Citation
Analog channel strip digitally controlled via plugin

Material Information

Title:
Analog channel strip digitally controlled via plugin
Creator:
Limsukhawat, Vasin ( author )
Place of Publication:
Denver, Colo.
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (47 pages). : ;

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of Science)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
Department of Music and Entertainment Industry Studies, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Recording Arts
Committee Chair:
Grigoras, Catalin
Committee Members:
Connors, Dan
Merkel, Jeff

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sound -- Recording and reproducing -- Digital techniques ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Review:
This thesis inspiration started from the dilemma in current music industry, musicians and engineers use Analog for higher quality sound as an ultimate choice. With high advancement of technology, digital equipment is easier to work with various sound qualities. People tend to work between both analog and digital these days. However, the workflow of analog tend to takes time compare to the digital for example manually setting up, which make engineer have less time focus on sounds because of limited time and time efficiency. The objective of this thesis derived from this dilemma, and set a goal to create aids to help improve the workflow in analog mixers by taking advantage of digital technology to bring the best time efficiency workflow into the project. This system will enhance the workflow to be more convenient, with the desired sound quality without radically change the usual workflow. In other words, this thesis offers the opportunity to bring the best of both worlds to work together. In this thesis, this system has been called KnobLog for a convenient call from now on. KnobLog is a hardware and software plugin. It can save and recall the presets on analog mixer and show up in the KnobLog plugin interface by using microcontroller to be a middleman to transfer potentiometers position data from analog mixer to computer and vice versa. In order to give the controllability to the analog mixer, regular potentiometers have been replaced with motorized potentiometers. Arduino Mega2560 has been used to control motorized potentiometers, which pass the position data through serial port and vice versa. This means this system provides an ability to control the mixer by using KnobLog plugin in DAW or manually adjusting to manipulate the sound, for example, equalizer, level fader, AUX, and pan. This also gives user an ability to save as well as recall presets.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of Colorado Denver. Recording arts
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references.
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe Reader.
General Note:
College of Arts and Media
Statement of Responsibility:
by Vasin Limskuhawat.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
898043267 ( OCLC )
ocn898043267

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Full Text
ANALOG CHANNEL STRIP DIGITALLY
CONTROLLED VIA PLUGIN
by
VASIN LIMSUKHAWAT
B.eng., King Mongkuts Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, 2010
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science
Recording Arts
2014


2014
VASIN LIMSUKHAWAT
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


This thesis for the Master of Science degree by
Vasin imsukhawat
has been approved for the
Recording Arts Program
by
Catalin Grigoras, Chair
DaGoors
Jeff Merkel
April 23, 2014


Limsukhawat, Vasin (M.S., Recording Arts)
Analog Channel Strip Digitally Controlled via Plugin
Thesis directed by Professor Catalin Grigoras
ABSTRACT
This thesis inspiration started from the dilemma in current music industry, musicians and
engineers use Analog for higher quality sound as an ultimate choice. With high advancement of
technology, digital equipment is easier to work with various sound qualities. People tend to work
between both analog and digital theses days. However, the workflow of analog tend to takes time
compare to the digital for example manually setting up, which make engineer have less time
focus on sounds because of limited time and time efficiency. The objective of this thesis derived
from this dilemma, and set a goal to create aids to help improve the workflow in analog mixers by
taking advantage of digital technology to bring the best time efficiency workflow into the project.
This system will enhance the workflow to be more convenient, with the desired sound quality
without radically change the usual workflow. In other words, this thesis offers the opportunity to
bring the best of both worlds to work together.
In this thesis, this system has been called KnobLog for a convenient call from now on.
Knobog is a hardware and software plugin. It can save and recall the presets on analog mixer
and show up in the Knobog plugin interface by using microcontroller to be a middleman to
transfer potentiometer's position data from analog mixer to computer and vice versa. In order to
give the controllability to the analog mixer, regular potentiometers have been replaced with
motorized potentiometers. Arduino Mega2560 has been used to control motorized
potentiometers, which pass the position data through serial port and vice versa. This means this
system provides an ability to control the mixer by using Knobog plugin in DAW or manually
adjusting to manipulate the sound, for example, equalizer, level fader, AUX, and pan. This also
gives user an ability to save as well as recall presets.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication
Approved: Catalin Grigoras
iii


DEDICATION
I dedicate this thesis to my lovely family and friends. My parents who always support me
since I was bom till now, Prasit imsukhawat and Kanokwaree imsukhawat, as well as my lovely
brother and sister, Panyawudh imsukhawat, Sirimon imsukhawat, and my amazing lovely we,
Ekpanith Naknakorn, who encourage and support me during the thesis process. I also dedicate
this thesis to my friends, Pravesvuth Uparanukraw, Nongnapat Sangrit, and Phil Beskid who
always support and help me throughout the process. Without the great guidance and support of
everyone, this thesis would not have been possible.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express special appreciation and thanks to my thesis advisor, Catalin
Grigoras for his guidance and support during the process of my graduate education and
throughout the creation of this thesis. I would also like to thank my thesis committee members,
Jeff Merkel for his instructions and Dr. Dan Connors, for his support on hardware and his advices
on software programming. I would also like to thank Dave Tremblay for his advice and guidance
on DAW plugin development. A special thank to Pravesvuth Uparanukraw and his wife,
Nongnapat Sangrit, for his/her instructions and also spent a lot of time teaching me about
program development skill throughout the thesis process and being my thesis partner to help
discuss and solve technical problems. I would also like to thank my lovely wife, Ekpanith
Naknakorn, for being beside me and support and teach me about brainstorming, writing this
thesis properly, and enclosure design.
v


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION........................................................1
Basic Component of Analog and
Digital Mixing Console..............................................1
Input Channel Strips............................................1
AUX Send Master AUX Return.................................... 4
Monitor Section.................................................4
Mix Meters.......................................................5
Monitor Outputs..................................................5
Output Section...................................................5
Advantages / Disadvantages of Analog
and Digital Mixing Console..........................................6
General Strength and Weakness and their Flexibility..............6
Total Recall....................................................6
Sound Quality and Latency........................................6
Price............................................................7
Using Style......................................................7
Dilemma..............................................................7
Existing Technology..................................................8
Flying Faders....................................................8
Major Advantages of Flying Faders.........................8
Major Disadvantages of Flying Faders......................9
Yamaha DM2000...................................................10
BetterMaker EQ 502P.............................................11
Proposed Solution...................................................13
II. SYSTEM DESIGN.......................................................14
Objective...........................................................14
Design Concept......................................................14
Hardware............................................................15
Part List.......................................................15
Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro......................................15
Arduino Mega 2560........................................16
Motorized Potentiometer..................................16
SN754410 ................................................17
vi


Circuit Design...................................................18
Schematic........................................................20
Software.............................................................23
Flowchart........................................................23
ArduinolDE.......................................................24
JUCE.............................................................26
III. IMPLEMENTATION AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES.............................30
Potential Use........................................................30
Studio Recording.................................................30
Live Sound Reinforcement.........................................30
Podcasting and Broadcasting......................................30
Personal Use.....................................................30
Advantages and Disadvantages.........................................31
Advantages.......................................................31
Ability to Save and Recall................................31
Time Efficiency...........................................31
Analog Sound Quality......................................32
Controllability...........................................32
Disadvantages....................................................32
Price.....................................................32
Potentiometer Rotational Speed............................32
Problems.........................................................32
Noise.....................................................32
Accuracy..................................................32
Voltage Regulator.........................................32
Future Development...................................................32
IV. CONCLUSIONS.........................................................33
REFERENCES..................................................................... 36
vii


LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
1. BetterMaker EQ 502P Specification...........................................12
2. ogic of H-bridge IC........................................................17


LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
1.1 9 sections of mixing console..............................................1
1.2 Input Section: Microphone, Line, and Tape respectively................... 2
1.3 AUX......................................................................2
1.4 Equalization..............................................................2
1.5 Pan.......................................................................3
1.6 Channel Fader............................................................3
1.7 AUX Send Return........................................................4
1.8 Monitor Section..........................................................4
1.9 Mix Meters...............................................................5
1.10 Monitor Outputs...........................................................5
1.11 Master Fader.............................................................5
1.12 Pros and Cons of Analog and Digital......................................7
1.13 Interface of Flying Faders II.............................................8
1.14 Hardware of Flying Faders II..............................................9
1.15 Yamaha DM2000 ...........................................................10
1.16 BetterMaker EQ502P.......................................................11
1.17 If Analog meet Digital Diagram.........................................13
2.1 Block Diagram............................................................14
2.2 Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro......................................................15
2.3 Arduino Mega 2560 .......................................................16
2.4 Motorized Potentiometer..................................................16
2.5 SN754410.................................................................17
2.6 SN754410 Top View........................................................17
2.7 Parts removal from Mackie 1402 Circuit Board.............................18
2.8 The Beta Version of Motorized Potentiometer
Controller System on breadboard...........................................19
2.9 The schematic of basic motor controller
circuit using SN754410 .................................................. 20
2.10 The breadboard diagram of basic motor controller
circuit using SN754410....................................................21
2.11 KnobLog Controller System............................................... 22
2.12 Programming Flowcharts...................................................23
2.13 KnobLog Plugin Interface.................................................26
ix


3.1 Instruction of how to save and recall..........................................31
3.2 Improved Time Efficiency Graph.................................................31
4.1 An Engineer was working with the mixing
console in studio...............................................................33
4.2 KnobLog logo and trademark....................................................34
x


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A good mixing console is an important equipment in the signal path that every music
studios and music productions. The studios usually have to spend a lot of money to this
equipment. Mixing console is not just an electronic device that give engineers an ability to record,
edit, and mix a variety of inputs, but it is a working space that engineer always sit on for over 8
hours a day. There are various purposes to use mixing console, for example, studio recording,
live-sound reinforcement, and podcasting. From time to time, the design of mixing console is
getting more complex from analog mixing console to digital mixing console (Theberge, 2003).
According to Jeffrey Hass (2003), todays technology, mixing consoles are getting more
advance and are able to handle both analog and digital signal from devices such as DAT's, multi-
channel tape decks, computer audio interfaces, and iPods.
Basic Component of Analog and Digital Mixing Console
A diagram below helps illustrate the typical layout with different sections of mixing
console. This diagram uses Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro (analog board) as an example, which is used
as the mixer prototype for this thesis. This typical mixing console is consisted of 9 sections which
are Input Channel Strips, Microphone Inputs, Line/tape/Mix B Inputs, Monitor Outputs, AUX send
master, AUXreturns, Monitor Section, Channel Group UR Mix Meters, and Output Section.
(
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j i. ! dti 1 - 1 --mM ] Si -C --'mJr ill i .j _. i} y j.
MICROPHONE INPUTS ^PPSE
LINE INPUTS
AUX I AUX MASTER |R£Tuw£
INPUT MIX
CHANNEL METERS
STRIPS tccnoM MBBMK OUTPUT SCCtOfrS
Figure 1.1:9 Sections of Mixing Console.
Input Channel Strips
A mixer consists of certain numbers of input channels controlled by identical channel
strips (in vertical arrangement). All mixers have of the same basic elements, however they could
1


have minor differences in functions and layout depends on their manufacturers and model. They
often have a separate section for preamp, tape inputs.
The top part of mixer contains the input lines from three different sources in different
channels, which are a microphone inputs, a line input and a tape input. Then, they will be routing
through the channel. The exhibits below are the examples of input channel function (based on
this model, Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro). On this board, the TRIM section gives the ability to adjust the
gain of level of the signals in each individual channel.
1.Microphone Input
2 ine Input
3. Tape Input
Figure 1.2: Input Section: Microphone,ine, and Tape respectively.
AUX
MON/
EFX
3,
Figure 1.3: AUX.
A mixer has a separate set of outputs usually connected to effects devices. Signals can
be routed to these devices from the effects sends (sometimes labeled "aux sends" or just "aux")
of the input channels.
Figure 1.4: Equalization.
The EQ (equalization) section is used to adjust the amount of boost or cut (attenuation)
for high, midrange and low frequency bands (the exact number of frequency bands varies
2


according to the mixing console model). Certain mixers allow the user to adjust the exact
frequency of the bands as well as their boost or cut.
Below E is the PAN and MUTE section (It is Mix-B in some other boards). The PAN
knob controls the left/right or odd/even balance of the channel's output. A stereo instrument
coming into two board channels should be panned hard left on one channel and hard right on the
other to maintain the maximum stereo effect. The mute button will silence the channel when
activated, while the solo button will send the channel's signal to a separate "solo" bus, usually
controlled by a solo master pot.
Figure 1.6: Channel Fader.
The channel fader (the white vertical sliding tab) controls the level of output of the
channel signal being routed into any of the master outputs selected.
3


AUX send master AUX return
Figure 1.7: AUX Send Return.
The aux send master section controls the total amount of signal being sent out to each of aux
devices.
Monitor Section
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SOLO
mocc
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Figure 1.8: Monitor Section.
The monitor section controls what signals and levels are sent to the speakers.
4


Mix Meters
Figure 1.11: Master Fader.
The output section has faders for the 2 group outputs (buses).
LEFT RIGHT
Ode^>du
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-O 2 O-
- 2 -
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Q* ?
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ruoe
SOLO M -
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Figure 1.9: Mix Meters.
Mix meter provides an ability to display the signal level.
Monitor Outputs
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m I I U5 m I I 5¢ IMEM9 10 2 1 1 sT UNEMU t2 .(Ml 4* lMENt3 M
Figure 1.10: Monitor Outputs.
It is an output of the mixer to a headphone or monitor speakers or any other preferred speakers.
Output Section
MAIN MIX
5


Advantage / Disadvantage of Analog and Digital
General Strength and Weakness and their Flexibility
For analog mixing consoles, their biggest limitation is also their greatest strength. Since
majority of functions are immutable (Michael, 2003). For instance, if one problem occurred in one
single channel it will stay just there and never anything else.
Unlike analog mixers, digital mixing consoles have ability to do the full processing on
every channel and output including patching any input to any channel on the board. In digital we
can be potentially use 96 inputs in the space of 24, in contrast if it is analog and it is 24, then it
will be 24 channels. However, we have to remember the pages for digital mixing and what are on
each page in order to swap to the rights channels. Yet the analog console still has one real
advantage over the digital console. On the analog board all your channels and settings are visible
at once. Every knob and fader can be seen at a glance, and you can put your fingers on them
instantly, while the digital consoles will typically require the operator to press buttons and/or
switch layers to make the needed changes (Hamilton, 2010; Michael, 2003).
Total Recall
For digital mixing consoles, the ability to keep the record and transfer the data to another
computer is a major advantage. Digital option takes an advantage on this aspect of ability to
recall the presets that could use the repetition of settings, cues and scenes, that can be benefit
for many uses such as recording studios, theater show. Analog mixing consoles do not have the
ability to recall and save these presets, which create disadvantage compare to digital on this point
of view. But in some of live sound situations, digital is not always wins over analog. For example,
in live musical Theater and touring shows and concerts, some of these situations can take
advantage of digital mixing consoles to help working with settings, cues and scenes. However,
Analog is preferable when we have a small amount of inputs, or when the moment-by-moment
control is critical for the performance. In this case, the analog consoles give the ability to react
instantly to the stages situations (Michael, 2003; Burrell, 2014).
Sound Quality and Latency
On the Classic sound argument, analog mixing consoles can deliver the better sound
quality than digital. We can have a warmer tone and deeper sound on an analog mixing consoles.
On digital consoles, some users add some effects to the mix or by integrating minor outboard
processing to help compensate the quality of sound (Burrell, 2014).
6


Price
Focusing on expensive consoles, the digital console becomes more cost competitive. At
the top end of the spectrum, an excellent digital console will probably cost less than its analog
counterpart (Hamilton, 2010).
Using style
The final consideration would define by individual users and how they like to work. For
Analog board, everything is out there to be seen, unlike the digital that however can handle full
processing, there are pages to work with. The actual physical touch and how our memories could
recall the faders and knobs positions are also one consideration that can supports a workflow of
many engineers and users to be more intuitive and flexible. Both digitals and analog have their
own strength and weakness, and the most important consideration is to select the right tools for
the right job (Hamilton, 2010).
Dilemma
In music industry, Analog mixing console has been continuously used from the old days
until nowadays because of solid and great quality of the sound. With the rise of digital from
technology advancement, music industry diverts more interests to digital equipment because
digital equipment is easier to work with various functions and effects, especially ability to save
and restore memory. Digital equipment can provide more flexibility and convenient to the
workflow. The workflows of analog tend to take more time than the digital, for example, to
manually setting up, which make engineer have less time focus on sounds because of limited
time and time efficiency. However, analog still win in deliver the higher sound quality. Some users
claim that analog mixing consoles provide the deeper sound and warmer tone compare to digital.
Therefore, People tend to work between both analog and digital theses days to accommodate
both of those benefits. The current dilemma is now we still have gap to fill to integrate the uses of
analog and digital.
ANALOG DIGITAL
Sound Quality 0 !
Controlability ] 0
Figure 1.12 Pros and Cons of Analog and Digital
7


Existing Technology
Flying Faders
tlJust Mix" Automation system is a concept of Flying Faders. Flying faders is the stand-
alone software and hardware that allow users to mix with Flying Faders interface that they
claimed to be intuitive and simple (Flying Faders II New Featuresn.d.).
H New Ma Flyiog Fdrs II
Fie vw Select dear Toots Help
Moces Evnts Markers | Channel Control
PbyMDtFrder aWk Frdf
Goto I
o|ga ^2i
CTTO - Mute
CQS I rim
______O BQBOB
Branches Tree
Rlatd Mrs ai Hoces
J Info

> TrMporl
X
QQQIQIQ C3C3DQ
1*00:00:00:00.0-i* *00000000.00 !+
Figure 1.13: Interface of Flying Faders II.
Major Advantages of Flying Faders
1. Recall Ability: Flying Faders has ability to save the position of every control with a mix
and restore when the mix is opened. Recall for Neve VR Series is integrated directly into
Flying Faders. It allows up to 3 channels to be recalled simultaneously.
2. Trim Ability: Faders may be trimmed with automation in play or stop, and trimming may
be fully controlled exclusively from the console or GUI interface.
3. Mix import: Flying Faders allow users to import elements from other Mixes into your
current Mix, from Channel Names to the Recall Store.
4. Simple installation and intuitive user interface
8


Figure 1.14: Hardware of Flying Faders II.
Major Disadvantages of Flying Faders
1. imitation in working on DAWs: Flying Faders do not work provide a plug-in but being
stand-alone software, therefore, users who currently use other DAWs such as ProTools,
and Cubase, cannot use those DAW to mix but have to switch to mix directly on Flying
Faders.
2. Compatibility with Windows 7 Only via USB interface: Flying Faders requires the
Operation system to only be Windows, while most of studios and work station are Mac
OS. So, it is till limited to PC users and not yet supports Mac users.
Flying Faders provide a lot of opportunities to mix and recall the parameters and control. For
some example from some engineers, Flying Faders are working as final stage to save the mix
and to have very subtle adjustment in final stage. There are possibilities but there are a lot of
limitations as well.
9


YAMAHA DM2000
YAMAHA DM2000 is the digital console to receive approval under the globally recognized
THX pm3 surround standard. It combines a variety of surround mixing and monitoring functions
together that includes 96 mixing channels (instead of the 02R96's 56 channels), twelve aux sends
(instead of eight), eight internal effects processors (instead of four), six 31-band graphic EQs, a
22 x 8 matrix, six mini-YGDAI card slots (instead of four) and 24 microphone inputs (instead of
16). It also has a more professional monitoring section, with two sets of control-room speaker
outputs (large and small), a solo contrast mode, and track outputs/returns that are geared more
towards professional AES3 interfaces instead ofS/PDIF.
Figure 1.15: Yamaha DM2000.
Automation and Scene Memory
Automation and Scene Memory are the highlight properties of digital boards and the
major focus use on this Thesis. This DM2000 has Scene Memory and Automix Functions for
Efficient Workflow. The DM2000 features automix capability with 1/4-frame resolution, allowing
full automation of parameters right down to the internal effects. Automix functions can be
controlled via dedicated keys for easy access. Scene memories allow fade times and recall safe
settings to be specified independently for each channel, while recall safe can even be specified at
the function level. The data can be conveniently saved to SmartMedia memory cards (Robjohns,
2002; DM2000VCM).
10


BetterMaker EQ 502P
BetterMaker 502P is a Stereo analog equalizer with plugin recall. These units have a full
digital recall with 399 cells for user's own presets, which allow users to recall with one touch.
Users can connect up to 99 EQ502P,s to one D.A.W. and control them with dedicated plugins.
Users can save personal settings in the internal memory of the equalizers as well as in DAW and
in the projects with custom automation. This BetterMaker EQ502P is recognized and won the
award in 2013 for the best of show at NAMM Show 2013 (EQ 502P Bettermaker).
Figure 1.16: BetterMaker EQ502P.
11


Table 1:BetterMaker EQ 502P Specification.
Model: EQ 502P
Frequency response: 5Hz to 100kHz (-0.5dB)
Dynamic range: more than 106 dB
S/N ratio: more than 104 dB
THD+N: less than 0.004%
Gh3 6ls: 2
Input impedance: 20k Ohm balanced
Output impedance: 200 Ohm balanced
Max input level: +24dBu balanced or +18dBu unbalanced
Max output level: +24dBu balanced or +18dBu unbalanced
Unity gain: balanced: OdB, unbalanced: -6dB
P EQ low freq. range: 20, 30, 60,100Hz
P EQ high freq. range: 3, 4, 5, 6,10,12,16 kHz
P EQ high cut freq: 5,10,20 kHz 6db/oct
Preset storage capacity: 399 presets
About the Cons of BetterMaker EQ 502P, it would go to personal style of adjusting the
sound, depending on the type of knobs. This model provides knobs that could rotate infinitely
(360 degrees) while some users prefer the feeling of touching and controlling a regular knobs.
However, it is very subjective to user-by-user.
12


Proposed Solution
In order to respond to the current dilemmas, music industry need the new aids to help
improve the workflow in analog by taking advantage of digital technology to bring the best time
efficiency workflow into the project. Some developed system that will enhance the workflow to be
more convenient, with the desired sound quality without radically change the usual workflow, is
what the industry need.
ANALOG + DIGITAL
Sound Quality 0 L Improve
Controlability 0 J Time efficiency
Figure 1.17 If Analog meet Digital Diagram
The analog and digital tools nowadays have tremendous potentials and they are already
powerful on their own aspects. If there is the technology to help combine the best of both digital
and analog world, then sound engineers and music users can utilize both analog and digital
together. It would not only help creating better workflow and time efficiency for music production,
but also decrease the limitations and give more potentials and possibilities of sound control and
music development.
There are some existing technologies that started to respond to the similar issues but not
always respond to every user or workflows. Current products utilize the different methodology of
manufacturing which lead to the different potential of future development. It is important to have
choices of equipment to support the various workflow and application. To respond to these
dilemmasKnobLog, which is the product of this Thesis, is created solely to solve these issues
and to help create another step of technology advancement in music industry.
13


CHAPTER II
SYSTEM DESIGN
Objective
1.Improving the workflow in analog by taking an advantage of digital technology to bring the
best time efficiency workflow into the project.
2. This system enhances the workflow to be more convenient, with the desired sound quality
without radically change the usual workflow. In other words, this project offers the opportunity
to bring the best of both worlds to work together.
Design Concept
In this thesis, I would like to name this system KnobLog for a convenient call from now
on. Knobog has been designed under the concept that reduces time and effort to learn and get
used to a new workflow and remain current workflow for both analog and digital.
Figure 2.1:Block Diagram.
14


In order to give the controllability to the analog mixer, motorized potentiometers have
been used instead of regular potentiometers. The microcontroller controls the direction of the
motor on motorized potentiometer. The position of potentiometer has been read, write, and send
the data to the plugin interface through Serial port. This means mixer is controllable by using
either a plugin in DAW or manually adjusting to manipulate the sound This Knobog also be able
to save and recall the presets on analog mixer and show up in the plugin interface by using
microcontroller to be a middleman to transfer potentiometer's position data from analog mixer to
computer and vice versa without hand touching the mixing board.
KnobLog is composed of 2 major parts.
1) Hardware
2.) Software
Hardware
Part List
Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro
Figure 2.2: Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro.
Application: An analog mixer console, to amplify and manipulate the signal from the inputs.
Selection: Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro has been used as a prototype for KnobLog, because it is a
well-known brand analog mixer with a reasonable price.
15


Arduino Mega 2560
Figure 2.3: Arduino Mega 2560.
Function: Microcontroller based on the ATmega2560. It has 54 digital input/output pins (15
PWM outputs).
Application: To communicate between interface and motorized potentiometer.
Selection: Arduino Mega 2560 has been used because it has lots of PWM outputs which
has an ability to control more than three motors simultaneously. It is also an open
source that contain a lot of supportive sources either official, developers, and
users, which support any electronics/ programming experiment.
Motorized Potentiometer
Figure 2.4: Motorized Potentiometer.
Application: To manipulate the sound, for example, equalizing, and leveling.
Selection: These motorized potentiometers have a reasonable price.
16


SN754410
Figure 2.5: SN754410.
Function: Quadruple high-current half-H driver designed to provided bidirectional drive
currents up to 1 A at voltages from 4.5V to 36 V, specifically designed for dc
motors.
Application: Capable of driving high voltage motors.
Selection: Besides using four transistors to control motors, Integrated circuit is the better
choice due to its price, size and easier to use.
NE PACKAGE
(TOP VIEW)
1.2EN [ ]VCC1
1A[ 2 15 ]4A
1Y[ 3 14 ]4Y
HEAT SINK AND f [ 4 13 ]\ HEAT SINK AND
GROUND \ [ 5 12 ]/ GROUND
2Y [ 6 11 ]3Y
2A[ 7 10 ]3A
VCC2 [ 8 g ]3,4EN
Figure 2.6: SN754410 Top View.
According to figure 2.6, H-bridge IC has 16 pins total: 2 enable pins, 4 control pins, 4
output pins, a chip power pin, a motor power pin, and a ground Control pins (Ais a pin to
control a motor, according to the table below, if the control pins are different, motor will turn, and
stop if there are the same.
Table 2: Logic of H-bridge IC.
EN 1A 2A Function
H H Right
H H eft
H H H Stop
H Stop
17


Circuit Design
To be able to control all the knobs and fader, regular potentiometers have to be removed
and replace them with motorized potentiometers.
Figure 2.7: Parts Removal from Mackie 1402 Circuit Board.
18


In order to control motorized potentiometer, additional circuit is needed. In this thesis,
SN754410 has been used to control the position of potentiometer. The picture below shows the
breadboard version of Knobog controller system.
Figure 2.8: The Beta Version of KnobLog Controller System on Breadboard.
19


Schematic
These 2 images below demonstrate how to connect a motorized potentiometer with H-
Bridge, and Arduino Mega2560.
Figure 2.9: The Schematic of Basic Motor Controller Circuit using SN754410.
20


Figure 2.10: The Breadboard Diagram of Basic Motor Controller Circuit using SN754410
After replacing a regular potentiometer with a motorized potentiometer. Put every part
into the box. Wiring the box to the mixer. Knobog Controller is ready to use. The figure below
shows the in-box version of Knobog controller.
21


Figure 2.11: KnobLog Controller System
22


Software
Flowchart
This is a simple flowchart that exhibits how program works between
potentiometer, Arduino, and user interface.
Figure 2.12: Programming Flowcharts.
motorized
23


Arduino IDE
The use of program: Role of this software is to let users to program their microcontroller.
Example of the scripts: There are four important parts of the script.
1.Calibrate and EEPROM: calibrating the position of Max and Min of the potentiometer and
save it to EEPROM. This enhances the user not to calibrate every time the system run.
void calibrateMax{
// Calibrate Max Position
for (i=0; i < faderCount; i++) { motorUp(i);}
delay(10000);
for (i=0; i < faderCount; i++) {
stopMotor(i);
delay(300);
Serial.println ("Max Value Calibrating");
if (readFader(i) > faderMax[i]) {
faderMax[i] = readFader(i);
if (i==0) {
maxValue[0] = highByte(faderMax[0]);
maxValue[1]=lowByte(faderMax[0]);
EEPROM.write(0, maxValue[0]);
EEPROM.write(1, maxValue[1]);
2. Cotrol motor: to force motors to spin clockwise, counterclockwise, or stop with a specific
speed. HIGH = yes LOW = no
// Motor Functions
void motorUp(int motorNum, int speed) {
digitalWrite(motorDownPin[motorNum], LOW);
digitalWrite(motorUpPin[motorNum], HIGH);
analogWrite(motorSpeedPin[motorNum], speed);
}
void motorDown(int motorNum, int speed) {
digitalWrite(motorUpPin[motorNum], LOW);
24


digitalWrite(motorDownPin[motorNum], HIGH);
analogWrite(motorSpeedPin[motorNum], speed);
}
void stopMotor(int motorNum) {
digitalWrite(motorUpPin[motorNum], LOW);
digitalWrite(motorDownPin[motorNum], LOW);
analogWrite(motorSpeedPin[motorNum], 0);
3. Serial send: send the fader position value to the interface through Serial port
for (i=0; i < faderCount; i++) {
if (faderChanged[i]) {
Serial.print(i);
Serial.print(":M);
Serial.print(faderValue[i]);
Serial.print('r)
4. Serial receive: receive the fader position value from the interface through Serial port
{
channel = Serial.readStringUntil(':');
value = Serial.readStringUntil('l')
channel.toCharArray(channelBuffer, sizeof(channelBuffer));
ch = atoi(channelBuffer);
value.toCharArray(valueBuffer, sizeof(valueBuffer));
targetVal = atoi(valueBuffer);
25


JUCE
JUCE is a C++ library for developing cross-platform software, including audio plugin. An
additional Serial port library is needed in order to communicate with Arduino.
Example of the interface:
Kn^b.og
Serial is nM Connected VI.0.0
MixerController
Figure 2.13: KnobLog Plugin Interface
26


Example of the scripts:
PluginProcessor.cpp -> main application
Open a serial port and change itself to be a listener.
MixerControllerAudioProcessor::MixerControllerAudioProcessor()
{
serialCon = SerialController::getlnstance();
serialCon->connect();
serialCon->addChangeistener setParameter(sliderParam, slider);
setParameter( slider2Parafrr slider2);
set Pa ramete r (s l id e r3Pa rarr, slider3);
setParameter( slider4Pararrr slider4) ;|
RequestUIUpdate();
Send a parameter to serial port
void MixerControllerAudioProcessor::setParameter unt index, float newValue)
>
//This irethod will be called by the host, probably on the audio thread, so
// it's absolutely tine-critical. Don't use critical sections or anything
// Ul-related, or anything at all that may block in any way!
switch (index)
case sliderPararr:
case slider2Param:
case slider3Param:
case slider4Param:
slider = newValue; break;
slider2 = newValue; break;
slider3 = newValue; break;
slider4 = newValue; break;
default:
break;
serialCon->sendValueForChannel(index, newValue);
RequestUIUpdate();
change istenerCallback
void MixerControllerAudioProcessor::changeListenerCallback(ChangeBroadcaster^ source) {
SerialController serialln = (SerialController *) source;
int channel = serialIn->getReadChannel();
float value = serialIn->getReadValue();
switch (channel) {
case sliderPararr:slider = value; oreak;
case slider2Param:slider2 = value; break;
case slider3Param:slider3 = value; break;
case slider4Param:slider4 = value; break;
>
sendParairChangeMessageToListeners (channel, value);
RequestUIUpdate();
27


make sure that it's actually our type of XM object"
(xmlState->hasTagNane (_KN0BL0GPLUGINSETTINGSu))
Save parameter
void MixerControllerAudioProcessor::getStateInfornation (MenoryBlock& destData)
//You should use this method to store your parameters in the meirory block.
//You could do that either as raw data, or use the XML or ValueTree classes
// as interrrediaries to rrake it easy to save and load corrplex data.
XmlEleflient xml (MKNOBLOGPLUGINSETTINGSM);
if add some attributes to it"
xml.setAttribute ("slider", slider);
xml.setAttribute ("slider2"l slider2);
xml.setAttribute ("sliders**, slider3);
xml.setAttribute ("slider4", slider4);
// then use this helper function to stuff it into the binary blob and return it..
copyXmlToBinary (xnlf destData);
void MixerControllerAudioProcessor:isetStatelnfornation (const void* data, int sizelnBytes)
//You should use this method to restore your parameters from this meirory block,
//whose contents will have been created by the getStateInfonration() call.
// This getXmlFroniBinary() helper function retrieves our XML frorr the binary blob"
ScopedPointer xrrlState (getXrrlFronBinary (data, sizelnBytes));
if (xnlState != nullptr)
// ok, now pull out our parameters..
setParameter( sliderParam, xirlState->getDoubleAttribute("slider"));
setParameter( slider2Pararr, xmlState->getDoubleAttribute("slider2"))
set Parameter ( slider3Pararr, xmlState->getDoubleAttribute(" slide r3"))
set Parameter ( slider4Pararr, xmlState->getDoubleAttribute( "slide r4"))
PluginEditor.cpp -> Interface
//[UsersliderValueChanged_Post]
if (KnobLogSlider *knobLogSlider = dynamic_cast{sliderThatWasMoved))
int channel = knobLogSlider->get5liderId();
double value = knobLogSlider->getValue();
//getProcessort)->setParaneter(channel, value);
getProcessor( )->setParaireterNotifyingHost (channel, value);
}
///UsesliderValueChanged_Post
Call back
void MixerControllerAudioProcessorEditor::changeListenerCallback(ChangeBroadcaster* source)
SerialController serialln = (SerialController )source;
int channel = serialIn->getReadChannel();
float value = serialIn->getReadValue();
switch (channel) {
case 0slider->setValue(value, dontSendNotification); break;
case 1:slider2->setValue(value, dontSendNotification); break;
case 2:slider3->setValue(value, dontSendNotification); break;
case 3:slider4->setValue(value, dontSendNotification); break;
>
>
/ f
/ .1 ri
28


SerialController.cpp-> sending and receiving from Serial
void SerialController::connect() {
dataBuffer ="";
if {serial nullptr || !serial->exists()) {
StringPairArray portlist = SerialPort::getSerialPortPaths{);
if (portlist.containsKey("usbfnoderfal31")){
serial = new SerialPort(portlist.getValue("usbmoder,fal31nf "/dev/
tty.usbfrodenfal31")r SerialPortConfig(115200! 8, SerialPortConfig::
SERIALPORT.PARITY^NONE, SerialPortConfig::STOPBITS.l, SerialPortConfig::
FLOWCONTROL.NONE) T;
I if (serial->exists()) {
serialOutStrean = new SerialPortOutputStrear(serial);
seriallnStream = new SerialPortInputStrearr(serial);
serialInStream->addChangeListener(this);
serialInStream->setNotify(SerialPortInputStream::NOTIFY_ALWAYS);
} "
}
Sending and receiving a value from serial port
bool SerialController::sendValueForChanneUint channel, float value) {
if {serial != nullptr && serial->exists()) {
char buffer [9
std:: sprintf (buffer, "%d:%1.4f |*', channel, value);
std::cout "Sending: " buffer "\n"; // Debug
return serial0ut5tream->write(buffer, sizeof(buffer));
} else {
return false;
void SerialController::changeListenerCallback(ChangeBroadcaster* source) {
SerialPortlnputStrean serialln = (SerialPortlnputStreair *) source;
//char buffer[9];
//serialln->read(bufferf 9);
//String readString(buffer);
String readstring = serialIn->readString();
dataBuffer += readString;
while (dataBuffer.indexOf("I") !=-1){
String dataString = dataBuffer.substring(0, dataBuffer.indexOf("|"));
std::cout dataString "\nM;
String channelstring = dataString.substring(0f dataString.indexOf;
String valuestring = dataString.substring(dataString.indexOf{":")+1,dataString.length
())
int channel =-1;
float value =-1;
try {
channel = std::stoi(channelString.toStdString());
value = std::stof(valueString.toStdString());
> catch(std::invalid_argunent&) {
//Wrong Argument
if (value !=-1 £>& channel !=-1){
this->readValue = value;
this->readChannel = channel;
this->sendChangeMessage();
>
dataBuffer = dataBuffer.substring(dataBuffer.indexOf(")+l, dataBuffer.length());
29


CHAPTER III
IMPLEMENTATION AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES
Potential Use
There are several type of projects to utilize Knobog system, for example, Studio
Recording, Live Sound Reinforcement, Podcasting and Broadcastin, or personal use. This
product is a protoype that represent only one-channel due to limited budgets and timeframe. It
can be multiply to more channels and to respond to more extensive uses. Below is the example of
environments that Knobog can be used to facilitate the workflow.
Studio Recording
This system can be used in the Studio recording either for mixing or mastering purposes.
It help memorize the presets and provide ability to recall the settings.
Live Sound Reinforcement
Knobog can be used in the live sound environment for help save and restore the cues,
and setting.
Podcasting and Broadcasting
Knobog can be used in the podcasting and roadcasting to help remember and recall
the previous settings of the mixes.
Personal Use
Upgrade Knobog system to the old analog system gives controllability to connect to the
computer. Knobog will help facilitate various type of projects.
30


Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages
Ability to Save and Recall
Knobog can be used to save the settings and recall for future use by using a native
ogic system.
Copy
Load-
Save As...
Save As Default
Recall Default
Figure 3.1:Instruction of How to Save and Recall
Time Efficiency
Users can save more time in workflow, according to figure 3.2, Comparing the system
without Knobog, the system without Knobog require more time in the workflow.
START
TIME
CURRENT MIXING
MIXING WORKFLOW
WORKFLOW WITH KNOBLOG
KNOBLOG
KNOBLOG
WORKFLOW
Figure 3.2: Task and Time Frame Comparison to Exhibit the Difference Time Efficiency Between
Conventional/ Current Workflow and Workflow with KnobLog
31


Analog Sound Quality
As mentioned in chapter 2, most of users still prefer the sound from analog over digital
because deeper sound and warmer tone.
Controllability
Knobog provide the opportunities to use digital mixer controller which provide more
contrallability on analog mixer.
Disadvantages
Price
Motorized potentiometer cost double comparing to a regular potentiometer. In order to get
a large format analog mixing console to work with Knobog system, high amount of money is
needed.
Potentiometer Rotational Speed
Due to a low rotational speed of motorized potentiometer, automation cannot implement.
Problems
Noise
There are noise leak while the motor is moving. I think it is because of low quality of
motorized potentiometer.
Accuracy
Currently, Knobog still does not provide an acceptable accurate scale of faders.
Voltage Regulator
In order to drive many motors at the same time, more sustainable voltage regulator is
needed.
Future Development
1. Redesign a circuit with a better voltage regulator to support more channels in the future.
2. Microcontroller that has a higher resolution for more accuracy.
3. Decrease the budget from selecting another parts that more affordable that might be
available in the future
4. Use a better rotational speed and higher quality motorized potentiometer, in order to get
an ability to automate and reduce a noise.
5. Reduce a motor noise from the system.
32


CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSIONS
Figure 4.1 An Engineer was working with the mixing console in studio.
Mixing consoles are the significant equipment in the signal path of music productions that
give engineers an ability to record, edit, and mix a variety of inputs. With the current technology,
music industry have both analog and digital console as a tools to use for various functions and
situations, not just only in studio, but also in theater and concerts as well. Analog and Digital have
their own advantages that if both systems be able to be integrated they will benefit the workflow
and the productions tremendously. This thesis started from responding the current dilemmas in
the music industry that missing the aids to help improve the workflow in analog by taking
advantage of digital technology to bring the best time efficiency workflow into the project.
Knobog, which is a product of this thesis, is created as an alternative solution for this issues.
There are several current technologies that support the relevance objective and align in the
similar direction, however work for different workflow and using different method of productions,
which lead to different path for future development as well. For example, Flying Faders that allow
engineers to mix and save their mix and restore it, however it does not work on DAW but be its
own interface. Also, BetterMaker is outboard gear and plug-in that serve similar objective but for
(Afferent ease of use and use (Afferent methodology for manufacturing. Knobog is a prototype
product that allows user to use analog mixing consoles directly while taking the advantage of
controllability digital from digital. It enhances the workflow to be more convenient, with the desired
33


sound quality without radically change the usual workflow. Knobog was bom to help users
utilize the best of both world, analog and digital simultaneously.
Figure 4.2 Knobog logo and trademark
With Knobog, analog mixer is controllable by using either a plugin in DAW or manually
adjusting to manipulate the sound. This Knobog also be able to save and recall the presets on
analog mixer and show up in the plugin interface by using microcontroller to be a middleman to
transfer potentiometer's position data from analog mixer to computer and vice versa without hand
touching the mixing board.
For the system design, motorized potentiometers have been used instead of regular
potentiometers in order to give the controllability to the analog mixer. The microcontroller controls
the direction of the motor on motorized potentiometer. The position of potentiometer has been
read, write, and send the data to the plugin interface through Serial port.
KnobLog is composed of 2 major parts; Hardware and Software
1. )Hardware
1.1. Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro
1.2. Arduino Mega 2560
1.3. Motorized Potentiometer
1.4. H-bridgelCSN754410
1.5. Circuit
2. ) Software
a. Arduino IDE
b. JUCE C++
This system helps improve workflow and time effiency for sound engineers who work on
analog mixing console, for instance, studio recording, live sound reinforcement, podcasting or
broadcasting, and personal use.
There are 6 advantages of this system: ability to save and recall, time efficiency, analog
sound quality, controllability, and accuracy. However, this system remains two major
disadvantages that need to improve in the future: price, and motorized potentiometer rotational
speed.
34


With current development, Knobog unleashed the potential of integration of analog and
digital. There still more possibilities to develop this KnobLog further to the extensive use. If further
development would happen, the most important one is to increase the channel to respond to
appropriate needs. Due to a limited time and budget, Knobog was intentionally created to be
prototype for future extensions. Only one channel is created to represent the possibilities that can
be duplicated to other channels. The electronics parts can be upgrade to newer and higher
rotational speed as well as optimize the budgets and proceed the feasibility analysis for
commercial productions.
35


REFERENCES
Theberge, P.(2003). Mixing desk (mixing console). In Continuum encyclopedia of popular music
of the world: Performance and production. Retrieved from http://alturl.com/gdcpp
Hass, J. (2003, September 15). Chapter Two: Mixers. Retrieved from http://alturl.com/mishr
Michael, F. (2003, 06). Analog vs. digital consoles for live use: Who's winning? Professional
Sound,14, 56. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/756574413?accountid=14506
Hamilton, T. (2010, October 27). Analog \/s. Digital Sound Boards Howto Decide \. Retrieved
from http://alturl.com/ezb2i
Burrell, B. (2014, January 30). Choosing Between Digital vs. Analog Consoles Some Sound
Advice For Churches \. Retrieved from http://alturl.com/4zoug
Flying Faders II New Features, (n.d.). Retrieved from http://alturl.com/rqpzu
Robjohns, H. (2002, November). Yamaha DM2000 Digital Mixing Console. Sound On Sound.
Retrieved from http://alturl.com/v639k
DM2000VCM. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://alturl.com/buijs
EQ 502P Bettermaker. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.bettermaker.eu/eq-502p/
JUCE Forums: http://juce.com/forum
36


Full Text

PAGE 1

ANALOG CHANNEL STRIP DIGITALLY CONTROLLED VIA PLUGIN by VASIN LIMSUKHAWAT B.eng., King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, 2010 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Recording Arts 2014

PAGE 2

2014 VASIN LIMSUKHAWAT ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PAGE 3

! ii This thesis for the Master of Science degree by Vasin Limsukhawat has been approved for the Recording Arts Program by Catalin Grigoras, Chair Dan Connors Jeff Merkel April 23 2014

PAGE 4

! iii Limsukhawat, Vasin (M.S., Recording Arts) Analog Channel Strip Digitally Controlled via Plugin Thesis directed by Professor Catalin Grigoras ABSTRACT This t hesis inspiration started from the dilemma in current music industry, musicians and engineers use Analog for higher quality sound as an ultimate choice. W ith high advancement of technology, digital equipment is easier to work with various sound qualit ies People tend to work between both analog and di gital theses days. However, the workflow of analog tend to takes time compare to the digital for example manually setting up, which make engineer have less time focus on sounds because of limited time and time efficiency. The objective of this thesis deriv ed from this dilemma, and set a goal to create aids to help improve the workflow in analog mixers by taking advantage of digital technology to bring the best time efficiency workflow into the project. This system will enhance the workflow to be more conven ient, with the desired sound quality without radically change the usual workflow. In other words, this thesis offer s the opportunity to bring the best of both worlds to work together. In this thesis, this system has been called KnobLog for a convenient call from now on. KnobLog is a hardware and software plugin. It ca n save and recall the presets on analog mixer and show up in the KnobLog plugin interfac e by using microcontroller to be a middleman to transfer potentiometer's position d ata from analog mixer to computer and vice versa. In order to give the controllability to the analog mixer, regular potentiometers have been replaced with motorized potentiometers Arduino Mega2560 has been used t o c ontrol motorized potentiometer s which pass the position data through serial port and vice versa This mean s this system provides an ability to control the mixer by using KnobLog plugin in DAW or manually adjusting to manipulate the sound, for example, equalizer, level fader, AUX, and pan. This also gives user an ability to save as well as recall presets. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication Approved: Catalin Grigoras

PAGE 5

! iv DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis to my lovely family and friends. My parents who always support me since I was born till now Prasit Limsukhawat and Kanokwaree Limsukhawat, as well as my lovely brother and sister Panyawudh Limsukhawat Sirimon Limsukhawat, and my amazing lovely wife, Ekpanith Naknakorn who enc ourage and support me during the thesis process I also dedicate this thesis to my friends, Pravesvuth Uparanukraw Nongnapat Sangrit and Phil Beskid who always support and help me throughout the process. Without the great guidance and support of everyone this thesis would not have been possible.

PAGE 6

! v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express special appreciation and thanks to my thesis advisor, Catalin Grigoras for his guidance and support during the process of my graduate education and throughout the creation of thi s thesis. I would also like to t hank my thesis committee members Jeff Merkel for his instruction s and Dr. Dan Connors for his support on hardware and his advices on software programming I would also like to thank Dave Tremblay for his advice and guidance on DAW plugin development. A special thank to Prave s vuth Uparanukraw and his wife, Nongnapat Sangrit for his /her instruction s and also spent a lot of time teaching me about program devel opment skil l throughout the thesis process and being my thesis partner to help discuss and solve technical problems. I would also like to thank my lovely wife, Ekpanith Naknakorn, for being beside me and support and teach me about brainstorm ing, writing th is thesis properly, and enclosure design.

PAGE 7

! vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION .. 1 Basic Component of Analog and Digital Mixing Console .. .. . ... 1 Input Channel Strips .. 1 AUX Send M aster AUX Return . 4 Monitor Sec tion ... 4 Mix Meters 5 Monitor Outputs ... 5 Output Section 5 Advantage s / Disadvantage s of Analog and Digital Mixing Console .. . 6 General S trength and Weakness and their F lexibility .. 6 Total Recall .. 6 Sound Quality and Latency . .. 6 Price . 7 Using Style ... 7 Dilemma . .. 7 Existing Technology . ............. ... 8 Flying Faders ... 8 Major Advantage s of Flying Faders . .. 8 Major Disadvantage s of Flying Faders .. 9 Yamaha DM2000 . 10 BetterMaker EQ 502P . 11 Proposed Solution . ... ................ 1 3 II. SYSTEM DESIGN .. 1 4 Objective ... ... 14 Design Concept .. ... . 14 Hardware .. 15 Part List . 15 Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro ... 15 Arduino Mega 2560 . . 16 Motorized Potentiometer .. 16 SN754410 .. 17

PAGE 8

! vii Circuit Design . .. 18 Schematic . 20 Software ... 23 Flowchart .. 23 Arduino IDE ... ...... 24 JUCE . 26 III. IMPLEMENTATION AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES 30 Potential Use . .............. .. 30 Studio Recording .. ... 30 Live Sound Reinforcement . 30 Podcasting and Broadcasting 30 Personal Use . .. .... 30 Advantage s and Di sadvantage s ......... 31 Advantage s .. .. .. 31 Ability to Save and Recall ... 31 Time Efficiency 31 Analog Sound Quality 32 Controllability 32 Disadvantage s .. .... .. . 32 Price ... 32 Potentiometer Rotational Speed ... 32 Problems . ...... .. . 32 Noise . .. ... 32 Accuracy .... 32 Voltage Regulator ..... 32 Future Development ............ .. ... 32 IV. CONCLUSIONS .. .............. 33 REFERENCES . ....................... .. 36

PAGE 9

! viii LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. BetterMaker EQ 502P Specification 12 2. Logic of H bridge IC ... 17

PAGE 10

! ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.1 9 sections of mixing console 1 1.2 Input Section: Microphone, Line, and Tape respectively 2 1.3 AUX .. ... 2 1.4 Equalization .. 2 1.5 Pan .. 3 1.6 Channel Fader .. 3 1.7 AUX Send R eturn .. 4 1.8 Monitor Section .. 4 1.9 Mix Meters .. 5 1.10 Monitor Outputs .. ... 5 1.11 Master Fader .. 5 1.12 Pros and Cons of Analog and Digital . 7 1.13 Interface of Flying Faders II .. .. 8 1.14 Hardware of Flying Faders II .. ... .. 9 1.15 Yamaha DM2000 .. .. ... 10 1.16 BetterMaker EQ502P . ... 11 1.17 "If Analog meet Digital" Diagram . 13 2.1 Block Diagram ........................................................................ ... 14 2.2 Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro 15 2.3 Arduino Mega 2560 16 2.4 Motorized Potentiometer ... 16 2.5 SN754410 ... 17 2.6 SN754410 Top View .. ... 17 2.7 Parts removal from Mackie 1402 Circuit Board 18 2.8 The Beta Version of Motorized Potentiometer Controller System on breadboard ... 19 2.9 The schematic of basic motor controller circuit using SN754410 . .. 20 2.10 The breadboard diagram of basic motor controller circuit using SN754410 . 21 2.11 KnobLog Controller System . .. 2 2 2.12 Programming Flowcharts . .. .. 2 3 2.13 KnobLog Plugin Interface . 26

PAGE 11

! x 3.1 Instruction of how to save and recall . . 31 3.2 Improved Time Efficiency Graph . 31 4.1 An Engineer was working with the mixing console in studio . .. .... 3 3 4.2 KnobLog logo and trademark .. 3 4

PAGE 12

! 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A good mixing console is an important equipment in the signal path that every music studios and music productions. The studios usually have to spend a lot of money to this equipment. Mixing console is not just an electronic device that give engineers an ability to record, edit, and mix a variety of inputs, but it is a working space that engineer always sit on for over 8 hours a day. There are various purposes to use mixing console, for example, studio recording, live sound reinforcement, and podcasting. From time to time, the design of mixing console is getting more c omplex from analog mixing console to digital mixing console (T hÂŽberge, 2003 ) According to Jeffrey Hass (2003 ) today's technology mixing consoles are getting more advance and are able to handle both analog and digital signal from devices such as DAT's, multi channel tape decks, computer audio interfaces, and iPods. Basic Component of A n alog and Digital Mixing C onsole A diagram below helps illustrate the typical layout with different sections of mixing console. This diagram uses Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro (analog board) as an example which is used as the mixer prototype for this thesis This typical mixing console is consisted of 9 sections which are Input Channel Strips Microphone Inputs, Line/tape/Mix B Inputs, Monitor Outputs, AUX send master, AUX retu rns, Monitor Section, Channel Group L/R Mix Meters, and Output Section. Figure 1 .1: 9 Sections of Mixing C onsole. Input Channel Strips A mixer consists of certain numbers of input channels controlled by identical channel strips (in vertical arrangement). All mixers have of the same basic elements, however they could

PAGE 13

! 2 have minor differences in functions and layout depends on their manufacture rs and model. They often have a separate section for preamp, tape inputs. The top part of mixer contain s the input lines from three different sources in different channels, which are a microphone inputs, a line input and a tape input. Then, they will be ro uting through the channel. The exhibits below are the examples of input channel function (based on this model, Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro) On this board, the TRIM section gives the ability to adjust the gain of level of the signals in each individual channel. 1. Microphone Input 2. Line Input 3. Tape Input Figure 1.2: Input S ection: Microphone, Line, and Tape respectively. ! Figure 1.3: AUX A mixer has a separate set of outputs usually connected to effects devices. Signals can be routed to these devices from the effects sends (sometimes labeled "aux sends" or just "aux") of the input channels. Figure 1.4: Equalization The EQ (equalization) section is used to adjust the amount of boost or cut (attenuation) for high, midrange and low frequency bands (the exact number of frequency bands varies

PAGE 14

! 3 according to the mixing console model). Certain mixers allow the user to adjust the exact frequency of the bands as well as their boost or cut. Figure 1.5: Pan Below EQ is the PAN and MUTE section (It is Mix B in some other boards). The PAN knob controls the left/right or odd/even balance of the channel's output. A stereo instrum ent coming into two board channels should be panned hard left on one channel and hard right on the other to maintain the maximum stereo effect. The mute button will s ilence the channel when activated, while the solo button will send the channel's signal to a separate "solo" bus, usually controlled by a solo master pot. Figure 1.6: Channel Fader The channel fader (the white vertical sliding tab) controls the level of output of the channel signal being routed into any of the master outputs selected.

PAGE 15

! 4 AUX send master AUX return Figure 1.7: AUX S end R eturn The aux send master section controls the total amount of signal being sent out to each of aux devices. Monitor Section Figure 1.8: Monitor Section T he monitor section controls what signals and levels are sent to the speakers.

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! 5 Mix Meters Figure 1.9 : Mix Meters Mix meter provides an ability to display the signal level. Monitor Outputs Figure 1.10 : Monitor Outputs It is a n output of the mixer to a headphone or monitor speakers or any other preferred speakers Output Section Figure 1.11 : Master Fader The output section has faders for the 2 group outputs (bu ses)

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! 6 Adv antage / Disadvantage of A nalog and D igital General Strength and Weakness and their F lexibility For analog mixing consoles, their biggest limitation is also their greatest strength. Since majo rity of functions are immutable (Michael, 2003). For instance, if one problem occurred in one single channel it will stay just there and never anything else Unlike analog mixer s d igital mixing consoles have ability to do the full processing on every channel and output including patching any input to any channel on the board In digital we can be potentially use 96 inputs in the space of 24, in contrast if it is anal og and it is 24, then it will be 24 channels. However, we have to remember the pages for digital mixing and what are on each page in order to swap to the rights channels. Yet the analog console still has one real advantage over the digital console. On the analog board all your channels and settings are visible at once. Every knob and fader can be seen at a glance, and you can put your fingers on them instantly, while the digital consoles will typically require the operator to press buttons and/or switch lay ers to make the needed changes (Hamilton 2010; Michael 2003) Total Recall For digital mixing consoles, the ability to keep the record and transfer the data to another computer is a major advantage. Digital option takes an advantage on this aspect of ability to recall the presets that could use the repetition of settings, cues and scenes, that can be benefit for many uses such as recording studios, theater show. Analog mixing consoles do not have the ability to recall and save these presets which create disadvantage compare to digital on this point of view. But in some of live sound situations, digital is not always wins over analog. For example, in live musical Theater and touring shows and concerts, some of these situations can take advantage of digital mixing consoles to help working with settings, cues and scenes. However, Analog is preferable when we have a small amount of inputs, or when the moment by moment control is critical for the performanc e. In this case, the analog consoles give the ability to react instantly to the stage's situations (Michael, 2003 ; Burrell, 2014 ). Sound Quality and Latency On the Classic sound argument, a nalog mixing consoles can deliver the better sound quality than dig ital. We can have a warmer tone and deeper sound on an analog mixing consoles. On digital consoles, some users add some effects to the mix or by integrating minor outboard processing to help compensate the quality of sound (Burrell, 2014).

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! 7 Price Focusing on expensive consoles, the digital console becomes more cost competitive. At the top end of the spectrum, an excellent digital console will probably cost less than its analog counterpart (Hamilton, 2010) Using style The final consideration would define by individual users and how they like to work. For Analog board, everything is out there to be seen, unlike the digital that however can handle full processing, there are pages to work with. The actual physical touch and how our memories could recal l the faders and knobs positions are also one consideration that can supports a workflow of many engineers and users to be more intuitive and flexible. Both digitals and analog have their own strength and weakness, and the most important consideration is t o select the right tools for the right job (Hamilton, 2010) Dilemma In music industry, Analog mixing console has been continuously used from the old days until nowadays because of solid and great quality of the sound With the rise of digital from technology advancement, music industry diverts more interests to digital equipment because digital equipment is easier to work with various functions and effects, especially ability to save and restore memory Digital equipm ent can provide more flexibility and convenient to the workflow. T he workflow s of analog tend to take more time than the digital for example to manually setting up, which make engineer have less time focus on sounds because of limited time and time effic iency. However, analog still win in deliver the higher sound quality. Some users claim that analog mixing consoles provide the deeper sound and warmer tone compare to digital. Therefore, People tend to work between both analog and digital theses days to ac commodate both of those benefits The current dilemma is now we still have gap to fill to integrate the uses of analog and digital. Figure 1.12 Pros and Cons of Analog and Digital

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! 8 Existing Technology Flying Faders "Just Mix" Automation system is a concept of Flying Faders Flying faders is the stand alone software and hardware that allow users to mix with Flying Faders' int erface that they claimed to be intuitive and simple ("Flying Faders II New Features", n.d.). Figure 1.13 : Interface of Flying Faders II Major Advantages of Flying Faders 1. Recall Ability : Flying Faders has ability to save the position of every control with a mix and restore when the mix is opened. Recall for Neve VR Series is integrated directly into Flying Faders. It all ows up to 3 channels to be recalled simultaneously. 2. Trim Ability : Faders may be trimmed with automation in play or stop, and trimming may be fully controlled exclusively from the console or GUI interface. 3. Mix import : Flying Faders allow users to import el ements from other Mixes into your current Mix, from Channel Names to the Recall Store. 4. Simple installation and intuitive user interface

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! 9 Figure 1.14 : Hardware of Flying Faders II Major Disadvantages of Flying Faders 1. Limitation in working on DAWs : Flying Faders do not work provide a plug in but being stand alone software, therefore, users who currently use other DAW s such as Pro Tools and Cubase cannot use those DAW to mix but have to switch to mix directly on Flying Faders. 2. Compatibility with W indows 7 Only via USB interface : Flying Faders requires the Operation system to only be Windows, while most of studios and work station are Mac OS. So, it is till limited to PC users and not yet supports Mac users. Flying Faders provide a lot of opportuni ties to mix and recall the parameters and control. For some example from some engineers, Flying Faders are working as final stage to save the mix and to have very subtle adjustment in final stage. There are possibilities but there are a lot of limitation s as well.

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! 10 YAMAHA DM2000 YAMAHA DM2000 is the digital console to receive approval under the globally recognized THX pm3 surround standard. It combines a variety of surround mixing and monitoring functions together that includes 96 mixing channels (instead of the 02R96's 56 channels), twelve aux sends (instead of eight), eight internal effects processors (instead of four), six 31 band graphic EQs, a 22 x 8 matrix, six mini YGDAI card slots (instead of four) and 24 mic rophone inputs (instead of 16). It also has a more professional monitoring section, with two sets of control room speaker outputs (large and small), a s olo contrast mode, and track outputs/returns that are geared more towards professional AES3 interfaces instead of S/PDIF. Figure 1 .15 : Yamaha DM2000. Automation and Scene Memory Automation and Scene Memory are the highlight propertie s of digital boards and the major focus use on this Thesis. This DM2000 has Scene Memory and Automix Functions for Efficient Workflow. The DM2000 features automix capability with 1/4 frame resolution, allowing full automation of parameters right down to the internal effects. Automix functions can be controlled via dedicated keys for easy access. Scene memories allow fade times and recall safe settings to be specified independently for each channel, while recall safe can even be specified at the function level. The data can be conveniently saved to SmartMedia memory cards (Robjohns, 2002 ; "DM2000VCM" )

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! 11 BetterMaker EQ 502P BetterMaker 502P is a Stereo analog equalizer with plugin recall. T hese units have a full digital recall with 399 cells for user's own presets, which allow u sers to recall with one touch. Users can connect up to 99 EQ502P's to one D.A.W. and control them with dedicated plugins. Users can save personal settings in the internal memory of the equalizer's as well as in DA W and in the project s with custom automation This BetterMaker EQ502P is recognized and won the award in 2 013 for the best of show at NAMM Show 2013 ("EQ 502P Bettermaker") Figure 1 .16 : BetterMaker EQ502P.

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! 12 Table 1: BetterMaker EQ 502P Specification Model: EQ 502P Frequency response: 5Hz to 100kHz ( 0.5dB) Dynamic range: more than 106 dB S/N ratio: more than 104 dB THD+N: less than 0.004% Channels: 2 Input impedance: 20k Ohm balanced Output impedance: 200 Ohm balanced Max input level: +24dBu balanced or +18dBu unbalanced Max output level: +24dBu balanced or +18dBu unbalanced Unity gain: balanced: 0dB, unbalanced: 6dB P EQ low freq. range: 20, 30, 60, 100Hz P EQ high freq. range: 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 16 kHz P EQ high cut freq: 5, 10, 20 kHz 6db/oct Preset storage capacity: 399 presets About the Cons of BetterMaker EQ 502P, it would go to personal style of adjusting the sound depending on the type of knobs This model provide s knobs that could rotate infinite ly (360 degrees) while some users prefer the feeling of touching and controlling a regular knobs However, it is very subjective to user by user.

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! 13 Proposed Solution In order to respond to the current dilemmas, music industry need the new aids to help improve the workflo w in analog by taking advantage of digital technology to bring the best time efficiency workflow into the project. Some developed system that will enhance the workflow to be more convenient, with the desired sound quality without radically change the usual workflow is what the industry need Figure 1.17 "If Analog meet Digital" Diagram The analog and digital tools nowadays have tremendous potentials and they are already powerful on their own aspects. If there is the technology to help combine the best of both digital and analog world, then sound engineers and music users can utilize both analog and digital together. It would not only help creating better workflow and time efficiency for music production, but also decrease the limitations and give more potentials and possibilities of sound control and music development. There are some exi sting technologies that started to respond to the similar issues but not always respond to every user or workflows. Current products utilize the different methodology of manufacturing which lead to the different potential of future development. It is impor tant to have choices of equipment to support the various workflow and application. To respond to these dilemmas', KnobLog, which is the product of this Thesis, is created solely to solve these issues and to help create another step of technology advancemen t in music industry.

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! 14 CHAPTER I I SYSTEM DESIGN Objective 1. Improving the workflow in analog by taking an advantage of digital technology to bring the best time efficiency workflow into the project. 2. This system enhance s the workflow to be more convenient, with the desired sound quality without radically change the usual workflow. In other words, this project offers the opportunity to bring the best of both worlds to work together. Design Concept In this thesis, I would like to name this system K nob Log for a convenient call from now on. K nob Log has been designed under the concept that reduce s time and effort to learn and get used to a new workflow and remain current workflow for both analog and d igital Figure 2. 1: Block Diagram

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! 15 In order to give the controllability to the analog mixer, motorized potentiometer s have been used instead of regular potentiometer s The microcontroller controls the direction of the m otor on motorized potentiometer The position of potentiometer has been read write and send the data to the plugin interface through Serial port. This means mixer is controllable by using either a plugin in DAW or manually adjusting to manipulate the sound. This K nob Log also be able t o save and recall the presets on analog mixer and show up in the plugin interface by using microcontroller to be a middleman to transfer potentiometer's position data from analog m ixer to computer and vice versa without hand touching the mixing board. KnobLog is composed of 2 major parts. 1.) Hardware 2.) Software Hardware Part L ist Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro Figure 2.2: Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro. Application : An an a log mixer console t o amplify and manipulate the signal from the inputs Selection : Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro has been used as a prototype for KnobLog because it is a well known brand analog mixer with a reasonable price.

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! 16 Arduino Mega 2560 Figure 2.3: Arduino Mega 2560. Function : Microcontroller based on the ATmega2560. It has 54 digital input/output pins (15 PWM outputs) Application : To communicate between interface and motorized potentiometer Selection : Arduino Mega 2560 has been used because it has lots of PWM outputs which has an ability to control more than three motors simultane ously It is also an open s ource that contain a lot of supportive sources either official, developers, and users, which support any electronics / programming experiment. Motorized Potentiometer Figure 2.4: Motorized Potentiometer. Application : To manipulate the sound, for example, equalizing, and leveling Selection: T hese motorized potentiometers have a reasonable price

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! 17 SN754410 Figure 2.5: SN754410. Function : Quadruple high current half H driver designed to provided bidirectional drive currents up to 1 A at voltages from 4.5V to 36 V, specifically designed for dc motors Application : Capable of driving high voltage motors Selection : Beside s using four transistors to control motors, Integrated circuit is the better choice due to its price, size and easier to use. Figure 2.6: SN754410 Top View According to figure 2.6, H bridge IC has 16 pins total: 2 enable pins, 4 control pins 4 output pins, a chip power pin, a motor power pin, and a ground. Control pins (A') is a pin to control a motor, according to the table below, if the control pins are different, motor will turn and stop if there are the same. Table 2: L ogic of H bridge IC. EN 1A 2A Function H L H Right H H L Left H H H Stop H L L Stop

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! 18 Circuit Design To be able to control all the knobs and fader, regular potentiometers have to be removed and replace them with motorized potentiometers. Figure 2.7 : Parts R emoval from Mackie 1402 Circuit Board

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! 19 In order to control motorized potentiometer, additional circuit is needed. In this thesis, SN754410 has been used to control the position of potentiometer. The picture below shows the breadboard version of Knob Log controller system. Figure 2.8 : The Beta Version of KnobLog Controller System on B readboard

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! 20 Schematic These 2 images below demonstrate how to connect a motorized potentiometer with H Bridge, and Arduino Mega2560. Figure 2.9 : The S chematic of Basic Motor Controller Circuit u sing SN754410

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! 21 Figure 2.10 : The Breadboard Diagram of Basic Motor Controller C ircuit using SN754410 After replacing a regular potentiometer with a motorized potentiometer. Put every part into the box. Wiring the box to the mixer. Kn obLog Controller is ready to use The figure below shows the in box version of KnobLog controller.

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! 22 Figure 2.11 : KnobLog Controller System

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! 23 Software Flowchart This is a simple flowchart that exhibit s how program works between motor ized potentiometer, A rduino, and user interface Figure 2.12 : Programming Flowchart s

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! 24 Arduino IDE The use of program: Role of this software is t o let users to program their microcontroller. Example of the scripts: There are four important part s of the script 1. Calibrate and EEPROM : calibrating the position of Max and Min of the potentiometer and save it to EEPROM. This enhances the user not to calibrate every time the system run. void calibrateMax(){ // Calibrate Max Position for (i=0; i < faderCount; i++) { motorUp(i); } delay(10000); for (i=0; i < faderCount; i++) { stopMotor(i); delay(300); Serial.println ("Max Value Calibrating"); if (readFader(i) > faderMax[i]) { faderMax[i ] = readFader(i); if (i==0) { maxValue[0] = highByte(faderMax[0]); maxValue[1] = lowByte(faderMax[0]); EEPROM.write(0, maxValue[0]); EEPROM.write(1, maxValue[1]); } } } } 2. C ontrol motor : to force motors to spin clockwise, counterclockwise, or stop with a specific speed HIGH = yes LOW = no // Motor Functions void motorUp(int motorNum, int _speed) { digitalWrite(motorDownPin[motorNum], LOW); digitalWrite(motorUpPin[motorNum ], HIGH); analogWrite(motorSpeedPin[motorNum], _speed); } void motorDown(int motorNum, int _speed) { digitalWrite(motorUpPin[motorNum], LOW);

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! 25 digitalWrite(motorDownPin[motorNum], HIGH); analogWrite(motorSpeedPin[motorNum], _speed); } void stopMotor (int motorNum) { digitalWrite(motorUpPin[motorNum], LOW); digitalWrite(motorDownPin[motorNum], LOW); analogWrite(motorSpeedPin[motorNum], 0); } 3. Serial send : send the fader position va lue to the interface through Serial port for (i=0; i < faderCount; i++) { if (faderChanged[i]) { Serial.print(i); Serial.print(":"); Serial.print(faderValue[i]); Serial.print('|'); } 4. Serial receive : receive the fader position value from the interface through Serial port { channel = Serial.readStringUntil(':'); value = Serial.readStringUntil('|'); channel.toCharArray(channelBuffer, sizeof(channelBuffer)); ch = atoi(channelBuffer); value.toCharArray(valueBuffer, sizeof(valueBuffer)); targetVal = atoi(v alueBuffer); }

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! 26 JUCE JUCE is a C++ library for developing cross platform software, including audio plugin. A n additional Serial port library is needed in order to communicate with Arduino Example of the interface: Figure 2.13 : KnobLog Plugin Interface

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! 27 Example of the scripts : PluginProcessor.cpp > main application Open a serial port and change itself to be a listener S end a parameter to serial port changeListenerCallback

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! 28 Save parameter PluginEditor.cpp > Interface C all back

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! 29 SerialController.cpp > sending and receiving from Serial S ending and receiving a value from serial port

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! 30 CHAPTER III IMPLEMENTATION AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES Potential Use There are several type of projects to utilize KnobLog system, for example, Studio Recording, Live Sound Reinforcement, Podcasting and Broadcastin, or personal use. This product is a protoype that represent only one channel due to limited budgets and timeframe. It can be multiply to more channels and to respo nd to more extensive uses. Below is the example of environments that KnobLog can be used to facilitate the workflow. Studio Recording This system can be used in the Studio recording either for mixing or mastering pur poses. It help memorize the presets and provide ability to recall the settings. Live Sound Reinforcement KnobLog can be used in the live sound environment for help save and restore the cues, and setting. Podcasting and Broadcasting KnobLog can be used in the podcasting and Broadcasting to help remember and recall the previous settings of the mixes. Personal Use Upgrade KnobLog system to the old analog system gives controllability to connect to the computer. KnobLog will help facilitate various type of projects.

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! 31 Advantage s and Disadvantage s Advantage s Ability to S ave and Recall KnobLog can be used to save the settings and recall for future use by using a native Logic system Fig ure 3.1: Instruction of How to Save and R ecall Time E fficiency Us ers can save more time in workflow, according to figure 3.2, Comp aring the system without KnobLog the system without KnobL og require more time in the workflow. Figure 3.2 : Task and Time Frame Comparison to Exhibit the Difference Time Efficiency Between Conve n tional/ Current Workflow and Workflow with KnobLog

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! 32 Analog Sound Q uality As mentioned in chapter 2, most of users still prefer the sound from analog over digital because deeper sound and warmer tone. Controllability KnobLog provide the opportunities to use digital mixer controller which provide more contrallability on analog mixer. Disadvantage s Price Motorized potentiometer cost double comparing to a regular potentiometer. In order to get a large format analog mixing console to work with KnobLog system, high amount of money is needed. Potentiometer Rotational Speed Due to a low rotational speed of motorized potentiometer, automation cannot implement. Problems N oise There are noise leak while the motor is moving. I think it is because of low quality of motorized potentiometer. Accuracy Currently, KnobLog still does not provide an acceptable accura te scale of fader s. Voltage Regulator In order to drive many motors at the same time, more sustainable voltage regulator is needed. Future Development 1. Redesign a circuit with a better voltage regulator to support more channels in the future 2. Microcontroller that has a higher resolution for more accuracy 3. Decrease the budget from selecting another parts that more affordable that might be available in the future 4. Use a better rotational speed and higher quality motorized potentiometer, in order to get an ability to automate and reduce a noise 5. Reduce a motor noise from the system.

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! 33 CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS Figure 4.1 An Engineer was working with the mixing console in studio M ixing consoles are the significant equipment in the signal path of music productions that give engineers an ability to record, edit, and mix a variety of inputs. With the current technology, mus ic industry have both analog and digital console as a tools to use for various functions and situations, not just only in studio, but also in theater and concerts as well. Analog and Digital have their own adv antages that if both systems be able to be inte grated they will benefit the workflow and the productions tremendously. This thesis started from responding the current dilemmas in the music industry that missing the aids to help improve the workflow in analog by taking advantage of digital technology to bring the best time efficiency wor kflow into the project. KnobLog, which is a product of this t hesis is cre ated as an alternative solution for this issues. Ther e are several current technologies that support the relevance objective and align in the simil ar direction, however wor k for different workflow and using different method of productions which lead to different path for future development as well. For example, Flying Faders that allow engineers to mix and save their mix and restore it, however it d oes not work on DAW but be its own interface. Also, BetterMaker is outboard gear and plug in that serve similar objective but for different ease of use and use different methodology for manufacturing. KnobLog is a prototype product that allows user to use analog mixing consoles directly while taking the advantage of controllability digital from digital. It enhance s the workflow to be more convenient, with the desired

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! 34 sound quality without radically change the usual workflow. KnobLog was born to help users utilize the best of both world, analog and digital simultaneously Figure 4.2 KnobLog logo and trademark With KnobLog, analog mixer is controllable by using either a plugin in DAW or manually adjusting to manipulate the s ound. This KnobLog also be able to save and recall the presets on analog mixer and show up in the plugin interface by using microcontroller to be a middleman to transfer potentiometer's position data from analog m ixer to computer and vice versa without hand touching the mixing board. For the system design, motorized potentiometers have been used instead of regular potentiometers in order to give the controllability to the analog mixer. The microcontroller controls the direction of the motor on motorized potentiometer. The position of potentiometer has been read, write, and send the data to the plugin interface through Serial port. KnobL og is composed of 2 major parts ; Hardware and Software 1.) Hardware 1.1. Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro 1.2. Arduino Mega 2560 1.3. Motorized Potentiometer 1.4. H bridge IC SN754410 1.5. Circuit 2.) Software a. Arduino IDE b. JUCE C++ This system helps improve workflow and time effiency for sound engineers who work on analog mixing console for instance, studio r ecording live sound r einforcement podcasting or b roadcasting and p ersonal u se There are 6 advantages of this system: ability to save and r ecall t ime efficiency analog sound quality, c ontrollability and a ccuracy However, this system remains two major disadvantages that need to improve in the future : price and motorized potentiometer rotational speed

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! 35 With current development, KnobLog unleashed the potential of integration of analog and digital. There still more possibilities to develop this KnobLog further to the extensive use. If further development would happen, the most important one is to increase the channel to respond to appropriate needs. Due to a limited time and budget KnobLog was intentionally cre ated to be prototype for future extension s O nly one channel is created to represent the possibilities that can be duplicate d to other channels. The electronics parts can be upgrade to newer and higher rotational speed as well as optimize the budgets and proceed the feasibility analysis for commercial productions.

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! 36 REFERENCE S ThÂŽberge, P.(2003). Mixing desk (mixing console). In Continuum encyclopedia of popular music of the world: Performance and production. Retrieved from http://alturl.com/gdcpp Hass, J. (2003, September 15). Chapter Two: Mixers Retrieved from http://alturl.com/mishr Michael, F. (2003, 06). Analog vs. digital consoles for live use: Who's winning? Professional Sound, 14 56. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/756574413?accountid=14506 Hamilton, T. (2010, October 27). Analog Vs. Digital Sound Boards How to Decide | Retrieved from http://alturl.com/ezb2i Burrell, B. (2014, January 30). Choosing Between Digital vs. Analog Consoles Some Sound Advice For Churches | Retrieved from http://alturl.com/4zoug Flying Faders II New Features (n.d.). Retrieved from http://a lturl.com/rqpzu Robjohns, H. (2002, November). Yamaha DM2000 Digital Mixing Console. Sound On Sound Retrieved from http://alturl.com/v639k DM2000VCM (n.d.). Retrieved from http://alturl.com/buijs EQ 502P Bettermaker (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.bettermaker.eu/eq 502p/ JUCE Forums: http://juce.com/forum



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ANALOG CHANNEL STRIP DIGITALLY CONTROLLED VIA PLUGIN by VASIN LIMSUKHAWAT B.eng., King Mongkuts Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, 2010 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Recording Arts 2014

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2014 VASIN LIMSUKHAWAT ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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! ii This thesis for the Master of Science degree by Vasin Limsukhawat has been approved for the Recording Arts Program by Catalin Grigoras, Chair Dan Connors Jeff Merkel April 23 2014

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! iii Limsukhawat, Vasin (M.S., Recording Arts) Analog Channel Strip Digitally Controlled via Plugin Thesis directed by Professor Catalin Grigoras ABSTRACT This t hesis inspiration started from the dilemma in current music industry, musicians and engineers use Analog for higher quality sound as an ultimate choice. W ith high advancement of technology, digital equipment is easier to work with various sound qualit ies People tend to work between both analog and di gital theses days. However, the workflow of analog tend to takes time compare to the digital for example manually setting up, which make engineer have less time focus on sounds because of limited time and time efficiency. The objective of this thesis deriv ed from this dilemma, and set a goal to create aids to help improve the workflow in analog mixers by taking advantage of digital technology to bring the best time efficiency workflow into the project. This system will enhance the workflow to be more convenient, with the desired sound quality without radically change the usual workflow. In other words, this thesis offer s the opportunity to bring the best of both worlds to work together. In this thesis, this system has been called KnobLog for a convenient call from now on. KnobLog is a hardware and software plugin. It ca n save and recall the presets on analog mixer and show up in the KnobLog plugin interfac e by using microcontroller to be a middleman to transfer potentiometers position d ata from analog mixer to computer and vice versa. In order to give the controllability to the analog mixer, regular potentiometers have been replaced with motorized potentiometers Arduino Mega2560 has been used t o c ontrol motorized potentiometer s which pass the position data through serial port and vice versa This mean s this system provides an ability to control the mixer by using KnobLog plugin in DAW or manually adjusting to manipulate the sound, for example, equalizer, level fader, AUX, and pan. This also gives user an ability to save as well as recall presets. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication Approved: Catalin Grigoras

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! iv DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis to my lovely family and friends. My parents who always support me since I was born till now, Prasit Limsukhawat and Kanokwaree Limsukhawat, as well as my lovely brother and sister Panyawudh Limsukhawat Sirimon Limsukhawat, and my amazing lovely wife, Ekpanith Naknakorn who enc ourage and support me during the thesis process I also dedicate this thesis to my friends, Pravesvuth Uparanukraw Nongnapat Sangrit and Phil Beskid who always support and help me throughout the process. Without the great guidance and support of everyone, this thesis would not have been possible.

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! v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express special appreciation and thanks to my thesis advisor, Catalin Grigoras for his guidance and support during the process of my graduate education and throughout the creation of thi s thesis. I would also like to t hank my thesis committee members Jeff Merkel for his instruction s and Dr. Dan Connors for his support on hardware and his advices on software programming I would also like to thank Dave Tremblay for his advice and guidance on DAW plugin development. A special thank to Prave s vuth Uparanukraw and his wife, Nongnapat Sangrit for his /her instruction s and also spent a lot of time teaching me about program devel opment skil l throughout the thesis process and being my thesis partner to help discuss and solve technical problems. I would also like to thank my lovely wife, Ekpanith Naknakorn, for being beside me and support and teach me about brainstorm ing, writing th is thesis properly, and enclosure design.

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! vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION .. 1 Basic Component of Analog and Digital Mixing Console .. .. . ... 1 Input Channel Strips .. 1 AUX Send M aster AUX Return 4 Monitor Sec tion ... 4 Mix Meters 5 Monitor Outputs ... 5 Output Section 5 Advantage s / Disadvantage s of Analog and Digital Mixing Console .. 6 General S trength and Weakness and their F lexibility ... 6 Total Recall .. 6 Sound Quality and Latency .. 6 Price . 7 Using Style ... 7 Dilemma .. 7 Existing Technology ............. ... 8 Flying Faders ... 8 Major Advantage s of Flying Faders .. 8 Major Disadvantage s of Flying Faders .. 9 Yamaha DM2000 10 BetterMaker EQ 502P 11 Proposed Solution ... ................ 1 3 II. SYSTEM DESIGN .. 1 4 Objective ... ... 14 Design Concept .. ... 14 Hardware .. 15 Part List 15 Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro ... 15 Arduino Mega 2560 . 16 Motorized Potentiometer .. 16 SN754410 .. 17

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! vii Circuit Design .. 18 Schematic 20 Software ... 23 Flowchart .. 23 Arduino IDE ......... 24 JUCE 26 III. IMPLEMENTATION AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES 30 Potential Use .............. .. 30 Studio Recording ..... 30 Live Sound Reinforcement 30 Podcasting and Broadcasting 30 Personal Use ...... 30 Advantage s and Di sadvantage s ......... 31 Advantage s .. .. .. 31 Ability to Save and Recall ... 31 Time Efficiency . 31 Analog Sound Quality . 32 Controllability 32 Disadvantage s .. .... .. 32 Price ... 32 Potentiometer Rotational Speed ... 32 Problems ...... .. 32 Noise ..... 32 Accuracy .... 32 Voltage Regulator ..... 32 Future Development ............ .. ... 32 IV. CONCLUSIONS .. .............. 33 REFERENCES ....................... .. 36

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! viii LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. BetterMaker EQ 502P Specification 12 2. Logic of H bridge IC ... 17

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! ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.1 9 sections of mixing console 1 1.2 Input Section: Microphone, Line, and Tape respectively 2 1.3 AUX .. ... 2 1.4 Equalization .. . 2 1.5 Pan .. 3 1.6 Channel Fader .. 3 1.7 AUX Send R eturn .. 4 1.8 Monitor Section .. 4 1.9 Mix Meters .. 5 1.10 Monitor Outputs .. ... 5 1.11 Master Fader .. 5 1.12 Pros and Cons of Analog and Digital 7 1.13 Interface of Flying Faders II .. .. 8 1.14 Hardware of Flying Faders II .. ... .. 9 1.15 Yamaha DM2000 .. ..... 10 1.16 BetterMaker EQ502P ... 11 1.17 If Analog meet Digital Diagram 13 2.1 Block Diagram ........................................................................ ... 14 2.2 Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro 15 2.3 Arduino Mega 2560 16 2.4 Motorized Potentiometer ... 16 2.5 SN754410 ... 17 2.6 SN754410 Top View .. ... 17 2.7 Parts removal from Mackie 1402 Circuit Board 18 2.8 The Beta Version of Motorized Potentiometer Controller System on breadboard ... 19 2.9 The schematic of basic motor controller circuit using SN754410 . .. 20 2.10 The breadboard diagram of basic motor controller circuit using SN754410 21 2.11 KnobLog Controller System . .. 2 2 2.12 Programming Flowcharts .... 2 3 2.13 KnobLog Plugin Interface 26

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! x 3.1 Instruction of how to save and recall . 31 3.2 Improved Time Efficiency Graph 31 4.1 An Engineer was working with the mixing console in studio .. .... 3 3 4.2 KnobLog logo and trademark .. 3 4

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! 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A good mixing console is an important equipment in the signal path that every music studios and music productions. The studios usually have to spend a lot of money to this equipment. Mixing console is not just an electronic device that give engineers an ability to record, edit, and mix a variety of inputs, but it is a working space that engineer always sit on for over 8 hours a day. There are various purposes to use mixing console, for example, studio recording, live sound reinforcement, and podcasting. From time to time, the design of mixing console is getting more complex from analog mixing console to digital mixing console!(T hberge, 2003 ) According to Jeffrey Hass (2003 ) todays technology mixing consoles are getting more advance and are able to handle both analog and digital signal from devices such as DATs, multi channel tape decks, computer audio interfaces, and iPods. Basic Component of A n alog and Digital Mixing C onsole A diagram below helps illustrate the typical layout with different sections of mixing console. This diagram uses Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro (analog board) as an example which is used as the mixer prototype for this thesis This typical mixing console is consisted of 9 sections which are Input Channel Strips Microphone Inputs, Line/tape/Mix B Inputs, Monitor Outputs, AUX send master, AUX retu rns, Monitor Section, Channel Group L/R Mix Meters, and Output Section. Figure 1 .1: 9 Sections of Mixing C onsole. Input Channel Strips A mixer consists of certain numbers of input channels controlled by identical channel strips (in vertical arrangement). All mixers have of the same basic elements, however they could

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! 2 have minor differences in functions and layout depends on their manufacture rs and model. They often have a separate section for preamp, tape inputs. The top part of mixer contain s the input lines from three different sources in different channels, which are a microphone inputs, a line input and a tape input. Then, they will be ro uting through the channel. The exhibits below are the examples of input channel function (based on this model, Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro) On this board, the TRIM section gives the ability to adjust the gain of level of the signals in each individual channel. 1. Microphone Input 2. Line Input 3. Tape Input Figure 1.2: Input S ection: Microphone, Line, and Tape respectively.! Figure 1.3: AUX A mixer has a separate set of outputs usually connected to effects devices. Signals can be routed to these devices from the effects sends (sometimes labeled "aux sends" or just "aux") of the input channels. Figure 1.4: Equalization The EQ (equalization) section is used to adjust the amount of boost or cut (attenuation) for high, midrange and low frequency bands (the exact number of frequency bands varies

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! 3 according to the mixing console model). Certain mixers allow the user to adjust the exact frequency of the bands as well as their boost or cut. Figure 1.5: Pan Below EQ is the PAN and MUTE section (It is Mix B in some other boards). The PAN knob controls the left/right or odd/even balance of the channel's output. A stereo instrum ent coming into two board channels should be panned hard left on one channel and hard right on the other to maintain the maximum stereo effect. The mute button will s ilence the channel when activated, while the solo button will send the channel's signal to a separate "solo" bus, usually controlled by a solo master pot. Figure 1.6: Channel Fader The channel fader (the white vertical sliding tab) controls the level of output of the channel signal being routed into any of the master outputs selected.

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! 4 AUX send master AUX return Figure 1.7: AUX S end R eturn The aux send master section controls the total amount of signal being sent out to each of aux devices. Monitor Section Figure 1.8: Monitor Section T he monitor section controls what signals and levels are sent to the speakers.

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! 5 Mix Meters Figure 1.9: Mix Meters Mix meter provides an ability to display the signal level. Monitor Outputs Figure 1.10 : Monitor Outputs It is a n output of the mixer to a headphone or monitor speakers or any other preferred speakers Output Section Figure 1.11 : Master Fader The output section has faders for the 2 group outputs (bu ses)

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! 6 Adv antage / Disadvantage of A nalog and Digital General Strength and Weakness and their F lexibility For analog mixing consoles, their biggest limitation is also their greatest strength. Since majo rity of functions are immutable (Michael, 2003). For instance, if one problem occurred in one single channel it will stay just there and never anything else Unlike analog mixer s d igital mixing consoles have ability to do the full processing on every channel and output including patching any input to any channel on the board In digital we can be potentially use 96 inputs in the space of 24, in contrast if it is anal og and it is 24, then it will be 24 channels. However, we have to remember the pages for digital mixing and what are on each page in order to swap to the rights channels. Yet the analog console still has one real advantage over the digital console. On the analog board all your channels and settings are visible at once. Every knob and fader can be seen at a glance, and you can put your fingers on them instantly, while the digital consoles will typically require the operator to press buttons and/or switch lay ers to make the needed changes (Hamilton 2010; Michael 2003) Total Recall For digital mixing consoles, the ability to keep the record and transfer the data to another computer is a major advantage. Digital option takes an advantage on this aspect of ability to recall the presets that could use the repetition of settings, cues and scenes, that can be benefit for many uses such as recording studios, theater show. Analog mixing consoles do not have the ability to recall and save these presets which create disadvantage compare to digital on this point of view. But in some of live sound situations, digital is not always wins over analog. For example, in live musical Theater and touring shows and concerts, some of these situations can take advantage of digital mixing consoles to help working with settings, cues and scenes. However, Analog is preferable when we have a small amount of inputs, or when the moment by moment control is critical for the performanc e. In this case, the analog consoles give the ability to react instantly to the stages situations (Michael, 2003 ; Burrell, 2014 ). Sound Quality and Latency On the Classic sound argument, a nalog mixing consoles can deliver the better sound quality than dig ital. We can have a warmer tone and deeper sound on an analog mixing consoles. On digital consoles, some users add some effects to the mix or by integrating minor outboard processing to help compensate the quality of sound (Burrell, 2014).

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! 7 Price Focusing on expensive consoles, the digital console becomes more cost competitive. At the top end of the spectrum, an excellent digital console will probably cost less than its analog counterpart (Hamilton, 2010). Using style The final consideration would define by individual users and how they like to work. For Analog board, everything is out there to be seen, unlike the digital that however can handle full processing, there are pages to work with. The actual physical touch and how our memories could recal l the faders and knobs positions are also one consideration that can supports a workflow of many engineers and users to be more intuitive and flexible. Both digitals and analog have their own strength and weakness, and the most important consideration is t o select the right tools for the right job (Hamilton, 2010). Dilemma In music industry, Analog mixing console has been continuously used from the old days until nowadays because of solid and great quality of the sound With the rise of digital from technology advancement, music industry diverts more interests to digital equipment because digital equipment is easier to work with various functions and effects, especially ability to save and restore memory Digital equipm ent can provide more flexibility and convenient to the workflow. T he workflow s of analog tend to take more time than the digital for example to manually setting up, which make engineer have less time focus on sounds because of limited time and time effic iency. However, analog still win in deliver the higher sound quality. Some users claim that analog mixing consoles provide the deeper sound and warmer tone compare to digital. Therefore, People tend to work between both analog and digital theses days to ac commodate both of those benefits The current dilemma is now we still have gap to fill to integrate the uses of analog and digital. Figure 1.12 Pros and Cons of Analog and Digital

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! 8 Existing Technology Flying Faders Just Mix Automation system is a concept of Flying Faders Flying faders is the stand alone software and hardware that allow users to mix with Flying Faders int erface that they claimed to be intuitive and simple (Flying Faders II New Features, n.d.). Figure 1.13 : Interface of Flying Faders II Major Advantages of Flying Faders 1. Recall Ability : Flying Faders has ability to save the position of every control with a mix and restore when the mix is opened. Recall for Neve VR Series is integrated directly into Flying Faders. It all ows up to 3 channels to be recalled simultaneously. 2. Trim Ability: Faders may be trimmed with automation in play or stop, and trimming may be fully controlled exclusively from the console or GUI interface. 3. Mix import : Flying Faders allow users to import el ements from other Mixes into your current Mix, from Channel Names to the Recall Store. 4. Simple installation and intuitive user interface

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! 9 Figure 1.14 : Hardware of Flying Faders II Major Disadvantages of Flying Faders 1. Limitation in working on DAWs : Flying Faders do not work provide a plug in but being stand alone software, therefore, users who currently use other DAW s such as Pro Tools and Cubase cannot use those DAW to mix but have to switch to mix directly on Flying Faders. 2. Compatibility with W indows 7 Only via USB interface: Flying Faders requires the Operation system to only be Windows, while most of studios and work station are Mac OS. So, it is till limited to PC users and not yet supports Mac users. Flying Faders provide a lot of opportuni ties to mix and recall the parameters and control. For some example from some engineers, Flying Faders are working as final stage to save the mix and to have very subtle adjustment in final stage. There are possibilities but there are a lot of limitation s as well.

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! 10 YAMAHA DM2000 YAMAHA DM2000 is the digital console to receive approval under the globally recognized THX pm3 surround standard. It combines a variety of surround mixing and monitoring functions together that includes 96 mixing channels (instead of the 02R96's 56 channels), twelve aux sends (instead of eight), eight internal effects processors (instead of four), six 31 band graphic EQs, a 22 x 8 matrix, six mini YGDAI card slots (instead of four) and 24 mic rophone inputs (instead of 16). It also has a more professional monitoring section, with two sets of control room speaker outputs (large and small), a s olo contrast mode, and track outputs/returns that are geared more towards professional AES3 interfaces instead of S/PDIF. Figure 1 .15 : Yamaha DM2000. Automation and Scene Memory Automation and Scene Memory are the highlight propertie s of digital boards and the major focus use on this Thesis. This DM2000 has Scene Memory and Automix Functions for Efficient Workflow. The DM2000 features automix capability with 1/4frame resolution, allowing full automation of parameters right down to the internal effects. Automix functions can be controlled via dedicated keys for easy access. Scene memories allow fade times and recall safe settings to be specified independently for each channel, while recall safe can even be specified at the function level. The data can be conveniently saved to SmartMedia memory cards (Robjohns, 2002; DM2000VCM )

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! 11 BetterMaker EQ 502P BetterMaker 502P is a Stereo analog equalizer with plugin recall. T hese units have a full digital recall with 399 cells for users own presets, which allow u sers to recall with one touch. Users can connect up to 99 EQ502Ps to one D.A.W. and control them with dedicated plugins.!Users can save personal settings in the internal memory of the equalizers as well as in DA W and in the project s with custom automation. This BetterMaker EQ502P is recognized and won the award in 2 013 for the best of show at NAMM Show 2013 (EQ 502P Bettermaker) Figure 1 .16 : BetterMaker EQ502P.

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! 12 Table 1: BetterMaker EQ 502P Specification Model: EQ 502P Frequency response: 5Hz to 100kHz ( 0.5dB) Dynamic range: more than 106 dB S/N ratio: more than 104 dB THD+N: less than 0.004% Channels: 2 Input impedance: 20k Ohm balanced Output impedance: 200 Ohm balanced Max input level: +24dBu balanced or +18dBu unbalanced Max output level: +24dBu balanced or +18dBu unbalanced Unity gain: balanced: 0dB, unbalanced: 6dB P EQ low freq. range: 20, 30, 60, 100Hz P EQ high freq. range: 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 16 kHz P EQ high cut freq: 5, 10, 20 kHz 6db/oct Preset storage capacity: 399 presets !About the Cons of BetterMaker EQ 502P, it would go to personal style of adjusting the sound depending on the type of knobs This model provide s knobs that could rotate infinite ly (360 degrees) while some users prefer the feeling of touching and controlling a regular knobs However, it is very subjective to user by user.

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! 13 Proposed Solution In order to respond to the current dilemmas, music industry need the new aids to help improve the workflo w in analog by taking advantage of digital technology to bring the best time efficiency workflow into the project. Some developed system that will enhance the workflow to be more convenient, with the desired sound quality without radically change the usual workflow is what the industry need Figure 1.17 If Analog meet Digital Diagram The analog and digital tools nowadays have tremendous potentials and they are already powerful on their own aspects. If there is the technology to help combine the best of both digital and analog world, then sound engineers and music users can utilize both analog and digital together. It would not only help creating better workflow and time efficiency for music production, but also decrease the limitations and give more potentials and possibilities of sound control and music development. There are some exi sting technologies that started to respond to the similar issues but not always respond to every user or workflows. Current products utilize the different methodology of manufacturing which lead to the different potential of future development. It is impor tant to have choices of equipment to support the various workflow and application. To respond to these dilemmas, KnobLog, which is the product of this Thesis, is created solely to solve these issues and to help create another step of technology advancemen t in music industry.

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! 14 CHAPTER I I SYSTEM DESIGN Objective 1. Improving the workflow in analog by taking an advantage of digital technology to bring the best time efficiency workflow into the project. 2. This system enhance s the workflow to be more convenient, with the desired sound quality without radically change the usual workflow. In other words, this project offers the opportunity to bring the best of both worlds to work together. Design Concept In this thesis, I would like to name this system K nob Log for a convenient call from now on. K nob Log has been designed under the concept that reduce s time and effort to learn and get used to a new workflow and remain current workflow for both analog and d igital. Figure 2. 1: Block Diagram

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! 15 In order to give the controllability to the analog mixer, motorized potentiometer s have been used instead of regular potentiometer s The microcontroller controls the direction of the m otor on motorized potentiometer. The position of potentiometer has been read write and send the data to the plugin interface through Serial port. This means mixer is controllable by using either a plugin in DAW or manually adjusting to manipulate the sound. This K nob Log also be able t o save and recall the presets on analog mixer and show up in the plugin interface by using microcontroller to be a middleman to transfer potentiometers position data from analog m ixer to computer and vice versa without hand touching the mixing board. KnobLog is composed of 2 major parts. 1.) Hardware 2.) Software Hardware Part L ist Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro Figure 2.2: Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro. Application : An an a log mixer console to amplify and manipulate the signal from the inputs Selection : Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro has been used as a prototype for KnobLog because it is a well known brand analog mixer with a reasonable price.

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! 16 Arduino Mega 2560 Figure 2.3: Arduino Mega 2560. Function: Microcontroller based on the ATmega2560. It has 54 digital input/output pins (15 PWM outputs) Application : To communicate between interface and motorized potentiometer Selection : Arduino Mega 2560 has been used because it has lots of PWM outputs which has an ability to control more than three motors simultane ously It is also an open s ource that contain a lot of supportive sources either official, developers, and users, which support any electronics / programming experiment. Motorized Potentiometer Figure 2.4: Motorized Potentiometer. Application : To manipulate the sound, for example, equalizing, and leveling Selection: T hese motorized potentiometers have a reasonable price

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! 17 SN754410 Figure 2.5: SN754410. Function: Quadruple high current half H driver designed to provided bidirectional drive currents up to 1 A at voltages from 4.5V to 36 V, specifically designed for dc motors Application : Capable of driving high voltage motors Selection : Beside s using four transistors to control motors, Integrated circuit is the better choice due to its price, size and easier to use. Figure 2.6: SN754410 Top View According to figure 2.6, H bridge IC has 16 pins total: 2 enable pins, 4 control pins 4 output pins, a chip power pin, a motor power pin, and a ground. Control pins (A) is a pin to control a motor, according to the table below, if the control pins are different, motor will turn and stop if there are the same. Table 2: L ogic of H bridge IC. EN 1A 2A Function H L H Right H H L Left H H H Stop H L L Stop

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! 18 Circuit Design To be able to control all the knobs and fader, regular potentiometers have to be removed and replace them with motorized potentiometers. Figure 2.7: Parts R emoval from Mackie 1402 Circuit Board

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! 19 In order to control motorized potentiometer, additional circuit is needed. In this thesis, SN754410 has been used to control the position of potentiometer. The picture below shows the breadboard version of Knob Log controller system. Figure 2.8: The Beta Version of KnobLog Controller System on B readboard

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! 20 Schematic These 2 images below demonstrate how to connect a motorized potentiometer with H Bridge, and Arduino Mega2560. Figure 2.9: The S chematic of Basic Motor Controller Circuit u sing SN754410

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! 21 Figure 2.10 : The Breadboard Diagram of Basic Motor Controller C ircuit using SN754410 After replacing a regular potentiometer with a motorized potentiometer. Put every part into the box. Wiring the box to the mixer. Kn obLog Controller is ready to use. The figure below shows the in box version of KnobLog controller.

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! 22 Figure 2.11 : KnobLog Controller System

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! 23 Software Flowchart This is a simple flowchart that exhibit s how program works between motorized potentiometer, A rduino, and user interface Figure 2.12 : Programming Flowchart s

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! 24 Arduino IDE The use of program: Role of this software is t o let users to program their microcontroller. Example of the scripts: There are four important part s of the script 1. Calibrate and EEPROM : calibrating the position of Max and Min of the potentiometer and save it to EEPROM. This enhances the user not to calibrate every time the system run. void calibrateMax(){ // Calibrate Max Position for (i=0; i < faderCount; i++) { motorUp(i); } delay(10000); for (i=0; i < faderCount; i++) { stopMotor(i); delay(300); Serial.println ("Max Value Calibrating"); if (readFader(i) > faderMax[i]) { faderMax[i] = readFader(i); if (i==0) { maxValue[0] = highByte(faderMax[0]); maxValue[1] = lowByte(faderMax[0]); EEPROM.write(0, maxValue[0]); EEPROM.write(1, maxValue[1]); } } } } 2. C ontrol motor : to force motors to spin clockwise, counterclockwise, or stop with a specific speed HIGH = yes LOW = no // Motor Functions void motorUp(int motorNum, int _speed) { digitalWrite(motorDownPin[motorNum], LOW); digitalWrite(motorUpPin[motorNum ], HIGH); analogWrite(motorSpeedPin[motorNum], _speed); } void motorDown(int motorNum, int _speed) { digitalWrite(motorUpPin[motorNum], LOW);

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! 25 digitalWrite(motorDownPin[motorNum], HIGH); analogWrite(motorSpeedPin[motorNum], _speed); } void stopMotor (int motorNum) { digitalWrite(motorUpPin[motorNum], LOW); digitalWrite(motorDownPin[motorNum], LOW); analogWrite(motorSpeedPin[motorNum], 0); } 3. Serial send : send the fader position va lue to the interface through Serial port for (i=0; i < faderCount; i++) { if (faderChanged[i]) { Serial.print(i); Serial.print(":"); Serial.print(faderValue[i]); Serial.print('|'); } 4. Serial receive : receive the fader position value from the interface through Serial port { channel = Serial.readStringUntil(':'); value = Serial.readStringUntil('|'); channel.toCharArray(channelBuffer, sizeof(channelBuffer)); ch = atoi(channelBuffer); value.toCharArray(valueBuffer, sizeof(valueBuffer)); targetVal = atoi(v alueBuffer); }

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! 26 JUCE JUCE is a C++ library for developing cross platform software, including audio plugin. A n additional Serial port library is needed in order to communicate with Arduino. Example of the interface: Figure 2.13 : KnobLog Plugin Interface

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! 27 Example of the scripts : PluginProcessor.cpp > main application Open a serial port and change itself to be a listener. S end a parameter to serial port changeListenerCallback

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! 28 Save parameter PluginEditor.cpp > Interface C all back

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! 29 SerialController.cpp > sending and receiving from Serial S ending and receiving a value from serial port

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! 30 CHAPTER III IMPLEMENTATION AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES Potential Use There are several type of projects to utilize KnobLog system, for example, Studio Recording, Live Sound Reinforcement, Podcasting and Broadcastin, or personal use. This product is a protoype that represent only one channel due to limited budgets and timeframe. It can be multiply to more channels and to respo nd to more extensive uses. Below is the example of environments that KnobLog can be used to facilitate the workflow. Studio Recording This system can be used in the Studio recording either for mixing or mastering pur poses. It help memorize the presets and provide ability to recall the settings. Live Sound Reinforcement KnobLog can be used in the live sound environment for help save and restore the cues, and setting. Podcasting and Broadcasting KnobLog can be used in the podcasting and Broadcasting to help remember and recall the previous settings of the mixes. Personal Use Upgrade KnobLog system to the old analog system gives controllability to connect to the computer. KnobLog will help facilitate various type of projects.

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! 31 Advantage s and Disadvantage s Advantage s Ability to S ave and Recall KnobLog can be used to save the settings and recall for future use by using a native Logic system Fig ure 3.1: Instruction of How to Save and R ecall Time Efficiency Users can save more time in workflow, according to figure 3.2, Comp aring the system without KnobLog the system without KnobL og require more time in the workflow. Figure 3.2: Task and Time Frame Comparison to Exhibit the Difference Time Efficiency Between Conve n tional/ Current Workflow and Workflow with KnobLog

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! 32 Analog Sound Q uality As mentioned in chapter 2, most of users still prefer the sound from analog over digital because deeper sound and warmer tone. Controllability KnobLog provide the opportunities to use digital mixer controller which provide more contrallability on analog mixer. Disadvantage s Price Motorized potentiometer cost double comparing to a regular potentiometer. In order to get a large format analog mixing console to work with KnobLog system, high amount of money is needed. Potentiometer Rotational Speed Due to a low rotational speed of motorized potentiometer, automation cannot implement. Problems N oise There are noise leak while the motor is moving. I think it is because of low quality of motorized potentiometer. Accuracy Currently, KnobLog still does not provide an acceptable accura te scale of fader s. Voltage Regulator In order to drive many motors at the same time, more sustainable voltage regulator is needed. Future Development 1. Redesign a circuit with a better voltage regulator to support more channels in the future 2. Microcontroller that has a higher resolution for more accuracy. 3. Decrease the budget from selecting another parts that more affordable that might be available in the future 4. Use a better rotational speed and higher quality motorized potentiometer, in order to get an ability to automate and reduce a noise. 5. Reduce a motor noise from the system.

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! 33 CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS Figure 4.1 An Engineer was working with the mixing console in studio M ixing consoles are the significant equipment in the signal path of music productions that give engineers an ability to record, edit, and mix a variety of inputs. With the current technology, mus ic industry have both analog and digital console as a tools to use for various functions and situations, not just only in studio, but also in theater and concerts as well. Analog and Digital have their own adv antages that if both systems be able to be inte grated they will benefit the workflow and the productions tremendously. This thesis started from responding the current dilemmas in the music industry that missing the aids to help improve the workflow in analog by taking advantage of digital technology to bring the best time efficiency wor kflow into the project. KnobLog, which is a product of this t hesis is cre ated as an alternative solution for this issues. Ther e are several current technologies that support the relevance objective and align in the simil ar direction, however wor k for different workflow and using different method of productions which lead to different path for future development as well. For example, Flying Faders that allow engineers to mix and save their mix and restore it, however it d oes not work on DAW but be its own interface. Also, BetterMaker is outboard gear and plug in that serve similar objective but for different ease of use and use different methodology for manufacturing. KnobLog is a prototype product that allows user to use analog mixing consoles directly while taking the advantage of controllability digital from digital. It enhance s the workflow to be more convenient, with the desired

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! 34 sound quality without radically change the usual workflow. KnobLog was born to help users utilize the best of both world, analog and digital simultaneously Figure 4.2 KnobLog logo and trademark With KnobLog, analog mixer is controllable by using either a plugin in DAW or manually adjusting to manipulate the s ound. This KnobLog also be able to save and recall the presets on analog mixer and show up in the plugin interface by using microcontroller to be a middleman to transfer potentiometers position data from analog m ixer to computer and vice versa without hand touching the mixing board. For the system design, motorized potentiometers have been used instead of regular potentiometers in order to give the controllability to the analog mixer. The microcontroller controls the direction of the motor on motorized potentiometer. The position of potentiometer has been read, write, and send the data to the plugin interface through Serial port. KnobL og is composed of 2 major parts ; Hardware and Software 1.) Hardware 1.1. Mackie 1402 VLZ Pro 1.2. Arduino Mega 2560 1.3. Motorized Potentiometer 1.4. H bridge IC SN754410 1.5. Circuit 2.) Software a. Arduino IDE b. JUCE C++ This system helps improve workflow and time effiency for sound engineers who work on analog mixing console for instance, studio r ecording live sound r einforcement podcasting or b roadcasting and p ersonal u se There are 6 advantages of this system: ability to save and r ecall t ime efficiency analog sound quality, c ontrollability and a ccuracy However, this system remains two major disadvantages that need to improve in the future : price and motorized potentiometer rotational speed

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! 35 With current development, KnobLog unleashed the potential of integration of analog and digital. There still more possibilities to develop this KnobLog further to the extensive use. If further development would happen, the most important one is to increase the channel to respond to appropriate needs. Due to a limited time and budget KnobLog was intentionally cre ated to be prototype for future extension s O nly one channel is created to represent the possibilities that can be duplicate d to other channels. The electronics parts can be upgrade to newer and higher rotational speed as well as optimize the budgets and proceed the feasibility analysis for commercial productions.

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! 36 REFERENCE S Thberge, P.(2003). Mixing desk (mixing console). In Continuum encyclopedia of popular music of the world: Performance and production. Retrieved from http://alturl.com/gdcpp Hass, J. (2003, September 15). Chapter Two: Mixers Retrieved from http://alturl.com/mishr Michael, F. (2003, 06). Analog vs. digital consoles for live use: Who's winning? Professional Sound, 14, 56. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/756574413?accountid=14506 Hamilton, T. (2010, October 27). Analog Vs. Digital Sound Boards How to Decide | Retrieved from http://alturl.com/ezb2i Burrell, B. (2014, January 30). Choosing Between Digital vs. Analog Consoles Some Sound Advice For Churches | Retrieved from http://alturl.com/4zoug Flying Faders II New Features (n.d.). Retrieved from http://a lturl.com/rqpzu Robjohns, H. (2002, November). Yamaha DM2000 Digital Mixing Console. Sound On Sound Retrieved from http://alturl.com/v639k DM2000VCM (n.d.). Retrieved from http://alturl.com/buijs EQ 502P Bettermaker (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.bettermaker.eu/eq 502p/ JUCE Forums: http://juce.com/forum