Citation
Accelerating charter school principal development

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Title:
Accelerating charter school principal development the dynamic interaction of action-reflection cycles, customization, and developmental partnerships during field experience
Creator:
Mermagen, Lucy Claire ( author )
Place of Publication:
Denver, Colo.
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
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Language:
English
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1 electronic file (157 pages). : ;

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Doctor of Philosophy)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
School of Public Affairs, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Public Affairs
Committee Chair:
Teske, Paul
Committee Co-Chair:
Hupfeld, Kelly
Committee Members:
Sowa, Jessica
Stein, Robert

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Charter schools ( lcsh )
Fieldwork (Educational method) ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Review:
Leaders of charter schools need a unique combination of knowledge and skills to effectively guide their schools. Research shows that internships and residencies offered during pre-service preparation programs to provide aspiring school leaders with supervised practical leadership experience in real school contexts make a crucial contribution to developing these special capabilities. Experts agree however, that most preparation programs fail to deliver really effective field experiences. This is particularly true of traditional university programs taken by these leaders, which, unlike charter-specific programs, are not designed with their particular leadership needs in mind. This thesis reports on an inquiry designed to cast light on what influences the effectiveness of development activity during preparatory field experiences and to identify how traditional university programs might improve the efficacy of their offerings for such principals. Using a mixed methods approach to facilitate a contextually sensitive and nuanced understanding of current development practices, this exploratory study used a statewide quantitative survey to identify a group of practicing charter principals who reported effective field experiences. Analysis of transcriptions from in-depth interviews with twelve of them provides a rich picture of the positive impacts of current practices. The findings show that effective field experiences are possible for charter principals in traditional as well as charter-specific program pathways, and that these pathways share core characteristics. They are composed of: intense action-reflection cycles performed while engaged in a real job; customized and partly self-directed developmental work; and the exploitation of a range of developmental partnerships formed to deal with immediate challenges that also provide longer-term emotional support and expertise. The originality of the thesis lies in identifying and synthesizing these critical dimensions that together lead to accelerated situated learning during field experiences. Practical ideas are put forward for improving the efficacy of traditional university-based programs for aspiring charter principals, proposing they become more principal-centered and self-directed, and take account of the interplay between structural features of a chosen preparatory pathway and the personal characteristics of each principal. It recommends using the more flexible, dynamic, and integrated development processes presented in the thesis to guide field experience design.
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe Reader.
Thesis:
Public affairs
General Note:
School of Public Affairs
Statement of Responsibility:
by Lucy Claire Mermagen.

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Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
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|Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
897820892 ( OCLC )
ocn897820892

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Full Text
ACCELERATING CHARTER PRINCIPAL DEVELOPMENT: THE DYNAMIC INTERACTION
OF ACTION-REFLECTION CYCLES, CUSTOMIZATION, AND DEVELOPMENTAL
PARTNERSHIPS DURING FIELD EXPERIENCE
by
LUCY CLAIRE MERMAGEN
B.A. (Hons) University of Oxford,1996
M.P.A University of Colorado, Denver, 2009
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
School of Public Affairs
2014


2014
LUCY CLAIRE MERMAGEN
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
ii


This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy degree by
Lucy Claire Mermagen
has been approved for the
School of Public Affairs
by
Paul Teske, Dissertation Chair
Kelly Hupfeld, Examination Chair
Jessica Sowa
Robert Stein
March 27' 2014
iii


Mermagen Lucy Claire (Ph.D Public Affairs)
Accelerating Charter Principal Development: the Dynamic Interaction of Action-Reflection Cycles,
Customization, and Developmental Partnerships During Field Experience
Thesis directed by Distinguished Professor Paul Teske
ABSTRACT
Leaders of charter schools need a unique combination of knowledge and skills to effectively
guide their schools. Research shows that internships and residencies offered during pre-service
preparation programs to provide aspiring school leaders with supervised practical leadership experience
in real school contexts make a crucial contribution to developing these special capabilities. Experts agree
however, that most preparation programs fail to deliver really effective field experiences. This is
particularly true of traditional university programs taken by these leaders, which, unlike charter-specific
programs, are not designed with their particular leadership needs in mind.
This thesis reports on an inquiry designed to cast light on what influences the effectiveness of
development activity during preparatory field experiences and to identify how traditional university
programs might improve the efficacy of their offerings for such principals. Using a mixed methods
approach to facilitate a contextually sensitive and nuanced understanding of current development
practices, this exploratory study used a statewide quantitative survey to identify a group of practicing
charter principals who reported effective field experiences. Analysis of transcriptions from in-depth
interviews with twelve of them provides a rich picture of the positive impacts of current practices.
The findings show that effective field experiences are possible for charter principals in traditional
as well as charter-specific program pathways, and that these pathways share core characteristics. They
are composed of: intense action-reflection cycles performed while engaged in a real job; customized and
partly self-directed developmental work; and the exploitation of a range of developmental partnerships
formed to deal with immediate challenges that also provide longer-term emotional support and expertise.
The originality of the thesis lies in identifying and synthesizing these critical dimensions that
together lead to accelerated situated learning during field experiences. Practical ideas are put forward for
improving the efficacy of traditional university-based programs for aspiring charter principals, proposing


they become more principal-centered and self-directed, and take account of the interplay between
structural features of a chosen preparatory pathway and the personal characteristics of each principal. It
recommends using the more flexible, dynamic, and integrated development processes presented in the
thesis to guide field experience design.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Paul Teske
v


DEDICATION
For my father Keith Kinsella and in loving memory of my mother Valerie Kinsella.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Over the past four and a half years I have received support and encouragement from many
people. I would like to express particular appreciation and thanks to my dissertation committee. To my
committee chair Professor Paul Teske you have been a wise guide and have helped make this academic
journey more straightforward and enjoyable for me. I am grateful too for the career advice and thought-
provoking discussions that we have had. I would also like to thank the rest of my dissertation committee,
Kelly Hupfeld, Jessica Sowa, and Rob Stein for their support over the past two years as I moved from a
proposal to my completed research. Each of you has helped me immensely, and I have valued the
perspectives and expertise that you have brought to bear on my research and writing.
Thanks also to Antoinette Sandoval and Dawn Savage at the School of Public Afrairs, who have
dealt with my questions with unending patience, and to my PhD cohort for their support, especially Kelley
Harp and Teri Bollinger. I would also like to thank the professors that taught me during my time at the
School of Public Affairs, and in particular Mary Guy for encouraging me start my PhD in the first place. I
am grateful to the many principals who took part in this study, and who generously shared their time and
experiences, and to the charter school and principal preparation experts who helped me map out my
study and get principals involved in the research. I learned a lot through our conversations.
None of this would have been possible without the support of my family and friends. Thanks in
particular to my neighbors Marsha, Cat, and Olivia, who were always on hand when I needed help of any
kind. My father, Keith Kinsella, spent countless hours helping me make sense of my findings, and was a
never-ending source of wisdom, ideas, and scholarly references. Thank you for investing so much effort in
my research, I am hugely grateful. To my husband Matthew, unending thanks for supporting me through
this endeavor for spending countless hours looking after our children while I was in the library, and for
always encouraging me and believing I would get this done. I would not have accomplished this without
you. Finally, to Patrick and Nell, thanks for letting me do my schoolwork. I am lucky to have you to remind
me of what really matters each day.
vii


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I EXPLORING THE UNCHARTED TERRITORY OF CHARTER LEADER FIELD EXPERIENCE.........................1
A 'Gold Standard' for Preparing Charter School Leaders....................................2
The Amplified and Extended Roles of Charter Leaders.........................................3
What 'Gold Standard' Field Experience Looks Like............................................5
Effective Field Experience: Problems and Opportunities......................................6
Problem, Purpose and Key Questions..........................................................8
Research Approach...........................................................................9
Rationale and Significance.................................................................10
Organization of Chapters...................................................................11
Key Terms..................................................................................13
II IN SEARCH OF EXPLANATORY FACTORS FOR CHARTER LEADER FIELD EXPERIENCE........................15
History of School Leader Development.......................................................15
Differences between Charter and Traditional School Leaders.................................19
Theories and Models of Experiential Learning...............................................21
Field Experience in Practice...............................................................24
Key Characteristic I: Learning Support.....................................................28
Key Characteristic II: Authentic Leadership Practice.......................................32
Key Characteristic III: Reflective Practice................................................35
Framing the Research Opportunity...........................................................37
III A PRAGMATIC APPROACH TO EXPLORING UNCHARTED TERRITORY.......................................42
Research Design............................................................................42
Data.......................................................................................44
Sample.....................................................................................44


Instruments.................................................................................48
Ethical Considerations......................................................................50
Data Collection.............................................................................50
Data Analysis...............................................................................51
Methodological Considerations & Limitations.................................................52
IV OVERVIEW OF COLORADO CHARTER LEADER PREPARATION PROGRAMS.................................55
A Shift Towards Alternative Provision.......................................................56
Charter Skill Gap...........................................................................57
Programs Echo Exemplary Characteristics.....................................................62
Practice Gap in Field Experience............................................................64
Importance of In-Service Experiential Professional Development..............................67
Drawing It All Together.....................................................................68
V INSIGHTS INTO THE FORMS AND FEATURES OF EFFECTIVE FIELD EXPERIENCE............................71
The Forms: Multiple Pathways................................................................71
Doing: Action-Reflection Cycles in the Hot Seat.............................................77
Developing: Customizing Authentic Practice Opportunities....................................81
Relating: Creating 'Developmental Partnerships'.............................................86
Building Personal Support Networks..........................................................91
Initial Lessons.............................................................................95
VI TOWARDS A NEW UNDERSTANDING OF EFFECTIVE FIELD EXPERIENCE.....................................97
Multiple Field Experience Pathways..........................................................98
Intense Action-Reflection Cycles...........................................................101
Customized Practice Opportunities..........................................................102
Developmental Partnerships.................................................................104
Personal Support Networks..................................................................106
Developmental Model
108


Implications and Recommendations for Practice..................................110
Future Research................................................................113
REFERENCES..........................................................................115
APPENDIX A: PHASE ONE SURVEY QUESTIONS..............................................127
APPENDIX B: PHASE TWO INTERVIEW QUESTIONS...........................................144
x


TABLE
LIST OF TABLES
2.1 POTENTIAL EXPLANATORY FACTORS AND THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTS.......................39
3.1 COMPARISON OF SURVEY SAMPLE AND NATIONAL SAMPLE................................45
4.1 CHARTER LEADERS BY PREPARATION PROGRAM TYPE....................................56
4.2 GRADUATES^ PERCEPTIONS OF PROGRAM FEATURES AND PEDAGOGY........................58
4.3 PREPARATION PROGRAM CONTENT EMPHASIS...........................................59
4.4 PRINCIPAL EVALUATIONS OF PREPAREDNESS..........................................60
4.5 DESIRABLE PROGRAM FEATURES WITH THE BENEFIT OF HINDSIGHT.......................61
4.6 PRINCIPAL PERCEPTIONS OF FIELD EXPERIENCE FEATURES.............................63
4.7 FIELD EXPERIENCE ACTIVITY LEVELS BY CONTENT AREA...............................65
4.8 PARTICIPATION IN AND HELPFULNESS OF INSERVICE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT.........67
5.1 PATHWAYS FOR PRINCIPALS IN THE SAMPLE..........................................72
5.2 RELATIVE EMPHASIS OF FIELD EXPERIENCE CHARACTERISTICS BY PATHWAY...............74


LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
4.1 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FIELD EXPERIENCE ACTIVITY LEVEL & PROGRAM EVALUATION........66
5.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN KEY FIELD EXPERIENCE CHARACTERISTICS........................76
6.1 CHARTER PRINCIPAL FIELD EXPERIENCES AS AN ECOLOGY OF PRACTICE^...................109
xii


CHAPTER I
EXPLORING THE UNCHARTED TERRITORY OF CHARTER LEADER FIELD EXPERIENCE
Well-designed and supported field experiences have long been heralded as a means of giving
aspiring school principals real and challenging opportunities to make the transition between classroom-
learned theory and actual practice (Bottoms & Egelson, 2012; Darling-Hammond et alv 2007). However,
despite a growing consensus on their characteristics, research suggests that for many would-be principals
the craft designed to help them "navigate the swt, unpredictable currents" of school leadership, is in
reality "leaky rudderless or still in the dry dock" (Fry, Bottoms & O'Neill 2005 p.3). For charter school
principals, who lead the fastest growing sector of public education in the United States, these craft are
particularly likely to be inadequate, given that their roles are 'amplified and extended' (Campbell &
Grubb, 2008) in comparison with the traditional public school principals for whom the majority of
preparatory field experiences are designed.
This problem caught my attention as a former secondary school teacher who trained and was
certified in England through a job-embedded graduate program that I judged to be highly effective. From
day one of my teaching career I had a real teaching position in a school and was responsible for the
learning of hundreds of students in my subject area. A colleague acted as a teacher-mentor: observing my
lessons; giving me substantive feedback; and reflecting with me on lessons in the process providing
specific guidance on how to improve my practice. With this support, I completed the training year
successfully while confirming my passion for teaching, and enjoying the responsibility for delivering an
almost full timetable. Having experienced the benefits of what was in effect preparatory field experience
for teachers I became interested in how this approach was being used to prepare charter school leaders
for their new responsibilities, and to see if I could make an original contribution in this field.
In this chapter I situate my inquiry into charter leader field experiences within the broader
context of principal preparation programs, outline the research problem, and introduce the questions
that guided my research. I then describe my research approach, highlight the potential significance of this
1


research for practice and theory, and conclude with an overview of the remaining five chapters that
comprise this dissertation.
A ^Gold Standard7 for Preparing Charter School Leaders
To understand the likely attributes of effective field experiences for charter leaders, it is helpful
first to have an appreciation of the preparatory programs of which they are an integral part. Traditional
preparation programs, run by university schools of education, have trained the vast majority of school
principals since the 1940s. In recent years these programs have been subject to a high volume of criticism,
following increasing evidence of the importance of effective school leadership for sustained education
reform (Peterson, 2002; Levine, 2005; Hale & Moorman, 2003) and insights into the skills and practices of
effective school leaders (Leithwood et al 2004; Marzano Waters & McNulty 2005) A number of
problems have been highlighted, but most germane to this research were the limited emphasis they
placed on instructional leadership roles associated with effective school leadership, and their pedagogical
approach, which contained few practical and applied elements (Orr, 2011;Levine, 2005)
In the wake of these revelations, significant attention has since been paid to best practices and
innovations in leadership preparation programs. This heightened interest revealed the emergence of a
number of alternative preparation programs, who sought to exploit and address the gaps left by many
traditional university programs. Amongst these new providers who included school districts non-profits,
and a variety of partnerships between stakeholders (Jackson & Kelley, 2002; Orr, 2006; U.S. Department
of Education, 2004), were a new breed of programs designed specifically with charter school leaders in
mind. Such programs, run by national non-profit organizations like KIPP and Building Excellent Schools, as
well as growing number of local charter school networks like the Denver School of Science and
Technology, share many characteristics with innovative programs highlighted in best practice research
(Davies & Darling-Hammond 2012; Cheney et al 2010).
In common with these innovative programs, the charter-specific programs, which invest heavily
upfront in recruitment and selection, place substantial emphasis on giving principals practical leadership
experience in real school contexts. They invest significant attention to customizing their programs for
2


each participant and provide ongoing coaching and feedback from a variety of sources (Cheney et alv
2010). In addition, they focus on roles central to running a charter school (Campbell & Grubb, 2008; New
Schools Venture Fund, 2008), including budgeting, human resources, and facilities management. These
programs currently represent the 'gold standard' for charter school principal preparation, despite the fact
that there is a limited research base supporting them. However, because they do not have the capacity to
train many aspiring leaders, they are likely to remain a relatively niche offering (Campbell & Grubb, 2008),
and most aspiring charter leaders will have to look elsewhere for their training.
The Amplified and Extended Roles of Charter Leaders
To understand why charter specific programs are regarded as the best option for aspiring charter
school leaders, it is helpful to get some perspective on how the role of a charter school leaders differs as
compared to the traditional public school principal for whom most university programs were and are
designed. The key differences in leadership stem primarily from the bargain charter schools strike with
districts and states: more school level autonomy in exchange for higher levels of accountability for the
results that they get in terms of student achievement (Bulkley, 2003) These higher levels of autonomy
create additional leadership demands of the principal resulting in their role being compared to that of a
superintendent of a small school district a CEO of a for-profit business, and a non-profit executive
(Campbell & Grubb 2008; National Alliance of Public Charter Schools 2008) While charter school
leadership demands vary according to the leadership structure of the school and the type of charter
school it is, it is clear that the charter leader role is broader than that of traditional public school principal
and has been likened to doing it "on a high wire" (Campbell & Gross 2008 p.9).
Research suggests that this 'tightrope walking' involves a greater emphasis on school operations
and school management: from budgeting; hiring; and managing facilities; to managing a school board;
marketing their school; recruiting students; and advocating for charter schools in their district and state
(Gross 2011; Hentscheke, 2010; Gergen & Vanourek, 2008). These challenges are further amplified for
charter leaders that develop new schools, since they also have to find initial funding, locate a facility, build
a student and staff body, and generate community support from scratch (Luekens, 2004)
3


Balancing the numerous hats that charter school leaders have to wear is particularly challenging
in an age where principals are expected to focus on driving instructional leadership within their schools
(Hess, 1998; Fry et alv 2006; Cunningham & Sherman, 2008; Leithwood et alv 2010). Research has found
that principals are second only to teachers in their influence on academic results, and that they tend to
influence student achievement indirectly, through their direct influence on school staff, organizational
structures, and school climate (Seashore Louis et a\., 2010; Hallinger & Heck, 2011). Related work on the
behaviors and practices of effective principals (Hallinger 2005; Marzano, Waters, & McNulty, 2005;
Leithwood et alv 2004; Boyd et alv 2009) highlights the importance of instructional leadership, direction
setting, developing people, and organizational re-design.
The extent to which charter leaders are able to focus on their instructional roles while
simultaneously running the management and operations of their schools is unclear. However, researchers
have suggested that amplified charter responsibilities may detract from leaders' abilities to spend
sufficient time on leading instruction in their schools. In theory charter leaders who are in schools that are
part of a larger system, like a charter management organization, should have fewer operational and
managerial responsibilities (Gross, 2011) However recent research found that charter leaders reported
spending more time on management tasks than their traditional public school colleagues regardless of
their school structure (Cravens, Goldring, & Penaloza, 2012). Regardless of their organizational structure it
is clear that charter leaders need to be strong, highly skilled, and experienced educational leaders,
perhaps even more so than traditional public school leaders, so that they have the personal resources to
also attend to their extended responsibilities (Luekens 2004; Campbell 2010) For these reasons
effective preparation is critical and it can be argued that field experience becomes particularly critical
especially for those charter principals taking traditional university based programs that do not pay explicit
attention in their coursework to areas of charter amplified responsibility. Here in particular, a well-
designed field experience could make the difference between a successful and an unsuccessful
preparatory program experience for an aspiring charter leader.
4


What ^Gold Standard7 Field Experience Looks Like
Despite their limited capacity, charter specific programs, along with some of the more innovative
alternative and university programs cast light on the likely components of a successful and effective field
experience. These programs tend to place emphasis on the following features: an extended period of field
experience; high levels of customization based on participant needs; extended support in the form of
mentoring and coaching; active participation in the work of a school leader; high levels of feedback and
supported reflection; varied and often more informal support relationships; and high levels of participant
responsibility for directing their own learning (Cheney et al 2010)
These characteristics are emphasized in addition to the standard requirements for effective field
experience that are highlighted in the majority of research on principal internships and field experiences.
The standard requirements are designed to help participants make strong links between classroom-
learned theory and real practice. They include authentic opportunities to practice central leadership roles,
as well as support mechanisms in the form of mentors, coaches and others who can direct and facilitate
the reflective process that are considered key to effective development (Hallinger & Snidvongs, 2005; Fry
et al 2005; Hess & Kelly 2005; Milstein & Kruger 1997).
Theoretical support for standard and exemplary field experience characteristics is found in
several areas. Situated learning theory suggests adults learn best when they are deeply embedded in an
authentic context, and can benefit from the social nature of learning (Bandura, 1997; Wenger, 2007). The
importance of self-directed learning is emphasized in adult learning theory where adults who already
have a wealth of knowledge are often thought to be in a better position to decide on the what where,
and how of future learning needs (Mezirow, 2000; Taylor 2000) Theorists also point to the importance of
being able to iterate cycles between ^oing' and 'reflecting' (Kolb, 1984; Schon, 1983) to deepen the
quality of learning, as well as to having expert and peer forms of support (Gray et alv 2007; Browne-
Ferrigno & Muth, 2004).
Despite the existence of fairly clear and specific basic guidelines for effective field experience,
there is significant evidence that many programs nevertheless fail to deliver on these features (Levine,
2005; O'Neill, Fry, Bottoms, & Walker, 2007); and in particular do not provide principals with the
5


authentic leadership opportunities and support that they need. This is likely to be true for charter school
principals in particular, 75% of whom train in traditional university based programs (Gross, 2011), and
who are likely to therefore have field experiences in traditional public schools that cannot provide them
with the opportunity to practice in the context they will actually be operating in.
This is particularly problematic because it has been suggested that context is "perhaps the single
most important influence on reflection and learning" (Boud & Walker 1998 p.196). If this is true it means
that we need to understand and accept that the social and cultural context in which reflection takes place
has a powerful influence over what kinds of reflection it is possible to foster and the ways in which it
might be done. But as yet little research has explored what effective reflective practice looks like and how
it works in real contexts. Viewed in this way, the lack of specific research into field experiences undergone
by charter school principals is an important gap to tackle, and I address this in the following section.
Effective Field Experience: Problems and Opportunities
The portrait painted in this chapter so far is of an unmet demand for charter school leaders, who
have a complex role to perform, that is not well understood in research, in particular with regard to the
balance between instructional and more operational leadership requirements. Exacerbating this problem,
there is a fairly low overall standard of principal preparation, particularly in the traditional university
programs that most aspiring principals take. Promising new charter-specific programs have a capacity
problem, as well as a limited base of empirical support. Compounding all of this, research on field
experience, a period that seems to hold the key to making a successful transition to practice, remains
relatively uncharted territory in terms of contextually situated understanding about what happens during
effective field experiences. From my perspective, this state of affairs represents both a problem and an
opportunity.
The problem is that these programs do not have the capacity to meet the existing demand for
charter leaders, and the situation is only going to get worse, bince the first charter school was founded in
Minnesota in 1992, they have become an increasingly significant way of delivering public education in the
United States. Recent statistics show that as of the 2012-13 school year there were 6,000 public charter
6


schools educating more than 2.3 million students (National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2013). This
research indicated that the sector is growing rapidly, almost doubling the number of schools in four years
(1,700 more since 2008), and with an 80% increase in students in the same time period. With almost one
million students currently on waiting lists for charter schools (National Alliance for Public Charter Schools
2013) this growth looks set to continue. This snapshot of unmet demand becomes more troubling when
combined with findings from a recent study that reported almost three out of every four charter leaders
(71%) expect to leave their schools within five years (Gross, 2011).
The looming supply gap that these figures point to suggests that there is a need for new thinking
concerning how this sector goes about closing this gap. Furthermore, there is clearly a need for research
that looks at current methods of principal preparation and how they might be improved. As I have
pointed out in this chapter even though most new charter principals receive their training from
traditional university programs very little attention has been paid to their capacity to meet the particular
needs of charter school leaders. In addition, it is clear that although field experiences are regarded as
crucial in both alternative and traditional programs, many of them fail to deliver the substantive and
authentic practice experiences that are required for them to provide an effective transition from the
classroom to real practice.
As a result of these several considerations I decided to focus on what constitutes effective
charter principal field experiences, to identify the features of existing practice that might be worth
building on, and to see what might need to change. In particular, I wanted to explore this relatively
uncharted territory to see whether existing field experience pathways provided by traditional university
programs might have the capacity to prepare charter principals effectively, tiiven that these traditional
preparation options are both more widely available and less expensive than the charter specific program
routes they could present an opportunity for a relatively easy way to meet the growing demand for well
trained charter school leaders.
7


Problem, Purpose and Key Questions
My research problem can therefore be stated as follows: the charter school movement is
growing in leaps and bounds, and is generating an increasing demand for properly trained and prepared
principals to continue this process. Charter principals face a wider range of duties than their traditional
school counterparts, including administrative tasks handled by school districts, as well as some more new
entrepreneurial challenges to do with the increased autonomy levels that are at the heart of this
movement to improve school education.
Due to the success of this movement and the increased demand for good leadership there are
now clear signs that there is going to be a shortage of properly equipped principals to take on these
challenges. Apart from the challenge of finding and selecting suitable people to move into this growing
field the charter school movement finds itself hampered by several other factors: most charter principals
complete field experiences in traditional schools which do not provide the breadth and challenge that
such new principals require; and current preparation programs are seen to fall short by the charter
principals themselves of what is really required to fit them for the new roles. There is, therefore, a need
in the field for research that looks more broadly for potential solutions to these issues.
Given the limited empirical base on aspiring charter school principal field experiences it was
important to speak to practicing charter school principals who described their training as effective. From
them I could build a picture of what effective field experiences looked like from a participant perspective,
and find out more about how they worked from a developmental perspective. I wanted to see what
commonalities their field experiences shared, and whether and what charter principals who trained in
traditional programs missed out on in comparison with those that completed charter specific preparation
programs. I also wanted to explore how specific components of field experiences such as mentoring and
reflection played out in real situations, and how they interacted. I also wanted to see if there were lessons
that could be taken from charter specific program field based experiences to enrich the traditional
program offerings.
To address this problem, and cast light on the areas of interest highlighted above I developed
the following three questions to initiate and guide my research:
8


1. What kinds of impact does the overall structure and infrastructure of the field experience element
of preparation programs have on the effectiveness of the learning process during field
experiences for aspiring charter school leaders?
2. How are commonly upheld characteristics and features of effective field experiences e.g. real
opportunities to lead, mentoring, reflection, and so on, experienced by aspiring charter school
leaders?
3. In what ways do these characteristics and features enhance learning and help to develop
leadership capabilities of aspiring charter school leaders?
In addition to the specific questions outlined above, I was interested to see the extent to which
effective field experiences facilitated opportunities for participants to get practical experience in areas of
charter-amplified responsibility, and if/how they facilitated the customization of the field experience to
the needs of the participant. In both of these areas, charter-specific program field experiences purport to
offer a significant improvement on the traditional university program offerings, but it is not evident from
research whether and how traditional programs are able to customize their offerings to meet the
developmental needs of particular aspiring charter school leaders.
Research Approach
I used a mixed methods approach to this research for pragmatic reasons. Firstly, little specific
data pertaining to the quality of charter school principals field experiences exists, and because field
experiences are inextricably linked to the programs in which they are situated (Darling-Hammond et a\.,
2007) it was important to get a broad view of the overall state of charter principal preparation. For this
reason I used a quantitative survey to generate this grounding data. I then used the results from this
survey to identify a suitable group of principals who reported having effective field experiences as part of
their preparation. With this group, I used a series of qualitative interviews to elicit the richer and subtler
details of their individual field experiences.
My methods were primarily and deliberately of a qualitative nature because charter principal
field experiences have been the subject of scant research so far and because I wanted to cast further light
9


on features of field experience that have been studied in the context of traditional principals. Such
research has provided guidance on, for example, the important criteria for successful mentoring
relationships and the importance of active levels of participation in leadership activities (Barnett et alv
2009; DeVitaeta 2007)
Rationale and Significance
As outlined throughout this chapter the rationale for this study stems from my increasing
awareness of the importance of field experiences in the preparation of school leaders, and the limited
evidence of how they work in real contexts, as well as my personal experience of highly effective job-
embedded development. As highlighted in this chapter already, the charter school sector is an
increasingly significant force in K-12 education in the United States. Given its current rate of growth, and
its prominence in recent federal reform initiatives like Race to the Top and No Child Left Behind (Davis &
Darling-Hammond, 2012; Campbell & Gross, 2012), finding out more about how to develop leaders of this
sector most effectively is of critical importance.
From a theoretical perspective this research has the potential to make substantive contributions
to theories of experiential learning, by giving an in-depth and nuanced understanding of how people learn
from experience in specific contexts. For example, although models of learning such as Kolb's action-
reflection cycle (1984), and Schon's reflection-on and -in-action (1983), are very helpful heuristics, my
research offers concrete insights into how those cycles look in practice, and gives a situated perspective of
what can enhance the quality of the learning process in specific circumstances. It a similar way, my
research should enrich the knowledge base on how the structure of field experience can impact the
quality of learning, by drawing out the interactions between potential explanatory factors, such as being
situated in a charter school or a traditional school for field experiences, and being job-embedded versus
being in an internship. This research also may help cast light on what effective mentoring relationships
need to look like, and why and how they may need to vary given an individual's development needs.
Finally, my research could contribute to the relatively scant knowledge base on charter school leader
10


development, highlighting the extent to which the amplified responsibilities that leaders in these more
autonomous schools have, impacts on their developmental need during their field experiences
This research also has the potential to make a significant impact on practice, by coming up with
specific and concrete recommendations to inform the work of preparation program designers,
administrators, and participants, and to increase the likelihood that the field experience components will
be effective. I also believe this research could inform on-going conversations at district and state level,
given the US Department of Education's current focus on strengthening the outcomes of principal
preparation programs, and on developing principal pipelines.
Organization of Chapters
The five chapters that follow this introduction reveal my approach to uncovering insights into the
nature of the authentic preparatory field-based learning experiences from the perspective of practicing
charter school leaders:
In Chapter II, I present a review of the fields of research within which this dissertation is situated
and highlight theoretical ideas and insights from practice that helped to inform my work. I start by noting
the growing recognition of the importance of field-based learning within formal principal preparation
programs. I then highlight research that emphasizes the importance of full time field experiences and
which points to the eicacy of charter spedfic programs for aspiring charter principals. I show how this
belief is premised on the emphasis these programs ostensibly place on charter-amplified leadership roles,
as well giving aspiring principals many opportunities to practice authentic leadership tasks. At the end of
the chapter I draw together a table of potential explanatory factors for effective charter leader field
experiences.
In Chapter III I explain the pragmatic worldview that underpins my research, and describe the
rationale for the mixed-methods approach that I used. I outline the sampling procedures for the two
phases of data collection, and explain how I analyzed and interpreted the data that resulted from my
survey and 12 in-person interviews. At the end of the chapter I highlight potential research limitations,
stemming both from the qualitative methodology, and my specific research design.
11


Chapter IV highlights the findings from the first phase of my research, involving a survey of 101
practicing charter school principals in Colorado. These results reinforce previous findings from charter
school pre-service preparation programs. They show that a majority of charter school leaders were
trained in traditional university-based programs and that overall they did not feel well prepared
particularly when it came to the areas of their role amplified in a charter context. They also show that
while most principals reported that their field experiences contained exemplary features like mentoring
and exposure to real world problems more than half of them still did not get opportunities to actually
practice in areas central to their school leader roles. I describe the positive relationship that existed
between field experience activity levels and overall program evaluation in my sample, which I used to
determine my interview sample. I also explain that participants reported a high level of exposure to, and
appreciation of, experiential forms of in-service professional development activities.
Building on these findings in Chapter V I outline the results derived from my interviews with
practicing charter principals, all but one of whom turned out to have been in fulltime leadership roles
during their field experiences a factor which in hindsight has significantly influenced my eventual
findings. My first finding is that it is possible for aspiring and novice charter leaders to have effective field
experiences on two traditional university program pathways. I contrast these pathways with two others: a
National Charter path, and an Experienced principal path, and in so doing highlight structural differences
between the pathways that have significant influences on the nature of the field experiences participants
can have. I introduce a three-part model to explain how the field experiences of principals in my sample
shared three core characteristics, and then discuss the nature of each characteristic, and how it varies by
program pathway. I point to the importance or job-embedded pressure to create intensive action-
reflection cycles, where principals benefit both from doing followed by feedback, and observing followed
by questioning. I then highlight the importance of principals' taking responsibility for customizing their
own developmental continua of practice, and show that the result of this, are highly responsive, dynamic,
and varied developmental activities. I also point to a role for multiple 'developmental partnerships' that
are often more informal than the standard principal-mentor relationship and which offer reciprocal
benefits to all parties involved. Finally, I show that over time, these relationships can grow to constitute a
12


network offering similar benefits to those found in a community of practice. In this way they can be seen
to have huge potential value for charter leaders, helping them to overcome a sense of isolation that
seems inherent in the role, as well as to address charter-specific skill gaps in practice.
Finally in Chapter VI I synthesize my findings and present their implications for practice and
future research. I develop a model for effective charter principal field experiences that I term an 'ecology
of practice'. In this model I describe three roles for an aspiring principal during field experience: as a
performer doing a real job; as a "bricoleur" or a kind of professional development 'handymaiV; and as a
relationship builder. In doing this I highlight the critical importance of viewing principal development
through field experience as a dynamic and living process, and place emphasis on the importance of the
principals themselves playing an active role in customizing the developmental opportunities they have. I
then make recommendations for practice which all relate to taking seriously the implications of both the
preparation pathway and the participants background and needs. Specific recommendations include:
using a broader definition of support relationships, 'developmental partnerships', to enhance the support
given to aspiring and novice principals during field experience; encouraging network building from the
outset of field experience; placing aspiring charter leaders in charter schools for their field experience;
and adjusting the timing of field experiences so that these coincide with an aspiring principal's
appointment to a leadership post. I then make related suggestions for future research.
Key Terminology
Alternative preparation program: I use this term to indicate a preparation program run by an organization
other than a university. This could include charter-specific programs run by non-profits and other third
parties, as well as districts, and collaborations between different groups.
Authentic: I use this term to describe field experience activities that are equivalent to those faced by
practicing school principals in the every day realities of their job, in contrast to activities that are in some
way 'set up' for training purposes.
Charter-amplified: I use this term as shorthand for the extended roles and responsibilities that charter
school leaders have, as indicated in the limited research on this topic (see e.g. Campbell & Grubb, 2008;
Campbell & Gross 2008).
Charter school principal: This could mean a school founder, chief executive, or even a leadership team,
but in this research it indicates "the person who has overall responsibility for the management of
13


the charter school" (National Association of Public Charter Schools, 2008, p. 7), regardless of their
title.
Effective: In this research, field experience effectiveness is self-defined by the practicing charter school
principals that constitute my sample. It does not relate to any external measures of efficacy such as
student results, or to any kind of principal evaluation scores.
Field Experience: pre-service training for aspiring principals that is often called an internship,
practicum, or residency, where the participant spends time observing, participating in, and leading
instructional and managerial activities in a school. In this research it also includes field-based
activities that are part of formal preparatory programs undertaken by novice and more experienced
principals.
Practical: I use this term to mean actual 'doing' of leadership activities in real school leadership context,
as opposed to theoretical or classroom based activities. More common in the literature is the term
"hands-on", but the term "practical" is preferred in this research. It has close links when used in this way
with 'authentic' as defined above.
Traditional preparation program: A program run by a school of education in a university. In using this term
I exclude from it university-based programs that have been recognized as innovative or exemplary in the
research literature.
14


CHAPTER II
IN SEARCH OF EXPLANATORY FACTORS FOR CHARTER LEADER FIELD EXPERIENCE
Towards the end of Chapter I I highlighted the components of field experience regarded as
essential to its success, as well as theories purporting to explain how learning from experience works. This
chapter adds depth to this framework. It starts with a snapshot of the formal preparation programs that
develop school leaders, and reviews research on how charter leader needs may differ from their
traditional school counterparts. I then present theoretical research on learning from experience, before
focusing specifically on what is known about what effective field experiences look like, and how they
work. At each stage I identify gaps and explore significant questions, before drawing together lessons
from the chapter in a conceptual framework. I end the chapter with some thoughts on how this
framework informed my research approach and my interpretation of the results.
History of School Leader Development
The vast majority of charter leaders in the United States are trained in traditional university
programs (Gross, 2011), although recently charter-specific programs have emerged that cater to a small
number of high quality candidates. This review highlights features of traditional and more innovative
programs that have implications for their field experience components. These programs set the broad
context for field experience, and it is helpful to understand them because it is very difficult to completely
disentangle the field experience components from the programs they are a part of (Darling-Hammond et
al 2007).
From One Pathway to Many
University-based educational administration programs, linked to state licensure requirements,
have been the dominant source of school leader preparation and development since 1945. Over the past
thirty years they have been subject to a growing level of criticism (Davis et alv 2005; Elmore, 2000; Levine,
2005; Murphy, 200b). Their detractors argued that they failed to keep up with new demands facing school
leaders in an era of increased accountability for student achievement, and that significant reform was
15


needed (Peterson, 2002; Hale & Moorman, 2003). Programs were criticized for their neglect of the
instructional and transformation leadership roles and practices that are now regarded as essential
(Elmore 2000; Hallinger 2005) and for their emphasis on the more administrative side of the principal
role. They were also censured for providing limited opportunities for principals to apply their learning, and
in particular for failing to deliver substantial field experiences (Orr, 2011;Levine, 2005; Young, 2002)
More generally programs were faulted for having low admission and graduation standards and lacking
rigor. Levine (2005) suggested that programs were in a 'race to the bottom' (2005, p. 23), and that the
majority were beyond repair.
Partly in response to such bleak pronouncements, program structures and approaches
proliferated. These new programs place emphasis on the importance of context for school leader
development, following evidence that different administrative competencies are needed to lead different
types of schools (Leithwood et alv 2004). Some programs are run as partnerships with specific school
districts others are school district initiated while a third group has focused on preparing particular types
of school leader, such as charter school leaders, or turnaround school leaders (Davies et al, 2005) Most
programs targeting charter school leaders fall into the third category and they have been able to
innovate rapidly due to their small size. Before focusing on these programs, I outline general exemplary
program characteristics in general.
Exemplary Program Characteristics
Significant attention has been paid to identifying effective leadership preparation programs
(Jackson & Kelley 2002; U.S. Department of Education 2005; Darling-Hammond et alv 2007; Cheney et al
2010; Orr, 2006; Davis & Darling-Hammond, 2012) Research has identied key features of effective pre-
service preparation programs (Davis et alv 2005; Darling-Hammond et alv 2007) and case studies have
been done of programs that illustrate these features, including some of the bigger charter leader
preparation programs (Davis & Darling-Hammond, 2012; Cheney et al, 2010). In a review of this literature,
Orr and Pounder (2011) highlighted features that separated average from exemplary programs. In terms
of content these programs are research-based and place emphasis on educational leadership practices
associated with school improvement (Bottoms & Egelson, 2012; Darling-Hammond et al, 2007). They also
16


offer a coherent curriculum that makes links between theory and practice, and is based on adult learning
theory (Davis et alv 2005). From a methodological perspective, such programs use varied approaches, but
most place emphasis on field-based internships problem-based learning and provide professional
supports for participants in the form of cohort groups and mentors. Additional features such as standards-
based assessments, and rigorous recruitment and evaluation processes are also highlighted in the
literature (Davis et a\., 2005; Jackson & Kelley, 2002), but as mentioned earlier, are not focused on here
due to the emphasis of my research on the field experience component itself.
Many of these features are also cited in reference to 'exemplary' in-service programs. In
addition, research on these programs has emphasized the importance of having a learning continuum that
takes principals from pre-service through the induction period, and beyond. It has also stressed the use of
multiple avenues of support including, collegial networks and peer coaching, both of which provide
support for problem solving, and can grow to serve as 'communities of practice' (Darling-Hammond et al.
2007; Davis & Darling-Hammond, 2012). However, a recent report by the George W. Bush Institute
reported that only five states require principal preparation programs to include all of the components
believed to be critical for effective leadership development (Briggs et a\., 2013), so a gap remains between
what is regarded as important, and what gets covered in preparation programs.
Charter Specific Programs
Research on programs specifically targeting charter school leaders is very limited, but a recent
report by the Rainbow Leadership Alliance (Cheney et al 2010) included a focus on the KIPP program,
which in conjunction with work done by the National Charter School Research Project (Campbell and
Gross, 2008; Campbell & Grubb, 2008) and the New School Venture Fund (2008) gives a reasonably
coherent picture of how such programs differ from other preparation programs. Based on these sources,
charter specific programs emphasize practice-based training (Cheney et al. 2010), and provide extensive
levels of support over an extended time period.
Perhaps the key strength of the alternative programs in general is their ability to tailor and
customize the learning programs for their principals, both in terms of content and methodology. In terms
of content, many of the charter-specific school leadership preparation programs cover leadership issues
17


amplified in a charter context, like facilities management, human resource management; academic
accountability; and charter renewal (Campbell & Gross 2008, p.12). In terms of methodology, evidence
suggests they are able to customize their approaches to meet the learning needs and styles of individual
trainees to a greater extent than the traditional programs do but as yet empirical evidence is not
available to support these suppositions, beyond self-reports from programs.
Empirical Research and Gaps.
Despite the lack of research evaluating charter specific preparation programs, there is a growing
body of research linking preparation program approaches and features and effective leadership practices
(Leithwood et a\., 1996; Orr, 2009; Orr & Barber, 2007; Orr & Orphanos, 2011). This research is based on
earlier work on the influence of specific school leader practices on student achievement (Hallinger &
Heck,1998; Leithwood & Jantzi 2008; Robinson Lloyd & Rowe 2008) which suggested leaders'
influence here is primarily via their direct influence on staff and organizational conditions. The research
on preparation program outcomes has measured graduate leadership practices (Leithwood et al 1996);
self assessed leadership knowledge (Orr & Barber, 2007), and leaders' sense of their self-efficacy
(Tschannen-Moran & Gareis, 2007). Investigation of the impact of particular components of principal
preparation programs on participant outcomes is still in its infancy, though one recent piece of research
by Orr and Orphanos (2011) found that, of all the exemplary program features, the strongest correlation
was between program and internship quality, and leadership practices.
Despite the general consensus on likely key program features, little is known about how different
contexts affect the efficacy of the features, about specific aspects of the features that are necessary for
powerful development experiences effective, the impact of difference conditions on their
implementation, or the combination of factors that make for the most effective development (Darling-
Hammond et alv 2007) It is likely that the quality of these program features will vary quite considerably in
practice, and so this makes contextually sensitive studies of critical importance to furthering knowledge in
this area.
18


Differences between Charter and Traditional School Leaders
Although research on charter school leaders is limited (Smith, Wohlsetter, Farrell, & Nayfack,
2011), existing findings suggest that there are significant differences in the typical charter leader role, the
support structures available for charter leaders, and the personal characteristics of typical charter
principals which have implications for what they require for effective preparation.
Amplified Responsibilities.
The standard view of charter school leaders portrays them as having responsibilities similar to a
superintendent of small school district in contrast to the role of a traditional public school principal as a
middle manager in a district organization. The only large-scale research that has addressed the
differences between the roles of charter and traditional school principals is an oft-quoted survey of 400
charter leaders carried out by researchers at the University of Washington for the Charter School
Research Project (Campbell & Gross, 2008). This research found that while there were many
commonalities in practices with traditional school principals there were a number of areas where charter
leader roles were "amplified and extended" (Campbell & Gross 2008, p. 9), including human resources,
sharing leadership, and using resources effectively.
Taking human resources as an example, research suggests the challenge is amplified in a number
of ways. Firstly recruiting teachers and staff is particularly demanding due to the lower rates of pay,
increased working hours, and the existence of long term job uncertainty (Deal & Hentschke, 2004; Lane,
1998) Secondly, and related to these factors, the typical charter teacher is younger and more
inexperienced than his or her traditional public school counterpart and therefore likely to require
significant support and development work (Frumkin et alv 2011; Odden, 2011; Kimball, 2011). Evidence
that supports this can be found in elevated teacher turnover figures, with up to 25% of charter school
teachers leaving each year, compared to an average of 14% in traditional schools (Stuit & Smith, 2009). In
addition, charter leaders have to manage external groups like governing boards and community groups;
roles that the limited research in this area suggests are highly challenging and require specific preparation
and skills (Campbell & Grubb, 2008).
19


Spectrum of Support Structures
The traditional picture of an independent entrepreneurial school leader is complicated by the
emergence of charter management organizations (CMOs) that take on many of the administrative tasks
that do not relate directly to student learning. These are growing in number but the impact they have on
the role of the principal is not clear from research. Cravens, Goldring and Penaloza (2012) looked at
differences in leadership roles between traditional public school principals and charter school leaders.
They also considered the impact of a charter school being affiliated with a CMO. They found that charter
school leaders reported a higher level of focus on managerial tasks such as building and staff
management, and recruiting and hiring teachers, than traditional public school principals. However, they,
and others (e.g. Campbell & Gross, 2012) have found conflicting evidence as to whether or not CMOs
reduced the stress level and responsibilities of their school leaders.
Different Profile
A final charter leader difference that has implications for their development is their younger age,
and corresponding lack of experience. Data from the National Center for Education Statistics shows that
like their teachers, charter principals are younger and less experienced (US Department of Education,
2012) than their traditional public school counterparts. It also highlights the falling average age of both
charter and traditional principals. This is significant because research suggests that principals who have an
educational background find managing charter school operations most significant, while those lacking an
educational administration background, struggle with the instructional side (Campbell & Gross, 2008).
With many newer charter leaders coming straight from the classroom, rather than from an administrative
role, or from a business role, they no doubt face significant challenges on both sides.
Explanatory Factors
Research presented in this section suggests that while scholars and practitioners agree on what
elements and processes effective programs need to have, most programs probably do not deliver
effective preparation. From research on exemplary programs in general, and charter specific programs in
particular, it is clear that field based learning, support systems involving peers and experts, and efforts to
customize the learning experiences of aspiring principals in terms of their background, and the school
20


they will be working in, are vital. However little is known about how these elements play out in real
practice, and in particular in the charter school context. Evidence suggests charter leaders have expanded
leadership roles, differing levels of support, and are younger and less experienced than their traditional
counterparts that their development needs are not currently being met in most traditional programs at
least.
Theories and Models of Experiential Learning
Turning to the theoretical arguments for field experience, these experiences are supposed to
"provide an extended opportunity to grapple with the day-to-day demands of school administrators
under the watchful eye of an expert mentor with reflection tied to theoretical insights through related
coursework" (Daresh, 2001) They are important because they represent the last and possibly best
chance to prepare aspiring principals for the challenges facing them as novice principals (Oplatka, 2012)
There are a number of theories and models that seek to explain how experiential learning works, and why
it is so powerful. The ideas below relate to the social nature of learning the importance of it being
situated in real practice, and the methods of learning from experience. I also present a frame for viewing
leadership development as a career-long continuum.
Situated Learning
Many scholars argue that effective experiential learning requires a learner to be deeply
embedded in an authentic context. Emphasis is placed on the social nature of learning (Bandura, 1997;
Wenger, 2007), and scholars draw on Vygotsky's (1978) notion that social interaction is fundamental in
the development of cognition. Lave and Wenger's work on communities of practice (Wenger, 1998; Lave
& Wenger 1991)is highly influential in schools. It concerns how "groups of people who share a concern, a
set of problems, or a passion about a topic, deepen their knowledge and expertise in this area by
interacting on an ongoing basis" (Wenger McDermott & Snyder 2002 p. 7). Communities of practice are
argued to foster peer-to-peer learning as well as more hierarchical expert-novice relationships. In schools,
communities of practice have primarily been associated with teacher development (Printy, 2008;
Hodkinson & Hodkinson, 2003) and related work can be found in research on professional learning
communities (McLaughlin & Talbert 2006).
21


For principals research has mainly emphasized their role in creating a school-based community
of practice. Despite this, research on principal social networks (Loeb & Rawlings, 2011; Hite, Williams, &
Baugh, 2005), and evidence from principal surveys (e.g. Darling-Hammond et al, 2007), suggests that
formal and informal principal communities' of practice do exist in reality and are perceived to be effective
(Intrator & Scribner 2008; Campbell & Gross 2008) There is also limited evidence this work being used to
inform some innovative principal preparation field experiences (Cheney et alv 2010)
Also influential in schools, and closely related to situated learning theory, is job-embedded
professional development. An increasingly popular strategy for teacher professional development over
the past 10 years the essential idea revolves around teachers coming up with solutions for real and
immediate problems of practice, in a cycle of continuous improvement (Wood & Killian, 1998; Darling-
Hammond, Chung Wei, & Adamson, 2010). Drawing on situated learning theory, job-embedded
development has been found to be most effective when it comprises both formal and informal social
interactions between teachers, and is situated in the context of their school and the classrooms in which
they teach and distributed across the whole staff group (Putnam & Borko 2000)
Cognitive Apprenticeships
These apprenticeships involve hierarchical relationships between expert practitioners and
novices (Collins, Brown & Newman, 1989; Rogoff, 1990; Farmer, Buckmaster, & LeGrand Brandt, 1992).
The idea here is to make the experts' thinking visible, building on the notion of tacit knowledge (Polanyi,
1967; Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995) or "knowing-in-practice" (Schon,1983) In a cognitive apprenticeship,
an experienced practitioner supports a novice in real practice situations. According to the theory they
take them through a sequence of behaviors: first modeling (both behavioral and cognitively); then
coaching; then fading. In the coaching or scaffolding phase, theory suggests that learners need to be in a
'zone of proximal development' (Vygotsky, 1978), a "dynamic region that is just beyond the learner's
present ability level" (Dennen, 2004) The student is at the same time observing, then practicing, and
finally reflecting (Dennen, 2004).
22


Self-Directed Learning
The literature on self-directed and transformational learning (see e.g. Knowles, 1975; Mezirow,
2000; Kegan, 2000) adds to our understanding of how adults learn through experience, emphasizing the
importance of developing 'personal knowledge' (Polanyi, 1967), which is only possible through application
and experience. Although early models in this field were rather linear, more recent work (e.g. Mezirow,
2000; Taylor, 2000) places emphasis on the individual in a specific context. For example, Taylor (2000)
stresses the importance of learning being individualized, with the person ^at the center of their own
learning" (Taylor, 2000, p.155), and Mezirow acknowledges the centrality of "institutional, interpersonal,
and historical settings" (2000 p. 24) for effective learning to take place.
Leadership Development Continuum
Adding to our understanding of self-directed and customized learning is the model of leadership
development though experience as a life long process. In this way, leadership development is "not a
single activity but a set of activities often taking place over many years (Hartley & Hinksman 2003 p.
43) and career stages can be linked to leadership development needs (Bush, 2009; Peterson, 2002) In the
UK, the National College of School Leadership frames its development work around 5 stages: emergent
leadership, established, leadership entry into headship, advanced leadership, and consultant leadership.
In the United States, some states are experimenting with tiered principal licensing systems that require
their continuing development. In these systems, the initial pre-service stage is followed by a separate,
supervised field experience, and tied to ongoing study (Bottoms & Egelson, 2012; Darling-Hammond,
2012) This stage is completed after principals enter their first job thereby providing continuity and
support for the novice principal. An increasing number of districts offer extended mentoring and coaching
models alongside institutes, as well as other more extended professional learning experiences (Davis &
Darling-Hammond, 2012). Despite these promising innovations, research suggests most principal
professional development is still in the more limited form of traditional one-shot workshops (Peterson,
2002).
23


Field Experience in Practice
With regard to the practice of field experiences, more commonly termed 'internships' in the
principal preparation context these are based on the clinical experiences found in medicine and
architecture. Their use in principal preparation programs dates from the 1940s, (Milstein, Bobroff, &
Restine, 1991), but over the last fifteen years there has been a growing recognition of their importance in
preparing school leaders focused on improving student learning (Glasman & Glasman, 1997; McCarthy,
1999) Prior to this there appears to have been more of a "sink or swim" attitude towards principals
(DeVita et alv 2007, p. 5), in part no doubt because of the significant resources and time commitment
required for intensive field preparation that includes a mentored transition into practice (McCarthy &
Forsyth, 2009). It is also due to the difficulty of designing discrete leadership experiences, given the
unbounded and intertwined nature of real school leadership (National Association of Secondary School
Principals 2007)
Best Practice
From the research a cohesive picture of what exemplary field experiences look like has emerged.
Internship guidelines from the National Policy Board for Educational Administration (NPBEA) require 9-12
hours a week for 6 months, and stipulate that the field experience should be 'significant' and 'sustained'
(NPBEA, 2011). Others argue that 'gold standard' field experiences should be full time, and last for a year
(Wilmore, 2002; Darling-Hammond et alv 2007). Despite these differences in duration, it is clear that
effective field experiences require a significant investment of time. Three interlinked elements are
regarded as essential: firstly, aspiring principals should be able to observe and then practice real
leadership tasks; secondly an experienced mentor or coach should support them; and thirdly, they should
engage in substantive action-reflection cycles on what they have done. A number of additional
requirements are emphasized in the literature, including: strong links between theory and practice;
analysis of participant developmental needs; an extended time frame of support; an explicit set of
standards-based assignments; rigorous evaluation; and a clear model of leadership (Darling-Hammond et
al 2007; Bottoms & Egelson 2012; Havard et al 2010; Mitgang & Gill 2012)
24


Despite agreement on the importance of these elements research has found that there is
significant variation in how these elements play out in practice (University Council of Education
Administration, 2010). Perhaps the most significant variation relates to the basic format of the field
experiences. Based on a survey of forty educational leadership programs, Barnett, Copland, and Shoho
(2009) reported finding three main field experience designs: full-time job-embedded internships, where
aspiring principals learned "on the job"; detached internships where interns completed required
activities using portfolios and reflective journals; and course-embedded field experiences, where field
experiences were fully integrated with coursework. These definitions were adapted from earlier work by
Carr, Chenoweth, and Ruhl (2003). However aside from a few case studies of exemplary program field
experiences, there has been very little research in this area. For example, little attention has been paid to
the impact that variations in required hours the links between practical work and coursework the timing
of the field experience component the number and type of school placements, and so on, has on the
overall effectiveness of this period of learning (Darling-Hammond et a\., 2007).
Implementation Issues
A number of criticisms have been leveled at field experiences in the research literature reflecting
a gap between the theory of how they should be and the reality of providing such a high-quality
experience. The primary criticisms are closely related to the three key areas identified above: aspiring
principals do not get the chance to practice key areas of their leadership role, including tasks associated
with instructional leadership, and areas of charter amplified responsibility (see e.g. Creighton & Johnson,
2002; Earley, 2009; Fry et alv 2006; Campbell & Grubb, 2008); they have inadequate levels of field support
(see e.g. McKerrow, 1998; Fry et a\., 2006); and poor links are made between theory and practice
(Cambron-McCabe, 1999).
Related to these problems, researchers have found significant evidence of the impact of limited
district financial resources (Daresh, 2004; Davis & Darling-Hammond, 2010; Bottoms & Egelson, 2012), as
well as issues with the selection and preparation of mentors (see e.g. Calabrese & Straut, 1999; Crocker &
Harris 2002) and time required for effective experiences (McCarthy & Forsyth 2009) Overall, it is clear
that significant variation exists in terms of both the quality and quantity of internship requirements and
25


activities. Given that only 40 percent of training program participants who complete district internships
actually go on to become principals or assistant principals (Mitgang & Gill 2012, p.7), it is likely that for a
great many aspiring principals, poor field experiences represent the end of their hopes to become a
principal.
'Gold StandarcT Examples
Much of the innovation in field experiences has come from the non-traditional programs. They
have generally extended the field experience component of their programs, and tried to customize them
based on participant needs, and extended support in the form of mentoring and coaching (Cheney et al
2010). One exemplar program often highlighted in the school leader development literature is the KIPP
School Leadership Program, which serves aspiring charter leaders. According to a report by Cheney et a\.,
(2010) KIPP customize their residency experiences by allowing fellows to rotate through a number of field
experience in schools based on their individuaTs leadership development goals. The program stresses that
individuals actively participate in the day-to-day instructional, operational, and people management
aspects of their host schools, and believe that participants "learn the most from actually engaging in the
work, making mistakes, and building on successes" (Cheney et alv 2010, p. 79). Also integral to the field
experiences is ongoing feedback from a mentor-principal as well as from a personal coach, cohort peers,
and others in the host schools.
Overall, the emphasis is on making the residency as realistic as possible, and so actually engaging
in the work, rather than just shadowing, is of paramount importance (Cheney et a\., 2010). Most
exemplary programs use Individualized Learning Plans (ILPs) to guide their trainees throughout their
residencies/field experiences. Though beyond the direct scope of this research, such plans place the
individual at the center of their training, and each is viewed as a "living dynamic document" showing how
program content is customized to individuals' learning needs (Cheney et al, 2010, p. 70). The programs
also state that these documents are co-created with the participants emphasizing self-directed learning
in this way (Cheney et alv 2010) Though no research yet exists in the impact of these ILPs on field
experience effectiveness, their use echoes findings from Boud (2006) that organizations are now
recognizing the importance of viewing their 'customers' as 'co-practitioners'.
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Research Issues
Although there is widespread agreement on the importance of this phase of school leader
preparation, there remains wide variety of state requirements, different programmatic ways
implemented, variety exacerbated in part due to lack of serious empirical evidence linking components of
the internship to leader performance and even less making the next step to student performance.
Scholars have argued that literature on principal field experiences in general and charter principal field
experiences in particular, is "piecemeal and fragmented" (Barnett Copland, & Shoho, 2009) Recent
research looking at principal perceptions of the role of internship in their acquisition of skills and
knowledge found that interviewees struggled "to disentangle their internship experiences from courses
and other training" (Thessin & Clayton, 2012, p.799) which highlights the general challenge with
evaluating preparation programs in general and the issues with having to relying on participant
reflections alone rather than more concrete performance indicators.
Explanatory Factors
Research in this section has demonstrated the strong theoretical rationale for practice-based
learning, and emphasized the importance of an authentic setting for the application of new skills and
knowledge, the benefits to be gained from accessing the tacit knowledge base of experienced
practitioners, and the importance of viewing leadership development as an on-going process. From a
practice perspective, it is clear that despite general agreement on what good field experiences look like,
we do not know enough about how much of this works in practice, particularly for charter school
principals. It is also evident that field experiences probably do not generally match up to best practice.
However important gaps exist in our knowledge of how field experiences work in local contexts
and on the conditions that most strongly support effective practice. Knowledge of what it might take to
transfer and use any exemplary practices more generally and widely in traditional university programs is
conspicuous in its absence, and is an important gap for researchers to address if field experiences in
mainstream programs are to achieve their goal of facilitating an effective transition from theory to
practice for aspiring principals. This review now turns to understanding the three key components of field
experiences highlighted above.
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Key Characteristic I: Learning Support for Field Experiences
In this context 'learning support' refers to personal, interaction-based, everyday support offered
by other individuals and groups that are part of the wider network these principals work in. Four
interlinked forms of support are discussed: mentoring; coaching; peer mentoring; and peer networks.
Mentoring
Mentoring is a crucial element in the success of aspiring principals' field experiences
(Barnett & O'Mahony, 2008; Gray et a\., 2007). Most definitions define it as an "extended process of
support from a more experienced colleague to help a beginner for personal and professional
growth" (Villiani 2006) It generally involves day-to-day feedback, support coaching, advocating, and
general guidance (Southworth, 2010; Crews & Weakley, 1996), and is also used as a socialization
strategy to help new administrators make transitions to their new role (Crow & Matthews, 1998;
Hansford, Tennent, & Ehrich, 2003). Linking with the work on development stages outlined in the
previous section, mentees have been conceptualized as moving from "dependence to self-
reliance" (Head, Reiman, & i hies-Sprinthall,1992, p.121) though it is not clear from this work the
extent to which the process is seen as linear or whether there is room for regression and oscillation
between stages.
A clear picture of the characteristics of effective mentoring relationships is evident from
research. They are characterized as trusting and collaborative, with aspiring principals being given
the opportunity to take risks "without fear of reproach" (Browne-Ferrigno & Muth, 2004, p. 489)
and to participate in a developmental continuum of practice culminating in "actually leading teams
in identifying, implanting and evaluating improvement interventions" (Gray et alv 2007, p.11).
Bush, Glover and Harris (2007) note that mentoring has become more person-centered, with greater
awareness of the need to match mentor and mentee, and to ensuring that mentors are carefully selected
and properly trained. Though mostly characterized as formal relationships between experienced and
novice principals, there is some evidence in leader preparation literature of the value of more informal
peer mentoring relationships (Browne-Ferrigno & Muth, 2004; bimieou et alv 2010) which I comment on
later. There is also evidence that it is helpful to extend mentoring relationships beyond the initial
28


preparation period (Darling-Hammond et a\., 2007; Cheney, 2010). Such extended relationships allow for
an early focus on administrative matters, like schedule and budget, while leaving time for attention to
crucial matters of instructional leadership (Silver et a\., 2009) as the relationship develops over time.
However, a large number of mentoring programs fall well short of the ideal. Many are described
as little more than 'buddy systems', or as consisting of a checklist of exercises for principals to go through
(Mitgang & Gill, 2012). Specific issues include: mentors and mentees having unclear goals, mentors
placing insuicient emphasis on instructional leadership; weak or non existent mentor training; little
attention to matching mentor with mentee; insufficient mentoring time; a lack of meaningful data for
evaluation; and perhaps most commonly, underfunding (Hansford & Ehrlich, 2006).
One promising line of research on improving mentoring relationships emphasizes the
importance of mentoring relationships that are reciprocal (Hobson & Sharp, 2005; Crow & Matthews,
1998; Geismar et a\., 2000; Daresh, 2001; Zepeda, Bengtson, & Parylo, 2012). Lambert (2002) uses the
idea of "reciprocal interdependency" to explain the importance of people working together to construct
meaning, and of viewing leadership as a shared process, rather than a trait that can be inculcated in an
individual. Similarly, Zachary (2005) develops the concept of "reverse mentoring" (2005, p.194) to
emphasize the potential for the mentor to benefit from the mentoring relationship.
As with field experiences in general there is a shortage of systematic research on mentoring
(Daresh,1995) in part due to definitional challenges (Healy,1997) Most research is based on
participant reactions and perceptions rather than their performance (Hobson, 2003), due to the
challenges with evaluating principals' performance. Given the particular difficulties with tracing the
impact of principal preparation overall to student learning outcomes, it is unlikely that it will be
possible to disentangle the effects of in individual elements of preparation, such as field experience
let alone the impact of mentoring within that specific context.
Coaching
Coaching is increasingly viewed as being both separate from, and an essential addition to,
mentoring relationships, for aspiring and novice principals. Coaching has been defined as a "learning
relationship" that takes place through reflective and goal-focused conversation between novices and
29


experts (Rhodes, 2012). According to research, coaching differs from mentoring in three main ways: it has
a shorter time frame, a focus on specific skill development, and the coach is often from outside the school
system (Bloom et al. 2003; Barnett and cyMahony 2008; Rhodes 2012; Bloom et alv 2005) However
such distinctions are not applied consistently and coaching and mentoring often in practice seem quite
similar (Bush, Glover and Harris, 2007 For example in both mentoring and coaching, the purpose is to
provide a "highly individualized approach to learning in an experiential fashion"(Daresh 1995, p. 498).
It is also clear that effective coaching relationships share many characteristics with effective
mentoring relationships. Research emphasizes the importance of building trust and rapport, being open,
and of matching principal and coach in terms of educational philosophy, school type, and the school-
based challenges they face (Silver et a\., 2009; Killion, 2012). There is a growing literature in this area on
school leaders, and it is clear that coaching, as a discrete strategy, is increasingly popular in preparation
programs, particularly with exemplary programs, including those focusing on charter leaders, like KIPP.
The gaps in the coaching literature mimic those found in the mentoring literature with very few
context specific explorations of what effective coaching relationships look like, and how they seem to
work in practice. One exception to this is a recent longitudinal of fulltime coaches supporting a university-
based preparation program. Lochmiller (2013) found that coaches used a variety of strategies to support
their novice principals: first they used instructional coaching strategies such as modeling; as the novice
principal grew in confidence they used a more facilitative approach acting more like a consultant. He
concluded that questioning played a central role in the development process, with coaches able to "force"
practicing administrators to reflect on their practices, and causing them to make changes they may not
otherwise have made.
Peer Mentoring
Although the vast majority of research on field experiences focuses on expert-novice
relationships, some has reported on the importance of peer mentoring (Muth, 2002; Browne-Ferrigno &
Muth, 2004; Hansen & Matthews, 2002). While definitions of peer mentoring vary, the key difference
with traditional mentoring is that it is takes place between people of 'equal status' (Topping, 2005, p.
321), i.e. people who are roughly equal in age, experience, and power, but still provides task and
30


psychosocial support (Angelique, Kyle, & Taylor 2002) Education scholars like Browne-Ferrigno and Muth
(2004) have emphasized the benefits of these often more informal "collegial-peer" relationships in
helping aspiring principals solve problems and get some of the support that they need. Others have
reported the benefits of using peers as mentors beyond the preparatory phase, as a form of continuous
professional development (Crow & Matthews 1998) Cheney and colleagues (2010) work on innovative
programs notes that they placed a strong emphasis on having a strong cohort of peers who pushed each
other to improve, and provided honest feedback to each other during their training and beyond. In this
way they were seen to function as a 'community of practice' (p. 87).
As with the literature on mentoring and coaching, there is very little context specific research on
peer mentoring relationships, particularly relating to charter leader preparatory field experiences. One
exception to this is some descriptive research on the KIPP School Leadership Program (Cheney et alv
2010). One feature of their annual Summer Institute is that four to five aspiring principals meet twice
weekly to develop their peer mentoring skills. KIPP believe that it helps participants build a strong peer
network, as well as getting them into the habit of giving their peers specific, meaningful feedback (Cheney
et al, 2010) In line with other innovative programs they share the understanding that the best way to
learn is by exampleintentionally creating experiential opportunities to "see what excellence looks like in
real practice" (Cheney et al 2010 p.80). These programs explicitly state that they view "coaching as an
action or a strategy rather than a particular person's role" and that coaching can involve a mentor, but
also a facilitator faculty or a peer. However there are no detailed investigations of such relationships
nor evidence of the impact of peer support within charter principal field experiences.
Peer Networks. As mentioned in part two of this review, peer networks play an important role in
supporting practicing principals, and their benefits have been heavily emphasized for teachers in
particular. In a leadership development context, they can be defined as structures built between peers for
building knowledge and spreading effective practices (Sipple, Killeen, & Monk 2004; Spillane, Reiser &
Reimer 2002) It is clear from reviews of the literature on education leadership (Bush, Glover & Harris,
2007; Davies et alv 2005) that networking is a favored mode of leadership learning, and evidence from
surveys of charter school leaders in the US certainly supports this (Campbell & Grubb, 2008). This makes
31


sense because the importance of leaders having strong networks has long been recognized in the generic
leadership literature too (Kotter 1982; Luthans 1988) Little attention has been paid to the role of field
experience in helping aspiring principals to form support networks, but innovative programs like that run
by KIPP, are explicitly integrating network building in their programs (Cheney et al, 2010)
Insights on the likely benefits of network building during field experience can be derived from the
growing literature on principal networks (Loeb & Rawlings, 2011), and on networks in general (Bartol &
Zhang, 2007) The school based work highlights structural features of networks, and shows how they can
help reduce the isolation that principals feel (Garber 1992) Beyond the field of education, researchers
suggest that networking has been under-utilized as a developmental tool. Bartol and Zhang (2007) argue
that networks can facilitate leadership development by helping aspiring leaders deal with challenges, and
can help them build interpersonal and relational skills. This research helps clarify some of the
characteristics that might be visible in effective principal networks and that aspiring principals might seek
to create. For example, citing pioneering work by Granovetter (1972) and others, Bartol and Zhang
conclude that weaker ties offer better opportunities for aspiring leaders to expand their capacities, and
suggest the potential for different ties for different kinds of development challenges (2007, p.395).
Support Summary
This section has shown that aspiring principals can benefit from a broad range of support
relationships. Coaching, peer mentoring, and peer networks offer important variations to the standard
mentoring relationship, and can strengthen the kind and level of personal support that principals get
during and after their preparation period. The attention paid by innovative programs and 'gold standard'
charter preparation program suggests they recognize the importance of these simultaneously broader
and more personal forms of support although research has yet to explore the results of this recognition
on participants in their programs.
Key Characteristic II: Authentic Leadership Practice Opportunities
The principal preparation literature is clear about the importance of having authentic
opportunities to practice leadership tasks during field experiences. The Southern Regional Education
32


Board (cyNeill et alv 2005) recommends that aspiring principals should engage in a "continuum of
practice" that begins with observation, and progresses to aspiring principals participating in, and
ultimately leading school-based activities related to instructional leadership. Such involvement is argued
to provide opportunities for them to adjust to "context culture and expectations in a given situation
before they are allowed to enter into a leadership role" (Havard, Morgan, & Patrick, 2010, p. 463)
improving their capabilities and confidence along the way. Guidance on specific areas that principals
should get practice at are covered at a broad level by state and national professional standards (Murphy
2006; Wilmore, 2002) Examples of these include the Interstate School Leadership Licensure Consortium
Standards (Council of Chief State School Officers, 2008) and the Standards for Advanced Programs in
Educational Leadership (National Policy Board for Educational Administration, 2011)
Characteristics of Authentic Opportunities
In more specific terms, Cheney and colleagues (2010) give examples of authentic practice
opportunities. These range from: debriefing major leadership decisions with their mentor principal on a
regular basis; implementing a new math curriculum in two grade levels; developing and implementing a
plan for improving student achievement using assessment data across multiple grades; having supervisory
responsibility for a few teachers including many opportunities for observations and feedback; and
developing and implementing an innovative program and measuring its effectiveness. However, no
distinctions are made as to the specific nature of charter school-amplified tasks in this report. Research
also suggests that authentic field experiences opportunities may come in different forms. Although
historically they have been in the form of a capstone opportunity at the end of a training program,
scholars have found that multiple periods of field experience, interwoven throughout a preparatory
curriculum can be benericial (Creighton & Johnson, 2002; Bottoms & Egelson, 2012), although logistically
challenging to deliver. Others have argued that aspiring principals need field experiences in a variety of
school settings, in order to increase the spectrum of challenges they are exposed to (Bottoms & Egelson,
2012; National Policy Board for Educational administration, 2011).
At least some of the 'gold standard' exemplary charter principal preparation programs are
33


running their field experiences in this more integrated way (Cheney et alv 2010) although as yet there is
no research on how these field experiences play out in actual practice. Central to the field experiences run
by these programs is that in addition to being a learning opportunity for the aspiring principal they are
also "a time to deliver results for a school and its students or at least a subset of students" (p. 81). The
program organizers believe that giving the principals this real responsibility, and allowing them to have
real accountability for results, is essential to ensuring that the field experience really is 'authentic'. In this
way, learning effects and outcomes can extend beyond knowledge acquisition to influence the skills that
they will need to have to deal with real life complexity when they take up their full time role.
Authenticity Challenges
Despite agreement on the importance aspiring principals getting authentic practice
opportunities, it is apparent from research that many aspiring principals do not get many chances to
actually lead (Wilmore, 2002; Davis et a\., 2005; O'Neill et alv 2005). This is particularly in areas related to
their central instructional leadership responsibilities, and for charter leader, areas of amplified
responsibility too (Campbell & Grubb, 2008). Very often, field experiences appear to involve aspiring
principals "shadowing" their supervisor and taking notes on their daily routine (O'Neill et alv 2007) or
doing "busy work and bus duty" (Young, Petersen, & Short, 2002) Research by the Southern Regional
Education Board found that fewer than one in four preparatory field experiences required aspiring
principals to actually lead activities with teachers in important instructional areas including curriculum
implementation and assessment, both of which are expected of successful instructional leaders (O'Neill et
al 2007) Part of the authenticity challenge may stem from the structure of the field experience itself,
particularly if aspiring principals have to squeeze it in around a full time job (Lehman, 2013), or to
complete it in the summer vacation. In addition, the unstructured nature of real school leadership also
creates significant challenges for program designers seeking to create authenticity (National Association
of Secondary School Principals, 2007).
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Authentic Practices Summary
The research in this section gives a clear picture of the importance of aspiring leaders getting
chances to both observe, as well as participate in and lead, a broad range of real school leadership tasks.
However it also suggests that many principals do not get these opportunities particularly in areas
relating to instructional leadership, and for charter leaders in areas of charter amplified responsibility.
Key Characteristic III: Reflective Practice
The theoretical justifications for field experiences in principal preparation programs align with
the literature on adult learning theory (Mezirow 1981 1991;Knowles 1970 1995) and are premised
upon the importance of linking classroom-learned theory with authentic practice. The basic tenet of
experiential learning theory, as advocated by scholars like John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, and Jean Piaget is just
this that learning will be more effective when it begins with experience, particularly if that experience is
problematic (Osterman & Kottkamp, 1993). Kolb (1984) presents one of the most highly regarded models
of experiential learning. The model comprises a four-stage process which is dialectic and cyclical:
experience; observation and reflection; abstract reconceptualization; and experimentation. As can be
seen here although experience is central to learning in this model reflection (acting as a mediator
between theory and practice), and action on that reflection, have critical parts to play as well.
Defining Reflective Practice
The literature on reflective practice in education is extensive and has played a central role in
developing principal preparation programs for at least two decades. Perhaps the most influential scholar
in this field is Schon, and his book, The Reflective Practitioner: How Practitioners Think in Action (1983). In
this he summarizes reflective practice as a "dialogue of thinking and doing through which [one] becomes
more skillful" (Sch6n,1987, p. 31). Essentially, this involves learning through and from experience, gaining
new insights and greater self-awareness (Boud, Keogh, & Walker, 1985; Mezirow, 1981). Arygris' (1976)
concept of 'double loop learning', which suggests that reflection on the reflective process itself,
questioning assumptions and values that lead to the initial outcomes is important also plays a useful role
here.
35


In understanding in more depth what reflective practice is, Schon makes the helpful distinction
between reflection-on-action (retrospective) and reflection-in-action (thinking while doing). In both
situations the practitioners are trying to build a new understanding of their actions, and refine their
expertise. In the former the reflection is more detached and conscious than the latter, which Schon
regarded as central to 'professional artistry'. For this reason, novice practitioners, according to Schon ,
tend to apply theories in a mechanical way because they lack the ontological skill of knowing in action (i.e.
tacit knowledge) that would allow them to make subtle adjustments to what they are doing and how
they are doing it, needed to respond more effectively to the actual demands of each specific situation. In
research on how experienced school principals make decisions, they were found to use reflection-in-
action far more readily than their novice principal counterparts (Rich & Jackson, 2006). This supports the
idea that tacit knowledge increases with experience (Sternberg et al 2000)
This idea of staged development is developed by philosopher Hubert Dreyfus (2001) explores this
idea of staged developed through a seven-stage model of skill acquisition, which supports the idea of
'stages' between Schon's novice and experienced practitioners. In this model practitioners move from
novice, through advanced beginner, competence, proficiency, expertise, and mastery to a top final stage
of practical wisdom. According to Dreyfus, while beginners can learn from information and rules in a
classroom, moving beyond the third stage requires "involvement and mattering" (Dreyfus, 2001) In
essence, to acquire more advanced leadership skills, such as those required by aspiring charter school
leaders, individuals have to develop a more contextually situated understanding, and in a context that
matters to them personally.
The /Situation, Gap
Despite the volume of scholarship on reflective practice there is little research on the practical
and situated aspects of it that might help participants in this sector to guide and develop their own local
reflective practices. As discussed in part two of this review, scholars such as Lave and Wenger (1991) first
pointed to the importance of capturing the situational features of effective learning experiences. The lack
of detailed research in this area is a problem for at least two reasons. Firstly, evidence suggests that in
many instances, principals reflect in an essentially unreflective, ritualized way (Finlay, 2008, p.l). Boud
36


and Walker critique much reflective practice as ?ecipe followingwith "checklists which students work
through in a mechanical fashion without regard to their own uncertainties, questions and meanings"
(1998, p.193). A reason for this may be having insufficient time for reflection, since doing it effectively
can be very time consuming and may not be realistic in pressurized work contexts (Quinn, 1998, 2000).
Secondly, there is disagreement about, the best format for reflective practice. For example,
should it be formalized, or more tacit and fluid? Does one better reflect with others in a critical dialogue,
or is it about quiet introspection? At the moment the introspective and formal modes predominate in
research in this area. For example, Reynolds and Vince (2004), and Finlay (2008) note in their research
that even if reflection is part of a dialogic process, the onus is on the individual to reflect and evaluate
their practice. However in the context of principal preparation field experiences with novice practitioners,
work is emerging that emphasizes the importance and benefits of reflection activity involving others, even
stretching to the practice of dialogue: from 'reflective conversation' (Ghaye, 2000), where a mentor and
student for example seek to solve problems in a collaborative way; to 'collegial reflection' (St Germain &
Quinn 2005); and 'collegial reflective practice' (Drago Severson, 2009, York-Barr, 2001, Day, 2000,
Bengtson, Airola, Peer, & Davis, 2012).
Reflective Practice Summary
It is clear from the research in this section that regular reflective practice is highly valuable and
that is works in a cyclical way. It is also apparent that there are likely different levels of expertise that can
be developed, and that a more collaborative and relational perspective on this process is important. What
remains missing is research into concepts like context situatedness, and collaborative processes, which
describe good practice, and identify the conditions that support and enhance these.
Framing the Research Opportunity
By critically reviewing what is known about effective field experiences, pointing to significant
gaps in the existing research base that overlap in this particular area, highlighting best practice, and
outlining theory that seeks to cast light on how different elements interact, Tve highlighted the need for
37


an in-depth context-sensitive study focused on understanding both what effective field experiences look
like, and how they work in practice, to develop charter school leaders.
This knowledge base and associated gaps relate to the preparation programs in general the
charter leaders that take them, and the nature and characteristics of the field experiences themselves.
With regard to program structure, it is clear that significant innovation has taken place over the past
fifteen years, and that a variety of options beyond traditional university programs now exist, including
charter-specific programs. Key program features have been identified, and include a substantial period of
field experience. In addition, due to their alignment with these program features, charter-specific routes
are believed to represent the 'gold standard' for charter leader field experiences. In terms of what we
know about the kinds of individuals taking preparatory programs to become charter leaders, it is clear
that significant variation exists in terms of the length and type of prior experiences they have.
It is also apparent that leadership demands of the roles they go into vary in important ways
based to a large extend on the kind of charter school they work for with some entering their programs as
interns while others are embedded in real leadership roles. Finally, regarding the field experiences
themselves, it is evident that opportunities to get practice in key areas of the school leaders role,
supported by a range of experienced principals and peers, combined with a variety of forms of reflective
practice, are critical. However, in each of these areas, a significant gap exists between what is known 'in
theory' and how it plays out in specific field experience realities, for charter school leaders in particular.
In terms of best practice, charter-specific programs emerge as one of the main standard bearers.
From analysis of these programs the features with most relevance to this research were: substantial
periods of full-time field experience; participants engaged in real tasks central to their school leader role;
high levels of program customization to the developmental needs of the participant (both in terms of
content and method); use of a broad variety of support including peer mentors, coaches, and an
emphasis on network building; and support that extends beyond the field experience itself.
The third area where this literature review has provided guidance relates to theories and
concepts that seek to explain how individuals learn from experience. While some of these theories are
highly complex, the following core ideas emerge relating to effective experiential learning: it needs to be
38


deeply embedded in real contexts; it needs to have a social, interactive element; and it needs to offer
opportunities and tools to help principals learn and embody that learning in their leadership practice. In
terms of specific concepts that recognize these elements, ideas of apprenticeship, communities of
practice, collegial reflection, and reciprocal support, provide potentially powerful guides to structuring
and supporting such learning and its embodiment in practice.
Drawing all of this research and theory together I constructed Table 2.1 below which serves as a
conceptual framework for my research. It highlights potential explanatory factors for effective charter
leader field experiences. In doing this it includes likely features of effective field experiences, which help
to focus attention on what effective field experience might look like in practice; it includes participant
characteristics, which are likely impact on the customization that needs to be done to make a field
experience work; and it highlights key theoretical constructs that may be useful in casting light on how all
the elements play out and interrelate in practice.
Table 2.1 Potential Explanatory Features and Theoretical Constructs
Field Experience Features Individual Features Theoretical Constructs
Site [Type; Number] Duration Type [Job-embedded etc.) Support [Types; Number; Duration] Customization [Content; Method] Reflective Practice [Type] Other: Standards-based assignments, Rigorous Evaluation; Leadership model Participant Role [During training & afterwards] Prior Experience (Education; Business; Leadership) Type of school (Support; Challenges] Adult Learning Theory Situated Learning Theory Experiential Learning Theory Reflection in Action/Reflection on Action/Double Loop Learning Cognitive Apprenticeships Reciprocity Collegial/Peer reflection
From this table, I drew three implications that I believed would be particularly influential in my
research. Firstly, attention to program customization is vital. Charter principals are likely to face broader
roles than their traditional school counterparts, and these charter-specific roles may require additional
training relating to the amplified managerial aspects of their role, as well as potentially detracting from
their ability to focus on their instructional roles. Secondly, practice opportunities take on even greater
significance. Since most charter principals do traditional university preparation programs, customization,
at least in terms of charter-amplified areas, is unlikely to take place in the classroom. Therefore, having
39


extended opportunities through field experiences to get practical exposure to the charter side of their
role, gaining context sensitive knowledge and a chance to develop the skills they require is even more
important. Thirdly, having a range of support relationships is beneficial. The value deriving from forms of
support beyond traditional mentoring, including peer mentoring and peer networked forms of support
are increasingly being recognized where learning is not seen as the separate acquisition of primarily
technical knowledge and skills by /.ncZ/V/c/L/a/s so much as a process of soc/.a/ participation, with learning
happening in relationship. These therefore need to be seen as a vital and integral feature of effective
development environments.
Based on the explanatory factors highlighted in the table, and the implications drawn from it
above, the following questions emerged which shaped my methodology and subsequent analysis:
To what extent does program format (in terms of traditional versus alternative) have an impact
on the features of field experience: specifically, can traditional university-based programs
provide effective field experiences for aspiring charter school leaders?
How does program/field experience customization play out in real field experiences: specifically
what is the balance between program and personal input; and what do effective developmental
continua look like in practice?
To what extent do program/field experience features have an impact on creating authentic
learning from 'doing and reflecting'? More specifically, what does reflective practice look like in
real situations? And finally,
To what extents are principals able to make use of broader support relationships, including peer
mentoring and network building? How do they play out in real practice?
In the methods chapter which follows, I was cognizant of two particular factors: firstly, the
importance of getting a view of the current state of charter principal preparation in a specific local
context, since such information would help frame what followed; and secondly, selecting a sample that
40


would enable me to explore in- depth, specific, contextually situated, and effective charter leader
preparatory field experiences.
41


CHAPTER III
A PRAGMATIC APPROACH TO EXPLORING UNCHARTED TERRITORY
In this chapter I describe the pragmatic world-view and a mixed-methods design that underpins
this study of principal preparation field experiences undertaken by aspiring charter school leaders. I
describe the methodology used for this study, including explanations of the survey and interview
instruments, the participants in the sample, the data collected, ethical considerations, my approach to
data analysis, and the steps taken to reduce threats to data quality.
Research Design
I made use of a form of sequential explanatory mixed methods research to facilitate an in-depth
and contextually situated exploration of effective field experiences. Mixed methods research uses a
combination of quantitative and qualitative data "for the broad purposes of breath and depth of
understanding and corroboration" (Johnson, Onwuegbuzie, & Turner 2007, p.123). This approach has
several advantages over conducting quantitative or qualitative methods in isolation, many of which are
pertinent to this study. Firstly, it helps create a fuller picture of the research issue, allowing for
information on broad trends to be gathered, as well as allowing for more in-depth personal perspectives
to be collected (Cresswell & Plano Clark, 2007).
Secondly, it allows the researcher to compensate for the weaknesses of one method with the
strengths of another (Greene 2007) For example critics of qualitative research point to the risk of
researcher subjectivity and for findings to be value-laden, where as detractors of quantitative research
lament the lack of contextual detail in the data, and suggest that statistically significant data often has
little real world significance (Babbie, 2010; McKnabb, 2008). By using both approaches, mixed methods
research provides qualitative data that can be used to help explain and give context specific meaning to
quantitative data, while the quantitative data offers up more generalizable and more easily replicable
findings (Cresswell, 2003; Rossman & Wilson, 1985; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 1998).
A third benefit is that the sequential structure allows for an emergent approach (Creswell &
Plano-Clark, 2007, p. 83) since questions in a second phase can be refined based on the basis of what is
42


learned in the first phase. All of these elements were important in this research because of the dearth of
substantive empirical research on charter school principal training in general and on the field experience
components in particular.
I collected quantitative survey data and analyzed it prior to the second qualitative phase in order
to get a broad perspective on trends and salient issues with regard to charter leader preparation
programs in general. This served in part to provide contextual detail for the second phase, and also gave
an empirical basis for selecting participants for that phase. In the second stage the focus could then be on
gathering in-depth, rich, 'thick description' (Lincoln & Guba, 1985) and perspectives on the field
experience component of the preparation from a small number of survey respondents.
This research was informed by a pragmatic worldview, concerned with discovering "what works"
(Patton, 2002) with regard to charter principal field experiences. Following Guba (1990) I understood the
term worldview to mean "a basic set of beliefs that guide action" (p.17) and defined my approach as
pragmatic because my primary orientation was to making an impact on real-world practice. I believe, like
social constructivists, that individuals construct their own meaning from events, and so it is important for
research to understand these views in their full complexity, rather than trying to reduce them to less
useful generalizations. However, the more scientific approach of the post-positivists is also helpful in
identifying patterns and potential relationships between variables of interest (Cresswell, 2008). In
appreciating the benefits of both qualitative and quantitative approaches, I chose methods that were best
suited for getting useful answers to the questions I had. For the second phase of this research in
particular, an inductive qualitative approach was appropriate because the nature and content of effective
charter principal field experiences that form part of principal preparation programs are not well
understood. From a social constructionist perspective, field experience is a complex and contextually
embedded phenomenon, and so it is appropriate to examine the perceptions of practicing principals
regarding their own development experiences (Patton, 2002).
43


Data
The data used in this research was collected in two separate phases. In the first phase in
November 2012, charter school leaders in Colorado completed a survey about their preparation
programs. In the second phase between March and May 2013,1 interviewed twelve practicing charter
principals about their preparation program field experiences.
During 2012-2013 there were 180 charter schools operating in Colorado, catering for almost
83,478 students. This represents 10% of the total K-12 public school enrolment in Colorado. These charter
schools generally outperform non-charter schools on state performance measures (Colorado League of
Charter Schools, 2013) Charter schools have been in operation in Colorado since 1993, and the charter
school is thriving, with 15 new schools opening in the 2012-2013 school year alone. It is also home to
innovative charter leader focused preparation initiatives run by the non-profit Get Smart Schools, and
charter management organizations including the Denver School of Science and Technology, and STRIVE
Prep, as well as the University of Denver's nationally recognized Ritchie Program for School Leaders.
Sample
The universe of charter principals in Colorado is reasonably small and so I made efforts to include
every practicing charter school principal in the survey. Working from an initial list provided by Colorado
Department of Education's Schools of Choice Office (the unit provides support to charter schools across
the state) I then cross-referenced it with data from the Colorado League of Charter Schools (a non-profit
that also works to support charter schools in Colorado). A complete list was not available, but I tried to
ensure that my list was as up-to-date as possible by cross checking it with publically available information
on school websites and other electronic sources. According to the latest data available,180 charter
schools were operating in the state at time of the survey. However, as some of these schools have more
than one principal for example a middle school principal and a high school principal and because some
positions were vacant it was not possible to determine with certainty the total number of charter
principals in the state at the time of the survey.
44


One hundred and ninety five principals were successfully sent a link to the survey. Of those, one
hundred and one principals completed the survey, a response rate of 52%. The table below compares the
demographic profile of my respondents with the most recent national demographic information available
for charter school leaders, taken from the US Department of Education's National Schools and Staffing
Survey (2012).
Table 3.1 Comparison of Survey Sample with National Sample
Colorado Sample National Sample
Years of Experience Less than 2 33 Different age categories
2-5 27 were used
5+ 39
Age Less than 40 45 48*
40-49 years 32 27*
50-59 years 15 25*
60+ 8
Race White 88 65
African American 3 18
Hispanic 6 12
Other 3 5
Gender Male 50 46.5
Female 50 53.4
SASS age ranges were: Less than 45; 45-54; and 55 years or more.
For the second phase of the research I used a non-probability based approach to select my
sample, known as purposive or judgmental sampling (Patton,1990) In purposeful sampling, participants
are selected to be Information-rich cases" with regard to the central purpose of the study (Patton,1990)
Preliminary analysis of my first phase survey showed a correlation between a principaTs reported average
leadership activity level during their field experience and their overall average evaluation scores for their
program. As the activity level increased, the program evaluation rating also increased. The extant research
emphasizes the importance of aspiring principals getting the opportunity to practice real leadership tasks
during their field experience, and so, following Patton (1990), I used these criteria (i.e. high activity scores
and positive evaluation scores) to select most of the participants. Some participants with low activity
scores and high evaluation scores, and others with high activity and low evaluation scores were also
selected to act as potentially disconfirming cases (Patton 1990).
45


Participants Profile and Characteristics
Although the participants were not selected to be representative, they covered a broad spectrum
in terms of their years of principal experience, their preparation program type (i.e. university based or
charter specific provider), and their school type (e.g. independent or run by charter management
organization). There were two important characteristics that the principals shared: firstly though they
were also not selected on the basis of the format of their field experience all of them had had full time
field experiences that lasted for at least one school year; secondly at the time they took their preparation
programs, all but two of them were job-embedded, (either as novice principals, working as the principal or
principal-in-training or as a school founder-in-traming or they were experienced principals) at the time of
their preparation program. I note these characteristics here because their profile is therefore significantly
different to the standard picture of people in preparation programs as aspiring principals, looking to be
socialized into a role they do not yet have, through a part time or summer internship (Browne-Ferrigno &
Muth, 2004) As a result, all but one of the principals faced real performance pressures that influenced
the nature of the situated learning that these principals experienced in dealing with the immediate and
messy challenges thrown up in the real world of leading a charter school.
Below I provide short profiles of the participants in order to give a sense of them as individuals,
bringing with them very different skills and experiences as well being prepared for different school roles,
and having varied preparatory program experiences:
Principal 1:In his first year leading the middle school of a stand-alone urban charter school this
novice charter principal had moved straight from a classroom teacher position in the same school. He
started a two-year traditional university preparation program while working as a teacher, and completed
it once he had his principal role. He was working as principal and was based in his school for the field
experience period. Although technically this was a capstone activity in the program, in reality it lasted
through the whole year. His mentor was the high school principal on the same site.
Principal 2: The most experienced leader in the sample, this former school district
superintendent had 17 years of leadership experience, but had only been in his role at the helm of a rural
independent charter for a couple of years. He completed a traditional university program whilst setting up
46


a traditional public school and his field experience took place in a traditional public school during this
transitional time. His primary mentor was the district superintendent, and he also worked with a former
public school principal.
Principal 3: This principal had extensive management experience in the private sector in
business and in private schools, prior to becoming the leader of an independent urban charter school. He
completed an alternative principal licensure program a few years after taking on his charter school role.
He had a former public school principal as his formal program mentor.
Principal 4: This principal worked as a teacher in an independent charter school for a few years
prior to enrolling in a nationally recognized university training program. During the program he completed
an in-house principal in training year at his existing school, and was mentored by the school's founder.
Principal 5: This principal was a classroom teacher in a traditional school for four years prior to
being accepted on a highly competitive nation-wide charter school founder's preparation program. He
had field experiences in more than forty schools across the country over a two-year training period and
was responsible for setting up his urban charter school during this time. He had a range of mentoring and
coaching relationships during this time.
Principal 6: This principal worked as a teacher in an independent urban charter school for six
years prior to taking a principal-in-training role in the high school there. He completed a traditional
university preparation program while doing his training year and was supported in this process by the
executive director of the school.
Principal 7: This principal trained as a teacher in a residency program, and taught for ten years
before working in various roles administrative roles in public schools. She then got an administrative
position in a small CMO, and did her training with university program while setting up new charter school
for them that she then led. This school is now a stand-alone charter school in an urban area.
Principal 8: This principal had extensive management experience in the private sector prior to
working as a teacher for four years. He accepted an assistant principal role in an urban charter school run
by a CMO at the same time as enrolling in a traditional university preparation program. Mid-way through
47


the program he had to take on the principal role full time and was supported by the CMO director during
this time.
Principal 9: This principal completed a traditional preparation program in another state, after a
five-year teaching career in public schools. She was the only one in the sample to have a standard one-
year internship in a traditional public school. She then moved to an assistant principal role in an urban
charter school run by a local charter management organization, and did a year long training program
there before becoming principal. In her first internship, her mentor was the principal at that school.
Principal 10: With an education career spanning 26 years, a number of them in leadership roles in
private schools, this principal took over a suburban independent charter school seven years ago. She took
a one-year alternative principal preparation program whilst working as a school leader last year in order
to attain her principal license, and was formally mentored by a retired public school principal.
Principal 11:This principal completed a traditional university program in another state, after
having taught for five years, and worked overseas for a non-profit. During his internship, he was also
working in an administrative position in the same traditional public school. He then took a charter leader
role after completing his training. The principal of the school where he worked mentored him during his
field experience year.
Principal 12: This principal trained with Teach for America then joined a nationally recognized
charter school network as a teacher. He worked as a teacher for five years prior to taking their in-house
principal training designed for school founders. This included field experiences in charter and traditional
public schools. After eight years as a principal he took their training program again, and was coached by
the same person he worked with in his first training period, in order to found a second school. He now
works for an independent urban charter school.
Instruments
I carried out elite interviews (Harvey, 2011)with twelve Colorado based K-12 education experts
about the state of charter leader preparation prior to completing my survey. The interviewees held a
variety of positions related to principal preparation in Colorado, representing state, district and school
48


levels, and included senior district administrators, university preparation program directors, a charter
management organization chief executive, a representative from an independent charter school
authorize^ education researchers, a professional development center director, and a director from
Colorado Department of Education. The interviews were conducted by telephone and in person, and
lasted an average of 25 minutes. The questions focused on their perspectives about the quality of charter
school leader preparation in the state, the key leadership training needs of charter leaders, strengths and
weaknesses with programs, including the field experience in particular, and asked if there were issues
related to preparation they would like to know more about. Their feedback was largely in-line with the
extant literature that significant gaps existed in the preparation experiences of most charter school
leaders and that job-embedded preparation opportunities seemed to be the most effective. I used their
interview responses as a check that I had covered all the key areas in my survey, and to highlight areas
where I wanted to focus my questions.
Survey Instrument
The survey was designed to collect information about the nature and quality of the preparation
programs completed by practicing charter school principals in Colorado. The questions were largely taken
from a recent national survey of school principals about their initial preparation conducted by researchers
as Stanford University (Darling-Hammond et al 2007) Because this survey did not discriminate between
charter and traditional school principals, it was important to add and adapt some questions using a survey
by the National Charter School Research Project (Campbell & Grubb, 2008) and work by the non-profit
charter leader organization New Leaders. The items were designed to evaluate principals' perceptions in
three main areas: their principal preparation program in general the internship component of that
program specifically, and their subsequent professional development experiences.
I put the draft survey into web format on Survey Monkey and then ran a pre-test with some
former traditional and charter school principals, who were asked to comment on the survey's readability,
length, comprehensiveness, and redundancy (Presser et a\., 2004). Refinements were made in the light of
their comments. The final questionnaire used appears in Appendix A.
49


Interview Protocol
The semi-structured interview questions that framed this research were based on factors
identified in the extant literature on pre-service internships and residencies, and included mentoring,
having a developmental continuum of practice, real leadership tasks, supervision, feedback, reflection,
and coaching, as well as in the case of more innovative university based and non-traditional programs,
more personalization, and extended periods of support. The interview protocol was based on questions
asked by the Stanford University research (Darling-Hammond et alv 2007) on principal preparation field
experiences, and the National Charter School Research Project's interview questions for charter leaders
on their initial preparation. These questions were refined and refocused in light of quantitative findings
(see Appendix B for the semi-structured interview protocol).
Ethical Considerations
Although I anticipated no serious ethical threats posed to the participants by this study, various
safeguards were employed to ensure the protection of their rights. Firstly, informed consent was received
from every participant at each stage of the study in accordance with Institutional Review Board
guidelines. Secondly, I was careful to de-identify both survey and interview data, in order to keep the
names of the participants confidential. Every aspect of the research was carried out in accordance with
University of Colorado Denver's Colorado Institutional Review Board, and I gained their consent for each
stage of my research as per their guidelines.
Data Collection
In the first phase of the research all the charter school principals in the state that I obtained an
accurate email address for (196 in total) were sent an email explaining the purpose of the research and
asking them to participate in an online survey. The email contained a link to the survey allowing for the
tracking of responses. Those that did not respond initially were then sent up to 3 reminder messages, via
the Survey Monkey site, with tailored requests (e.g. talking about how little was known about rural
charter schools, or the importance of hearing from those affiliated with a CMO) in order to try and
improve the response rates. At the same time I enlisted the support of a few well-known people in the
50


charter school sector (including current principals, senior figures in a charter authorizing body, the League
of Charter Schools, and Colorado Department of Education's Schools of Choice unit, and a couple of
people involved in charter school professional development state-wide). I asked them to encourage their
charter principal colleagues to respond to the survey. This strategy worked well, and response rates
jumped immediately following such appeals.
For the second phase of research I contacted twenty principals that fell within the purposive
sampling criteria outlined above, asking them by email to participate in the second phase of research. I
sent up to three reminder emails until I reached 12 positive responses. The face-to-face interviews took
place over a period of approximately eight week, at the school site of each of principals, and lasted an
average of sixty minutes. Each interview followed a semi-structured format (Merriam, 2009) and
consisted of seven questions with a number of follow-ups and probes (see Appendix B).
Data Analysis
In analyzing the survey data from the first phase of research, I used SPSS statistical software to
calculate basic frequency distributions and descriptive statistics, in order to gain a picture of the broad
state of charter leader preparation in Colorado. Prior to completing the analyses I prepared a codebook,
created a data file, and cleaned the data following standard processes (Pallant, 2010) I then ran a number
of cross-tabulations to try and discern if there were any significant patterns between the type of
preparation and field experience a principal had, and their demographic and school characteristics, in
order to identify features that might warrant further investigation in phase two of the research. Due to
the small number of alternative / charter program participants in the sample I was not able find many
statistically significant differences.
For the second phase of research the interviews were digitally recorded and then transcribed by
two independent transcribers via the freelance website oDesk. I crosschecked the complete transcriptions
against the original recordings for accuracy and uploaded them to Dedoose, a web-application that
facilitates analysis of qualitative data. The initial coding tree headings were determined by the interview
questions, which were in turn determined by the literature review and survey, and I later refined them on
51


the basis of emerging patterns in the data. The Dedoose search function was used to check on key terms
once each transcription had been coded and recoded multiple times. This process was an iterative one,
involving moving in "analytic circles" (Cresswell 2007 p.151) between the transcriptions the literature
my growing lists of codes, and back again. Significant use was made of the memoing function provided in
the Dedoose software to link excerpts that seemed to be talking about the same issues. Ultimately the
research findings were selected on the basis of the number of respondents mentioning them, and the
quality of the contribution, as perceived by me in conjunction with other findings and the extant research.
Based on analysis and synthesis, I was then able to think about the broader implications of this research,
and to formulate conclusions and both practical and research related recommendations, which are
presented in Chapter VI of this research.
Methodological Considerations & Limitations
The primary goal was to "understand a real Hfe phenomenon in depth' in this instance the
impact of field experience on charter principal leadership development, "encompassing important
contextual conditions' in this case the selected research sites in Colorado, and relying on "multiple
sources of evidence" (Yin, 2009, p.18) in this case the survey and in-person interviews, tiiven this goal,
and pragmatic worldview I have espoused the essential approach of this research was to take all steps
possible to ensure the "trustworthiness" of the research in line with Cresswell (2007). Some of the
conditions that limit this study relate in general to the primarily qualitative research methodology I used,
and some are inherent in the particular research design that I created. From the outset of this research I
tried to account for these limitations and sought to reduce their impact where possible. An important
factor to address was my own subjectivity as a researcher. The concern here is that one finds what one is
looking for (Drapeau, 2002). Recognizing this possibility, I acknowledged my research agenda from the
outset, as shown in Chapter I. Specific issues relating to credibility, dependability, and transferability are
explained below.
Credibility: This concerns the validity of the conclusions I reached, both from methodological and
interpretive standpoints. From a methodological perspective, I used a mixed methods approach in order
52


to yield a fuller and richer picture of effective charter principal preparation field experiences. In terms of
interpretative validity, the analytical processes I went through have been explained in this chapter. I was
also careful to look for disconfirming evidence and variation in my sample's responses, and have
presented a range of responses where appropriate in my findings, as discussed at length by Lincoln and
Guba (1985). In reviewing and discussing my findings with colleagues I have also attempted to ensure that
the reality of the field experiences presented by the interview participants was accurately reflected, and
through providing verbatim quotes of many of their responses in this final text provide the interested
reader with the basic evidence I have used in my analysis and interpretations.
Dependability: Although I did not explicitly focus on reliability, many of my survey questions were
drawn from pre-existing research, and the questions that my interviews were based on have similarly
been used in previous studies. I have also been concerned with "transparency of method" (Merriam,
2009) documenting my procedures and in so doing, creating an audit trail (Lincoln & Guba,1985) of my
thinking and decision making including memos interview transcripts and field notes in order to facilitate
any similar investigations in the future.
Transferability: The small interview sample I used could lead people to argue that this limits the
possibility of generalizing my results to other groups of principals, and other field experience routes. I did
not set out explicitly to provide generalizable results, but rather, by giving rich 'thick description' of the
participants and their particular preparation contexts, I have attempted to facilitate the transferability of
my research findings. Following Patton's (1990) idea of "context bound extrapolations" (p.491) which he
defines as "speculations on the likely application of findings to other situations under similar but not
identical conditions" (p. 489) I hope that readers will be able to determine to what extent my particular
findings here 'resonate' with them and decide for themselves whether and how findings can be applied to
other settings and their own particular contexts (Erlandson et al.1993; Cresswell 2007)
In this chapter I described the methodology used in this study. I chose to use a mixed-methods
approach to investigate what works in charter principal preparation program field experiences. The
participant sample was made up of 101 practicing charter school principals, who completed an online
53


survey about their preparation experiences and twelve of whom were then purposively selected for an
in-depth personal interview about the field experience component of their program. In selecting a
primarily qualitative approach I hoped to contribute to the literature on school leadership by "shed[ing]
light in dark comers' and in doing so to uncover "meaning where no meaning has been clearly
understood before" (Shank, 2002, p.11). It is to this task of casting light that this research now turns.
54


CHAPTER IV
OVERVIEW COLORADO CHARTER LEADER PREPARATION PROGRAMS
This is the first of two chapters outlining my research findings. In it I present the main results
from the charter school leader survey that constituted the first stage of my research. As highlighted in
Chapter II there is a quality gap between so-called exemplary preparation programs, and the majority of
traditional university based preparation programs (Darling-Hammond et al, 2007; Levine, 2005; Hess &
Kelly, 2005). Since most charter school leaders do traditional university based preparation programs,
which research suggests generally do not cover important managerial aspects of the expanded charter
leader role (Campbell & Gross, 2008; Campbell, 2012), they are unlikely to have all their charter specific
needs met. This is likely to be true of the field experience component of their programs too, where
research confirms many programs struggle to deliver in a meaningful and authentic way (Darling-
Hammond et al 2009; Levine 2005; Fry, O'Neill & Bottoms 2005)
In this chapter my findings provide a snapshot of pre-service preparation programs taken by
practicing charter leaders in one state. Overall they provide support for previous research on charter
school pre-service preparation programs (Campbell & Gross, 2008; Campbell & Grubb, 2008). I report
here that a majority of charter school leaders were trained in traditional university-based programs and
that many did not feel very well prepared by their programs, particularly for their charter-amplified roles.
Although a majority said that their field experiences contained exemplary features like mentoring and
exposure to real world problems, many did not get a chance to actively participate in or lead activities in
areas central to their school leader roles. Active participation opportunities were particularly lacking in
charter-amplified areas of practice. I also describe the positive relationship that exists between field
experience activity levels and overall program evaluation for my sample. Finally, I explain that participants
had a high level of exposure to and appreciation for experiential forms of in-service professional
development activities.
55


In what follows I present these findings in more detail highlight results that relate to improving
our understanding of effective field experience for charter school leaders, and draw out the implications
for the second qualitative phase of my research.
A Shift Towards Alternative Provision
Echoing existing research on charter leader preparation, the picture that emerges from this
survey is that traditional university-based preparation programs prepare most charter principals. As Table
4.1 shows below, almost 60% of the sample took such programs with just over 20% taking alternative
preparation routes (the majority of which were charter-specific programs), and the remaining 20% having
had no formal pre-service preparation at all.
Table 4.1: Charter Leaders Preparation Program Type
Preparation Program Type N %
Traditional university-based 63 59
Alternative programs (total) 23 22
Charter Leader specific 9 9
Charter Management Organization sponsored 10 10
Other 4 3
Did not do a formal program 20 19
Although a majority of charter principals reported being trained in traditional university
programs, this percentage is significantly lower than the average of 75-80% reported in earlier surveys
(Campbell & Grubb 2008) Statistics on the numbers of charter principals taking alternative training
routes are not available for comparison with this survey but a recent report by the Center for American
Progress (Cheney & Davis, 2011) highlights that alternative pathways are increasing. Based on this and
other state-specific reports, it seems reasonable to conclude that provision of alternative routes has
significantly increased since the last charter specific preparation survey in 2008. On the evidence of this
survey at least it is clear that the proportion of principals taking alternative preparation routes has grown
as the overall number of charter schools has grown.
I was interested to see whether and what differences there were between the responses of the
alternative and traditionally trained principals on their training. In particular, to see if they offered
56


support to previous qualitative findings that have suggested alternative programs offer higher levels of
personalization, more substantial periods of field experience, a greater focus on charter specific skills, and
are overall more effective in terms of their preparation of charter leaders (Campbell & Gross, 2008;
Cheney et alv 2010). However, I found few statistically significant differences in these areas, perhaps
because the alternative sample was fairly small. Chsquare analyses did reveal that the alternative sample
were significantly younger, less experienced, and less likely to be certified than their traditionally trained
counterparts.1 This supports extant, more anecdotal evidence that more young leaders are going directly
into charter school leadership, rather than working in traditional public schools first and may be less
concerned with gaining 'official' recognition of their training in terms of certification, which is not a state
requirement for charter school leaders in many states, including Colorado.
The results thus far suggest that fewer than one in four charter school principals are trained in
programs designed specifically with their needs in mind. What we cannot tell from this snapshot is
whether those on alternative routes are actually getting training that is more targeted to their needs, and
if they are, how customization works during the field experience part of it. Unanswered too, is the
question of whether they actually feel better prepared as a result? It is hard to tell the implications of
having younger and more inexperienced aspiring principals, particularly in terms of the field experience
component of preparation programs. In consequence of these outstanding questions, I decided to focus in
the next phase of my research on finding out whether and what kind of relationship there was between
effective field experience and the type of preparation program principals did, the extent to which
participants were or were not able to get customized development experiences, and whether this seemed
to be linked to their experience levels or the type of program they were doing.
Charter Skill Gap
Turning to evidence of differences between program types in terms of their provision of charter-
amplified content, the first part of the survey asked principals to evaluate their programs in terms of
general content and pedagogical features. It was clear from this that although on average, the programs
1 Age: p= .001 chi square phi value .426, indicating a moderate positive relationship; Experience: p= .053
phi= .301, also a moderate positive relationship; and Certification: p= .000 and phi= .433)
57


measured up quite well against the exemplary program features outlined by Darling-Hammond et alv in
their landmark 2007 report on exemplary principal preparation programs, a significant gap existed in
terms of charter specific skill preparation.
Looking first at the general features the table shows the scores given by principals in my survey
compared with the exemplary programs researched by Darling-Hammond et a\., and the national program
survey they also conducted (2007).2 The survey results suggest that on average, the programs taken by
Colorado charter principals were perceived as weaker than the exemplary program sample, and
comparable to the national programs sample, in the three broad areas relating to leadership focused
program content, active, student-centered instruction, and reflection-rich program content.
Table 4.2: Graduates7 Perceptions of Program Features & Pedagogy
To what extents were the following qualities/practices true of your leadership preparation program? l=Not at All 5=To a Great Extent Survey Mean (n=86) Wallace Exemplary Program Mean (n=242) Wallace National Mean (n=629)
Leadership focused program content (scale) 3.7 4 O 3.8
Reflection rich program content (scale) 3.7 4 o 3.5
Active student centered instruction (scale) 3.7 4.3 3.5
Practicing school/district administrators taught the program 3.6 2 g* * 2.9
1 was in a student cohort 3.0 4 c * * 2.5
Faulty members were very knowledgeable about their subject 3.9 4.6*** 4.1
The program included lectures 3.6 3.7*** 4.0
***= Statistically significant differences between exemplary and national program scores
While it is difficult to draw much from these results, in particular given that the previous research
was conducted a number of years ago they do at suggest that overall most charter principals did not
experience anything like an 'exemplary' program. Focusing on the content that was emphasized in the
preparation programs, and in line with previous research, my survey results indicated that traditional
programs do not prepare charter school leaders well for their expanded responsibilities (Campbell &
Grubb, 2008) More surprisingly, the results also suggest that on average, alternative programs are not
These comparisons are aggregate means reflecting program graduates' reports. All those in the
Colorado survey were practicing principals, as were those in the national sample, while some of those in
the exemplary program sample were not.
58


doing a much better job. The table below highlights program content areas described in existing research
as being "amplified and extended" in a charter school context. It shows the percentage of survey
respondents agreeing that their program emphasized these areas not at all or a little, as compared with
those agreeing it emphasized them to a great or very great extent. It shows that 9 out of 10 principals
completed programs that did not emphasize fund raising; just over 8 out of 10 experienced little emphasis
in negotiating with districts and traditional public schools; and only just over a third felt that their
program emphasized budgeting and human resources issues.
Table 4.3: Preparation Program Content Emphasis
To what extent did your program emphasize the following content areas? l=Not at All... 5=To a Very Great Extent % 1&2 % 4&5 Mean score N=86
Budgeting and Resource Management 29 35 2.9
Fund Raising 90 7 1.6
Negotiating with Districts & Traditional Public Schools 82 5 1.6+
Governance & Board Relations 67 16 2.2
Human Resources Policies & Practices 31 36 * 3.1
Acquiring & Managing Facilities 62 10 1.9
+ n=85
These findings echo the National Charter School Research Project findings (Campbell & Grubb,
2008) that charter leaders do not get exposure to important areas of their role in their pre-service
preparation programs. This is not that surprising given that many of them would have done the training
with the intention of being traditional public school principals and later switched to the charter sector
but nevertheless, the fact remains that charter leaders face a large skills gap when starting their charter
school roles.
This lack of attention to charter-specific skills is echoed in the program evaluation findings of the
survey. Table 4.4 below shows that there was significant variation in the extent to which current charter
principals felt prepared by their programs, but leaders were still less likely to report feeling well prepared
in areas of charter-amplified responsibility. Notably, only one in four principals reported feeling well or
very well prepared by their programs for managing the budget and less than one in ten felt well or very
well prepared to manage facilities fundraise or negotiate with districts and traditional public schools.
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Table 4.4: Principal Evaluations of Preparedness3
How effectively did your formal leadership program prepare you to do the following? l=Not at All... 5 =Very Well % 1+2 % 4+5 Mean Score (N=81)
Ensuring Effective Teaching & Learning 10 66 3.8
Nurturing Student & Staff Efficacy 17 57 3.5
Leading Learning Organizations 18 58 3.6
Building School & Community Culture 20 63 3.7
School Law & Regulatory Compliance 21 48 3.3
Personal Leadership 21 67 3.7
Focusing on Data & Outcomes 27 52 3.3
Human Resources Policies & Practices * 31 34 3
Scheduling & Procedures 43 27 2.8
Using Technology 53 19 2.5
Budgeting and Resource Management * 53 26 2.6
Governance & Board Relations * 61 13 2.2
Acquiring & Managing Facilities * 77 9 1.9
Negotiating with Districts & Traditional Public Schools * 84 5 1.6
Fund Raising * 89 8 1.6
Areas of amplified and extended charter leader responsibility
As with the previous table, the low scores in charter-amplified areas are not altogether surprising
because it is likely that they would not be covered to the extent required by charter leaders in programs
serving traditional public school leaders. However, the implication that many charter principals are to a
large extent left to 'sink or swim' once they get into their leadership roles is important to note. Given that
managing board relations and budgeting effectively make a huge difference between a school leader
being successful at their role, or not finding out how programs are able to expose their participants to
these areas during field experience is of critical importance. Supporting the desirability of addressing this
skills gap, at least one in three of the principals surveyed expressed a desire for more emphasis in their 3
3 Scale created by combining indices: not / a little, and well / very well prepared.
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training on all the areas of amplified responsibility, as Table 4.5 below shows.
Table 4.5: Desirable Program Extra Emphasis with Benefit of Hindsight
Hindsight Prep More Emphasis % Yes (n=101]
Budgeting 55
Fund Raising 33
Negotiating with Districts 37**
Governance & Board Relations 4**
Human Resources 32
Facilities 35
** Significant (p<0.05) difference between traditional and alternative program scores
In this table, some evidence of differences between traditional and alternative programs emerge,
with principals trained in traditional programs being significantly more likely than those trained in
alternative programs to want more emphasis on governance and negotiating with districts. It is not
possible to infer whether this means that principals trained in alternative programs felt better prepared in
these areas, or whether the desire for additional training stemmed from systematic differences in the
kinds of schools these principals were running, but it is at least possible that the former is true. Taking
board relations as an example, traditional principals have little to no contact with a board, since their
district superintendent manages it and so traditional programs are unlikely to focus on it. Therefore it
would not be until they became a charter leader that they would have any exposure to the role, unless
their field experience was in a charter school, or they explicitly sought out such exposure themselves.
Overall from this we can see that on average, the programs taken by principals in the sample fell
well short of the exemplary programs. Although they seemed to do a reasonable job of covering general
leadership content, they did a much poorer job of covering areas of charter- amplified responsibility. It is
not possible to tell from these scores the extent to which these charter-specific gaps matter, although
Table 4.5 above suggests that for many practicing principals, they did matter enough for them to wish in
retrospect that they had been covered better. It is also not possible to tell from this data how those that
did feel better prepared in charter-amplified areas got their experience. In the subsequent phase of
research therefore, I decided to focus on finding out: if principals had opportunities during their field
experience to practice in areas of charter-amplified responsibility; how they worked in practice; how
61


important they felt these opportunities were; and why they did or did not feel they were important. In
this way I hoped to get insights into the impact that lack of exposure to these areas had to principals once
they were working in charter schools as well as to find out how the gaps might best be addressed for
future programs.
Programs Echo Exemplary Characteristics
The survey asked principals about the nature and quality of their preparatory field experiences.
The vast majority (87%) of principals in the sample reported completing field experiences, which
compares well with previous research. The Darling-Hammond et al survey (2007) found that 89% of those
in exemplary programs had internships/field experiences compared with just 72% in the national
program sample. One significant difference arose between traditional and alternative program types
here, with those doing a traditional program more likely to report having a field experience internship4.
This is somewhat surprising given the purported focus of alternative programs on field experience
(Campbell & Grubb, 2008). It could be explained by systematic differences in how participants
interpreted the question, with those engaged in alternative program residency types of field experience
consistently not viewing them as internships (the language used alongside field experience in the survey).
An alternative explanation might be that some alternative programs could have particularly limited
budgets, and so are not able to afford for principals to engage in a field experience.
Just under half the sample reported having part-time field experiences that were completed
while working full time, or during the summer vacations. A similar number reported being able to focus
on their field experience full time. Specific figures are not available from the exemplary program research,
but they did report that principals in exemplary programs were much more likely than those in the
national sample to have completed full time field experiences (Darling-Hammond et al 2007)
In Chapter II the research on effective preparation programs pointed to the importance of a
number of field experience features, including having an experienced mentor a developmental
continuum of practice, an opportunity to engage in substantive action-reflection cycles, and having
4 Chi square =.003, phi value =.398
62


authentic experiences anchored in real world problems. The charter principals in this research reported
that their program field experiences measured up pretty well against these criteria. Their responses also
had a positive relationship with overall program evaluation scores. As Table 4.6 below shows a large
majority of principals in the survey were mentored by existing principals (75%) and had field experiences
anchored in real world problems (84%). A majority (54%) also reported having experienced a
developmental continuum of practice, having assignments linked to principal standards (63%) substantive
action-reflection cycles (54%) and a personalized learning experience (64%).
Table 4.6: Principal Perceptions of Field Experience Features
To what extent did your educational leadership internship experience(s) reflect the following attributes? l=Not at All. .5=To a Great Extent % 1&2 % 4&5 Mean (n=72)
Anchored in real word problems 7 84 4.3
School-based assignments linked to standards 18 63 3.7
Activity spectrum from observation to leadership 23 54 3.4
Clear expectations / processes / schedule 15 66 3.7
Ongoing, close supervision 28 46 3.3
Mentoring by existing principal 18 75 4.0
Rigorous evaluations 28 46 3.2
Substantive action-reflection cycles 27 54 3.5
Personalization 21 64 3.7
Most significant in this table, are the numbers of principals reporting low levels of support,
reflective activity, and field experience personalization/customization. Half of the principals reported
engaging in only moderate or less amounts of action-reflection. Just over one in three reported minimal
amounts of field experience personalization, and one in four reported only moderate to no mentoring by
an existing principal. It is clear therefore that there is substantial variation in the field experiences that
charter school principals reported having, and that many principals did not complete field experiences
that met with exemplary field experience criteria. Also highly significant is the fact that only 54% reported
having an activity spectrum, since this element gets to the heart of the 'authentic' practical experience
deemed essential in existing research for effective field experience.
A difficulty with interpreting these results is that the scores themselves do not reveal the extent
Composite aggregate scores
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to which these features reflect best practice in these areas. This is partly because these measures are
perceptual rather than objective. For example, one principal may have rated their mentor-principal highly
while another scored theirs lower, despite both mentors performing similarly. There are also likely to be
significant implementation differences, for example, a substantive action-reflection cycle for one person
may in reality be fairly superficial in comparison to another person's, and yet they may have given the
same scores in their survey. It is not possible to tell any of this from the survey data. Nor is there any way
to objectively measure the effectiveness of their field experience since there is no data measuring pre
and post performance/knowledge/capacity etc. The only indicator to guide this research was the positive
relationship between average field experience feature scores and overall average program evaluation
scores, as outlined in the section below.
In summary although most principals in the sample had field experiences as part of their
programs, and these field experiences included exemplary features for many of the participants,
significant questions remain with regard to the extent to which the features were 'delivered' effectively,
and about what they looked like and how they worked when they were delivered effectively. Leaving
aside the features to do with participant evaluation and assessment linked to standards, since both are
vast areas with active research fields, and are not so intimately concerned with effective field experience
from a participants point of view, I decided to focus during the second phase on finding out more about
what effective mentoring developmental continuums of practice action-reflection cycles and field
experience personalization actually looked like, and how they seemed to work in practice. Evidence in the
next section illustrates how I identified principals within the sample to ask these questions in more detail
in the second phase of research.
Practice Gap in Field Experience
As mentioned in Chapter II a great emphasis has been placed on principals getting exposure to
real world problems and having authentic practical opportunities to practice leadership roles and tasks
during their field experiences. In this survey, my findings supported previous findings (Levine, 2005;
Darling-Hammond et al 2007) that many principals did not get these practical opportunities. As shown in
64


Table 4.7 below, it was clear that a substantial number of charter principals were not able to even
observe, let alone participate in or lead, key areas of leadership responsibility. In this sense their
continuums of practice were rather stunted, particularly in areas of charter-amplified responsibility. The
table below highlights these areas, and includes a couple of more general leadership areas at the bottom
for the purposes of comparison.
The table below shows that fewer than half (47%) of the principals in my sample got to
participate in or lead activities to do with budgeting and resource management; just under half (40%) did
not participate in or lead human resources related activities; and less than one in three got hands-on
opportunities related to fund-raising (31%), negotiating with districts (27%), and governance (37%).
Table 4.7: Field Experience Activity Level by Content Area
Field Experience Activity Level (l=did not observe ... 4=led) Did not observe Observed Participated Led Mean N=72
Budgeting 20 34 30 17 2.4
Fund Raising 49 21 21 10 1.9
Negotiating with Districts 54 17 19 8 1.8
Governance & Board Relations 38 25 29 8 2.1
Human Resources 12 26 44 17 2.7
Facilities 44 20 21 15 2.1
School Law 11 42 35 12 2.5
Scheduling & Procedures 11 18 40 31 2.9
Leading Learning 7 27 34 32 3.0
Building School Culture 6 25 37 32 3.0
Again here, the low scores in charter-amplified responsibility are not that surprising, but given
the importance of these tasks especially with regard to budgeting and human resource management
they do point to a significant gap that principals would have had to fill once they were working in charter
schools. A few of the scores were significantly correlated with the overall evaluation scores shown in
Table 4.3, so for example, fundraising activity scores here, were correlated with overall preparation
scores. This suggests that in some instances at least, getting practice in a real situation does help to
prepare principals.
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Average Field Experience Activity Level
^__________________________________________________________________________________________________)
Figure 4.1: Relationship between FE Activity Level and Program Evaluation
Although it is possible to see exceptions to this general relationship, with some very high
program evaluation scores associated with lower activity scores, and similarly high activity scores
associated with low evaluation scores, the general trend is a positive one.
From the findings reported in this section, it is clear that substantial variation exists in the extent
to which charter principals were able to get practical experience. It also appears that getting practical
experience has a positive relationship with how well prepared principals feel overall. What this phase of
The figure below shows the relationship between the principals average field experience activity
levels and their average program evaluation scores. Although not statistically significant, the scatterplot
shows a positive relationship between the two sets of scores where as the average field experience
activity level increases, so does the average program evaluation score. This finding is supported by extant
research into the importance of having practical leadership experience during field experience (Cheney et
a\., 2010; Davies & Darling-Hammond, 2012). As described in Chapter III, this was basis for the sampling in
the second phase of research, and the black triangles on the figure represent the principals in my second
phase interview sample.






<




aJOus UOUE3lreA3 mreJWOJHOMreJOAV
66


the research was not able to cast light on, was what the 'active' principals actually got to do in the
substantive areas during their field experiences, or what factors might explain the exceptions to the
general trend identified above. As a result in the second phase of research I decided to focus on finding
out more about what an 'active' field experience looked like in practice; how practical experience was
achieved in areas of charter-amplified responsibility; and the extent to which practice was gained in a
graduated manner, as suggested by the notion of a developmental continuum of practice.
Importance of In-Service Experiential Professional Development
The survey concluded with questions asking about in-service professional development activities
asking about the types of development they had, and their perceived utility of each type. Their responses
revealed that almost all of them had taken part in intensive, experientially grounded, and social forms of
professional development, and the vast majority of them found these experiences very helpful. Table 4.8
below shows the types of professional development done and the percentage of those that did it that
found it useful or very useful. Contextually situated development activities like peer observation and
coaching, principal networks, and school visits, had the highest participation figures, with a substantial
majority of charter principals taking part in them, and rating them as useful or very useful.
Table 4.8: Participation and Helpfulness of In-service Professional Development
Helpfulness of professional development (l=not useful... 4=very useful) % Participated % Useful/ very useful Mean (n) Standard Deviation
University courses 49 57 2.7 (47) 1.06
School visits 91 93 3.7 (88) 0.60
Research 55 93 3.5 (55) 0.63
Peer observation & coaching 75 95 3.6 (73) 0.59
Principal network 79 91 3.6 (78) 0.66
Courses 53 81 3.0 (52) 0.85
Mentor / Coach 58 93 3.6 (58) 0.68
CMO training 31 94 3.6 (31) 0.62
Authorizer training 38 62 2.9 (34) 0.99
It is also interesting to note that there is more variation in the perceived helpfulness of university
courses and authorizer training, as measured by standard deviation scores, suggesting perhaps that there
67


are some very good and relevant courses and trainings from these providers, and also some that are very
poor. In comparison with findings on a similar question asked in the Darling-Hammond et al. research
(2007) charter principals here report in line with the exemplary programs, that they engaged in
experiential and contextually situated forms of professional development and found them very helpful.
In summary, these findings support the picture emerging from recent research that experiential
and social forms of training are very valuable. They also complement findings about the importance of
principal networks and peer learning opportunities for practicing principals. I did not ask directly about
peer and network forms of support in the pre-service preparation questions in my survey because there
was no precedent in previous surveys, and because there was little discussion of its importance in the pre-
service literature in general. However, because it is clearly such a valuable way of supporting leader
development once principals are working as leaders and because there is support for network-based and
peer learning in the general literature on leadership development, I decided to focus in the second phase
on finding out whether it played a role in effective field experience; and if it did, how it worked in reality.
Drawing It All Together
The findings from this quantitative stage of the research echo the extant literature showing that
on average, preparation programs overall do not do a very good job of preparing charter school leaders,
and in particular that they underperform on delivery of the charter-amplified content areas. It is also clear
that considerable variation exists in terms of program content and in terms of what kinds of field
experiences participants had. In particular it highlighted that a significant number of charter principals
were not able to get substantial practical experience during their field experience particularly again in
charter-amplified areas.
In highlighting these areas the survey results gave support to issues raised in the literature
review, and highlighted a number of the potential explanatory features presented in Table 2.1 in that
chapter. In the list below I briefly discuss each of these features:
The form of field experience: some of the most effective field experiences reported by my
sample were from charter leaders who took traditional preparation programs, while some were
68


in alternative programs. Individuals from both groups were in my purposive interview sample,
and so I hoped to derive insights from them about similarities and differences in each type of
program, particularly relating to areas of amplified charter responsibility, as well as more
structural features of the field experiences, such as field experience duration and location.
The impact of personal characteristics: since my purposive sample included individuals with a
range of backgrounds and experiences, and they represented a range of types of charter school
(including CMO-run and independent) I hoped to find out more about the developmental
implications of some of these differences, and the extent to which they had an impact on the
kinds of activities the participants' did and found beneficial during their field experiences.
Coverage of charter amplified issues: it was clear from the survey that most principals did not get
the opportunity to practice many areas of amplified responsibility during their field experiences.
Given that many in my interview sample did have these opportunities I hoped to find out both
what they did, and how it helped them prepare for their leadership roles.
'Exemplary' field experience characteristics: since most principals reported that their field
experiences included mentoring, a developmental continuum of practice, and substantive action
reflection cycles, and yet most did not have a highly effective field experience, I wanted to find
out from those that did, more specific detail about what these characteristics looked like and
how they worked.
Customization: although a majority of principals in my sample reported personalization of their
field experiences this customization did not appear to have a direct link with their perceived
program efficacy levels. For this reason I wanted to find out more about what customization
could look like when it worked well, and the forms it took.
Peer support and Networks: it was evident from the survey findings on professional development
that peer and network forms of development were highly appreciated. I was therefore interested
to explore the extent to which they emerged during the field experience period, and if they did,
the form and characteristics that such support took.

69


In the interview results chapter that follows this one findings relating to the structure and key
characteristics of effective field experience will be presented. In it I hope to give a more in-depth and
nuanced perspective of field experience, and to highlight commonalities and differences between
individual principal cases. In so doing, I draw out shared characteristics, and provide reasons for
differences.
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CHAPTER V
INSIGHTS INTO THE FORMS AND FEATURES OF EFFECTIVE FIELD EXPERIENCE
In this chapter I present five findings that provide a deeper and richer form of understanding
about what effective field experiences actually look like for charter school leaders/ and how they work
from a developmental perspective. The first finding relates to different forms of field experience, or
pathways, that I identified through my research. In it I explain how the various affordances and
constraints inherent in each pathway related to for example the number of field experience sites or the
types of support partner available, have implications for the developmental experiences of each
participants. This finding serves as a macro level frame for the other four findings. Findings two to four
focus on the micro level, and provide a deeper level of understanding about how the three key elements
of field experience highlighted in Chapter II (support, authentic practice, and reflective practice) played
out in the real practice contexts of my sample and showing how these 'universal' elements are expressed
in 'particular' instances. Though I treat each element separately, I show that at their most successful, they
are highly interactive and of a piece. Finding five highlights the largely unexploited potential of network
building during field experiences, and shows how relationships that principals make during their
preparatory training, can help them transition into their subsequent leadership career and provide an
ongoing source of support beyond that.
Overall these findings paint a picture of effective field experiences with aspiring charter
principals situated in real school leadership contexts, facing actual performance pressures, taking
responsibility for their learning, and being supported by peers in two way relationships.
The Forms: Multiple Pathways
Chapter II described two main paths for aspiring charter principals: traditional university
programs, and a growing number of alternative routes, including charter specific programs. It highlighted
how charter specific programs, in particular those run by national nonprofits like KIPP and Building
Excellent Schools, are currently regarded as the 'gold standard' for aspiring charter school leaders
(Cheney et alv 2010) I mentioned that scholars have called for the extension of these kinds of field
71


experience opportunities to others, but the programs are expensive and in reality most aspiring charter
school principals will not get to do them (Campbell & Gross, 2008). Given the limited capacity of these
programs to meet growing market demand, I was interested to see whether or not the standard
university traditional programs that most charter principals take, could deliver effective field experiences
for them. In my research I have found that there are at least two traditional university pathways that
could provide such experiences. These pathways share common features with charter specific program
field experiences, but they are emphasized less explicitly due to structural aspects of each pathway.
Traditional and Alternative Pathways
In my research sample, I categorized principals as falling into one of four pathways or 'routes'.
These categories were in part based on their program type (traditional or alternative) and in part based
on the experience level and role of the participant. The findings in this chapter focus on the two
traditional university pathways (Internship and Junior), but I contrast them with a charter specific pathway
(National Charter), and an alternative pathway serving experienced principals who want to get their
principal license (Experienced). These two alternative pathways together provide useful sources of
comparison for the two traditional programs. Table 5.1 below introduces the four pathways, highlighting
structural differences between them in terms of the participants' role and the field experience location,
and indicating how the pathways align with extant theoretical field experience categories described in
Chapter II.
Table 5.1: Pathways for Principals in Sample
Pathway (Example) Principal role during FE FE school location Theoretical best fit0
Traditional: Internship (University of Colorado Denver) Aspiring principal Traditional public Interdependent / detached
Traditional: Junior Principal (University of Colorado Denver) Novice principal Charter Job embedded
Alternative: National Charter (KIPP) New school founder Multi-site: charter & traditional Course embedded
Alternative: Experienced Principal (Principal Institute) Practicing principal Charter Detached
0 From Carr, Chenowith & Ruhl (2003 ,and Barnett, Copland & Shoho (2009)
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The Internship pathway represents the most common field experience structure: participants are
aspiring principals, and carry out their internship in a single traditional public school and so do not get
exposed to charter specific issues. The Junior Principal pathway fits within the same overall program
structure as the Internship path, but with two significant differences: the participant is already working as
a principal (or principal in training), and they are based in a charter school. They therefore complete their
field experience while doing a real charter school job, and as a consequence face significant and ongoing
performance pressures while gaining exposure to areas of charter-amplified responsibility. These factors
will be shown to have an impact on the intensity and scope of their developmental experiences.
The National Charter founder pathway regarded as the 'gold standard' provides a charter-specific
context, and principals on this path are employed in a founding principal job. However, it adds two
dimensions: multiple field experience sites, and an explicit programmatic focus on charter school issues.
The exposure to different schools, leaders, and staff- within a network or similar schools provides
significant benefits in terms of helping participants build networks of support with a wide variety of
partners, as well as exposing them to a broad range of developmental opportunities. The overall program
focus on charter school issues enhances their developmental experiences, giving them both theoretical
and practical exposure to their areas of amplified responsibilities. In addition, a very high level of
intentionality characterizes every aspect of these field experiences with structures put in place that
greatly enhance the quality of the developmental experiences principals have. Although these principals
are not running their schools yet, they are setting them up, and this serves as a proxy for being job-
embedded. This kind of program serves as a helpful benchmark of current best practice for the traditional
program paths.
The Experienced pathway shares the job-embedded characteristic with the Junior and National
Charter pathways, but offers a very different perspective on effective principal field experiences. These
principals were already experienced charter leaders prior to completing their field experiences. Their
responses therefore provide insights into what a charter principal needs to be able to do in order to make
a success of their role in the longer term, and what effective field experience might need to cover to help
aspiring principals make the transition into a leadership role. As with the National Charter path, the
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experiences of principals on this route provide a useful benchmark by offering a view of what a charter
leader needs in order to develop and perform effectively in their role over time.
Shared Characteristics and Differing Levels of Emphasis
The four pathways share three characteristics that relate directly to the three key elements of
field experiences highlighted in Chapter II: the first focuses on performance, and concerns the intensive
action/reflection cycles where principals learn and apply that learning while in the 'hot seat', delivering
results needed in a real job. The second concerns what principals do to exploit the everyday development
opportunities arising from their work, particularly for those on less well-supported pathways. The third
characteristic is supportive relationships here called developmental partnerships which principals
create to access the knowhow and support they need to help them resolve immediate issues. In
understanding how each characteristic manifested on different pathways, it is helpful to view each of
them as operating on a spectrum, showing the extent to which each characteristic was emphasized and
apparent in the feedback from principals on each pathway.
For clarity each characteristic is broken down into two dimensions (though in reality they
operate on more than this) in Table 5.2 below. It shows where each pathway fell on each of the
dimensions. Scores range from: little emphasis/use (*); to very significant emphasis/use (****). n some
pathways the emphasis varied based upon the proactivity of the individual participant, and the quality of
their support partners. To indicate this, the potential range for each pathway is shown like this: ... ***.
Table 5.2: Relative Emphasis of Field Experience Characteristics by Pathway
Pathway (Principals in each pathway) Relationships Lustomization Performance
Range Number Program Variety of Practices Cycle Variety Intensity
Internship (2'9'11*) * _ _
Junior Principal (1,2'4, 6, 7'8,11*) ..**** ^^-^***
National Charter (5 9 12) _
Experienced Principal (210) _
* Limited emphasis; ** moderate emphasis; *** significant emphasis; **** very significant emphasis
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PrincipaTs field experiences fitted more than one model category
The different levels of emphasis on each dimension and characteristic between pathways, and
the developmental implications of these differences, will be explored in greater depth in the findings that
follow. By way of brief illustration in one category, the National Charter pathway principals talked about
placing significant emphasis on developing partnerships with a wide range of support partners during
their field experiences, while those on the Internship and Junior pathways focused mainly on making use
of their principal-mentor, and the Experienced principals reflected on how they had developed such
relationships on their own. Before looking at each of the key elements in isolation, I introduce a
framework to illustrate the kinds of interaction between them.
A Model of Effective Field Experience
This model is designed to show how in practice the characteristics are not separate as such but
are key partial aspects of the overall core developmental experience that creates conditions for
accelerated learning, more embodied forms of knowing, and leadership practices that have been created
and tested in the heat of action. In doing this they transform the often 'arms-length' learning experience
that principals have during field experience phase from a traditional and intermittent kind of 'teaching
oriented relationship between principal and appointed mentor to something closer to the kind of
continuous 'learning' that takes place on-the-job when supported by peer networks and/or communities
of practice.
In this 'triangle' the principal firstly focuses on identifying and responding to what is needed to
deliver the required results. At the same time, they seek to improve their current capabilities and practice
by exploiting the many developmental opportunities that arise in their work as part of doing the work.
This happens on an everyday basis and more spontaneously than a more standard, pre-planned sequence
of learning events. Both of these activities require and benefit from the support of others and so
principals as part of seeking the support needed to resolve everyday immediate issues, identify and build
two way relationships with suitable others in their environment who possess the experience and
expertise that they feel they need at that time. In these ways, this learning/ development 'triangle', is
75


more principal-centered than program-centered, with the principal at the center of his/her own self-
organizing development process as against a program that is more centrally planned and coordinated.
DOING A REAL |OB
SEEKING RESULTS BY
PROBLEM SOLVING AND
LEARNING WHILE DOING
Figure 5.1: Interactions Between Key Field Experience Characteristics
In summary, in this first finding I identified four preparation pathways that are taken by aspiring
charter leaders, and showed that in addition to the high profile National Charter pathway, effective
preparatory field experiences can be achieved in at least two traditional program forms, as well as an
Experienced form. As noted in Chapter III, participants in this research differed from the standard profile
of aspiring principals with the majority embedded in real jobs and all were able to focus full time on their
principal role. It is this different profile that appears to drive the development framework that emerged
from the cases in my sample, and particularly findings 2, 3, and 4. This framework provides evidence of an
accelerated form of development that can take place when principals are in real jobs during their field
experiences. They build capability and improve their practice, and start to create a network of
relationships (finding 5) that offers more long-term support that they need for effective performance and
ongoing development. In the next section I focus on the first of these micro characteristics of effective
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field experience, 'learning while doing', and show how being embedded in messy and everyday real
practice generates intensive learning opportunities.
Doing: Action-Reflection Cycles in the Hot Seat
The theory on reflective practice, as outlined in Chapter II, suggests that it involves a cycle: action
in situ, followed by immediate/eec/boc/c ideally from others in the immediate context, leading to self
reflection and discussion with others, before taking further action (Osterman & Kottkamp, 1993; Kolb,
1984). This kind of reflection was described by Schon (1983) as 'reflection-on-action^ an activity carried
out one step removed from the action, and is contrasted with 'reflection-in-action', a more in the
moment activity associated with experienced practitioners (Rich & Jackson, 2006). It might be expected
that the majority of principals in my sample would engage more in 'reflection-on-action' given their
relative inexperience. However, my second finding is that the principals in my sample were able engage in
particularly intense 'action' and 'reflection' cycles enabling them to learn and develop new knowhow and
capabilities while they were responding to the immediate demands of their work to deliver results.
In what follows I explain how this was largely a consequence of them having to respond to the
real pressures arising in their everyday work, and was facilitated by them having access to immediate
feedback and advice, and opportunities for observing experienced practitioners in action, and using them
as role models. I cast some light on what can be involved in intensive action reflection cycles outline two
methods of facilitating action-reflection cycles in real practice situations, and highlight areas of relative
strength and weakness for the two traditional pathways, contrasting them with the two alternative paths.
Levels of intensity
As described in Chapter III all but one of the principals in my sample were in real leadership jobs
during their field experience. In this way, the authentic practice opportunities emphasized in the
literature review in Chapter II did not have to be sought out they were impossible to avoid and were in
fact central to the effectiveness of their field experiences. Each of them faced real performance pressures
with the stress of dealing with challenges for the first time. One novice principal on the Junior pathway
described how his mentor 'watched [him] go up in flames a number of occasions' [6], while another on
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the Internship pathway described how her mentor would push her back into challenging situations, 'She's
like, "Yes, sink or swim like you want to be a principal? Go do it!" She recalled the intensity of the
pressure saying that that every time she went into that situation she "would want to vomit" [9]. Despite
the strong emotions involved in these experiences, both principals described the importance of such kinds
of feedback in this process showing how these were enabling them to learn in the moment (the reflection
part) while resolving the immediate challenges facing them (the action part).
Two variants of the Action-Reflection Cycle
The first variant involved the principal carrying out a leadership task, and then getting immediate
feedback on it. All the aspiring and novice principals in my sample emphasized the importance of
immediate feedback during their field experiences and commented on how it helped them deliver better
results. Feedback was given to the participants by a variety of different people, including those in formal
principal-mentor positions, but also coaches, other school leaders, teachers, or peers. The following
excerpt from an aspiring principal on the Internship route makes the benefits of such feedback very clear:
Being able to do something, even if you don't know what you're doing and then right
afterwards get the immediate feedback and processing about what you just did. So [a]
parent conversation is a perfect example, like you do a difficult parent conversation,
you're like, 'I don't know what I was saying'... I mean having someone afterwards be
like, 'well it seemed to me that the parent turned and sort of listened to you when you
said X or I love the way that you asked them what they thought about[9]
The benefits from such conversations in the here and now when the participant was getting
feedback on their performance, provides the basis of a second variant of the cycle, when they were able
to ask questions of a more experienced person immediately following an observation of them in action.
A number of principals emphasized the power of 'watching the wheels working' when a more
experienced leader was in action, when they were able, immediately afterwards, to pick 'the principal's
braiiV about what they did. The questions they were able to ask enabled them to access the tacit
knowledge of the practitioners on very specific issues. This following quote highlights the informal and
lively nature of these kinds of conversations that took place in the 'live' situations that principals found
themselves in during the field experience period while working with more experienced colleagues. As
this founding principal on the National Charter pathway explained it:
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So the fact there's all these conversations...did that work, did that not work, why not, how do
you think that teacher is feeling right now because of the tone you used, or how do you think -
on email versus in person? Or what would the ramifications have been if we had done that
tomorrow versus doing it like in the spot in the heat of the moment? [5]
This principal placed a lot of emphasis on the value of observing excellent practitioners, and
having them 'show not tell, like don't talk to me about it but show me what it looks like'. The
conversations that principals had in both variants took place in the aftermath of 'live' situations, and as a
result were of a more spontaneous and responsive nature than reflective activity that took place in
more formal meetings. The ability to question practitioners about what they did immediately after they
had done it served as an approximation of 'reflection-in-action', where the participant was able to
access some of the tacit knowing-in-action that the experienced practitioner had just demonstrated.
These conversations also took place around all aspects of the job. For example, one participant spoke of
watching her mentor "managing her boss' while another talked about how he watched a mentor
managing an awkward human resources call "on speakerphone". They also covered areas of amplified
charter responsibility, like fundraising, board relations, and facilities management, as well as less
tangible areas like developing staff culture.
These examples demonstrate the power of being, if not in the hot seat itself, at least very close
to it, and, with the learning being focused on performance and the performer how results are being
delivered in a particular context, and with what effect. This kind of intimate situated knowing, whether
as doer or co-participant, arises from taking real action with consequences within a specific context. This
allows participants to absorb a wealth of tacit knowing about what works and how it works that enables
more effective embodied action in future situations.
The Influence of Pathway Structure
Although all the aspiring and novice principals were able to benefit from the intense action-
reflection cycles described above, there were marked differences between them stemming from
structural aspects of their field experiences. The multi-site nature 'gold standard' National Charter
pathway, facilitated a large number of opportunities to watch practitioners and experts in some of 'the
best schools in the country' in action, and participants were able to question them in very specific areas
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where they were known to particularly excel. This enabled them to focus very specifically on particular
roles and skills, as illustrated by this National Charter principal who talked about the benefits of "being in
the sta room and watching how sta interact in a school that has really high quality adult culture" [5].
By contrast, principals on the two traditional pathways (Internship and Junior) had generally to
'make do' with the more limited number of practitioners they had access to on their school site. This did
not matter when the participant had a near-perfect relationship with their principal mentor and intense
learning experiences were common in this scenario. For example, one Internship participant recalled
watching her mentor 'lay down the law' in a staff meeting:
It was incredibly powerful because she didn't do it very often and ... and I asked her
about it afterwards and she's like ... 'to be a distributive leader you need to know the
things that you are going to be like that about', and that's been very powerful for me.
However this kind of highly impactful kind of observation/questioning experience was very
dependent on the personal characteristics and experiences of the mentor and their match with the
participant (as is developed in detail in finding 4) and so, with access to fewer practitioners on these
pathways, many principals did not have so many powerful experiences. To illustrate this, one Junior
principal spoke wistfully of wanting "more contact with people doing what you want to do" [1], and of
spending time with successful charter school founders, to find out in depth how they did what they did.
Principals on the Experienced pathway, who were based in their own schools, lacked both
practitioners to observe and on-site support, but had a longer 'history' of leadership action to reflect
upon. Their action-reflection cycles therefore looked quite different: most of their questioning seemed
more internally focused and they talked of using the opportunity to question their own practice explicitly
and to reflect-on-action, sometimes with a program mentor. One of these principals reported 'I would go
back and question why I did some things if there was a better way. Or if I saw something that was totally
ineffective I would ask [my mentor] "How would you do this? How would you do this differently or why
didn't this work?" [6]. In similar vein, another Experienced pathway principal talked about how her
program made her:
Stop and think and really reflect constantly [my emphasis]. When I sit down and do work
on the computer and we have a lot of threaded discussions which again that is
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collaborating but it's a pain in the neck, straining at midnight, because you're working.
But it does force me to think. [10]
For these more experienced practitioners, their approach to work appeared to be much
more in the style of what Dreyfus calls Stage 5 or the 'Expertise' level (Dreyfus, 2001), where they
already work very much in an improvising mode. In this they seem to use their reflection-/>7-action
skills to more intuitively and spontaneously select and express what their experience indicates is
the relevant response. Their 'performance' in this viewpoint is more streamlined and their decision
process less visible to them or others, being guided by an embodied body of knowing. And so.
much of the conscious learning seemed to take place after the fact in reflection-on-action work, as
they challenged and refined what they already knew. The experience of this group of principals
therefore provides an interesting contrast with that of the others and stimulates thinking about
the future development needs of principals as they mature in their roles.
Summary
Looking across the findings in this section, it is clear that the experience of being much more 'in
the hot seat', whether as participant-observer or as 'doer' in these internships, places a much greater
pressure on principals to actively learn from their experiences during the experiences there is not time
for a more planned and sequenced process. This more spontaneous and 'organic' approach to reflection
in action, not only provided a host of opportunities for principals to explore the meaning and
effectiveness of ideas they learned in the classroom, but also enabled them to start creating knowledge
and develop practices which were more in touch with their own values sense of identity and beliefs
about the purpose of their profession. Though the aspiring and novice principals lacked a lot of the
knowledge in action that the more experienced practitioners had, they seemed to be able to use
modeling of the action and reflection of these practitioners, combined with careful questioning and
reflection immediately afterwards, to get closer to 'reflection-in-action' itself.
Developing: Customizing Authentic Practice Opportunities
The research on authentic practice opportunities reviewed in Chapter II suggests that
81


experienced mentors should direct the process, and it uses the notion of a developmental continuum of
practice to characterize what happens (Fry et a\., 2006; Mitgang & Gill, 2012). The picture that emerges
from my research is that participants have opportunities to play an active role in helping to customize
their own developmental experiences, more in line with the theory on self-directed and adult learning
(Mezirow, 2000) It provides evidence that real developmental experiences are less neat and linear than
implied in the continuum concept and that a greater flexibility, variety, and dynamic sequencing of
development experiences are possible and desirable.
It was clear that the principals themselves, particularly those on the more poorly supported non
National Charter pathways, had to play a stronger role both in creating the learning climate and in
organizing the developmental activities themselves, in order to fully benefit from the full time roles they
were carrying out. In working on this 'how do I improve my practice?' aspect of their roles, they had to
create and bring into the present moment their own developmental opportunities as well as the various
resources and knowledge needed. This enabled them to benefit fully from the intense 'reflection-in-
action' cycles their full time working roles demanded of them. Accordingly my third finding is that
effective field experiences seem to require that participants customize their own development activities,
through exploiting whatever opportunities and resources come their way in the course of doing their job.
In seeking in this way to improve their own practices while practicing/doing a real job they have been
enabled by doing things when, where, and how they needed to, to create something very personal and
cumulative.
In what follows I show how participants were able to customize their developmental experience
through organizing and using varied forms of 'reflection on action', indicating what developmental
'progressions' can look like in real practice situations, and how these were influenced by the
characteristics of each of the main pathways.
Customizing on the National Charter Pathway
The key aspects of the National charter pathway structure that impacted upon customization
were the multiple school sites and the intentional focus on customization. Participants and their mentors
and advisors were able to tailor different field experience to match the developmental requirements of
82


the participant. As a result they were able to shadow, observe, and get practice in a range of areas. The
exact nature of what they did depended on the particular expertise of the people in the school site where
they were based. In addition, because the field experiences took place within a network of similar and/or
sympathetic schools, the participants were able to get very meaningful and useful development
experiences despite being in the role of temporary visitors'. One participant, who took part in forty-seven
different residencies during a two-year period of setting up his school, highlighted the diverse experiences
he was exposed to like this:
One project was trying to figure out exactly where they were with their fundraising from
individual donors and how to track that and monitor it, and look at trends over like a
five year window and then report that data to their board of trustees... And then in
[another residency] I really wanted to learn for example reading mastery ... So for like a
week I taught reading mastery and got feedback from the kindergarten teacher whose
room I was in. [5]
This excerpt shows that participants were able to customize their experiences effectively in part
because they had a clear understanding of the skills they needed to develop. It also highlights one reason
why participants were able to get real practical experiences in the schools in such a short space of time -
because often they were completing projects of real value to the host school. These factors combined to
create a synergistic climate where both parties wanted to achieve better results and were able to
mutually benefit. An additional structural feature was that participants on this route were a step removed
from a real job when they were in their host schools. This enabled them to focus on making the most of
the many organized and supported opportunities to observe and practice their skills.
Customizing on the Internship Pathway
For participants on the Internship pathway, there was less structural flexibility, since they were
based in one school for the duration of their field experience. For this reason the principals on this
pathway described their field experiences as more closely matching with the theoretical continuum of
practice concept. As this Internship participant explained:
Yes, it worked exactly like that. In August when I started all I did was shadow [the
principal-mentor]. She also arranged for me to shadow a few of the other admin in the
building and one of the other admin in the building she's a wonderful person also
took me on as a mentee and so I spent a lot of time with her", and then [I came] back in
January [and was] ... doing the things they told me to do. [9]
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A significant limitation on this pathway stemmed from the fact that the field experience site was
a traditional public school. For this reason, participants were not able to customize their developmental
experiences to cover areas of charter-amplified responsibility. One principal who interned in a traditional
school described how his internship lacked "operational experience' and gave this example: " so you've
got 7 years of deferred maintenance on two boilers and five different roof top units and the previous
administration left you $250000 in the hole and you have prairie dog infestation figure that out"[11].
These kind of gaps meant that participants on this path had to pick up important areas of their role after
completing their preparation, on-the-job, and often without much support. Additionally, because on this
path the participant was not a leader in the school they were more reliant on their mentor being willing
to give them opportunities, in contrast to those on the Junior pathway below.
Customizing on the Junior Pathway
The participants on the Junior pathway had two interlinked structural advantages over the
Internship pathway: they were doing an actual leadership job and were in a charter school. Participants
described a gradual and controlled exposure to full responsibilities in the real world and were able to
move back and forth between observation and practice depending on the task/subject and their own
development needs, and often in response to the immediate pressures arising from their embedded
operating situation. Being in a charter context enabled them to focus on charter-amplified areas once
they felt comfortable in their central instructional leadership role. One principal described how towards
the end of his first year he was actively trying to "take over the budget", and was going to finance
meetings and focusing on understanding technical details like "what the budget line items numbers are"
and " it says 'special services' what does that really mean?"[1].This example shows how these
principals gained some of the benefits claimed for a more gradual and controlled form of exposure to full
responsibilities in the real world. What is more, because they were actually embedded in real jobs at the
time, the quality of their learning in terms of gaining immediate and ongoing feedback from people in
the situation itself, was felt to be particularly useful.
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A potential disadvantage of this pathway in relation to the Charter and Internship paths is that
because they were embedded in their own schools, with less distance from the messy reality of running
their school, they had less opportunity to concentrate so explicitly on their own development. However as
they mainly had on-site support in the form of a senior principal-mentor, they were able to customize
their experiences to a certain extent. One novice principal on the Junior path explained it like this; "For
me it had nothing to do with the program it had to do with me knowing the school, me knowing my
needs, knowing what I could do best and what he [the mentor] could do best"[1].Another participant
who was new to school leadership, but not to leadership and management in general, described how he
was able to build gradually in his area of greatest inexperience:
The gradual build up mostly came on the evaluation side of things ... by doing several of
the [teacher evaluations] with him instead of completely on my own that first year...
Most of the other roles however it was just like the floodgate was opened and it
became my responsibility right away, ranging from behavior management to data
support becoming the school assessment coordinator those types of things. [8]
What comes across in this excerpt is that he was able to get support where he needed it most.
For this principal the flexibility came largely because there was capacity in the school to absorb the
leadership tasks he was not immediately taking a leadership role in. This was a significant factor for
almost all of the participants on this pathway. An added benefit for these principals was that often they
could tailor what they were doing to immediate needs of their program. As one principal who did his
preparation program whilst completing a principal-in-training year in the school he would become
principal in once he had qualified, explains, a\ had the professor come in and say, "Here's the goals that
you're going to work on." And then my executive principal could say, "Okay, well let's wind this up so the
work that you're doing is really targeting these areas." In this way he was able to learn on the job with
significant administrative support where they needed it, were also able to introduce some personal
tailoring to both the 'what' and 'when' of the development work they felt they needed.
Customizing on the Experienced Pathway
Many of the practicing principals on the Experienced pathway were engaged in getting their
certification rather than doing a conventional principal preparation program. These principals were much
85


freer to make the most of their extensive experience and reflection-in-action capabilities to ensure that
they too were able to take specific steps to improve their own practices. Their 'field experience' phase
was essentially a time to reflect on tailor and refine their existing body of knowledge and the practices
they used to express this, to suit the new requirements. As such there was less need for them to bring
into the present moment and plan special development opportunities as part of their everyday work as
they were for the most part already using streamlined reflection-in-action approaches to deal with issues
as they arose. Instead these principals often made use of conversations with experienced others to
question the efficacy of their existing practices. As mentioned earlier, this group accordingly offers a
useful boundary or benchmarking function in this analysis, as their experience points towards the kinds of
development support that principals can benefit from as they become more experienced and expert in
their role.
Summary
This section has illustrated how all the principals were able to exercise some influence
over the timing and pace of their development activities, as they were being exposed to the full
responsibilities of their real world role. In building these more customized development
programs In the midst of action' these principals had to respond creatively to the opportunities
for development thrown up by the everyday work in their roles, and make the most of what was
to hand to frame and resource these for maximum impact.
In the next section I move from what we have learned from principals exploiting in more
spontaneous and creative ways the opportunities for development and improvement offered by the high
pressure and messy performance environment of a real job, to the sources of advice, knowing, and
support that they discovered they needed, to resolve the myriad of immediate issues involved in doing
their immediate job effectively.
Relating: Creating ^Developmental Partnerships,
In Chapter II I described the widespread view that the most effective form of development
support for aspiring and novice principals was that of having an experienced principal-mentor (Gray et a\.,
86


2007; Mitgang & Gill 2012) I also highlighted research that pointed to the benefits of more informal peer
support as well as work suggesting the importance of supportive relationships offering benefits to both
parties (Browne-Ferrigno &Muth, 2004; Hansen & Matthews, 2002). My fourth finding follows in the wake
of these alternative lines of research, and is that the principals in my sample formed and benefited from a
wide variety of more informal relationships in addition to the formal principal-mentor type. Given that
mentoring is a 'catch alT term, and means different things to different people, I have termed these
broader relationships "developmental partnerships" to try and capture a sense of their important and the
different dynamics involved. In what follows I highlight the main features of these partnerships, and then
show how structural elements of different pathways influenced the nature and number of partnerships
formed.
Qualities of Developmental Partnerships
The developmental partnerships described by my sample shared three inter-related qualities: fit;
openness; and reciprocity. The concept of 'fit' essentially relates to the level of empathy between the
participant and their partner. This was based on more than one factor usually, but the most commonly
referenced were personal/professional skills, experience level educational philosophy, and charter school
experience. The second quality, 'openness', related to the willingness of the partner to share their
personal knowledge and experiences, in particular explaining their thinking, and why they did something
in a particular way. It also operated on a school level, when school leaders gave participants
"uninterrupted access" to whatever was going on in the school that interested them. The third quality of
many of these developmental partnerships was that they were more informal than the standard principal-
mentor relationship, formed with people closer to being peers. This final quality, which stemmed from the
two preceding it was to do with reciprocal benefits meaning that both parties in the partnership gained
something from it.
While most developmental partnerships described by principals in my sample did not fully
exemplify all of these qualities, every support relationship of value embodied more than one of these, at
least to some extent. By way of example, the excerpt below, from a participant on the National Charter
pathway, who was setting up his own school during his training year highlights the hard-to-pin-down
87


general benefit gained from the empathy principals experienced when paired with a close peer or as he
put it someone "doing what I am doing a little bit later". He recalled his reaction to arriving at a recently
established school:
I will never forget I walked in and I was like, "Aahh this feels different"I'm like,
"Why do you have a mop in your head? Why are your shoes filthy? Why are there holes
in your shoes? What's going on?" And then m like, "Oh, first yearm going to do this
in a year. I get it okay this is good." [12]
In addition to empathy, this excerpt points to the value of more peer-level support, with the
participant benefiting from working with someone less experienced than the usual principal-mentor. It
also hints at the importance of a developmental partner being open to sharing their experience. Although
reciprocity is not apparent in this particular excerpt the same principal also talked at length about getting
involved in real projects in the school that were of benefit to the principal and of having conversations
with them where they benefitted from reflecting on their experiences.
The Influence of Pathway Structure
As with findings 2 and 3, the structure of different pathways had a significant impact on the
number as well as the types of developmental partnerships formed.
Internship: starting with the Internship pathway, participants described having fewer
developmental relationships than with other paths. However at their best their one-on-one relationships
with formal principal-mentors provided almost everything that the aspiring principals felt they needed
during their field experiences. Exactly as described in the bulk of the field experience literature (e.g. Gray
et al 2007) the principal-mentor was the fulcrum of an effective developmental experience on this
pathway, facilitating access to authentic leadership opportunities, and providing support for reflection-on-
action and reflection-in-action. On this pathway, relationships were characterized by a high level of 'fit' in
terms of personal/professional skills and educational philosophy, a high degree of personal and school-
wide openness, and significant reciprocity. As one principal on this pathway explained of her mentor:
It was the perfect match ... I heard she is the queen of distributive leadership go hang
out with her... And every week we'd get together, I shadowed her a lot... and watched
her do her job. And then once or twice a week we'd sit down and I would just ask her
questions. And she was an amazing mentor because she'd be willing to answer anything
and really share her thought process. ... [it] was like anything that goes out of my brain is
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