Facilities as teaching tools

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Facilities as teaching tools a transformative participatory professional development experience
Wilson, Eric A. ( author )
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Denver, CO
University of Colorado Denver
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Sustainability -- Study and teaching ( lcsh )
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non-fiction ( marcgt )


Resource consumption continues to increase as the population grows. In order to secure a sustainable future, society must educate the next generation to become sustainability natives. Schools play a pivotal role in educating a sustainability-literate society. However, a disconnect exists between the hidden curriculum of the built environment and the enacted curriculum. This study employs a transformative participatory professional development model to instruct teachers on how to use their school grounds as teaching tools for the purpose of helping students make explicit choices in energy consumption, materials use, and sustainable living. Incorporating a phenomenological perspective, this study considers the lived experience of two sustainability coordinators. Grounded theory provides an interpretational context for the participants' interactions with each other and the professional development process. Through a year long professional development experience - commencing with an intense, participatory two-day workshop -the participants discussed challenges they faced with integrating facilities into school curriculum and institutionalizing a culture of sustainability. Two major needs were identified in this study. For successful sustainability initiatives, a hybrid model that melds top-down and bottom-up approaches offers the requisite mix of administrative support, ground level buy-in, and excitement vis-a-vis sustainability. Second, related to this hybrid approach, K-12 sustainability coordinators ideally need administrative capabilities with access to decision making, while remaining connected to students in a meaningful way, either directly in the classroom, as a mentor, or through work with student groups and projects.
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Colorado Denver. Educational studies and research
Includes bibliographic references.
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Department of Education and Human Development
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by Eric A. Wilson.

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FACILITIES AS TEACHING TOOLS: A TRANSFORMATIVE PARTICIPATORY PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT EXPERIENCE by ERIC A. WILSON B.S., Emory University 2001 M.A T New York University, 200 4 A thesis submitted to the Fa culty of the Graduate School of th e University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Educational Studies and Research 2014


ii This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy degree by Eric A. Wilson has been approved for the Educational Studi es and Research Program by Suzanne Arnold, Chair Bryan Wee, Advisor Faye Caronan Rafael Moreno July 16 2014


iii Wilson Eric Alan (Ph.D., Education al Studies and Research ) Facilitates as Teaching Tools: A Transformative Participatory Profession al Development Experience Thesis directed by Assistant Professor Bryan Wee ABSTRACT Resource consumption continues to increase as the population grows. In order to secure a sustainable future, society must educate the next generation to become "sustain ability natives Schools play a pivotal role in educating a sustainability literate society. However, a disconnect exists between the hidden curriculum of the built environment and the enacted curriculum. This study employs a transformative participatory professional development model to instruct teachers on how to use their school grounds as teaching tools for the purpose of helping students make explicit choices in energy consumption, materials use, and sustainable living. Incorporating a phenomenologica l perspective, this study considers the lived experience of two sustainability coordinators. Grounded theory provides an interpretational context for the participants' interactions with each other and the professional development process. Through a year lo ng professional development experience commencing with an intense, participatory two day workshop the participants discussed challenges they faced with integrating facilities into school curriculum and institutionalizing a culture of sustainability Two major needs were identified in this study. For successful sustainability initiatives, a hybrid model that melds top down and bottom up approaches offers the requisite mix of administrative support, ground level buy in, and excitement vis ˆ vis sustainabil ity. Second, related to this hybrid approach, K 12 sustainability coordinators ideally need


iv administrative capabilities with access to decision making, while remaining connected to students in a meaningful way, either directly in the classroom, as a mentor or through work with student groups and projects. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: Bryan Wee


v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First off, I would like to thank Chip and Matt for agreeing to participate in thi s research I firmly believe your work is of the utmost importance and I am grateful for the opportunity to have stood by you in this process. Over the past five years several faculty members at UCD shaped my thinking. Thank you to p rofessors Sheila Shanno n and Rene Galindo whose classes were instrumental in considering critical pedagogy, epistemological concerns, and my own understanding. I owe a debt of gratitude to p rofessor Steve Koester for his guidance and willingness to advise early stages of the par ticipatory process that proved so instrumental in this research. The four members of my committee helped guide me in the classroom and on their own time. Professors Suzanne Arnold and Rafael Moreno Sanchez, both of whom were integral educators in my own pr ocess as a student provided valuable practical knowledge and expertise in shaping my understanding of urban education and sustainability respectively Professor Fay e Caronan filled the void in my understanding of research methodology, in particular as rel ates to human subjects. My committee chair, Professor Bryan Wee served as a sounding board, foil, intellectual guide, and stalwart, helping me see what I could not envision on my own. His guidance, knowledge, and "soft power" were integral to my evolution. Much like my graduate school advisor, Professor Cath Milne, Professor Wee melded a student centered approach with deft advising to bring me closer to the desired outcome than I could have thought possible on my own. His hospitality and generosity were unr ivaled.


vi On a personal note, I am indebted to the United States Green Building Council Colorado Chapter's Green Schools Initiative and three talented women, architects Margaret Pau ls, Kari elin Mock, and Peggy Kinsey all of whom are working toward schools that are healthy and sustainable for today 's and tomorrow's students My college roommate Justin p ushed me to pursue sustainability and for that I am eternally gr at e ful. To my sister, Dr. Leigh Wilson, whose own perseverance provided the perspective that I often lacked and to my brother Sukey ; I may have never come to Colorado with out you leading the way thank you Thanks as well to my parents, and most of all, my source of strength at the bleakest times thank you Jill


vii DEDICATION To my wife Jill and my children, Asher and Jonah both of who m joined us midway through this journey At the risk of sounding completely immodest, I did this for you and the fu ture of children everywhere. May it lead to something greater than I could produce on my own.


viii TAB LE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 Significance of Study 1 Green Schools and Green Buildings 2 Research Questions 3 Sustainability and Environmental Education 5 Defining Green Schools 6 Buildings that Teach 8 Sustainability's Relationship to "Green" 10 II: LITERATURE REVIEW 13 Professional Development (PD) 13 Math and Science PD 15 Transformative PD 17 Participatory PD 18 Adaptable, Customizable Professional Development 19 Green Schools 21 Buildings as Teaching Tools 23 State of the State: Colorado Green Sch ools 26 High Stakes Testing, Social Justice, and Green Schools 28 Barriers to Integration 30 III: METHODOLOGY & METHODS 32 Transformativ e Professional Development (TPD) 33 Theoretical Frameworks 34 Phenomenology and the Role of Experiences 34 Grounded Theory 36 Participan t Selection and Sampling 37 Site Selection 40 School Demographics 41 Professional Development Design 42 Participatory Research 44 Reflexivity 47 My Role as Researcher and Participant 49 Building Rapport 49 Data Collection 51 Timeline 51 Goals of the Study 53 Data Analysis 57 Verification and Member Checking 58 Development of Themes 60 IV: FINDING S 69 Institutionalizing a Culture of Sustainability 69 Institutionalization 72 Overburdened, Balancing Roles 74 Engendering a Cultural S hift: Voicing Frustration and Perceived Failure 76 Hidden Curriculum 77


ix Student Involvement/Engagement 80 Curricular and Instructional Barriers 84 Scale of Implementation 84 Institutional Barriers 86 Lone Voice for Sustainability 87 Teacher Competency/Training 91 V: DISCU SSION 93 Place Based Education 93 EIC: Environment as an Integrating Context 94 Building as Teaching Tools and Place Based Education 96 In Lieu of Textbooks 97 Hegemonies 101 The Hegemony of Consumption 102 Prevailing Paradigm 104 Multicultural Education 104 The Canon 106 Just Sustainability: The Intersection of MCE and EfS 107 Thematic Approach: MCE and EfS as Transdisciplinary 108 Hegemonic Structures 109 Social Justice and Environmental Sensibilities: A Counter epistemology 112 A Narrowed Curriculum 112 A Counterdiscourse to Testing 113 Decorated Landscapes 114 Differences between MCE and EfS 116 VI: IMPLICATIONS 118 Key Findings 119 The Role of Sustainability Coordina tor in a School 119 Dedicated Sustainability Coordinator vs. Dual Role 122 School Gardens as a Teaching Tool 126 Interdisciplinary Approaches to Education 128 EfS and Sustainability on a Societal Scale 128 Engendering a Paradigmatic Shift 131 Proposed Solutions 132 Overcoming barriers 132 Top Down vs. Bottom Up 133 Good Intentions: Unfulfilled Aims 136 Changing the Way Schools Operate: Cultural Shifts 138 The Need for Buy in and Stron g Leadership 140 Power Structures and Inhibiting Voice 141 Charter Schools and EfS 142 Project Based Learning and Workplace Opportunities 143 Future PD Workshops 147 VII: CONCLUSION 149 Delimitations 151 Life After the Workshop 152 REFERENCES 154 A PPENDIX 171 A: Sample Interview Questions (Participants) 171


x B: Research Consent Form 171 C: Focus Group Interview 174 D: Professi onal Development Schedule 174 E: Fact Sheet 175 F: Pre Workshop Questionnaire 175 G: Agenda for September 21, 2012 Meeting 175 H: Collab oration Questionnaire 176 I: VVS's Completed Collaboration Questionnaire 176 J: MCCHS Proposal 178 K: Statement of Work 182 L: MCCHS Sur vey 185


xi LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1: Relationship Between Components of Grounded Theory, TPD, and Green Schools and Place Based Education 2 : Meetings with Participants, Including Data Collected 3 : Research Questions and Rel ated Data Sources 4 : Strategies for Validating Findings 5: Themes and Their Meanings 6 : Hands on Learning, Green Jobs Preparation, and Alternative Schools 7 : Green Collar Job Opportunities Through High School Programming


1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Sign ificance of Study In their seminal report entitled, Limits to Growth Meadows, Meadows, Randers, and Behrens (1974) warned against the patterns of consumption developing at the time and issued a set of conclusions about the state of the world. The first such proclamation stated that: If the present growth trends in world population, industrialization, pollution, food production, and resource depletion continue unchanged, the limits to growth on this planet will be reached sometime within the next one hund red years. The most probable result will be a rather sudden and uncontrollable decline in both pop ulation and industrial capacity (p. 1). Turner (2008) revisited th ese ideas and demonstrated that little had changed in the preceding decades and that the or iginal assertion in Limits to Growth was holding true. With this rampant consumption of resources and the severity of environmental impacts that accompany it there exists a pressing need to educate future generations so as to avert a scenario in which res ource extinction becomes inevitable. Schools and other educational settings (e.g. afterschool programs, community centers, and daycare facilities) have an impressionable, captive audience learning implicitly and explicitly. "Absent from the debates ... abo ut our educational system has been critical discourse on the responsibility of schools to the communities that support them and to the planet's life support systems" (Keifer and Kemple, 1999, p. 28) Schools must step up and take an active role in educatin g students for a sustainable future.


2 Green Schools and Green Buildings S. Richard Fedrizzi (2007), President of the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), points out: In the U.S. alone, more than 55 million students and more than 5 million faculty, staff, and administrators spend hours every day in buildings with poor ventilation, inadequate lighting, inferior acoustics, and antiquated heating systems. For school superintendents or school board members, improving standards and raising test scores often tak es priority over upgrading or maintaining facilities. But it's no long an either/or question: high performance green schools . are good for people, good for the bottom line, and good for the environment. . Green schools are also wonderful education al tools in and of themselves, serving as living laboratories to engage kids in the sciences, building arts, and environmental stewardship (p. 6 italics added ). A report from the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments states, less than one half of one percent of all LEED certified square footage (86,000 out of 22.9 million) in the National Capitol Region (which encompasses Washington D.C. and its outlying areas) represented LEED for Schools projects (Hand, 2011). In 2013, Washington DC led the na tion in per capi t a square footage designated with LEED certification, surpassing every state in the union by 1417% 32.45 square feet per person, versus 2.29 square feet per person for Illinois, the highest ranked state (USGBC, 2014). Despite this boom in certified green building, schools lag well behind commercial and residential projects. McGranahan and Satterthwaite (2003) discuss the specific challenges of sustainability in an urban milieu. They point out that the increasing populations in cities put ecologically sustainable patterns of development at a premium. I n North America, more than 75% of the population lives in urban centers (McGranahan & Satterthwaite, 2003) This is where the built environment plays a crucial role T he urban experience with its resource intensive existence provides a visceral example of how one's surroundings lend themselves to lessons about how humanity consumes energy, materials,


3 and water, among other types of capital In Younger, Morrow Almeida, Vindigni, and Dannenberg (2008) the built environment is defined as being comprised of manmade components of people's surroundings, from small scale settings (e.g., offices, houses, hospitals, shopping malls, and schools [emphasis added] ) to large scale settings (e.g., neighborh oods, communit ies, and cities), as well as roads, sidewalks, green spaces, and connecting transit systems" (p. 517). Ironically, as quickly as societies are urbanizing, there is still the stereotype that sustainability and related education efforts are mor e suited for natural' settings. With a majority of the world's population in these urban locales, u rban centers are integral to an education that aims to develop environmentally literate individuals and communities. In the famous words of the Lorax, "UNL ESS" (Geisel, 1999, p. 56) all users are educated and their behaviors are addressed, resource consumption may continue on the path described by Meadows et al. (1974) and "nothing is going to get better. It's not" (Geisel, 1999, p. 58). Research Questions The need to address Limits to Growth, which is a complex interaction of environmental, social, and economic issues provides a framework with which to view education in the early part of the 21 st century. Green schools in neighborhoods of all socioeconomic strata can bridge the gap between the "haves" and the "have nots" by providing healthy, environmentally benign spaces for students to learn about environmental responsibility Additionally, social components can be addressed through the physical structure as a focal point for the community and as an example of how buildings can help to reduce humanity's impact on the local (and global) ecosystem. A


4 green school, as certified by USGBC, may consist of multipurpose spaces for both educational and neighborhood gatherings, serving as a focal point of the community at large. Lastly, school districts can realize fiscal savings through reduced energy and water consumption typically found in green school buildings. Given Fedrizzi's (2007) statement that schools are wonderful educational tools and USGBC's (2008) vision of schools as interactive teaching tools, there is a need to develop professional development models to train educators to use the structures in their classrooms. The following questions stem from this professional development model and its implementation: 1. What impact does this innovative PD model focused on place based education and sustainability have on school personnel's ability to integrate school facilities (in particular the built environment) wi th their school culture? 2. How do sustainability coordinators, as participatory researchers, shape professional development and envision teaching with a focus on the school's facilities in a frame of place based education? 3. How do participants' sense of own ership evolve over time through their participation in this process? What evidence is there of their ownership/leadership within the workshop? How does this ownership manifest itself?


5 Sustainability and Environmental Education Environmental Education (EE ) is seen as a potential solution to the issues brought up in Limits to Growth Tillbury (1995) defines environmental education as a strategy that aims to engage students in world problems, placing EE in the realm of holistic approaches to education. Glenn (2000) adds the concept of "environmental literacy and the skills needed for lifelong learning" (p. 5) to Tillbury's conception of EE. Glenn (2000) goes on to add, "EE refers to education efforts that increase public awareness and knowledge about environm ental issues and provides the critical thinking, problem solving and effective decision making skills to make informed and responsible decision about the environment" (p. 5). In a display off the interdisciplinary nature of EE, Orr (2004a) argues, "all edu cation is environmental education" (p. 12). In order to realize this vision, students must experience settings that foster a sense of responsibility to respond to the challenged posed by Limits to Growth. With these challenges in mind, Nolet (2009) calls f or "preparing sustainability literate tea chers" (p. 409). Nolet (2009) asserts that a person is sustain ability literate if he or she knows things associated with sustainability, if he or she is disposed to think or problem so lve in ways associated with sus tainability, and if he or she behaves in ways consistent with sustainability (p. 428). Environmental education and educating for sustainability do not represent synonymous concepts. McKeown and Hopkins (2003) point out that while the environment is cent ral to EE, "society, economics, and development are not mentioned" (p.118). Educating for sustainability encompasses more than environmental concerns. They define educating for sustainable development (ESD) used synonymously with educating for sustainabi lity in this research as being commonly thought to involve and


6 address three realms: env ironment, society, and economy (p. 119). S tevenson (2007) points out that the language and discourse of environmental education has been displaced in many policy ci rcles by that of education for sustainable development (ESD), education for sustainability (EfS) or sustainability education . as the dominant international policy discourse and rhetoric" (p. 266) Conflating environmental education (EE) with sustainab ility education, or EfS fails to recognize the systems approach of the latter. The Cloud Institute for Sustainab ility Education defines EfS as a transformative learning process that equips students, teachers, and school systems with the new knowledge and w ays of thinking we need to achieve economic prosperity and responsible citizenship while restoring the health of the living syst ems upon which our lives depend (n.d., para. 1). While there is a connection between the EE and EfS the latter incorporates ec onomic and equity issues in addition to the environmental concerns raised by EE. Furthermore, the addition of systems thinking, which Meadows and Wright (2008) refer to as a "critical tool in addressing the many environmental, political, social, and econom ic challenges we face around the world" (p. xi), because it allows the user to consider issues from a wealth of interconnected points, imbues EfS and ESD with another level of analysis not currently ascribed to by mainstream EE. Defining Green Schools I n order to determine whether a school is in fact "green", USGBC developed the LEED program, which stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design LEED provides building owners and operators with a framework for identifying and implementing pract ical and measurable green building design, construction, operations and maintenance solutions (USGBC, 2011b, para. 1 2).


7 In particular, LEED standards exist for a number of project types, two of which are "Existing Buildings: Operations and Maintenance" and "Schools" (USGBC 2011 c ). The former applies to extant structures, including schools, while the latter refers to new school construction. USGBC (2008) defines a green school as "a school building or facility that creates a healthy environment that is co nducive to learning while saving energy, resources and money" (para. 1). In 2006, t he Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report, MASSTECH (the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative) listed the three attributes of green schools. They were less expensive to operate than conventional schools, Designed to enhance the learning and wo rking environment, and [they conserve] important resources such as energy and water" ( Committee to Review and Assess the Hea lth and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools 2006, p. 8). Green schools may sometimes be referred to as high performing schools. This moniker has a specific connotation though. Ford (2007) notes, "High performance design refers to the on site design sol utions that contribute directly to enhanced learning" (p. 12). The Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) provides 13 characteristics for a "high performance school" including: Healthy, " Comfortable Energy Efficient, " Material Efficient, " Ea sy to Maintain and Operate, " Commissioned, " Environmentally Responsive Site " A Building That Teaches " Safe and Secure, " Community Resource, " Stimulating Architecture, and Adaptable to Changing Needs (CHPS, 2010). Whether using the appellation of green school or high performing school, these facilities naturally serve as a component of teaching and learning. USGBC (2008)


8 advocates for this position: "Imagine the learning potential when the school building itself becomes an interactive teaching too l, educating the next generation of sustainable leaders through hands on learning" ( "Hands on Learning" ). Buildings that Teach The very buildings that house our schools implicitly teach students and teachers alike. Orr (2002) argues, buildings and landsc ape reflect a hidden curriculum that powerfully influences the learning process (p127 8). This hidden curriculum can be used to inform faculty and students as to the impact humans have on their immediate and global environs The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) reports "global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have increased markedly as a result of human activities since 1750 and now far exceed pre industrial values" (p. 2). Higher concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, collective referred to as greenhouse gases, have been linked to potentially detrimental changes in the climate. "Changes in the atmospheric abundance of greenhouse gases and aerosols, in solar radiation and in land surface properties alter the energy balance of the climate system" (IPCC, 2007, p. 2). Amongst the greatest contributors to these emissions are buildings, which form a significant part of the school facilities. With these negative environmental impac ts in mind, schools are needed that not only minimize ecological footprints defined as "the total area of productive land and water required continuously to produce all the resources consumed and to assimilate all the wastes produced, by a defined popula tion, wherever on Earth that land is located" (Rees and Wackernagel, 1996, p.228 9) but that also promote teaching and learning vis


9 ˆ vis environmental issues in order to produce ecologically literate students that can address the concerns in Limits to G rowth In an ideal, synergistic relationship, school buildings will stand in place of textbooks, providing a real world example of how to conserve resources and live more sustainably. Kuhn ( 1996 ) argues "science textbooks (and too many of the older histori es of science) refer only to that part of the work of past scientists that can easily be viewed as contributions to the statement and solution of the texts' paradigm problems" (p. 138). In order to combat this backward looking aspect of textbooks, s tudent s will learn from their surroundings, as data generated by the buildings in terms of kilowatt hours consumed fluctuate based on usage patterns that classes study and manipulate through efforts to reduce consumption. By gathering information in real tim e the buildings can create an instant assessment of how effective the conservation measures are, while providing feedback to students so that they can evaluate their own understanding of how energy consumption is affected by various behaviors. In true inte rdisciplinary fashion, this information can then serve as fodder for mathematics lessons as students attempt to determine rates of use, percentage of reduction, and cost savings. Furthermore, various other issues associated with textbooks including the f inancial costs, resources needed to print and ship, lack of local connection to learners, and dated material can be rectified with supplementing real world, real time data. According to the Center for Green Schools (n.d.), there are more than 133,000 K 1 2 schools throughout the country (para. 4), which provide ample structures from which to choose.


10 Sustainability's Relationship to "Green" The term sustainability has also been attached to the green movement, which many in the blogosphere argue is not an entirely proper connection (Hodges, 2009; Werbach, 2009; Wilson, 2009). Sustainable and sustainability have their historical roots in the Brundtland Report's (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987) use of the term sustainable development, w hich defines it as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (Chap 2). The Brundtland Report will serve as the foundation for defining sustainability despite its flaws. For instance, Williams and Millington (2004) assert, this definition of sustainable development is allied to a particular developmental worldview that is resisted and contested by many commentators (p. 100). Even before the Brundtland Report, there had b een various interpretations of sustainability (and sustainable development). Brown, Hanson, Liverman, and Meredith (1987) provide both a narrow and broad definition of sustainability: In the narrowest sense, global sustainability means the indefinite survi val of the human species across all regions of the world. A broader sense of the meaning specifies that virtually all humans, once born, live to adulthood and must place on economic growth that their lives have quality beyond mere biological survival. Fina lly, the broadest sense of global sustainability includes the persistence of all components of the biosphere, even those with no apparent benefit to humanity. (p. 717) I am using the idea of sustainability in the sense that it allows for the perpetuation of the human species ad infin i tum This is only possible with resource conservation and equitable standards of treatment. Consuming resources without regard for future generations will ultimately deplete nonrenewable stores, not to mention externalities as sociated with fossil fuel and nuclear energy. Conserving resources namely water,


11 food, and energy for future generations stands at the heart of sustainability. Additionally, Wilkinson and Pickett ( 2010 ) posit that equitable standards of treatment have a direct connection with sustainability. Societies in which a greater level of equity less inequality tend to exhibit lower levels of violence, improved healthcare, and access to education, all pillars of sustainability. Williams and Millington (2004) claim, "sustainable development is a notoriously difficult, slippery and elusive concept to pin down. Indeed, Fowke and Prasad (1996) have identified 80 different, often competing and sometimes contradictory, definitions" (p. 99). Goodland (1995) provides a basic definition of environmental sustainability "as the maintenance of natural capital' (p. 10). The convoluted topic of sustainability has created a situation wherein two people can have opposing definitions of the term. As Connelly (2007) points o ut, Although sustainable development' has been a dominant concept in planning and policy making for over 15 years, there is still no general consensus over the societal goals that would count as sustainable development as a matter of definition, or would contribute to it in practice (p. 259) In addition, usage of "green" to describe features of a building or curriculum carries an association of its own. While environmental sustainability as defined by Goodland (1995) represents how the term sustainable is often used (i.e. in referring to environmental sustainability and not social or economic sustainability), I will use the more general term "green" in this study to refer to environmentally friendly practices and to refer to green schools like those as cribed to in LEED, as opposed to other contested terms ; "sustainable", "sustainability", or "environmental sustainability". As Hodges (2009) points out though there is not a commonly accepted, standard definition of what it means for something to be "gree n." Inevitably, practices in green schools, such as the use


12 of buildings as curricular tools, can address to an extent ecological issues in Limits to Growth.


13 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW This literature review considers the body of research around e ffective professional development (PD), transformative professional development (TPD), and green schools In relation to the latter, the role of school buildings has a level of importance in this study, therefore I also focus on the integration of faciliti es into the curriculum and how they are currently employed or under employed as teaching tools. Since this study takes place in the Rocky Mountain region, and my home institution is situated in Colorado 's capital city, I include a review Colorado's bur geoning green schools movement. LEED, the certification standard for green buildings, also has a place in this literature review Professional Development (PD) Beyond they classroom and their own education, professional development courses and workshops provide exposure to new concepts, evolving educational theory, and pedagogically sound teaching Networks of teachers who learn and practice together can help create communities that strive to improve instruction and student learning. Guskey (2000) defines professional development as "those processes and activities designed to enhance the professional knowledge, skills, and attitudes of educators so that they might, in turn, improve the learning of students" (p. 16). As part of this, Guskey (2000) lists thr ee "defining characteristics" of PD: it is an intentional, ongoing, and systemic process. Lessons from research on how people learn (Bransford et al., 2000) and best practices in teaching (Zemelman, Daniels, & Hyde, 2005) extend beyond primary and secondar y education Best practices in education should not exist solely in the traditional classroom;


14 they need to apply to all educational settings. Zemelman, Daniels, and Hyde (2005) distill best practices from a range of academic disciplines into the following three categories: student centered, cognitive, and social. Professional development must also take these factors into account. Historically, professional development amounted to a lecture on a topic, with little regard for how teachers learn and assimil ate new knowledge, material, and findings into their own teaching. The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (2000) reports, At one time professional d evelopment was synonymous with sit and get' sessions in which relatively passive participan ts were made aware' of the latest ideas regarding teaching and learning from experts.' Today professional development must include high quality, ongoing training that reflects a variety of approaches, with i ntensive follow up and support (p.2 ). The cha nging landscape for professional development needs to consider a range of factors that the "sit and get" model failed to address. In an analysis of interviews with 72 teachers and 23 professional development facilitators, Rogers et al. (2007) found that t e achers' themes for characterizing effective PD included classroom application, teacher as learner, and teacher networking Klingner (2004) provides a set of criteria upon which successful professional development experiences are predicated These include s ituations in which researchers work closely with school districts " administrative su pport is clearly evident " long term support is provided for teachers (includi ng demonstrations and coaching) and teachers take ownership of the practices and respon sibility for mentoring their peers (p. 248) These factors coincide with many of the features from both the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (2000), Guskey (2000), and Rogers et al. (2007).


15 Guyton (2000) uses the term "powerful" as a stan d in for effective when discussing professional development. "My favorite synonym is powerful programs that have power power to change teachers and to change their students" (p. x). With the proliferation of research on PD, conflicting reports emerge (Gu skey & Huberman, 1995). Much of the literature Guskey and Huberman (1995) review sends contradictory messages about how to approach professional development. However, in the past fifteen years, more clarity has seemingly come to the field. Guyton (2000) su ggests that the best research, theory, and practice provide a guide for developing teacher education, however, she warns that these nested concepts create varying layers of complexity. Math and Science PD Numerous studies have found student learning is as sociated with particular professional development programs in science ( Heller, Wong, Daehler, Shinohara, & Miratrix, 2012; Roth et al., 2011), math (Saxe, Gearhart, & Nasir, 2001; Telese, 2012; Wallace, 2009), and both science and math (Blank et al., 2010) Saxe et al. (2001) looked at a PD program geared toward teacher understanding coupled with students thinking and motivation. Their s mall scale 17 participants in two treatment groups, one with a sample size of nine and a second treatment with eight allowed for higher intensity in terms of PD Working with two groups of upper elementary teachers and observing a third that served as a control the researchers demonstrated an incremental imp rovement in student performance on fractions for the test grou ps. Saxe et al. (2001), whose study arose out of the need for assessing professional development, detailed "greater student achievement on the conceptual items" (p. 70), though it cited ca ution in extrapolating results.


16 Wallace (2009) found moderate improv ement in student achievement in mathematics and smaller effects on reading when mediated by teacher practice. Wallace ( 2009) analyzed data from six existing data sets, the 2000 Beginning Teacher Preparation Survey conducted in Connecticut and Tennessee, an d four renditions of the National Assessment of Educational Progress This analysis provided information from students (n = 1,550 6,408) nested within teachers (n = 168 1,029) to demonstrate the connection between PD and student achievement. Telese (2012) raised the question as to how much PD is too much. M aking sure that PD maintains its effectiveness, while providing tools, support, and ways to improve student performance remains an essential goal Using the mathematics assessment from the National Associ ation of Educational Progress data for eighth grade, which consisted of more than 1 00,000 students and their teachers, Telese (2012) found mathematics content knowledge has a larger role in predicting student a chievement than mathematics p edagogical knowl edge" (p. 102). It is important to note that Telese (2012) uses standardized test scores as a measure of student achievement, a disconcerting notion in terms of reflecting actual understanding and not just the ability to correctly answer questions on an ex am. Although generalizing this study to science, and sustainability in particular, presents implicit issues, the notion of preparing educators with the most in depth knowledge of their subject area represents a top priority. In a similar vein, looking at c ontent knowledge, Heller et al. (2012) studied 48 teachers (32 in the experimental group and 16 control subjects) who taught 1,490 students to discern the impact of an analysis of practice PD on upper elementary science teachers' knowledge and practices and on their students' learning (p. 118) Th eir intensive appro a ch found that


17 content played an important role in PD when lo oking at student test responses. Their Findings suggest investing in professional development that integrates content learning wi th analysis of student learning and teaching rather than advanced content or teacher metacognition alone (p. 333). Blank, de las Alas, and The Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness (2010) performed a meta analysis, which found 16 studies detai ling significant effect sizes when comparing teacher development and increased student achievement. Tying PD to student performance of traditional classroom teachers makes logical sense, however, for positions like a sustainability coordinator or a d irecto r of d iversity, PD experiences may not directly influence student performance, especially when these areas fall outside the standardized testing regimen. For sustainability coordinators assessing their impact on student performance serves as a reductive m easure of their utility The literature on PD for this position is virtually non existent. Due to a confluence of factors, the newness of sustainability coordinators in K 12 education, their rarity, the lack of an organizing or accreditation association a nd their variance within schools many serve informally as they have become the de facto sustainability person on campus. U nderstanding how PD can assist sustainability coordinators find their own voice and affect change at the local level represents an i mportant challenge not currently reflected in the literature. Transformative PD New arenas in the field of PD have arisen in recent year s These developments have altered the landscape of professional development, moving it into a more critical phase. In particular, Johnson and Marx (2009) propose an alternative approach to


18 professional development for urban science educators, one they refer to as "transformative pr ofessional development or TPD, which is based upon the premise that through effective, su stained, collaborative professional development, climates of schools, as well as beliefs and practices of teacher s can be positively transformed (p. 118). TPD aims to transform science instruction into a positive learning environm ent for under represented groups. T he role of TPD in professional development connects the participants more fully to the process, as opposed to being passive recipients of content. In a longitudinal study, Johnson and Fargo (2010) demonstrated the effectiveness of TPD vis ˆ vis s tudent performance at two urban schools, an encouraging, albeit small sample ( Johnson & Fargo 2010) Responding to each school s specific needs, TPD enabled participants to coconstruct [ sic ] the focus of the program . . [T] he focus of whole school a llowed all science teachers in each school to participate, growing collective power fo r change within an urban school (p. 23). When combined with education for sustainable development which should always be implemented in a locally relevant and cultural ly appropriate fashion (McK eown & Hopkins, 2003, p. 119) TPD represents a powerful tool to affect change at the school level. PD in the burgeoning field of educating for sustainability offers an opportunity to develop the research which currently presen ts itself as a yawning gap Participatory PD Robottom (1987), laid the foundation for participatory PD in the field of EE, claiming it "s hould be enquiry based, participatory and practice based, critical, community based, and collaborative (p. 298) Rec ent developments in participatory PD programming yielded a set of guidelines as laid out by Literat (2012). In an attempt to


19 develop a participatory PD model, Literat (201 2 ) proposes four values (a) participation, not indoctrination, (b) exploration, not p rescription, (c) contextualization, not abstraction, and (d) iteration, not repetition. These guiding statements provide the basis for thinking about PD that embraces both participants and the process. Jenkins (2012) suggests moving from a teacher trainin g model to one in which co creation' and co facilitated learning' represents the norm. Jenkins (2012) sees PD situated in schools an d communities, programs that work on the local level, even as a participatory approach aims to alter existing PD modaliti es. Engaging participants in the co construction of PD (Johnson & Fargo, 2010) creates buy in and investment on behalf of those involved. Meaningful experiences combined with relevant content offer the ideal opportunity to create participatory PD programs focused on EfS. The s ustainability coordinator position being relatively new to K 12 education and to education in general would benefit from participatory PD. Literat and Itow (2012) argue that those engaged in a participatory learning build communit y. This is particularly important for a nascent profession within education. Little research currently exists exploring sustainability coordinators and PD, especially at the K 12 level Given the increasing need for EfS in schools with the latest data from two IPCC (2014a, 2014b) report s Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability and Mitigation of Climate Change PD for sustainability coordinators that includes their tacit knowledge and energy to move forward in this pivotal time is critical. Adaptable, Cust omizable Professional Development The participant driven nature of this research follows from the need for both small group and customizable professional development. A "one size fits all" approach to professional development does not suit the varied need s of either individuals or


20 individual schools. McLester (2012) states PD lags behind in terms of innovative approaches, despite the advances in student learning. In particular, the large group, "one size fits all strategy (p. 37), largely deemed inappropr iate and ineffective for classrooms maintains a stronghold in PD. While best practices in education ( Zemelman et al. 2005) and research based components of professional development ( Bransford et al. 2000) have both practical and foundational impacts on P D, Senge (1990) warns against the wonton copying of prescribed practices likening the emulating of an exemplary model to copying the habits of a great person in order to achieve individual greatness Customized professional development with participants taking a leading role in the design and implementation of said PD offers a way forward while considering Senge's (1990) warning. With research on how people learn as a guide, this project set out to engage the participants in meaningful dialogue around the idea of Educating for Sustainability, while providing valuable resources that can further their understanding and goals as pertains to sustainability in their schools. No single template or one size fits all approach to PD for EfS makes sense as local sol utions to local problems lie at the heart of sustainability. Gonzalez, Moll, and Amanti (2005) advise connecting instruction to the lives of those involved, while ensuring the details of effective pedagogy be linked to local histories and community cont exts" (p. ix). In designing an effective, and meaningful, PD centered on local histories and community contexts, taking the participants' voices into account plays an essential component of the experience.


21 Green Schools A thorough review of the literatur e reveals a number of gaps in the research surrounding the use of facilities, especially LEED certified structures, in the curriculum of green schools. Part of the gap stems from the contemporary nature of the issue. As noted, organizations (USGBC, 2008), architects (Ford, 2007), and individuals (Fedrizzi, 2007), all support the use of school facilities in the curriculum. However, the physical structure rarely enters into the formalized curriculum in K 12 education and there is little research conducted to understand why this is the case. As of April 2011, the United States Green Building Council had more than 4,000 registered projects for LEED certification within higher education (USGBC, 2011a). For the past decade higher education has taken the lead on "g reening the curriculum." In the preface to Teaching Sustainability at Universities Toward curriculum greening Filho (2002) noted, "higher education institutions around the world are beginning to recognise [ sic ] that they have a unique responsibility tow ards the goal of sustainability (p. 9). As an example, these i nstitutions have started using features from LEED certification to supplement the traditional curriculum, often aligning with their institutional sustainability plans (Erwin and Kearns, 2008) Many institutions of higher education have taken the lead in building facilities that minimize resource consumption. Erwin and Kerans (2008) discuss a renewable energy project installed at Colby College in Maine that has become a "living lab" for the unive rsity. Not only does the project generate energy for the campus, but also it serves as a learning tool for students. In this guise, buildings constructed over the next few years that replace the existing building stock in elementary and secondary education or those that are retrofitted can serve as teaching tools, not just boxes to house people


22 and the traditional educational accout er ment s Abraham (2005) argues, Education for a sustainable society requires that we also develop techniques to promote su stainability to the precollege student (p. 343) The issue of aging schools is a significant one. A s of 1999, the average age of educational facilities in the Uni ted States was 40 years old, with t he projected average lifespan of a school building coming in at 42 years (Westcott & Egan, 2009 ). As these buildings age, the need to renovate or to replace them arises. "Globally, school construction represents one of the largest sectors of new and renovation construction activity and therefore has significant e nvironmental consequences" (Ford, 2007, p. 10). In 2010, the commercial sector consumed roughly 19 percent of energy in this country, with schools (elementary, secondary, and higher education) constituting 13% of that figure (U.S. Energy Information Agency 2010). Furthermore, schools spend approximately $8 billion annually on utili ty bills (Wescott & Egan, 2009). According to Chiles (as cited in Riley, Thatcher, and Workman, 2006, p. 143), buildings and their construction directly or indirectly account for 54 percent of energy consumption and [given] that the USA consumes nearly 30 percent of the world's energy resources, the need to minimize the negative effects of buildings on the environment is crucial, especially in the USA ." Hawken, Lovins, and Lovin s (1999) point out that people spend a majority of their time indoors 90% and they use one third of our total energy and two thirds of our electricity. Their construction consumes one fourth of all wood harvested; 3 billion tons of raw materials are u sed annually to construct buildings worldwide" (p. 85). Given the amount of time people spend indoors, the walls can do much more than hold up the roof, they can teach.


23 Buildings as Teaching Tools Li, Locke, Nair, and Bunting (2006) argue, "school archite cture can be a three dimensional learning tool, a stage set that is designed to create awareness, communicate ideas and impart lessons (p. 15). In particular, in the section titled "The School Building as a Learning Tool Li (2006) comments on the distin ct relationship between sustainability and buildings as teaching tools. The school building has excellent potential to showcase real life connectivity. (p. 16). They argue that the wealth of systems in a standard school lighting, heating and cooling, and water treatment offer a unique opportunity to teach students directly, replacing materials that lack relevance or context. In order to do so, Li (2006) suggest that these elements have hands on learning tools such as meters and gauges for observatio n and investigation (p.16). If installed properly, they can supplement instruction in many of the core science courses, as well as environmental science, an advanced placement option at many schools. Beyond the systems themselves, Li (2006) also indicate s that a school 's facilities provide a chance to demonstrate how buildings effect the environment, what they c onsume, pollution they produce in terms of waste and noise, and the overall impact of pollutants on climatic change, wildlife and vegetation (p. 16). Much focus of buildings as instructional tools is tied to physics, chemistry, and environmental science as Li (2006) mentions. What remains unclear in the literature is how the built environment is linked to social science and humanities curricula. Li (2006) mentions two schools ( IslandWood, a school in the woods of Washing ton State, and the Roy Lee Walker Elementary School in Texas) that currently incorporate sustainability into their curricula, however, there is no mention of what precisely either of these schools did, nor how the buildings played a role in


24 educating students. Presumably Li (2006) refers to the informal use of signage throughout the facilities, as this is one of the criterion for earning points toward LEED certification, however, this is unclear. As an example, touring the Evie Garrett Dennis campus, a LEED certified project, in the Denver Public School (DPS) district one notices signs throughout buildings that point to the environmental features of the structures. These signs constitu te what could be considered part of the informal curriculum, but the question remains as to the manner in which the facilities make their way into the formalized, classroom based curriculum. According to the Denver Post, in some Douglas County Schools "sol ar panels . are being used as a learning experience for students. In the classroom, students study and analyze the data from the solar panels" (Illescas, 2011, para. 6). Additionally, more than 1 200 students at 58 schools conducted energy audits to re duce consumption, yielding a reported savings of $11 million dollars over four years. Training teachers to use features of the school's built environment properly, whether they are add ons like solar panels or the buildings themselves, is an integral part of the equation. Exchanging generic, decontextualized examples in the formal curriculum with those from the school's campus represents an opportunity to scaffold science concepts onto the physical surroundings via place based experiences Selby (2000) poi nts out that schools have integrated ecological awareness into the curriculum. He argues that In recent years, the idea of greening schools has achieved fairly common currency. School curricula incorporate environmental themes and topics. Mission stateme nts are tinged with green (albeit a faded green in these days of back to basics and economic retrenchment). Composters are commonplace. Indigenous vegetation is replacing concrete in many a schoolyard as school ground naturalization proceeds apace. Recyc ling is replacing the throwaway ethic (p. 88).


25 The notion of "greening" relates to practices that are less environmentally destructive, as suggested in the quotation above. Selby's (2000) comments do not address the extent, or presence for that matter, of these green features in the curriculum. Mentions of environmental themes and topics do not necessarily include examples of composters and indigenous vegetation as components of the formal curriculum. The LEED protocol for building falls in line with this track. Just because signage earns points for certification, does not mean that teachers integrate these real world examples into their daily lessons, or that students are learning about these innovations in the context of science content. Pro environment perspective s routinely fail to translate into behaviors that support environmental conservation [P] eople often harm the environment despite holding attitudes that are environmentally friendly" ( Tenbrunsel, Wade Benzoni, Messick, & Bazerman, 1997, p. 5 ) Signs indicating sustainable measures merely act as static representations of dynamic processes By monitoring a building, the data generated creates a wealth of information that can enter the classroom in an engaging, hands on lesson. A number of studies, articles, and reports detailing the financial savings and health benefits of "green schools" exist in the literature (Kats, 2006; Langdon, 2007 ; Sack Min, 2007; LaFee, 2008 ). For instance, Kats (2006) reports "Green schools use an average of 33% less ener gy than conventionally designed schools" (p. 4). Other studies consider the impact on test scores resulting from features like natural da y lighting (Heschong Mahone Group, 1999; National Research Council, 200 8 ) This feature provide s an abundance of natura l light, reducing the need for artificial, energy consuming overhead lighting. These design features and subsequent energy savings could serve as


26 the basis for an integrated arithmetic and science unit of study. The potential for integrated learning reache s across the curriculum and throughout the facilities. However, what remains unclear in the literature is exactly how these school buildings are incorporated into the curriculum. With these environmental features, how do teachers, curriculum coordinators, and instructors use the facility to enhance the ir teaching ? State of the State: Colorado Green Schools Colorado in particular has a few examples of the important role buildings can play in education. In Denver, a Montessori school instituted an after sch ool program, "The Green Neighborhood Class," where architects and members of the community would come in and use the neighborhood to teach. In the class, students learn about their rela tionship with resources and sus tainabil ity right in their own backyard (Goldblatt, 2012, p. 14). Other instances showcase schools that have been built to LEED standards and have the opportunity to become exemplars of facilities that teach. In Denver Public Schools (DPS), a new campus designed to achieve LEED certification o pened in time for the 2010 school year. Known as the Evie Garrett Dennis campus, it contains numerous buildings and "allows for a variety of learning environments. Interior spaces are intended to be adaptable for different learning approaches without signi ficant expense" (DPS Communications Office, 2010). The campus has a number of features that helped earn LEED certification, including "Geothermal heating and cooling, solar power, extensive daylighting, water conservation, environmentally friendly material s, enhanced indoor air quality, and optimal operational and maintenance practices are among the core strategies used to meet sustainability needs" (DPS Communications Office, 2010). These systems and the structures represent a wonderful opportunity to info rm the teaching that happens


27 within its walls. Whether the schools that inhabit the campus choose to use the systems in place remains to be seen. While these two situations demonstrate the positive role schools can plan, there is also an opportunity to c ritically study school buildings in the state. For instance, a number of Colorado schools built during the first decade of the twenty first century were deemed unsound and substandard (Groski, 2011). A series of investigative reports in the Denver Post rev ealed that several newly constructed schools exhibited structural faults. In the end, a total of nine schools were closed due to s tructural problems (Barr, 2012). Generally speaking, many public school buildings are in substandard condition (Darling Hammon d, 2004. Darling Hammond (2004) points to the dilapidated buildings which she calls one of "the most basic elements of schooling" (p 1936) as a major issue in the educating of today's youth. Taking these facilities and empowering students to learn from and improve them represents a real world scenario in which the buildings can serve as a teaching tool. Through a curriculum designed to provide students with hands on experiences (and aligned to the latest movement in education, common core standards) in which they study their surroundings, interact with the facilities, and gain valuable experience researching the process of retrofitting and weatherization in order to make their schools more habitable and energy efficient, they enter the working world with skills that serve them well in a twenty first century economy. These "green jobs" cannot be outsourced and can be accessed by students right out of high school. In the worst case scenario, like those Colorado schools deemed unsound and substandard (Groski 2011), they fail to accomplish even the task of providing a safe learning space. In order to better help students understand their own personal relationship with energy, how it is consumed,


28 and the conservation thereof, school buildings must play an inte gral role in educating children. High Stakes Testing, Social Justice, and Green Schools Ford's (2007) mention of improved test scores in green schools speaks to the heightened awareness of exams that determine the success or failure of a school. So call ed high stakes tests play a prominent role in today's educational landscape. In fact, "tests have been a fixture in American education since the early decades of the twentieth century" (Ravitch, 2010, p. 151). Dutt Doner and Maddox (1998) argue that standa rdized tests have become high stakes instead of formative assessments that can improve instruction or student learning. Despite this, these assessments remain part of the educational landscape. High stakes testing represents "a way to measure student achie vement and school quality and as a mechanism to hold students and educators accountable" (Jones, Jones, & Hargrove, 2003, p. 1). In a milieu of high stakes testing, demonstrating that green schools can improve student performance cannot be overlooked. Whil e high stakes tests have serious "unintended consequences" (Jones et al., 2003), preparing students for this single assessment, which may be used as the sole indicator of a school's success, has taken pr ecedence at many schools. Jones et al. (2003) detail the shift from a holistic curriculum that included service learning, hands on experiences, and a science lab at one school to test preparation in light of testing that threatened the jobs of administrators. Vogler and Virtue (2007) found Teachers under th e pressure of high stakes tend to use teacher centered instructional practices, such as lecture, instead of student centered approaches, such as discussion, role play, research papers, and cooperative learning" (p. 56). As often


29 happens, high stakes testin g narrows the curriculum as educators sacrifice rich experiences for test preparation. These examples seem to present a challenge for content centered on ecological concepts. However, Smith (2004) provides the example of an ecologically focused school that demonstrated a positive impact on student performance. EMS was the only secondary school in the state of Oregon to receive an exemplary designation by the state's Department of Education. High test scores are simply a secondary benefit of an educational process whose primary purposes involve connecting children more deeply to their community and the world and then encouraging them to play a role in bringing about more justice and less environmental destruction (p. 74). EMS, Portland Environmental Middle School, focuses on more than ecological awareness. As part of the connection to the trinity of sustainability, social justice also has a home in the curriculum. This well rounded approach to education connects social justice to environmental sustainabilit y. Smith (2004) goes on to connect "the development of this kind of careful attentiveness to other people and the world . with the cultivation of a willingness to address issues related to environmental degradation or social injustice (p. 81). This re lationship has deep roots in the environmental justice movement. Agyeman, Bullard, and Evans (2002) argue that the issue of environmental quality is inextricably linked to that of human equality at all scales (p. 77). This represents another instance whe re green schools can support the teaching of conservation based concepts, especially in schools with populations of students coming from neighborhoods subject to environmental degradation. Bullard (1993) posits, "The environmental crisis can simply not be solved without social injustice" (p. 23).


30 Barriers to Integration Barriers to integrating environmental education, not just environmental justice or LEED certified school buildings, into K 12 curriculum abound. Barrett (2007) provides the following barr iers to integration, "Structural barriers such as too much curriculum material to cover, difficulty working across disciplines, lack of resources, time, or the ability to take students outside continue to be cited as problems" (p. 209). Barrett (2007) asse rts that the dominant discourse preempts the inclusion of environmentally oriented content. Ernst (2007) argues it is "unlikely that teachers would have been exposed to EBE in their preservice [ sic ] preparation programs. It seems even less likely that they would be inclined to use such an interdisciplinary approach" (p. 17). This lack of training and silo approach to academic disciplines represent yet another set of barriers. Ernst (2007) identifies the five following barriers to actualizing environmentally based education: "(a) emphasis on state testing, (b) lack of funding, (c) lack of planning time, (d) emphasis on state standards, and (e) lack of transportation" (p. 24). In a study of cl assroom teachers and their incorporation of environmental education into the curriculum, Sosu, McWilliam, and Gray (2008) pinpoint a number of obstacles as well such as a restrictive and compartmentalized curriculum and the absence of background knowledge to deal with controversial environmental education issues (p. 18 2) Sosu et al (2008) also suggest subjects such as environmental education, which do not have specific time slots but cut across the curriculum, tend to be ignored (p. 182). In order to guard against this, interdisciplinary approaches are often seen as preferable to treating environmental education as a stand alone endeavor.


31 Science teachers often maintain responsibility for implementing environmental education, though by its nature the discipline crosses many academic boundaries. Yet, as alluded to abov e, some teachers do not have the depth of background knowledge to deal with the more "controversial" issues, such as climate change. Changes in curriculum, like those discussed in Pons, Olivia, and Maas (2010) can help further the integration of buildings into the curriculum. In their study of Spanish schools, they noted, teachers nowadays can comply with the curriculum by carrying out educational projects about these school buildings because the curriculum is organized according to competencies related to educational edifices" (p. 262). Specifically, Pons et al. (2010) were interested in introducing the construction methods "a s topics in educational projects in order to work on important values such as sustainability with pupils (p 250). All of this bec omes possible as a result of the curriculum 's organization


32 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY & METHODS This study centers on an innovative professional development workshop based on the concept of transformative professional development (TPD) for a small cohort of sustainability coordinators in K 12 education. It aims to answer the following questions: (a) What impact does this innovative PD model focused on place based education and sustainability have on school personnel's ability to integrate school facilitie s (in particular the built environment) with their school culture? (b) How do sustainability coordinators, as participatory researchers, shape professional development and envision teaching with a focus on the school's facilities in a frame of place based education? (c) How do participants' sense of ownership evolve over time through their participation in this process? (d)What evidence is there of their ownership/leadership within the workshop and how does it manifest itself? Ary et al. (2002) assert that the goal of qualitative research "is a holistic picture and depth of understanding, rather than a numeric analysis of data" (p. 25). Accordingly, this research employ s qualitative methods The questions require a holistic understanding in part due to the n ature of sustainability itself Attempting to understand the systems within which sustainability coordinators operate, the varied experiences that influence their perceptions, and the nuances inherent in small scale, personal research undergird this study In order to sufficiently depict the participants, qualitative methods provide the proper approach


33 Transformative Professional Development (TPD) Johnson and Marx (2009) warn against existing frameworks for professional development, which are typically prescriptive and developed without involving practicing teachers from participating schools (p. 130). In order to combat this, Johnson and Marx (2009) propose the implementation of "transformative professional development" or TPD. TPD is presented as a p ossible solution to this problem, as it is responsive to the needs of individual schools and teachers and the focus of eac h program is emergent in nature" (p. 130). The inclusion of school personnel as well as the emergent nature of TPD, dovetails with pa rticipatory action research as a guiding framework for this study. The innovative nature of this program derives from several factors. These include the following: (a) the workshop takes place on a university's campus, (b) it focus es on buildings as teachi ng tools, (c) builds on participants' interests (d) it strives to integrate best practices in teaching (guide on the side), (e) it finds its basis in Bransford et al. (2000) How People Learn and (f) it addresses issues of sustainability. The workshop exh ibit ed an emergent nature, as much of the discourse follow ed the participants' lines of inq uiry and interest. Goals were outlined in the documentation, but questions from participants, along with daily debriefing sessions provide d feedback about each day's value as well as direction for the succeeding portions of the experience. Flexibility, where applicable, allow ed for participants to chart their own paths. Senge (1990) notes that "Compulsory training, or 'elective' programs that people feel expected to a ttend if they want to advance their careers, conflict directly with freedom of choice" (p. 172). With this in mind, the professional development program reflect ed the participants' interests and follow ed their lead.


34 Theoretical Framework s The notion that a single paradigm can accurately reflect multiple perspectives and differing ways of knowing seems highly unlikely and slightly anachronistic. To combat this, Kincheloe and Berry ( 2004) take a pluralistic view, employ ing t he term bricolage to refer to situ ations in which multiple perspectives and paradigms help inform the research. "Kincheloe and Berry's (2004) interpretation of bricolage makes awareness and use of different viewpoints, and different scholarly literatures a virtue" (Willis, Jost, & Nilakant a, 2007. p. 333). Phenomenology and the Role of Experiences In large part, this study looks at the experiences of two individuals in their specific roles as sustainability coordinators at their schools during th e 2012 2013 school year Since "phenomenolo gical research is a strategy of inquiry in which the researcher identifies the essences of human experiences about a phenomenon as described participants" (Creswell, 2009, p.13), phenomenology provides an essential lens and framework for this study. Howeve r, in so much that I would have to set aside my "own experiences in order to understand those of the participants in the study (Nieswiadomy, 1993)" as cited in Creswell (2009, p.13), the phenomenological approach fails to reflect the true breadth and depth with which I am embedded in this subject In truth, I am unable to extricate myself completely, and rather unwilling to separate myself as it lends a perspective necessary to understand the lived experiences of Chip and Matt as sustainability coordinator s in independent schools. Given this arrangement, phenomenology informs the strategy and methodology, but is informed in part by


35 grounded theory. With Kincheloe and Berry's (2004) pluralistic perspective in mind, these paradigms guide my approach to resear ch. As Welch (1939) describes it, Husserl's phenomenology centers on experience. The experience Matt and Chip relate through their responses to questionnaires, comments in focus group discussions, and replies during interviews, coupled with the direction in which they push the professional development as engaged participants, tells a story of their experiences. In the end, phenomenology offers a framework to view and potentially to understand the experiences of these two sustainability coordinators. Th e resultant narrative aims to convey this phenomenological research carried out over the course of a year, and in the case of Chip, beyond as our professional paths intertwined. Phenomenology as a theoretical framework necessitates a constructivist lens to data collection and analysis. Howe (2001) argues, "knowledge, particularly in social research, must be seen as actively constructed as culturally and historically grounded, as laden with moral and political values, and as serving certain interests and p urposes" (p. 202). Wee, Shepardson, Fast, and Harbor (2007) make a similar argument. They claim, A study that investigates the e xperiences of teachers in their real world calls for an approach grounded in the constructi vist interpretivist perspective" (p. 67). Indeed, a study in which participants' experiences, reflections, and self reported sense of development serve as the primary data, a constructivist interpretivist perspective seemingly offers the most comprehensive way to make sense of the data. Part of the issue at hand revolves around trying to determine the participants' points of view. Bredo (2006) reminds us "In qualitative research in education . it creates the challenge to understand all of the interrelated parts of an activity, and not ju st to sample those that conform to an initial


36 interpretation" (p. 15). With this in mind, it is not realistic to expect agreement from all participants on the meanings they develop throughout the workshop. Each individual brings a different background to t he study and constructs knowledge in a unique way depending in part on their funds of knowledge (Gonz ‡ lez, Moll, & Amanti, 2005). Donmoyer (2001) makes the assertion that a majority of quantitative research but also a fair amount of research that could b e labeled qualitative reflects the sort of purposes that traditionally have motivated researchers: (a) to find the truth' about something; (b) to determine which answer is more correct'; and (c) to assess which strategy or program is more effective.' The difference between researchers in the past and most researchers today . is that most researchers today realize that terms such as truth correct and effective need to be surrounded by quotation marks because such terms refer to characteristics tha t are not absolute (p. 190). I do not believe that there will be one truth emergent from this research. Donmoyer's reorienting of the research endeavor toward relative "truth" helps inform this study. Since determining educators' experiences and perspecti ve serve as the main goal of this study, it is important to grasp this notion. Grounded Theory Grounded theory plays an essential role in this research. In the attempt to address the research questions, determining the impact of a PD model upon participa nts will lend itself to an u nderstanding of how sustainability coordinators envision their roles, the challenges rooted in their positions, and ways in which they navigate these complexities. Grounded theory finds its roots in the views and experiences of its participants (Creswell, 2009), supporting the theory via their unique experiences, not a contrived laboratory setting Ground ed theory considers a slew of factors, (a) the need to get out into the field to discover what is really going on; (b) the rele vance of theory, grounded in data, to the development of a discipline and as a basis for social action; (c) the complexity and variability of phenomena and of


37 human action; (d) the belief that persons are actors who take an active role in responding to pro blematic situations; (e) the realization that persons act on the basis of meaning; (f) the understanding that meaning is defined and redefined though interaction; (g) a sensitivity to the evolving and unfolding nature of events (process); and (h) an awaren ess of the interrelationships among conditions (structure), action (proves), and consequences (Strauss and Corbin, 1998, p. 9 10). These factors make grounded theory an important component of the study. Since participants play a major role and hold insigh t into the ways in which the professional development may or may not impact their teaching, grounded theory lends itself to understanding the impact of the workshop on their attitudes. (See Table 1 for the connection between grounded theory, TPD, and green schools). Participant Selection and Sampling In order to satisfy the neces sary characteristics for this study I employed criterion and purposeful sampling ( Schensul, Schensul, & LeCompte, 1999; Patton, 2002). Educators who take part in the professional development workshop need to demonstrate an interest in the material and concepts conveyed in the study as well as an interest in changing their teaching practices. Patton (2002) points out, The logic and power of purposeful sampling lie in selecting infor mation rich cases for study in depth. Information rich cases are those from which one can learn a great deal about issues of central importance to the purpose of the inquiry, thus the term purposeful sampling (p. 230). Since purposeful sampling "is based on the assumption that the investigator wants to discover, understand, and gain insight [they] must select a sample from which the most can be learned" (Merriam, 2009, p. 77), it suits the aims of this study most closely. Furthermore, LeCompte Preissle a nd Tesch (1993) assert that criterion based selection "is the starting point for all research" (p. 69). Lecompte and Schensul (2010) further this argument by claiming, "research ers choose individuals to study because they possess a


38 set of characteristics that match those of interest to the researcher" (p. 158). LeCompte and Preissle (1993) point out that the "Choice of whom to study is an interactive process which takes place firs t in the initial phases of a qualitative . study" (p. 57). They go on to suggest that groups are chosen "that poses some personal, empirical, or conceptual interest" (p. 57). As a former science teacher, this group is a natural focus for this study. Participants were chosen based on their interest in the topic, and application (see Appendix E and Appendix F ). The cohort included sustainability coordinators in Colorado. Due to the nature of the sustainability coordinator position, the participants came from independent school s. Though multiple individuals from the same school wo uld have be en ideal so as to create a small community of support within a single institution the sustainability coordinator position only accounted for a half time role for one participant and less than a quarter time position for the other, making it un realistic to have multiple people in the same position at the same school Initial recruitment of p articipants took place through professors at the University of Colorado, Denver and the researcher's professional networks, which were developed over the cou rse of two years teaching at an independent school in Denver, working at the University of Colorado, Denver, and pursuing interests in green schools by attending conferences on the topic. Individuals that attended the workshop self select ed ; they were not coerced into taking part in the PD The participants w e re a nonrandom, self selected sample and not represent ative of all sustainability minded educator s in the field However, the aim of the study was not to represent this group in its entirety. As state d earlier, the need for participants who demonstrate d an interest in the topic further ed the aim of the study.


39 ___________________________________________________________________ ___ __ Table 1: Relationship Between Components of Grounded Theory, TPD, and Green Schools and Place Based Education ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Components of Grounded Theory Transformative Professional Development Green Schools/Place Based Education ( PBE) The need to get out into the field to discover what is really going on Involves participants in a meaningful conversation in an attempt to understand their practices Exhibit a need to experience and involve the local environment The relevance of theory, grounded in data, to the development of a discipline and as a basis for social action PBE requires action in the social sphere, connecting back to learning objectives The complexity and variability of phenomena and of human action Fo cuses on urban science teacher change and is responsive to school climate, teacher needs, and teacher beliefs with the intention of promoting change in practice. Given the diversity of local environments and communities, PBE embraces the variability and employs it in educating students The belief that persons are actors who take an active role in respo nding to problematic situations Participants in the study shape the direction and content that they feel is most meaningful and engaging Green schools offer the o pportunity to engage students in active roles in the environment The realization that persons act on the basis of meaning F ocus on building relationships The understanding that meaning is defined and redefined though interaction Used to meet the needs of individual teachers and the collective needs of schools in reform efforts PBE situates learning in the local environment, making meaning from one's surroundings A sensitivity to the evolving and unfolding nature of events (process) F ocused on the de velopment of student conceptual understanding through culturally relevant science and effective teaching methods An awareness of the interrelationships among conditions (structure), action (proves), and consequences Participants see first hand how the ir agency impacts the structure of their experience in TPD Green schools and PBE demonstration inter relationships in content and action ________________________________________________________________________


40 S ince my experience was largely in independ ent schools, I tapped into this network. Given the curricular freedom at many of these schools, it very well may allow for easier integration and thereby explain why these organizations have sustainability coordinators Unfortunately this may come as a lim itation when looking to generalize some of the findings. Since this study relie d on a quasi convenience sample, Creswell's (2007) admonition that convenience sampling "Saves time, money, and effort . at the expense of information and credibility" (p. 1 27) must be taken seriously In an effort to increase transferability, "the degree to which the findings of a qualitative study can be applied or generalized to other contexts or to other groups" (Ary et al., 2002, p. 454), I sought a broad group of partic ipants, while trying to keep the total size of the cohort small so as to increase individualized attention. However, with two participants agreeing to take time from their personal lives and summer break to engage in the PD worksh op and year l ong follow up the cohort ended up small or than originally anticipated While t his allowed for in depth conversations, it reduced the degree to which findings can be generalized. Site Selection The University of Colorado Denver is my home institution. Familiarity wit h the buildings and surrounding neighborhood was developed over the three years prior to the study. Denver was chosen as the site of the study for numerous reasons. My affiliation with the USGBC Colorado Chapter's Green Schools Initiative allowed me access to a number of professionals in the arena of green school building, design, and advocacy. The specific site, the University of Colorado Denver, contains both LEED certified and non LEED certified structures C urrent c ampus policy stipulates that all build ings constructed


41 or renovated since 2009 adhere to LEED specifications (University of Colorado Denver, 2009). This provided a contrast for the PD to look at the built environment in terms of existing building stock and structures with energy and water effi cient components Features of LEED certified buildings are key to the goal of the study, but so too are the availability of traditional buildings ," those constructed prior to the advent of LEED certification Traditional buildings are essential since LEED certified structures comprise a small number of the total structures currently in existence. Although growing daily, there are only 32,271 total LEED certified projects, representing all building types, not just schools (USGBC, 2012). This pilot PD worksh op also takes place on the campus of University of Colorado, Denver due to the fact that participants do not come from the same district or school, creating a greater need for a central location. Furthermore, duri ng the course of the workshop, the univers ity renovated the facility housing the business school allowing the workshop participants an opportunity to tour the site and compare traditional buildings to a LEED certified structure thereby providing a unique insight behind the scenes of a green buil ding renovation School Demographics Participants in the student hail from two independent schoo ls in the Rocky Mountain Region. Braeburn Day School (BDS), located in a large metropolitan city serves kindergarten through eighth grade. Valley View School (VVS), situated in a smaller college town that serves as the county seat, services all grade levels from kindergarten through twelfth. BDS is situated in an affluent neighborhood where the median household income was $93,383 in 2011; nearly double that of the surrounding city (city, n.d.). While not all students live in the neighborhood, as a proxy, it


42 demonstrates the high socioeconomic status of its residents and the school's clientele. Property values, indicated here by estimated home value in 2 010 ($779,119) far outstrip the city ($346,933) where the neighborhood is located (city, n.d.). According to the school's website, only twenty one percent of the 645 students (approximately 135 individuals) identify as students of color, leaving n early 4 out of 5 members of the school hailing from white families. With nearly half the student body, though more grade levels, Valley Vista has approximately 315 students. The school's website does not contain i nformation on how many students of color at tend VVS C ensus estimates from 2012 can provide some insight into the ethnic composition of the school. According to the census data, Rio County, whose largest city is Valley Vista has a high level of college graduates (58.0%) and is predominantly white (91.2%) Furthermore, using the school's tuition and fees, a t a cost in excess of $18,000, for the high school grade levels monetary constraints preclude students of lower socioeconomic status from attending Professional Development Design Following the direction of the Piedmont Project at Emory University (Barlett, 2004) and the Ponderosa Project at Northern Arizona University (Chase and Rowland, 2004), this workshop aim ed to have educators alter existing lesson plans in ways that infuse d sustainability and facilities into their course syllabi, or what J. Cloud (personal communication, March 23, 2012) referred to as "sustainabilizing [ sic ] the curriculum." These two projects focused on professors at the two schools working in small groups to learn about sustainability and then adjusting their courses by swapping out existing materials and concepts with those related to sustainability. This workshop attempted to achieve a similar aim by having K 12 educators look at their current lesson plans and


43 devise wa ys to exchange instructional episodes that previously use d a centrally produced text or some other nondescript content with one centered on the facilities. Additionally, participants were to create one new lesson plan with a student driven project employin g the facilities as a central component of the exercise By doing so, the goal wa s to connect students with their surroundings and increase awareness of how everyday actions impact the environment and energy consumption. Various speakers and presenters wer e brought in to provide lectures, demonstrations, and mini workshops to teach about components relating to energy audits, construction, the built environment, and energy usage. Participants were given time to reflect on the speakers discuss their own scho ols and challenges faced on their respective campuses ( For a full schedule of the program, see Appendix D ) As the focus shifted from classroom educators to sustainability coordinators, the goal became developing an understanding of their daily challenges ways in which they overcame opposition, built networks, and participated in the PD process. As part of the need for intentionality, Guskey (2000) recommends beginning with a clear statement of worthwhile goals that can be assessed. Perhaps the most chall enging aspect of the three recommendations for professional development design put forth by Guskey (2000) is the notion of systemic process. Guskey (2000) points out "fragmented, piecemeal approaches to professional development do not work. Neither do one shot workshops based on the most current educational fad" (p. 19). As such, the workshop focus ed on reflection and discussion so participants could move more fully toward a systematic approach to integrating place into their curriculum.


44 Participatory Res earch Participants stand at the center of this research and the professional development undertaking. As such, the problem of adequately assessing and understanding the attitudes of the participants reigns supreme. My experiences in public schools stem fr om my time as a student in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) and as a student teacher in the New York City public school system while I obtained my teaching degree as well as consulting work with Mar Costa Charter High School With these iss ues in the forefront of my mind, as well as the need to engage teachers as part of the transformative professional development model, I decided to commit to a participatory action research model (Merriam, 2009). "In this type of critical research the polit ical empowerment of people through their involvement in the design and implementation of a research project is central" (p. 36). Additionally, the insights that educators can provide from their own experiences, help ed shape the professional development cou rse in ways that may be more meaningful to them as practitioners. Furthermore, teacher participants' acumen will serve as a sort of "tacit knowledge" (Sayer and Campbell, 2004). Community based participatory research (CBPR) offers another avenue for this study. The technique lends itself well to environmental justice (EJ) a related arena of research. CBPR has been used on a number of occasions in environmental justice work ( Minkler, Breckwich V‡squez, Tajik & Petersen, 2008; Shepard, Northridge, Prakash, & Stover, 2002 ). In CPBR the community plays a key role in link ing concerns about the environment with social justice Furthermore, CBPR can serve to achieve the dual goals of place based education and the proposed research project by engaging members of t he


45 community to help strengthen relationships between the physical environment and the curriculum. From its inception, the workshop was intended to be participant driven. Roadblocks existed early on though, as it was not feasible to get participant feedbac k and direction prior to obtaining IRB approval. The time frame from this point was a bit rushed and the first two days were planned without insights from participants. However, even at the close of the first day, there were examples of participant driven change, including one that led to an agenda alteration for the second day of the workshop. Originally, the workshop schedule included an outside speaker to present on energy audits, but both participants had undergone audits at their respective schools. As a result, we mutually agreed to remove this option. In its place, one of the participants wanted to visit a local LEED certified building (EPA Region 8 headquarters) so this replaced the audit. Unfortunately I could not arrange a personalized guided tour on short notice, but the facility offers a self paced tour which provi ded some general information that fulfilled the participants' needs After the first two days of the workshop, the participants decided to resurrect a previously existing committee of like minded educators from other independent schools across their home state. Matt Anderson offered to host the initial gathering at his school. He worked with Chip to set a preliminary agenda (Appendix G) and reached out to the wider community through a l istserve that was created for the original committee. Chip sent out a questionnaire to potential attendees ahead of the meeting ( Appendix H ) and shared his responses ( Appendix I ) with those who confirmed their plans to attend the meeting at Matt's school.


46 Implementing a professional development program that engages participants and provides significant opportunities to lead and to influence the direction of the experience has great utility. Garet, Porter, Desimone, Birman, and Yun (2001) suggest Apart from opportunities to observe teaching, plan classroom implementation, a nd review student work, professional development activities may also offer teachers the opportunity to give presentations, lead discussions, and produce written work. Active participa tion of this kind may improve outcomes by permitting tea chers to delve more deeply into th e substantive issues introduced (p. 926). Alexander and Henderson Rosser (2010) employ an alternative to the one size fits all schematic by integrating technology, previo usly seen as the purview of students in the classroom and not PD, to create a more customized approach that allows for smaller group interaction. This example of altering PD to fit educators' schedules and expose them to a specific modality that has applic ative value in the classroom serves as a potential model for the type of work undertaken in this study. Varela (2012) argues that PD should consist of "development that helps mentor, nurture, and enhance [educators'] professional repertoire" questioning "C ookie cutter approaches that do not match the real needs of teachers (p. 17). This study addresses two of the three "major sins" that Varela (2012) identifies as plaguing professional development, the "one size fits all mentality" and the fact "t hat it is not ongoing". To combat these concerns, Varela (2012) suggests that PD experiences "Involve teachers in the ... selection of activities" (p. 19), a key component of the design of this workshop. By engaging Chip and Matt in this type of hands on PD the goal becomes not only their increased sense of ownership, but also a more meaningful extension of the process. Passive reception of the ideas espoused throughout the course of the workshop runs counter the constructivist epistemological foundation of this study.


47 Reflexivity Reflexivity refers to the importance of reflecting on the assumptions t hat we make in producing what we regard as knowledge" (Hardy & Palmer, 1999, p. 381). As the researcher, I bring a certain set of biases, assumptions, and a perspec tive that is uniquely mine to this research endeavor. As such, I am unable to see all facets and factors of an issue. In an attempt to address these biases, I maintained a journal with my thoughts from each component of the workshop. Additionally, I engage d the participants in discussions of their biases and preconceptions in an effort to better understand my own predilections. At the same time, my biases are essential to my desire to undertake research centered on education, energy conservation, and the lo cal environment. If it were not for these factors, I would not take the measures to pursue this avenue of research in the first place. The challenge remains to adequately recognize and name these biases. Wohl (2009) discusses the "internal conflict between serving as a detached scientific observer and an activist scientist" (p. xviii) in relation to issues pertaining to the environment. This study concerns itself with the society and education's role in educating for a sustainable future. I taught middle sc hool science for five years. Three of those years I employed a textbook with the title, Science and Sustainability (SEPUP, University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Hall of Science, & Lab Aids, Inc. 2001) This served as my first foray into the realm o f Educating for Sustainability. After attending the Reggio Collaborative Winter 2008 Institute: Questions that Matter: Exploring Sustainability & Creativity I was introduced to systems thinking by Jaime Cloud of the Cloud Institute for Sustainability Educa tion. Upon relocating to the Rocky


48 Mountain region, I looked for ways to bring Educating for Sustainability to the school where I worked as a technology coordinator. It was in December of 2008 that I attended a workshop presentation from Henry Jameson, a c onsultant in the area of Educating for Sustainability. At that presentation, I met several individuals who were involved in the field of EfS at neighboring schools. When people genuinely care, they are naturally committed. They are doing what they truly wa nt to do. They are full of energy and enthusiasm. They persevere, even in the face of frustration and setbacks, because what they are doing is what they must do. It is their work (Senge, 1990, p. 148). And so it was as Senge (1990) notes, those committed, energetic people who inspired me to pursue a doctorate. As it turns out, several people at that meeting took part in this research including the two participants in this study Distancing myself from these people would not be possible on any real level. My work is intertwined with theirs, and I would not want it any other way. However, this makes separating myself from the participants and subject matter impossible. I am biased. There are no two ways about that. Despite this, I aim to remain impartial. I am biased by the questions I ask, the answers I select, and the story I choose to tell. Additionally, I can only see what I can see, whether because I am looking for it or I am slightly blind to the external "truths" that the participants may allude to th rough the transcripts. All of this is not to say that my flaws are unnatural or inhumane, in fact, if nothing else, they serve as testament to my "humanity", by which I solely mean my human ness. What exists in this document flows directly from my experie nce. Reared in a positivist world, but seeing it in a constructivist light, I hesitate to inject myself in the experiences of the participants, but because of a shared history, there is overlap and familiarity. Building rapport came naturally as the shared experiences provided me with a


49 level of cache t in the participants' eyes. I try to maintain objectivity, while coming to grips with the fact that their stories intersect with my own. My Role as Researcher and Participant Taking a page from the interpret ivist/constructivist line of thinking, I believe that "reality is a social construction'; that is, what people know and believe to be true about the world is constructed or created and reinforced and supported as people interact with one another over time in specific social settings" ( Lecompte and Schensul 2010, p.67). Ary et al. (2002) provide the following interpretation of science : "Perhaps science is best described as a method of inquiry that permits investigators to examine the phenomena of interest to them" (p. 10). With these perspectives as a guide, I view research as an exercise in knowledge creation. I see it as an on going, iterative process through which answers to questions may be ascertained. However, there are instances where answers to que stions remain elusive. Since the subjects are human, with wide ranging experiences, knowledge, and cultural understandings, I do not anticipate a singular response to address the questions. Furthermore, the effectiveness of this professional development w ill depend on participants (and you) connecting with the material in meaningful ways. These may include changes in their (and yours) educational philosophy, a shift in the language they (and you) employ in the discourse of education, or a re ordering of th e curriculum to center on place and the local built environment. Building Rapport LeCompte and Schensul (2010) provide an overview of the role of the researcher (as well as the role of the researched) organized by epistemological stance. Since this work s tems from the multiple paradigm perspective, this section aims to explicate my


50 role as researcher. While I have attempted to clarify my role in previous sections, I plan to further elucidate my role. Kinch e loe (2004) raises the issue that c ritical conscio usness refuses the passive acceptance of externally imposed research methods that tacitly certify modes justifying knowledges that are decontextualized and reductionist (p. 3) As much as possible, I guard against the reductionist approach. In working wit h these participants, I owe them my fullest attention to detail. The relationship I cultivate depend s on the actual individuals. As noted, my network draws largely from independent schools, a community that does not necessarily represent the range of facul ty in Denver Public Schools (DPS). Since the participants maintain a central role in the construction of both the workshop and the data being collected, it is imperative to pay attention to the distinction Quinn (1982) makes between neutrality and rapport. He states Rapport is a stance vis ˆ vis the person being interviewed. Neutrality is a stance vis ˆ vis the content of what that person says. Rapport means I respect the person being interviewed" (p. 171). Due to the relationship with the participants, th is notion of respect (i.e. rapport) is an important one because it allowed me to engage in an honest dialogue and elicit responses from Chip and Matt that represent their realities as they came to see them. Observations will be a significant part of the da ta collection process. I did not conceal my role as a researcher. Instead, I serve d in the rol e of "observer as participant" (Creswell, 2009, p. 186). S pending time with the workshop participants provide d ample data and opportunities to interact with them on a regular basis In my dual roles as researcher and workshop organizer, I had to step back and ask for assistance when interpreting participant responses as well as designing the workshop


51 to ensure maximal benefits for the participants. I d id not have all the answers, but I was extremely committed to the inclusion of energy conservation, as well as ensuring that students were exposed to these ideas. K eeping a journal of my own biases, helped maintain a conscious thought processes while allowing me to r evis i t conversations throughout the course of the workshop Furthermore, reflection on each day and how it went for me provided some further consideration for the iterative process that shape d the PD experience. B alanc ing the se dual roles led to the ultima te goal of support ing the participants as they work ed to integrate energy conservation and place based principles into their schools As Smith and Williams (1999) point out in the above quotation, "I . want to help develop and demonstrate that an educa tion that studies the world right around us is superior to a standardized, generic education" (p. 61). Data Collection Timeline The workshop portion of the research took place on August 7 8, 2012 with in person meetings at the participants' institutions occurring on September 21, 2012 and January 25, 2013. Additionally, the participants attended "Graduate to Green" on October 25, 2012, the green schools conference hosted by the USGBC 's Colorado chapter Data collection began with the aforementioned applic ations and continued into the 2012 20 13 school year. Follow up conversation s in person, over the phone, and via email continued with Chip Prentiss through the writing of the dissertation and continue to the present day. Interviews, observations, and all sc hool based research took place during this period. Transcription and data analysis occurred between December 1, 2012 and February 28, 2013. The findings were written up over the course of 2013 and sent to constituents for member checking on March 14, 2014. See Table 2 for an outline of the data types.


52 ________________________________________________________________________ Table 2 : Meetings with Participants, Including Data Collected __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________ Date Data Type Participants Note 8/7/12 Observations Chip, Matt Participants submitted documentation 8/7/12 Focus Group Chip, Matt 8/7 8/8/12 Observations Chip, Matt Field notes from workshop 9/21/12 Pre Meeting J oint Interview Chip, Matt Recorded interview with both participants prior to meeting 9/21/12 Observation, Fieldnotes Chip, Matt Meeting hosted at BDS 9/21/12 Post Meeting Joint Interview Chip, Matt Participants formal interview recorded before meeting, and informal (not recorded) after meeting 10/24/12 Informal Interview Chip Met Chip at neutral location in his hometown 10/26/12 Individual Interview Chip Recorded after participant attended morning sessions at green school conference 10/26/12 Indivi dual Interview Matt Recorded after participant attended morning sessions at green school conference 1/25/13 Observation Chip, Matt Meeting hosted at VVS 5/10/13 Informal Interview Chip Met Chip at neutral location in his hometown 8/15/13 Phone Convers ation Chip Chip called after email conversation 9/26/13 Informal Interview Chip Met Chip at neutral location in his hometown ________________________________________________________________________


53 Goals of the Study The primary goal of this study is to assess Matt and Chip's two sustainability coordinators at independent schools experiences and perspectives vis ˆ vis a professional development course aimed at incorporating school campus es into the curriculum. Understanding the culture of the schoo ls through Chip and Matt's work represents a major, yet significant charge of this research. My research aims align with the approach espoused by Smith and Williams (1999): Rather than requiring all teachers to teach environmental education, I would rather give teachers the freedom to teach from their hearts and give parents the freedom to choose the teaching approach they want for their children. I then want to help develop and demonstrate that an education that studies the world right around us is superio r to a standardized, generic education. If we demonstrate this convincingly, then there will be a growing demand from parents for teachers who teach this way (p. 61). Guskey (2000) warns of unintended consequences in professional development and the need for multiple indicators to determine the effectiveness of a program. Since the research questions set forth look at the impact of the professional development workshop, Guskey's admonishment will lead to various sets of data (indicators) being collected to guard against potential consequences. (See Table 3 for a summary of which data will be employed to answer the corresponding research questions ) Participants in the workshop w er e asked to submit the following documents as part of the application process: Educational philosophy Demographic information (see Appendix E ) Cover letter Brief questionnaire (see Appendix F )


54 After each section, participants were given time to reflect in a journal however, p articipants chose not to take part in reflective journalin g. A brief 15 30 minute d iscussion at the end of each day enabled the participatory process for influencing the second day to unfold in an organic manner In order to understand my personal thoughts, I maintain ed a journal to reflect on the daily struc ture, positives, and pitfalls of the participatory PD experience. These reflections inform ed my r eflexivity statement and served as an opportunity to collect my thoughts as I spen t time with the participants and presenters S emi structured interview s ( Merr iam, 2009) allow ed for some exploration of topics that ar o se, but to also provide d responses to a baseline of comparable questions. A list of potential questio ns can be found in Appendix A In my role as researcher, I am not tasked with making judgments ab out the participants' statements, only to clarify their intent for later analysis. Each interviewee was given a consent form (see Appendix B ) before agreeing to interviews. Protecting human subjects is of the utmost importance. All names wer e altered in or der to protect their identities. Likewise, int erviews were electronically recorded to ensure accuracy and provide an opportunity to review responses during data analysis In addition, I t oo k notes during the interview s, focus groups and meetings orchestrat ed by the participants, and after conversations with the participants. The digital recordings were stored on my password protected home computer and not made available. Transcriptions also altered the names of any party individual or organization in or der to further ensure anonymity. D emographic d etails of the schools were not changed as they play an important role in understanding the culture.


55 The initial research question was answered by employing Creswell's (2009) four criteria for qualitative resear ch : observation; interview; documents; as well as audio and visual material. Yin (2003) includes participant observation and subdivides audio visual material into archival records and physical artifacts. These additional data points will supplement Creswel l's four criteria in my research. ________________________________________________________________________ Table 3 : Research Questions and Related Data Sources ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________ ____________ Research Questions Primary Data Sources Secondary Data Sources What impact does this innovative PD model focused on place based education and sustainability have on school personnel's ability to integrate school facilities (in particular the built environment) with their school culture? Focus group interviews (before and after the PD) Individual interviews after final official meeting How do sustainability coordinators, as participatory researchers, shape professional development and envis ion teaching with a focus on the school's facilities in a frame of place based education? Focus group interviews (before and after the PD) Observations in meetings organized by participants How do participants' sense of ownership evolve over time thro ugh their participation in this process? Observations in meetings organized by participants; Questionnaire prior to workshop Individual interviews after final official meeting What evidence is there of their ownership/leadership within the workshop an d how does it manifest itself? Observations in meetings organized by participants Focus group interviews (before and after the PD) ________________________________________________________________________ Furthermore, f ocus groups wer e integral to collec ting multiple perspectives. Agar and McDonald (1995) and Delgado Bernal (1998) suggest that focus groups can serve as


56 an additional or complimentary, source of data. At the same time, Agar and McDonald (1995) warn against the domination of one or two indi viduals using focus groups By recording these sessions and transcri bing them at a later date I was able to determine that both participants took part in fairly equal measure In essence, the recordings helped demonstrate, and guard against th e possibilit y of either party dominating the discussion Focus group interviews (see Appendix C ) served as a quasi pre and post assessment of t h e participant s' attitudes. Originally, the study intended to provide PD for science educators. However, as recruiting took place, the network of interested individuals were connected by their role in sustainability. Given the interdisciplinary nature of sustainability and place based education those interested in teaching about sustainability and placed based education co me from a variety of disciplines Therefore, the science educator focus shifted to individuals working at K 12 schools within the realm of sustainability. For example, Matt Anderson's predecessor as sustainability coordinator at Braeburn taught in the Engl ish department then obtained a M aster 's degree in Educating for Sustainability (EfS). Chip Prentiss started his teaching career in social studies, demonstrating that sustainability coordinators can enter the field from a range of disciplines. Perhaps the u ltimate example in terms of green schools comes from Rachel Gutter, head of the Center for Green Schools, which serves as USGBC's green schools initiative. Gutter, arguably the national spokesperson f or green schools, majored in English (Ebner & Gutter, 20 11). While environmental sustainability lends itself to the environmental sciences, sustainability writ large consists of two other prongs, economics and social equity. The artificial divisions in academic disciplines (Language Arts, Science, Math, and Soc ial Studies) often inhibit


57 sustainability across the curriculum, instead of allowing for sustainability to bridge the gap in a transdisciplinary approach to teaching and learning. Data Analysis Qualitative research depends on a plethora of sources in orde r to answer the research question (Creswell, 2007) Comments from interviews, focus groups, and informal conversations were compared to the participants' applications ( Appendix F ) to evaluate whether a change in thinking occurred. Evidence of the change in clude comments during the focus groups emails, or phone conversations; general reflection (metacognitive or otherwise) ; debriefing at the end of a day of the workshop ; via questions asked and responses given throughout the course of the workshop ; or other informal means. The analysis of the collected data required organization and preparation of field notes. As such, I typed hand written notes from interviews, observations, and artifacts including documents and audiovisual materials. In addition, I repla yed all recorded interviews, and ma d e secondary notes. The typed notes were then sorted and arranged "into different types depending on the sources of information" (Creswell, 2009, p. 191 ). The data collected and analyzed from the study serve d as the foun dation for my dissertation. I wr o te up my field notes, transcribe d recordings, and code d the data. Once all the data was organized, collated, and arranged, I read through the transcriptions highlighting phrases and terms that appeared numerous times, whic h led to the creation of a list of recurrent themes Coding helped me to identify common themes vis ˆ vis barriers to implementation, ways in which buildings are incorporated into the curriculum, and unforeseen connections.


58 Verification and Member Checking As with any study, the validity of the results is essential. Given the narrow focus of this study (i.e. a small professional development workshop focusing on sustainability in education ), the aim is to understand the phenomenon and open doors for future study in the discipline. In order to validate the findings, I incorporate d Creswell's (200 9 ) strategies (see Table 4 for examples). ________________________________________________________________________ Table 4: Strategies for Validating Findings _______ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Strategy Explanation Triangulate different data sources of information This allow ed for corroboration and verification of potentially conflicting infor mation. Furthermore, the differing data sources help ed create a unified data set M ember checking Facts, figures, and quotations were shown to the project participants to verify validity C larifying researcher bias I provide d full disclosure in an att empt to clarify any potential bias on the researcher's behalf Present negative or discrepant information that runs counter to the themes When discrepancies ar o se, which they were bound to do, I provide d all the pertinent information dutifully working t o avoid selectively choosing data that merely supported a convenient argument ________________________________________________________________________ Table adapted from Creswell (2009) The themes that emerged from the data analysis are depicted below as headers Excerpts from the transcriptions provide evidence for the theme and lend insight into how I arrived at the themes The interpretations of data, combined with the literature from the field, served as the basis for the thematic development Each of the themes proffered in this analysis emerged from the data collected ( Table 5 ). Chip and Matt variously, and


59 alternately, over the course of the workshop and subsequent conversations touched on the following ideas in one form or another. _________________ _______________________________________________________ Table 5 : Themes and Their Meaning s ___________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ Theme Explanation Source (of theme) Institutionalizatio n and Creating a Culture of Sustainability Overarching theme, which includes student involvement/engagement and institutionalization; goal of both participants; also connected to barriers Imbuing sustainability in a school, including curriculum, grounds, and buy in from faculty, staff, administration, and students Barlett and Chase (2004) Student Involvement/Engagement Working with students to take ownership of sustainability related functions (from extracurricular clubs to organizing school wide event s) Building as Teaching Tools Using the grounds, buildings, and local neighborhood to teach concepts; this was fundamental to the intent of the workshop's design, but became less of a focal point as the participants molded the experience to their needs Li et al (2006) Curricular and Instructional Barriers Participants, along with researcher and previous research, identified a series of barriers to the implementation of EfS and related sustainability measures Sosu et al (2008) ; Ernst (2007); Barrett (2007) Hidden Curriculum In contrast to the overt curriculum lesson plans, textbooks, and codified instruction the hidden curriculum entails examples set by the school's actions the structure of schooling and the school grounds themselves Orr (2002 ) Collaboration (and the Clearing House) The need to work with other schools, and outside organizations, ranked highly among participants and members of ancillary group who met with participants _________________________________________________________ _______________


60 Development of Themes Schensul LeCompte, and Schensul ( 1999 ) point out "It is never possible to capture everything in our fieldnotes and records" (p. 12). With this in mind, my aim to reveal common themes from the transcribed interviews, focus groups, and artifacts inherently will miss points However, this approach will capture other insights from my participant researcher perspective As a qualitative researcher aware of my role of "researcher as key instrument" (Creswell, 2009, p. 175), I employ an interpretive lens in analyzing the data. Miles and Huberman (1994) put forth interpretivism as one of their three approaches to data analysis. This approach befits my phenomenological perspective As Gummesson (2003) exclaims, "All research is interpretive!" (p. 482). To further elucidate his point, Gummesson (2003) provides the following analogy, No ready to consume research results pop out like a soda can from a vending machine once we have inserted sufficient money and pushed the right butto n. There is interpretation all along, from the very start of a research project until the very end (p. 482). Given this iterative process, I engage d the data with a goal of understanding the process and expectations of my participants knowing full well t hat my interpretations will evolve and potentially conflict with one another until I reach some level of internal consensus I derived each of the six themes in Table 5 from this interpretivist analysis (Erickson, 1986) of the focus group, individual inter views, questionnaires, and observation over the course of the workshop. Using these artifacts, I set my unit of analysis as the individual. For example, I transcribed all the interviews from each participant manually, which served as a sort of first, rough pass through the data. By listening to each recording and transcribing the data without use of a modulating pedal to slow the speech, I had to return to each segment multiple times. As an example of the


61 time it took to transcribe, I spent roughly 1 hour to type 10 15 minutes of conversation. During this deliberate process, I started to formulate a sense of the participants' unique and shared challenges. Miles and Huberman (1994) warn against completing this task all at once. It would have overwhelmed me to try and spend one continuous stretch with the material. My efforts were spread over several months in the winter of 2012 13. As a benefit, this ongoing process allowed me to take a fresh perspective, often hearing the participants' words for the firs t time in weeks. Additionally, the rough pass through the data reacquainted me with the participants' thoughts and positions. In reality, transcription served as a second pass through the data, having been present at the initial data collecting phase. This process aligns with grounded theory in that the participants words and ideas form the basis of the understanding about their background By searching for commonality and dissension among their responses, the explanatory model of their experiences com es to the fore. Many of the themes were influenced by the literature and issues addressed therein (see Table 5 ). I used these themes to guide data interpretation, with the understanding that my own experiences as a sustainability educator, graduate student and founder of an organization dedicated to sustainability also shaped these findings. The following excerpts from the data help to describe this process in greater detail. Institutionalization and Creating a Culture of Sustainability The idea of "instit utionalizing" sustainability evolved from the thematic example set forth in Barlett and Chase (2004). Throughout the chapters in their edited volume of sustainability in higher education, this notion repeatedly arose, sparking my interest in institutionali zation and leading me to investigate it further at Braeburn and Valley Vista I


62 aimed to take this idea one step further by looking at how well, or poorly, Matt and Chip felt the culture of sustainability developed and its status in their schools. The fol lowing selection comes from an individual interview with Matt Anderson on October 26, 2012 after attending a morning of presentations about green schools: 31 Interviewer: Um, what are the barriers remainin g now that you do have that new 32 building? What barriers are still there in trying to cr eate the culture of sustainable 33 thinking? 34 35 MA: I think a lot of it is that we have, uh, like 50 staff members, that not everybody 36 has that same goal, I mean it's like a lot of them are just looking to get through the 37 year, not necessarily how do I change my, change any of my practices to fit into 38 sustainability. So it's like within the 6, ah, within the 6 science faculty, then we have it, 39 but probably have 20 to 30% real buy in in the regu lar teac hing staff, and then we 40 have, uh, 10% that really don't want to be bothered by it, so (laughs). The question clearly centers on the connected concerns of barriers and creating a culture of sustainability. In this example (lines 36 37), Matt's comment t hat a lot of [the staff] are not looking to change their practices reflects the difficulty with cultur al shifts at his school. This interpretation is further supported by Matt's comment (line 40) about staff not "want[ing] to be bothered by [sustainabilit y practices] Student Involvement/Engagement From the first meeting, a two day intensive experience that kicked off this workshop, Matt and Chip expressed concern over the student involvement in sustainability as a part of the school's process. In the f ollowing interaction, transcribed from the focus group style interview on August 7, 2012 after the first day completed, Matt and Chip discuss the challenges of engaging students: 5 MA: ... cuz that's my problem . .cuz I . I mean, u m, we have a green club and the 6 green club meets over lunch and just finding enough t ime to do anything was the hard 7 part . trying to . cuz we only have a 40 minute period every other week and . 8


63 9 CP: . right 10 11 MA: . and trying to organize ki ds is like herding cats, trying to get them there . 12 I ... I keep looking for a new idea of how to, how to organize the club and I'm just 13 trying to figure out . 14 15 CP: Well, I . I. . this year I . I think a major focus will be . I did most of the 16 organizing of the Earth week events and I ... I think that's something I think would be 17 great for the students to do. And to do a hunger banquet that I mentioned earlier and 18 there are so many other things that we could do tha t I think would be student led, um, 19 during that week which I think could be . take, uh, few months to organize and get 20 speakers lined up and get the, the community trash pick up organized and maps made 21 and there's plenty to do with that. (MA interjects) So I think specific projects . 22 23 MA: . cuz that's the thing. There's plenty to do. I'm trying to get . 24 I'm having a hard time finding time to do them. (speaker's emphasis). 25 26 CP: Right 27 28 MA: Like all those projects w ith . 29 30 CP: If you're trying to do them just during that time period. 31 32 MA: Yeah. 33 34 CP: That 45 minutes or whatever you have. That's dif ficult. But if you can have, if 35 you can have subcommittees if you will, for lack of a better word . in working on 36 these things, and . and . the purpose of these meetings is to come together and say 37 how are the subcommittees . 38 39 MA: Report back 40 41 CP: . doing. The reports, instead of trying to get t hings done during that meeting, 42 it's really kind of a touching base. And my role is t o coordinate those groups, make 43 sure they're, they're following through and getting things going. 44 45 MA : Yeah, that's . that's . that's . always been . I mean cuz that' s just trying 46 to find the time, I need, I need to figure out a be tter way cuz right now it's not 47 working for the kid based stuff . it's, I mean a lo t of it is kids helping me with 48 things that, that, I need to get . that we need to get don e, but trying to get them to 49 take more ownership, that's where the difficulties come in right now . .for me. The conversational nature of their discussion also hints at their joint desire to collaborate on the myriad issues, not just student involvem ent and engagement. Matt


64 shares his frustration (line 11) in trying to get his middle school charges together, likening his work as the green club's faculty mentor to "herding cats He notes (lines 23 24), "There's plenty to do" yet "finding time" in the highly structured day presents a challenge to getting his students to work on the club's initiatives, further thwarting his efforts to engage students. Chip faced a similar challenge with his high school students. He discusses (line 15 1 8) the desire to m ove the onus onto the students and have them take responsibility for organizing activities. I did most of the organizing of the Earth week events and I ... I think that's something I think would be great for the students to do there are so many other thi ngs that we could do that I think would be student led. Building as Teaching Tools After the green schools presentations that Matt, Chip, and I attended on October 26, 2012, I posed a set of related, albeit differentiated questions to Chip and Matt, due to the fact that Matt's school had a LEED certified building that essentially necessitated teaching about it to maintain its certification. Their responses, shown below hint at the role of buildings in the hidden curriculum, as opposed to the overt, schoo l sanctioned educational plan: 17 Interviewer: What do you see as the role of the s chool facilities, the building, 18 especially now that you have (MA: mmhmm) your LEED certified, in the culture of 19 the school? And kind of, trying to bring about the id ea of sustainability? How's that, 20 how's the built environment fit in? 21 22 MA: Well, I think a lot of it's the kids, the kids see that they're, that school has kind 23 of made that investment, and put that, put that in practice. And then also that we w ant 24 to u that it's not just a building, it's a tool for us to actually teach about water and 25 electricity and various, uh, consumer products and things like that, so, compost, so it's 26 uh, I think that the kids see that we see that/it as important so they start saying, 27 "maybe I should start paying attention to this"


65 128 Interviewer: It kind of leads to one of the questions I was curious about. What do you 129 see as the role of the school facilities in your, in the culture of creating that ki nd of 130 environment. So, what, what role do you see the built environment, if any, playing in 131 trying to foster that community and that culture, and it could include what you've 132 talked about in terms of the zero waste, so not just the, just the ph ysical plant, but 133 also what you've already done at the school. 134 135 CP: Well, one thing, I'm, I'm really working on and designing a curricular piece for 136 the eco club, which is a, a class, an elective class at Shining Mountain, is I'm going 137 t o have the students, is when they focus on their individual environmental impact, 138 their carbon footprint if you will. And I'm going to have them help me to calculate 139 the school's, the high school's, um, carbon footprint and environmental impact and I 140 think that's a, that's a great way to raise awarenes s about, huh, okay, you look at 141 building energy, you look at water and waste stream and can you calculate that, can 142 you come up with an, an index, is another way that I want to do it, I wan t to establish 143 different indexes that we can then compare a Shining Mountain, a school of 317, a 144 high school of 80+ with University High, [the] high school of 2,000 because you can 145 do it per student, you could do energy per student and that kin d of thing, so I think 146 engaging them with numbers about their particular environment that they live and 147 just raise awareness about, huh, um, what's going on in this particular building In both of these excerpts, Chip and Matt discuss the influen ce of the local environment. Based on my interpretation, Matt is more concrete in that he focuses on (lines 24 25) the "water and electricity and various consumer products which befits his middle school audience. This represents a developmentally appro priate approach for children. It is possible that middle school students see the physical structure and the "school's investment while Chip's high school pupils experience a more abstract interpretation of the facilities as teaching tools. His perspecti ve (lines 145 146) of "engaging them with numbers about their particular environment that they live and rais[ing] awareness appropriately addresses the issue for high school aged students. The use of the surroundings, a place based approach, signifies t he modality through which buildings as teaching tools can enter a sustainability curriculum.


66 Curricular and Instructional Barriers During this group interview (August 7, 2012), when Matt was asked what barriers he perceived to "The use of facilities, sp ecifically ... into the daily instruction or, you know, swapping out parts of a unit?" he stated that he did not see (overt) barriers to bringing sustainability into the school. However, Chip countered with his experience at Valley Vista Valley Vista foll ows a prescribed educational approach, not unlike an authentic Montessori experience might unfold for its students. Here are Chip's thoughts in light of his school's somewhat rigid philosophy on sustainability education: 517 CP: I actually, I see huge bar riers at Valley Vista because of the curricular issues, 518 but I'm wondering whether, uh, it has to be one more thing that the teachers add into 519 their curriculum. Maybe it's something where "Hey, if you do it well enough . do 520 it like the Alli ance Center with the signage and the signals maybe it's possible to do 521 it without, uh, and you take baby steps with the science teachers and with the math 522 teachers, or whatever. Uh, I don't know. 523 524 Interviewer: Is the curriculum prescribed in the sense of, not pacing guides, but . 525 content . this has to be covered, or just what general concepts at which ages? . 526 the development piece. Is it very prescribed? 527 528 CP: The classroom teachers have a lot of l eeway in how they t ake the core 529 curriculum and make it there own, and present it. I just, I, this type of thing would 530 not be comfortable for a lot of teachers period let alone Valley Vista teachers, to try 531 to integrate on top of all the other things that they're trying to do. So I just see that as 532 the major deal. At the high school level? Yes, but I think below that would be very 533 difficult. Chip and Matt work at independent schools, which ostensibly have greater autonomy in their curricular decision mak ing. However, (lines 517 519) Chip points out that Valley Vista has "curricular issues" that stand in the way and present "one more thing that the teac hers add into their curriculum," which already contains a prescribed set of concepts and activities. He p oints out (line 529 530) "this type of thing would not be comfortable for a lot of teachers period echoing Sosu et al.'s (2008) findings that


67 teacher competency in the realm of environmental, or this case sustainability, education serves as a barrier to the implementation of these concepts and themes within the educational structure of the school. Hidden Curriculum Orr (2002) discusses the hidden curriculum's influence over the learning process. In the following response on his workshop questionnaire, C hip reflects on the hidden curriculum : 1 Question: What do you see as the barriers to integra ting school facilities into the 2 curriculum? 3 4 Response: It's hard to make the "hidden curriculum" ex plicit rather than implicit to 5 raise awareness and chang e habits is a difficult task. 6 7 Training teachers to see their built environment as part of the curriculum is not "natural" 8 because it can't be caught in a textbook. 9 10 Anything that is "place based" as much as this curr iculum is would be difficu lt to 11 teach to teachers on a large scale. 12 13 Most likely one would have to encourage this type of thinking in schools of education 14 places that are famously conservative in their thinking. Chip acknowledges (lines 4 5) that "mak[ing] the hidd en curriculum' explicit is a difficult task." He points out (lines 7 8) "Training teachers to see their built environment as part of the curriculum is not natural' because it can't be caught in a textbook." Since buildings and facilities exist outside o f the codified curriculum, making them explicit presents a challenge to educators. Additionally, he touches on the issue of textbooks as limiting the curricular scope, acting as a barrier in its on right to sustainability education.


68 Collaboration (and the Clearing House) At the first of two meetings (September 21, 2012) hosted by the participants at their respective schools, Chip and Matt voiced a similar interest in collaboration, making it a hallmark of the meeting's agenda and our steps forward after t he meeting. 1 Interviewer: I just wanted to get your guys' sense of what your goals are for the 2 meeting today, what you're hoping to get out of it, before other people come in 3 4 CP: Glad you asked. 5 6 MA: cuz, we just wrote up there just kind of lo oking for collaboration opportunities, 7 looking for next steps, being able to meet more often, uh, just trying to see, sitting 8 down, and what are other people's goals. 9 10 CP: I think the sense in general is that, that we have worked as individuals if you will, 11 schools, and they've done some great things as individuals, but we think that there's 12 power to be had in collaboration and getting together and really seeing what is a, a 13 model that we could use and use consistently. We've tried a couple things in the past 14 that, that have not been able to be sustainable, so how do we move beyond. Finding common interests and goals to push their shared visions forward, and working with other like minded individuals to shepherd a sustainable future rank ed high among the interests and goals of Chip and Matt. In the goals they set for the meeting (lines 6 8 ), Matt discussed an interest in "looking for collaboration opportunities ," next steps and seeing "other people's goals Speaking with one voice using "we Chip stated (lines 11 12 ) "we think that there's power to be had in collaboration and getting together


69 CHAPTER IV FINDINGS The emergence of major themes as described previously in qualitative data analysis (see Table 5 ) is elaborated upon in this chapter to give voice to participants' experiences in this study Specifically, this chapter further explores the meanings within the comments, interviews, and observations of Chip and Matt in an attempt to make sense of their work. The follow ing is an integration of primary findings in this study (major themes) and a discussion of the opportunities/challenges in effective PD where school campuses become teaching tools. Institutionalizing a Culture of Sustainability Student engagement may be c onsidered a subset of a larger issue at Braeburn Day School (BDS) and Valley Vista School ( VVS ) Both sustainability coordinators attempted to inculcate a culture of sustainability at their schools. However, Matt acknowledged that it's an uphill battle. Wh en asked why he chose to take part in the workshop, he said everything that I do, it's frustrating. There's just not enough buy in. There's enough buy in with the idea . that sustainability is a good thing, there's just not enough buy in to get the wo rk done ( focus group August 7, 2012). To bolster this assertion, Matt mentioned an episode that occurred prior to hosting the first meeting. Before the meeting he hosted on September 21, 2012, Braeburn's annual Family and Friends Day an important event to raise the school's profile and invariably gifts to bolster the school's endowment each guest received a single use plastic water bottle. He tacitly acknowledged the inability to breakthrough to this deeper level of the school's culture. In addition, Matt intimated that the expectation was for everyone to have their


70 own water bottle, as opposed to a more sustainable option like reusable cups, bringing water bottles from home, compostable containers, or using the drinking fountain a time honored tradi tion in grade schools. In a similar experience, Chip recounted efforts to engage students in a contemplative exercise wherein they reflected upon Henry David Thoreau's Walden at a nearby body of water. Despite the pond's proximity to the school, less than a quarter mile by Chip's estimation, students drove to the site, demonstrating not only the hegemony of consumption, but of the automobile (Wilson, 2011 a ). Despite Matt 's and Chip's efforts, sustainability remains a fringe element at their schools, in part due to the fact that it inhabits a realm outside of the daily knowledge and experience. Because it resides beyond the everyday, institutionalizing sustainability not only continually presents a challenge, in some respects it represents an unattainable goa l at this juncture. This disconnect between supporting the idea in theory but not in practice presents a major challenge in moving from talk about sustainability to action vis ˆ vis sustainability in education. Matt needed to find ways to get "buy in th at is, to motivate students, faculty, and staff, in order to develop some shared understanding and appreciation of sustainability. He posed the following question, "how do you develop a community feel for sustainability ? ( field notes September 21. 2012) In an attempt to accomplish this, one of the future agenda items Chip brought up at the first meeting (see Appendix G for agenda) was "having the conversation, how to facilitate, [and] how to develop the community of practitioners" ( field notes September 21, 2012) when creating a school culture open to sustainability. The initial meeting hosted by Matt at BDS demonstrates an important step in having Matt's input shape the direction of th is PD


71 experience. It may play an important role in helping to generat e a discourse at schools that has not been present. Talking about sustainability in a non threatening manner can also alleviate concerns about additional workload unfamiliarity with content related to the topic, or perception that sustainability has no co nnection to one's disciplinary focus Stephens, Hernandez, Rom‡n Graham, & Scholz (2008) point out that there are challenges associated with limited cross disciplinary and inter departmental communication that could foster and enhance collaborations to a ddress the integrated and complex challenges of sustainability (p. 330). S ilos in education often prevent these conversations from transpiring in the first place Those who exhibit a commitment to sustainability need to engage others and help guide them t oward sustainability. Barriers to change abound. Equipping sustainability minded folks with the vocabulary values and skills to navigate the dialogue can prove fruitful. Kurland (2014) discusses how a small liberal arts college moved toward a more fully i ntegrated and functional conception of sustainability through committee work in which students, faculty, and administration worked cooperatively, learning from one another. Kurland (2014) found that a willingness to engage in an ongoing process of shared understanding (p. 63) represents a key component in framing the discussion of sustainability in educational settings Not everyone views sustainability as pertinent to his or her livelihood. C. Howett made the point that her university's position as a hea lthcare leader which includes a medical school, nursing school, and school of public health provided a common set of goals that everyone could support, namely sustainability as a health concern (personal communication, November 5, 2012). Given sustaina bility's varied definitions (Williams & Millington, 2004) schools looking to implement EfS need to fin d common ground, a


72 purpose that unites stakeholders in a shared vision. What works for one school, as alluded to in Howett 's comment, may not suffice at another. Having the conversation, finding the common goals and interests, and coalescing around a shared vision remains essential to fostering sustainability in education. Due to its malleability and pervasiveness sustainability can act as a unifying principle, the trick being identifying how it relates to a particular school's mission, goals, and purpose. Invariably, the core tenets of sustainability as laid out in the Brundtland Report (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987) namely preserving resources for future generations can serve as a thread tying together academic disciplines When students, faculty, staff, and community members identify sustainability with tangible facets of their lives, it becomes an actionable goal. T he Cl oud Institute for Sustainability Education (n.d.) suggest s EfS aims to restore "the health of the living systems upon which our lives depend" (para. 1) This represents on overarching goal of EfS, regardless of the methodology or locally rooted conception of sustainability. While i mproved student performance, healthier communities, increased access to services and employment may speak to specific stakeholders, finding the commonality may provide inroads to engage an entire school in sustainability initiativ es. Institutionalization On a few occasions throughout the workshop, the notion of institutionalizing sustainability arose. One of Chip's goals was to work on institutionalizing sustainability at his school. However, his position as sustainability coordi nator was a limited, two year position funded by a family donation to VVS specifically for the purpose of sustainability. Due to this finite window, Chip exhibited a much greater sense of urgency


73 than Matt at times. The workshop began in the summer betwee n the first and second year in his position and he wanted to ensure that the sustainability components he enacted would remain in place at VVS This highlights the challenges of sustaining sustainability efforts short term incentives (like Chip's situati on) are not ideal whereas long term, institutionalized opportunities (like Matt 's position at BDS) can have greater p otential to a ffect change. Having a voice on the faculty/staff at a school officially tasked with coordinating sustainability measures refl ects a school 's commitment, but also creates an institutionalized position codified by the administration and recognized throughout the community. However, la ck of administrative support may hamper the individual 's effectiveness. I nstitutional support in the form of a committee with representatives from the student body, clerical and custodial staff, faculty, and admin i stration or informal networks of committed individuals can ensure that the sustainability coordinator represents more than an empty prom ise, and achieve long term commitments to sustainable initiatives. Chip hosted the second meeting of the ad hoc sustainability group on January 25, 2013 at VVS In addition to Chip, VVS 's head of grounds and a teacher from the high school attended the mee ting. VVS a relatively old school (30 years) situated on 11.8 acres in the town of Valley Vista benefited from the head of grounds who worked to further sustainability initiatives For example, he maintained several green spaces on campus and continual ly looked to improve the school's energy efficiency during h is 25 year tenure there Having an integral member of the school's administration/staff plays an important role in VVS 's attempt to make sustainability more than a superficial endeavor. With Chip' s imminent departure, a real need existed for numerous members of the


74 community in a variety of roles to take ownership of sustainability related actions, ranging from curriculum to operations. The literature suggests that institutionalizing sustainabi lity has presented challenges at various other educational institutions, particularly higher education (Uhl, 2004; Jahiel & Harper, 2004). Documentation of sustainability initiatives in primary and secondary schools remains the realm of collections of stor ies about sustainability initiatives and green programs ( Chapman 2012 ; Stone & The Center for Ecoliteracy 2009), with scant research in academia vis ˆ vis institutionalizing sustainability practices in K 12. Perhaps due to his upcoming departure, instit utionalizing sustainability served as a major goal of Chip's work at Valley Vista Given the nature of his job funding, title, and duration, and the fact that he did not have a full time position lined up with the school after the funding expired Chip's work aimed to set a framework for sustainability in the daily functioning of VVS Overburdened, Balancing Roles Matt, with his primary role as a classroom teacher, did not display the urgency that Chip expressed. His responsibilities as a classroom teache r dominated his time. Matt stated that the position of sustainability coordinator accounted for roughly 20 percent of his contractual obligations though in reality he estimated that it probably more closely approximated 10 percent (field notes, August 8, 2012) Additional duties at BDS split Matt's time and focus between various pursuits, namely teaching, advising, coaching, and sustainability. From independent schools to public ones, teachers have responsibilities ranging far beyond daily instruction. Dur ing my time in the classroom, I constantly dealt with initiatives from the administration, including but not limited to technology infused


75 lessons, student centered classroom designs and formative assessment practices. All of these were on top of gender r esponsive, inquiry based curriculum and the sustainability lens I wished to add to the lessons As described to me when I began teaching at an independent "country day school," the model for teachers includes advising and coaching, not to mention serving on any number of committees. All of these demands on my time were exclusive of the No Child Left Behind and Adequate Yearly Progress measures public school teachers deal with constantly, as manifested by high stakes testing. Furthermore, i n Colorado, Senat e Bill 10 191 (Colorado Department of Education 2010) evaluates teachers in part based on student performance on these test. Having inherited the position, as opposed to creating it like Chip, there may have been a slightly lower level of urgency in Ma tt's work. Matt had limited opportunities to pursue an agenda of his own creation. While he received support from BDS, there appeared little room for him to expand the role. In part this resulted from the aforementioned commitments but the lack of strong administrative push undoubtedly manifest itself in a reduced role for Matt, regardless of his passion for the position or desire to implement greater sustainability me a sures. H e demonstrated his passion for his work, but BDS demanded Matt's time in a way t hat precluded him from fully engaging in his role as sustainability coordinator. Matt's predecessor created the position for herself, though she also maintained a dual role of teacher and sustainability coordinator at BDS Braeburn's previous sustainabilit y coordinator secured a 75/25 split (L. Gleason, personal communication, April 27, 2012) prior to the head of her division leaving to take a role elsewhere. When Matt took over, the individual who granted the quarter time position no longer worked at the s chool


76 While Matt serve d in a quasi administrative position, he act ed in more of an advisory role to the administration. Matt's role as a liaison to the administrati on did not afford him the same level of access that Chip appeared to have (even though Chip was ultimately unable to get the administration to move completely in the direction that he pushed ) The limited access to power structures and decision making hinder ed both Chip and Matt's ability to ingrain sustainability throughout the school. Resistan ce from faculty and staff that failed to acknowledge the need for EfS arose in conversation Chip cited the response he received from teachers where they viewed sustainability as "one more thing that the teachers add into their curriculum (focus group, Au gust 7, 2012) Engendering a Cultural Shift: Voicing Frustration and Perceived Failure Throughout the professional development experience, Chip and Matt relayed a sense of failure when it came to institutionalizing sustainability Challenges in altering their respective school cultures presented a constant struggle. While content crept into the curriculum, the behavioral and paradigmatic shift envisioned failed to take hold. Confronting the hegemony of consumption and its antecedents thwarted both sustain ability coordinators as they moved forward with their attempts to reconcil e what they were integrating into the curriculum with the lack of sustainability's assimilation into the school culture. Chip and Matt perceive that their communities (students, fell ow faculty and staff, parents, administrators) do not adhere to ideals of sustainability and voiced frustration over the lack of culture building around sustainability. Senge's (1990) discussion of vision and purpose may shed some light on Chip and Matt's perceived struggles to imbue sustainability throughout their respective schools. He argues, "vision is a specific destination, a picture of a desired future" and purpose is "a


77 direction, a general heading" (p. 148 9). The former represents the concrete, wh ile the latter signifies the abstract. Whether Chip and Matt felt stuck in the vision phase, only picturing an end state for their respective schools or in regards to a "purpose," both shared their frustrations at what they believed to be an inability to t ransition their schools from wasteful to sustainable. In the end, their own perception of what they accomplished may not have lined up with reality. In order to more accurately determine this a discussion ensued where Chip and Matt would assess their schoo ls on various sustainability indicators While these were not developed over the course of the workshop, Chip's questionnaire ( Appendix H ) serves as a pre assessment of sorts. However, without a follow up, the data needed for Chip (or Matt) to verify their perception that they had not accomplished their goals, becomes difficult. Furthermore, codifying goals could galvanize supportive elements within the school to rally around the tenets of sustainability as laid out by Matt and Chip in a formal document. Hi dden Curriculum In order to achieve systemic change, Chip discussed the need to bring to light the hidden curriculum. The hidden curriculum in this study refers to implicit messages sent by the school including personnel and the buildings. In particular it relates to the unintended lessons students learn from the actions of school personnel. A lack of overt, visible commitment to sustainability represents a discordance that exemplifies the hidden curriculum In his pre workshop questionnaire, Chip point ed out, It's hard to make the hidden curriculum' explicit rather than implicit -to raise awareness and change habits is a difficult task" (August 7, 2012). Orr (2002) also touches on the hidden curriculum as it


78 pertains to buildings and landscapes. By un masking the heretofore unseen, schools can start to address these changes. Chip states, as we talked, there's congruence between the overt curriculum, the science curriculum . the every curriculum, the every, and the hidden curriculum . and they al l make sense, that it is fully in coordination, there's nothing where you go huh, they're teaching about it, but then they're doing this' ...that's the conversation I'm really interested [in] ( joint interview, September 21, 2012 italics added ). Furthermo re, Chip's comment above delves into the need for schools to model sustainable behavior and attitudes. Higgs and McMillian (2006) describe how students see through the platitudinous overtones educators pay to sustainability in schools that fail to walk the proverbial talk. For example, schools may integrate sustainability into the curriculum, but the concepts being taught sometimes conflict with unsustainable behaviors that the schools model to their students (Higgs & McMillian, 2006, p.40), creating a di sconnect between the school's actions and their teachings Higgs and McMillian (2006) point out that this Inconsistency between teachings and practice has con fused students (Berryman & Breighner, 1994) and decreased both the likelihood of emulation (Bandu ra, 1986) and educational effectiveness (Pintrich & Schunk, 2002 )" (p. 40). Determining the role th at school facilities play is important in setting the precedent. Matt echoes this sentiment when talking about Braeburn's LEED certified building, I think a lot of it's the kids, the kids see that they're, that school has kind of made that investment, and put that, put that in practice" ( interview, October 26, 2012). The school's newest building houses the dining facility and uses abundant natural light, as w ell as systems that students may not readily see such as an organic waste disposal that consolidates a majority of the compostable waste, thereby reducing the amount of


79 solid waste generated in the building. Matt estimated that the reduction in waste sur passed 90% (reducing the daily waste from15 trash cans to a handful each week). In this case, the school's actions speak loudly and ring true. As Higgs and McMillian (2006) point out, It appears that modeling allows schools to foster learning about sustain ability and the adoption of sustainable behaviors without the need to preach or proselytize . If students learn through direct and continual observation that the people and institutions they respect engage in sustainable practices, rather than simply b eing told of their value, they may be more likely to adopt such behavior s (p. 50). A hidden curriculum also raises the question of prescribed education and its benefit s Short (2010) suggests environmental education means educating for the environment with strategies that promote critical thinking over knowledge transmission, investigation over indoctrination, and collaborative, local, science based solutions over advocacy driven measures (p. 8) With sustainability education that minimizes a hidden agenda' students are not responding to a lesson from the textbook but rather, to real world cues and issues of importance to them. This achieves the goal of student centered classrooms, an integral component of how people learn (Bransford et al., 2000). F lanagan, Syverts en, and Wray Lake (2007) identify preservation of shared environmental resources as a one of five resonant themes motivating youth activist projects Given that sustainability is a forward facing concept, teens arguably have a more vested i nterest in sustainability than older populations, despite what appears to be a waning concern for environmental issues amongst teens over the past three decades ( Wray Lake, Flanagan & Osgood, 2009) Student centered classrooms can put the onus and owner ship on students to find connections between sustainability and the curriculum


80 For independent schools like BDS they do not participate in high stakes testing tied to funding or external pressures in terms of curriculum. This provides the latitude to c over sustainability related material without fear of students losing time in order to prepare for a standardized test that fails to acknowledge their place. This integration represents hands on learning that employs tangible assets that students can see, t ouch, and feel, not just read about in a textbook. After Chip's two year position ended, VVS discussed embedding sustainability in the curriculum, moving it from the hidden to the enacted. However, in Chip 's estimation the administration's consideration o f hiring a sustainability teacher does not reflect true integration (interview, September 26, 2013 ) He views the addition of a sustainability instructor position as a tokenistic nod to sustainability, not an attempt to weave it into the daily core curricu lar experience. This tacit acknowledgment that sustainability maintains some level of import, yet it does not reside within the overt curriculum reflects VVS's half measures in terms of EfS Student Involvement/Engagement Both Chip and Matt realize the need to engage and involve students in the process of embedding sustainability at their respective schools. The power of students to be the agents of change was driven home at the green schools conference. After attending the conference, Matt reflected, a lot of the sessions are talking about [how] the kids are the ones that are good police and call the teachers out on things" ( interview October 26, 2012). Reinforcing the idea of students as leaders was an important realization. B oth Chip and Matt struggl ed moving the onus of sustainability onto the students when overseeing student groups especially in the preparation of school events and school wide


81 announcements. Chip's green club, a collection of high school students at VVS spearheaded the Earth week festivities at his school the previous year. However, Chip saw the need to move that responsibility to the students. I did most of the organizing of the Earth week events [last year] and I . I think that's something I think would be great for the stud ents to do" (focus group, August 7, 2012). He continued to explain that while the students were focused, a lot of it is kids helping me with things that, that, I need to get . that we need to get done, . trying to get them to take more ownership, that's where the difficulties come in right now" (focus group, August 7, 2012). One avenue to complete this transition in Chip's mind, was to set better expectations. I need to do a better job of having a specific club mandate, for example, I mean this is what the club is about, this is when it meets, this is how decisions are made, this . this is who we report to. That, I think, that's very helpful to have that laid out." ( f ocus group, August 7, 2012 ). While Chip and Matt ran into some obstacles, the y were not dealing with the same populations. Chip worked with high school students (ages 13 19 ) while Matt's included seventh and eighth graders (ages 11 1 4 ) BDS and VVS students come from fairly affluent, predominantly white families. Valley View famil ies may seek out the pedagogical foundation of the school, but it is still seen as a stepping stone to college. Braeburn Day School tends to attract high achieving students interested in their secondary education preparatory programs. Given the latter fact or, it comes as a bit of a surprise that self serving (or self starters) students pass up the opportunity to lead their schools' green clubs in an effort to pad their applications to college in the case of VVS or prestigious high schools for middle school students at BDS, which ends at eighth grade. Matt struggled to get his younger students to follow through, let alone lead. Much like Matt's various commitments diverted his complete attention his students had limited


82 time to dedicate to the green club. Al though BDS's student body tends to exhibit high levels of motivation, the green club meets during lunch, competing with time for eating and other student organizations. Many students participate in various other activities during lunch like student counci l, and do not have time for the green club precluding the high achievers from taking part in the green club As he saw it, the lack of motivated students and time crunch hindered the club's ability to make substantive progress. He presents a typical scena rio here, last year one of the things the kids wanted to do was, like, kind of like Eco tips that go into, into our . newsletter, website, those kinds of things but he found the kids that I had weren't intrinsically motivated enough just to do it d espite the high achieving nature of the school and its students. Matt espoused similar sentiments to Chip by stating, "my goal is that they lead ( focus group August 7, 2012). Matt did not view interest level in the work as an issue. I got a lot of the k ids who really were fired up and wanted to do whatever they can, but when it came to actually doing the work it was like pulling teeth to actually get them to do the work ( focus group August 7, 2012). He hypothesized that students lack ed motivation large ly because they d id not receive a formal grade. Without measures of accountability whether standardized tests or graded assignments sustainability exists outside the traditional school experience. Schools send s tudents s ignals as to what they deem impo rtant. From an early age in school, report cards and standardized tests act as the arbiter of significance. If no test or report card exists to serve as an indication that society or schools acting as their proxy value sustainability, arguing for its b enefit in the face of the traditional evidence (i.e. tests ) appears contradictory to societal norms While sustainability may not lend itself to a report card for students, this may demonstrate one


83 of the ways to increase its stature and make schools and thereby students accountable for it One major difference between Matt and Chip's connection to students can be seen in their roles outside of sustainability. Matt's position as a classroom teacher, coach, and advisor provide d him with the access to stu dents and educational opportunities that ar o se in the course of an average school day. Chip's lack of regular interactions with students thwarted him from direct connections to learning that takes place. Striking the balance between access to students and to decision making represents a major challenge fo r sustainability coordinators in schools. While Chip recalled a few occasions where he interfaced with students as part of Valley Vista 's zero waste initiative, these sporadic interactions precluded Chip fr om acting as a reinforcing guide in the realm of sustainability. Rowe (2004) suggest s broad coalitions and identifying champions in various areas in order to institutionaliz e sustainability Although fun ding may present an obstacle to having multiple paid sustainability coordinators, finding champions in the support staff and a range of academic disciplines to create committees or informal networks to support EfS offers a multi pronged approach to combat the isolation of sustainability with an individual. U ltimately, Chip and Matt wanted increased student engagement. They each expressed interest in figuring out ways to do so As one possibility, Chip suggested that Matt have students put together an annual report. He recommended they take real data from the school and they would be responsible for going to Eliot Browne [Braeburn's Director of Buildings and Grounds], or the business manager or director, whoever has this data, and put it together. This is the baseline report. Every year, that group is responsib le for doing an annual report. This is what we accomplish this year. This is what we did and this is, this is how the school's doing ( focus group, August 7, 2012).


84 Douglas County schools in suburban Denver, Colorado succeeded at involving students in energy conservation measures. Students took the lead, approaching teachers and staff members throughout the school to turn off lights and unplug unnecessary appliances, like small refrigerators The school district enacted a program that saved millions of dollars by reducing energy consumption, largely at the behest of students (Garcia, 2013). Run by the district's former Energy Manager and now its current Sustainability Manager, students played a central role in encouraging faculty and staff across the dis trict to reduce their energy consumption. Over a six year period, the district saved $15 million (Garcia, 2013). Curricular and Instructional Barriers Numerous barriers exist in the implementation of sustainability in the classroom. Many of these remain co vert, while others permeate multiple facets of school life. Chip and Matt elucidated several barriers throughout the course of the yearlong workshop. Scale of Implementation Matt's experience echoes the findings of Chapman (20 13 ). In independent schools, Chapman (2013) found inadequate staffing, insufficient buy in, and lack of training as the three top personnel issues thwarting the advancement of sustainability Matt states, w e have, uh, like 50 staff members, that not everybody has that same goal, I me an it's like a lot of them are just looking to get through the year, not necessarily how do I change my, change any of my practices to fit into sustainab ility. So it's like within the six, ah, within the six science faculty, then we have it, but probably h ave 20 to 30% real buy in in the regular teaching staff, and then we have, uh, 10% that really don't want to be bothered by it ( focus group, August 7, 2012 ) Cutter Mackenzie and Smith (2003) support Matt's assertion They found that p rimary school teache rs tend to maintain low levels of content knowledge of environmental


85 concepts and do not consider content knowledge to be overly important ( p. 499 ) Chip offered a supplementary argument in his pre workshop questionnaire. He stated, Anything that is pl ace based' as much as this curriculum is would be difficult to teach to teachers on a large scale" ( focus group, August 7, 2012). T rying to reach a staff of similar size felt like a Herculean task to Matt and Chip. Barlett's (2004) model of working with e ight to ten faculty members at a time offers an alternative approach to the large scale implementation. Within half a dozen years, all faculty and staff could cycle through a professional development program, with new hires joining as part of their orienta tion to the sc hool's sustainability initiative While this does not address their concerns about a one time seminar, the large group interaction may not work if the true goal remains cultural change. To suggest that a single professional development experi ence could alter ingrained habits of mind ignores the long, involved work needed to affect change. As further evidence that Matt sees students as ready and willing to engage in environmental and sustainability related discussion, Matt shared his belief th at kids are not the ones we have to convince, it's the, the faculty that, that are kind of set in their ways (October 26, 2012). This lends credence to the notion that a single event will not change the faculty's mindset in relation to Educating for Sust ainability. However, even Matt acknowledged his own barriers, namely time. In discussing the wealth of information produced regarding sustainability in education, he said, I don't have the time to go through all of the stuff ( focus group, August 7, 2012) Chip was a bit more circumspect. Where Matt saw strides being made, Chip saw huge barriers at [ VVS ] b ecause of the curricular issues. [He was left] wondering


86 whether, uh, it has to be one more thing that the teachers add into their curriculum (August 7, 2012). Because VVS adheres rather strictly to the doctrine set out by the school movement's founder, Chip felt constrained and saw the barriers manifesting themselves as a result of the demands this philosophy placed on over burdened teachers. Specific ally addressing the idea of using the school's facilities as teaching tools, Chip replied, this type of thing would not be comfortable for a lot of teachers period, let alone [ VVS ] teachers, to try to integrate on top of all the other things that they're trying to do ( focus group August 7, 2012). This is not to say that he failed to see the import and value of place based education. For me it's big in place based, but I can't force something on the school. I think it's a valuable piece, but then again wh o am I to say that the science teachers' pet experiment isn't more valuable to them ( Interview August 7, 2012). In part because his role existed outside the classroom, Chip's experiences are inherently different than Matt's. Chip inhabits the role of an outsider at VVS The absence of an institutional commitment to his work the school chose not to fund his position after the two year grant expired made his status at the school tenuous. Institutional Barriers Chip held the belief that VVS lacked the leadership on the issue of sustainability, commenting that his position fell into their laps, while intimating that they failed to take full advantage of it. During a follow up conversation in September of 2013, Chip discussed how the school could have bet ter used him during his tenure and how the new position they were looking to create a sustainability teacher would only serve to treat sustainability as a separate concept, not an integral part of the school This one off opportunity expired without th e school taking further action, losing the opportunity to


87 capitalize on his time, energy, and knowledge. While at VVS Chip implemented a number of changes to the physical plant and the school's strategic plan, the former representing the ideal opportunity to connect with lessons in the classroom. According to Chip, the trouble came when his position ended and he left the school in a formal capacity. Chip's time at Valley Vista focused largely on facilities projects from an administrative perspective. These were not at the forefront in the school's curriculum. As Chip explains it, the unique philosophy of the school constrains what teachers include in their curriculum. While Chip's school also belongs to the Rocky Mountain Independent School Association, the y have a tightly defined curriculum that does not lend itself to the flexibility of Braeburn. Lone Voice for Sustainability The feeling of being the "lone voice for sustainability" was one Chip and Matt anxiously strived to overcome. Matt stated that one of the goals for the meeting he hosted was to look for collaboration opportunities, looking for next steps, being able to meet more often, uh, just trying to see, sitting down, and what are other people's goals ( joint interview, September 21, 2012). Chi p, has seen schools and people working on their own, but envisions people coming together for a sustainable future. I think the sense in general is that, that we have worked as individuals if you will, schools, and they've done some great things as indivi duals, but we think that there's power to be had in collaboration and getting together and really seeing what is a, a model that we could use and use consistently. We've tried a couple things in the past that, that have not been able to be sustainable, so how do we move beyond ( joint interview, September 21, 2012). For his upcoming work in consulting, Chip said he was


88 interested as a consultant, to see whether there are certain ways we do business as schools that we could, uh, share . we're not reinven ting the wheel . that we are taking full advantage of the, of the collective intelligence in our schools ( joint interview, September 21, 2012). Matt extended the idea to organizations in the community that are engaging in sustainability. As noted, Chi p invited several organizations to the meeting he hosted at VVS with representatives from two outside groups attending. After the meeting, Matt commented on how he enjoyed all the meeting cohorts and seeing all the things, the different people that came to this, versus, they aren't all instructors, they aren't all coordinators, they're facilities people, or finance people ( joint interview, September 21, 2012). The mix of individuals in various roles included business managers, facility coordinators, a cl assroom teacher, a parent running a consulting business in Educating for Sustainability, and the two sustainability coordinators, Matt and Chip, as well as the researcher. The group's enthusiasm ranked high on Chip's list of takeaways from the meeting. Spe cifically, he mentioned, feeling the energy in the group for this kind of effort. And it wasn't that they were forced to come, it was all personal initiative that uh, they want to see this happen ( joint interview, September 21, 2012). Ahead of the green schools conference, Matt indicated that he wanted More of this, this collaborate, figure out who's there, figure out where we can . have even more people to i nvite to these kind of meetings" ( joint interview, September 21, 2012). A month later, after attending the Green Schools conference, Chip reiterated his position it's really about the collaborative piece that is very powerful for me. It's, it's, it's finding out what are the great ideas out there and how do we distribute those great ideas, and huh and not, not look at schools [as] inherently competitive, and not willing to share, uh, but how can we tap into the collective intelligence of everyone that works in schools ( interview, October 26, 2012).

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89 In many ways, collaboration lies at the heart of sustainability. If schools, let alone society, have any serious hope of making inroads on sustainability, it will need a large scale collaborative effort. Both Chip and Matt mentioned concerns about having sustainability associated with a single individu al. BDS weathered the transition to a new sustainability coordinator, while VVS let the position expire. The passing of the coordinator position from his predecessor to Matt demonstrated that the position could survive at BDS. However, as Edelstein (2004) writes initiatives often suffer if a particularly vociferous leader leaves. He lobbies for "cooperative ventures and to allow redundancy and resiliency of social systems" (p. 291). Matt's comments after the meeting he hosted at BDS present another cons ideration for Edelstein's warning. With the prospect of a long school year ahead, he lobbies for check ins and making sure that we, we're doing what we need to be doing, that we haven't lost our oomph, cuz, the reality of school is that you get into scho ol and school drains a lot of that out of you. So it's like, it's September and it's early on and we're all excited, like, here comes February ( joint interview, September 21, 2012) Here, the barrier seems to be more human, the idea that the hectic nature of the school year will suppress sustainability initiatives as they struggle to gain traction and prominence during the inevitable grind of the school year. He reiterates this a month later, after the conference, saying, as the year goes on, it's like we all think, like life happens, and like priorities, like staying within yourself is easier than it is to network, so it's like alright, how do we keep ourselves going out there and talking, and getting people involved ( interview, October 26, 2012).

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90 Matt s trikes at the heart of sustaining sustainability. When innumerable barriers stand in the way of implementing sustainability themed programs and engendering a paradigmatic shift, those engaging in the work n eed ways to sustain themselves. Chip touched on th e sense of isolation he experienced at VVS As part of the January 25, 2013 meeting at Valley Vista Chip brought in members from the town of Valley Vista known for their efforts in sustainability. Chip voiced a desire to work cooperatively with these peo ple, but also other independent schools In his view, independent schools have shared goals, despite the common narrative t hat they engage in competition for students. Chip argued for a collaborative approach, saying "there's power to be had in collaborati on and getting together and really seeing what is a, a model that we could use and use consistently" ( joint interview, September 21, 2012). To suggest that BDS and VVS only have one voice for sustainability belies the fact that multiple people work on sust ainability related issues. As noted, both schools have facilities managers dedicated to reducing resource consumption. They have an existing culture of sustainability in terms of operations. However, the penetration into the classroom remains tepid. Matt d iscussed the level of integration science teachers achieved when using the school's LEED certified building (USGBC, 2013) and his own attempts to bring real world, sustainability related lessons to his students. Yet, beyond his efforts, those of the scie nce department, Chip 's attempts to foster zero waste principles, and behind the scenes work by both schools facilities departments, these all represent isolated examples. Suggesting all teachers incorporate sustainability in every lesson is not only impra ctical but also fantastical. Penetrating beyond the "safe" examples of science classes and energy conservation would provide tangible evidence of sustainability as a

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91 core value. Until people beyond those whose job requires them to exhibit sustainable no t just environmentally friendly behaviors, the culture remains suspect. Teacher Competency /Training In a study of classroom teachers and their incorporation of environmental education into the curriculum, Sosu, McWilliam, and Gray (2008) pinpoint a numb er of obstacles, namely "a restrictive and compartmentalized curriculum and the absence of background knowledge to deal with controversial environmental education issues" (p. 182). In their study, Cutter Mackenzie and Smith (2003) found that primary school teachers prefer to focus upon attitudes and values in the teaching of environmental education" (p. 497). Chip sees the barriers as mainly, uh, curricular. The, the feeling that, uh, a defensiveness if you will, on the part of faculty, primarily, this, t his feeling that we can't add too much, or that's cute, or but we aren't going, it's not really going to become an integrated part of our curriculum, so that's, that's a major, that's a major hurdle I believe... But there's a, there's a certain hesitance t o, to try something new which is a little surprising, but that's just the way it is ( i nterview, October 26, 2012). Additionally, Chip laid blame at the feet of teacher education programs. Most likely one would have to encourage this type of thinking [EfS ] in schools of education -places that are famously conservative in their thinking" (pre workshop questionnaire, August 7, 2012). To expect that individual schools or districts would assume responsibility for preparing teachers for embedding sustainability in their syllabi maybe a stretch however, invariably some schools will try. More so, it is likely that schools with sustainability at their core attract educators who are already sustainability literate. The time and resources needed for individual schoo ls to accomplish this task certainly consign it to education's waste bin. Chip's comment speaks to the concern raised regarding the difficulty in scaling professional development for the entire school faculty. Determining who

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92 maintains responsibility for t eacher preparation in the arena of sustainability lingers, creating the quintessential chicken and egg dilemma H ow do we educate students to become advocates of sustainability when not enough teachers have the requisite training to nurture advocacy in the first place Which comes first?

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93 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION Place Based Education The movement toward using one's surroundings to learn various concepts has been gai n ing strength though slowly. A homogenized, whitewashed curriculum, devoid of local references has been the norm for generations. Our present leaders' the people of wealth and power do not know what it means to take a place seriously: to think it worthy, for its own sake, of love and study and careful work. They cannot take any place ser iously because they must be ready at any moment, by the terms of power and wealth in the modern world, to destroy any place (Berry, 1991 para. 13 ). Sobel (2005) defines place based education as "the process of using the local community and environment as a starting point to teach concepts in language arts, mathematics, social studies, science, and other subjects across the curriculum" (p. 7). He goes on to mention the emphasis on "hands on, real world learning experiences" (p. 7), which are also an integr al component of place based education. Sobel (2005) does not explicitly address the notion of the built environment as part of placed based education, but it is central to the notion of learning from one's surroundings. Younger et al. (2008) point out that The built environment influences human choices, w hich in turn affect health and the global climate (p. 517). This connection between local spaces (like schools, which Younger et al. (2008) include in their definition of the built environment) and local environment also has implications on a global scale. Tye (2003) discusses the push toward global education, which is seen by some as a form of neocolonialism. Demonstrating the value and applicability of place based education through its impact on the worl dwide scale helps to justify its inclusion in educational practices and may fend

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94 off critics who see the movement as solidifying "a world economic order based on cynicism and individual profit" ( Tye, 2003, p. 168). EIC: Environment as an Integrating Contex t EIC, Environment as an Integrating Context, provides another system for considering the built environment as a teaching tool in the classroom. Developed by SEER, the State Education and Environment Roundtable, EIC "is about using a school's surroundings and community as a framework within which students can construct their own learning, guided by teachers and administrators using proven educational practices" (SEER, 2005, n.p .). Sobel (2005) stakes the position that "Embracing sustainability as an organi zing principle means that we accept a concept of limited resources and start to look for ways to simultaneously enhance economic vitality, environmental quality, and school improvement at the local level" (p. 17). Ernst and Moore (200 4 ) use the term enviro nment based education (EBE) to refer to "f ormal instructional programs that adopt local environments as the context for a significant share of students' educational experiences. Its defining characteristics are interdisciplinary learning based on the local environment, project and issue based learning experiences, learner centered instruction and constructivist approaches" (p. 510 ) Dewey (1990) implied that schools act as a hindrance to learning and that children learn from their surroundings, a concept touched on in Banks et al. (2007). Dewey (1990) suggests students experiences external to school what one might refer to as education, as opposed to schooling hold little value in the structured classroom setting. Additionally, what passes for a lesso n within the confines of schools has next to no

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95 applicability beyond its walls. This disconnect exemplifies the split between the students' surroundings and their education. Orr (2004 a ) insists on a place based approach to education arguing for a "deep co ncept of place as a repository of meaning, history, livelihood, healing, recreation, and sacred memory and as a source of materials, energy, food, and collective action" (p. 163) Louv (2008) stakes a similar claim namely that children have lost the conne ction with the outdoors. In order to meet students where they are, using the school's campus can potentially mend this disconnect. Campuses with large windows, native vegetation, and other "green" features may also serve to reconnect students with the outd oors in non threatening, yet meaningful, ways. C hen (2007) uses the example of Sidwell Friends in Washington DC Sidwell's middle school which achieved LEED Platinum, the highest possible designation for certification from the US Green Building Council merges pedagogy, sustain ability, and behavioral modification" (p. 107). The school's assistant head and chief financial officer describes the building, which is part renovation and part new construction, as changing the way science is taught (Chen, 2007) Teachers can integrate these "green" components into their lesson plans, eschewing centralized examples of ecosystems in favor of those created by environmentally sensitive architecture. In New England, The Center for Place Based Education at Antioch Uni versity works to further the aims of place as teacher which can include physical structures as well as landscapes. As this research takes place in the Rocky Mountain region, and deals with place in education, Wohl (2009) challenge s the notion of the West as pristine suggest ing that interactions with the land are largely linked to human domination and not some altruistic

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96 or naturally occurring phenomenon bereft of mankind's influence. Wohl (2009) also provides some context for the consumptive habits of pop ulations in the America n West, s tating early settlers "saw no need to conserve or foster the seemingly limitless ab undance of America's resources (Wohl, 2009, p. 12). Placed based and EBE models can begin the process of aligning consumptive patterns, res ource availability, and natural spaces within the school setting. Bransford, Brown, and Cocking (2000) argue that 21 st learning environments need to be student centered. This approach takes into account the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students bring t o the class. In addition, Bransford et al. (2000) call for community centered environments. In these settings, the schools themselves can become fodder for teaching and learning. Instead of generic content from textbooks that students fail to connect with on a personal, meaningful level, the school grounds with their systems (HVAC, water, etc) can serve as the foci for student study. Students can compare the energy savings from efficient structures to those that do not have such features. This deep, meaning ful experience allows students to connect their content knowledge to the world around them, thereby scaffolding the information in a coherent, contextual manner. An education focused on the immediate environment presents a more meaningful experience than o ne driven by generic, standardized tests ( Smith & W illiams 1999) Building as Teaching Tools and Place Based Education Couched in place based education, the initial direction of this research aimed to look at how educators use, or can make use of, the sc hool facilities in the curriculum. Berg (2001) notes "the original purpose of a study may not be accomplished and an alternative or unanticipated goal may be identified in the data" (p. 251). As the research

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97 and process is participant driven, they guided the workshop in a direction relevant to their interests. Though the notion of "b uildings as teaching tools maintains a place in this research, it became a secondary theme to those that emerged from the participants' needs As Chip noted, the use of buildi ngs as teaching tools faced a huge hurdle. "Training teachers to see their built environment as part of the curriculum is not natural' because it can't be caught in a textbook" (p re w orkshop q uestionnaire, August 7, 2012). This reliance on textbooks empha sizes the challenges facing buildings as teaching tools. Matt addressed how the school's new building on campus, a LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified structure, made its way into their curriculum: we take various materials and p ortions of it and the kids do research on like building materials and flooring and paint and colorings and lighting and HVAC and all the different things that go in to a building and might have a little competition (focus group, August 7, 2012). In Lieu o f Textbooks Current textbook centered approaches do not co incide with the world of buildings as instructional tools, place based education, EIC, or authentic experiences in science However, "the textbook holds a unique and significant social function: to represent to each generation of students an officially sanctioned [emphasis added], authorized version of human knowledge and culture" (de Castell, Luke, & Luke, 1989, p. vii). They also serve to preserve a resource intensive industry that supports the he gemony of consumption. Harwood (2005) points out that the commercially created textbook s are not pedagogical artifacts Dewey (1990) recounts a visit to a school where students learned about the Mississippi river from the textbook, despite the fact that th eir town sat on the waterway. Thornbury and Meddings (2001) argue that "coursebooks" fail

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98 to support the emergent nature of language and therefore have no place in English class. Similarly, science falls into this category of an emergent discipline. New fi ndings occur on a regular basis. Discoveries serve as the basis for the scientific endeavor with the body of knowledge continually expanding. Trying to capture the content in a textbook that will be outdated as soon as it is produced, not to mention the na tural resources required to print and bind them, seems antithetical to the pursuit of science as a discipline. While Thornbury and Meddings (2001) deal with language, they mention the value of textbooks in other disciplines, namely Geography, History, and Mathematics, but science is not included in their list. Thornbury and Meddings (2001) suggest one could easily use readily available material. Textbooks on the other hand have little connection to the student. These centrally produced documents do not take into account regional differences, in particular as pertain to climate, energy use, and resource availability. E cological education needs to exist outside the traditional boundaries of disciplines and classroom settings altering not only the content, but the process of education and aims of learning (Orr 2004 a ). This entails reworking the traditional textbook and classroom walls that have hemmed in students and teachers since the industrialization of education, which McMannon (1997) argues was brought abo ut by shifts in "job specialization, industrialization, technological advance[ment], urbanization, an d similar developments" (p. 2). The current system of educating large groups of students under the instruction of a single individual stems from urbanizati on itself ( McMannon 1997) Instead of relying on small scale educational situations, the need arose to educate large numbers at once, hence the industrialization of education. Given the long history and shifting educational

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99 landscapes (McMannon, 1997), gl obalization (Friedman, 2008), and threats of climate disruptions (IPCC, 2007) a return to the local, as called for by Orr (2004a) dovetails well with the opportunity to learn from one's surroundings, in particular green buildings that have more of a role to play in education than merely providing shelter from the elements. F orty years ago Meadows et al. (1974) raised the red flag about resource consumption patterns In his 30 year comparison of Limits to Growth to the current trajectory, Turner (2008) d em onstrat ed that the original models created in the Limits to Growth (Meadows et al., 1974) remained valid and that consumption patterns have continued, indicating a crash course with resource depletion. Education must be forward looking. Continuing patterns of consumption and teaching to the status quo will not address the issues brought forth in Limits to Growth. Teachers educate not for the world as it exists today, but as it will be (Senge, 2000) T eaching youth to consume like people have for the past tw o centuries represents a backward looking approach, and as seen in Meadows et al. (1974), a potentially destructive one at that Enter the school campus. Possibilities abound for how to use the facilities, grounds, and the larger campus in the curriculum, but a formal review and methodical research are needed to find out what schools are currently doing, and how they can be further integrated into the formalized curriculum. Orr (2002) claims, "The typical campus is regarded mostly as a place where learning occurs, but is, itself, believed to be the source of no useful learning" (p. 127). The time has come to capitalize on these opportunities to engage students in meaningful learning experiences that incorporate the campus. Wiebenson (1998) presents the radic al notion that buildings "can actually help teach" (p. 61). As part of buildings helping to teach, he suggests "We and our institutions

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100 particularly our schools need to find ways of collaborating more closely with the environment" (p. 64). Orr (2004b) writes about his experience at Oberlin College, where he spearheaded the effort to build a structure that would serve as a central component for the environmental science department. In designing the Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies, Orr (2004b) explains that including the buildings and landscapes as part of the curriculum represented a conscious decision. By bringing these elements into the design process and making a concerted effort to include them, Orr (2004b) discusses how Oberlin Col lege aimed to connect urban dwellers with the natural world When buildings are intentional, they provide more than shelter, they can teach in clearly defined ways. Franz (2004) further develops the connection between buildings and the curriculum. He state s, "academic lessons are often better learned in conjunction with real world applications rather than simply as conceptual abstractions" (p. 232). Here the buildings come to the forefront of the educational landscape, not as an after thought. Both Franz (2 004) and Orr (2004b ) shared their experiences in a compendium about sustainability on campus (Barlett and Chase, 2004), work and teach at the collegiate level. The information about using school grounds and buildings in K 12 education exhibits several gaps The designing of schools, as discussed by Orr (2004b) does not have to remain the domain of higher education. Numerous architectural firms work to build green schools on K 12 campuses. Several of these are featured in Ford's (2007) work. Ford (2007) su pports connecting students' minds to architecture and the environ ment making high quality schools with healthy indoor air ; acoustically enhanced classrooms ; imbuing

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101 learning spaces with natural light; and providing spaces that encourage teacher retention and reduced absenteeism a place where the campus serves as a teaching tool Hegemonies The twin hegemonies of consumption and standardized high stakes testing, serve as barriers to the purposes of sustainability as well. Offering a counterstory to the dominant themes of consumption and testing, sustainability struggles to find an audience. S chools like EMS (Environmental Middle School) in Portland, Oregon the Denver Green School, and Minnesota's School of Environmental Studies, among others, represent outliers. These public schools have used the environment, not necessarily sustainab ility, to organize their schools. Given the compartmentalization of content, with each discipline in its own neatly constructed world, the likelihood of schools employing a unifying theme (e.g. sustainability) seems highly unlikely. This by no means suggests the current paradigm represents a more evolved way to teach. On the contrary, scaffolding concepts and helping learners visualize connections is virtually nonexistent in the current approach to education. Instead of helping students build on ideas from one discipline to strengthen their overall comprehension, the system thwarts this interdisciplinary approach. With reductive, high stakes tests narrowing the curriculum and controlling the content, grandiose attempts to educate students with a thematic design have no position in schools. Until testing as a base exercise, instead of a formative way to assess understanding, can relinquish its grip on education to more informed sensibilities, schools will continue to shortchange learners by failing to present material in a cohesive manner. Aided by the need to churn out consumers, testing focuses on factual content that hampers the type of systems thinking needed in Educating for Sustainability. Decontextualized recitation of

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102 facts without a framework ( read: sustainability ) further education's role in creating a society unable to consider both the ramifications of their actions and one that accepts a linear, cradle to grave (McDon ough & Braungart, 2002) mentality that stands in direct opposition to sustainability's aim of long term survival of the species and proper management of resources. Furthermore, it lends credence to the anthropocentric viewpoint that humanity exists outside the realm of nature and not as a part of nature, making the consumption of resources an acceptable proposition, indeed a necessity for the continuation of the consumptive society, which it perpetuates. This point demonstrates a key reason why I employ a p henomenological not a positivist perspective in the attempt to understand the role of Chip and Matt in their struggles to embed sustainability throughout their respective communities. The Hegemony of Consumption The student bodies of Braeburn and Val ley Vista are inimical to the interests of sustainability in one major way. These students largely come from white, upper middle class families. In the case of Braeburn, only twenty one percent of the 645 students (approximately 135 individuals) identify, according to the school's website, as students of color, leaving nearly 4 out of 5 members of the school hailing from white families. According to their website, Valley Vista has 315 students. Information on students of color is not readily available. At a cost in excess of $18,000, for the high school, which includes fees, monetary constraints preclude students of lower socioeconomic status from attending. According to census estimates from 2012, Rio County, whose largest city is Valley Vista has a high l evel of college graduates (58.0%) and is predominantly white (91.2%). With the addition of Mar Costa Charter High School (MCCHS) which shares

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103 some socioeconomic characteristics with BDS and VVS though as a public school it relies on public funding, these three schools have a vested interest in maintaining a capitalist society. From the leadership on down through the students, consumption reigns as the dominant paradigm. Independent schools require tuition paying students to fund schools. Some have endowme nts that bolster the fiscal bottom line, but private money keeps these schools afloat. By definition, capitalism and consumption underpin their viability. Given this scenario, how can these schools though the argument stands for all schools since they de pend on funding tied to consumption (property values for instance, which determine school funding via tax collection) carry forth a message of sustainability when the hegemony of consumption enables their existence in the first place ? Navigating this dic hotomy, and engaging students in the discussion, represents the perfect opportunity to make the hidden curriculum of consumption and unsustainable practices overt. Gruenewald (2001) discusses the hegemony of consumption and its implicit role in the miseduc ation of students Arguing that globalization exacerbates and creates problems for sustainability Gruenewald (2001) sees unsustainable schools simultaneously as victims and perpetuators of unsustainable behaviors and traditional approaches to EE as ignor ing social concerns while taking an uncritical view of education 's role in creating this unsustainable paradigm Simply put, s chools reinforce the structure of an unsustainable society. In particular, VVS and BDS, struggle with the divergent goals of Educa ting for Sustainability, while acting as a force for the continuation of consumptive behaviors. Without material success and its concomitant consumption, these schools would likely struggle to attract tuition paying families that opt out of the public scho ols. The

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104 hegemony of consumption undergirds many of the challenges that Matt and Chip face in institutionalizing sustainability. Not only do their schools benefit from this hegemony, they rely on it. Despite the, at times, overwhelming evidence that susta inability loses out to these hegemonies, Chip continues to push forth in an attempt to make this his life's work. Overwhelming odds offer an opportunity to prove one's mettle. The challenge with integrating sustainability is vast, but the risks associated with complacency far outweigh the seemingly insurmountable obstacles currently in place. Prevailing Paradigm Interestingly, the prevailing paradigm our post industrial consumptive ways in society did not enter into the conversation. At one point Chip called for a paradigm shift, but in the context of water treatment. In essence, both Matt and Chip argue for a paradigmatic shift in our approach to education by making sustainability central to schools. This may present the greatest barrier of all. Argua bly, the hegemony of consumption pushes the current paradigm forward and crowds out discussions of sustainability, relegating it to thought experiments Collectively, our inability to identify the hegemony of consumption and its role in subverting sustaina bility indicates its pervasiveness as the dominant discourse. Multicultural Education Chip's observation about VVS 's decision to hire a sustainability coordinator exemplifies how Educating for Sustainability exists apart from the traditional curriculum. E ducating for Sustainability is not alone in its struggle to gain a foothold in the curricular landscape. Like its curricular cousin, environmental education, and other disciplines such

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105 as multicultural education, EfS suffers from the perception of being an ancillary course of study, not one ingrained in the schooling experience. Multicultural education and EfS share other characteristics, in particular the incorporation of diversity and social justice. Schoorman and Bogotch (2010) discuss the evolution of m ulticultural education from the former to the later, both of which are integral to EfS. Beyond curricular similarities, Nieto (2000) makes an analogous claim to Orr (2004 a ), who argued that all education is environmental education. Nieto (2000) stakes the position that "multicultural education must be understood as basic education. Multicultural literacy is as indispensable for living in today's world as are reading, writing, arithmetic, and computer literacy" (p. 309). In a display off the interdisciplina ry nature of environmental education, Orr (2004a) argues, "all education is environmental education" (p. 12). In order to realize this vision, students must experience environmental education, here a proxy for EfS, from multiple angles in all disciplines, not as a stand alone course. For multicultural education (MCE), Schoorman and Bogotch (2010) outline the ways in which multicultural education can be implemented in schools including social justice, equity pedagogy, and empowering school culture They adv ocate moving past the tokenistic approaches (i.e. food and flags), a valuable lesson for sustainability, which has its own token exercise like Earth Day, or in the case of Chip's school "Earth Week activities. The difficulty, nee inability, to integrate MCE and EfS into the culture of the school indicates that these amalgams currently occupy a shared position outside the traditional curriculum. For a course of study outside the core disciplines, hurdles to their integration prevent them from gaining a foo thold regardless of their intrinsic or extrinsic value. Unless

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106 m ulticultural education exists as part of the core curriculum Nieto (2000) argues "it is perceived as irrelevant to basic education" (p. 309). The same can be said for EfS. The Canon Nieto (2 000) includes a discussion of how the cannon has ossified on to discuss over the past several decades Dating back to the Committee of Ten in the late nineteenth century, the work of deciding the canon rested with a select group of academics ( Eliot & Robin son 1894). Today's world retains little of the quaint 1890s when the proverbial smoke filled back room yielded what would become the core curriculum for all. The twenty first century inhabits a world more diverse and interconnected. Consisting of ten "gen tlemen", this group of five university presidents, a high school principal, two head masters, a college professor, and the commissioner of education (The National Education Association, 1894) still dict ate what students learn 120 years later. Traditional c oursework crowds out MCE and EfS, concerns deeply rooted in today's world. Instead of adapting, the canon remains largely unchanged, reflecting white male patriarchal values, not those of a pluralistic society living in era of Limits to Growth. Much like m ulticultural education, EfS struggles against the in situ curriculum. Nieto (2000) points out "The canon, as understood in contemporary US education, assumes that the knowledge that is the most worthwhile is already in place" (p. 309). Without a wholesale reimagining of the content, and not just adopting Common Core Standards, the existing curriculum retains its position as undisputed guide to all that is worth knowing. Both MCE and EfS remain on the outside looking in, treated as second class citizens. Sad ly, there is little to no room in the curriculum for new content, let alone rethinking what is taught. Furthermore, Nieto's (2000) stakes the position that some educators view content

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107 like multicultural curriculum, outside the accepted curriculum which represents the European American establishment as less than rigorous. In reality, making a curriculum multicultural makes it more inc lusive, inevitably enriching it ( Nieto, 2000, p. 312). Bringing more voices into the conversation provides students wit h incentive and ownership. As such, MCE and EfS offer a counter example of how to think about and to organize content and learning. They represent student centered ways of teaching and learning, by giving credence to the learner's voice. Banks et al. (2007 ) propose that students are life long and life deep learners, bringing a wealth of experiences to the classroom. Much in the same regard, the integral, everyday nature of Educating for Sustainability intricately relates to students, their lives, and their well being. Experiences serve as important components of learning in these contexts. Just Sustainability: The Intersection of MCE and EfS Much in the way EfS, by definition, necessitates a future for all peoples, Nieto (2000) argues "multicultural educat ion is by definition inclusive. Because it is about all people, it is also for all people, regardless of their ethnicity, language, sexual orientation, religion, gender, race, class, or other difference" (p. 311). In order to create a more just and sustain able world, all people must take part. All learners, all students, all citizens must strive to coexist in a way the supports inclusivity and pluralism. Biodiversity a key component of a sustainable ecosystem and diversity a vital element of a multicu ltural society must complement each other, as they are essential to the aims of MCE and EfS. Agyeman (2008) proposes that a Just Sustainability Paradigm consider more than the green/New Environmental Paradigm or the brown/Environmental Justice Paradigm These include, a) Quality of Life; b) Pr esent and Future Generations; c) Justice

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108 and Equity; and d) Living within Ecosystem Limits. A just sustainability remains the only way to realize the true potential of sustainability and sustainable development ( Agyeman, 2008, p. 755) Thematic Approach: MCE and EfS as Transdisciplinary Chip and Matt as sustainability coordinators at their respective schools occupy tenuous positions outside the traditional roles of curriculum coordinators in schools. While Matt is also a classroom teacher, his ability to impact the school culture and wider curriculum is somewhat limited. Chip has worked to make sustainability a unifying experience at Valley Vista EfS crosses boundaries in terms of curriculum and facilities. It d oes not reside in the science department, although that is often where schools find the sustainability coordinator as in the case of Matt. As noted, BDS's initial coordinator came from outside the sciences, lending credence to the transdisciplinary nature of sustainability. EfS is not alone. Multicultural education is not something that happens at a set period of the day, or another subject area to be covered ( Nieto, 2000, p. 312). The same rings true for sustainability. Much like multicultural education, EfS filters through all subjects, it is not beholden to a single class period To suggest that one person teach a multicultural education class where students sit for 45 minutes only i solates the philosophy from the rest of the curriculum and educational experience (Nieto, 2000). Taking this view, a sustainability co ordinator position, similar to that held by C hip and Matt exemplifies this issue in EfS. Transitioning to a multicultural or sustainable focus requires that MCE and EfS move beyond the "decor ated landscapes' of educational reform [that] concentrate on economic growth and do little to promote the conservation of Earth's natural environments that sustain life itself" (Mueller a nd Bentely, 2006, p.

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109 321). Nieto's (2000) assertion is an important o ne. "Having specialists take complete responsibility for multicultural education gives the impression that a multicultural perspective is separate from all other knowledge" (p. 312 3) Neither MCE nor EfS are separate from all other knowledge. Rather, they are integral to it, so much so that they offer a thematic framework for learning. Hegemonic Structures Several factors collude to thwart the inclusion of MCE and EfS in daily lessons Western schooling, which is diametrically opposed to education in the sense of true learning that occurs through one's experience, relies heavily on testing, paternalistic attitudes, and perpetuating the status quo. Each of these facets have their own structures that enable their continuation, all of which serve to strength en the foundational, accepted approach to schooling, namely consumption and the hyper competitive nature of testing. Entire economies exist to prop up the testing culture. Whether considering textbooks, high stakes tests themselves, tutorial services, or p rescribed curricula that pigeonhole what educators can realistic hope to teach in their lessons, the hegemonies of testing, consumption, and school structure undermine EfS and MCE. By nature, EfS and place based education takes the onus off the educator an d shares the classroom in a more egalitarian community. Teachers transition from sage on the stage to guide on the side, thereby supporting engaged learners who co construct meaning and knowledge. Students become leaders, learners who teach and influence t he path of their own learning, what Bransford et al. (2000) envision as a student centered classroom. Learning becomes more practical and ultimately more visceral, connected to real world examples, reflective of how Banks et al. (2007) suggest people learn especially in diverse communities. Power

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110 is transferred from a single individual, the teacher, to a diffuse group of people, the learners, which ultimately includes the educator. Everyone in the c lassroom engages in the process Instead, what we have t oday is a situation where these hegemonies conspire to thwart real learning and authentic experiences in the classroom that acknowledge and consider various viewpoints; not just a positivist, Western perspective that aims to ingrain itself in another gener ation of students. Instead of learning to acquiesce to the teacher as gatekeeper, power sharing becomes an acceptable form of educating. For sustainability, one of its foils remains the bombardment of messaging around mindless consumption. At every turn th e implicit message students hear entails the need to buy more, consume greater quantities, and strive for as much as possible (i.e. more is better). These narratives combine to create the hegemony of mindless consumption. At its roots, consumption remains a necessity for the continuation of life. However, wonton consumption with no regard for resource management or long term viability will continually damage the aims of Educating for Sustainability. It remains possible to encourage mindful consumption and a sustainable society that grapples with these questions. Globalization Lane Zucker (2005) describes the "pressures for communities and regions to subordinate themselves to the dominant economic models and devalue their local cultural identity, traditions, and history" (p. i), what I refer to as the hegemony of consumption. In this process of subordination, Multicultural Education and Educating for Sustainability offer alternatives to the prevailing globalization paradigm. However, both must struggle agains t this paradigm and its concomitant hegemony. Lane Zucker (2005) goes on to

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111 draw the connection between environmental degradation and a disregard for the local, which suffers from the homogeneity brought on by globalization. This relationship is essential for EfS, as well as varying cultural perspectives. The loss of biodiversity and cultural diversity makes society less resilient, therefore less sustainable. High Stakes Testing MCE and EfS represent an alternative to the "banking education" notion agains t which Freire (2000) rails. These two approaches to learning have a distinctly process based pedagogy, as opposed to the rote memorization at the heart of banking. In Teaching Community: A Pedagogy of Hope hooks (2003) connects with Freire's notion of ba nking education. Her treatment of the topic brings to light the hegemony of testing Institutionalizing standardized testing thwarts public education from integrating creativity into education by requiring the transmission of content (hooks, 2003) High st akes testing supports the pressure to subordinate oneself to the dominant economic model as well. In addition, testing of this ilk prevents the integration of local educational experiences ( Sobel 2005) creating a barrier to place based education and ultim ately to EfS. Multicultural Education and Educating for Sustainability compete against reductive, standardized tests that measure canonical knowledge. In an era of high stakes testing, demonstrating that alternative curricular approaches can improve stude nt performance cannot be overlooked. Smith (2004) provides evidence of the positive impact an ecologically focused school can have on student performance, noting the EMS in Portland, Oregon received an exemplary designation, the only secondary school in th e state.

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112 Social Justice and Environmental Sensibilities: A Counter epistemology EMS, Portland Environmental Middle School, focuses on more than ecological awareness. As part of the connection to the trinity of sustainability, social justice also has a h ome in the curriculum. This well rounded approach to education ties social justice to environmental sustainability. Smith (2004) goes on to connect "the development of this kind of careful attentiveness to other people and the world . with the cultivat ion of a willingness to address issues related to environmental degradation or social injustice (p. 81). This relationship has deep roots in the environmental justice movement. Agyeman, Bullard, and Evans (2002) argue that it is increasingly apparent tha t the issue of environmental quality is inextricably linked to that of human equality at all scales (p. 77). S chools can support the teaching of conservation based concepts, especially with populations of students coming from neighborhoods subject to envi ronmental degradation. By integrating energy conservation measures in the curriculum, students can enact changes at home, saving money and bringing in the third strand of sustainability, economics. Bullard (1993) puts it bluntly "The environmental crisis can simply not be solved without social justice" (p. 23). Nieto (2000) goes a s far as making the claim that social justice represents a developmentally appropriate learning opportunity for students in the middle elementary grade level. In a world where the increasing disparities are linked to inequities (Pickett & Wilkinson, 2009), Educating for Sustainability and Multicultural Education offer a counter narrative, a counter epistemology. A Narrowed Curriculum Barriers to integrating environmental educati on, not just environmental justice or LEED certified school buildings, into the everyday curriculum abound. Barrett (2007)

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113 provides the following examples: "Structural barriers such as too much curriculum material to cover, difficulty working across discip lines, lack of resources, time, or the ability to take students outside continue to be cited as problems" (p. 209). E nvironmental beliefs and values by themselves cannot overcome the dominant discourse, which prevents environmental concerns from gaining tr action in both academic research and schools (Barrett, 2007) This assertion that the dominant discourse preempts the inclusion of environmentally oriented content presents a substantial challenge. The question remains of how to integrate the facilities, g rounds, and campus into schools where the curriculum has narrowed. McCaw (2007) argues that learners may be at greater risk when the curriculum narrows to focus on test scores in science, math, and English Berliner (2011) calls curriculum narrowing "the m ost pernicious response to high stakes testing" (p. 287) arguing that it precludes a large portion of students who might otherwise exhibit their talents and creativity while restricting thinking skills (Berliner, 2011). Crocco and Costigan (2007) point to the phenomenon of curricular narrowing as responsible in part for teachers leaving the profession. Sustainability, seen as an ancillary concern to begin with in schools, stands little, if any, chance of making headway in schools beholden to high stakes te sting, which remains ultimately responsible for the narrowing of the curriculum. A Counterdiscourse to Testing Gonzalez, Moll, and Amanti (2005) address high stakes testing, but offer a different take on the pervasive practice. By offering a counter narra tive, they aim to take control of the conversation. They couch their work in the world of testing given its ubiquity and reality, but suggest that effective pedagogy connect to students' lived

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114 experiences and contextualized in their local environment whil e urging PD for educators that considers these factors (Gonzalez et al., 2005). High stakes testing may exist as part of the educational milieu for the foreseeable future. The path forward proposed by Gonzalez et al. (2005) calls on educators to forsake t he skill and drill approach that a narrowed curriculum has created. Yes, the test will remain, but it does not have to dictate how educators teach or students learn. The time has come to take back education, regardless of the setting, and the resultant con versation. Finding a way to filter EfS into the curriculum from the bottom up, until that day when the top down joins the push, will begin the process. As Chip and Matt suggest, the students are ready Decorated Landscapes Mueller and Bentley (2006) argue that the "decorated landscapes of educational reform have historically and continue to marginalize the importance" (p. 327) of pluralistic, multicultural approaches to learning. The authors argue that science education in particular should not aim "to col onize student minds with the Western canon" (p. 333). With regard to science education, Muller and Bentley (2006) argue for embracing student voice in an attempt to move past the tokenistic, "decorated landscapes" and providing the opportunity for them to participate in meaningful ways. Here is where the intersection of multicultural education, science education, and educating for sustainability comes to life. Schools focused on sustainability and EfS must incorporate a plurality of visions, approaches, an d voices. A more sustainable future reflects the diversity and biodiversity of life. Muller and Bentley (2006) make the case for a unified approach, stating

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115 As embedded and situated human beings, it can be very difficult to see beyond the decorated landsc apes. It can be even more difficult to think beyond today to the future. However, as the authentic and meaningful landscapes emerge, we begin by acknowledging the many categories of culture and recognize communities where students' unique voices are embrac ed and valued. These voices must be recognized if we expect our students to make informed decisions and participate fully as members of society. In addition, we must reintegrate educational projects within the curriculum that promote conservation of cultur e and of the Earth's natural environments . We do this by acknowledging that between education that is culturally relevant and education for conserving the Earth's natural environments a relationship exists that is reflective, reliant, and reciprocal o f culture (p. 332). Creating this culture remains a major stumbling block for MCE and EfS since they represent paradigms, not single serving lessons. They relate to multiple facets from curriculum to the school's cultural and physical environment s. MCE an d EfS pervade all aspects of a school's operation, from procurement to performance. Multicultural education is a philosophy, a way of a looking at the world, not simply a program or a class or a teacher ( Nieto, 2000, p. 313). Replace "multicultural educa tion with "sustainability" and Nieto (2000) could have been writing about Educating for Sustainability, which i s a philosophy, a way of a looking at the world, not simply a program or a class or a teacher It embodies a way of thinking and being. In a sch ool where EfS underlies the mission, t acit knowledge (Sayer & Campbell, 2004) would be honored. Western, positivist thinking would be a way, not the way, of thinking, teac hing, and learning. Pluralistic perspectives would gain a foothold and learners would take their rightful place alongside, not subservient to, educators. Meaningful, relevant curriculum, created in thoughtful ways that reflect multicultural values, inclusivity, pluralism, and sustainability could revolutionize education. However, Nieto (20 00) makes the point that exchanging content is much easier than changing the process, or culture, at a school.

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116 Differences between MCE and EfS As Agyeman (2008) noted, environmental sustainability evolved as a largely Western, white concern. He recounts a sking a Greenpeace staffer if she felt that her organization's employees reflected multicultural Britain. She replied calmly, No, but it's not an issue for u s. We're here to save the world (Agyeman, 2008, p. 751). This insularity reflects the monocultu ral approach with which environmentalism evolved. In more recent times, corporations have hijacked sustainability (Wilson, 2011 b ). Organizations dealing in nonrenewable, polluting fuel sources have co opted the term for their be nefit. Multiculturalism has not gained traction in the public consciousness in quite the same manner. Rebranded as "diversity," companies have taken to touting their credentials and purported diversity in order to drive the perception that they hold diversity (as a proxy for multicul turalism) as a key value. Wilkins (2004) points out that business and the military came to see diversity as a driver for success in the global economy It turns out this represents the "normal" course of business. Senge (2008) details how large companies ( e.g. Xerox and Coca Cola) have pushed into the sustainability realm as they see profits at stake. Capitalism drives both diversity (read: multiculturalism) and sustainability into the boardroom In fact, Wilkins (2004) makes the argument that diversity ad vocates feel substantial pressure to justify their actions in terms of the all important bottom line (p. 1556). Sustainability remains a largely white, upper class concern, while multiculturalism finds itself in the realm of higher education and amongst p opulations

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117 outside the white, male patriarchal system Multiculturalism has not been subject to commercialization in the same manner, rather largely though the guise of "diversity."

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118 CHAPTER VI IMPLICATIONS "Schools, by nature, shape the future" (Gleaso n, 2012, para. 15). Viewed in relation to the "three legged stool of sustainability", where economic, environmental, and equity issues combined to form a triadic Venn diagram with sustainability at its center, the potential for EfS to engender sustainabi lity in future generations suggests education (and EfS in particular) as a fourth "E" to encompass all three "E"s. Education for Sustainability at its core aims to ingrain not just content based knowledge, but behavioral change Making schools themselves i nto models of sustainability starts this process. By creating a culture of sustainability, the ultimate goal of both Chip and Matt, regardless of their ability to overcome the hegemonies of consumption and academic pursuit standing in for high stakes tes ting given their schools' autonomous position as independent organizations schools have the opportunity to teach implicitly and explicitly, eliminating the hidden curriculum and molding the overt one into a coherent whole that helps students see the conn ections between thought and action, culture and progress, sustainability and the future of humanity. We need to educate the next generation as to how they can reap the benefits of economic growth without sacrificing shared natural resources or exploiting populations (both human and non human) (Wilson, 2010, para. 2) In my mind, this is the pow er of sustainability education, or Educating for Sustainability.

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119 Key Findings Based on the discussions with Chip and Matt, listening to their struggles, and con sidering the successes they had as sustainability coordinators, there are a few main takeaways. Having a dedicated sustainability coordinator that has access to both students and administrative decision making represents the most important component of str ucturing the position in a school. This directly relates to the second finding, in which a hybrid approach of top down and bottom up initiatives involves the students in sustainability actions, not just isolating sustainability at the level of business man agers and administration. Student driven initiatives, combined with executive level programs in sustainability, allow schools to treat it as both a community value and an educational imperative. Having a committee that can support the position of sustainab ility director is important, however, it has to have real authority, autonomy, and accountability. A committee must aim to relieve the burden, spread the responsibility, and help institutionalize sustainability across the academic and administrative depart ments. The Role of Sustainability Coordinator in a School With membership totaling 611 four year institutions ( as of March 8, 2014 ) the Association for the Advancement in Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE, 2014) stands as the preeminent organiza tion concerned with sustainability in education. While no similar group operates in the K 12 space, it is safe to safe that higher education leads the way in this area. Presumably many of these institutions of higher learning have offices of sustainability regardless of whether they have a dedicated coordin ator. S ustainability coordinators are a rare breed in K 12 education.

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120 Sustainability Committees Part of the process of institutionalizing sustainability may result in the formation of sustainability co mmittees, groups of ostensibly like minded individuals dedicated to sustainability. Both Valley Vista and Braeburn have these committees in place, but they tend to meet i nfrequently, which hampers a sense of commitment to sustainability. While the committe es were not part of the research, and only arose in discussion briefly, their work may hold one possible key to ensuring the success of sustainability initiatives in these, and other, schools. Two members of Valley Vista 's ad hoc sustainability group atten ded the meeting that Chip arranged (the head of grounds and a high school teacher) while no BDS's members attended the initial meeting hosted by Matt at Braeburn Because the meeting took place during a regular school day, teachers could not attend withou t some measure of disruption to their classes. Having teachers on such a committee plays an integral part in reaching students. However, educators especially at independent schools where they must advise, coach, and/or lead student clubs, not to mention take part in the occasional faculty group or committee have a number of constraints on their time. While they have direct access to students and can serve as conduits for sustainability via curricular instruction, competing with innumerable distractions inherent in the school day takes a toll on their ability to commit the time and energy needed to push forward yet another initiative. Buy in from educators who implicitly understand the need for incorporating sustainability into the curriculum and culture of a school have to ally themselves with coworkers and students in order to find common ground and affect change on a greater level.

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121 Members of VVS and BDS's sustainability groups include their head of grounds/head of facilities. Having these people on boa rd has proven essential to the implementation of changes in the schools' operations. In their roles, they oversee the physical plant and as a result, they maintain responsibility for waste, water, energy, buildings, and maintenance. So much of the sustaina bility work relates to the physical plant. However, the classroom component falls to teachers and curriculum coordinators, often the department chairs at independent schools. Again, these gatekeepers must play a role in the process of integrating sustainab ility throughout the school. From social justice issues to economics, sustainability resides in all aspects of the school curriculum. English, s ocial studies, and s cience represent more obvious examples, but the arts, foreign language, and mathematics can all reflect issues pertaining to sustainability. Having representatives from these disciplines serve on the sustainability committee can bridge the gap between a school's operations and its educational mission. Advisory Committee The proposal for MCCHS ( A ppendix J ) calls for the establishment of a committee that would distribute the workload and responsibilities across a group of people, ideally from an array of departments, both academic and administrative. Initial discussions of an advisory committee to the core sustainability group were shelved due to the perceived lack of feasibility. This group could include students, community members, local businesses, and policymakers, providing a voice to stakeholders in a school's sustainability initiative. Howeve r, concern over stretching faculty too thin with added responsibilities took precedence, resulting in the decision to indefinitely postpone an advisory committee. Concentric committees and dispersing the workload derived from

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122 Rowe (2004), who cautions agai nst having sustainability associated too closely with any one individual and aiming for "a minimum of three articulate supporters" (p. 148) to help push sustainable initiatives forward. This triumvirate at MCCHS consists of the school's principal, the dire ctor of a small program within the school that has taken the charge in implementing many of the sustainability initiatives within the curriculum, and myself, as an outside consultant to their efforts. Even this structure, for a school with more than 3,000 students, seems too concentrated. Other members of the faculty and administration take part in the conversations, and no formal committee has convened as of yet, but the push thus far in their initial foray has come from a small group. A lack of diversity including gender, age, experience, ethnicity, and position present a significant hurdle for sustainability at MCCHS. Dedicated Sustainability Coordinator vs. Dual Role Whether a sustainability coordinator should also teach presents an intriguing quest ion. Given the demands on a teacher's time, can a full time classroom teacher devout the necessary time and energy to sustainability and vice versa, can someone who spends all their time at the administrative level connect with teachers and more importan tly students? As Higgs and McMillian (2006) assert, modeling sustainability conveys a host of benefits. For students, seeing educators behaving in sustainable ways serves to reinforce lessons in the classroom. What then happens when the sustainability coor dinator exists outside of the classroom and outside the purview of students? While further study could elucidate the relationship between sustainable behaviors and the role sustainability coordinators have in the school, having a visible sustainability coo rdinator sends a positive message, one in which students see a school supporting its sustainability

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123 initiative and providing it with the full relevance it needs in order to have an impact. Otherwise, schools fall prey to sustainability becoming a vacuous m antra, one which students, and frankly educators will see through, thereby harming sustainability 's mission instead of enhancing it. Dual Role: Faculty Member as Sustainability Coordinator Matt's position as a teacher comes with access to the classroom an d students, not just in an extracurricular setting like Chip. However, Chip's sole focus on sustainability issues as well as his direct line to the seat of power and decision making at the school gives him the cache t needed to spearhead more comprehensive initiatives. During his two year stint, Chip successfully completed a number of projects: an audit of the school, installation of a daylighting system (in the form of tubular skylights), overseeing a photovoltaic panel setup, and the creation of Earth Week activities. His sole dedication to this endeavor allowed him to accomplish more than Matt, but at the end of his commitment, he no longer had a role in any official capacity at VVS After his departure, Chip discussed VVS 's interest in sustainability as a n integral portion of the curriculum, but to his knowledge, implementation of this plan did not have a coordinator. Herein lies the perfect example of how a single person, despite other people's efforts at VVS whose role clearly contains one component, th at of Sustainability Coordinator, has less value in the sense that their position becomes expendable without the procurement of additional funds. Matt, as a science teacher, has added value to BDS. As his sustainability coordinator duties decrease (as a pe rcentage of his time spent on these activities) the school explicitly devalues that aspect of his position. B oth schools fall prey to Rowe's

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124 (2004) concern in having sustainability too closely associated with any one person, but for different reasons. Sinc e neither Chip nor Matt have full time commitments to sustainability as defined by their schools, they become expendable. Until sustainability receives the attention it deserves as one the most pressing issues of the twenty first century, schools will cont inue supporting the status quo, which belittles sustainability. As it's shunted toward the back of the proverbial line, students will implicitly learn that sustainability has little to no value. Dedicated Sustainability Coordinator: A Full time Commitment What then is the right answer? Should schools look for a dedicated individual to focus on concerns related to sustainability, find a faculty member to take on these duties, or can there be another way forward? Until a culture of sustainability develops a t a school, work toward this end has to start somewhere. No one answer exists. To suggest that all schools take the same path would ignore all the signs that sustainability must reflect local values and fit within the school's culture. An ideal situation m ay not exist, but sustainability coordinators need to maintain a visible role on campus not just for students, but faculty, staff, administration, community members, and parents. By promoting sustainability and the people that work to coordinate its mult ifaceted aspects, a school makes the statement that it values sustainability and believes in its tenets. The examples from VVS and BDS indicate how easily this position can fall victim to time and budgetary constraints. These two schools may value sustaina bility implicitly, but their actions suggest otherwise. Committing to sustainability may take on a number of appearances, but an institutional allegiance to sustainability ought to include, at a minimum, full time support in terms of time and resources. Su stainability coordinators

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125 can benefit a school's fiscal bottom line, while improving what Elkington (1998) termed its triple bottom line: an institution's economic, environmental, and social equity. Realized savings from efficiency enacted by sustainabilit y coordinators can result in a fiscal argument for their positions. However, sustainability needs a champion in the seat of power, especially at charter and independent schools, where decision making may lie in the hands of a small group of people. Ultimat ely as with implementing sustainability in general, there is not a one size fits all answer. Factors including budget, size of the school, school philosophy (as in the case of Valley Vista School), and availability of expertise all weigh into the decision. During the meeting at Braeburn, the idea of several schools sharing a Sustainability Coordinator, perhaps with the assistance of the Rocky Mountain Independent School Association, came about in a brainstorming session where new ideas were proffered. In th e post meeting discussion with Chip and Matt, Chip mentioned the role of RMISA, stating we're going to need the support of the leadership bodies of the schools, certainly, and I'd like to also figure out what kind of support, if any that RMISA, Pat and RMI SA can give to this type of . or is it always going to be this kind of, well, extra piece ( joint interview, September 21, 2012). Chip addresses a larger question of sustainability's centrality in schools. However, in this discussion, the significance of his point lies in the alternative possibility of shared responsibilities with the governing structure playing a role in supporting sustainability in schools by coordinating efforts.

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126 The Ideal Solution Jaheil and Harper (2004) believe administrative support plays an essential role in the greening of a university A s such, a full time, dedicated Sustainability Coordinator that can impact purchasing, construction, curriculum, professional development, facilities, maintenance, stakeholders, etc would seem ingly provide the optimal situation for schools. Such an individual would need to maintain connections to the physical plant and student body, the community at a large and staff members, the curriculum and administration. School Gardens as a Teaching Tool By linking lessons with the school grounds and sustainability, students start to see the tangible aspects of sustainability. Whether classified as traditional, underserved, or "alternative" students, sustainability relates to their daily life. For those who will seek jobs out of school, or drop out prior to completion, accessing green collar jobs (Pinderhughes, 2006) is vital to employment opportunities in a sustainable economy. In the case of students who continue on to a collegiate program, Educating fo r Sustainability and using facilities as teaching tools provides context to learning and a lens through which they can view their education Initially, this research focused on facilities, namely buildings. However, given an underutilized plot of land, a s chool garden can transform the landscape into an outdoor classroom. With the rise of globalization's twin impacts on food and energy (Friedman, 2008; Brown, 2009) and that people often lack a local connection to their food source (Pollan, 2006) school gar dens provide an opportunity to reconnect people to the land that nourishes them By in large, humans no longer manage their own resources (grow their own food, cut down wood for heat and cooking), making it difficult to see how these

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127 systems interrelate an d connect to the environment This disconnect speaks to Louv's (2008) concern about the lack of natural space in the lives of children Louv maintains that natural spaces, as well as experiences in nature, are increasingly scarce In relationship to the fo od humans consume, Pollan (2006) points out the complete disassociation people have with their food. This represents a major educational opening for green schools. Alice Waters eloquently states the case for food production as a cornerstone for green schoo ls and sustainability pointing out a wide range of ways to integrate food into daily lessons, from measurement and counting to irrigation and decomposition (Hoffman & Waters 2009). Waters (2008 ) writes about her experience working to develop a garden at an underserved middle school in Berkeley, California. Through the project Waters (2008) describes the connections that students can make by experiencing their science through food and a school garden. By the time a young girl has finished a delicious meal and returned her table scraps to the garden soil, and gone back to planting and harvesting with her science class, she is well on her way to understanding the cycle of life, from seed to table and back again absorbing almost by osmosis the relationship b etween the health of our bodies, our communities, and the natural wo rld (p. 10). In this space, school gardens present an opportunity to both reconnect children with their food, but also as an ideal space for student inquiry in the arena of science and ar ithmetic. Additionally, history and social studies can intertwine with the aforementioned subjects as students learn about the cultural and historical roots of food in their area. Schools with gardens have the opportunity to supplement the information garn ered inside buildings with examples from the school grounds. This represents yet another potential arena for connections between the facilities and the curriculum and demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of Educating for Sustainability.

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128 Interdisciplin ary Approaches to Education Much like Barrett (20 07 ) argu ing that academia seems inimical to environmental concerns Kincheloe (2004) relates the view among colleagues that interdisciplinarity has little cachet when applying for tenure Kincheloe 's (2004 ) retort if one is interested in only doing goo d research, one should embrace" (p. 50) interdisciplinarity has ramifications for how schools educate their students. I f one is interested in only doing good education, one should embrace interdisciplinar ity Educating students ought to more closely approximate the real world. When students exit the classroom, they do not experience math, science, language arts, and social studies independent of one another. Sustainability exists in all facets of humanity' s daily interactions. Combining these two facts leads to an educational system that needs to prepare students in a way that reflects this reality. Unfortunately, as Gleason (2012) points out "The American educational system is not designed to teach about t he interconnectedness of systems. Rather, for generations we have been taught to compartmentalize" (para. 5). Kearins and Springett (2003) argue, "the complex and holistic concept of sustainable development requires more than a narrow disciplinary approach to developing [students'] own awareness and knowledge base (p. 197). M aking students cognizant of the far ranging, interdisciplinary nature of sustainability remains a major obstacle to implementing concepts related to this foundational concept throughou t schools and education. EfS and Sustainability on a Societal Scale At the end of the day, the point of Educating for Sustainability revolves around the notion that sustainability needs to rest at the heart of society and education offers the best route to reach the next generation. Why bother educating for something that will not

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129 play a central role in the lives of students? Unfortunately, sustainability has been hijacked by organizations that seemingly have little to do with the notion of sustainability (Wilson, 2011 b ). If sustainability, and by extension sustainable development, aims to live within the means of nature, a modified version of what Goodland (1995) refers to as "strong" sustainability, humankind must learn how to accomplish this goal, which by in large appears antithetical to the West's consumptive ideology. Kearins and Springett's (2003) critical approach to Educating for Sustainability involves students thinking through both personal and broader societal values and ethics and how these mi ght have impact on management decisions" (p. 193) By challenging the prevailing paradigm of consumption, looking at the context in which sustainability resides, and considering the ethical components of our societal values, students can engage in the dial ogue necessary to push the sustainability conversation forward. Until we can educate today's youth, as well as their teachers, models, mentors, and educators about sustainability and its paradigmatic shift from rampant consumption to mindful existence wi thin the limits to growth overcoming deeply held consumer tendencies remains highly unlikely. The comedian George Carlin (1992) once opined, "the planet is fine. The people are fucked." Carlin's assertion seems to have some merit. A rather intriguing tho ught experiment by Weisman (2007) about how long it would take nature to reclaim the planet in the absence of Homo sapiens supports the notion that the earth indeed will be fine. Given this, sustainability becomes an anthropocentric attempt to prolong our species on the face of the planet. In order to do so, we as a species must educate for this survival, for sustainability. Without knowing the direction that the future of humanity or future in general for that matter will take, the imperative becomes t o

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130 plan and teach the next generations how to live within the limits of the earth. As Meadows et al. (1974) warned 40 years ago, the current trends in population growth and consumption outstrip the resources available to us in the upcoming century (i.e. thi s century, the twenty first century). These limits to growth serve as the number one reason why Educating for Sustainability must progress and cultural shifts in schools from consumptive forces to paragons of sustainability have to dominate the twenty firs t century agenda. On its own, the peril faced ought to present a n ironclad argument in favor of Educating for Sustainability. The fact that its merits as a pedagogically sound approach to education with positive impacts on student performance s ee Lieberm an and Hoody ( 1998 ) have been demonstrated only strengthens the argument for large scale adoption. Whether or not society moves in this direction remains to be seen. However, Educating for Sustainability in terms of societal goals and improved student pe rformance on standardized tests the current measure, flawed as it may be, of student success has value. Schools may not always have the opportunity to institute EfS, let alone sustainable practices given governance structures. The system currently in p lace exemplifies the self reinforcing model. Those who rose to power under the current regime perpetuate the system from which they came, one focused on testing and narrowing the curriculum to the exclusion of EfS and Multicultural Education, among other non traditional" approaches to learning. While constructivism as a classroom philosophy and inquiry as a pedagogical tool have infiltrated teacher preparation programs, their implementation in the classroom as a force for engaging students has not provided the anticipated bump in performance. Elmesky and Tobin (2005) claim, there is evidence to suggest that, despite

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131 reform initiatives, the quality of science instruction remains well below the ideal (p. 808). They cite a study from Weiss, Pasley, Smith, Ba nilower, and Heck ( 200 3) that found one out of three lessons nationally had a positive effect on math and science, while one sixth have a negative impact, with the remainder having either no effect or both positive and negative impacts. Engaging students as partners in the learning process will not serve as a panacea. Quality teacher preparation, professional development, and ongoing feedback all have roles to play. However, classrooms that passively transmit information and irrelevant content, exemplif y t he staid approach to teaching that continues to dominant many classrooms. Engendering a Paradigmatic Shift Paradigms act as a lens through which we understand the world around us. They tend to reflect tightly held beliefs that change slowly, if at all. I n the case of our educational system, the lack of a student centered approach represents the perpetuation of a system that now appears antiquated. However, a paradigmatic shift requires a crisis, which occurs when anomalies cannot be resolved (Kuhn, 1996) It appears we have not quite reached the point of an anomaly, but the disconnect between our rampant consumption, exploitation of resources (people and natural capital), the way in which we educate, and the need to create a sustainable path forward may ra pidly foment a crisis. Beveridge (1957) argues that scientists at times are so entrenched in the current view or paradigm that they are unable to see new discoveries as valuable. Populations at large fall victim to the same effect. The blinders, with w hich they go through their daily work, prevent them from seeing the intrinsic value of the new ideas or discoveries. Kuhn (1996) would argue that this results from the fact that they are constrained by the paradigm

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132 within which they are working. When a par adigm and new evidence become incompatible, a different paradigm must emerge, one that can explain new findings. The extant paradigm of consumption runs counter to sustainability: an anomaly. Could a crisis come next? Gruenewald (2001) asserts, "An unsusta inable society is the context in which children all of us are educated" (p. 5). This sure sounds like a crisis. Proposed Solutions A number of the issues that arose over the course of this research have no clear solution. However, some options exist for dealing with the barriers and concerns of how to more fully articulate a vision of EfS in K 12 education. Overcoming barriers Despite the barriers laid out by Chip and Matt, as well as the literature, both participants see hope in the sometimes bleak endeavor. Matt provides in house professional development via brief presentations to the faculty at BDS. As the consummate educator, he sees more education for staff, as a significant part of the solution. I think more education to, for staff I'd do every year, I do this kind of basic, this is, this is what we're doing, this is how you can help, this is how you can educate your kids, I do with all the science teachers, particular because they, they have more of that in the curriculum, but I also do that wi th all the lower school classroom teachers as well so they get a chance to see what is the purpose of what, why should, uh, why should I care about this in literacy, why should I care about this in social studies, and it's like they can figure out where to bring it in to all those different curricular areas so it's not just, uh, something you do on the side, it's something you integrate into everything you do (i nterview, October 26, 2012). Chip saw students as the key to overcoming the barriers. In the ind ividual interview after the conference, he picked up on the same note, observing if we can get some enthusiasm from the students, from the bottom up, I think that can be overcome ( interview, October

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133 26, 2012). Looking at the example from Douglas County s chools (Garcia, 2013), where students conducted energy audits, students may well represent the greatest hope to affect change with regard to sustainability education. Chip's commitment to sustainability in schools extends beyond the spatial and temporal r epresented in this research. His efforts to engage leaders in the independent school movement began in earnest after the completion of this study. He identified the following needs in independent schools vis ˆ vis sustainability: closing the gap between aspirations and ability to act on those aspirations developing common/shared metrics real time data/reporting data driven decision making best practices understanding ability to benchmark progress developing indexes to promote collaboration and common goals risk management (energy, environment) (personal communication, October 24, 2013) These factors go to the root of decision makers at schools, the seat of power. What Chip starts to address is the lack of coordinated effort at schools, the n eed for administrative support, and ultimately the resources from schools' leaders. Top Down vs. Bottom Up Unfortunately, the lack of coordination does not portend well for individuals trying to instill sustainability throughout their respective campuses from the bottom up. Chip's comment about "enthusiasm from the students, from the bottom up" (October 26, 2012) is telling. Hope abounds, though solely working from the bottom up may feel like a Sisyphean task especially as students age out of the school and club or group leaders must re introduce goals every few years to neophy t es.

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134 A Hybrid Approach A combination of top down and bottom up strategies the hybrid approach requires coordination and dialogue between constituencies. Fostering a sense of s ustainability and its associated behaviors within various groups faculty, staff, students, and community members must also play a vital role in the process. Chip's assertion that schools need metrics to make the case for sustainability sits firmly in t he business end of schools. The autonomy of independent, and to an extent charter schools, provides an opportunity to consider these facets of sustainability. Because their fiscal health depends on fundraising, these schools have a unique opportunity to al ign their actions in the realm of environmental sustainability with the long term financial well being the fiscal sustainability of their schools. Mandating Sustainability via School Accreditation In what may amount to the ultimately top down thinking in conversations after the workshop ended, Chip considered the role of the accreditation organization and their governing principles in relation to sustainability. Governance structures and accreditation requirements for independent schools represent a m ajor component of their existence, with oversight at regular intervals. Chip's discourse shifted to include these metastructures, unearthing the foundational barrier of a school's operations. If the documents and guidelines of organizations responsible for oversight and enforcement fail to acknowledge sustainability, thereby failing to assess schools on this principle vis ˆ vis accreditation then the system effectively denies its importance. Schools can individually choose to embrace sustainability, but th ey have little to no external impetus to further sustainable goals in light of their accrediting organization.

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135 Discussion at the first meeting, hosted at BDS, included the idea of having a local branch of the National Association of Independent Schools (NA IS) sustainability group and how the Rocky Mountain Independent School Association (RMISA) did not include sustainability in its mission. Chip in particular picked up on this, questioning the role of the statewide organization to lead. He wanted to see if RMISA can really be a leader in the, in the country on how to establish this type of, of relationship, collaboration amongst schools that are, I guess, theoretically competing, but we're trying to find avenues of collaboration ( joint interview, September 21, 2012). Finding a Best Fit Whether employing a top down, bottom up, or hybrid approach yields the greatest impact remains unclear and ultimately depends on the extant school culture Chip achieved a series of accomplishments throughout VVS 's campus. H is effort in fundraising returned the investment of a 10 kilowatt photovoltaic array, which came from the donation that also paid his salary. It appears, in part at least, that Chip's success, though not up to his standards, may follow from having a seat a t the table and buy in from the top levels of the school's administration. This seemingly plays an important part in these schools' attempts to integrate sustainability. Personal experience supports this as my work with Mar Costa Charter High School demon strates T he principal contacted me to help engage the school community in sustainability measures. Along with his guidance, the Chief Business Officer played a key role in pushing the initiative forward. Having buy in from top level administrators ensures that MCCHS will implement its sustainability programs whatever shape they may take W hether the initiative will succeed is unclear as guaranteeing buy in from all stakeholders remains uncertain at this

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136 juncture in the collaboration. Regardless of the a pproach, Senge (1990) cautions, It can truly be said that nothing happens until there is vision. But it is equally true that a vision with no underlying sense of purpose, no calling, is just a good idea -'sound and fury, signifying nothing'" (p. 149). G ood Intentions: Unfulfilled Aims The Clearinghouse Another focus of Matt's over the course of the workshop centered on the notion of developing a clearinghouse for sustainability related content. In the opening days of the workshop, I mentioned my work w ith a statewide environmental education organization that potentially would construct a database of local experts. Matt repeatedly touched on this idea over the course of the year long PD I'd like to see that, like, figure out that clearinghouse, figure out that, those organizations, like how we can bring ideas together and be able to use each other as idea generators and also figure out, um like, that whole idea of that purchasing power, that power in numbers and trying to figure out how we can do that, and do that better than currently, cuz I know that, I mean I've talked to [Eliot], I was . he, he was, he told me earlier he probably wouldn't be able to make it to the meeting, cuz, cuz of Grandparent's Day I wanted to see what his input was on . cuz that's one of the big things, is the purchasing, like how the things cost more, if they're, if they're going to be green or non toxic or something like that, so um, how do you justify that in a world where you have to watch your bottom line ( joint interview, September 21, 2012). Initially discussed on the first day of the workshop, the clearinghouse elicited a positive response from Chip as well. I like the idea of a clearinghouse of people that are experts in the field, different sustainability f ields. Yeah, how to keep up on what are the cutting edge ideas out there. What are, what's going on ( focus group, August 7, 2012).

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137 Pooled Purchasing of Sustainably Sourced Products On several occasions, Matt laid out his vision for the potential collec tive purchasing power of schools governed by the Rocky Mountain Independent School Association. Matt brought this notion up on numerous times, including trying to tie purchasing of sustainably sourced materials with one of the nearby universities that has a sizeable purchasing program geared toward procuring sustainably sourced materials. Matt pushed for leveraging the collective ability of this group to make a push in purchasing. I think, strengthening the networking that we have, understand like, it's no t just talk, put some actions to it. So, how do we do maybe do something with purchasing. How do we do stuff with knowing what each others' programs are and how we can help each other with like, clubs, and help each other with, uh, organ like organizing s taff and like parents and things like that ( interview, October 26, 2012) He brought this notion up at the second meeting as well, making the case for bargaining power to purchase more sustainably produced goods. At the first meeting, one business manager attended, but like many of the ideas espoused, the notion of pooling purchasing failed to gain traction. Community of Practice After a December 2008 workshop in which sustainability consultant Henry Jameson presented at Braeburn, an informal meeting of l ike minded individuals began with the intent of regular conversations and interscholastic competition between Rocky Mountain Independent School Association members around various environmental sustainability goals. A battery recycling competition took plac e and plans were in development for an energy conservation contest. Meetings ceased until the formation of this research project. In essence, this represents the second attempt at regular meetings.

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138 However, much as happened in the first iteration, the meet ings fell victim to busy schedules, other priorities, and the daily minutiae Matt alluded to in his call for "check ins" early in the process. Without formal buy in from the association or heads of school, no budget, set schedule, or expectations existed o utside those created by Chip and Matt. Given the diffuse nature of the participants in the two meetings organized and run by Chip and Matt, it could be argued that they developed a sort of community of practice consisting of both practitioners and lay peop le from organizations throughout the nonprofit and educational worlds. With several people moving in and out of these meetings, Chip and Matt began to develop a network of like minded individuals with expertise in a number of areas related to sustainabilit y, but only tangentially connected to education. It becomes their task to weave these disparate pieces together with other school personnel from various independent schools throughout the region. This community of practice must coalesce though in order for Chip and/or Matt to realize success on the broader level. Changing the Way Schools Operate: Cultural Shifts Changing the way schools operate will not happen overnight, nor will it happen within a generation. In fact, institutions that have stood as long as schooling has and enjoying the unfettered support from policymakers can only be expected to continue in their position of dominance. Subverting these structures falls on the shoulders of the individual. Matt and Chip can affect change on the individ ual level, though even this prov es difficult. Although Margaret Mead is credited with the following quotation, "Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it's the only thing that ever has" Lutkehaus (200 8) suggests no record of it in her

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139 published work exists. Aside from question of attribution, the point relates to Chip and Matt. For a more contemporary example, Malala Yousafzai points out in her battle against ignorance, If one man can destroy everyt hing, why can't one girl change it? (author's emphasis) (Yous afzai and Lamb, 2013, p. 141 2). With this grassroots/go it alone mentality, I make the case that change must indeed start on the level of the individual. While a hybrid top down, bottom up appr oach embodies the ideal situation, suggesting a single archetype for engaging in a paradigmatic shift toward sustainability within our schools runs counter to the notion of progress. What works in one location will not necessarily guarantee success in anot her. Assessing the culture and attempting to work within the confines of the individual school, or in some cases school system or district, represents a more realistic way forward. To think that EfS will become the standard simply because it represents a b etter way forward is not only foolish, but ignorant of the hardships demonstrated by such educational movement s like Multicultural Education. "Shifting a culture requires a tremendous amount of patience, persistence, and collaboration" (Gleason, 2012, para 1). To that succinct list, I would add dialogue. Conversations where stakeholders can make their case for sustainability as integral to a school's mission take time. To suggest a complete shift would be a fool's errand. However, incremental steps can mov e schools to become more sustainable, specifically when the institution itself benefits. Leadership, whether originating from the administration, faculty, students, or staff, must incorporate multiple perspectives. A pluralistic approach may threaten those in power. Helping these people, who may feel threatened by change, see how a shift benefits all participants in the school, as well as the

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140 school's reputation (either through student performance or recognition in the community as a leader), takes preceden ce. Change can be slow and painful, though it need not be. Part of the discussion needs to include systemic change. At the end of the day, without systemic change, the hegemonies that shackle education remain. By heading in a direction where stakeholders including students, community members, and parents all have a voice, schools can create localized sustainability hotspots. When these discussions move beyond the classroom, beyond the curriculum, beyond the institution, and into the community, into the policies, into the seats of power, then sustainability will take root. Starting with a single teacher, or a committed group of students, as a staunch supporter for EfS represents the commencement, but at some point that energy has to lead to systemic chan ge. The Need for Buy in and Strong Leadership Without strong leadership, buy in from stakeholders, and open communication, sustainability initiatives will suffer from a lack of direction and ownership. Developing a Sustainability Management Plans (SMPs) needs to take place on the local level. Implementing a generic, centrally generated plan to integrate sustainability into schools will undoubtedly fail. Context matters. The one size fits all standardized model cannot work for schools that have a variety of needs and unique characteristics. Finding local solutions to match the culture of a school is paramount. In the case of Emory University, healthcare served as the linchpin that brought the community together (C. Howett, personal communication, November 5, 2012). Cultural change focused on sustainability requires buy in to the idea that sustainability, whichever facet a school deems important to its long term survival, has value. Decoupling sustainability from ideological positions

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141 starts the process of u nderstanding sustainability's role at a given school. Each institution has different needs, but at the end of the day educating students remains a common goal of schools. Indeed, they educate not for yesterday or today, but for the future. Coming together around this notion of educating for the future good of humanity yields one major theme, sustainability. Power Structures and Inhibiting Voice An important, and significant, corollary exists to the strong leadership argument. When a leader pushes against su stainability and stifles dissent, sustainability will fail to flourish if it is not part of the leadership's vision. Leadership need not solely come from the top. Just as the hegemonies of consumption and testing thwart sustainability and multiculturalism, so to can the hegemonic power structures existent in schools. Giving voice to students, faculty, and families represents an integral part of curricular and cultural change. Dictates from administration and transmissionist instruction prevent organic ideat ion and creativity from bubbling up through the system. Students who may exhibit a passion for sustainability, multiculturalism, or feminist thought often fall victim to a system that inhibits dialogue. Lemke (1990) outlined the didactic nature of many sci ence conversations, demonstrating how little opportunity exists for meaningful discourse in the classroom. In order for bottom up initiatives to gain momentum, school power structures need to support students, faculty, and parents in the partnership of edu cation. A one way transmission of knowledge fails to adequately prepare the range of students in a given class for the "real world." Projects and proposals by traditionally under represented groups in a school's power arrangement need support to come to

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142 fr uition. Cultural change of this ilk would represent a veritable sea change, a true paradigm shift. Charter Schools and EfS While independent schools employed both participants in this study, there is a burgeoning sect of schools in the public education re alm that can engage in the tenets of EfS due to their autonomy Starting in August o f 2013, I began working with MCCHS, a charter high school on the West Coast to implement a plan modeled on this workshop. Unique from a start up style charter a few year s ago, MCCHS converted to an autonomous organization after having been organized under the auspices of the local public school board since its founding more than 40 years ago Amongst the school's features that provide inroads for EfS, is an integrated app roach to curriculum among one of the school's three tracks T he administrative team approached me to consult for them as they work to integrate sustainability throughout their school's campus and culture. As the only high school in their city with an alter native school under their administrative structure, MCCHS is in the unique position to work with both nontraditional and high achieving, pre collegiate students. MCCHS's principal asked me to write a proposal ( Appendix J ) for the school that would look at how they could become more sustainable Without having met the administrative staff and having only spoken to the principal, the proposal was intended to serve as a starting point for conversation as to the school's needs. After an in person meeting with t he principal, three assistant principals, the Director of Facilities, the Chief Business Officer, Chief Tec hnology Officer and his assistant the alternative education program's director, co chair of the science department, and director of MCCHS's

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143 interdis ciplinary curriculum track, the school's interests materialized and led to a statement of work (Appendix K) that reflected what the school needed in their attempt to become a more sustainable school. First among the order of business was an assessment of t he school's sustainability culture. Appendix L contains the survey submitted to all faculty and staff members of MCCHS. Next steps include student, parental, and community responses to the survey. Getting responses will be challenging as MCCHS maintains a large student body, roughly 3,700 students, including the alternative education program. Project Based Learning and Workplace Opportunities In keeping with the anti textbook rhetoric, Educating for Sustainability has the opportunity to make use of projec t based learning in a way that provides students with real world, hands on experiences in an interdisciplinary approach. Innumerable possibilities exist for project based learning in the realm of sustainability. At MCCS, we have discussed a handful of idea s for their alternative school, which serves students that have met with challenges in traditional classroom settings. The ideas proffered for project based approaches to their curriculum intend to engage students, introduce them to the concept of sustaina bility, and prepare them for jobs that might otherwise be out of their reach. See Table 6 for a brief overview of potential project based learning scenarios for the alternative school at MCCHS. Underserved Student Populations In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania The Workshop School takes at risk students and employs project based learning to teach students principles of science, mathematics, literacy, and engineering, while couching the curriculum in an appealing, sustainability

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144 laden manner that engages youth w ho otherwise fail to receive the attention and energy of the educational establishment. Their mission is t o unleash the creative and intellectual potential of young people to solve the world's toughest problems. We do this by putting real world problems at the center of the curriculum, and evaluating students' work based on the progress they make in defining, exploring, and ultimately developing solutions to those problems. We create a culture that fosters creativity, risk taking, and responsibility for sel f and others. And we help students understand that setbacks are a necessary part of doing challenging work, and that the most important thing is to learn from them and press on (The Workshop School, n.d.) This approach could prove useful beyond underserv ed populations, but it provides a real incentive for those that have been chronically oppressed by the education and workplace systems. Project based learning offers an engaging approach to learning as well as real world experience in areas that may have r eliable and locally sustainable job opportunities. By couching education in a more application oriented fashion, students that choose not to continue their schooling can access quality jobs out of high school. Green Jobs as Post Secondary Opportunities Ma rginalized groups like Native Americans often live in the most deplorable conditions (Riley, Thatcher, and Workman, 2006). Low income urban children (Krieger, Song, Takaro, and Stout, 2000) often live in similarly wretched unhealthy conditions. By designi ng a course aimed to educate under served populations and prepare them for work in the field of energy efficiency, weatherization, and retrofitting, participants can gain valuable skills that will place them at an advantage in the "green economy," or what Gray (2009) refers to as "green collar jobs." My work with MCCHS aims to implement curricular themes centered on EfS with specific worker readiness goals. As outlined in the project based learning section, the hands on, minds on approach plays an important role in reaching out to the alternative school population at MCCHS. In response to the

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145 use of a bicycle repair shop as the classroom, the assistant principal in charge of the alternative program put it best saying, Our kids at the alternative site so pref er manual labor to desk type jobs. I really like this because there is immediate feedback -learning mechanics that is applied, marketing with the rentals, and of course the physical exercise part ( L. Ring, personal communication, November 19, 2013). By pr eparing students for jobs that benefit their community and environment, while earning a living wage, schools can lift students out of the cycle of unemployment and underemployment that terrorizes young adults, especially those of color and lower socioecono mic status. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (2011), From April to July 2011, the number of employed youth 16 to 24 years old rose by 1.7 million to 18.6 million . . This year, the share of young people who were employed in July was 48.8 per cent, the lowest July rate on record for the series, which began in 1948. (The month of July typically is the summertime peak in youth employment.) Unemployment among youth increased by 745,000 between April and July, more than last year's increase of 571, 000 (p. 1). Pinderhughes (2006) outlines 22 areas for green collar jobs reproduced in Table 7. These sectors represent jobs that cannot be outsourced. By focusing on these areas, education can offer a path to independence. A recent story from National Pub lic Radio discussed the skills gap and how the German system of apprenticeship can serve as a model to put workers in jobs that need filling (Capelouto, 2014). Preparing high school students for green jobs represents a major area for growth and an opportun ity to improve their earning potential. Moncarz and Crosby (2004) report that those with less than a college degree fill most of the jobs in the United States. Between 2002 and 2012, BLS expects about 56 million job openings to be lled. Of this total, abo ut 42 million openings are projected to be lled by workers who do not have a bachelor's degree and who are entering an occupation for the rst time. About 27 million of these openings are expected to be held by workers who

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146 have a high school diploma or le ss education. Another 15 million openings are expected for workers who have some college education or an associate degree but do not have a bachelor's degree (p. 3) ________________________________________________________________________ Table 6 : Hands o n Learning, Green Jobs Preparation, and Alternative Schools ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Project Explanation Disciplinary Connection(s) Sustainability Component(s) Auto/Bike Shop Auto shop for high efficiency cars; converting cars from diesel to biodiesel; making your own biodiesel; converting cars to electric cars; bike repairs with potential for operating a small business focused on rentals Physics, Engineering, Math, Econo mics Transportation, Employment opportunities Wood/Metal Shop Welding and craftsmanship; skills that cannot be outsourced and that encouraged conscientious resource use; entry point for green jobs Math, Engineering Resource conservation, employment oppor tunities Nursery/Garden Grow food and greenery (possibly in a greenhouse); cooking of harvested food; potential for operating a small business focused on food, farmers market, or nursery Epidemiology, Health, Math, Language Arts, Nutrition, Economics He althy/locally produced food, employment opportunities Energy and Water Audits Learn the process of conducting an energy or water audit; perform audits in neighborhood/community Economics, Math, Physics, Fluid Dynamics Community engagement, resource conser vation, employment opportunities Retrofits and Renovations Using existing facilities in need of renovation/retrofit to maximize energy and water efficiency, thermal comfort Physics, Math, Health, Epidemiology, Biochemistry Construction, renovation, empl oyment Solar Installation Rooftop or ground mounted solar installations; hands on/apprentice experience Physics, Engineering, Math (Geometry) Renewable energy, employment opportunities Green Roof Rooftop/wall installations of vegetation (either for purp oses of food production or xeriscaping) Physics, Engineering, Math (Geometry) Resource conservation, employment opportunities ________________________________________________________________________ Ensuring access to high quality jobs linked to sustaina ble ventures can provide meaningful work in an increasingly competitive workplace. A focus on green collar jobs

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147 also works to incorporate underserved populations that have not traditionally been represented in sustainability. Future PD Workshops Ultimate ly, the goal of this research aims to develop a model for transformative participatory professional development where educators embed sustainability in their schools. Invariably this process will require ongoing efforts, not a single, one off effort to bri ng a modicum of sustainability to the curriculum or school grounds. Ideally, future workshops will take place at participants' home institution s so as to make connections between the campus facilities and the curriculum more explicit. Using the Piedmont Pr oject (Barlett, 2004) as an example, small groups of faculty members would engage in yearlong discussions and revisions of their course's syllabi. Past participants of this professional development would then serve as mentors to other faculty and staff int erested in similar work. Additionally, future workshops would involve participants earlier than this research in an attempt to reflect their interests more closely. As noted, due to time and IRB constraints, the first two days of this workshop did not elic it feedback from participants prior to planning the schedule of events. However, with a small group, we maintained the flexibility to adapt on short notice. Providing focused professional development opportunities may not offer the operating efficiency of large scale "sit and get" PD schemes, but it allows for meaningful engagement with the process that gives participants a voice in the process, which more accurately reflects how people learn. Simultaneously, keeping the groups to a manageable size allows f or scheduling follow up sessions to reengage the participants in an attempt to support them as they integrate sustainability in their school, classroom, or physical plant.

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148 ________________________________________________________________________ Table 7 : Gr een collar job opportunities through high school programming Green Collar Job Sectors Bicycle repair and bike delivery services Car and truck mechanic jobs, production jobs, and gas station jobs related to biodiesel Energy retrofits to increase energy eff iciency and conservation Green building Green waste composting on a large scale Hauling and reuse of construction materials and debris Hazardous materials clean up Landscaping Manufacturing jobs related to large scale production of appropriate technologies (i.e. solar panels, bike cargo systems, green waste bins, etc.) Materials reuse Non toxic household cleaning in residential and commercial buildings Parks and open space expansion and maintenance Printing with non toxic inks and dyes Public transit jobs related to driving, maintenance, and repair Recycling and reuse Small business producing products from recycled materials Solar installation Tree cutting and pruning Peri urban and urban agriculture Water retrofits to increase water efficiency and conserv ation Whole home insulation including attic insulation, weatherization, etc Table adapted from Pinderhughes (2006)

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149 C HAPTER VII CONCLUSION We are entering a period of human history that may provide an answer to the question of whether it is better to be smart than stupid. The most hopeful prospect is that the question will not be answered: if it receives a definite answer, that answer can only be that humans were a kind of biological error,' using their allotted 100,000 years to destroy themselves and, in the process, much else. The species has surely developed the capacity to do just that, and a hypothetical extraterrestrial observe r might well conclude that humans have demonstrated that capacity throughout their history, dramatically in the past few h undred years, with an assault on the environment that sustains life . on the diversity of more complex organisms, and with cold and calculated savagery, on each other as well (Chomsky, 2003, p. 1 2) Schools have an obligation to lead the way forward In an era marked by political bickering, schools need to find common ground to move forward toward a more sustainable future. Starting with Gleason's (2012) argument that schools shape the future, educators have a mandate to incorporate sustainability int o the curriculum. Regardless of the definition one ascribes to sustainability, it is about the future, namely the future survival of the human species. While teaching Lab Aids' Science Education for Public Understanding Program Science and Sustainability ( SEPUP et. al 2001) curriculum to eighth graders, students invariably defined sustainability prior to the first lesson as: surviving, continuing, keeping going. In order to ensure a future for our species, an admittedly anthropocentric view, sustainabi lity must exist as a central tenant in education. Businesses will adopt sustainable practices when it suits their fiscal bottom line (Senge, 2008). Schools need to integrate sustainability as a matter of society's "strategic plan." Despite the IPCC (2007) report, "Hope springs eternal in the human breast" (Pope, 1994, p. 48). Chip encountered frustration at nearly every turn as he saw it. However, stepping back, he accomplished quite a bit at Valley Vista School and made a lasting

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150 impact. Although he no l onger works at VVS the photovoltaic system, daylighting project, and zero waste initiatives he either spearheaded or collaborated on, have outlasted him. Matt on the other hand continues to push for sustainability, though more directly in the classroom. W orking with teachers of younger students those who express an interest, willingness, or the flexibility to integrate sustainability Matt has continued to spread sustainability throughout Braeburn Day School. Rearing a generation, let alone a society, o f sustainability natives ( Libby 20 12 ) requires a thoughtful approach. While the stakes are daunting and possibly disheartening, clearly doing nothing is the worst option. Practically speaking, developing measures, benchmarks, goals, a mission, and assor ted ways to assess a school's sustainability can serve as a guidepost, especially during times of stress and strain. Institutionalizing sustainability requires a whole host of factors. Setting up a system that supports and reinforces sustainability, while making those measures available and transparent, will further these aims. Without being able to produce some sort of data to support their feelings of frustration, Chip and Matt merely voiced a sense of failure. However, as noted several times, Chip made s everal concrete improvements in terms of energy consumption and production at VVS Matt's ability to integrate their LEED certified structure into the curriculum also serves as a testament to the fact that they made a positive impact. In the early stages M att acknowledged barriers to Educating for Sustainability were virtually nonexistent at Braeburn in his mind. Unfortunately, feelings of frustration arose regardless of successes. Producing a report similar to the one Chip suggested students generate, co uld help both verify their impact.

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151 Knowledge holds the key to a sustainable future and schools act as society's de facto disseminator. Wohl (2009) offers the following consideration, "My only hope is that knowledge, once sufficiently widespread, will foste r in all of us a sense of responsibility and a resolve to modify our society's destructive patterns of resource use" (p. 71). Indeed, knowledge will light the way, schools will provide the spark, and sustainability as its definition implies will keep t he flame lit. Delimitations As with any study, particularly in qualitative research, numerous delimitations exist. The design of the workshop required participants to self select and do so during the summer of 2012, when many individuals may have already chosen other opportunities, or to take a break from work and school related experiences. Additionally, professional development itself acts as an external impetus, despite the attempts to create a participant driven program. A condensed timeline created n umerous pressures on scheduling, recruiting, and engagi ng participants and presenters. Both Chip and Matt come from independent schools. While hardly representative of a larger sample of schools, their experiences can provide valuable insight. However, wit h the two participants involved in the study, and the third school acting as a supplementary example, their knowledge yields a set of ideas that has value in the arena of Educating for Sustainability. To draw wide conclusions from this study would be foolh ardy. This by no means discounts the observations and inferences derived from Chip, Matt, and others who came into contact with them during this time. In the end, Chip and Matt hold rare positions in the field of education. I must caution against extrapola ting from this pair beyond the admittedly insular group of sustainability minded individuals.

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152 Each school maintains a unique culture with distinct characters. While the roles remain the same (administration, faculty, staff, students, etc) the specifics wil l never be the same. Life After the Workshop For Chip, the work of Educating for Sustainability took on a different level of importance. By necessity Chip's nascent sustainability consulting career, which began with the two year position at Valley Vista became a focal point once his contract ended. In order to provide for his family, he needed gainful employment. In his post Valley Vista career, Chip has reached out to organizations and individuals engaged in the field of EfS. He is part self starter, par t collaborator; often willing to work with others to find the balance between making sure he can scratch out a living and promoting sustainability in schools. "I am interested in helping schools do the right thing' and (by necessity) in the interesting bu siness opportunities that are presented. We all need to be sustainable in our professional lives too" (C. Prentiss, personal communication, October 24, 2013). By acknowledging the need to find meaningful work that furthers sustainability, and thereby prov ide a self sustaining work situation, Chip has immersed himself in the task of carving out a position that will serve his dual needs. In partial contrast, Matt's focus understandably shifted to his family. As a first time father at age 43, Matt's prioritie s rested at home. While he continued to work at Braeburn in the multiple roles assigned to him, any extra time that had been potentially available to dedicate to BDS's sustainability work turned to the home front. Matt continues to work on sustainability i nitiatives at Braeburn, but as referenced earlier, in conjunction with coaching duties and teaching responsibilities, he has numerous demands for his time. As a direct connection to these demands, h e must allocate time judiciously

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153 and prioritize, which res ults in diminished opportunities to focus on sustainability away from BDS. Matt stepped back from the ongoing nature of the professional development experience to spend time on his prior (and emerging) commitments. On the other hand, Chip has reached out r epeatedly via phone and email, keeping me abreast of developments in his meetings with others and his goals. Continued discussions have allowed both of us to further the efforts of bringing EfS to a wider audience. Multiple meetings in person in his hometo wn after the official end of the workshop have also demonstrated Chip's renewed commitment to making EfS and consulting with schools his mission. However, success has not come readily at this juncture. Despite setbacks, he continues to engage in the proc ess.

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154 REFERENCES AASHE. (2014). AASHE member directory Retrieved from directory Abraham, M. (2005). Sustainability education. Environmental Progress, 2 4, 4, 343. Agar, M. & MacDonald, J. (1995). Focus groups and e thnography. Human Organization, 54, 1, 78 86 Agyeman, J. (2008). Toward a 'just' sustainability?. Continuum 22 6, 751 756. Agyeman, J., Bullard, R., & Evans, B. (2002). Exploring the n exus: Bringing t ogether s ustainability, environmental j ustice and e quity. Space and Polity, 6, 1, 77 90. Alexander, S., & Henderson Rosser, A. (2010). Do i t y ourself p rofessional d evelopment. Learning & Leading with Technology, 37, 8, 24 27. Ary, D., Jacobs, L C., & Razavieh, A. (2002). Introduction to research in education Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. Banks, J. A., Au, K. H., Ball, A. F., Bell, P., Gordon, E. W., GutiÂŽrrez, K. D., . Zhou, M. (2007). Learning in and out of s chool: Life long, l ife wide, l ife deep. Seattle, WA: LIFE Center, University of Washington. Barlett, P. F. & Chase, G. W. (Eds.). (2004). Sustainability on campus: Stories and strategies for change Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Barlett, P. (2004). No longer waiting for some one else to do it: A tale of reluctant leadership. In P. Barlett & G. Chase ( Ed s.) Sustainability on campus: Stories and strategies for change (pp. 67 87). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Barr, Z. (2012, January 5). Construction errors found at new public school s. Colorado Public Radio. Retrieved from|Construction_Errors_Found_at_New_Public_Sc hools_ Barrett, M. J. (2007). Homework and fieldwork: Investigations into the rhetoric reality gap in environmental education research and pedagogy. Environmental Education Research, 13, 2, 209 223. Berg, B. L. (2001). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences Boston: Allyn and Baco n. Berliner, D. (2011). Rational responses to high stakes testing: The case of curriculum narrowing and the harm that follows. Cambridge Journal of Education, 41, 3, 287 302

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1 69 Welch, E. P. (1939). Edmund Husserl's phenomenology Los Angeles CA : The University of Southern California press. Werbach, A. (2009). Interview with Bill Javetski. When sustainability means more than green McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved from en_24 04 Westcott, C. & Egan, B. (2009, June). [Re] build it and they will come Presentation at the National Association of Independent Schools Institute for Leadership in Sustainability Woodward Academy, Atlanta, GA Wiebenson, J. (1998). Buildings that teach Educational Leadershi p. 55 7, 61 64. Wilkins, D. B. ( 2004). From "Separate is i nherently u nequal" to "Diversity is good for b usiness": The r ise of market based d iversity arguments and the fate of the black c orporate b ar. Harvard Law Review, 117, 1548 16 16. Wilkinson, R. G., & Pickett, K. (2010). The spirit level: Why greater equality makes societies stronger New York NY : Bloomsbury Press. Williams, C. C., & Millington, A. C. (2004). The diverse and contested meanings of sustainable development. The G eographical Journal, 170, 2, 99 104. Willis, J. W., Jost, M., & Nilakanta, R. (2007). Foundations of qualitative research: Interpretive and critical approaches Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Wilson, E. (2009, May 24). Is being green truly sustainable? [Web log post]. Retrieved from being green truly sustainable/ Wilson, E. (2010, August 29). Environmental vs. sustainability educat ion: Shifting the focus. Retrieved from vs sustainability education shi fting the focus/ Wilson, E. (2011 a May 8). The hegemony of the automobile. [Web log post]. Retrieved from hegemony of the automobile/ Wilson, E. (2011 b October 2). Sustainability hijacked by the establishment [Web log post]. Retrieved from hijacked by the establishment/ Wohl, E. E. (2009). Of rock and rivers: Seeking a sense of place in the American West Berkeley, CA : University of California Press. W orld Commission on Environment and Development (1987) Our Common Future Retrieved from http://www.un ocf.htm

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170 Wray Lake, L., Flanagan, C. A., & Osgood, D. W. (2009). Examining t rend s in a dolescent e nvironmental a ttitudes, b eliefs, and b ehaviors a cross t hree d ecades. Environment and Behavior 42, 1, 61 85. Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and method (3 rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T. Lee, S. W. Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. (2007). Reviewing the evidence on how teacher professional development affects student achievement (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2007 No. 033). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Educatio n Sciences, National Center. for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest. Retrieved from Younger, M., Morrow Almeida, H. R., Vindigni, S. M ., & Dannenberg, A. L. (2008). The built e nvironment, climate change, and h ealth. Opportuniti es for c o b enefits. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35, 5, 517 526. Yousafzai, M., & Lamb, C. (2013). I am Malala: The girl who stood up for education and was shot by the Taliban New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company. Zemelman, S., Daniels, H. and Hyde, A. (2005). Best practice: Today's standards for teaching and learning in America's schools. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

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171 APPENDICES Appendix A: Sample I nterview Questions (Participants) Have you used the campus structure(s) in your classroom as a teaching tool/to enhance curriculum? o If yes, how have you? If no, why not? What role (if any) do the facilities play in your curriculum? Why do you (or don't yo u) use the facilities as a "living lab"? What barriers do you see to using the facilities in the curriculum? How would you recommend overcoming these barriers? Do you think it is worthwhile to use the facilities in the curriculum? o Why or why not? Appendix B : Research Consent Form Date: June 18, 2012 Valid for Use Through: Study Title: Buildings as Teaching Tools: A Transformative Professional Development Experience Principal Investigator: Eric Wilson COMIRB No: 12 0824 Version Date: Version No: Yo u are being asked to be in a research study. This form provides you with information about the study. A member of the research team will describe this study to you and answer all of your questions. Please read the information below and ask questions about anything you don't understand before deciding whether or not to take part. Why is this study being done? You are being asked to be in this research study because science teachers are an essential component to teaching students about resource use and e nergy consumption. This study intends to develop a professional development workshop that helps teachers integrate the school buildings in the curriculum to provide students with a place based educational experience. Up to 12 people will participate in the study. What happens if I join this study?

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172 If you join the study, you will be enrolled in a professional development workshop that spans 2 days in the summer and three days throughout the 2012 13 school year. One day will be in on a Saturday in September, one on Friday, October 26 th at the United States Green Building Council's (Colorado Chapter) Green Schools Summit, and one date on a Saturday in the spring. Participants will earn 3 Continuing Education Units (3 CEUs) through the University of Colorado De nver. What are the possible discomforts or risks? Discomforts you may experience while in this study may include an increased level of stress due to the workshop taking place on weekends and during vacation time. Since this is a new professional developmen t experience, there may be other minimal risks to the participant, which are currently unforeseeable. What are the possible benefits of the study? Participants will earn CEUs and take part in a new professional development model. Are there alternative trea tments? There are no alternative treatments. Who is paying for this study? This research is not funded. It is solely for the purpose of my doctoral research. It is my intention to offer this professional development to schools in the future with the aim o f increasing the place based and energy conservation aspects within school curricula. Will I be paid for being in the study? Will I have to pay for anything? You will not be paid to be in the study. You will need to pay for the continuing education units, which cost $32 per unit. The total costs will be $96 for 3 CEUs. Partial CEUs may be earned. For each 15 contact hours, 1 CEU will be earned. You will be provided with a book from which readings will be selected. This will be at no cost to you. Is my par ticipation voluntary? Taking part in this study is voluntary. You have the right to choose not to take part in this study. If you choose to take part, you have the right to stop at any time. If you refuse or decide to withdraw later, you will not lose a ny benefits or rights to which you are entitled.

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173 Who do I call if I have questions? The researcher carrying out this study is Eric Wilson. You may ask any questions you have now. If you have questions later, you may call Eric Wilson at 303.956.0865. You may have questions about your rights as someone in this study. You can call Eric Wilson with questions. You can also call the Multiple Institutional Review Board (IRB). You can call them at 303 724 1055. Who will see my research information? We will do everything we can to keep your records a secret. It cannot be guaranteed. Both the records that identify you and the consent form signed by you may be looked at by others. Federal agencies that monitor human subject research Human Subject Research Committee The group doing the study The group paying for the study Regulatory officials from the institution where the research is being conducted who want to make sure the research is safe The results from the research may be shared at a meeting. The res ults from the research may be in published articles. Your name will be kept private when information is presented. Photography, Video, and Audio Recordings All recordings will be maintained on the investigator's home computer which is password protecte d. Digital copies may be made for transcription, but will be returned to the investigator and destroyed upon transcription. Any other hard copies (disks, transcriptions, etc) will be kept in a safe under lock and key. Data will be kept for 5 years, and the n erased. Agreement to be in this study I have read this paper about the study or it was read to me. I understand the possible risks and benefits of this study. I know that being in this study is voluntary. I choose to be in this study: I will get a cop y of this consent form. Signature: Date: Print Name:

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174 Consent form explained by: Date: Print Name: Investigator: Date: Appendix C : Focus Group Interview What constitutes a green school in your mind? o What do you thi nk of when you hear the term "green school"? What support would you like going forward? o Do you feel as though remaining in contact with this cohort will be beneficial? Why? Why not? What had you hoped to gain from this experience (but did not)? How would y ou improve the workshop? What barriers remain in using your facilities in the curriculum? Has this experience influenced your educational philosophy? (Hand out what they wrote). If so, how? From "Pre Workshop Questionnaire" What do you hope to gain from t his experience? How do you define sustainability? What is the role of schools to educate for sustainability? 1. What do you see as the barriers to integrating school facilities into the curriculum? How would you define place based education? Appendix D : Prof essional Development Schedule Tuesday, August 7th : 8:30 am: Bagels, Coffee, Introductions 9:30 am: USGBC speaker 11:00 am: Buildings as Teaching Tools 12:30 pm: Brown Bag Lunch round table 1:30 pm: Tour of the Alliance Center 3:00 pm: EfS and Place Based Education 4:30 pm: Reflection, Lesson Planning Wednesday, August 8th : 8:00 am: Bagels, Coffee, Debrief 9:00 am: Tour of UCD facilities 10:30 am: Lesson plan development 12:30pm: Brown Bag Lunch round table 1:30pm: Energy Audits 3:00 pm: Lesson plan deve lopment

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175 4:00 pm: Debrief (30 min) Optional: Tour of the Alliance Center HW: Develop new unit, Journal reflection Green School Audit Competition Appendix E : Fact Sheet Name: # of years teaching Main topics taught # of years in current position (teaching c urrent grade level/topic) Appendix F : Pre Workshop Questionnaire Please submit a brief cover letter (1 3 paragraphs) explaining your interest in learning about using your campus/buildings as teaching tools. Name: Number of years teaching Main topics taught Number of years in current position (teaching current grade level/topic) 2. What do you hope to gain from this experience? 3. How do you define sustainability? 4. What is the role of schools to educate for sustainability? 5. What do you see as the barrier s to integrating school facilities into the curriculum? 6. How would you define place based education? Appendix G : Agenda for September 21, 2012 Meeting Location: Braeburn Day School 1. Introductions 2. Brief tour through Phillips Hall would be good as well as ou r renovated theater (it used concepts from LEED but isn't trying to get certified) 3. Past Rocky Mountain 3xE "Challenges" 4. New Agenda Items o Chip Prentiss's Green School's Questionnaire o Celebrate successes, real or perceived barriers to advancing sustainabilit y at our schools. if it's only a money thing, then we can strategize together (crowd funding?) 5. Moving Forward o Future E Alliance "Challenges"

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176 o New Ideas o Colorado Green Schools Summit ( October 26th) o Next Meeting: ask for a commitment to meet at least twice a year in person? Location Date Agenda Appendix H : Collaboration Questionnaire Dear Sustainability Partners, Please take a moment to fill out this template as a basis for sharing what is happening at our schools. Briefly describe what your school is doi ng as relates to these categories: Sustainability initiatives Student Services and Green Events Food Transportation Buildings and Grounds Waste Stream Energy Purchasing Contact: Appendix I : VVS's Completed Collaboration Questionnaire Valley Vist a School 1. Sustainability initiatives a. Sustainability assessment, 2011; b. sustainability coordinator hired, 2011; c. sustainability written into school strategic plan, 2011; d. partnerships with the city of Valley Vista i. 10forChange program, ii. Leave No Trace, iii. Communi ty Cycles, iv. Ecocycle 2. Student Services and Green Events a. High School E co Club (elective class and club); b. Sustainability Committee (parents, faculty, staf f ); c. Earth Week (April); d. participation in International Walk/Bike to School Days 3. Food a. No food service o n campus.

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177 4. Transportation a. Extensive bike ra cks on campus; b. Alternative transportation days (Thursdays); c. Participation in International Walk/Bike to School D ays 5. Buildings and Ground s a. Water a udit (2011); b. energy audit (2008); c. lighting retrof it pla nned for 2 012 ; d. use ecological landscaping company for grounds; e. LEED and Living Building Challenge considered for upcoming campus build out 6. Waste Stream a. Green Star School c erti f ication, 2011; b. Contracted composting and recycling through E cocycle; c. Reduced containers for landf ill waste; d. Initiated a "Pack it in, Pack it o ut" campaign for waste reduction; e. School events festivals, auctions, etc.) are zero waste events 7. Energy a. EPA's Portfolio Manager for building energy monitoring; b. 10kW photovoltaic system (with display) on H igh School; c. reduced electricity use by installing 56 Solatu bes in classro oms; 8. Purchasing a. Energy Star appliances; b. Recycled content paper; c. Green cleaning supplies; d. Compostable plates, c ups, bowls, and cutlery for events; e. Green carpets, paints, stains Contact : Chip Prentiss, Sustainability Coordinator

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178 Appendix J : MCCHS Proposal 2nd Green Revolution, LLC Phone: 303.351.1817 E Mail: Web: Mar Costa Charter High School Sustainability Initiative Version 1.1 6 / 12 /2013 Presented by: Eric Wilson President 2nd Green Revolution, LLC Background Overview About 2nd Green Revolution, LLC : Founded in 2009 by Justin Manger and Eric Wilson, 2nd Green Revolution is a limited liability corporation dedicated to societ y's shift to clean energy and sustainability. 2nd Green Revolution is in the process of applying for its 501(c)3 status to undertake consulting work with schools. T he nonprofit arm of 2nd Green Revolution, Center for Sustainable Initiatives, will work with schools and organizations to promote sustainability.

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179 Justin Manger is a businessman passionate about using the private sector to bring about positive change, especially in our energy paradigms. He currently uses his strong political/economic research bac kground and business development experience to help multi national corporations gain valuable insight on new products and their viability in emerging markets. Justin has a Masters degree in International Trade Policy from Monterey Institute of Internationa l Studies. His undergraduate work focused on Economics and English at Emory University. Eric Wilson is a doctoral candidate in science education at the University of Colorado Denver's School of Education and Human Development. Eric is driven to see fundam ental changes in our energy consumption patterns. He has leveraged his gift of communication and understanding of technology to teach science and sustainability for the last several years. His doctoral dissertation looks at buildings as teaching tools to e ngage schools in Educating for Sustainability Eric has a Masters degree in Teaching from New York University's Steinhardt School with a focus in secondary science education. His received a BS in Anthropology and Human Biology, with a secondary focus in Ar t History from Emory University. Project Synopsis 2 nd Green Revolution, LLC will provide 3 years of ongoing consulting to El Camino Real Charter High School as it expands and renovates its facilities in order to incorporate sustainable practices in operat ions and management (O&M), curriculum, and the wider community. Statement of work Scope 2nd Green Revolution, LLC (referred to as the Company) will provide three years of consulting services to Fountain Valley Charter High School (referred to as the Clie nt). The first year will consist of an intensive yearlong effort to assess, plan, and implement sustainable practices. Subsequent years will involve capacity building and a hand off to the sustainability committee, which will be formed over the course of t he Company's work with the Client. This will include identifying champions and grooming a sustainability coordinator to chair the committee and take on the work of monitoring energy and cultural performance indicators, both of which will be benchmarked by the Company during the course of the three (3) year relationship with the Client. The first year will consist of the following : Site Assessment to determine MCCHS's current sustainability strengths and areas of need o Build on progra mmatic and institutiona l assets Professional d evelopment (see Deliverables 1)

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180 Stakeholder meeting to develop goals for sustainabi lity based on community surveys Goal setting and visioning Form sustainability committ ee and define committee charter Develop ment of sustainability ba selines : o Energy o Water o Transportation o School culture Co construct areas of focus Id entify and develop partnerships Regular me etings with administrative team Review meeting o Includes review of year's progres s o Update goals for 2014 15 Ongoing Consulting; The C ompany will o Provi de guidance on achieving goals Assist in formation of su stainability mission statement Provide guidance on greening of existing and new buildings Help develop sustainability master plan/as part of strategic plan The second year will consis t of the following : Providing professional d evelopment (see Deliverables 2) Assess ing progress on goals against benchmarks/baselines Pro viding guidance on moving forward Meeting with sustainabili ty committee The third year will consist of: One (1) in pers on "handoff" meeting to ensure expectations for sustainability com mittee are clearly communicated Completion of surveys and website for sustainability report (See Deliverables 5) By 6/15/14 First of two (2) yearlong professional development (PD) opportu nities for 6 8 faculty members. PD will comprise of three (3) in person workshops while the Company is on site, written feedback while the Company is not on site, and monthly video conferencing meetings to be set up with participants. The PD will engage fa culty members in a yearlong process in which participants take part in discussions and work collaboratively to revamp their syllabi or create a new lesson, unit, or project to include sustainability. Additionally, the PD employs a participant driven model. The 6 8 members of the PD will be tasked with providing input and shaping the trajectory of the PD. The final of the three (3) workshop engagements will take place by 6/15/14. The PD will follow the same format as the previous year with alterations based on feedback from first year participants, school needs, and effectiveness of program as determined by interviews with participants from previous year's program

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181 By 6/15/15 Second of two (2) professional development (PD) opportunities for 6 8 faculty me mbers with 1 2 attendees from previous year serving as mentors. The PD will follow the same outline as the first year. By 6/15/16 Client will receive one (1) physical copy of the sustainability report, which will include detailed notes of all meetings, next steps, the sustainability committee charter and structure, baselines for both culture and performance. By 6/15/16 Company will hand over electronic version of the sustainability report to maintain it as a living document. The electronic version wil l include detailed notes of all meetings, next steps, the sustainability committee charter and structure, baselines for both culture and performance. Deliverables The company will provide the client with the following deliverables: Facilitation of in pers on meetings amongst faculty, staff, students, a dministration, and stakeholders Client's administrative team will meet with the Company in person e ach time the Company is on site Stakeholder meeting will occur in the late summer of 2014. The Client will pro vide access to stakeholder contact information (email only) for the Company to initiate meeting. The Company will work with the Client to craft a survey with the goal of collecting data to determine baselines for school culture as pertains to sustainabilit y Monthly Skype meetings during times when the Company is not on site Two (2) professional development workshops. One (1) each in 2013 14 and 2014 15 school years Assumptions Client will provide the Company with office space, travel expenses (including but not limited to flights and transportation), and access to stakeholders. Engagement Duration: This engagement is to last 3 years with a possibility of extension, as needed. Start Date/End Date: Consultant Name Role or Title Start Date End Date Eric Wi lson President 7/15/2013 6/15/2016 Justin Manger CEO 7/15/2013 6/15/2015

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182 Appendix K: Statement of Work 2nd Green Revolution, LLC Phone: 303.351.1817 E Mail: Web: Mar Costa Charter High Sc hool Sust ainability Initiative: Statement of Work Version 1.2 8 / 23 /2013 Presented by: Eric Wilson President 2nd Green Revolution, LLC Statement of work Scope 2nd Green Revolution, LLC (referred to as the Consultant ) will provide three years of consulting service s to Mar Costa Charter High School (referred to as the Client). The first year will consist of an intensive yearlong effort to assess, plan, and implement sustainable practices with the eventual goal of applying for Green Ribbon School recognition via the United States Department of Education Subsequent years will involve capacity building and a hand off to the sustainability committee, which will be formed over the course of the Consultant 's work with the Client. This will include identifying champions an d grooming a sustainability coordinator to chair the committee and take on the work of monitoring energy and cultural performance

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183 indicators, both of which will be benchmarked by the Consultant during the course of the three (3) year relationship with the Client. Objective: The major outcome as decided by the administrative team and representatives from the Client's science department is to apply for Green Ribbon School recognition during the third and final year of this endeavor. In order to achieve this s tatus, the Consultant and the Client have identified the following six (6) projects that will serve as the basis of the Consultant's scope of work over this three (3) year time period as the Client works towards Green Ribbon School recognition: 1. Integrating sustainability into curriculum via the Humanitas program. 2. Developing green jobs training program through the Alternative Education program. 3. Forming core sustainability committee, advisory committee, and creation of sustainability coordinator position. 4. Ren ovating future site of Alternative Education campus. 5. Creating and developing branding for the Client around their work in the area of sustainability. 6. Planning and construction of new science building and STEM projects. The first year will consist of the f ollowing : Community wide survey with intent of determining sustainability knowledge, needs, and ideas for potential implementation o Analysis of the data o Stakeholder meeting to create goals for sustainabi lity based on community surveys Site Assessment to det ermine ECRCHS's current sustainability strengths and areas of need o Build on progra mmatic and institutional assets o Human capital (including but not limited to faculty, staff, community members, students) Consultant will highlight the work they are undertaki ng with Client on their website and social media networks to help build the Client's brand in the arena of sustainability Goal setting and visioning Form sustainability committ ee and define committee charter Develop ment of sustainability baselines : o Energy o Water o Transportation o School culture Co construct areas of focus Assist Humanitas program with integration of sustainability into curriculum Id entify and develop partnerships Regular me etings with administrative team

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184 Review meeting o Includes review of year' s progres s o Update goals for 2014 15 Ongoing Consulting; The Consultant will o Provi de guidance on achieving goals Assist in formation of su stainability mission statement Provide guidance on greening of existing and new buildings Help develop sustainability m aster plan/as part of strategic plan The second year will consist of the following: Consultant will continue to highlight the work they are undertaking with Client on their website and social media networks to help build the Client's brand in the arena of sustainability Assess ing progress on goals against benchmarks/baselines Pro viding guidance on moving forward vis ˆ vis sustainability goals Working in conjunction with the Alternative Education program to develop green jobs program Assistance with and fee dback on Green Ribbon Schools application Feedback and guidance for new construction on science building. This includes, but is not limited to: o Integrating with curriculum o Potential LEED certification o Consulting with architect Meeting with sustainabili ty c ommittee The third year will consist of the following : Consultant will continue highlighting the work they are undertaking with Client on their website and social media networks to help build the Client's brand in the arena of sustainability Completing th e Green Ribbon Schools application One (1) in person "handoff" meeting to ensure expectations for sustainability com mittee are clearly communicated Completion of surveys and website for sustainabil ity report (See Deliverables) Timeline By 6/15/14 Consul tant will finalize creation of sustainability committee and advisory committee, as well as crafting charter statement and identifying members. Consultant will provide feedback on renovation plans for Alternative Education's campus. Consultant will provide data analysis for surveys, collated in spreadsheet with key findings. By 6/15/15 Consultant will provide analysis of first and second year water and energy consumption including year to year changes, as well as comparison with previous consumption based on information provided by Client. Consultant will provide feedback on building plans for science department new construction.

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185 By 6/15/16 Client will receive one (1) physical copy of the sustainability report, which will include detailed notes of all m eetings, next steps, the sustainability committee charter and structure, baselines for both culture and performance. By 6/15/16 Consultant will hand over electronic version of the sustainability report to maintain it as a living document. The electronic version will include detailed notes of all meetings, next steps, the sustainability committee charter and structure, baselines for both culture and performance. Deliverables The Consultant will provide the client with the following deliverables: The Cons ultant will work with the Client to craft a survey with the goal of collecting data to determine baselines for school culture as pertains to sustainability. The Consultant will f acilitat e in person meetings amongst faculty, staff, students, a dministration, and stakeholders. The Cl ient's administrative team will meet with the Consultant in person e ach time the Consultant is on site. Stakeholder meeting will occur in the late summer of 2014. The Client will provide access to stakeholder contact information (e mail only) for the Consultant to initiate meeting. Monthly Skype meetings will occur during times when the Consultant is not on site Appendix L : MCCHS Survey MCCHS is embarking on a 3 year sustainability initiative with 2nd Green Revolution, LLC. As par t of the initial steps, we want to collect some background data to determine the state of the school in terms of sustainability. Please take a moment to answer these questions. Thank you for your time. What is your role at MCCHS ? (Select all that apply) F aculty Staff Administrator Parent Community member If you are a faculty or staff member, what department do you work in? 1. What is your definition of sustainability? 2. On a scale of 1 to 10 (1 being not at all and 10 being the most important), how important is sustainability for MCCHS ?

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186 a. Please explain why you chose this ranking. 3. What (if anything) interests you in sustainability? 4. What concerns (if any) do you have about MCCHS implementing a sustainability plan? 5. How is MCCHS already a sustainable community in your eyes? 6. Who/what are the biggest proponents of sustainability on campus, the "sustainability champions"? (Feel free to include your own name if you feel you fall into this category) 7. What barriers do you see to implement ing sustainable solutions at MCCH S ? 8. What would you like to see in ter ms of sustainability goal at MCCHS ? 9. Please rank the following, starting with the most important in terms of sustainability at MCCHS and ending with the least: Waste (including recycling and composting) Transportation (b uses, walkability, access, air pollution, etc) Social Justice Food (including healthy food, organic, school garden, etc) Buildings (daylighting, renovations, green building, etc) Curriculum Energy and Water (conservation, efficiency, consumption/usage, etc ) Any others not on this list but that you feel are important (please explain why below) 10. A re you willing to serve on a sustainability committee? (This includes either a core committee meeting 1 2 times/month or an advisory committee that meets 1 2 times/s emester). Yes, I am primarily interested in the core committee Yes, I am primarily interested in the advisory committee I am interested, but not sure which is the best fit for me No, I am not interested at this time