EDITOR:Pam MilavecEDITORIAL STAFF:Jacqui Ainlay-Conley, Graduate Student Kathleen Barlow, Graduate Student Angela DiPaolo, Graduate Student Dana EchoHawk, Graduate Student Rebecca A. Hunt, Ph.D., Faculty Advisor Thomas J. Noel, Ph.D., Faculty AdvisorDesDES IGNe E R:Shannon Fluckey Clicks! Copy & Printing Services Auraria Campus HIs STORICAL STUDIes ES JOURNALSPRING 2010 VOLUMe E 27
Marjorie Levine-Clark, Ph.D., Department ChairModern Britain, European Women and Gender, Medicine and HealthChristopher Agee, Ph.D.20th Century U. S. History, Urban History, Social Movement History, History of Crime and PolicingFrederick S. Allen, Ph.D., EmeritusModern Western Europe, France, GermanyThomas Andrews, Ph.D.19th and 20th Century U. S. History, Environment, Labor, Urban, Native American, U. S. West, and History EducationMary Conroy, Ph.D., EmeritusRussia, U. S. S. R.Michael T. Ducey, Ph.D.Mexico, Modern Latin America, U. S. SouthwestJames E. Fell, Jr., Ph.D.American West, Civil War, Environmental, Film HistoryGabriel Finkelstein, Ph.D.Modern Europe, Germany, History of Science, ExplorationMark Foster, Ph.D., Emeritus19th and 20th Century U. S. History, U. S. Social and Intellectual, U. S. Urban and Business HistoryMarilynn Hitchens, Ph.D.Modern Europe, World HistoryXiaojia Hou, Ph.D. China, East AsiaRebecca A. Hunt, Ph.D.American West, Gender, Museum Studies, Public HistoryPamela Laird, Ph.D.U. S. Social, Intellectual, Technology, Public History, BusinessThomas J. Noel, Ph.D.American West, Art & Architecture, Public History & PreservationCarl Pletsch, Ph.D.Intellectual History (European and American), Modern EuropeMyra Rich, Ph.D.U. S. Colonial, U. S. Early National, Women and Gender, Immigration HistoryAlison Shah, Ph.D.South Asia, Islamic World, History and Heritage, Cultural MemoryRichard Smith, Ph.D.Ancient, Medieval, Early Modern Europe, BritainChris Sundberg, M.A. Africa and History EducationJames Walsh, M.A.Immigration, U. S. Labor, Irish-AmericanJames B. Whiteside, Ph.D.Recent U. S., Vietnam War, U. S. Diplomatic, Sports HistoryGreg Whitesides, Ph.D.History of Science, Modern U. S., AsiaJames B. Wolf, Ph.D., EmeritusBritish Isles, British Empire, Ireland, Modern AfricaFront Cover: Irish immigrants Patrick and Mary Sweeney. Credit: Moffat County Morning NewsBack Cover: Ute horsemen. Credit: Colorado Historical SocietyDeDE PARTMe E NT OF HIs STORY University of Colorado Denver
Preface. ...........................................................................................vRORO BERT RT FRANFRAN K SWEEN N EY Y : A Colorado Giver. .......................... 1 By Robert Sweeney as told to Lauramay LaChanceCC OLORADO N N ATIve VE A A Me E RICAN STUDIes ES ResRES OURCe E GG UIDe E. .............................................. 31 By Pam Milavec with Angela DiPaolo, Dana EchoHawk, Pam Holtman, Ernest House Jr., John Monnett & Tom Noel for the Center for Colorado & The West at Auraria Library, 2010TT Ab B Le E OF CONTe E NTs S
For twenty-seven years, the Historical Studies Journal has showcased the diverse and impressive talent of University of Colorado Denver History Department students. This years special edition emphasizes the efforts of students from the Center for Colorado & the West at Auraria Library, established in 2009. Under the direction of Dr. Mary M. Somerville, Director and University Librarian and Prof. Thomas J. Noel, students selected as Kenneth King Foundation Fellows and interns at the Center are producing the Colorado Book Review, a list of new Colorado publications and electronic media, resource guides, mini-documentaries and proles based on oral history interviews. This journal offers the rst prole. It features Robert F. Sweeney, a member of a pioneer northwest Colorado ranching family and is based on oral history interviews by history graduate student Lauramay LaChance. Mr. Sweeney is President/Director of the Kenneth King Foundation which provided the funding for the Center for Colorado & the West. We also introduce the rst in a series of resource guides relevant to Colorado. This resource guide features the rst peoples to inhabit the area known today as Colorado. This Colorado Native American Resource Guide is a work in progress. We welcome corrections and suggestions at www.coloradowest.auraria.edu, which I hope you will check out. I would like to extend a deep appreciation for the support and effort of the students and faculty who submitted or recommended papers. These papers will be passed on for consideration in next years edition. Thank you also to Shannon Fluckey from Clicks! Copy and Printing Services who designed this and previous issues of the Historical Studies Journal Finally, thank you to Jacqui Ainlay-Conley and Kathleen Barlow, both Kenneth King Fellows, and of course, Prof. Thomas Noel, who were integral to the publication of this years journal.PP AM M M ILAveVE CEditorvPP Re E FACe E
Editors Notes: Colorado history consists of givers and of takers. Much of our history revolves around the takers. Mostly we celebrate those who have extracted riches from the Colorado earth. At the Center for Colorado & the West at Auraria Library (CC&W), our student King Fellows and interns lean towards focusing on the givers, on role models for a cynical age. All too often, these quiet heroes go unsung in our histories. At CC&W, we hope to shed light on some of these people who are worthy of notice by proling their lives. This exercise in oral history aims to educate students in that technique. We also hope to provide the general public and future generations with otherwise unavailable insights into life in Colorado. The remote, often forgotten extreme northwest corner of rural Colorado provides the little known setting for this story. This prole spotlights the son of a hardscrabble ranching family of Irish immigrants who settled in northwestern Colorado. This prole of Robert Bob Sweeney is based primarily on interviews with him conducted and transcribed by Lauramay LaChance, a graduate student in history at the University of Colorado Denver and a King Intern at the Center for Colorado & the West at Auraria Library. We hope you enjoy it and welcome your comments, corrections, etc. at www.coloradowest.auraria.edu.RORO BERT RT FRANFRAN K SWEEN N EY Y : A A COLORADOCOLORADO GI GI VER RBy Robert Sweeney as told to Lauramay LaChance
Irish immigrants Patrick and Mary Sweeney and their six sons started one of Moffat Countys largest pioneer ranching clans. Mary died in 1936 after a long struggle with stomach cancer. Before nally visiting a doctor she insisted on mopping the oors everything had to be clean before she left. A year later, at age 99, Patrick ate little of his usual breakfast of bread and milk. I believe Ill just lie down a while, were his last words. He was laid to rest at Marys side.Credit: Moffat County Morning News Irish immigrants Patrick and Mary Sweeney
2010 Historical Studies Journal 3Swee WEE Ne E Y F F AMILY R R OOTs SMy grandfather, Patrick Sweeney, told his stories with a twinkle in his eye, a warn ing that there might be a wee bit of exaggeration. Hed often start with I was born in Ireland 105 years ago. He left County Cork, Ireland when he was nineteen. He never returned to his native land. As the second son, he would be landless when the rst son inherited the familys 27 acres of peat. Patrick was able to leave that desperately poor country devastated by the potato famine because of some good luck. He won a plowboy contest in Ireland by plowing the straightest furrow. He used the ve pound prize to buy passage on the ship, Eastern Star, bound for America. Reaching New York City in 1865, Patrick saw the harbor draped in black for the death of Abraham Lincoln. Hearing in New York about the western gold rushes, he looked for a railroad job to take him west. He found work with the Union Pacic Raliroad that took him as far as Fort Steele, Wyoming. There he landed a job driving a four-horse freight team for the Hugus Stores, a northwest Colorado chain of general stores. Patrick drove the route between Fort Steele, the railhead, down to Meeker, one of the few Colorado towns never ever to be reached by a railroad. Driving teams of four to six horses, he hauled tons of freight to Meeker and other growing northwest Colorado towns. His teams made 12 to 16 miles a day, stopping to rest overnight at places that have mostly disappeared. That run took 16 days roundtrip. In Meeker, he met my grandmother, Mary Frawley. She came over from Innis, County Limerick, Ireland, not as an indentured servant but close to it. She found work as a housekeeper and cook for a banker in Meeker. This banker not only owned the Meeker Caf but probably owned, at least in part, the Hugus Store where Patrick worked. Patrick befriended Mary and took to coming to the back door of the Meeker Caf and eating meals with her in the kitchen. She fed him and, as they say, the best route to a mans heart is through his stomach. Soon he fell in love and told her, When I come back next month, lets get married. She agreed and sure enough, he did come back the next month. They were Catholics but got married in a Methodist Church because it was the only church in town. After their wedding, my grandparents homesteaded in Moffat County in one of the most remote areas in northwest Colorado, about twenty miles north of Meeker. Grandfather claimed he settled in with 2,500 pounds of barbed wire and grub and didnt have to go out again for two years. It was dry land. If you did not have water, you could not survive in the livestock business. My grandparents from soggy old Ireland soon realized this and moved to a new place beside the Yampa River. There they raised six boys, George, Henry, Frank, Joseph, Patrick and John. Their last child, the only girl, died two weeks after her birth.
4 RO BE RT FRAN K SWEE NEY As each son married, my grandparents expanded the ranch to give them a start in life. My father Henry, the second son, ranched the second expansion, four miles away from my grandparents home. His brothers occupied neighboring spreads. Our family ranches were not very far, maybe fteen miles northwest, from the famous Meeker Massacre site.1 My grandmother remembered Utes coming to the ranch and asking for food, which she gave them. However, we grew up hearing stories of how the Utes slaughtered Indian Agent Nathan Meeker, a former agricultural editor of the New York Tribune and founder of the Greeley Tribune kidnapped his wife and daughter, and held off the U.S. Army.2 Patrick Sweeney shared lifelong memories of the Ute Indians and the Meeker Massacre. He was living nearby in 1879 when angry natives killed Indian Agent Nathan Meeker, eight other White River Agency employees, and two freighters who were delivering our to the outpost. The Utes slew Meeker after Major Thomas Thornburgh invaded their reservation with one hundred and eighty U.S. soldiers, whom the Utes ambushed at Milk Creek, killing the Major, ten of his men, and three civilian teamsters. The Utes lost twenty-three men.Credit: Colorado Historical Society 1 In 1880, after the U. S. Army removed the Utes to reservations in southwestern Colorado and eastern Utah, the town of Meeker sprang up near the massacre site. 2 For a good overview of the Meeker Massacre and its consequences, see Peter R. Decker, The Utes Must Go :American Expansion and the Removal of A People Golden: Fulcrum Publishing, 2004.
2010 Historical Studies Journal 5 Besides the Sweeneys a few other Catholic families lived in the area. As there was not a Catholic church in Craig until 1880, Father Edward J. Downey, a circuit riding pioneer, came to hear confessions and say mass now and then. Whenever he showed up on his mule, my father and my uncles, then boys, would run and hide under their bed. They were scared to death of the priest. I imagine they were scared because he was a stranger there to correct their behavior. Ultimately they would come out of hiding and the priest would spend a few nights at my grandparents ranch teaching the kids catechism. However, my dad and his brothers would rather chase wild horses than listen to that priest. They would chase down the wild horses, rope them, and then try to break them. That was one of their favorite sports. Once they tied a sled to a young wild horse, then they all piled on the sled, and let the horse run loose. Horseplay was their main recreation. Those boys tamed enough of those wild beasts to pull the ranch wagon into town. Theyd go to Meeker once a month or so for shopping and rodeos. Once a year theyd go all the way to Rie, the nearest railroad town, to buy supplies that included barrels of our, dried fruits, dried beans, and provisions to last for months. These 1880s barracks used by soldiers who put down the Ute uprising were converted to the Meeker Public Library, shown here. Today the ofcers quarters also house the White River Museum.Credit: Denver Public Library
6 RO BE RT FRAN K SWEE NEY M OT HE R S SID EMy maternal grandmother, Margaret Patterson, was four years old when her family brought her from Scotland to Leadville. She was the oldest of sixteen children. Her father, Gilbert Patterson, was a mine superintendent during Leadvilles ush times. The Pattersons lived on the southwest outskirts of Leadville. My family passed down stories of taking food over to Baby Doe Tabor who holed herself up at the Matchless Mine. She would never answer the door, so they would just leave the food on the porch for her. Margaret Patterson married Robert OConnell, for whom I was named, and had my mother, June Marian OConnell. My mom graduated from Leadville High School then went to Colorado State Teachers College, which is now the University of Northern Colorado in Greeley. After graduating she found a job teaching in the tiny northwest Colorado town of Maybell. My dad, who had just come back from World War I, was working on the family ranch not far south of Maybell. He would ride up there for the Saturday night dances in the schoolhouse. There he met the school marm, asked her for a dance, and fell in love with this beautiful 5 2 brunette. June Marian OConnell and Henry Sweeney married in Craig in 1926 and honeymooned in Glenwood Springs. As this view of Meekers July 4, 1913, festivities suggests, the ranching town had more horses than humans. The Sweeney clan rarely missed July 4th celebrations and the rodeo in Meeker, where they also did their shopping.Credit: Denver Public Library
2010 Historical Studies Journal 7 The newlyweds moved to the family ranch and into a one-story white frame house with a big screened porch on the front. My older brother, Gilbert, was born on the ranch in 1933 after a painful delivery. Five years later, a midwife in Craig, Jenny Starr, delivered me on February 13, 1938. CC RAIG Ye YE ARs SI was born and raised on my fathers ranch twenty-eight miles west of Craig, Colorado. The nearest post ofce was the now gone town of Juniper Springs, which had a big hot springs pool, a hot bubbling mud bath and a general store that served as the post ofce. We lived next to the spreads of my uncles Frank, Patrick, and Joe, who never married and inherited the family home ranch. Ranch life was rugged. One of my rst jobs was to go down to the river and get buckets of water as we did not have running water in the house. We drank water right out of the Yampa River but never got sick. As a lad, one of my other jobs was gathering wood and coal for our big kitchen stove, which was not only for cooking but heated the whole house. We all slept in one room. My dad always got up at 4:30 in the morning to build a re in the stove. For meals, we had a cellar full of canned goods, barrels of foodstuffs, a great vegetable garden, and we butchered our own meat. We didnt have refrigeration so wed cut ice from the river in the winter. With a horse, sled, and a big saw, we cut blocks of ice fteen inches square. We put the ice in our log ice house and covered it with a layer of coal dust and slack that kept the ice from melting. The ice would last all summer. We used the blocks of ice to ll an old fashioned wooden ice boxin which wed keep our milk, cream, butter, and everything else cold. We had practically everything we needed on our ranch. When I turned seven, my folks gave me a 22. Every time I would shoot, I would have to run in the house to have my mother cock the 22 because I was not strong enough to do it. So, I learned to hunt with one bullet and got really good at it. One time, the gun slipped and shot a hole through our brand new linoleum oor. Can you imagine giving a 22 to a six, seven, eight year old today? My parents put me to work in the hay elds, walking the horse that pulled the hay wagon. I started out as a stacker boy, then advanced to hay raker and hay mower. Every summer we irrigated, cut, and put up hay. In the winter, we fed it to our livestock. Livestock had to be cared for seven days a week, twenty-four hours a day, year round, no matter how deep the snow. Craig shivered in bitterly cold winters. Sometimes wed even get a freeze in July. In winter it would often be twenty degrees below zero for days on end. Maybell, the nearby town where my mother once taught school, long held the Colorado record for coldsixty-one degrees below zero. We had to learn to deal with, even to play in, the snow and cold. We started ice skating on the Yampa River. I had a real pair of ice skates. My dad and his siblings used to see how close they could come to the thawed, running water. I never did that, nor did I fall in the river. I respected the river,
8 RO BE RT FRAN K SWEE NEY especially after seeing a tombstone down there of a kid who drowned while trying to ride his bicycle across the bridge rail. In the spring time the Yampa grew huge and fast, but usually came down by summer when we swam in it. On the ranch we raised cattle to eat and to sell. This led to some conicts with neighboring sheep ranches like that of the Kourlises, the famous Greek sheep ranching family. My grandfather and my fathers generation would shoot sheep that wandered onto our cattle pastures. We got along better with the Gossard Ranch. On their 30,000 acres spread they raised Morgan Horses, cattle, hay and wheat. Every fall we took our Herford cattle to Craig, the railhead of the Moffat Road, which later became the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. My father would ride on the train near the cattle for the two day trip to the Denver stockyards. He wanted to make sure our cattle got water and hay along the way and did not lose a lot of weight. Mother, Gilbert, and I, would ride in a passenger coach. When the white faced Hereford steers went through the Moffat Tunnel they would turn black faced from the trains soot and smoke. At the stockyards, we washed off the soot and smoke and prettied our steers for sale. My dad would join us in the Standish Hotel late at night, after taking care of our livestock. The Standish Hotel at 1530 California Street once housed stock show visitors such as the Sweeneys. It was demolished in 2008.Credit: Tom Noel Collection
2010 Historical Studies Journal 9 While we were in the big city, mother would take my brother and me to the Colorado History Museum, the Museum of Natural History, and up to the top of the Daniels & Fisher Towerthen the tallest building in Denverto see the town. Wed always have a fancy dinner at Baurs Restaurant, which I thought was a magical place. I remember looking into their show window and drooling over the roast beef and all those candies and deserts. During the familys annual trips to sell cattle at the Denver stockyards, June Marian OConnell Sweeney took her sons Gilbert and Robert on a tour of the town. Baurs Restaurant, shown here at 1512 Curtis Street, was the place to eat for the Sweeney family and many out-of-town visitors. Now on the National Register of Historic Paces and a designated Denver Landmark, Denvers oldest restaurant has been restored by owner/operator Jimmy Lambatos.Credit: Denver Public Library
10 RORO BERT RT FRAN FRAN K SWEEN N EY Y GG RADeE SCh H OOL After my mother got a job teaching third grade at Craig Elementary School, we moved into Craig and bought a home. My mother took my brother and me around to every church in Craig and asked us which one we wanted to go to. We looked at the First Christian Church of Craig. They had a handsome sawn log building covered with lap siding and painted white with a big corner bell tower. But my mother picked the Congregational Church. While I enjoyed going to that church a lot, I probably should have been going to a Catholic Church. I still feel like I ought to be a Catholic but Im not. Back then, I didnt like the fact they had to eat sh on Friday. I wanted beef all the time. At age four, I started going to school with my brother and my cousin, John. They were in the fth and sixth grade when I started out in kindergarten. When I got to the rst grade, I was already writing long hand and counting, so they moved me up to the third grademy mothers class. I was always the youngest kid in my class. When I played sports, I always wished I was a little bit bigger to keep up with the older kids. Maybe thats the reason Ive always been so interested in helping out underdogs. I played basketball, football, and ran track. I also joined the band. I picked the clarinet, because I really liked a girl who played the clarinet and I wanted to sit by her. My only interest was her, not the instrument. My brother played football and was a real intellect. He won a Boettcher Foundation Scholarship which only funded attendance at a Colorado college or university, but he turned it down to go to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. As a boy he had hay fever and it turned into asthma. Whether you were sick or not, in those days you went to the hay elds everyday. He would lay in bed at night and just wheeze. The hay fever really wrecked his heart. Of course no one knew at the time just how bad it was. He died in his 50s of congestive heart failure. I had a pretty normal high school experience. I worked on the year book committee and reported stories for Bull Pup Tails our junior high school newspaper. Then I worked on the Craig Bulldog the high school paper. When national touring concerts came through northwest Colorado I got to interview them. I trotted up on the stage and talked to the singers and interviewed them and then wrote them up for our little school paper. When I graduated I didnt know what I wanted to do. I knew if I went back out to the ranch it would be a lonely existence. I would have my 22 rie, my dog, and a horse, but my folks didnt even have a television. So I applied to Colorado State University (CSU) and was admitted. Ever since I was just a little kid I tried to help injured animals: horses, cows, calves, lambs, puppies, and kittens. On the ranch, animals were always getting caught in the barbed wire fence and cut up. I took great pride in trying to save the animals. My dad liked the idea of my becoming a veterinarian so thats what I said I wanted to be.
2010 Historical Studies Journal11 C OLORADO STAT E U NI VE RSITY My rst year at CSU I did all the vet stuff. I did human anatomy, kinesiology, and dissected a greyhound dog. We checked out horses, sh, and all these dead animals, even a human body. Once, I threw a sh back into a tank of formaldehyde and it splashed the liquid in my face. I thought; Yuck, why am I doing this? This was my wakeup call. I did not want to be a vet. Back in Craig, my mother ran for Moffat County Superintendent of Schools. Although my dad was an Irish Catholic Democrat, he did vote for my mother, a Protestant Republican. During her campaign I walked door to door with her all over Craig. We gave everyone our campaign stuff, courted their votes, and won by a landslide. That kind of tickled me and I thought it was fun. So I jumped at the chance to apply for a Ford Foundation Scholarship for political science, even though I didnt know if I was a Republican or Democrat. That Ford Foundation Scholarship paid you to work with the political party of your choice. I applied along with Don Stimmel, my good friend, who was absolutely brilliant but kind of a nerd. I asked him which one he wanted to apply for and without hesitation he said Democrat. Then I said, Well then, I will apply as a Republican. We both applied and both won. My job for the next year consisted of working with the Larimer County Republican party as an intern. It paid well, about one thousand dollars. The next fall I changed my major and went into political science, history, journalism, and became an interdepartmental major. Basically I took what I wanted. I took sixty-ve hours of history, geology, creative writing, and Reserve Ofcer Training Corps (ROTC). I also got involved with the student publications. I edited a humor magazine, The Rams Horn and a literary magazine, The Prism I also wrote for the school paper.Gerri Keeling met fellow student Bob Sweeney in the library at Colorado State University. Credit: Courtesy of Patrick Sweeney
12 RO BE RT FRAN K SWEE NEY While at CSU I didnt spend all my time in class or working on publications. I spotted the woman I was going to marry in a library and asked her out. Geraldine Gerri Keeling was from Fowler down in the Arkansas River Valley. I impressed her by taking her to plays. She thought this cowboy from Craig was cultured. I gave her my Sigma Chi fraternity pin and she became the sweetheart of this Sigma Chi. Robert & Gerri Sweeney cut their wedding cake in 1958 in Fowler, her hometown.Credit Courtesy of Patrick Sweeney MILITARY I had to take ROTC for two years. I then applied to the advanced ROTC course and got accepted. I spent two years marching around, which earned me a military commission as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army when I graduated. When it came time to pick a military branch and spend six months there, I chose armory. Gerri went with me down to Fort Knox, Kentucky, where the U.S. Army has its main armory school. I learned how to operate tanks, how to use their weapons, how to train with tanks, and to live with tanks. It was a basic training program on how to be a platoon leader. As a gunnery ofcer and instructor, I ran ring ranges for tanks. Ever since I was seven, I liked and was good at shooting. When I got out, I was Tank Reconnaissance Patrol Leader. My job was to be out front with my tanks and infantry platoon probing to see where the enemy was. The life of a recon platoons lieutenant was dangerous, but fortunately there were no wars in 1960. Because I was in a combat branch I had to serve eight years in the reserves and six months active duty. I chose that versus two years in the reserves and two years active duty. After armory school, I went back to the ranch to help my dad.
2010 Historical Studies Journal 13 JUMPING INTO JOURNALIs S MAs a senior at CSU, I applied to law school at the University of Colorado and was accepted for the fall of 1961. Meanwhile, I became intrigued with a newspaper opportunity in Craig, Colorado. The Craig Empire Courier had been around for years, run by Ted McCandless and Chuck Stoddard. McCandless and Stoddard started put ting out a paper in Hayden on Friday called the Yampa Valley Flash This made the competing Hayden newspaper owner, Al Schafer, so mad that he decided to retaliate. So he moved his Hayden paper, the Northwest Colorado Press into Craig. I thought this small town newspaper war was just a hoot. So I went in and asked Schafer if I could help him with his paper. He asked if I would sell advertising. In college I sold advertising for both the campus newspaper and the humor magazine. So I started working for him and brought in a great big pile of ads because I knew everybody in town. He was impressed and paid me pretty good money. When the time came for me to leave for law school, Al called me into his ofce. He said that if I would stick with the newspaper, he would give me half of the Northwest Colorado Press I told him he had a deal. So he gave me half of the paper and I didnt go to law school. I continued to sell advertising for him and to help my dad a few days a week. The next year, 1962, Schaefer told me he and his wife were ready to move on and wanted to know if I would buy out his half of the paper. I used some of our cattle as collateral at the bank and took out a loan for ten thousand bucks. Suddenly, I owned a newspaper in Craig, Colorado.OwOW NING M M Y F F IRs S T News NEWSPAPe E RMy rst newspaper, the Northwest Colorado Press was old fashioned. On our old lead linotype press, we laid out hand fed type line by line and page by page. Youd hand feed the chases of type into a press and print one page of paper at a time. Then youd let that side dry and print the other side. I became the printer, the writer, and the ad salesman. So this hot-shot college kid and army ofcer suddenly had to put on a printers apron and learn how to hand set type and put it on paper. I worked ungodly hours, maybe 110 hours a week trying to learn how to be a printer with old and beastly equipment. Then one day a guy from Pennsylvania walked in the door and told me about a new process of printing called offset lithography. He claimed it was a much better way to put out a paper than the way I was doing it. I hired him on the spot as my press man. For twenty years I ran that newspaper. I expanded my business by buying more newspapers in Berthoud, Breckenridge, Carbondale, Craig, Fort Collins, Glenwood Springs, Hayden, Kremmling, Meeker, Nucla, and Walden, Colorado. I also ran newspapers in Roosevelt, Utah and in Hanna and Baggs, Wyoming. At one point I had eighty employees. I also became city council man, and mayor of Craig from 1972 to 1974. Meanwhile, my wife Gerri and I were raising four kids. Of course, they all had paper routes to deliver after school every day.
14 RO BE RT FRAN K SWEE NEY We kept those newspapers in business the old fashioned way: we combined newspapering with a printing business. In the small towns we did nearly all the printing high school papers and programs, business, cards, menus, business forms, anything anybody wanted. The printing supported the newspapers just like it did in the old days. We still own a printing company -Baker Engraving and do printing to this day. Our customers include the Broadmoor Hotel and Newmont Mining. They say journalists have ink in their blood and that printers have in on their ngers. I like ink in both places. We had a busy life that got even more so after Gerri was diagnosed with cancer. I drove her from Craig to St. Joseph Hospital in Denver for treatment every Monday, and then picked her up on Friday to bring her home. Fortunately, at that point the Howard Newspaper chain out of San Clemente, California, approached me. Bob and Gerri Sweeney put all four children, Saundra, Sharon, Susan, and Patrick, to work delivering the family newspapers. The family is shown here in the mid 1970s in their Craig home.Credit: Courtesy of Patrick Sweeney
2010 Historical Studies Journal 15 They owned eighteen newspapers, including the Casper Star Tribune and wanted to buy me out. I struggled with the decision but did sell when they made me an offer I could not refuse $4.5 million. So I retired at age 42 and had time to look back. I miss those days. The newspaper business was fascinating. One day, for example, I got a wire from the Associated Press that Bobby Kennedy and his family were coming to Craig to oat down the river at Lily Park. So I gathered my wife and kids and we searched the river for the Kennedys. On the way, we came across a wrecked car. The Associated Press reporter had driven off the road into a gulch. So I pulled him out of the gulch and we proceeded down to the Yampa River. We hadnt been there for thirty minutes when this caravan of cars showed up with Bob, his wife Ethel and a whole lot of kids. The Kennedy kids went crazy climbing over the brush and the rocks. We had to warn them to look out for rattlesnakes. Robert Kennedy and his wife could not have been friendlier. They posed with us for pictures. Our kids and the Kennedy kids, who were about the same age, played together for an hour or so while they were getting the boats ready. Then we said goodbye and waved them off as they headed down the river. Shortly after that Bobby Kennedy was assassinated during his run for the Democratic nomination for president. Another memorable day as a journalist came when I wanted to interview the notorious Donald Dean Spooner, who had murdered four people. The police nally caught him and threw him in the Craig jail. I went down and asked the sheriff if I could interview Spooner. He let me into the cell with him and I spent several hours interviewing him. I led the story with the Associated Press and it went all over America. Newspapering brought good times and travel. I went to the Soviet Union as an exchange journalist in 1975 with thirteen big shots from New York, Chicago, and other big newspapers. I was the little guy from a tiny town no one had ever heard of. Yet, I felt at home in Russia because it was cold like Craig. While the other editors were freezing to death, I felt like I was home. OON TO De DE Nve VE RWe moved to Denver in 1980 where St. Joseph Hospital cured my wifes cancer. We both had worked like dogs for twenty years on those little northwestern Colorado newspapers. We were nally free to relocate. Moving to Denver also brought us closer to our kids, who were starting college. The move to Denver was a major transition. In Craig I had been a big sh in a little pond. In Denver, I was a very little sh in a great big pond. Back in Craig I had been active in the Lions, the Jaycees, and about everything else. In Denver I didnt know anyone or belong to anything. Since I sold my newspapers, we had some money. My wife and I bought a nice home on Blackmer Drive in Cherry Hills Village. As for my children, Saundra attended the University of Colorado, Sharon went to University
16 RORO BERT RT FRAN FRAN K SWEEN N EY Y of Northern Colorado, Susan was a sophomore at Cherry Creek High School, and Patrick went to Cherry Hills Village Elementary School. Before I left Craig I bought a paper in Denver, the Colorado Statesmen a political newspaper. Jody Strogoff, who had worked for me on the Hayden Valley Press managed the paper. She told me about the owner who wanted to sell it. I came down and bought it from him in 1980 and Jody ran it. So, I never really got out of the newspaper business. I was always interested in politics so that political paper seemed like just the ticket. I covered national political conventions, wrote a column, and became involved in both Democratic and Republican party politics. I ran the Colorado Statesman for four years with Jody Strogoff who has it now. It was impossible to make the Colorado Statesman pay. During the political campaigns things were better but we only had those every other November. The Statesman did give me a wonderful transition to the big city and an introduction to its leadership. I kept it a bipartisan political paper which seemed like a clever concept, giving us access to all parties and points of view. When I rst came to Denver I ran for Republican National Committee man. At this one and only venture into national politics, I lost. However, The Statesmen put me in a bipartisan mode. I tried not to look through Democratic or Republican eyes but to try to be fair and balanced, to look at all sides of the political spectrum. Its rare that I ever talk politics in the non-prot world. I dont ask people if they are Republicans or Democrats or Communists. The Colorado Statesman wasnt my only lousy nancial investment. While I owned the Statesman I also bought Ramada Inns in Greeley and Fort Morgan. Then interest rates soared rst from eight to twenty-four percent. In 1984 I owed a lot of money on everything. I sold the hotels and the newspaper. I sold off just about everything, even my house. The only thing I kept was The Villager a newspaper I started for the Cherry Hills Village area in 1982. I kept it even though my whole world was turning upside down and everything was going wrong. The Villager remains a successful paper and I still enjoy doing a weekly column for it. We started out with six Villager newspapers, but have consolidated them into one which serves primarily the south metro area. During the 1980s, I was president of the Colorado Press Association. Later, I got involved in the National Newspaper Association (NNA) and became intrigued with the national issues of the newspaper industry. I served as the Associations director of Region Ten, which includes the states of Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. For about eight years I worked with all the member newspapers in those four states. Then, I became chairman of the National Newspaper Association. This small time journalist from little Craig, Colorado, was at one time the president of the worlds largest newspaper association. After I nished that I became president of the NNA Foundation for a couple of years. I did everything you could do on a national level. Internationally, I traveled under the banner of newspaper groups to South America, the Middle East, China, and so on. That was a real highlight of my newspaper career.
2010 Historical Studies Journal17 THE K E NN ETH KING F OUNDATION In 1983, I met Mr. Kenneth Kendal King through the Lions Club. I had transferred my Craig Lions Club membership to the Denver Den, where about 200 members met every Wednesday at the Denver Athletic Club for lunch and a speaker. When they introduced me, Mr. King came rushing over because I happened to be a Sigma Chi fraternity member at CSU in Fort Collins. He was a Sigma Chi at Northwestern University in Chicago. He gave me the grip and hug and the warmest welcome. From that day on he took me under his wing. Kenneth King had made a fortune with his Columbia Savings Bank. In 1990 he was setting up the Kenneth King Foundation and asked me to be on his board. I accepted and came to the rst meeting with four or ve other people. They elected me Vice President only because I was the youngest guy there. I suggested the creation of an Encouragement Fund. This fund enabled the directors to bestow $500 to $1,000 grants on notable non-prots that had not requested a grant but were doing a great job of helping the less fortunate. Upon Kings death in 1992, Stevens Steve Parks Kinney II took over as president of the Kenneth King Foundation. When Kinney died suddenly of liver cancer in 1993, I became president of the King Foundation. That became a full time job so I turned The Villager over to Gerri and the kids. Even in a day of shrinking and dying newspapers, the Sweeney family operates the Denver Herald Dispatch the Colorado Gambler the Fruita Times and the Palisade Tribune All four children are actively involved in the family business. Credit: Courtesy of Patrick Sweeney
18 RORO BERT RT FRAN FRAN K SWEEN N EY Y Gerri, my oldest daughter Saundra, and my youngest daughter, Susan, have run the Villager ever since we started it in 1982. My middle daughter, Susan, took on the Colorado Gambler where we specialize in historical articles as well as gaming news. We launched the Gambler in 1991 when gaming was legalized in Black Hawk, Central City and Cripple Creek. Patrick, our youngest, is the information technology person for all of our family enterprises. Fortunately for me, two of Kings employees stayed with the foundation, Bernice Bettis and Minnie Lundberg. Bernice had worked for Mr. King for forty-seven years. She continued to work at the foundation until she was 90. She lived to be 94 before her death in 2008. Bernice wrote the book on the King Foundation, That Man is Special: A Biography of Kenneth King Mr. Kings bookkeeper, Minnie Lundberg, retired in April, 2008 at age eighty-three. But, weve brought her back to work two days a week doing the books. I needed all the help I could get to run the foundation.TheTHE F F OUNDATIONs S WORk KOur mission at the King Foundation has always been to try and help the disadvantaged folks who really need help. Everyone wants money but who do you give it to? Do you give it to scholarships? Do you give it to people who are ill? Do you give it to entertainment? Entertainment is wonderful but saving someones life is better. So we focus on trying to keep people alive by giving them food, shelter, and medical attention. We also believe in educating individuals so they can nd a job to support themselves. At the King Foundation, we focus more on human services than on art and entertainment. For example, our biggest commitment ever was to help those who are blind or have vision problems through the Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute. At the time I took over the Kenneth King Foundation, King had made building the Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute a major cause. The Lions had always been interested in eyesight because of our close relationship with Helen Keller. Lions Clubs supported her work and in 1925, while speaking at our international convention, she challenged us to be, in her words, the knights of the blind in the crusade against darkness. She called upon the Lions, the worlds largest service organization; to make blindness and the visually impaired their special cause and we did and still do. Pursuing Kings wishes, we gave the Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute money to build a new building on the University of Colorados Health Sciences Center Campus at East 9th Avenue and Colorado Boulevard. The City of Denver rejected that plan because the surrounding Congress Park, Hilltop, and Hale neighborhoods protested that it would be a big ofce building. After that, we early on joined the cause of moving to a much larger, less constrained campus for the Health Sciences Center on the old Fitzsimons Army Hospital site. After the army closed its medical center there in 1995, the university and our Lions Club jumped at the opportunity to move to that square mile site with all kinds of room to grow.
2010 Historical Studies Journal19 We found a great leader when Dr. Brownyn Bateman, Vice President of the Jewels Stein Eye Institute at UCLA, came to Denver to spearhead the drive to build the new eye center. Before her arrival the project had almost died for lack of funding and interest. As a professor and prime mover, she worked with numerous Lions Dens and the King Foundation to raise $5.5 million. The university matched that with $6 million. The Lions Eye Institute was the rst new building constructed on the Fitzsimons campus. The university used us as a poster child to bring more buildings out there despite opposition from doctors and bureaucrats clinging to the crowded, landlocked but familiar old campus. So our eye institute helped lead the way to constructing what is now Americas premier modern academic medical center campus. The Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute on the University of Colorado Denver Anschutz Medical Center is a great tribute to the Lions of Colorado and Wyoming, and to the vision of the university. The Lions partnership with the King Foundation is one of our greatest foundation successes to date.The Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute opened in 2001 on the University of Colorados Anschutz Medical Campus. Designed by the premier Denver hospital design rm of Davis Partnership, it was built by Haselden Construction of Aurora. The elegant red brick, glass and creamy metal structure has become a beacon for those throughout the Rocky Mountain region with vision problems. These patients are not only treated here but often benet from its state-of-the-art research.Credit: University of Colorado Hospital
20 RO BE RT FRAN K SWEE NEY When you visit our Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, 1675 N. Aurora Court, on the Anschutz Medical Campus be sure to look at the painting by Colorado artist Larry Fanning. It shows a pride of lions and is prominently displayed over the information desk that welcomes folks to the three-story atrium lobby. The top oor of the Institute houses the Rocky Mountain Regional Ofce of the Lions Clubs of Colorado and Wyoming. This $11.5 million, three-story structure houses research, ofces, and education space as well as the Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Bank, which focuses on transplantation and research to help ght blindness. THE U NI VE RS ITY OF C OLORADO DE N VE R C ONN E CTIONOur foundation has probably given more money to CU-Denver downtown than anyone else and will continue to do so. In 2009 we funded the creation of the Center for Colorado & the West at the Auraria Library (CC&W). The centers programs enrich students learning experiences by providing opportunities to work collaboratively in producing resource guides, book reviews, biographical proles, histories, documentaries, and other presentations in order to interpret, present, and preserve local, state, and regional history. We work well with University of Colorado Denver and they seem to be aggressive, eager and out there. Our King Foundations interest in public education led it to fund the King Building, formally known as the Kenneth King Academic and Performing Arts Center. The King Center was primarily funded by the state of Colorado but the legislature asked that the university get some private grant money. So we donated a million dollars to make it happen and they put our name on this $45 million building. I am proud of the King Center and our downtown campus. To this day, a whole lot of people dont know what a great university CU-Denver is. Its the best kept secret of Colorado. The Kenneth King Academic and Performing Arts Center opened at 855 Lawrence Way on the Auraria Higher Education Center Campus in 2000. Besides ofces and classrooms, the King Center contains a 520-seat concert hall, a 300-seat courtyard theatre, a 200-seat recital hall and production studios. Designed by the Denver rm of Hoover Berg Desmond, the 180,000 square foot, ve story building matches the red brick, raw concrete and glass style of other campus buildings.Credit: University of Colorado
2010 Historical Studies Journal21 The Auraria Higher Education Center Campus which houses UCD, Metropolitan State College of Denver and the Community College of Denver is by far the largest campus in Colorado with a combined enrollment of 50,000 students in 2010. We are very proud of the Auraria Campus and our work there, says philanthropist Bob Sweeney. This is a place where economically challenged, minority, and older, working and married students get a chance at education to a higher degree. Credit: Photo by Farhad Vakilitabar BO B S WEE NE Y R E FL E CTION SI was named Colorados outstanding non-prot executive in 2006, but I see myself as a businessman not a non-prot person. Many times non-prot people look at helping people but they dont look at who is going to pay the bill and help people become self-supporting. In 2009, I won the AMOS Award, the highest award given by the National Newspaper Association for community service. My community service also includes a stint as President of the Denver Lions Club. I started as a regular member and I worked my way through the various chairs and ofces to nally become president in 2001-02. I nd a lot of friends, advisors and good ideas through club life. I try to see things as a problem solver. How do we solve the problem, how can we be successful, how can we fund solutions? The King Foundation dispenses close to $2 million in grants every year. We limit our work to the state of Colorado. Approximately a third of our grants go to health care with another third going to education. In 2008 the largest grant went to the Center for Drug and Alcohol Addiction Rehabilitation on the Anschutz Medical Campus. The second largest single grant went to help blind children. Another major focus for our King Foundation is funding some thirty-ve organizations that assist with basic needs like food, shelter, and clothing.
22 RORO BERT RT FRAN FRAN K SWEEN N EY Y Im proudest of the Lions Eye Care Institute at the University of Colorado Denvers Anschutz Medical Campus. We have also established the half million dollar King Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Day Care Center. If you have MS you can go there and they will take care of you all day long. About sixty people go there everyday, many in wheel chairs. The King MS Center is on the old Marycrest Campus site in the northwest corner of Denver at West 52nd Avenue and Federal Boulevard next to Regis University. We spent a half million dollars to make it happen. Our foundation tries to help people help themselves. What better and happier life could there be than helping people? TheTHE Ke E NNe ETh H KING STORYEditors note: To provide more insight into the good work of the Kenneth King Foundation, that organization has provided us information to help explain Kings life, his good fortune, and how he channeled his wealth into the foundation. Born in Nederland, Texas in 1901, Kenneth Kendal King moved with his family to Denver in 1916. There he and his two brothers graduated from East High School. During summers, young Ken worked aboard the Denver & Rio Grandes famous tourist train to Glenwood Springs, selling peanuts, popcorn, candy, newspapers, and souvenirs. Next he went to Northwestern University where he worked his way through driving a Yellow Cab around Chicago. He also worked serving meals at the Sigma Chi Fraternity House, Upon graduating, King jumped into the business world. He invested successfully in a residential subdivision in Orlando, Florida, then went on to Salt Lake City to work at a savings and loan company. There his job was to collect delinquent loan payments. After learning that business from the bottom up, King returned to Denver in 1929 to open his own rm, Columbia Savings Building, and Loan Association. Although founded on the cusp of Americas worst depression, Kings bank somehow survived and even thrived. Business picked up after Franklin Delano Roosevelts New Deal initiated the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) to help families become homeowners. King and Columbia pioneered the FHA plan throughout the state of Colorado where King became known as Mr. FHA. While many of his fellow businessmen fought the New Deal as socialism and government interference in the private sector, King worked with the federal government. King prospered and briey married. This short marriage produced a son, Alan Shell King, who was born in 1940. Alan had a distinguished, if short, career in computer science and the healthcare eld before his death in 2004.
2010 Historical Studies Journal23 As Columbia Savings prospered, King recruited his brother, Harold Taft King, who had a B. A. and a law degree from the University of Colorado. Harold joined Columbia Savings as its Vice President and Legal Counsel. Columbia started out in one room of the Steele Building at 16th and California streets [The Steel Building was handsomely restored by Evan Makovsky in 2009 and renamed the Sage Building]. As business grew, Columbia moved to the Majestic Building at 16th and Broadway. The Majestic Building, a 1894 gem designed by Frank Edbrooke, housed Columbia Savings during the 1950s. Built in 1894, this Romanesque revival gem distinguished the northwest corner of 16th Street and Broadway until its 1977 demolition.Credit: Denver Public Library By the 1950s post-World War II boom, Columbia was outgrowing its fourth oor quarters in the Majestic Building. From his Majestic ofce, Kenneth King overlooked some small one-story shops just across 16th Street. There he and his brother Harold decided they would construct their own building. They partnered with the Denver Petroleum Club, which was looking to build a fancy new clubhouse. Flush with the soaring oil business, that club asked the Kings to expand their planned four or ve story building to a fourteen-story ofce tower. The Petroleum Club promised to build a deluxe dining facility and to encourage the members to rent ofce space in the new structure provided it would be named the Petroleum Club Building. The building opened in 1957 with a bar and restaurant for club members on the 12th and 13th oors.
24 RO BE RT FRAN K SWEE NEY While the Petroleum Club Building housed the headquarters and main bank of Columbia Savings and Loan, the company began opening branches across the state including Colorado Springs, Fort Collins, Greeley, Lakewood, Littleton and Pueblo. Kings Cherry Creek and Greeley Bank exemplied the circular neoclassical style he favored for Columbia. By 1961, Columbia Savings assets had topped $63 million and paid out $2 million in dividends. As Columbia became the industry leader in Colorado and a national model, it attracted suitors. The Music Company of America (MCA) bought out Columbia in 1962. In the newly expanded MCA, Kenneth King was the largest private shareholder, comedian Jack Benny was second and Harold King was third. Columbia Savings began featuring the nationally known and loved Jack Benny, whose television show topped the national ratings, at the openings of it new branch banks. In 1980, Columbia opened it grandest structure ever the shimmering glass and aluminum Columbia Plaza at 17th and Broadway. Ken and Harold King had prominent Denver architect Charles D. Strong design the Denver Petroleum Club as a mid-century modern structure in a polygonal shape to suit its site at the southwest corner of 16th Street and Broadway. The verticality of one of Denvers rst modern high rises is masked by horizontal bands of blue glass spandrels and windows. At the ground level cantilevered hoods shelter its black granite veneer. White columns rise to a cantilevered parapet beneath the 14th story penthouse which contained only the private residence and ofces of Kenneth King. Credit: Denver Public Library
2010 Historical Studies Journal25 Columbia Savings adorned its prominent street level glass gallery with a $2 million August Rodins sculpture, The Thinker That giant nude male, consumed in thought, became a famous sight, spotlighted at night, overlooked downtowns most prominent intersection. Some joked that the gure was Ken King contemplating the interest on his bank savings. Meanwhile, Kenneth King was thinking about retirement. He began spending more time at his Estes Park summer home. After King sold Columbia Savings, he moved out of the Denver Petroleum Club and to the top two oors of a new, sevenstory apartment house, Kingstone Manor. King built this red brick building with 3200 square feet per oor in 1982 at 900 Pennsylvania Street in Denvers Capitol Hill neighborhood. Columbia Savings constructed its new 1980 Columbia Plaza home at a most prominent downtown location where 17th Street, the Wall Street of the Rockies, ends at Broadway. Kohn Pedersen Fox, a prominent New York rm, designed the pentagonal forty-one-story tower Kohn Pedersen Fox put an up-and-coming young architect, Curtis W. Fentress, in charge of the Columbia Plaza project. After Columbia Plaza opened to rave reviews, Fentress stayed in Denver to become the citys best know architect with the towns largest single architectural rm. Fentress Architects subsequently designed the terminal at Denver International Airport, the Colorado Convention Center, and many other notable public and private buildings. This glistening aluminum tower was sold by the Kings along with Columbia Savings in the early 1980s and renamed Amoco Plaza.Credit: Photo by Roger Whitacre
26 RO BE RT FRAN K SWEE NEY Then Kenneth King turned to philanthropy. He established the Kenneth King Foundation in 1990 with himself as President/Treasurer/Director, his attorney Stevens Park Kinney II as Vice President and Assistant Treasurer/Director, and his longtime secretary Bernice A. Bettis as Secretary/Director. He set up the foundation ofces in Kingstone Manor, where it remains today. Kings philanthropy stemmed from his religion. A staunch member of the First Baptist Church of Denver, he supported the inner city church and funded landscaping for its site at the southwest corner of Grant Street and East 14th Avenue (across the avenue from the Colorado State Capitol). In 1968, The First Baptist Church of Denver, located at 430 E. 14th Avenue just south of the Colorado State Capitol, was designated as Historic Denver Landmark # 8 for its architectural, charitable, and historical merits as a cornerstone of the Capitol Hill neighborhood. Here Alan Fisher, right, of the Denver Landmark Preservation Commission awards the prestigious bronze plaque to the churchs minister, Rev. Harold A. Malborg.Credit: Photo by Genn Cuerden
2010 Historical Studies Journal27 Kings favorite philanthropy, Goodwill Industries, was founded in Boston around 1900 to help destitute people, Goodwill grew into a national organization with a strong Colorado connection. Goodwill asks folks to donate second hand clothing, shoes, furniture, books, utensils, toysanything that might be repaired, cleaned and sold in their second hand stores. They hire the unemployed, especially the disabled, to do the restoration and sales in Goodwills network of thrift stores. Their slogan is Not Charity, but a Chance. King liked the philosophy of Goodwill Industries of America and he contributed his time and money generously throughout his lifetime. He served on the National and the Denver Board of Goodwill Industries of America. He set up a $500,000 endowment to fund an annual award, the Kenneth King Outstanding Management Award, to recognize the top Goodwill administrators.Melissa Briggs helped found Goodwills Denver mission in 1917 in the basement of the Epworth Methodist Mission at 31st and Lawrence Street.Credit: Goodwill Industries DenverMelissa Briggs bicycled around Denver collecting broken dolls for the Doll Factory at Goodwills headquarters, which is now a huge repair shop and warehouse at 6850 N. Federal Boulevard.Credit: Goodwill Industries Denver
28 RO BE RT FRAN K SWEE NEYInspired by Goodwills commitment to hiring handicapped workers, King did the same with his bank where he hired polio victims. Recognizing Kings leadership in hiring the handicapped, Governor John Love designated him as Colorado Employer of the Year 1963. After making philanthropy his major concern, King decided to step down from the Presidency of Columbia Savings and found an able successor in Daniel Ritchie. Richie guided Columbia until 1988, when MCA sold its assets, including Columbia Savings, to Matsushita, a Japanese company. Dan Ritchie subsequently became the Chancellor of the University of Denver. He transformed that nancially troubled school into a thriving and much more prestigious campus to which he added many splendid new buildings designed in traditional style with ne stone, copper, and other high quality materials. After retiring from DU in 2006, Ritchie succeeded Don Seawell, founder of the Denver Center for the Performing Arts, as the DCPA chairman. Kenneth King died peacefully in 1992. His memorial services were held in the First Baptist Church of Denver. Hundreds attended the commemorative service and heard nal, poetic tributes from his longtime secretary, Bernice A. Bettis, and his longtime accountant, Minnie Lundberg.Goodwill Industries sends out trucks, as shown here in 1931, to collect donated items that are repaired and cleaned for sale. With support from the Kenneth King Foundation, Goodwill hires several hundred unemployed and disabled people to recycle goods; mentors and trains more than 23,000 at risk youth each year; and operates eighteen metro area retail thrift stores.Credit: Goodwill Industries Denver
SOURCes ES & A A DDITIONAL Re RE ADING:Bettis, Bernice A. That Man Is Special: A Biography of Kenneth King. Denver: Kenneth King Foundation, 2005. 44 p., photos. Kenneth King Foundation. Annual Reports. 1990 present. Koucherik, Shannan, Look Back: An Irish Inuence in the Valley, Rural Living: Your Local Farm and Ranch Magazine: A Publication of the Moffat County Morning News, March, 2007, p. 4-5 & 24-27. Noel, Thomas J., Stephen J. Leonard & Kevin Rucker. Colorado Givers: A History of Philanthropic Heroes. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 1998. xiii + 129 p. index. bibliography, appendices. Photos. Sweeney, Robert Frank, interviews in his ofce at the Kenneth King Foundation, Kingstone Manor, 900 Pennsylvania Street, by Lauramay LaChance on July 13, 2009 and July 28, 2009. www.KennethKing Foundation.org Special thanks to Bob, Gerri, Sharon and Patrick Sweeney as well as Minnie Lundberg.
This resource guide is far from comprehensive and is intended only as an opening for the exploration of Native Americans in Colorado and their points of contact with Europeans whose presence altered indigenous lifestyles. The use of the term Colorado is a recent occurrence when compared with Native American habitation. Since Colorado did not exist at the time, neither did the rectangularshaped state boundary so familiar to those alive today. These sources should be examined with a critical mind and an understanding of the origin of each particular source. Though many peoples lived and traveled in what is now Colorado, only the Arapaho, Cheyenne and Ute peoples have been featured in this resource guide for purposes of brevity. We welcome corrections and suggestions. Revisions will be incorporated into our online interactive version at coloradowest.auraria.edu .CC OLORADO N N ATIve VE A A Me E RICAN STUDIes ES Res RES OURCe E G G UIDe EBy Pam Milavec with Angela DiPaolo,Dana EchoHawk, Pam Holtman, Ernest House Jr., John Monnett & Tom Noel for the Center for Colorado & The West at Auraria Library, 2010 Pam Milavec received her undergraduate degree from Metropolitan State College of Denver in both History and English/Writing. She is currently pursuing her MA in History at the University of Colorado at Denver. A lifelong advocate of education, she is employed by Denver Public Schools Polaris Program at Ebert Elementary. She compiled the Colorado Native American Resource Guide as part of her duties as a King intern with the Center for Colorado and the West.
Camp at Sand Creek Massacre Historic Site, 2007.Credit: Richard R. NillesArapaho Camp c. 1800s.Credit: Colorado College Library
2010 Historical Studies Journal 33CC OLORADO N N ATIve VE A A Me E RICAN T T IMe E LINe E 12,000 9,000 BC Clovis Culture 9,000 8,000 BC Folsom Culture AD 1 1300 Ancestral Puebloans AD 1 450 Modied Basketmaker Period AD 50 1100 Developmental Pueblo People AD 100 1300 Classic Pueblo Period AD 1175 Mesa Verde Cliff Palace AD 650 1200 Fremont People c. 1000 Utes arrive c. 1800 Arapahos and Cheyennes arrive 1830 William Bent & Ceran St. Vrain open Bents Fort trading post 1849 Cholera outbreak 1851 Fort Laramie Treaty 1858 Gold discovered at conuence of South Platte and Cherry Creek on Cheyenne and Arapaho land 1861 Treaty of Fort Wise 1863 Conejos Treaty 1864 Sand Creek Massacre 1869 Medicine Lodge Treaty removes Arapahoe and Cheyenne 1869 Summit Springs 1876 Colorado becomes a state 1879 Battle of Milk Creek/Meeker Massacre 1881 Ute tribes removed to Colorado and Utah reservations 1881 Helen Hunt Jackson publishes A Century of Dishonor exposing mistreatment of Native Americans 1887 Dawes Severalty Act effectively facilitated the dispossession of Native American lands. 1888 Band of Utes under Colorow make last raid into Colorado 1906 Mesa Verde National Park created 1918 Consolidated Ute Indian Reservation established 1924 Indian Citizenship Act 1934 Indian Reorganization Act 1971 Ute Mountain Ute Tribal Park opened 1978 Indian Child Welfare Act 1979 American Indian Freedom of Religion Act 1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act 2001 Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site created
34 C OLORADO N ATI VE AME RICAN RES OURC E GUIDE Ute woman and child.Credit: Colorado Historical Society C OLORADO N ATI VE AME RICAN S : OVE RVI EWFor at least the last 14,000 years, people have made the Colorado plains and moun tains their home. The rst peoples, Paleoindians, followed their food supply across the prairie, hunting mammoth, mastodons and giant bison. Their skilled hunting of large game required them to live and work together in close cooperative groups. As the giant mammals died off, the indigenous peoples developed technology to hunt smaller game. Some began to plant crops, requiring them to become semi-nomadic, while others continued their nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Among those who took to farming were the Ancestral Puebloans, once referred to as Anasazi. They settled in southwestern Colorado and the surrounding Four Corners area. Known as Basketmakers for perfecting that art, they lived in circular pithouses and grew corn, beans and squash, as well as domesticating turkeys. Between 750 1100 AD, the Ancestral Puebloans moved to above-ground apartment-style houses. In addition to the multi-family dwellings, they retained the use of the circular pithouse design. These ceremonial structures, called kivas, served as centers for Ancestral
2010 Historical Studies Journal 35 Puebloan communities. Around 1100 A.D. the Ancestral Puebloans again changed their architecture and moved into the multi-storied cliff dwellings for which they are best known. After living in these precariously placed structures for only a two hundred year period, the Ancestral Puebloans moved yet again. The great drought of 1275-1300 factored into their move into the Rio Grande Valley and other areas where they built pueblos. The blood of these cliff dwellers still pulses through the veins of modern Pueblo peoples. Other peoples who had made the Four Corners region their home may also have inuenced the Ancestral Puebloans to relocate. Ancestors of the Utes, the oldest continuous group of people to occupy Colorado, found their way into Ancestral Puebloan territory. Later, the Spanish arrived on the Native American continent and introduced horses. By the late 1600s, the Utes began to use horses to hunt buffalo. Other groups who once made southern Colorado their home, include the Apache, Navajo, Comanche, Kiowas and Shoshone. In the late 1700s, the Arapaho moved onto the Colorado plains, followed shortly thereafter by the Cheyenne. Though they obtained the horse at least thirty years after the Utes, the Cheyenne and Arapaho also became formidable horsemen. Both of these tribes belonged to the Algonquin language group and had migrated from the Great Lakes region. They became allies against the Utes, Shoshones, Kiowas and Comanches. The discovery of gold in 1858 and the subsequent conicts with white settlers brought the nomadic lifestyle to an end. The Sand Creek Massacre led by Colonel John M. Chivington against peaceful Cheyenne and Arapaho marked the end of those tribes as a major presence in Colorado. Despite the drastic depletion of ancestral homelands through a series of treaties, the Utes maintained their presence in the Four Corners area where the Southern Ute and Ute Mountain Ute reservations remain to this day. Colorado has become a major center for many tribal related organizations, representing a large number of tribes. 1. P P Ub B LICATIONs SGG eneral CC olorado NN ative AA mericanAdams, Richard E. and Murdo J. MacLeod, ed. The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas 3 vol. boxed set. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001. 4154pp. index. bibliography. photographs. illustrations. maps. Chapin, Frederick H. The Land of Cliff Dwellers. Boston: Appalachian Mountain Club, 1892. 1x + 188pp. index. illustrations. photos. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ landofcliffdwell00chaprich Cole, Sally J. An Analysis of the Prehistoric and Historic Rock Art of West-Central Colorado. Denver, CO: Bureau of Land Management Colorado, 1987. xiv + 351pp. bibliography. photos. drawings. maps. This was the basis for Coles 1990 book Legacy of Stone (see below).
36 CC OLORADO N N ATIve VE A A Me E RICAN Res RES OURCe E GUIDeE Legacy on Stone: Rock Art of the Colorado Plateau and Four Corners Region. Boulder, CO: Johnson Books, 1990. 279pp. index. bibliography. appendix. page notes. photos. drawings. maps. Colorado Commission on Indian Affairs. Colorado Directory of American Indian Resources. Denver, CO: Colorado Commission on Indian Affairs, 2004 2005. Annual publication. 66pp. maps. drawings. Full text available online: http://tinyurl.com/y9h3rqx Crum, Sally. People of the Red Earth: American Indians of Colorado. Santa Fe, N.M.: Ancient City Press, 1996. 287pp. index. bibliography. appendices (Indian Place Names in Colorado). drawings. photos. maps. Howbert, Irving. The Indians of the Pikes Peak Region: Including an Account of the Battle of Sand Creek, and of Occurrences in El Paso County, Colorado, during the War with the Cheyennes and Arapahoes, in 1864 and 1868. New York: The Knickerbocker Press, 1914. 230pp. drawings. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ indianspikespea00unkngoog Hubbard, Shirley. Indians of Colorado: The Colorado Chronicles Volume 3. Frederick, CO: PlatteN Presss, 1981. illustrations. photographs. maps. Hughes, Johnson Donald. American Indians in Colorado. Boulder, CO: Pruett, 1977. 2nd ed. 1987. Colorado Ethnic History Series, No. 1 viii + 143pp. index. bibliography. endnotes. photos. maps. Hurst, Clarence Thomas. Colorados Old-Timers: The Indians Back to 25,000 Years Ago. Gunnison, CO: Colorado Archaeological Society, 1946. iv + 64pp. bibliography. drawings. photos. maps. Hyde, George E. Indians of the High Plains: From the Prehistoric Period to the Coming of Europeans. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1959. Fifth printing 1981. 228pp. index. bibliography. footnotes. photos. drawings. maps. Jackson, Helen Hunt. A Century of Dishonor: A Sketch of the United States Governments Dealings with Some of the Indian Tribes. Boston, MA: Roberts Brothers, 1885. 1887 enlarged edition. x + 514pp. appendices. Full (1889) text available online: http://books.google.com/ books?id=kqtiAAAAMAAJ Full (1917) text available online: http://books.google.com/ books?id=qvViAAAAMAAJ&dq=A+Century+of+Dishono McConnell, Virginia [Simmons]. Indians of the Pikes Peak Region Colorado Springs, CO.: Colorado Springs Public Schools, 1966. 28pp. Marriott, Alice. Indians of the Four Corners. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1952. Reprint, Santa Fe, NM: Ancient City Press, 1996. 304pp. illustrations. bibliography. index. Parker, Kathleen. The Only True People: A History of the Native Americans of the Colorado Plateau. Moab, UT: Thunder Mesa Publishing, 1991. 84pp. illustrations. photographs. maps.
2010 Historical Studies Journal37 P rehistory: G eneralCassells, E. Steve. The Archaeology of Colorado. Boulder, CO: Johnson Books, 1983. Revised edition, 1993. xv + 409pp. index. bibliography. chapter references. glossary. charts. drawings. photos. maps. Claassen, Cheryl. Colorado Archaeology: Riddles and ResourcesA Resource Guide and Preservation Handbook. Denver: Denver Museum of Natural History, 1984. 13pp. Bibliography, photos, drawings, map. and Rosemary A. Joyce, eds. Women in Prehistory: North America and Mesoamerica. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania UP, 1997. xiii + 277. bibliography. index. illustrations. maps. tables. Cofn, Roy Gregg. Northern Colorados First Settlers. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State College, 1937. 19pp. illustrations. Full text available online: http://hdl.handle.net/10217/5525 Day, Jane S., Paul D. Friedman and Marcia J. Tate. Rock Art of the Western Canyons. Boulder: Johnson Books, 1989. 184pp. Gilmore, Kevin P., Marcia Tate, Mark L. Chenault, Bonnie Clark, Terri McBride, and Margaret Wood. Colorado Prehistory: A Context for the Platte River Basin. Denver: Colorado Council of Professional Archaeologists, 1999. xiii + 453pp. Gooding, John D. and William Lane Shields. Sisyphus Shelter. Colorado Cultural Resource Series No 18. Denver: U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 1985. xi + 232pp. illustrations. bibliography.Petroglyphs Picture Rock Yellow Jacket Canon, Canon of the Ancients.Credit: Denver Public Library Petroglyphs Picture Rock
38 CC OLORADO N N ATIve VE A A Me E RICAN Res RES OURCe E GUIDeE Gunnerson, James H. The Fremont Culture: A Study in Culture Dynamics on the Northern Anasazi Frontier. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 52, no 2. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum, 1969. xv + 221pp. bibliography. index. illustrations. tables. appendices. maps. Hafen, LeRoy Reuben. The Indians of Colorado. Denver: State Historical Society of Colorado, 1952. 52pp. illustrations. Reprinted by the Society, with additions by William D. Cartwright, in 1957 and 1959. Lipe, William D., Mark D. Varien, and Richard H. Wilshusen, ed. Colorado Prehistory: A Context for the Southern Colorado River Basin. Denver: Colorado Council of Professional Archaeologists, 2006. Look, Alfred Alvin. In My Back Yard. Denver, Colo.: University of Denver Press, 1951. 316pp. illustrations. maps. Revised edition published under title 1,000 Million Years on the Colorado Plateau, by Golden Bell Press, Denver, 1955. Rev. ed. pub. by Golden Bell, Denver, 1966. viii + 318pp. Martorano, Marilyn A., Ted Hoefer III, Margaret (Pegi) A. Jodry, Vince Spero, and Melissa L. Taylor. Colorado Prehistory: A Context for the Rio Grande Basin. Denver: Colorado Council of Professional Archaeologists, 1999. Metcalf, Michael D., and Kevin D. Black. Archaeological Excavations at the Yarmony Pit House Site, Eagle County, Colorado. Cultural Resource Series No. 31. Denver: U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 1991. 247pp. Illustrations. Nabhan, Gary Paul. Enduring Seeds: Native American Agriculture and Wild Plant Conservation. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1989. xviii + 225pp. illustrations. index. Reed, Alan. West Central Colorado Prehistoric Context. Denver: State Historical Society of Colorado, 1984. Wormington, Hannah Marie. Prehistoric Indians of the Southwest. Denver, Colo.: Denver Museum of Natural History, 1947; 2nd edition 1951. 191pp. index. bibliography. appendix. glossary. photos. drawings. maps. (Popular Series No. 7). A Reappraisal of the Fremont Culture. Denver, CO: Denver Museum of Natural History, 1955. xi + 200pp. index. bibliography. illustrations. maps.
2010 Historical Studies Journal 39 PP aleoindiansBenedict, James B., and Byron L. Olson The Mount Albion Complex. Ward, CO: Center for Mountain Archaeology, Research Report #1, 1978. Bonnichsen, Robson, Bradley T. Lepper, Dennis Stanford, and Michael R. Waters, ed. Paleoamerican Origins: Beyond Clovis. Center for the Study of the First Americans. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 2006. 367pp. index. illustrations. Brunswig, Robert H. Frontiers in Colorado: Paleoindian Archaeology: From the Dent Site to the Rocky Mountains. Boulder: Colorado UP, 2007. 364pp. bibliography. index. photographs. illustrations. tables. maps. Bryan, Kirk and Louis L. Ray. Geologic Antiquity of the Lindenmeier Site in Colorado. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1940. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Vol. 99, No. 2. Publication 3554. vi + 76pp. illustrations. photographs. maps. bibliography. Meltzer, David J. Folsom: New Archaeological Investigations of a Classic Paleoindian Bison Kill. Berkeley: California UP, 2006. xiv + 374pp. index. bibliography. appendices. tables. maps. illustrations. photographs. Pitblado, Bonnie L. Late Paleoindian Occupation of the Southern Rocky Mountains: Early Holocene Projectile Points and Land Use in the High Country. Boulder: Colorado UP, 2003. 360pp. bibliography. index. illustrations. Roberts, Frank and Harold Hanna, Jr. A Folsom Complex: Preliminary Report on Investigations at the Lindenmeier Site in Northern Colorado. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1935. 51pp. bibliography. photos. drawings. map. (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Vol. 94, No. 4. Publication 3333). Additional Information on the Folsom Complex: Report on the Second Seasons Investigations at the Lindenmeier Site in Northern Colorado. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1936. iii + 50pp. bibliography. drawings. photos. map. (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Vol. 95, No. 10. Publication 3390). Stanford, Dennis J. and Jane S. Day, eds. Ice Age Hunters of the Rockies. Denver: Denver Museum of Natural History and Colorado UP, 1992. xviii + 378pp. illustrations. photographs. diagrams. tables. bibliography. index.
40 C OLORADO N ATI VE AME RICAN RES OURC E GUIDE A ncestral P uebloan/ A nasaziArrhenius, Olof W. Stones Speak and Waters Sing: The Life and Works of Gustaf Nordenskiold Ed. and annotated by Robert H. and Florence C. Lister. Mesa Verde National Park: Mesa Verde National Park and Mesa Verde Museum Association, 1984. v + 93pp. index, bibliography, photos, map, drawings. Baldwin, Gordon C. The Ancient Ones: Basketmakers and Cliff Dwellers of the Southwest. NY: W. W. Norton and Company, 1963 224pp. index. photos. Breternitz, David A., Christine K. Robinson, and G. Timothy Gross. Dolores Archaeological Program: Final Synthetic Report. Denver: U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 1986. 899pp. illustrations. photographs. tables. graphs. bibliography. index. Brunswig, Robert H., and Bonnie L. Pitblado, eds. Frontiers in Colorado Paleoindian Archaeology: From the Dent Site to the Rocky Mountains. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2007. 364pp. illustrations. bibliography. index. Bullene, Emma Frances [Jay]. The Psychic History of the Cliff Dwellers: Their Origin and Destruction Denver: Reed, 1905. 256pp. photos, drawings. Carlson, Roy L. Basket Maker III Sites Near Durango, Colorado Boulder, CO.: University of Colorado Studies, 1963; 1974 reprint by Kraus Reprint Co., Millwood, N.Y. (University of Colorado Studies. Series in Anthropology No. 8. The Earl Morris Papers, No. 1). Introduction to the Earl Morris Papers by Joe Ben Wheat). xii + 82pp. bibliography. photos. drawings. maps. Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde.Credit: Richard R. Nilles
2010 Historical Studies Journal 41 Ferguson, William M. The Anasazi of Mesa Verde and the Four Corners. Niwot, Colo.: University Press of Colorado, 1996. xvi + 203pp. index. bibliography. glossary. color photos. drawings. maps. and Arthur H. Rohn. Anasazi Ruins of the Southwest in Color. Albuquerque, N.M.: University of New Mexico Press, 1990. Foreword by Richard B. Woodbury. xiv + 296pp. index. bibliography. glossary. color photos. drawings. maps. Fewkes, Jesse Walter. Antiquities of the Mesa Verde National Park: Cliff Palace. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Ofce, 1911. 82pp. footnotes. photos. drawings. map. (Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin No. 51). 1974 Reprint by Scholarly Press, St. Clair Shore, Mich. Full text available online at: http://books.google.com/ books?id=W1wSAAAAYAAJ ed. Prehistoric Villages, Castles, and Towers of Southwestern Colorado. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Ofce, 1919. 113pp. index. footnotes. photos. drawings. map. (Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin No. 70). Full text available online: http://books.google.com/ books?id=7GISAAAAYAAJ Lister, Robert Hill. Site 499, Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado. Boulder, Colo.: University of Colorado Press, 1964. 91pp. bibliography. photos. drawings. maps. (University of Colorado Studies. Series in Anthropology, No.9). ed. Emergency Archaeology in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, 1948 1966. Boulder, Colo.: University of Colorado Press, 1968. viii + 108pp. bibliography. photos. drawings. map. (University of Colorado Studies. Series in Anthropology No. 15. Contributions to Mesa Verde Archaeology, V). McKern, W. C. Western Colorado Petroglyphs. Denver, Colo.: Bureau of Land Management, 1981. Second Printing 1983. xiii + 112pp. bibliography. photos. drawings. map. (BLM Cultural Resource Series No. 8). McNitt, Frank. Richard Wetherill: Anasazi Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1957. Rev. ed. 1966. xii + 362pp. index, bibliography, appendices, photos, drawings, maps. Madson, David B., ed. Understanding the Anasazi of Mesa Verde and Hovenweep. Santa Fe: Ancient City Press, 1991. 39pp. illustrations. photographs. Miller, Ruth. Our Trip to Mesa Verde, 1922 Ouray, CO.: Buckskin, 1988. iii + 52pp. photos. drawings. Morley, Sylvanus Griswold. The Excavation of the Cannonball Ruins in Southwestern Colorado. Washington, D.C.: n.p., 1908. 596610pp. photos. drawings. map. (Archaeological Institute of America. Papers of the School of American Archaeology. Paperbacks, No. 2). Reprinted from the American Anthropologist, Vol. 10, No. 4, Oct. Dec., 1908.
42 CC OLORADO N N ATIve VE A A Me E RICAN Res RES OURCe E GUIDeE Nordenskiold, Gustaf Erik Adolf. The Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde, Southwestern Colorado: Their Pottery and Implements. Trans. D. Lloyd Morgan. Stockholm, Sweden: P. A. Norstedt & Soner, 1893; numerous reprints. Glorieta, N.M.: Rio Grande Press, Inc., 1979. 281pp. Index, appendix, color photos, b&w photos, drawings, maps. Full text available online: http://books.google.com/ books?id=dq9xAAAAMAAJ Letters of Gustaf Nordenskiold Written in the Year 1891 and Articles from the Journals Ymer and Photographic Times. Ed. by Irving L. Diamond and Daniel M. Olson. Trans. by Daniel M. Olson. Mesa Verde National Park: Mesa Verde Museum Association, Inc., 1991. 99pp. bibliography, photos, drawings, maps. Olsen, Nancy H. Hovenweep Rock Art: An Anasazi Visual Communication System. Los Angeles, Calif.: University of California, Los Angeles, Institute of Archaeology, 1985. Second printing, 1987. Occasional Paper 14, 1985, 1987. xvi + 153pp. bibliography, photos, drawings, maps, charts. Rohn, Arthur H. Wetherill Mesa Excavations: Mug House, Mesa Verde National ParkColorado Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1971. xix + 280pp. index. bibliography. appendix. photos. drawings. maps. Full text available online: http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_ books/meve/7d/contents.htm Smith, Duane A. Mesa Verde National Park: Shadows of the Centuries. Lawrence, KS: Kansas UP, 1988. xi + 254pp. index. bibliography. endnotes. appendices. photos. maps Stiger, Mark. Hunter-Gatherer Archaeology of the Colorado High Country. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2001. 360pp. index, bibliography. 92 b&w photos, 36 drawings, 20 tables. Stone, Tammy. The Prehistory of Colorado and Adjacent Areas. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, 1999. 214pp. index. bibliography. appendices. glossary. drawings. maps. Swannack, Jervis D., Jr. Wetherill Mesa Excavations: Big Juniper House, Mesa Verde National ParkColorado Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1969. 188pp. index. bibliography. appendices. photos. drawings. maps. (Archaeological Research Series Number Seven-C.) Full text available online: http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_ books/archeology/7c/index.htm Turner, Christy G. II, and Jacqueline A. Turner. Man Corn: Cannibalism and Violence in the Prehistoric American Southwest Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, 1999. 547pp. index. bibliography. appendix. photos. maps. charts. Watson, Don. Cliff Dwellings of the Mesa Verde: A Story in Pictures. Mesa Verde National Park: Mesa Verde Museum Association, 1951, 1954, 1961. 52pp. illustrations.
2010 Historical Studies Journal43 Cliff Palace: The Story of an Ancient City. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Edwards Brothers, Inc., 1949. 142pp. photos. Indians of the Mesa Verde. Mesa Verde National Park: Mesa Verde Museum Association, 1953; reprinted 1961. v + 188pp. 24 photos. Wenger, Gilbert R. The Story of Mesa Verde National Park. Mesa Verde National Park: Mesa Verde Museum Association, 1980. 79pp. bibliography. glossary. color photos. drawings. maps. Wetherill, Benjamin Alfred. The Wetherills of the Mesa Verde: Autobiography of Benjamin Alfred Wetherill. Edited and annotated by Maurine S. Fletcher. Cranbury, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1977. 333pp. index. bibliography. appendices. chronology. photos. drawings. maps. Sand Creek Massacre Historic Site Dedication, 27 April 2007.Credit: Richard R. Nilles Sand Creek Massacre Historic Site Dedication, 27 April 2007. Credit: Richard R. Nilles C heyenne and A rapahoAfton, Jean, David Fridtjof Halaas, and Andrew E. Masich with Richard N. Ellis. Cheyenne Dog Soldiers: A Ledgerbook History of Coups and Combat. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1997. xxxii + 400pp. index. bibliography. appendices. glossary. endnotes. photos. drawings. Bates, Craig D. The Cheyenne/Arapaho Ledger Book from the Pamplin Collection. Portland: Dr. Robert B. Pamplin, Jr., 2003. vii + 348pp. photographs. illustrations. appendix. Battey, Thomas C. The Life and Adventures of a Quaker Among the Indians. Boston and New York: Lee, Shepard and Dillingham, 1875. xii + 339pp. illustrations. appendix. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ lifeandadventure00battrich Becher, Ronald. Massacre Along the Medicine Road : A Social History of the Indian War of 1864 in Nebraska Territory. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press, 1999. 475pp.
44 CC OLORADO N N ATIve VE A A Me E RICAN Res RES OURCe E GUIDeE Berthrong, Donald J. The Cheyenne and Arapaho Ordeal: Reservation and Agency Life in the Indian Territory, 1875-1907. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976. xv + 402pp. index. bibliography. endnotes. photos. maps. The Southern Cheyennes. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963. (The Civilization of the American Indian Series, Vol. 66) xiv + 442pp. index. bibliography. footnotes. photos. drawings. maps. Broome, James Jefferson. Dog Soldier Justice : The Ordeal of Susanna Alderdice in the Kansas Indian War. Lincoln, KS: Lincoln County Historical Society, 2003. Carroll, John ., comp. The Sand Creek Massacre: A Documentary History. New York: Sol Lewis, 1973. Limited edition of 500 copies. xxi + 418pp. Washita! Bryan, TX: Privately printed, 1978. 44pp. General Custer and the Battle of the Washita: The Federal View. Bryan, TX: Guidon Press, 1978. 256pp. illustrations. Chalfant, William Y. Cheyennes and Horse Soldiers: The 1857 Expedition and the Battle of Solomons Fork. Norman: Oklahoma UP, 1989. 415pp. index. maps. illustrations. Cofn, Morse H., 1836-1913. The Battle of Sand Creek. Ed. and with intro. and notes by Alan W. Farley. Waco, TX: W.M. Morrison, 1965. Limited ed. of 300 copies. 40pp. footnotes. photos. Cohoe, William. A Cheyenne Sketchbook. Commentary by E. Adamson Hoebel and Karen D. Petersen. Norman: Oklahoma UP, 1964. xv + 96pp. bibliography. illustrations. Â Craig, Reginald S. The Fighting Parson: The Biography of Colonel John M. Chivington. Los Angeles, CA: Westernlore Press, 1959. (Part of the Great West and Indian Series XVII). xv + 284pp. index. bibliography. appendices. photos. drawings. map. Curtis, Edward S. The North American Indian Vol. 6: The Cheyenne. Norwood, MA: The Plimpton Press, 1911. index. appendix. illustrations. Full text available online: http://curtis.library.northwestern.edu/curtis/ toc.cgi?sec=nai.06.book,&psec=nai.06,#nai.06.book The North American Indian Vol. 19: The Southern Cheyenne. Norwood, MA: The Plimpton Press, 1930. index. appendix. illustrations. Full text available online: http://curtis.library.northwestern.edu/curtis/ toc.cgi?sec=nai.06.book,&psec=nai.06,#nai.06.book Densmore, Frances. Cheyenne and Arapaho Music. Los Angeles: Southwest Museum, 1936. 111pp. Dixon, David. Hero of Beecher Island: The Life and Military Career of George A. Forsyth. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994. xviii + 257pp. index. bibliography. endnotes. photos. drawings. maps.
2010 Historical Studies Journal 45 Dorsey, George A. The Cheyenne. 2 vols. Vol. 1: Ceremonial Organization. Vol. 2: The Sun Dance. Chicago: Field Columbian Museum Anthropological Series, Vol 9, 1905. Reprinted by MacRae, Enumclaw, WA, 1976. 186pp. drawings. photos. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ thecheyenne01dorsrich Ekrich, Arthur A., Jr. Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians vs. The United States: Historical Background. In Arapaho-Cheyenne Indians. United States Indian Claims Commission, American Indian Ethnohistory Series: Plains Indians, ed. by David Agee Hott. New York: Garland, 1974. English-Cheyenne Student Dictionary. Produced by the Language Research Department of the Northern Cheyenne Title VII ESEA Bilingual Education Program. Lame Deer, MT, 1976. xviii + 163pp. bibliography. Fay, George Emory. Treaties Between the Tribes of the Great Plains and the United States of America, Cheyenne and Arapaho, 1825-1900 &c. Greeley, CO: Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado, 1977. vi + 125pp. bibliography. Fowler, Oretta. The Arapaho. NY: Chelsea House Publishers, 1989. xxiii + 373pp. illustrations. bibliography. index. Giglio, Virginia, 1953. Southern Cheyenne Womens Songs. Foreword by David P. McAllester. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994. xxi + 243pp. index. bibliography. glossary. appendices. musical notation. 19 photos. drawings. maps. Greene, Jerome A. and Douglas D. Scott. Finding Sand Creek: History, Archaeology, and the 1864 Massacre Site. Foreword by Christine Whitacre. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004. photos, maps, appendices, endnotes, bibliography, index. Grinnell, George Bird. By Cheyenne Campres. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1926. xviii + 305pp. 9 photos. paperback printed in 1962 with foreword from Omer C. Stewart. The Cheyenne Indians: Their History and Ways of Life. 2 Vols. New Haven: Yale UP, 1923. 788pp. bibliography. index. illustrations. maps. The Fighting Cheyennes. NY: Charles Scribners Sons, 1915. viii + 431pp. photos. maps. Rev. ed. pub. by University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, 1956. xvii + 450pp. index. 15 photos. maps. (The Civilization of the American Indian Series, vol. 44). Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ ghtingcheyenne00grin Halaas, David Fridtjof and Andrew E. Masich. Halfbreed: The Remarkable True Story of George Bent: Caught Between the Worlds of the Indian and the White Man. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2004. xv + 458pp. photos, maps, endnotes, bibliography, index.
46 CC OLORADO N N ATIve VE A A Me E RICAN Res RES OURCe E GUIDeE Hatch, Thom. Black Kettle: The Cheyenne Chief Who Sought Peace but Found War. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2004. xi + 308pp. index, notes, bibliography, illustrations, maps. Hodges, Daniel Houston. Transcription and Analysis of Southern Cheyenne Songs. 1980. 260pp. includes 2 audio cassettes. sheet music. Hoebel, E. Adamson and Karl N. Llewellyn. The Cheyenne Way: Conict and Case Law in Primitive Jurisprudence. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1941. x + 360pp. index. illustrations. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ cheyennewaycon011926mbp The Cheyennes: Indians of the Great Plains. NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1960. vii + 103pp. bibliography. 4 photos. map. (Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology). Hoig, Stan. The Battle of the Washita: the Sheridan-Custer Indian Campaign of 1867 69. Lincoln: Nebraska UP, 1979, 1976. 276pp. appendix. footnotes. bibliography. index. illustrations. maps. photos. The Peace Chiefs of the Cheyennes. Foreword by Boyce D. Timmons. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980. xiv + 206pp. index. bibliography. endnotes. 42 photos. map. The Sand Creek Massacre. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958, 1961. xiii + 217pp. index. bibliography. appendix. footnotes. photos. drawings. maps. Tribal Wars of the Southern Plains. Norman: Oklahoma UP, 1993. The Western Odyssey of John Simpson Smith: Frontiersman and Indian Interpreter. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004. footnotes. bibliography. index. photos. Howbert, Irving. The Indians of the Pikes Peak Region: Including an Account of the Battle of Sand Creek, and of Occurrences in El Paso County, Colorado, During the War with the Cheyennes and Arapahoes, in 1864 and 1868. New York: The Knickerbocker Press, 1914. 230pp. drawings. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ indianspikespea00unkngoog Hyde, George E., Life of George Bent: Written from His Letters. Savoie Lottinville, ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1968. xxv + 389pp. index. bibliography. footnotes. 25 photos. drawings. maps. Jablow, Joseph. The Cheyenne in Plains Indian Trade Relations : 1795-1840. Seattle: Washington UP, 1951, 1966. ix + 100pp. illustrations. maps. Jones, Douglas C. The Treaty of Medicine Lodge. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1966. xv + 237pp. illustrations. photographs. maps. bibliography. index.
2010 Historical Studies Journal 47 Josephy, Alvin M. The Civil War in the American West. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991. xiv + 448pp. illustrations. photographs. maps. bibliography. index. Kloberdanz, Timothy J. The Tragedy at Summit Springs, from the Viewpoint of the Indians. Boulder, CO: Q-Copy Center, 1970. v + 18pp. illustrations. Kraft, Louis. Custer and the Cheyenne: George Armstrong Custers Winter Campaign on the Southern Plains. El Segundo, CA: Upton and Sons, 1995. xi + 212pp. illustrations. maps. bibliography. index. Leckie, William H. The Military Conquest of the Southern Plains. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963. xv + 269pp. illustrations. photographs. maps. bibliography. index. Leman, Wayne. A Reference Grammar of the Cheyenne Language. Greeley, CO: Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado, 1979, 1980. Mann, Henrietta. Cheyenne-Arapaho Education, 18711982. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1997. 205pp. index. bibliography. endnotes. Marquis, Thomas Bailey, ed. Cheyenne and Sioux : The Reminiscences of Four Indians and a White Soldier. Stockton, CA: Pacic Center for Western Historical Studies, University of the Pacic, 1973. 79pp. bibliography. index. The Cheyennes of Montana. With an introduction and a biography of the author by Thomas D. Weist, Algonac, MI: Reference Publications, Inc., 1978. 297pp. illustrations. maps. index. Mendoza, Patrick M. Song of Sorrow: Massacre at Sand Creek. Foreword by U.S. Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell. Denver, CO: Willow Wind, 1993. x + 181pp. index. bibliography. photos. drawings. Meredith, Grace E. Â Girl Captives of the Cheyennes : A True Story of the Capture and Rescue of Four Pioneer Girls, 1874. Los Angeles: Gem Publishing Company, 1927. xxvii + 123pp. illustrations. maps. appendices. bibliography. Reprint Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Publishing, 2004. Mooney, James. The Cheyenne Indians. Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association. Vol. 1, Part. 6. Lancaster, PA: The New Era Printing Company, 1907. 357pp. Full text available online: http://books.google.com/ books?id=fQsTAAAAYAAJ Monnett, John H. The Battle of Beecher Island and the Indian War of 1867-1869. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992. ix + 235pp. index. bibliography. endnotes. photos. drawings. maps. Moore, John H. The Cheyenne Nation : A Social and Demographic History. Lincoln: Nebraska UP, 1987. xxv + 390pp. illustrations. maps. Painter, C. C. Cheyennes and Arapahoes Revisited : and a Statement of Their Agreement and Contract with Attorneys. Philadelphia : Indian Rights Association, 1893. 62pp.
48 CC OLORADO N N ATIve VE A A Me E RICAN Res RES OURCe E GUIDeE Penney, Grace Jackson. Tales of the Cheyennes. Illustrations by Walter Richard West. Cambridge, MA: Riverside Press, 1953. 118pp. drawings. Petersen, Karen Daniels. Howling Wolf : A Cheyenne Warriors Graphic Interpretation of his People. Palo Alto, CA: American West Publishing Co., 1968. 63pp. illustrations. footnotes. Peter, Rodolphe. English-Cheyenne Dictionary. Kettle Falls, WA: Valdo Petter, 1913 15. 1126pp. Full text available online: http://www.bethelks.edu/mla/holdings/scans/ petter_dict/html Powell, Peter J. The Cheyennes. Ma heo os People. A Critical Biography. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1964. 160pp. People of the Sacred Mountain : A History of the Northern Cheyenne Chiefs and Warrior Societies, 1830-1879 : with an Epilogue 1969 1974. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1979. 2 vols.  xl + 688;  xiii + 752. bibliography. index. appendices. illustrations. photos. endnotes. Sweet Medicine : The Continuing Role of the Sacred Arrows, the Sun Dance, and the Sacred Buffalo Hat in Northern Cheyenne History. Norman: Oklahoma UP, 1969. xxxvi + 935pp. bibliography. index. appendices. illustrations. photos. endnotes. Roberts, Gary L. Sand Creek, Tragedy and Symbol Ph.D. diss. Norman: Oklahoma UP, University Microlms International, 1984. Sand Creek Massacre Project, Volume One: Site Location Study and Sand Creek Massacre Project, Vol 2: Special Resource Study and Environmental Assessment. Denver, CO: National Park Service, Intermountain Region, 2000. 366pp. (vol. 1) + 171pp. (vol. 2). bibliography. footnotes. appendices. photos. maps. Available as a PDF le: www.nps.gov/applications/parks/sand/ ppdocuments/ACF33.pdf Schlesier, Karl H. Â The Wolves of Heaven : Cheyenne Shamanism, Ceremonies, and Prehistoric Origins. Norman: Oklahoma UP, 1987. xviii + 214pp. index. bibliography. illustrations. Schultz, Duane. Month of the Freezing Moon: The Sand Creek Massacre November 1864. NY: St. Martins Press, 1990. 229pp. index. bibliography. endnotes. photos. drawings. map. Seger, John H. Early Days Among the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians. Stanley Vestal, ed. Norman: Oklahoma UP, 1924. 91pp. (Oklahoma University. University Studies no. 19). 2d ed., 1934; 2nd ed. in new format, 1956 (Civilization of the American Indian, Vol. 5). xvii + 146pp. appendix. photos. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ earlydaysamongth008983mbp
2010 Historical Studies Journal 49 Spotts, David L Campaigning with Custer and the Nineteenth Kansas Volunteer Cavalry on the Washita Campaign 1868 69. Los Angeles: Wetzel Publishing Company, 1928. 215pp. illustrations. Stands in Timber, John and Margot Liberty with the assistance of Robert M. Utley. Cheyene Memories. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1967. (Yale Western Americana Series, Vol. 17). xvii + 348pp. index. bibliography. footnotes. photos. drawings. maps. Szabo, Joyce M. Â Howling Wolf and the History of Ledger Art. Albuquerque: New Mexico UP, 1994. xv + 270pp. bibliography. index. illustrations. Trenholm, Virginia Cole. The Arapahoes: Our People. Norman: Oklahoma UP, 1986. xviii + 327pp. illustrations. photographs. maps. bibliography. index. Viola, Herman J. Warrior Artists: Historic Cheyenne and Kiowa Indian Ledger Art: Drawn by Making Medicine and Zotum with commentary by Joseph D. and George P. Horse Capture. Washington, D.C. :National Geographic Society, 1998. Â 132pp. drawings. Ware, Eugene F. The Indian War of 1864. Topeka, KS: Crane & Co., 1911. xii + 601pp. illustrations. appendices. index. Full text available online: http://books.google.com/ books?id=SV1AAAAAYAAJ Werstein, Irving. Massacre at Sand Creek. NY: Charles Scribners Sons, 1963. 187pp. index. bibliography. maps. Weingardt, Richard. Sound the Charge. The Western Frontier: Spillman Creek to Summit Springs. Englewood, CO: Jacqueline Enterprises, 1978. 184pp. bibliography. photos. drawings. maps. Weist, Tom. A History of the Cheyenne People. Billings: Montana Council for Indian Education, 1977. 227pp. index. bibliography. maps. photos. Werner, Fred H. The Summit Springs Battle, July 11, 1869. Greeley, CO: Werner Publications, 1991. 185pp. index. bibliography. appendices. photos. drawings. maps. Wynkoop, Edward W. The Tall Chief: The Unnished Autobiography of Edward W. Wynkoop 1856 1866. Ed. and with an introduction by Christopher B. Gerboth. Denver: Colorado Historical Society, 1993.
50 C OLORADO N ATI VE AME RICAN RES OURC E GUIDE Utes Akens, Jean. Ute Mountain Tribal Park: The Other Mesa Verde. Moab, UT: Four Corners Publications, 1987. photos, maps, drawings, bibliography. 113pp. Archuleta County, Colorado. Archaeological and Historical Evaluation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Proposed Kearns Canyon Reforestation and Site Preparation Project, Southern Ute Reservation, Colorado /Prepared by Jamie A. Karlson and Robert W. Biggs. Durango, CO: Archaeological Consultants, 1986. Bailey, Lynn Robison. Indian Slave Trade in the Southwest: A Study of SlaveTaking and Trafc of Indian Captives. Los Angeles: Westernlore Press, 1966. xvi + 236pp. illustrations. maps. Baker, Steven G. The Uncompahgre Valley Historic Ute Project: First Interim Report and Executive Summary: with Preliminary Excavation Reports on Chief Ourays Homes at Montrose (5MN847) and Ouray (5OR965). Montrose, CO: Centuries Research, Inc., 1991. Burton, Lloyd. American Indian Water Rights and the Limits of Law. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991. xiii + 174. index. bibliography. illustrations. maps. Conetah, Fred A. A History of the Northern Ute People. Ed. by Kathryn L. MacKay and Floyd A. ONeil. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Printing Service for the Uintah-Ouray Tribe, 1982. xii + 163pp. index. bibliography. photos. illustrations. Ute Warriors.Credit: Colorado Historical Society
2010 Historical Studies Journal 51 Dawson, Thomas Fulton. and S. J. V. Skiff. The Ute War: A History of the White River Massacre and the Privations and Hardships of the Captive White Women among the Hostiles on Grand River. Denver: Tribune Publishing House, 1879. 192pp. illustrations. map. advertisements in back of book. Facsimile edition published by Nolie Mumey, Boulder, CO, 1964. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ utewarhistoryofw00dawsrich Decker, Peter R. The Utes Must Go! American Expansion and the Removal of a People. Foreword by Ben Nighthorse Campbell. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 2004. xix + 235pp. index. photos. endnotes. Delaney, Robert W. The Southern Ute People. Phoenix, AZ: Indian Tribal Series, 1974. limited to 15,000 copies. viii + 102pp. illustrations. bibliography. maps. The Ute Mountain Utes. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1989. xiii + 134pp. index. essay of sources. endnotes. photos. maps. Densmore, Frances. Northern Ute Music. Washington, DC: Government Printing Ofce, 1922. (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 75.) 213pp. index. photos. tables. charts. musical notation. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ northernutemusi00densgoog Dixon, Madeline C. These Were the Utes. Provo, Utah: Press Publishing Limited, 1983. vii + 187pp. bibliography. photos. illustrated. Dutton, Bertha Paulin. The Ranchera, Ute, and Southern Ute Peoples. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1975. 124pp. bibliography. illustrations. maps. Ellis, Richard N. The Ute Legacy. Produced by the Southern Ute Cultural Center. Ignacio, CO: Pinon Press, 1989. 12pp. Emmitt, Robert. The Last War Trail: The Utes and the Settlement of Colorado. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954; reprint by University Press of Colorado, 2000 with Foreword by Andrew Gulliford and afterward by Charles Wilkinson. ix + 333pp. index. bibliography. drawings. maps. (Civilization of the American Indian, 40). 2nd ed. 1972. Fay, George E., comp. Land Cessions in Utah and Colorado by the Ute Indians, 18611899. Museum of Anthropology, Miscellaneous Series, No. 13. Greeley: University of Northern Colorado, Museum of Anthropology, 1970. iv + 60pp. Fitzpatrick, V. S. Red Twilight: A History of the Northern Utes. Ed. by Laura Watts and Harold Babcock. Colorado Springs, CO: Earth Design Systems, 1991. ix + 283pp. index. bibliography. illustrations. maps. photos. Freeman, Dan A. Four Years with the Utes: The Letters of Dan A. Freeman. Ed. by W. M. Morrison. Waco, Texas: W. M. Morrison, 1962. ii + 10pp. Limited to 125 copies.
52 CC OLORADO N N ATIve VE A A Me E RICAN Res RES OURCe E GUIDeE Goss, James A. A Short Dictionary of the Southern Ute Language. Ignacio, CO: Southern Ute Tribe, 1961. Greager, Howard E. We Shall Fall as the Leaves: A Compilation of Events that Led to the Banishment of the Uncompahgre and Northern Ute Tribes from Their Ancestral Colorado Homeland. Published by Howard E. Greager, 1996. ix + 193pp. index. photos. drawings. maps. Iden, Thomas Leroy. A History of the Ute Indian Cessions of Colorado. Western State College of Colorado. 1929. Thesis. 145pp. bibliography. maps. Indian Rights Association. The Ute Indians; Why People in Colorado Want Them to Be Removed. Philadelphia: Indian Rights Association, 1890. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ uteindianoutbrake00unitrich Jeanon, Jean Allard. Archaeological Research in the Northeastern San Juan Basin of Colorado. Ed. Frank H. H. Roberts. Denver: State Historical and Natural History Society of Colorado and the University of Denver, 1922. 31pp. illustrations. maps. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ archaeologicalre00robeuoft Jefferson, James, Robert W. Delaney, and Gregory C. Thompson. The Southern Utes: A Tribal History. Ed. by Floyd A. ONeil. Ignacio, CO: Southern Ute Tribe, printed by the University of Utah, 1972. Second edition 1973. xi + 106pp. essay of sources. photos. maps. Kane, Francis Fisher. A Further Report to the Indian Rights Association on the Proposed Removal of the Southern Utes. Philadelphia: Indian Rights Association, 1892. 32pp. map. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ furtherreporttoi00kanerich Leupp, Francis Ellington. The Latest Phase of the Southern Ute Question. Philadelphia: Ofce of the Indian Rights Association, 1895. 39pp. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ latestphaseofsou00leup Look, Alfred Alvin. Utes Last Stand, at White River and Milk Creek, Western Colorado in 1879. Denver, CO: Golden Bell Press, 1972. 105pp. photos. drawings. maps. Utes of Western Colorado. Grand Junction, CO: United States Bank of Grand Junction, 1970. 16pp. illustrations. Lyman, June and Norma Denver. Ute People: An Historical Study. Ed Floyd A. ONeil and John D. Sylvester. Salt Lake City: Utah UP, 1970. 127pp. bibliography. appendix. illustrated. maps. Marsh, Charles Seabrooke, 1926. The Utes of Colorado: People of the Shining Mountains. Boulder, CO: Pruett, 1982. ix + 190pp. index. bibliography. photos. drawings. maps.
2010 Historical Studies Journal 53 Mayeld, Clara M. The History of the Southern Ute Indian. N.Y.: Carlton Press, 1972. 63pp. photos. Meeker, Josephine. Brave Miss Meekers Captivity! Her Own Account of It. Also, the Narratives of Her Mother and Mrs. Price. Philadelphia: Old Franklin Publishing, 1879. 62pp. Miller, Mark E. Hollow Victory: The White River Expedition of 1879 and the Battle of Milk Creek. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1997. xvi + 249pp. index. bibliography. appendices. endnotes. photos. drawings. maps. tables. Nielson, Parker M. The Dispossessed: Cultural Genocide of the Mixed-Blood Utes: An Advocates Chronicle. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998. x + 338pp. index. bibliography. illustrations. maps. Osburn, Katherine M.B. Southern Ute Women: Autonomy and Assimilation on the Reservation, 1887-1934. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1998. xxxix + 165pp. index. bibliography. endnotes. photos. maps. charts.. Painter, C. C. Charles Cornelius. Civilization by Removal!: The Southern Utes. Philadelphia: Indian Rights Association, 1889. 15pp. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ civilizationbyre00painrich Palmer, Edward. Notes on the Utah Utes by Edward Palmer, 18661877. University of Utah Anthropological Papers, Nos. 1719. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1954. ii + 8pp. Payne, J. S. Incidents of the Recent Campaign Against the Utes. 1880. Full text available online: http://books.google.com/ books?id=nLCgAAAAMAAJ Pettit, Jan. Utes: The Mountain People. Intro. by James Jefferson, Tribal Historian. Colorado Springs, CO: Century One Press, 1982. 80pp. bibliography. photos. drawings. map. Progress and the Future: A Report/by the Southern Ute Tribe, Ignacio, CO. Dallas, TX: Taylor Pub. Co., 1966. Progress: A Report by the Southern Ute Tribe to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs on Progress Made Under the Southern Ute Rehabilitation Program Between June 1, 1956 and January 1, 1958. Ignacio, CO: [s.n.], (Durango, CO: printed by Tri-State Printing Co.), 1958. Quintana, Frances Leon. Ordeal of Change: The Southern Utes and their Neighbors. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press, 2004. xv + 109pp. index. bibliography. illustrations. photographs. maps. tables. Reimer, Donald. D. Ute Mountain Pottery Designs. Towaoc, CO: Ute Mountain Indian Pottery, Ute Mountain Ute Tribe, 1977. 79pp. photos. 175 illustrations. Rockwell, Wilson. The Utes: A Forgotten People. Denver, CO: Sage Books, 1956; reprint Ouray, CO: Western Reections, 1998. 307pp. index. bibliography. appendix. footnotes. 53 photos. drawings.
54 CC OLORADO N N ATIve VE A A Me E RICAN Res RES OURCe E GUIDeE Rose, Ernie. Utahs of the Rocky Mountains. Montrose, Colo.: Montrose Daily Press, 1968. Limited to 1000 copies. 136pp. Ruffner, Ernest Howard. Report of a Reconnaissance in the Ute Country: Made in the Year 1873. Washington D. C.: G. P. O., 1874. 100pp. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/stream/ reportareconnai00ruffgoog#page/n8/mode/2up Santala, Russel D. Russel Dale. The Ute Campaign of 1879: A Study in the Use of the Military Instrument. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1994. xiii + 88pp. index. bibliography. illustrations. maps. Full text available online at: http://www.cgsc.edu/carl/resources/csi/ santala/santala.asp Simmons, Virginia McConnell. The Ute Indians of Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 2000. xix + 323pp. index. bibliography. endnotes. 57 photos. drawings. maps. Smith, Anne M. Anne Milne. Ethnography of the Northern Utes. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press, 1974. vi + 288. illustrations. Ute Tales. Salt Lake City: Salt Lake City: Utah UP, 1992. (University of Utah Publications in the American West, Vol. 29). xxviii + 175pp. photos. maps. Smith, P. David. Ouray: Chief of the Utes. Ouray, CO: Waynder Press, 1986. 222pp. index. bibliography. photos. drawings. maps. Southern Ute Tribe. Where We Stand; A Report by the Southern Ute Tribe to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs on the Position of the Tribe at the Completion of its First Five Years of Work Under the Southern Ute Rehabilitation Program. Ignacio, CO: 1960. Spiva, Agnes Elizabeth. Utes in Colorado, 1863-1880. Boulder, CO: Colorado UP, 1929. 145pp. Sprague, Marshall, 1909-1994. Massacre: The Tragedy at White River. Boston: Little, Brown, 1957. 364pp. illustrations. bibliography. index. Stewart, George Emery, Jr. Tales From Indian Country. Orem, Utah: Sun Rise Publishing, 1997. ix + 315pp. illustrations. Stewart, Omer. Ethnohistorical Bibliography of the Ute Indians of Colorado. University of Colorado Studies, Series in Anthropology, No. 18. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, 1971. 94pp. Ute Peyotism: A Study of a Cultural Complex. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, 1948. (University of Colorado Studies. Series in Anthropology, No. 1). Reprinted by Kraus Reprint Co., NY, 1972. 42pp. bibliography. footnotes. photos. drawings. charts.
2010 Historical Studies Journal 55 Sturgis, Thomas. The Ute War of 1879: Why the Indian Bureau Should be Transferred from the Department of the Interior to the Department of War. Cheyenne, WY: Leader Steam Book and Job Printing House, 1879. 26pp. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ utewarof1879whyi00sturrich Taylor Museum. Ute Indian Arts & Culture: From Prehistory to the New Millennium. Colorado Springs, CO: Taylor Museum of the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, 2000. viii + 248pp. index. bibliography. illustrations. photographs. Thompson, Gregory Coyne. Southern Ute Lands, 1848-1899: The Creation of a Reservation. Durango, CO: Fort Lewis College, 1972. (Center of Southwest Studies. Occasional Paperback no. 1). v + 62pp. illus. Torrez, Robert J. The Southern Ute Agency at Abiquiu and Tierra Amarilla. Research Paper No. 36. Guadalupita, N.M.: Center for Land Grant Studies, 1994. Tyler, S. Lyman. The Ute People: A Bibliographical Checklist. Institute of American Indian Studies. Provo: Brigham Young University, 1964. iii + 120pp U.S. Geological Survey, Ute Mountain Ute Indian Reservation [Montezuma County, Colorado]. General map. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs. Prepared by the Geological Survey. 1976. United States Congress, House Committee on Indian Affairs. Testimony in Relation to the Ute Indian Outbreak. Washington D. C.: GPO, 1880. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ uteindianoutbrake00unitrich United States Department of the Interior. Letter From the Secretary of the Interior, Transmitting, in Response to Senate Resolutions of January 27, 1881, Copy of Report of Ute Commission, and Copies of All Correspondence Between This Department and the Ute Commission, and also the Governor of Colorado, Concerning the Same Since June 15, 1880. Washington, D.C. : Government. Printing Ofce, 1881. United States Senate. 46th Congress, 2nd Session., Ex. Doc. No. 29. Mining Camps on Ute Indian Reservations. Washington, DC: Government Printing Ofce, 1880[?]. 98pp. United States Senate. 46th Congress, 2d. Session. Ex. Doc. No. 30 and No. 31. Ute Indians in Colorado. Washington, DC: Government Printing Ofce, 1880? 244pp. map. United States Senate. 57th Congress, 1st Session. Ex Doc. No. 34. Compensation for the Confederated Bands of Ute Indians. Washington, DC: Government Printing Ofce, 1901. 4pp. United States. White River Ute Commission. White River Ute Commission Investigation. Letter from the Secretary of the Interior, Transmitting Copy of Evidence Taken Before White River Ute Commission. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Ofce, 1880.
56 CC OLORADO N N ATIve VE A A Me E RICAN Res RES OURCe E GUIDeE Urquhart, Lena M. Colorow: The Angry Chieftain. Denver, CO: Golden Bell Press, 1968. 51pp. bibliography. photos. map. Ute Indian Reservation [Montezuma County, Colorado, map]: Mesa Verde. Denver, CO: Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, 1909. Ute Photo Album: The Elders, Nahnpuchew. Fort Duchesne, Utah: Ute Indian Tribe, 1985. Ute Reference Grammar. Ignacio, Colo.: Ute Press, Southern Ute Tribe, 1980. The Ute System of Government. Salt Lake City: Uintah-Ouray Ute Tribe, 1977 Ute Traditional Narratives. Ed. by T. Givn. Ignacio, Colo.: Ute Press, 1985. iv + 293pp. The Ute War: A History of the White River Massacre, Facsimile. Comments and notes by Nolie Mumey, M.D. Boulder, CO: Johnson, 1964. (Original written and compiled by Thomas F. Dawson and F.J.V. Skiff, Denver, CO: Tribune publishing House, 1879.) xvi + 192pp. drawings. Full text of 1879 original available at: http://www.archive.org/details/ utewarhistoryofw00dawsrich Ute Ways. Salt Lake City: Uintah-Ouray Ute Tribe, 1977. Vanstone, James W. Fieldiana: An Ethnographic Collection from the Northern Ute in the Field Museum of Natural History. No. 28. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History. index. bibliography. illustrations. photos. tables. graphs. maps. Full text available online: http://www.archive.org/details/ ethnographiccoll28vans Warner, Ted. J., Jr., ed. The Domnguez-Escalante Journal: Their Expedition through Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico in 1776. Trans. Fray Angelico Chavez. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1995. xix + 203pp. illustrations. notes. glossary. bibliography. Webb, Farren, and Rick Wheelock. The Ute Legacy: A Study Guide. Ignacio, Colo.: Southern Ute Tribe, 1989. Weenoocheeyoo Peesadueynee Yak:anup: Stories of Our Ancestors. Illustrations by Clifford Duncan. Salt Lake City: Uintah-Ouray Ute Tribe, 1974. x + 109pp. illustrations. Werner, Fred H. MeekerThe Story of the Meeker Massacre and Thornburgh Battle. Greeley, Colo.: Werner Publications, 1985. iv + 172pp. photos. illustrations. maps. Williams, Jack R. Ute Culture Trees: Living History. Florissant, CO: Pikes Peak Research Station, Colorado Outdoor Education Center, 2001. 24pp. photos, drawings, bibliography. Witherspoon, Y. T., ed. Conversations with Connor Chapoose, a Leader of the Ute Tribe of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation. Recorded in 1960. University of Oregon Anthropological Papers, no. 47. Eugene: University of Oregon Press, 1993. v + 240pp.
2010 Historical Studies Journal 57 Wood, Nancy. When Buffalo Freed the Mountains: The Survival of Americas Ute Indians. Photographed by Nancy Wood. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1980. xxii + 293pp. photos. maps. War Cry on a Prayer Feather: Prose and Poetry of the Ute Indians. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1979. xii + 109pp. photographs. Wormington, H. M., and Robert H. Lister. Archaeological Investigations on the Uncompahgre Plateau in West Central Colorado. Denver: Denver Museum of Natural History, 1956. 129pp. illustrations. index. Wroth, William, ed. Ute Indian Arts and Culture: From Prehistory to the New Millennium. Colorado Springs, CO: Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, 2000. viii + 248pp. index. bibliography. 179 photos. drawings. maps. Young, Richard Keith. The Ute Indians of Colorado in the Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997. index. bibliography. endnotes. 30 photos. maps. CC olorado N N ative A A mericans, K 12Arnold, Caroline. The Ancient Cliff Dwellers of Mesa Verde. Clarion, 1992. Baylor, Byrd. When Clay Sings. Illustrated by Tom Bahti. Scribners, 1992. Keepers of the Earth; Native American Stories and Environmental Activities for Children. Illustrated by John Kahionhes Faddon and Carol Wood. Fulcrum, 1989. Bunting, Eve. Cheyenne Again. Illustrated by Irving Toddy. NY: Clarion, 1995. Sandpiper, 2002. Capria, Sarah. First Americans: Cheyenne. Marshall Cavendish, 2006. 48pp. Daniels, Helen Sloan. The Ute Indians of Southwestern Colorado. Drawings by Pearl Oliver. Durango, CO: The Durango Public Library, 1941. viii + 145pp. bibliography. index. National Youth Administration Project (WPA) mimeograph in conjunction with Durango Public Library Museum Project. Denver Art Museum. Colorados Native Heritage: A Handbook for Students and Teachers. Denver, Colo.: Denver Art Museum, 1981. Eichler, Ken. Swift Eagles Vision Quest. Publish America, 2009. 96pp. Intermediate readers. Fradin, Dennis B. The Cheyenne. Chicago, IL: Childrens Press, 1988. Fifth printing 1992. 48pp. index. glossary. photos. drawings. maps. Goble, Paul. Death of the Iron Horse. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1993. k 6 The Great Race. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1991. Grinnell, George Byrd. The Cheyenne Indians. 240pp. illustrations. The History of Western Colorado for Children: The Ute Indians. Grand Junction, CO: Bighorn Productions, 1997. Hobbs, Will. Kokopellis Flute. NY: Atheneum;, 1995.
58 CC OLORADO N N ATIve VE A A Me E RICAN Res RES OURCe E GUIDeE Bruchac, Joseph and Teresa Flavin. Pushing Up the Sky: Seven Native American Plays for Children. 2000. Ryan, Marla Felkins and Linda Schmittroth, eds. Tribes of Native America: Arapaho. Blackbirch Press, 2003. Krudwig, Vickie Leigh. Searching for Chipeta: The Story of a Ute and Her People. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Books, 2004. 196pp. photos. juvenile. Sonneborn, Liz. The Cheyenne Indians. 1992. 76pp. Englar, Mary and Rick Juliani. The Cheyenne Indians: Hunter Gatherers of the Northern Plains. 2003. 48pp. illustrations. index. Hoig, Stan. The Cheyenne (Indians of North America). Chelsea House Publishers, 1990. 111pp. Riney, Scott. The Rapid City Indian School, 1898 1933 Norman: Oklahoma UP, 1999. 288pp. Grades 3 4. Radlauer, Ruth. Mesa Verde National Park. Photos by Rolf Zillmer. Chicago, Ill.: Childrens Press, 1977. 48pp. map. color photos. juvenile. Sneve, Virginia Friving Hawk. The Cheyenne Indians: A First Americans Book. Holiday House, 1996. Remington, Gwen. The Cheyenne (True Books: American Indians). Conn.: Childrens Press, 2003. 48pp. Riney, Scott. The Rapid City Indian School, 1898 1933. Norman: Oklahoma UP, 1999. 288pp. grades 3 4. The Cheyenne (True Books: American Indians). CT: Childrens Press, 2003. 48pp. Bircheld, D. L. (Native American Peoples Series). Gareth Stevens Publishing, 2003. Grades 3 5. Menunqua. Medicine Bear. Thunder Bay Press, 1996. 72pp. Supree, Burton. Bears Heart: Scenes From the Life of a Cheyenne Artist of One Hundred Years Ago with Pictures by Himself. Harper Collins, 1977. Tall Bull, Henry and Tom Weist. Northern Cheyenne Fire Fighters. Billings, MT: Council for Indian Education, 1973. Niddle school.4. M M OvV Ies ESHollywood has done much to promote Native American stereotypes, particularly, but not limited to movies with older release dates. Several of the movies listed below exemplify such biases. Centennial. FVF. Directed by Harry Falk, Paul Krasny, Bernard McEveety, Virgil W. Vogel; 1978, Universal TV. 2008. 1248 min. Cheyenne Dog Soldiers Story. Directed by Ava Hamilton. 1993, Tribeca Film Cheyenne Warrior. DVD. Directed by Mark Grifths. 1994; Libra Pictures. 90 min.
2010 Historical Studies Journal 59 Chiefs Prophecy: Survival of the Northern Cheyenne Nation (The). Directed by Leo Killsback. FVF. 2009; Arizona Public Media. 60 min. Destiny at Dawn : Loss & Victory on the Washita. FVF. Centennial, CO: Great Divide Pictures, 2004. 25 min. Grayeagle. Directed by Charles B. Pierce. VHS. 1977; Charles P. Pierce Production Inc., 2001. 104 min. How the West Was Lost. Directed by Ric Burns. FVF. The Only Good Indian is a Dead Indian. Kill the Indian, Save the Man. The Utes Must Go. 1995; PBS Paramount, 2006. In the White Mans Image. The American Experience. Directed by Christine Lesiak. FVF. 1991; American Experience,. 58 min. Last of the Dog Men. Directed by Tab Murphy. VHS. 1995; Carolco Pictures, 1996. 118min. Little Big Man. Directed by Arthur Penn. FVF. 1970; Cinema Center Films; 2003. 139 min. Native Americans. The Plains Part 1: All Our Relations. The Plains Part II: Fields of Grass, Seas of Blood. Directed by John Borden, George Burdeau, and Phil Lucas. FVF. 1994; Turner Home Entertainment, 1998. 110 min. Pow Wow Highway. Directed by Jonathan Wacks. FVF. 1989; Handmade Films,2004. 87 min. 500 Nations. Roads Across the Plains: Struggle for the West. FVF. 1995; Santa Barbara Studios, 2004. 53 min. She Wore a Yellow Ribbon. Directed by John Ford. FVF. 1949; Argosy Pictures, 2007. 103 min. Silent Thunder. Directed by Angelique Midthunder. FVF. 2006; Midthunder Productions. 27 min. Soldier Blue. Directed by Ralph Nelson. FVF. 1970; AVCO Embassy Pictures, 2006. 112 min. Stagecoach. Directed by John Ford. 1939; Walter Wanger Productions, 2007. 96 min. Tears in the Sand Rocky Mountain Legacy. VHS. 1999; KRMA-TV 60 min. Way West (The). FVF. The War for the Black Hills. Directed by Ric Burns. 1995; PBS Paramount, 2006. 90 min. Windwalker Directed by Keith Merrill. VHS. 1981; Santa Fe International. 108 min.
60 C OLORADO N ATI VE AME RICAN RES OURC E GUIDE Denver March Powwow, Female Dancers.Credit: VISIT DENVER Denver March Powwow, Female Dancers. Credit: VISIT DENVER 5. RES OURC ES /W EBS IT ESAmerican Indian College Fund Denver http://www.collegefund.org/ Indian Voices on KGNU Boulder Denver 88.5 FM, 1390 AM and online at www.kgnu.org Sundays, 3:00-4:00 p.m. Arapaho Project http://www.colorado.edu/csilw/newarapproj2. Cheyenne and Arapahoe Tribes of Oklahoma http://www.cheyenne-arapaho.org/ Colorado Directory of American Indian Resources www.colorado.gov/ltgovernor/initiatives/indianaffairs.html Colorado Springs Indian Center http://www.coloradospringsindiancenter.org/ Denver Indian Center http://www.denverindiancenter.org/ Denver March Powwow http://www.denvermarchpowwow.org/ Native American Bank Denver International Institute for Indigenous Resource Management 444 South Emerson Street http://www.nabna.com/
2010 Historical Studies Journal 61 News from Indian Country http://www.indiancountrynews.com/ Northern Cheyenne Tribe: Ofcial Site of the Tsitsistas and Sotaeo o People. http://www.cheyennenation.com/ Rocky Mountain Indian Chamber http://www.rmicc.org/ Southern Ute Indian Tribe Available: http://www.southern-ute.nsn.us. University of Colorado at Boulder Library. Native American Treaties and Information. http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/us/native.htm Upcoming Native American Events in Colorado and surrounding states http://www.fortnet.org/PowWow/events.html Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Available: http://www.utemountainute.com6. M M Use SE UMs S AND HIs S TORIC SITes ESAnasazi Cultural Center/Canyons of the Ancients National Monument 27501 Highway 184 Dolores, CO 81323 (970)882-5600 http://www.blm.gov/co/st/en/fo/ahc.html Battle of Milk Creek Monument (marker) Northeast of Meeker, off Colorado 13 on dirt road Beecher Island Battleeld/Simmons State Wildlife Area From US 36 a few miles west of the Kansas line, drive north on CRLL about 10 miles (CRLL turns into CRKK just before Beecher Island) to Beecher Island Battleground, on the west side of the road and the north side of the Arikaree River. Bents Old Fort 35120 Highway 194 La Junta, CO 35120 (719)384-2596 http://www.nps.gov/beol/index.htm Black Kettle Museum LL Males & Broadway, Corner of 283 and State Hwy. 47 Cheyenne, OK (580)497-3929, call ahead.
62 CC OLORADO N N ATIve VE A A Me E RICAN Res RES OURCe E GUIDeE Canyon Pintado Historic District (marker) Along Colorado 139 between Douglas Pass and Rangley Colorado Chaco Canyon PO Box 220 Nageezi, NM 87037 (505)786-7014 x 221 http://www.nps.gov/chcu/index.htm Colorado History Museum (expectant opening, 2011) 12th Ave. & Broadway Denver, CO 80203 (303)866-4686 http://www.coloradohistory.org/ Comanche National Grasslands 27162 Highway 287 PO Box 127 Springeld, CO 81073 (719)523-6591 http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/psicc/coma/ Denver Art Museum 100 W. 14th Avenue Parkway Denver, CO 80203 (303)575-2793 http://www.denverartmuseum.org/home Denver March Powwow, Inc. PO Box 19178 Denver, CO 80219 (303)934-8045 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Denver Museum of Nature and Science 2001 Colorado Boulevard Denver, CO 80205 (303)322-7009 http://www.dmns.org/main/en/ Dinosaur National Monument 4545 Highway 40 Dinosaur, CO 81610 (970)374-3000 http://www.nps.gov/dino/index.htm Fort Garland Museum Colorado Historical Society Fort Garland, CO 81133 (719)379-3512 http://www.coloradohistory.org/hist_sites/ft_garland/ft_garland.htm
2010 Historical Studies Journal 63 Fort Uncompahgre Living History Museum 360 Main Street Delta, CO (970)874-8349 (970)874-1718 http://www.silverstage.net/FortUncompahgre.htm Fort Vasquez State Museum Colorado Historical Society 13412 Highway 85 Platteville, CO 80651 (303)785-2832 http://www.coloradohistory.org/hist_sites/ft_vasquez/ft_vasquez.htm Fremont Indian State Park 11000 Clear Creek Canyon Road Sevier, UT 84766 (801)527-4631 http://stateparks.utah.gov/parks/fremont Koshare Indian Museum 115 W. 18th La Junta, CO 35120 (719)384-4411 http://www.kosharehistory.org/ Little Bighorn Battleeld National Monument P. O. Box 39 Crow Agency, MT 59022 (406)638-2621 http://www.nps.gov/libi/index.htm Mesa Verde National Park PO Box 8 Mesa Verde, CO 81330-0008 (970)529-4465 http://www.nps.gov/meve/index.htm Museum of Western Colorado 4th and Ute Grand Junction, CO 81501 (303)242-0971 http://www.museumofwesternco.com/ Rangely Museum 434 W. Main Street Rangely, CO 81648 (303)675-2612 http://www.rangely.com/Museum.htm
64 CC OLORADO N N ATIve VE A A Me E RICAN Res RES OURCe E GUIDeESand Creek Massacre National Historic Site P. O. Box 249 Eads, CO 81036 (719)729-3003 http://www.nps.gov/sand/index.htm St. Stephens Indian Mission PO Box 250 St. Stephens, WY 82524 (307)856-7806 Summit Springs From 1-76, Exit 115 at Atwood. The site is southeast on Colorado 63 about 5 miles. Turn left on Washington County Road 60 and go 4 miles east to a dead end, and then turn right and go a mile south on a gravel road to a windmill and a turnaround. Ute Indian Museum Colorado Historical Society 17253 Chipeta Road Montrose, CO (970) 249-3098 (970)252-8741 http://www.coloradohistory.org/hist_sites/uteindian/ute_Indian.htm Ute Mountain Tribal Park P. O. Box 109 Towaoc, Colorado 81334 (970)565-3751 x 330 1-800-847-5485 Visitors Center and Museum (970)749-1452 http://www.utemountainute.com/tribalpark.htm Washita Battleeld National Historic Site Rt. 1, Box 55a Cheyenne, OK 73628 (580)497-2742 http://www.nps.gov/waba/index.htm Yucca House National Monument Call Mesa Verde National Park (970)529-4465