Citation
"When the fog finally lifted"

Material Information

Title:
"When the fog finally lifted" an ethnograp[hic exploration of the Gold Star Wives of America
Creator:
Um, Katherine Fairfield ( author )
Place of Publication:
Denver, Colo.
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (64 pages). : ;

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of Arts)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
Department of Anthropology, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Anthropology
Committee Chair:
Otanez, Marty
Committee Members:
Scandlyn, Jean
Horton, Sarah

Subjects

Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Review:
As the wife of an active duty Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) veteran and anthropologist, I argue that there is a need in the anthropological community to understand the humanity and experiences of members of the military community, specifically, the Gold Star Wives of America, Inc. (GSW). Recognizing my position as both a member of the military community and the anthropological community, I will address the gap that exists concerning US war widows within the anthropological literature. The exploration of support systems within and for the GSW is addressed through the application of grounded theory methodology. The application of ethnographic methods, participant observation and semi-structured, one-on-one interviews, and grounded theory allow for a holistic approach and understanding of the community and lived experiences within the community. This exploratory project seeks to create a platform where community members may make their voices heard, adding to the current anthropological literature and understanding of populations affected by US wars. Through the use of ethnographic methods applied with GSW members in October 2013 through January 2014 it is revealed that the interconnectedness of the community members provides support for shared experiences.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of Colorado Denver. Anthropology
Bibliography:
Inlucdes bibliographic references.
General Note:
Department of Anthropology
Statement of Responsibility:
by Katherine Fairfield Um.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
898483604 ( OCLC )
ocn898483604

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Full Text
"WHEN THE FOG FINALLY LIFTED": AN ETHNOGRAPHIC EXPLORATION OF THE
GOLD STAR WIVES OF AMERICA
by
KATHERINE FAIRFIELD UM
B.A., Troy University, 2006
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado Denver in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree
Masters of Arts
Anthropology
2014


This thesis for the Masters of Arts degree by
Katherine Fairfield Um
Has been approved for the
Anthropology Department
By
Marty Otanez, Chair
Jean Scandlyn
Sarah Horton
May 7,2014


Um, Katherine F. (MA, Anthropology)
When the fog finally lifted An Ethnographic Exploration of the Gold Star Wives of
America
Thesis directed by Dr. Marty Otanez
ABSTRACT
As the wife of an active duty Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation
Enduring Freedom (OEF) veteran and anthropologist, I argue that there is a need in
the anthropological community to understand the humanity and experiences of
members of the military community, specifically, the Gold Star Wives of America,
INC (GSW). Recognizing my position as both a member of the military community
and the anthropological community, I will address the gap that exists concerning US
war widows within the anthropological literature. The exploration of support
systems within and for the GSW is addressed through the application of grounded
theory methodology. The application of ethnographic methods, participant
observation and semi-structured, one-on-one interviews, and grounded theory
allow for a holistic approach and understanding of the community and lived
experiences within the community. This exploratory project seeks to create a
platform where community members may make their voices heard, adding to the
current anthropological literature and understanding of populations affected by US
wars. Through the use ethnographic methods applied with GSW members in
October 2013-Januaiy 2014 it is revealed that the interconnectedness of the
community members provides support for shared experiences.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Marty Otanez
iii


DEDICATION
This is dedicated to all Gold Star families. Thank you for your service and sacrifice.
IV


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
To the Gold Star Wives who allowed me to be a part of your lives and
community, I thank you for your honesty, trust, laughter, love, and warmth. You
have taught me about life and strength beyond by own understanding. Thank you
for being my teachers. May you continue your journeys with the wind against your
back and the sun shining brightly in your face.


CHAPTER
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTION/RESEARCH PROBLEM
It Could Have Been Me..................................1
Anthropology and the Military: Why Should We Engage?.....3
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Widowhood...............................................13
Grounded Theory.........................................18
III. DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION/ENTREE
Gold Star Wives of America, Incorporated................24
What Does the Gold Star Represent?......................25
Gatekeepers and Entree..................................28
IV. METHODS AND DATA ANALYSIS
Ethics and Ethnographic Procedure.......................33
Data Collection Methods.................................35
Data Analysis...........................................39
V. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
Findings................................................43
How Do the Gold Star Wives Support One Another?...44
How Does the Outside Community Support the Gold Star
Wives?............................................44
How Does the Military and Government Support GSW?.44
Conclusions.............................................44
vi


Support From Outside Communities.................45
Support Provided by the Gold Star Community......48
Shared Lived Experiences.........................49
REFERENCES........................................................52
APPENDIX..........................................................56
vii


LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
Code and Theme Emergence
40-41


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
It Gould Have Been Me.
As the 2011 Christmas break came to a close, my heart began to race a little
faster each day and sleeping soundly became a challenge. The preparation of my
husband's wills and burial plans became the center of discussion as his deployment
date drew near. Mike's trunks and duffel bags began to fill up and sit by the front
door in preparation for his yearlong deployment as a helicopter pilot to Afghanistan.
For the first time since our marriage, I felt like an Army wife. I usually kept
my distance from the military, but as his deployment date began to creep up, I
realized the unwritten contract I had signed only a little over a year and a half prior
to this date. I remember the conversation we had the night before he deployed:
You have to promise me that if anything should happen to me, you will continue
to live your life for you. I want you to love someone again, compete in an
IrortMart competition, earn your Ph.D, travel the world, have children, and just
be happy. You have to practice nonattachment Remember the rrtandala...
Anything can be washed away after all of the hard work you put into it, and
that is okay. And if I should die, I do not want a military burial I want my body
to be cremated and spread across the top of Kilimanjaro. This will be your first
BIG adventure. We will travel and experience it together. You have to keep this
promise to me. Please make sure that my parents get half of the money you
receive. I want to make sure that they are safe and comfortable.


I kept a straight face and discussed this very matter-of-factly, but inside I was
breaking down. As the hours began to pass, the breakdown inside became more
intense and my mood began to shift. Unable to sleep well, we lay in bed and held
hands the entire night. I realized that this could be the last time we may share a
moment like this one.
After a sleepless night, we put all of his duffels and our two puppies in the
back of my Volkswagen Golf, turned John Legend on the radio, and began the 45-
minute drive to post1. We arrived at the hangar three hours prior to his departure.
He had to sign in and pick up his weapon. Then we began the waiting game.
Families began to flood the hangar, children dressed in their red, white, and blue,
began running around and enjoying one another, soldiers held their babies tightly,
and slowly, the energy began to change in the space. As the hour of deployment
grew closer, smiles began to hide tears and thoughts of uncertainty. I began to
wonder how I should say see you later properly when they were called to
formation. I chose a quick slap on the butt and a Go get 'em tiger. I was not sure
whom he was going to 'fight' or if I agreed with it, but in that moment it allowed
both of us to laugh together and smile in an uncertain moment. As he walked away,
I held back the tears and began the countdown to his return. 'The sooner he leaves,
the sooner he comes home, I thought
1 Army military installation
2 Charts available in appendix
3 Service members arrival home
4 The capitalization of Wives is used in this context because it is considered to be a
formal title within the community.
5 Grocery store on post
6 The Institutional Review Board (IRB) is a university board in which students and
faculty apply to conduct projects that involve human subjects. Approval is


After spending the day out-and-about, I reached the dreaded moment of
driving home. As I pulled into the garage and looked at his Jeep, I held back the
tears. After unloading the groceries and sitting down on the couch, the puppies sat
down beside me, and I decided for the first time that day that I needed someone to
tell me it was all going to be okay, so I called my dad in Alabama. The minute I heard
his voice, the tears began streaming down my face, and I let it all go. He patiently sat
on the other end of the call and told me to cry. He then told me that Mike would be
okay and that I would be okay. I hoped that I believed him. I hoped that I believed
that my husband would arrive back home safely. It is what all Army wives hope
for when their soldiers step into that final formation.
As I attempted to settle in for bed that evening, I ran every scenario through
my mind: a safe return, an early return, the loss of a limb, a helicopter crash with
severe burns, a helicopter crash with capture, and death. Wow. Death. How would
that feel? How would I react? Who would I call first for support? Who would
support me? Who would understand my unique situation? How would I make it
through?
I am one of the fortunate ones. My husband arrived home safely nine months
after he left and three months early on September 9, 2012. As I was joyous and
excited for his return home, I was also solemn and humbled for those who were not
so fortunate. In that moment I realized it could have just as easily been me.
Anthropology and The Military: Why Should We Engage?
As an Army wife and an applied cultural anthropologist, I am in a unique
position to apply anthropological research to sub-groups within the military
3


community. As a halfie (Abu-Lughod 1991),a term used affectionately to describe
an anthropologist who is both a researcher and member of the community in which
he or she is engaging, I have a commonality of association through the military with
the Gold Star Wives of America (GSW). The Gold Star community is one that
consists of WWII widows(ers), Vietnam War widows(ers), Operation Iraqi Freedom
and Operation Enduring Freedom widows(ers), suicide widows(ers), military
related training widows(ers), mothers, fathers, children, veterans, active-duty
service members, professionals, and community activists. More specifically, GSW is
a sub-community of the Gold Star community comprised of widows and widowers
of service members. First introduced to GSW through a family friend who is also a
member, I began supporting the community through running half-marathons and
marathons in honor of fallen service members in 2010. A gold star symbolically
represents this 10,000-member community. These can be seen in car windows,
house windows, hanging ornaments, or a delicately placed pin on a lapel. Members
of GSW provide support not only for one another, but also for veteran organizations
such as The Wounded Warrior Project and the United Service Organizations (USO).
Members also work to improve legislation concerning governmental benefits
provided to survivors of military service members. As a unit, the GSW work
together to not only better their own lives, but also better the lives of those in the
military and veteran community.
Are you a survivor? I was frequently asked this question when I first began
my research with the Gold Star Wives. The term survivor resonated in my mind
each time it was used in conversation. Oxford Dictionaries legally defines survivor
4


as a joint tenant who has the right to the whole estate on the others death. It also
defines a survivor as a person who copes well with difficulties in their life
(oxforddictionaries.com). Although legally these men and women are recognized as
survivors, I observed the term most often being employed in its second, less
legalistic sense. Through the use of the term survivor, these women and men
positively define themselves as people who have encountered hardships, but
continue to move forward, and successfully support one another, and support the
military community, its family members, and veterans. Through the use of this term
in referencing someone who is going through hardships, members of this
community are reminded of the strength that they carry within themselves and as a
unit. The more the community members opened themselves, their lives, and their
stories to me I realized the importance of this project and the importance of
supporting the community.
When asked, What will your research project be about? I respond with The
Gold Star Wives of America, resiliency, and communal support of one another and
external support of GSW communities/' After receiving the predictable follow-up
response of waitI thought anthropologists dig up bones, I chuckle and respond,
some do dig up bones, but I am an applied cultural anthropologist This triggers a
wonderful, and never brief, explanation and conversation of applied cultural
anthropology. Rylko-Bauer, Singer, and Willigen argue applied anthropology to be
"a systematic critical joining of critical social theory with application and pragmatic
engagement with the contemporary problems of our social and physical worlds
(2006:178). With this type of pragmatic anthropological engagement in mind, I
5


began to notice the frequency with which people asked me about the Gold Star
Wives, not only those in the civilian community but also those in the military
community. Although this was surprising, I took a moment to reflect on my own
unawareness of the GSW and of Sandy who first introduced me to the community.
After Sandy's husband was killed in action, she began a movement of awareness
through running. She used her love of running and her husbands love of running to
create a run club in memory of her husband and all other fallen service members. I
have been an active member of her national run team for four years. This personal
reflection spurred the following questions: "If so many are unaware of this
community, its members, and the purpose it serves, what type of support do the
GSW receive? How does the GSW community receive support? And how do the
GSW support one another? In this moment of reflection, I found my direction as an
applied anthropologist, but I also realized that this choice comes with the potential
challenges that can be faced while engaging with a sub-community of the military
community.
Debate within the anthropological community concerning military related
research and engagementGonzalez 2007, Lucas 2009, McFate 2005 and 2006,
Price 2011, Rylko-Bauer et al.2006, Simons 2003 and Winnick 2007) has been
longstanding. With recent anthropological, sociological, and psychological research
focusing on varying communities and related issues within the military community
Andersen et al 2010, Arbisi 2011,Brand 2010, Castro et al 2004, Earnshaw et al
2008, Kuehnast et. al 2012, Kulkarni et. al 2006, Richters 2006), a new path of
research is being forged with a focus on the humanity within the organization and
6


not the organization itself (Finley 2011, Hautzinger and Scandlyn 2013, and
MacLeish 2013). This attempt by social scientists to open the door to understanding
and awareness of the military community and culture allows for a greater capacity
for tolerance and increase potential for assistance to the military community. I
argue that at the core, an anthropologist's work and focus is humanity and the
human experience. Applied anthropologists step in to engage and provide
assistance where it may be needed. When we, as anthropologists, remove culturally
assigned identities and titles from humans, both past and present, we allow
ourselves to dissolve the biases that may exist due to race, sex, gender, social status,
political party, etc. and truly begin to understand our individual and collective
human experiences.
With a national membership of 10,000 women and men, the Gold Star Wives
of America represent only a fraction of the community that is affected by military-
related deaths. The Defense Casualty Analysis System US active duty military deaths
chart provides yearly death tolls of active duty service members
fwww.dmdc.osd.mil2. As of March 2014, Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and
Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) casualties totaled to 6,719. Casualties are
organized by branch, type, and cause. OIF casualties are divided as hostile and non-
hostile. More specifically, hostile casualties are divided as killed in action, died of
wounds, died while missing in action, died while captured, and died while
detained totaling to 3,481 Non-hostile casualties are divided as accident,
illness/injury, homicide, self-inflicted, and undetermined totaling to 929.
2 Charts available in appendix
7


Total casualties of Operation Iraqi Freedom are 4, 410 (see Appendix 2). OEF
casualties are divided as hostile and non-hostile. More specifically, hostile
casualties are divided as killed in action, died of wounds, and died of terrorists
activities totaling to 1,813. Non-hostile casualties are divided as accident,
"illness/injury/' "homicide/' "self-inflicted/' "undetermined/' and Spending' totaling
to 496. Total casualties of Operation Enduring Freedom are 2, 309 (see Appendix
3). These OIF/OEF statistics not only represent service members but also their
family members.
Tragedy Assistance Programs for Survivors (TAPS) estimates that for every
one active duty service member either killed in action or killed serving in active
duty military responsibilities ten family members or loved ones are affected by and
grieve for this death fwww.taps.org). TAPS is a non-for-profit, nongovernmental
program founded in 1994. TAPS provides comfort and care through
comprehensive services and programs including peer based emotional support,
casework assistance, connections to community-based care, and grief and trauma
resources fwww.taps.org). Tragedy Assistance Programs for Survivors' database
estimates that at the end of OIF 44,870 family members are left behind and
significantly impacted, 2,468 adults losing a spouse, 3,141 children losing a parent,
8,974 losing a child,13,461 grandparents losing a grandchild, and 3,679 losing a
brother or sister fwww.taps.org). Statistical data is not available for family
members significantly impacted by OEF on the TAPS data page. These numbers
speak directly to the significant number of people affected by war and duty military
related cause deaths.
8


With these staggering statistics, research on the GSW communities will
create greater awareness of their lived experiences as individuals and as
communities. It will also bring awareness to the needs of GSW community members
such as governmental benefits programs, outreach community programs, and
communal support. With this being said, continued support and awareness of this
community and its members cannot occur without engagement with the
community. Anthropological, sociological, and psychological research demonstrates
a gap that exists in the literature. More specifically, each of these social science
fields demonstrates an absence of qualitative research projects addressing a topic or
question related to the Gold Star community. Through engagement with the Gold
Star Wives of America, I contribute to literature to raise awareness about the
community. I will provide a greater understanding of the triumphs of members of
the community and the challenges community members face, such as: benefit
retrieval, civilian communal support, and grief. In the project I apply a grounded
theory methodology within an anthropological framework.
I used participant observation and semi-structured, one-on-one interviews to
obtain qualitative data in this exploratory project. With interest in communal
support from the government, civilian support, and internal support, I attended two
meetings at the local support center, one event at a local gym, one holiday party at
the local support center, and conducted two interviews to gather and analyze data.
In order to build rapport and comfort with interviewees, I did not implement audio
recording at the interviews. Topics of GSW organization and history, personal
experiences within the GSW, governmental support, and continued activism for the
9


community were topics addressed during the interviews. After each event, analysis
of field notes allowed emergent themes to appear and a more focused engagement
and analysis at the next event or interview. Applicable literature in areas of
grounded theory and anthropological research in widowhood was integrated as
themes became more prominent and stronger with each event. Grounded theory in
an anthropological framework argued for adjustments in the integration of
literature and prominent themes in the project. Participant observation and
interviewing developed organically throughout the duration of the project. More
specifically, rather than ordering fieldwork and interviews on a specific timeline, I
allowed them to occur as availability occurred for each. Schedules and timelines for
GSW members, their events at the local center, and my personal schedule dictated
meeting times and availability for interviews. These components required flexibility
and adjustment to my original timeline and expectations created when beginning
the project. Organic development of interviews and observations placed limitations
on the application of grounded theory in its most original version developed by
Barney Glaser and Anslem Strauss in the 1960s, but allowed for the comfort level of
survivors to move at their own pace as rapport was being built. Throughout data
collection, I reflected on my own experiences during my husband's deployment and
the support that I received from the surrounding communities. A personal journal
and notations of personal reflections in field notes provided a reflective and
associative perspective to the project.
After Mike's safe arrival home from Afghanistan, I reflected back on the nine
months that had passed and the people and community that supported me
10


throughout his deployment. I remembered the dinners with other Army Wives
whose husbands were deployed. I remembered the conversations of fear,
uncertainty, worry, excitement, families, children, travels, and redeployment. We
understood one another and the emotions, worries, triumphs, and change that occur
during a deployment. We leaned on one another in the moments that were most
uncertain. The connections and communal support received from those that were a
part of a similar community and lived experience provided a group of women who
assisted in my navigation through a challenging and trying experience. I also
remember those that were not a part of the military community, but supported Mike
and me throughout the deployment.
After arriving to Colorado four years ago, I joined a women's run club to
become better acquainted with Colorado Springs and make friends with other
women in the area. Saturday morning run club brought members of the civilian
community into my life with questions of my well-being, Mike's well-being, and
constant support. I found relief each time I tied up my running shoes and started a
long run with a fellow teammate and hours of conversation. My work community
and clients continually followed-up with questions about the progress of Mike's
deployment, extending invitations to holiday celebrations and events. My graduate
student cohort in the Anthropology Department at the University of Colorado
Denver allowed me an escape through discussions of theory and anthropological
research. In each of these spaces I found moments that moved me along the
deployment and helped me arrive safely at the prospect of Mike's redeployment3.
3 Service members arrival home
11


The importance in qualitatively understanding such events and support within the
military community extends to those who have lost a service member. This
research project addresses the uses qualitative research to examine a sub-
community of the military community. Qualitative research is used to address how
the Gold Star Wives support one another, how outside communities support the
Gold Star Wives, and how the government and military support the Gold Star Wives.
12


CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
As the Halloween Party begins to wind down and the kids and parents begin to
head home, the core group of volunteers, group leaders, and community members sit
around and begin to laugh and unwind. Laughter slowly fills the air and the serious,
business-like faces begin to relax and joke about the happenings of the day. I can see
the community at it's finest The relationships that have developed because of this
space and the people who fill it become very apparent Conversations about funny
emails, costumes, music, and pop culture allow relax everyone. I begin to see why this
space is so incredibly important for survivors. It is a safe place... It is a place of
camaraderie and understanding... It is a place of belonging.
-Fieldnotes: Friday, October 25, 2013- Halloween Party, Colorado
Widowhood
While engaging with community members, I recognize the importance of
more in-depth, anthropological exploration of gold star communities, their support
for one another, and support from outside communities. Current anthropological
and psychological research has focused its research on the effects of war on service
members from countries involved in the Iraq/Afghanistan War and on surviving
family members of war in countries other than those of the United States of America
(Andersen et. al 2012, Arbisi et. al 2011, Brand 2010, Castro et. al 2004, Earnshaw
et. al 2008, Kulkarni et. al 2006, Richters et. al 2006). Each of these groups has
received extensive attention in the research on coping mechanisms and resiliency
after experiencing a death or extensive trauma directly related to the war. They
13


have also received substantial attention in research on assistance and resilience
after the experiences of these traumas (Brand 2010, Castro et. al 2004, Jensen et. al
1993, Kuehnaust et. al 2012, Kulkarni et. al 2006, Ritchers 2006). The
methodological approach implemented by researchers ranges from quantitative to
qualitative and mix-methods. The various approaches and methodological
implementation have resulted in varying results for better understanding of trauma,
coping mechanisms, and resiliency post-war.
As described by Richters [2006: 2): Trauma is an increasingly popular
notion to indicate shocking, terrifying or overwhelming events and processes that
have or are likely to have destructive effects on people's psyche and their relation to
their surrounding world. Researchers have approached traumatic war experiences
from two perspectives: a Westernized and biomedicalized perspective of post-
traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Andersen et. al 2010, Arbisi 2011, Castro et. al
2004, Earnshaw et. al 2008) and a culturally relative perspective of grief
management through the use of culturally specific mechanisms (Brand 2010,
Kuehnast et. al, 2012, Kulkarni et. al 2006, Richters 2006). Surveying methods
(quantitative methodology) were implemented more regularly when researching
and analyzing PTSD symptoms in servicemen and servicewomen who were directly
affected by the OIF/OEF conflicts. Information specifically targeted in these
research projects was aimed to ascertain mental stability, mental health, and access
to proper health care assistance (Andersen et. al 2010, Arbisi 2011, Castro et. al
2004, Earnshaw et. al 2008). Although the information gained from the surveys
contributed to new understanding of servicemen and women's mental stability,
14


mental health, and access to proper health care assistance, it lacked a qualitative
perspective that would add greater depth and understanding of support systems
when experiencing highly traumatic circumstances. More specifically, the studies
lack one-on-one and group engagement with a researcher to gain specific
information about their perspectives and lived experiences. In opposition to the
strictly quantitative approach, qualitative methods, participant-observation and
semi-structured interviews, were implemented more consistently when researching
and analyzing war widows (Andersen et. al 2012, Arbisi et. al 2011, Brand 2010,
Castro et. al 2004, Earnshaw et. al 2008, Kulkarni et. al 2006, Richters et. al 2006).
Resiliency in relation to trauma is a multi-dimensional cultural construct that
reveals the complexity of its application to both the understanding both the mental
and physical process that occurs after the loss of a service member in a war or
military-related training. A public display of resilience is culturally understood to
represent strength, character, and the ability to continue forward on a productive
path with one's life after experiencing a trauma. Privately, a public display of
resilience may encourage the masking of emotions and actions that may otherwise
reveal weakness, sadness, or inability to move forward. This complexity draws
attention to the cultural understanding and application of resiliency in a survivor's
interaction in the public space, private space, and military space.
The literature focusing specifically on war widows is found more
predominantly in civil war-torn countries. These studies vary in their focus-from
survival in civil war zones to coping mechanisms and resiliency after the loss of
family members (Brand 2010, Kuehnast et. al 2012, Kulkarni et. al 2006, Richters et.
15


al 2006). These studies are of mixed methodological nature with the use of
qualitative tools. They address the misdiagnosis of PTSD in cultures that implement
varying cultural coping mechanisms. Drawing attention to culturally relative coping
and grieving mechanisms is crucial in the analysis of survivors and resiliency when
experiencing traumatic events. PTSD is a culturally specific diagnosed coping
mechanism that is incorrectly assigned to cultures other than that of which it was
specifically established. The assignment of PTSD can lend itself to a misdiagnosis
and misunderstanding of the grief symptoms and coping mechanisms that are
implemented in cultures other than that of Western culture (Kulkarni et. al 2006). A
culturally relative analysis of coping mechanisms and communal support is
necessary in the process of understanding communities that have experienced
traumatic events. This research project will approach the analysis of communal
support from a 'culture specific perspective' rather than assignment and analysis
through the strict guidelines of PTSD symptoms and syndromes in a more
medicalized framework. This culture specific perspective will be achieved through
the use of grounded theory through the application of participant-observation and
semi-structured interviews in an anthropological framework.
A culturally specific perspective reveals members' experiences with
widowhood within the military community, how these experiences relate to those of
other survivors within the gold star community, how survivors navigate
governmental systems are navigated by survivors to obtain benefits such as life
insurance and medical insurance, and finally, life experiences beyond the military.
Through the use of participant-observation and semi-structured interviews with the
16


survivor community, it is revealed that the interconnectedness of the community
members provides support for shared experiences, such as coping with changes,
increasing resiliency, and solidifying belongingness, that might otherwise be
incomprehensible to those outside of the community. Grounded theory allows for a
greater level of comprehension of this group of survivors and their experiences as
individuals and as a community. Key themes in the project include governmental
benefit support (i.e. monthly support, life insurance, and medical insurance), outside
community support (i.e. counseling, children's programs and activities, support
groups, widow support groups and outings), and survivor community support -
themes that have been largely neglected in the previous literature.
As discussed above, the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods
have been implemented to provide information that is needed to advance assistance
for servicemen and women's in mental health as well as assistance in coping with
traumatic events (Andersen et. al 2010, Arbisi 2011, Brand 2010, Castro et. al 2004,
Earnshaw et. al 2008, Kuehnast et. al 2012, Kulkarni et. al 2006, Richters 2006).
These methods were used to address trauma assistance in all aspects of war
experiences except those of American war widows(ers). Here lies a gap in the
anthropological literature that will be filled through the writings of my experiences
with the Gold Star Wives communities. Members of this community, due to death of
a spouse or partner, have been removed from the military community and placed
back into the civilian community. This drastic life-changing experience, also
understood as trauma (Richters 2006), needs to be recognized and properly
addressed through an anthropological perspective and the use of grounded theory.
17


Grounded Theory
As Strauss and Corbin state: "Grounded theory methodology incorporates the
assumption, shared with other, but not all, social science positions concerning the
human status of actors whom we study. They have perspectives on and
interpretations of their own and other actors' actions" (1994:280). Grounded
theory provides a fluid framework through which to inductively provide a
conceptual interpretation and theoretical development of communal and personal
interactions and the effects of these interactions on members of the Gold Star Wives.
Grounded theory is applied as a methodology that develops a substantive theory of
how Gold Star Wives and survivors receive governmental and military support,
receive outside community support, and provide communal support to one another.
Strauss and Corbin argue that "grounded theory is a general methodology for
developing theory that is grounded in data systematically gathered and analyzed"
(1994:273). Theoretical frameworks of pragmatism and symbolic interactionism
provide the conceptual scaffolding to uphold grounded theory approaches (Corbin
and Strauss 1990). These frameworks direct a non-determinist, fluid movement of
data and the interpretation and reaction to the data by participants (Corbin and
Strauss 1990). This inductive approach to social science research emphasizes a
constant comparative, iterative analysis of data collected throughout the project.
This iterative process develops theory from the data. Originating in sociology,
grounded theory is used to address research questions in the medical profession,
anthropology, and other social science fields. Since the 1960s sociologists have
discussed the evolution of the rules, procedures, and application of grounded
18


theory. I adjusted the application of grounded theory methodology with the priority
of ensuring community members comfort with me and my project guided
adjustments to the application of the grounded theory methodology.
In 1967, Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss co-authored The Discovery of
Grounded Theory to provide an in-depth guide to the rules and procedures specific
to grounded theory application. Glaser and Strauss's (1967) co-authorship of
grounded theory is now recognized as Classic grounded theory or CGT [Evans
2013). CGT theorists approach social science phenomena with no questions to
specifically address in the beginning of research project. This allows for concepts to
be discovered throughout fieldwork. The literature review is adapted once
emergent themes become more prominent throughout the study. These themes are
arrived at through the use of substantive coding, theoretical coding, constant
comparison, and memoing (Evans 2013). Grounded theory developed by Glaser and
Strauss is comprised of original rules, procedures, and application of grounded
theory (Evans 2013). Through its evolution, different interpretations of grounded
theory have developed.
As Glaser continued to instruct classic grounded theory, Anslem Strauss
redefined his procedures with Juliet Corbin in their 1990 book Basics of Qualitative
Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Straussian-grounded theory
redefined coding procedures and data structure through the development of eleven
procedures (Corbin and Strauss 1990 and Evans 2013):
1) Data collection and analysis are interrelated processes.
2) Concepts are the basic units of analysis.
3) Categories must be developed and related.
4) Sampling in grounded theory proceeds on theoretical grounds.
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5) Analysis makes use of constant comparisons.
6) Patterns and variations must be accounted for.
7) Process must be built into theory.
8) Writing theoretical memos is an integral part of doing grounded theory.
9) Hypotheses about relationships among categories are developed and verified
as much as possible during the research process.
10) A grounded theorist need not work alone.
11) Broader structural conditions must be brought into the analysis, however
microscopic in focus is the research.
Straussian coding is divided into three stages: open coding, axial coding, and
selective coding (Evans 2013). This is opposed to the two-stage classic grounded
theory coding of substantive coding followed by theoretical coding. Straussian-
grounded theory is argued to provide a more rigorous and less fluid approach to
grounded theory than that of CGT (Evans 2013 and Pandit 1996). Classic grounded
theory and Straussian-grounded theory led to variations in the grounded theory
approach. In order to address my project from a grounded theory perspective, a
variation of this original version of grounded theory was applied. Construstivist
grounded theory will be discussed later in this section.
Feminist grounded theorists argue that grounded theory and feminist
epistemology strongly align with one another in the understanding of experiences
from the participants' perspectives. This perspective strongly aligns itself with a
postmodern stance on questioning the truth of reality and our interpretations of
that reality (Wuest 1995 in Evans 2013). Feminist grounded theory is most often
applied when researching female-specific roles and professional positions in a
grounded theory framework. Continual evolution of grounded theory appears in the
form of constructivist grounded theory.
20


Constructivist grounded theory challenges classic grounded theory by
placing its focus on the construction rather than discovery of concepts in grounded
theory exploration (Evans 2013). As opposed to CGT, constructivist theorists use
literature to gain greater knowledge about what questions have and have not been
addressed in a researcher's area of interest. When literature review is implemented
creates the greatest differentiation between classic grounded theory and
constructivist grounded theory. Classic grounded theory argues that literature
should not be reviewed at the beginning of a project for fear of skewing the analysis
of emergent themes during research. Constructivists encourage review of literature
to gain a greater understanding of what topics have been researched in previous
projects. Straussian and constructivist grounded theory share in their use of a
literature review to provide knowledge of questions that have been addressed in the
literature for the phenomena under investigation.
In Chapter 4,1 will address the application of constructivist grounded theory
method to emergent themes and their analysis throughout the project. I reviewed
the anthropological and psychological literature prior to beginning research to
assess themes and subjects examined in previous research projects. With the
progression of the project and emergence of themes, literature was addressed to
develop and conceptually unpack prominent themes. Analysis of themes was
addressed through coding developed for this project.
21


CHAPTER III
DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION/ENTREE
On a breezy Wednesday afternoon in November 2013,1 arrived at the local
military post support center to attend my first monthly meeting of the Gold Star
Wives in Colorado. The front door was open to allow the sunshine and breeze to
enter the building. The building was bustling with hugs, hellos, and How are you?
I am drawn into the community the minute I enter through the door. The TV buzzed
in the background of conversations and movement throughout the space. The
kitchen is bustling with food and people. The kitchen is the hub of socialization in
the center. Grab a plate! Please eat There is plenty of food! Members tell me.
There is never a shortage of food or drink when coming to the center. I very quickly
learned to come to meetings with an empty belly and big appetite!
This meeting is unique because the Gold Star Mothers are in attendance
along with members of the Gold Star Wives4. After being introduced to members of
both the Gold Star Wives and Gold Star Mothers, I and other members started
making our way back to the meeting room with plates full of food. We all sat down
on the couches waiting for the meeting to begin. While waiting, we all chat about
the friendships, support, and services that the community provides. A member
comments on how she feels like she is coming to see friends when attending the
meetings. She enjoys the camaraderie and feels a sense of belonging when engaging
with the community. Members exchange recipes for the dishes that were brought
for the meeting. A Peruvian bean casserole dish becomes the topic of conversation
4 The capitalization of Wives is used in this context because it is considered to be a
formal title within the community.
22


for several minutes. As the conversations continue to circulate, others discuss their
children's colds and school, future events at the support center, and the upcoming
Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays and plans of travel. The hustle and bustle in
the room begins to quiet down as the president enters the room and prepares to
start the meeting.
The meeting begins and the president covers topics that were discussed at
previous meetings. She then cedes the floor to a Gold Star Mother who informs the
members of the progress made with changing the regulations and laws concerning
who and how Colorado fallen service member car license plates and how. This
conversation spurs questions from members concerning Colorado laws regarding
this specific issue. As the conversation evolves, the discussion of service hours for
regional chapters becomes the lead topic. Mothers discuss veteran organizations
and how they provided community service to each of them. They provided ideas
and suggestions for the Gold Star Wives concerning their community service.
At the conclusion of the meeting I realized that purpose, friendship, support,
and service, flowed through members in conversation and support of one another at
meetings and all community activities for the survivor community. Purpose,
friendship, support, and service are recognized by Gold Star Wives as key
components of their community and membership. Over a five-month time period, I
completed a total of 15 total hours of participation observation, and conducted a
total of two semi-structured, one-on-one interviews. Meetings similar to the one
mentioned above provided the majority of data collection and engagement with the
Gold Star Wives community.
23


Gold Star Wives of America, Incorporated
On April 21,2005, Ms. Penny Splinter, representative of the Gold Star Wives
of America, Incorporated, began her address to a joint hearing of The Committees on
Veterans' Affairs for The United States Senate and House of Representatives at The
First Session of The 109th Congress with words from President Abraham Lincoln's
Second Inaugural Address on March 4,1865:
"With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives
us to see right, let us strive to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation wounds;
To care for him who has borne the battle?, his widow and his orphan.11
With these words, she addressed members of the joint committee concerning the
need for improvements in the governmental benefits and services for widows and
widowers of active duty service members or of military service connected cause.
This recent address to Congress demonstrates the continual push for betterment of
governmental benefit support that the Gold Star Wives of America set out to achieve
from the beginning of its incorporation.
Marie Jordan Speer founded the Gold Star Wives in 1945. Speer, a widow of a
World War II service member, organized with other WWII widows in her living
room to provide support to one another. This small gathering of widows in New
York State began the nation-wide, non-profit organization known in the present-day
as the Gold Star Wives of America, Incorporated (GSW). Eleanor Roosevelt signed
the congressionally chartered Gold Star Wives of America into incorporation in
1945.
GSW spans over 26 states with 8 regions, 53 chapters, and approximately
24


10,000 members in 2014 (goldstarwives.com). From a living room in New State to a
nation-wide organization, GSW continues to serve three stated main purposes:
friendship, support, and service. Friendship is provided through monthly meetings
and gatherings with fellow military widows and widowers. These friendships
provide a commonality amongst women and men who have survived similar lived
experiences and emotions. Support is not only provided through relationships and
assistance, but also through knowledge of governmental benefits and non-profit
services available to military widows and widowers. It is also provided in personal
decisions concerning family, friends, and community. Gold Star Wives not only
support one another, but they also volunteer and provide service to veteran's
services such as the Wounded Warrior Project, national memorial services such as a
the traveling Vietnam Memorial Wall, and local services for veterans specific to the
local post.
What Does the Gold Star Represent?
The Gold Star lapel pin is presented to surviving spouses, parents, and next of
kin of service members killed in action or in a military-related cause. The pins are
presented to the surviving family members at no cost to them. The gold star is set
against a round, purple background surrounded by a gold wreath of laurel leaves.
United States of America, Act of Congress,1 August 1947 is imprinted on the back.
Congress created public law 80:306 1 August 1947 in order to properly identify
spouses, parents, and next of kin of service members killed in action or in a military-
related accident through the use of this pinwww.veteranmedals.army.mil)
25


www.army.mil
The lapel pin can be given to the following family members or next of kin:
"Widow, Widower, Mother, Father, Stepmother/father, Mother/father through
adoption, Foster mother/father in loco parentis, Son, Daughter, Stepson/daughter,
Son/daughter by adoption, Brother, Sister, Half brother/sister/' The gold stars are
not only represented through the lapel pin, but also by gold star flags hanging in
home windows, gold stars neatly placed on car windows, gold stars on license
plates, and various symbolic displays of the gold star. Although these stars were
established by Congress in 1947 to identify widows, family members, and next-of-
kin to service members killed in active duty service, when the gold star is mentioned
in conversation or observed in a publicly symbolic display of service and sacrifice, I
have found that most people that I encounter are unaware of what it represents.
For the Gold Star community the pin represents community, belonging, and support.
26


Upon my introduction to the local GSW chapter, I met Amy. Amy is the local
chapter president. When beginning my research project, she is the person with
whom I was initially put in contact through email. Our first meeting lasted
approximately an hour and spurred a variety of topics including the GSW local
chapter and its establishment, events at the support center, experiences as a GSW,
stigma, outreach to and education of gold star families in the military community,
and plans for the project. Amy described the gold star as something you never want
to have, but something you are proud to carry. With this in mind she began to
describe an encounter with someone who was unaware of what the gold star
represented. As on all military bases and posts, places such as the commissary5
have assigned parking for high-ranking personnel, service members, and family
members who have earned certain medals, awards, and stars. The Gold Star
families are offered a designated parking spot located close to the entrance of the
commissary at the local post.
One day after Amy parked her car in the designated Gold Star parking spot, a
young grocery bagger asked her what the gold star represents. She explained to him
that survivors who lost an active-duty service member in a military-related death
receive a gold star. The star represents the service member and the sacrifice the
family has paid for her or his service. As she finished the explanation, she realized
that the young bagger was beginning to look embarrassed for asking the question.
This does not seem to be an uncommon reaction to the explanation of the
symbolism of the gold star. She then said that she does not mind explaining the
5 Grocery store on post
27


meaning behind the star if someone asks, but many times embarrassment is the
initial reaction of the person who asks the question. This embarrassed reaction by
the young bagger reveals the complexity of the gold star and what it represents.
To the members of the gold star community the star represents community
and belonging. For those outside of the community, the star represents loss and the
sense of being an outsider to the community. This engagement demonstrates the
need for conversation between gold star communities and civilian and military
communities. By beginning a conversation, communities can have a greater
understanding of another and experiences and understandings from each side of the
conversation. A greater level of understanding will begin to extend solidarity for the
Gold Star community and provide a greater amount of support to achieve its goals.
Gatekeepers and Entree
As I followed the directions to our first meeting location, I began to reflect on
what brought me to this point in my research. I revisited my first run with my
Sandys husbands remembrance team running jersey, running for Tragedy
Assistance Programs for Survivors at the Marine Corp Marathon in Washington, DC.
I revisited the final formation as my husband left for deployment, the first embrace
when he returned, the first point of contact with the Gold Star Wives requesting
permission to conduct a project within their organization, the International Review
Board approval letter, and the first yes for a conversation with a member of the
community. These small moments washed over me as I parked my car outside of
the support center. My heart began to race. I was no longer working on a class
project that was being guided by a syllabus and instructor, but choosing to conduct
28


and analyze my own project on the journey to becoming an anthropologist.
After requesting Amy's email address from the national board chair, she
provided it without hesitation. Once receiving her contact information in
September 2013,1 contacted her by email and received a response within a day. In
order for her to understand the project and maintain transparency as a researcher, I
attached the IRB6 approved protocol form to the initial email for review. Her
response was warm and welcoming. She replied with such excitement about my
project and my goals for the project. She agreed to meet with me face-to-face to
discuss the role that both she and I would play in this project. After approximately
two weeks of emailing one another, we agreed on a time, date, and place of her
choice to meet. We first met on Tuesday, October 15, 2013 at the local support
center in Colorado.I arrive 20 minutes early to our meeting. I sit in my car and
review the questions I will ask and the possible flow of the conversation. I am
excited and nervous at the same time. Gaining my composure, I step out of the car
and begin to walk toward the building. I take small observations of the building and
its surroundings. I notice a basketball court to the left of the building and a
beautiful, large back porch with iron rod tables and chairs. The building represents
a home, a place of comfort, and a place of safety. As I continue to the front door, I
notice the American flag with the gold streamer, representing the gold star families,
safely holding a place by the entrance. I acknowledge both and carefully open the
6 The Institutional Review Board (IRB) is a university board in which students and
faculty apply to conduct projects that involve human subjects. Approval is
successfully granted through a conscious development and application of
methodologies and methods that maintain confidentially and safety for all involved
with the project.
29


front door.
As I enter the building, Amy and Jim greet me. I extend my hand and
introduce myself to both of them. I can hear a slight shake in my voice when I speak,
but I continue to shake it off and focus on her and my surroundings. I realize the
building is set up to be a home. As you enter the building, large, overstuffed sofas
are placed in semi-circular positions with coffee tables and rugs surrounding the
space. As you begin to move through the space, there is a full kitchen, a room with
lounge chairs and a TV, a room for children to play, an office, and a large space that
has several more couches, rugs, tables, lamps, TVs, and a fireplace.
I sit down with Amy in the back room of the building. We sit on two
overstuffed couches facing one another with a fireplace in the background. To begin
our conversation, she hands me several pamphlets and goes into further depth
about the establishment of the local chapter. After providing me with information
about the establishment of the local chapter, she asks for me to further explain my
expectations of my project. She also asks how I would collect data for the project. I
share with her that the purpose of the project is to explore the support systems that
are set in place for the GSW. I discuss with her my plans to interview members of
the community and engage in participant observation. With these methods
established I expound further on my choice of the Gold Star Wives as a research
project. My past experiences with Gold Star Wives and being an Army wife struck a
cord with Amy. I describe the need to create awareness of the community not only
within the civilian community but also within the military community. Her
excitement about the prospect of creating greater awareness of the Gold Star
30


community through the use of research leads her to agree to the project and my
engagement with the community. I handed her a consent form to review for
corrections or questions. She offers to add me to the mailing list for both the center
and the local Gold Star Wives chapter. The mailing list allows me to receive
information about upcoming events to attend at the local center with the Gold Star
community. After this, we hug and plan to be in touch very soon.
I recognize that my position as an Army wife did influence my ability to enter
into the GSW community with a greater amount of ease. The military provided a
common ground with which we all could relate and begin a conversation about
shared experiences and experiences that might otherwise remain unspoken. The
entree into the GSW community began the application of grounded theory. The
initial meeting with Amy allowed for initial themes to emerge beginning review and
focus of themes for following events. With limited literature review on war widows
of US wars, grounded theory approach provided an entry point to explore themes
that might be of interest to the community and the researcher. Grounded theory
provides a framework in which to address topics that have not been addressed in
previous literature. Chapter 4 addresses the use of grounded theory, participant
observation, and semi-structured, one-on-one interviews. It continues by laying out
the events that I attended, coding, and emergent themes. Analysis of codes and
themes are grouped according to answer the following questions: How do the Gold
Star Wives support one another? How does the outside community support the
Gold Star Wives? How do the government and/or military support the Gold Star
Wives? With emerging themes assigned to each of these questions, findings and
31


conclusions are addressed in Chapter 5.
32


CHAPTER IV
METHODS AND DATA ANALYSIS
When I asked her what the most important point she would like me to take
away from this conversation, she replied awareness.
She wants to assist in humanizing the names on the Vietnam memorial and
moving wall by being present to represent both her husband and the widow
community. She wants others to understand that there is more to the wall than just
the names that are written there. There are families behind these names and
experiences behind these names. She wants to continue to create awareness for the
generation of Vietnam veterans that are suffering from Agent Orange and help their
wives receive assistance from the VA. She argues that the VA should account for
Vietnam veterans so that an accurate number can be kept to represent the generation
and what happened during the war. She wants to continue to spur conversations so
that connections between widows and their families can be made and support can
continue to be provided.
She said that the governmental support is important, but it creates
disillusionment for her at times. She said she is never disillusioned by the
conversations and support that she can provide to the younger widows as they begin
their journey.
Fieldnotes: Sunday, January 5, 2014- local Gold Star Wives chapter President,
Colorado
Ethics in Ethnographic Procedures
As an anthropologist, becoming involved with a sub-community of the
military community with which I am a member presented both ethical and
33


emotional challengesBaba 2009, Wood 2006). Working with women and men who
have lost spouses in American wars and military related causes created the
possibility of each of the following situations: improper disclosure of classified
information and othering members of the survivor community. Due to anonymity
and comfort levels of participants, photos were taken throughout the project and
applied for analysis, but were not used in final presentation or defense of findings.
With each of these ethical challenges in mind when entering the field, Institutional
Review Board (IRB) and Gold Star Wives board requests and procedures were
followed as outlined to protect confidentiality and emotions of participating
community members. In following these outlined procedures, these specific
situations did not percolate to the surface during initial fieldwork and immersion in
the community, but as research is continued and relationships continue to be
formed and developed, these situations will be kept in mind and recognized when
engaging during fieldwork.
When working with members of a community who have been indirectly
involved with a war or military-related training, whether civil or global, it is
important to maintain ethical procedures. Information that was collected while
working with the community has been handled with care and awareness of whether
or not it is classified, or of a private nature. Information concerning events during a
war or military related training has been held with the utmost discretion and
understanding that when presenting the information I am responsible to both the
survivor and the memory and military history of her or his spouse.
Misrepresentation, misuse, or lack of discretion when discussing specific events
34


concerning death and war-related events has been avoided through the use of
pseudonyms. With permission from the Gold Star Wives and participating
members, I proceeded at my discretion to present the information in the most
appropriate manner while properly upholding the memory of the service member,
his or her widow(er) and family, and the service branch in which he or she served.
The second area of concern for me was othering the survivor community.
Although the area of research is a community that has been organized due to
uncontrollable life events, I worked to carefully and effectively not place an
emphasis on the differences that exist between the Gold Star Wives and other
communities. This has been successfully accomplished through focus on the events
that have taken place in the community and between community members. By
focusing on these time periods I successfully placed the emphasis on understanding
the human experiences of these women and men and moved away from focus on the
differences that exist between the war widow community and other communities.
Data collection methods were applied carefully and with consideration of the
community members and their requests for specific type of discretion when using
information.
Data Collection Methods
This research project is exploratory in nature. Through the project I fill a gap
in the literature in which little or no studies have been conducted on the Gold Star
Family and Gold Star Wives communities. My literature review is focused on
widowhood, military death statistics, and Gold Star Family statistics. After
concluding my literature review, I was aware of topics that had and had not been
35


addressed concerning the GSW. With this awareness of topics, ground theory allows
themes to emerge through engagement in participant observation and semi-
structured, one-on-one interviews. To ensure that participants and the ethnographic
data collection process effectively represented the lived realties of members of GSW,
I use grounded theory as the theoretical framework in this project (Patton 2002).
Grounded theory allowed for emergent themes and knowledge to develop along
with the project. Just as both Dorinne Kondo (1990) and Renato Rosaldo (1993)
allow for their positionality in their studies to bring to light emergent themes and
theoretical perspectives, I have applied the same methodologies to derive
conclusions from both my perspective and the survivors' perspectives. As an Army
wife and anthropologist, my positionality allows me to engage with the community
and through the use of grounded theory better understand the support systems in
place for the GSW.
This study is grounded in ethnographic fieldwork: i.e. participant-
observation and two semi-structured, open-ended interviews with presidents of
local chapters (LeCompte and Schensul 1999). Two separate, semi-structured,
open-ended interviews were conducted at locations chosen by the local chapter
presidents of GSW. Each interview lasted for a period of approximately one and a
half to two and a half hours. The first interview was conducted October 2013 and
the second interview was conducted January 2014. Due to the fact that it was my
initial contact with the community and field location, the October 2013 interview
with Amy is classified also as Event 1 in my coding and emergent themes. The
second interview with Paulina, a Denver-area chapter Gold Star Wives president, is
36


classified as a confirmatory interview and is listed separately. In order to engage
more intensely and create an organic conversation, audio recording was not used.
Field notes were recorded immediately after participant observation. Participant-
observation took place at the service center at the local post, a fitness center located
closely to the post, the Denver capital building for a seasonal ceremony, and a coffee
shop. Events included communal gatherings for survivors, Gold Star Mothers, and
Gold Star Wives and private interviews in locations chosen by the interviewees.
More specifically, I participated in one meeting with the Gold Star Wives, a
Halloween party, Christmas tree lighting ceremony, a Christmas potluck with a
monthly meeting, and a Zumbathon. The Zumbathon was attended in civilian
support and continued rapport building with the community. General descriptive
notes were taken at the event, but they were not included in the code analysis chart.
In total,15 hours were spent with the community members. In order for members
to feel more comfortable in conversation with one another and with me, I chose to
take notes immediately following each event that I attended. After each meeting in
the evening upon arrival to my home, I typed my notes using Microsoft Word from
memory, spending an average of two or more hours documenting moments,
interview statements, and personal reflections. Although intended initially and
approved by the IRB, I chose to not voice record or take photos at support center
events to increase the anonymity of participants and create a greater level of
comfort. Due to rapport building and time spent with the community, I felt it
sufficient for the initial project to interview two local chapter presidents, Amy and
Paulina. An initial entry interview took place with Amy, and one conclusive
37


interview took place with Paulina. After several members stated that they were not
ready to share their stories and were not ready to speak about their spouses in
documented form, I chose to respect these feelings and continue to build rapport
with continued work in the community by attending monthly GSW meetings and
other events at the local support center. After the completion of the Master's thesis I
plan to continue my involvement with GSW communities and may conduct
additional interviews with a greater number of members for doctoral studies and
support of any needs for the community.
With informed consent and voluntary participation, I successfully joined and
participated in survivor and Gold Star Wives community activities, gatherings, and
meetings. I introduced myself to members prior to attending the meetings and
received verbal confirmation from each to attend the meeting and other events.
Participant-observation at community activities allowed for emergent themes to
appear (Kondo 1990, Rosaldo 1993). Initial questions about literature themes and
eventually emergent themes created the space to conduct in-depth, open-ended
interviews with Amy and Paulina, presidents of the local chapters (LeCompte and
Schensul 1999). This was done to further explain or discuss any subject matters,
such as volunteer support of GSW, inter-communal support, and governmental
benefit support, that consistently presented themselves. Data collection in the field
was conducted with a specific sample group. The following section discusses the
make-up of the groups and the sampling techniques that were implemented to
acquire data specifically related to the research question guiding the thesis: What
work does support do in the lives of GSW individuals/communities? The work that
38


support does in GSW lives is critical to productive forward movement for
community members in their journey.
The sampling technique that was implemented for the initial creation of
sampling groups was criterion sampling [Patton 2002) The criteria to be met by
women and men who volunteer for the study was to have lost a spouse in either an
American war or military-related cause. Through the use of criterion sampling,
ideas and themes emerged through intimate participation in the community's
activities and events. Once no more new themes emerged, I began grouping and
coding material collected during the fieldwork (LeCompte and Schensul 1999).
Data Analysis
The analysis began with simple coding methods for emerging common
themes. The codes were created specifically for the study. Due to the uniqueness
and exploratory nature of the study, generalized coding systems were not
implemented. Through participant-observation and semi-structured, one-on-one
interviews, codes were developed and further analyzed through the transcribed
notes by the researcher. Field notes and the content of photography were
transcribed and placed in chronological order. From this point, analysis of the
written and photographic data by the researcher was used to develop codes and
determine themes emerging from the data. In following, grounded theory
procedure with focused observation of the support from the survivor community,
government and military, and outside community, analysis began with the first day
of fieldwork. With each event I note emergent themes and recurring themes.
39


Twenty-three codes emerged during my fieldwork. In order to analyze these
emergent codes, each question addressed in the thesis was used to provide a code-
grouping framework. The following three questions were addressed: How do the
Gold Star Wives support one another? How does the outside community support
the Gold Star Wives? and How are they supported by the military and government?
Codes have been reviewed and applied to answer questions addressed in the thesis
of the project.
The following chart organizes events and the themes that occurred at each
event. Events are defined as the following:(1)interview and introduction to
support center (2) Halloween party at the support center (3) November monthly
meeting (4) Christmas tree ceremony and (5) Christmas party at the support center.
Organization of the chart will demonstrate recurring themes at the events and the
consistency with which each theme occurred and recurred. Non-recurrent themes
are also listed with acknowledgement of occurrence. In-depth descriptions of
themes located in the chart are listed in the codebook located in the appendix.
Table 1:Code and Theme Emergence
Event 1 Event 2 Event 3 Event 4 Event 5
Physical Comfort
Symbolic Representation Symbolic Representation Symbolic Representation
Food and Drink Food and Drink Food and Drink Food and Drink
Suicide Survivor Support Suicide Survivor Support
Resource Support
Spouse Survivor Support
40


Table 1 Cont.
Mother Survivor Support Mother Survivor Support
Center Support Center Support
Governmental Support
Local chapter history
Widow Generational
Stigma
Awareness Awareness
Researcher Awareness Researcher Awareness Researcher Awareness
Volunteer Support Volunteer Support Volunteer Support
Survivor Family Support Survivor Family Support
Benefits Support Benefits Support
Spiritual Support
Survivor Resource Survivor Resource
Local Chapter Organization
Survivor Support Survivor Support Survivor
Inclusion
GSW org. GSW org.
The final portion of fieldwork consisted of an interview with a local chapter
president, Paulina. Paulina has been the chapter's president for five years. The
interview took place in a deli in the Denver metro area. The interview lasted a
period of two hours with followed up email and documents provided by Paulina.
Due to the number of themes recurring throughout the duration of my fieldwork, I
set the following questions as a guide to the conversation:
41


1) Tell me about yourself.
2) How did you become introduced to the GSW community?
3) In what capacity did the GSW community provide support to you and
your family?
4) How does the GSW community provide support to the military and
veteran community?
5) Is there anything else you would like to add to our conversation or other
points you would like to address?
From these questions the following themes emerged: governmental support,
survivor support, veteran and military support, widow generational differences,
inclusion, survivor support, and awareness. The conversation with Paulina acted as
a thematic confirmatory interview. Each theme that emerged during the interview
became emergent in previous fieldwork moments.
As grounded theory guided data collection and analysis, findings became
more present and consistent. As a researcher, confidence grew with findings as
continued reinforcement of topics and themes became present in each interview
and event attended. These findings were used to conclusively discuss the type of
support that is in place for the GSW and the importance of support for the Gold Star
community as a whole.
42


CHAPTERV
FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
Findings
With themes organized by event and occurrence, they will now be addressed
as contributing to answer each of the following questions: How do the Gold Star
Wives support one another? How does the outside community support the Gold Star
Wives? and How do the military and government support the Gold Star Wives?
Themes are considered to be contributors to the questions when present two or
more times within the five events attended. Events attended were the initial
interview and introduction to the support center, the support center Halloween
party, the November monthly meeting, the Capitol Christmas tree lighting, and the
Christmas party at the local support center. With time and schedule limitations,
themes that emerge only once and are not reinforced in continued visits are not
considered to contribute to the above questions. These themes may appear more
regularly with extended time in the community, but for results specific to this
project's timeframe, I have chosen to consider two or more occurrences of a theme
as a valid contributor to the questions inquired by this project. Some themes did
address one or more question. Elements of these themes that are specific to the
point of inquiry will be discussed. The following section will address the questions,
themes and their occurrence within fieldwork. The conclusions section will discuss
each of these themes specifically and their contribution to the project citing specific
examples from fieldwork.
43


How Do the Gold Star Wives Support One Another?
The emergent and recurring codes that address this question are suicide
survivor support, spouses' survivor support, and mother survivor support. These
three codes were present for two or more days of fieldwork. These were also
discussed and confirmed during individual interviews with local chapter presidents.
How Does the Outside Community Support the Gold Star Wives?
The emergent and recurring codes that address this question are center
support, volunteer support, benefits support, survivor family support, and survivor
resource support. These five codes were present for two or more days of fieldwork.
These were also discussed and confirmed during individual interviews with local
chapter presidents.
How Do the Military and Government Support the Gold Star Wives?
The emergent and recurring codes that address this question are center
support and benefits support. These two codes were present for two or more days
of fieldwork. Center support and benefits support also address how the outside
community supports the Gold Star Wives. These were also discussed and confirmed
during individual interviews with local chapter presidents.
Conclusions
Thematic coding and grouping of participant observation and one-on-one
interviewing draws three conclusions to the project:1)contrary to my assumptions
prior to beginning the project that a lack of support was provided to the GSW
community, support from outside communities, including non-profit groups, local
Colorado community partners, and veterans, is highly present within the
44


community 2) support provided by fellow members of the Gold Star community is
provided through the use of support groups where participants identify closely with
one another through similar lived experiences 3) although members of the
governmental and military community do provide support to the community in
various capacities, the overall responsibility to successfully navigating the
governmental benefits system is placed more on fellow members of the survivor
community.
Support From Outside Communities is Highly Present Within the Gold Star Wives
Community.
The local support center is where the journey for most survivors begins.
They are brought to the support center by their Casualty Assistance Officer (CAO) to
be introduced to administration that run the center. Administrators provide
packets to survivors with information concerning support groups, calendars for
upcoming events at the center, governmental benefits, services on post that are
available to survivors, and other non-profit groups who provide relevant services to
the community. They also provide a support system to those who are new to the
community. Although survivors are introduced to the community, members move
through the grief process differently and choose to join and engage with the center
when they are ready.
Whether it is for a specific event, private meeting, or a space to escape the
day, the center provides a place of belonging and support. It also works as a space
for non-profit organizations, local area partners, and military and veteran groups to
provide information concerning services available to the survivor community.
45


Specifically, Wednesdays at the local center are set aside for potluck lunches and
service informational programs. Programs and services are available in the form of
workshops for furthering education, counseling for individual members and
families, and support groups and activities for children. Volunteers play a vital role
in preparing the gatherings and meetings. Many volunteers were introduced to the
survivor community through their own loss and initial support by the center.
I meet Susie and Leroy at the Halloween party. As I am quietly sitting on the
couch waiting for Amy to arrive, a tall woman with a warm smile and laugh
approached me. She encourages me to make a plate and eat something. After I
make a plate and sat down, she walks back over and asked if I am a survivor. I tell
her that I am not and explain who I am and my project. I then ask her what brought
her to the center. She replies that she is a survivor. She lost her son while he was
serving overseas. Now she cooks for the center as a volunteer. She seems to be the
heartbeat of the kitchen. Later, Leroy sits down beside me and asks if I am a
survivor. I reply that I am not and further explain my project. I ask if he is a
survivor, and he replies that he is, but his story is a little different than the others.
He explains that he is a Vietnam Veteran and lost many brothers in the war and he
continues to lose brothers to Agent Orange. We have an engaging conversation
about his continued work with the Wounded Warrior Project and cooking at the
center for other survivors. He is a proud veteran and survivor volunteer.
Volunteers also work to organize events that acknowledge both survivors
and their service members outside the center. A volunteer and supporter of the
survivor community worked to provide a program for the Christmas tree lighting at
46


the Denver Capitol building. In honor of Colorado service members and their
survivors, the 2013 Capitol Christmas tree was dedicated to the service members.
The ceremony brought survivors, military command, and Colorado community
members together to celebrate the lives and service of all service members and their
survivors. Support from outside communities also comes in the form of companies
providing all expenses paid trips for members of the survivor community.
As indicated above a major airline company offers a yearly all expenses paid
five-day getaway for children of the fallen. It provides time for both children and
adults to bond with others that have gone through the same lived experiences. This
five-day event is packed with organized events such as zoo visits, making
personalized vests, karaoke contests, talent shows, hang out rooms for parents, kids,
and teenagers, free meals, and other gifts and treats. Local war veterans also
provide support to children of the fallen. As discussed by a survivor, a local
Colorado Vietnam Veteran takes children hunting to offer a therapeutic exercise and
a weekend getaway. She spoke very highly of the veteran, the support he provides,
and the therapy the trip provided for her son. Just as children are provided
specialized support and events, so are widows and widowers of the fallen.
Survivors frequently spoke about an OIF/OEF widow who founded a non-
profit organization to support fellow widows on their journeys. In creation of this
non-profit organization, she hoped to gain a greater understanding of the title of
widow and help other widows move forward in their journeys. In discussion of an
excursion that one of the survivors attended, she stated that the founder "gives out
everything she gets/' Everything is paid for during the trip, but it is also a surprise.
47


She stated that most women, after loosing a spouse in action, feel out of control of
everything, and this experience teaches the women to relinquish some control
through the element of surprise. She highly recommended attending an excursion
with the organization as a way to cope with feelings and insecurities.
External support by the community creates a tighter bond for members of
the internal survivor community. Encouraging conversations about their
experiences and using these conversations to heal, bond, and grow, outside
organizations play a large role in the coping and recovering of surviving families.
These strong bonds created through outside support continue to be reinforced
within the community and center.
Support Provided by Fellow Members of the Gold Star Community Occurs hrough
the Support Groups Where Participants Identify Closely With One Another Through
Similar Lived Experiences.
As Amy and I were leaving the support center one evening, she began to
discuss some of the relationships she had built with members of the survivor
community. She stated that she talks more with the older members of the
community about how she feels and what she goes through, questioning if this is
because of commonality of circumstances or for other reasons. Similar lived
experiences among members guide their choices for the types of support groups
that they attend. The local support center provides a space for various support
groups to meet. Three groups that were prominent during fieldwork were: suicide
support groups, mother support groups, and spouse support groups.
48


The common thread that runs through these support groups is that of being a
survivor of a military-related death. Within each of the different support groups,
commonalities exist in how the death occurred and what role the survivor played in
the fallen service member's life. Survivor support groups provide a space in which
to create a greater understanding of their lived experience. This provides a tool
with which to cope with similar experiences and create supportive relationships
with one another. These sub-communities join to provide meta-support system of
the entire survivor community.
These relationships built within these groups build trust and reliance as each
survivor moves through his or her journey. These lived experiences act as a
compass to guide one another on their journeys as survivors.
Although Members of the Governmental and Military Community Do Provide
Support to the Community in Various Capacities, the Overall Responsibility for
Successfully Navigating the Governmental Benefits System is Placed More on Fellow
Members of the Survivor Community.
The local support center is located on a military post in Colorado. The center
is funded and administratively run by government employees. These employees
work hard to organize support groups, run events, support the survivor community,
create a better understanding of benefits, and to create comfortable and safe
experiences for each person that enters the support center. Members of the military
community, such as active duty service members, provide support to the community
in various capacities. They act as volunteers at the center through greeting guests
and signing them in, provide a hand to prepare for events, and work in any other
49


capacity requested by administration. Although members of the governmental and
military community do provide support to the community, navigation of the benefits
system within the governmental system creates a point of contention and confusion
for many members of the survivor community. This moot point for survivors draws
attention to the communal support that they provide for one another through
similar lived experiences. This reliance on one another for greater understanding of
their experiences paints a picture of the survivor community at its finest and
demonstrates a purpose for community in the moments that become most
challenging.
Numerous occasions, including meetings and special events, brought up the
conversation of governmental benefits. Some of these are life insurance policies,
medical insurance, tuition benefits, and monthly payments to the surviving family
members. Many times these conversations brought up the discussions of how to
receive the benefits, forms that were used to provide documentation to obtain
benefits, and what avenues to take to receive these benefits. The women relied
upon each other's personal experiences to help navigate through the governmental
benefits plan. Within their capacity, administrative members of the support center
provide assistance with navigation through the system, but reliance is placed
heavily upon one another to gain a greater understanding of the experience. Stories
of personal experiences and association with other members' experiences and
provides a greater understanding of how to navigate oneself through a large,
governmental system that even under the best of circumstances is multi-layered and
highly complicated.
50


These findings and conclusions were established through a framed
exploratory project. More specifically, these findings were established through the
use of a grounded theory framework with anthropological methods to explore
support systems set in place for GSW. The project provided a platform to apply a
framework that allowed both data collection and the reflexive perspective of the
researcher to yield data and support analysis. Data collection and analysis yielded
that support systems for the GSW are set in place by outside communities and the
military and government but most importantly, support systems between members
of the GSW are set in place with one another. Similar lived experiences provide a
common ground in which they provide guidance and knowledge to one another as
they move through their individual journeys. Doing grounded theory presented a
unique perspective and approach to anthropological research. It provided an
approach that allowed me to enter the field and let the data and participants guide
the project rather than my own perspectives and expectations to guide the project.
Doing grounded theory in the field of anthropology provides a way in which new
areas of research can be approached with confidence and flexibility. It provides a
method in which participants lived realities in tandem with researchers' interests
determine the importance of data and the application of data outside of the field of
academia.
51


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55


APPENDIX
Appendix 1:Codebook
Physical comfort: This code is used to signify the use of physical objects and space
arrangement to assist in creating emotional and communal comfort.
Food and Drink: This code is used to signify the use of food and drink to create a
communal space during community gatherings.
Symbolic representation: This code is used to signify the use of gold stars, gold
ribbons, and various forms of patriotic symbolism to create an inclusive comfort for
members of the survivor community.
Stigma: This code is used to signify anything dealing with shame or negative
feelings towards an idea, concept, or event.
Suicide Survivor Support: This code is used to signify support groups and
community specifically focused on members that are survivors of suicides.
Spouses Survivor Support: This code is used to signify support groups or events
directly related to spousal support.
Mother Survivor Support: This code is used to signify support groups or events
directly related to spousal support
Resource Support: This code is used to signify services available from
organizations, companies, and non-profit organizations for the survivor community.
Center Support: This code is used to signify events and resource knowledge
provided by the local support center at the local military post.
Governmental Support: This code is used to signify benefits provided by the
government to the survivors.
56


Volunteer Support: This code is used to signify those outside of the community
aiding in support during events.
Survivor Support: This code is used to signify emotional support from other
survivors when making decisions concerning family and outside support.
Benefits Support: This code is used to signify support from outside agencies or
other members to receive proper benefits and improve these offered by agencies for
life improvement.
Survivor Family Support: This code is used to signify support for survivor family
members (i.e. children) in the form of events, conventions, and parties.
Survivor Resource Support: This code is used to signify events and resources for
widows specifically to attend programs and events.
Military Veteran Support: This code is used to signify Gold Star Wives' support of
the military and veteran communities.
Spiritual Support: This code is used to signify the use of religion or spirituality to
cope with the death of a service member.
Local GSW chapter history: This code is used to signify the local chapter
organizational history and development.
Local GSW chapter organization: This code is used to signify Cheyenne Mountain
Chapter rules and regulations.
Gold Star Wives organization: This code is used to signify regulations pertaining
to the Gold Star Wives as a whole organization.
Generational Differences: This code is used to signify referencing differences
between World War II survivors, Vietnam War survivors, and OEF/OIF survivors.
57


Awareness: This code is used to signify knowledge of the Gold Star Wives
community and the stories of those killed in action or a military-related cause.
Inclusion: This code is used to signify the recognition of Gold Star Wives and
military community of ensuring that all family members and loved ones are
included.
Researcher Awareness: This code is used to signify moments when the researcher
realizes her relationships to the survivor community.
Appendix 2: Defense Casualty Analysis System US active duty military deaths
chart- Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)
U5. MiUtanr Casualties Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIFi
Casualty Summary br Casnalty Categorr
(AsofUvckl4,2IU)
CASUALTY CATEGORIES HOST1.E ARMY NAVY MARINES AIRFORCE TOTAL
KM in Action c M4 29 2.875
OMcfWounto eio 1 m 0 7W
OM WMi Mining h Acton i 0 0 0 1
OMMMaCapturad s 0 0 0 S
OMWMaDatmd 0 1 0 0 1
TOTAL H06TLE DEATHS 2.536 M 062 29 3.461
CASUALTY CATEGORIES NON4WSTM.E
Acadwt 413 19 121 13 566
wn/^ury 72 10 6 S 99
HaiAxte 23 4 7 2 36
Sril-McM ISO 4 37 2 223
IMMrrninad t 2 0 0 11
TOTAL N0TfH06TLE DEATHS mr 39 171 22 829
TOTAL DEATHS
TOTAL DEATHS iZO \CO 1,023 Si 4,410
TOTAL WOUNDED IN ACTION
WOUNDED MACnN(WlA) 22226 106 460 31.9421
58


Appendix 3: Defense Casualty Analysis System US active duty military deaths
chart- Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)
UJS. Military Casualties Operation Enduring Freedom (OEFi
Casualty Summary by Casualty Category
CASUALTY CATEGORIES HOSTILE ARMY MAVY MARINES AIRFORCE TOTAL
KM in Actor 964 77 241 46 1.3G0
OMdWoundi 319 e 132 4 461
OMdTwiQriMAcMtaB 0 0 0 2 2
TOTAL H06TLE DEATHS 1J0S 83 373 54 1.013
CASUALTY CATEGORIES NON4IOSTM.E
Aoadwn 182 25 52 34 309
__/"ury 37 11 5 5 50
8 0 S 0 11
Sdf-HIcMd 00 6 19 s 110
UndMvmirad 7 3 1 1 t2
PanAig 1 1 0 0 2
TOTAL N0M+4OSTLE0EATHS sa 40 80 45 406
TOTAL DEATHS
TOTAL DEATHS i.aa 129 463 M 2.300
TOTAL WOUNDED IN ACTION
WOUNOCDM ACTION (WU) 13.883 309 4,91$ 460 19.875
Appendix 4: General location on map of local post that supported the project
in the state of Colorado
OR
AZ
ND
WY
SD
NE
1-'.

KS
OK
TX

NY
OH
5
TN
NG
4
4"
mL

www.eachtown.com
59


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PAGE 49

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PAGE 50

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& jV & & 'KEFE&R CBNCBUF & OBN&PABPQLFCABF & _E@E&EFGO9QCFKEN&GK@ALUK&O&R@OMEN& E^SQA@OGA@:&S@AaEPG>&&8A@E&FSEPCRCPOQQ:?&GKEFE&RCBNCBUF&_E@E&EFGO9QCFKEN&GK@ALUK&GKE& LFE&AR&O&U@ALBNEN&GKEA@:&R@OME_A@b&_CGK&OBGK@ASAQAUCPOQ&MEGKANF&GA&E^SQA@E& FLSSA@G&F:FGEMF&FEG&CB&SQOPE&RA@&*6">& & 'KE&S@Aa EPG&S@ADCNEN&O&SQOGRA@M& GA&OSSQ:&O& R@OME_A@b&GKOG&OQQA_EN&9AGK&NOGO&PAQQEPGCAB&OBN& GKE& @ERQE^CDE&SE@FSEPGCDE & AR&GKE& @EFEO@PKE@ & GA&:CEQN&NOGO&OBN& FLSSA@G& OBOQ:FCF>&& /OGO&PAQQEPGCAB&OBN&OBOQ:FCF&:CEQNEN& GKOG&F LSSA@G&F:FGEMF&RA@&GKE&*6"&O@E&FEG&CB&SQ OPE&9:&ALGFCNE&PAMMLBCGCEF&OBN&GKE& MCQCGO@:&O BN&UADE@BMEBG&9LG&M AFG&CMSA@GOBGQ: ?&FLSSA@G&F:FGEMF&9EG_EEB&MEM9E@F& AR&GKE&*6"&O@E&FEG&CB&SQOPE&_CGK&ABE&OBAGKE@>&& 6CMCQO@&QCDEN&E^SE@CEBPEF&S@ADCNE&O& PAMMAB&U@ALBN&CB&_KCPK&GKE:&S@ADCNE&ULCNOBPE&OBN&bBA_QENUE&G A&ABE&OBAGKE@&OF& GKE:&MADE&GK@ALUK&GKEC@&CBNCDCNLOQ&aAL@BE:F>&& /ACBU&U@ALBNEN&GKEA@:&S@EFEBGEN&O& LBCTLE&SE@FSEPGCDE&OBN&OSS@AOPK&GA&OBGK@ASAQAUCPOQ&@EFEO@PK> && +G&S@ADCNEN&OB& OSS@AOPK&GKOG&OQQA_EN&ME&GA&EBGE@&GKE&RCEQN&OBN&QEG&GKE&NOGO&OBN&SO@GCPCSOBGF&ULCN E& GKE&S@AaEPG&@OGKE@&GKOB&M:&A_B&SE@FSEPGCDEF&OBN&E^SEPGOGCABF&GA&ULCNE&GKE&S@AaEPG>&& /ACBU&U@ALBNEN&GKEA@:&CB&GKE&RCEQN&AR&OBGK@ASAQAU:&S@ADCNEF&O&_O:&CB&_KCPK&BE_& O@EOF&AR&@EFEO@PK&POB&9E&OSS@AOPKEN&_CGK&PABRCNEBPE&OBN&RQE^C9CQCG:>&&+G&S@ADCNEF&O& MEGKAN& CB&_KCPK&SO@GCPCSOBGF&QCDEN&@EOQCGCEF&CB&GOBNEM&_CGK&@EFEO@PKE@Fm&CBGE@EFGF& NEGE@MCBE&GKE&CMSA@GOBPE&AR&NOGO&OBN&GKE&OSSQCPOGCAB&AR&NOGO&ALGFCNE&AR&GKE&RCEQN&AR& OPONEMCO>&&& &&&&&& & & & && & & & & &

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& jH & REFERENCES ,9L ` -LUKAN?&-CQO & & VllV & & "@CGCBU&,UOCBFG&4LQGL@E>& 90 & 2EP OSGL@CBU&,BGK@ASAQAU:>&2>*>& (A^?&EN>&3S>&Vc[ ` VJH>&6OBGO&(E1&6PKAAQ&AR&,ME@CPOB&2EFEO@PK&3@EFF> & & ,ME@CPOB&*AQN&6GO@&8AGKE@F?&+BP>&HIVc>& ___>UAQNFGO@MAMF>PAM >&,PPEFFEN& /EPEM9E@&VV?&HIVc> & & ,ME@CPOB&"CNA_&3@AaEPG>&HI Vc >& ___>OME@CPOB_CNA_S@AaEPG>A@U >&,PPEFFEN& /EPEM9E@&VV?&HIVc > & ,BNE@FEB?&ZLNCGK?&)LCMEGGE?&3OCUE?&3AFFEMOGA?&;:QE?&OBN&"ONE?&8CPKOEQ>&HIVI>& 3AFGG@OLMOGCP&6G@EFF&/CFA@NE@&OBN&3@CMO@:&4O@E&3@ADCNE@ ` /COUBAFEN & /CFEOFE& ,MABU&+@OT&OBN&,RUKOBCFGOB&7EGE@OBF>& ;.17%".",&)-7$:(4-7-0($ [H1&V ` [>& & ,@9CFC?&3>,>?&$@9EF?&4>2>?&8L@NAPK?&8>?&3AQLFB:?&8>,>?&2OGK?&8>=>?&OBN&'KL@OF?&3>>&HIVV>& 3@AFSEPGCDE&@CFb&ROPGA@F&RA@&BE_ ` ABFEG&SAFG ` G@OLMOGCP&FG@EFF&NCFA@NE@&CB& %OGCABOQ&*LO@N& FAQNCE@F&NESQA:EN&GA&+@OT>& ;.17%"3"2-7&3$:(4-7-0($ WV1&Jg[ ` Jlg> & =O9O?&8O@CEGGO&->&HIIl>&/CFPCSQCBO@: ` 3@AREFFCABOQ&2EQOGCABF&CB&OB&E@O&AR& ,BGK@ASAQAUCPOQ&$BUOUEMEBG>& I#,&0$X+2&0-V&)-"0$ Jg\W]1&cgI ` clV> $ $ =AL@UACF?&3KCQCSSE&OBN&6PKAEB9E@U?&ZERR>&HIVI>&2CUKGEALF & /ASERCEBN>&=E@bEQE:1&'KE& & =@OBN?&'OMO@O&/> & HIVI>&"O@?&"AMEBmF&#EOQGK&OBN&$^SE@CEBPE&CB&+@OT>&*@ONLOGE& 'KEFCF1&'KE& & 4OFG@A?&4O@Q&,>?&4AGGCBU?&/ODE&+>?&#AUE?&4KO@QEF&">?&;ARRMOB?&2A9E@G&->?&8P*L@b?& /EBBCF ?&OBN&8EFFE@?&6GESKEB&4>>&HIIW>&4AM9OG&/LG:&CB&+@OT&OBN&,RUKOBCFGOB?& 8EBGOQ&#EOQGK&3@A9QEMF?&OBN&=O@@CE@F&GA&4O@E>& D%($Y(6$Z023&04$["#+0&3$"/$ :(4-7-0($ cjV1&Vc ` HH> & 4A@9CB?&ZLQCEG&OBN& ,BFQEM&6G@OLFF>&VllI>&*@ALBNEN&'KEA@:&2EFEO@PK1&3@APENL@EF?& 4OBABF&OBN&$DO QLOGCDE&4@CGE@CO>& N#&3-)&)-'($U"7-"3"21 $ Vc\V]1c ` HV >& & /EREBFE&8OBSA_E@&/OGO&4EBGE@>&HIVc>& ___>NMNP>AFN>MCQ >&,PPEFFEN&/EPEM9E@&VV?& HIVc>& & $O@BFKO_?&8>?&$KQE@F?&,>?&(EO@?&%>'>?&*@EEB9E@U?&%>?&#AGSR?&8>?&#LUKEF?&Z>#>?&#L QQ?&->?& +DE@FAB?&,>4>?&2ABO?&2>?&OBN&"EFFQ:?&6>>&HIIg>&2CFb&ROPGA@F&RA@&SAFG ` G@OLMOGCP& FG@EFF&NCFA@NE@&OMABU&<;&,@MEN&(A@PEF&SE@FABBEQ>& ;.17%"3"2-7&3$:(4-7-0( & cg1&jVV ` jHH> & (CBQE:?&$@CB&3>&HIVV>&(CEQNF&AR&4AM9OG1&&%E_&.A@b1&4A@BEQQ& &

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& jc & $DOBF?&*O@:&->&HIVc>&,&%ADCPE&2EFEO@PKE@mF&(C@FG&"OQb&'K@ALUK&GKE&8OYE&AR& *@ALBNEN&'KEA@:1&2OGCABOQCYOGCAB&RA@&4QOFFCPOQ&*@ALBNEN&'KEA@:>& D%($ F+"#04(4$D%("+1$?('-(6$ VH\V]1&c[ ` jj> & *AQN&6 GO@&"CDEF&AR&,ME@CPO ?&+BP>>&HIVc >& ___>UAQNFGO@_CDEF>A@U >&,PPEFFEN&/EPEM9E@& VV?&HIVc > & *ABYOQEY?&2A9E@GA&Z>&HII[>&'A_O@NF&ME@PEBO@:&OBGK@ASAQAU:f1&'KE&BE_&<6&,@M:& PALBGE@CBFL@UEBP:&MOBLOQ&(8&c ` HW&OBN&GKE&MCQCGO@: ` OBGK@ASAQAU:&PAMSQE^ >& A0)%+"*"3"21$D"4&1$ Hc\c]1&VW ` Vl>& & *QOFE@?&=O@BE:&*>&OBN&,BFEQM&6G@OLFF>& D%($<-.7"'(+1$"/$F+"#04(4$D%("+1O$U)+&)(2-(.$ /"+$N#&3-)&)-'($?(.(&+7%8$ 4KCPOUA?&+-1&,QNCBE&3L9QCFKCBU&4A?&VlJ[> & #OLGYCBUE@?&6O@OK&OBN&6POBNQ:B?&ZEOB>&HIVW>&=E:ABN&3AFG ` '@OLMOGCP&6G@E FF1& #AMER@ABG&6G@LUUQEF&_CGK&GKE&"O@F&AB&'E@@A@>&"OQBLG&4@EEb1&-ERG&4AOFG& 3@EFF> & ZEBFEB?&3EGE@&6>?&OBN&6KO_?&ZAB>&Vllc>&4KCQN@EB&OF&7CPGCMF&AR&"O@1&4L@@EBG& ;BA_QENUE&OBN&(LGL@E&2EFEO@PK&%EENF>& [8$A,8$A7&48$M%-34$A4"3(.78$;.17%-&)+1$ cH\W]1&Jl[ ` [Ig> $ & & ;ABNA? & /A@CBBE&;>&VllI>&4@ORGCBU&6EQDEF1&3A_E@?&*EBNE@?&OBN&/CFPAL@FEF&AR&+NEBGCG:& CB&O&ZOSOBEFE&"A@bSQOPE>&4KCPOUA1&'KE& & ;LEKBOFG?&;OGKQEEB?&)MO@?&8OBOQ?&6GECBE@?&$>?&OBN&6LQGOB?&#ANEC>&HIVH>&-EFFABF&R@AM& "AMEBmF&3@AU@OMF&CB&,RUKOBCF GOB&OBN&+@OT>& \0-)(4$U)&)(.$90.)-)#)($"/$;(&7(O$ U*(7-&3$?(*"+)8 $ ;LQbO@BC?&8ONKL@?&;LFKBE@?&#OQQCE?&OBN&8CQQE@?&;EBBEGK>&HIIJ>&=E:ABN&'@OLMO ` (APLFEN&3F:PKCOG@CP&$SCNEMCAQAU:1&=@CNCBU&2EFEO@PK&OBN&3@OPGCPE&_CGK&"O@ ` ,RREPGEN&3ASLQOGCABF>& $ A,(+-7&0$["#+0&3$"/$ X+)%"*.17%-&)+1$ [J\W]1&WIl ` WHH> & -E4AMSGE?&8O@UO@EG&OBN&6PKEBFLQ?&ZEOB>&Vlll>&/EFCUBCBU&OBN&4ABNLPGCBU& $GKBAU@OSKCP&2EFEO@PK>&$GKBAU@OSKE@mF&'AAQbCG>& <&)&$A0&31.-.O$I"6$ Z)%0"2+&*%(+.$:&B($U(0.($"/$)%(-+$<&)&8$ "OQBLG&4@EEb1&,QGOMC@O&3@EFF> & -E4AMSGE?&8O@UO@EG & OBN&6PKEBFLQ?&ZEOB>&Vlll>&/EFCUBCBU&OBN&4ABNLPGCBU& $GKBAU@OSKCP&2EFEO@PK>&$GKBAU@OSKE@mF&'AAQbCG>& G%(0$&04$G%(+($-.$ Z)%0"2+&*%1$\.(48$ "OQBLG&4@EEb1&,QGOMC@O&3@EFF> & -E4AMSGE?&8O@UO@EG&OBN&6PKEBFLQ?&ZEOB>&Vlll>&/EFCUBCBU&OBN&4ABNLPGCBU& $GKBAU@OSKCP&2EFEO@PK >&$GKBAU@OSKE@mF&'AAQbCG>& ]"7#.$F+"#*.8 & "OQBLG&4@EEb1& ,QGOMC@O&3@EFF> & -LPOF?&*EA@UE&2>&HIIl>&,BGK@ASAQAUCFGF&CB&,@MF1&'KE&$GKCPF&AR&8CQCGO@:& ,BGK@ASAQAU:>& "OQBLG&4@EEb1& ,QGO8C@O&3@EFF> &

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