Citation
Human comfort in landscape micro climates

Material Information

Title:
Human comfort in landscape micro climates a case study of three parks in Shanghai, PRC
Creator:
Sabella, Lisa ( author )
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
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Language:
English
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1 electronic file (105 pages). : ;

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of Landscape Architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Landscape architecture

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Parks -- China -- Shanghai ( lcsh )
Gardens -- China -- Shanghai ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Review:
Achieving human comfort in the urban microclimate is becoming more difficult as cities continue to increase in size, density, and temperature. Human comfort is an important aspect of landscape architecture because it affects the use of outdoor public spaces. However, current landscape architecture practice is lacking with regard to climate-sensitive design and human comfort considerations. In this study we conducted a post-occupancy analysis to test human comfort in three parks in the urban metropolis of Shanghai, PRC using a mixed methods descriptive analysis. We administered surveys to park users while simultaneously collecting weather data to measure human comfort in each park's microclimate. We also analyzed the three sites using satellite imagery to determine approximate percentages of tree cover, hardscape vs. softscape, exposure to water, and spaces in full sun, partial shade, and full shade. We calculated mean levels of human comfort overall, as well as for each park, and based on sun and water exposure. Differences among population means were tested for significance using a standard two-tailed t-test with an alpha level of 0.05. Based on a total sample size of 421 surveys, we found that the World Expo Garden, designed with human comfort specifically in mind, achieved the highest level of human comfort. Xuhui Waterfront, situated just across Huangpu River from Expo, achieved the second highest level of human comfort. The lowest comfort levels reported in the study were at Fuxing Park, situated within the inner city and away from the river with the least exposure to water. The findings of our study support current microclimate design theory. The Shanghai World Expo Garden achieved its design goal of maximizing human comfort and provides concrete evidence that if microclimate is given preference in design goals, then more comfortable spaces for people can be created.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.L.A.)--University of Colorado Denver. Landscape architecture
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references.
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe Reader.
General Note:
Department of Landscape Architecture
Statement of Responsibility:
by Lisa Sabella.

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Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
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|Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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903048555 ( OCLC )
ocn903048555

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Full Text
HUMAN COMFORT IN LANDSCAPE MICROCLIMATES:
A CASE STUDY OF THREE PARKS IN SHANGHAI, PRC
by
LISA SABELLA
B.A., University of Delaware, 2003
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Landscape Architecture Landscape Architecture Program
2014


This thesis for the Master of Landscape Architecture degree by
Lisa Sabella
has been approved for the Landscape Architecture Program by
Zhang Deshun, Advisor
Lois Brink, Chair
Ann Komara
Eve Kutchman
July 23,2014


Sabella, Lisa (MLA, Landscape Architecture)
Human Comfort in Landscape Microclimates: A Case Study of Three Parks in Shanghai, PRC
Thesis Directed by Professor Lois Brink
ABSTRACT
Achieving human comfort in the urban microclimate is becoming more difficult as cities continue to increase in size, density, and temperature. Human comfort is an important aspect of landscape architecture because it affects the use of outdoor public spaces. However, current landscape architecture practice is lacking with regard to climate-sensitive design and human comfort considerations. In this study we conducted a post-occupancy analysis to test human comfort in three parks in the urban metropolis of Shanghai, PRC using a mixed methods descriptive analysis. We administered surveys to park users while simultaneously collecting weather data to measure human comfort in each parks microclimate. We also analyzed the three sites using satellite imagery to determine approximate percentages of tree cover, hardscape vs. softscape, exposure to water, and spaces in full sun, partial shade, and full shade. We calculated mean levels of human comfort overall, as well as for each park, and based on sun and water exposure. Differences among population means were tested for significance using a standard two-tailed t-test with an a-level of 0.05. Based on a total sample size of 421 surveys, we found that the World Expo Garden, designed with human comfort specifically in mind, achieved the highest level of human comfort. Xuhui Waterfront, situated just across
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Huangpu River from Expo, achieved the second highest level of human comfort. The lowest comfort levels reported in the study were at Fuxing Park, situated within the inner city and away from the river with the least exposure to water. The findings of our study support current microclimate design theory. The Shanghai World Expo Garden achieved its design goal of maximizing human comfort and provides concrete evidence that if microclimate is given preference in design goals, then more comfortable spaces for people can be created.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Lois Brink
IV


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work would not have been possible without the love and support of my husband Kevin Walker Hanley. Thank you for being a willing participant in this incredible life experience. You are the best travel companion, editor, friend and partner that anyone could ever ask for. I am ever grateful for you and for our year in Asia together. Our life in Shanghai seems like a dream already.


CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I INTRODUCTION...............................................................1
1.1 Situating the Study: Landscape Architecture Research..............2
1.2 Background........................................................6
1.2.1 The Large Scale Urban Microclimate........................6
1.2.2 Urban Materiality.........................................7
1.2.3 Urban Morphology: The Urban Canyon & Street Geometry..........8
1.2.4 Anthropogenic Heat Sources................................9
1.2.5 Urban Heat Island Mitigation: Altering the Urban Microclimate.9
1.3 Literature Review................................................12
1.3.1 Human Health and the Urban Microclimate.......................12
1.3.2 Human Comfort in the Urban Microclimate.......................13
1.3.3 Microclimate Knowledge and Design........................16
1.3.4 Altering Microclimate through Design.....................18
1.4 Purpose and Significance of the Study............................20
II RESEARCH METHODS.........................................................23
2.1 Mixed Methods Descriptive Analysis...............................23
2.2 Shanghai Background and Climate..................................23
2.3 Site Selection...................................................26
2.4 Shanghai World Expo Garden.......................................28
VI


2.5 Xuhui Waterfront Park
31
2.6 Fuxing Park....................................................34
2.7 Data Collection Methods and Instruments........................36
2.8 Mapping Procedure..............................................38
III RESULTS...............................................................42
3.1 Overview of Collected Data.....................................42
3.2 Shanghai World Expo Garden Data................................46
3.3 Xuhui Waterfront Park Data.....................................51
3.4 Fuxing Park Data...............................................55
IV DISCUSSION............................................................61
4.1 Data Collection and Analysis...................................61
4.2 Descriptive Analysis and Comparative Studies...................62
4.3 Site Observations and Park Usage in China......................64
4.4 Shanghai World Expo Garden.....................................67
4.5 Xuhui Waterfront Park..........................................71
4.6 Fuxing Park....................................................73
4.7 Responding to the Data.........................................75
4.8 Study Limitations..............................................76
V CONCLUSION............................................................79
REFERENCES................................................................81
APPENDIX
A.l Shanghai World Expo Garden Spatial Description.................84
A.2 Xuhui Waterfront Park Spatial Description......................85
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A.3 Fuxing Park Spatial Description.......................................86
A.4 English Language Survey...............................................87
A. 5 Chinese Language Survey..............................................91
A.6 Weather Data Collection Matrix........................................95
A.7 COMIRB Certificate of Exemption.......................................96
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CHAPTERI
INTRODUCTION
As the urban realm continues to increase in size and density human comfort within the urban microclimate is becoming progressively more important. Landscape architects often rely on intuition to inform their design decisions regarding human comfort and thus there is an underlying need for data driven design in the field of landscape architecture (Brown and Corry 2011; Milburn et al. 2003; Milbum, Brown, and Paine 2001). In the case of microclimate design, a disconnect exists between urban climatologists and urban designers (Evans and Schiller 1996; Gomez et al. 2013).
Climate data is regularly collected and reported, but seldom utilized by landscape architects to inform design decisions (Eliasson 2000; Golany 1996).
Urbanization has been steadily increasing since the latter half of the twentieth century and it has been established that the urban microclimate is distinctly different from its surrounding rural areas (Eliasson 2000; Golany 1996; Li, Zhang, and Kainz 2012). This effect, called the urban heat island (UHI), is the presence of warmer temperatures within the city when compared to neighboring regions (Chang, Li, and Chang 2007; Li et al. 2011). Causal factors of the UHI include population density, anthropogenic heat sources, urban materiality, urban morphology and a relative lack of vegetation in cities (Golany 1996; Mirzaei and Haghighat 2010; Yue et al. 2012). Mitigators of negative urban microclimates include vegetation and water bodies, both common to urban parks
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(Mirzaei and Haghighat 2010; Shahidan et al. 2012). As a result, parks can act as cool islands within the urban environment and their beneficial effects can be detected beyond park boundaries (Brown 2010).
Microclimate is an interaction between the local climate and objects within a landscape to create specific conditions (Brown and Gillespie 1995). Microclimate is the condition of the solar and terrestrial radiation, wind, air temperature, humidity, and precipitation in a small outdoor space (Brown and Gillespie 1995). Human comfort is based on an exchange between the human body and the existing weather conditions. It is becoming increasingly important for designers to consider human comfort in their designs in the urban realm because of alterations to the environment resulting from urbanization. In the case of the World Expo Garden in Shanghai, the design objective was to optimize human comfort through microclimate design (Xu et al. 2010). This study tested the design for its efficacy and compared it to two other sites, Xuhui Waterfront and Fuxing Park, to better understand how human comfort is affected by landscape design.
We found that the comfort levels of respondents at the Shanghai World Expo Garden significantly exceeded those at the other two test sites. We also found that respondents in the shade reported greater comfort than respondents in full sun and that respondents in close proximity to water reported greater comfort than those with no nearby water. These findings strongly support the current microclimate design theory.
1.1 Situating the Study: Landscape Architecture Research
This study is positioned within the extensive field of landscape architecture which is a convergence of science and aesthetics with the goal of designing optimal spaces for people. It is common for landscape architects to rely on expertise to inform their design
2


decisions. However, it is important to conduct research, including post-occupancy analysis, to check if the design objectives were achieved. Landscape architects become better designers through re-evaluation of their built works and how people use them.
As an academic discipline landscape architecture has fallen under great scrutiny for an overall lack of research. In fact, many people believe that this is a great obstacle hindering the advancement of the field. Milburn et al. state that self-examination is critical in order for the profession to grow and evolve and thus landscape architects must begin to create a tradition of critical inquiry and assessment in order to command respect as both an academic discipline and a profession (Milburn et al. 2003). Questioning the deep-rooted assumptions that we all take for granted is important to strengthening our profession (Milburn, Brown, and Paine 2001). It is essential to question existing information, to verify the quality of that information, and to communicate the results via peer-reviewed publications: The best tool at our disposal may be research, which has universal credibility and support (Milburn et al. 2003).
Landscape architecture practice is sometimes lacking in facts-based decision making; design decisions are often based on belief as opposed to fact (Brown and Corry 2011). Professional designers have often relied on experience-based landscape architecture and shirked diligent research (Milburn et al. 2003). This has led to the field of landscape architecture being strongly criticized for its shortage of reporting data as well as for limited publishing of scholarly articles in peer-reviewed journals (Brown and Corry 2011). As a result, demands have grown for our discipline to move towards an evidence-based practice.
While landscape architecture is deeply rooted in the natural sciences, landscape
3


architects tend to privilege the aesthetic aspects of our profession. However, both creative arts and natural sciences are essential for our field to remain viable because in landscape architecture, the two are intrinsically linked. The field, as a whole, needs to use scientific evidence whenever possible to validate our work. The status of landscape architecture research is now improving because of organizations such as the Landscape Architecture Foundation (LAF). LAF was founded in 1966 to advance the state of our research and create a common ground for research results to be shared (.Landscape Architecture Foundation 2014). Quantifying landscape performance is a way that the foundation is currently strengthening our profession.
Employing real-world data in the planning, design, and management of living landscapes is clearly an essential step for landscape architecture to strengthen its impact. Scientific evidence for a design strategy adds credibility and facts-based evidence makes it significantly easier to sell a design idea. Evidence-based research will help validate landscape architectural theory which is essential to the progression of the field (Decamps 2000). While there are different types of research, they should all have the similar goal of using data to advance the overall understanding of the subject and making the results accessible to all (Milburn et al. 2003).
Research-informed design increases reliability and has the potential to improve design quality by providing new insight into design problems and helping to prevent unexpected surprises (Lenzholzer, Duchhart, and Koh 2013). The more knowledgeable one is through the research process, the more one can predict outcomes (Decamps 2000). Research can inform design to produce a better end-result. During every phase of design, research should work with artistic inspiration to create a better design: Design is a
4


dialogue between preconception and reality.. .research tests the appropriateness or success of the design (Milbum and Brown 2003). Research is intrinsic to the design process because it contributes to fact-based arguments and decisions.
The field of landscape architecture also receives criticism for a severe lack of self-examination. Post-occupancy evaluations are a rare occurrence in landscape architecture. It is important for designers to test whether their design strategies actually achieve their objectives. If completed designs are not tested then a designer will not know what possible mistakes they may have made, and will be doomed to repeat those mistakes (Brown and Corry 2011).
Post-occupancy analysis is a form of research on design (Lenzholzer, Duchhart, and Koh 2013). After a design is built it ought to be tested for design effectiveness by a separate entity, and results should be shared with the designer and the general public for everyone to learn from the successes and failures of the design intent. The field of landscape architecture can grow stronger through this type of reflection and constructive critical assessment.
Lenzholzer et al. have proposed a landscape architecture research method based in CreswelTs research framework because it is universally accepted in academia. Based on CreswelTs established research theory, Lenzholzer et al. use the four ideas of (post) positivist, constructivist, advocacy/participatory, and pragmatic knowledge as the possible research framework in their research through design method. This study falls within the (post) positivist framework. The knowledge gained through (post) positivist research through design (RTD) are insights and design guidelines. (Post) positivist landscape architecture RTD seeks to discover generalizable objective knowledge
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including ideal spatial configurations and how design fits into natural processes. Postoccupancy evaluations lie within this scope of research (Lenzholzer, Duchhart, and Koh 2013).
1.2 Background
A multitude of factors contribute to an unhealthy and uncomfortable urban environment. The urban heat island effect is caused by urban morphology, urban materiality and compounded anthropogenic heat from increased density. The urban realm is increasingly uncomfortable because of the many physical differences separating it from its surrounding rural counterpart.
1.2.1 The Large Scale Urban Microclimate
Microclimates are created by various factors within a landscape and they affect people every day. In fact, the use of public space is strongly influenced by the microclimate conditions (Nikolopoulou and Lykoudis 2007). The urban microclimate varies greatly from its rural surroundings because of the many physical differences between the two landscapes (Li, Zhang, and Kainz 2012; Eliasson 2000; Golany 1996). Rural landscapes contain an abundance of bare soil and vegetation, whereas the urban landscape is dominated by buildings made from materials such as brick, steel, and glass, as well as ground surfaces such as asphalt and concrete. Urban geometry, the shapes created by the placement of buildings and streets, also affects climatological conditions including temperature, precipitation, and wind patterns (Gomez et al. 2013; Golany 1996).
The Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, first detected and studied by Howard in 1818, is the occurrence of higher temperatures in an urban area in comparison to the
6


surrounding rural area (Chang, Li, and Chang 2007; Li et al. 2011; Mirzaei and Haghighat 2010). UHI is an undeniable factor in the urban environment caused by the building blocks of the city: asphalt replaces bare soil, rooftops replace tree canopies, and concrete dominates where once there were plants (Zhou, Huang, and Cadenasso 2011;
Sun and Chen 2012). The urban microclimate varies drastically from its rural counterpart because of changes in wind patterns, humidity and precipitation, caused by urban morphology (Mirzaei and Haghighat 2010; Golany 1996). The UHI effect is felt most clearly at night because rural areas cool down, but the city does not (Golany 1996; Brown 2010).
The increase in urban development directly affected the UHI effect in Shanghai (Yang, Lau, and Qian 2010; Yue et al. 2012). As the city expands, a considerable transformation of cropland, forest and shrub land as well as bare ground into urban use has occurred (Li, Zhang, and Kainz 2012). Rapid urbanization has caused an extreme degradation of the local environment (Yue et al. 2012). The increase in urban temperatures is making microclimate conditions extremely uncomfortable during the summer months. Microclimate studies are therefore becoming increasingly more important in the ever-expanding megalopolis.
1.2.2 Urban Materiality
The materiality of the city creates an overall warming effect; urban materials are more conducive to higher temperatures because they have a lower moisture content, lower thermal roughness lengths, and lower surface albedo, which is the amount of solar radiation that a material absorbs or reflects (Mackey, Lee, and Smith 2012). High albedo materials are brightly colored and reflect solar radiation, whereas low albedo materials
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are dark in color and therefore absorb more solar radiation (Shahidan et al. 2012). The color and composition of materials in a landscape dictate the amount of heat absorbed or reflected and this in turn affects the microclimate of the surrounding area (Brown 2010). Albedo measurements taken in cities have shown that paved surfaces accumulate more heat than earthen surfaces (Gomez et al. 2013). During the day, buildings absorb heat and then slowly emit that heat all through the night (Gomez et al. 2013; Golany 1996). In addition, urban materials are largely impermeable, which causes them to accumulate more heat by preventing evaporation of water (Kleerekoper, van Esch, and Salcedo 2012). As a general rule, cities have more surface area because of the density of buildings and therefore store much more heat than rural areas (Kleerekoper, van Esch, and Salcedo 2012).
1.2.3 Urban Morphology: The Urban Canyon & Street Geometry
The verticality of modern skyscrapers together with horizontal city streets creates an urban canyon, which prevents the city from losing heat by trapping solar radiation (Kleerekoper, van Esch, and Salcedo 2012; Chang, Li, and Chang 2007). Heat, in the form of solar radiation, is absorbed throughout the day and released at night but because of the urban canyon it is reabsorbed by the buildings. The layer of pollution commonly found above cities also contributes to the problem of solar radiation retention because the pollution layer reflects infrared radiation back down into the city (Gomez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004).
The geometry of the urban canyon also reduces wind speed thereby reducing heat loss. More specifically, the arrangement of buildings, layout of streets, and the structure of houses reduce the wind velocity in the city (Golany 1996). Urban canyons have been
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known to alter the environment by obstructing and disrupting air flow (Chang, Li, and Chang 2007; Kleerekoper, van Esch, and Salcedo 2012; Eliasson 2000; Gomez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004). Street orientation is also crucial in determining microclimates through the amount of light and shadow, and relative humidity, as well as urban air movement (Golany 1996). For example, an urban grid designed with straight parallel streets promotes air flow into urban areas as well as around the city (Golany 1996). Differences in building height, orientation, composition, and level of human activity create variations in the local microclimate throughout a city (Golany 1996).
1.2.4 Anthropogenic Heat Sources
The population density of urban areas contributes to the warmer urban microclimate. High population density leads to an overall increase in human activities, some of which contribute to the warming trend in the urban environment. Anthropogenic heat released from automobiles, power plants, and air conditioners in buildings causes air pollution and further contributes to the overall elevated temperatures (Yue et al. 2012).
1.2.5 Urban Heat Island Mitigation: Altering the Urban Microclimate
The UHI effect is mainly mitigated by increasing the amount of high albedo materials, vegetation, and water bodies in an urban area (Mirzaei and Haghighat 2010; Shahidan et al. 2012). Previous studies have indicated that vegetation is the most essential element in cooling down the urban environment. Large trees create shade, thereby reducing solar radiation (Giridharan et al. 2008; Golany 1996; Gomez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004) which creates an overall cooling effect by preventing urban surfaces from absorbing and storing heat (Chang, Li, and Chang 2007; Yang, Lau, and Qian 2010; Shahidan et al. 2012; Gomez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004).
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Shade offers a positive solution to alleviate heat problems in the city through the reduction of solar radiation. By shading pavement, we prevent solar radiation from being absorbed and re-radiated into the environment as heat (Gomez et al. 2013). Many previous studies have identified solar radiation reduction through shading as the number one priority in a hot and humid climate for alleviating thermal stress (Thani, Mohamad, and Idilfitri 2012; Brown 2010). For example, street trees have a large impact on reducing the UHI because of the large scale reduction in solar radiation (Kleerekoper, van Esch, and Salcedo 2012).
Increasing the urban albedo, which is the reflective properties of urban materials, also mitigates the UHI effect (Susca 2012). For example, converting a traditional black roof top to a white or green roof significantly reduces the temperature (Mackey, Lee, and Smith 2012; Susca 2012). Another positive contribution to urban heat island mitigation is that a high albedo rooftop, such as white or green, reduces a buildings artificial cooling demands during the summer months (Susca 2012). By lowering surrounding external temperatures, microclimate design is able to reduce the energy demands of maintaining the internal temperature of a building (Brown and Gillespie 1995).
Vegetation also cools the urban microclimate because heat is removed from the environment through the process of evapotranspiration. In general, cities suffer from a lack of evapotranspiration because of the presence of significantly fewer trees than the rural landscape. Adding vegetation increases the amount of evapotranspiration, thereby increasing the relative humidity and reducing the air temperature in a space that is warm and has an otherwise low relative humidity (Golany 1996). The cooling capacity of evaporation in the environment depends on the amount of water vapor that the air can
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hold, which is in turn dependent upon the weather conditions on-site. Evaporation occurs ideally in a condition of high temperature and low humidity. In contrast, evaporation is inhibited by low temperature and high humidity. If the air cannot take any more water, then evaporation cannot happen and cooling will not occur (Brown and Gillespie 1995).
Urban water bodies are particularly valuable in creating cool islands (Sun and Chen 2012; Xu et al. 2010; Gomez et al. 2013). A water body affects its immediate surroundings by absorbing both sensible and latent heat (Xu et al. 2010). Sensible heat is defined as thermal energy whose transfer to or from a substance results in a change of temperature. Urban water bodies create an overall cooling effect in surrounding areas by absorbing sensible heat, which improves human comfort during the summer months (Xu et al. 2010). Latent heat is defined as heat given off or absorbed in a process other than a change of temperature, such as fusion or vaporization. A water body also cools its immediate surrounding area through evaporation: latent heat is absorbed from the environment in order to convert water from the liquid phase to vapor. Water bodies also create a cool island because water has a lower albedo than other urban materials, which means that it absorbs most of the solar radiation it receives and does not reflect the radiation back out into the environment (Gomez et al. 2013). Wind can promote the cooling effect of urban water bodies because air flow promotes water evaporation, which creates a cooling of the immediate surrounding environment (Xu et al. 2010).
Green spaces help to correct some of the negative issues present in the urban environment by creating a more comfortable microclimate for people. Urban parks can act as local cool islands within the city for many reasons (Sun and Chen 2012; Gomez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004), including an increase in vegetation and a decrease in warming
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urban materials (brick, concrete, asphalt) (Chang, Li, and Chang 2007). Urban parks can also combine the heat reducing elements of vegetation and water to be more effective in creating a cooler microclimate (Gomez et al. 2013; Xu et al. 2010). (Gomez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004).
The benefits of urban parks can also spread beyond their boundaries. Through the process of advection, an urban park creates a microclimate condition with cooler air, and with the addition of a light wind the cooler air can be moved outside of the park, lowering the temperature of the immediate surroundings. In fact, green spaces placed strategically throughout the city could create an overall cooling effect (Brown 2010).
1.3 Literature Review
The urban environment causes stress to the people living in cities through elevated temperatures and increased pollution. Human comfort can be improved in cities through a concerted effort by landscape architects and urban designers. Design affects microclimate, and therefore must be taken into consideration to improve urban conditions.
1.3.1 Human Health and the Urban Microclimate
In Shanghais hot and humid climate, increasing temperatures lower the quality of life for urban dwellers. Elevated summertime temperatures cause additional stress to the human body. Negative consequences of the urban microclimate include human discomfort from elevated temperatures, and health issues such as heat syncope, stroke, and cardiovascular stress (Kleerekoper, van Esch, and Salcedo 2012). An increase in heat-related deaths has also been observed worldwide because of higher urban temperatures (Kleerekoper, van Esch, and Salcedo 2012; Yue et al. 2012; Susca 2012).
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The use of air conditioning to facilitate a more comfortable thermal condition contributes to the amount of ground level ozone, which causes cardio-vascular problems and lung inflammation. Air conditioning also contributes to the greenhouse effect, which only makes the problem worse (Chang, Li, and Chang 2007). The UHI effect also adds to the issue of urban air pollution by altering air circulation patterns to trap air pollutants in the city when compared to surrounding regions (Chang, Li, and Chang 2007; Mirzaei and Haghighat 2010). In light of these facts, it is unsurprising that higher temperatures and air pollution have become more serious issues as the city of Shanghai is transformed by rapid urbanization.
1.3.2 Human Comfort in the Urban Microclimate
Human comfort within the urban microclimate is an important issue when one considers the high population density of urban areas combined with the current trend of human migration into cities. Urbanization began its rapid rise in the latter half of the twentieth century. In 1957, the urban world held 30% of the total population; in 2008 urban population increased to 50% and it is projected to reach 70% by 2050 (Cui and Shi 2012). Rapid urbanization has caused significant changes, both positive and negative, including increased energy demands and climate alteration. These changes are of the utmost importance because climate considerations are growing in severity and importance as planet Earth is now experiencing climate change on a larger scale and more rapid rate.
To improve quality of life, it is important to analyze urban spaces to see if they are meeting the needs of people. Open space in the urban realm provides a place for people to relax, socialize, exercise, recreate, even build a sense of community, which are
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all essential aspects to a persons quality of life. Microclimates affect people, whether consciously or unconsciously, and they can make or break a persons experience within these spaces. The microclimatic conditions of a space can be assessed based on how much exposure and protection is offered to both positive and negative factors, such as sun, wind, and solar radiation. Currently, there is a lack of data on how microclimate affects the use of public space (Nikolopoulou and Lykoudis 2007).
Human comfort is based on the principle that the human body exchanges heat with the surrounding environment (Xu et al. 2010). Ideally, the human body will maintain a constant internal temperature of 37C (Nikolopoulou, Baker, and Steemers 2001; Gomez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004). If the internal body temperature increases or decreases, the change causes discomfort and eventually can become threatening to a persons health (Gomez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004). Heat balance is essential to maintaining internal temperature, because in a state of balance, heat gain is equal to heat loss (Gomez et al. 2013). Human comfort is determined by an energy budget; when the energy budget is balanced then a person feels comfortable. When the budget is in the positive, a person will receive more energy than they give off, resulting in a feeling of excess heat. When the energy budget is a negative value, then a person will feel too cold. Ideally, the energy budget value will be close to zero, expressing a balance of energy.
The human comfort formula is an energy budget of the following values: radiation absorbed by a person (solar and terrestrial), metabolic energy (heat generated by a person), convection (heat lost or gained through convection by the wind), evaporation (heat lost through evaporation of water), terrestrial radiation emitted by a person (Brown and Gillespie 1995):
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Budget = Rabs + M Conv -Evap Tremitted
It is possible to control urban microclimates by understanding the contributing factors (Nikolopoulou, Baker, and Steemers 2001). External factors that influence human comfort in an urban microclimate include air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation. Internal factors affecting human comfort include age, activity, and clothing choice (Stathopoulos, Wu, and Zacharias 2004). Length of exposure is also an important factor when considering human comfort in an outdoor space because external elements affect a person over time (Walton, Dravitzki, and Donn 2007).
Temperature is a major factor when considering human comfort in a microclimate (Stathopoulos, Wu, and Zacharias 2004; Nikolopoulou, Baker, and Steemers 2001; Xu et al. 2010; Nikolopoulou and Lykoudis 2007). In an effort to maintain heat balance in high temperatures the human body will secrete sweat as a cooling mechanism. However, many people do not feel comfortable when they are sweating (Gomez et al. 2013). By sweating, the human body can successfully maintain heat balance and sustain its internal temperature, but human comfort is compromised.
Three other important climatic variables that affect human comfort are radiation, humidity, and wind (Gomez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004). Some previous studies have indicated that radiation is the most significant causal factor in heat gain. In a given landscape, the air temperature will remain relatively constant, but direct solar radiation can alter a persons thermal comfort (Brown 2010). Humidity plays a significant role in determining human comfort by affecting evaporation, especially in high temperatures
15


(Gomez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004). Relative humidity, expressed in a percentage, is the ratio of actual humidity present in the air to the maximum amount of humidity possible in the air (Brown 2010). In high humidity conditions, the air is closer to being saturated with water vapor which reduces evaporative cooling; discomfort is an obvious side-effect because perspiration cannot evaporate and the body is not cooled (Brown 2010). Promoting higher wind speed is therefore critical in a hot and humid urban climate in order to increase human comfort (Thani, Mohamad, and Idilfitri 2012). Air flow promotes evaporation of perspiration through convection, which aids in cooling down the human body when it has become too hot (Gomez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004). This is why the placement of trees is of great importance because, while trees create shade, they can impede the flow of air and reduce wind speed (Thani, Mohamad, and Idilfitri 2012; Gomez et al. 2013).
1.3.3 Microclimate Knowledge and Design
It is generally understood that principles of microclimate are rarely applied to design (Eliasson 2000; Xu et al. 2010; Gomez et al. 2013; Thani, Mohamad, and Idilfitri 2012; Golany 1996). Too often the local climate is ignored and spaces are designed without consideration for the existing microclimate and the ways in which the design might alter that microclimate. Thani et al. argue that contemporary urban design is based on western development and therefore is insensitive to the hot and humid climate common in East and Southeast Asia (Thani, Mohamad, and Idilfitri 2012). It is extremely important for this to change in order for landscape architects to design positive microclimatic spaces (Brown 2010). It is not an issue of a lack of knowledge, but a lack of application of climatology principles in landscape architecture and urban design
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(Eliasson 2000; Golany 1996). Urban climatologists have a clear understanding of microclimate principles (Golany 1996). Some researchers argue that a better means of communicating between climatologists and designers must be established (Gomez et al. 2013; Evans and Schiller 1996). Other researchers argue that climate data is available to designers and it is the designers responsibility to use existing data to create useful tools that will inform climate sensitive design (Golany 1996). Design decisions affect microclimate, and therefore should be informed by microclimatic principles in order to optimize human comfort (Brown 2011; Golany 1996).
An explanation for the lack of climatological principles applied to landscape architecture and urban design is that climate issues are often considered to be of low priority and are dismissed due to the demands of other design objectives (Brown 2011; Eliasson 2000). In the year 2000, Eliasson conducted a study to determine the application of climatological data as a tool in the planning and design process in Sweden. Eliasson used questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and semi-formal meetings to consult with individuals in the fields of architecture, urban planning, landscape architecture, planning engineering, consulting, and politics. The study found that time and money constraints were factors which sometimes hindered the use of climate data to inform the design process. Another explanation for climatological data not informing design decisions was the overall dominance of the architects vision (Eliasson 2000).
Eliassons study also revealed that most individuals felt uncertain about their climate knowledge. These results reveal the root of the problem: there is a lack of communication between the people with climatological knowledge and the people whose designs are affecting the local climate. Eliasson argues that urban climatologists need to
17


promote awareness about climate, improve communication, and develop tools and courses to help urban planners to better understand urban microclimate principles. If the professionals in the design field are better informed than they can speak up about microclimatic issues or concerns during the design process (Eliasson 2000).
1.3.4 Altering Microclimate through Design
Microclimatic considerations are essential to human comfort in a landscape. Microclimate is the result of the energy exchange between the local climate and objects that are placed in the landscape. Therefore, landscape architects affect microclimates when making design decisions. Microclimate is an important factor determining if and how a space is used. (Brown and Gillespie 1995). It is important to consider microclimate early in the design process and to rely on actual data, instead of intuition (Brown 2010, 2011). Brown states that too often designers rely on personal perception when considering microclimatic principles, and these hunches can often be incorrect. There is an underlying need for data-driven design work in creating positive microclimates for people (Brown 2011). When considering microclimatic design at the site scale, we must recognize that some factors are easily changeable, such as solar radiation, terrestrial radiation, and wind, while we have less control over other factors including temperature and relative humidity (Brown 2011, 2010).
Solar radiation greatly affects human thermal comfort. In a cold climate it is important to maximize solar radiation, and in a hot climate solar radiation should be minimized. Shanghai has a hot and humid climate, so reduction of solar radiation is important, particularly in the summer months. Solar radiation is reduced by adding elements to the landscape that provide shade. However, not all shade is created equal.
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For example, a person sitting in the shade of a tree will be subjected to more solar radiation than a person sitting in the shade of a building. It is not easy to detect solar radiation because the human eye can only recognize visible light. Trees use only a portion of the solar spectrum for photosynthesis. Much of the infrared portion of the spectrum passes through the leaves of a tree, allowing it to reach whatever is beneath. A building, on the other hand, will not allow any solar radiation to pass through because it is solid (Brown 2010).
Just like solar radiation, terrestrial radiation is invisible to the human eye and it adds heat to the human body. Terrestrial radiation has less of an impact on human thermal comfort than solar radiation. Terrestrial radiation results from solar radiation being absorbed by a surface, then re-emitted (Brown 2010). Terrestrial radiation can be reduced by adding shade to the landscape or by increasing the albedo of the surface materials in the landscape. Another option is to add water to a surface that is receiving solar radiation so that the evaporation process can take heat away by using the energy for cooling instead of heating the area (Brown 2010).
Air movement has a strong impact on human comfort in a landscape because wind is a very effective cooling aspect of the microclimate (Brown 2010). To achieve optimal human comfort, wind should be minimized when the temperature is low and maximized when the temperature is high (Brown 2010). In this regard, we must think of how different elements in the landscape affect the wind. For example, a building will always affect wind because it is a permanent structure. Similarly, a coniferous tree will have a sustained effect on wind in a microclimate, whereas a deciduous tree will only affect wind when it is in leaf (Brown 2010).
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Microclimate considerations in design are becoming increasingly important in the urban world because human health and comfort are both dependent on microclimate. Using human subjects to measure comfort is the best approach to improving microclimate conditions. Measuring human comfort in existing outdoor spaces can help us to identify successes and failures in creating comfortable microclimates for people. A better understanding of existing conditions can also inform future microclimate-sensitive design. The human body is the only measuring tool we have to assess thermal comfort in a landscape microclimate (Brown and Gillespie 1995).
1.4 Purpose and Significance of the Study The goal of this research is to contribute real-world data to the field of landscape architecture through a post-occupancy analysis of three parks in Shanghai, PRC. Data collection and analysis are tools to assess the level of human comfort that each site achieves through their individual designs. The result is a descriptive analysis and comparison of three parks in Shanghai, PRC through the lens of the microclimate conditions discovered at each site. Our hypothesis is that Shanghai World Expo Park, which was designed to maximize human comfort, will be more comfortable than the other two parks where designers did not specifically consider microclimate in their design objectives. Since the majority of data collection occurred in late summer to early autumn, it is our belief that respondents in shade will be more comfortable than respondents in full sun. We also expect that respondents who are situated near water will report a higher comfort level than respondents who are not located near water.
A comparison of the three sites was conducted with the intention of identifying how different design elements contribute to human comfort. Detailed site mapping and
20


spatial characterization help to reveal the underlying factors of positive and negative microclimatic spaces. The final research goal is to compare the level of comfort that park users report at each site in order to better understand how the design of each site creates positive or negative microclimate spaces. We will also identify possible alterations to the current sites that would optimize human comfort and spread park usage throughout the day.
It is well known that microclimatic conditions and human comfort are rarely at the forefront of design considerations. The goal of this work is to contribute data to a growing body of research attempting to change this fact. Data based research can help to fill this gap by evaluating existing conditions in order to learn from past mistakes and successes. It is important to generate a better understanding of how design affects microclimate in the field of landscape architecture in order to positively affect microclimate through effective design strategies.
Landscape architecture is deficient in both research and data-driven design. The goal of this study is to contribute to a paradigm shift in changing this current problem. Many experts in the field are recognizing that if we do not collect data, conduct research, or publish papers in peer-reviewed journals then our field may become obsolete. Landscape architects need to challenge past designs to understand how they could be improved in order to grow as designers. Microclimate design is also becoming increasingly important as the world faces a growing number of issues resulting from climate change. Rapid urbanization is placing added pressure on the imminence of designing better urban spaces through the application of microclimate principles. We need to work to continuously advance our design strategies and to keep the field of
21


landscape architecture viable. The investigation was conducted in the coastal urban metropolis of Shanghai. The results will continue to appreciate in value because of the current urbanization trend in China as well as the rest of the world.
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CHAPTER II
RESEARCH METHODS
2.1 Mixed Methods Descriptive Analysis
Mixed methods research is the preferred process when a researcher wishes to collect both qualitative and quantitative data, when neither can explain the story alone (Creswell 2012). In this study, qualitative data was collected to assess human comfort through the administering of a survey questionnaire; quantitative data was collected to assess weather conditions at the time each survey was being filled out. The resulting study is a descriptive analysis of three sites in Shanghai as analyzed through the lens of human comfort and the microclimatic conditions found at each site.
2.2 Shanghai Background and Climate
Shanghai is the largest and most modem city in the Peoples Republic of China (Cui and Shi 2012). The city serves as an economic powerhouse for the nation. As of 2008, Shanghai comprised a slight 0.05% of Chinas population while contributing 4.6% to the nations total GDP (Li, Zhang, and Kainz 2012). Shanghai has experienced rapid urbanization and land transformation since the economic reforms instituted by Deng Xiaoping in 1978. Currently, Shanghai has the highest population density in all of China (Cui and Shi 2012). As of 2010, Shanghai had a registered population of 23.03 million people with a total land area of 6340.5km Shanghais urbanization rate (the ratio of urban population to total population) has increased from 59% in 1978 to 86% in 2007
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(Yue et al. 2012). The city of Shanghai contains 17 districts and is administratively considered the same as a province (Cui and Shi 2012).
Shanghai has a northern subtropical monsoon climate (Li, Zhang, and Kainz 2012). The city experiences four distinct seasons with an average high temperature in summer of 28C and 4C in the winter. The average annual temperature in Shanghai is 15.8C with an average annual precipitation of 1149mm (Cui and Shi 2012). The hottest temperatures are typically recorded in July and August. Summer temperatures can reach up to 40C, which translates to extremely uncomfortable conditions, especially when factoring in the high relative humidity common during the summer months. Between 2000 and 2010, Shanghai experienced an average of 25 days with a temperature at or above 35C. During that same time period, the average summer temperature was 27.8C with a relative humidity of 83% (Xu et al. 2010).
According to the Koppen-Geiger system, the climate of Shanghai is classified as Cfa, which is a humid subtropical climate found all over the world. The C stands for warm temperate, the f stands for fully humid, and the a stands for hot summer (Kottek 2006). Within China, the results of this study are generalizable to places like Hong Kong, Qingdao, Nanjing, and Hangzhou, to name a few. As for the rest of Asia, Taipei and Hanoi are also considered Cfa humid subtropical climates. The Cfa humid subtropical climate also dominates the south-eastern part of the United States including such cities as Washington, D.C., Baltimore, MD, Charleston, SC, Nashville, TN, Little Rock, AR, Orlando, FL, Tampa, FL, Atlanta, GA, San Antonio, TX, Dallas, TX, Houston, TX and New Orleans, LA. In South America the humid subtropical climate is found in Sao Paolo, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Montevideo, Uruguay. The Cfa climate
24


is also found along the eastern coast of Australia (Kottek 2006). The results of this study are generalizable to any urban center in the world with a Cfa hot and humid climate.
World Map of Koppen-Geiger Climate Classification
updated with ( HI TS 2.1 temperature and \ VSCIimO vl.l precipitation data 1951 to 2000
Af Am As
Aw
BVNk BWta BSk BSh Cfa Cfb Cfc Csa Csb
Csc Cwa
Cwb Cat l)la Dlb Dfc Did Dm IHb IHe Dsd l)a Dwb Dac Dwd EF
.Main climates Precipitation A: e<|uatorial \V: desert
B: arid S: steppe
C: warm temperate f: fulls humid D: snow s: summer dry
E: polar w: winter dry
m: monsoonal
Temperature
h: hot arid F: polar frost
k: cold urid T: polar tundra
a: hot summer b: warm summer c: cool summer d: estrcmcly continental
Figure 1. World Map of Koppen-Geiger Climate Classification (Kottek 2006).
The city of Shanghai is located between latitudes 3132N and 3127N and longitudes 12052E and 12145E. Shanghai is situated on an alluvial terrace within the Yangtze River basin. The region has many rivers and streams with the Huangpu River serving as the largest river in the delta (Li et al. 2011). Huangpu River runs through the center of Shanghai, separating Puxi (west of the river) from Pudong (east of the river). The elevation of Shanghai ranges between 1 and 103.4m, but the average elevation of the city is 4m (Li, Zhang, and Kainz 2012).
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2.3 Site Selection
Shanghais hot and humid climate provides a major challenge to human comfort, especially during the summer months. Designers of the Shanghai World Expo Garden were cognizant of the existing climate and the challenges it poses, and thus the design utilizes ample vegetation, shade, and water features to optimize cooling for visitors during the summer months. The design goal was to improve human comfort because of the high volume of users the space would need to accommodate from May to October of 2010. This study was designed to test the efficacy of the design to find out how well the designers intentions are realized at the Expo site.
To provide contrasting microclimate conditions, two other sites were chosen1.
Xuhui Waterfront is located on the opposite bank of the Huangpu River from the Expo
site. The sites are very similar in that both parks occupy long and narrow spaces along
the Huangpu waterfront. In fact, the two parks are so close together that each is visible
while visiting the other. Xuhui Waterfront was not specifically designed for human
comfort and the site offers little respite from the dominating elements of sun and wind.
Upon first inspection, it is clear that Xuhui Waterfront has extensive riverfront exposure
with little vegetation and very little shade. These conditions are in sharp contrast to the
Expo site, which provides ample cooling features such as shade and water. A third site,
Fuxing Park, was chosen as a location that was not located on the river but rather situated
within the urban density of Shanghai. Fuxing Park offers less exposure to water, but
1 Initially, two additional sites were included in the analysis. Houtan Park, directly adjacent to World Expo Garden was included to compare a site with similar climate conditions that was not designed specifically to maximize human comfort. However, visitor numbers at Houtan Park were so low that it was dropped from the study do to a lack of data availability. Xiangyang Park was also initially included in the study to directly compare to Fuxing Park, but we decided to remove it because we thought it was taking focus away from our original study intentions.
26


abundant vegetation and plentiful shade. Fuxing Park is extremely popular with local people, so it regularly provides an inexhaustible sample. Another advantage of Fuxing Park is that it was designed in the French style, with multiple distinct spaces. This creates a contrast with the other two sites selected because Xuhui Waterfront Park and World Expo Garden offer more unified cohesive designs. The two riverfront sites are new installations, whereas Fuxing Park is more than 100 years old. Both Xuhui Waterfront Park and Shanghai World Expo Garden are often lacking in visitor numbers, most likely due to the lack of residential development around them. However, as Shanghai continues to grow and expand, these two parks will, no doubt, become highly utilized in the future.
Figure 2. Three Sites in Context
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2.4 Shanghai World Expo Garden
The 2010 World Expo was held from May to October in Shanghai. The theme of Better City, Better Life created a challenge for designers to improve and promote visitor comfort during the Expo event (Xu et al. 2010). The Shanghai World Expo Garden, created for the event, is located on the Pudong (east) side of the Huangpu River in the Pudong District of Shanghai, PRC. The site is approximately 1.7 km in length, ranging from 70-300 meters in width, and covering a total area of about 29 hectares (Liu 2006).
Environmental engineers from Tongji University conducted studies of littoral zones during the summers of 2007 and 2008 in Shanghai to gather data which inform the design principles on the site. The littoral zone refers to the land area directly around a water body (Xu et al. 2010). Through evaporative cooling, a water body can play an important role in increasing human comfort through a reduction in temperature and an increase in humidity (Xu et al. 2010). The results of the study informed the design principles. Water bodies were incorporated throughout the design, with attractions and recreational facilities situated close to the water bodies. Vegetation was planted within the littoral zones of the water bodies to increase the cooling capacity of the water. In littoral zones with vegetation, walking paths and benches were located 10-20m away from the waters edge. In littoral zones without vegetation, walking paths and benches were located within 8-14m from the waters edge (Xu et al. 2010).
28


Figure 3. Shanghai World Expo Garden Plan View
29


The resulting design, created by NITA Group and completed in 2010, incorporates a ribbon of water surrounded by ample vegetation. Although the site is situated beside Huangpu River, the design adds artificial water bodies throughout the site to create a cooler microclimate during the summer months. The design was inspired by the natural landforms of Shanghai, and the concept is entitled, the shoal and the fan (NITAGroup 2010). The design was created to maximize summer winds to improve summer microclimate conditions. Larger ponds are also used to maximize comfort. Walkways have trees planted within the hardscape to create a cool and shady passage through the park. Large sculptures are also integrated into the design, creating points of interest for park visitors. The landscape is very shady and gives one the feeling of being far removed from the big city while still being within it.
Shanghai World Expo Garden is situated within the former Expo 2010 site. The adjacent areas to the site are underutilized spaces, aside from occasional events at the Mercedes Benz Arena. There is a shopping mall with many restaurants between the park and the arena though the space is often vacant, which is in sharp contrast to most of Shanghai. One notable attraction near the park is the China Art Museum, which was converted from the China Exhibition of the 2010 Expo. There are no residential areas near the site. The height of park usage occurs on weekends when many people set up tents in the grass and stay for the day; high usage also occurs when events are held at the adjacent Mercedes-Benz Arena.
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Figure 4. Shanghai World Expo Garden Context Map 2.5 Xuhui Waterfront Park
Xuhui Waterfront Park is located in Xuhui District on the Puxi (west) side of Huangpu River in Shanghai, PRC. Xuhui Waterfront Park was designed by EDSA and built in April 2010. The park measures 3.6 kilometers in length, with an overall size of 24 hectares. The area is currently lacking in residential development, but the abundance of high-rise construction occurring right now directly adjacent to the site tells that this is about to change. Currently, the highest usage occurs on weekends at Xuhui Waterfront;
31


to a lesser extent, visitor numbers rise during weekday evenings.
The site was formerly a railway cargo station and the industrial memory of the site is preserved in the railroad tracks that run through the northeast end of the site as well as the large cranes formerly used to lift cargo between the land and water transportation vehicles. A permanent locomotive is another feature of the site that calls to its industrial past.

m
Figure 5. Xuhui Waterfront Park Plan View
32


ilUtfflLl
The portion of the site adjacent to Huangpu River is extremely exposed to sun and wind. Aside from the river, there is little water to create a cooler microclimate. There is
LUPU 1 BRIDGE
^ cl Jj lTi MERCEDES BENZ ARENA
CHINA ART MUSEUM
no vegetation near the waterfront throughout the park and visitors are often found clustered in whatever shade they can find. The openness of the waterfront space creates opportunity for exercise as well as site-seeing. A jogging path runs along the waterfront. The interior of the site offers more vegetation and respite from the elements. A tree-lined walkway is complete with railroad tracks running its length.
Figure 6. Xuhui Waterfront Park Context
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2.6 Fuxing Park
Fuxing Park was built in 1909 and designed by the French gardener Papot (Dong 2006). The park is one of the oldest in Shanghai and one of very few French gardens in the city. Fuxing Park is located within the Former French Concession of Shanghai, now on the border where Xuhui and Huangpu Districts meet within the Inner Ring Road of Shanghai, PRC. The neighborhood is well-established and contains abundant residential housing. Some park users expressed that their families have lived in the vicinity of the park for several generations. The height of usage at Fuxing Park is during weekday mornings, but the park is also very populated with a diverse crowd during weekends.
Figure 7. Fuxing Park Plan View
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The park covers a total area of 7.3 hectares. The park emulates the design style of Parisian urban parks with elegant allees, a boscage, and parterre de broderie. In typical French style, the separate garden rooms are connected through axial organization.
Fuxing Park is extremely popular with locals and tourists alike; the height of park usage tends to occur in the early-morning hours. Fuxing Park contrasts with the other two sites in many ways; it is located within the dense inner-city of Shanghai and not along the Huangpu River. It was built over 100 years ago, with the Shanghai sprawl developing around it over time. The other two parks included in the study were built within the past five years.
Figure 8. Fuxing Park Context Map
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2.7 Data Collection Methods and Instruments
Field work involved the collection of both quantitative and qualitative data. Upon arrival at each site, we removed all instruments from their cases and allowed them to acclimate for a minimum of ten minutes before beginning data collection. We handed out surveys to park visitors in order to gather quantitative demographic data about the respondents and also to gather qualitative data about their level of comfort at that exact moment. While the respondents were answering the survey questionnaire, we gathered quantitative weather data using several scientific instruments. We used the MS 6300 environmental multi-meter to collect the following data: air temperature (C), relative humidity (%), light (lux), wind speed (m/s), and sound (dB). Special consideration was taken to keep the device in the shade while collecting data in order to ensure accuracy of the air temperature data. The instruments tripod ensured that the device was regularly placed at the same distance above the ground. The TENMARS TM-206 solar power meter was pointed towards the sun to measure solar radiation (w/ m ). Wind direction was calculated using a Silva Guide Model 426 compass. All weather data were recorded on a paper table at the time surveys were being completed. The weather data table is listed in Appendix A.6 of this document. At the end of each data collection session, all data were recorded in an Excel spreadsheet.
The survey questionnaire was designed using simple language in an attempt to avoid confusion. The survey questionnaire was initially written in English, then translated into Chinese by a native speaker. Two different native Chinese speakers then evaluated the translated survey to assess the clarity of the questions. The study, labeled Protocol 13-2190, was then submitted to the Colorado Multiple Institutional Review
36


Board for review because of the inclusion of human subjects. After review of the research and the survey questionnaire, Protocol 13-2190 received a status of Exemption Category 2. The certificate of exemption is listed in Appendix A.7 of this document.
The survey questionnaire contains a total of 14 questions. Respondents were given the option to answer the questionnaire in Chinese or English. The survey questionnaires used in data collection are listed in Appendix A.4 and A. 5 of this document. Respondents were asked to check the appropriate box for their answers. Demographic information collected was limited to gender and age range. Personal information collected included the amount of time at the park, intended length of stay, and reasons for park visitation. Seven questions were employed to assess overall comfort, as well as the effect of each of the elements separately on comfort (ex: comfort in this temperature, comfort in this humidity, etc.). A seven-point scale with possible answer choices ranging from extremely comfortable to neutral to extremely uncomfortable was used in order to thoroughly evaluate the respondents comfort level. Two questions addressed how the respondents comfort level could be improved. One of these questions specifically targeted the weather conditions, while the other question asked about the design of the space.
After each survey was complete, we filled in additional data including location, date, time, number of people in the area, respondents clothing, and respondents activity. We also recorded details of each respondents specific location, such as exposure to sun and wind, amount of vegetation, and surface properties (hardscape, grass, groundcover, etc.). On average, respondents were able to complete surveys in less than five minutes. Patterns of user behavior and occupancy were also notated during data collection.
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We adhered to a set of guidelines for approaching respondents at the parks. One important criterion in asking people to participate in the survey was that they were sitting down. Choosing a seat in a park establishes that a person is here of his own free will and that he prefers this seat over any other available seating option. We did not approach people if they looked very busy. People who were eating food were also considered to be off limits. Throughout data collection it was very common for people to approach and inquire about the study. We always asked inquirers to participate in the study.
Through regular survey collection, it became clear that park usage was highly dependent upon weather conditions and time of day. Therefore, we used a convenience sample, focusing data collection efforts during the morning and evening hours when it was not raining, so as to be most effective while in the field.
2.8 Mapping Procedure
To better understand the research areas, all three sites were modeled in plan view in AutoCAD using a combination of Google Earth images and park maps found on the sites. Completed drawings were taken into the field for ground-truthing. After all site plans were redlined in the field they were rendered in Photoshop. After renderings were complete, the sites were categorized into different zones based on various factors including surface materiality, vegetation, sun exposure, and water. Surfaces were classified as either hardscape (H) or softscape (S), with hardscape being defined as a non-permeable constructed surface including concrete, asphalt, brick, paver block, and boardwalk and softscape defined as a permeable surface including soil, grass, or groundcover. Vegetation was classified as present (V) or not present (N). Sun exposure was classified as full sun (FS), partial shade (PS), or full shade (SH). Areas were
38


classified as being within a littoral zone (W) or not (D) using definitions explained in the following paragraph. Common zones were identified within each site as well as between the three sites.
Completed maps were used to study the sites in greater depth. Research has shown that trees and water are important design elements that affect microclimate. The amount of water exposure on each site was calculated in order to determine the percentage of space for which water may act as a cooling element. According to Xu et. al, water can affect the littoral zone surrounding it through evaporative cooling. Their study found that the cooling effects of water can be felt from 10-20 meters away from the water if there are also trees present. If there are no trees in the littoral zone, then the cooling effects of water can be felt from 8-14 meters away (Xu et al. 2010). Based on these numbers, we created a 10 meter buffer around all water bodies in all three site plans using AutoCAD. The amount of park space near water is therefore classified as being within 10 meters of water, whether it is a natural or designed water body. Polygons were drawn in AutoCAD to represent the 10 meter space adjacent to all water bodies. By calculating the area of the resulting polygons and subtracting the areas of the water bodies themselves, we were able to discern the total area near water. After discerning the amount of water exposure each site offers, we calculated the percentage of space with this exposure. We found the total area of each park less water bodies then calculated the ratio of water area to total park area and multiplied by 100 to discern the percentage of space near water in each park.
Sun and shade studies were conducted to better understand how much each site allows or prevents solar radiation from reaching the ground, because it is the most
39


important heating factor in microclimate considerations. Using the rendered Photoshop map, we classified all portions of the sites as being in full sun, partial shade, or full shade. Full sun classification is defined as a space where there are no trees or structures around to shade the space. Partial shade classification is defined as areas with speckled light from tree canopy or may have parts of the day in full sun and parts of the day in full shade from a nearby structure. Full shade classification is used to define spaces that never receive direct sunlight. A good example of this is under Lupu Bridge in Expo Park, because the structure blocks all sunlight and solar radiation from reaching the ground beneath it. Thickly forested areas are also classified as full shade, if sunlight does not reach the ground beneath the tree canopy. Using Photoshop, polygons were drawn to classify each space as full sun, partial shade, or full shade. The total area of each classification was determined using a pixel counting method and percentages were calculated using ratios of full sun area to total park area, partial shade area to total park area, and full shade area to total park area.
Hardscape and softscape percentages were calculated using satellite imagery via Google Earth Pro. A better understanding of each site was gained by drawing polygons around hardscape and softscape areas and then calculating the areas of the polygons. The percentage of tree canopy cover for each park was also calculated using this method.
Each survey was placed on a site map by analyzing data collected at the time it was filled out. 419 surveys were used to analyze specific locations and human comfort and two surveys were removed from the analysis because location data failed to be recorded.
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Table 1. Comparison of Site Conditions in Percentages
EXPO XUHUI FUXING AVERAGE

HARDSCAPE 34.4 52.08 38.24 41.57

SOFTSCAPE 44.22 24.2 51.96 40.13

NEAR WATER 26.6 26.14 5.28 19.34

TREE CANOPY 33.5 14.97 62.58 37.02

FULL SUN 19.67 53.23 26.99 33.30

PARTIAL SHADE 72.27 40 53.04 55.10

FULL SHADE 8.05 6.77 19.98 11.60
After categorizing surveys using the classification method discussed above, we calculated the average comfort levels among respondents in the following populations: overall, by individual park, by shade, partial shade, or full sun, and by proximity to water. We compared these mean comfort levels and tested for significant differences using a standard two-tailed t-test with an a-level of 0.05.
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CHAPTER III
RESULTS
3.1 Overview of Collected Data
The sample consists of 421 surveys collected at three parks over a period of three months, during 33 days of field data collection. Data collection began on August 18,
2013 and concluded on November 18, 2013. Expo Park was visited 12 times, Xuhui Waterfront was visited 10 times, and Fuxing Park was visited 10 times. 398 surveys were completed in the Chinese language format, while 23 surveys were completed in the English language format. 271 survey respondents were male (64%) while 150 respondents were female (36%). The 26-40 age group was the most commonly represented in the data.
Total Respondents
135 142 EXPO
Fuxing
Xuhui
144
Figure 9. Total Respondents Organized by Location
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Respondent Age Groups
140
iu 120 _i
O 100
LLI Q.
u. 80
O
ES 60
co
§ 40
D
2 20 0
AGE 18-25 AGE 26-40 AGE 41-60 AGE 61+
AGE GROUPS
Figure 10. Respondent Age Groups
Collected data reveal that the average temperature during the study was 28.1C. The average relative humidity was 60.76%. Average solar radiation was 144.72 w/m The average wind speed was 0.80 m/s. The most common reason for visiting the park was to relax. The most common length of park visit was 1-2 hours. When asked about possible changes to increase their comfort level, the most common answer was less noise. The second most common answer was a lower temperature. When asked about preferred design modifications, the most common answer was to add more trees; adding more grass was the second most common answer.
Table 2. Comparison of Site Weather Conditions
CONDITION EXPO XUHUI AVERAGE

TEMPERATURE fC) 29.25 28.07 27.00 28.10

RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 60.93 56.77 64.37 60.76

SOLAR RADIATION (w/m2) 138.98 202.11 101.41 144.72

WIND SPEED (m/s) 0.94 1.28 0.22 0.80
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Figure 11. Respondent Reason for Park Visitation
Figure 12. Respondent Preferred Weather Modifications to Increase Comfort
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Preferred Spatial Modifications
Figure 13. Respondents Preferred Spatial Modifications to Increase Comfort Analysis of satellite imagery and maps revealed that the average percentage of hardscape among all parks was 41.57% with softscape accounting for 40.13% of surfaces. 19.34% of space in the parks was near water (less than or equal to 10 meters from a water body) and average tree cover was 37.02%. 33.3% of all spaces in the three parks were in full sun, 55.1% of spaces were in partial shade, and 11.6% were classified as full shade.
Locational data analysis of 419 surveys reveals that 95.94% of survey respondents were located on hardscape, while 4.06% of respondents were located on softscape at the time they completed the survey. 43.91% of respondents were located near water, while 56.09% of all respondents had no water nearby. The data show that respondents near water reported 4.23% higher overall average comfort than respondents not near water.
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66.83% of respondents were situated in a location with vegetation nearby, while 33.17% of survey respondents were situated in a location with no vegetation nearby. 30.79% of all survey respondents were positioned in full sun, while 46.3% of respondents were positioned in partial shade, and 22.91% of respondents were positioned in full shade. We found that respondents in full shade reported the highest average overall comfort, while respondents in full sun reported the second highest average overall comfort. Respondents in partial shade reported the lowest average overall comfort.
The data reveal that respondents at the Shanghai World Expo Park reported the highest level of comfort. Survey respondents report that Expo Park was significantly more comfortable than both Xuhui Waterfront and Fuxing Park. This conclusion agrees with our hypothesis. Xuhui Waterfront was significantly more comfortable than Fuxing Park which does not agree with our expectations.
3.2 Shanghai World Expo Garden Data
We visited Expo Park 12 times over the data collection period. In that time 142 respondents completed surveys. 82 respondents were male, while 60 were female. 136 respondents completed the survey in Chinese, while 5 respondents completed the survey in English. The most common age group of people answering the survey was the 26-40 year old crowd.
The average temperature at Expo Park during the study was 29.3C, which is higher than the overall average. The average relative humidity at Expo Park was 60.9%. Average solar radiation at Expo Park was 134.07 w/ m which is lower than the overall average. The average wind speed at Expo Park was 0.92 m/s which is slightly higher than the overall average.
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EXPO Respondent Age Groups
60
50
O 40
O 30 cc
LU
CO
§ 20
D
Z
10
0
AGE 18-25 AGE 26-40 AGE 41-60 AGE 61+ AGE GROUPS
AGE 18-25 AGE 26-40 AGE 41-60 AGE 61+
Figure 14. World Expo Garden Respondent Age Groups The most common reason for visiting the park was to relax. The most common length of park visit was 1-2 hours. When asked about possible weather modifications, the most common response was that people preferred a lower temperature and less noise. When asked about possible design/spatial modifications, the most common response was to add landform/hills to the site. The next most common response was to add more trees to the site.
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EXPO Respondent Reason for Park Visitation
Figure 15. World Expo Garden Reason for Park Visitation
EXPO Length of Park Visit
1-30 mins. 30-60 mins. 1-2 hrs. 3+hrs.
TIME
Figure 16. World Expo Garden Length of Park Visit
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EXPO Preferred Weather Modifications
Figure 17. World Expo Garden Respondent Preferred Weather Modifications to Increase
Comfort
EXPO Preferred Spatial Modifications
Figure 18. World Expo Garden Respondent Preferred Spatial Modifications to Increase
Comfort
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Through in-depth satellite image analysis it was discovered that Expo Park has 34.4% hardscape surfaces, which is the lowest percentage of all three parks. Expo Park consists of 44.22% softscape surfaces, which is higher than the overall average. Expo Park has 33.5% tree cover, which is slightly less than the average percent tree cover. 26.6% of Expo Park is classified as being near water (less than or equal to 10 m from a water body) which is above average. Expo Park offers the most exposure to water amongst the three study sites. Expo Park has 19.67% of its total area in full sun, which is the lowest of the three sites. 80.33% of the park is in either partial shade or full shade. Expo Park has 72.2% of its total area in partial shade which is the highest of the three sites; 8.05% of Expo Park is in full shade.
SUN & SHADE
FULL SUN
PARTIAL SHADE
FULL SHADE
TREES & SHRUBS
SOFTSCAPE
WATER
HARDSCAPE
Figure 19. Shanghai World Expo Garden Explanation of Spaces
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3.3 Xuhui Waterfront Park Data
We visited Xuhui Waterfront Park 10 times over the three month data collection
period. During that time 135 respondents completed surveys. 82 respondents were male, while 43 were female. 129 respondents completed the survey in Chinese, while 6 respondents completed the survey in English. The most common age group of people
answering the survey was the 26-40 year old bracket.
Xuhui Respondent Age Groups
Q.
o
60
50
40
0 30 cc
LU
| 20
1 10
0
AGE 18-25 AGE 26-40 AGE 41-60 AGE 61+ AGE GROUPS
AGE 18-25 AGE 26-40 AGE 41-60 AGE 61+
Figure 20. Xuhui Waterfront Park Respondent Age Groups The average temperature at Xuhui Waterfront during the study was 28.1C. The average relative humidity was 56.8% which is lower than the overall average. Average solar radiation at Xuhui Waterfront was 202.11 w/ m which is significantly higher than the overall average. The average wind speed at Xuhui Waterfront was 1.28 m/s which is almost double the overall average.
The most common reason for visiting the park was to socialize; to relax was the second most common response. The most common length of park visit was 30-60 minutes. When asked about possible weather modifications, the most common response
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was that people preferred a lower temperature and less noise. When asked about possible design/spatial modifications, the most common response was to add more trees to the site. The next most common response was to add more grass to the site.
Xuhui Respondent Reason for Park Visitation
120
Figure 21. Xuhui Waterfront Park Reason for Park Visitation
Xuhui Length of Park Visit
1-30 mins. 30-60 mins. 1-2 hrs. 3+hrs.
TIME
Figure 22. Xuhui Waterfront Park Length of Park Visit
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Xuhui Preferred Weather Modifications
Figure 23. Xuhui Waterfront Park Respondent Preferred Weather Modifications to
Increase Comfort
Xuhui Preferred Spatial Modifications
Figure 24. Xuhui Waterfront Park Respondent Preferred Spatial Modifications to
Increase Comfort
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Xuhui Waterfront Park contains 52.08% hardscape surfaces which is the highest of the three parks. Softscape surfaces in Xuhui Waterfront amount to 24.2% of the total park area, which is the lowest of the three sites. Xuhui Waterfront has 14.97% tree cover, the lowest of the three study sites. 26.14% of Xuhui Waterfront is classified as being near water (less than 10 m away from a water body) which is above average. 53.23% of Xuhui Waterfront is classified as being in full sun, the highest of the three parks. 46.77% of the park offers visitors some shade. 40% of Xuhui Waterfront is classified as partial shade, and 6.77% is classified as full shade. The data tell us that Xuhui Waterfront offers park visitors the least amount of shade when compared to the other two sites.
SUN & SHADE FULL SUN PARTIAL SHADE FULL SHADE
TREES & SHRUBS
SOFTSCAPE
HARDSCAPE WATER
Figure 25. Xuhui Waterfront Park Explanation of Spaces
Locational data analysis of 134 surveys at Xuhui Waterfront reveals that 97.76%
of survey respondents were located on hardscape at the time of survey completion, while
2.24% of respondents were located on softscape. 79.1% of respondents were located near
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water, while 20.9% of all respondents had no water nearby. 15.67% of respondents were situated in a location with vegetation nearby, while 84.33% of survey respondents were situated in a location with no vegetation nearby. 60.45% of all survey respondents were positioned in full sun, while 11.94% of respondents were positioned in partial shade, and 27.61% of respondents were positioned in full shade.
3.4 Fuxing Park Data
We collected data at Fuxing Park on 10 separate days over the three month data collection period. In that time 144 respondents completed surveys. 100 respondents were male, while 44 were female. 129 respondents completed the survey in Chinese, while 12 people completed the survey in English. The most common age group of people answering the survey was the 61+ year old bracket.
Fuxing Park Respondent Age Groups
60 50
LU
2 40 Cl ll.
o 30 cc
LU CO
§ 20 D Z
10 0
AGE 18-25 AGE 26-40 AGE 41-60 AGE 61+ AGE GROUPS
Figure 26. Fuxing Park Respondent Age Groups According to the data, the average temperature at Fuxing Park during the study was 27.0C which is slightly lower than the overall average. The average relative
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humidity at Fuxing Park was 64.4% which is slightly higher than the overall average. Average solar radiation at Fuxing Park was 101.41 w/ m which is significantly lower than the overall average. The average wind speed at Fuxing Park was 0.22 m/s which is lower than the overall average.
The most common reason for visiting the park was to relax; exercise was the second most common response. The most common length of park visit was 1-2 hours. When asked about possible modifications that could make respondents more comfortable, the most common response was that people preferred less noise; fewer people was the second most common response, with lower temperature as the third most common response. When asked about possible design/spatial modifications, the most common response was to add more grass to the site. The next most common response was to add more trees to the site.
Fuxing Park has 38.24% hardscape surface, which is below the overall average. Softscape accounts for 51.96% of Fuxing Park, which is the highest of the three sites. Fuxing Park has a 62.58% tree canopy cover, which is the highest of the three parks.
Only 5.28% of Fuxing Park is near water, which is by far the lowest of the three sites. 26.99% of Fuxing Park is in full sun, which is below average. 53.04% of Fuxing Park is classified as partial shade, which is below average. 19.98% of Fuxing Park is in full shade, which is the highest of the three parks.
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Fuxing Park Respondent Reason for Park
Visitation
Figure 27. Fuxing Park Reason for Park Visitation
Fuxing Park Length of Park Visit
1-30 Mins. 30-60 mins. 1-2 hrs. 3+ hrs.
TIME
Figure 28. Fuxing Park Length of Park Visit
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Figure 29. Fuxing Park Respondents Preferred Weather Modifications to Increase
Comfort
Figure 30. Fuxing Park Respondents Preferred Spatial Modifications to Increase
Comfort
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SUN & SHADE
FULL SUN PARTIAL SHADE FULL SHADE
TREES & SHRUBS
SOFTSCAPE
HARDSCAPE
Figure 31. Fuxing Park Explanation of Microclimate Factors Locational data analysis of 143 surveys at Fuxing Park reveals that 100% of survey respondents were located on hardscape at the time of survey completion, while 0% of respondents were located on softscape. 0% of respondents were located near water, while 100% of all respondents had no water nearby. 100% of respondents were situated in a location with vegetation nearby, while 0% of survey respondents were situated in a location with no vegetation nearby. 0% of all survey respondents were
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positioned in full sun, while 93.71% of respondents were positioned in partial shade, and 6.29% of respondents were positioned in full shade.
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CHAPTER IV
DISCUSSION
4.1 Data Collection and Analysis
We initially visited the three sites at all different times of day. However, we quickly became aware of the usage patterns of each site. During peak usage, parks were extremely crowded, which enabled abundant data collection. During off-peak times, parks were completely empty, which greatly hindered data collection. By gaining an understanding of park usage at each site, we focused our data collection efforts during peak times at each site. It is worth noting that peak usage times correlate with more comfortable weather conditions. For example, during the hot summer months, park usage was high in the early morning; by mid-day parks would empty out during the most intense heat of the day. Visitors would return in the evening hours, after temperatures cooled down.
Our initial data analysis focused on weather conditions and comfort and so we analyzed the factors deemed most important according to the existing theory (air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) to determine their direct effect on human comfort. We excluded some data from analysis in order to focus our study in the most effective way. For example, data concerning noise levels were not considered in data analysis because although noise does affect comfort, it is not an aspect of microclimate. Respondents attire was dismissed for questionable relevance and because of the level of complication it would add to the study. Respondents activity was
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also not analyzed due to concerns about relevance. Light levels were also not considered in analysis, because previous studies have indicated that solar radiation is far more important to comfort than light. Light was also excluded because all data were collected during daytime hours when the question of safety and light is less of an issue.
4.2 Descriptive Analysis and Comparative Studies
After classifying spaces in the parks by their defining factors (surface materiality, presence of vegetation, sun/shade exposure, and proximity to water) we found interesting results. We compared surveys completed near water to surveys with no water in the vicinity and found that respondents near water were 4.23% more comfortable overall than respondents who were not near water, a difference that was statistically significant (p = 0.03).
After cataloguing surveys into groups based on site characteristics we considered the importance of sun and shade in overall comfort. We compared respondents overall comfort level in full sun to partial shade and full shade. While respondents in full sun were found to be 1.01% more comfortable than respondents in partial shade, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.65). This result was in contrast to our expectations. However, respondents in full shade were found to be 4.94% more comfortable than respondents in full sun, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.04) in line with our expectations. The most surprising result in the sun and shade comparison studies was that respondents in full shade were 6% more comfortable than respondents in partial shade, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.01).
Data analysis revealed that Shanghai World Expo Garden achieved the highest overall comfort level. Expo respondents reported 6.99% higher comfort levels than
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respondents in Xuhui Waterfront and 13.99% higher than those in Fuxing Park, both statistically significant differences (p < 0.01 in both cases). The 6.54% greater comfort level in Xuhui compared to Fuxing was a surprising finding and was also statistically significant (p = 0.01). There are multiple factors to consider that may be driving these results. We expected that the high levels of shade offered at Fuxing Park would outweigh the fact that there is less exposure to water and we also expected that Xuhui Waterfronts lack of shade would make it the least comfortable park for visitors. However, Xuhui Waterfront has the highest recorded winds and is situated beside the river, which likely account for the overall higher comfort level than the inland Fuxing which had less water exposure and much lower wind speeds. Based on these data, it seems that the combination of wind and water (two cooling factors) is more important than shade (one cooling factor) in determining user comfort in this study.
In reflection of human comfort and park usage in the three study sites, it seems that future design goals should aim to spread park visitor numbers throughout the day. In the case of Fuxing Park, peak visitation occurred in the coolness of early morning. The often crowded park consistently emptied out in the midday heat. If human comfort is prioritized in future design objectives then a secondary aspect should be to maximize comfort during the extreme heat of midday. Perhaps overall comfort can be increased if crowding is reduced by spreading usage throughout the day. The best way to spread out park usage is to combine multiple cooling factors throughout the landscape to maximize comfort as exemplified in Shanghai World Expo Garden.
When comparing the amount of hardscape at each site to the amount of surveys completed on hardscape, we found a noticeable difference. For example, Shanghai World
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Expo Garden contains a mere 34.4% hardscape, but 90.14% of survey respondents were located on hardscape. Xuhui Waterfront Park is composed of 52.08% hardscape, but 97.76% of survey respondents were located on hardscape. Fuxing Park has 38.24% hardscape, but 100% of surveys were completed on hardscape. We believe these data result from the fact that park benches are most commonly located on hardscape as opposed to softscape.
We found it interesting that the most popular design alterations requested by respondents were for more trees and more grass (Refer to Figure 13). This was expected at a site like Xuhui Waterfront, where tree cover is a scant 14.97% of the park and softscape is a mere 24.2% of the park. However, Expo Park offers visitors 33.5% tree cover and 44.22% softscape surfaces, and respondents there still requested more trees and more grass. Fuxing Park offers visitors a lofty 62.58% tree cover and a generous 51.96% softscape surfaces, including a large grass lawn, and yet respondents resoundingly wanted more grass and more trees.
4.3 Site Observations and Park Usage in China
It is generally accepted that open space in urban environments is critical to quality of life. Through park visits for this study, as well as others, we found that parks play an essential role in the everyday lives of urban residents in Shanghai. Daily exercise is of the utmost importance and seems to be ingrained in Chinese culture, especially amongst the retired population. We observed that the importance of getting out every day and moving the body is highly emphasized, whether that movement occurs through the ancient practice of Tai Chi or a more contemporary practice of group dancing. Parks also play an essential role in social functionality for the retired population in Shanghai.
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Living quarters are often small in the urban realm, and local people tend to use parks as their own backyards. These observations were found over the course of a year living within the inner city of Shanghai. Similar circumstances were also discovered in other urban areas in China including Beijing, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou, Chengdu, and Hong Kong.
We believe that visitor numbers at the parks we studied in Shanghai were less reflective of good design and microclimate comfort, and more dependent upon location near residential areas. For example, the data reflect that Fuxing Park achieves the lowest level of human comfort, but is by far the most populous whereas Shanghai World Expo Garden data tells that it achieves the highest level of human comfort, but its visitor numbers are very low. In the inner-city of Shanghai, park usage seemed to be dominated by the retired population.
Many respondents expressed that they lived near Fuxing Park and that they visited the park every day. It is our belief that when it comes to inner-city parks in Shanghai, people will visit them regardless of design quality and the comfort achieved at each park. The social aspect is more important than design or comfort as well. For example, a 77 year old male respondent expressed that he had visited the park every day since his retirement. He explained that his family had lived in this neighborhood for several generations. Recently, he was forced to move away from the neighborhood, but he continues to visit the park regularly because all of his friends are there.
In considering respondent comfort and the occupancy of the three study parks, it is worth noting that visitor comfort may be affected by the amount of people present at each site. Perhaps Fuxing Park received the lowest comfort rating because the parks
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overly crowded spaces were not as comfortable as sites that provide more personal space. It is possible that visitors to the less populated sites, Expo and Xuhui, felt more comfortable because of the large amount of personal space that those sites offered. In this regard, the three parks are not represented equally. It would be interesting to collect data at Shanghai World Expo Garden and Xuhui Waterfront during largely crowded events2.
The collected data express an overwhelming number of male respondents (64.37%) compared to female respondents (35.63%). This unexpected outcome is likely the result of multiple cultural factors. During the data collection process it was our hope to disturb park users as little as possible. However, it was very common for park visitors to approach us out of curiosity in order to inquire about the nature and purpose of our weather data instruments. All inquiring park users were asked to complete the survey, and most complied with our request. The majority of inquiring park visitors were male (75.61%). We believe this is the reason for the gender imbalance in data representation.
2 We did intend to collect data during larger events at these parks but there was little opportunity during the data collection period. We planned to collect data during a music festival in World Expo Garden, but it rained hard that day, thereby reducing crowd size compared to what might have been had it been a sunny day.
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Respondent Gender
MALE FEMALE
Figure 32. Respondent Gender
4.4 Shanghai World Expo Garden
Shanghai World Expo Garden is atypical when compared to many parks in Shanghai. The adjacent neighborhood was recently transformed for the 2010 Expo event. The surrounding area feels vacant and somewhat abandoned. There are no residential areas surrounding the park, which is why we believe that park visitor numbers are less than for parks located within the inner-city of Shanghai. The site usually felt empty when we visited for data collection, whereas inner-city parks often felt overly crowded. Expo Park was designed to accommodate a large number of visitors. In fact, the Shanghai World Expo in 2010 hosted a record-breaking 73,084,000 visitors during its six month life span with an average of 397,000 visitors per day (ShanghaiWorldExpoUnit 2010). These astonishing numbers reveal that the park is currently hosting visitors in numbers severely below its carrying capacity.
Shanghai World Expo Garden offers visitors an abundance of shade and access to water. One aspect of the design that stands out is the many trees within the hardscape
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walkways. The designers, recognizing the importance of shade for overall comfort, incorporated a thick canopy of trees which reduce the effects of solar and terrestrial radiation and keep the spaces cooler. The combination of trees and water is apparent throughout the design as well. Although Huangpu River is adjacent to the site, the designers also included water features throughout the park to maximize comfort during the summer months.
Figure 33. Trees in the Hardscape Offer Visitors Abundant Shade
The Expo site is well designed for user comfort. We have very few design alterations to recommend, though one criticism is that some of the water pools at the site have dried up. However, this issue may be due to lack of maintenance or faulty construction as opposed to the design itself.
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Figure 34. The Combination of Trees and Water Creates a Cooler Microclimate in World
Expo Garden
Figure 35. Dried-up Water Features at World Expo Garden
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An interesting fact about Shanghai World Expo Garden is the popularity of the space just beneath Lupu Bridge. We found it to be an extremely comfortable location, most likely because of the full shade created by Lupu Bridge and the loftiness of the space. Lupu Bridge towers high above offering full shade without obstructing wind flow. The space is also interesting because of the unique experience it offers park visitors. It is not only extremely comfortable under Lupu Bridge but also spatially fascinating to be situated underneath such remarkable urban infrastructure as Lupu Bridge. This perspective is rare as these types of spaces are often occupied by highways or are otherwise unwelcoming due to vacancy.
Figure 36. Park space beneath Lupu Bridge at World Expo Garden
Shanghai World Expo Garden serves as a positive example of the high level of comfort a design can achieve when microclimate is taken into consideration. The design of the park and the level of comfort it achieves support current landscape microclimate
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design theory. We believe that Shanghai World Expo Garden could serve as a model for positive microclimate design for human comfort in subtropical hot and humid climate cities such as Shanghai.
4.5 Xuhui Waterfront Park
Xuhui Waterfront Park is a relatively new park in Shanghai, and it is currently under-utilized. The site often feels empty; it is sometimes difficult to find any park visitors present. It is most common to find people at the site for exercise purposes, whether they are on the climbing wall, running along the jogging track, playing basketball on the court, or skating in the skate-boarding park. Xuhui offers Shanghai residents something that is hard to find in the city: open space all to oneself. It is worth noting that the surrounding area currently feels abandoned but high-rise residential buildings are under construction. We expect that Xuhui Waterfront Park will experience more park visitors in the future as the buildings are completed and residents begin to settle into the area.
The design of Xuhui Waterfront offers park visitors very little shelter. The site is lacking in shaded spaces. It is most common to find visitors seated along the many benches beside Huangpu River and it appears that the scenic and extremely active features of the river are one of the attractions of the site. However, none of these waterfront spaces offer visitors any shade. Because of these factors, we found the area underneath the shipping cranes, remnants of the sites former function as a transfer space for cargo between rail and water transportation modes, to be highly occupied. The shipping cranes offer visitors full shade and waterfront visibility, which makes them
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highly desirable spaces in the park. The elongated nature of the site makes it tedious to traverse it, unless ones goal is an extensive run or walk for exercise. Therefore the crane closest to the main entrance is the most popular space in the park. The climbing wall is located just beside the main entrance, and is another hotspot for people to gather. Many survey respondents were found sitting in the full shade of the climbing wall.
Figure 37. Lack of Shelter at Xuhui Waterfront Park
The part of Xuhui Waterfront Park that offers vegetation and tree shade is also the part of the site that is farthest away from the river. The interior of the site was always less populated when compared to the part of the park adjacent to the river so it seems that river proximity was more of a priority for park visitors than tree shade. However, the most requested site alteration was more trees.
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Figure 38. Interior of Xuhui Waterfront Park
The data reveal that average solar radiation is highest at Xuhui Waterfront (202.11 w/m ), while relative humidity is lowest there (56.77%). These data are an expression of the lack of trees on the site (14.97% tree cover). Trees create more shade, thereby reducing solar radiation, and the process of evapotranspiration emits water vapor into the air, which explains why humidity is lower at Xuhui Park when compared to the other two parks. Xuhui Waterfront Park also boasts the highest average wind speed (1.28 m/s). Perhaps the lack of trees at Xuhui explains why the average wind speed there is almost double the overall average wind speed (0.79 m/s).
4.6 Fuxing Park
Fuxing Park is different than the other two sites. The park is situated in the well-established Former French Concession, a highly coveted part of the city in which to live. The neighborhood was a focal point during the urban renewal that occurred in the 1990s.
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The park has the advantage of having been constructed in 1909, so trees are large with massive canopies. People have been frequenting the park for over a century, so visitor numbers are currently much higher than at the other two sites. The design of Fuxing Park offers park visitors abundant shade and some exposure to water. However, water exposure at Fuxing Park is not accurately represented by the data because data collection was not focused on the Chinese Garden, which offers visitors the most exposure to water.
An interesting aspect of Fuxing Park is that the respondents are much older than at the other two parks (See Figure 26). In Expo and Xuhui, the most commonly represented age group is the 26-40 year old bracket, whereas at Fuxing Park, the 61+ year old bracket is the largest group, which may skew the results of Fuxing Park when compared to other two parks. These data express that Fuxing Park is a residential neighborhood park; many of its visitors frequent the site on a daily basis. This lies in contrast to Shanghai World Expo Garden and Xuhui Waterfront Park which are more remote and therefore should be considered destination parks. It is rare for people to be able to simply walk to Expo or Xuhui from their home, which explains why they are more populated on the weekends, whereas Fuxing is extremely crowded during weekday mornings.
The data express that Fuxing Park achieves the lowest level of comfort amongst the three parks in this study. We found this outcome to be surprising because Fuxing Park offers the most full shade, the highest percent tree cover, and the most softscape of all three sites with solar radiation levels and hardscape percentages significantly below the overall average. All of these factors led us to believe that Fuxing Park would achieve
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a higher comfort level than Xuhui Waterfront. These findings point to the overwhelming importance of the large water body as being most important to human comfort in a hot and humid climate.
Figure 39. Shady allees of Fuxing Park 4.7 Responding to the Data
In all three study sites, respondents express a desire for less noise as the most important site condition they would like to change. A lower temperature is the next most common request for site condition alterations. Respondents also articulate a strong desire for more trees and more grass. All of these indicators point to the same solution. Added vegetation can help to achieve all of these desired changes expressed by survey respondents. Vegetation can help to alleviate noise issues by absorbing sound waves instead of reflecting them. Trees can also help to reduce heat on the site by blocking solar radiation from reaching the ground. Grass also helps with heat on the site because it
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has a higher moisture content and permeability when compared to a hardscape surface, which makes it generally cooler than a hardscape surface.
When considering Xuhui Waterfront Park specifically, changes could be made to the current site to improve microclimate conditions. Respondents request less noise and a lower temperature, but a reduction in sunlight is the third most commonly requested alteration to site conditions. The addition of trees or even shade structures along the waterfront would alleviate the temperature and sunlight issues that park users have with the site. Noise reduction is more difficult to alter because most of the noise heard on the site comes from the ships passing by on Huangpu River.
4.8 Study Limitations
Limitations to the sample were caused by communication barriers, including park visitors who could not read and park visitors who spoke neither Mandarin nor English. Another issue was the confusion surrounding survey Question #5: How much longer do you think you will stay here? Throughout data collection, many people were unsure of the meaning of the question on the Chinese survey. Often this question was left unanswered. It was a common occurrence for respondents to repeat their answer from Question #4: How much time have you spent here today? Towards the end of data collection, we were informed that this question was not worded clearly in Chinese. Because of the confusion surrounding this question, it has not been included in the study.
One major limitation to this study is the brevity of the data collection timeframe. Data was collected for three months, from August to November of 2013. Regrettably, data was not collected during the month of July, which limits the scope of the study because typically July is the hottest month of the year in Shanghai. In fact, July of 2013
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was the hottest on record. Unfortunately, this missed opportunity could not be helped, as IRB clearance could not have been attained any earlier in the research process. Unfortunately, the extremes of summer and winter were not included in the study due to delays in the data collection start date and our departure from Shanghai at the end of 2013. Similar studies in the future would benefit from year-round data collection to consider microclimate and comfort in all seasons.
Time constraints also did not allow for a thorough and extensive site selection process. Future studies could benefit from a testing of the survey questionnaire to reveal issues as in survey question #5. The survey could be field tested at a multitude of sites in order to decided which sites best fulfill the needs of the study.
This study was also limited by having a single person collecting field data. This factor limited data collection to a small localized area within each site. Xuhui Waterfront was a particularly difficult site in which to collect data because the site is very long to traverse on foot with few park users throughout. Future studies could benefit from a team of data collectors to canvas each site and also to be able to collect data from all three sites at the same time. Direct comparisons (ex: the same days weather conditions) within the parks would make the study stronger.
Cultural barriers were another limiting factor in data collection. Some places in Fuxing Park did not feel culturally appropriate to venture through. For example, the Chinese Garden in Fuxing Park was always crowded with men playing cards and other games, but their groups were impenetrable. This was unfortunate because the Chinese Garden has a pond, which is the largest water body in Fuxing Park. Data collected near
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the pond could have diversified the Fuxing Park data which may have shown higher levels of comfort as a result. Another example of an invisible cultural barrier was a space in the Fuxing arbor reserved for political discussion where we did not feel that it was culturally appropriate to linger. This study could be stronger if data collectors were both linguistically and culturally fluent.
Finally, this study could have been improved with the collection of GPS location data for each survey that was completed. Had each point been linked to a GPS coordinate, data mapping would have been much simpler and far more precise, allowing for more in-depth analysis of the three sites.
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CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION
We found Shanghai World Expo Garden to be more comfortable than Xuhui Waterfront Park and Fuxing Park. The Expo design is successful in achieving its objective to maximize human comfort. The two waterfront sites, Expo and Xuhui, were found to offer visitors higher comfort levels when compared to Fuxing, the park located within the inner-city. These findings place emphasis on the cooling effects of a waterfront location. The combination of high winds passing over a large body of water seemed to optimize human comfort on hot days. Although Fuxing Park offers visitors an abundance of shade (and therefore the lowest solar radiation levels) created by a mature tree stand, the highest percentages of softscape, and hardscape percentages below average, it was the least comfortable site in the study.
Comfort is not the most important factor in determining park usage. Although Fuxing Park was found to be the least comfortable park, it had the highest usage by far. Shanghai World Expo Garden and Xuhui Waterfront Park were found to be more comfortable, but the visitor numbers were much lower than Fuxing Park. It seems that location, and especially proximity to residential development, is more important than comfort in determining park usage in Shanghai.
By testing the current site conditions, our study proves that the Shanghai World Expo Garden achieves its design goals. Shanghai World Expo Garden serves as a
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positive example that if microclimate is prioritized in design goals, than designers can create more comfortable spaces for people.
Looking forward, future research should include inquiries into spreading park usage throughout the day in densely populated urban cities like Shanghai. It would be interesting to explore how crowding and personal space affects human comfort in public spaces as well. Future studies would benefit from direct comparison of age groups to control for different comfort factors that may be based on age. Further investigations of these three parks could involve more accurate occupancy numbers in spaces and directly comparing spaces at similar occupancy levels. It would also be interesting to ask people about their favorite spaces within each park and what activities they enjoy in those spaces in order to create spaces that local people will enjoy in future design endeavors.
Post-occupancy analysis is a crucial form of research that strengthens the field of landscape architecture. We endorse this research method as a way for landscape architects to learn if their design goals are actually achieved, and how people occupy their designs. There are valuable lessons to be learned when a designer does not achieve his design goals and also when people use spaces in ways that differ from the designers original intent. Self-inquiry and critical analysis is a way for designers to improve their craft. Learning from past mistakes is important in order to avoid repeating them in the future. As a field of professional practitioners it is crucial for landscape architects to welcome critique and accept that not all of their designs are successful in order to learn and improve their methods of designing positive spaces for people.
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APPENDIX
A.l Shanghai World Expo Garden Spatial Description
84


A.2 Xuhui Waterfront Park Spatial Description
85


A.3 Fuxing Park Spatial Description
86


A.4 English Language Survey
Hello! I am a foreign exchange student atTongji University. I am conducting research to understand human comfort in different conditions in public spaces. Your participation in this survey is completely voluntary. I do not anticipate any risks to you participating in this study other than those encountered in day-to-day life. Your answers are confidential and will remain completely anonymous. Thank you for your time!
Please mark the appropriate box next to your answer choice with an X
1. What is your gender?
n Male FI Female
2. How old are you?
I"! 18-25 years old I"! 26-40 years old I*"! 41-60 years old 01 61 and older
3. Why did you come here today? Please check all that apply.
P To exercise [|] To socialize I"! To relax P To play games I-! To be outside J To sight-see
p To bring my children/grandchildren to the park p To walk my dog
P Other (please fill-in)__________________________________________________________
4. How much time have you spent here today?
P 1-30 minutes n 30-60 minutes I I 1-2 hours P 3+ hours 5
5. How much longer do you think you will stay here?
P 1-30 minutes P 30-60 minutes I-! 1-2 hours P 3+ hours
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6. What is your comfort level in this space? Please choose one answer.
l"i Extremely comfortable Very comfortable n Comfortable n Neuti'al n Uncomfortable (1 Very uncomfortable j_J Extremely uncomfortable
7. What do you think about the temperature right now? Please choose one answer.
Extremely comfortable I~1 Very comfortable l~l Comfortable Q Neuti'al Q Uncomfortable | j Very' uncomfortable Q Extremely imcomfortable
8. How do you feel about the humidity right now? Please choose one answer. Extremely comfortable Very comfortable Comfortable Neutral Uncomfortable Very7 uncomfortable Extremely uncomfortable
9. How comfortable is the wind level right now? Please choose one answer. I~l Extremely comfortable Q Very comfortable Q Comfortable Neutral Q Uncomfortable Q Very7 imcomfortable Q Extremely uncomfortable







88


10. How comfortable is the level of sunlight right now? Please choose one answer.
Extremely comfortable l~l Very comfortable
[J| Comfortable
|| Neutral
[H| Uncomfortable
|~| Veiy uncomfortable
Q Extremely uncomfortable
11. How comfortable is the size of this space? Please choose one answer.
Cj! Extremely comfortable l~l Very comfortable I I Comfortable
Neutral
fjj Uncomfortable
Very uncomfortable p Extremely uncomfortable
12. How do you feel about the noise level here? Please choose one answer.
Extremely comfortable l~l Very comfortable I I Comfortable I~1 Neutral l~l Uncomfortable
Very uncomfortable 1^1 Extremely uncomfortable
13. How could the conditions be more comfortable for you? Please check all that apply.
Higher temperature
Lower temperature
More wind
Less wind
More humidity
Less humidity
More sunlight
Less sunlight
More people
Less people
More noise
Less noise
89


14. How could this space be more comfortable? Please check all that apply.
More enclosure
More open space
More seating
More grass
Less grass
More paved surfaces
Less paved surfaces
More trees
Fewer trees
More flowers
More walking paths
More pavilions to sit under
Add a water fountain
Add a pond or lake
Add landforms (ex: hills)
Thank you so much for your time!
For the researcher to fill out:
Location: __________________________________________________________________
Occupancy (# of people):______________ Date:__________________Time of Day:
Weather conditions:_________________________________________________________
Respondents Attire:_________________________________________________________
Observed Activity of Respondent: ___________________________________________
Spatial description (immediate location):___________________________________
90


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Full Text

PAGE 1

HUMAN COMFORT IN LANDSCAPE MICROCLIMATES: A CASE STUDY OF THREE PARKS IN SHANGHAI, PRC by LISA SABELLA B.A., University of Delaware, 2003 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado i n partial fulfillme nt of the requirements for the degree of Master of Landscape Architecture Landscape Architecture Program 2014

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ii This thesis for the Master of Landscape Architecture degree by Lisa Sabella has been approved for the Landscape Architecture Program by Zhang Deshun, Advisor Lois Brink, Chair Ann Komara Eve Kutchman July 23, 2014

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iii Sabella, Lisa (MLA Landscape A rchitecture) Human Comfort in Landscape Microclimates: A Case Study of Three Parks in Shanghai, PRC Thesis Directed by Pr ofessor Lois Brink ABSTRACT Achieving human comfort in the urban microclimate is becoming more difficult as cities continue to increase in size, density, and temperature. Human comfort is an important aspect of landscape architecture because it affect s the use of outdoor public spaces. However, current landscape architecture practice is lacking with regard to climate sensitive design and human comfort considerations. In this study we conducted a post occupancy analysis to test human comfort in three parks in the urban metropolis of Shanghai, PRC using a mixed methods descriptive analysis. We administered surveys to park users while simultaneously collecting weather data to measure human comfort in each parks microclimate. We also analyzed the three sites using satellite imagery to determine approximate percentages of tree cover, hardscape vs. softscape, exposure to water, and spaces in full sun, partial shade, and full shade. We calculated mean levels of human comfort overall, as well as for each p ark, and based on sun and water exposure. Differences among population means were tested for significance using a standard two tailed ttest with an level of 0.05. Based on a total sample size of 421 surveys, we found that the World Expo Garden, designe d with human comfort specifically in mind, achieved the highest level of human comfort. Xuhui Waterfront, situated just across

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iv Huangpu River from Expo, achieved the second highest level of human comfort. The lowest comfort levels reported in the study we re at Fuxing Park, situated within the inner city and away from the river with the least exposure to water. The findings of our study support current microclimate design theory. The Shanghai World Expo Garden achieved its design goal of maximizing human comfort and provides concrete evidence that if microclimate is given preference in design goals, then more comfortable spaces for people can be created. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: Lois Bri nk

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v A CKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work would not have been possible without the love and support of my husband Kevin Walker Hanley. Thank you for being a willing participant in this incredible life experience. You are the best travel companion, editor, friend and partner that anyone could ever ask for. I am ever grateful for you and for our year in Asia together. Our life in Shanghai seems like a dream already.

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vi CONTENTS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ....1 1.1 Situating the Study : Landscape Architecture Research .2 1.2 Background 1.2.1 The Large Scale Urban Microcl imate 1.2.2 Urban Materiality 7 1.2.3 Urban Morphol ogy: The Urban Canyon & Street Geometry .8 1.2.4 Anthropogenic Heat Sources ...9 1.2.5 Urban Heat Island Mitigation: Altering the Urban Microclimate ...9 1.3 Literature Review 2 1.3.1 Human Health and the Urban Microc limate .12 1.3.2 Human Comfort in the Urban Microclimate .....13 1.3.3 Microclimate Knowledge and Design..16 1.3.4 Altering Microclimate through Design.....8 1.4 Purpose and Significance of the Study II R ESEARCH METHODS .23 2.1 Mixed Methods Descriptive Analysis .. 2.2 Shanghai Background and Climate .. 2.3 Site Selection ... 2.4 Shanghai World Expo Garden..28

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vii 2.5 Xuhui Waterfront Park.31 2.6 Fuxing Park..34 2.7 Data Collection Methods and Instruments ...36 2.8 Mapping Procedure ..38 III RESULTS .42 3.1 Overview of Collected Data.42 3.2 Shanghai World Expo Garden Data.....46 3.3 Xuhui Waterfront Park Data....51 3.4 Fuxing Park Data .....55 IV D ISCUS SION 4.1 Data Collection and Analysis ... 4.2 Descriptive Analysis and Comparative Studies ...2 4.3 Site Observations and Park Usage in China 64 4.4 Shanghai World Expo Garden..67 4.5 Xuhui Waterfront Park .....71 4.6 Fuxing Park..73 4.7 Responding to the Data 75 4.8 Study Limitations .....76 V C ONCLUSION...79 REFERENCES .. APPENDIX A.1 Shanghai World Expo Garden Spatial Description.84 A.2 Xuhui Waterfront Park Spatial Description....

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viii A.3 Fuxing Park Spatial Description... .. A.4 English Language Survey...87 A.5 Chinese Language Survey..91 A.6 Weather Data Collection Matrix .....5 A.7 COMIRB Certificate of Exemption

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1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION As the urban realm continues to increase in size and density human comfort within the urban microclimate is becoming progressively more important. Landscape architects often rely on intuition to inform their design decisions regarding human comfort and thus there is an underlying need for data driven design in the field of landscape architecture ( Brown and Corry 2011; Milburn et al. 2003; Milburn, Brown, and Paine 2001) In the case of microclimate design, a disconnect exists between urban climatologists and urban designers ( Evans and Schiller 1996; Gmez et al. 2013) Climate data is regularly collected and reported, but seldom utilized by landscape architects to inform design decisions ( Eliasson 2000; Golany 1996 ) Urbanization has been steadily increasing since the latter half of the twentieth century and it has been established that the urban microclimate is distinctly different from its surrounding rural areas ( Eliasson 2000; Golany 1996; Li, Zhang, and Kainz 2012) This effect, called the urban heat island (UHI), is the presence of warmer temperatures within the city when compared to neighboring regions ( Chang, Li, and Chang 2007; Li et al. 2011) Causal factors of the UHI include population density, anthropogenic heat sources, urban materiality, urban morphology and a relative lack of vegetation in cities ( Golany 1996; Mirzaei and Haghighat 2010; Yue et al. 2012) Mitigators of negative urban microclimates include vegetation and water bodies, both common to urban parks

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2 ( Mirzaei and Haghighat 2010; Sha hidan et al. 2012) As a result, parks can act as cool islands within the urban environment and their beneficial effects can be detected beyond park boundaries ( Brown 2010) Microclimate is an interaction between the local climate and objects within a landscape to create specific conditions ( Brown and Gillespie 1995) Microclimate is the condition of the solar and terrestrial radiation, wind, air temperature, humidity, and precipitation in a small outdoor space ( Brown and Gillespie 1995) Human comfort is based on an exchange between the human body and the existing weather conditions. It is becoming increasingly important for designers to consider human comfort in their designs in the urban realm because of alterations to the environment resulting from urbanization. In the case of the World Expo Garden in Shanghai, the design objective was to optimize human comfort t hrough microclimate design ( Xu et al. 2010) This study tested the design for its efficacy and compared it to two other sites, Xuhui Waterfront and Fuxing Park, to better understand how human comfort is affected by landscape design. We f ound that the comfort levels of respondents at the Shanghai World Expo Garden significantly exceeded those at the other two test sites. We also found that respondents in the shade reported greater comfort than respondents in full sun and that respondents in close proximity to water reported greater comfort than those with no nearby water. These findings strongly support the current microclimate design theory. 1.1 Situating the Study : Landscape Architecture Research This study is position ed within t he extensive field of landscape architecture which is a convergence of science and aesthetics with the goal of designing optimal spaces for people. It is common for landscape architects to rely on expertise to inform their design

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3 decisions. However, it i s important to conduct research, including post occupancy analysis, to check if the design objectives were achieved. Landscape architects become better designers through re evaluation of their built works and how people use them. As an academic discipline landscape architecture has fallen under great scrutiny for an overall lack of research. In fact, many people believe that this is a great obstacle hindering the advancement of the field. Milburn et al. state that self examination is critical in order fo r the profession to grow and evolve and thus landscape architects must begin to create a tradition of critical inquiry and assessment in order to command respect as both an academic discipline and a profession ( Milburn et al. 2003) Questioning the deep rooted assumptions that we all take for granted is important to strengthening our profession ( Milburn, Brown, and Paine 2001) It is essential to question existing information, to verify the quality of that information, and to communicate the results via peer reviewed publications: The best tool at our disposal may be research, which has universal credibility and support ( Milburn et al. 2003) Landscape arch itecture practice is sometimes lacking in facts based decision making; design decisions are often based on belief as opposed to fact ( Brown and Corry 2011) Professional designers have often relied on experience based landscape architecture and shirked diligent research ( Milburn et al. 2003) This has led to the field of landscape architecture being strongly criticized for its shortage of reporting data as well as for limited publishing of scholarly articles in peer reviewed journals ( Brown and Corry 2011) As a result, demands have grown for our discipline to move towards an evidence based practice. While landscape architecture is deeply rooted in the natural sciences, landscape

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4 architects tend to privilege the aesthetic aspects of our profession. However, both creative arts and natural sciences are essential for our field to remain viable because in landscape architecture, the two are intrinsically linked. The field, as a whole, needs to use scientific evidence whenever possible to validate our work. The status of landscape architecture research is now improving because o f organizations such as the Landscape Architecture Foundation (LAF). LAF was founded in 1966 to advance the state of our research and create a common ground for research results to be shared ( Landscape Architecture Foundation 2014) Quantifying landscape performance is a way that the f oundation is currently strengthening our profession. Employing realworld data in the planning, design, and management of living landscapes is clearly an essential step for landscape architecture to strengthen its impact. Scientific evidence for a design strategy adds credibility and facts based evidence makes it significantly easier to sell a design idea. Evidence based research will help validate landscape architectural theory which is essential to the progression of the field ( Dcamps 2000) While there are different types of research, they should all have the similar goal of using data to advance the overall understanding of the subject and making the results accessible to all ( Milburn et al. 2003) Research informed design increases reliability and has the potential to improve design quality by providing new insight int o design problems and helping to prevent unexpected surprises ( Lenzholzer, Duchhart, and Koh 2013) The more knowledgeable one is through the research process, the more one can predict outcomes ( Dcamps 2000) Research can inform design to produce a better end result. During every phase of design, research should wor k with artistic inspiration to create a better design: Design is a

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5 dialogue between preconception and realityresearch tests the appropriateness or success of the design ( Milburn and Brown 2003 ) Research is intrinsic to the design process because it contribut es to fact based arguments and decisions. The field of landscape architecture also receives criticism for a severe lack of self examination. Post occupancy evaluations are a rare occurrence in landscape architecture. It is important for designers to tes t whether their design strategies actually achieve their objectives. If completed designs are not tested then a designer will not know what possible mistakes they may have made, and will be doomed to repeat those mistakes ( Brown and Corry 2011) Post occupancy analysis is a form of research on design ( Lenzholzer, Duchhart, and Koh 2013) After a design is built it ought to be tested for design effectiveness by a separate entity, and results should be shared with the designer and the general public for ever yone to learn from the successes and failures of the design intent. The field of landscape architecture can grow stronger through this type of reflection and constructive critical assessment. Lenzholzer et al. have proposed a landscape architecture research method based in Creswells research framework because it is universally accepted in academia. Based on Creswells established research theory, Lenzholzer et al. use the four ideas of (post) positivist, constructivist, advocacy/participatory, and prag matic knowledge as the possible research framework in their research through design method. This study falls within the (post) positivist framework. The knowledge gained through (post) positivist research through design (RTD) are insights and design guidelines. (Post) positivist landscape architecture RTD seeks to discover generalizable objective knowledge

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6 including ideal spatial configurations and how design fits into natural processes. Post occupancy evaluations lie within this scope of research ( Lenzholzer, Duchhart, and Koh 2013) 1.2 Background A multitu de of factors contribute to an unhealthy and uncomfortable urban environment. The urban heat island effect is caused by urban morpholo gy, urban materiality and compounded anthropogenic heat from increased density. The urban realm is increasingly uncomfortable because of the many physical differences separating it from its surrounding rural counterpart. 1.2.1 The Large Scale Urban Microclimate Microclimates are created by various factors within a landscape and they affect people every day. In fact, the use of public space is strongly influenced by the microclimate conditions ( Nikolopoulou and Lykoudis 2007) The urban microclimate varies greatly from its ru ral surroundings because of the many physical differences between the two landscapes ( Li, Zhang, and Kainz 2012; Elias son 2000; Golany 1996 ) Rural landscapes contain an abundance of bare soil and vegetation, whereas the urban landscape is dominated by buildings made from materials such as brick, steel, and glass, as w ell as ground surfaces such as asphalt and concrete. Urban geometry, the shapes created by the placement of buildings and streets, also affects climatological conditions including temperature, precipitation, and wind patterns ( Gmez et al. 2013; Golany 1996) The Urban Heat Island ( UHI ) effect first detected and studied by Howard in 1818, is the occurrence of hig her temperatures in an urban area in comparison to the

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7 surrounding rural area ( Chang, Li, and Chang 2007; Li et al. 2011; Mirzaei and Haghighat 2010) UHI is an undeniable factor in the urban environment caused by the building blocks of the city: asphalt replaces bare soil, rooftops replace tree canopies, and concrete do minates where once there were plants ( Zhou, Huang, and Cadenasso 2011; Sun and Chen 2012) The urban microclimate varies drastically from its rural counterpart because of changes in wind patterns, humidity and precipitation, caused by urban morphology ( Mirzaei and Haghighat 2010; Golany 1996) The UHI effect is felt most clearly at night because rural areas cool down, but the city does not ( Golany 1996; Brown 2010) T he increase in urban development directly affected t he UHI effect in Shanghai ( Yang, Lau, and Qian 2010; Yue et al. 2012) As t he city expands, a considerable transformatio n of cropland, forest and shrub land as well as bare ground into urban use has occurred ( Li, Zhang, and Kainz 2012) Rapid urbanization has caused an extreme degradation of the local environment ( Yue et al. 2012) The increase in urban temperatures is making microclimate conditions extremely uncomfortable during the summer months. Microclimate studies are therefore becoming increasingly more important in the ever expanding megalopolis. 1.2.2 Urban Materiality The materiality of the city creates an overall warming effect; urban materials are more conducive to higher temperatures because they have a lower moisture content, lower thermal roughness lengths, and lower surface albedo, which is the amount of solar radiation that a material absorbs or reflects ( Mackey, Lee, and Smith 2012) High albedo materials are brightly colored and reflect solar radiatio n, whereas low albedo materials

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8 are dark in color and therefore absorb more solar radiation ( Shahidan et al. 2012) The color and composition of materials in a landscape dictate the amount of heat absorbed or reflected and t his in turn affects the microclimate of the surrounding area ( Brown 2010 ) Albedo measurements taken in cities have shown that paved surfaces accumulate more heat than earthen surfaces ( Gmez et al. 2013) During the da y, buildings absorb heat and then slowly emit that heat all through the night ( Gmez et al. 2013; Golany 1996 ) In addition, urban materials are largely impermeable, which causes them to accumulate more heat b y preventing evaporation of water ( Kleerekoper, van Esch, and Salcedo 2012) A s a general rule, cities have more surface area because of the densit y of buildings and therefore store much more heat than rural areas ( Kleerekoper, van Esch, and Salcedo 2012) 1.2.3 Urban Morphology: The Urban Canyon & Street Geometry The verticality of modern skyscrapers together with horizontal city streets creates an urban canyon, which prevents the city from losing heat by trapping solar radiation ( Kleerekoper, van Esch, and Salcedo 2012; Chang, Li, and Chang 2007 ) Heat, in the form of solar radiation, is absorbed throughout the day and released at night but because of the urban canyon it is reabsorbed by the buildings. The layer of pollution commonly found above cities also contributes to the problem of solar radiation retention because the pollution layer reflects infrared radiation back down into the city ( Gmez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004) The geometry of the urban canyon also reduces wind speed thereby reducing heat loss. More specifically, the arrangement of buildings, layout of streets, and the structure of houses reduce the wind velocity in the city ( Golany 1996 ) Urban canyons have been

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9 known to alter the environment by obstructing and disrupting air flow ( Chang, Li, and Chang 2007; Kleerekoper, van Esch, and Salcedo 2012; Eliasson 2000; Gmez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004) Street orient ation is also crucial in de termining microclimate s through the amount of light and shadow, and relative humidity, as well as urban air movement ( Golany 1996) For example, an urban grid designed with straight parallel streets promotes air flow into urban areas as well as around the city ( Golany 1996 ) Differences in building height, orientation, composition, and level of human activity create variations in the local microclimate throughout a city ( Golany 1996) 1.2.4 Anthropogenic Heat Sources The population density of urban areas contributes to the warmer urban microclimate. Hig h population density leads to an overall increase in human activities, some of which contribute to the warming trend in the urban environment. Anthropogenic heat released from automobiles, power plants, and air conditioners in buildings causes air polluti on and further contributes to the overall elevated temperatures ( Yue et al. 2012) 1.2.5 Urban Heat Island Mitigation: Altering the Urban Microclimate The UHI effect is mainly mitigated by increasing the amount of high albedo materials, vegetation, and water bodies in an urban area ( Mirzaei and Haghighat 2010; Shahidan et al. 2012) Previous studies have indicated that vegetation is the most essential element in cooling down the urban environment. Large trees create shade, thereby reducing solar radiation ( Giridharan et al. 2008; Golany 1996; Gmez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004) which c reates an overall cooling effect by preventing urban surfaces from absorbing and storing heat ( Chang, Li, and Chang 2007; Yang, Lau, and Qian 2010; Shahidan et al. 2012; Gmez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004)

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10 Shade offers a positive solution to alleviate heat problems in the city through the reduction of solar radiation. By shading pavement, we prevent solar radiation from being absorbed and re radiated into the environment as heat ( Gmez et al. 2013) Many previous studies have identified s olar radiation reduction through shading as the number one priority in a hot and humid climat e for alleviating thermal stress ( Thani, Mohamad, and Idilfitri 2012; Brown 2010) For example, s treet trees have a large impact on reducing the UHI because of the large scale reduction in solar radiation ( Kleereko per, van Esch, and Salcedo 2012 ) Increasing the urban albedo, which is the reflective properties of urban materials, also mitigates the UHI effect ( Susca 2012) For example, converting a traditional black roof top to a white or green roof significantly reduces the temperature ( Mackey, Lee, and Smith 2012; Susca 2012) Anot her positive contribution to urban heat island mitigation is that a high albedo rooftop, such as white or green, reduces a buildings artificial cooling demands during the summer months ( Susca 2012 ) By lowering surrounding external temperatures, m icroclimate design is able to reduce the energy demands of maintaining the internal temperature of a building ( Brown and Gillespie 1995) Vegetation also cools the urban microclimate because heat is removed from the environment through the process of evapotranspiration. In general, cities suffer from a lack of evapotranspiration because of the presence of significantly fewer trees than the rural landscape Adding vegetation increases the amount of evapotranspiration, thereby increasing the relative humidity and reducing the air temperature in a space that is warm and has a n otherwise low relative humidity ( Golany 1996) The cooling capacity of evaporation in the environment depends on the amount of water vapor that the air can

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11 hold, which is in turn dependent upon the weather conditions onsite Evaporation occurs ideally in a condition of high temperature and low humidity. In contrast, evaporati on is inhibited by low temperature and high humidity If the air cannot take any more water, then evaporation cannot happen and cooling will not occur ( Brown and Gillespie 1995) Urban water bodies are particularly valuable in creating cool islands ( Sun and Chen 2012; Xu et al. 2010; Gmez et al. 2013) A water body affects its immedia te surroundings by absorbing both sensible and latent heat ( Xu et al. 2010) S ensible heat is defined as thermal energy whose transfer to or from a substance results in a change of temperature. Urban water bodies create an overall coolin g effect in surrounding areas by absorbing sensible heat which improve s human comfort during the summer months ( Xu et al. 2010) Latent heat is defined as heat given off or absorbed in a process other than a change of temperature, such a s fusion or vaporization. A water body also cools its immediate surrounding area through evaporation: latent heat is absorbed from the environment in order to convert water from the liquid phase to vapor Water bodies also create a cool island because water has a lower albedo than other urban materials, which means that it absorbs most of the solar radiation it receives and does not reflect the radiation back out into the environment ( Gmez et al. 2013) Wind can promote the cooling effect of urban water bodies because air flow promotes water evaporation, which creates a cooling of the immediate surrounding environment ( Xu et al. 2010) Green spaces help to correct some of the negative issues p resent in the urban environment by creating a more comfortable microclimate for people. Urban parks can act as local cool islands within the city for many reasons ( Sun and Chen 2012; Gmez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004) including an increase in vegetation and a decrease in warming

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12 urban materials (brick, concrete, asphalt) ( Chang, Li, and Chang 2007 ) Urban parks can also combine the heat reducing elements of vegetation and water to be more effective in creating a cooler microclimate ( Gmez et al. 2013 ; Xu et al. 2010) ( Gmez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004) The benefits of urban parks can also spread beyond their boundaries. Through the process of advection, an urban park creates a microclimate condition with cooler air, and with the addition of a light wind the cooler air can be moved outside of the park, lowering the temperature of the immediate surroundings. In fact, green spaces placed strategically throughout the city could create an overall cooling effect ( Brown 2010 ) 1.3 L iterature Review The urban environment causes stress to the people living in cities through elevat ed temperatures and increased pollution. Human comfort can be improved in cities through a concerted effort by landscape architects and urban designers. Design affects microclimate, and therefore must be taken into consideration to improve urban conditions. 1.3.1 Human Health and the Urban Microclimate In Shanghais hot and humid climate, increasing temperatures lower the quality of life for urban dwellers. Elevated summertime temperatures cause additional stress to the human body. Negative consequence s of the urban microclimate include human discomfort from elevated temperatures, and health issues such as heat syncope, stroke, and cardiovascular stress ( Kleerekoper, van Esch, and Salcedo 2012) An increase in heat related deaths has also been observed worldwide because of higher urban temperatures ( Kleerekoper, van Esch, and Salcedo 2012; Yue et al. 2012; Susca 2012)

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13 The use of air conditioning to facilit ate a more comfortable thermal condition contributes to the amount of ground level ozone, which causes cardio vascular problems and lung inflammation. Air conditioning also contributes to the greenhouse effect, which only makes the problem worse ( Chang, Li, and Chang 2007) The UHI effect also adds to the issue of urban air pollution by altering air circulation patterns to trap air pollutants in the city when compared to surrounding regions ( Chang, Li, and Chang 2007; Mirzaei and Haghighat 2010) In light of these facts, it is unsurpri sing that higher temperatures and air pollution have becom e more serious issue s as the city of Shanghai is transformed by rapid urbanization. 1.3.2 Human Comfort in the Urban Microclimate Human comfort within the urban microclimate is an important issue when one considers the high population density of urban areas combined with the current trend of human migration into cities. Urbanization began its rapid rise in the latter half of the twentieth century. In 1957, the urban world held 30% of the total population; in 2008 urban population increased to 50% and it is projected to reach 70% by 2050 ( Cui and Shi 2012) Rapid urbanization has caused significant changes, both positive and negative, including increased energy demands and climate alteration. These changes are of the utmost importance because climate considerations are growing in severity and importance as planet Earth is now experiencing climate change on a larger scale and more rapid rate. To impr ove quality of life, it is important to analyze urban space s to see if they are meeting the needs of people. Open space in the urban realm provide s a place for people to relax, socialize, exercise, recreate, even build a sense of community, which are

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14 all essential aspects to a persons quality of life. Microclimates affect people, whether consciously or unconsciously, and they can make or break a persons experience within these spaces The microclimatic conditions of a space can be assessed based on how much exposure and protection is offered to both positive a nd negative factors, such as sun, wind, and solar radiation. Currently, there is a lack of data on how microclimate affects the use of public space ( Nikolopoulou and Lykoudis 2007) Human comfort is based on the principle that the human body exchanges heat with the surroundi ng environment ( Xu et al. 2010) Ideally, the human body will maintain a constant internal temperature of 37C ( Nikolopoulou, Baker, and Stee mers 2001; Gmez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004) If the internal body temperature increases or decreases, the change causes discomfort and eventual ly can become threatening to a persons health ( Gmez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004) Heat balance is essential to maintaining internal temperature, because in a state of balance, heat gain is equal to heat loss ( Gmez et al. 2013) Human comfort is determined by an energy budget; when the energy budget is balanced then a person feels comfortable. When the budget is in the positive, a person will receive more energy than they give off, resulting in a feeling of excess heat. When the energy budget is a negative value, then a person will feel too cold. Ideally, the energy budget value will be close to zero, expressing a balance of energy. The human comfort formula is an energy budget of the following values: radiation absorbed by a person (solar and terrestrial), metabolic energy (heat generated by a person), convection (heat lost or gained through convection by the wind), evaporation (heat lost through evaporation of water), terrestrial radiation emitted by a person ( Brown and Gillespie 1995) :

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15 Budget = Rabs + M Conv Evap Tremitted It is possible to c ontrol urban microclimates by understanding the contributing factors ( Nikolopoulou, Baker, and Steemers 2001) Ex ternal factors that influence human comfort in an urban microclimate includ e air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation. Internal factors affecting human comfort include age, activity, and clothing choice ( Stathopoulos, Wu, and Zacharias 2004) Length of exposure is also an important factor when considering human comfort in an outdoor space because external elements affect a person over time ( Walton, Dravitzki, and Donn 2007) Temperature is a major factor when considering human comfort in a microclimate ( Stathopoulos, Wu, and Zacharias 2004; Nikolopoul ou, Baker, and Steemers 2001; Xu et al. 2010; Nikolopoulou and Lykoudis 2007) In an effort to maintain heat balance in high temperatures the human b ody will secrete sweat as a cooling mechanism. However, many people do not feel comfortable when they are sweating ( Gmez et al. 2013) By sweating, the human body can successfully maintain heat balance and sustain its internal temperature, but human comfort is compromised. Three other important climatic variables that affect human comfort are radiation, humidity, and wind ( Gmez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004) Some previous studies have indicated that r adiation is the most significant cau sal factor in heat gain. In a given landscape, the air temperature will remain relatively constant, but direct solar radiation can alter a persons thermal comfort ( Brown 2010) Humidity plays a significant role in determining human comfort by affect ing evaporation, especially in high temperatures

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16 ( Gmez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004 ) Relative humidity, expressed in a percentage, is the ratio of actual humidity present in the air to the maximum amount of humidity possible in the air ( Brown 2010 ) In high humidity conditions, the air is closer to being saturated with water vapor which reduces evaporative co oling; discomfort is an obvious side effect because perspiration cannot evaporate and the body is not cooled ( Brown 2010) Promoting higher wind speed is therefore critical in a hot and humid urban climate in order to increase human comfort ( Thani, Mohamad, and Idilfitri 2012) Air flow promotes evaporation of perspiration through convection, which aids in cooling down the human body when it has become too hot ( Gmez, Gil, and Jabaloyes 2004) This is why the placement of trees is of great importance because, while trees create shade, they can impede the flow of air and reduce wind speed ( Thani, Mohamad, and Idilfitri 2012; Gmez et al. 2013) 1.3.3 Microclimate Knowledge and Design It is generally understood that principles of microclimate are rarely applied to design ( Eliasson 2000; Xu et al. 2010; Gmez et al. 2013; Thani, Mohamad, and Idilfitri 2012; Golany 1996 ) Too often the local climate is ignored and spaces are designed without consideration for the existing microclimate and the ways in which the design might alter that microclimate. Thani et al. argue that contemporary urban design is based on western development and therefore is insensitive to the hot and humid climate common in East and Southeast Asia ( Thani, Mohamad, and Idilfitri 2012) It is extremely important for this to change in order for landscape architects to design positive microclimatic spaces ( Brown 2010) I t is not an issue of a lack of knowledge, but a lack of application of climatology principles in landscape architecture and urban design

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17 ( Eliasson 2000; Golany 1996) Urban climatologists have a clear understanding of microclimate principles ( Golany 1996 ) Some researchers argue that a better means of communicating between climatologists and designers must be established ( Gmez et al. 2013; Evans and Schiller 1996) Other researchers argue that climate data is available to designers and it is the designers responsibility to use existing data to create useful tools that will inform climate sensitive design ( Golany 1996) Design decisions affect micr oclimate, and therefore should be informed by microclimatic principles in order to optimize human comfort ( Brown 2011; Golany 1996) An explanation for the lack of climatological principles applied to landscape architecture and urban design is that climate issues are often considered to be of low priority and are dismissed due to the demands of other design objectives ( Brown 2011; Eliasson 2000) In the year 2000, Eliasson conducted a study to determine the application of cli matological data as a tool in the planning and design process in Sweden. Eliasson used questionnaires, semi structured interviews, and semi formal meetings to consult with individuals in the fields of architecture, urban planning, landscape architecture, planning engineering, consulting, and politics. The study found that time and money constraints were factors which sometimes hindered the use of climate data to inform the design process Another explanation for climatological data not informing design decisions was the overall dominance of the architects vis ion ( Eliasson 2000) Eliassons study also r evealed that most individuals felt uncertain about their climate knowledge. These results reveal the root of the problem: there is a lack of communication between the people with climatological knowledge and the people whose designs are affecting the local climate. Eliasson argues that urban climatologists need to

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18 promote awareness about climate, improve communication, and develop tools and courses to help urban planners to better understand urban microclimate principles. If the professionals in the desi gn field are better informed than they can speak up about microclimatic issues or concerns during the design process ( Eliasson 2000 ) 1.3.4 Altering Microclimate through Design Microclimatic considerations are essential to human comfort in a landscape. Microclimate is the result of the energy exchange between the local climate and objects that are placed in the landscape. Therefore, landscape architects affect microclimate s when making design decisions. Microclimate is an important factor determining if and how a space is used. ( Brown and Gillespie 1995) It is important to consider microclimate early in the design process and to rely on actual data, instead of intuition ( Brown 2010, 2011) Brown states that too often designers rely on personal perception when considering microclimatic princip les, and these hunches can often be incorrect. There is an underlying need for data driven design work in creating positive microclimates for people ( Brown 2011) When considering microclimatic design at the site scale, we must recognize that some factors are easily changeab le, such as solar radiation, terrestrial radiation, and wind, while we have less control over other factors including temperature and relative humidity ( Brown 2011, 2010) Solar radi ation greatly affects human thermal comfort. In a cold climate it is important to maximize solar radiation, and in a hot climate solar radiation should be minimized. Shanghai has a hot and humid climate, so reduction of solar radiation is important, part icularly in the summer months. Solar radiation is reduced by adding elements to the landscape that provide shade. However, not all shade is created equal.

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19 For example, a person sitting in the shade of a tree will be subjected to more solar radiation tha n a person sitting in the shade of a building. It is not easy to detect solar radiation because the human eye can only recognize visible light. Trees use only a portion of the solar spectrum for photosynthesis. Much of the infrared portion of the spectr um passes through the leaves of a tree, allowing it to reach whatever is beneath. A building, on the other hand, will not allow any solar radiation to pass through because it is solid ( Brown 2010) Just like solar radiation, terrestrial radiation is invisible to the human eye and it adds heat to the human body. Terrestrial radiation has le ss of an impact on human thermal comfort than solar radiation. Terrestrial radiation results from solar radiation being absorbed by a surface, then re emitted ( Brown 2010) Terrestrial radiation can be reduced by adding shade to the landscape or by increasing the albedo of the surface materials in the landscape. Another option is to add water to a surface that is receiving solar radiation so that the evaporation process can take heat away by using the energy for cooling instead of heating the area ( Brown 2010 ) Air movement has a strong impact o n human comfort in a landscape because w ind is a very effective cooling aspect of the microclimate ( Brown 2010) To achieve optimal human comfort, wind should be minimized when the temperature is low and maximized when the temperature is h igh ( Brown 2010) In this regard, we must think of how different elements in the landscape affect the wind. For example, a building will always affect wind because it is a permanent structure. Similarly, a coniferous tree will have a sustained effect on wind in a microclimate, whereas a deciduous tree will only affect wind when it is in leaf ( Brown 2010)

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20 Microclimate considerations in design are becoming increasingly impo rtant in the urban world because human health and comfort are both dependent on microclimate. Using human subjects to measure comfort is the best approach to improving microclimate conditions. Measuring human comfort in existing outdoor spaces can help us to identify successes and failures in creating comfortable microclimates for people. A better understanding of existing conditions can also inform future microclimate sensitive design. The human body is the only measuring tool we have to assess thermal comfort in a landscape microclimate ( Brown and Gillespie 1995) 1.4 Purpose and Significance of the Study The goal of this research is to contribute real world data to the field of landscape architecture through a post occupancy analysis of three parks in Shanghai, PRC. Data collection and analysis are tools to assess the level of human comfort that each site achieves through their individual designs. The result is a descriptive analysis and comparison of three parks in Shanghai, PRC through the lens of the microclimat e conditions discovered at each site. Our hypothesis is that Shanghai World Expo Park, which was designed to maximize human comfort, will be more comfortable than the other two parks where designers did not specifically consider microclimate in their desi gn objectives. Since the majority of data collection occurred in late summer to early autumn, it is our belief that respondents in shade will be more comfortable than respondents in full sun. We also expect that respondents who are situated near water wi ll report a higher comfort level than respondents who are not located near water. A comparison of the three sites was conducted with the intention of identifying how different design elements contribute to human comfort. Detailed site mapping and

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21 spatial characterization help to reveal the underlying factors of positive and negative microclimatic spaces. The final research goal is to compare the level of comfort that park users report at each site in order to better understand how the design of each site creates positive or negative microclimate spaces. We will also identify possible alterations to the current sites that would optimize human comfort and spread park usage throughout the day. It is well known that microclimatic conditions and human comfo rt are rarely at the forefront of design considerations. The goal of this work is to contribute data to a growing body of research attempting to change this fact. Data based research can help to fill this gap by evaluating existing conditions in order to learn from past mistakes and successes. It is important to generate a better understanding of how design affects microclimate in the field of landscape architecture in order to positively affect microclimate through effective design strategies. Landscape architecture is deficient in both research and data driven design. The g oal of this study is to contribute to a paradigm shift in changing this current problem. Many experts in the field are recognizing that if we do not collect data, conduct research or publish papers in peer reviewed journals then our field may become obsolete. Landscape architects need to challenge past designs to understand how they could be improved in order to grow as designers. Microclimate design is also becoming increasingl y important as the world faces a growing number of issues resulting from climate change. Rapid urbanization is placing added pressure on the imminence of designing bett er urban spaces through the application of microclimate principles. We need to work to continuously advance our design strategies and to keep the field of

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22 landscape architecture viable. The investigation was conducted in the coastal urban metropolis of Shanghai. The results will continue to appreciate in value because of the current urban ization trend in China as well as the rest of the world.

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23 CHAPTER II RESEARCH METHODS 2.1 Mixed Methods Descriptive Analysis Mixed methods research is the preferred process when a researcher wishes to collect both qualitative and quantitative data, when neither can explain the story alone (Creswell 2012). In this study, qualitative data was collected to assess human comfort through the administering of a survey questionnaire; quantitative data was collected to assess weather conditi ons at the time each survey was being filled out. The resulting study is a descriptive analysis of three sites in Shanghai as analyzed through the lens of human comfort and the microclimatic conditions found at each site. 2.2 Shanghai Background and Climate Shanghai is the largest and most modern city in the Peoples Republic of China ( Cui and Shi 2012) The city serves as an economic powerhouse for the nation. As of 2008, Shanghai comprised a slight 0.05% of Chinas population while contributing 4.6% to the nations total GDP ( Li, Zhang, and Kainz 2012) Shanghai has experienced rapid urbanization and land transformation since the economic reforms instituted by Deng Xiaoping in 1978. Currently, Shanghai has the highest population density in all of China ( Cui and Shi 2012) As of 2010, Shanghai had a registered population of 23.03 million people with a total land area of 6340.5km2. Shanghais urbanization rate (the ratio of urban population to total population) has increased from 59% in 1978 to 86% in 2007

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24 ( Yue et al. 2012 ) The city of Shanghai contains 17 districts and is administratively considered the same as a province ( Cui and Shi 2012) Shanghai has a northern subtropical monsoon climate ( Li, Zhang, and Kainz 2012) The city experiences four distinct seasons with an average high temperature in summer of 28C and 4C in the winter. The average annual temperature in Shanghai is 15.8C with an average annual precipitation of 1149mm ( Cui and Shi 2012 ) The hottest temperatures are typically recorded in July and August. Summer temperatures can reach up to 40C, which translates to extremel y uncomfortable conditions, especially when factoring in the high relative humidity common during the summer months. Between 2000 and 2010, Shanghai experienced an average of 25 days with a temperature at or above 35C. During that same time period, the average summer temperature was 27.8C with a relative humidity of 83% ( Xu et al. 2010) According to the Koppen Geiger system, the climate of Shanghai is classified as Cfa, which is a humid subtropical climate found all over the world. The C stands for warm temperate, the f stands for fully humid, and the a stands for hot summer ( Kottek 2006) Within China, the results of this study are generalizable to places like Hong Kong, Qingdao, Nanjing, and Hangzhou, to name a few. As for the rest of Asia, Taipei and Hanoi are also considered Cfa humid subtropical climates. The Cfa humid subtropical climate also domina tes the southeastern part of the United States including such cities as Washington, D.C., Baltimore, MD, Charleston, SC, Nashville, TN, Little Rock, AR, Orlando, FL, Tampa, FL, Atlanta, GA, San Antonio, TX, Dallas, TX, Houston, TX and New Orleans, LA. In South America the humid subtropical climate is found in Sao Paolo, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Montevideo, Uruguay. The Cfa climate

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25 is also found along the eastern coast of Australia ( Kottek 2006) T he results of this study are generalizable to any urban center in the world with a Cfa hot and humid climate. Figure 1 World Map of Kppen Geiger Climate Classification ( Kottek 2006) The city of Shanghai is located between latitudes 3132N and 3127N and longitudes 12052E and 12145E. Shanghai is si tuated on an alluvial terrace within the Yangtze River basin. The region has many rivers and streams with the Huangpu River serving as the largest river in the delta ( Li et al. 2011 ) Huangpu River runs through the center of Shanghai, separating Puxi (west of the river) from Pudong (east of the river). The elevation of Shanghai ranges between 1 and 103.4m, but the average elevation of the city is 4m ( Li, Zhang, and Kainz 2012)

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26 2.3 Site Selection Shanghais hot and humid climate provides a major challenge to human comfort, especially during the summer months. Designers of the Shanghai World Expo Garden were cognizant of the existing clima te and the challenges it poses, and thus the design utilizes ample vegetation, shade, and water features to optimize cooling for visitors during the summer months. The design goal was to improve human comfort because of the high volume of users the space would need to accommodate from May to October of 2010. This study was designed to test the efficacy of the design to find out how well the designers intentions are realized at the Expo site. To provide contrasting microclimate conditions, two other sit es were chosen1. Xuhui Waterfront is located on the opposite bank of the Huangpu River from the Expo site. The sites are very similar in that both parks occupy long and narrow spaces along the Huangpu waterfront. In fact, the two parks are so close toge ther that each is visible while visiting the other. Xuhui Waterfront was not specifically designed for human comfort and the site offers little respite from the dominating elements of sun and wind. Upon first inspection, it is clear that Xuhui Waterfront has extensive riverfront exposure with little vegetation and very little shade. These conditions are in sharp contrast to the Expo site, which provides ample cooling features such as shade and water. A third site, Fuxing Park, was chosen as a location t hat was not located on the river but rather situated within the urban density of Shanghai. Fuxing Park offers less exposure to water, but 1 Initially, two additional sites were included in the analysis. Houtan Park, directly adjacent to World Expo Garden was included to compare a site with similar climate conditions that was not designed specifically to maximize human comfort. However, visitor numbers at Houtan Park were so low that it was dropped from the study do to a lack of data availability. Xiangyang Park was also initially included in the study to directly compare to Fuxing Park, but we decided to remove it because we thought it was taking focus away from our original study intentions.

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27 abundant vegetation and plentiful shade. Fuxing Park is extremely popular with local people, so it regularly provide s an inexhaustible sample. Another advantage of Fuxing Park is that it was designed in the French style, with multiple distinct spaces. This creates a contrast with the other two sites selected because Xuhui Waterfront Park and World Expo Garden offer mo re unified cohesive designs. The two riverfront sites are new installations, whereas Fuxing Park is more than 100 years old. Both Xuhui Waterfront Park and Shanghai World Expo Garden are often lacking in visitor numbers, most likely due to the lack of re sidential development around them. However, as Shanghai continues to grow and expand, these two parks will, no doubt, become highly utilized in the future. Figure 2 Three Sites in Context

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28 2.4 Shanghai World Expo Garden The 2010 World Expo was held f rom May to October in Shanghai. The theme of Better City, Better Life created a challenge for designers to improve and promote visitor comfort during the Expo event ( Xu et al. 2010) The Shanghai World Expo Garden, created for the even t, is located on the Pudong (east) side of the Huangpu River in the Pudong District of Shanghai, PRC. The site is a pproximately 1.7 km in length ranging from 70 300 meters in width and covering a total area of about 29 hectares ( Liu 2006) Environmental engineers from Tongji University conducted studies of littoral zones during the summers of 2007 and 2008 in Shanghai to gather data which inform the design principles on the site. The littoral zone refers to the land area directly around a water body ( Xu et al. 2010) Through evaporative cooling, a water body c an play an important role in increasing human comfort through a reduction in temperature and an increase in humidity ( Xu et al. 2010) The results of the study informed the design principles. Water bodies were incorporated throughout the design, with attractions and recreational facilities situated close to the water bodies. Vegetation was planted within the littoral zones of the water bodies to increase the cooling capacity of the water. In littoral zones with vegetation, walking paths and benches were located 10 20m away from the waters edge. In littoral zones without vegetation, walking paths and benches were located within 8 14m from the waters edge ( Xu et al. 2010)

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29 Figure 3. Shanghai World Expo Garden Plan Vi ew

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30 The resulting design, created by NITA Group and completed in 2010, incorporates a ribbon of water surrounded by ample vegetation. Although the site is situated beside Huangpu River, the design adds artificial water bodies throughout the site to creat e a cooler microclimate during the summer months. The design was inspired by the natural landforms of Shanghai, and the concept is entitled, the shoal and the fan ( NITAGroup 2010) The design was created to maximize summer winds to improve summer microclimate conditions. Larger ponds are also used to maximize comfort. Walkways have trees planted within the hardscape to create a cool and shady passage through the park. Large sculptures are also integrated into the design, creating points of interest for park visitors. The landscape is very shady and gives one the feeling of being far removed from the big city while still being within it. Shanghai World Expo Garden is situated within the former Expo 2010 site. The adjacent areas to the site are underutilized spaces, aside from occasional events at t he Mercedes Benz Arena. There is a shopping mall with many restaurants between the park and the arena though the space is often vacant, which is in sharp contrast to most of Shanghai. One notable attraction near the park is the China Art Museum, which wa s converted from the China Exhibition of the 2010 Expo. There are no residential areas near the site. The height of park usage occurs on weekends when many people set up tents in the grass and stay for the day; high usage also occurs when events are held at the adjacent Mercedes Benz Arena.

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31 Figure 4 Shanghai World Expo Garden Context Map 2.5 Xuhui Waterfront Park Xuhui Waterfront Park is located in Xuhui District on the Puxi (west) side of Huangpu River in Shanghai, PRC. Xuhui Waterfront Park wa s designed by EDSA and built in April 2010. The park measures 3.6 kilometers in length, with an overall size of 24 hectares. The area is currently lacking in residential development, but the abundance of high rise construction occurring right now directly adjacent to the site tells that this is about to change. Currently, the highest usage occurs on weekends at Xuhui Waterfront;

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32 to a lesser extent, visitor numbers rise during weekday evenings. The site was formerly a railway cargo station and t he i ndustrial memory of the site is preserved in the railroad tracks that run through the northeast end of the site as well as the large cranes formerly used to lift cargo between the land and water transportation vehicles. A permanent locomotive is another f eature of the site that calls to its industrial past. Figure 5 Xuhui Waterfront Park Plan View

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33 The portion of the site adjacent to Huangpu River is extremely exposed to sun and wind. Aside from the river, there is little water to create a cooler microclimate. There is no vegetation near the waterfront throughout the park and visitors are often found clustered in whatever shade they can find. The openness of the waterfront space creates opportunity for exercise as well as site seeing. A jogging path r uns along the waterfront. The interior of the site offers more vegetation and respite from the elements. A tree lined walkway is complete with railroad tracks running its length. Figure 6 Xuhui Waterfront Park Context

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34 2.6 Fuxing Park Fuxing Park was built in 1909 and designed by the French gardener Papot ( Dong 2006) The park is one of the oldest in Shanghai and one of very few French gardens in the city. Fuxing Park is located within the Former French Concession of Shanghai, now on the border where Xuhui and Huangpu Districts meet within the Inner Ring Road of Shanghai, PRC The neighborhood is well established and contains abundant residential housing. Some park users expressed that their families have lived in the vicinity of the park for several generations. The height of usage at Fuxing Park is during weekday mornings, but the park is also very populated with a diverse crowd during weekends. Figure 7. Fuxing Park Plan View

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35 The park covers a total area of 7.3 hectares. The park emulates the design style of Parisian urban parks with elegant all es, a boscage, and parterre de broderie. In typical French style, the separate garden rooms are connected through axial organization. Fuxing Park is extremely popular with locals and tourists alike; the height of park usage tends to occur in the earlymorning hours. Fuxing Park contrasts with the other two sites in many ways; it is located within the dense inner city of Shanghai and not along the Huangpu River. It was built over 100 years ago, with the Shanghai sprawl developing around it over time. The other two parks included in the study were built within the past five years. Figure 8 Fuxing Park Context Map

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36 2.7 Data Collection Methods and Instruments Field wo rk involved the collection of both quantitative and qualitative data. Upon arrival at each site, we removed all instruments from their cases and allowed them to acclimate for a minimum of ten minutes before beginning data collection. We handed out survey s to park visitors in order to gather quantitative demographic data about the respondents and also to gather qualitative data about their level of comfort at that exact moment. While the respondents were answering the survey questionnaire, we gathered qua ntitative weather data using several scientific instruments. We used the MS 6300 environmental multimeter to collect the following data: air temperature ( C), relative humidity (%), light (lux), wind speed (m/s), and sound (dB). Special consideration wa s taken to keep the device in the shade while collecting data in order to ensure accuracy of the air temperature data. The instruments tripod ensured that the device was regularly placed at the same distance above the ground. The TENMARS TM 206 solar power meter was pointed towards the sun to measure solar radiation (w/ m2). Wind direction was calculated using a Silva Guide Model 426 compass. All weather data were recorded on a paper table at the time surveys were being completed. The weather data tab le is listed in Appendix A.6 of this document. At the end of each data collection session, all data were recorded in an Excel spreadsheet. The survey questionnaire was designed using simple language in an attempt to avoid confusion. The survey questionna ire was initially written in English, then translated into Chinese by a native speaker. Two different native Chinese speakers then evaluated the translated survey to assess the clarity of the questions. The study, labeled Protocol 132190, was then submi tted to the Colorado Multiple Institutional Review

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37 Board for review because of the inclusion of human subjects. After review of the research and the survey questionnaire, Protocol 13 2190 received a status of Exemption Category 2. The certificate of exem ption is listed in Appendix A .7 of this document. The survey questionnaire contains a total of 14 questions. Respondents were given the option to answer the questionnaire in Chinese or English. The survey questionnaires used in data collection are list ed in Appendix A .4 and A.5 of this document. Respondents were asked to check the appropriate box for their answers. Demographic information collected was limited to gender and age range. Personal information collected included the amount of time at the park, intended length of stay, and reasons for park visitation. Seven questions were employed to assess overall comfort, as well as the effect of each of the elements separately on comfort (ex: comfort in this temperature, comfort in this humidity, etc.). A seven point scale with possible answer choices ranging from extremely comfortable to neutral to extremely uncomfortable was used in order to thoroughly evaluate the respondents comfort level. Two questions addressed how the respondents comfort level could be improved. One of these questions specifically targeted the weather conditions, while the other question asked about the design of the space. After each survey was complete, we filled in additional data including location, date, time, number of people in the area, respondents clothing, and respondents activity. We also recorded details of each respondents specific location, such as exposure to sun and wind, amount of vegetation, and surface properties (hardscape, grass, groundcover, etc.). On average, respondents were able to complete surveys in less than five minutes. Patterns of user behavior and occupancy were also notated during data collection.

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38 We adhered to a set of guidelines for approaching respondents at the parks. One important c riterion in asking people to participate in the survey was that they were sitting down. Choosing a seat in a park establishes that a person is here of his own free will and that he prefers this seat over any other available seating option. We did not approach people if they looked very busy. People who were eating food were also considered to be off limits. Throughout data collection it was very common for people to approach and inquire about the study. We always asked inquirers to participate in the s tudy. Through regular survey collection, it became clear that park usage was highly dependent upon weather conditions and time of day. Therefore, we used a convenience sample, focusing data collection efforts during the morning and evening hours when it was not raining, so as to be most effective while in the field. 2.8 Mapping P rocedure T o better understand the research areas, all three sites were modeled in plan view in AutoCAD using a combination of Google Earth images and park maps found on the sites. Completed drawings were taken into the field for ground truthing. After all site plans were redlined in the field they were rendered in Photoshop. After renderings were complete, the sites were categorized into different zones based on various fa ctors including surface materiality, vegetation, sun exposure, and water. Surfaces were classified as either hardscape (H) or softscape (S), with hardscape being defined as a non permeable constructed surface including concrete, asphalt, brick, paver bloc k, and boardwalk and softscape defined as a permeable surface including soil, grass, or groundcover. Vegetation was classified as present (V) or not present (N). Sun exposure was classified as full sun (FS), partial shade (PS), or full shade (SH). Areas were

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39 classified as being within a littoral zone (W) or not (D) using definitions explained in the following paragraph. Common zones were identified within each site as well as between the three sites. Completed maps were used to study the sites in great er depth. Research has shown that trees and water are important design elements that affect microclimate. The amount of water exposure on each site was calculated in order to determine the percentage of space for which water may act as a cooling element. According to Xu et. al, water can affect the littoral zone surrounding it through evaporative cooling. Their study found that the cooling effects of water can be felt from 10 20 meters away from the water if there are also trees present. If there are n o trees in the littoral zone, then the cooling effects of water can be felt from 8 14 meters away ( Xu et al. 2010) Based on these numbers, we created a 10 meter buffer around all water bodies in all three site plans using AutoCAD. The a mount of park space near water is therefore classified as being within 10 meters of water, whether it is a natural or designed water body. Polygons were drawn in AutoCAD to represent the 10 meter space adjacent to all water bodies. By calculating the area of the resulting polygons and subtracting the areas of the water bodies themselves, we were able to discern the total area near water. After discerning the amount of water exposure each site offers, we calculated the percentage of space with this exposure. We found the total area of each park less water bodies then calculated the ratio of water area to total park area and multiplied by 100 to discern the percentage of space near water in each park. Sun and shade studies were conducted to better understa nd how much each site allows or prevents solar radiation from reaching the ground, because it is the most

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40 important heating factor in microclimate considerations. Using the rendered Photoshop map, we classified all portions of the sites as being in full s un, partial shade, or full shade. Full sun classification is defined as a space where there are no trees or structures around to shade the space. Partial shade classification is defined as areas with speckled light from tree canopy or may have parts of t he day in full sun and parts of the day in full shade from a nearby structure. Full shade classification is used to define spaces that never receive direct sunlight. A good example of this is under Lupu Bridge in Expo Park, because the structure blocks all sunlight and solar radiation from reaching the ground beneath it. Thickly forested areas are also classified as full shade, if sunlight does not reach the ground beneath the tree canopy. Using Photoshop, polygons were drawn to classify each space as f ull sun, partial shade, or full shade. The total area of each classification was determined using a pixel counting method and percentages were calculated using ratios of full sun area to total park area, partial shade area to total park area, and full sha de area to total park area. Hardscape and softscape percentages were calculated using satellite imagery via Google Earth Pro. A better understanding of each site was gained by drawing polygons around hardscape and softscape areas and then calculating the areas of the polygons. The percentage of tree canopy cover for each park was also calculated using this method. Each survey was placed on a site map by analyzing data collected at the time it was filled out. 419 surveys were used to analyze specific locations and human comfort and two surveys were removed from the analysis because location data failed to be recorded.

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41 Table 1. Comparison of Site Conditions in Percentages After categorizing surveys using the classification method discussed above, we calculated the average comfort levels among respondents in the following populations: overall, by individual park, by shade, partial shade, or full sun, and by proximity to water. We compared these mean comfort levels and tested for significant differenc es using a standard two tailed ttest with an level of 0.05.

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42 CHAPTER III R ESULTS 3.1 Overview of Collected Data The sample consists of 421 surveys collected at three parks over a period of three months, during 33 days of field data collec tion. Data collection began on August 18, 2013 and concluded on November 18, 2013. Expo Park was visited 12 times, Xuhui Waterfront was visited 10 times, and Fuxing Park was visited 10 times. 398 surveys were completed in the Chinese language format, while 23 surveys were completed in the English language format. 271 survey respondents were male ( 64% ) while 150 respondents were female ( 36% ). The 26 40 age group was the most commonly represented in the data. Figure 9. Total Respondents Organized by L ocation 142 144 135 Total Respondents EXPO Fuxing Xuhui

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43 Figure 10. Respondent Age Groups Collected data reveal that the average temperature during the study was 28.1 C. The average relative humidity was 60.76%. Average solar radiation was 144.72 w/m2. The average wind speed was 0.80 m/s. The most common reason for visiting the park was to relax. The most common length of park visit was 12 hours. When asked about possible changes to increase their comfort level, the most common answer was less noise. The second most common answer was a lower te mperature. When asked about preferred design modifications, the most common answer was to add more trees; adding more grass was the second most common answer. Table 2. Comparison of Site Weather Conditions 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 AGE 18-25 AGE 26-40 AGE 41-60 AGE 61+NUMBER OF PEOPLE AGE GROUPS Respondent Age Groups AGE 18-25 AGE 26-40 AGE 41-60 AGE 61+

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44 Figure 11. Respondent Reason for Park Visita tion Figure 12. Respondent Preferred Weather Modifications to Increase Comfort 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Respondent Reason for Park Visitation 0 50 100 150 200 250 Number of People Preferred Weather Modifications

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45 Figure 13. Respondents Preferred Spatial Modifications to Increase Comfort Analysis of satellite imagery and maps revealed that the average percentage of hardscape among all parks was 41.57% with softscape accounting for 40.13% of surfaces. 19.34% of space in the parks was near water (less than or equal to 10 meters from a water body) and average tree cover was 37.02%. 33.3% of all spaces in the three parks were in full sun, 55.1% of spaces were in partial shade, and 11.6% were classified as full shade. Locational data analysis of 419 surveys reveals that 95.94% of survey respondents were located on hardscape, while 4.06% of respondents were located on softscape at the time they completed the survey. 43.91% of respondents were located near water, while 56.09% of all respondents had no water nearby. The data show that respondents near water reported 4.23% higher overall average comfort than respondents not near water. 0 50 100 150 200 250 NUMBER OF PEOPLE Preferred Spatial Modifications

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46 66.83% of respondents were situated in a location with vegetation nearby, while 33.17% of survey respondents were situated in a location with no vegetation nearby. 30.79% of all survey respondents were positioned in full sun, while 46.3% of respondents were positioned in partial shade, and 22.91% of respondents were positioned in full shade. We found that respondents in full shade reported the highest average overall comfort, while respondents in full sun reported the second highest average overall comfort. Respondents in partial shade reported the lowest average overall comfort. The data reveal that respondents at the Shanghai World Expo Park reported the highest level of comfort. Survey respondents report that Expo Park was significantly more comfortabl e than both Xuhui Waterfront and Fuxing Park. This conclusion agrees with our hypothesis. Xuhui Waterfront was significantly more comfortable than Fuxing Park which does not agree with our expectations. 3.2 Shanghai World Expo Garden Data We visited Expo Park 12 times over the data collection period. In that time 142 respondents completed surveys. 82 respondents were male, while 60 were female. 136 respondents completed the survey in Chinese, while 5 respondents completed the survey in English. The most common age group of people answering the survey was the 26 40 year old crowd. The average temperature at Expo Park during the study was 29.3C, which is higher than the overall average. The average relative humidity at Expo Park was 60.9%. Average s olar radiation at Expo Park was 134.07 w/ m2 which is lower than the overall average. The average wind speed at Expo Park was 0.92 m/s which is slightly higher than the overall average.

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47 Figure 14. World Expo Garden Respondent Age Groups The most com mon reason for visiting the park was to relax. The most common length of park visit was 1 2 hours. When asked about possible weather modifications, the most common response was that people preferred a lower temperature and less noise. When asked about possible design/spatial modifications, the most common response was to add landform/hills to the site. The next most common response was to add more trees to the site. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 AGE 18-25 AGE 26-40 AGE 41-60 AGE 61+NUMBER OF PEOPLE AGE GROUPS EXPO Respondent Age Groups AGE 18-25 AGE 26-40 AGE 41-60 AGE 61+

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48 Figure 15. World Expo Garden Reason for Park Visitation Figure 16. World Expo Garden Length of Park Visit 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 EXPO Respondent Reason for Park Visitation 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1-30 mins. 30-60 mins. 1-2 hrs. 3+ hrs.NUMBER OF PEOPLE TIME EXPO Length of Park Visit

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49 Figure 17. World Expo Garden Responde nt Preferred Weather Modifications to Increase Comfort Figure 18. World Expo Garden Respondent Preferred Spatial Modifications to Increase Comfort 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Number of People EXPO Preferred Weather Modifications 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 NUMBER OF PEOPLE EXPO Preferred Spatial Modifications

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50 Through in depth satellite image analysis i t was discovered that Expo Park has 34.4% hardscape surfaces, which is the lowest percentage of all three parks. Expo Park consists of 44.22% softscape surfaces, which is higher than the overall average. Expo Park has 33.5% tree cover, which is slightly less than the average percent tree cover. 26.6% of Expo Park is classified as being near water (less than or equal to 10 m from a water body) which is above average. Expo Park offers the most exposure to water amongst the three study sites. Expo Park ha s 19.67% of its total area in full sun, which is the lowest of the three sites. 80.33% of the park is in either partial shade or full shade. Expo Park has 72.2% of its total area in partial shade which is the highest of the three sites; 8.05% of Expo Par k is in full shade. Figure 19. Shanghai World Expo Garden Explanation of Spaces

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51 3.3 Xuhui Waterfront Park Data We visited Xuhui Waterfront Park 10 times over the three month data collection period. During that time 135 respondents completed surveys. 82 respondents were male, while 43 were female. 129 respondents completed the survey in Chinese, while 6 respondents completed the survey in English. The most common age group of people answering the survey was the 2640 year old bracket. Figure 20. Xuhui Waterfront Park Respondent Age Groups The average temperature at Xuhui Waterfront during the study was 28.1C. The average relative humidity was 56.8% which is lower than the overall average. Average solar radiation at X uhui Waterfront was 202.11 w/ m2 which is significantly higher than the overall average. The average wind speed at Xuhui Waterfront was 1.28 m/s which is almost double the overall average. The most common reason for visiting the park was to socialize; t o relax was the second most common response. The most common length of park visit was 3060 minutes. When asked about possible weather modifications, the most common response 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 AGE 18-25 AGE 26-40 AGE 41-60 AGE 61+NUMBER OF PEOPLE AGE GROUPS Xuhui Respondent Age Groups AGE 18-25 AGE 26-40 AGE 41-60 AGE 61+

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52 was that people preferred a lower temperature and less noise. When asked about possible design/spatial modifications, the most common response was to add more trees to the site. The next most common response was to add more grass to the site. Figure 21. Xuhui Waterfront Park Reason for Park Visitation Figure 22. Xuhui Waterfront Park Length of Park Visit 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Xuhui Respondent Reason for Park Visitation 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1-30 mins. 30-60 mins. 1-2 hrs. 3+ hrs.NUMBER OF PEOPLE TIME Xuhui Length of Park Visit

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53 Figure 23. Xuhui Waterfront Park Respondent Preferred Weather Modifications to Increase Comfort Figure 24. Xuhui Waterf ront Park Respondent Preferred Spatial Modificat i ons to Increase Comfort 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Number of People Xuhui Preferred Weather Modifications 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 NUMBER OF PEOPLE Xuhui Preferred Spatial Modifications

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54 Xuhui Wat erfront Park contains 52.08% hardscape surfaces which is the highest of the three parks. Softscape surfaces in Xuhui Waterfront amount to 24.2% of the total park area, which is the lowest of the three sites. Xuhui Waterfront has 14.97% tree cover, the lo west of the three study sites. 26.14% of Xuhui Waterfront is classified as being near water (less than 10 m away from a water body) which is above average. 53.23% of Xuhui Waterfront is classified as being in full sun, the highest of the three parks. 46.77% of the park offers visitors some shade. 40% of Xuhui Waterfront is classified as partial shade, and 6.77% is classified as full shade. The data tell us that Xuhui Waterfront offers park visitors the least amount of shade when compared to the other t wo sites. Figure 25. Xuhui Waterfront Park Explanation of Spaces Locational data analysis of 134 surveys at Xuhui Waterfront reveals that 97.76% of survey respondents were located on hardscape at the time of survey completi on, while 2.24% of respondents were located on softscape. 79.1% of respondents were located near

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55 water, while 20.9% of all respondents had no water nearby. 15.67% of respondents were situated in a location with vegetation nearby, while 84.33% of survey r espondents were situated in a location with no vegetation nearby. 60.45% of all survey respondents were positioned in full sun, while 11.94% of respondents were positioned in partial shade, and 27.61% of respondents were positioned in full shade. 3.4 Fuxing Park Data We collected data at Fuxing Park on 10 separate days over the three month data collection period. In that time 144 respondents completed surveys. 100 respondents were male, while 44 were female. 129 respondents completed the survey in Chinese, while 12 people completed the survey in English. The most common age group of people answering the survey was the 61+ year old bracket. Figure 26. Fuxing Park Respondent Age Groups According to the data, the average temperature at Fuxing Park duri ng the study was 27.0C which is slightly lower than the overall average. The average relative 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 AGE 18-25 AGE 26-40 AGE 41-60 AGE 61+NUMBER OF PEOPLE AGE GROUPS Fuxing Park Respondent Age Groups AGE 18-25 AGE 26-40 AGE 41-60 AGE 61+

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56 humidity at Fuxing Park was 64.4% which is slightly higher than the overall average. Average solar radiation at Fuxing Park was 101.41 w/ m2 which is significa ntly lower than the overall average. The average wind speed at Fuxing Park was 0.22 m/s which is lower than the overall average. The most common reason for visiting the park was to relax; exercise was the second most common response. The most common le ngth of park visit was 12 hours. When asked about possible modifications that could make respondents more comfortable, the most common response was that people preferred less noise; fewer people was the second most common response, with lower temperature as the third most common response. When asked about possible design/spatial modifications, the most common response was to add more grass to the site. The next most common response was to add more trees to the site. Fuxing Park has 38.24% hardscape surf ace, which is below the overall average. Softscape accounts for 51.96% of Fuxing Park, which is the highest of the three sites. Fuxing Park has a 62.58% tree canopy cover, which is the highest of the three parks. Only 5.28% of Fuxing Park is near water, which is by far the lowest of the three sites. 26.99% of Fuxing Park is in full sun, which is below average. 53.04% of Fuxing Park is classified as partial shade, which is below average. 19.98% of Fuxing Park is in full shade, which is the highest of t he three parks.

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57 Figure 27. Fuxing Park Reason for Park Visitation Figure 28. Fuxing Park Length of Park Visit 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Fuxing Park Respondent Reason for Park Visitation 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1-30 Mins. 30-60 mins. 1-2 hrs. 3+ hrs.NUMBER OF PEOPLE TIME Fuxing Park Length of Park Visit

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58 Figure 29. Fuxing Park Respondents Preferred Weather Modifications to Increase Comfort Figure 30. Fuxing Park Respondents Pre ferred Spatial Modificat i ons to Increase Comfort 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Number of People Fuxing Park Preferred Weather Modifications 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 NUMBER OF PEOPLE Fuxing Park Preferred Spatial Modifications

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59 Figure 31. Fuxing Park Explanation of Microclimate Factors Locational data analysis of 143 surveys at Fuxing Park reveals that 100% of survey respondents were located on hards cape at the time of survey completion, while 0% of respondents were located on softscape. 0% of respondents were located near water, while 100% of all respondents had no water nearby. 100% of respondents were situated in a location with vegetation nearby while 0% of survey respondents were situated in a location with no vegetation nearby. 0% of all survey respondents were

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60 positioned in full sun, while 93.71% of respondents were positioned in partial shade, and 6.29% of respondents were positioned in ful l shade.

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61 C HAPTER IV DISCUSSION 4.1 Data Collection and Analysis We initially visited the three sites at all different times of day. However, we quickly became aware of the usage patterns of each site. During peak usage, parks we re extremely crowded, which enabled abundant data collection. During off peak times, parks were completely empty, which greatly hindered data collection. By gaining an understanding of park usage at each site, we focused our data collection efforts during peak times at each site. It is worth noting that peak usage times correlate with more comfortable weather conditions. For example, during the hot summer months, park usage was high in the early morning; by mid day parks would empty out during the most intense heat of the day. Visitors would return in the evening hours, after temperatures cooled down. Our initial data analysis focused on weather conditions and comfort and so we analyzed the factors deemed most important according to the existing theory (air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) to determine their direct effect on human comfort. We excluded some data from analysis in order to focus our study in the most effective way. For example, data concerning noise levels were not considered in data analysis because although noise does affect comfort, it is not an aspect of microclimate. Respondents attire was dismissed for questionable relevance and because of the level of complication it would add to the study Respondents activity was

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62 also not analyzed due to concerns about relevance. Light levels were also not considered in analysis, because previous studies have indicated that solar radiation is far more important to comfort than light. Light was also excluded be cause all data were collected during daytime hours when the question of safety and light is less of an issue. 4.2 Descriptive Analysis and Comparative Studies After classifying spaces in the parks by their defining factors (surface materiality, presence of vegetation, sun/shade exposure, and proximity to water) we found interesting results. We compared surveys completed near water to surveys with no water in the vicinity and found that respondents near water were 4.23% more comfortable overall than resp ondents who were not near water, a difference that was statistically significant ( p = 0.03). After cataloguing surveys into groups based on site characteristics we considered the importance of sun and shade in overall comfort. We compared respondents overall comfort level in full sun to partial shade and full shade. While respondents in full sun were found to be 1.01% more comfortable than respondents in partial shade, the difference was not statistically significant ( p = 0.65). This result was in contrast to our expectations. However, respondents in full shade were found to be 4.94% more comfortable than respondents in full sun, a statistically significant difference ( p = 0.04) in line with our expectations. The most surprising result in the sun and shade comparison studies was that respondents in full shade were 6% more comfortable than respondents in partial shade, a statistically significant difference ( p = 0.01). Data analysis reveal ed that Shanghai World Expo Garden achieved the highest overall comfort level. Expo respondents reported 6.99% higher comfort levels than

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63 respondents in Xuhui Waterfront and 13.99% higher than those in Fuxing Park, both statistically significant differences ( p < 0.01 in both cases). The 6.54% greater comfort level in Xuhui compared to Fuxing was a surprising finding and was also statistically significant ( p = 0.01). There are multiple factors to consider that may be driving these results. We expected that the high levels of shade offered at Fuxing Park would outweig h the fact that there is less exposure to water and we also expected that Xuhui Waterfronts lack of shade would make it the least comfortable park for visitors. However, Xuhui Waterfront has the highest recorded winds and is situated beside the river, which likely account for the overall higher comfort level than the inland Fuxing which had less water exposure and much lower wind speeds. Based on these data, it seems that the combination of wind and water (two cooling factors) is more important than shade (one cooling factor) in determining user comfort in this study. In reflection of human comfort and park usage in the three study sites, it seems that future design goals should aim to spread park visitor numbers throughout the day. In the case of Fuxin g Park, peak visitation occurred in the coolness of early morning. The often crowded park consistently emptied out in the midday heat. If human comfort is prioritized in future design objectives then a secondary aspect should be to maximize comfort durin g the extreme heat of midday. Perhaps overall comfort can be increased if crowding is reduced by spreading usage throughout the day. The best way to spread out park usage is to combine multiple cooling factors throughout the landscape to maximize comfort as exemplified in Shanghai World Expo Garden. When comparing the amount of hardscape at each site to the amount of surveys completed on hardscape, we found a noticeable difference. For example, Shanghai World

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64 Expo Garden contains a mere 34.4% hardscape, but 90.14% of survey respondents were located on hardscape. Xuhui Waterfront Park is composed of 52.08% hardscape, but 97.76% of survey respondents were located on hardscape. Fuxing Park has 38.24% hardscape, but 100% of surveys were completed on hardsc ape. We believe these data result from the fact that park benches are most commonly located on hardscape as opposed to softscape. We found it interesting that the most popular design alterations requested by respondents were for more trees and more grass (Refer to Figure 13). This was expected at a site like Xuhui Waterfront, where tree cover is a scant 14.97% of the park and softscape is a mere 24.2% of the park. However, Expo Park offers visitors 33.5% tree cover and 44.22% softscape surfaces, and res pondents there still requested more trees and more grass. Fuxing Park offers visitors a lofty 62.58% tree cover and a generous 51.96% softscape surfaces, including a large grass lawn, and yet respondents resoundingly wanted more grass and more trees. 4.3 Site Observations and Park Usage in China It is generally accepted that open space in urban environments is critical to quality of life. Through park visits for this study, as well as others, we found that parks play an essential role in the everyday lives of urban residents in Shanghai. Daily exercise is of the utmost importance and seems to be ingrained in Chinese culture, especially amongst the retired population. We observed that the importance of getting out every day and moving the body is hig hly emphasized, whether that movement occurs through the ancient practice of Tai Chi or a more contemporary practice of group dancing. Parks also play an essential role in social functionality for the retired population in Shanghai.

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65 Living quarters are o ften small in the urban realm, and local people tend to use parks as their own backyards. These observations were found over the course of a year living within the inner city of Shanghai. Similar circumstances were also discovered in other urban areas in China including Beijing, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou, Chengdu, and Hong Kong. We believe that visitor numbers at the parks we studied in Shanghai were less reflective of good design and microclimate comfort, and more dependent upon location near residenti al areas. For example, the data reflect that Fuxing Park achieves the lowest level of human comfort, but is by far the most populous whereas Shanghai World Expo Garden data tells that it achieves the highest level of human comfort, but its visitor numbers are very low. In the inner city of Shanghai, park usage seemed to be dominated by the retired population. Many respondents expressed that they lived near Fuxing Park and that they visited the park every day. It is our belief that when it comes to inner city parks in Shanghai, people will visit them regardless of design quality and the comfort achieved at each park. The social aspect is more important than design or comfort as well. For example, a 77 year old male respondent expressed that he had vis ited the park every day since his retirement. He explained that his family had lived in this neighborhood for several generations. Recently, he was forced to move away from the neighborhood, but he continues to visit the park regularly because all of his friends are t here. In considering respondent comfort and the occupancy of the three study parks, it is worth noting that visitor comfort may be affected by the amount of people present at each site. Perhaps Fuxing Park received the lowest comfort rating because the parks

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66 overly crowded spaces were not as comfortable as sites that provide more personal space. It is possible that visitors to the less populated sites, Expo and Xuhui, felt more comfortable because of the large amount of personal space that those sites offered. In this regard, the three parks are not represented equally. It would be interesting to collect data at Shanghai World Expo Garden and Xuhui Waterfront during largely crowded events2. The collected data express an overwhelming number of male respondents (64.37%) compared to female respondents (35.63%). This unexpected outcome is likely the result of multiple cultural factors. During the data collection process it was our hope to disturb park users as little as possible. However, it was very common for park visitors to approach us out of curiosity in order to inquire about the nature and purpose of our weather data instruments. All inquiring park users were asked to complete the survey, and most complied with our request. The major ity of inquiring park visitors were male ( 75.61% ). We believe this is the reason for the gender imbalance in data representation. 2 We did intend to collect data during larger events at these parks but there was little opportunity during the data collection period. We planned to collect data during a music festival in World Expo Garden, but it rained hard that day, thereby reducing crowd size comp ared to what might have been had it been a sunny day.

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67 Figure 32. Respondent Gender 4.4 Shanghai World Expo Garden Shanghai World Expo Garden is atypical when compared to many parks in Shanghai. The adjacent neighborhood was recently transformed for the 2010 Expo event. The surrounding area feels vacant and somewhat abandoned. There are no residential areas surrounding the park, which is why we believe that park visitor number s are less than for parks located within the inner city of Shanghai. The site usually felt empty when we visited for data collection, whereas inner city parks often felt overly crowded. Expo Park was designed to accommodate a large number of visitors. I n fact, the Shanghai World Expo in 2010 hosted a record breaking 73,084,000 visitors during its six month life span with an average of 397,000 visitors per day ( ShanghaiWorldExpoUnit 2010) These astonishing numbers reveal that the park is currently hosting visitors in numbers severely below its carrying capacity. Shanghai World Expo Garden offers visitors an abundance of shade and access to water. One aspect of the design that stands out is the many trees within the hardscape 271 150 Respondent Gender MALE FEMALE

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68 walkways. The designers, recognizing the importance of shade for overall comfort, incorporated a thick canopy of trees which reduce the effects of solar and terrestrial radiation and keep the spaces cooler. The combination of trees and water is apparent throughout the design as well. Although Huangpu River i s adjacent to the site, the designers also included water features throughout the park to maximize comfort during the summer months. Figure 33. Trees in the Hardscape Offer Visitors Abundant Shade The Expo site is well designed for user comfort. We have very few design alterations to recommend, though one criticism is that some of the water pools at the site have dried up. However, this issue may be due to lack of maintenance or faulty construction as opposed to the design itself.

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69 Figure 34. The Combination of Trees and Water Creates a Cooler Microclimate in World Expo Garden Figure 35. Dried up Water Features at World Expo Garden

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70 An interesting fact about Shanghai World Expo Garden is the popularity of the space just beneath Lupu Bridge. We found i t to be an extremely comfortable location, most likely because of the full shade created by Lupu Bridge and the loftiness of the space. Lupu Bridge towers high above offering full shade without obstructing wind flow. The space is also interesting because of the unique experience it offers park visitors. It is not only extremely comfortable under Lupu Bridge but also spatially fascinating to be situated underneath such remarkable urban infrastructure as Lupu Bridge. This perspective is rare as these types of spaces are often occupied by highways or are otherwise unwelcoming due to vacancy. Figure 36. Park space beneath Lupu Bridge at World Expo Garden Shanghai World Expo Garden serves as a positive example of the high level of comfort a design can achiev e when microclimate is taken into consideration. The design of the park and the level of comfort it achieves support current landscape microclimate

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71 design theory. We believe that Shanghai World Expo Garden could serve as a model for positive microclimate design for human comfort in subtropical hot and humid climate cities such as Shanghai. 4.5 Xuhui Waterfront Park Xuhui Waterfront Park is a relatively new park in Shanghai, and it is currently under utilized. The site often feels empty; it is sometimes difficult to find any park visitors present. It is most common to find people at the site for exercise purposes, whether they are on the climbing wall, running along the jogging track, playing basketball on the court, or skating in the skate boarding park. Xuhui offers Shanghai residents something that is hard to find in the city: open space all to oneself. It is worth noting that the surrounding area currently feels abandoned but high rise residential buildings are under construction. We expect that Xuhui Waterfront Park will experience more park visitors in the future as the buildings are completed and residents begin to settle into the area. The design of Xuhui Waterfront offers park visitors very little shelter. The site is lacking in shaded spac es. It is most common to find visitors seated along the many benches beside Huangpu River and it appears that the scenic and extremely active features of the river are one of the attractions of the site. However, none of these waterfront spaces offer vis itors any shade. Because of these factors, we found the area underneath the shipping cranes, remnants of the sites former function as a transfer space for cargo between rail and water transportation modes, to be highly occupied. The shipping cranes offer visitors full shade and waterfront visibility, which makes them

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72 highly desirable spaces in the park. The elongated nature of the site makes it tedious to traverse it, unless ones goal is an extensive run or walk for exercise. Therefore the crane closes t to the main entrance is the most popular space in the park. The climbing wall is located just beside the main entrance, and is another hotspot for people to gather. Many survey respondents were found sitting in the full shade of the climbing wall. Fig ure 37. Lack of Shelter at Xuhui Waterfront Park The part of Xuhui Waterfront Park that offers vegetation and tree shade is also the part of the site that is farthest away from the river. The interior of the site was always less populated when compared to the part of the park adjacent to the river so it seems that river proximity was more of a priority for park visitors than tree shade. However, the most requested site alteration was more trees.

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73 Figure 38. Interior of Xuhui Waterfront Park The data reveal that average solar radiation is highest at Xuhui Waterfront (202.11 w/m2) while relative humidity is lowest there (56.77%). These data are an expression of the lack of trees on the site (14.97% tree cover). Trees create more shade, thereby reducing so lar radiation, and the process of evapotranspiration emits water vapor into the air, which explains why humidity is lower at Xuhui Park when compared to the other two parks. Xuhui Waterfront Park also boasts the highest average wind speed (1.28 m/s). Per haps the lack of trees at Xuhui explains why the average wind speed there is almost double the overall average wind speed ( 0.79 m/s). 4.6 Fuxing Park Fuxing Park is different than the other two sites. The park is situated in the well established Former French Concession, a highly coveted part of the city in which to live. The neighborhood was a focal point during the urban renewal that occurred in the 1990s.

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74 The park has the advantage of having been constructed in 1909, so trees are large with massive canopies. People have been frequenting the park for over a century, so visitor numbers are currently much higher than at the other two sites. The design of Fuxing Park offers park visitors abundant shade and some exposure to water. However, water exposure at Fuxing Park is not accurately represented by the data because data collection was not focused on the Chinese Garden, which offers visitors the most exposure to water. An interesting aspect of Fuxing Park is that the respondents are much older than a t the other two parks (See Figure 26) In Expo and Xuhui, the most commonly represented age group is the 2640 year old bracket, whereas at Fuxing Park, the 61+ year old bracket is the largest group, which may skew the results of Fuxing Park when compared to other two parks. These data express that Fuxing Park is a residential neighborhood park; many of its visitors frequent the site on a daily basis. This lies in contrast to Shanghai World Expo Garden and Xuhui Waterfront Park which are more remote and therefore should be considered destination parks. It is rare for people to be able to simply walk to Expo or Xuhui from their home, which explains why they are more populated on the weekends, whereas Fuxing is extremely crowded during weekday mornings. The data express that Fuxing Park achieves the lowest level of comfort amongst the three parks in this study. We found this outcome to be surprising because Fuxing Park offers the most full shade, the highest percent tree cover, and the most softscape of all three sites with solar radiation levels and hardscape percentages significantly below the overall average. All of these factors led us to believe that Fuxing Park would achieve

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75 a higher comfort level than Xuhui Waterfront. These findings point to the overwhelming importance of the large water body as being most important to human comfort in a hot and humid climate. Figure 39. Shady all es of Fuxing Park 4.7 Responding to the Data In all three study sites, respondents express a desire for less noise as the most important site condition they would like to change. A lower temperature is the next most common request for site condition alterations. Respondents also articulate a strong desire for more trees and more grass. All of these indicators point to the same solution. Added vegetation can help to achieve all of these desired changes expressed by survey respondents. Vegetation can help to alleviate noise issues by absorbing sound waves instead of reflecting them. Trees can also help to reduce heat on the site by blocking solar radiation from reaching the ground. Grass also helps with heat on the site because it

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76 has a higher moisture content and permeability when compared to a hardscape surface, which makes it generally cooler than a hardscape su rface. When considering Xuhui Waterfront Park specifically, changes could be made to the current site to improve microclimate conditions. Respondents request less noise and a lower temperature, but a reduction in sunlight is the third most commonly reque sted alteration to site conditions. The addition of trees or even shade structures along the waterfront would alleviate the temperature and sunlight issues that park users have with the site. Noise reduction is more difficult to alter because most of the noise heard on the site comes from the ships passing by on Huangpu River. 4.8 Study Limitations Limitations to the sample were caused by communication barriers, including park visitors who could not read and park visitors who spoke neither Mandarin nor English. Another issue was the confusion surrounding survey Question #5: How much longer do you think you will stay here? Throughout data collection, many people were unsure of the meaning of the question on the Chinese survey. Often this question was left unanswered. It was a common occurrence for respondents to repeat their answer from Question #4: How much time have you spent here today? Towards the end of data collection, we were informed that this question was not worded clearly in Chinese Because of the confusion surrounding this question, it has not been included in the study. One major limitation to this study is the brevity of the data collection timeframe. Data was collected for three months, from August to November of 2013. Regr ettably, data was not collected during the month of July, which limits the scope of the study because typically July is the hottest month of the year in Shanghai. In fact, July of 2013

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77 was the hottest on record. Unfortunately, this missed opportunity coul d not be helped, as IRB clearance could not have been attained any earlier in the research process. Unfortunately, the extremes of summer and winter were not included in the study due to delays in the data collection start date and our departure from Shan ghai at the end of 2013. Similar studies in the future would benefit from year round data collection to consider microclimate and comfort in all seasons. Time constraints also did not allow for a thorough and extensive site selection process. Future st udies could benefit from a testing of the survey questionnaire to reveal issues as in survey question #5. The survey could be field tested at a multitude of sites in order to decided which sites best fulfill the needs of the study. This study was also limited by having a single person collecting field data. This factor limited data collection to a small localized area within each site. Xuhui Waterfront was a particularly difficult site in which to collect data because the site is very long to traverse on foot with few park users throughout. Future studies could benefit from a team of data collectors to canvas each site and also to be able to collect data from all three sites at the same time. Direct comparisons (ex: the same days weather conditions) within the parks would make the study stronger. Cultural barriers were another limiting factor in data collection. Some places in Fuxing Park did not feel culturally appropriate to venture through. For example, the Chinese Garden in Fuxing Park was always crowded with men playing cards and other games, but their groups were impenetrable. This was unfortunate because the Chinese Garden has a pond, which is the largest water body in Fuxing Park. Data collected near

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78 the pond could have diversified the Fuxing Park data which may have shown higher levels of comfort as a result. Another example of an invisible cultural barrier was a space in the Fuxing arbor reserved for political discussion where we did not feel that it was culturally appropriate to linger. T his study could be stronger if data collectors were both linguistically and culturally fluent. Finally, this study could have been improved with the collection of GPS location data for each survey that was completed. Had each point been linked to a GPS c oordinate, data mapping would have been much simpler and far more precise, allowing for more in depth analysis of the three sites.

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79 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION W e found Shanghai World Expo Garden to be more comfortable than Xuhui Waterfront Park and F uxing Park. The Expo design is successful in achieving its objective to maximize human comfort. The two waterfront sites, Expo and Xuhui, were found to offer visitors higher comfort levels when compared to Fuxing, the park located within the inner city. These findings place emphasis on the cooling effects of a waterfront location. The combination of high winds passing over a large body of water seemed to optimize human comfort on hot days. Although Fuxing Park offers visitors an abundance of shade (and therefore the lowest solar radiation levels) created by a mature tree stand, the highest percentages of softscape, and hardscape percentages below average, it was the least comfortable site in the study. Comfort is not the most important factor in determining park usage. Although Fuxing Park was found to be the least comfortable park, it had the highest usage by far. Shanghai World Expo Garden and Xuhui Waterfront Park were found to be more comfortable, but the visitor numbers were much lower than Fuxing Park. It seems that location, and especially proximity to residential development, is more important than comfort in determining park usage in Shanghai. By testing the current site conditions, our study proves that the Shanghai World Expo Garden achieves its design goals. Shanghai World Expo Garden serves as a

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80 positive example that if microclimate is prioritized in design goals, than designers can create more comfortable spaces for people. Looking forward, future research should include inquiries into spreading park usage throughout the day in densely populated urban cities like Shanghai. It would be interesting to explore how crowding and personal space affects human comfort in public spaces as well. Future studies would benefit from direct comparis on of age groups to control for different comfort factors that may be based on age. Further investigations of these three parks could involve more accurate occupancy numbers in spaces and directly comparing spaces at similar occupancy levels. It would al so be interesting to ask people about their favorite spaces within each park and what activities they enjoy in those spaces in order to create spaces that local people will enjoy in future design endeavors. Post occupancy analysis is a crucial form of r esearch that strengthens the field of landscape architecture. We endorse this research method as a way for landscape architects to learn if their design goals are actually achieved, and how people occupy their designs. There are valuable lessons to be le arned when a designer does not achieve his design goals and also when people use spaces in ways that differ from the designers original intent. Self inquiry and critical analysis is a way for designers to improve their craft. Learning from past mistakes is important in order to avoid repeating them in the future. As a field of professional practitioners it is crucial for landscape architects to welcome critique and accept that not all of their designs are successful in order to learn and improve their m ethods of designing positive spaces for people.

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81 REFERENCES Brown, Robert D. 2010. Design With Microclimate: The Secret to Comfortable Outdoor Space Washington, D.C.: Island Press. 2011. "Ameliorating the effects of climate change: Modifying mic roclimates through design." Landscape and Urban Planning no. 100 (4):372 374. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.01.010 Brown, Robert D., and Robert C. Corry. 2011. "Evide nce based landscape architecture: The maturing of a profession." Landscape and Urban Planning no. 100 (4):327 329. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.01.017 Brown, Robert D., and Terry J. Gillespie. 1995. Microclimatic Landscape Design: Creating Thermal Comfort and Energy Efficiency New York, NY, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chang, Chi Ru, Ming Huang Li, and Shyh Dean Chang. 2007. "A preliminary study on the local cool is land intensity of Taipei city parks." Landscape and Urban Planning no. 80 (4):386 395. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2006.09.005 Cui, Linli, and Jun Shi. 2012. "Urbanization and its environmental effects in Shanghai, China." Urban Climate no. 2 (0):1 15. Dcamps, Henri. 2000. "Demanding more of landscape research (and researchers)." Landscape and Urban Planning no. 47 (3 4):105 109. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169 2046(99)00077 8 Dong, Nannan. 2006. Shanghais innerstdtischer Freiraumwandel in zehn Jahren Stadterneuerung von 1991 2000 anhand von Beispielen aus Huangpu, Nanshi, Luwan, Jing'an und Lujiaz ui Kassel, Germany: Kassel University Press. Eliasson, Ingegrd. 2000. "The use of climate knowledge in urban planning." Landscape and Urban Planning no. 48 (1 2):31 44. doi: http://dx.doi.or g/10.1016/S0169 2046(00)00034 7 Evans, John Martin, and Silvia De Schiller. 1996. "Application of microclimate studies in town planning: A new capital city, an existing urban district and urban river front development." Atmospheric Environment no. 30 (3 ):361 364. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1352 2310(94)00138 3 Giridharan, R., S. S. Y. Lau, S. Ganesan, and B. Givoni. 2008. "Lowering the outdoor temperature in high rise high density resid ential developments of coastal Hong Kong: The vegetation influence." Building and Environment no. 43 (10):1583 1595. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2007.10.003 Golany, Gideon S. 1996. "Urban design morphology and thermal performance." Atmospheric Environment no. 30 (3):455 465. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1352 2310(95)00266 9 Gmez, F., A. Prez Cueva, M. Valcuend e, and A. Matzarakis. 2013. "Research on ecological design to enhance comfort in open spaces of a city (Valencia, Spain). Utility of the physiological equivalent temperature (PET)." Ecological Engineering no. 57 (0):27 39. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.04.034

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82 Gmez, Francisco, Luisa Gil, and Jos Jabaloyes. 2004. "Experimental investigation on the thermal comfort in the city: relationship with the green areas, interaction wit h the urban microclimate." Building and Environment no. 39 (9):1077 1086. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2004.02.001 Kleerekoper, L., M. van Esch, and T. B. Salcedo. 2012. "How t o make a city climate proof, addressing the urban heat island effect." Resources Conservation and Recycling no. 64:30 38. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.06.004. Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel. 2006. "World Map of the KppenGeiger climate classification updated Meteorol no. Z (15):259 263. doi: 10.1127/0941 2948/2006/0130. Landscape Architecture Foundation. 2014 [cited May 14, 2014. Available from http:// www.lafoundation.org/about/declaration of concern/ Lenzholzer, Sanda, Ingrid Duchhart, and Jusuck Koh. 2013. "Research through designing in landscape architecture." Landscape and Urban Planning no. 113 (0):120 127. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2013.02.003 Li, Junxiang, Conghe Song, Lu Cao, Feige Zhu, Xianlei Meng, and Jianguo Wu. 2011. "Impacts of landscape structure on surface urban heat islands: A case study of Shan ghai, China." Remote Sensing of Environment no. 115 (12):3249 3263. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2011.07.008 Li, Ying ying, Hao Zhang, and Wolfgang Kainz. 2012. "Monitoring patterns of u rban heat islands of the fast growing Shanghai metropolis, China: Using time series of Landsat TM/ETM+ data." International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation no. 19 (0):127 138. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2012.05.001 Liu, Yu. 2006. Expo Park Rises in Greener Shanghai. China Pictorial Mackey, Christopher W., Xuhui Lee, and Ronald B. Smith. 2012. "Remotely sensing the cooling effects of city scale efforts to reduce urban heat island." Building and Environment no. 49 (0):348 358. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.08.004 Milburn, Lee Anne S., and Robert D. Brown. 2003. "The relationship be tween research and design in landscape architecture." Landscape and Urban Planning no. 64 (1 2):47 66. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169 2046(02)00200 1 Milburn, Lee Anne S., Robert D. Br own, Susan J. Mulley, and Stewart G. Hilts. 2003. "Assessing academic contributions in landscape architecture." Landscape and Urban Planning no. 64 (3):119 129. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S 0169 2046(02)00204 9 Milburn, Lee Anne S., Robert D. Brown, and Cecelia Paine. 2001. " Research on research: research attitudes and behaviors of landscape architecture faculty in North America." Landscape and Urban Planning no. 57 (2):57 67. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169 2046(01)00188 8 Mirzaei, Parham A., and Fariborz Haghighat. 2010. "Approaches to study Urban Heat Island Abilities and limitations." Building and Environment n o. 45 (10):21922201. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2010.04.001 Nikolopoulou, Marialena, Nick Baker, and Koen Steemers. 2001. "Thermal comfort in outdoor urban spaces: understan ding the human parameter." Solar Energy no. 70 (3):227 235. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0038 092X(00)00093 1

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83 Nikolopoulou, Marialena, and Spyros Lykoudis. 2007. "Use of outdoor spaces and microclimate in a Mediterranean urban area." Building and Environment no. 42 (10):3691 3707. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.09.008 NITAGroup. Expo Park for Expo 2010 Shanghai 2010 [cited April 23, 2014. Available from http://www.nitagroup.com/en/projects.php?tid=1 Shahidan, Mohd Fairuz, Phillip J. Jones, Julie Gwilliam, and Elias Salleh. 2012. "An evaluatio n of outdoor and building environment cooling achieved through combination modification of trees with ground materials." Building and Environment no. 58 (0):245 257. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10. 1016/j.buildenv.2012.07.012 ShanghaiWorldExpoUnit. 2010. Shanghai World Expo 2010 Australian Pavilion Final Report. edited by Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Stathopoulos, Theodore, Hanqing Wu, and John Zacharias. 2004. "Outdoor human comfort in an urban climate." Building and Environment no. 39 (3):297 305. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2003.09.001 Sun, Ranhao, and Liding Chen. 2012. "How can urban water bodies be designed for climate adaptation?" Landscape and Urban Planning no. 105 (1 2):27 33. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.11.018 Susca, Tiziana. 2012. "Multiscale Approach to Life Cycle Assessment." Journal of Industrial Ecology no. 16 (6):951 962. doi: 10.1111/j.1530 9290.2012.00560.x. Thani, Sharifah Khalizah Syed Othman, Nik Hanita Nik Mohamad, and Sabrina Idilfitri. 2012. "Modification of Urban Temperature in Hot Humid Cli mate Through Landscape Design Approach: A Review." Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences no. 68 (0):439 450. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.12.240 Walton, D., V. Dravitzki, and M. Donn. 2007. "The relative influence of wind, sunlight and temperature on user comfort in urban outdoor spaces." Building and Environment no. 42 (9):3166 3175. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10. 1016/j.buildenv.2006.08.004 Xu, Jingcheng, Qiaoling Wei, Xiangfeng Huang, Xiaoyan Zhu, and Guangming Li. 2010. "Evaluation of human thermal comfort near urban waterbody during summer." Building and Environment no. 45 (4):1072 1080. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.10.025 Yang, Feng, Stephen S. Y. Lau, and Feng Qian. 2010. "Summertime heat island intensities in three high rise housing quarters in inner city Shanghai China: Building layout, density and greenery." Building and Environment no. 45 (1):115134. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.05.010 Yue, W. Z., Y. Liu, P. L. Fan, X. Y. Ye, and C. F. W u. 2012. "Assessing spatial pattern of urban thermal environment in Shanghai, China." Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment no. 26 (7):899 911. doi: 10.1007/s00477 012 0638 1. Zhou, Weiqi, Ganlin Huang, and Mary L. Cadenasso. 2011. "Does s patial configuration matter? Understanding the effects of land cover pattern on land surface temperature in urban landscapes." Landscape and Urban Planning no. 102 (1):54 63. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.03.009.

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84 APPENDIX A.1 Shanghai World Expo Garden Spatial Description

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85 A.2 Xuhui Waterfront Park Spatial Description

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86 A.3 Fuxing Park Spatial Description

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87 A.4 English Langua ge Survey

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91 A.5 Chinese Language Survey

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95 A.6 Weather Data Collection Matrix

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96 A.7 COMIRB Certificate of Exemption

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