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A biophilic landscape design in Shanghai, China

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Title:
A biophilic landscape design in Shanghai, China
Creator:
Hopkins, Kyle Saylor ( author )
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (104 pages). : ;

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of Landscape Architecture)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Architecture and Planning, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Landscape architecture

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Landscape architecture -- Design ( lcsh )
Human ecology ( lcsh )
City planning ( lcsh )
Landscape architecture -- China -- Shanghai ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Review:
As a result of worldwide urbanization we are transitioning to an age in which the majority of the world's peoples will be living in urban areas; we must recognize and address the fact that the majority of the worlds population will then be living in polluting, environmentally unstable environments. As China and other nations are urbanizing, it will require an effort on the part of urban designers, planners, and landscape architects to accommodate new ecologically sound ideals into the landscape. Much of the advancement in establishing ecologically sound urban living has been developed around the concept of an "Eco-city". The ideals of an Eco-city suggest that in order to preserve quality of life in a sustainable manner, there needs to be balance between access to nature, reduced resource consumption, density management, and human environmental impacts. In the short time that human societies have existed in urban environments, human biology hasn't changed enough to facilitate livelihoods that are severed from natural environments. In order to fulfill the criterion suggested by the tenets of the eco-city, or any ecologically minded urban context, urban residents need to be connected to the natural environment. The innate need for human beings to interact with nature for health and well-being is described by the Biophilia hypothesis. Biophilic urbanism (generated from tenets of the Biophilia Hypothesis) has been developed as a theoretical framework that incorporates concepts of Biophilia into new urban planning and landscape architectural models. Biophilic design facilitates increased physical and physiological health, economic benefits, and overall advantages within cities that have incorporated a variety of natural elements into their built environments. (Beatley 2011). In support of ecological urban design (eco-cities) and the principles of Biophilic urbanism, this thesis proposes a suggestion of a new urban-landscape vernacular that embraces notions of "distilled nature". The design encompasses a Biophilic pedestrian connection between a metro-stop and the center of the Hongqiao Foreign Trade district in Shanghai, China. The proposed intervention suggests how the tenets of biophilia might be realized in a rapidly transforming, high-density urban environment.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.L.A.)--University of Colorado Denver. Landscape architecture
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references.
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe Reader.
General Note:
Department of Landscape Architecture
Statement of Responsibility:
by Kyle Saylor Hopkins.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
903216151 ( OCLC )
ocn903216151

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Full Text
A BIOPHILIC LANDSCAPE DESIGN IN SHANGHAI, CHINA
By
KYLE SAYLOR HOPKINS B.S., The Ohio State University, 2009
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Landscape Architecture Landscape Architecture
2014


This thesis for the Master of Landscape Architecture degree by Kyle Saylor Hopkins has been approved for the Landscape Architecture Program
Joem Langhorst, Chair Weizhen Chen Anthony Mazzeo Lois Brink
July 24, 2014
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Hopkins, Kyle S. (MLA, Landscape Architecture)
A Biophilic Landscape Design in Shanghai, China Thesis directed by Professor Joern Langhorst
ABSTRACT
As a result of worldwide urbanization we are transitioning to an age in which the majority of the worlds peoples will be living in urban areas; we must recognize and address the fact that the majority of the worlds population will then be living in polluting, environmentally unstable environments. As China and other nations are urbanizing, it will require an effort on the part of urban designers, planners, and landscape architects to accommodate new ecologically sound ideals into the landscape. Much of the advancement in establishing ecologically sound urban living has been developed around the concept of an Eco-city. The ideals of an Eco-city suggest that in order to preserve quality of life in a sustainable manner, there needs to be balance between access to nature, reduced resource consumption, density management, and human environmental impacts. In the short time that human societies have existed in urban environments, human biology hasnt changed enough to facilitate livelihoods that are severed from natural environments. In order to fulfill the criterion suggested by the tenets of the eco-city, or any ecologically minded urban context, urban residents need to be connected to the natural environment. The innate need for human beings to interact with nature to ensure health and well-being is called the Biophilia hypothesis. Biophilic urbanism (generated from tenets of the Biophilia Hypothesis) has been developed as a theoretical framework that incorporates concepts of Biophilia into new urban planning and landscape architectural models. The
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application of Biophilic design facilitates increased physical and physiological health, economic benefits, and overall advantages within cities that have incorporated a variety of natural elements into their built environments. (Beatley 2011)
In support of ecological urban design (eco-cities) and the principles of biophilic urbanism, this thesis proposes a suggestion of a new urban-landscape vernacular that embraces notions of distilled nature. The design encompasses a Biophilic pedestrian connection between a metro-stop and the center of the Hongqiao Foreign Trade district in Shanghai, China. The proposed intervention suggests how the tenets of biophilia might be realized in a rapidly transforming, high-density urban environment.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Joem Langhorst
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work is dedicated to my parents, Jill and John Hopkins, for their unwavering support and guidance throughout my educational pursuits.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. URBANIZATION, ECO-CITIES AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN...................................1
Urbanization...........................................................1
Urbanization and growth in China...............................1
Impacts of urbanization and growth in China....................4
Eco-cities.............................................................7
Ecological urban design (eco-cities) strategies, and eco-cities in China.7
Landscape Architecture and eco-cities.........................17
Biophilia.............................................................20
Origins of, and support for, the Biophilia Hypothesis.........20
Biophilia, nature, and design.................................31
Design precedents.............................................42
II. A BIOPHILIC DESIGN...................................................47
The Hongqiao Foreign Trade Center, Shanghai China...................47
Detailed design.....................................................57
III. CONCLUSION...........................................................82
REFERENCES.................................................................89
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LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
1. Stephen Kellerts Elements and Attributes of biophilic Design


LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURES
1. Moses Bridge, RO&AD Architects............................................43
2. Moses Bridge, RO&AD Architects............................................43
3. Yokohama Port Project, FOA Architects.....................................44
4. Yokohama Port Project, FOA Architects.....................................44
5. The Blur, Diller Scofido Architects.......................................45
6. The Blur, Diller Scofido Architects.......................................45
7. Interpolis Garden, West8..................................................46
8. Interpolis Garden, West8..................................................46
9. The Hongqiao FTC..........................................................48
10. Business Districts in Shanghai............................................48
11. Changning District Population Comparison..................................49
12. Hongqiao FTC and Shanghai Ring Roads......................................50
13. Metro Lines Near Hongqiao FTC.............................................50
14. Major Roadways Near HongqiaoFTC...........................................50
15. Hongqiao Character and Landuse............................................51
16. Primary Green Space.......................................................52
17. Secondary Green Space.....................................................52
18. Street Tree Character in Hongqiao FTC.....................................53
19. Street Tree Character in Hongqiao FTC.....................................53
20. Distance to Large Parks and Wildlife Parks................................53
21. Proposed Pedestrian Connections...........................................55
22. SBA Vision of Hongqiao FTC................................................55
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23. Pedestrian Routes From Local Metro Stop................................57
24. Early Collage Realizing Ginko Leaf as Grafted on the Site..............60
25. Unique Formal Elements of Ginko Leaf Extracted.........................61
26. Formal Elements that Compose the Design Intervention...................61
27. Formal Elements Inspired by the Ginko, Grafted on the Site.............62
28. Site and Design in Plan................................................62
29. The Path Procession....................................................64
30. RENDERING: Through the Park: The Beginning of the Procession...........65
31. RENDERING: Beginning of the Procession; Forest Edge....................66
32. Along the Path: The Lake...............................................67
33. RENDERING: Emersion in the Lake Pathway................................68
34. View Across the lake...................................................69
35. Along the Path: Wetlands, Cave and Digital Forest....................70
36. Graphic Image: Starscape...............................................71
37. Graphic Image: Ice cave................................................71
38. Graphic Image: Northern Lights.........................................71
39. RENDERING: Under the Bridge............................................72
40 Along the Path: Bamboo Pedestrian Bridge...............................73
41. The Pedestrian Bridge..................................................74
42. RENDERING: Bamboo Pedestrian Bridge....................................75
43. Along the Path: Streetscape, The Forest Floor........................76
44. Form and Context of Streetscape........................................77
45. RENDERING: Streetscape.................................................79
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46.
RENDERING: Performance Landscape: Stormwater Management.
81
X


CHAPTER I
URBANIZATION, ECO-CITIES AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN
Urbanization
Urbanization and growth in China
Global populations are continuing to grow and developing countries are urbanizing at an ever-increasing pace. It is predicted that soon, 80% of urban dwellers will be living in developing countries. (Dao 2002) These emerging nations are experiencing large population shifts as a result of rural inhabitants flocking to urban centers and this rapid trend of resettlement lies primarily in the promise of improved livelihoods and an increase in economic opportunities. If the current rural-to-urban migration trends continue, it will mean that 65% of the worlds populations will reside in urban centers by the year 2025. (Pacione 2012)
China, standing as the worlds preeminent developing country, has witnessed a rate of urbanization unrivaled throughout history. China saw an increase in the number of sizeable cities jump from 190 metropolises in the 1980s to 660 cities in 2003; this number includes nearly 170 of these cities as host to over 1 million people. As of June 2013,
China unveiled plans to relocate 250 million people into newly constructed urban settlements over the next 12 years. (S. Zhao et al. 2006) This rash pace of urbanization is forcing Chinese citizens into very high-density living conditions, often against their own will, and at a stark contrast to anything they have ever known.
Beginning with the onset of Chinas Open-Door policy in 1978, economic
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development, urbanization, and growth of the built-environment took off. This rapid pace of growth, generally, has not decreased as Chinas built environment continues to expand. In the 1990s China reformed its economic policy from a Socialist economy to a Market economy, which encouraged a new wave of unprecedented growth from investment by both foreign and domestic investors. (Xue, Wang, and Tsai 2013) In Shanghai alone, foreign investment jumped from 759 Million (US) in 1985 to over 15 Billion (US) in 1996; this huge ten year increase also included foreign contracts numbering in the thousands. (Wu 2000) By the early 2000s, foreign and domestic investors combined, were investing nearly 100 billion US Dollars in the Chinese civil infrastructure and building industry. (Xue, Wang, and Tsai 2013) Currently there are nearly 200 cities in China that deem themselves international metropolises, and continue to push for the ideal of the vibrant-city comprised central business districts (CBD) that bring in international culture and business. Chinas growth has been fueled by many factors, but the way in which the country operates has played a critical role in its unprecedented growth. There is a stark difference between western governments and Chinese governments in implementing development policy; the difference was described by Zhao Yanjin in the publication The Economic Thinking of Urban Planning; the difference of Chinese municipal government and that of western countries is that the Chinese government is a developer, while the city government of western countries is more like a property management company, employed by citizens. The municipal government in China is not employed by the citizens, its main goal is to compete with other cities, instead of maximizing public welfare. (Xue, Wang, and Tsai 2013)
The swift pace that has been so successful in generating an economical world
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leader in China has also been omnipresent in the design and construction industry. The rapid pace of construction throughout China has manifested itself in the occurrence of Chinese ghost towns, failing infrastructure, and a structural standard that lacks significant quality. For every notable, quality built, landmark construction project that has emerged in light of Chinas booming economy, there have been a myriad of indiscriminate building projects that are showing their face on the Chinese architectural landscape. Chinas raging economy has been the primary driver for the extreme rate of development of the built-environment. The rapid development tracts that have been built in existing cities are commonly revealed as New Districts and the construction that has been taking place in more removed the areas have been dubbed New Towns. During the development of these new areas, China consumed 54.7% of the worlds concrete, 36.1% of steel, and 30.4% of coal. (Pearson 2004) Despite the long-term plans that the Chinese government currently has in place, if economic growth does not continue, the rate of development will certainly be in question. China has been criticized for instituting heavy-handed top-down economic policies that have been harsh and have elicited a myriad of social and environmental problems. Critics suggest that in a country as large and populated as China, more organic, bottom up economic policy, would be less risky, more sustainable, and more socially just.
The Chinese middle-class are actively investing in property on speculative value by purchasing apartments on tracts of land that the local governments have leased to developers; this practice is the dominant fuel in Chinas economic real estate fire. (Calthorpe 2013) This practice is not only risky, but doesnt secure long-term financial viability; doing this is also leading to a huge demand for construction laborers who are
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hired without training. Tracts of housing built with the model described, are ever present throughout china these types of apartments have become an archetype within the country and unfortunately there are many things wrong with this model. The tracts of housing are typically built on huge blocks that are not conducive to walking and which lead to the need for individuals in the town to own a personal vehicle. China is already in a position where more pollution and congestion from automobile traffic will add to the already mushrooming air pollution problem. (Calthorpe 2013) This model isnt sustainable and is a symptom of the rapidity that influences planning decisions throughout the country.
Impacts of urbanization and growth in China
As a consequence of unprecedented development and urbanization China has become victim to severe ecological consequences. Pan Yue, the Vice minister of Chinas State Environmental Protection Administration (in 2005) said: the economic miracle will end soon because the environment can no longer keep pace (Economy 2007) Shanghai serves as an example of a city that grew exponentially over a period of 20-30 years and as a result, the city is suffering from a myriad of environmental ills. The rapid rate of urbanization has wiped out significant amounts of agricultural land causing the city to lose nearly 2000 square kilometers over a 30-year period. This has occurred despite efforts to increase the green coverage by means of parks, lawns, and street trees. (S. Zhao et al.
2006) Air and water quality have also experienced dramatic declines, which have been revealed by atmospheric testing and acid rain testing. The air and water quality issues are primarily attributed to high-output of coal burning facilities, which have increased at the
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same rate as that of urbanization. (Ren et al. 2003) China produced nearly 2.6 billion tons of coal in 2006, which was more than the United States, the United Kingdom and Japan combined. Coal powers more than 70% of the Nation of China; this environmentally destructive power source continues to fuel continued development and continued environmental degradation.(Economy 2007)
The problem with urbanization goes beyond the resources required to construct or expand new urban centers, but lies more so in the resources required to sustain residents who have adapted to a more urban lifestyle. Urban residents increasingly need more energy to power their lights, air conditioners, heaters and cars, and consequently, use over 3.5 times the amount of energy than rural inhabitants. (Economy 2007). Chinas economic goals to transition from an export economy to a domestic economy must be balanced with the resources that will be required to support the vast urban populations.
Its not only resources that are being affected by huge demographic changes in china; wild life and plant communities are increasingly being threated while development increases. China is home to nearly 233 animal (vertebrate) species that are currently threatened to become extinct. Overall, 25% of all the species in china are endangered and these increases in biodiversity losses are largely the result of Chinas current growth.
China has continued to put the condition of the environment behind economic gain and it has effected wildlife and plant life populations throughout the nation. China will also need to adapt to a necessity for new building technologies in order to balance the current rate of physical development and energy consumption. For example, buildings in Beijing currently consume upwards of 1.5-2 times more energy to heat their buildings as compared to similar structures in western countries.(Zhu and Lin 2004) China will need
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to establish stricter standards and perhaps begin to retrofit existing infrastructures in response to huge increases in energy consumption.
Urban form in large Chinese cities has drastically changed over the course of the last century as a combined result of varied economic, political and social forces not withholding rural to urban migrations as a key contributing factor. The Maoist era saw cities adapting to a need to rebuild infrastructure that was unable to handle the existing population demands. Industry molded the urban lifestyle and the damvei living work unit dominated the Chinese urban landscapes as a construct of Maoist socialism. (Gaubatz 1998) The damveis were a model of living in which worker-residents were more or less wholly controlled by corporations (government); wages, living quarters, food access, and general rights, were strictly controlled by the overseeing organization. The form of the damvei blocks of 4 to 5 story buildings dominated the urban landscape, attracted droves of rural immigrants looking for work, and served as the primary building block from which Chinese cities would then transform. As noted, the Maoist era gave way to drastic political and economic reforms that began to reshape Chinese cities into what many municipalities were striving to achieve as guoji dadushi or world cities. (Gaubatz 1999) A shortage of development controls then led to growth in Chinese cities without regard for the value of urban ecological environments, and the environmental quality of residential tracts and open space in urban districts. (Chan and Shimou 2000) As Chinas cities continue to expand and transform into vast, viable, urban constructs, no where in the world is it more important for policy makers and the general public to have a firm grasp on the concept of sustainability within an urban context where sustainability is generally accepted as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the
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needs of the future, with a focus on balancing social, economic, and environmental objectives. (Chan and Shimou 2000)
Eco-cities
Ecological urban design (eco-cities) strategies, and eco-cities in China
Along with China, the majority of the developed world in the Americas, Europe
and Asia are living under a linear (as opposed to cyclical) model of consumption, in which
resources are extracted, used and discarded. (Curran and Sherbinin 2004) Developed
societies and developing societies rarely consider how and where products are sourced, the
input required in making products available, and where they go when they are discarded.
This blind view of resource consumption will not fully sustain the current generation and
perhaps will lead to misfortune for generations to follow. In response to drastic ecological
harm being inflicted upon urban environments as a result of over development and
urbanization, the past few decades have seen the advent of the concept of the eco-city
emerge. Simon Joss, a researcher at the University of Westminster in London wrote:
At the center of efforts about urban sustainability is an inherent and often unresolved tension; a tension between the ideal of environmentally benign, healthy urban living, and the reality of high-energy, polluting and sprawling cities -between the notion of nature embedded into the urban fabric and a focus on high technological forms and solutions.... (Joss and Molella 2013)
Joss and Molella are describing the current dilemma surrounding modern urban planning
and the potential solutions that will ultimately require a systems approach in balancing
consumption with the needs of the populace. The notion of the eco-city is one that hopes
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to offer some solutions in urban systems thinking which would potentially yield cities that could be concurrently ecologically sound and highly livable. The concept of an Ecological city has taken hold and spawned some rather lofty conceptions of the potential for an urban environment. Richard Register, the grandfather of the Eco-city movement began the first efforts in Berkeley, California (USA) with the adaption of a few ecologically sound initiatives to help decrease the impact Berkeley was having on the environment. Register, along with his organization Urban Ecology, began their efforts by working on a few small local projects that included day-lighting a buried urban creek, promotion of alternative transportation, and attempts to delay the construction of a local highway. These efforts began to take hold and eventually Urban Ecology was a full-fledged movement that was gaining followers around the world. In 1990, the worlds first Eco-City conference was held in Berkeley and it attracted nearly 700 thinkers from around the world. (Roseland 1997) This meeting led to subsequent meetings that would help to further worldwide thinking and efforts surrounding the idea of ecologically sound towns and communities.
Since the first initiatives thirty-some years ago, Eco-city design concepts have
advanced significantly. Registers website, ecocitybuilders.com, describes the eco-city as
.. .urban diversity at close proximity, instead of scattered uniformity. It calls for land uses, architecture and a steadily and rapidly growing infrastructure for pedestrians, bicyclists and transit, powered by renewable energy sources and balanced with preservation and restoration of natural and agricultural lands and waters.... (Register2010)
Registers Urban Ecology organization published a list of ten crucial elements that must be considered and woven into the fabric of an eco-city, they are as follows:
(1) revise land-use priorities to create compact, diverse, green, safe, pleasant and
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vital mixed- use communities near transit nodes and other transportation facilities; (2) Revise transportation priorities to favor foot, bicycle, cart, and transit over autos, and to emphasize 'access by proximity;' (3) Restore damaged urban environments, especially creeks, shore lines, ridgelines and wetlands; (4) Create decent, affordable, safe, convenient, and racially and economically mixed housing; (5) Nurture social justice and create improved opportunities for women, people of color and the disabled; (6) Support local agriculture, urban greening projects and community gardening; (7) Promote recycling, innovative appropriate technology, and resource conservation while reducing pollution and hazardous wastes; (8) Work with businesses to support ecologically sound economic activity while discouraging pollution, waste, and the use and production of hazardous materials; (9) Promote voluntary simplicity and discourage excessive consumption of material goods; (10) Increase awareness of the local environment and bioregion through activism and educational projects that increase public awareness of ecological sustainability issues. (Roseland 1997)
Generally, eco-cites are a three-faceted amalgam of 1) technology, 2) development and design, and 3) community and social understanding; the successful Eco-city is the city that equally balances these three strategies. The technological aspect of the Eco-city is the one facet that has garnered most of the attention over the past few decades. Technology in an eco-city can mean an adapted technology or a novel technology that replaces a current need that might be common to all cities. All cities require massive amounts energy input; upwards of 3.5 times the amount of energy required per/person as compared to the rural counterpart. (Economy 2007) For example, in order to mitigate some of the massive amounts of energy expenditures of modern cities, the eco-city strives to implement energy reducing technologies such as passive solar heating, small-scale wind collection, and smart-grids among others. (Roseland 1997) Other technologies are being adapted to help serve all aspects of urban living and The Eco-city, as a technological laboratory, has produced the idea of the techno-city as a tenant of eco-city thinking.
The built environment is crucial in establishing a physical framework in which the eco-city will subsist. Through research and experimentation (as well as theory) there are a
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variety of recommendations for the built environment that are vital to ensuring ecologically minded structures and infrastructures. It has been discovered that high-rise buildings are not efficient for a variety of reasons and really only serve as landmarks or bragging points despite their optimal use of limited space in large cities. The eight-story building has proven to be the ideal height (around 3-4m/floor) to facilitate an ideal use of space and efficiency. (Cherry 2007) In temperate climates, one of the most energy efficient ways of controlling temperatures in buildings is with shades that open and close depending on temperature and sunlight, called louvered shades; these shades would not hold up on buildings much taller than 30 meters. Another technology that has been established as commonly used in eco-cities is solar powered water heating systems that reduce the need for supplemental energy. Unfortunately taller buildings have a much greater water demand to rooftop area ratio and solar heating systems would be unable to accommodate the much large buildings.
Many of the technologies that arise in the current ecological discourse, or technologies that are experimentally implemented in eco-cites, are fairly new and not widely tested. Louvered window shades and solar systems, as discussed, are an example of one specific technology that falls into this category. Another new technology that is being tested is the capture of geothermal heat. A specific example of this technology being implemented is in the heating system of buildings in the PIV (Pujiang Intelligence Valley) in Shanghai. Engineers working on PIV have adapted a novel idea of collecting rainwater and pumping it underground in large pipes, nearly 100 meters into the earth, to capitalize on the fact that temperatures remain very consistent within the earth and will provide cooler temperatures in the summer and warmer temperatures in the winter. The water is
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cooled or warmed within the earth and then pumped through a network of smaller pipes imbedded in floors and walls that help to passively control ambient room temperatures. (Cherry 2007)
Geothermal, solar, temperature sensing, and smart grid technologies are all fairly advanced and require highly engineered equipment. The high-tech systems arent the only technologies being implemented and some of the technologies being used in eco-cities are fairly simple. Some of the simpler technologies being used consist of rainwater collection, grey-water reuse, composting and urban farming, among others. An eco-city city initiative in China was planning to use black water water containing human wastes as another source of freshwater by means of an intense filtration process. The project also included plans to process the waste material in the black-water to sequester the solids that would then be collected and ultimately burned for energy, or converted to methane gas. (Cherry 2007)
Transportation and proximity are both critical components of ecological city planning. Eco-cities need to have easy access to amenities, by means of public transport, that is sustainable and non-polluting. There also needs to be transportation networks in place between eco-cities to fully realize the carbon-saving potential of living an ecologically sound livelihood. Caofeidan eco-city in China planned for a far-reaching public transportation system composed of various transportation nodes that would be serviced by a variety of transportation means including monorail, trams, and trollies. Each of these nodes would be arranged within the city to allow for no more than a 500 meter walk for any resident or city occupant from any point in the city. (Joss and Molella 2013)
Food production is an important part of the formula of the eco-city ideal. It must
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be noted that worldwide food demands will increase by 70-90% in the next 35 years as global populations increase and quality of life is improved across the globe. (Head and Lam 2011) Land is often allocated for agriculture in the landscape design of eco-cities with the intent to minimize the efforts and the energy expenditures that are required to transport food. The land that is allocated for food production, within the context of an Eco-city, to serve local residents, is absolutely necessary as arable land areas are reduced due to urbanization, pollution, and the effects of other current issues like climate change. Generally, increased living standards from rural poverty to prosperous urban lifestyles -requires a substantial amount of resources per person to provide the higher standard and quality of food. For example, as China has been developing over the last 30 years, and drastically increasing living standards for hundreds of millions of people, meat consumption has increased by a factor of 2.5 times; a diet rich in meat is resource costly and requires 2.5 to 3.5 more land to yield the an equivalent amount of food as the more traditional vegetarian diet. (Head and Lam 2011) Unfortunately, the current food production and consumption ratios are not balanced and while many people globally are malnourished, even more are obese or overweight. Thus, a critical tenet in ecologically sound urban design is the need for sustainable, healthy, accessible food sources. Technologies are being employed and experiments are underway to try to maximize the potential for urban agriculture. It is predicted that by 2050, local grocers will be able to grow healthy produce on the site of their grocery store by way of artificial lighting and waste stream technologies (fertilization), which will then be available immediately for customers while not having to use energy or resources to ship. (Head and Lam 2011)
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Food resources, as a general issue, are closely related to public health, which is also an essential component in constructing eco-cities and facilitating liveable, flourishing communities. Public Health originally (pre to post industrialization eras) focused on the prevention and spread of communicable disease within communities; it now comprises much more and is a critical factor in thriving micro-civilizations. The World Health Organization defines the fundamental conditions and resources for health as: Peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable eco-system, sustainable resources, social justice and equity. (Roseland 2000) All of these constituents relate to the overall well-being of residents and relate both directly and indirectly to the implementation and potential success of an eco-city.
The eco-city perspective is one that stems from the early idea of the garden city in the early twentieth century and has spurred a variety of models since its original inception. (Joss and Molella 2013) The idea of using technology as a framework for low-carbon city planning can be applied to not only technological aspects of the city (energy, transportation, etc.) but the perspective could be taken that new social constructs, as well as design of the built environment, could be construed as technology in itself. The social aspects of the Eco-city are generally not as easy to quantify or measure as some green technological efforts. Social ecology typically addresses hierarchies and general rights issues for various interest groups. The eco-city calls for a harmony amongst its residents that manifests itself in a human-scale, sustainable settlement based on ecological balance, community self-reliance, and participatory democracy. (Roseland 1997). Policy initiative is a crucial aspect of managing the populace and addressing social needs in any urban environment. Some policy initiatives could be those that strategically allocate
13


resources based on political designations in order to create a more sustainable balance of resource use between groups. A policy example might be one that asks a polluter to pay taxes that increase over time, and lead to collected tax revenue, with the goal to reinvest that revenue in private sector technologies. (Head and Lam 2011)
Behavior change (of residents) is a critical factor in beginning to reestablish new norms of how communities can balance consumption and resource use. A common perception is that individual behavior change is nominal and small changes will not help to contribute to a more ecologically sound city because a community (on the smallest level) isnt contributing as a whole. This notion is coupled with the problem of public goods. Public Goods are something like the atmosphere, or lakes and rivers and streams, or more generally the environment, that doesnt belong to any one person. If these things dont have a generally recognized owner, then the mechanism to balance overuse and over extraction (of resources) must be questioned because community residents, as individuals, will not take ownership. (Heiskanen et al. 2010).
There are a few notable examples of municipalities in various Countries that showcase the importance of behavior change in establishing a commitment to maintaining low-carbon communities. These efforts are being undertaken through a variety of means that include engagement with citizens on a range of levels. An initiative in Manchester, England, called Manchester is My Planet (MiMP) uses branding and advertising with a goal of moving citizens to commit to personal lifestyle change that aligns with low carbon initiatives. Another example is an initiative in Finland called Green Office that is striving to reduce emissions and energy use through commitments from local offices and businesses. This program, in particular, calls for office representatives to serve as
14


environmental liaisons for the businesses that have chosen to participate. The environmental liaisons are then responsible for providing training, spearheading office low-carbon initiatives, as well more tangible such as sorting recyclables. Both of these initiatives are examples of the critical components required in establishing low-carbon communities or eco-cities. Community members, businesses, universities and other entities need to be as committed as the municipality, to being committed to living low-carbon lifestyles.
The social efforts described, combined with a host of other social initiatives, form a sort of social capital that is essential in maintaining ecologically sound cities. (Roseland 2000) Scholars maintain that social infrastructures are the link between leadership, physical infrastructure, and the general populace. These social infrastructures include social institutions, human resources agencies, and perhaps even social structures (demographics, race, gender). The social infrastructure that is in place in any community is crucial to establishing the culture of their respective community. The culture of an eco-city needs to be one that is ecologically conscious on all levels while fulfilling human needs and facilitating a livable prosperous community.
As discussed, China has seen a drastic change it is economic position in the world, which has been largely due to economic reforms that have helped to facilitate unprecedented economic growth. Entry into the WTO (world trade organization) in 2001 greatly increased the global reach of many of Chinas most booming cities. Chinese economic policy has allowed municipalities to exist under a level of self economic-governing, which has led to competition between many Chinese cities to become globally relevant urban centers. (Joss and Molella 2013) Unfortunately, rapid, unhinged growth
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has been the cause of a myriad of environmental problems, namely, in 2006, China passed the United States as the worlds number one C02 emitter. (Ramaswami and Dhakal 2011) In response to this ever-increasing barrage of environmental ills that Chinese cities are wreaking on the environment, the country has rallied around the advent of the Eco-city.
China, as a nation, has latched onto the concept of the Eco-city and municipalities from all over the country are claiming to be developing with an ecologically minded framework. China is home to a few eco-city initiatives that have gained some traction and notoriety during their planning and early construction phases. Notably, in the mid-2000s, Shanghais then Mayor, spearheaded a lofty effort to build an elaborate self-contained eco-city on the alluvial island of Chongming (which is part of Shanghai). Shanghai hired ARUP, a European owned design firm, to master plan and engineer the elaborate undertaking. (Funk 2007) In concept, Dongtan Eco-city, as it was being called, was on track to be a significant achievement and perhaps serve as an example for the rest of the world to follow. Unfortunately, due to changes in Administration in Shanghai, and consequently a lack of funding, all construction has ceased and Dongtan Eco-city has yet to be realized. Another ambitious project in China has been the planning of the Caofeidian Eco-city in northeast China. The Caofeidan project is a large-scale undertaking that is planning to house nearly 800,000 residents by 2020; in contrast, Dongtan eco-city planned to begin with only 10,000 residents and eventually house 80,000 residents, still only a fraction of Caofeidans prospects. (Joss and Molella 2013)
As of 2012, China was host to over one-hundred municipalities that were proposing eco-city initiatives. Chinese towns are in a unique position where the Chinese federal government is urging policy makers on the municipal level to drastically curb
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emissions. Chinas 11th 5-year plan calls for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 40-45%; this is an extremely ambitious goal. Fortunately, as a result of economic decentralization, local municipalities are in a position to respond to the urging of the federal government to curb emissions. (Wu 2012) Much of the ecological planning initiatives within the individual municipalities are experimental and the local towns dont know exactly what to do in order to effectively reduce emissions and transform themselves into ecologically responsible entities. Many of the towns in questions have influence to be able to recruit ample monetary resources to green light serious development projects that may help to reduce their environmental impacts in the long term; that is exactly what these towns are doing. There is an added bonus of potentially being the first and/or best example of an Eco-city, eco-town or low-carbon district in all of China and therefore be the standard for policy change as China continues to move forward in being a fully developed world power. (Wu 2012)
Landscape Architecture and eco-cities
The construct of the eco-city is one that hopes to balance economic development, social progress and environmental protection in a harmonious way. (Yang 2013). A recent publication, titled Eco-Cities: a planning guide edited by Zhifeng Yang, in conjunction with a report generated by UNESCO, dubbed Man and Biosphere, has generated seven critical points in the understanding and development of an eco-city. In short, they are, health and harmony associating human support systems with economic, social and natural components, organized harmoniously, High efficiency and vigor -
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energy and materials used with high efficiency, Low-carbon orientation leading edge technologies and regard for low carbon practices in consideration of climate change, Sustaining prosperity resources utilized reasonably in order to not jeopardize further generations, High-ecological civilizations, Holism, andRegionality the utilization of technology to its fullest extent while integrating complex spatial and temporal systems on a multitude of scales. (Yang 2013) This list of requirements is generally congruent with ecocitybuilders.coms list of requirements, though this list considers more social issues where ecocitybuilders.coms list focuses on issues of the built environment and physical manifestations of ecological urbanism. Both descriptions of an eco-city correspond and support the notion that design of the built environment is crucial in the development of an ecological urbanism.
The definition of landscape architecture, as described by the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA,) describes the practice as being one that encompasses the analysis, planning, design, management, and stewardship of the natural and built environments, as well, Landscape architects are charged with planning and designing the use, allocation and arrangement of land and water resources, through the creative application of biological, physical, mathematical and social processes. (ASLA 2003) The strategies for an eco-city, as described in the literature, align with definitions of Landscape architecture and support the notion that Landscape architecture and urban design are critical practices in conceiving of, and implementing, ecologically focused city development efforts. The landscape, as a conceptual framework, is a critical factor in addressing food resources, water resources, transportation issues, and social structures, which all exists as crucial factors in sustainable city development. Frank Golley and Juan
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Bellot describe the connection between landscape architecture and ecological design quite
eloquently. They co-wrote an article that stated:
Theoretical landscape ecology investigates patterns and processes, their origin, and how they influence each other. Applied landscape ecology uses our understanding of patterns and processes to solve environmental problems, which have a spatial component, and to plan how landscapes should be organized in the future. For this reason, there is a close relationship between landscape ecology and planning and design. We can move back and forth from one to the other, with landscape ecology providing information to the planner-designer and the planned and designed landscape serving as field experiment to test hypotheses for the landscape ecologists. (Golley and Bellot 1991)
This logic applies to all of the disciplines that are closely related in the efforts pertaining to the development of eco-cities; architects, landscape architects, engineers, economists, sociologists, ecologists, among others, are crucial in the development and success of an ecologically sound urban environment. Landscape architects fulfill a role in helping to provide useable space that is ecologically sustainable from a technical perspective, but also reinforces the general worthiness of ecological design.
The primary critique of the eco-city concept is that the initial energy investment in construction and development tends to be greater than traditional development and it may be questionable how much of an ecological return eco-city development will really offer.
In fact, critics have downplayed the actual benefits of eco-city development and have chalked-up eco-city initiatives as generally marketing campaigns. Joss and Mollela note in the Journal of Urban Technology that the greenhouse gas emissions generated by the massive building efforts may well cancel out some of the savings to be achieved once the city is fully built, especially in comparison with alternative approaches. (Joss and Molella 2013) The authors were referencing the Caofeidan Tianjin Eco-city, that is for the most part, being developed from scratch. Despite the critiques of eco-city development, the
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founding theories and ideals are generally productive and serve as a framework from which to actually conceive of the future of the successful urban environments. The concept of the Eco-city is one, which, has great promise but currently hasnt reached its full potential. Efforts around the world are furthering the collective knowledge and technology bank that will help to shape our future urban environments. Nearly a century ago, Le Corbusier mused about the Ville Verte, which consisted of Visions of towers in a park. Unfortunately as a result of what have become errors in urban planning Le Corbusiers visions have instead become towers in a parking lot. (Fishman 1977) The eco-city is the promise that the urban environment needs and hopefully it will soon move from a concept to reality.
Biophilia
Origins of, and support for, the Biophilia Hypothesis
It long been known that exposure to the natural environment can have significant psychological and physiological benefits to humans both young and old; research has been conducted that has shown that exposure to natural elements may reduce blood pressure, increase self-esteem, improve mood, and produce numerous positive physiological and psychological effects. (Hitchings 2012) In 1984, E.O. Wilson dubbed this connection between humans and nature the biophilia hypothesis in his book Biophilia. Essentially, the concept of biophilia describes the innate physical and biological need for humans to maintain a connection with nature on some level. Without this connection, the hypothesis
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describes an essential piece as missing from a functional healthy human being. (Beatley 2011)
The biophilia hypothesis has nine tenants, as described by Stephen Kellert, a leading writer, scientist, and theoretician, with a focus on examining the human-nature connection. These nine tenants are as follows; utilitarian, naturalistic, aesthetic, ecologistic-scientific, symbolic, humanistic, moralistic, andnegativistic. (Kellert 1993) The utilitarian tenant of the biophilia hypothesis asserts the notion that in order to ensure survival on this planet all creatures must be connected to their environment for reasons of acquiring sustenance, shelter, and security. In short, an evolutionary advantage can be gained by utilizing the natural environment to its fullest extent; this utilization requires a familiarity with nature (as objects of survival) that is consistent with supporting the claim that the human-nature connection is innate, evolutionary and ingrained in the human species. The Naturalistic and Aesthetic connection with nature, describes the awe, beauty, and wonder that the natural environment is able to instill upon its beholder. The naturalistic connection addresses more of the intimate feelings that one may find with nature and the Aesthetic connection describes the sense of beauty man may attribute to nature. These attributes may reveal themselves in the way of simply finding satisfaction through visual interaction with beautiful natural conditions via a photograph, a painting or simply viewing nature in its physical state (not as a representation). The Ecologistic-Scientific connection describes humans drive to reason with nature through scientific discovery and ecological understanding. The symbolic connection describes the association that human cultures have made with nature, whereby, elements of nature serve as symbols in the realms of language, art and the general communication or sharing of
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ideas. The Humanist connection with nature describes the tendency for people to attribute human feelings toward natural elements. This is typically manifested in emotional connections with large mammal species (ie. Pets) but can also be attributed to place. The moralistic tenet of the biophilia hypothesis describes human relationships with nature from a religious or spiritual standpoint but also encompasses human reverence for the natural world. The two final tenets of the biophilia hypothesis begin to approach territory that may be taboo but are nonetheless aspects of the hypothesis. The first being the dominionistic aspect, which describes mans need to reign over the natural world and the 2nd being the negativistic aspect which entails mans fear and aversion to certain elements of nature. (Kellert 1993)
Landscape elements or vegetative areas in an urban environment have been said to elicit positive affect and ultimately reduce stress levels simply by way of exposure.
(Ulrich 1986) Roger S. Ulrich has been a leading researcher on the topic of landscape preference and has been widely published and generally accepted within the scientific community. Ulrichs critical contribution to the field is the notion that visual experience, or visual contact with nature has distinct anxiety and stress reducing capabilities that are an evolutionary adaptation; a descended psychological characteristic of human beings. Ulrich conducted experiments that showed a range of images, from dense urban scenes to dense vegetated natural scenes, to a chosen sample and subsequently measured their stress response. Subjects exhibited reduced stress response and enhanced emotional states when exposed to the natural vegetated images. Ulrichs findings suggest, the importance of visual contacts with nature extends beyond aesthetic benefits... [to] psychological wellbeing. (Ulrich 1981) Ulrichs work pre-dated E.O. Wilson and Stephen Kellerts work but
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served as much of the basis of the theoretical understanding of the Biophilia Hypothesis.
To further support the notion of the restorative or stress reducing properties of vegetated views, Ulrich has conducted alternative studies that revolve around the same theme. One study of note compared photographs of urban scenes with an abundance of vegetation to images composed of only concrete and steel and found significant amounts of physiological and psychological revival from the former. (Roger S. Ulrich et al. 1991). Another one of Ulrichs studies measured brain activity amongst subjects who were witness to a variety of images, both urban and natural, and the brain activity was reliable in indicating a state of relaxation amongst subjects when exposed to images of green, abundant, nature. The objective nature of brain-activity studies were of significant importance because of their ability to garner more support, generally, from the public, the scientific community, and government agencies. (Ulrich 1981)
The studies that directly support the Biophilia Hypothesis are exclusively determining the stress resolving characteristics of natural views by way of experimenting with images that show non-threatening nature. It is important to demarcate the difference between nature images that are lush and green and life affirming vs. images that are equally as natural in their subject matter but construe a sense of fear by way of content or context (ie. a snake slithering through ferns). In support of these findings, Arousal theories contest that viewing simplistic images can have the same stress-reducing effects as opposed to viewing more chaotic, complicated imagery. Images of urban settings are typically much more complex visually (composed of many converging lines and shapes) as opposed to images of nature where lines are softened and shapes are blurred. (Roger S. Ulrich et al. 1991)
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The findings by Ulrich and his contemporaries more or less serve to support the already established foundation of the restorative benefits of nature. Even in the disciplines of landscape architecture and urban design, before they were established schools of thought, it has long been asserted that natural conditions could serve the public in urban contexts. Ancient Roman residents heralded the value of nature within their city; and Frederik Law Olmsted (the father of landscape architecture) professed the value of Central Park as a refuge from the stresses associated with cities and job demands. (Roger S. Ulrich et al. 1991).
Researchers have largely come to the conclusion, albeit an obvious one, that nature embedded into the urban environment has been deemed preferable by urban dwellers. Urban parks and urban forests are both conditions to which urban residents throughout the world attach a significant amount of importance. (Roger S. Ulrich 1986) Real-estate economics support the notion that parks and natural spaces are preferred by urban inhabitants simply by analyzing the value margin between properties directly adjacent to parks (and open space) vs. properties at least three to four blocks away from parks. (Crompton 2001) This idea is called the proximity principal and describes value increases upwards of 20% for residential properties directly abutting park space. Part of the proximity principal asserts that properties of a higher value (near a park) will generate increased tax revenue, which then offsets the municipal costs required to maintain (or build) the park space. (Crompton 2001)
Stephen Kellert wrote about a study he conducted in partner with colleagues in his book Building for life, designing and understanding the Human-nature Connection which entailed analyzing 18 neighborhood located within a specific watershed in New
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Haven, Connecticut, USA. The study analyzed 18 communities that comprised nearly 500,000 people in total. The goal of the study was to understand the potential relationships, specifically benefits associated with human connections with nature across rural, suburban, and urban landscapes. The authors hypothesis postulates that despite [urbanized areas] seeming independence from nature, our study set out to demonstrate that human physical and mental well-being sill heavily relies on the quality of peoples continuing experience and contact with relatively local natural systems and processes. (2005) The researchers collected vast amounts of data relating to the health and vitality of natural systems as well as participants relationships with nature on a variety of levels. The author notes that the study was an observational-correlational study and causality mustnt be assumed. (Kellert 2005) As predicted, some of the findings indicated that environmental quality (ie. plant and animal species diversity and health) correlated with a greater appreciation of nature; the opposite relationship was also found in areas of lesser environmental quality. Kellerts study attempted to find relationships between many factors but the most revealing was that of peoples environmental altruism or affinity for nature in predicting environmental quality.
The concept of biophilia theoretically supports the idea that individuals that are more connected to nature will in-turn display more pro-environmental behavior in their day-to-day lives. While the world is currently under fire from an environmentalists perspective; instilling the ideals of biophilia into urban living could help to increase this desirable pro-environmental behavior. This concept would be attributed to city-dwelling individuals who would have lacked exposure to natural environments without the insertion of biophilic wildness into their daily lives. Place-attachment may serve a role when
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determining whether or not a person or group of persons may be more or less environmentally altruistic. (Scannell and Gifford 2010) Place attachment refers to the likelihood that an individual will attribute positive feelings and emotions to a certain place in the world. The idea also indicates that place attachment may lead to behaviors that ensure the individual will identify with an area on a spatial, social or physical level, as well attempt to maintain a physical nearness to the place to which the individual is attached. (Kaltenborn and Bjerke 2002) A study conducted in 2010 at the University of Victoria in British Columbia, Canada, attempted to show that place attachment that was attributed to a natural setting would elicit more pro-environmental behavior. In contrast, the study also attempted to show place attachment to a civic place would yield less pro-environmental behaviors. The results of the study support the notion that individuals having established a level of place-attachment to a town that was more ecologically valuable exhibited more pro-environmental behaviors. (Scannell and Gifford 2010) As noted in the study, these findings may be more attributed to pro-environmental values for the individuals, but in either circumstance, the notion supports integration of more natural conditions in urban environments.
The Biophilia hypothesis has garnered a myriad of support from researchers over the past few decades from a number of different research fields. Connectedness to nature has been a topic of interest in the psychology world in recent years and has been explored by a number of researchers within the psychology discipline; this research gamers its own title, dubbed environmental psychology. Researchers from Grant MacEwan University, in Alberta, Canada conducted a study that supported the hypothesis that connectedness to nature would correlate highly with psychological, social and emotional well-being. It
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should be noted that the study controlled for socially desirable responses from the subjects, but the subjects were college students at the University. (Howell et al. 2011).
The study found that respondents who indicated higher levels of connectedness to nature also indicated higher levels of social and psychological well-being. (Howell et al. 2011) The Howell study largely supports the notion that people are inherently better when they are connected to the natural environment. This was accomplished in the study by way of a 1-5 scale developed by Mayer and Frantz (Mayer and Frantz 2004) that asked respondents to answer questions similar to the question: Like a tree can be part of a forest, I feel embedded within the broader natural world l=strongly disagree and 5 strongly agree. (Howell et al. 2011) The Mayer and Frantz study attempted to show that a discernable connectedness-to-nature trait could deem individuals as more altruistic or empathetic to the natural environment. These increased levels of altruism or empathy would lead to more pro-ecological behavior or attitudes. The study, conducted by researchers from Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio, US found that students who indicated they were more connected to the natural environment had more interest in studying environmental science (enrolling in an introductory course) as opposed to students who were less connected to the natural environment. The study also found that respondents in the community who claimed they were more connected to nature (on the 1-5 scale) indicated a higher level of life-satisfaction. (Mayer and Frantz 2004) This claim supports E.O. Wilsons ideas about biophilia and the innate need for humans to experience nature in their lives.
The field of environmental psychology has continued to make a case for human-nature connectedness as an intrinsically positive association. In 2007, researchers from the University of Sussex, in East Sussex, UK attempted to show the correlation between
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nature connectedness and environmental altruism as a cause and effect relationship that may originate from as far back as the place in which one spent their childhood. The researchers postulate that attachment to the natural environment developed through exposure to nature, and an identity linked to the nature, may lead to increased emotional welfare, and in turn, an increased likelihood to possess attitudes and elicit positive behaviors towards the natural environment. (Hinds and Sparks 2008) The study supports the hypothesis that childhood exposure to the natural environment by way of being raised in a rural setting would lead to a greater connection with nature. The findings also supported the opposite notion that individuals raised in an urban environment were less likely to indicate a strong connection with nature, which would predict a greater affinity for pro-environmental behavior.
Research was conducted in the 1970s that found samples of adults in the western world preferred certain natural landscape characteristics to others. The studies found that people preferred landscapes that recalled a savannah; conclusions where drawn that this preference of savannah like landscapes originated innately as a result of the human race evolving in savannahs. (Balling and Falk 1982) Researchers, Ulrich and Steven Kaplan, separately published papers on this topic and the body of work suggests that humans prefer landscapes with a high degree of complexity, a clear focal point, an even ground texture, [and a] good depth of field. Both researchers conclude that these landscape preferences have been most likely determined through an evolutionary process. These studies didnt account for the tendency for humans to prefer what they know. When referring to landscape characteristics that are similar to that of a savannah, respondents pointed towards a preference for characteristics that are displayed in the average backyard
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or park. Balling and Falk attempted to control for this in a separate study and found that despite age, ranging from 8yrs old up to 70 years old, respondents still maintained a preference for savannah like characteristics; in fact, the youngest respondents displayed the highest amount of preference for natural landscapes, particularly savannahs. (Balling and Falk 1982)
Horticultural activity is inherently a biophilic act and it is an activity that allows humans to directly interact with nature. The level of nature that individuals may be interacting with when engaging in horticultural activity isnt necessarily wild nature by definition, nonetheless, they are activities that will bring people closer to nature both physically and psychologically. The activities one might engage in that would be considered horticultural activities could be planting and tending to an indoor or outdoor garden (food or ornamental), flower arranging, visiting gardens, or visiting and viewing natural scenes. (Chen, Tu, and Ho 2013) Studies have found horticultural activity is both good for human health and for human well being. A study conducted by Taiwanese researchers, Chen Hui-Mei, Hung-Ming tu, and Chaang-luan Ho from National Taiwan University found that generally, those who participate in horticultural activities experience a variety of positive emotions including pleasure, optimism, relaxation and tranquility. (2013) The participants in the study, of which there where 446 gathered from surveys given at three different flower markets in three cities in Taiwan, reported that horticultural activity, as a leisurely pursuit,was the most important to them. They respondents reported that horticultural activity was a means to cultivate a hobby that they could concentrate on as well as improve general mood and well-being and improve social relationship and thier environment. (Chen, Tu, and Ho 2013). These findings certainly support the
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biophilia hypothesis and also suggest that interactions with nature are generally positive cross-culturally as indicated from the fact the study was conducted in Taiwan.
Exposure to the natural world has the power to significantly alter the way humans act and feel in their everyday lives. Howard Frumkin, Dean and Professor of Environmental and Occupational Health Science at the University of Washington School of Public Health has written about four facets of nature experience in support of E.O Wilsons work; animals, plants, landscapes and wilderness experience. Wilderness experience, as defined by Frumkin, means entering the landscape rather than viewing it, has the potential to illicit positive conditional responses from a variety of mentally and physically ailed individuals. (2001) These responses are not unique to just sick or ailed people; perfectly healthy people are able to benefit from renewed vigor, increased senses of self-awareness, and feelings of awe, wonder and humility when exposed to natural wilderness. (Frumkin 2001) In accordance with the biophilia hypothesis, these positive emotional states elicited by natural landscapes have been ingrained in our DNA over the course of time. Positive reinforcement drives evolution and habitats that were more comfortable for our species over the last 1.5 million years probably yielded happier, stronger, more productive individuals, which is something that hasnt been lost in modern humans.
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Biophilia, nature, and design
Restorative environmental design, as described by Stephen Kellert, focuses on how we can avoid excessively consuming energy, resources, and materials; Generating massive amounts of waste and pollutants; and separating and alienating people from the natural world. (Kellert 2005). There are a significant number of features of a landscape that are said to elicit positive reactions and results which align with the tenets of the biophilia hypothesis. Biophilic urbanism is a recently dubbed school of thought that strives to lump these features together in order to establish a framework from which to adapt, retrofit, or construct new urban environments. Not surprisingly, nature is embedded in our urban environments even if it is difficult to observe or see at first glance. There are a myriad of natural processes and what are described as ecosystems services that indirectly connect citizens to the natural world. These ecosystem services are essential functions to modern life that are often taken for granted but are obviously necessary to our modern livelihoods. A small example of these services may include waste decomposition, soil formation, remediation of chemical and biological pollution, control of injurious organisms, plant pollination and seed dispersal, hydrological regulation and control, water supply and purification, nutrient retention and cycling, oxygen production, products from animals and plants, pharmaceuticals, and crop and livestock production (Kellert 2005) All of these processes engage with the natural environment but are often overlooked, repackaged, or diluted to a point where the general public doesnt consider the connection with nature that these processes afford.
There are many examples of natural processes occurring in urban environments
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that are not directly related to the human experience but occur because inherently the city is still part of the environment. Timothy Beatley writes: ..we can see nature everywhere in cities; it is above us, flying or floating by, it is below our feet in cracks in the pavement, or in the diverse micro-organic life of soil and leaf litter. Nature reaches our senses, well beyond sight, in sounds, smells textures and feelings of wind and sun.(Beatley 2011) In Shanghai, one of the most developed cities in the world, the built environment has decimated the majority of its native scrubland and currently has many sizeable areas that experience 100% storm water runoff (which means very little space for wild plants or animals to subsists). Despite nearly complete loss of native large mammal species, including tiger, elephants, wild boar and deer, the city is host to an extensive amount of bird species. 412 distinct bird species have made their homes in Shanghais rich network of large street trees that include predominantly Ginko, London Planetree, Dawn Redwood and Chinese Wingnut. (Shaobo 2014) These bits and pieces of former native wilderness sometimes pop through the concrete grids, but for the most part nature that exists in cites has been put there by human interventions or populated with flora and fauna that are more adept at subsisting in urban environments.
Biophilic design may be essential in creating urban environments that continually support the human condition and support humans inherent need to connect to the natural environment. It wont suffice to fill an urban area with buildings and infrastructures that exhibit green technologies only; there needs to be a direct, tangible connection with the natural world in order to remind and reinforce urban inhabitants of the importance of nature. As Stephen Kellert writes, When people are not emotionally and intellectually attached to the buildings, landscapes, and places around them, they will rarely be
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motivated to commit the resources and energies needed to sustain these features. This notion is the crux of the support for incorporating biophilic design into our built environment
There are many attributes of environmental design that may be construed as biophilic and which elicit the positive benefits that are associated with an established connection with nature. Judith Heerwagen, Architect and writer, has explored and described many of these elements that are critical in biophilic design. These features have been generated with the intent to inform traditional building architecture but consist of attributes that can be applied to all design and certainly can be applied to landscape design. The first attribute is Prospect, which describes the ability to see into the distance; more specifically it describes views of natural scenery, be they sun, mountains or cloudscapes. The attribute of prospect also includes view corridors, which describe a condition by which a view is framed or set up for the viewer. Refuge is another biophilic element that can be incorporated into design. Elements of refuge might manifest themselves in canopy or cave like conditions. Water is, of course, fundamental in biophilic design, specifically its glimmering or reflective properties. Moving, clean, water suggests health and vitality and is common in biophilic design. Biodiversity is another tenet of biophilic design, in the way of allowing for experiences, interactions, or views of a variety of nature affirming elements. Biodiversity might be accomplished in a design through use of a variety of vegetal elements or views of varied natural conditions. In addition to biodiversity, sensory variability, by way of varied textures, colors, air movement and light is another tenet of biophilic design. Biomimicry is included in this list, but has become a school of thought on its own. Biomimicry suggests design that is directly inspired by
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natural forms or processes; an intervention construed as biomimetic could include both functional and aesthetic attributes. Heerwagen has included elements of playfulness and enticement as critical components of biophilic design. Both of these elements would be intended to inspire surprise or delight and provide a richness in the designs that intrigue the mind and encourage exploration. (Heerwagen and Hase 2001)
Heerwagens inclusion of prospect and refuge, as distinct biophilic elements, reference Jay Appletons prospect-refuge theory which is an extension of habitat-preference theory. Prospect-refuge theory alludes to the notion that environment was crucial in the adaptive success of hominids, and our species has evolved a preference for environments that breed success, ultimately positioning human preference for landscape aesthetics within the context of a biological interpretation. (Appleton 1984) Specifically, prospect, or views, elicit an engaging response or (a deflected vista) arouses curiosity and anticipation, and the interpretation of that environment through our senses (most notably, sight) yields survival mechanisms; also, the concept of refuge draws from a surviving species need to hide from danger within their environment. (Appleton 1984)
Human environmental preference is a topic that has been heavily explored further by psychologists, architects, and philosophers, and the literature continues to suggest that preference has a biological component acquired through evolutionary processes. (Joye and van den Berg 2011) Robert Ulrich wrote his psycho-evolutionary framework that describes unthreatening natural environments as restorative in response to environmental stressors experienced through evolution. These stressors are those that would encourage a fight or flight response, but as discussed, Ulrich suggests in his research that certain features in the natural landscape have been able to restore a stressed individuals level of arousal. These
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processes of restoration occur on a subconscious level and have been developed as a key to human survival. Ulrich describes these features in the landscape as complexity,
gross structural feature such as symmetries, depth and spatiality cues and ground texture. (Roger S. Ulrich 1986). Ulrich describes a list of specific natural settings; calm or slowly moving water, verdant vegetation, flowers, savanna-like or park like properties... Ulrich postulates that these are the elements in a landscape that serve as the archetypes in a restorative natural environment
Stephen Kellert has generated a list of environmental features that sum up much of what the literature is suggesting when considering biophilic design elements, and will serve as a guiding list of elements that are included in the design portion of this Thesis. [Table 1]
Table 1. Stephen Kellerts' elements and attributes of biophilic design (Kellert 2008)
TABLE 1-1 Elements and Attributes of Biophilic Design
Environmental features Natural shapes and forms Natural patterns and processes
Color Botanical motifs Sensory variability
Water Tree and columnar supports Information richness
Air Animal (mainly vertebrate) motifs Age, change, and the patina of time
Sunlight Shells and spirals Growth and efflorescence
Plants Egg, oval, and tubular forms Central focal point
Animals Arches, vaults, domes Patterned wholes
Natural materials Shapes resisting straight lines and right Bounded spaces
Views and vistas angles Transitional spaces
Facade greening Simulation of natural features Linked series and chains
Geology and landscape Biomorphy Integration of parts to wholes
Habitats and ecosystems Geomorphology Complementary contrasts
Fire Biomimicry Dynamic balance and tension Fractals Hierarchically organized ratios and scales
Light and space Place-based relationships Evolved human-nature relationships
Natural light Geographic connection to place Prospect and refuge
Filtered and diffused light Historic connection to place Order and complexity
Light and shadow Ecological connection to place Curiosity and enticement
Reflected light Cultural connection to place Change and metamorphosis
Light pools Indigenous materials Security and protection
Warm light Landscape orientation Mastery and control
Light as shape and form Landscape features that define building Affection and attachment
Spaciousness form Attraction and beauty
Spatial variability Landscape ecology Exploration and discovery
Space as shape and form Integration of culture and ecology Information and cognition
Spatial harmony Spirit of place Fear and awe
Inside-outside spaces Avoiding placelessness Reverence and spirituality
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There are two types of biophilic design, organic design and vernacular design. These terms describe related but inherently different aspects of a space or structure that could be construed as biophilic. Organic design comprises the direct or indirect association a design may have with nature. Organic design may be as simple as a wooded landscape, natural stream or unfiltered air or light, but also includes design elements that invoke a visceral connection with nature (Kellert 2005) Frank Lloyd Wright is famous for incorporating elements of organic design in his work. Falling Water, a homestead built over a creek in a forest, and one of Wrights most famous works, serves as an example of the architects assertion that the appeal of a building and landscape is.. .a function of [its] relation to the features of the natural landscape. Organic design also may include the incorporation of decorative elements that draw from natural shapes or forms. One of the most iconic biophilic designs to date that celebrates naturally inspired form is the Sydney Opera house, designed in concept by Jom Utzon. The structure mimics sails or wings but also invokes idea of seashells breaking into the harbor on which it sits. The building was designed and built between the years of 1957 and 1973 but exists as an icon of modern architecture, [utilizing] the precise technology of the machine age to express organic form. (Hale and Macdonald 2005) David Pearson, a writer on the subject of organic architecture, recognizes various features of organic architecture, which include forms that are inspired by nature and are unfolding from within, like an organism. The writer also describes organic forms as needing to follow natural flows, be flexible and adaptable, and grow out of the site to ultimately celebrate a spirit of play and surprise. (Kellert 2005)
Vernacular design is the other piece of biophilic urbanism, which compliments the
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more direct attributes of organic design. Vernacular design, as defined by Stephen Kellert in Building for Life, constitutes the tailoring of the built environment to the particular physical and cultural places where people live and work. (Kellert 2005) Vernacular architecture typically describes structures or forms that connect to a historical or social context. Vernacular, from a biophilic designers perspective, describes the need to connect with residents, or occupants, in order for a design to be successful. From an ecological standpoint, vernacular biophilic design needs to integrate into the local ecology and consider cultural and social traditions of the place. As discussed, place attachment is a key element in support for biophilic design and ensuring that a designed element is in harmony with its context is crucial to its ultimate success.
All of the elements described speak to E.O Wilsons initial concepts of biophilia, the human affinity for nature, and [the] tendency to focus on life and life-like processes. (Wilson 1984). There exists an element of purposeful aesthetic when considering biophilic design that transcends functionality. Timothy Beatley describes the potential for beautiful biophilic urban design by writing, it is the raw emotion and beauty of the natural world, a primordial spectacle unfolding against a backdrop of high-rise buildings and human-dominated (at least we think) urban environment. (Beatley 2011). The discussion of aesthetic beauty is one that goes beyond the scope of this thesis project, but when considering natural elements as beautiful, most can agree that gardens have been a standard from which beauty can be measured. Ornamental gardens, in and of themselves, support the fact that human beings prize flowers, trees and shrubs as specimens of aesthetic beauty. An ornamental garden is a construct of natural elements arranged, designed, designated by human influence and thus, the question arises, as to whether a
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garden is an extension of the natural environment or as removed from nature as a basket woven from dried reeds. Ann Spim raises the point that to describe one sort of garden as natural implies that there are unnatural gardens which are somehow different (and presumably wrong). (Spim 1997) The discussion has lead to the debate over the use of native-species, vs. naturalized species and the exclusion of exotics in ensuring succession or ecological process in an attempt to more parallel the process of non-human nature. It has been suggested that ornamental gardens arent a fragment of nature or natural process but a collection of highly genetically diverse plant species that rival any collection of plant species found in a non-human influenced setting. George Gessert writes: Ornamental gardens and greenhouses of plant collectors are the sites of the greatest diversity among cultivated species the rainforests of domestication. (Gessert 1997) Gessert describes ornamental gardens and botanical collections as varied, and full of kitsch plants, monstrosities, genetic follies, violent colors and shapes and alludes to the fact that these gardens of human creation are specifically as diverse as the flora of a rainforest, due to the reasoning that humans (gardeners) prize anomaly. Ornamental gardens exists and are proliferated strictly for their aesthetic qualities; Gessert suggests Certain kinds of uselessness free the spirit and provide a Sabbath for the senses in which the wonder of things, in themselves, confirms the goodness of being As the biophilia hypothesis asserts the need to connect with non-human life, ornamental gardens can serve as a symbol of nature, and perhaps they dont fulfill all of our biophilic needs, but they may play a part in establishing a connection for those who interact with them.
The human relationship with nature is one that exceeds any one persons understanding and the relationship exists as a philosophical question that has been asked
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(most likely) since man could form the question. There is a perspective that alludes to the idea that humans are as natural as a tree in a forest and our actions and the results of our actions (ie. urban environments) are inherently natural as well. This perspective would lead one to suggest that ideas such as biophilic urbanism are inherently a misuse of our efforts and as designers we should be working to advance a human dominated landscape. For the most part, plant and animal species are fundamentally self-centered creatures, which aligns with a survivalists perspective. Frederick Turner writes "it is entirely possible that the increase in carbon dioxide in our atmosphere will cause an increase in plant metabolism and world precipitation, and lead to an age of unparalleled natural fertility and species proliferation rather than an age of ecological catastrophe. Only the assumption that any change is unnatural makes us conclude that the greenhouse effect will be bad for the planet". (Turner 1994) Turner writes about sustainability in his crucial essay The Invented Landscape; he makes the point that sustainability is a concept invented by humans and is in many ways incongruent with natural process. Natural process is anything but sustainable. When considering evolution as the paramount of natural process; sustainability never would have yielded the diversity of species that have come to inhabit the earth. As Turner describes, sexual reproduction itself, which is of an utmost natural process, doesn't heed sustainability. Sexual reproduction elicits and requires variation. Simple asexual species that rely on cloning for reproduction fit the mold of sustainability; our nature, therefore, requires variation. (Turner 1994) Ideas of nature have been embedded in cultures since the advent of human societies. Cultures throughout history have identified themselves as a reflection of nature, as a piece of nature, or as an opposing
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force to nature and have manifested these concepts in religion, art, politics, philosophy and the like. (Spim 1997)
A popular school of thought amongst those involved in the shaping of the built environment is the notion of Landscape Urbanism. Landscape urbanism is the opinion that a city is an expression of varied, intermingled, complex forces that ultimately construct an urban environment a landscape as a manifestation of these forces, neither planned or prescribed but nonetheless generated as a process that might parallel those found in nature. (Corner 2003) Some tenets of Landscape Urbanism suggest that the manifestation of these forces could result in a concrete and steel riddled environment that is fundamentally acceptable because the urban environment results in a product-in-process that is as natural as any long lived healthy (or not) riparian ecosystem or old growth forest. The tenets of biophilic urbanism arent in direct opposition to the ideas behind landscape urbanism but ultimately the result of a city built upon the notions of biophilia strive to integrate as much of what landscape urbanism declares as out there nature into the built environment. James Corner describes a landscape urbanist as viewing a nascent urban environment as a thick, living mat of accumulated patches and layered system, with no singular authority or control.. .it escapes design.. .and planning.. .and this is not a weakness but a strength. (Corner 2003) The nature of a landscape urbanist perspective is exhibited in the process in which the construct of the city unfolds. Biophilic urbanism suggests that direct exposure to natural elements, be they kitschy, overly invented, or deliberate and artificial recreations of wild nature (ie. zoos, aquariums, botanic gardens), are beneficial to human health and well-bring, where as a city that might be subsisting as a living entity drenched in process, but without parks and similar places for respite, will be failing its citizens.
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Designing with nature has been at the forefront of the practice of the landscape architecture profession since its inception. In many ways, landscape architecture is the medium most apt to challenge the enigma of the connection between human and natural environments. Elizabeth Meyer writes in her essay, The Post-Earth Day Conundrum: Translating Environmental Values into Landscape Design, about the challenge that landscape architects face when confronting human-nature interface; and more specifically, the challenge of confronting form-generation with the consideration of natural ecologies and processes. Meyer poses the questions: How could one give form to dynamic processes and fluctuating systems but not resort to the modern design codes that privileged static, bounded, ideal objects in art and architecture and often relegating landscape to visual scenery, a stripped-down version of the pastoral?. Meyer notes a few contemporaries that have strived to break down the barriers between nature and the built environment. She cites notable landscape architects, Lawrence Halprin, Michael Van Valkenburg, Anne Whiston Spirn, and Ken smith as practitioners who have advocated constructing experiences and implicating natural systems of shaping landscape objects... [making] the landscape more visible...tangible, and palpable, and giving form to an experience], (Meyer 2000) These practitioners have been crucial in shaping the practice of landscape architecture, its role in providing natural experience in urban environments, and reinventing the practice as a manifestation of art, psychological experience, and both human and natural ecologies.
The Biophilia hypothesis is one that has gained traction since its inception in 1984, and practitioners that align with the hypothesis have generally not be critiqued for having been led astray in their understanding of human nature relationships. For this thesis
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project, I have examined the Biophilia Hypothesis, and entertained its notions, through a discussion that assumes the hypothesis as true. Therefore, the design that I am proposing assumes that the preservation of human-uninfluenced wilderness is essential, and maintaining a connection with nature is beneficial to human well-being at this point in the evolution of our species. This thesis suggests that one way in which urban-dwelling humans may be reminded of the value of nature and human-uninfluenced wilderness, on a day-to-day basis, is through design of the built environment. This could be accomplished by incorporating into the built environment approximations and elements of nature and human-uninfluenced environment, in order to replicate, distill, or estimate nature experience.
Design precedents
The concepts inherent in the notion of biophilia as discussed, allude to the potential for experiential natural elements embedded into our built environments to serve as the metaphorical bridge between our modem, concrete, urban environments and the nature that exists beyond. Ultimately, when natural elements are inserted into our built environments they are used as decoration or they occur on the fringe of everyday experience. There exists the question of whether or not a natural element inserted into the built environment (garden or otherwise), serves as an object or an experience. Put simply, when a pedestrian traveler walks by a natural element, the element is an object. In opposition to this, when a traveler walks through a natural element, the element becomes an environment and allows for a level of experience and interaction that otherwise may
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not occur. The goal of this thesis design is to create everyday experiential elements that serve to connect occupants, users, or pedestrian travelers, to the natural environment, by way of providing experiential occurrences that evoke feelings of being submersed in a natural environment.
Much of the tenets of biophilic design are not novel and because of the intrinsic human nature connection that exists in all societies, design elements that borrow from nature, connect with nature, or have some naturally inspired conditions exist in many capacities, intentional or otherwise. I have gathered a collection of precedents that I intend to use to ultimately inform the experiential and formal elements in this thesis design.
Figures 1 & 2. Moses Bridge, RO&AD Architect (Archdaily.com 2011)
The Moses Bridge, designed by RO&AD Architects and located in the Netherlands, is a great example of a simple biophilic design solution for a complex problem. [Figures 1 & 2] The bridge was designed to cross a former moat that fronted an abandoned military fort (Fort de Roovere). The architects realized that a typical bridge would be highly improper.. .especially on the side of the fortress the enemy was expected
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to appear on. Utilizing rot resistant Accoya wood lined with EPDM foil, the solution brings occupants down below the water level and provides a surreal experience for anyone crossing to the other side. (Archdaily.com 2011) The design is inherently biophilic in its use of predominantly natural materials and in the experiential act of symbolic immersion into the water.
Figures 3 & 4, Yokohama Port Project, FOA Architects (arcspace.com 2007)
The Yokohama port project, designed by FOA (Foreign Office Architects), blurs the lines between what is ground, wall, path, and structure. [Figure 3 & 4] The use of wood planking to construct a ground plane that dips, turns, and fades into structure invokes ideas of rolling hills and valleys. The design is biophilic in its use of materials, and the organic, life affirming shape and structure of the project. A traveler is able to watch the ground plane rise and fall and disappear into a wall or a bench. This echoes an undulating ground plane that might be witnessed in many human uninfluenced natural settings, (arcspace.com 2007
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Figures 5 & 6. The Blur, Diller Scofidio Architects (Designboom 2002)
The Blur, a pavilion by Diller Scofidio Architects that was part of the 6th Swiss National Exhibition, immerses visitors and occupants in an artificially generated cloud. [Figure 5 & 6] The pavilion is host to a vast network of spray jets that emit droplets of water vapor, from the lake on which it sits, at very high pressure. The spectacle has been a success and can be seen and experienced in all types of weather conditions. The experience also includes specialized raincoats, for up to 400 occupants (max capacity), that react to each other and indicate either positive or negative affinity between visitors through color changes and sound (Designboom 2002) Ultimately The Blur provides a unique biophilic experience by allowing visitors a distinct opportunity to sense what it might be like to sit in a cloud, and experience a part of the water cycle the process which is necessary for all life on earth.
The Interpolis Garden, designed by world renowned landscape architecture and urban design firm, West 8, includes a section of the landscape that celebrates the distinct texture of slate juxtaposed with flowering Dogwood shrub species. [Figure 7 & 8]
The specific area of the garden that is most biophilic in its design and use of materials, exhibits pieces of slate that are layered, mimicking a river bed or a geologic process on a
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micro scale. Within the layered slate, the opportunity exists for shrubs to pierce through cracks, creating a bosque that revels in texture, light, and shadow all distinct elements of natural landscapes. (West8 2014)
Figures 7 & 8. Interpolis Garden, West 8 Tillburg Netherlands (West8 2014)
The precedents described constitute a few design elements that I intend to incorporate into the design portion of this thesis. The design features that I consider biophilic in these cases, will ultimately help inform some of the experience that I intend to incorporate into the design intervention on the chosen site. (These features are discussed in the detailed design description) The site that is being used for this design problem is located amongst a burgeoning business district where the opportunity exists to create a biophilic pedestrian connection between a heavily trafficked underground metro stop and the entrance to the business district. The site is located in the Hongqiao Foreign Trade center and subsists as a flourishing international business district prevalent with design challenges
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CHAPTER II
A BIOPHILIC DESIGN
The Hongqiao Foreign Trade Center, Shanghai China
The Hongqiao FTC (Foreign Trade Center), Located in Shanghai, China, serves as the central business area for the Changning administrative district. Shanghai is composed of 17 districts, of which, 8 are considered Shanghai proper. The eight districts include the Huangpu District (JtME Huangpu Qu), Xuhui District (tlwL K; Xuhui Qu), Changning District, (]x:t!|X ; Changning Qu), Jingan District ; Jing'an Qu), Putuo District
( h ItiK Putuo Qu), Zhabei District (PJ-II/K; Zhabei Qu), Hongkou District (!i!l. P IX ; Hongkou Qu), and the Yangpu District (fti'ltl K; Yangpu Qu). [Figure 9] Each of the districts within Shanghai boast central business areas that would rival the size of most mid-size American cities, the Hongqiao FTC is one of six robust business districts within central Shanghai. [Figure 10] The Hongqiao FTC is located in Changning District, one of 8 central districts that compose Shanghai.
The Hongqiao area is host to many foreign businesses and has become a hotspot for foreign investment over the last two decades. The Hongqiao Foreign Trade Center sits on a footprint of only 3.15 square km2, but is home to 19 foreign consulates, 200+ foreign diplomats and a robust expatriate community of more than 20,000. (Changning Administrative District 2014) Population density of the district is substantially lower than the Huangpu District, the most central district of Shanghai proper, with only 1/3 of the residents. The population of Changning district is estimated to be at around 16,000 people
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per square mile. [Figure 11]
Figure 9. The Hongqiao FTC is located in Changning District, one of 8 central districts that compose Shanghai (Author)
Figure 10. The Hongqiao FTC is one of the six large business districts in Shanghai
(Author)
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Figure 11. The population of the Changning district is 1/3 of the most populous district in Shanghai (SBA 2008)
Changning District is host to the Hongqiao High-Speed Railway station, which serves as the newest, and most serviced, high-speed railway station in Shanghai. The Hongqiao FTC is serviced by two metro lines (Lines 3 and 10) and is positioned between Shanghais 1st and 2nd ring roads, which makes it easily accessible for commuters. [Figures 12, 13, 14],
Figure 12. The Hongqiao FTC is located between the inner ring road and ring road 2 (Author)
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Figures 13 & 14. Metro lines and roadways that service and bound the Hongqiao FTC (Author)
The general character of the area is a mix of commercial and residential high-rises, and more traditional dwellings fronted with commercial retail. The figure ground map illustrated below [Figure 15] unveils the general texture of the built environment showing the business district, composed of predominantly high-rise office buildings with large commercial podiums, sitting adjacent to Hongqiao Park. Blocks of 4-6 story apartment buildings that house residents in fairly dense quarters, which are typical of mid-century housing in Shanghai, fill in most of the area of the residential district.
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Residential
4-6 Storey Apartments Commercial Street frontage
Mixed
4-6 Storey Apartments Highrise Serviced Apartments Commercial Street frontage
Office
High rise Office buildings Commercial Podium
1 Kilometer
Figure 15. Hongqiao Character and land use (Author)
There is a fair amount of green space located within the district including a fairly substantial park (Hongqiao Park) and a smaller neighborhood green located just north of the high-rise district. [Figure 16] These two spaces are the primary means of park and green space access for the district. There are a number of smaller green spaces that exhibit much more of an urban character with highly manicured trees and shrubs bound by walls and fences. [Figure 17] Many of these green spaces are private and are located within gated high-rise residential living grounds.
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Figure 16 Primary green space (Author)
Figure 17 Secondary Green Space (Author)
1 Kilometer
1 Kilometer
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The majority of the streets in the district are lined with mature street trees (London Plane Tree Plcmtcmus x acerifolia) which amount to a robust canopy over the sidewalks and streets. [Figure 18 & 19] The Hongqiao district sits within close proximity to a variety of green space parks and nature themed commercial parks [Figure 20],
Figure 18 & 19. Street trees form a robust canopy over the streets and sidewalk (Author)
Figure 20 Distance to large parks and wildlife parks access to biophilic entities in the neighborhood (Author)
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Amongst the nature-oriented theme parks, the Shanghai Zoo is the furthest at 3.6 km, followed by Changfeng Ocean World and Changfeng Park at 2 km. Despite the controversy surrounding zoos and aquariums, these are both great attractions that serve to educate and expose residents to the specimens of the animal kingdom. The advantageous locations of these lend themselves to the area as distinct biophilic attributes and benefit the potential for exposure to nature for residents of the district as a whole. The area is also near Hongqiao River, Hongqiao River Park, and Zhongshan Parks, both 1.5 km away, the later of which is heralded as one of the most visited and notable green space parks in Shanghai.
The Hongqiao FTC was master planned by SB A and includes visions for an expanded business district that would then meld into a burgeoning mixed-use development zone. Construction is underway on a few of the landmark buildings in the district and generally the area is slated for urban renovations. The Master Plan highlights the potential for walking connections through the district and two axes that run north and south through the district. The master plan also includes strategies to create an extensive underground network that connects many of the landmark buildings with underground parking.
[Figure 21]
The Master Plan intends to revitalize the district and capitalize on the already vigorous international business that permeates the local culture. The Master Plan speaks to the potential for a green district, rife with green roofs, walking networks and public transportation connections all characteristics similar to those described in the eco-city literature. The Master Plan falls short in its attempt to describe how the district plans to cultivate the capacity for people to engage with nature beyond the extent of the formal
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park space. Despite the alluring renderings dotted with green-colored buildings, [Figure 22] detail is lacking in how the district might facilitate nature engagement.
Walking y* Connections
Pedestrian
Area
Underground Connections
New Mixed Use Zone
Office
Commercial Metro Station
Figure 21. Proposed pedestrian connections throughout the district (SBA2008)
Figure 22. SBA vision for the Hongqiao District (SB A 2008)
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In response to the Master Plan and the general make-up of the Hongqiao District, there is opportunity to reinvent how urban residents might interact with natural elements that would serve to help fulfill some of the tenets of the biophilia hypothesis. As described previously in this paper, urban residents living in an eco-conscious urban environment, need adequate exposure to nature in order to potentially heighten general happiness and well-being. Nature inserted into the urban environment also serves to remind residents on a daily basis the value of the natural world. Timothy Beatley describes the conundrum with urban living and boils it down to the basic question asking: how can someone love what they dont know; how can someone be charged to protect and conserve something that they dont know the name of. (Beatley 2011) Beatley is referring to that something as the natural world and uses this anecdote to set up his argument for the value of nature instilled in the urban environment. Pedestrian connections through an urban environment are important in locally connecting an area and building a framework between buildings. These pedestrian routes serve as an opportunity to instill biophilic elements into the built environment in order for the denizens to interact with nature through the process of engaging sensory experience and providing for opportunity to remove a walking traveler from the binds of the typical concrete and asphalt urban floor.
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Detailed Design
The design solution is one that serves to instill a variety of natural elements along the course of a path. The path could potentially allow for positive experience in an environment inspired by natural elements, in an effort to satisfy the tenets of the biophilia hypothesis. The Hongqiao FTC is served by a Metro line that stops on the Southern edge of Hongqiao Park; in order to reach the core of the business district, a walking pedestrian is required to walk through the park, travel under an eight-lane overpass and cross an eight-lane at-grade highway. [Figure 23]
Hongqiao FTC Business District
Hongqiao Park
!Normal route
After hours route
Line 10 -Yili Rd Merro Stop
Figure 23. Existing pedestrian routes from local metro stop to the central business district (Author)
Walking through the park is a delightful departure from a typical pedestrian route through a city, but as soon as a traveler reaches the edge of the park they are confronted
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with having to traverse vehicle infrastructure that is dull, loud, and polluting. Typical of most parks in Shanghai, Hongqiao Park closes in the evenings at 5:00 pm (17:00), requiring pedestrians to walk around the park after hours. This alternative path around the park entails walking alongside the eight-lane at-grade highway and underneath an overpass at a 5-way intersection, as there is no alternative to access the metro station from the business district after 5:00 pm (17:00). These conditions have framed the design and design intent.
In order to solve the problem of being able to traverse the park at all hours, including passing under and over existing vehicle infrastructure, I am proposing a pedestrian connection from the Metro stop to the core of the Hongqiao FTC. The path will ultimately be bound by the park, traverse through a unique, biophilic, under-bridge experience, travel over a pedestrian bridge, and finally land in a biophilic streetscape that serves to welcome pedestrian travelers into the center of the business district.
There are unique conditions and experiences inherent and available in traversing a path through a built environment. In this case, the path that I am proposing will serve as the compulsory route from the Yili Rd metro stop to the core of the Hongqiao FTC. As the easiest and most direct route, traveling pedestrians are required to engage with the environment on some level, with simply walking through as the most basic. The path is one that ultimately allows for movement through a landscape, it allows for experience, and serves as a device, in this case, for unfolding the secrets of nature along the course of travel. The path serves as an ideal intervention in an established built environment by existing as a narrow plot of land, traversing and intersecting with existing infrastructure. It is important to demarcate the importance of the path in providing a biophilic experience as
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opposed to a park, or another, more static intervention. A park serves as a destination, used primarily for recreation, exercise, & leisure. Typical of many cities, parks are not often integrated into the built environment and exist as an isolated entity. Their value is not undermined by an intervention such as the one Im proposing, but a parks utility is different in that they are not woven into the urban fabric. An intervention such as an expanded artificial wetland park, or an invented old growth forest wouldnt be feasibly fit into the current context of a well established, dynamic, dense urban framework. The value of the path in this case, is that it solves the problem of traversing the existing park at all hours, meanders underneath and existing overpass, over an at-grade highway, and into the core of the urban district (as a streetscape) while providing a cadence and rhythm in its experiential qualities
The formal elements of the proposed intervention are inspired by the shapes and patterns present in a Ginko Leaf {Ginkgo biloba), the Maidenhair tree. [Figure 24] Native to China, the Ginko is the sole member of the botanical family Ginkgoaceae, and is considered a living fossil with specimens alive today estimated to be up to 1,000 to 3,000 years old. (Y. Zhao et al. 2010) The Ginko has a distinct and unique leaf pattern from which the simplest formal elements are distilled and extracted. [Figure 24] The venation radiates from the center of the leaf (the pedicle) and fan outward to meet the curvy irregular edge of the leaf.
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Figure 24. Early collage realizing the Ginko leaf as grafted on the site
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There is a simplistic beauty in the structure of the leaf that serves to inform the shapes and patterns of the intervention on the site. The forms of the Ginko leaf are stretched, twisted, and grafted onto the site to provide a cadence and pattern throughout the constituents of the design. The forms serve to inform both the structure of the ground plane and the form of the pedestrian bridge. [Figures 25, 26, 27]
Figure 25. The unique formal elements of the Ginko leaf extracted to inform the formal elements of the design
Figure 26. Formal elements that compose the design intervention
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Figure 27. Formal elements inspired by the Ginko, grafted onto the site
Figure 28. Site and design in plan
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The Ginko leaf exists as a device that informs the shape and structure of the ground plane. The Ginko leaf is already a device that connects the attending culture to nature, but it is being used, in this design, to approximate a form through a means of drawing and representation. As illustrated, the extracted form, allows the drawing of the leaf to serve as a vehicle of interpretation. As James Corner suggests in his essay, Drawing and Making .. .drawings are only strategies, their primary work is a critical response to something. In this case, the critical response is the extraction of the inherent forms, and their use to inform the structure of the design. Corner goes on to say [drawings],. .are not grounds for justification, falsely legitimizing the project simply because of their perceived magic; the use of the Ginko leaf isnt a means of justifying the formal elements, but a source of inspiration grounded in tradition. Comer also suggests, The power of abstraction in drawing is simply to discover new ground, to gain insight, not obfuscate, nor justify a project. The abstraction of the Ginko leaf serves as a suggestion of form, an approximation of lines and shapes derived from nature, but not a justification for the legitimacy of the proposed intervention.
The Ginko leaf is iconic in its qualities, but also serves a practical function for a Ginko biloba tree. The leaf is the food factory for the tree, and also functions to convey water through the trees transpiration process. These qualities are extracted, and inform the functional aspects of the design implementation. Ultimately the design intervention is a means to move people from point A to point B, but it also provides valuable experience that transcends the intervention beyond a simple path. The path conveys people, but also works to convey storm water through the implementation of rain gardens, subterranean channels and culverts, and constructed wetlands along the course of its path. Though,
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ultimately, the patterns extracted from the Ginko leaf inform a procession through the site that serves as the intended primary pedestrian path connecting the Metro station with the center of the Hongqiao FTC. The path exists as a procession through a variety of nature-inspired environments, which include a forest edge (meadow), a lake, a cave (digital fores), a bamboo forest, and finally a forest floor, as the path leads to the center of the business district. [Figure 28]
The beginning of the path, extending through the park, is bound by walls in order to allow the park to close at 5:00 PM (17:00) and still provide access through the park at all hours. The path initially begins with a set of stairs and ramps that bring pedestrians down into the beginning of the processional biophilic experience. As soon as a traveler ascends the stairs they are immersed underneath a canopy of shade trees and un-walled gardens. [Figure 29] This part of the procession invokes the forest edge, a meadow transitioning into a lush deciduous forest.
Figure 29. The path procession through a variety of nature inspired environments
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Figure 30. The Procession through the park begins with descending staircases and ramps into an approximation of a forest, or meadow, which begins the experiential biophilic procession (Author)
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The ground-plane along the path is fractured along lines that correspond to the formal elements derived from the Ginko leaf; a mixture of substrate and gravel fill these fractures and allow for grasses, wildflowers and other volunteer specimens to grow. These cracks in the ground-plane intersect with a typical travelers path and allow for the formation of social-paths, where due to foot traffic, the vegetation doesnt flourish. [Figure 30] The vegetation in these paths allows for the illusion of walking through a forest, or meadow, where a traveler is forced to navigate the vegetation that would be growing in a similar natural setting. This effect is achieved while maintaining a navigable, smooth, paved surface. The experiential element of walking through wild nature is intended to be maintained, as the vegetative elements are not bound by edges and exist as experiential elements as opposed to objects in the landscape. [Figure 31]
A pedestrian traveling through this part of the intervention will be immersed in an invented naturalistic landscape; they will be listening to the leaves rustling through the trees, smelling wetted tree bark and aromatic flowering shrubs, experiencing the dappled shade of the forest, and feeling grasses and stemmy shrubs brushing against their knees.
Figure 31. Beginning of the experiential biophilic path meadow and forest edge (Author)
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Figure 32. Along the path the lake and water inspired elements through Hongqiao Park (Author)
As the pedestrian traveler moves further along the path they encounter the lake-inspired elements of the design intervention. Inspired by the Moses Bridge, this part of the path splits the lake, and immerses a traveler in the surreal experience of walking through the middle of a body of water. [Figure 32] This part of the biophilic experience allows a pedestrian traveler to engage with the waters edge, as the path is 4 ft. below the surface of the water. As the traveler moves along the path they are engrossed by the sounds of falling water as fountain elements along the path metaphorically break the edge of the wall and allow water to spill into planters. The water-planters are rife with marginal vegetation that provide habitat for small amphibians and insects. Travelers are able to walk along the path up against the wall and dip their hands in the lake, smell the algae and the scents of a biologically salubrious body of water, view lush stands of Lotus, (Nelumbo locifera), Water lilies (Nymphcieci species), and other aquatic vegetative species.[Figure 33]
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________Y
~ r' y ,
Figure 33. Travelers along the path are immersed in the lake and surrounded by the sound of falling water, witness to diverse aquatic habitat, and offered striking views of the waterscape and surrounding landscape (Author)
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As a traveler is metaphorically submersed in the middle of the lake they are provided with unique views across the water that celebrate the form and structure of heavily planted Willow stands and a backdrop of the urban forest that composes Hongqiao Park. [Figure 34]
Figure 34. Views across the lake (Author)
The path continues past the lake and through a wetland area that continues to capitalize on the naturalistic, biophilic elements that were present in the marginal planters along the lake path. The wetlands are home to a number of marginal, native, wetland species that provide critical habitat for urban amphibians and insects. The wetlands in this leg of the procession serve as functional filters for urban run-off before the water enters the lake. The wetlands reach underneath the overpass and extend along the at-grade highway in either direction with the intent to collect water from adjacent pavement.
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The wetland area serves as the transition on the biophilic path into the area under the highway overpass that serves as a biophilic approximation of a cave. [Figure 35] In order to prevent passage into the park after hours, a gated fence inspired by the forms of grasses and reeds blowing in the wind, line the wetland area and serve as another
component of the design that invokes natural forms and structure.
Figure 35. Wetlands, cave and digital forest areas underneath the elevated highway overpass
The area under the overpass is intended to capitalize on the ever-present shade and atmospheric moisture that results from the adjoining wetlands. Inspired by The Blur, misters and wind-powered high-pressure jets emit droplets of water that engulf the area in a fog that periodically starts and stops, and responds to air currents and human presence. Climbing plant species, that are given the conditions to flourish on the highway overpass, sprout aerial roots that stretch down in their attempt to capitalize on the moist and humid conditions underneath. The fog generated underneath the overpass, coupled with the span of surfaces above and below, allow for the potential inclusion of a
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combination of dramatic lighting and graphic projections. The lighting and projections are intended to elicit the representation of a variety of natural phenomenon that are otherwise impossible to witness in an urban environment. Graphic projections might incorporate images and light-representations of the northern lights (aurora borealis), a high-mountain star-studded landscape, or rays of sunlight refracting through dense glacial ice caves. [Figures 36, 37, 38 ] The area under the overpass would ideally be witnessed after-dark in order to amplify the lighting effects and projections. Despite the area being best experienced at night, the inclusion of robust shade tree species in planters adjacent to the overpass will create shaded conditions during the day and allow the lighting and projections to be witnessed during daylight hours. [Figure 39]
Figures 36, 37, 38. Graphic images that might serve as inspiration for projections and lighting effects under the overpass (Porter 2013) (Gustavo 2014) (Yardley 2013)
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Figure 39. The area under the overpass is full of surfaces on which to display dramatic biophilic lighting effects and graphic projections, creating a digital forest and capitalizing on the possibility of invented natural experience.
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The design interventions under the overpass would create an intimate, but otherworldly, experience in the landscape that would be unique and have the potential to serve as an experiential landmark in the district. The space would serve as the threshold between the park and the rest of the urban environment. [Figure 40] A staircase and ramp would be accessible from under the elevated highway to allow pedestrian travelers access to the pedestrian bridge, which crosses over the at-grade highway. The experience of climbing the stairs would elicit the approximation of emerging from the misty cave and entering into a lush bamboo forest. The pedestrian bridge then serves as the connection over the at-grade highway and offers a distinct experience of navigating a dense bamboo forest that has been raised 17 feet (5.2 meters). [Figure 41]
Figure 40. The Bamboo forest exists as the next experiential element along the path
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Figure 41. The pedestrian bridge, an approximation of a bamboo forest, raised 17 ft above the at-grade highway, connects the park with the Hongqiao FTC
The pedestrian bridge attempts to channel an immersive jungle forest rampant with varied stands of bamboo and overhead climbing plants that create a canopy overhead. The ground plane is inspired by the Yokohama port project, not in its use of materials, but in its undulating surfaces that blur the line between what is path and what is not. The ground is intended to be covered in natural-cut, slate-like stone that allows for a navigable path within a field of stones that mounds and undulates and breaks apart to allow for the stands of bamboo to grow. This feature of the project invokes the biophilic elements present in the West8 project, The Interpolis Garden, but translates this intervention onto a heaving surface that also allows for a pathway. [Figure 42]
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Figure 42. Atop the pedestrian bridge, in a rainstorm, realizing the undulating ground plane, bamboo forest, engrossed in the tree canopy along the ramps, and the distinct and experiential attributes of the biophilic intervention.
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The bridge is constructed in a modified suspension-bridge style, with two arching supports that span beyond the structure and land in planters on ground level. The arching supports secure cables that attach to the internal structure of the bridge and allow for climbing plant species to grow. In effect, the cable structure and climbing plant species form a canopy that furthers the experience of emersion for a traveler atop the bridge. The bridge extends arm-like ramps and a staircase into the streetscape below that serve to provide a traveler the biophilic experience of gradually descending into a tree canopy, as the street trees engulf the stairs and ramps in the tree crowns. The stairs and ramps then descend into the streetscape, which serves as a biophilic approximation of the forest floor. [Figure 43]
Figure 43. The forest floor streetscape, the final biophilic element along the commuters procession
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The Ginko-leaf-form inspired sidewalk planters meander along the right-of-way and re-structure how a traveler might continue along a sidewalk path. The below-grade planters are intersected by swaths of earth and rock that protrude into the sidewalk and also allow for grasses, low shrubs, and natural textures and materials to infiltrate the travelers experience. The swaths of earth and rock are a continuation of the undulating ground plane that exists on the pedestrian bridge, however, they are restructured to fit into the context of a streetscape. [Figure 44] The below grade planters double as bioswales and serve to collect run-off and channel water below grade, under the at-grade highway, and finally into the constructed wetlands that front the park.
Figure 44. The form and context of the forest floor inspired streetscape
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The streetscape serves as the transition between the biophilic procession and the core of the Hongqiao FTC. This part of the intervention allows for a soft-edge on the street and against the high-rises that line this part of the district. [Figure 45] This soft-edge is achieved in the streetscape while maintaining the naturalistic and biophilic elements that define the intervention. At this point, a traveler has made it to the core of the district, and ideally will be able to conduct their business for the day within the FTC and will then revel in their chance to experience the biophilic path on their return trip back to catch the Metro on their commute home.
The design intervention exists as a performance landscape in its potential ability to connect a traveler with nature, natural experience, and distilled approximations of natural environments. The agency of the path is one that allows for a distinct biophilic experience that could potentially add significant value to an ecologically minded district by further connecting a resident to abstracts of nature. The path also exists as a performance landscape in its ability to capture, convey and treat storm water. [Figure 46] As mentioned, along the course of the path, swales and constructed wetlands echo the function of the Ginko Leaf and move water through the site. The design intervention capitalizes on the presence of water in the site through the invented wetlands, nature inspired fountains, and the encouragement of flora and fauna adapted to water environments.
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Figure 45. Within the streetscape, facing the pedestrian bridge. A traveler is immersed in an approximation of a forest floor, as rain gardens pierce the sidewalk and swaths of rock, moss and grasses intersect with a travelers path
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The bio-swales and rain gardens collect runoff from the core of the Hongqiao FTC; the bio-swales are connected to constructed wetlands across the at-grade highway via underground conveyance pipes. Run-off is strategically diverted into the adjacent lake that is bound by flat land designed to capture floodwaters, or carried to water storage tanks below the path. The water storage tanks work to keep rain waters from flooding the path but also service fountain elements along the course of the path by pumping stored water over invented naturalistic waterfalls. The waterfalls serve to metaphorically break the edge of the lake and surround a traveler in the sound of falling water and the smells and sights of a water rich landscape. The waterfall/fountains serve to aerate water that is then pumped back into the lake providing oxygen rich water to the local aquatic life.
The design instills the idea of thresholds into the experiential process of traveling along the intended path. These thresholds serve as an estimate of a natural experience as much as walking through a cloud or a bamboo forest might accomplish on their own. The varied stimuli encountered along the path the experiential thresholds breached invoke the processes and feelings one of experience as a result of any walk through a natural landscape walk through. A commuter is confronted with a story, a story of nature, or a story of invented natural experience with a both beginning and an end.
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Storm run off is collected in rain gardens where the water is treated. Overflow is channeled underground, daylighting in a constructed wetland that abuts the adjacent lake.
Flooding is mitigated on the path by underground storage tanks that collect run-off through drains on the path
Water collected in the storage tanks is pumped through fountain/waterfall elements along the path that mimic natural waterfalls and "break" the edge of the lake. The water is aerated and filtered in this process and then pumped back into the lake
Figure 46. The performance aspects of the landscape demonstrated through its unique water cycle (Author)
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The design exists as a dance and a procession through the landscape that has the potential to elicit varied experience and confront a traveler with a variety of stimuli along their path. Innate in the elements included in the intervention are potentials for natural process to be exemplified along the course of the path. A traveler experiencing the path for the first time might be awed by the prospect of commuting on a path immersed in a lake that is strewn with rocks and logs littered with basking turtles, or they might be overwhelmed with the moisture, fog, and light-scapes generated under the bridge and subsequently revel in the process of emerging through the clouds into the bamboo forested pedestrian bridge; however, a commuter utilizing this route every morning and night will be able to watch the swales collect with water and elicit a fanfare of springtime vegetation, and the commuter will be able to experience the process of wetland vegetation becoming browned and dormant as the lake generates a thin layer of ice crystals in the winter. These experiences and elements are those that provide the design with its biophilic value and serve to further connect a traveler along the path with the natural environment.
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CHAPTER III
CONCLUSION
The proposed intervention is one that is inspired by the need to introduce and instill elements of distilled nature into low-carbon and eco-city planning ideals in order to fulfill the crucial human requirement of sustainable urban design. The design aims to inspire feelings and experiences that mimic similar feelings and experiences had in natural settings. The project suggests what could be, and does not attempt to solve the problem of resource-consuming urban living, but exists as an attempt to help connect a traveler, commuter, or resident to a nature inspired experience in an effort to contextualize their urban existence.
The thesis begins with a discussion of urbanization and the mass influx of people into urban environments in Chinese cities. A harsh reality is that the majority of these peoples are migrating from rural areas where connections to nature were inherently engrained in their everyday existence, and they are now being relocated to living conditions that are inherently disconnected from nature. Many of these rural to urban transplants were once farmers that have been uprooted and forced to live in newly formed cities and towns, and in response to their new lifestyles living in residential towers, a term, biesi, which means stifled to death, is becoming all too common. (Ong 2013)
Ong, describes a museum in one of the newly formed townships near Tianjin that was a recreation of the vernacular that the towns people once knew. Ong describes the museum as Filled with full-scale dioramas of village homes and human figures, it was a
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re-creation of the old village life, accurate down to the dried corn hanging from the eaves. (Ong 2013) Ongs report concludes by describing a plaque in the museum that reads: Time goes by, and things change.
The forced relocation of rural residents is ultimately for the success of the country and initiated in attempt to solve problems related to food production, population management, and general modernization of the Country as a whole. Unfortunately, the reality is that some of these efforts are creating more problems than were anticipated in the initial planning efforts. (Ong 2013) Much of this thesis suggests the creation of a new vernacular through the integration of eco-cities, high-technological design, and the necessity for biophilic design integrated into urban environments. Though the inclusion of a new status quo is alluring on the surface, planners and architects must be sensitive to the inherent needs of peoples, especially those that are accustomed to much different lifestyles. This proposal does not explicitly address the cultural needs of tens of millions of relocated rural inhabitants, but suggests how urban environments, whether they be new towns, or cities like Shanghai that hold a rich history, might adapt to the need for more ecologically sound urban design that include biophilic experiences.
The proposal of a new vernacular is one that is intended to operate in an existing or newly built environment while reflecting and complimenting the proposed urban constructs of the eco-city. Ultimately, the concept of the eco-city has been invented to respond to current urban environments that are deemed not fit to exist harmoniously with the natural world and biophilic design fits within the construct of the newly fathomed eco-cities. This proposal is an extension of how the current planning and design literature suggests an eco-city may function and how an eco-city, or generally, cities of the future,
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may be. Frederick Turner states Every major art form exists within a tradition, a context of prior practice that serves as the inspiration and raw material of the artists conceptions. (Turner 1994) When considering the vernacular in spatial design, practitioners look to the traditional forms and functions as either inspiration or a point of departure. In the case of this design proposal, the form and structure of the intervention draws from elements of modern design, (which is becoming the vernacular in globalizing a city like Shanghai) while the function and meaning happens as a suggestion of the making of a new tradition.
The intervention might fall into the category of Chinese Experimental Architecture (shiyan jianzhu), as described by critics, and embraced in Tongji Universitys publication, Time & Architecture (Shidai Jianzhu). (Ding 2014) Experimental architecture generally describes a challenge of the dominant ideology...by offering an alternative experience visual, tactile and spatial (Ding 2014) The proposed design intervention challenges the dominant ideology by suggesting that current urban landscapes, in Shanghai and elsewhere, do not function to the best of their ability, and the space between buildings, coupled with the interstitial space between urban utilitarian infrastructure, can potentially serve as a canvas on which to contribute a reinvention of urban experience. The submission is one that is then justified by the Biophilia Hypothesis and suggests that one approach in which we can work with the less-than-optimal current urban construct is by creating, and inventing, experience that is functional in establishing human-serving environments ultimately to help the city exist in concord with the natural world (the city as a construct of humans and infrastructure). By denying the status quo, landscape designers can radically re-conceive of urban landscapes that might function as a tool for connecting with the marvels and intrigue of the phenomena, processes, detail,
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or visual and experiential mementos that nature offers.
The project aims to inspire and serve as a precedent for an overall reinvention of how urban dwellers interact with their environment on a day-to-day basis. Shanghai is host to one of the latest and most extensive metro systems in the world, and facilitates walking-transportation by way of well-connected urban transport between living and working districts. Pedestrian bridges span large intersections and at-grade highways throughout the city and serve as existing pieces of circulation infrastructure that hold the potential for inclusion of biophilic experience. The pedestrian bridges hold the singular function of allowing pedestrians to cross a right-of-way in a safe manner. With the addition of green-roof technologies, and the integration of adaptive re-engineering, these pedestrian overpasses could serve as experiential elements throughout the citys transportation grid. Pedestrian travelers could potentially experience elements of creative distilled nature at every turn, without having to restructure the existing urban grid. The pedestrian bridges are an already-in-place mechanism from which biophilic-inspired design elements could enrich the pedestrian experience. The bridges could function as increased habitat for Shanghais copious bird populations while serving as platforms for diverse botanical intrigue. A network of greened pedestrian bridges would also help to manage micro-climate heat island conditions as well as soften the visual expression of the city.
The prosed design intervention, in the style of a design thesis, is a means to test a hypothesis by way of scholarly inquiry, and in this case, the potential for biophilic design in ecological urban contexts. The design proposal is one that is very heavy handed, in the sense that in order to install an intervention of this scale and impact would
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altruistic agenda. These components; humans, technology, design, must operate in ecological accord in order to fulfill the requirements integral to the concept of the eco-city. The Biophilia hypothesis suggests that part of establishing health and happiness in the everyday lives of citizens; a connection to nature is crucial. Part of this connection to nature inherently elicits a greater love and appreciation for the natural world, which then predicts more environmentally altruistic behavior. The experience of nature is crucial to valuing nature, valuing nature (both individually, and as a community whole) is crucial to the success of the eco-city concept. The cycle is iterative and self-fulfilling but requires investment in an urban environment that nurtures the human condition by way of establishing a biophilic connection with the natural world.
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Full Text

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A BIOPHILIC LANDSCAPE DESIGN IN SHANGHAI, CHINA By KYLE SAYLOR HOPKINS B.S., The Ohio State University, 2009 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements f or the degree of Master of Landscape Architecture Landscape Architecture 2014

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ii This t hesis for the Master of Landscape Architecture degree by Kyle Saylor Hopkins h as been approved for the Landscape Architecture Program Joern Langhorst Chair Weizhen Chen Anthony Mazzeo Lois Brink July 24, 2014

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iii Hopkins, Kyle S. ( MLA, Landscape Architecture ) A Biophilic Landscape Design in Shanghai, China Thesis directed by Professor Joern Langhorst ABSTRACT As a result of worldwide urbanization we are transitioning to an age in which the majority of the world s peoples will be living in urban areas ; we must recognize and address the fact that the majority of the worlds population will then be livin g in polluting environmentally unstable environ ments As China and other nations are urbanizing it will require an effort on the part of urban designers, planners, and landsca pe architects to accommodate new ecologically sound ideals into the landscape Much of the advancement in establishing ecologi cally sound urban living has been developed around the concept of an Eco city The ideals of an Eco c ity suggest that i n order to preserve quality of life in a sustainable manner, there needs to be balance between access to nature, reduced resource cons umption, density management, a nd human environmental impacts. I n the short time that human societies have existed in urban environments, human biology hasn't changed enough to facilitate livelihoods that are sev ered from natural environments. In order to fulfill the criterion suggested by the tenets of the eco city or any ecologically minded urban context urban residents need to be connected to the natural environment. The innate need for human be ings to interact with nature to ensure health and well b eing is c alled the Biophilia hypothesis. B iophilic urbanism (generated from tenets of the Biophilia H ypothesis) has been developed as a theoretical framework that incorpora tes concepts of B iophilia into new urban planning and landscape architectural model s. The

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iv application of B iophilic design facilitates increased physical and physiological health, economic benefits, and overall advantages within cities that have incorporated a variety of natural elements into their built environments. (Beatley 2011) In support of ecological urban d esign (eco cities) and the principles of biophilic urbanism t his thesis proposes a suggestion of a new urban landscape vernacular that embrac es notions of distilled nature The design encompasses a B iophilic pedestrian connection be tween a metro stop and the center of the Hongqiao Foreign Trade district in Shanghai, China. The proposed intervention suggests how the tenets of biophilia might be realized in a rapidly transforming high density urban environment. The form an d content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: Joern Langhorst

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v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work is dedicated to my parents, Jill and John Hopkins, for their unwavering support and guidance throughout my educational pursuits.

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vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. URBANIZATION, ECO CITIES AND BIOPHILIC DESIG N................. ................. 1 Urbanization ................................................................................................................. 1 Urbanization and growth in China .................................................. .............. 1 I mpacts of urbanization and growth in China ............................................... 4 Eco cities ...................................................................................................................... 7 Ecological urban d esign (eco cities) strategies, and eco cities in China ... .. 7 Landscape A rchitecture and eco citie s........................................................ 17 Biophilia ....................................................................................... ..............................20 O rig ins of, and support for, the Biophilia H ypothesis ............................. ....20 Biophil ia, nature, and d esign .................................................................. .. ... 31 Design precedents ........................................................................................ 42 II. A BIOPHILIC DESIGN ....................................................................... ................... 47 The Hongqiao Foreign Trade Center, Shanghai C hina ............................................ 47 D etailed design ........................................................................................................ 57 III. CONCLUSION .............................................................. ........................................ 82 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................... 89

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vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 Stephen Kellerts' Elements and Attributes of biophilic Design ..............................35

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viii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURES 1. Moses Bridge, RO&AD Architects................................... ........ ..............................43 2 Moses Bridge, RO&AD Architects........................................... ..............................43 3 Yokohama Port Project, FOA Architects................................................ ................4 4 4 Yokohama Port Project, FOA Architects. .................. ............... ..............................44 5 The Blur, Diller Scofido Architects..... .................................................................... 45 6 The Blur, Diller Scofido Arch itects......................................................................... 45 7 Interpolis Garden, West8.........................................................................................46 8 Interpolis Garden, West8............................ .............................................................46 9 The Hongqiao FTC .................................................................................................48 1 0 Business Districts in Shanghai....... ............................... ......................... .................48 11 Changning District Population C omparison.... ................... ....... ..............................49 12 Hongqiao FTC and Shanghai Ring Roads ................................ ..............................50 1 3 Metro Lines N ear Hongqiao FTC.......... ............................... .................................. 50 14. Major Roadways Near Hongqiao FTC............... ..................... ............................... 50 15 Hongqiao Character and Landu se... ..................... ..................... ..............................51 1 6 Primary Green Space...................... ........................................... ..............................52 17 Secondary Green Space ................................... ..................... ...................................52 18 Street Tree Character in Hongqiao FTC ............................................................ ......53 19 Street Tree Character in Hongqiao FTC.............................................. ....................53 20 Distance to Large Parks and Wildlife P arks..... ................ ........... ..... ......................53 21 Proposed Pedestrian Connections........... ........................................... .....................55 22 SBA Vis ion of Hongqiao FTC........ .......................................... ...............................5 5

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ix 2 3 Pedestrian Routes From Local Metro S top......... ....... ............... ..............................57 24 Early Collage R ealizing Ginko Leaf as Graf ted on the Site......... . .........................60 25 Unique Formal Elements of Ginko Leaf E xtracted.... ................... ........ ..................61 2 6 Formal Elements that Compose the Design I ntervention...... ...... ........ ....................61 2 7 Formal Elements Inspired by the Ginko, Grafted on the S ite.... ........... .................62 28 Site and Design in Plan.................. ........................................... ..............................62 2 9 The Path Procession............... ........ ........................................... ..............................64 3 0 RE NDERING: Through the Park: The Beginning of the Procession.............. .......65 3 1 RENDERING: Beginning of the Procession; Forest E dge.... ........... .............. ........66 3 2 Along the Path: The L ake ............................. ......................................... ..................67 3 3 RENDERING: Emersion in the Lake Pathway...................... .. ..............................68 34 View A cross the lake. ....................... ........................ ................. ..............................69 35 Along the Path: Wetlands, Cave and "Digital F orest" ........... ...... ............................70 36 Graphic Image: S tarscape ............................ ........................ ...... ..............................71 37 Graphic Image: I ce cave.......................................................................................... 71 38 Graphic Image: Northern L ights................ ....................... ...... ................................71 3 9 RENDERING: Under the B ridge....... ............................... ......................................72 40 Along the Path: Bamboo Pedestrian Bridge............. ...............................................73 41 The Pedestrian B ridge ........................... ............................................. .....................74 42 RENDERING: Bamboo Pedestrian Bridge.............................................................75 43 Along the Path: Streetscape "The Forest Floor"............ ........................................ 76 44 Form and Context of Streetscape... ................................................................ .........77 45 RENDERING: Streetscape......................................... .............................................79

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x 46 RENDERING: Performance Landscape: S to rmwater Management.......... .............81

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1 CHAPTER I URBANIZATION, ECO CITIES AND BIOPHILIC DESIGN Urbanization U rbanization and growth in Ch ina Global populations are continuing to grow and developing countries are urbanizing at an ever increasing pace. It is predicted that soon, 80% of urban dwellers will be living in developing countries (Dao 2002) These emerging nat ions are experiencing large population shifts as a result of rural inhabit ants flocking to urban centers and th is rapid trend of resettlement lies primarily in the promise of improved livelihoods and an increase in economic opportunities. If the current r ural to urban migration trends continue, it will mean that 65% of the world's populations will reside in urban centers by the year 2025. (Pacione 2012) China, standing as the world's preeminent developing country, ha s witnessed a rate of urbanization unrivaled throughout history. China saw an increase in the number of sizeable cities jump from 190 metropolises in the 1980's to 660 cities in 2003; this number includes nearly 170 of these cities as host to over 1 milli on people. As of June 2013, China unveiled plans to relocate 250 million people into newly constructed urban settlements over the next 12 years. (S. Zhao et al. 2006) This rash pace of urbanization is forcing Chinese citizens into very high density living conditions, often against their own will, and at a stark contrast to anything they have ever known. Beginning with the onset of China's Open Door policy in 1978, economic

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2 development, urbanization, and growth of the built environment took off. This rapid pace of growth, generally, has not decreased as Chinas' built environment continues to expand. In the 1990's China reformed its economic policy from a Socialist economy to a Market economy, which encouraged a new wave of unprecedented growth from investment by both foreign and domestic investors. (Xue, Wang, and Tsai 2013) In Shanghai alone, foreign invest ment jumped from 759 Million (US) in 1985 to over 15 Billion (US) in 1996; this huge ten year increase also included foreign contracts numbering in the thousands. (Wu 2000) By the early 2000's, foreign and domestic investors combined, were investing nearly 100 billion US Dollars in the Chinese civil infrastructure and building industry. (Xue, Wang, and Tsai 2013) Currently there are nearly 200 cities in China that deem themselves "international metropolises" and continue to pu sh fo r the ideal of the vibrant city comprised central business districts (CBD) that bring in international culture and business. Chinas growth has been fueled by many factors, but the way in which the country operates has played a critical role in its unpreced ented growth. There is a stark difference between western governments and Chinese governments in implementing development policy; the difference was described by Zhao Yanjin in the publication The Economic Thinking of Urban Planning ; the difference of Chi nese municipal government and that of western countries is that the Chinese government is a developer while the city government of western countries is more like a property management company, emp loyed by citizens. The mu nicipal government in China is n ot employed by the citizens, its main goal is to compete with other cities, instea d of maximizing public welfare." (Xue, Wang, and Tsai 2013) The swift pace that has been so successful in generating an economical world

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3 leader in China has also been omnipresent in the design and construction industry. The rapid pace of constr uction thr oughout China has manifested itself in the occurrence of Chinese ghost towns, failing infrastructure, and a structural standard that lacks significant quality. For every notable, quality built, landmark construction project that has emerged in li ght of Chinas' booming economy, there have been a myriad of indiscriminate building proje cts that are showing their face on the Chinese architectural landscape. China's raging economy has been the primary driver for the extreme rate of development of the b uilt environment. The rapid development tracts that have been built in existing cities are commonly revealed as "New Districts" and the construction that has been taking place in m ore removed the areas ha ve been dubbed "New Towns". During the development of the se new area s China consumed 54.7% of the world's concrete, 36.1% of steel, and 30.4% of coal. (Pearson 2004) Despite the long term plans that the Chinese government currently has in place, if economic growth does no t continue, the rate of development wi ll certainly be in question China has been criticized for instituting heavy handed top down economic policies that have been harsh and have elicited a myriad of social and environmental problems. Critics suggest that in a country as large and populated as China, more organic bottom up economic policy would be less risky, more sustainable, and more socially just. The Chinese middle class are actively investing in property on speculative value by purchasing apartmen ts on tracts of lan d that the local governments have leased to developers ; this practice is the dominant fuel in China's economic real estate fire. (Calthorpe 2013) This practice is not only risky, but do esn't secure long term financial viability; doing this is also leading to a huge demand for construction laborers who are

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4 hired without training. Tracts of housing built with the model described are ever present throughout china these types of apartment s have become an archetype within the country and unfortunately there are many things wrong with this model. The tracts of housing are typically built on huge blocks that are not conducive to walking and which lead to the need for individuals in the town t o own a personal vehicle. China is already in a position where more pollution and congestion f rom automobile traffic will add to the already mushrooming air pollution problem. (Calthorpe 2013) This model isn't sustainable and is a symptom of the rapidity that influences planning decisions throughout the country. Impacts of u rbanization and g rowth in China As a consequence of unprecedente d development and urbanization China has become victim to severe ecological consequences. Pan Yue, the Vice minister of China's State Environmental Protection Administration (in 2005) said: "the economic miracle will end soon because the environment can no longer keep pace" (Economy 2007) Shang hai serves as an example of a city that grew exponentially over a period of 20 30 years and as a result, the city is suffering from a myriad of environmental ills. The rapid rate of urbanization has wiped out significant amounts of agricultu ral land causin g the city to lo se nearly 2000 square kilometers over a 30 year period. This has occurred despite efforts to increase the green coverage by means of parks, lawns, and street trees. (S. Zhao et al. 2006) Air and water quality have also experienced dramatic declines, which have been revea led by atmospheric testing and acid rain testing. The air and water quality issues are primarily attributed to high output of coal burning facilities, which have increased at the

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5 same rate as that of urbanization. (Ren et al. 2003) China produce d nearly 2.6 billion tons of coal i n 2006 which was more than the United States, the United Kingdom and Japan combined. Coal powers more than 70% of the Nation of China ; this e nvironmentally destructive power source continues to fuel continued development and continued environmental degrad ation. (Economy 2007) The problem with urbanization goes beyond the resourc es required to construct or expand new urban centers but lies more so in the resources required to sustain residents who have adapted to a more urban life style. Urban residents increasingly need more energy to power their lights, air conditioners, heaters and cars and consequently use over 3.5 times the amount of energy than rural inhabitants (Economy 2007) China's economic g oal s to transition from an export economy to a domestic economy must be balanced with the resources that will be required to support the vast urban populations. It' s not only resources that are being affected by huge demographic changes in china; wild life and plant communities are increasingly being threated while development increases. China is home to ne arly 233 animal (vertebrate) species that are currently threatened to become extinct. Overall, 25% of all the species in china are endangered and these in creases in biodiversity lo sses are largely the result of C hina's current growth. China has continued to put the condition of the environment behind economic gain and it has effected wildlife and plant life populations throughout the nation. China will also need to adapt to a necessity for new building technologies in order to balance the current r ate of physical development and energy consumption. For example, buildings in Beijing currently consume upwards of 1.5 2 times more energy to heat their buildings as compared to similar structures in western countries. (Zhu and Lin 2004) China will need

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6 to establish stricter standards and perhaps begin to retrofit existing infrastructure s in response to huge increases in energy consumption. Urban form in large Chinese cities has drastically changed o ver the course of the last century as a combined result of varied economic, political and social forces not withholding rural to urban migrations as a key contributing factor. The Maoist era saw cities adapting to a need to rebuild infrastructure that wa s unable to handle the existing population demands. Industry molded the urban lifestyle and the danwei living work unit dominated the Chinese urban landscapes as a construct of Maoist socialism. (Gaubatz 1998) The danwei's were a model of living in which worker residents were more or less wholly controlled by corporations (government); wages, living quarters, food access, and general rights, were strictly controlled by the overseeing organization. The form of the d anwei blocks of 4 to 5 stor y buildings dominated the urban landscape attracted droves of rural im m igrants looking for work, and served as the primary building block from which Chinese cities would then transform. As noted, the Maoist era gave way to d rastic political and economic reforms that began to reshape Chinese cities into what many municipalities were striving to achieve as guoji dadushi or "world cities". (Gaubatz 1999) A shortage of development controls then led to growth in Chinese cities without regard for the value of "urban ecological environments", and the environmental quality of residential tracts and ope n space in urban districts. (Chan and Shimou 2000) As China's cities continue to expand and transform into vast, viable, urban constructs, no where in the world is it more important for policy makers and the general public to have a firm grasp on the concept of sustainability within an urban context where sustainability is general ly accepted as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the

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7 needs of the future" with a focus on "balancing social, economic, and environmental objectives". (Chan and Shimou 2000) Eco cities Ecological urban d esign (eco cities) strategies, and eco cities in China Along with China, t he majority of the developed wo rld in the Americas, Europe and Asia are living under a linear (as opposed to cyclical) model of consumption in which resources are extracted, used and discarded. (Curran and Sherbinin 2004) Developed societies and developing societies rarely consider how and where products are sourced, th e input required in making products available, and where they go when they are discarded. This blind view of resource consumption will not fully sustain the current generation and perhaps will lead to misfortune for generations to follow. In r esponse to drastic ecolo gical harm being inflicted upon urban environments as a result of over development and urbanization, the past few decades have seen the advent of the concept of the "eco city" emerge. Simon Joss, a researcher at the University of We stminster in London wrote: "At the center of efforts about urban sustainability is an inherent and often unresolved tension; a tension between the ideal of environmentally benign, healthy urban living, and the reality of high energy, polluting and spra wling cities between the notion of nature embedded into the urban fabric and a focus on high technological forms and solutions". (Joss and Molella 2013) Joss and Molella are describing the current dilemma surrounding modern urban planning and the potential solutions that will ultimately require a systems approach in balancing consumption with the needs of the populace. The notion of the eco city is one that hopes

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8 to offer some solutions in urban systems thinking which would potentially yield cities that could be concurrently ecologically sound and highly livable. The concept of an Ecological city has taken hold and spawned some rather lofty conceptions of the potential for an urban environment. Richard Register, the "grandfather" of the Eco city movement began the first efforts in Berkeley, Califo rnia (USA) with the adaption of a few ecologically sound initiatives to help decrease the impact Berkeley was having on the environment. Register, along with his organization Urban Ecology began their efforts by working on a few small local projects that included day lighting a buried urban creek, promotion of alternative transportation, and attempts to delay the construction of a local highway. These efforts began to take hold and eventually Urban Ecology was a full fledged movement that was gaining follo wers around the world. In 1990, the world's first Eco City conference was held in Berkeley and it attracted nearly 700 thinkers from around the world. (Roseland 1997) This meeting led to subsequent meeting s that would help to further worldwide thinking and efforts surrounding the id ea of ecologically sound towns and communities. Since the first initiatives thirty some years ago, Eco city design concepts have advanced s ignificantly. Registers' website, ecocitybuilders.com, describes the eco city as "urban diversity at close proxi mity, instead of scattered uniformity. It calls for land uses, architecture and a steadily and rapidly growing infrastructure for pedestrians, bicyclists and transit, powered by renewable energy sources and balanced with preservation and restoration of natural and agricultural lands and waters". (Register 2010) Reg isters Urban Ecology organization published a list of ten crucial elements that must be considered and woven into the fabric of an eco city, they are as follows: (1) revise land use priorities to create compact, diverse, green, safe, pleasant and

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9 vital mixed use communities near transit nodes and other transportation facilities; (2) Revise transportation priorities to favor foot, bicycle, cart, and transit over autos, and to emphasize 'access by proximity;' (3) Restore damaged urban environments, esp ecially creeks, shore lines, ridgelines and wetlands; (4) Create decent, affordable, safe, convenient, and racially and economically mixed housing; (5) Nurture social justice and create improved opportunities for women, people of color and the disabled; (6) Support local agriculture, urban greening projects and community gardening; (7) Promote recycling, innovative appropriate technology, and resource conservation while reducing pollution and hazardous wastes; (8) Work with businesses to support ecolog ically sound economic activity while discouraging pollution, waste, and the use and production of hazardous materials; (9) Promote voluntary simplicity and discourage excessive consumption of material goods; (10) Increase awareness of the local environme nt and bioregion through activism and educational projects that increase public awareness of ecological sustainability issues. (Roseland 1997) Generally, eco cites are a three faceted amalgam of 1) technology, 2) development and design, and 3) community and social understanding; t he successful Eco city is the city that equally balances these three strategies. The technological aspect of the Eco city is the one facet that has garnered most of the attention over the past few decades. Technology in an eco city can mean an adapted tech nology or a novel technology that replaces a current need that might be common to all cities. All cities require massive amounts energy input; upwards of 3.5 times the amount of energy required per/person as compared to the rural counterpart. (Economy 2007) For example, in order to mitigate some of the massive amounts of energy expenditures of modern cities, the eco city strives to implement energy reducing technologies such as passive solar heating, small scale wind collection, and "smart grids" among others. (Roseland 1997) Other technologies are being adapted to help ser ve all aspects of urban living and The E co city as a technological laboratory has produced the idea of the techno city as a tenant of eco city thinking. The built environment is crucial in establishing a physical framework in which the eco city will subsist. Through research and experimentation (as well as theory) there are a

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10 variety of recommendations for the bui lt environment that are vital to ensuring ecologically minded structures an d infrastructures. It has been discovered that high rise buildings are not efficient for a variety of reasons and really only serve as landmarks or bragging points' despite their optimal use of limited space in large cities. The eight story building has p roven to be the ideal height (around 3 4m/floor) to facilitate an ideal use of space and efficiency. (Cherry 2007) In temperate climates one of the most energy efficient ways of controlling temperatures in buildings is with shades that open and close depending on temperature and sunlight, called louvered shades; these shades would not hold up on buildings much taller than 30 meters. Another technology that has been established as commonly used in eco cities is solar powered water heating systems that reduce the need for supplemental energy. Unfortunately taller buildings have a much greater water demand to rooftop area ratio and solar heating systems would be unable to accommodate the much large buildings. Many of the tech nologies that arise in the current ecological discourse, or technologies that are experimentally implemented in eco cites, are fairly new and not widely tested. Louvered window shades and solar systems, as discussed, are an example of one specific technolo gy that fall s into this category. Another new technology that is being tested is the capture of geothermal heat. A specific example of this technology being implemented is in the heating system of buildings in the PIV (Pujiang Intelligence Valley) in Shang hai. Engineers working on PIV have adapted a novel idea of collecting rainwater and pumping it underground in large pipes, nearly 100 meters into the earth, to capitalize on the fact that temperatures remain very consistent within the earth and will provid e cooler temperatures in the summer and warmer temperatures in the winter. The water is

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11 cooled or warmed within the earth and then pumped through a network of smaller pipes imbedded in floors and walls that help to passively control ambient room temperatur es. (Cherry 2007) Geothermal, solar, temperature sensing, and smart grid technologies are all fairly advanced and require highly engineered equipment. The high tech systems aren't the only technologies being implemented and some of the technologies being used in eco cities are fairly simple. Some of the simpler technologies being used consist of rainwater collection, grey water reuse, composting and urban farming, amo ng others. An eco city city initiative in China was planni ng to use black water water containing human wastes as another source of freshwater by means of an intense filtration process. The project also included plans to process the waste material in the black water to sequester the solids that would then be c ollected and ultimately burned for energy or converted to methane gas. (Cherry 2007) Transportation and proximity are both critical components of ecological city planning. Eco cities need to have easy access to amenities by means of public transport that is sustainable and non polluting. There also needs to be transportation networks in place between eco cities to fully realize the carbon saving potential of living an ecologically sound livelihood. Caofeidan eco city in China planned for a far reaching public transportation system composed of various "transportation nodes" that would be serviced by a variety of transportation means including monorail, trams, and trollies. Each of these nodes would be arranged within the c ity to allow for no more than a 500 meter walk for any resident or city occupant from any point in the city. (Joss and Molella 2013) Food production is an important part of the formula of the eco city ideal. It must

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12 be noted that worldwide food demand s will increase by 70 90% in the next 35 years as glo bal populations increase and quality of life is improved across the globe. (Hea d and Lam 2011) Land is often allocated for agriculture in the l andscape design of eco cities with the intent to minimize the efforts and the energy expenditures that are required to transport food. The land that is allocated for food production within t he context of an E co city, to serve local residents is absolutely necessary as arable land areas are reduced due to urbanization, pollution and the effects of other current issues like climate change. Generally, increased living standards from rural po verty to prosperous urban lifestyles requires a substantial amount of resources per person to provide the higher standard and quality of food. For example, as China has been developing over the last 30 years and drastically increasing living standard s f or hundreds of millions of people, meat consumption has increased by a factor of 2.5 times; a diet rich in meat is resource costly and requires 2.5 to 3.5 more land to yield the an equivalent amount of food as the more traditional vegetarian diet. (Head and Lam 2011) Unfortunately, the current food production and consumption ratio's are not balanced and while many people globally are malnourished, even more are obese or overweight. Thus, a critical tenet in ecologically sound urban design is the need for sustainable, healthy, accessible food sources. Technologies are being employed a nd experiments are underway to try to maximize the potential for urban agriculture. It is predicted that by 2050, local grocers will be able to grow healthy produce on the site of their grocery store by way of artificial light ing and waste stream technolog ies (fertilization), which will then be available immediately for customers while not having to use energy or resources to ship. (Head and Lam 2011)

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13 Food resources, as a general issue, are closely related to public health, which is also an essential component in constructing eco cities and facilitating liveable, flourishing commun ities. Public Health originally (pre to post industrialization eras) focused on the prevention and spread of communicable disease within communities; it now comprises much more and is a critical factor in thriving micro civilizations. The World Health Orga nization defines the "fundamental conditions and resources for health" as: "Peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable eco system, sustainable resources, social justice and equity". (Roseland 2000) All of these constituents relate to the over all well being of residents and relate both directly and indirectly to the implementation and potential success of an eco city. The eco city perspective is one that stems from the early idea of the garden city in the early twentieth century and has spurred a variety of models since its original inception. (Joss and Molella 2013) The idea of using technology as a framework for low carbon city planning can be applied to not only technological aspects of the city (energy, transportation, etc.) but the perspective could be tak en that new social constructs as well as design of the built environment, could be construed as technology in itself. The social aspects of the Eco city are generally not as easy to quantify or measure as some green technological efforts. Social ecology t ypically addresses hierarchies and general rights issues for various interest groups. The eco city calls for a harmony amongst its residents that manifests itself in a "human scale, sustainable settlement based on ecological balance, community self relianc e and participatory democracy". (Roseland 1997) Policy initiative is a crucial aspect of managing the populace and addressing social needs in any urban environment. Some policy initiatives could be those that strategically allocate

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14 resources based on political designations in ord er to create a more sustainable balance of resource use between groups. A policy example might be one that asks a polluter to pay taxes that increase over time and lead to collected tax revenue with the goal to reinvest that revenue in private sector tec hnologies. (Head and Lam 2011) Behavior change (of residents) is a critical factor in beginning to reestablish new norms of how communities can balance consumption and resource use. A common perception is that individual behavior change is nominal and small changes will not help to contribute to a more ecologically sound city beca use a community (on the smallest level) isn't contributing as a whole. This notion is coupled with the problem of public goods'. Public Goods' are something like the atmosphere, or lakes and rivers and streams, or more generally the environment', that d oesn't belong to any one person. If these things don't have a generally recognized owner, then the mechanism to balance overuse and over extraction (of resources) must be questioned because community residents, as individuals, will not take ownership. (Heiskanen et al. 2010) There are a few notable examples of municipalities in va rious Countries that showcase the importance of behavior change in establishing a commitment to maintaining low carbon communities. These efforts are being undertaken through a variety of means that include engagement with citizens on a range of levels. A n initiative in Manchester, England, called Manchester is My Planet (MiMP) uses branding and advertising with a goal of moving citizens to commit to personal lifestyle change that aligns with low carbon initiatives. Another example is an initiative in Finl and called Green Office' that is striving to reduce emissions and energy use through commitments from local offices and businesses. This program, in particular, calls for office representatives to serve as

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15 environmental liaisons for the businesses that ha ve chosen to participate. The environmental liaisons are then responsible for providing training, spearheading office low carbon initiatives, as well more tangible such as sorting recyclables. Both of the se initiatives are examples of the critical componen t s required in establishing low carbon communities or eco cities. Community members, businesses, universities and other entities need to be as committed as the municipality, to being committed to living low carbon lifestyles. The social efforts described combined with a host of other social initiatives form a sort of "social capital" that is essential in maintaining ecologically sound cities. (Roseland 2000) Scholars maintain that social infrastructures are the link between leadership, physical infrastructure, and the general populace. These social infrastructures include social institutions, human resources agencies, and perhaps even social structures (demographics, race, gender). The social infrastructure that is i n place in any community is crucial to establishing the culture of their respective community. The culture of an eco city needs to be one that is ecologically conscious on all levels while fulfilling human needs and facilitating a livable prosperous commun ity. As discussed, China has seen a drastic change it is economic position in the world, which has been largely due to economic reforms that have helped to facilitate unprecedented economic growth. Entry into the WTO (world trade organization ) in 2001 g reatly increased the global reach of many of China's most booming cities. Chinese economic policy has allowed municipalities to exist under a level of self economic governing, which has led to competition between many Chinese cities to become globally rel evant urban centers. (Joss and Molella 2013) Unf ortunately, rapid, unhinged growth

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16 has been the cause of a myriad of environmental problems, namely, in 2006, China passed the United States as the worlds' number one CO2 emitter. (Ramaswami and Dhakal 2011) In response to this ever increasing barrage of environmental ill s that Chinese cities are wreaking on the environment, the country has rallied around the advent of the Eco city China, as a nation, has latched onto the concept of the Eco city and municipalities from all over the country are claiming to be developing with an ecologically minded framework. China is home to a few eco city initiatives that have gained some traction and notoriety during their planning and early construction phases. Notably, in the mid 2000's, Shanghai's then Mayor, spearheaded a lofty eff ort to build an elaborate self contained eco city on the alluvial island of Chongming (which is part of Shanghai). Shanghai hired ARUP, a European owned design firm, to master plan and engineer the elaborate undertaking. (Funk 2007) In concept, Dongtan Eco city, as it was being called, w as on track to be a significant achievement and perhaps serve as an example for the rest of the world to follow. Unfortunately, due to changes in Administration in Shanghai, and consequently a lack of funding, all construction has ceased and Dongtan Eco c ity has yet to be realized. Another ambitious project in China has been the planning of the Caofeidi an Eco city in northeast China. The Caofeidan project is a large scale undertaking that is planning to house nearly 800,000 residents by 2020; in contrast Dongtan eco city planned to begin with only 10,000 residents and eventually house 80,000 residents, still only a fraction of Caofeidans prospects. (Joss and Molella 2013) As of 2012, China was host to over one hundred municipalities that were proposing eco city initiatives. Chinese towns are in a uniq ue position where the Chinese federal government is urging policy makers on the municipal level to drastically curb

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17 emissions. China's 11 th 5 year plan calls for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 40 45%; this is an extremely ambitious goal. Fortun ately, as a result of economic decentralization, local municipalities are in a position to respond to the urging of the federal government to curb emissions. (Wu 2012) Much of the ecological planning initiatives within the individual municipalities are experimental an d the local towns don't know exactly what to do in order to effectively reduce emissions and transform themselves into ecologically responsible entities. Many of the towns in questions have influence to be able to recruit ample monetary resources to green light serious development projects that may help to reduce their environmental impacts in the long term; that is exactly what these towns are doing. There is an added bonus of potentially being the first and/or best example of an Eco city, eco town or low carbon district in all of China and therefore be the standard for policy change as China continues to move forward in being a fully developed world power. (Wu 2012) Landscape A rchitecture and eco cities The const ruct of the eco city is one that hopes to balance ec onomic development, social progress and environmental protection in a "harmonious way". (Yang 2013) A recent publication, titled "Eco Cities: a planning gu ide" edited by Zhi feng Yang, in conjunction with a report generated by UNE SCO, dubbed "Man and Biosphere" has generated seven critical points in the understanding and development of an eco city. In short, they are, health and harmony associating human s upport systems with economic, social and natural components, organized harmoniously, High efficiency and vigor

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18 energy and materials used with high efficiency, Low carbon orientation leading edge technologies and regard for low carbon practices in consi deration of climate change, Sustaining prosperity resources utilized reasonably in order to not jeopardize further generations, High ecological civilizations, Holism, and Regionality the utilization of technology to its fullest extent while integrating complex spatial and temporal systems on a multitude of scales. (Yang 2013) This list of requirements is generally congruent with ecocitybuilders.com's list of requirements, though this list considers more social issues where ecocitybuilders.com's list focuses on issues of the built environment and physical manifestations of ecological urbanism. Both descriptions of an eco city correspond and support the noti on that design of the built environment is crucial in the development of an ecological urbanism. The definition of landscape architecture, as described by the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA,) describes the practice as being one that "enco mpasses the analysis, planning, design, management, and stewardship of the natural and built environments", as well, Landscape architects are charged with "planning and designing the use, allocation and arrangement of land and water resources, through the creative application of biological, physical, mathematical and social processes. (ASLA 2003) The strategies for an eco city as described in the literature, align with definitions of Landscape architecture and support the notion th at Landscape architecture and urban design are critical practices in conceiving of and implementing ecologically focused city development efforts. The landscape, as a conceptual framework, is a critical factor in addressing food resources, water resource s, transportation issues, and social structures which all exists as crucial factors in sustainable city development. Frank Golley and Juan

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19 Bellot describe the connection between landscape architecture and ecological design quite eloquently. They co wrote an article that stated: "Theoretical landscape ecology investigates patterns and processes, their origin, and how they influence each other. Applied landscape ecology uses our understanding of patterns and processes to solve environmental problems, wh ich have a spatial component, and to plan how landscapes should be organized in the future. For this reason, there is a close relationship between landscape ecology and planning and design. We can move back and forth from one to the other, with landsca pe ecology providing information to the planner designer and the planned and designed landscape serving as field experiment to test hypotheses for the landscape ecologists." (Golley and Bellot 1991) This logic applies to all of the disciplines that are closely related in the efforts pertaining to the development of eco cities; architects, landscape archit ects, engineers, economists, sociolo gists, ecologists, among others are crucial in the development and success of an ecologically sound urban environment. Landscape architects fulfill a role in helping to provide useable space that is ecologically sustain able from a technical perspective but also reinforces the general worthiness of ecological design. The primary critique of the eco city concept is that the initial energy investment in construction and development tends to be great er than traditional d evelopment and it may be questionable how much of an ecological return eco city development will really offer. In fact, critics have downplayed the actual benefits of eco city development and have chalked up eco city initiatives as generally marketing camp aigns. Joss and Mollela note in the Journal of Urban T echnology that the greenhouse gas emissions generated by the massive building efforts may well cancel out some of the savings to be achieved once the city is fully built, especially in comparison with alternative approaches." (Joss and Molella 2013) The authors were referencing the Caofeidan Tianjin Eco city, that is for the most part, being developed from scratch. Despite the critiques of eco city development, the

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20 founding theories and ideals are generally productive and serve as a framework from whi ch to actually conceive of the future of the successful urban environments. T he concept of the Eco city is one which has great promise but currently hasn't reached its full potential. Efforts around the world are furthering the collective knowledge and technology bank that will help to shape our future urban environments. Nearly a century ago, Le Corbusier mused about the "Ville Verte", which consisted of "Visions of towers in a park". Unfortunately as a result of what have become errors in urban plannin g Le Corbusier's visions have instead become "towers in a parking lot." (Fishman 1977) The eco city is the promise that the urban environment needs and hopefully it will soon move from a concept to reality. Biophilia Or igins of, and support for, the Biophilia H ypothesis It long been known that expos ure to the natural environment can have significant psychological and physiological benefits to humans both young and old; r esearch has been conducted that has shown that exposure to natural elements may reduce blood pressure increase self esteem, improve mood, and produce numerous positive physiological and psychological effects. (Hitchings 2012) In 1984, E.O. Wilson dubbed this connection between humans and n ature the biophilia hypothesis in his book Biophilia Essentially, the concept of biophilia describes the innate physical and biological need for humans to maintain a connection with n ature on some level. Without this connection, the hypothesis

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21 describes an essential piece as missing from a functional healthy human being (Beatley 2011) The biophilia hypothesis has nine tenants as described by Stephen Kellert, a leading writer, scientist and theoretician with a focus on examining the human nature connection. These nine tenants are as follows; utilitarian, naturalistic, aesthetic, ecologistic scientific, symbolic, humanistic, moralistic, and negativistic (Kellert 1993) The utilitarian tenant of the biophilia hypothesis asserts the notion that in order to ensure survival on this planet all creatures must be connected to their environment for reasons of acquiring sustenance, she lter, and security. In short, an evolutionary advantage can be gained by utilizing the natural environment to its full est extent; this utilization requires a familiarity with nature (as objects of survival) that is consistent with supporting the claim that the human nature connection is innate, evolutionary and ingrained in the human species. The Naturalistic and Aesthetic connection with nature, describes the awe, beauty and wonder that the natural environment is able to instill upon its beholder. The na turalistic connection addresses more of the intimate feelings that one may find with nature and the Aesthetic connection describes the sense of bea uty man may attribute to nature. These attributes may reveal themselves in the way of simply finding satisfac tion through visual interaction with beautiful natural conditions via a photograph, a pa inting or simply viewing nature in its physical state (not as a representation). T he Ecologistic Scientific connection describes humans drive to reason with nature thro ugh scientific discovery and ecological understanding. The symbolic connection describes the association that human cultures have made with nature whereby e lements of nature serv e as symbols in the realms of language, art and t he general communication or sharing of

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22 ideas. The Humanist connection with nature describes the tendency for people to attribute human feelings toward natural elements. This is typically manifested in emotional connections with large mammal species (ie. Pets) but can also be attribu ted to place. The moralistic tenet of the biophilia hypothesis describes human relationships with nature from a religious or spiritual standpoint but also encompasses human reverence for the natural world. The two final tenets of the biophilia hypothesis b egin to approach territory that may be taboo but are nonetheless aspects of the hypothesis. The first being the d ominionistic aspect, which describes mans need to reign over the natural world and the 2 nd being the negativistic aspect which entails mans fea r and aversion to certain element s of nature. (Kellert 1993) Landscape elements or vegetative areas in an urban environment have been said to elicit positive affect and ultimately reduce s tress levels simply by way of exposure. (Ulrich 1986) Roger S. Ulrich has been a leading researcher on the topic of landscape preference and has be en widely published and generally accepted within the scientific community. Ulrich's critical contribution to the field is the notion that visual experience, or visual "contact" with nature has distinct anxiety and stre ss reducing capabilities that are an evolutionary adaptation ; a descended psychological characteristic of human beings. Ulrich conducted experiments that showed a range of images, from dense urban scenes to dense vegetated natural scenes, to a chosen sample and subsequently measured their str ess response. Subjects exhibited reduced stress response and enhanced emotional states when exposed to the natural vegetated images. Ulrich's findings suggest, "the importance of visual contacts with nature extends beyond aesthetic benefits[to] psychologi cal well being". ( Ulrich 1981) Ulrich's work pre dated E.O. Wilson and Stephen Kellert s work bu t

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23 served as much of the b asis of the theoretical understanding of the Biophilia Hypothesis. To further support the notion of the restorative or stress reducing properties of vegetat ed views, Ulrich has conducted alternative studies that revolve around the same theme. O ne study o f note compared photographs of u rban scenes with an abundance of vegetation to images composed of only concrete and steel and found significant amounts of physiological and psychological revival from the former. (Roger S. Ulrich et al. 1991) Another one of Ulrich's studies measured brain activity amongst subjects who were witness to a variety of images both urban and natural, and the brain activity was reliable in indicating a state of relaxati on amongst subjects when exposed to images of g reen, abundant nature. T he objective nature of brain activity studies were of significant importance because of their ability to garner more support, generally, from the public the scientific community, and government agencies (Ulrich 1981) The studies that directly support the Biophilia Hypothesis are exclusively determinin g the stress resolving characteristics of natural views by way of experimenting with images th at show non threatening nature. It is important to demarcate the difference between nature images that are lush and green and life affirming' vs. images that are equally as natural in their subject matter but construe a sense of fe ar by way of content or context (ie. a s nake slithering through ferns) In support of these findings, Arousal theories contest that viewing simplistic images can have the same stress red ucing effects as opposed to viewing more chaotic, complicated imagery. Images of urban settings are typically much more complex visually (composed of many converging lines and shapes) as opposed to images of nature where lines are softened and shapes are blurred. (Roger S. Ulrich et al. 1991)

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24 The findings by Ulrich and his contemporaries more or less serve to support the already established foundation of the restorative benefits of nature. Even in the disciplines of landscape architecture and urban desig n before they were established schools of thought it has long been asserted that natural conditions could serve the public in urban contexts. Ancient Roman residents heralded the value of natur e within their city; and Frederi k Law Olmsted (the father of landscape architecture) professed the value of Central Park as a refuge from the "stresses associated with cities and job demands". (Roge r S. Ulrich et al. 1991) Researchers have largely come to the conclusion, albeit an obvious one, that nature embedde d into the urban environment has been deemed preferable by urban dwellers. Urban parks and urban "f orests" are both conditions to which urban residents throughout the world attach a significant amount of importance. (Roger S. Ulrich 1986) Real estate economics support the notion that parks and natural spaces' are prefe rred by urban inhabitants simply by analyzing the value margin between properties directly adjacent to parks ( and open space ) vs. properties at least three to four blocks away from parks. (Crompton 2001) This idea i s called the "proximity principal" and describes value increases upwards of 20% for residential properties directly abutting park space. Part of the proximity principal asserts that properties of a higher value (near a park) will generate increased tax rev enue, which then offsets the municipal costs required to maintain (or build) the park space. (Crompton 2001) Stephen Kellert wrote about a study he conducted in partner with colleagues in his book "Building for lif e, designing and understanding the Human nature Connection" which entailed analyzing 18 neighborhood loca ted within a specific watershed in New

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25 Haven, Connecticut, USA. The study analyzed 18 communities that comprised nearly 500,000 people in total. The go al of the study was to understand the potential relationships, specifically benefits associated wit h human connections with nature across rural suburban and urban landscapes. The authors' hypothesis postulates that despite [urbanized areas] seeming ind ependence from nature, our study set out to demonstrate that human physical and mental well being sill heavily relies on the quality of peoples continuing experience and contact with relatively local natural systems and processes". (2005) The researchers c ollected vast amounts of data relating to the health and vitality of natural systems as well as participant's relationships with nature on a variety of levels. Th e author notes that the study was an observational correlational study and causality mustn't b e assumed (Kellert 2005) As predicted, some of the find ings indicated that enviro nmental quality (ie. plant and animal species diversity and health) correlated with a greater appreciation of nature; the opposite relationship was also found in areas of lesser environmental quality. Kellerts study attempted to find relationships between many factors but the most revealing was that of peoples environmental altruism or "affinity for nature" in predicting environmental quality. The concept of biophilia theoretically supports the id ea that individuals that are mor e connected to nature will in turn display more pro environmental behavior in their day to day lives. While the world is currently under fire from an environmentalists' perspective; instilling the ideals of biophilia into urban living could help to increas e this desirable pro environmental behavior. This concept would be attributed to city dwelling individuals who would have lacked exposure to natural environments without the insertion of biophilic wildness into their daily lives. Place attachment may serv e a role when

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26 determining whether or not a person or group of persons may be more or less environmentally altruistic. (Scannell and Gifford 2010) Place attachment refers to the likelihood that an indiv idual will attribute positive feelings and emotions to a certain place in the world. The idea also indicates that place attachment may lead to behaviors that ensure the individual will identify with an area on a spatial, social or physical level, as well a ttempt to maintain a physical nearness to the place to whi ch the individual is attached. (Kaltenborn and Bjerke 2002) A study conducted in 2010 at the University of Victoria in British Columbia, Canada attempted to show t hat place attachment that was attributed to a natural setting would elicit more pro environmental behavior. In contrast, the study also attempted to show place attachment to a civic place' would yield less pro environmental behaviors. The results of the study support the notion that individuals having established a level of place attachment to a town that was more ecologically valuable exhibited more pro environmental behaviors. (Scannell and Gifford 2 010) As noted in the study, these findings may be more attributed to pro environmental values for the individuals, but in either circumstance, the notion supports integration of more natural conditions in urban environments. The Biophilia hypothesis has garnered a myriad of support from researchers over the past few decades from a number of different research fields. Connectedness to nature has been a topic of interest in the psychology world in recent years and has been explored by a number of researche rs within the psychology discipl ine; this research garner s its own title, dubbed environmental psychology. Researchers from Grant MacEwan University, in Alberta, Canada conducted a study that supported the hypothesis that connectedness to nature would corr elate highly with psychological, social and emotional well being. It

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27 should be noted that the study controlled for socially desirable responses from the subjects but the subjects were college students at the University. (Howell et al. 2011) The study found that respondents who indicated higher levels of connectedness to nature also indicated higher levels of social and psychological well being. (Howell et al. 2011) The Howell study largely supports the notion that people are inherently better when they are connected to the natural environment. This was accomplished in the study by way of a 1 5 scale developed by Mayer and Frantz (Mayer and Frantz 2004) that asked respondents to answer questions similar to the question: "Like a tree can be part of a forest, I feel embedded within the broader natural world" 1=strongly disagree and 5 strongly agree. (Howell et al. 2011) The Mayer and Frantz study attempted to show that a discernable connectedness to nature trait could deem individuals as more altruistic or empathetic to the natural environment. T hese increased levels of altruism or empathy would lead to more pro ecological behavior or attitudes. The study, conducted by researchers from Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio, US found that students who indicated they were more connected to the natural en vironment had more interest in studying environmental science (enrolling in an introductory course) as opposed to students who were less connected to the natural environment. The study also found that respondents in the community who claimed they were more connected to nature (on the 1 5 scale) indicated a higher level of life satisfaction. (Mayer and Frantz 2004) This claim supports E.O. Wilsons ideas about biophili a and the innate need for humans to experience n ature in their lives. The field of environmental psychology has continued to make a case for human nature connectedness as an intrinsically positive association. In 2007, researchers from the Univ ersity of Sussex, in East Sussex UK attempted to show th e correlation between

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28 nature connectedness and environmental altruism as a cause and effect relationship that may originate from as far back a s the place in which one spent their childhood. The researchers postulate that attachment to the natural environme nt developed through exposure to nature, and an identity linked to the nature, may lead to increased emotional welfare and in turn an increased likelihood to possess attitudes and elicit positive behaviors towards the natural environment. (Hinds and Sparks 2008) The study support s the hypothesis that childhood exposure to the natural environment by way of being raised in a rural setting would lead to a greater connection with nature. The findings also supported the opposite notion that individua ls raised in an urban environment were less likely to indicate a strong connection with nature which would pre dict a greater affinity for pro environmental behavior. Research was conducted in the 1970's that found samples of adults in the western world preferred certain natural landscape characteristics to others. The studies found that people preferred landscapes that recalled a savannah; conclusions where drawn that this preference of savannah like landscapes originated innately as a result of the huma n race evolving in savannahs. (Balling and Falk 1982) Researchers, Ulrich and Steven Kaplan, separately published papers on this topic and the body of work suggests that humans prefer landscapes with "a high degree of complexity, a clear focal point, an even ground texture, [and a ] good depth of field". Both researchers conclude that these landscape preferences have been most likely determined through an evolutionary process. These studies didn't account for the tendency for humans to prefer what they know. When referring to lands cape characteristics that are similar to that of a savannah respondents pointed towards a preference for characteristics that are displayed in the average backyard

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29 or park. Balling and Falk attempted to control for this in a separate study and found that despite age, ranging from 8yrs old up to 70 y ea rs old, respondents still maintained a preference for savannah like characteristics; in fact, the youngest respondents displayed the highest amount of preference for natural landscapes, particularly savannahs. (Balling and Falk 1982) Horticultural activity is inherently a biophilic act and it is an activity that allows humans to directly interact with nature. The level of nature that individuals may be interacting with when engaging in horticultura l activity isn't necessarily wild nat ure by definition, nonetheless, they are activities that will bring people closer to nature both physically and psychologically. The activities one might engage in that would be considered horticultural activities could be planting and tending to an indoor or outdoor garden (food or ornamental), flower arranging, visiting gardens, or visiting and viewing natural scenes. (Chen, Tu, and Ho 2013) Studies have found horticultural activity is both good for human h ealth and for human well being. A study conducted by Taiwanese researchers, Chen Hui Mei, Hung M ing tu, and Chaang luan Ho from National Taiwan University found that generally, those who participate in horticultural activities experience a variety of positive emotions including pleasure, optimism, relaxation and tranquility. ( 2013) The participants in the study, of which there where 446 gathered from surveys given at three different flower markets in three cities in Taiwan, reported that horticultural activity as a leisurely pursuit, was the most important to them. They respondents reported that horticultural activit y was a means to "cultivate a hobby that they could concentrate on" as well as improve general mood and well being and improve socia l relationship and thier environment. (Chen, Tu, and Ho 2013) These findings certainly support the

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30 biophilia hypothesis and also suggest that interactions with nature ar e generally positive cross culturally as indicated from the fact the study was conducted in Taiwan. Exposure to the natural world has the power to significantly alter the way humans act and feel in their everyday lives. Howard Frumkin, Dean and Professor of Environmental an d Occupational Health Science at the University of Washington School of Public Health has written about four facets of nature experience in support of E.O Wilsons work; animals, plants, landscapes and wilderness experience. Wilderness e xperience, as defined by Frumkin, means "entering the landscape rather than viewing it", has the potential to illicit positive conditional responses from a variety of mentally and physically ailed individuals. ( 2001) These responses are not unique to just sick or ailed people; perfectly healthy people are able to benefit from renewed vigor, increased senses of self awareness, and feelings of "awe, wonder and humility" when exposed to natural wilderness. (Frumkin 2001) In accordance with the biophilia hypothesis, these positive emotional states elicited by natural landscapes have been ingrained in our DNA over the course of time. Positive reinforcement drives evolution and habitats that we re more comfortable for our species over the last 1.5 million years probably yielded happier, strong er, more productive individuals, which is something that hasn't been lost in modern humans.

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31 Biophi lia, nature, and d esign Restorative environmental design, as described by Stephen Kellert, "focuses on how we can avoid excessively consuming energy, resources, and materials; Generating massive amounts of waste and pollutants; and separating and alienating people fro m the natural world." (Kellert 2005) There are a significant number of features of a landscap e that are said to elicit positive reactions and results which align with the tenets of the biophilia hypothesis. Biophilic urbanism is a recently dubbed school of thought that strives to lump these features together in order to establish a framework from which to adapt, retrofit or construct new urban environments Not surprisingly, nature is embedded in our urban environments even if it is difficult to observe or see at first glance. There are a myriad of natural processes and what are described as "ecos ystems services" that indirectly connect citizens to the natural world. These ecosystem services are essential functions to modern life that are often taken for granted but are obviously necessary to our modern livelihoods. A small example of these "servic es" may include "w aste decomposition, soil formation, remediation of chemical and biological pollution, control of injurious organisms, plant pollination and seed dispersal, hydrological regulation and control, water supp l y and purification, nutrient reten tion and cycling, oxygen production, products from animals and plants, pharmaceuticals, and crop and livestock production" (Kellert 2005) All of these processes engage with the natural environment but are often overlooked, repackaged, or diluted to a point where the general public doesn't consider the connectio n with nature that these processes afford. There are many examples of natural processes occurring in urban environments

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32 that are not directly related to the human experience but occur because inherently the city i s still part of the environment. Timothy Beatl e y writes: "..we can see nature everywhere in cities; it is above us, flying or floating by, it is below our feet in cracks in the pavement, or in the diverse micro organic life of soil and leaf litter. Nature reaches our senses, well beyond sight, in sounds, smells textures and feelings of wind and sun." (Beatley 2011) In Shanghai, one of the most developed cities in the world, the built environment has decimated the majority of its native scrubland and currently has many sizeable areas that experience 100% sto rm water runoff (which means very little space for wild plants or animals to subsists) Despite nearly complete loss of native large mammal species, including tiger elephants, wild boar and deer, the city is host to an extensive amount of bird species. 41 2 distinct bird species have made their homes in Shanghai's rich network of large street trees that include predominantly Ginko, London Pla ne tree, Dawn Redwood and Chinese Wingnut. (Shaobo 2014) These bits and pieces of former native wilderness sometimes pop through the concrete grids but for the most part nature that exists in cites has been put there by human interventions or populated with flora and fauna that are more adept at subsisting in urban environments. Biophilic design may be essential in creat ing urban environments that continually support the human condition and support human s inherent need to connect to the natural environment. It won't suffice to fill an urban area with buildings and infrastructures that exhibit green technologies only; ther e needs to be a direct, tangible connection with the natural world in order to remind and reinforce urban inhabitants of the importance of nature. As Stephen Kellert writes, When people are not emotionally and intellectually attached to the buildings, la ndscapes, and places around them, they will rarely be

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33 motivated to commit the resources and energies needed to sustain these features." This notion is the crux of the support for incorporating biophilic design into our built environment There are many a ttributes of environmental design that may be construed as biophilic and which elicit the positive benefits that are associated with an established connection with nature. Judith Heerwagen, Architect and writer, has explored and described many of these ele ments that are critical in biophilic design. These features have been generated with the intent t o inform traditional building architecture but consist of attributes that can be applied to all design and certainly can be applied to landscape design. The fi rst attribute is Prospect which describes the abili ty to see into the distance; more specifically it describes view s of natural scenery, be they sun, mountains or cloudscapes. The attribute of prospect also include s view corridors, which describe a condit ion by which a view is framed or set up for the viewer. Refuge is another biophilic element that can be incorporated into design. Elements of refuge might manifest themselves in canopy or cave like conditions Water is of course fundamental in biophilic design, specifically its glimmering or reflective properties Moving, clean, water sug gests health and vitality and is common in biophilic design. Biodiversity is another tenet of biophilic design in the way of allowing for experiences, interactions, or v iews of a variety of nature affirming elements. Biodiversity might be accomplished in a design through use of a variety of vegetal elements or views of varied natural conditions. In addition to biodiversity, sensory variability, by way of varied textures, colors, air mov ement and light is another tene t of biophilic design. Biomimicry is included in this list, but has become a school of thought on its own. Biomimicry suggests design that is directly inspired by

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34 natural forms or processes; an intervention con strued as biomimetic could include both function al and aesthetic attributes Heerwagen has included elements of playfulness and enticement as critical components of biophilic design. Both of these elements would be intended to inspire surprise or "delight" and provide a richness in the designs that intrigue the mind and "encourage exploration". (Heerwagen and Hase 2001) Heerwagens' inclusion of prospect and refuge, as distinct biophil ic elements, reference Jay Appletons prospect refuge theory which is an extension of habitat prefe re nce theory. Prospect refuge theory alludes to the notion that environment was crucial in the adaptive success of hominids, and our species has evolved a pr eference for environments that breed success, ultimately positioning human preference for landscape aesthetics "within the context of a biological interpretation". (Appleton 1984) Specifica lly, prospect, or views, elicit an engaging response or "(a deflected vista) aro us es curiosity and anticipation", and the interpretation of that environment through our senses (most notably, sight ) yields survival mechanisms; also, the concept of refuge draws from a surviving species' need to hide from danger within their environment. (Appleton 198 4) Human environmental preference is a topic that has been heavily explored further by psychologists, architects, and philosophers and the literature continues to suggest that preference has a biological component acquired through evolutionary processes (Joye and van den Berg 2011) Robert Ulrich wrote his psycho evolutionary framework that describes unthreatening natural environments as restorative in response to environm ental stressors experienced through evolution. These stressors are those that would encourage a fight or flight response, but as discussed, Ulrich suggests in his research that certain features in the natural landscape have been able to restore a stressed individuals level of arousal. These

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35 processes of restoration occur on a subconscious level and have been developed as a key to human survival. Ulrich describes these features in the landscape as "complexity", "gross structural feature" such as symmetries, "depth and spatiality cues" and "ground texture". (Roger S. Ulrich 1986) Ulrich describes a list of specific natural settings ; "calm or slowly moving water, verdant vegetation, flowers savanna like or park like properties..". Ulrich postulates that these are the elements in a landscape that serve as the archetypes in a restorative natural environment Stephen Kellert has generated a list of environmental fe atures that sum up much of what the literature is suggesting when consid ering biophilic design elements, and will serve as a guiding list of elements that are included in the design portion of this Thesis. [Table 1] Table 1. Stephen Kellerts' elements and attributes of biophilic design (Kellert 2008)

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36 T here are two types of biophilic design, organic desi gn and vernacul ar design. These terms describe related but inherently different aspects of a space or structure that c ould be construed as biophilic. Organic design comprises the direct or indirect association a design may have with nature. Organic design may be as simple as a "wooded landscape, natural stream or unfiltered air or light", but also includes design elements that invoke a visceral connection with nature (Kellert 2005) Frank Lloyd Wright is famous for incorporating elements of organic design in his wo rk. Falling Water a homestead built over a cr eek in a forest, and one of Wrights most famous works, serves as an example of the architects assertion that the appeal of a "building and landscape isa function of [its] relation to the features of the natural landscape". O rganic design also may include the incorporation of decorative elements that draw from natural shapes or forms. One of the most iconic biophilic designs to date that celebrates naturally inspired form is the Sydney Opera house, designed in concept by Jrn Utzon The structure mimics sa ils or wings but also invokes idea of seashells breaking into the harbor on which it sits. The building was designed and buil t between the years of 1957 and 1973 but exists as an "icon of modern archi tecture, [utilizing] the precise technology of the machi ne age to express organic form. (Hale and Macdonald 2005) David Pearson, a writer on the subject of organic architecture, recognizes various features of organic architecture, which include forms that are inspired by nature and are "unfolding from within, like an organism". Th e writer also describes organic forms as needing to follow natural flows, be flexible and adaptable, and grow out of the site to ultimately celebrate a spirit of play and surprise. (Kellert 2005) Vernacular design is the other piece of biophilic urbanism, which compliments the

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37 more direct attributes of organic design. Vernacular design, as defined by Stephen Kellert in Building for Life, constitutes "the tailoring of the built environment to the particular physical and cultural places where people live and work". (Kellert 2005) Vernacular architecture typically describes structures or forms that connect to a historic al or social context. Vernacular from a biophilic designers perspective describes the need to connect with residents, or occupants, in order for a design to be successful. From an ecological standpoint, vernacular biophilic design needs to integrate into the local ecology and consider "cultural and social traditions of the place" As discussed, place attachment is a key element in support for biophilic design and ensuring that a designed element is in harmony with its context is crucial to its ultimate s uccess. All of the elements described speak to E.O Wilson's initia l concepts of biophilia, the human affinity for nature and "[the] tendency to focus on life and life like processes". (Wi lson 1984) There exists an element of purposeful aesthetic when considering biophilic de sign that transcends functionality. Timothy Beatl e y describes the potential for beautiful biophilic urban design by writing "i t is the raw emotion and beauty of the natural world, a primordial spectacle unfolding against a backdrop of high rise buildings and human dominated (at least we think) urban environment." (Beatley 2011) The discussion of aesthetic beauty is one that goes beyond the scope of this thesis project, but when considering natural elements as beautiful, most can agree that gardens have been a stan dard from which beauty can be measured. Ornamental gardens, in and o f themselves, support the fact that human beings prize flowers, trees and shrubs as specimens of aesthetic beauty. An ornamental garden is a construct of natural elements arranged, designe d, designated by human influence and thus, the question arises, as to whether a

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38 garden is an extension of the natural environment or as removed from nature as a basket woven from dried reeds. Ann Spirn raises the point that "to describe one sort of garden as natural implies that there are unnatural gardens which are somehow different (and presumably wrong)". (Spir n 1997) The discussion has lead to the debate over the use of native species, vs. naturalized species and the excl usion of exotics in ensuring succession or ecological process in an attempt to more parallel the process of non human nature. It has been sug gested that ornamental gardens aren't a fragment of nature or natural process but a collection of highly genetically diverse plant species that rival any collection of plant species found in a non human influenced setting. George Gessert writes: "Ornamenta l gardens and greenhouses of plant collectors are the sites of the greatest diversity among cultivated species the rainforests of domestication". (Gessert 1997) Gessert describes ornamenta l gardens and botanical collections as varied and "full of kitsch plants, monstrosities genetic follies, violent colors and shapes" and alludes to the fact that these gardens of human creation are specifically as diverse as the flora of a rainforest due to the reasoning that humans (gardeners) prize anomaly. Ornamental gardens exists and are proliferated strictly for their aesthetic qualities; Gessert suggests "Certain kinds of uselessness free the spirit and provide a Sabbath for the senses in which the wonder of things, in themselves, confirms the goodness of being" As the biophilia hypothesis asserts the need to connect with non human life, ornamental gardens can serve as a symbol of nature, and perhaps they don't fulfill all of our biophilic needs bu t they may play a part in establishing a connection for those who interact with them. The human relationship with nature is one that exceeds any one persons understanding and the relationship exists as a philosophical question that has been asked

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39 (most l ikely) since man could form the question. There is a perspective that alludes to the idea that humans are as natural as a tree in a forest and our actions and the results of our actions (ie. urban environments) are inherently natural as well. This perspe ct ive would lead one to suggest that ideas such as biophilic urbanism are inherently a misuse of our efforts and as designers we should be working to advance a human dominated landscape. For the most part, plant and animal species are fundamentally self cent ered creatures, which aligns with a survivalist's perspective. Frederick Turner writes "it is entirely possible that the increase in carbon dioxide in our atmosphere will cause an increase in plant metab olism and world precipitation and lead to an age of unparal le led natural fertility and species proliferation rather than an age of ecological catastrophe. Only the assumption that any change is unnatural makes us conclude that the greenhouse eff ect will be bad for the planet". (Turner 1994) Turner writes about sustainabi lity in his crucial essay "The I nvented Landscape"; he makes the point that sustainability is a concept invented by humans and is in many ways incongruent with natural process. Natural process is anything but sustainable. When considering evolution as the paramount of natural process; sustainability never would have yielded the diversity of species that have come to inhabit the earth. As Turner describes, s exual reproduction itself, which is of an utmost natural process, doesn't heed sustainability. Sexual reproduction elicits and requires variation. Simple asexual species that rely on cloning for reproduction fit th e mold of sustainability ; our nature, therefor e require s variation. (Turner 1994) Ideas of nature have been embedded in culture s since the advent of human societies. Cultures throughout history have identified themselve s as a reflection of nature, as a piece of nature, or as an opposing

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40 force to nature and have manifested these concepts in religion, art, politics, philosophy and the like. (Spirn 1997) A popular school of thought amongst those involved in the shaping of the built environment is the notion of Landscape Urbanism. Landscape urbanism is the opinion that a city is an expression of varied, intermingled, complex forces that ultimately construct an urban environment a landscape as a manifestation of these forces, neither planned or prescribed but nonetheless generated as a process that might parallel those found in nature. (Corner 2003) Some tenets of L andscape Urbanism suggest that the manifestation of these forces could result in a concrete and steel riddled environment that is fundamentally acce ptable because the urban environment results in a product in process that is as natural as any long lived healthy (or not) riparian ecosystem or old growth forest The tene ts of biophilic urbanism aren't in direct opposition to the ideas behind landscape ur banism but ultimately the result of a city built upon the notions of biophilia strive to integrate as much of what landscape urbanism declares as "out there nature" into the built environm ent. James Corner describes a landscape urbanist as viewing a nasce nt urban environment as "a thick, living mat of accumulated patches and layered system, with no singular authority or controli t escapes designand planningand this is not a weakness but a strength." (Corner 2003) The nature' of a landscape urbanist perspective is exhibited in the process in which the construct of the city unfolds. Biophilic urbanism suggests that direct exposure to natural elements, be they kitschy, overly i nvented', o r deliberate and artificial recreations of wild nature (ie. zoos, aquariums, botanic gardens), are beneficial to human health and well bring, where as a city that might be subsisting as a living entity drenched in process but without parks and similar pla ces for respite, will be failing its citizens.

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41 Designing with nature has been at the forefront of the practice of the landscape architecture profession since its inception. In many ways, landscape architecture is the medium most apt to challenge the enig ma of the connect ion between human and natural environments. Elizabeth Meyer writes in her essay "The Post Earth Day Conundrum: Translating Environmental Values into Landscape Design" about the challenge that landscape architects face when confronting hu man nature interface; and more specifically th e challenge of confronting form generation with the consideration of natural ecologies and processes. Meyer poses the questions: "How could one give form to dynamic processes and fluctuating systems but not re sort to the modern design codes that privileged static, bounded, ideal objects in art and architecture and often relegating landscape to visual scenery, a stripped down version of the pastoral?". Meyer notes a few contemporaries that have strived to break down the barriers between nature and the built environment. She cites notable landscape architects, Lawrence Halprin, Michael Van Valkenburg, Anne Whiston Spirn, and Ken sm ith as practitioners who have "a dvocated constructing experiences and implicating na tural systems of shaping landscape objects[making] the landscape more visibletangible, and palpable, and giving form to an experience]. (Meyer 2000) These pr actitioners have been crucial in shaping the practice of landscape a rchitecture, its role in providing natural exp erience in urban environments, and reinventing the practice as a manifestation of art, psychological experience, and both human and natural ecologies. The Biophilia hypothesis is one that has gained traction since its inception in 1984, and practitioners that align with the hypothesis have generally not be critiqued for having been led astray in their understanding of human nature relationships. For this thesis

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42 project, I have examined the Biophilia Hypothes is, and entertained its notions, through a discussion that assumes the hypothesis as true. Therefore, the design that I am proposing assumes that the preservation of human uninfluenced wilderness is essential and maintaining a connection with nature is b eneficial to human well being at this point in the evolution of our spec ies. This thesis suggests that o ne way in which urban dwelling humans may be reminded of t he value of nature and human uninfluenced wilderness on a day to day basis is through design of the built environment This could be accomplished by incorporating into the built environment approximations and elements of nature and human uninfluenced environment in order to replicate, distill, or estimate nature experience. Design precedents The concepts inherent in the notion of biophilia as discussed allude to the potential for experiential natural' e lements embedded into our built environments to serve as the metaphorical bridge between our modern concrete, urban environments and the na ture that exists beyond. Ultimately, when natural elements are inserted into our built environments they are used as decoration or they occur on the fringe of everyday experience. There exists the question of whether or not a natural element inserted into the built environment (garden or otherwise), serves as an object or an experience. Put simply, when a pedestrian traveler walks by a natural element, the element is an object In opposition to this, when a traveler walks through a natural element, the elem ent becomes an environment and allows for a level of experience and interaction that otherwise may

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43 not occur. The goal of this thesis design is to create everyday experiential elements that serve to connect occupants, user s or pedestrian travelers, to th e natural environment by way of providing experiential occurrences that evoke feelings of being submersed in a natural environment. Much of the tenets of biophilic design are not novel and because of the intrinsic human nature connection that exists in all societies, design elements that borrow from nature, connect with nature, or have some naturally inspired conditions exist in many capacities, intentional or otherwise. I have gathered a collection of precedents that I intend to use to ultimately i nform the experiential and formal elements in this thesis design. Figures 1 & 2. Moses Bridge, RO&AD Architect (Archdaily.com 2011) T he Moses Bridg e, designed by RO&AD Arc hitects and located in the Netherlands, is a great example of a simple biophilic design solution for a complex problem. [ Figures 1 & 2] The "bridge" was designed to cross a former moat that fronted an abandoned military fort (Fort de Roovere). The architec ts realized that a typical bridge would be "highly improperespecially on the side of the fortress the enemy was expected

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44 to appear on". Utilizing rot resistant Accoya wood lined with EPDM foil, the solution brings occupants down below the water level and provides a surreal experience for anyone crossing to the other side. (Archdaily.com 2011) The design is inherently biophilic in its use of predominantly nat ural materi als and in the experiential act of symbolic immersion into t he water. The Yokohama port project, designed by FOA (Foreign Office Architects), blurs the lines between what is ground, wall, path, and structure. [ Figure 3 & 4] The use of wood planking to construct a ground plane that dips, turns, and fades into structure invokes ideas of rolling hills and valleys. The design is biophilic in its use of materials, and the organic, life affirming shape and structure of the project. A traveler is able to watch the ground plane rise and fall and disappear into a wall or a bench. This echoes an undulating ground plane that might be witnessed in many human uninfluenced natur al settings. (arcspace.com 2007 Figures 3 & 4, Yokohama Port Project, FOA Architects (arcspace.com 2007)

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45 The Blur, a pavilion by Diller Scofidio A rchitects that was part of the 6 th Swiss National Exhi bition immerses visitors and occupants in an artific ially generated cloud. [ Figure 5 & 6] The pavilion is host to a vast network of spray jets that emit droplets of water vapor, from the lake on which it sits, at very high pressure. The spectacle has been a success and can be seen and experienced in all types of weather conditions. The experience also includes specialized raincoats, for up to 400 occupants (max capacity), that react to each other and "indicate either positive or negative affinity between v isitors through color changes and sound" (Designboom 2002) Ultimately "The Blur" provides a unique biophil ic experience by allowing visitors a distinct opportunity to sense what it might be like to sit in a cloud and experience a part of the water cycle the pr ocess which is necessary for all life on earth. The Interpolis Garden, designed by world renowne d landscape architecture and urban design firm, West 8, includes a section of the landscape that celebrates the distinct texture of slate juxtaposed with flowering Dogwood shrub species. [Figure 7 & 8 ] The specific area of the garden that is most biophilic in its design and use of materials, exhibits pieces of slate that are layered, mimicking a river bed or a geologic process on a Figures 5 & 6. The Blur, Diller Scofidio Architects (Designboom 2002)

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46 micro scale. Within the layered slate, the opportunity exists for shrubs to pierce through cracks, creating a bosque that revel s in texture, light, and shadow all distinct elements of natural landscapes. (West8 2014) The precedents described constitute a few design elements that I intend to incorporate into the design portion of this thesis. The design features that I consider biophilic in these cases, will ultimately help inform some of the experience that I intend to incorporate into the design in tervention on the chosen site. (These features are discussed in the detailed design description) The site that is being used for this design p roblem is located amongst a burgeoning business district where the opportunity exists to create a biophilic pedestrian connection between a heavily trafficked underground metro stop and the entrance' to the business district. The site is located in the Ho ngqiao Foreign Trade center and subsists as a flourishing international business district p revalent with design challenges Fi gures 7 & 8. Interpolis Garden, West 8 Tillburg Netherlands (West8 2014)

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47 CHAPTER II A BIOPHILIC DESIGN The Hongqiao Foreign Trade Center, Shanghai China The Hongqiao FTC (Foreign Trade Center), Locat ed in Shanghai, China serves as the central business area for the Ch angning administrative district. Shanghai is composed of 17 districts, of which, 8 are considered Shanghai proper. The eight districts include the Huangpu District ( Hu‡ngp! Q" ) Xuhui District ( ; Xœhu“ Q! ) Changning District, ( ; Ch‡ngn’ng Q! ) Jing'an District ( ; J“ng'! n Q" ) Putuo District ( P! tu— Q" ) Zhabei District ( ; Zh‡b!i Q" ) Hongkou District ( ; H—ngk! u Q" ) and the Yangpu District ( ; Y‡ngp! Q" ) [ Figure 9] Each of the districts within S hanghai boast central business areas that would rival the size of most mid size American cities, the Hongqiao FTC is one of six robust business districts within central Shanghai. [ Figure 10] T he Hongqi ao FTC is located in Changning District, one of 8 c entral districts that compose Sh an ghai. The Hongqiao area is host to many foreign businesses and has become a hotspot for foreign investment over the last two decades. The Hongqiao Foreign Trade Center s its on a footprint of only 3.15 square km2 but is home to 19 foreign consulates, 200+ foreign diplomats and a robust expatriate community of more than 20,000. (Changning Administrative District 2014) Population density of the district is substantially lower than the Huangpu District, the most central district of Shanghai proper, with only 1/3 of the residents. The population of Changning district is estimated to be at around 16,000 people

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48 per square mile. [ Figure 11 ] Figure 9. The Hongqiao FTC is located in Changning District, one of 8 central districts that compose Shanghai (A uthor) Figure 10 The Hongqiao FTC is one of the six large business districts in Shanghai (Author)

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49 Changning Distri ct is host to the Hongqiao High Speed Railway station, which serves as the newest, and most serviced, high speed railway station in Shanghai. The Hongqiao FTC is serviced by two metro lines (Lines 3 and 10) and is positioned between Shanghai's 1 st and 2 nd ring roads, which makes it easily accessible for commuters. [ Figures 12, 13, 14] Figure 11. The population of the Changning d i strict is 1/3 of the mos t populous district in Shanghai (SBA 2008) Figure 12. The Hongqi ao FTC is located between the inner ring road and ring road 2 (Author)

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50 The general character of the area is a mix of commercial and residential high rises, and more traditional dwellings fronted with commercial retai l. The figure ground map illu strated below [ Figure 15 ] unveils the general texture of the built environment showing the business district, composed of predominantly high rise office buildings with large commercial podiums, sitting adjacent to Hongqiao Park Blocks of 4 6 story apartment buildings that house residents in fairly dense quarters, which are typical of mid century housing i n Shanghai fill in most of the area of the residential district. Figures 13 & 1 4. Metro lines and roadways that service and bound the Hongqiao FTC (Author)

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51 \ Figure 15 Hong q iao Character and l and use (Author) There is a fair amount of green space loca ted within the district including a fairly substantial park (Hongqiao Park) and a smaller neighborhood green located just north of the high rise district. [ Figure 16 ] These two spaces are the prim ary means of park and green space access for the district. There are a number of smaller green spaces that exhibit much more of an urban character with highly manicured trees and shrubs bound by walls and fences. [ Figure 17 ] Many of these green spaces are private and are located within gated high rise resident ial living grounds.

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52 Figure 16 Primary green space (Author) Figure 17 Secondary Green Space (Author)

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53 The majority of the streets in the district are lined with mature street trees ( London Plane Tree Plantanus x acerifolia) which amount to a robust canopy over the sidewalks and streets. [ Figure 1 8 & 1 9 ] The Hongqiao district sits within close proximity to a variety of green space parks and nature themed commercial parks [ Figure 20 ] Figure 18 & 19. Street trees form a robust canopy over the streets and sidewalk (Author) Figure 20 Distance to large parks and wildlife parks access to biophilic entities in the neighborhood (Author)

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54 Amongst the nature oriented theme parks, t he Shanghai Zoo is the furthest at 3.6 km, followed by Changfeng Ocean World and Changfeng Park at 2 km. Despite the controversy surrounding zoos and aquariums, t hes e are both great attractions that serve to educate and expose residents to the specimens of the animal kin gdom. The advantageous locations of these lend themselves to the area as distinct biophilic attributes and benefit the potential for exposure to nature for residents of the district as a whole. The area is also near Hongqiao River, Hongqiao River P ark, and Zhongshan Parks, both 1.5 km away, the later of which is heralded as one of the most visited and notable green space parks in Shanghai. The Hongqiao FTC was master planned by SBA and includes visions for an expanded business district that would then mel d into a burgeoning mixed use development zone. Construction is underway on a few of the landmark buildings in the district and gene rally the area is slated for urban renovation s The Master P lan highlights the potential for walking connections through the district and two axe s that run north and south through the district The master plan also includes strategies to create an extensive underground network that connects many of the landmark buildings with underground parking. [ Figure 21] The Master P lan intends to revitalize the district and capitalize on the already vigorous international bus iness that permeates the local culture. The Master Plan speaks to the potential for a "green" district, rife with green roofs, walking networks and pub lic transporta tion connections all characteristics similar to those described in the eco city literature. The Master Plan falls short in its attempt to describe how the district plans to cultivate the capacity for people to engage with nature beyond the extent of the formal

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55 park space. Despite the alluring renderings dotted with green colored buildings, [Figure 22] d etail is lacking in how the district might facilitate nature engagement. Figure 21. Proposed pedestrian connections throughout th e district (SBA 2008) Figure 22. SBA vision for the Hongqiao District (SBA 2008)

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56 In response to the Master Plan and the general make up of the Hongqiao District, there is opportunity to reinvent how urban residents might interact with natural elements that would serve to help fulfill some of the tenets of the biophilia hypothesis. As described previously in this paper, urban residents liv ing in an eco conscious urban environment, need adequate exposure to nature in order to potentially heighten general happiness and well being. N ature inserted into the urban environment also serves to remind residents on a daily basis the value of t he natu ral world. Timothy Beatley describes the conundrum with urban living and boils it down to the basic question asking: "how can so meone love what they don't know; how can someone be charged to protect and conserve something that they don't know the name of". (Beatley 2011) Beatley is referring to that something as the natural world and uses this anecdote to set up his argument for the value of nature instilled in the urban environment Pedestrian connections through an urban environment are importan t in locally connec ting an area and building a framework between buildings. These pedestrian routes serve as an opportunity to instill biophilic elements into the built environment in order for the denizens to interact with nature through the process of engaging sensory expe rience and providing for opportunity to remove a walking traveler from the binds of the typical concrete and asphalt urban floor.

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57 Detailed Design The design solution is one that serves to instil l a variety of natural elements along the course of a path. The path could potentially allow for positive experience in an environment inspired by natural elements in an effort to satisfy the tenets of the biophilia hypothesis. The Hongqiao FTC is served by a M etro line that stops on the S outhern edge of Ho ngqiao Park ; i n order to reach the core of the business district, a walking pedestrian is required to walk through the park, travel under an eight lane overpass and cross an eight lane at grade highway. [ Figure 23] Figure 23 Existing pedestr ian routes from local metro stop to the central business district (Author) W alking through the park is a delightful departure from a typical pedestrian route through a city, but as soon as a traveler reaches the edge of the park they are confronted

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58 with having to traverse vehicle infrastructure that is dull loud, and polluting. Typical of most parks in Shanghai, Hongqiao Park closes in the evenings at 5:00 pm (17:00), requiring pedestrians to walk around the park after hours. This alternative path around the park entails walking alongside the eight lane at grade highway and underneath an overpass at a 5 way inter section as there is no alternative to access the metro station from the business district after 5:00 pm (17:00). These conditions have framed th e design and design intent In order to solve the problem of being able to tra verse the park at all hours, including passing under and over existing vehicle infrastructure, I am proposing a pedestrian connection from the Metro stop to the core of the Ho ngqiao FTC. The path will ultimately be bound by the park, traverse through a unique, biophilic, "under bridge experience", travel over a pedes trian bridge and finally land in a biophilic streetscape that serves to welcome pedestrian travelers into the ce nter of the business district. There are unique conditions and experiences inherent and available in traversing a path through a built environment. In this case, the path that I am proposing will serve as the compulsor y route from the Yili Rd metro stop to the core of the Hongqiao FTC. As the easiest and most direct route, traveling pedestrians are required to engage with the environment on some level, with simply walking through as the most basic. The path is one that ultimately allows for movement thr ough a landscape, it allows for experience, and serves as a device, in this case, for unfolding the secrets of nature a long the course of travel. The path serves as an ideal intervention in an established built environment by existing as a narrow plot of l and, traversing and intersecting with existing infrastructure It is important to demarcate the importance of the path in providing a biophilic experience as

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59 opposed to a park, or another, more static intervention. A park serves as a destination, used prim arily for recreation, exercise, & leisure. T ypical of many cities, parks are not often integrated into the built environment and exist as a n isolated entity. Their value is not undermined by an intervention such as the one I'm proposing, but a parks utilit y is different in that they are not woven into the urban fabric. An intervention such as an expanded artificial wetland park, or an invented old growt h forest wouldn't be feasibly fit into the current context of a well established, dynamic, dense urban fra mework. The value of the path in this case, is that it solves the problem of traversing the existing park at all hours, meanders underneath and existing overpass, over an at grade highway, and into the core of the urban district ( as a streetscape ) while pr oviding a cadence and rhyth m in its experiential qualities The formal elements of the proposed intervention are inspired by the shapes and patterns pres ent in a Ginko Leaf ( Ginkgo biloba ), the Maidenhair tree. [ Figure 24 ] Native to China, the Ginko is the sole member of the botanical family Ginkgoaceae, and is considered a "living fossil" with specimens alive today estimated to be up to 1,000 to 3,000 years old. (Y. Zhao et al. 2010) The Ginko has a distinct and unique leaf pattern from which the simplest formal elements are distilled and extracted. [Figure 24 ] The venation radiat es from the center of the leaf (the pedicle ) and fan outward to meet the curvy irregular edge of the leaf.

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60 Figure 24. Early collage realizing the Ginko leaf as grafted on the site

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61 There is a simplistic beauty in the s tructure of the leaf that serves to inform the shapes and patterns of the interventio n on the site. The forms of the Ginko leaf are stretched, twisted, and grafted onto the site to provide a cadence and pattern throughout the constituents of the design. The forms serve to inform both the structure of the ground plane and the form of the pe destrian bridge. [ Figures 25, 26, 27] Figure 25. The unique formal elements of the Ginko leaf extracted to inform the formal elements of the design Figure 26. Formal elements that compose the desig n intervention

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62 Figure 28. Site and design in plan Figure 27. Formal elements inspired by the Ginko, grafted onto the site

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63 The Ginko leaf exists as a device that informs the shape and struct ure of the ground plane. The G inko leaf is already a device that "connects" the attending culture to nature, but it is being used, in this design, to approximate a form through a means of drawing and representation. As illustrated, the extracted form, allows the drawing of the leaf to serve as a vehicle of interpretation. As James Corner suggests in his e ssay, "Drawing and Making" drawings are only strategies, their primary work is a critical response to something". In this case, the critical response is the extraction of the inherent forms, and their use to inform the structure of the design. Corner goe s on to say "[drawings]are not grounds for justification, falsely legitimizing the project simply because of their perceived magic"; the use of the Ginko leaf isn't a means of justifying the formal elements, but a source of inspiration grounded in traditi on. Corner also suggests, "The power of abstraction in drawing is simply to discover new ground, to gain insight, not obfuscate, nor justify a project". The abstraction of the Ginko leaf serves as a suggestion of form, an approximation of lines and shapes derived from nature, but not a justification for the legitimacy of the proposed intervention. The Ginko l eaf is iconic in its qualities, but also serves a practical function for a Ginko biloba tree. The leaf is the food factory for the tree, and also fu nctions to convey water through the trees transpiration process. These qualities are extracted and inform the functional aspects of the design implementation. Ultimately the design intervention is a means to move people from point A to point B, but it al s o provides valuable experience that transcends the intervention beyond a simple path. The path conveys people, but also works to convey storm water through the impl ementation of rain gardens, sub terranean channels and culverts, and constructed wetlands alo ng the course of its path. Though,

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64 ultimately, t he patterns extracted from the Ginko leaf inform a procession t hrough the site that serves as the intended primary pedestrian pa th connecting the Metro station with the center of the Hongqi a o FTC. The path ex ists as a procession through a variety of nature inspired environments, which include a forest edge (meadow), a lake, a cave (digital fores) a bamboo fores t, and finally a forest floor, as the path leads to the center of the business district. [ Figure 28 ] The beginning of the path extending through the park, is bound by walls in order to allow the park to close at 5:00 PM (17:00) and still provide access through the park at all hours. The path initially begins with a set of stairs and ramps that bring p edestrians down into the "beginning" of the processional biophilic experience. As soon as a traveler ascends the stairs they are immersed underneath a canopy of shade trees and un walled gardens. [ Figure 29 ] This part of the procession invokes the forest e dge, a meadow transitioning into a lush deciduous forest. Figure 29 The path procession through a variety of nature inspired environments

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65 Figure 30. The Procession through the park begins with descending staircases and ramps into an approximation of a forest, or meadow which begins the experiential biophilic procession (Author)

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66 The ground plane along the path is fractured along lines that correspond to the formal elements der ived from the Ginko leaf; a mixture of substrate and gravel fill these fractures and allow for grasses, wildflowers and other "volunteer" specimens to grow. The se "cracks" in the ground plane intersect with a typical travelers path and allow for the format i on of social paths where due to foot traffic, t he vegetation doesn't flourish. [ Figure 30] The vegetation in these paths allow s for the illusion of walking through a forest, or meadow, where a traveler is forced to navigate the vegetation that would be g rowing in a similar natural setting. This effect is achieved while maintaining a navigable, smooth, paved surface. The experiential element of walking through "wild nature" is intended to be maintained as the vegetative elements are not bound by edges and exist as experien tial element s as opposed to object s in the landscape. [Figure 31] A pedestrian traveling through this part of the intervention will be immersed in an invented naturalistic landscape; they will be listening to the leaves rustling through the trees, smelling wetted tree bark and aromatic flowering shrubs, experiencing the dappled shade of the forest and feeling grasses and stemmy shrubs brush ing against their knees. Figure 3 1 Beginning of the experiential biophilic path meadow and forest edge (Author)

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67 As the pedestrian traveler moves further along the path they encounter the lake inspired elements of the design intervention. Inspired by the Moses Bridge, this part of the path splits the lake, and immerses a traveler in the surreal experience of walking through the middle of a body of water. [Figure 32] This part of the bio philic experience allows a pedestrian traveler to engage with the waters edge, as the path is 4 ft. below the surface of the water. As the traveler moves along the path they are engrossed by the sounds of falling water as fountain elements along the path metaphorically break the edge of the wall and allow water to spill into planters. The water planters are rife with m arginal vegetation that provide habitat for small amphibians and insects. Traveler s are able to walk along the path up against the wall and dip their hands in the lake, smell the algae and the scents of a biologically salubrious body of water, view lush stands of Lotus, ( Nelumbo locifera) Water lilies ( Nymphaea species), and other aquatic vegetative species. [ Figure 33 ] Figure 32 Along the path the lake and water inspired elements through Hongqiao Park (Author)

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68 Figu re 33 Travelers along the path are immersed in the lake and surrounded by the sound of falling water, witness to diverse aquatic habitat, and offered striking views of the waterscape and surrounding landscape (Author)

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69 As a trav eler is metaphorically submersed in the middle of the lake they are provided with unique views across the water that celebrate the form and structure of heavily planted Willow stands and a backdrop of the urban forest that composes Hongqiao Park. [ Figure 3 4 ] The path continues past the lake and through a wetland area that continues to capitalize on the naturalistic, biophilic elements that were present in the marginal planters along the lake path. The wetlands are home to a number of margina l, native, wetland species that provide critical habitat for urban amphibians and insects. The wetlands in this leg of the procession serve as functional filters for urban run off before the water enters the lake. The wetlands reach underneath the overpass and extend along the at grade highway in either direction with the intent to collect water from adjacent pavement. Figure 34. Views across the lake ( Author)

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70 The wetland area serves as the transition on the biophili c path into the area under the h ighway overpass that serves as a biophilic app roximation of a cave. [Figure 35 ] In order to prevent passage into the park after hours, a gated fence inspired by the forms of grasses and r eeds blowing in the wind, line the wetland area and serv e as another component of the design that invokes n atural f orms and s tructure. Figure 35 Wetlands, cave and "digital forest" areas underneath the elevated highway overpass The area under the overpass is intended to capitalize on the ever present shade and atmospheric moisture that results from the adjoinin g wetlands. Inspired by "The Blur", misters and wind powered high pressure jets emit droplets of water that engulf the area in a fog that periodically starts and stops and responds to air currents and human presence. Climbing plant species that are given the conditions to flourish on the highway overpass sprout aerial roots that stretch down in their attempt to capitalize on the moist and humid conditions underneath The fog generated underneath the overpass, coupled with the span of surface s above and b elow, allow for the potential inclusion of a

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71 combination of dramatic lighting and graphic projections The lighting and projections are intended to elicit the representation of a varie ty of natural phenomenon that are otherwise impossible to witness in an urban environment. Graphic projections might incorporate images and light representations of the northern lights (aurora borealis), a high mountain star studded land scape, or rays of sunlight refracting through dense glacial ice caves. [ Figures 36, 37, 38 ] The area under the overpass would ideally be witnessed after dark in order to amplify the lighting effects and projections. Despite the area being best experienced at night, the inclusion of robust shade tree species in planters adjacent to the overpass will create shaded conditions during the day and allow the lighting and projections to be witnessed during daylight hours. [Figure 39] Figures 36, 37 38. Graphic images that might serve as inspiration for projections and lighting effects under the overpass (Porter 2013) (Gustavo 2014) (Yardley 2013)

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72 Figure 39. The area under the overpass is full of surfaces on which to display dramatic biophilic lighting effects and graphic projectio ns, creating a digital forest and capitalizing on the possibility of invented natur al experience.

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73 The design interventions under the overpass would create an intimate, but otherworldly, experienc e in the landscape that would be unique and have the potential to serve as an experiential landmark in the district. The space would serve as the threshold between the park and t he rest of the urban environment. [ Figure 40 ] A staircase and ramp would be ac cessible from under the elevated highway t o allow pedestrian travelers access to the pedestrian bridge which crosses over the at grade highway. The experience of climbing the stairs would elicit the approximation of emerging from the misty cave and enteri ng into a lush bamboo forest. The pedestrian bridge then serves as the connection over the at grade highway and offers a distinct experience of navigating a dense bamboo forest that has been r aised 17 fee t (5.2 meters). [ Figure 41 ] Fi gure 40 The Bamboo forest exists as the next experiential element along the path

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74 Figure 41 The pedestrian bridge, an approximation of a bamboo forest, raised 17 ft above the at grade highway, connects the park with the Hongqiao FTC The pede strian bridge attempts to channel an immersive jungle forest rampant with varied stands of bamboo and overhead climbing plants that create a canopy overhead. The ground plane is inspired by the Yokohama port project, not in its use of materials, but in its undulating surfaces that blur the line between what is path and what is not. The ground is intend ed to be covered in natural cut, slate like stone that allows for a navigable path within a field of stones that mounds and undulates and breaks apart to allo w for the stands of bamboo to grow. This feature of the project invokes the biophilic elements present in the West 8 project, "The Interpolis Garden", but translates this intervention onto a heaving surface that also allows for a pathway. [ Figure 42 ]

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75 Figure 42. Atop the pedestrian bridge, in a rainstorm, realizing the undulating ground plane, bamboo forest, engrossed in the tree canop y along the ramps, and the distinct and experiential attributes of the biophilic intervention.

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76 The bridge is constructed in a modified suspension bridge style, with two arching supports that span beyond the structure and land in planters on ground level. The arching supports secure cables th at attach to the internal structure of the bridge and allow for climbing plant species to grow. In effect, the cable structure and climbing plant species form a canopy that furthers the experience of emersion for a traveler atop the bridge. The bridge exte nds arm like ramps and a staircase into the streetscape below that serve to provide a traveler the biophilic experience of gradually descending into a tree canopy, as the street trees engulf the stairs and ramps in the tree crowns. The stairs and ramps the n descend into the streetscape, which serves as a biophilic approximation of "the forest floor". [ Figure 43 ] Figure 43 The forest floor streetscape, the final biophilic element along the commuters' procession

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77 The Ginko leaf form inspired sidewalk p lanters meander along the right of way and re structure how a traveler might continue along a sidewalk path. The below grade planters are intersected by swaths of earth and rock that protrude into the si dewalk and also allow for grasses, low shrubs, and na tural textures and materials to infiltrate the travelers experience. The swaths of earth and rock are a continuation of the undulating ground plane that exists on the pedestrian bridge, however, they are restructured to fit into the context of a streetscap e. [ Figure 44 ] The below grade planters double as bio swales and serve to collect run off and channel water below grade, under the at grade highway, and finally into the constructed wetlands that front the park. Figure 44 The form and context of the fo rest floor inspired streetscape

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78 The streetscape serves as the transition between the biophilic procession and the core of the Hongqiao FTC. This part of the intervention allows for a soft edge on the street and against the high rises that line this part of the district. [ Figure 45 ] This soft edge is achieved in the streetscape while maintaining the naturalistic and biophilic elements that define the intervention. At this point, a traveler has made it to the core of the district, and ideally will be able t o conduct their business for the day within the FTC and wil l then revel in their chance to experience the biophilic path on their return trip back to catch the Metro on their commute home. The design intervention exists as a performance landscape in its potential ability to connect a traveler with nature, natural experience, and distilled approximations of natural environments. The agency of the path is one that allows for a distinct biophilic experience that could potentially add significant value to an ecologically minded district by further connecting a resident to abstracts of nature. The path also exists as a performance landscape in its ability to capture, convey and treat storm water. [Figure 46] As mentioned, along the course of the path, swales a nd constructed wetlands echo the function of the Ginko Leaf and move water through the site. The design intervention capitalizes on the presence of water in the site through the invented wetlands, nature inspired fountains, and the encouragement of flora a nd fauna adapted to water environments.

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79 Figur e 45 Within the streetscape, facing the pedestrian bridge. A traveler is immersed in an approximation of a forest floor, as rain gardens pierce the sidewalk and swaths of rock, moss and grasses intersect with a traveler's path

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80 The bio swales and rain gardens collect runoff from the core of the Hongqiao FTC; the bio swales are connected to constructed wetlands across the at grade highway via underground conveyance pipes. Run off is strategically diverted into the adjacent lake that is bound by flat land designed to capture floodwaters, or carried to water storage tanks below the path. The water storage tank s work to keep rain waters from flooding the path but also service "founta in" elements along the course of the path by pumping stored water over invented naturalistic waterfalls The waterfalls serve to metaphorically break the edge of the lake and surround a traveler in the sound of falling water and the smells and sights of a water rich landscape. The waterfall/fountains serve to aerate water that is then pumped back into the lake providing oxygen rich water to the local aquatic life. The design instills the idea of thresholds into the experiential process of traveling along the intended path. These thresholds serve as an estimate of a natural experience as much as walking through a cloud or a bamboo forest might accomplish on their own. The varied stimuli encountered along the path the experiential thresholds breached in voke the processes and feelings one of experience as a result of any walk through a natural landscape walk through. A commuter is confronted with a story, a story of nature, or a story of invented natural experience with a both beginning and an end.

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81 Figure 46. The performance aspects of the landscape demonstrated through its unique water cycle (Author)

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82 The design exists as a dance and a procession through the landscape that has the potential to elicit varied experience and confront a traveler with a variety of stimuli along their path. Innate in the elements included in the interve ntion are potentials for natural process to be exemplified along the course of the path. A traveler experiencing the path for the first time might be awed by the prospect of c ommuting on a path immersed in a lake that is strewn with rocks and logs littered with basking turtles, or they might be overwhelmed with the moisture, fog, and light scapes generated under the bridge and subsequently revel in the process of emerging through the clouds into the bamboo forested pedestrian bridge; however, a commuter uti lizing this route every morning and night will be able to watch the swales collect with water and elicit a fanfare of springtime vegetation, and the commuter will be able to experience the process of wetland vegetation becoming browned and dormant as the l ake generates a thin layer of ice crystals in the winter. These experiences and elements are those that provide the design with its biophilic value and serve to further connect a traveler along the path wi th the natural environment.

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83 CHAPTER II I CONCLUSION The proposed intervention is one that is inspired by the need to introduce and instill elements of "distilled nature" into low carbon and eco city planning ideals in order to fulfill the crucial human requirement of sustainable urban design. The design aims to inspire feelings and experiences that mimic similar feelings and experiences had in natural settings. The project suggests what could be and does not attempt to solve the problem of resource consuming urban living, but exists as an atte mpt to help connect a traveler, commuter, or resident to a nature inspired experience in an effort to conte xtualize their urban existence. The thesis begins with a discussion of urbanization and the mass influx of people into urban env ironments in Chinese cities. A harsh reality is that the majority of these peoples are migrating from rural are as where connection s to nature were inherently engrai ned in their everyday existence, and they are now being relocated to living conditions that are inherentl y disconnected from nature. Many of these rural to urban transplants were once farmers that have been uprooted and forced to live in newly formed cities and towns and in response to their new lifestyles living in residential towers, a term, biesi which m eans "stifled to death" is becoming all too common. (Ong 2013) Ong, describes a museum in one of the newly formed townships near Tianjin that was a recreation of the "vernacular" that the town's people once knew. Ong describes the museum as Filled with full scale dioramas of village homes and h uman figures, it was a

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84 re creation of the old village life, accurate down to the dried corn hanging from the eaves.". (Ong 2013) Ongs report concludes by describing a plaque in the museum that reads : "Time goes by, and things change". The forced relocation of rural residents is ultimately for t he success of the country and initiated in attempt to solve problems related to food production, population management, and general modernization of the Country as a whole. Unfortunately, t he reality is that some of these efforts are creating more problems than were anticipated in the initial planning efforts. (Ong 2013) Much of this thesis suggests the creation of a new vernacular t hrough the integration of eco cities, high technological d esign, and the necessity for biophilic design integrated into urban environments. Though the inclusion of a n ew status quo is alluring on the surface, planners and architects must be sensitive to the inherent needs of peoples, especially those that are accustomed to much different lifestyles This proposal does not explicitly address the cultural needs of tens of millions of relocated rural inhabitants but suggests how urban environments, whether they be new towns, or cities like Shanghai that hold a rich history, might adapt to the need for more ecologically so und urban design that include biophilic experiences. The proposal of a new vernacular is one that is intended to operate in an existing or newly built environment while reflecting and complimenting the proposed urban constructs of the eco city. Ultimatel y, t he concept of the eco city has been invented to respond to current urban environments that are deemed not fit to exist harmoniously with the natural world and biophilic design fits within the construct of the newly fathomed eco cities. This proposal is an extension of how the current planning and design literature suggests an eco city may function and how an eco city, or generally, cities of the future,

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85 may be Frederick Turner states Every major art form exists within a tradition, a context of prior p ractice that serves as the inspiration and raw material of the artists conceptions". (Turner 1994) When considering the vernacular in spatial design practitioners look to t he traditional forms and functions as either inspiration or a point of departure. In the case of this design proposal the form and structure of the intervention draw s from elements of modern design, (which is becoming the vernacular in globalizing a city like Shanghai) while the function and meaning happens as a suggestion of the making of a new tradition. The intervention might fall into the category of Chinese "Experimental Architecture" ( shiyan jianzhu) as descri bed by critics, and embraced in Tongji University's publication, "Time & Architecture" ( Shidai Jianzhu ). (Ding 2014) Experimental architecture generally describes a challenge of the dominant ideology...by offering an alternative experience visual, tactile and spati al" (Ding 2014) The proposed design intervention challenges the dominant ideology by suggesting that current urban landsca pes, in Shanghai and elsewhere, do not function to the best of their ability and the space between buildings coupled with the interstitial space between urban utilitarian infrastructure, can potentially serve as a canvas on which to contribute a reinvention of urban experience. The submission is one that is then justified by the Biophilia Hypothesis and suggests that one approach in which we can work with the less than optimal current urban construct is by creating, and inventing, experience that is functional in establishing human serving environments ultimately to help the city exist in co ncord with the natural world (the city as a construct of humans and infrastructure) By denying the status quo, landscape designers can radically re con ceive of urban landscapes that might f unction as a tool for connecting with the marvels and intrigue of the phenomena, processes, detail,

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86 or visual and experiential mementos that nature offers. The project aims to inspire and serve as a precedent for an overall reinvention of how urban dwellers interact with their environment on a day to day basis. Shang hai is host to one of the latest and most extensi ve metro systems in the world and facilitates walking transportation by way of well connected urban transport between living and working districts. Pedestrian bridges span large intersections and at grade h ighways throughout the city and serve as existing pieces of circulation infrastructure that hold the potential for inclusion of biophilic experience. The pedestrian bridges hold the singular function of allowing pedestrians to cross a right of way in a saf e manner. With the addition of green roof technologies and the integration of adaptive re engineering these pedestri an overpasses could serve as experiential element s throughout the city's transportation grid. Pedestrian travelers could potentially exper ience elements of creative distilled nature at every turn without having to restructure the existing urban grid. The pe destrian bridges are an already in p lace mechanism from which biophilic inspired design elements could enrich the pedestrian experience. The bridges could function as increased habitat for Shanghai's copious bird populations while serving as platforms for diverse botanical intrigue. A network of "greened" pedestrian bridges would also help to manage micro climate heat island conditions as well as soften the visual expression of the city. The prosed design intervention, in the style of a design thesis is a means to test' a hypothesis by way of scholarly inquiry, an d in this case, the potential for biophilic design in ecological urban contexts. The design proposal is one that is very heavy handed, in the sense that in order to install an intervention of this scale and impact would

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87 require significant resources. There exists the potential to test' the idea of experiential nature on a m uch smaller scale, and by more incremental and more subtle interventions. Keeping with the idea of re imagining existing pedestrian bridges, an intervention could take place over an existing example of a pedestrian overpass The experiential components inc luded in this design could be replica ted on a small scale by way of modular planters, mobile fountain elements, solar powered flexible lighting systems, shade structures (imaginative tents), and mobile habitat (think: bird houses), that capture the essence of the proposed design elements. There is the potential then to include study through post occupancy questionnaire or interview that could then quantify and evaluate the s uccess of such an intervention. Aligning with Ulrich's studies (1981, 1986) researc h inquiry co uld question visual preference and emotional responses and compare those to the respondents pre existing conceptions of nature, their connection to the natural environment, and their attitudes toward the environment. The proposed interventio n is an immersive, participatory, multi sensory experience that is accomplished by way of traversing a path, and walking through a variety of nat ure inspired micro environments. The design interfaces with its context by allowing a pedestrian traveler a sli ght departure from the c haos of the concrete urban jungle'. In effect, the design is one that could be implemented in a variety of urban environments and a variety of cultural contexts. One of the value s in the design is that its underlying concepts are e lastic in their potential to be implemente d while maintaining a structured model based on the tenets of the biophilia hypothesis. A city that operates with an technology and design agenda that is ecologically progressive holds the crucial requirement of ne eding to be composed of citizens with the same en vironmentally

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88 altruistic agenda. These components; humans, technology, design, must operate in ecological accord in order to fulfill the requirements integral to the concept of the eco city. The Biophilia hy pothesis suggests that part of establishing health and happiness in the everyday lives of citizens; a connection to nature i s crucial. Part of this connection to nature inherently elicits a greater love and appreciation for the natural world, which then predicts more environmentally altruistic behavior. The experience of nature is crucial to valuing nature, valuing nature ( both individually, and as a community whole) is crucial to the success of the eco city concept. The cycle is iterative and self fulfil ling but requires investment in an urban environment that nurtures the human condition by way of establishing a biophilic connection with the natural world.

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