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Investigating leadership practices in successful schools serving ELA learners

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Title:
Investigating leadership practices in successful schools serving ELA learners telling the story
Creator:
Rubin, Wendy
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
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1 electronic file : ;

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Subjects / Keywords:
School principals -- Attitudes ( lcsh )
Educational leadership ( lcsh )
Educational leadership ( fast )
School principals -- Attitudes ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
This study is one of five thematic dissertations, which focus on investigating the leadership practices of principals leading successful schools serving ELA learners. Schools selected for participation in this study had (a) an open enrollment policy, (b) at least 40% of total enrollment consisting of ELL students, (c) a total School Performance Framework (SPF) rating greater than 49% for elementary schools, and great than 45% for middle schools and high schools, (d) at least 50% of the students qualify for a free or reduced lunch, (e) have gains on the CSAP/TCAP and CELA tests for the past three years relative to schools serving the same grade levels, and (f) a principal in place for at least three years. The conceptual framework for this study was constructed from two evidence-based frameworks (VAL-ED Matrix and the ES-I Framework) derived from research on learner-centered leadership. The 360-degree VAL-ED survey provided evidence of the leadership strengths of the principal. From these findings, interview protocol questions were selected. Additionally, a narrative interview protocol was used to uncover critical and life incidents that influenced the development, implementation, and maintenance of the leadership practice of this principal. A cross-case analysis of raw data from four other principal interviews was conducted and themes of life and work experiences were uncovered. Results from this study can be useful to other principals, professional development of principals, and for preparation programs who train future principals.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Colorado Denver. Education
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
School of Education and Human Development
Statement of Responsibility:
by Wendy Rubin.

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|University of Colorado Denver
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|Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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862832723 ( OCLC )
ocn862832723

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! INVESTIGATING LEADER SHIP PRACTICES IN SU CCESSFUL SCHOOLS SERVING ELA LEARNERS: TELLING TH E STORY by Wendy Rubin B. A ., University of Colorado Boulder 19 90 M.Ed., University of Illinois Chicago 1994 A thesis s ubmitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Education Doctorate Doctoral Studies in Education 2013

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! 2013 Wendy Rubin ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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! "" This thesis for the Education Doctorate degree by Wendy Rubin has been approved for the Doctoral Studies in Education Program by Connie L. Fulmer, Chair Carolyn Haug Heather Beck John Cumming April 18, 2013

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! """ Wendy Rubin (Ed D. Doctoral Studies in Education) I nvestigating Leadership Practices in Successful Schools Serving ELA L earners: Telling the Story Thesis directed by Professor Connie L. Fulmer ABSTRACT This study is one of five thematic dissertation s, which focus on investigating the leadership practices of principals leading successful schools serving ELA learners. Schools selected for participation in this study had (a) an open enrollment policy, (b) at least 40% of total enrollment consisting of E LL students, (c) a total School Performance Framework (SPF) rating greater than 49% for elementary schools, and great than 45% for middle sch ools and high s chools, (d) at least 50% of the students qualify for a free or r educed lunch, (e) have gains on the CSAP/TCAP and CELA tests for the past three years relative to schools serving t he same grade levels, and (f) a principal in place for at le as t three years. The conceptual framework for this study was constructed from two evidence based frameworks (VAL ED Matrix and the ES I Framework) derived from research on learne r centered leadership. The 360 degree VAL ED survey prov ided evidence of the lea dership strengths of the principal. From these findings, interview protocol questions were selected. Additionally, a narrative interview protocol was us ed to uncover critical and life incidents that influenced the d evelopment, implementation, and maintenan ce of the leadership prac tice of this principal. A cross case analysis of raw data from four other principal interviews was conducted and themes of life and work experiences were uncovered. Results from this study can be useful to other principals, profess ional development of principals, a nd for preparation programs who train future principals.

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! "# Th e form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: Connie L. Fulmer

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! # ACKNOWLEGDME NT I would like to express my deepest appreciation to Dr. Connie Fulmer, my committee chair, for her guidance and support through this process. Her positive, collaborative spirit as well as her unparalleled availability and counsel made this experience far more rew arding than I could have imagined. Without her, this work would not have been possible. I would like to thank my committee members, Dr. Carolyn Haug, Dr. Heather Beck, and Dr. John Cumming for the time they gave to me through this process. Their thoughtf ul consideration of this study as well as the questions and suggestions they offered helped to move this work to a deeper level. I offer my thanks t o my thematic dissertation colleagues Robert Bishop, Susan Holloway, Jennifer Shank, and Holly Voorhies Car mical for the collaboration and support of the thematic work of this study, particularly in our mining of the literature and development of methodology. Thank you also to the other members of the University of Colorado Denver Ed.D. Cohort III: Alec Barron Georgia Duran, Christina Jean, and Eric Robertson for making the program so enriching through our coursework together. And thank you to the professors at University of Colorado Denver who offered challenging and rewarding learning opportunities througho ut the Ed.D program.

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! #" DEDICATION To my husband Lance and my daughters Scarlett and Stella for their patience, support and love.

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! vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ............................ 1 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ............. 3 Purpose of Study ................................ ................................ ......................... 4 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ..................... 4 Conceptual Frameworks ................................ ................................ ............. 5 VAL ED Matrix ................................ ................................ ...................... 6 Essential Supports and Indicators ................................ ........................... 8 Significance of Study ................................ ................................ .................. 9 Research Assumptions ................................ ................................ .............. 11 Limitations or Delimitations ................................ ................................ ..... 11 Operational Definitions ................................ ................................ ............. 12 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 13 II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ........ 15 Precursors of a Leadership Practice Construct ................................ ......... 1 5 Effective Schools Research ................................ ................................ ... 1 6 Direct and Indirect Principal Effect on Student Achievement .............. 1 9 Instructional Leadership ................................ ................................ ........ 23 Early References to Leadership Practices ................................ ................. 25 Leadership Practices Inventory ................................ ............................. 25 Distributed Leadership Practices ................................ ........................... 26 High Poverty High Performance (HP HP) Research ......................... 31

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! viii Conceptual Frameworks Supporting a Leadership Practice ..................... 33 VAL ED Matrix ................................ ................................ .................... 34 Essential Supports and Indicators (ES I) ................................ ............... 3 5 What Leaders Know about English Language Learners ........................... 37 Definition of Leadership Practice ................................ ............................. 40 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 41 III METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ........................ 43 Method s ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 43 Case Study ................................ ................................ ............................. 4 4 Narrative Inquiry ................................ ................................ ................... 44 Research Design Elements ................................ ................................ ......... 45 Site Selection ................................ ................................ ......................... 45 Subjects ................................ ................................ ................................ 46 Unit of Analysis ................................ ................................ .................... 46 Seven Stages of the Study ................................ ................................ ..... 46 Instruments ................................ ................................ ............................... 48 VAL ED Survey ................................ ................................ .................... 4 9 Leadership Practices Inventory ................................ ............................. 4 9 Narrative Inquiry Protocol ................................ ................................ .... 50 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ......................... 50 VAL ED Survey Data ................................ ................................ ............ 50 Leaders hip Practices Interview Data ................................ ..................... 51 Narrative Inquiry Interview Data ................................ .......................... 51

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! ix Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ............................ 52 VAL ED Data ................................ ................................ ....................... 52 Analysis of Leadership Practices Interview Data ................................ 52 Analysis of Narrative Inquiry Interview Data ................................ ....... 53 Coding Inventories ................................ ................................ ................ 53 Triangulation and Member Checking ................................ ....................... 54 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 55 IV. FINDINGS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 56 Case Study Demographics ................................ ................................ ........ 56 Research Question #1 ................................ ................................ ............... 60 A Leadership Practice Uncovered ................................ .......................... 60 The Leadership Practice Triangle ................................ .......................... 61 Work Focus of the Leadership Practice ................................ ................. 61 Tools and Activities Related to the Work Focus ................................ ... 62 Proximal Goals of the Leadership Practice ................................ ............ 68 Distal Goals or Outcomes of the Leadership Practice ........................... 73 Research Question # 2 ................................ ................................ .............. 75 Research Question # 3 ................................ ................................ .............. 82 Work Related Critical Incidents ................................ ............................. 82 Life Related Critical Incidents ................................ ............................... 8 5 Importance of Story to Leadership Practice ................................ ........... 88 Research Question # 4 ................................ ................................ .............. 89 Common Elements of Critical Incidents (Work and Life) .................... 89

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! x Summary ................................ ................................ .............................. 104 Research Question # 5 ................................ ................................ ............ 104 Definition of a Leadership Practice Prior to Study .............................. 105 Elements of a Leadership Practice that Emerged in Data Analysis .... 105 An Emergent and Applied Definition of a Leadership Practice ......... 107 Summary ................................ ................................ ............................. 107 V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS ......................... 108 Summary of Study ................................ ................................ ................... 108 Conclusions ................................ ................................ .............................. 111 Summary of Key Findings ................................ ................................ .. 112 Relationship of Key Findings to Literature ................................ ......... 113 Discussion of Implications ................................ ................................ .. 118 Recommendations ................................ ................................ .................... 120 Recommendations for P ractice ................................ ............................ 120 Principals ................................ ................................ .............................. 120 School Districts ................................ ................................ .................... 121 Principal Preparation Programs ................................ ............................ 122 Recommendations for Research ................................ .......................... 123 Final Thoughts ................................ ................................ ........................ 124 APPENDIX A. VAL ED Survey ................................ ................................ ..................... 126 B. Leadership Practices Interview Protocol ................................ ................ 132 C. Narrative Inquiry Interview Protocol ................................ ...................... 158

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! xi D. Essential Supports and Indicators Coding Framework ........................... 159 E. Essential Supports and Indicators Codes Aligned with VAL ED Core Components and Key Processes ............................ 160 REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 161

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! xii LIST OF FIGURES F igure 1. VAL ED Matrix Created by Six Core Components and Six Key Processes .......... 6 2. Essential Supports and Indicators Framework ................................ ........................ 9 3. Readine ss Model for School Turnaround Efforts ................................ .................. 32 4. Constituting Elements of a Leadership P ractice ................................ ................... 33 5. Defining a Leadership Practice ................................ ................................ .............. 41

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! xiii LIST OF TABLES T able 1 Core Leadership Practices and Practices Deemed Helpful by Teachers and Principals 2 2 2. Leadership Practices Inventory ................................ ................................ ............... 24 3 Smith Elementary Demographic Trends: 2008 2012 58 4 Leadership Practice Logic Model ................................ 62 5 Smith Elementary School 3 year Growth Data ........... 74 6 Summary of VAL ED Core Components and Key Processes Scores.... 76 7 Mean Effectiveness of Core Components and Key Processes by Respondent Groups ................................ ................. 77 8 Essential Support (ES) and Indicator (I) Code Frequencies (n) Resulting from Transcript Analysis ............................. 7 8 9 Core Components and Key Processes Code Frequencies (n) Resulting from Transcript Analysis ............................. 79 10. Critical Incidents (Work and Life) of Principals A E Common Elements ................................ ....................... 9 0

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! 1 CHAPT ER I INTRODUCTION As the principal of a large Denver area high school, I am acutely aware of the need not only to manage my school well, keep students and adults safe, offer comprehensive choice in course offerings, and administer state and federal assessm ents, but also of the more compelling need to ensure students are learning and growing; that is, achieving academically in a way that prepares them for what lies ahead for each and every one of them. Most students will choose higher education, some will c hoose trade schools, and some will choose to enter directly into the workforce. While the pathways these students will embark upon post high school might be similar, their backgrounds are all quite different. For an increasing number of students, their p ublic school experience includes having to learn English while trying to learn content. Non native English speakers can be found in schools across the United States whether those schools be in rural, suburban, or urban settings. Moral and ethical respons ibility demands that we as educators provide English Language Acquisition learners ( ELA learners ) the same equity of access to education that we offer all students. I, along with my staff, have struggled to understand how to best serve ELA learners in a w ay that demonstrates achievement commensurate with their native English speaking peers. My need to provide leadership in this area is clear, as ELA learner populations continue to grow and their achievement as a group, in most cases, continues to languish The population of ELA learners in the United States is increasing each year. According to the National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition, the

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! 2 population of English language learners enrolled in public schools serving pre kindergarten throu gh grade12 increased by 63.54% between 1994 1995 and 2009 2010, representing more than 5.2 million children. The increase of ELA learners is accompanied by a wide variety of language backgrounds, as there are as many as 6,500 living languages spoken a nd used in the world (Rieger & McGrail, 2006). Many schools and school districts across the country have struggled to understand how to teach students who are not native English speakers. Further, s chool leaders have struggled to know what professional development to offer staff to enable them to better serve ELA learners, and they have struggled in working with the s tudents and their families. Certainly, the increase in numbers of ELA learners from diverse backgrounds has outpaced the ability of the di strict, school, and school leaders to offer meaningful academic programming for students. In Denver Public Schools (DPS), the second larg est school district in Colorado and fastest growing urban school district in the United States, ELA learners in the 2 011 2012 school year made up 34% of the approximately 81,800 students enrolled. In some schools, the population of ELA learners is as high as 78%. In 2009, there were 123 different languages identified as being the primary language spoken in homes of stu dents attending DPS schools (retrieved from http://ela.dpsk12.org/ June 4, 2012). While it might appear that effecting growth in achievement in such a diverse and mounting ELA learner population would be improbable at best, there are in fact schools that h ave established growth patterns in ELA learner populations and are demonstrating continued movement toward the academic achievement and success of many children and young adults

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! 3 Schools are inherently human organizations. Ideally, they exist to provide academic and social opportunities that serve not only the individual but the greater good of society as well. It stands to reason that leadership of these institutions is fundamental to the success of the schools, and hence to the success of the students that school leaders serve. Put simply, p rincipal leadership practices and behaviors impact achievement. Understanding leadership practices and behaviors of principals in successful schools serving ELA learners bisects two critical areas of educational r esearch and adds value to study in both areas individually, as well as in a third, combined arena of leadership for ELA learner achievement. Statement of Problem A compelling question exists: Why do some schools have documented success in their work with ELA learners while other schools show no or little gain in academic achievement indicators? U nderstanding what sets successful schools apart from those that cont inue to struggle in meeting ELA learner needs is elusive. Thinking about this problem systemi cally and at the school level, a review of the literature on the effects of school leadership indicates that leadership impacts student achievement. Studying principal leadership in successful schools serving ELA learners can help to define those leadersh ip practices that are value added for student achievement. This case study is designed to discover and name the specific leadership practices and stories behind principals' success in schools that are showing strong achievement trends in ELA learner popul ations.

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! 4 Purpose The purpose of this case study which is part of a larger multiple case thematic dissertation study focused on the leadership practices of principals leading successful schools serving ELA learners is to identify specific and particularized leadership practices identified by the principal as making the difference in the school reaching the levels of student achievement that resulted in this school having gains on the CSAP and CELA tests for three co ncurrent years Research Questions Research questions that guide this study are listed below. 1. Using the definition of a leadership practice as a guide ( develop ed in c hapter two ) what are the specific and particularized self ide ntified leadership practices being used by the principal in this study to ensure a positive impact of that school on student growth/achievement? 2. How do the identified successful leadership practices align with key conceptual and evidence based fra meworks (VAL ED Matrix and t he Essential Supports & In dicators Framework ) used in this study ? 3. How do stories of this principal's critical incidents (both work and life related) contribute t o an understanding of how self identified leadership practices emerged and flourished within this particular school and comm unity context ? 4. What are the common elements of principals' critical incidents both work and life related, that contribute to an understanding of how the principals

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! 5 develope d, implemented, and maintained these successful leadership practices ? 5. Based on a review of relevant literature (the conceptual underpinnings and evidenced based strategies) and evidence gathered in this study, what is an applied definition of a leadership practice? Conceptual Frameworks Two specific evidence based conceptual frameworks that examine leadership practices and behaviors linked to student outcomes have been selected to guide this study. The first conceptual framework, the VAL ED Matrix, comes from evidence based research (Goldring, Porter, Murphy, Elliott & Cravens, 2009) underpinning the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education. The VAL ED Matrix, created by the intersection of six core components and six key processes, illustrates 36 specific areas of learner centered leadership. The second conceptual framework, the Essential Supports and Indicators (ES I) framew ork, comes from the work of researchers (Bryk, Sebring, Allensworth, Luppescu & Easton, 2010) studying school improvement in Chicago. The ES I framework is built from five essential supports and fourteen indicators. According to Bryk et al ( 2010 ) their work was significantly influenced by several areas of work. These influences inc lude prior research on effective schools, ongoing CCSR [Consortium on Chicago School Research] research in Chicago, as well as experiences in school intervention of the Center for School Improvement at the University of Chicago, along with susta ined conver sations with local sta keholders assembled by the Chicago Public Schools. Both of these conceptual frameworks are used in the design of this study, the

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! 6 development of interview protocols, and to guide data analysis. The two conceptual framework s are detaile d below. VAL ED Matrix VAL ED core components and key processes produce a matrix of 36 areas in which principals can be evaluated (see Figure 1 below). The core components that the VAL ED identifies are those characteristics within schools that have been shown through research to support learning and enhance teaching (Goldring et al 2009). The core components are broad categories that describe a culture of learning and professional behaviors. The six core components include: Figure 1 VAL ED matrix created by six core components and six key processes. 1. High Standards for Student Learning individual, team, and school goals for rigorous student academic and social learning. 2. Rigorous Curriculum ambitious academic content provided to all students in core academic subjects.

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! 7 3. Quality Instruction effective instructional practices that maximize student academic and social learning. 4. Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior integrated communities of professional practice in the service of student academic and social learning. There is a healthy school environment in which student learning is the central focus. 5. Connections to External Communities linkages to family and/or other people and institutions in the community that advance academic and soci al learning 6. Systemic Performance Accountability individual and collective responsibility among leadership, faculty, and students for achieving the rigorous academic and social learning goals. The key processes are actions of the principal that influence the school community and teachers within the core components in specific ways. The six key processes include: 1. Planning articulating the shared direction and coherent policies, practices, and procedures for realizing high standards of student performance. 2. Implementing leaders implement; they put into practice the activities necessary to realize high standards for student performance. 3. Supporting l eaders create enabling conditions; they secure and use the financial, political, technological, and human reso urces necessary to promote academic and social learning 4. Advocating l eaders promote the diverse needs of students within and beyond the school. Advocating for the best interests and needs of all children is a key process of learning centered leadership.

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! 8 5. Co mmunicating l eaders develop, utilize, and maintain systems of exchange among members of the school and with its external communities. 6. Monitoring systematically collecting and analyzing data to make judgments that guide decisions and actions for continuou s improvement. The VAL ED Matrix was chosen as the conceptual framework for this study for several reasons. The matrix identifies specific, research based components and processes that provide a rich data source when studying lead ership. The principal's adeptness within core components and key processes is assessed not only by the principal, but also by the teachers in the building and the supervisor of the principal. This allows for deeper contextual understanding of the work of the principal in that pa rticular milieu. Additionally, the framework lends itself to guiding the development of the interview protocols and research instruments for this study, as well as the analysis of data. Essential Supports and Indicators The second framework, the ES I, is constructed of five essential supports directly related to school improvement (see Figure 2 below). These essential supports have a total of 14 additional indicators that were derived from research in the Chicago Public Schools (Bryk et al. 2010) and identified leadership as the driver of other practices, supports and conditions that impact student outcomes. The five essential supports include (a) leadership as the driver for change, (b) parent community ties, (c) professional capacity, (d) a student centered learning climate, and (e) instructional guidance (p. 46). The fourteen key indicators of the ES I framework are (a) school leadership, (b) teacher ties to the community, (c) parent involvement, (d) teacher background, (e) frequency of professiona l development, (f) quality of professional development, (g) changes in human

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! 9 resources (h) work orientation, (i) professional community, (j) safety and order, (k) academic support, (l) curriculum alignment, (m) applications emphasis, and (n) basic skills e mphasis. Figure 2 Essential supports and indicators framework. The ES I framework offers contextual depth as well as a systems perspective to this study. It will be used, in addition to the core components and key processes of the VAL ED Matrix, to deve lop interview protocols to be used with the principal. The analysis of interview data through the lens of the ES I framework and the VAL ED Matrix will broaden the scope of study of the principal s leadership practices. Significance of Study This study is significant because it is focused on the leadership practices of principals of successful schools serving ELA learners during a time when the numbers of ELA learners in school populations across the United States is growing (National Clearing house for English Language Acquisition, 2011). While much has been written about leadership, little if any research has identified proven leadership practices for

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! 10 producing student achievement in context, and much less research has been conducted on how pr incipals lead successful schools that serve ELA learners Additionally, this study is significant because of the selection of the conceptual frameworks used to study the issue of leadership for ELA learners With the development of the VAL ED Survey instr ument and publication of the extensive body of work by Bryk et al. (2010) on improving schools resulting in the ES I framework (e.g., five essential supports and fourteen key indicators for success), strong evidence based conceptual frameworks and tools ar e now available for use in conducting case studies to identify specific and particularized leadership practices of principals currently serving i n schools identified as being successful in serving ELA learners Evaluating leadership practices of principal s leading successful schools serving ELA learners can contribute to more thoughtful hiring of principals, specific and targeted professional development for principals, and augmentation and support of particular leadership practices. Statistically signifi cant quantitative evidence, as well as compelling qualitative evidence, exists to support the connection between principals' actions, values, and behaviors with improvement in schools that consequently leads to improvements in student achievement (Day et a l. 2009, p.1). Finally, by examining successful school leadership with the added lens of achievement in ELA learner populations, this case study will help to highlight specific leadership practices or evidence of the structural definition of leadership practices in general that may better serve a typically under served population of students and families. Investigatin g leadership practices of principals in schools that show sustained growth in ELA learner populations has the potential to offer valuable insight for

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! 11 researchers, policy makers and district leadership. All of these examples illustrate why this study is war ranted and this research is significant. Research Assumptions The design of this study includes several research assumptions. The criteria used to pick the school eligible to participate as a "successful school" was determined through a concurrent stud y being conducted in Denver Public Schools by the University of Colorado Denver. The school selected for this case study was identified as being successful based on five criteria for inclusion, one of which was growth as evidenced through standardized ach ievement data provided by the CSAP/TCAP and CELA. Another assumption of this study is that the leadership practices of the principal impacted student ac hievement growth through having been in place as principal at that specific school for at least three years. A third assumption is that the evidence based leadership frameworks used in this study to create the interview protocols and the related codes will be useful in identifying the specific and particularized leadership practices that most impact stud ent achievement at this school. A final assumption is that while specific and particularized leadership practices that are identified may not be transferable to other schools with a high percentage of ELA learners, what is learned about how these principa ls use leadership practices (leaders, followers, and contexts) can be generalized and contribute to a better understanding of the leadership practice construct. Limitations /Delimitations Limitations of this study include the choice of the school and it s principal. Does the school site and principal best fit the learners and leader this study seeks to identify? In Denver Public Schools where this study takes place, only 22 schools out of 162

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! 12 qualified for potential participation based upon growth in stu dent achievement. Of the 22 schools that initially qualified, only 13 remained eligible for participation when assessed for principal tenure of three or more years at a particular school. Thus, limitation exists in the size of the pool of candidates for the study. Additionally, the results of th e specific and particularized leadership practices cannot be generaliz ed to other principals and schools. These limitations are acknowledged, and the study de sign addresses them as follows: t he case study school and principal were chosen based upon the large number of identified ELA learner s, the number of students living in poverty at that school, and the tenure of three years or more at that school of the principal. Moreover, t he school has an open enrollment po licy, which is critical in ensuring that students at the school are of varied backgrounds and abilities, and not specially selected by the school for attendance based upon prior academic performance. Operational Definitions The following operational defi nitions are used for the purposes of this study: ELL (English Language Learner) Widely accepted term used to identify students who are not native English speakers. ELA learners (English Language Acquisition Learner) Term used by Denver Public Schools t o identify students who are not native English speakers. ES I (Essential Supports and Indicators Framework) a set of defined practices derived from the work of Bryk et al. (2010) that provide the composition for a framework for leadership and school imp rovement. CELA (Colorado English Language Assessment) Statewide test used in Colorado to assess students who are identified as English Language Learners.

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! 13 CSAP (Colorado State Assessment Program) Statewide test used in Colorado to assess students in reading and writing in grades 3 10, and in science in grades 5, 8, and 10. Replaced by TCAP in 2012. TCAP (Transitional Colorado Assessment Program) Statewide test used in Colorado to assess students in reading and writing in grades 3 10, and in sci ence in grades 5, 8, and 10. VAL ED (Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education) an evidence based matrix that evaluates the intersection of six core concepts and 6 key processes. Summary This chapter discusses the growing number of ELA learners nationally and locally, and the need for understanding of leadership practices that promote ELA learner achievement. A lack of knowledge exists with regard to the specific and particularized school leadership practices of principals that make a differenc e in student achievement as measured by growth scores on standardized tests. Research questions have been identified that will guide this study in the focus upon leadership practices of principals leading successful schools serving ELA learners Two ev idence based conceptual frameworks are presented in this chapter as foundational to this study. The first framework, the VAL ED Matrix, focuses on learner centered leadership with six core components and six key processes. The second conceptual framework the ES I, developed by Bryk et al. (2010), offers leadership as the driver for change in influencing the five essential supports and fourteen indicators in the work of school improvement. This research is significant in several ways. Increasing numbers of ELA learners in the United States demand that schools be responsive to the specific educational needs

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! 14 of this population. The selection of two conceptual frameworks of leadership that are focused upon student achievement and school improvement add depth and breadth to the discussion of leadership practices. While this specific case study is contextually dependent, findings with regard to leadership practices can be generalized beyond this one principal and one school.

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! 15 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter presents a review of literature regarding leadership practices in schools. Areas of research discussed include the following sections: (a ) precursors of a leadership practice construct, (b ) earlier referen ces to leadership practices, (c ) conceptual frameworks that support defining a leadership practice and (d) what we know about leadership for ELA learners The organization of this research illustrates the importance of leadership t o scho ol outcomes over the decades. The f irst section organizes the key references that serve as precursors to a leadership practice construct an d includes three areas: (a) effective schools research, (b) direct and indirect principal effects on student achievem ent, (c) and inst ructional leadership. The second section targets the literature with early references to the idea of a leadership practice. These include the Leadership Practice Inventory (LPI), the High Performance High Poverty (HP HP) literature, and t he underpinnings of distributed leadership The third section examines two conceptual frameworks drawn from this literature that best support the definition of the construct of a leadership practice. This chapter ends with a compilation from the literatu re of what works and what we know about leadership for impacting the academic success of ELA learners. Precursors of a Leadership Practice Construct To create a definition and understanding of principal leadership practices in schools, reviewing prior research and foundational literature is critical. Research about effective schools, instructional leadership, and principal behaviors provide context an d

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! 16 background in the quest to define leadership practices and create a leadership practice construct. Effective Schools Research In 1966, the U.S. Department of Education commissioned researcher James Coleman to author a paper discussing the effectivene ss of schools in the United States. In his paper, which came to be known as the 1966 Coleman Report Equality of Educational Opportunity, Coleman concluded that schools did not make a significant difference in student success. Coleman assert ed that fami ly background made the difference in whether a student could learn and be successful, and that schools could do little for students who came from poor homes particularly those that did not value or understand the purpose of education (retrieved from http: //www.mes.org/esr.html). In response to the 1966 Coleman Report numerous researchers (Brookover & Lezotte, 1978; Edmonds, 1982; Purkey & Smith, 1983; Rutter, Maughan, Mortimore & Ouston 1979) set out to prove that indeed schools do make a difference and conducted studies that are foundational to what would become the effective schools research movement. The seminal wor k of Brookover and Lezotte (1979 ) compares the differences in effectiveness between schools improving in student achievement and those schools losing ground in student achievement. They offer the following 10 recommendations for imp roving student achievement: (a) understand the difference among achieving schools and declin ing schools and the use of information by school staffs to re ori ent their efforts toward student achievement, (b) set goal s in reading and math and make them non negotiable, (c) increase the emphasis of master y of basic skills, (d) attend to achievement of minimum level of academic obje ctives by all students, (e) empha size the role of the

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! 17 principal as a director of instruction and evaluator of the schools instructional program and accou ntable for improvement, (f) use educational assessment and evaluation measures as a means of accountability, (g) emphasize teacher profe ssional development and professional responsibility to educate their students, (h) hold teachers responsible and accountable for student attainment of basic goals, (i) monitor time spent on direct instructional activities that lead to mastery of bas ic obje ctives and (j) define the teachers role as a production oriented job designed to accomplish defined g oals The work of Br ookover and Lezzote serve d and continues to serve as an anchor of effective schools research even while many others have added to ef fective schools research and produced a variety of findings and recommendations. In his own ongoing research to prove Coleman wrong and to document that schools can and do make a difference, Edmonds (1982, p. 4) identified five characteristics of an effect ive school based upon his work with successful schools that had high poverty rates These five characteristics are: (a) the principal's leadership and attention to the quality of instruction, (b) a pervasive and broadly understood instructional focus, (c) an orderly, safe climate conducive to teaching and learning, (d) teacher behaviors that convey the expectation that all students are expected to obtain at least minimum mastery, and (e) the use of measures of pupil achievement as the basis for program eva luation. Edmonds concludes that "All of these programs presume that almost all school age children are educable and that their educability derives from the nature of the schools to which they are sent (p. 10)." This strongly supports the need for awareness of the importance of school culture, which is discussed further in the section below.

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! 18 Purkey and Smith (1983) argue that culture is the element that distinguishes an academically effective school. The culture of an effective school includes stru ctures, processes and a climate that values and stresses successful teaching and learning for student achievement and success. They further identify two sets of variables that interact in the quest for effective schools. The first set of variables is org anizational and structural; the second set of variables is described as process variables. Purkey and Smith's (1983) effective schools organizational and structural variables include: (a) school site management, (b) instructional leadership, (c) staff sta bility, (d) curriculum articulation and organization, (e) schoolwide staff development, (f) parental involvement and support, (g) schoolwide recognition of academic success, (h) maximized learning time, and (i) district support. The four process variables are: (a) collaborative planning and collegial relationships, (b) sense of community, (c) clear goals and high expectations, and (d) order and discipline. Individually, t he cultural variables, as well as the intersection of the se variables add value to t he overall school experience for students and staff. Purkey and Smith's findings emphasize many important factors that further contribute to the understanding of effective schools and the body of effective schools research. Effective schools research results do not, however, provide direction or steps to create more effective schools (Hannaway & Talbert, 1993). Effective schools research instead set s the stage for future research in areas includ ing instructional leadership, a topic that has gained sig nificant traction in the field of educat ional leadership. Examination of principal behaviors will add further dep th to the e ffective schools

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! 19 research and further support of ide a of leadership practice and its connection to student achievement. Direct or I ndirect Principal Behaviors Influencing Student Achievement For many years, there was great debate as to whether principal leadership behaviors made a difference in student achievement outcomes. An understanding of the direct and indirect effects of school principals on student achievement can be obtained through review of relevant literature. In this section, research studies will be presented that support the idea that principal leadership beha viors are fundamental to the success of schools. In research conducted by Hallinger, Bickman and Davis (1996), 87 U.S. elementary schools were used to explore the extent of the principals direct and indirect leadership effects on reading achievement. The ir study utilized a multidimensional model to measure principals' effect on student learning. Data gathered from principal and teacher surveys and student test scores, relationships between several context variables, instructional leadership, instructi onal climate, and reaching achievement were analyzed. Results of the research showed that while there were no evident direct effects of principal instructional leadership on student achievement, there was evidence that the principal can have an indirect i mpact on student achievement (Hallinger et al. 1996). Student achievement outcomes can be influenced by the actions of the principal upon the climate of the school. In particular, school mission, student opportunity to learn, and teacher expectations fo r learning can be widely influenced by the principal Similarly, Bossert, Dwyer, Rowan and Lee (1982) assert "A number of studies have found that principals in high achieving schools tend to emphasize achievement. This involves setting

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! 20 instructional goal s, developing performance standards for students, and expressing optimism about the ability of students to meet instructional goals" (p. 37). Other research studies support that the perception of the principal as a strong instructional leader promotes stu dent achievement through influencing the components of a positive school wide learnin g climate ( Brookover, Schwei tzer, Schneider, Beady, Flood & Wisenbaker, 1978; Hallinger et al. 1996; Sebring & Bryk, 2000). In related research on the role of the prin cipal as an instructional leader, Bossert et al. (1982) developed a framework for understanding the principal leadership role. Several critical areas were considered in this work, including instructional organization, school climate, influence on behavior and the context of principal management to make sense of what principals do as instruction managers to impact student achievement. The Bossert et al (1982) study emphasizes the multifaceted nature of the role of the principal as instructional leader. Additionally, the researchers assert that the school's social st ructure and organization are important to consider as are climate and principal leadership styles. These factors can impact the principal as well as overall school success. Finally, v ery spec ifically, the study conclude s that "principals' management behavior has both direct and indirect effects on student learning" (Bossert et al., 1982, p. 54). Branch, Hanushek, and Rivkin (2013) conducted a study in Texas between the years 1995 to 2001 to m easure the impact of effective principals on student achievement. Using data from observations of 7,420 principals and 28,147 annual observations, student achievement data over several years, as well as other indicators, the researchers created effectiven ess measures that could be quantified through student achievement. T he

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! 21 researchers were able to conclude that "highly effective principals raise the achievement of a typical student in their schools between two and seven months in a single school year; in effective principals lower achievement by the same amount" (p. 1). Aligned with direct and indirect leadership behaviors of the principal, the importance of collective efficacy and effort underscores McREL's Balanced Leadership Framework, in which a pu rposeful community led by the principal underlies all improvement efforts. Purposeful community is defined as a community "with the collective efficacy and capability to develop and use assets to accomplish purposes and produce outcomes that matter to all community members through agreed upon processes" ( Waters, Marzano & McNulty, 2005, p. 79). Within the framework of purposeful community, McREL identifies eight leadership responsibilities: (a) affirmation, (b) communication, (c), culture, (d) ideals/bel iefs, (e) input, (f) relationships, (g) situational awareness, and (h) visibility. These eight leadership responsibilities require action steps by the principal that can be categorized as direct and indirect leadership behavior. In their study of improve d student learning in schools, Seashore Louis, Leithwood, Wahlstrom and Anderson (2010), identify Core Leadership Practices and Practices Deemed Helpful by Teachers and Principals that principals and teachers in subject schools identified as purposefully i mpacting student achievement (see T able 1). These core leadership practices and practices are representative of direct and indirect leadership behaviors that add value to a school and its ability to serve students in an effort to improve achievement. These identified practices indicate that care and attention must be paid to myriad facets of a school, including but not limited to classroom instruction.

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! 22 Table 1 Core Leadership Practices and Practices Deemed Helpful by Teachers and Principals Core Leadership Practices Practices Identified as Instructionally Helpful Setting directions Building a shared vision Fostering the acceptance of group goals Creating high performance expectations Communicating the direction Focusing the school on goals for student achievement Focusing teachers' attention on goals for student achievement Focusing teachers' attention on expectations for student achievement Staying current Developing people Providing individualized support and consideration Offering intellectual stimulation Modeling appropriate values and practices Keeping track of teachers' PD needs Providing general support/open door Being easily accessible Providing backup for teachers for student discipline and with parents Providing mentoring opportunities for new teachers Redesigning the organization Building collaborative cultures Modifying organizational structures to nurture collaboration Building productive relations with families and communities Connecting the school to the wider community Creating structures and opportunities for teachers to collaborate Managing the instructional program Staffing the instructional program Monitoring progress of students, teachers and the school Providing instructional support Aligning resources Buffering staff from distractions to their work Monitoring teachers' work in the classroom Providing instructional resources and materials

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! 23 It is clearly established that principal behaviors, both direct and indirect, can impact stu dent achievement outcomes. The research presented acknowledges the numerous roles of the school principal ; in particular it recognizes the importance of instructional leadership, which is discussed in the next section. Instructional Leadership In order to facilitate school improvement for the purpose of increased student achievement, principals must demonstrate strong skills in the area of instructional leadership. Strong principal leadership behaviors have been shown through a variety of research to co rrelate with increased student achievement (Blase & Blase, 1999; Cotton, 2003; Glickman, Gordon & Ross Gordon, 1995; Marzano, Waters & McNulty, 2005 ; Smith & Andrews, 1989 ). Descriptions of instructional leadership can be found in this section. In 198 9, Smith and Andrew s described instructional leadership as having four roles or dimensions: (a) resource provider, (b) instructional resource, (c) communicator, and (d) visible presence. Blase and Blase (1999) established a Reflection Growth (RG) model th at identified the following characteristics of instructional leadership: (a) encouraging and facilitating the study of teaching and learning, (b) facilitating collaborative efforts, (c) establishing coaching relationships among teachers, (d) using instruct ional research to make decisions, and (e) using principals of adult learning when dealing with teachers. Glickman, Gor don and Ross Gordon (1995) establish the following as instructional leadership behaviors: (a) direct assistance teachers in their day to day activities, (b) development of collaborative groups among staff, (c) design and procurement of effective staff development activities, (d) curriculum d evelopment, and

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! 24 (e) the use of action research ( as cited in Marzano et al. 2005). Research supports that instructional leadership for student achievement involves a vested school community working in concert with the titular leader, the principal. Loo king more specifically at the instructional leadership actions of principals in schools, Cotton (2003) summarized research from 81 studies (post 1985 research) focused on what principals in successful schools do and came up with "26 principal behaviors tha t contribute to student achievement" (p. ix). These behaviors fall into five categories: (a) establishing a clear focus on student learning including having a vision, clear learning goals, and high expectations for all students, (b) interactions and relat ionships that include communication and interaction, emotional/interpersonal support, visibility and accessibility, and parent/community outreach and involvement, (c) school culture which supports shared leadership/decision making, collaboration, support o f risk taking, and continuous improvement, and (d) instruction that involves discussing instructional issues, observing classrooms and giving feedback, supporting teacher autonomy, and protecting instructional time, and (e) accountability monitoring progr ess and using student progress data for program improvement (pp. ix x). In another study u sing quantitative research methodology, Waters, Marzano and McNulty (2005) have identified 21 Leadership Responsibilities (in alphabetical order): affirmation, chang e agent, communication, contingent rewards, culture, discipline, flexibility, focus, ideals/beliefs, input, intellectual s timulation, involvement with curriculum/instruction/assessment, knowledge of curriculum/instruction/assessment monitor/evaluate, opti mize, order, and outreach. The impact of these 21 Leadership Responsibilities are further defined by their effect sizes, which range from .15 for

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! 25 contingent rewards, which refers to recognizing and rewarding individual accomplishments; to .33 for situatio nal awareness, which means that the school leader is aware of the nuances and undercurrents in the school. Waters et al., (2005) explain that t he school leader then can use this information to address current and potential issues and concerns, depending on the current school context and prioriti zed needs Instructional l eadership behaviors are clearly recognized through the research and literature as being important in s chools. Instructional l eadership behaviors, however, are only part of the story. The early conception and identification of leadership practices by researchers will add further dimension and depth to the principal/school leadership discussion. Early References to Leadership P ractices While the critical nature of principal leadership behaviors is firmly established in the research, there are numerous important early references to leadership practices that must be acknowledged. A brief discussion is warranted about each of the following: The Leadership Practice Inventory, distributed leadership practices, and high poverty high performance research. Leadership Practice s Inventory (LPI) The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI), developed by Kouzes and Posner (2007 ), based upon their case study research of leaders, includes five areas of leadership practices that are further divided i nto ten commitments (see Table 2 ). The LPI provides groundwork toward defining leadership practice as it aligns practices to specific commitments. The commitments within the practices require that the principal engage and interact with others for the benefit of the school community. The LPI acknowledges that principals do not act as isolates. The focus upon interaction and engagement moves

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! 26 us to the next section and the concept of distributed leadership, which moves further toward leadership practice defined. Table 2 Leadership Practices Inventory PRACTICES COMMITMENTS Model the Way Find Your Voice Set the Example Inspire a Shared Vision Envision the Future Enlist Others Challenge the Process Search for Opportunities Experiment and Take Risks Enable Other to Act Foster Collaboration Strengthen Others Encourage Others to Act Recognize Contributions Celebrate Values and Victories Distributed Leadership Practices Distributed leadership practices are those that focus attention beyond a single leader perspective toward the interactions of leaders with and within context, environment and followers (Gronn, 2002; Spillan e, Halverson & Diamond, 2001). The theory of distributed leadership is grounded in activity theory and distributed cognition (Gronn, 2002; Spillane, Halverson & Diamond, 2001). Diamond explains that activity theory is about the way a system works with reg ard to a particular activity. There are

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! 27 numerous contributing factors to any activity that move it beyond a single action. Distributed cognition requires, according to Diamond, thinking "about how sense making is stretched over social interaction and arti facts in an environment. The context and social system matter" (Retrie ved from http://www.uknow.gse.harvard.edu/leadership/leadership002a.html). The amalgamations of these two concepts provide foundation for the conceptual understanding of distributed leadership. Spillane and Diamond (2007) offer that a distributed perspec tive of leadership in schools recognizes that leading requires the interaction of leaders, followers and situation. Furthermore, the distributed leadership framework, according to Spillane, et. al (2001), examines how leadership responsibilities and action s are distributed via positional and informal leadership. Beyond the distribution of leadership responsibilities, it is important to investigate the macro and micro activities and tasks that school leaders must attend to in their practice. The analysis of micro tasks those tasks that are day to day work, and macro functions the larger scale work, is critical to inspecting distributed leadership in schools as well as to understanding the interplay between leaders, followers, and situation. The viewpoint that "three elements leaders, followers, and situation in interaction mutually constitute leadership practice" (p. 8) is shared by others (Gronn, 2002; Spillane, Halverson & Diamond, 2004) and is foundational to the definition of leadership practice proff ered in this thematic dissertation study of leadership practices of principals of successful schools serving ELA learners. There is a mistaken belief that distributed leadership is "any form of shared, collaborative, or extended leadership practice" (Spil lane, 2006, p. 5). A more accurate

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! 28 understanding is grounded in the idea that distributed leadership emphasizes the actions of the leader in conjunction with the nature of interactions between the leadership practice and further interaction with formal an d informal leaders, followers, and situation (Gronn, 2002; Spillane, 2006; Spillane, Halverson & Diamond, 2001, 2004). Spillane and Diamond (2001) are clear in their suggestion that "leadership practice is not simply a function of an individual leader's ab ility, skill, charisma and cognition. While individual leaders and their attributes do matter in constituting leadership practice, they are not all that matters" (p.27). From a distributed perspective, the investigation of leadership must include the stud y of purposeful activity in the environment in which it naturally occurs. From this evolves two aspects to distributed leadership practice the leader plus aspect and the practice aspect. The leader plus aspect refers to the idea that many individuals ar e involved in leadership within an organization. These roles, as referenced prior, are both formal and informal. The practice aspect of distributed leadership underscores the interactions of school leaders with others in the organizational situation "a w eb of leaders, followers, and their situations that give form to leadership practice" (p. 7). Spillane and Diamond (2007) conclude "these three elements leaders, followers, and situations in interaction mutually constitute leadership practice" (p. 8). Fro m a distributed perspective, the first of these three elements, leaders and leadership spans across many within an organization who assume leadership roles and responsibili ties (Spillane & Diamond, 2007 ) and can be characterized by types of co leading: (a ) collaborated distribution leadership work carried out by multiple leaders working together at one time and place, (b) collective distribution leadership work carried out separately but interdependently, and (c) coordinated distribution leadership

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! 29 w ork carried out in a sequence of steps carried out in logical order following completion of prior steps. Spillane and Diamond (2007) frequently describe this interaction as stretching. Followers, the second element, references people who assume both leade rship and followership positions and interactions between the positions are multi directional. For Spillane and Halverson (2007) "followers are a defining element of a leadership practice; in interactions with leaders and aspects of the situation, follower s contribute to defining leadership practice" (p. 9). The third element of practice the situation makes it more or less difficult to engage in leadership work. Leaders and followers interact with situational characteristics, which can be fluid and changi ng. Therefore the situation also helps to define distributed practices of leadership. Spillane and Harris (2008) suggest that the popularity of a distributed perspective of leadership can be attributed to three main causes: normative power, representatio nal power, and empirical power. Normative power refers to the idea that distributed leadership reflects the changes to what leadership practice looks like in schools in current context. Spillane and Harris (2008) submit that the increase and change in th e nature of leadership tasks and responsibilities in schools: Has required leadership to be actively and purposefully distributed within the school. The model of the single, heroic leader is at last being replaced with leadership that is focused upon teams rather than individuals and places a greater emphasis upon t eacher, support staff and students as leaders. (p. 31). The representational power of distributed leadership lies in the alternative approaches to leadership that have emerged because of increased external demands and pressures placed upon schools in rec ent years. Schools have had to redefine and restructure their

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! 30 work and their workforce, creating the need for expertise and leadership outside traditional role boundaries. Finally, distributed leadership has empirical power. The body of research to supp ort distributed leadership as a means to increasing student achievement and impacting positive organizational outcomes in schools is well established. This initial description of distributed leadership moves thinking about leadership beyond the concepts of traits, behaviors, principles or commitments. The idea of distributed leadership instead moves understanding toward the idea that leadership practice in schools includes numerous leaders and followers and that leadership practice is not the domain of on e particular individual in one particular role. Distributed leadership recognizes that individuals move in and out of leadership and followership roles, and situation and context interact with that movement in ways that can engender or inhibit school lead ership. Harris (2010) argues that this construct of a distributed leadership practice provides a framework that is conceptual and analytic in the study of interactions. Gronn (2002) proposes that distributed leadership does not simply include the exchang es and influences of various individuals, but relies on "three forms of concretively patterned and reproduced activity based conduct, each representing varying degrees of structural solidity: spontaneous collaboration, intuitive working relations, and inst itutionalized practices" (p. 446). Distributed leadership research lays the groundwork for the critical nature of context and interaction in leadership. Research in the area of High Poverty High Performance (HP HP) schools furthers the understanding of distributed leadership in educational settings for the purposes of student achievement.

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! 31 High Poverty High Performance (HP HP) Research Calkins, Genther, Belfore and Lash (2007) provide research findings that share how a small number of schools which are similar to the lowest performing schools in the country are successfully serving high poverty student populations Their findings show that these HP HP schools exhibit three char acteristics. The researchers present these three characteristics and related elements in their Readiness Model for School Turnaround (see Figure 3). The implications of this work are that in order for schools to be successful in school turnaround or improvement work, they need to assess thei r readiness for change in three key areas: (a) readiness to learn, (b) readiness to teach, and (c) readiness to act. In the first key area, readiness to learn the three school characteristics deemed necessary for improvement are: (a) safety, discipline, and student engagement students must feel secure and inspired to learn, (b) schools take action against adversity and directly address their students' poverty driven deficits, and (c) closer student adult relationships have to be encouraged and nurtured in order for students to have positive and enduring mentor/teacher relationships. For the second area, readiness to teach, the following characteristics must be present: (a) if staff feel a deep accountability and missionary zeal for student achievement, then a shared responsibility for student achievement will be present in that school, (b) when teachers are able to personalize instruction by basing that instruction on both diagnostic assessment and adjusting time on task for learning experiences, and (c) a pervasive professional teaching culture exists where the practice of continuous improvement occurs through collaboration in job embedded learning. The

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! 32 Figure 3 The readiness model for school turnaround efforts. third key area, readiness to act, speaks to an organization's capacity to act in these three areas: (a) resource authority school leaders can make mission driving decisions regarding people, time, money, and prog rams, (b) resource ingenuity l eaders are adept at securing additional resources and l everaging partner relationships and (c) agility in the face of turbulence leaders, teachers, and systems are flexible and inventive in responding to constant unrest. This particular body of work on turnaround schools in general and th is specific readiness model described and illustrated above was selected for inclusion in this literature review for two reasons. The first is that it is a newer and more advanced version of the school effectiveness research study, but much more nuanced. T he second is that it provides and supports the search in this study for an applicable definition of the construct

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! 33 of a leadership practice. Added to this literature review, a clear er picture emerges of the complex nature of context in which a school leader must work. Conceptual Frameworks that Support Defining a Leadership Practice Spillane, Halverson and Diamond (2004) define a leadership practice as an interaction between leaders, followers, and situation (see F igure 4). Context is a critical component to understanding leadership practice in that the interface of leaders, followers, and practice is primary, and not ancillary, to leadership practice. The two conceptual frameworks selected for this study both fo cus on leadership that is learner centered, and can be used to further define and contextualize leadership practice beyond those described by Spillane et al. (2004). Spillane's conclusion that "to study leadership practice we need to study leaders in acti onour distributed perspective suggests the need for more complex approaches to studying the expertise of leaders" (p. 38) supports the integration of additional conceptual frameworks for the purpose of Figure 4 Constituting elements of a leadership practice. studying principal leadership practices in successful schools serving ELA learners. The two frameworks chosen the VAL ED Matrix and the ES I Framework, have defined

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! 34 components, processes, supports and ind icators respectively that will be useful in defining leadership practice as a construct. Each framework and how they will be used to further define the construct of a leadership practice are d iscussed in the sections below. Vanderbilt Assessment of Leade rship in Education (VAL ED) One of two specific conceptual frameworks used in this study that examine leadership behaviors that are linked to student outcomes, the VAL ED is a comprehensive, multi faceted evaluation and assessment tool. According to Elli ott, Murphy, Goldring and Porter (2009), "The VAL ED uses 360 degree feedback, from teachers, principals, and supervisors" (p. 5). The VAL ED was selected for this study because the VAL ED can support the definition and recognition of what constitutes a principal engaging in a leadership practice. The VAL ED assessment framework is specifically designed to examine leadership behaviors that impact student achievement. According to Elliott et al (2009), "the content of the proposed assessment is learning centered leadership behaviors, behaviors that are related to increases in student achievement. The assessment is of leadership behaviors, not knowledge, dispositions, or personal characteristics of leaders" (p. 5). This framework, which is constructed u pon six core components and six key processes, is useful in moving toward definition of effectiveness in the construct of leadership practice. The principal's focus in this context is the six core components of the VAL ED, which include: h igh s tandards for s tudent l earning, r igorous c urriculum, q uality i nstruction, c ulture of l earning and p rofessional b ehavior, c onnections to e xternal c ommunities, and s ystemic p erformance a ccountability. The defin i tion of leadership practice by Spillane et al. (2004) would require that principal s not only focus on these six

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! 35 compone nts, but that they also engage followers and situational interaction. In concert with focus upon the six core compone nts by the leader is the engagement of stakeholders and interaction of situati on in the six key processes defined by VAL ED: planning, implementing, supporting, advocating, communicating, and monitoring. The VAL ED Matrix created by the intersection of the six core components and the six key processes provide boundaries for the de finition of specific and particularized leadership practices that impact student ach eivement. The VAL ED also serves as the basis for the creation of a follow up interview protocol. The leadership practice interview questions developed for this study will offer furthe r clarity and depth with regard to princi pal leadership practices in successful schools serving ELA learners. Questions such as How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans for instructional guidance (subject matter student s study across grades) with an application emphasis (active student applications emphasis) for achieving rigorous curriculum c ontent already prevalent in this school?" are designed to align with the VAL ED results in order to add to the definition of leadership practice constructs (see Appendix B) While the VAL ED is a strong leadership framework in and of itself, the addition of the ES I framework adds further depth to the study of principal leadership in situ Essential Supports Indicators (ES I ) Like the VAL ED, the ES I Framework developed by Bryk et al (2010) is constructed upon leadership behaviors that are associated with student outcomes. The ES I framework is comprised of five essential supports and 14 indicators. The framework was de veloped as an outcome of research conducted in Chicago Public Schools over

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! 36 several years that examined results of school reform mandated by the 1988 Chicago School Reform Act. Bryk et al (2010) identified supports directly related to leadership that pr omote school improvement. In the model, t hese are termed essential supports The ES I Framework of essential supports includes (a) leadership as the driver for change, (b) parent community ties, (c) professional capacity, (d) a student centered learning climate, and (e) instructional guidance (p. 46). Of these five supports, leadership as driver is vital for imp rovements to occur in the four other essential supports of parent and community ties, professional capacity of faculty and staff, a student centered learning climate, and an instructional guidance system (p. 197). Without leadership as driver, the framewor k is weakened and ineffective as is the potential for improvement. Again, leadership as driver requires not only the leader but followers and situation in order to fully understand, define, and implement leadership practice. The 14 indicators defined by Bryk et al (2010) comprise the five essential supports. The indicators can be ascribed even more readily to stakeholders and other constituencies involved in schools and in the pursuit of student achievement. The 14 indicators are: (a) school leadership, (b) parent involvement, (c) teacher ties to community, (d) professional community, (e) work orientation, (f) teacher background, (g) change in human resources, (h) frequency of professional development (i) quality of professional development (j) academic support and press, (k) safety & order, (l) curriculum alignment, (m) applications emphasis, and (n) basic skills emphasis. The ES I Framework, like the VAL ED, also will shape the interview process. These two research based frameworks will provide meanin g and

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! 37 create opportunity for categorization of behaviors and processes that can be used to define leadership practices of principals in successful schools serving ELA learners What Leaders Know about English Language Learners School leaders understand the added accountability to educate ELA learners not only in core content, but also in the acquisition of English language. The acquisition of English is measured annually in most states. In Colorado, the Colorado English Langua ge Assessment (CELA) was the state mandated measure for student monitoring and school accountability through 2012 In this context, leadership from the school principal that specifically impacts the achievement of ELA learners is critical to meet state an d federal accountability mandates as well as to meet the moral and ethical commitment to educate all students. Primarily, leadership behaviors that shape the instructional guidance and delivery system s in classrooms will most impact the achievement of ELA learners (Bryk et al., 2010, Lochmiller Huggins & Acker Hocevar 2012) Significant support exists in the research for the implementation of a variety of classroom interventions and strategies that are specific to supporting ELA learners For example, Ec hevarria,Vogt and Short (2008) provide a model for lesson planning and implementation that provides English learners access to grade level content standards. Freeman and Freeman (2002) focus on the particular issues of secondary ELA students by organizing curriculum around themes, using predictable classroom routines, and scaffolding instruction. Garcia (1991) outlined a set of effective instructional practices that include organization of learning around themes and the consistent use of collaborative lea rning. Gay (2000) recommends that teachers develop a knowledge base about the cultures that they serve and that they

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! 38 provide culturally relevant curriculum to their students. Ladson Billings (1995) describes the most effective classroom for ELA students as exhibiting pedagogical excellence steeped in cultural relevance. Mace Matluck, Alexander Kasparik and Queen (1998) describe successful newcomer programs in secondary schools as providing multiple and flexible learning pathways. Ruiz de Velasco, Fix and Chu Clewell (2000) suggest the implementation of appropriate assessment techniques and programs that address literacy needs of secondary ELA student s. This research underscores the critical nature of the principal's focus on instructiona l leadership t hat develops and supports an instructional model that specifically serves ELA learners D ecision making and leadership structures are also cited in the research as being foundational to supporting the achievement of ELA learners L eadership structures an d management pra ctices impact how ELA learners are served in schools ( Ruiz de Velasco et al., 2000). S elective placement practices, scheduling structure s that allow for extra learning time for students and collaborative work and planning time for teachers (Fullan, 2007; Kostecki & Bers, 2009 ) are all examples of management practices that support ELA learners These decisions are indicative of those a leader makes to build a school climate and culture that removes obstacles to productivity and is advantageous to teaching and learning. Inherent to an efficient and productive school climate and culture is the leadership style of the school principal. Carrejo and Cortez (2010) claim that principals can impact achievement of students by changing the ir leadership style from supervisory to a more supportive, shared leadership style modeled after communities of practice and transformational leadership. Similarly, Miramontes, Nadeau and Commins (2011)

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! 39 advocate that principals leading in ELA learner sc hools should "shift from the top down manager to the role of instructional leader in a shared decision making process" (p.142). This shift in leadership philosophy will delegate the power of decision making and help build collaboration and shared leadersh ip throughout a school. The principal will become more effective through influence and modeling, rather than through command and control (Miramontes et al., 2011). While shared leadership throughout a school community can strongly support ELA learner ach ievement, the principal emerges as the single person who can most clearly guide toward the long term success of programming for ELA learners (Reyes, 2006). Principal leadership specifically in the area of social justice is paramount (Theoharis & O'Toole, 2011). Principal leadership for social justice is described by Theoharis (2007) as: Principals advocate, lead, and keep at the center of their practice and vision issues of race, class, gender, disability, sexual orientation, and other historica lly and currently marginalizing conditions in the United States. This definition centers on addressing and eliminating marginalization in schools. (p.223) Further, effective principal leadership in the area of social justice includes the overt promoti o n of social justice in school keeping issues concerning equity and access at the forefront of planning and conside ration and implementing inclusive service delivery systems in schools (Theoharis, 2007 as cited in Theoharris 2011 ). Edmonds (1982) argue s "To be effective a school need not bring all students to identical levels of mastery, but it must bring an equal percentage of its highest and lowest social classes to

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! 40 minimum mastery (p. 4)." While Edmonds is identified as an effective schools research er, he clearly connects the ideas of effective schools with social justice aims. In this section, a brief review of the li terature about principal leadership specific to ELA learner populations was presented. Three bodies of research were discussed, including instructional leadership to develop an effective classroom i nstruction model, the importance of decision making and lead ership philosophy, and social justice leadership The n e xt section seeks to move toward a definition of leadership practice in the context of successful schools serving ELA learners Definition of Leadership Practice As the review of literature demonstrates, there is a strong body of work that exists with re gard to principal leadership. Research about effective schools, instructional leadership, direct and indirect principal behaviors, leadership practices, distributed leadership practices, and High Poverty High Performance schools and the readiness model built from that work all add value to examination of what makes a principal a strong leader. The construct of leadership practice supplied by Spillane et al. (2004) that relies upon the interactions of leaders, followers, and situation leads us closer to a definition of leadership practice; however it is lacking the depth of specific and particularized practices in context. The two conceptual frameworks that are used in this study, the VAL ED Matrix and the ES I Framework offer research based, learner ce ntered components, processes, supports and indicators that have been shown to impact student achievement outcomes. In merging all of this work and in particular through the use of the two conceptual frameworks, a new leadership definition can be created: that of

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! 41 leadership practice for student achievement, which moves beyond leadership actions, behaviors, and more cursory definitions of leadership practice (see F igure 5 ) Figure 5 Defining a leadership practice. Defining a principal leadership practice for student achievement involves the following four specific areas: What the leader does and what they focus on as a principal; the engagement and interaction of the principal with others; the contexts within which the principal exists; and the movement of the principal and the organization toward some goal. Summary This chapter provided a review of leadership literature that is foundational to this study. Relevant areas of leader ship literature discussed included effective schools research direct and indirect effects of principal leadership on student achievement, and

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! 42 instruc tional leadership Early references to leadership practice construct were offered including the Leadership Practices Inve ntory ( LPI ) the readiness model drawn from HP HP literature, and distributed leadership research This chapter extended work from Spillane et al. (2004) toward a more robust definition of a leadership practice through the addition of two more conceptual f rameworks: the VAL Ed Matrix and the ES I Framework, both of which focus upon learner centered leadership. Ad d itionally, a review of literature with regard to what school leaders know about English Language Learners was presented, along with a brief treatment of the importance of school leadership for social justice. The chapter closed with a discussion of the de finition of a leadership practice in the context of this study. The next chapter will explain the research procedures and steps that will be used to identify the specific and particularized leade rship practices used by a case study principal who leads a s uccessful sch ool serving ELA learners

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! 43 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY The purpose of this chapter is to describe the details of the methodology used in this study to answer the research questions. The first section outlines methods us ed in this research: case s tudy and narrati ve inquiry. The second section focuses on research design elements: site selection, subjects, unit of analysis, and the seven stages of this research study. The third section describes the three research instruments used in this study: VAL ED Survey, Leadership Practices Interview Protocol, and the Narrative Interview Protocol. The following section outlines data collection strategies used for each instrument. Next, data analysis procedures are presented. Data coding inventory developmen t will be explained in the next section Finally, this chapter ends with and explanation of data triangulation and member checking procedure used for ensuring trustworthiness of data in this study. Methods To increase understanding of leadership practices and behaviors of principals in successful schools serving ELA learners qualitative research methodology was utilized. This study employ ed two methods of research: case study and narrative inqui ry. This study wa s part of a larger thematic dissertation study in which five researchers employed collaborative techniques in reviewing literature, establishing frameworks, and designing certain common research questions in addition to independently desi gned research questions.

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! 44 Case Study This study employ ed case study research. According to Merriam (2009), case study is "an in depth description and analysis of a bounded system" (p. 43). In this study, leadership practices of one principal are examined closely through two specific frameworks, including the VAL ED, and the five essential supports and fourteen indicators required for school improvement (Bryk et al. 2010). Using case study methodolo gy allow ed for greater freedom of engag e ment in qualitative research in that "unlike experimental, survey, or historical research, case study does not claim any particular methods for data collection or data analysis" (Merriam, 2009, p. 42). Case studies feature rich or "thick" description as a fou ndational element, "Thick description is a term from anthropology and means the complete, literal description of the incident or entity being investigated" (Merriam, 2009, p. 43). The ability to achieve rich or thick description of leadership behaviors an d definition of leadership practices are enhanced through the use of interview protocols in this study. The element of story in the study is derived through the interview process and add s depth and context to principal leadership practices and behaviors. Narrative Inquiry Webster and Mertova (2007 ) report that while the use of stories of experience has not often been seen as an inquiry method, but rather as a way to collect data, narrative inquiry is set in human experience and human stories and therefor e is "well suited to addressing the complexities and subtleties of human experience of teaching and learning" (p. 1) and leading. Bell (2002) also reports that the process of narrative inquiry is based on the assumption that human beings make sense out of their life experiences by telling

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! 45 stories. Early proponents or narrative inquiry (Connelly & Clandinin, 1990; Gough, 1991 ; Grumet, 1981 ) argue that narrative inquiry is an important and compelling methodology best suited to uncover what may otherwise be invisible to us, but can be discovered through the use of storytelling methodolog ies. Webster and Mertova offer that narrative inquiry is becoming a respect ed research method, particularly in educational research (2007). Additionally, Reissman (2008) cau tions that narrative inquiry methodological perspectives "have elusive, contested, and indeterminate borders" (p. 183). The validity or "trustworthiness" of narrative inquiry methodology should be "assessed from within the situated perspectives and traditi ons that frame it" (p. 185). In this study th e s ituated context is a school, it s cultural and academic contexts, and the specific and particularized leadership practices that the principal has put into place over a period of at least three or more years. For these reasons narrative inquiry was selected for use in this study. Research Design Elements The research design elements included in this section include site selection, subjects, unit of analysis, and the seven stages of the study. Site selection for this study was from among schools in the Denver Public School System. Subjects are defined for this case study, as is the unit of analysis. Finally, the seven stages of this study are discussed with brief descriptions of each stage. Site Se lection Of a total of 162 schools in the Denver Public School System, only twenty two schools met the following five criteria: (a) an open enrollment policy, (b) at least 40% of total enrollment consisting of ELL students, (c) a total School Performance F ramework

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! 46 (SPF) rating greater than 49% for elementary schools, and great than 45% for middle schools and high schools, (d) at least 50% of the students qualify for a free or reduced lunch, and (e) have gains on the CSAP and CELA tests for the past three ye ars relative to schools serving the same grade levels. Of the twenty two schools that met the five criteria, thirteen schools remained when sorted using the parameter of the principal having three or more years of experience at that particular school. Sub jects The subject of this case stu dy is the principal who was identified as successful and serves a number of ELA learners in the school that they lead. Data sources for the VAL ED portion of the case study include the principal, the principal's supervi sor, and the teachers in the selected school. The principal is the data source for the open ended interview protocols. Unit of Analysis In this study, the unit of analysis is the specific and particularized leadership practices exhibited by the principal. Leadership practice is the construct that resulted from review of the literature and the application to practice of two learner centered conceptual frameworks. A successful school serving ELA learners provides the context in which the principal engages l eadership practices for the benefit of students and the greater school community. Seven Stages of the Study There we re seven discreet stages to this study. Stage One Literature Review: Literature was reviewed to develop an historical review of the liter ature on learner centered leadership, from effective schools research to

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! 47 the key conceptual frameworks used in this study, with a specific focus on the emergence of the construct of a leadership practice. Stage Two Identifying Schools, Building Tools, and Piloting: A school was identified from the list of successful schools within the Denver Public School District where the principal and the teachers and principal's supervisor are willing to participate in this study. Sample interview protocols were pilot ed with sitting principals. Stage Three Administration of VAL ED Survey: The school was v isit ed during a portion of a faculty meeting to present the study to the teachers and to share the logistics of the online administration of the VAL ED survey. Tea chers were given a start date and an end date for p articipation in the survey. Once principal reports we re returned from Discovery Education, the higher rated areas on the VA L ED Matrix for the principal in this study were identified and used to develop th e inte rview protocol instruments used in Stage Four. Stage Four Construction and Use of a Leadership Practice Interview Protocol: Based on the areas of strength on the VAL ED survey, relevant questions from the Leadership Practice Interview Protocol asso ciated with those areas were chosen This stage result ed in a list of leadership practices being detailed using codes from the Leadership Practice Study Coding Protocol. In ad dition, the researcher took field notes during the interview using pre prepared f orms that provide d for tally options and short notes related to the five essential supports and the fourteen key indicators associated with the ES I Framework (Bryk et al. 2010) and the VAL ED Matrix ( Goldring et al 2009). Stage Five Narrative Inquiry Pr otocol: The intervi ew protocol used in Stage Five wa s much more open ended and informal, designed to elicit critical life and work

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! 48 events from the principal, and/or his or her back story of how specific and particularized leadership practices were developed, implemented, improved, and maintained. Stage Six Cross Case Analysis Questions: Since this study is one of five thematic disser tation studies being conducted by the School of Education and Human Development and five of Denver Public Schools successful schools serving ELA learners t here were themes that emerge d from these indi vidual dissertations that were examined using data alre ady collected. Stage Seven Presentation of Research Findings: At the completion of t his work, research findings were included in my dissertation; I will schedule a defense of this work with the UCD Dissertation Committee. After a successful defense and in corporating any requested changes or recommendations, I will schedule a presentation with the appropriate stakeholders from Denver Public Schools. Instruments Three instruments were used to collect data for this study the VAL ED Survey, the Leadership Practice Interview Protocol, and the Narrative Inquiry Protocol The VAL ED Survey, which was completed by the principal, the principal's supervisor, and teachers in the school, was administered. Based upon the results of the VAL ED Survey, follow up intervie ws with directed questions occurred at the school site The Leadership Practice Interview Protocol was created from the components of the two conceptual frameworks used to guide this study. The interview protocols were constructed to focus on areas in the VAL ED Matrix in which the principal scored at the proficient or outstanding level. The Na rrative Inquiry Protocol was developed to prompt the principal

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! 49 to share the particular experiences of the personal and professional journey that has led to their current leadership success and development of their successful leadership practices. VAL ED Survey The Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education (VAL ED) is a research based evaluation and assessment framework that measures principals' leadership behaviors. By using the VAL ED to better understand leadership practices in schools showing academic gains with ELA learners specific leadership profiles and practices can be ident ified as areas to leverage to better serve schools with ELA learner populations. The 72 item VAL ED Survey was taken online and data wa s compiled and analyzed by Discovery Education Assessment. There are three sources of data: (a) the principal's self assessment, (b) the assessment of the principal by the supervisor of the principal, and (c) the assessment of the principal by teachers wi thin the building. Since the VAL ED Assessment was created from evidence based research on leadership practices and behaviors that impact student achievement, it helps focus the conversation on a principal's skill set and fit becomes much more focused a nd specific. Understanding which of the six core components and which of the six key processes are areas of strength or are in need of growth provides pathways for the subject principal as well as the wider field. For the purposes of this case study, it lends itself to further defining the leadership practice construct. Leadership Practices Interview Protocol The Leadership Practices Interview Protocol was developed from the VAL ED Matrix and ES I frameworks. Questions were created by using each of the six core components of the VAL ED Matrix cross referenced with each of the six key processes.

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! 50 This resulted in 36 questions directly related to the VAL ED core components and key processes. Questions were also created from the ES I conceptual framework, a nd those questions are aligned to the VAL ED Matrix. Questions used for this protocol depend ed upon in which categories the principal received proficient and distinguished ratings on the VAL ED Survey, as the questions asked in the in terview protocol were related to those specific categories. See Appendix B for a full list of potential interview questions prior to the results of the VAL ED Survey Narrative Inquiry Protocol The Narrative Inquiry Protocol use d open ended questions intended to investigat e professional and personal events critical to the leaders own personal and professional development across an early, recent, and current time period. Understanding what dri ves the principal behaviors add ed to the survey results by uncovering the signific ant factors that are distinctive to this case study. The result is a rich description and new meaning for the phenomenon (Merriam, 2009). See Appendix C for the list of protocol questions. Data Collection In this section, the methods for data collecti on for the three instruments are explained. VAL ED Survey Data collection require d a face to face meeting with all participants to explain the tool and process. The Leadership Practices and Narrative Inquiry Interview Data w ere collected from personal int erviews with the princ ipal after the VAL ED Survey had been administered and data received by the researcher. VAL ED Survey Data The principal that participated in the study allow ed the researcher time to meet with all survey participants during a staff m eeting to explain the purpose of the study and

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! 51 to share the directions for the online survey. Dr. Connie Fulmer distribute d the online add ress to participants so they could access the survey. Individual identification codes and passwords for signing on to the actual instru ment to complete the survey were also distributed at that time. A start and end date for administering the survey was communicated. Survey responses we re collected online by Discovery Education for analysis purposes. Leadership Practices Interview Data Areas in which the principal scores in the proficient and distinguished areas of the VAL ED Survey w as used to determine which questions w ould be used in t he Leadership Practices Intervie w. All questions to be used were sent to the principal for review prior to the interview. An appointment was scheduled with the principal allowing for a significant block of time to conduct the interview. Results of the V AL ED Survey w ere shared, and then the interview commence d with the appropriate ly aligned questions. Other possible prompts/questions to clarify the principal's responses were asked through out the interview. With permission from the principal, the interv iew session was recorded to ensure accuracy in data collection. A Smartpen from Livescribe was used as the instrument that captured the interview data in both writing and oral communication. Narrative Inquiry Interview Data Time was then scheduled for the researcher to meet with the principal in order for the principal to respond to open ended questions that were designed to elicit the motivations beh ind the behaviors that were identified leading to the success of ELA learners With permission of the principal, the Narrative Inquiry interview was recorded

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! 52 with Smartpen tech nology. A follow up session could have be ed requested for clarifica tion and/or refinement purposes, however was not. Data Analysis The following section will identify the data analysis techniques used for the three types of data collected for this study. In addition, an explanation of the creation and use of the coding inventories is included. Lastly, triangulation and member checking of data is examined to support the validity and reliability of the results. VAL ED Survey Data The VAL ED reports provide d quantitative data from multi raters with regard to leadership practices and behaviors. Data collected from VAL ED respondents include d mean and median effectiveness scores generated through the six core components and six key processes subscales. The six core components include: (a) high standards for student learning, (b) rigorous curriculum, (c) quality instruction, (d) culture of learning and profess ional behavior, (e) connections to external communities, and (f) performance accountability. The six key processes include: (a) planning, (b) implementing, (c) supporting, (d) advocating, (e) communicating, and (f) monitoring. A 5 point scale is used wi th the following value descriptors: (a) 1.00 = ineffective, (b) 2.00 = minimally effective, (c) 3.00 = satisfactorily effective, (d) 4.00 = highly effective, and (e) 5.00 = outstandingly effective. Analysis of Leadership Practices Interview Data Data a nalysis for the interviews include d two levels of coding: open coding and axial coding. Interv iew data was transcribed and loaded into DeDoose, an online platform for analyzing text. Coding inventories created from the ES I as well as

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! 53 the alignment of ES I to VAL ED were uploaded as well and used to code results of the interview protocol. The transcription was read several times c oding the data where it fit with the VAL ED and ES I frameworks. Codes were determined a priori from constructs taken from th e two conceptual frameworks (six core components, six key processes, the five essential supports, and the fourteen key indicators of school improvement ) When the transcription revealed a category of leadership not identified in the frameworks, a new cat egory was created to allow for emergent codes. During this process, the resear cher was looking for additional codes to emerge from these data. The researcher was open to whatever might be present in the data. The process of coding is, according to Merri am (2009), "the way you begin to construct categories" (p. 179). Merriam further explains, "Categories are conceptual elements that cover' or span many individual examples" (p. 181). The second level of coding that occur red is axial coding, which will g roup open codes and sharpen the categories Once all of the data was coded, it was disaggregated to identify findings. Analysis of Narrative Inquiry Interview Data Narra tive Inquiry interview data were analyzed in a similar manner to the analysis of the Leadership Practices interview data. The data analysis for the Narrative Inquiry interview was not reliant on the established coding inventories, but rather on evolving codes revealed by the principal sharing critical li fe and work experiences that have informed their leadership in a successful school serving ELA learners Coding Inventories Two coding inventories were used to analyze the Leadership Practices Interview Protocol and the Narrative Inquiry Interview Protocol. The coding inventories ar e

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! 54 constructed from the VAL ED Matrix and ES I conceptual frameworks and are designed to focus attention upon the specific and particularized leadership practices that are revealed via the data from the interview protocols. Essential s upports and i ndi cators c odes (ES I) The Essential Supports and Indicators Codes were aligned for this study, then segmented and coded for ease of identification. Obvious letter combinations were created for each of the five essential supports and fourteen indicators. Th e resulting codes are presented in Appendix D. These codes will be applied to appropriate sections of the interview transcripts used to categorize principal responses to both interview protocols. Essential s upports and i ndicator c odes a ligned with VAL ED c odes This coding inventory combines both conceptual frameworks. This set of codes was created by aligning the ES I codes within the VAL ED Matrix. For each of the 36 intersections in the VAL ED matrix, one or more compatible ES I codes were used to i ntegrate the two coding frameworks. For example, the VAL ED matrix area of Planning for High Standards is aligned with Instructional Guidance and Curriculum (IG CA) from the ES I framework. This coding inventory is found in Appendix E. Triangulation and Me mber Checking Data triangulation establish es the reliability and validity of the data. The VAL ED survey data, t he Leadership Practices Interview Protocol, and the Narrative In quiry interview protocol are the basis to establish factual accuracy (Krathwoh l, 2009). The VAL ED survey provide d data that will point to the principal 's leadership strengths. The Leadership Practices Interview allow ed the interviewer to focus on specific strengths and allow ed the subject principal to elaborate on the VAL ED survey data that show areas of

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! 55 strength. The Narrative Inquiry protocol provide d data from the perspect ive of principal as she told the story of he r leadership journey through critical foundational experie nces and events. Reco unted work and life events assist in cross checking the leadership strengths from the VAL ED survey and resulting questions used in the Leadership Practices Interview P r otocol. This triangulation help ed establish understanding of the specific and particularized leadership practices employed by the principal (Krathwohl, 2009). Summary This chapter discusses the methodology for this study. Case study and narrative inquiry were identified as the research methods to be used. Research d esign elements including site selection, subjects, unit of analysis, and the seven stages of this research study were explained. Detail was provided in this chapter as to the three research instruments used in this study: the VAL ED Survey, the Leadership Practices Interview Protocol, and the Narrative Interview Protocol. Data collection strategies to be used for each instrument were described and data analysis procedures were presented. Data coding inventory development was outlined for the two coding i nstruments. An explanation of data triangulation and member checking procedure used for ensuring trustworthiness of data in this study ended the chapter.

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! 56 CHAPTER IV FINDINGS This chapter presents findings derived from the research study investigation leadership practices of principals in successful schools serving ELA learners. Research questions one through five are answered through the use of data derived from the VAL ED Su rvey, the Leadership Practice Interview Protocol, and the Narrative Inquiry Protocol. The first section discusses case study demographics of the school and the subject principal. The second section focuses on the Leadership Practices evidence through inte rview data. The next section will investigate how the identified leadership practices align with the VAL ED Matrix and the Essential Supports & Indicators Framework (ES I), which are the key conceptual and evidence based frameworks used in this study. The fourth section will examine how stories of the subject principal's life and work related critical incidents assist in understanding how their self identified leadership practices developed and evolved in their particular school and community context. Th e fifth section of this chapter will provide a cross case analysis of the research question asking what are the common elements of principals' critical incidents both work and life related, that contribute to an understanding of how the principals develop ed, implemented, and maintained these successful leadership practices Finally, the chapter closes with a section devoted to defining an applied definition of leadership practice based upon data gathered through the case study of the subject principal. Ca se Study Demographics The school selected for this case study, Caroline P. Smith Elementary School, had to meet rigorous selection criteria for inclusion in this study. While there are 162 schools

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! 57 in Denver Public Schools where this study takes place, o nly 22 schools initially qualified for participation based upon student growth score and demographic requirements put forth in this study. Eligibility for participation was further limited when the 22 schools were assessed for principal tenure. Because o f the nature of the study to identify leadership practices, principal tenure of three or more years was critical to providing a basis to understand if in fact that particular principal's leadership work is impacting student achievement. The resulting pool of schools eligible for participation in the thematic dissertation study was narrowed to nine. Caroline P. Smith Elementary was one of those nine. Caroline P. Smith Elementary School, built in 1954, is located in the southwest area Denver. The school was named after a dedicated public school teacher who taught in the district from 1916 until her death in the early 1950s. Smith Elementary, as it is commonly known, has seen rapidly changing demographics on a variety of indicators. Since the 2008 2009 s chool year, Smith has seen overall student population growth of 44.2%, their enrollment increasing from 471 to 679 in 2012 2013. In addition to the extraordinary growth, Smith has seen numerous other significant changes to the student population the sch ool serves over the past five years (see Table 3). Among these significant changes, and most relevant to this study, is the increase in numbers of ELA learners at Smith, most of whom are native Spanish speakers. Over the three year period from the 2010 2011 school year to the 2012 2013 school year, the ELA learner population at Smith has increased by 12.3% from 39.7% of the total population to 52.0% of the total population (numbers and percentages of ELA learners at Smith were not available for the 2 008 2009 and 2009 2010 school years). Smith Elementary offers a

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! 58 variety of programs and opportunities to serve a wide range of students. There is a magnet Gifted and Talented program, an Early Childhood Education (ECE) center, after school tutoring partn ership with a nationally recognized tutoring company, as well as clubs and activities such as Girls on the Run! and regular Family Nights. Table 3 Smith Elementary Demographic Trends 2008 2012 School Year Enrollment Students Receiving FRL % FRL Hispanic White African American American Indian Multiple Races %Minority ELA Students % ELA SPED Students % SPED 2008 09 471 391 83.0 346 70 17 0 0 85.1% N/A N/A 36 7.6 2009 10 561 508 90.6 399 107 19 2 0 80.9% N/A N/A 51 9.1 2010 11 630 583 92.5 513 56 17 2 6 91.1% 250 39.7% 67 10. 6 2011 12 643 600 93.3 531 55 12 4 5 91.4% 335 52.1% 60 9.3 2012 13 679 620 91.3 566 53 19 7 2 92.2% 353 52.0% 64 9.4 % Change from 2008 44.2% 58.6% 8.3 % 63.6% 24.3% 11.8% 7.1% 77.8% 1.8 Note: Data retrieved from Denver Public Schools. The school is also designated as an Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) school in Denver Public Schools, which means that principal and teacher compensation is linked to purposeful sharing of effective e ducational practices in the pursuit of increased student achievement and teacher efficacy. There are 45 licensed staff

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! 59 at Smith, and 72 total staff. At any given time there are also 10 12 student teachers and Denver Teacher Residents (DTRs) who are in pre service preparation to become licensed teachers. Ms. Lisa Flores has been principal of Smith Elementary for the past five years, the same time frame during which the school has seen rapid and continuous change. Ms. Flores has faced numerous leadership challenges and opportunities that she has embraced and capitalized upon. Flores has created an environment focused on high achieving students and high achieving staff, all while managing a school that has looked markedly different each of the five years of her tenure. Lisa Flores's notification of her appointment to the principalship of Smith Elementary came on the last day of the 2007 2008 school year. With the exception of a few years early in her teaching career, Flores has worked in the same scho ol district in which she is now a principal. She had been serving as assistant principal for five years at a middle school when she was appointed principal of Smith, and had spent her entire career to that point at the middle school level. Moving to an el ementary school, while being a new experience for her, also provided her with a new challenge not only in assuming the role of principal, but also in moving to a new level of school that was unfamiliar to her. Flores has embraced both of those larger chal lenges as well as many more that have faced her throughout her tenure thus far at Smith. Looking at Flores's work as principal at Smith during the past five years provides a window into how this particular principal is able to lead a successful school serv ing ELA learners even when faced with rapidly changing demographics and demands.

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! 60 Research Question #1 Using the definition of a leadership practice as a guide (developed in Chapter II), what are the specific and particularized self identified leadership practices being used by the principal in this study to ensure a positive impact of that school on student growth/achievement. The first component of a leadership practice is the interaction or triangle of the leader, the followers, and the situation (see Figure 5). The work that the leaders and followers identify as the target of their efforts within the situation or context forms the second component or the work focus of a leadership practice. The third component involves particular proximal or distal g oals or outcomes that are of critical importance to the stakeholders as they engage in their work. In addition to these three components, my work on the interview transcripts identified additional elements (tools or activities) that were fundamental to mo re achieving those proximal and distal goals. All of these components and elements combine to reveal leadership practices of principals in context. A Leadership Practice Uncovered The specific and particularized leadership practice that can be most readily ascribed to Lisa Flores is the intentional and deliberate work she did with teachers and other s in her school to develop a climate and culture of trust in her school by empowering teachers, distributing leadership, and maximizing teacher capacity. She achieved these proximal goals by using the following tools and activities: (a) professional development, (b) collaborative teams, (c) a peer observation system, and (d) continuing education for her teachers. These components and additional elements of this leadership practice will

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! 61 be detailed in the sections below. Quotes drawn from the interview transcript will be used to support this leadership practice finding. The Leadership Practice Triangle Looking at the leadership practice triangle for Smith Elementary School, Flores is leader. She works with 45 teachers and licensed staff (followers). There are 72 total staff (staff and teachers) at Smith. Flores works with her teachers in collaborative te ams which are detailed in the sections below. The situation or context at Smith, like many urban elementary schools, encompasses a complex milieu. According to Smith's 2012 state October count, 52% of students enrolled are designated English Language Lea rners, 91.3% of the students qualify for a free or reduced lunch, and 92.2% are classified as minority. These demographics individually and collectively are considered challenging by educators and non educators alike. As such, there are many possible wor k targets for members of Smith's leadership practice triangle. Work Focus of the Leadership Practice Of all those possible work targets, one was most pressing to Flores and needed to be attended to first before any of the others could become targets. Ac cording to Flores, There wasn't a level of trust here when I came here and so that took a lot of work ." In framing the work to be done, Flores pursued both proximal and distal goals as she set about doing the intentional and deliberate work of developing a culture and climate of trust in her school. Additionally, the work focus of Flores with regard to a specific and particularized leadership practice includes the use of tools and activities (e.g., professional development, team meetings, peer observation s and continuing education) to reach those proximal goals (e.g., empowered teachers, distributed leadership, and teacher

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! 62 capacity) which will then support achievement of distal goals or outcomes related to student achievement (see Table 4). Table 4 Leader ship Practice Logic Model WORK FOCUS (Tools/Activities) PROXIMAL GOALS DISTAL GOALS 1 Professional Development Empowered Teachers Student Achievement 2 Data Team Meetings School Leadership Group Meetings Staff Development Team Meetings Grade Level Team Meetings Distributed Leadership Student Achievement 3 Peer Observation System Teacher Capacity Student Achievement 4 Continuing Education Teacher Capacity ELA Learner Achievement Tools and Activities Related to the Work Focus In order to move her staff toward proximal goals (e.g., creating empowered teacher leaders, distributed leadership, and teacher capacity), Flores employed specific tools and activities designed to support teachers to these ends. Professional development, teacher leadership teams (data team meetings, school leadership group meetings, staff development team meetings, grade level team meetings), a peer observation system and continuing education were specific tools and activities used by this principal to mov e teachers toward a higher level of performance and practice. Professional development Over a period of several years, Flores used a professional development as a tool, taking small cohorts of teachers, usually three to five

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! 63 people, to Adaptive Schools Training offered by a nearby school district. The purpose of the training was to provide teachers professional development in the area of leading and facilitating adult learning and collaborative group work. The training was critical in supporting Flore s's work of empowering teachers (proximal goal) to be leaders at Smith. ~ "when in their training have they been trained to deliver anything to adult learners? They know nothing about protocols, they know nothing about the dynamics of adult learners so I s ent my teachers to that Adaptive Schools training." ~ [Now] they take the protocols from Adaptive Schools times 10, they'll twist them up, shake them up, it's always just the most collaborative, awesome table work" The professional development in this a rea also directly supported the activity of teacher leadership teams designed to serve in a variety of capacities at Smith. The number and variety of collaborative teams that exist at Smith demand that there be numerous teachers prepared to take on those roles and responsibilities of teacher leader and facilitator. These teacher leadership teams include the following: data team meetings, school leadership team meetings, staff development team meetings, and grade level team meetings. Additionally, team meet ings at Smith promote and engender distributed leadership (proximal goal) among teachers. Teacher leadership teams. Once Flores realized success in empowering teachers, she was able leverage her influence by using similar tools/activities to develop colla borative teams. Her commitment to creating a culture of teacher capacity (proximal goal) and efficacy is evident through the development and structure of these teams.

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! 64 ~ I have teacher leaders that facilitate data team meetings." ~ teacher leaders that facilitate grade level team meetings." ~ "[the] school leadership team is facilitated by a teacher leader." At Smith, Flores created and used the following tools: collaborative school team meetings, school leadership team meetings, data team meetings, sta ff development team meetings, and grade level team meetings to the following ends. School leadership team meetings. The school leadership team at Smith meets each Monday morning. This team, which began with five teachers when Flores began at Smith, has n ow grown to a team of 22 teachers who share in the responsibilities of leading the school. ~ "I have a leadership team of 22 people. I started with five." There is one teacher leader designated as facilitator, and this teacher meets with Flores each Wedn esday to debrief the prior meeting and plan the agenda for the following meeting. The school leadership team focuses their time and energy on issues of school wide and community interest. This focus of this team is broader based in its focus, serving as an umbrella over more specific and detailed work. Data team meetings The participation of teachers with regard to sharing their classroom achievement data increased steadily over time as Flores focused on the culture of the school. Data teams initially met and teachers were not forthcoming in sharing data, particularly if it showed students were not meeting particular achievement goals. Flores, likening the process to taking intentional baby steps ," started the conversations about data at a broad level and had teachers looking at grade level data rather than individual classroom data. Eventually, once teams became comfortable with the grade

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! 65 level data analysis and the planning that resulted, they were able to move toward examining sample data from the ir own classrooms. Flores directed the teachers to choose a sample population of six students from their class. There was no preference or value placed upon which type of population data should be brought to the team. Some teachers brought student data that demonstrated proficiency, some brought student data that fell in unsatisfactory ranges. Flores says teachers moved to the point where they could comfortably say the following to their colleagues ~ I did my best, I had them in a small group, I did this, and I did this, and I did this, and I did my best teaching and guess what it didn't work." The focus of the data teams remained on student achievement and problem solving as the teachers looked at pre and post assessment data. Asking for help was encouraged, and teachers began to embrace the interaction. Staff development team meetings. In her use of this tool, two teacher leaders are tasked with facilitating staff development team meetings, which are co planned with Flores. Staff developme nt team meetings typically take place each Tuesday, and are focused on timely and important topics. Currently, the team is working on Common Core and helping teachers to understand the shifts from what they have been used to toward what they should be pla nning for and what to expect with implementation of Common Core. ~ "I would love to say that they [these meetings] take a lot of my time anymore but they really don't. They [the teachers] are just masterful. They could lead adult learning in their sleep ."

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! 66 The staff development team meetings also utilize book study formats to accomplish new learning for teachers. Flores is very proud of the work of the teacher leaders and the teams that they lead. Grade level team meetings. Grade level team meetings at Smith are designed to ensure guaranteed and viable curriculum throughout every classroom. A fifth grader in one room will receive the same content and curriculum as a fifth grade student in another room. Further, in these me etings, teachers look at student work to align expectations for student performance. ~ "We're really having a common understanding of what proficient looks like at each grade level." Grade level team meetings also encompass vertical grade level team meetin gs, in which teachers share and discuss the continuum of curriculum and student work from grade level to grade level. ~ "I think a second grade teacher should know what a first grade proficient looks like, should know what a third grade proficient looks li ke. We need to know where they've been and where they're on their way to." Additionally, these grade level team meetings serve to support common language among teachers with regard to key content and conceptual understandings designed to scaffold and supp ort student learning and comprehension from grade to grade. ~ "We need to know then the instructional verbage that we're using." ~ I get really upset when someone's going to call a topic sentence a controlling statement and they're talking about the same thing. Don't confuse my kids."

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! 67 The findings and supporting quotes listed above make clear that this principal's use of team meeting tools (e.g., school leadership team meetings, data team meetings, staff development team meetings, grade level meetings) were embraced by her teachers to yield the positive school results that caused this school to fall into the population of successful schools serving ELA learners that were selected to be part of this study Peer observation. Another major tool used by Fl ores to move her school toward achieving proximal and distal goals was born out of the teacher evaluation process piloted by Denver Public Schools LEAP). At Smith, the peer observation process is implemented school wide and requires teachers to go into one another's classrooms to look for particular indicators of effective instruction. ~ "we spent a lot of time diving into that framework what does that look like in a classroom?" ~ "we spent a lot of time calibrating just as a community ourselves as to w hat effective checks for understanding would look like?" ~ what does effective questioning look like?" ~ what does an effective content objective/language objective look like?" Lessons are then scripted and ratings are given for the purpose of engagi ng all teachers in progress monitoring school instructional goals Flores reports that the peer observation system produced strong results. ~ "[the peer observation system has been a wonderful tool for us and it just came naturally then, that there would b e such a focus on instruction or quality instruction."

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! 68 Instead of making teachers feel vulnerable or creating divisiveness, the peer observation process has been highly beneficial to the school. Continuing education. Another major tool used by Flores to h elp her teachers was one of continuing education for her teachers. Given the large number of ELA learners at Smith, Flores made it a priority for continuing education directly related to serving this population of students. ~ "All of our teachers here ar e or are in school to become ELA certified and so that['s] formal training of using those instructional strategies and I require that at this school." She expects all of her teachers to be endorsed as ELA teachers or to receive that credential or certific ate within two years of being employed at Smith. Proximal Goals of the Leadership Practice The intentional focus by Flores on school culture, school climate, and trust building among staff resulted in several proximal goals being developed and met over time. As noted in Table 4 above and discussed in the sections below, empowered teachers, collaborative teams, and a culture of teacher capacity all serve as proximal goals of Flores's leadership practice. Empowered teachers. This proximal goal, empowe red teachers, is achieved by teachers at Smith very visibly through the variety of leadership opportunities that exist and are identified above. The Adaptive Schools Training professional development supported the ability of teachers to take on the roles required of them in these structures. Data team meetings, grade level team meetings, the 22 member school leadership team and the collaborative school committee are all driven by and dependent upon empowered

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! 69 teacher leaders. Not only do these groups drive important work being done throughout the school, they drive passion for the craft of teaching. ~ "they get together and they plan, they talk school talk so much." ~ "Talking about how to improve, how they could better structure their teams, how they could provide better interventions, more differentiationjust constantly." ~ "they're so passionately excited." In addition to the visible empowerment of teachers through leadership team structures at Smith, Flores is very clear in her intellectual belief, as a principal, of the power of teachers to impact students most directly. ~ "I do believe in teachers, and I believe that they can make the largest impact on kids, no question. And what I want to do is get rid of road blocks and support them so they can do their magic. By saying that and backing that up with my actions, I think that we began to believe it. And it's such a strong component, too, for people to know that you believe in them. It's very, very powerful ." She is adamant in her positive support of teachers and her belief that all teachers in her building can be highly effective. Even when a teacher i s struggling in his/her practice, Flores believes that in most cases she can move the teacher along through whatever difficulties they are having and support them in improving, while not compromising on her high expectations for performance. ~ "If I can be gin to build just the tiniest bits of success, I have found that has often sparked a lot of really great things."

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! 70 ~ "I make that connection and allow people to grow at their own rate and I'm ok with that, as long as we're growing." ~ "that whole idea of p ushing people, guiding people, nudging people around me to grow and become better and believe in themselves as much as I believe in them." Teachers in Flores's school share these high expectations of themselves and their colleagues. When asked about poor performance indicators that might arise in this empowered culture, Flores shared the following. ~ "Because really you're developing a climate and culture that would siphon anything out that doesn't compliment it, right? The empowerment of teachers is a proximal goal that supports and results in a stronger climate of trust and culture of capacity that also allows teachers to be able to depend on one another to be professionals (and not have to compete with each other) and hold the same ultimate goal: st udent achievement. Distributed leadership. Another powerful proximal goal used by Flores is the strategic use of distributed leadership as demonstrated through the variety of collaborative teacher leadership groups that exist at Smith. Flores wants the p eople and systems around her to move to a place of independence from her as leader to a place of interdependency upon one another as leaders. Flores asserts over and over again her pleasure in seeing teacher leadership driving the work at Smith through te acher leadership teams. ~ "What I love now is that I am there as a learner and a participant."

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! 71 ~ "their proficiency level is through the roof. They could actually probably tell me a thing or two." ~ "I realize honestly, especially this year, that it rea lly is sustainable, it could go on without meso I get excited about that." Distributed leadership has become such an important part of the fabric of Smith that Flores and her school staff are recipients of a grant specific to distributed leadership that entitles them to access a multi million dollar pot of money to continue to support and develop distributed leadership in the school. Teacher capacity. The next proximal goal use by this principal is teacher capacity, which can be found in the use of the peer observation system and shared high expectations. Flores expects staff to engage in serious consideration of the instructional practice of their colleagues and allows teachers to elevate the meaningfulness of their collaboration and take more ownershi p of the collective efficacy of the school and the instructional program. ~ More and more I hear teachers calling teachers on it in a nice way, and now you realize that your culture is strong." The proximal goal of developing teacher capacity at Smith i s most evident in the success the school has seen with the ELA learner population. When discussing her leadership, Flores does not differentiate between her work on behalf of ELA learners and non ELA learners. ~ Everything I do and that we talk about an d that we focus on really is in the best interest of all kids ."

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! 72 When questioned specifically about ELA learners, there are, however, practices and expectations in place at Smith that are designed to provide maximum benefit to this particular learner group. The requirement of teacher endorsement in ELA instruction bro adens the ability of all members of the school community to engage in serving all students, regardless of student language background. Beginning with the Early Childhood Education (ECE) program at Smith for neighborhood three and four year olds, students who are non native English speakers are taught in Spanish. This is the same structure employed in kindergarten, first and second grades. Over time throughout a school year, there is deliberate introduction of English, facilitated early on through routines and rituals such as daily calendar time in which the students participate. Ideally, if a student is at Smith beginning with the ECE program, by the end of second grade, the majority of their instruction is in English. A modified and accelerated version of this model occurs in older grades. Flores believes ELA learners at Smith are able to make strong progress because they are still receiving content instruction in their native language while simultaneously learning English. These are two very distinct and separate processes that are eventually joined into one when students are at a point where they are able to receive and comprehend content instruction when delivered in English. Not only does this approach honor the language, it ensures, according to F lores that in her school ~ no one's going to miss any sort of access to content ." Focusing on teacher capacity through continuing education allows Flores to have a higher level of confidence in the instructional abilities of her whole teaching staff not just a couple of teachers specifically.

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! 73 The discussion of proximal goals used by Flores in her leadership practice (empowered teachers, collaborative teams, climate of trust, and culture of teacher capacity) provides evidence of the complexity of a leadership practice and how these components when applied in context produce strong results in student achievement. Distal Goals or Outcomes of the Leadership Practice Ultimately, the distal goal or outcome of the leadership practice of a principal sh ould be student achievement. How can the work of the principal and the school best support student academic achievement? Of course, there are other very important goals that should exist in schools around student social/emotional development, safety, and personal responsibility, to name a few. Academic achievement, however, is the gold standard measure of how well as student is prepared to move on to subsequent levels of schooling and eventual job opportunities and careers really, whatever they may enc ounter in their short and long term future. At Smith, the outcomes of Flores's leadership practice (and use of important proximal goals) have impacted the students directly through improved student growth, a measure that takes into account educational va lue added from year to year by individual students. The three proximal goals (empowered teachers, distributed leadership, and teacher capacity) seemed to work in concert to produce strong student achievement. Emerging from the tools and activities that pr oduced them, these proximal goals served to increase agency and efficacy in achieving gains in student achievement and growth. With these proximal goals in place, and in the time since Flores assumed the helm of Smith, student growth on measures such as t he state assessment program have remained solidly above the state median in almost all areas. In particular, growth of ELA

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! 74 learners as evidenced by median growth percentiles on state tests exceeds non ELA learners at Smith (see Table 5). Table 5 Smith Elementary School 3 year Growth Data 2010 2012 Math Reading Writing Math ELA/non Reading ELA/non Writing ELA/non 2010 56 48 47 69/41 58/46 54/38 2011 62 50 53 63/60 45/52 54/51 2012 68 56 47 73/55 56/55 56/38 Note: Data retrieved from Colorado Department of Education. Throughout both of her interviews, Flores repeatedly underscores the importance of her ongoing work in building a climate and culture of trust at Smith as being foundational to student achievement. ~ "The climate and culture, th e culture of trustis something that slowly evolved." ~ "Because really you're developing a climate and culture" ~ "that's why we're all here. To reach the kids and make an impact" Research Question 1 above requires a parsing of Flores's leadership pr actice into understandable segments a work focus, tools and activities, proximal and distal goals (or outcomes) and helps provide for understanding of the complex level of interactions involved in this leadership practice.

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! 75 Research Question #2 How do the identified successful leadership practices align with key conceptual and evidence based frameworks (VAL ED Matrix and the Essential Supports & Indicators Framework) used in this study? Analysis of the results of the VAL ED survey shows that Flores is generally quite strong in the areas measured by this assessment. In particular, three areas of overall strength emerged (see Table 6). The survey results of the school staff, the principal and the principal's supervisor indicate that the principal ha s distinguished ratings on the VAL ED Matrix core components of High Standards for Student Learning ( M = 4.02, n = 40), Quality Instruction ( M = 4.11, n = 40) and Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior ( M = 4.34, n = 40). All other core components received proficient ratings: Rigorous Curriculum ( M = 3.73, n = 40), Connections to External Communities ( M = 3.77, n = 40) and Performance Accountability ( M = 3.72, n = 40). Reviewing the data for the key processes (also see Table 6) Flores garnered di stinguished ratings for Supporting ( M = 4.14, n = 40) and Communicating ( M = 4.02, n = 40). All other key processes, Planning ( M = 3.92, n = 40), Implementing (M = 3.98, n = 40), Advocating ( M = 3.79, n = 40), and Monitoring ( M = 3.96, n = 40) are rated a s proficient. The overall effectiveness score for Flores, M =3.96, indicates an overall effectiveness rating of proficient, with a percentile rank of 83. Disaggregating the survey results by respondent group, Principal (P), Teacher (T), and Supervisor (S), a more detailed perspective of the principal emerges. There is variability in which respondent group scored any particular component or key process higher or lower. For example, in the core component of Rigorous Curriculum the

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! 76 Table 6 Summary of VAL ED Core Component s and Key Processes Scores S UMMARY OF CORE COMPONENT SCORES SUMMARY OF KEY PROCE SSES SCORES Mean Performance Level % tile Rank Mean Performance Level % tile Rank High Standards for Student Learning 4.02 Distinguished 82 Planning 3.92 Proficient 80 Rigorous Curriculum 3.73 Proficient 67 Implementing 3.98 Proficient 84 Quality Instruction 4.11 Distinguished 83 Supporting 4.14 Distinguished 85 Culture of Learning & Professional Behavior 4.34 Distinguished 93 Advocating 3.79 Proficient 75 Connections to External Communities 3.77 Proficient 78 Communicatin g 4.02 Distinguished 84 Performance Accountability 3.72 Proficient 74 Monitoring 3.96 Proficient 83 principal ( M = 3.50, n = 1) scored herself lower than teachers ( M = 4.13, n = 38) and her supervisor ( M = 3.55, n = 1). In the core component of Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior the principal ( M = 4.75, n = 1) rated herself higher than either teachers ( M = 4.27, n = 38) or her supervisor ( M = 4.00, n = 1). Generally however, the mean scores of the teachers were the highest of the three groups (see Table 7). Tables 6 and 7 present the mean effectiveness scores of Flores in the core components and key processes of the VAL ED. Overall, her scores are very solid thr oughout the areas measured. Flores is rated proficient or distinguished throughout the matrix of 36 total intersections of core components and key processes. Additionally, the scores, when disaggregated by respondent groups (teachers, principal, and prin cipal's

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! 77 Table 7 Mean Effectiveness of Core Components and Key Processes by Respondent Group Total Effectiveness Principal 3.92 Total Effectiveness Principal 3.92 Teacher 4.17 Teacher 4.17 Supervisor 3.80 Supervisor 3.80 High Standards for Student Learning Principal 4.00 Planning Principal 4.00 Teacher 4.24 Teacher 4.11 Supervisor 3.83 Supervisor 3.64 Rigorous Curriculum Principal 3.50 Implementing Principal 4.00 Teacher 4.13 Teacher 4.20 Supervisor 3.55 Supervisor 3.75 Quality Instruction Principal 4.08 Supporting Principal 4.17 Teacher 4.26 Teacher 4.27 Supervisor 4.00 Supervisor 4.00 Culture of Learning & Professional Behavior Principal 4.75 Advocating Principal 3.67 Teacher 4.27 Teacher 4.03 Supervisor 4.00 Supervisor 3.67 Connections to External Communities Principal 3.67 Communicating Principal 3.83 Teacher 3.99 Teacher 4.24 Supervisor 3.67 Supervisor 4.00 Performance Accountability Principal 3.50 Monitoring Principal 3.83 Teacher 4.05 Teacher 4.17 Supervisor 3.63 Supervisor 3.89 supervisor) still support the aggregated results. There is not one respondent group driving the data in any particular direction. Based on the scores of the principal's assessment, specific research questions from the three highest core component areas (e.g., High Standards for Student Learning Quality Instruction and Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior ) and the two high est key process areas (e.g., Supporting and Communicating ) were selected to be used.

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! 78 Table 8 Essential Support (ES) and Indicator (I) Code Frequencies (n) Resulting from Transcript Analysis ESSENTIAL SUPPORTS (ES) INDICATORS (I) ES (n) I (n) ES I (n) School Leadership Instructional Leadership SL (27) I/IL (18) SL I/IL (18) Parent Community School Ties Teacher's Ties to the Community PCST (7) TtC (2) PCST TtC (3) Parent Community School Ties Parent Involvement PCST (7) PI (3) PSCT PI (5) Professional Capacity Teacher Background PC (35) TB (6) PC TB (5) Professional Capacity Frequency of Professional Development PC (35) FPD (6) PC FPD (6) Professional Capacity Quality of Professional Development PC (35) QPD (8) PC QPD (8) Professional Capacity Changes in Human Resources PC (35) CHR (3) PC CHR (3) Professional Capacity Work Orientation PC (35) WO (16) PC WO (15) Professional Capacity Professional Community PC (35) PC (26) PC PC (29) Stud ent Centered Learning Climate Safety and Order SCLC (21) S&O (10) SCLC S&O (14) Student Centered Learning Climate Academic Support and Press SCLC (21) AS&P (17) SCLC AS&P (14) Instructional Guidance Curriculum Alignment IG (9) CA (8) IG CA (11) Instructional Guidance Basic Skills IG (9) BS (2) IG BS (3) Instructional Guidance Application Emphasis IG (9) AE (5) IG AE (13) in the Leadership Practice Interview. These are areas in which Flores received distinguished ratings Transcriptions of the interviews were coded in Dodoose and Table 8

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! 79 Table 9 Core Components and Key Processes Code Frequencies (n) Resulting from Transcript Analysis VAL ED CODES K EY P ROCESSES C ORE C OMPONENTS Plan Implement Support Advocate Communicate Monitor High Standards HS P (4) HS I (6) HS S (4) HS A (5) HS C (4) HS M (5) Rigorous Curriculum RC P (3) RC I (4) RC S (3) RC A (2) RC C (4) RC M (2) Quality Instruction QI P (9) QI I (11) QI S (8) QI A (6) QI C (7) QI M (9) Culture of Learning/ Professional Behavior CLPB P (8) CLPB I (12) CLPB S (19) CLPB A (9) CLPB C (13) CLPB M (5) Connection to External Communities CEC P (4) CEC I (10) CEC S (5) CEC A (6) CEC C (9) CEC M (1) Performance Accountability PA P (5) PA I (3) PA S (6) PA A (2) PA C (8) PA M (8) shows frequency counts of how components of the leadership practice (tools, activities, proximal and distal goals) aligned with the essential supports and the indicators of the ES I Framework. Table 9 shows the frequency counts of how the transcripts were coded with the core components and key processes of the VAL ED matrix. Tables 8 and 9 present the frequencies of occurrence of the codes applied to the transcripts of Leadership Practice Interview, and any applicable portions of the Narrative

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! 80 Inquiry Interview that revealed relevant data. Table 8, the Essential Support (ES) and Indicator (I) Code Frequencies (n) Resulting from Transcript Analysis reveals high frequencies of the essential supports School Leadership (SL), Professional Capacity (PC) and Student Centered Learning Climate (SCLC). Indicators with high frequencies include Work Orienta tion (WO), Professional Community (PC), Academic Support and Press (AS&P), and Application Emphasis (AE). Co occurrence of codes is also represented in Table 8. Table 9, Core Components and Key Processes Code Frequencies (n) Resulting from Transcript Anal ysis, presents the intersection of code frequencies of the core components and key processes of VAL ED. Quality Instruction and Culture of Learning & Professional Behavior are strongly represented through frequency of code appearance in the data derived f rom Flores's interviews. The data contained in Tables 8 and 9, while important to this study, must be considered in context. The scope and depth of interview data was necessarily restricted due to limited time and access to the subject principal. Thus, t he frequencies of codes appearing in the transcripts must be considered as proportional to the whole, rather than in isolation. Had more time existed for interviews, the likelihood is that applicable codes would have appeared with even more frequency in t he data. Also interesting to note in these tables is that each code category was represented in the transcripts of the interviews, even though the interview questions used to gather data specific to Flores's areas in which she was designated as distingui shed' on the results of the VAL ED Survey. The distribution of codes as evidence of leadership across all of the core components and key processes of the VAL ED Matrix and throughout the ES I

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! 81 framework of Essential Supports and Indicators indicates that Fl ores's leadership is built upon a strong foundation with particular areas of leadership being even more remarkable. The data from the VAL ED Survey, the Leadership Practice Interview, and applicable portions of the Narrative Inquiry Interview provide robust evidence of Flores's identified leadership practice: the intentional and deliberate work she did with teachers and others in her school to develop a climate and culture of trust in her school by empowering teachers, distributing leadership, and max imizing teacher capacity. The VAL ED Survey mean score ( M = 4.34, n = 40) for the area of Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior provide concrete empirical evidence to support the recognition of her deliberate work in this area at Smith. The data d erived from the interviews further supports the intention behind the work, which is a critical component of leadership practice. The frequency of codes related to School Leadership, Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior, and Professional Capacity are demonstrative of the Flores's powerful leadership being grounded in purpose and resolve on behalf of all members of the Smith community. The answers in the paragraphs above for Research Question 2 illustrate the empirical results of the VAL ED Survey taken by Flores, members of her staff, and her supervisor. Code frequencies related to the Core Components and Key Processes of the VAL ED Matrix are reported using transcripts of the Leadership Practice Interview and portions of the Narrative Inquiry In terview. Code Frequencies are also reported related to the interviews with regard to the ES I framework of Essential Supports and Indicators. Put quite simply the answer is yes, there is alignment between these measures and Flores's leadership practice, the intentional and deliberate work she did with teachers

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! 82 and others in her school to develop a climate and culture of trust in her school by empowering teachers, distributing leadership, and maximizing teacher capacity as is demonstrated through the abov e described measures. Research Question #3 How do stories of this principal's critical incidents (both work and life related) contribute to an understanding of how self identified leadership practices emerged and flourished within this particular school an d community context? During the Narrative Inquiry Interview, Lisa Flores shared stories and vignettes about her life experiences that she feels contribute to her success as a principal. Many of these stories are intertwined between her work experiences a nd her life experiences outside of work. This section attempts to categorize critical incidents Flores shares into work related and life related categories in order to bring further understanding to how these critical incidents contribute to an understand ing of how Flores's leadership practices emerged and flourished within this particular school and community context. Work Related Critical Incidents The story of Flores's interview for her first teaching position illustrates an example of principal leadership that Flores emulates belief in teachers and what they can accomplish. Upon entering the interview, Flores realized that the hiring principal was the same man who had been her own principal as a junior high school student. This caused her con sternation because this same principal had, in her words, suspended me a few times. After going through the interview process without either of them acknowledging they recognized the other, the principal escorted her to the door and said You know what? I know exactly who you are, Lisa. I finally got it about ten minutes

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! 83 ago. Flores felt there was no way she would ever get the position after he recognized her. Much to her immediate surprise and her lasting gratitude, the principal followed up with a phone call when Flores arrived home. His message to her I have to see what Lisa grew up to be and his offer of a job conveyed to Flores the importance of believing not only in teachers but in the potential of students as well. Early in her career, Flores spent one year teaching in a school in Baltimore, Maryland. All of the students in the school qualified for free and reduced lunch, and all of the students were designated minority (even though Flores in fact was the minority). According to Flores, "I was reminded every single day I was white, in that I was the only white person in the entire building. Instead of this fact being a source of discomfort or unease for Flores, it was something she embraced So it was a really nea t experience there, really neat, High poverty, total high poverty, makes this school look like we're rich. After her experience in Baltimore, Flores made a conscious decision to always teach or be a leader in a highly impacted school. These settings are where she feels most effective, and most skillful in her work. Flores's experiences with purposeful school leadership began when she was a middle school English teacher and assumed a variety of formal and informal leadership roles. Informally, she was e levated to teacher leader by her colleagues in the area of classroom management. Known for having well run classrooms free from student discipline issues, her fellow teachers frequently sought her advice, or even used her to intervene on their behalf. F lores recounts "I was the master of classroom managementmy peers sent them all to me so they wouldn't have to answer to administration. Formally, she was recruited by her assistant principal to serve as a

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! 84 Teacher on Special Assignment (TOSA) in the mai n office, providing support to teachers in a variety of ways. "I was really working to help and coach teachers around that management piece and with their instruction so we could engage students." Although Flores maintains she had every intention of goin g back to the classroom she did not, and in fact she went on to get her endorsement in school counseling and then her principal license. Once Flores obtained her principal license, she accepted an assistant principal position at a middle school, a posi tion she stayed in for five years, even though she considered it to be anything but rewarding. Her desire to be a true school leader was thwarted in this role, working for that particular principal. I don't even know that I could have been called a leader to tell the truth.also, not being able to share in a vision or a big picture I'm kind of a big picture kind of person and so it was difficultI think it's impacted me greatly because I learned so much of what I don't want people around me to feel. He r experiences in this role working for a principal who did not allow anyone else on staff to be a leader affected Flores deeply, and that experience explicitly informed her leadership when she assumed the principalship at Smith. Flores shares that I knew I wanted to empower people around me so that they were helping me, alongside me, to build what we're building. As difficult as her experience was in the assistant principal role with that particular principal, Flores sees value in that struggle, I don' t know if I would have been as intentional having not had the other experience [as assistant principal], so I'm sure that was good. Understanding that a hallmark of Flores's

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! 85 leadership is intention, her experience as an assistant principal, while very tr ying for her, was also seminal in developing her future leadership commitments and skill set. The critical incidents of Flores's work described above create a pathway to which the development of many of her leadership belief systems can be attributed. B eing hired for a first teaching position by a person who saw her potential connects directly to Flores's steadfast support of her teachers and what they are capable of professionally in their work with students. Her year spent with highly impacted student s and families early in her career, as well as being a teacher who was in the position of being the minority, created a lifelong commitment to serving typically underserved populations. The positive affirmation, efficacy and satisfaction Flores felt in her informal and formal leadership roles as a teacher created a desire to provide leadership opportunities to the teachers in her school. Finally, her experience of being marginalized as an assistant principal, someone who felt I was never ever utilized to my potential at all ," prompted Flores to embrace her leadership and the power of intention and deliberateness in creating a school that values student and adult learning, growth, and success. Life Related Critical Incidents Flores comes from a family in which every member is an educator, so it seems predestined that she, too, would become an educator. She says it was just something that my family held so high and valued so greatly, and thought to be such an honorable professionmaking a difference an d valu[ing] education. Her father, mother, her grandmother, her three siblings, two of her siblings spouses, an aunt, an uncle and her husband are (or were) all teachers and/or principals. Even before her early career

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! 86 teaching experience in Baltimore, Flores was steeped in the idea of working in schools that others might avoid. Of her parents, aunt and uncle, and grandmother she says [They] were always very intentional about working in schools that had a hard to serve population. That was never accid ental that they, or even still today, my sisters and my brother and my husband that we're all in hard to serve schools For Flores, being raised in a family of educators with commitment to their vocation provided inspiration as to her own passions and eve ntually her own career path. Not only does Flores cite her family background as being important to her path as an educator, she explains that while growing up many of her teachers inspired her as well through her absolute fabulous relationships with so many teachers growing up ." These relationships are particularly important to Flores because even though she was raised by teachers, Flores was not always a model student herself. She says I was quite a little rebel in middle school and high school and they had no reason to respect me or like me or connect with me at all. And yet, a few of them really did. When she became a teacher herself, she leaned upon those memories and the importance of those relationships to her as she worked with students of h er own. She consciously decided to follow her teachers as role models in this area of her own practice. To make sure that kid we all have them I was going to make sure I connected with that kid, and by the end of the year they were going to love me and I was going to love him or her knowing that I couldn't count on anyone else to make the difference in the connection with that kid it was up to me.

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! 87 Certainly, for Flores, the lessons learned from many of her teachers went far beyond the classroom. These l essons came full circle, however, when Flores herself became a teacher. Continuing education, utilized as a tool for moving her staff in her leadership practice, also has had a profound effect on Flores. After completing her master's degree in school cou nseling she realized I wasn't so much the touchy feely type and I really didn't want to hear everyone's sad story she went back to school to get her principal's license because school leadership was a much better fit for her interests and her long term goals. Almost immediately after completing the coursework for her principal's license, Flores enrolled in a doctoral program. While she is ABD (all but dissertation) at this point and does not know if she will complete the degree, she is adamant about th e worth of her experience in completing coursework for the doctorate. Flores says the coursework and all of the reading and reflecting on the reading without a doubt contributed to who I am as a leader." Her continuing education did not end with the co mpletion of her coursework for the doctorate, although now it is less formal. She laughingly says my husband and are junkies with regard to the amount of professional reading they do together. Flores also regularly seeks out opportunities to engage in educational discourse and development. She says it is important to her that she is always staying curious and continuing to talk with people about this field that we love and trying to always tweak it and make what we do better." Flores is a lifelong le arner, and it shows in her experiences of formal and informal educational opportunity.

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! 88 Importance of Story to a Leadership Practice The critical incidents of Flores's life paint a picture of a leader who has the heart of family, teachers and teaching, and learning. These life experiences she shared are in many ways are interwoven with her stories of critical work incidents that have s haped her leadership practice. Her intentional and deliberate work with teachers and others in her school to develop a climate and culture of trust in her school by empowering teachers, distributing leadership, and maximizing teacher capacity are readily linked back to the important critical incidents, both in work and in life that Flores shared through the Narrative Inquiry Interview. Flores's stories of critical incidents in her life and work illustrate the important nature of a leader's experiences, o r their story, in how they interact with followers, situation, and how they lead. As it is important to consider situation or context when describing a leadership practice, it is similarly important to consider the variety of experiences (or contexts) of the leader throughout their lives work lives and personal lives. Story is an important and meaningful way to garner more depth of knowledge about a leader's practice. Not knowing the background experiences of a leader leads to incomplete understanding o f the leader and their practice. As described in the section above, numerous facets of the foundation of her leadership practice appear throughout Flores's stories of her work life and her life outside of work. In the next section, Research Question 4 inv estigates whether critical incidents in the life and work of other principals in successful schools serving ELA learners can be linked to their leadership practice, much as it was linked to Flores's own identified leadership practice.

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! 89 Research Questi on # 4 What are the common elements of principals' critical incidents both work and life related, that contribute to an understanding of how the principals developed, implemented, and maintained these successful leadership practices ? While this case study focuses upon one specific principal, Lisa Flores, it is also part of a larger thematic research study involving three other principals at schools serving ELA learners. To further understand the powerful nature of critical incidents from principals' life a nd work and the relationship of those incidents to their leadership, a cross case examination of relevant raw data from the other four case studies is utilized. First common elements of critical incidents (both work and life) are detailed. A summary section points out the important of these critical work and life incidents for developing, implementing and maintaining an effective leadership practice Common Elements of Critical Incidents (Work and Life) Each of the subject principals had very different stories of critical incidents that impacted them in the context of their leadership. Even though the stories and the details were quite different, th ere were overarching elements common to all of the principals. While critical incidents cannot be easily separated by work or life across cases, common elements can be drawn from each principal's story to provide themes of impactful critical incidents: (a ) drive for equity, (b) development of empathy, (c) desire to lead by empowering, (d) recognizing potential in others, and (e) resilience (see Table 10). Drive for e quity In each of the case studies, principals shared incidents from their lives that in stilled for them the drive for leadership for equity. Experiences from childhood were lasting catalysts, as were experiences from later work. As described

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! 90 Table 10 Critical Incidents (Work and Life) of Principals A E Common Elements A B C D E DRIVE FOR EQUITY Taught at hard to serve school; family mission Our kids, not these/those/yo ur ; Examples of ELL kids and programs marginalized; Child of single mother Success can be achieved; "one size does not fit all" Child of single mother, mixed ra ce; Private school experience Dislike of 'inner circle' relationships; Lack of meaningful evaluation; Background of country in war DEVELOPMENT OF EMPATHY Still strongly affiliates with role of teacher Felt less than' because of need t o take extra books home as ELL Background of country in war "I was the kid who shouldn't have achieved anything" became nationally ranked athlete in high school Experience at US University initially overwhelming ; Felt sick when had to go to school as a ch ild DESIRE TO LEAD BY EMPOWERING Negative experience with principal/ supervisor Strong mentor/role model; stress and challenge not let people down Principal expanded leadership responsibilitie s beyond social worker role Experience in culture work with 31 schools Negative experiences with principal/ supervisor RECOGNIZING POTENTIAL IN OTHERS Self described rebel in school Supervisor encouraged to take on leadership Average student in school when younger, achieved scholarships to four year colleges Oth ers (hairdressers) encouraged to become educator Struggled in school; defied authority RESILIENCE Single mom; Single mom; Child of single mother; Non native English speaker Immigrant; Non native English speaker; Worked multiple jobs while attending community college Child of single mother; mixed race; family history of racism Immigrant; Non native English speaker

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! 91 earlier in Research Question #3, Lisa Flores taught at a school in Ba ltimore with a 100% poverty rate, and grew up in a home where teaching and leading in hard to serve schools was elevated to a calling with regard to equity for all students. The other principals in these thematic dissertation case studies shared experienc es from their lives that led to their own commitment to equity in their leadership of schools. Having to learn English as a second language herself, the power of language and regard for ELA learners and programs binds Principal B to her commitment to equ ity for all learners. In assuming the role of principal at her school, Principal B remembers that if was extremely stressful because the staff was really divided into those kids.' You had the ELA S kids and then you had the other kids and it was those kids.' It was those kids and ELA S and never did the two mix. The language used by staff when discussing students pointed very notably to serious divisions in belief systems of staff with regard to equity of access and expectation for all students. I n Principal B's opinion, the ELS kids were the ones that were blamed for low scores because they were required to learn a second language ." The language of the staff was a very concrete driver for Principal B in her focus upon equity. She says I [didn' t] want to hear anyone talk about those kids' because they're not those kids,' they're our kids.' They belong to us ." Thus, a priority for Principal B early in her principalship was to change that mindset and language and to create a culture that acce pted all the kids ." Regard for ELA learner and programs (or the lack thereof) also solidified Principal B's drive for equity for her students. Having seen cuts and /or reorganization to programs serving ELA learners over time, Principal B is now adamant in her defense of

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! 92 these students. When faced with cuts to staffing that would impact the ability of the school to effectively instruct and support ELA learners, she shared the following: I was pretty lividthey wanted to cut that. And it's from the fact that you're screwing my kids. You're screwing our ELA S kids. You're looking at the numbers and that's all you're thinking about is Well, we can cut here,' without stopping to think about how is it going to impact kids. Principal B is wants to ensure th at language and systems attest to her belief that all of her students be highly regarded as learners and people. Principal C, an immigrant to the United States at age 18 and English Language Learner, believes that one size does not fit all when it come s to ELA learners. He says I have reason why I say that, based on my personal experience, based on my personal life and people I work with and the kids I work with ." Principal C, a refugee of a war torn country, is passionate about equity of opportunity for his students. Having been homeless, worked minimum wage jobs, and found a path to college, he says I want to pressure the teachers to do their best with ELL based upon his own experience of a lack of support from schools as an ELL student himself. Principal C does not limit his expectations to teachers and schools, however. He also includes families of students as well in his press for student success I pressure my ELL parents that they need to take care of their kid ." His message of equity is b orne from his own experience and it rings loud and clear. He has very high expectations for his students and their futures. He says plainly, The question for my kids is not are you going to college? I ask them, which college are you going to? '" Principal C believes every one of his students can and will be a success story.

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! 93 Born to a teen aged single mother, Principal D says it's all about equity for me ." Being born a bi racial kid into a family with a long history of racism (her great uncle was a grand wizard of the Ku Klux Klan in Kentucky), Principal D says of herself I was the kid who should not have achieved anything. Instead, she became a nationally ranked athlete in high school, having begun her training six to eight hours a day beginni ng in second grade. She believes her own story is demonstrative that All kids need to have high expectations. All kids can succeed. A teaching experience that Principal D had at an exclusive private school early in her career cemented her feelings a bout schools with regard to equity, high expectations and access to opportunity. About that experience she says: The kids flew [in] on their own private jets, the parents didn't work and they had nanniesThey would always secure the perimeter of the campus. I felt as if all kids deserve that those rich experiences; debating, thinking deeply about things. It was an equity issue for me. I didn't think that was fair For Principal D, as described above, critical incidents from her life and work very directly have informed her drive for equity as a leader and her story is an inexorable part of her leadership. Principal E describes a dislike of inner circle relationships and practices she has witnessed and experienced as being instrumental to her dri ve for equity, or fairness as she often describes the concept. She relays her disdain for principals she worked for that excluded many teachers from opportunities and advantages because they had a circle of friends they kept close. She also discusses ha ving taught for several years without a principal or evaluator ever entering her classroom, yet she received glowing evaluations

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! 94 during that time. Principal E says this is a question of equity, it's a question of fairness. We all need feedback. It is u njust and very poor example to treat employees and run a school in that fashion. It's actually neglect ." Being raised in a South American country that was at war during her childhood, Principal E understands the power of access to information and edu cation with regard to larger socio political contexts. Access to information and education, being foundational to equity, is increasingly on her mind as she moves along in her career. She shares that remembering her experiences in her native country has influenced me as I get older and think about how much we take for granted in our free public education. Here it's normal, one of few places where it's normal and expected and nobody thinks twice about it. Perhaps reflecting upon the experiences relate d to her childhood schooling during this time leads to her conscious awareness of applying principles of equity and fairness in matters of student access. Principal E says I like to be fair when we look at practices here. Like the simple thingsIf one p erson has the opportunity, then everyone has to have the opportunity. We work hard not to create unjust or unfair practices ." The vignettes above reveal a great deal about the drive for equity in which Principal E engages. Development of e mpathy Critical incidents in each of the case study principals' experiences led to the development of empathy in their school leadership practice. In the case of Flores, she co ntinues to affiliate strongly with classroom teachers, and her own experiences of having been a teacher create within her a desire to honor the feelings within her teaching staff at any given time. When asked about compelling ideals that inform her leader ship, she shares I just think that having been a teacher, and having

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! 95 good years and bad yearsI think that ability to then empathize with teachers and then really even to just feel what they're feeling. I make that connection If teachers are not bein g successful, Flores says if they have a bad day or begin failing in anything then that's my failure because I've been here from the beginning with so many of them that that's on me ." Understanding how the power of strong yet empathetic leadership in the service of teachers leads to teacher efficacy and satisfaction, Flores sums it up saying proudly I am a ridiculous teacher advocate ." Her own experience as an ELL learner links to Principal B's development of empathy for her students. Principal B share s that despite having a parochial school education in which she enjoyed numerous success, including winning the science fair and other awards, she always felt inadequate. She felt her inadequacy was visible not only to her but to others in that she had to bring home all my books Most other kids were just bringing home one or twoso I thought I was dumb. I always thought I was dumb ." Principal B says it was many years later, even after graduating in the top 10% of her class, that she realized she had d one well and was in fact, smart. Recently, Principal B shared her story with the fifth graders at her school, many of whom are ELA learners like she herself had been. She says she told them: I know exactly where you're coming from. I spoke Spanish just like a lot of you guysI remember thinking I was stupid because I had to take all the books home and I had to work all night long to figure it out. In sharing this story with her students, Principal B is showing that she knows their struggles and their concerns, but she also knows they can move beyond them much as she did.

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! 96 Principal C's compelling experiences as an immigrant/refugee of war underlie the empathy he displays when talking to his students and their families. The empathy he shows, however, i s coupled with the high expectations he has for students to succeed. He draws connections between his history and experience and how they too can build paths toward reaching goals of success and achievement, both within and outside of school. Principal C tells his students "let me share a piece about my life. I had to work hard. I didn't have money, I was poor, but you know that's not stopping you [from] doing the best job you can. He empathizes with his students, but he does not offer them excuses or ways to avoid learning and hard work. About his students, principal C says very sincerely, I want them to be better than me in their life, so that's why I am here. He knows how hard the struggle for students can be, and he wants them to rise to the cha llenge and provide a springboard for them to become their best. As shared in the previous section, Principal D's background was such that there would be any number of reasons it would be seemingly impossible for her to find success as a student and in lif e. And yet, she did both by achieving at high level athletically and academically. As a high school aged student, Principal D competed nationally in her sport, and was ranked very near the top of all athletes that competed. Later, before she even enter tained the idea of continuing in school and becoming an educator, she has already earned two degrees: one in psychology and one in pre medicine. She understands why people might view a child as having conditions that might hold them back, but she does not accept those conditions as being obstacles to achievement. Principal D's empathy is linked to the students who others believe "cannot achieve" given their

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! 97 background circumstances. Principal D is proof they can, in fact, achieve and find great success. Two experiences that Principal E shared offer insight into development of empathy in her leadership. As a child, she struggled in school and did not do well. She was so averse to attending school she says I would be sick to my stomach due to how much I hated that school. She is grateful to her parents that they did not force her to go to school, and that they found an alternative. This experience of her childhood is very influential to her as a school principal. Principal E says I always remembere d that, because the worst thing that could happen is for a kid to hate coming [to school] ." She makes sure her staff works on relationships with students because she knows first hand how important it is at school for a student To feel welcome and [ feel th at] people like you ." As an adult, Principal E came to the United States to pursue a master's degree. She recalls that initially she was overwhelmed and intimidated by how different and how large the campus appeared to be. Describing that experience she says I have never been in such a large library, nor did I know how to use computers or access computers. My first visit was definitely very scary. But everyone was very friendly, you just had to ask ." This anecdote demonstrates again the connect ion between Principal E's own experience and her insistence as a school leader that students have to feel welcome, someone has to like them ." In sharing these two stories, Principal E visibly establishes development of empathy for her students in her prac tice as a principal. Desire to l ead t hrough e mpowerment Common to all of the principals were stories of critical incidents that led to their desire to lead through empowerment. As

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! 98 explained in Research Question #2, Lisa Flores had a negative experience as an assistant principal with the principal for whom she worked. The principal relegated her to the performance of menial tasks that had little to do with leadership. This experience, as well as her positive experiences as a teacher leader led to her co mmitment to leading by empowering others. Flores says I don't like to be the leader that you would know I'm the leader. I want to be the leader that other people around me are shining and being recognized ." As conveyed earlier in this chapter, Flores f inds many ways to empower her teachers, in contrast to her own experience of being power less working for a previous principal. Principal E also cites an example of negative principal leadership as being a motivator for her own leadership of teachers As a teacher I had poor experience with principals. I had some principals who were just very poor role models ." Different from the attitudes toward teachers of these poor role models, Principal E wants her teachers to be invested and for people to want to come to work a nd make meaning in what they do, they need to be involved in decision making. Perhaps reflective of her experience as a child in a country at war, she says very directly about her leadership of teachers I don't think a good leader is a police. I don't like to lead that way ." In contrast to the experiences of Flores and Principal E in having negative principal role models that inspired them to be different, Principal B talks very keenly about her high regard for a principal she had who was not only a role model but a mentor as well. This principal role model, according to Principal B, was a strong principal who inspired teachers to be leaders [she] actively sought input. The impacts of Principal B's experiences working with this pri ncipal are woven throughout her Narrative Inquiry

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! 99 Interview. She credits this principal with helping her achieve the principalship while never having been an Administrative Assistant (AA) or Assistant Principal (AP). She says of her work with her mentor I had a lot of roles, the biggest one is just [her] allowing me to do a lot of the roles. She says she also learned that teamwork is important but individualism is too ." Principal B believes that her teachers are important, and following her mentor' s example, she says I don't throw teachers away. I believe that you learn and become a better teacher and I have the support in the building to help you ." Through the examples of critical incidents Principal E shared, it is clear that she too, like her principal role model, has a desire to lead by empowering her teachers. Prior to becoming a principal, Principal C was a social worker. His desire to lead by empowering teachers can be traced to his own experience working with one of his principals. Pri ncipal C recounts that when he approached his principal about needing different challenges and wanting to engage the community more, she gave him license to pursue that work. He says he asked her Will you allow me to work with the community and bring the community back to the school, and do all kinds of grant writing, fundraising, planning." Principal C says that his principal agreed to his proposal and he was able to do a lot of good for the school with the outreach that she allowed him to pursue. As a testament to his belief in the empowerment of teachers, Principal C says I think my idea is the effective school is sometime people don't need to know who the principal is a sentiment that echoes a similar statement by Flores. Having spent time in an as signment requiring her to [go] into schools and figure out what's going on ," Principal D shares that she has a background in looking for practices that empower teachers. Tasked with overseeing 31 schools, Principal D spent

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! 100 time working with staffs for a variety of reasons. Primarily though, she says she looked at what was going on and how to form distributed leadership, collective partnerships, and to know the kids. For Principal D, the experience of working with school staffs in this way solidified a level of expertise in empowering teachers. She says "it was through that work of helping principals to lead a school that I learned about leading a school." Recognition of p otential in o thers Each of the principals studied have stories of critical inc idents that lend themselves to the leadership work of recognizing potential in others. The principals had common experience in this area in that each of them identified an incident in their lives or in their work when someone recognized potential in them that they did not recognize themselves. For Flores and Principal E, they shared early experiences of not being what is traditionally thought of as "successful" in school. Flores's story about the principal who had suspended her as a student later, and la ter giving her that first teaching job and those stories of teachers not giving up on Flores even when she acted out as recounted in Research Question #3. Principal E's critical incident in this area was her parent's recognition that Principal E's defia nce of authority and school avoidance had more to do with the school environment she was in than in any deficit in her character. Even now, she says I am grateful that my parents listened to me ." Flores and Principal E, both struggled in school as stud ents, yet both became successful principals because even early in their lives, teachers and family saw potential in them and gave them opportunity and encouragement. Principal D's own experience related to recognition of potential is quite simple. After having already received two undergraduate degrees (psychology and pre med) but not feeling fulfilled and looking for something different, her hairdresser suggested that

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! 101 she become an educator because kids always gravitated towards me ." Principal D report s that as a result of that conversation I took some education classes and here I am. Principal C's complex and many layered experiences throughout his work and life offer multiple examples of times when people recognized potential in him. Perhaps mo st fortuitously, when homeless immediately after immigrating to the United States, Principal C was taken in by a family affiliated with a church. Of this family, he recounts At first they felt sorry for me, but I asked them to help me get back to life an d to help me find a job that I could work and support myself and get my parentsthey adopted me, and helped me go to college While Principal C believes the time frame, in 1975, made this arrangement possible because things were different than nowIt was pretty trusting ," he understands that this recognition of potential in him by this family provided the platform for him to begin his educational and career path in the United States. A critical incident regarding recognition of potential from Principa l C's work experience led directly to his pursuing his principal's license (formerly called a Type D certification). Based upon his efforts and success in engaging his school community through outreach as well as his work on a site based management mandat e while he was a school social worker, he was encouraged to go back to school to obtain his principal credentials. Principal C says one day my principal called me and she said, Principal C, you know, we really want you to think about going back and getti ng your Type Dand I [thought], Is she crazy? '" But this encouragement of Principal C to rise to his potential did not end with his immediate supervisor. He says that he was also contacted by the

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! 102 superintendent, who reiterated the message that his princ ipal has already given, saying again, Principal C, we want you to get your Type D ." So, this reinforcement of Principal C by supervisors who recognized his potential led to his return to school and accomplishment of obtaining his principal's license. His history of being a war refugee, an immigrant, and an English Language Learner did not limit Principal C because others recognized potential in him and provided supports to achieve that potential. Of all the principal case studies, Principal C likely has the most profound examples of the importance of recognizing potential in others, examples which inform the beliefs he carries with him each day in his work with students and teachers. Resilience. Leadership requires resilience. The challenges that face principals on a daily basis are not limited to determining the most effective methods and practices in student achievement. Being able to continue leading a school in the face of challenge expected and unexpected, requires fortitude and strength. Princ ipals must have the ability to be flexible, agile and emotionally strong in order to serve their students, teachers and communities. Critical incidents in their lives bond these principals in their ability to be resilient in their leadership, and to conti nue their work even in the face of tasks and/or events that appear overwhelming. Of all of the common elements of the case study principals' critical incidents, the stories of resilience share the most similarities. Lisa Flores and Principal B, both yo ung single mothers raising children while working and furthering their educations, speak to the fortitude and drive it took to get through that time in their lives. Principal B shares I was a young mom, so I struggled. I was a single mommy experiences have made me who I am ." Not only did Principal B have the experience of being a single mother, like

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! 103 Principal D, she was the child of a single mother. Both principals share their admiration for their mothers in providing examples of strength and commitme nt to them as children, even though their individual circumstances were extremely difficult. Principal D says I had a mother who was a hippie, a teen aged mom who thought I could do anything in the world good thing. Her mother's faith in her led to her being a nationally ranked athlete as a teenager. Describing her mother, Principal B says My mom was a strong leader. Not necessarily in any leadership role. She was strong woman ." The powerful examples of resilience their single mothers set for th em surely creates resiliency in the principal leadership of Principal B and Principal D. Principal B, Principal C, and Principal E all share the common experience of being English Language Learners when they themselves were learners. Having to learn English in classrooms with little to no support resulted in the need for these principals to work harder to achieve academic goals, and to persevere even when language barriers seemed insurmountable. Principal C says that at the time the ESL process, [I] barely [made] it through college, but yet he did because he would not give up on pursuing his goals. As described earlier in this section, Principal B's memories of taking home books and feeling stupid because she had to work so much harder than her English speaking peers did not stand in the way of her winning academic awards and graduating in the top 10% of her class. While Principal E learned English as a second language in her home country, her experience coming to the United States as non native speaker and immigrant required that she set aside her fears, as described in her account of going to the library of a large university for the first time, and persevere so that she could accomplish her goal of completing her master's degree at an American university.

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! 104 Summary The critical incidents (work and life) shared by the case study principals offer the opportunity to draw out commonalities and themes that support their leadership practices. Furthermore, because these principals, by virtue of their inclusion in this stud y, have met certain criteria to be deemed successful, it is of interest that the themes of (a) drive for equity, (b) development of empathy, (c) desire to lead by empowering, (d) recognizing potential in others, and (e) resilience emerge from all of these successful principals' critical incidents. These common elements and themes, while perhaps not common to all principals, are in fact common to these principals; principals who have realized success in working with ELA learners in schools with substantial p overty rates and other demographic indicators consistent with schools labeled as hard to serve. The stories of critical incidents shared in the above section further substantiate the notion that the stories of leaders cannot be separated from their leader ship practice. Research Question #5 Based on a review of relevant literature (the conceptual underpinnings and evidenced based strategies) and evidence gathered in this study, what is an applied definition of a leadership practice? This section, which wi ll answer Research Question #5, begins with revisiting the working definition of a leadership practice that was formed based on a review of relevant literature prior to beginning the study. Additional elements of a leadership practice emerged from data an alysis, including tools and activities, proximal goals, distal goals, and critical incidents from the work and life experiences of principals. With the inclusion

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! 105 of these newly uncovered elements of a leadership practice, an emergent and applied definitio n of a leadership practice evolves. Definition of a Leadership Practice Prior to Study Prior to beginning this study, a working definition of principal leadership practice was developed. This definition was based upon an amalgam of the VAL ED Matrix the ES I Framework, the Leadership Practice Triangle, as well as a focus upon a specific work associated with achieving a goal or set of goals. The working definition of a principal leadership practice for student achievement involved the following four specific areas (a) w hat the leader does and what they focus on as a principal (b) the engagement and interaction of the principal with others (c) the contexts within which the principal exists (d) and the movement of the principal and the organization toward some goal. Adopting a definition of a leadership practice was instrumental in moving forward with the study. The study itself then revealed additional critical elements or concepts inherent to a comprehensive understanding of a leadership practic e. Elements of a Leadership Practice That Emerged In Data Analysis The findings of this study illustrate additional elements or concepts that are fundamental to developing implementing and maintaining an applied definition of leadership practice within the context of successful schools serving high poverty ELA students. Tools and activities. Engaging in a leadership practice requires the employment of specific tools and a ctivities designed to support lead toward the achievement of proximal goals In this particular case study p rofessional development, teacher leadership teams (data team meetings, school leadership group meetings, staff

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! 106 development team meetings, grade level team meetings), a peer observation system and continuing education were spec ific tools and activities used by this principal to move teachers toward a higher level of performance and practice. Proximal g oals. Proximal goals serve as markers of the efficacy of the leader in moving toward distal goals, or outcomes of a principal 's leadership practice. The intentional focus by Flores on school culture, school climate, and trust building among staff resulted in several proximal goals being developed and met over time. E mpowered teachers, collaborative teams, and a culture of teac her capacity all serve as proximal goals of Flores's leadership practice. Distal g oals Simply put, distal goals can be framed as the ultimate outcome that a principal seeks with regard to a particular leadership practice. At Smith, the outcomes of Flo res's leadership practice have positively impacted student achievement as evidenced by improved student growth on standardized measures The three proximal goals (empowered teachers, distributed leadersh ip, and teacher capacity) employed by Flores boos ted student achievement, which was the distal goal of Flores's leadership practice. Critical e xperiences work and life Critical incidents in a leader's life and work are foundational to how a leader interacts with followers, situation, and how they l ead. Much like seeking understanding of situation or context when describing a leadership practice, it is similarly important to consider the variety of experiences of a leader throughout their lives. Critical incidents of importance to leaders and their leadership practice are occurring at all times, but certain particular incidents are more

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! 107 influential than others to a leader. In this study, the critical incidents of Flores and the other principals are interwoven in the fabric of their school leadershi p. An Emergent and Applied Definition of a Leadership Practice While the working definition based upon the VAL ED Matrix, the ES I Framework, the Leadership Practice Triangle, and a focus upon a specific goal or set of goals was sufficient to frame the work of this study, the study itself revealed that there are additional facets of a leadership practice that the initial definition did not contain. An emergent and applied definition of a principal leadership practice for student achievement still involv es the following four specific areas: (a w hat the leader does and what they focus on as a principal (b) the engagement and interaction of the principal with others (c) the contexts within which the principal exists and (d) the movement of the principal and the organization toward some goal. Additionally, as this study demonstrates, an applied definition of a leadership practice also includes the engagement of tools and activities by the leader as well as the use of proximal goals as pathways to the dist al goal(s) or outcomes of the leadership practice. Woven throughout a principal leadership practice are the critical incidents of the principal's life that have contributed to their growth as a leader and to the development of a leadership practice. Summary This study found evidence of a leadership practice in context and our work produced additional elements not in the literature. Through the work of looking for actual lead ership practices, a working definition of a leadership practice evolved into an applied definition that includes the elements of tools and activities, proximal goals, distal goals, and critical incidents of work and life that contribute to shaping a leader.

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! 108 CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents summary conclusion, and recommendation sections for this study. The summary section reviews the purpose of the study, the research questions, the conceptual frameworks, criteria for selecting study schools, the subject of the study, unit of analysis, data collection instruments and methods used to collect data. The conclusions section presents key findings from the study, their relationship to prior literature cited in the study, and major implications of those findings for practice. In the final section, recommendations for practice and future research are presented to augment the leadership work of principals, other school districts, and princip al preparation programs. This section concludes with recommendations for fu ture research related to specific and particularized leadership practice s in successful s chools serving ELA learners and finishes with final thoughts. Summary of Study This case study was designed to discover and name the specific leadership practices and stories behind principals' success in schools that are showing strong achievement trends in ELA learner populations. The purpose of this case study, which wa s part of a larger multiple c ase thematic dissertation study focused on the leadership practices of principals leading successful schools serving ELA learners wa s to identify specific and particularized leadership practices identified by the principal as making the difference in the school reaching the levels of student achievement that resulted in this school having gains on the CSAP /TCAP and CELA tests for three concurrent years. The

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! 109 researchers believe that s tudying principal leadership in successful schools serving ELA learners ca n help to define those leadership practices that are value added for student achievement. The five r esearch questions that gu ided this study are: 1. Using the definition of a leadership practice as a guide (developed in chapter two), what are the spec ific and particularized self identified leadership practices being used by the principal in this study to ensure a positive impact of that school on student growth/achievement? 2. How do the identified successful leadership practices align with key conc eptual and evidence based frameworks (VAL ED Matrix and the Essential Supports & Indicators Framework) used in this study? 3. How do stories of this principal's critical incidents (both work and life related) contribute to an understanding of how self id entified leadership practices emerged and flourished within this particular school and community context? 4. What are the common elements of principals' critical incidents both work and life related, that contribute to an understanding of how the princip als developed, implemented, and maintained these successful leadership practices ? 5. Based on a review of relevant literature (the conceptual underpinnings and evidenced based strategies) and evidence gathered in this study, what is an applied definition of a leadership practice? To guide the study, t wo specific evidence based conceptual frameworks that examine leadership practices and behaviors li nked to student outcomes were chosen. The first conceptual framework, the VAL ED Matrix, comes from evidence based research

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! 110 (Goldring et al. (2009) underpinning the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Educatio n. The VAL ED Matrix, representing the intersection of six core components and si x key processes, illustrates 36 specific areas of learner centered leadership. The second conceptual framework, the Essential Supports and Indicators (ES I) framework, comes from the work of researchers (Bryk, et al. 2010) studying school improvement in C hicago. The ES I framework is built from five essential supports and fourteen indicators of school improvement Both of these conceptual frameworks we re used in the design of this study, the development of interview protocols, and to guide data analysis. The criteria used to pick the school eligible to participate as a "successful school" was determined through a concurrent study being conducted in Denver Public Schools by the University of Colorado Denver. The school selected for this case study was identified as being successful based on five criteria for inclusion : (a) an open enrollment policy, (b) at least 40% of total enrollment consisting of ELL students, (c) a total School Performance Framework (SPF) rating greater than 49% for elementary scho ols, and great than 45% for middle schools and high schools, (d) at least 50% of the students qualify for a free or reduced lunch, (e) have gains on the CSAP and CELA tests for three consecutive years relative to schools serving the same grade levels and (f) a principal I place for at least three years While the subject of this case study wa s the principal who has been identified as successful and serves a number of ELA learners in the school that they lead, the unit of analysis wa s the specific and part icularized leadership practices exhibited by the principal. Leadership practice is the construct that resulted from review of the literature and the application to practice of two learner centered conceptual frameworks.

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! 111 Three instruments were used to coll ect data for this study the VAL ED Survey, the Leadership Practice Interview Protocol, and the Narrative Inquiry Protocol. T he VAL ED Survey was completed by the principal, the principal's supervisor, and teachers in the school Based upon the results of the VAL ED Survey, follow up interviews wi th directed questions in areas deemed "distinguished" were conducted. The Narrative Inquir y Protocol was used to prompt the principal to share the particular experiences of the personal and professional journey that has led to their current leadership success and development of their successful leadership practices. Data collected from VAL ED resulted in reports which include d mean and median effectiveness scores generated through the six core components an d si x key processes subscales. Data a nalysis for the interviews include d two levels of coding: open coding and axi al coding. Interview data was transcribed and loaded into DeDoose, an online platform for analyzing text. Coding inventories created from the E S I and the alignment of ES I to VAL ED were used to code results of the interview protocol in DeDoose Even though data were limited by virtue of the case study methodology and focus upon one principal, data gathered through three research instruments we re rich with content applicable to this study. Data were analyzed and findings for each research question were revealed. Conclusions, drawn from data analysis, are described below. Conclusions Key findings distilled from Chapter IV are discussed below and include references to the relevant literature of the field of leadership and how these findings support, refute, or extend that literature. In addition, implications drawn from these key findings are also discussed in the section below.

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! 112 Summary of K ey Findings Key findings revealed from each of the research questions are offered below. The relationship of each of the key findings to literature contextualizes the key findings within the field of leadership. 1. Leadership practices do, in fact exist in context. A l eadersh ip practice is multi faceted. Viewing a leadership practice in terms of a work focus, tools and activities, proximal goals and distal goals (or outcomes) undertaken by the leaders and followers working within a specific situ ation, helps support in understanding the complex level of interactions involved in a leadership practice 2. In this case study, the leadership practice of the principal in a successful school serving ELA learners links to research based frameworks the VAL ED and the ES I. Elements of these frameworks help provide insight into how the work focus inherent to leadership practice applied of a principal is viewed by self and others. 3. To more fully understand a leadership practice, it is important to consider the variety of critical incidents that a leader experiences throughout their work and personal lives. Examining a principal's leadership practice through story allows for qualitative themes and patterns to emerge that otherwise might remain hidden. This qualitative data can be used to discover traits and values that are important to understanding leadership practice applied. 4. Common elements and themes exist in the stories of critical incidents of principals in this study, all of whom have realized success in working with ELA learners in schools with substantial poverty rates and other demographic indicators consistent with sch ools labeled as hard to serve. In this study, the elements and themes identified as

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! 113 being common to all of the principals' critical incidents are driver for equity, development of empathy, desire to lead by empowering, recognition of potential in others, and resilience. These common elements also serve to add further depth and breadth to understanding the leadership practices of these principals. 5. In addition to research based frameworks of leadership practice, this study revealed that an applied defini tion of a leadership practice includes the elements of tools and activities, proximal goals, distal goals, and critical incidents of work and life that contribute to shaping a leader. Relationship of Key Findings to Literature This study is grounded in various periods of leadership research and literature. Effective schools research, research about direct and indirect principal behaviors, instructional leadership, early references to leadership practice, distributed leadership, evidence based leadershi p frameworks are all reflected through this study. The relationship of each period of leadership research and literature to this study is described below. In response to the 1966 Coleman Report which asserted that family background made the difference in whether a student could learn and be successful, and that schools could do little for students who came from poor homes numerous researchers (Brookover & Lezotte, 1978; Edmonds, 1982; Purkey & Smith, 1983; Rutter, Maughan, Mortimore, & Ouston 1979 ) conducted studies that are foundational to what would become the effective schools research movement. The effective schools movement demonstrated that students from impoverished and highly impacted environments can, in fact, find success in school and ach ieve at high levels. This study is related to the

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! 114 effective schools movement in that it demonstrates that students, regardless of socio economic background, can and do achieve at high levels. While effective schools research established that highly impac ted students can and do achieve, the next iteration of leadership study examined whether principal behaviors directly or indirectly influence student a chievement Evidence was presented that the principal can have an impact on student achievement (Halling er et al., 1996). Further, it was established that s tudent achievement outcomes can be influenced by the actions of the principal upon the climate of the school ( Brookover, Schweitzer, Schneider, Beady, Flood & Wisenbaker, 1978; Hallinger et al., 1996; Se bring & Bryk, 2000 ) This study is aligned with this body of research because the study clearly establishes that principals, through leadership practice applied, influence student achievement. There is a body of research and literature that moves beyond principal behaviors to the idea of instructional leadership. Strong principal leadership behaviors in the area of instructional leadership have been shown through a variety of research to correlate with increased student achievement (Blase & Blase, 1999; Cotton, 2003; Glickman, Gordon, & Ross Gordon, 1995; Marzano, Waters, & McNulty, 2005; Smith & Andrews, 1989 ). The results of the VAL ED Survey and the data gathered through the interview protocols in this study point to the strong instructional leadershi p employed by the case study principal in moving her staff toward more effective instructional practices to improve student achievement. Early references to leadership practice by Kouzes and Posner (2007) includes the creation of the Leadership Practices I nventory (LPI) which included five practices and

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! 115 ten commitments, all of which are leader centered. This study extended beyond the LPI work in that the LPI does not take into account followers and context and the nature of interaction that must exist in l eadership practice applied. D istributed leadership underscores the interactions of school leaders with others in the organizatio nal situation. The research and literature about d istributed leadership emphasizes the actions of the leader in conjunction w ith the nature of interactions between the leadership practice and further interaction with formal and informal leaders, followers, and situation (Gronn, 2002; Spillane, 2006; Spillane, Halverson & Diamond, 2001, 2004). This study firmly establishes that a leadership practice applied contains these critical components of distributed leadership, in addition to the other important elements that emerged as shared in key findings. HP HP research fuses key elements of effective schools and distributed leadersh ip research and literature. Predicated on the idea that students living in poverty can and do achieve academically, HP HP research and the resulting Readiness Model also emphasize the nature of interaction between learners ( Calkins, Genther, Belfore, & La sh, 2007) The HP HP and distributed leadership research and literature provide frameworks for leadership, but do not dictate how leadership should happen in any given context, which parallels leadership practice defined. Leader, followers and context w ill dictate through their interaction how any particular leadership practice evolves. The key findings from this study also support and augment the literature base of school leadership. Key findings from Research Question #1 support what is known abou t d istributed leadership in a variety of ways. Distributed leadership demands a ttention beyond a single leader perspective toward the interactions of leaders with and within

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! 116 context, environment and followers (Gronn, 2002; Spillane, Halverson & Diamond, 2 001). The theory of distributed leadership is grounded in activity theory and distributed cognition (Gronn, 2002; Spillane, Halverson & Diamond, 2001). The findings suggest that tools and activities are critical to a leadership practice applied. Diamond explains that activity theory is about the way a system works with reg ard to a particular activity and that t here are numerous contributing factors to any activity that move it beyond a single action. The leadership practice revealed through this study is embedded in various systems and is far beyond any single actions. Spillane and Diamond (2007) define a distributed perspective of leadership in schools as the interaction of leaders, followers and situation as represented in their Leadership Practice Tr iangle Foundationally, this perspective is sound. This study further establishes the interactions necessary to a leadership practice in context. Additionally, this study specifically names tools and activities, proximal goals, and distal goals as compe lling added elements of a leadership practice applied. Findings resulting from answering Research Question #2 link the leadership practice applied of the principal in a successful school serving ELA learners to research based frameworks. The effectiveness of the VAL ED Survey as a measure of principal leadership is well established through the literature as being a valid measure of learner centered principal leadership. Using 360 degree feedback, from teachers, prin cipals, and supervisors, the VAL ED was d istinctively designed to examine leadership behaviors that impact student achievement ( Elliott, Murphy, Goldring, & Porter 2009 ). Using the VAL ED Survey to gather perception data of a principal's leadership from multiple respondent groups reinforces the idea that leadership is the interaction of leaders,

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! 117 followers, and situation and not some "thing" that is done in isolation (Spillane et al., 2004). The use of the VAL ED Survey with Flores, her teachers, and her supervisor allowed the researcher to narr ow the focus of the interviews, as well as to mine data specific to Flores's identified strengths. Data gathered through the Leadership Practice Interview and the Narrative Inquiry Interview protocols supported Flores's areas of strength as identified by the VAL ED results. The key findings for Research Question #3 and Research Question #4 emphasize the importance of a principal's story and background to their leadership practice as well as subsequent examination of the leadership practice through the l ens of the principal's experiences in their work and in their life. This finding is well supported through the literature regarding narrative inquiry. Narrative inquiry, because it is about human experience and human stories allows for the surfacing of c omplex and nuanced facets of a human subject, even that which might not be consciously recognized or has been hidden. This methodology is particularly well suited to the very human experiences of teaching and leading ( Connelly & Clandinin, 1990; Gough, 19 91; Grumet, 1981 Walter & Mertova, 2007). N arrative inquiry is based on the assumption that human beings make sense out of their life experiences by telling stories (Bell, 2002) In this study, the researcher was able to see both of these phenomena occ urring the surfacing of particular experiences, large and small, as well as sense making through storytelling. As the principal contextualized and reflected about various vignettes and anecdotes from her life, she drew connections to her leadership and her belief systems with regard to students and education. This level of engagement allowed the case study to achieve an element of thick description,' which

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! 118 provides more complete understanding of a subject (Merriam, 2009), as was the case with Flores, t he other principals and their applied leadership practices. The findings from Research Question #4 extend the research in that they highlight the power of storytelling and narrative not just from the perspective of a single case study participant. Using n arrative inquiry methodology with individual participants by aggregating the results of the data allows for the distillation of themes and common elements. In this case, the common themes and elements were then linked to leadership practice. The key fi ndings of Research Question #5 link strongly to the work of Bryk, et al. (2010) in that the definition of an applied leadership practice resulting in student achievement requires that the principal (leader) must be the driver for change, and that leader as driver is vital for improvements in Essential Support (ES) areas of parent community ties, professional capacity, a student centered learning climate, and instructional guidance The complexities of an applied leadership practice, including the elements of tools and activities, proximal goals, and distal goals, and informed by critical incidents of work and life, rest with the principal through the engagement of followers and the situation. It follows that s tudent achievement outcomes can be influenced b y the actions of the principal upon the climate of the school through the employment of leadership practice applied, as was evidenced by the case study of Flores and supported in the literature of leadership and leadership for ELA learners (Carrejo & Corte z, 2010; Day, et al. 2009; Hallinger et al., 1996; Miramontes et al. 2011). Discussion of Implications 1. Leadership practices do exist in context. Understanding the complex and multi faceted nature of leadership practices disallows the oversimplification of school

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! 119 improvement and student achievement goals and goal setting. Leadership practices are idiosyncra tic and cannot be replicated, due the fact that the leader, followers, and context or situation are unique to a particular time and place. What can be used is the knowledge of what constitutes a leadership practice applied and the understanding that inter actions, tools and activities, proximal and distal goals, and critical incidents all must be attended to in a leadership practice. 2. Leadership practice reflects a system, and not a singular action. The use of evidence based leadership frameworks can as sist in narrowing the work focus of a leader within leadership practice. Assets and areas for growth as aligned to evidence based leadership frameworks provide direction and feedback. 3. Critical incidents are important to the development of a leader. T hey cannot be ignored and should be surfaced for increased self awareness and efficacy on the part of the leaders. C ritical incidents cannot be separated from the leader 4. Even though critical incidents will differ between principals, thematically there are commonalities that inform principal leadership practice. Mining common themes of critical incidents among principals can allow for the development of connections between certain themes and distinct skill sets of principals in specific contexts or sit uations. 5. An applied definition of a leadership practice allows for any number of pathways to student achievement. While there is not one specific recipe, there are specific ingredients: leader, followers, context, tools and activities, proximal and d istal goals, and critical incidents from work and life.

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! 120 Recommendations The investigation of leadership practices of principals in successful schools serving ELA learners resulted in findings that support specific recommendations for consideration. These recommendations for practice for principals, school districts, and principa l preparation programs are presented in the sections below. Recommendations are also made for future research opportunities in the area of leadership practice applied. Recommendations f or Practice The recommendations for practice outlined below are supported by findings from this study. Recommendations for practice are offered for three levels of stakeholders: principals, school districts, and principal preparation programs. Principals Based on the findings of this study, with regard to principals, the researcher recommends: 1. Principals should avail themselves of professional development that allows them to learn about applied leadership practices and the complex nature of engaging in a leader ship practice. Professional readings about leadership theory, activities to support development and refinement of personal theories of leadership, and reflective support structures along with peer coaching can help principals to develop in their understan ding and engagement in leadership practice applied. 2. When considering their leadership practice goal(s), principals should attend to the interaction between themselves, their followers, and larger contexts or situations. Principals should be intentional in the tools and activities they employ to reach short term (proximal) and long term (distal) goals of leadership practice. The power of a leadership

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! 121 practice applied demonstrated in this study speaks to the value of deliberateness in this work. 3. Princ ipals should engage in reflective consideration of how critical incidents in their lives and work impact their leadership, to the benefit or detriment of the staff and students in their schools. Personal stories cannot be separated from leadership practic e, nor should they be. Critical incidents provide motivation (negative or positive) to leader, and understanding these incidents as motivators or drivers can help a leader to more fully realize the potential of their leadership practice applied. 4 Princ ipals should consider employing a research based leadership survey, such as the VAL ED, to gather input from their staff, their supervisor, as well as their own responses to give them insight into their leadership practice as viewed by themselves and other s. Measures of domains of leadership can provide valuable guidance as to where a principal might need professional development or other supports for their practice. A comprehensive survey tool can also provide evidence of leadership domains to be celebra ted and replicated. School Districts Based on the findings of this study, with regard to school districts, the researcher recommends: 1. School districts should create professional development opportunities for principals that allow them to learn about a pplied leadership practice and the complex nature of engaging in a leadership practice. Activities such as story building, taking the VAL ED Survey, and/or an audit of the situation in their school could benefit practicing principals and support their pro fessional development and ongoing work.

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! 122 2. School districts should consider employing a research based leadership survey, such as the VAL ED, to more clearly understand the leadership skill sets of their principals in context. Results of principal lea dership surveys can provide direction to school district officials and supervisors of principals as to areas in which a principal might need professional development, support, or remediation. A survey of principals can also provide evidence of leadership domains to be celebrated and replicated, and could support the creation of peer coaching and collaboration opportunities between principals. 3. Eliciting critical incidents from principals with regard to work and life experiences that inform leadership c ould assist school districts in appropriate placement of principals based on particular themes, such as empathy or resilience. Different schools and staffs need different types of principals given particular contexts or situations at any given time. Prin cipal Preparation Programs Based on the findings of this study, with regard to principal preparation programs, the researcher recommends: 1. Principal preparation programs should prepare instructional materials, including readings about leadership theory activities to support development of the candidate's own theory of leadership, and reflective support structures to provide foundational grounding in leadership. This foundation should then be used to move candidates toward understanding the relationshi p of the leader and leadership to followers as well as the relationship to context and situation. Understanding the relationship of

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! 123 leader, follower and context or situation is fundamental to leadership practice applied, which will be required of candidat es once they are practicing principals. 2. Similar to the recommendation for school districts, principal preparation programs should create professional development opportunities for candidates that support their learning with regard applied leadership practice and the complex nature of engaging in a leadership practice Recommendations for Research Further research in the area of an applied definition of leadership practice is recommended The small number of case studies represented in this thematic dissertation research study as well as the short timeline of the study itself inherently limits the findings. The small size of the original case study pool, the selection criteria for principa l participation, and the involvement of a single district also limit the results of the study In order to further this research in an effort to reveal findings that may be generalizable to other principals and schools as well as add to the literature bas e and understanding of applied leadership practice, the following reco mmendations are offered : 1. Increase the number of case study principals participating in the study 2 Include observations of the leader (principal) and followers (teachers) in situ (context or situation) to add more depth and breadth to the study of an applied leadership practice. 3 Extend the timeline of the study to investigate applied leadership practice over a longer period of time to check for changes or further emergence. 4 Delve more deeply into how critical incidents of principals' work and lives and inform their leadership practice.

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! 124 5. Investigate whether there are certain themes of critical incidents of principals' work and lives that are common to principals succ essfully leading in particular environments. Final Thoughts As a practicing principal, engaging in this study identifying a leadership practice applied in a real school setting was not only satisfying from the point of view of being a researcher but also from the point of view of being a principal myself. Not only did I learn a great deal about leadership and leadership practice applied, but I also came away with much food for thought with regard to my own practice. Similar to the case study principal, Lisa Flores, climate and culture at my school are fundamental to my leadership in the engagement of my staff for improved instruction and student achievement. One area within Flores's work on culture and climate was particularly striking to me, and makes me want to grow in that same area. Flore's strong belief in h er teachers and their ability to grow and learn was extremely compelling. She was very clear that she does not tolerate deficit talk in her school about students, and she models this expectation with regard to how she talks about her teachers. This is no t to say that she does not hold her teachers accountable for their performance or that she makes excuses for poor performance, because she does. What it does mean is that she approaches her work with teachers from the mindset that they are professionals a nd that as professionals they want to always be improving. I would have liked to have had more time to engage in the study, and to have been able to spend time at Smith interacting with teachers and students. Being able to observe the work that Flores de scribed, particularly the various school leadership groups and ELA

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! 125 learner classrooms in action would have been interesting and instructional. Overall, I felt this study was a good fit for me in terms of my interests as a learner and as a practitioner. Finally, I appreciated the thematic group approach to this dissertation. The field of education is increasingly aware of the value of collaboration at all levels. The doctoral dissertation process is no exception. Being able to collaborate on initial ph ases of this study as well as having colleagues who were equally vested in similar areas of research provided a great deal of support to me personally and academically as I navigated this process.

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! 126 APPENDIX A VAL ED SURVEY

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! 132 APPENDIX B LEADERSHIP PRACTICES INTERVIEW PROTOCOL Core Component: High Standards for Student Learning and All Key Processes You [name of principal] were scored at a high level in the area of High Standards for Student Learning on the VAL ED Survey. I am trying to identify specific and particularized leadership practices that you may be using to have earned this rating on this 360 degree evaluation from self, your supervisor and the teachers in thi s school. I would like to ask you some questions about this area and will be interested in hearing your responses about the leadership practices that you have in place for planning implementing supporting advocating communicating and monitoring schoo l activities that are related to the area of achieving High Standards for Student Learning (individual, team, and school goals for rigorous academic and social learning). Starter Question : What does it mean to have High Standards for Student Learning at this school? 1. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans for (a) rigorous growth targets in learning for all students, and (b) targets of faculty performance that emphasize improvement in student learning, in order to achieve High St andards for Student Learning (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: HS P ] IG CA [Instructional Guidance Curriculum Alignment]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that that this school plans for instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with a curricular alignment (pacing and subject matter demand by grades) focus to achieving High Standards for Student Learning already prevalent in this school? IG AE [Instruction al Guidance Application Emphasis]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans for instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with an application emphasis (active student applications emphasis) that results in achieving High Standards for Student Learning already prevalent in this school? 2. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school implements (a) (creates) buy in among faculty for actions required to promote high standards of learning, (b) (create s) expectations that faculty maintain high standards for student learning, in order to achieve High Standards for Student Learning (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: HS I ] IG CA [Instructiona l Guidance Curriculum Alignment]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school implements instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with a curricular alignment (pacing

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! 133 and subject matter demand by grades) for achievi ng High Standards for Student Learning already prevalent in this school? IG AE [Instructional Guidance Application Emphasis]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school implements instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with an application emphasis (active student applications emphasis) for achieving High Standards for Student Learning already prevalent in this school? 3. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports (a) (encourages) students to successfully achieve rigorous goals for student learning, and (b) teachers in meeting school goals, in order to achieve High Standards for Student Learning (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is preva lent in this school? [ CODE: HS S ] IG CA [Instructional Guidance Curriculum Alignment): How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with a curricular alignment (pac ing and subject matter demand by grades) for achieving High Standards for Student Learning already prevalent in this school? IG AE [Instructional Guidance Application Emphasis): How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports instructio nal guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with an application emphasis (active student applications emphasis) for achieving High Standards for Student Learning already prevalent in this school? SCLC AS&P [Student Centered Learning Climate Academic Support & Press]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports a student centered learning climate with academic support & press (press for academic achievement in their classrooms, classroom personalism, classroom behavior, academic engagement, peer support for academic work) for achieving High Standards for Student Learning already prevalent in this school? 4. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school advocates (a) for high standards for student learning when writing and implementing Individualized Education Plans (IEPs), (b) (challenges) low expectations for special needs students, in order to achieve High Standards for Student Learning (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalen t in this school? [ CODE: HS A ] IG CA [Instructional Guidance Curriculum Alignment]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school advocates instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with a curricular alignment

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! 134 ( pacing and subject matter demand by grades) focus for achieving High Standards for Student Learning already prevalent in this school? IG AE [Instructional Guidance Application Emphasis]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school advocates instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with an application emphasis (active student applications emphasis) for achieving High Standards for Student Learning already prevalent in this school? 5. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school communicates (a) rigorous goals for student learning to faculty, and (b) with families and the community about goals for rigorous student learning, in order to achieve High Standards for Student Learning (or synonyms provided by pri ncipal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: HS C ] IG CA: [Instructional Guidance Curriculum Alignment]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school communicates instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with a curricular alignment ( pacing and subject matter demand by grades) focus for achieving High Standards for Student Learning already prevalent in this school? IG AE [Instructional Guidance Application Emphasis]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school communicates instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with an application emphasis (active student applications emphasis) for achieving High Standards for Student Learni ng already prevalent in this school? 6. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors (a) student learning again high standards of achievement, and (b) disaggregated test results, in order to achieve High Standards for Student Learning ( or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: HS M ] IG CA [Instructional Guidance Curriculum Alignment]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors instructional guidance (subjec t matter students study across grades) with curricular alignment (pacing and subject matter demand by grades) for achieving High Standards for Student Learning already prevalent in this school? IG AE [Instructional Guidance Application Emphasis]: How do y ou engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with an application emphasis (active student applications emphasis) for achieving High Standards for Student Learning already pr evalent in this school?

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! 135 Other Possible Prompts/Follow Up Questions for any of the questions above : 1. What did that look like? 2. Why did it work? 3. Who else was involved? 4. What else happened as a result? 5. What else can you add? 6. Why did you try this strategy? 7. What made you think this would be successful? 8. How did this interview process make you think differently about your leadership practices? 9. What else should I have asked you about why you were scored high on High Standards for Student Learning ? Core Compone nt: Rigorous Curriculum Content and All Key Processes You [name of principal] were scored at a high level in the area of Rigorous Curriculum Content on the VAL ED Survey. I am trying to identify specific and particularized leadership practices that you m ay be using to have earned this rating on this 360 degree evaluation from self, your supervisor and the teachers in this school. I would like to ask you some questions about this area and will be interested in hearing your responses about the leadership p ractices that you have in place for planning implementing supporting advocating communicating and monitoring school activities that are related to the area of achieving Rigorous Curriculum Content (ambitious academic content provided to all students i n core academic subjects ). Starter Question : What does it mean to have Rigorous Curriculum Content at this school? 1. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans (a) to develop a rigorous curriculum for all students, and (b) access to rigorous curricula for students with special needs, in order to achieve Rigorous Curriculum Content (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: RC P ] IG AE [Instructional Guidance Application Emphasis]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans for instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with an application emphasis (active studen t applications emphasis) for achieving Rigorous Curriculum Content already prevalent in this school? SCLC AS&P [Student Centered Learning Climate Academic Support & Press]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans a student center ed learning climate with academic support & press (press for academic achievement in their classrooms, classroom personalism, classroom behavior,

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! 136 academic engagement, peer support for academic work) for achieving Rigorous Curriculum Content already preva lent in this school? IG CA [Instructional Guidance Curriculum Alignment]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans for instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with a curricular alignment (pacing and subject matter demand by grades) for achieving Rigorous Curriculum Content already prevalent in this school? SL I/IL [School Leadership Inclusive/Instructional Leadership]: How do you engage our faculty to ensure that this school plans for school leadership (driver for improvement) with a focus on inclusion/instructional leadership (reaching out to faculty encouraging parent community involvement, extent of teacher involvement in school decisions, parent and community influence on school imp rovement efforts) for achieving Rigorous Curriculum Content already prevalent in this school? 2. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school implements (a) (creates) a rigorous sequences of learning experiences/courses, and (b) a rigorous cu rriculum in all classes, in order to achieve Rigorous Curriculum Content (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: RC I ] IG AE [Instructional Guidance Application Emphasi s ]: How do you engage your f aculty to ensure that this school implements for instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with an application emphasis (active student applications emphasis) for achieving Rigorous Curriculum Content already prevalent in this school? SCLC AS&P [Student Centered Learning Climate Academic Support & Press]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school implements a student centered learning climate with academic support & press (press for academic achievement in their classrooms, classroom personalism, classroom behavior, academic engagement, peer support for academic work) for achieving Rigorous Curriculum Content already prevalent in this school? IG CA [Instructional Guidan ce Curriculum Alignment]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school implements for instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with a curricular alignment ( pacing and subject matter demand by grades) for achieving Rigorous Curriculum Content already prevalent in this school? SL I/IL [School Leadership Inclusive/Instructional Leadership]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school implements school leadership (driver for improvement) with a focus on inclusion/instructional leadership (reaching out to faculty encouraging parent community involvement, extent of

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! 137 teacher involvement in school decisions, parent and community influence on school improvement efforts) for achieving Rigorous Curriculum Cont ent already prevalent in this school? 3. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports (a) (secures) the teaching materials necessary for a rigorous curriculum (b) teachers to teach a curriculum in consistent with state and national cont ent standards, in order to achieve Rigorous Curriculum Content (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: RC S ] IG AE [Instructional Guidance Application Emphasi s ]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades)with an application emphasis (active student applications emphasis) for achieving Rigorous Curriculum Content already prevalent in this school? SCLA A S&P [Student Centered Learning Climate Academic Support & Press]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports a student centered learning climate with academic support & press (press for academic achievement in their classrooms, classroom personalism, classroom behavior, academic engagement, peer support for academic work) for achieving Rigorous Curriculum Content already prevalent in this school? 4. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school advocates for (a) for a rigorous curriculum that honors the diversity of students and their families (b) and challenges faculty to teach a rigorous curriculum to students at risk of failure, in orde r to achieve Rigorous Curriculum Content (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: RC A ] IG AE [Instructional Guidance Application Emphasi s ]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this schoo l advocates for instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades)with an application emphasis (active student applications emphasis) for achieving Rigorous Curriculum Content already prevalent in this school? SCLC AS&P [Student Cente red Learning Climate Academic Support & Press]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school advocates for a student centered learning climate with academic support & press (press for academic achievement in their classrooms, classroom personalism, classroom behavior, academic engagement, peer support for academic work) for achieving Rigorous Curriculum Content already prevalent in this school? 5. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school communicates (a) (discusses) stat e curriculum frameworks, and (b) (discusses) the importance of

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! 138 addressing the same academic content in special and regular program, in order to achieve Rigorous Curriculum Content (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: RC C ] IG AE [Instructional Guidance Application Emphasi s ]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school communicates for instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with an application emphasis (active student applications emphasis) for achieving Rigorous Curriculum Content already prevalent in this school? SCLC AS&P [Student Centered Learning Climate Academic Support & Press]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school commun icates a student centered learning climate with academic support & press (press for academic achievement in their classrooms, classroom personalism, classroom behavior, academic engagement, peer support for academic work) for achieving Rigorous Curriculum Content already prevalent in this school? 6. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors (a) (evaluates) the extent to which all students complete a rigorous curricular program, and (b) (evaluates) the rigor of the program, in order to achieve Rigorous Curriculum Content (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevale nt in this school? [ CODE: RC M ] IG AE [Instructional Guidance Application Emphasi s ]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with an application emphasis (acti ve student applications emphasis) for achieving Rigorous Curriculum Content already prevalent in this school? SCLC AS&P [Student Centered Learning Climate Academic Support & Press]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors a st udent centered learning climate with academic support & press (press for academic achievement in their classrooms, classroom personalism, classroom behavior, academic engagement, peer support for academic work) for achieving Rigorous Curriculum Content a lready prevalent in this school? SL I/IL [School Leadership Inclusive/Instructional Leadership]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors school leadership (driver for improvement) with a focus on inclusion/instructional leadersh ip (reaching out to faculty encouraging parent community involvement, extent of teacher involvement in school decisions, parent and community influence on school improvement efforts) for achieving Rigorous Curriculum Content already prevalent in this sch ool?

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! 139 Other Possible Prompts/Follow Up Questions for any of the questions above : 1. What did that look like? 2. Why did it work? 3. Who else was involved? 4. What else happened as a result? 5. What else can you add? 6. Why did you try this strategy? 7. What made you think this would be successful? 8. How did this interview process make you think differently about your leadership practices? 9. What else should I have asked you about why you were scored high on Rigorous Curriculum (Content) ? Core Component: Q uality Instruction and All Key Processes You [name of principal] were scored at a high level in the area of Quality Instruction Pedagogy) on the VAL ED Survey. I am trying to identify specific and particularized leadership practices that you may be using to have earned this rating on this 360 degree evaluation from self, your supervisor and the teachers in this school. I would like to ask you some questions about this area and will be interested in hearing your responses about the leadership practices th at you have in place for planning implementing supporting advocating communicating and monitoring school activities that are related to the area of achieving Quality Instruction Pedagogy (effective instructional practices that maximize student academi c and social learning ). Starter Question : What does it mean to have Quality Instruction Pedagogy at this school? 1. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans (a) instructional services for students with special needs using assessment data, and (b) a schedule that enables quality instruction, in order to achieve Quality Instruction Pedagogy (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is preval ent in this school? [ CODE: QI P ] IG AE [Instructional Guidance Application Emphasi s ]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans for instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with an application emphasis (ac tive student applications emphasis) for achieving Quality Instruction Pedagogy already prevalent in this school? IG BS [Instructional Guidance Basic Skills]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans for instructional guidance (subje ct matter students study across grades) with a focus on basic skills (didactic teaching of

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! 140 basic skills) for achieving Quality Instruction Pedagogy already prevalent in this school? PC WO [Professional Capacity Work Orientation]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a focus on work orientation (teachers are willing to try new things, they are encouraged to stretch and grow, they would recommend this school to others, they are loyal to this school) for achieving a Quality Instruction Pedagogy that is prevalent in this school. 2. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that th is school implements (a) (coordinates) efforts to improve instruction in all classes, and (b) recruits teachers with the expertise to deliver instruction that maximizes student learning, in order to achieve Quality Instruction Pedagogy (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: QI I ] IG AE [Instructional Guidance Application Emphasi s ]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school implements instructional guidance (subject matter st udents study across grades) with an application emphasis (active student applications emphasis) for achieving Quality Instruction Pedagogy already prevalent in this school? IG BS [Instructional Guidance Basic Skills]: How do you engage your faculty to ens ure that this school implements for instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with a focus on basic skills (didactic teaching of basic skills) for achieving Quality Instruction Pedagogy already prevalent in this school? PC WO [P rofessional Capacity Work Orientation]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school implements for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a focus on work orientation (teachers are willing to try new things, they are encouraged to stretch and grow, they would recommend this school to others, they are loyal to this school) for achieving a Quality Instruction Pedagogy that is prevalent in this school. PC PC [Professional Capacity Professional Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school implements for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a mindset for professional community (teacher classroom work public for colleague and external consultant examination; critical dialogue about wha t's happening/or not, do we know what's working or not, collaboration among teachers to strengthen the instructional

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! 141 guidance system) for achieving a Quality Instruction Pedagogy that is prevalent in this school. 3. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports (a) collaborative among faculty to improve instruction that maximizes student learning, and (b) teachers' opportunities to improve their instructional practices, in order to achieve Quality Instruction Pedagogy (or synonyms provid ed by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: QI S ] IG AE [Instructional Guidance Application Emphasi s ]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports instructional guidance (subject matter students s tudy across grades) with an application emphasis (active student applications emphasis) for achieving Quality Instruction Pedagogy already prevalent in this school? IG BS [Instructional Guidance Basic Skills]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports for instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with a focus on basic skills (didactic teaching of basic skills) for achieving Quality Instruction Pedagogy already prevalent in this school? PC WO [Profession al Capacity Work Orientation]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a focus on work orient ation (teachers are willing to try new things, they are encouraged to stretch and grow, they would recommend this school to others, they are loyal to this school) for achieving a Quality Instruction Pedagogy that is prevalent in this school. PC PC [Professional Capacity Professional Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a mindset for professional community (teacher classroom work public for colleague and external consultant examination; critical dialogue about what's happening/or not, do we know what's working or not, collaboration among teachers to strengthen the instru ctional guidance system) for achieving a Quality Instruction Pedagogy prevalent in this school. 4. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school advocates (a) for all students to regularly experience effective instruction, and (b) for opportunities for high quality instruction beyond the regular school say and school year, in order to achieve Quality Instruction Pedagogy (or synonyms provided by principal fr om starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: QI A ]

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! 142 IG AE [Instructional Guidance Application Emphasi s ]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school advocates for instructional guidance (subject matter students study across g rades) with an application emphasis (active student applications emphasis) for achieving Quality Instruction Pedagogy already prevalent in this school? IG BS [Instructional Guidance Basic Skills]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school advocates for instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with a focus on basic skills (didactic teaching of basic skills) for achieving Quality Instruction Pedagogy already prevalent in this school? PC WO [Professional Capacity Work Orientation]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school advocates for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a fo cus on work orientation (teachers are willing to try new things, they are encouraged to stretch and grow, they would recommend this school to others, they are loyal to this school) for achieving a Quality Instruction Pedagogy that is prevalent in this scho ol. 5. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school communicates (a) (discusses) instructional practices during faculty meetings, and (b) with faculty about removing barriers that prevent students from experiencing quality instruction, in order to achieve Quality Instruction Pedagogy (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: QI C ] IG AE [Instructional Guidance Application Emphasi s ]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school communicates about instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with an application emphasis (active student applications emphasis) for achieving Quality Instruction Pedagogy already prevalent in this school? IG BS [Instructional Guidance Basic Skills]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school communicates for instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with a focus on basic skills (didactic teaching of basic skills) for achieving Quality I nstruction Pedagogy already prevalent in this school? PC WO [Professional Capacity Work Orientation]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school communicates about professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a focus on work orientation (teachers are willing to try new things, they are encouraged to stretch and grow, they would recommend this school to others, they are loyal to this school) for achieving a Quality Instruction Pedagogy that is prevalent in this school.

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! 143 6. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors (a) and evaluates how instructional time is used, and (b) evaluates te achers' instructional practices, in order to achieve Quality Instruction Pedagogy (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: QI M ] IG AE [Instructional Guidance Application Emphasi s ]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with an application emphasis (active student applications emphasis) for achieving Quality Instruction Pedagogy already p revalent in this school? IG BS [Instructional Guidance Basic Skills]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors for instructional guidance (subject matter students study across grades) with a focus on basic skills (didactic teachi ng of basic skills) for achieving Quality Instruction Pedagogy already prevalent in this school? PC WO [Professional Capacity Work Orientation]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a focus on work orientation (teachers are willing to try new things, they are encouraged to stretch and grow, they would recommend this school to others, they are loyal to this school) for achieving a Quality Instruction Pedagogy that is prevalent in this school. PC PC [Professional Capacity Professional Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors for professiona l capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a mindset for professional community (teacher classroom work public for colleague and external consultant examination; critical dialogue about what's happening/or not, do we know what's working or not, collaboration among teachers to strengthen the instructional guidance system) for achieving a Quality Instruction Pedagogy that is prevalent in this school. Other Possible Prompts/Follow U p Questions for any of the questions above : 1. What did that look like? 2. Why did it work? 3. Who else was involved? 4. What else happened as a result? 5. What else can you add? 6. Why did you try this strategy? 7. What made you think this would be successful? 8. How did thi s interview process make you think differently about your leadership practices?

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! 144 9. What else should I have asked you about why you were scored high on Quality Instruction (Pedagogy) ? Core Component: Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior and All Key Processes You [name of principal] were scored at a high level in the area of Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior on the VAL ED Survey. I am trying to identify specific and particularized leadership practices that you may be using to have earned this rating on this 360 degree evaluation from self, your supervisor and the teachers in this school. I would like to ask you some questions about this area and will be interested in hearing your responses about the leadership practices that you have in place for planning implementing supporting advocating communicating and monitoring school activities that are related t o the area of achieving Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior (integrated communities of professional practice in the service of student academic and social learning; healthy school environment in which student learning is the central focus) St arter Question : What does it mean to have Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior at this school? 1. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans (a) programs and policies that promote discipline and order, and (b) for a positive environment I which student learning is the central focus, in order to achieve a Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior (or synonyms provided by principal from start er question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: CLPB P ] PC PC [Professional Capacity Professional Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a mindset for professional community (teacher classroom work public for colleague and external consultant examination; critical dialogue about wha t's happening/or not, do we know what's working or not, collaboration among teachers to strengthen the instructional guidance system) for achieving a Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior that is prevalent in this school. PC WO [Professional Capac ity Work Orientation]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a focus on work orientation (teac hers are willing to try new things, they are encouraged to stretch and grow, they would recommend this school to others, they are loyal to this school) for achieving a Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior that is prevalent in this school.

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! 145 SL I/IL [School Leadership Inclusive/Instructional Leadership]: How do you engage our faculty to ensure that this school plans for school leadership (driver for improvement) with a focus on inclusion/instructional leadership (reaching out to faculty encouraging p arent community involvement, extent of teacher involvement in school decisions, parent and community influence on school improvement efforts) for achieving Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior already prevalent in this school? 2. How do you engage y our faculty to ensure that this school implements (a) a learning environment in which all students are known and cared for, and (b) (builds) a culture that honors academic achievement, in order to achieve a Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior (o r synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: CLPB I ] PC PC [Professional Capacity Professional Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school implements for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a mindset for professional community (teacher classroom work public for colleague and external consultant examination; critical dialogue about what 's happening/or not, do we know what's working or not, collaboration among teachers to strengthen the instructional guidance system) for achieving a Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior that is prevalent in this school. PC WO [Professional Capaci ty Work Orientation]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school implements for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a focus on work orientation (teachers are willing to try new things, they are encouraged to stretch and grow, they would recommend this school to others, they are loyal to this school) for achieving a Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior that is prevalent in this school. SL I/IL [School Leadership Inclusive/Instructional Leadership]: How do you engage our faculty to ensure that this school implements school leadership (driver for improvement) with a focus on inclusion/instructional leadership (reaching out to faculty encoura ging parent community involvement, extent of teacher involvement in school decisions, parent and community influence on school improvement efforts) for achieving Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior already prevalent in this school? 3. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports (a) (allocates) resources to build a culture focused on student learning, and (b) collaborative teams to improve instruction, in order to achieve a Culture of Learning and Professional

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! 146 Behavior (or sy nonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: CLPB S ] PC PC [Professional Capacity Professional Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports for professional capacity (teach er's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a mindset for professional community (teacher classroom work public for colleague and external consultant examination; critical dialogue about what's hap pening/or not, do we know what's working or not, collaboration among teachers to strengthen the instructional guidance system) for achieving a Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior that is prevalent in this school. PC WO [Professional Capacity Wor k Orientation]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a focus on work orientation (teachers are willing to try new things, they are encouraged to stretch and grow, they would recommend this school to others, they are loyal to this school) for achieving a Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior that is prevalent in this school. SL I/IL [School Leadership Inclusive/Instructional Leadership]: How do you engage our faculty to ensure that this school supports school leadership (driver for improvement) with a focus on inclusion/instructional leadership (reaching out to faculty encouraging par ent community involvement, extent of teacher involvement in school decisions, parent and community influence on school improvement efforts) for achieving Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior already prevalent in this school? 4. How do you engage you r faculty to ensure that this school advocates (a) a culture of learning that respects diversity of students, and (b) for students to be involved in the school community, in order to achieve a Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior (or synonyms prov ided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: CLPB A ] PC PC [Professional Capacity Professional Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school advocates for professional capacity (teacher's capac ity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a mindset for professional community (teacher classroom work public for colleague and external consultant examination; critical dialogue about what's happening/or not, do we know what's working or not, collaboration among teachers to strengthen the instructional guidance system) for achieving a Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior that is prevalent in this school.

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! 147 PC WO [Professional Capacity Work Orient ation]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school advocates for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a focus on work orientation (teachers are wi lling to try new things, they are encouraged to stretch and grow, they would recommend this school to others, they are loyal to this school) for achieving a Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior that is prevalent in this school. SL I/IL [School Le adership Inclusive/Instructional Leadership]: How do you engage our faculty to ensure that this school advocates for school leadership (driver for improvement) with a focus on inclusion/instructional leadership (reaching out to faculty encouraging parent c ommunity involvement, extent of teacher involvement in school decisions, parent and community influence on school improvement efforts) for achieving Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior already prevalent in this school? 5. How do you engage your fac ulty to ensure that this school communicates (a) with parents about the aspects of a positive school culture, and (b) (discusses) standards of professional behavior with faculty, in order to achieve a Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: CLPB C ] PC PC [Professional Capacity Professional Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school communicates regarding professional cap acity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a mindset for professional community (teacher classroom work public for colleague and external consultant examination; critical dialogue abou t what's happening/or not, do we know what's working or not, collaboration among teachers to strengthen the instructional guidance system) for achieving a Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior that is prevalent in this school. PC WO [Professional Capacity Work Orientation]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school communicates for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a focus on work orien tation (teachers are willing to try new things, they are encouraged to stretch and grow, they would recommend this school to others, they are loyal to this school) for achieving a Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior that is prevalent in this scho ol. SL I/IL [School Leadership Inclusive/Instructional Leadership]: How do you engage our faculty to ensure that this school communicates for school leadership (driver for improvement) with a focus on inclusion/instructional leadership (reaching out to fa culty encouraging parent community involvement, extent of teacher involvement in school decisions, parent and community

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! 148 influence on school improvement efforts) for achieving Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior already prevalent in this school? 6. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors (a) the participation of every student in the social and academic activities, and (b) (assesses) the culture of the school from students' perspectives, in order to achieve a Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: CLPB M ] PC PC [Professional Capacity Professional Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a mindset for professional community (teacher classroom work public for colleague and external consultant examin ation; critical dialogue about what's happening/or not, do we know what's working or not, collaboration among teachers to strengthen the instructional guidance system) for achieving a Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior that is prevalent in this school. PC WO [Professional Capacity Work Orientation]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) w ith a focus on work orientation (teachers are willing to try new things, they are encouraged to stretch and grow, they would recommend this school to others, they are loyal to this school) for achieving a Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior that is prevalent in this school. SL I/IL [School Leadership Inclusive/Instructional Leadership]: How do you engage our faculty to ensure that this school monitors for school leadership (driver for improvement) with a focus on inclusion/instructional leadersh ip (reaching out to faculty encouraging parent community involvement, extent of teacher involvement in school decisions, parent and community influence on school improvement efforts) for achieving Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior already preva lent in this school? Other Possible Prompts/Follow Up Questions for any of the questions above : 1. What did that look like? 2. Why did it work? 3. Who else was involved? 4. What else happened as a result? 5. What else can you add? 6. Why did you try this strategy? 7. What made you think this would be successful? 8. How did this interview process make you think differently about your leadership practices?

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! 149 9. What else should I have asked you about why you were scored high on Culture of Learning and Professional Behavior ? C ore Component: Connections to External Communities and All Key Processes You [name of principal] were scored at a high level in the area of Connections to External Communities on the VAL ED Survey. I am trying to identify specific and particularized leade rship practices that you may be using to have earned this rating on this 360 degree evaluation from self, your supervisor and the teachers in this school. I would like to ask you some questions about this area and will be interested in hearing your respon ses about the leadership practices that you have in place for planning implementing supporting advocating communicating and monitoring school activities that are related to the area of achieving Connections to External Communities (linkages to family and/or other people and institutions in the community that advance academic and social learning) Starter Question : What does it mean to have Connections to External Communities at this school? 1. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans (a) for school/community relations that revolves around the academic missions, and (b) for community outreach programs consistent with instructional goals, in order to achieve Connections to External Communities (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: CEC P ] PCST TtC [ Parent Community School Ties Teacher Ties to Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school pla ns for parent community school ties focused on teacher ties to community (teachers' knowledge of community, personal ties to community, use of community resources for teaching) for achieving Connections to External Communities that is prevalent in this sch ool. PCST PI [Parent Community School Ties Parent Involvement]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans for parent community school ties focused on parent involvement (teachers outreach to parents, parents involvement in school) for achieving Connections to External Communities that is prevalent in this school. 2. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school implements (a) programs to help address community needs, and (b) (builds) business partnerships to support social and academic learning, in order to achieve Connections to External Communities (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalen t in this school? [ CODE: CEC I ] PCST TtC [ Parent Community School Ties Teacher Ties to Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school implements parent

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! 150 community school ties focused on teacher ties to community (teachers' knowledge of community, personal ties to community, use of community resources for teaching) for achieving Connections to External Communities that is prevalent in this school. PCST PI [Parent Community School Ties Parent Involvement]: How do you engage your facult y to ensure that this school implements for parent community school ties focused on parent involvement (teachers outreach to parents, parents involvement in school) for achieving Connections to External Communities that is prevalent in this school. 3. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports (a) (secures) additional resources through partnering with external agencies to enhance teaching and learning, and (b) (allocates) resource that build family and community partnerships to adva nce student learning, in order to achieve Connections to External Communities (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: CEC S ] PCST TtC [ Parent Community School Ties Teacher Ties to Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports parent community school ties focused on teacher ties to community (teachers' knowledge of community, personal ties to community, use of community resources for teaching) for achieving Conne ctions to External Communities that is prevalent in this school. PCST PI [Parent Community School Ties Parent Involvement]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports for parent community school ties focused on parent involvement ( teachers outreach to parents, parents involvement in school) for achieving Connections to External Communities that is prevalent in this school. 4. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school advocates (a) (promotes) mechanisms for reaching families who are least comfortable at school, and, (b) (challenges) teachers to work with community agencies to support students at risk, in order to achieve Connections to External Communities (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: CEC A ] PCST TtC [ Parent Community School Ties Teacher Ties to Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school advocates parent community school ties focused on teacher ties to community (teachers' knowledge of community, personal ties to community, use of community resources for teaching) for achieving Connections to External Communities that is prevalent in this school. PCST PI [Parent Community School Ties Parent Involvement]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school advocates for parent

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! 151 community school ties focused on parent involvement (teachers outreach to parents, parents involvement in school) for achieving Connections to External Communities that is preva lent in this school. 5. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school communicates (a) (listens) to feedback from the community, and (b) (listens) to the diverse opinions and needs of all families, in order to achieve Connections to External C ommunities (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: CEC C ] PCST TtC [ Parent Community School Ties Teacher Ties to Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school communicates parent community school ties focused on teacher ties to community (teachers' knowledge of community, personal ties to community, use of community resources for teaching) for achieving Connections to External Communities that is prevalent in this school. PCST PI [Parent Community School Ties Parent Involvement]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school communicates for parent community school ties focused on parent involvement (teachers outreach to parents, parents involvement in school) f or achieving Connections to External Communities that is prevalent in this school. 6. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors (a) (collects) information to learn about resources and assets in the community, and (b) the effective ness of community school connections, in order to achieve Connections to External Communities (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: CEC M ] PCST TtC [ Parent Community School Ties Teacher Ties to Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors parent community school ties focused on teacher ties to community (teachers' knowledge of community, personal ties to community, use of community resources for teaching) for achieving Connections to External Communities that is prevalent in this school. PCST PI [Parent Community School Ties Parent Involvement]: How do y ou engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors for parent community school ties focused on parent involvement (teachers outreach to parents, parents involvement in school) for achieving Connections to External Communities that is prevalent in t his school. Other Possible Prompts/Follow Up Questions for any of the questions above : 1. What did that look like? 2. Why did it work?

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! 152 3. Who else was involved? 4. What else happened as a result? 5. What else can you add? 6. Why did you try this strategy? 7. What made y ou think this would be successful? 8. How did this interview process make you think differently about your leadership practices? 9. What else should I have asked you about why you were scored high on on Connections to External Communities? Component: Performance Accountability All Key Processes You [name of principal] were scored at a high level in the area of Performance Accountability on the VAL ED Survey. I am trying to identify specific and particularized leadership practices that you may be using to have earned this rating on this 360 degree evaluation from self, your supervisor and the teachers in this school. I would like to ask you some questions about this area and will be interested in hearing your responses about the leadership practices that you have in place for planning implementing supporting advocating communicating and monitoring school activities that are related to the area of achieving Performance Accountability (leadership holds itself and others responsible for realizing high standards of performance for student academic and social learning, individual and collective responsibility among the professional staff and students) Starter Question : What does it mean to have Performance Accountability at this school? 1. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans (a) for individual and collective accountability among faculty for student learning and (b) for emphasizing accountability to stakeholders for student academic and social learning, in order to achieve Performance Accountability (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: PA P ] SL I/IL [School Leadership Inclusive/Instructional Leadership]: How do you engage our faculty to ensure that this school plans for school leadership with a focus on inclusion/instructional leadership (reaching out to faculty encouraging parent community in volvement, extent of teacher involvement in school decisions, parent and community influence on school improvement efforts) for achieving Performance Accountability that is prevalent in this school? PC CHR [Professional Capacity Changes in Human Resources ]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school plans professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) and changes in human resources (capacity to hire quality teac hers and remove problematic teachers, and the intensity with which

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! 153 they pursued both) for achieving Performance Accountability that is prevalent in this school? PC PC [Professional Capacity Professional Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensur e that this school plans for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a mindset for professional community (teacher classroom work public for colleague and external c onsultant examination; critical dialogue about what's happening/or not, do we know what's working or not, collaboration among teachers to strengthen the instructional guidance system) for achieving Performance Accountability that is prevalent in this schoo l. 2. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school implements (a) (uses) faculty input to create methods to hold faculty accountable, and (b) social and academic accountability equitable for all students, in order to achieve Performance Accounta bility (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: PA I ] SL I/IL [School Leadership Inclusive/Instructional Leadership]: How do you engage our faculty to ensure that this school implements for school leadership (driver for improvement) with a focus on inclusion/instructional leadership (reaching out to faculty encouraging parent community involvement, extent of teacher involvement in school decisions, parent and community influence on school imp rovement efforts) for achieving Performance Accountability already prevalent in this school? PC CHR [Professional Capacity Changes in Human Resources]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school implements professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) and changes in human resources (capacity to hire quality teachers and remove problematic teachers, and the intensity with which they pursued both) for achieving P erformance Accountability that is prevalent in this school? PC PC [Professional Capacity Professional Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school implements for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a mindset for professional community (teacher classroom work public for colleague and external consultant examination; critical dialogue about wha t's happening/or not, do we know what's working or not, collaboration among teachers to strengthen the instructional guidance system) for achieving a Performance Accountability that is prevalent in this school.

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! 154 3. How do you engage your faculty to ensure tha t this school supports (a) (allocates) time to evaluate student learning, and (b) time to evaluate faculty for student learning, in order to achieve Performance Accountability (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in t his school? [ CODE: PA S ] SL I/IL [School Leadership Inclusive/Instructional Leadership]: How do you engage our faculty to ensure that this school supports for school leadership (driver for improvement) with a focus on inclusion/instructional leadership (reaching out to faculty encouraging parent community involvement, extent of teacher involvement in school decisions, parent and community influence on school improvement efforts) for achieving Performance Accountability already prevalent in this school? PC CHR [Professional Capacity Changes in Human Resources]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) an d changes in human resources (capacity to hire quality teachers and remove problematic teachers, and the intensity with which they pursued both) for achieving Performance Accountability that is prevalent in this school? PC PC [Professional Capacity Profe ssional Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school supports for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a mindset for professional commun ity (teacher classroom work public for colleague and external consultant examination; critical dialogue about what's happening/or not, do we know what's working or not, collaboration among teachers to strengthen the instructional guidance system) for achie ving Performance Accountability that is prevalent in this school. 4. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school advocates (a) (challenges) faculty who blame others for student failure, and (b) that all students are accountable for achieving hi gh levels of performance in both academic and social learning, in order to achieve Performance Accountability (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: PA A ] SL I/IL [School Leadership Inclusive/Ins tructional Leadership]: How do you engage our faculty to ensure that this school advocates for school leadership (driver for improvement) with a focus on inclusion/instructional leadership (reaching out to faculty encouraging parent community involvement, extent of teacher involvement in school decisions, parent and community influence on school improvement efforts) for achieving Performance Accountability already prevalent in this school?

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! 155 PC CHR [Professional Capacity Changes in Human Resources]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school advocates professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) a nd changes in human resources (capacity to hire quality teachers and remove problematic teachers, and the intensity with which they pursued both) for achieving Performance Accountability that is prevalent in this school? PC PC [Professional Capacity Prof essional Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school advocates for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a mindset for professional comm unity (teacher classroom work public for colleague and external consultant examination; critical dialogue about what's happening/or not, do we know what's working or not, collaboration among teachers to strengthen the instructional guidance system) for ach ieving Performance Accountability that is prevalent in this school. 5. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school communicates (a) (discusses) progress toward meeting school goals with parents, and (b) to faculty how accountability results wil l be used for school improvement, in order to achieve Performance Accountability (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: PA C ] SL I/IL [School Leadership Inclusive/Instructional Leadership]: How d o you engage our faculty to ensure that this school communicates about school leadership (driver for improvement) with a focus on inclusion/instructional leadership (reaching out to faculty encouraging parent community involvement, extent of teacher involvement in school decisions, parent and community influence on school improvement efforts) for achieving Performance Accountability already prevalent in this school? PC CHR [Professional Capacity Changes in Human Resources]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school communicates about professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructiona l work) and changes in human resources (capacity to hire quality teachers and remove problematic teachers, and the intensity with which they pursued both) for achieving Performance Accountability that is prevalent in this school? PC PC [Professional Capa city Professional Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school communicates about professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a mindset for pro fessional community (teacher classroom work public for colleague and external consultant examination; critical dialogue about what's happening/or not, do we know what's

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! 156 working or not, collaboration among teachers to strengthen the instructional guidance s ystem) for achieving Performance Accountability that is prevalent in this school. 6. How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors (a) (analyzes) the influence of faculty evaluations on the rigor of the curriculum, and (b) the accuracy a nd appropriateness of data used for student accountability, in order to achieve Performance Accountability (or synonyms provided by principal from starter question) that is prevalent in this school? [ CODE: PA M ] SL I/IL [School Leadership Inclusive/Instru ctional Leadership]: How do you engage our faculty to ensure that this school monitors for school leadership (driver for improvement) with a focus on inclusion/instructional leadership (reaching out to faculty encouraging parent community involvement, extent of teacher involvement in school decisions, parent and community influence on school improvement efforts) for achieving Performance Accountability already prevalent in this school? PC CHR [Professional Capacity Changes in Human Resources]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work ) and changes in human resources (capacity to hire quality teachers and remove problematic teachers, and the intensity with which they pursued both) for achieving Performance Accountability that is prevalent in this school? PC PC [Professional Capacity P rofessional Community]: How do you engage your faculty to ensure that this school monitors for professional capacity (teacher's capacity to problem solve regarding classroom concerns and to coordinate instructional work) with a mindset for professional co mmunity (teacher classroom work public for colleague and external consultant examination; critical dialogue about what's happening/or not, do we know what's working or not, collaboration among teachers to strengthen the instructional guidance system) for a chieving Performance Accountability that is prevalent in this school. Other Possible Prompts/Follow Up Questions for any of the questions above : 1. What did that look like? 2. Why did it work? 3. Who else was involved? 4. What else happened as a result? 5. What else can you add? 6. Why did you try this strategy? 7. What made you think this would be successful?

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! 157 8. How did this interview process make you think differently about your leadership practices? 9. What else should I have asked you about why you were scored high on Perfo rmance Accountability?

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! 158 APPENDIX C NARRATIVE INQUIRY INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Think of one or more critical experiences (life and work) that have impacted who you are now as a leader or informed the leadership practices you currently have in place in this school. Thinking back to a particular experience, what do you remember? If there was one main memory of this time of putting strong leadership practices in place, it would be .. How would you say has it influenced you? 2. Within this effort of putting strong leadership practices in place to support ELA learners, do you rem ember a particularly stressful period? How would you say has it influenced you? 3. What role did others play in this event (efforts toward implementing LP) (critical others)? If there was one thing you would say about that event (LP efforts) it wou ld be .. 4. How would you describe or tell of the challenging influence and long lasting effects?

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! 161 R EFERENCES Bell, J. (2002). Narrative inquiry: More than just telling stories. TESOL Quarterly, 36 (2), 207 213. Blase, J., & Blase, J. (1999). Principals' instructional leadership and teacher development: Teachers' perspectives. Educational Administration Quarterly 35 (3), 349 380. Bossert, S.T., Dwyer, D. C., Rowan, B., & Lee, G.V. (1982). The instructional management role of the principal. Educational Administration Quarterly. 18 (3), 34 64. Brookover, W. B., & Lezotte, L. W. (1979). Changes in school characteristics coincident with changes in student achievement: Executive summary. East Lansing, MI: Institute for Research on Teaching, Michigan State University. Brookover, W. B., Schweitzer, J. H., Schneider, J. M., Beady, C. H., Flood, P. K., & Wisenbaker, J. M. (1978). Elementary school social climate and school achievement, American Educational Research Journal 15 (2), 301 318. Bryk, A. S., Sebring, P. B., Allenworth, E., Luppescu, S., & Easton, J. Q. (2010). Organizing schools for improvement: Lessons from Chicago. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Calkins, A., Guenther, W., Belfiore, G., & Lash, D. (2007a). Th e turnaround challenge Boston, MA: Mass Insight Education and Research Institute. Retrieved from http://www.massinsight.org/stg/research/challenge/

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! 162 Carrejo, D., Cortez, T., & Reinhartz, J., (2010). Exploring principal leadership roles within a community of practice to promote science performance of English language learners Academic Leadership Journal 8 (4), 9 23. 08 :52:00. Connelly, F. M., & Clandinin, D. J. (1990). Stories of expeience and narrative inquiry. Educatonal Reearcher, 19 (5), 2 14. Cotton, K. (2003). Principals and student achievement Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Day, C., Sammons, P., Hopkins, D., Harris, A., Leithwood, K., Gu, Q., Brown, E., Ahtaridou, E., & Kington, A. (2009). The impact of school leadership on pupil outcomes: Final report. Nottingham, UK: University of Nottingham. Echevarria, J., Vogt, M. E. & Short, D. (2008). Making content comprehensible for English language learners: The SIOP¨ model (3 rd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Edmunds, R. (1982). Programs of school improvement: An overview. Educational Leadership 40 (3), 4 8. Elliott, S. N., Murphy, J., Goldring, E., & Porter, A., (2009). VAL ED users' guide: Implementation and interpretation. Freeman, Y. S. & Freeman, D. E. (2000). Closing the a chievement g ap: How to r each l imited f ormal s chooling and l ong t erm English l earne rs Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann. Fullan, M. (2007). Change the terms of teacher leaning. Journal of Staff Development 28 (3), 25 36. Garcia, E. (1991). Education of linguistically and culturally diverse students: Effective instructional practices. Educati onal practice report number 1. Santa Cruz, CA and

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! 163 Washington, DC: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 338 099) Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, & practice. New York: Teachers College Press. Glickman, C. D., Gordon, S. P., & Ross Gordon, J. M. (1995). Supervision of instruction: A developmental approach (3 rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Grumet, M. R. (1981). Restitution and reconstruction of educational experience: An autobiographical method for curriculum theory. In L. Marin & I. Baron (Eds), Rethinking curriculum studies: A radical approach London: Croom Helm. Goldring, E., & Cravens, X., Murphy, J., Elliott, S., Carson, B., & Porter, A., (2008). The evaluation of principals: What and how do states and districts assess leadership? Paper Presented at Annual Meeting of American Educational Research Association: NY, NY. Goldring, E., Porter, A., Murphy, J., Elliott, S. N., & Cravens, X. (2009). Assessing learning centered leadership: Connections to research, professional standards, and current practices. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 8 (1), 1 36. Gronn, P. (2002). Distributed leadership as a unit of analysis. The Leadershi p Quarterly 14 (4), 423 451. Gough, N. (1991). An abominable snow job: Systems model and the Himalayan eco crisis' in VCE environment. Eingana, 4, 24 26. Hallinger, P., Bickman, L., & Davis, K. (1996). School context, principal leadership and student re ading achievement. The Elementary School Journal. 96 (5), 527 549.

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! 164 Hannaway, J. & Talbert, J.E. (1993). Bringing context into effective schools research: Urban suburban differences. Educational Administration Quarterly, 29 ( 2 ) 164 186. Harris, A. (201 0). Distributed leadership: Different perspectives. New York: Springer. Knapp, M. S., Copland, M. A., Honig, M. I., Plecki, M. L., & Portin, B. S. (2010). Learning focused leadership and leadership support. Meaning and practice in urban systems Seattle, WA: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy. Retrieved from http://www.wallacefoundation.org/Knowledg eCenter/KnowledgeTopics/CurrentA reasofFocus/EducationLeadership/Pages/default.aspx Krathwohl, D. (2009). Methods of educational and social science research: The logic of methods. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. Kostecki, J., & Bers, T., (2009). The effec t of t utoring on s tudent s uccess, The Journal of Applied Research in the Community College 16 (1), 6 12. Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2007). The leade rship challenge San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass. Kutash, J., Nico, E., Gorin, E., Rahmatullah, S., & Tallant, K. (2010). The school turnaround field guide Retreived from http://www.fsg.org/ Ladson Billings, G. (1995). But that's just good teaching! The case for culturally relevant pedagogy. Theory into Practice 34 (3), 159 165. Lochmiller, C. R., Huggins, K. S., & Acker Hocevar, M. A. (2012). Preparing leaders for math and science: Three alternatives to traditional pr eparation. Planning and Changing 43 1/2), 198 220.

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! 165 Mace Matluck, B Alexander Kasparik, R ., & Queen R (1998) Within the golden door: Educational approaches for immigrant adolescents with limited schooling Washington, D. C.: Delta Systems Mark, M., Henry, G., & Julnes, G. (2000). Evaluation: An integrated framework for understanding, guiding, and improving policies and programs San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass. Marzano, R. J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. A. (2005). School leadership that work s: From research to results. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Merriam, S. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass. Miramontes, O. B., Nadeau, A., & Commins, N. L., (2011). Restructuring schools for linguistic diversity: Linking decision making to effective programs. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Murphy, J., Goldring, E., Cravens, X., Elliott, S., & Porter, A. (2011). The Vanderbilt assessment of lead ership in education: Measuring learning centered leadership. Journal of East China Normal Schools, 29 (1), 1 10. National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. (2011). The growing number of English learner students: 2009 2010 http://www.ncela.g wu.edu/files/uploads/9/growing_EL_0910.pdf Purkey, S. C., & Smith, M. S. (1983). Effective schools: A review. The Elementary School Journal 83 (4), 427 452.

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! 166 Rieger, A., & McGrail, E. (2006). Understanding English l anguage l earners' n eeds and the l anguage a cquisition p rocess: Two t eacher e ducators' p erspectives. Tempe, AZ: National Institute for Urban School Improvement. Riessman, C.K. (2007). Narrative methods for the human sciences Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Ruiz de Velasco, J., Fix, M. E., Chu Clewell, B ., (2000). Overlooked and underserved: Immigrant students in U.S. secondary schools The Urban Institute. Rutter, M., Maughan, B., Mortimore, P., & Ouston, J. (1979). Fifteen thousand hours: Secondary schools and their effects on children Boston: Harvard University. Seashore Louis, K., Leithwood, K., Wahlstom, K. L., & Anderson S. E. (2010). Investigating the links to improved student learning. St. Paul, MN: The Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement. Retrieved from http://www.wallacefoundation.org/KnowledgeCenter/KnowledgeTopics/CurrentA reasofFocus/EducationLeadership/Pages/default .aspx Sebring, P. B., Allensworth, E., Easton, J. Q., & Luppescu, S. (2006). The essential supports for school improvement Chicago: Consortium on Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago. Retrieved from http://www.ccsr.uchicago.edu/content/publications.phpd.pdf Sebring, P. B., & Bryk, A. S. (2000). School leadership and the bottom line in Chicago. Phi Delta Kappan. 81 (6), 440 443. Smith, W. F., & Andrews, R. L. (198 9). Instructional leadership: How principals make a difference. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

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! 167 Spillane, J. P. (2006). Distributed leadership San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Spillane, J. P., Halverson, R., & Diamond, J. (2001). Investigating school leadership practice: A distributed perspective. Educational Researcher, 30 (3), 23 27. Spillane, J. P., & Diamond, J. B. (2007). Distributed leadership in practice New York: NY: Teachers College Press. Spillane, James P., Halverson, R., & Diamond, J. B. (2004). Towards a theory of leadership practice: A distributed perspective. Journal of Curriculum Studies 36 (1), 3 34. Spillane, J. P., Halverson, R., & Diamond, J. (2004). Towards a theory of school lea dership practice: Implications of a distributed perspective. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 36 3 34. Spillane, J. & Harris, A, (2008). Distributed leadership through the looking glass. Management in Education, 22 (1): 31 34. Theoharis, G. & O'Toole, J. (2011). Leading inclusive ELL Educational Administration Quarterly 47 ( 4 ) 646 688. Wahlstrom, K., Seashore Louis, K., Leithwood, K., & Anderson, S. (2010 ). Investigating the links to improved student learning: Executive summary of research findings U niversity of Minnesota: Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement. The Wallace Foundation. (2012). The s chool p rincipal as l eader: Guiding schools to better teaching and learning. The Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge center/school le adership/effective

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! 168 principal leadership/Documents/The School Principal as Leader Guiding Schools to Better Teaching and Learning.pdf Waters, T., Marzano, R. J., & NcNulty, B. (2003). Balanced leadership: What 30 years of research tells us about the effect of leadership on student achievement Denver, CO: McREL. Retreived from http://www.mcrel.org/products/144/ Waters, T., Marzano, R. J., & NcNulty, B. (2005). School leadership that works: From research to results. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Webster, L. L. (1998). A story of instructional research and simulation in aviation (air traffic control). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Monash university Victoria. Web ster, L., & Mertova, P. (2007). Using narrative inquiry as a research method New York: Routledge.