t. al, 2008; Adelle & Russel, 2013; McEntire et. al, 2002, 270). The integration of sus tainability into disaster theory dates back to the 1980s. Geographer Kenneth Hewitt (1983) argued that disasters are not necessarily unpredictable and unpreventable but rat her clearly linked to human social

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8 issues (McEntire, 2004, 195). This socio-ecological approach to disaster theory created a platform to explore the social, economic and politi cal components of disaster management. Subsequently, University of Colorado So ciologist Dennis Mileti (1995) attributed failures in the disaster paradigm to cul tural, social and behavioral issues and explicitly linked this concept to sustainability (M cEntire, 2004, 196). More recently, disaster management has moved toward a multi-discip linary approach, which engages the built environment discipline and environmental advo cates (Haigh & Amaratunga, 2010, 12-15). McEntire et. al (2002) note the benefits of integrating sustainable development principles to disaster studies: “The sustainability concept adds to the understanding of the complex relation between development and disasters. It indicates that development often promotes disaster, disasters inhibit development, a nd better development practices are needed to prevent disasters” (271). Sustainable dis aster management seeks to limit the cycle of development causing disasters and disaster s destroying development. There are two windows of opportunity to integrate s ustainability into long-range planning for disaster management in the pre-disas ter mitigation/risk reduction phase and in the post-disaster recovery phase. As illustrated in Figure 2, sustainability in predisaster planning is called sustainable hazard mitigation and in post-disaster recovery is called sustainable disaster recovery (Heigh & Amaratunga, 2010). Sustainability may also be integrated into emergency response. However emergency response has a shortterm time horizon and risk theme whereas the prea nd post-hazard phases have longterm time horizons and preventative themes. Berke h as commented that "the interest groups involved in [disaster] mitigation...and long -range disaster recovery are likely to be closely associated with the interests of sustainabl e development advocates. However, for

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9 those groups concerned with emergency preparedness and response issues (e.g. disaster warning, search and rescue, evacuation, and shelter ing) the relationship with sustainable development would be less salient" (1995, 14-15). T his statement supports that either convergence is not relevant for all aspects of disa ster management or there are other reasons why sustainability is less suitable to emer gency response, such as the sociocultural aspect (i.e. human emotions) involved in e mergency response. The integration of sustainable energy has most opportunity for integra tion in long-term disaster management strategies. Figure 1. Phases of Disaster Management that integr ate Sustainability Sustainable hazards mitigation and sustainable disa ster recovery and to a lesser extent disaster resistance and disaster resilience have evolved to integrate sustainability into disaster management (McEntire et. al, 2002). D isaster resistance is the ability to resist a disaster (Geis, 2000, 152). Disaster resil ience is most commonly presented as the ability to recovery after a disaster (McEntire, et. al, 2002, 269; Mileti, 1999; Burby, et. al., 2000; Haigh & Amaratunga, 2010; Lettieri et. a l., 2009). Some critique the disaster resilience paradigm because it “may unintentionally imply a return to normalcy after disaster” (McEntire, et. al, 2002, 270). Some schol ars argue that improving the community to be more resilient is more desirable th an returning to normal. Moreover, McEntire, et. al. note, “some scholars relate the t erm "resilience" to urban planning, building location, and construction, while others d o not” (270). This is significant because excluding diverse stakeholders and fields o f study limits the opportunities to

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10 integrate sustainability into disaster management ( Pinkse & Kolk, 2012). Sustainable hazards mitigation, on the other hand, is an evolut ion of disaster theory to include sustainability concepts. Sustainable hazards mitiga tion was first theorized by Mileti in the late 90s to address the need for more holistic poli cies that address development, environment, poverty and other issues within disast er policy (McEntire, et. al, 2002, 270). Sustainable disaster recovery is “the differential process of restoring, rebuilding, and reshaping the physical, social, economic, and n atural environment through pre-event planning and post-event actions” (Smith & Wenger, 2 007, 238). Perhaps the best example of sustainable disaster recovery is Greensb urg, Kansas. After a tornado devastated this small town in 2007, the city counci l adopted a resolution that all buildings would be built to national green building standards The town developed wind energy facilities and purchased carbon offsets for their c onventional energy. In this example, a local level policy supported the convergence of sus tainable energy and disaster management.

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11 CHAPTER III RESEARCH PROCESS Purpose of the Study This study is an exploration of public policies and agency-level programs to identify if there is convergence of disaster manage ment and sustainable energy in the residential buildings sector. Many scholars and pra ctitioners have examined the intersection of climate change adaptation and disaster management, but much less research has been conducted on the intersection of climate change mitigation and disaster management (Mercer, 2010; Schipper & Pelling, 2006) The importance of this topic is to avoid lost opportunities for sustainable energy dev elopment, to identify synergies between sustainable energy and disaster management, and to explore the integration of disaster management into traditional sustainable en ergy policies and programs. Scope of the Study Research on the relationship between disaster manag ement and climate change mitigation has been growing, mostly driven by resea rch in sustainable development (McEntire, 2004; Mileti et.al, 1995). In a housing context, climate change mitigation involves reducing the environmental impact of resid ential buildings, mainly by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, which i s why residential energy was chosen as the narrow scope for this study. In comparison, sustainable development has a broader scope, including housing affordability, access to e mployment, health and safety, and equality and justice issues. This study assesses th e public policy domain for disaster management only where it intersects with sustainabl e energy use in residential buildings. The reason that this narrow topic was chosen is tha t innovative solutions are needed to

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12 improve residential buildings for climate and disas ter resistance; Residential buildings are especially unique and important because they are mo stly individually owned unlike public buildings, and there are millions of them un like commercial buildings. Research Design The hypothesis is that there will be some instances of convergence but not a fully integrated approach in all cases. The assumption is that decreasing emissions is critical to mitigate anthropogenic climate change, which in tur n, decreases disasters. Disasters are an opportunity to increase building efficiency and disaster resilience simultaneously. More convergence has not occurred due to difference s in the socio-cultural perspectives of disasters and climate change mitigation, funding limitations in the policy implementation stage, and a lack of cross-disciplin ary knowledge in the policy initiation stage.1 The hypothesis is tested using an interpretive con tent analysis and thematic text analysis of written materials to identify if and in what forms there is convergence (see Figure 2). A deductive approach was used for the content analy sis, as written materials provided a means for testing the hypothesis (Berg, 2007, 245) An inductive approach was used for the discussion, requiring immersion and re liance on general knowledge of the topic; This was pursued by participating in online forums (Berg, 2007, 246; Center for Housing Policy Online Forum, 2013; Home Energy Pros Online Forum, 2013). The level of analysis is U.S. national policies, programs, an d organizations. The U.S. was chosen because it has very high per capita carbon emission s from buildings, ample documentation for sustainable energy and disaster m anagement, and a robust infrastructure to implement the policies. The unit of observation is word combinations 1 Causality is not tested in this study.

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13 Table 2. Research Design Guiding assumption Decreasing emissions is critical to mitigate anthro pogenic climate change, which in turn, decreases disasters. Disaste rs are an opportunity to increase building efficiency and dis aster resilience simultaneously. Hypothesis There will be some instances of converge nce but not a fully integrated approach in all cases. Research questions How have disaster management and sustainable energy converged in U.S. national policy, programs, and government agen cies? In what forms has convergence occurred (i.e. public law, po licy statements, programs)? Operationalization Identification of word combinations in specific doc uments, followed by a thematic text analysis and content analysis of 4 policies Methods Thematic text analysis of 24 word combinati ons in written materials on 20 policies, 28 programs,12 agency-level program s, and 2 other materials to pinpoint examples of convergence Interpretive content analysis of 4 public policies (energy, disaster, and general/economic) to understand content and use of terms

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14 Figure 2. Research Design

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15 that represent concepts and themes. Generalization of some concepts such as the benefits of convergence could extend to national, state or l ocal policy in the U.S. or abroad, but the findings of convergence are applicable only to U.S. national policy and programs. Case Selection A convenience sampling of policies, agency-level pr ograms, and agency websites was used. To begin, a list was created of relevant federal agencies and nongovernmental organizations that are involved in housing, climate change, and disaster policy at the national level. To find relevant policies and progr ams, the following web searches were conducted: climate change policy united states, sustainable development policy united states, and disaster policy united states. The DisasterAssistance.gov tab for “Get Disaster Assistance” and then “Browse by Federal Agency” was also used to find relevant federal agencies. The search resulted in the following fede ral agencies: U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of State, U.S. Forest Services, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Deve lopment and U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. D epartment of Housing and Urban Development, U.S. Department of Health and Human Se rvices, U.S. Small Business Administration, U.S. Federal Emergency Management A ssociation, and U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Each organizations website wa s visited to generate a list of all relevant2 housing policies and programs. The criteria includ ed public policies, program descriptions, and program requirements that are nat ional in scope only, not state or local. See Table 3 for the final case selection. 2 “Relevant” here is defined as having at least two of these terms in the title: housing, home, energy, climate, and disaster.

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16 Table 3. Case Selection Sources Type 1 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Public Law 2 Clean Air Act Public Law 3 Energy Conservation and Production Act Public Law 4 Energy Policy Act of 2005 Public Law 5 National Environmental Policy Act Public Law 6 Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 Public Law 7 Stafford Act Public Law 8 Safe Building Code Incentive Act of 2011 Public Law 9 Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Public Law 10 National Energy Conservation Policy Public Law 11 EPA Mission Program 12 LIHEAP Policy Manual Program 13 DOE Weatherization Innovation Guidance Program 14 DOE Better Buildings Challenge Program Program 15 DOE Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Program 16 DHS Disaster Assistance Program 17 DOE Building America Program 18 DOE Challenge Home Program 19 DOE Home Energy Score Program 20 DOE Residential Building Programs Program 21 DOE Solar Decathlon Program 22 ENERGY STAR Program Program 23 FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers Program 24 Fortified Homes Program 25 HUD Disaster Housing Assistance Program Program 26 HUD Public Housing Program Program 27 HUD Sustainable Housing Initiative Program 28 DOE Tribal Energy Program Program 29 EPA Voluntary Energy and Climate Programs Program 30 DOE Weatherization Assistance Program Program 31 Partnership for Sustainable Communities Program 32 HUD Community Development Block Grant Program Fu nding for states 33 DOE State Energy Program Program Funding for stat es 34 DOE Energy Efficiency/Conservation Block Grant Program Funding for states 35 FEMA Disaster Relief Fund Program Funding for pub lic 36 HUD FHA Insured Energy Efficient Mortgages Program Funding for public 37 HUD Mortgage Insurance for Disaster Victims Program Funding for public 38 HUD Housing Choice Vouchers Program Funding for p ublic 39 SBA Home and Personal Property Loans Program Fund ing for public 40 Executive Order 11988 Executive Order

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17 Table 3 (conÂ’t.) 41 Executive Order 13212 Executive Order 42 Executive Order 13221 Executive Order 43 Executive Order 13352 Executive Order 44 Executive Order 13423 Executive Order 45 Executive Order 13514 Executive Order 46 Executive Order 11990 Executive Order 47 Executive Order 13423 Executive Order 48 Executive Order 12898 Executive Order 49 DHS Disasters Results Agency webpage 50 EPA Regulatory Initiatives Agency webpage 51 EPA Priorities Agency webpage 52 DHS Disaster Response and Recovery Agency webpage 53 DHS Disasters Overview Agency webpage 54 HUD Homepage Agency webpage 55 DHS Plan and Prepare for Disasters Agency webpage 56 USDA Sustainable Development Agency webpage 57 USDA Rural Development Agency webpage 58 DOS Global Climate Change Agency webpage 59 FEMA Fact Sheet Agency webpage 60 FEMA Presidential Policy Directive 8 Presidential P olicy Directive 61 Blueprint for a Clean Secure Energy Future Presiden tial Blueprint 62 National Response Framework National Framework Word Choice The goal was to determine if words from the two cat egories (sustainable energy and disaster management) are found in a single docu ment, which would identify occurrences in which the two domains have converged (Saldana, 2012). This method is classified as a content analysis with an interpreti ve approach, which means the text is coded to uncover patterns and the essence of the wo rds (Miles & Huberman, 1994). In the first stage, a sample of documents and webpa ges were reviewed to find common words used in reference to climate change mi tigation and disaster management in the context of housing. Initially, word choices for climate change mitigation were energy, conservation, sustainability, carbon, greenhouse, a nd climate. Word choices for disaster management were disasters, prepare, recovery, relie f and risk. Additionally, the general

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18 terms, adaptation, mitigation and development were added to understand how the terms are used in the documents since the terms can be us ed in both domains. In the second stage, the documents and webpages wer e uploaded into the NVivo qualitative analysis software. Public policy docume nts were uploaded as PDF documents. The program descriptions and program requirements w ere uploaded using the NCapture add-in to store webpages. In the third stage, a fin al Text Search Query was conducted on various combinations of the selected words from the climate change mitigation and disaster management domains using the following equ ation: =VLOOKUP (“w1…w24”, “p1:p62”) w=word combination; p=case The purpose of the Text Search Queries was to ident ify specific text that addresses both domains within the same document. Table 4. Word Choices Word Combinations Climate + Adaptation Disaster + Energy Recovery + E nergy Climate + Development Disaster + Greenhouse Recover y + Sustainable Climate + Mitigation Disaster + Mitigation Relief + Climate Disaster + Adaptation Disaster + Sustainable Relief + Energy Disaster + Carbon Prepare + Climate Relief + Sustai nable Disaster + Climate Prepare + Energy Risk + Climate Disaster + Conservation Prepare + Sustainable Risk + Energy Disaster + Development Recovery + Climate Risk + Su stainable

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19 CHAPTER IV RESULTS Document Coding Results A query on all word combinations is shown in the fo llowing data table (Table 5). The sources are the case selctions that are listed in Table 3. The references refer to how frequently the word combinations are found in the r elevant sources. The Min and Max text search results in the sources are 0 and 20, respect ively. The Chi Square Test comparing the text search results in the sources to the expec ted value of 10 (the average number) resulted in p = 5.21603E-10 (Appendix 1). Because the value is le ss than .05, this indicates that the word combinations were properly distributed among the sources. Table 5. Text Search Results by Word Combination Word Combination Sources References Climate + Adaptation 3 3 Climate + Development 12 19 Climate + Mitigation 4 4 Disaster + Adaptation 0 0 Disaster + Carbon 2 2 Disaster + Climate 3 3 Disaster + Conservation 6 6 Disaster + Development 17 25 Disaster + Energy 8 16 Disaster + Greenhouse 2 2 Disaster + Mitigation 13 21 Disaster + Sustainable 3 3 Prepare + Climate 2 2 Prepare + Energy 7 31 Prepare + Sustainable 3 3 Recovery + Climate 8 9 Recovery + Energy 20 69 Recovery + Sustainable 10 12 Relief + Climate 2 2 Relief + Energy 6 22 Relief + Sustainable 4 4 Risk + Climate 4 5 Risk + Energy 11 36 Risk + Sustainable 4 7

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20 Figure 3. Text Search Results: Nodes Compared by Nu mber of Items Coded The tree map is a visualization of the number of w ord combinations found in each source (Figure 3). The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (E PAct) contains the most word combinations, followed by the Clean Air Act. The r esults were significant to narrow which written materials to explore in more detail. Four policies were chosen for further analysis: EPAct as an energy policy, ARRA as a gene ral policy, and Stafford Act and National Response Framework as disaster policies. Figure 4. Text Search Results: Sources Compared to Number of Coding References

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21 Case Studies Energy Policy Act of 2005 Recovery and Energy was the combination of terms found most frequently in the sources. Recovery was used in unrelated ways in most of the document s. For example, in EPAct 2005 Recovery was used in reference to oil spills and cost recove ry. However, one provision of EPAct 2005 was relevant to disaster ma nagement. Section 251 called for the prioritization of funding for projects that “have t he greatest impact on reducing future disaster losses” (EPAct, 2005, Section 251). This p rovision may indirectly encourage the use of a voluntary above code program such as FORTI FIED. This language promotes sustainable energy and disaster programs to be used together. Additionally, EPAct 2005 funding was not considered to be duplicative fundin g for Federal natural disaster programs (EPAct, 2005, Section 251). This statement is one e xample that disproves that convergence is not occurring due to funding limitat ions. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 had the most word combinations of Recovery and Energy This policy instrument was intended to ignite economic growth during the recession and includes p rovisions for both disaster recovery and climate change mitigation. Some provisions were directed at rebuilding Louisiana after Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which was the cost liest natural disaster in the United States with property damage alone estimated at $108 billion (Blake & Gibney, FAQ 5). Other provisions were directed at improving energy efficiency and renewable energy infrastructure, with $16 billion allocated for that purpose (ARRA, H.R.1 – 24, 2009). Infrastructure, energy/environment and housing cate gories received a significant amount

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22 of funding, some of which was used to rebuild commu nities after natural disasters and also to mitigate climate change with sustainable energy projects. This is an example of a funding mechanism that fosters convergence. Stafford Act The leading source containing Disaster and Development was the Stafford Act. The Stafford Act clearly relates disaster managemen t to climate change mitigation as it encourages “hazard mitigation measures to reduce lo sses from disasters, including development of land use and construction regulation s” (Congress, Stafford Act, Section 101). Building codes are a key policy instrument wh ere the two policy domains converge because codes are typically updated as a package of requirements that include disaster resistance and sustainable energy. Because of the w ay building code policies are structured in the U.S., it would be difficult to up date the codes for disasters and not for energy. Additionally, the Stafford Act primarily ap plies to hazard mitigation and emergency preparedness. At the policy implementatio n phase, the Stafford Act could promote the use of off-grid electricity because of its performance during disasters compared to the conventional electric grid (Mills, 2003, 1258). Further, the Stafford Act requires numerous federal agencies to outline their roles and responsibilities in the National Disaster Recovery Strategy. The National D isaster Recovery Strategy is an example of policy implementation convergence, becau se it includes numerous federal agencies that are also involved in sustainable ener gy, including HUD, EPA, DOA, and SBA (Congress, Stafford Act, Section 682). In contr ast, the National Disaster Housing Strategy in the Stafford Act (Section 683) refers m ostly to immediate housing for vulnerable populations and does not include the EPA or DOE as contributing agencies.

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23 Thus, the assumption that there is a lack of crossdisciplinary knowledge is disproven. Rather, there is convergence when sustainable energ y is applicable. National Response Framework In the National Response Framework, Recovery was generally used in conjunction with response, “response and recovery,” but also sp ecifically relating to community recovery and transportation recovery. Relating to e nergy, the National Response Framework documents the delegation of tasks for the DOE to have responsibility for the energy infrastructure during disasters. The scope o f the National Response Framework relates to the emergency response phase of disaster management. As noted earlier, the emergency response phase of disaster management is drastically different from the preand post-disaster phases due to its short time hori zon and risk theme. Moreover, emergency response is highly emotionally charged, c reating a strong social and cultural component of disaster management that sustainable e nergy does not have. This could affect convergence because interest groups and publ ic citizens could argue that communities are too overwhelmed to pursue sustainab le energy goals during a disaster. However, discussions on sustainable energy in the c ontext of long-range planning may be met with less resistance.

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24 CHAPTER V LIMITATIONS The first limitation to the study is the unit of a nalysis. Both disaster and climate change policy is largely localized. Plenty of schol ars support that disaster and climate change policy is more effective when decision-makin g is decentralized at the local level rather than national in scope (El-Masri & Tipple, 1 72). National-level policies were chosen because funding and program requirements are largely initiated at the national level even though convergence may be more likely to occur at the local levels where appropriate for specific communityÂ’s needs, such as in Greensburg, Kansas. The second limitation to this study is the lack of identificat ion and discussion of causality. Many policy convergence studies reveal the causality of convergence whereas this study only reveals the key findings of convergence. The third limitation is the number and scope of the cases selected. This study does not include hou sehold waste, water or transportation, which also contribute to the sustainability of hous ing. Also, some cases may be missing from the analysis.

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25 CHAPTER VI FUTURE RESEARCH Interviews would be useful to explore why convergen ce should or should not occur. This study could also be expanded to include a regression model to understand causality of convergence. Word combinations could b e the dependent variable and the following could be the independent variables: time horizon of the policy (permanent, short-term, long-term); primary sponsor (democrat o r republican); and domain (energy, disaster, or other). Interviews with Senator LeMieu x and Representative Diaz-Balart or their staff about why the bills that they proposed did not pass could provide insight into more barriers for convergence. Interviews with staf f at the IBHS and Center for Housing Policy or case studies on policy selection in Green sburg, Kansas and the effectiveness of the FORTIFIED Homes Program would also be useful.

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26 CHAPTER VII CONCLUSION The disaster management and sustainable energy doma ins have some complementary public policies, actors, interest gro ups, regulatory systems, goals and desired outcomes; however, these two fields have no t adequately converged, missing opportunities for greater positive impact on societ y. Convergence was identified in numerous instances, explicitly and implicitly. Some cases of intersectoral convergence are clearly stated, such as in the FORTIFIED Homes prog ram and Senate Bill 2818 to amend the Weatherization Assistance Program to include di saster retrofits. Other cases are not so explicitly stated. For example the Stafford Act an d Safe Building Code Incentive Act of 2011 require better construction regulations. This is an example where there is policy convergence but it may be unintended because codes are adopted as a package containing requirements for both disaster resistance and susta inable energy. The unintended, implicit occurrences of policy convergence are particularly interesting because the benefits of convergence can be achieved without instigating a c lash of opposing interest groups. Indeed, many federal agencies, including HUD, EPA, DOA, and SBA, address both sustainable energy and disaster management, indicat ing convergence of policy instruments and cross-disciplinary knowledge such as in the Sta fford Act and National Disaster Recovery Strategy. A general policy style such as t he stimulus bill may have the most opportunities for implicit, unintentional convergen ce rather than a policy that is situated in just one domain. Policies that address actions befo re or after the disaster may more suitably integrate with sustainable energy as oppos ed to policies that address the time period when the disaster is occurring (e.g. Nationa l Response Framework) due to socio-

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27 cultural perspectives. Policy content has been prop osed to merge the two fields, such as Florida Senator George LeMieux’s bill to evolve the long-standing Weatherization Assistance Program to allow for storm-resistant upg rades to qualify under the program. The Center for Housing Policy developed toolkits th at contain guidance to integrate climate change mitigation and disaster management g oals within housing policies. The FORTIFIED Homes program has requirements to retrofi t homes for both disaster resilience and household carbon emissions reduction EPAct of 2005 supports convergence by prioritizing funding for projects th at reduce disaster losses, and allowing EPAct funding to be used in conjunction with disast er programs. El-Masri & Tipple write, “In the case of disasters no single approach can be proposed, but there is a combination of possibilities, which should be considered in accord ance with the types of hazards, costs and benefits, land market and socioeconomic conditi ons that characterize each situation” (2002, 164). While there has not yet been a fully i ntegrated path forward, multiple approaches have been taken to link sustainable ener gy and disaster management.

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28 REFERENCES A bill to amend the Energy Conservation and Product ion Act to improve weatherization for low-income persons, and for other purposes, S. 2818, 111th Congress. (2009). American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, H.R 1, 111th Congress. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-1 11hr1enr/pdf/BILLS111hr1enr.pdf Atkinson, R., Chhetri, N., Freed, J., Galiana, I., Green, C., Hayward, S.,…Shellenberger, M. (2011). Climate Pragmatism: Innovation, Resilience and No R egrets. The Breakthrough Institute. Bennett, C. (1991). Review article: What is policy convergence and what causes it? British Journal of Political Science, 21, 215–33. Birkmann, J. & Teichman, K. (2010). Integrating dis aster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: key challenges—scales, knowledge and norms. Sustainability Science. 5(2), 171-184. Blake, E. & Gibney, E. (2011). NOAA Technical Memor andum NWS NHC-6: The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United State s Tropical Cyclones from1851 to 2010 (and Other Frequently Requested Hurricane F acts). Retrieved from http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/nws-nhc-6.pdf Bruce, J. (1999). Disaster loss mitigation as an ad aptation to climate variability and change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Cha nge 4, 295–306. Berg, B. (2007). Qualitative Research Methods for The Social Science s. 6th ed. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Retrieved from http://depts.washington.edu/uwmcnair/chapter11.cont ent.analysis.pdf Center for Housing Policy (2012). Issue brief: Link ing efforts to improve disaster resistance and energy efficiency of homes. Retrieve d from http://www.nhc.org/media/documents/LinkingEffortsIm proveDisaster1.pdf Center for Housing Policy Online Forum (2013). Disa sters and Sustainable Energy. http://forum.housingpolicy.org/forum/topics/disaste rs-sustainable-energy Clean Air Act As Amended Through P.L. 108–201 (2004 ). Retrieved from http://www.epw.senate.gov/envlaws/cleanair.pdf DisasterAssistance.gov (2013). Browse By Federal Ag ency. Retrieved from http://www.disasterassistance.gov/disaster-assistan ce/browse-by-federalagency#.UWXctKKTiSr Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000, H.R. 707, 106th Co ngress. (2000). Retrieved from http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-106publ390/pdf/PL AW-106publ390.pdf

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37 APPENDIX A. Chi Test Results Word Combination Sources Expected + Climate + Adaptation 3 10 + Climate + Development 12 10 + Climate + Mitigation 4 10 + Disaster + Adaptation 0 10 + Disaster + Carbon 2 10 + Disaster + Climate 3 10 + Disaster + Conservation 6 10 + Disaster + Development 17 10 + Disaster + Energy 8 10 + Disaster + Greenhouse 2 10 + Disaster + Mitigation 13 10 + Disaster + Sustainable 3 10 + Prepare + Climate 2 10 + Prepare + Energy 7 10 + Prepare + Sustainable 3 10 + Recovery + Climate 8 10 + Recovery + Energy 20 10 + Recovery + Sustainable 10 10 + Relief + Climate 2 10 + Relief + Energy 6 10 + Relief + Sustainable 4 10 + Risk + Climate 4 10 + Risk + Energy 11 10 + Risk + Sustainable 4 10 Chi Test Results 0.00000000052160298831 Equation CHITEST(B2:25,C2:25)