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Design narrative

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Title:
Design narrative spatial drama and its application to virtual environments
Creator:
Abelin, Raymond Ferris
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
184 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Discourse analysis, Narrative ( lcsh )
Expert systems (Computer science) ( lcsh )
Motion pictures ( lcsh )
Design ( lcsh )
Spatial systems ( lcsh )
Design ( fast )
Discourse analysis, Narrative ( fast )
Expert systems (Computer science) ( fast )
Motion pictures ( fast )
Spatial systems ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Colorado at Denver, 2003. Design and planning
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 175-184).
General Note:
College of Architecture and Planning
Statement of Responsibility:
by Raymond Ferris Abelin.

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University of Colorado Denver
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|Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
54514523 ( OCLC )
ocm54514523

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Full Text
DESIGN NARRATIVE:
SPATIAL DRAMA AND ITS APPLICATION TO VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS
by
Raymond Ferris Abelin
B.A., University of California, Los Angeles, 1978
M.A., University of Southern California, 1983
MDesS, Harvard University, 1998
MBA, Cambridge University, 2002
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfilment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Design and Planning
2003


2003 by Raymond Ferris Abelin
All rights reserved.


This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy
degree by
Raymond Ferris Abelin
has been approved
by
Raymond G. Studer
Fahriye Sancar
Charles Hampddn-Turner
Michael Jenson


Abelin, Raymond Ferris (Ph.D., Design and Planning)
Design Narrative: Spatial Drama and its Application to Virtual Environments
Thesis directed by Professor Raymond G. Studer
ABSTRACT
The identification and study of design narrative describes a technology
driven phenomenon applicable to the past twenty years of technological
innovation. As a fusion of principles inherent in dramatic cinema and digital
design, the theory has a growing piace in the communication of digital and
physical design and planning information systems. The basis of design
narrative is formulated upon a concept of spatial drama, established within
the context of convergence of developing digital communications media.
Narrative, with its progressively broadening range of definitions and
even surprising associations, in the past had its strongest association to
drama. Cinema, despite its development as a technological medium, has
nevertheless certainly incorporated the principles of narrative, of which,
drama has historically been a component. Narrative systems are therefore
central to and interchangeable with methods for conveyance of dramatic
information. This assumption forms the premise of this investigation intending
to show that spatial drama, the foundations of which are based upon
contrasting values, can be synthesized into digitally designed narrative,
particularly within virtual environments and other medial communications
platforms. There is the perceived problem with applications of narrative in
design, especially concerning digitally designed spatial environments that lack
purpose, structure and interest. The resulting narratological model introduces
the new concept of spatial drama. Design narrative links spatial narrative to
spatial drama for the intentional creation of dramatic contrast within
sequential space. This theory contributes to a deeper understanding of
spatial issues concerning the use medial technologies.
The virtual learning paradigm produced for Europes Open University
(OU) and the Cambridge Program on Industry (CPI), subsequently
demonstrates aspects of the model developed in this investigation. This is
accomplished through the depiction of Dr. Charles Hampden-Turner's
IV


dilemma theory as both a core concept for the narratological model and Oils
distance learning program, Learning and the Connected Economy. Dilemma
theory focuses upon opposition and reconciliation of opposing forces. The
theory is largely applied to the areas of cross-cultural and organizational
behavior. Therefore, the development of a computer-animated graphical
portrayal of dilemmas is used to examine spatial drama, within the
parameters of the Oils Web-based course, and within the framework of a
digitally designed narrative.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I
recommend its publication.
Raymond G. Studer
v


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Various research institutions, university departments, academics and
colleagues have contributed to the creation of this work. In terms of
institutions, I would like to acknowledge UCLA and USC film schools where I
did initial undergraduate and masters degrees. Studies in new media,
especially aesthetics of digital design technology, were done through post-
professional graduate degree studies at the Harvard University Graduate
School of Design and the MIT Media Lab. The MBA focusing upon
convergence issues between media and business was carried out at
Cambridge Universitys Judge Institute of Management and research towards
the doctoral degree has been conducted through the University of Colorado,
Denver and Boulder with additional studies at the Cambridge University
Moving Image Studio. The Cambridge Program for Industrys joint venture
with the Open University facilitated the means to explore this studys premise.
In terms of the actual supervision of this study at the University of
Colorado, Denver and Boulder, deepest thanks to rugged individualists who
encourage blazing new trails, my Supervisor, Dr. Raymond G. Studer; the
Committee Members, Dr. Fahriye Sancar, Dr. Hans Morgenthaler and Dr.
Michael Jenson; and the Director of the Ph.D. program, Dr. Willem van Vliet,
enabling a progressive interdisciplinary study of theories and applied
concepts connecting cinema, design and planning.
At Cambridge University, debt is owed to Dr. Charles Hampden-Turner
of the Judge Institute of Management, author and lecturer in Cross-Cultural


Management; the Cambridge Committee Member who enabled me to analyze
links between his dilemma theory and its applications to design issues within
the context of drama theory. Davis Lewis rendered the storyboarded
characters. At the Cambridge University Moving Image Studio, a department
devoted to the study of film/architecture; thanks to Dr. Frangois Penz for the
early interest he took this research, providing the production facilities and
personnel for the demonstration of the virtual learning narrative model.
At Harvard University, many thanks to Mimi Truslow, Dr. Christine
Smith and Giuliana Bruno for their insights into building that transcend the
physical environment.
At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a thank you to Dr. Bruce
Blumburg and his Synthetic Characters Group for initially placing the study of
interactive digital animation within arms reach.
At the Cambridge Program for Industry, Dr. Jake Reynolds was
instrumental in obtaining the funding for and administering the development of
the model used to illustrate concepts put forward in this investigation.
The funding itself was provided by the Open University towards the
OpenCambridge project, Learning in the Connected Economy. Dr. Robin
Mason, Chris Pegler and Dr. Martin Weller were the project managers who
are gratefully acknowledged. Finally, I would like to acknowledge Kim Kelly,
artist and Ph.D. Coordinator at the University of Colorado, Boulder,
Department of Architecture and Planning and Ann M. Howry Ellis, colleague
and Instructor of the course Imaging and Creativity. Her support and creative
vision are reflected in this work.


CONTENTS
Figures......................................................... x
Chapter
1. INTRODUCTION................................................. 1
Presumptions........................................... 4
Purpose of the Study.................................... 7
2. LITERATURE REVIEW........................................... 12
Architecture and Cinema............................... 13
Planning and Cinema.................................. 18
Object Oriented Design and Cinema...................... 22
Narrative and Technology......................... 33
Narrative Aspects of Arts, Sciences and Industry. 39
Digital Design and Digital Film Industries....... 43
Linking Design & Planning Pedagogy to Cinema .... 46
3. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGIES....................... 51
Methodology............................................ 52
Narrative History................................ 55
Design Narrative................................. 58
Spatial Narrative................................ 60
Drama Theory..................................... 61
Dilemma Theory................................... 67
Systems Theory................................... 68
viii


4. EXAMPLES............................................ 75
Example 1: Lucas Film, Ltd........................ 76
New Technologies.......................... 83
Example 2: The Open University.................... 92
5. METHOD.............................................. 98
Narratological Model.............................. 98
Synthesis of Models......................... 99
6. CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER RECOMMENDATIONS............ 122
APPENDIX.............................................. 132
EXHIBITS............................................ 144
Exhibit A: Storyboards........................... 145
Exhibit B: Demonstration......................... 174
REFERRENCES........................................... 175
ix


FIGURES
Figure
2.1 Technology and social component linkages.................. 44
3.1 Systems Theory............................................ 71
3.2 Logic System.............................................. 73
5.1.1 Freytag Pyramid.......................................... 100
5.1.2 Modified Freytag Model................................... 103
5.1.3 Dramatic Narrative Trajectory............................ 104
5.14 4 Phase Cycle............................................ 105
5.1.5 Kolb's Cycle......................................... 106
5.1.6 Pfister's Tree Diagram................................... 107
5.1.7 Dramatic Conflict..................................... 108
5.1.8 Dilemma Theory........................................... 110
5.1.9 Spatial Narrative........................................ 111
5.1.10 Design Narrative......................................... 112
5.1.11 Narrative Dramatic Trajectory............................ 114
5.1.12 Spatial Drama............................................ 116
5.1.13 Spatial Contrast......................................... 118
x


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
This study is an analysis of the knowledge-based aspects and
connections between design, planning and film, the related business issues,
and field applications to Internet based learning The Internet, as a
knowledge-based medium, is a catalyst for integrating and accelerating the
convergence of design and film production and education. Therefore, an
virtual learning application is used to demonstrate the properties of the model
developed in this investigation. Through an analysis of the recent
technologies, a theory of design narrative suggests a re-definition of moving
images as design. It is argued that an interdisciplinary study of design and
cinema will shed further light on the "innovative" aspects of research
questions posited within the design and planning field. Such research
questions include the difficulties of measuring the creative aspects of design
and film that are a primary factor compelling the convergence phenomenon
and driving the ongoing development of communications media In the
supervision of this work, there is the key view pertaining to the basic nature of
the argument:
1


"Planning, Design, and Management are the
fundamental instruments of intervention that we utilize to
realize purposeful systems, specifically people-environment
systems. That is, we plan, design and manage
environments for the purpose of supporting/influencing
human behavior and/or affect (e.g., emotional responses).
This environment could be, for example, a film, a
physical/virtual setting, a management system, an
organization, a fiscal system, or an educational system. All
of these are people-environment systems. In other words,
planning, design, and/or management decisions are
relevant to realizing all classes of purposeful (goal directed)
people-environmental systems, be they economic, social, or
physical (including graphic displays). It is argued that the
introduction of both narrative (a story) and drama (the
introduction of salient emotional or motivational content) are
integral aspects of organizing, i e., planning, designing and
managing, people-environment phenomena wherein
particular human behavior and affect (emotions) are seen
as the intended outcomes," (Studer, 2002).1
In determining the above-mentioned scope of the research, the intent
is to provide an original contribution to the literature. This intention leads to
the task of defining and modeling what is termed herein as design narrative, a
theory examining the introduction, modeling and demonstration of spatial
drama. Concepts addressing convergent technologies are developed and
studied to advance and clarify the use of narrative terminology and its
applications. Such applications include advancing new concepts and
practices in medial communications incorporating and influencing the
processes, education, and business of design and planning.
1 Studer, Raymond G. (2002) Unpublished personal communication
2


Key research questions analyzed in this dissertation acknowledge the
difficulties of measuring certain creative aspects of knowledge-based
industries such as design and cinema (Grant,1996). Measuring creativity, the
empirical analysis of subject matter involving creative content and its affect,
does not have a well-established research history focusing on the integration
of design and cinema. Creativity and science, as approaches to knowledge
acquisition, are often placed in opposition. It could be said that, within the
people-environment systems that made up arts and sciences communities
prior to the industrial application and widespread use of digitally designed
graphical systems, creativity, as a notion, was primarily relegated to the fine
arts This view has of course radically changed, as detailed within this
investigation. Since "creativity" is being integrated into the literature of both
the sciences and the arts, concepts such as "narrative" are finding new
meaning. However, the sequential characteristics of narrative have been
generally adopted without its dramatic associations that are essential to the
purposeful outcomes in the creative and performing arts. These disciplines
have historically been concerned with eliciting emotional responses.
Acknowledging, however, that creativity is a significant aspect of design
study, and considering that aspects of narrative theory have become
accepted by both the contemporary arts and sciences, the formulation of a
3


theory joining a more comprehensive view of narrative with design points to
the following research questions:
Why has narrative become part of contemporary interdisciplinary critical
theory and detached from its historical association to drama?
Is drama theory applicable to design and planning issues utilizing narrative
frameworks via the development of medial communications technologies?
How can design and planning processes and practices be favorably
impacted by the introduction of design narrative into the contemporary
discourse on narrative within knowledge-based environments?
Presumptions
Design narrative theory describes a technology driven phenomenon
applicable to the past twenty years of technological innovation. As a fusion of
principles inherent in dramatic cinema and digital design, the theory has a
growing place in the communication of digital and physical design and
planning information systems. Thus, the future of design narrative is being
established within the context of convergence of digital design mediums:
multimedia platforms, CAD, CGI, 2D and 3D animation, digital cinema, mobile
communications systems utilizing graphical interfaces and the Internet.
Therefore, the theory addresses one of the most important problems of this
4


study, the inadequate definition and use of narrative in design. It is posited
that narrative, since it has been widely accepted without drama, represents
story disconnected from emotions.
One goal of this research is to better explicate linkages between
creative industries such as design and film, which share many of the
characteristics of more widely researched areas such as technology and e-
commerce (Shapiro and Varian, 1999). This suggests that the traditional
research on technology, which has largely been developed in the computer
science literature, requires a more cross-disciplinary study related to design
and film. Also included is the examination of relevant management literature
that is used to reveal connections driving development of creative industries
further defining new media. For these reasons, the film industry is chosen as
an excellent example for study in the combining of complex effects. The
social, psychological and community forces which influence the development
and application of new technologies within creative industries such as design
and film need to be more thoroughly integrated into traditional design
education focusing on technology research.
It is argued that the film industry is an increasingly important research
area for design research. Like the Internet, the film industry has globalized.
5


Also like Web-based communication, cinema is rapidly becoming a digital
medium in which designers play increasingly critical roles. Such trends
contribute to the purposeful examination of cinematic narrative and drama as
knowledge-based medial communications aspects of digital design.
Multi-cultural dilemma theory, in essence, attempts to discover
commonalties between opposites (Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars,
2002). Though regarded as a substantially different sphere of thought and
expression, a fundamental principle of drama is to define opposites, point and
counterpoint, often to characterize some moral principle, some truth through
the conflict of opposites. In addition to energizing the interaction of opposing
views within cultures and societies, the theory has potential links to the digital
media technologies facilitating the convergence of previously unrelated
technologies and fields of study. The framework of drama can become
particularly applicable to the reconciliation of dilemmas as defined by
Hampden-Turner, through the use of new-media technologies and the
incorporation of conflict and resolution, the foundations of drama. By
sensationally visualizing the dilemma, the applied research model attempts
to explain adversarial points-of-view and create a vehicle whereby design and
cinematic principles can be conveyed, analyzed, and understood.
6


Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this investigation is to connect dilemma theory with
drama theory as digitally designed narrative space, in the context of our
knowledge-based society and through the use of dramatic visualization.
Dilemma theory is particularly suitable to research within multimedia-designed
space since the dilemmas defined intrinsically require visual representation.
Traditionally in the research literature, concepts like image, perception and
association were covered under behavioral and cognitive science. However,
as digital media technologies become the medium for linking design with
cinema, concepts such as image perception have become more dramatized
and play a more crucial role in the assessing and addressing of design
issues.
The digital revolution is not only creating a convergence of technology
but also of academic disciplines that, even a decade ago, would not have
been imagined. What was the exclusive domain of filmmakers and fine artists
is being integrated into disciplines such as architecture, communication,
education and management e.g., marketing, organizational behavior, and
information systems. The tools in dramatic filmmaking, the cameras, lights,
7


actors, and their continuing adaptation to the Internet is compelling evidence
of visual representations redefining realities.
The Internet has introduced as its main features a screen and pictures
that are rapidly becoming moving pictures with sound, visual effects, the
incorporation of design principles and soon with broadband even the capacity
for interactive storytelling. This technology has turned companies like
Microsoft and Sony into the high tech studios of the future. Certainly, e-
commerce is at the early stages of developing portals that are rapidly
becoming cinematic. The gatekeeper is a series of pictures and multi media
creations redefining digital design thinking. Consequently, designers of the
future must adopt and have been adopting cinematic principles. The story of
the Internet, its history and development reads like motion picture history.
Within knowledge-based societies the use of visual media, such as the
introduction of video and digital animation on the Internet, is prompting users
to think like filmmakers, induced by the interactive nature of the medium.
The role of digital technology continues to reform traditional fields of
study, disrupting systems while paradoxically bringing them together.
Dilemma theory research through the incorporation of dramatic methods will
attempt to more effectively examine the issues facing designers employing
8


digital media. The linkage between dilemma and drama is historic. The
fundamental importance of concepts such as opposition and reconciliation in
dilemma theory are tied to the dramatic structure of resolution through
conflict. Cinema, as technology, is in the process of being revolutionized by
digital technology and design methodology. The AOL/Time-Warner merger
was the largest merger in history, which combined new and traditional media
enterprises. Despite outcomes, the corporate merger of Vivende/Universal
exemplifies the issue, where traditional business, the Internet, cinema and
design combine to form entirely new modes of thinking. In defining design
narrative, the introduction and analysis of spatial drama is intended to provide
an innovative approach to research concerning narrative structures.
Additionally, it is impossible to overlook the business and management
aspects of the aforementioned fields and the issue must also be taken into
consideration when investigating the realities that are motivating broader-
based theory and practice of planning, design and cinema. The discipline of
behavioral science that has been applied to the study todays organizational
behavior (OB) was first used as a means of investigating design related
9


issues (Studer, 1970; Studerand Stea, 1966).2 An analysis of the design
industry and its potential linkages to knowledge-based society also involves
the convergence of previously unrelated disciplines as well as technologies.
Overall, the attempt is made herein to examine the disciplines and
technologies that strengthen linkages between what was previously thought
of as unrelated fields of inquiry, leading to introduction of a theories of design
narrative and spatial drama. Therefore, the approach to the investigation is
outlined as follows:
Review of the history of narrative and narrative forms as they relate to the
design theory of spatial narrative.
Review of literature pertaining to design, cinema and object-oriented
design.
Analysis and definition of spatial narrative.
Analysis and definition of design narrative pertaining to spatial
organization of data as spatial drama.
o
Studer, R.G. (1970). The dynamics of behavioral contingent physical systems. In H.
Proshansky, W.H. Ittelson, L. Rivlin (Eds.), Environmental Psychology: Man and His
Physical Setting, New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Studer, R.G. and Stea, D. (1966). Architectural programming and human behavior. Journal of
Social Issues, October 1966, Vol. 22, No. 4.
10


Dilemma theory and drama theory and links to design and planning
practice and education.
Examination of theories relevant to design narrative.
Examination of conceptual synthesis as a methodology.
Examination of Lucasfilm and relevant technologies.
Examination Open University and its production approach to education.
Research method integrating drama, dilemma and systems theories and
formulas as the conceptual synthesis.
Design of a spatial narratological model as a demonstration of the
conceptual synthesis.
An essential purpose of design narrative is to examine the unpredictable,
but requisite nature of emotional values attributed to dramatic spatial
representation. This position is a constitutive factor for modeling and
demonstrating spatial drama in this investigation. Since, as detailed in the
following, narrative characteristics represent more predicable aspects of
spatial information, the subsequent literature review addresses known
convergent technologies linking narrative to the relevant areas of study.
11


CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
It may be argued that planning and design are actually one discipline.
In any event, it is clearly difficult to ascertain where planning ends and design
begins. In the following review of relevant literature, there is evidence
pointing to the importance of cross-disciplinary research juxtaposing cinema
with design and planning, essential to the purpose of understanding
convergence issues influencing the future of digital design analysis and
applications:
Architecture and Cinema
Planning and Cinema
Object Oriented Design and Cinema
In the first area of examination, Architecture and Cinema, the
comparatively small but growing body of literature over the past decade and
particularly in the last five years is a testament to the convergence
phenomenon relating to both the fields of design and cinema. Within
universities, the notion of the union of the disciplines has been generally
12


slower to gain the interest of researchers in design and film, disproportionate
to the ongoing revolution in industry. Surprisingly, the academic literature has
been largely developing out of the social sciences, especially in the areas of
sociology and anthropology where, also principally within the last decade,
there has been growing interest in the study of visual sociology and visual
anthropology. This issue taken up in the second area for examination,
Planning and Cinema.
The rapid and continuing advances in digital technologies persist to
have a dramatic impact on the design and film industries, and subsequently
on schools of design and film. Therefore, research on the subject becomes
even more relevant. Computer graphics, CAD, multimedia, computer-
generated imaging (CGI) and the Internet are just a few of the interconnecting
factors driving convergence. These issues are examined in the third area of
the literature review, Object Oriented Design and Cinema.
Architecture and Cinema
Most screen presentations of the architects life distort those aspects
that can be labeled realistic. The movies have no use for that workaday
professional world whose too-common characteristics are long days and lean
13


paychecks, teamwork and compliance, creeping frustration and mid-life
disillusion, as (Levinson, 2000)3 points out.
However, the relationship between architects and filmmakers goes
much deeper than the so-called unrealistic representations of idealized
architects on film. The reality is that throughout the history of cinema,
architecture has contributed significantly to motion picture development. In
fact, a number of noteworthy film directors began their careers preparing as
architects, as did Fritz Lang, long before he made Metropolis (1926).
Carl Dreyer, recognized as an architectural filmmaker of
documentaries such as The Danish Village Church (Landsbykirken, 1941)
claimed that architecture was cinemas closest relative. Concurrently,
legendary architects have experimented with film. Frank Lloyd Wright is
known to have been a sagacious amateur filmmaker. It is Wright's own
16mm footage of his Larkin Building, (whip pans of swirling red
bricks from tower to tower) that makes-up the only surviving film record of the
building, (Grigor, 1994).4
3 Levinson, N., (2000). Tall Buildings, Tall Tales: on Architects in the Movies, in M. Lamster,
M. Architecture and Film, Princeton Architectural Press.
4 Grigor, M., (1994). Space in Time: Filming Architecture Architecture & Film, London: John
Wiley & Son Ltd.
14


Even Le Corbusier made surviving 16mm avant-garde films of his own
that rivaled films such as Man Rays Les Mysteres du chateau du De (1928).
In one of Corbusiers films, he uses his sporty convertible automobile, his girl
friends, their modern fashions, and his modern designs. He experiments with
editing repetitive images as patterns, timing, and cinematic surrealism.
Corbusier was a member of (CIAM) Congres International de I Architecture
Moderne, initially sharing a similar agenda with CICI (Congres International
du Cinema Independant) at La Sarraz, Switzerland in 1928.
Corbusier is documented to have attended the La Sarraz meeting
where manifestos of the architectural and cinematic avant-garde met to define
the new modern age and advancing what Hans Richter termed as a universal
language of the arts (Bullock, 2001 ).5
It is claimed, Art and technology began to fuse during the 1920s,
(Mandelbaum and Myers, 2001 ).6 Perhaps there is some truth to this view,
since both architecture and cinema rely on technology, the broadening body
of knowledge that advances artistic expression. In the 20s, the burst of
5 Bullock, N. (1998). Introduction, in F. Penz (ed) Cinema & Architecture: Melies, Mallet-
Stevens, Multimedia, London: British Film Institute, pgs. 6-7.
6 Mandelbaum, H. and Myers E. (2001). Screen Deco, Hennessey & Ingalls.
15


technological innovation allowed both architects and filmmakers to break new
ground. It was then called Art Moderne but eventually became known as Art
Deco, the popular design philosophy of the modern and futuristic. As with
German Expressionism of the period, the French movement of Deco found its
way into the film arts and eventually into the film industry of Hollywood.
Le Corbusiers personal experiments with film in the 1920s as a
means of cinematically expressing his architectural theories are a fusion of
design and film. His non-elitist expression of modernism as art further
advanced the movement.
Joseph Urban was a Vienna born architect who, is credited with
establishing Wiener Werkstatte and the principles of the International Style in
the US when he relocated in the early 1900s. He concurrently designed
approximately thirty motion pictures for William Randolph Hearsts
Cosmopolitan Pictures, drastically altering contemporary stagecraft and
revitalizing American architecture, (Carter & Cole, 1992).7 Again, through the
1920s and 1930s American landscape architect Florence Yoch also
7Carter R. and Cole R. (1992). Joseph Urban: Architecture, Theatre, Opera, Film, Abbeville
Press.
16


designed the sets for such noteable films of the 1930s such as Romeo and
Juliet and Gone with the Wind, (Yoch,1989).8
Circumstances that are argued to have fused art and technology in the
1920s, compelling great movements in the modern arts such as Deco, can
be similarly applied to the remarkable digital technology revolution that
became pervasive throughout 1990s. It is a widening revolution that
continues to reform the arts, business and technology itself.
Though those in the computer sciences are generally responsible for
engineering and providing the technologies that designers and filmmakers
use, the academic literature in computer science has understandably not
adequately investigated the convergence issues pertaining to the fields of
design and film. Interestingly, this also seems to be the case for the majority
of design and film theorem research.
"There is a perceived polarity (however artificial) between
technology and the humanities, between science and art,
between right brain and left. The burgeoning field of
multimedia is likely to be one of those disciplines, like
architecture, that bridges the gap."
8 Yoch, J. (1989). Landscaping the American Dream The Gardens and Film Sets of
Florence Yoch : 1890-1972, Harry N. Abrams Inc.
17


So argues Nicholas Negroponte, Director of the MIT Media Lab 9 If
multimedia has become a field unto itself, the characteristics of cinema are its
fundamental contributors that further join it to architecture.
Planning and Cinema
When examining the context of cinemas relationship to planning, there
is far more to the issue than the discourse on Metropolis and Blade Runner,
the archetypal films depicting the city. Nevertheless, there are some who
may still believe that the 1982 movie Blade Runner captures everything about
the future of the metropolis, a view that was held by the senior editor of
Architectural Record, (Hoyt, 1994).10 There is the assumption that such
points of view result from the deficient base of academic research that
specifically addresses the issue. Again, this is precisely the reason why more
thorough investigation has become necessary, especially when considering
the evolution of planning processes and practices attributed to the
introduction of digital media technologies.
As with architecture, there is a limited, but nevertheless long history of
Negroponte, N. (1995). Being Digital, London: Hodder and Stoughton.
10Hoyt, C. 1991, Blade Runner still on the cutting edge, familiar as it is. Architectural Record,
October.
18


evidence pointing to the relationship between planning processes and
practices and cinematic expression. Cambridge University Moving Image
Studio (CUMIS) archival research from the Bauhaus-Archiv and Swiss
Werkbund uncovered several early urban planning films, though it is surmised
that many more were destroyed during the Second World War in Europe.
(The City of Tomorrow) Die Stadt von Morgen (1929), directed by von
Gordbeck and Kotzen reflects the pervasive modernist movement of the time,
with utopian overtones that contrast elements of Dark Expressionism that
define past, present and future. This city of tomorrow depicts a feudal past
that leads to urban decay, poverty and unplanned cities where the industrial
revolution has led dangerous chemical factories built next to schools and
residential neighborhoods. The planners, designers and filmmakers
manufacture a modern and idealized city whereby a version of todays zoning
districts is created to stimulate societal development and harmony. Another
urban planning film, (The New Apartment) Die Neue Wohnung (1930/31) is
directed by Hans Richter, the same filmmaker who argued for a common
language with designers, along with Corbusier at the 1928 CIAM and CICI La
Sarraz meeting. In the US, city planning films begin to be produced in the
later 1930s. The lesser-known version of The City (1939) by Willard Van
Dyke was found in a New York film archive.
19


Not only the filmmakers have been making films for planners. Urban
planner, historian and sociologist Lewis Mumford is considered one of the
great urbanists of the 20th Century. His seminal text The Culture of Cities
became the basis of the script for what could be viewed as the most
noteworthy planning film of its time, also entitled The City (1939).11 Mumford
narrates his views to a musical score written by Aaron Copland in the film that
was commissioned by the American Institute of Planners, funded by a major
grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York. A visionary planner,
Mumford recognized the power of cinema, working with some of Hollywoods
best to create a beautiful fantasy of cinematic documentary that defined social
values of the age, the unreachable values of utopian community.
Nevertheless, the Mumford Center for Comparative Urban and Regional
Research, established by Mumford himself in 1988, in Albany New York, is a
center for interdisciplinary scholarship and a testimony to the aspirations of
reaching for idealism. The centers ...broad-based collaboration among
urban scholars from a variety of fields,12 also points to the linkage of urban-
plannings connection to sociology and sociologys recognition of cinema as
11 Gold, J.R. and Ward, V. (1997). Of Plans and Planners: Documentary film and the
challenge of the urban future, 1935-1952. in D. Clark (ed) The Cinematic City, London:
Routledge, pgs. 59-82.
12 Mumford Center for Comparative Urban and Regional Research, [Internet Document] Web
site accessed January 2002.
20


a related interdisciplinary field, leading to the development of the disciplines
of visual-sociology and visual-anthropology.
A review of the literature reveals significant writings relating cinema to
sociology, political science, psychology, communication and management, all
disciplines with which planning has developed some degree of scholarly
affiliation: (Proctor & Adler, 1991; Foreman & Thatchenkery, 1996; Fails 1988;
Schermer, J.,1988).
Though the iiterature primarily supports cinemas value as a teaching
tool, the greater value of cinema applicable to planning processes and
practices is in the power of the medium to reach large numbers of people in a
way that is traditionally dramatic, if not entertaining. Societies views of its
cities are often formed in the movie theatre. Therefore, it is believed that
planning scholars will more closely examine cinematic applications, as the
medium becomes digital and integrated into the other medial communications
platforms. Planners like sociologists, psychologists, architects and
filmmakers, are also being compelled to come to terms with adapting to the
use of digital animation technologies. New and innovative methods of
research utilizing concepts inherent in cinema and other developing digital
media will forward the evolution and advancement of planning theory and
21


practice. For instance, producing and cutting between a 3 dimensional
animated topographic map, site plan and integrated foundation and structures
would certainly require an understanding of motion picture production and
editing techniques.
Object Oriented Design and Cinema
The literature review on object oriented design is largely modified from
research papers developed while at Harvard GSD, linking Foley and van
Dams seminal writings on interactive computer graphics with digital design
and dramatic cinema. The tools of both 2D and 3D digital design and
animation continue to advance the future of man/machine interaction in the
creation of designed synthetic space. This has fostered the integration of
computer aided design processes with motion picture production. It follows
that research undertaken will attempt to provide a means of better examining
and understanding design narrative within both physical and virtual
environments. Reviewing the pertinent literature regarding computer-aided
design points to the analysis of the motion picture as emerging digital design
media. Next generation computer graphics imaging technologies are
appurtenant to the inevitable creation of digital image-processed space as
both photo-realistic cinema and object orientated design.
22


With its beginnings at the dawn of this century, the motion picture is a
relatively modern and purely technological form of narrative. The nature of
cinema has at its core machinery and materials. A story cannot be told
through the medium without, cameras, lenses, projectors, chemicals, celluloid
and, ever-increasingly, computers. The term cinema, short for
cinematograph, was coined from this chiefly British machine, developed as a
camera, projector, and thus portable theater. The machine's name is no
doubt derived from the Greek kinema, meaning movement, and so too its
mechanical predecessor, the kinescope. It is now commonly accepted that
many technologies are in the process of converging. Since the inception of
cinema, the long list of technological advancements that lead to the
development of talkies, celluloid film, Technicolor, Cinemascope, video,
most recently includes computing technologies. Early examples of computer-
generated images were initially small sequences built into the main body of
the film. Computer graphics were confined to images on computer screens
and most of the displays were primarily textual. Computer generated images
were usually wire-frame contour maps. Science fiction films such as 2001 A
Space Odyssey and Alien exemplifies the method of application. The
astounding digital revolution that has given birth to image processing, a
means to create and manipulate pictures, is enabling the design and
rendering of images of such spectacular quality that they can no
23


longer be dismissed as simply "computerized" re-creations of reality. Since
the mid-sixties when the field of computer graphics became established, the
objective of producers of computer-generated images has been to create
digital images so realistic that the observer accepts the image as a real object
rather than a synthetic object (Foley & van Dam, 1982).13 This striving to
attain "visual realism" has placed image processing on the verge of becoming
both actualized cinema and design, as well as merging the two fields of study.
Development and transformation of these increasingly digital media mirrors in
a strange way the invention of the photograph and the subsequent
technological discoveries that enabled moving pictures.
The phenomenon called persistence of vision in which the human eye
perceives motion of still pictures that are rapidly projected is attributed to the
illusion of movement. With pictorial animation clearly established as
exceptionally suitable for computer manipulation it is no wonder that efforts
are underway to more effectively author computer-generated animations for
cinema, as well as design and planning processes and practices. This reality
continues to open up enormous possibilities for designers and filmmakers.
Even in the mid 90s, the digital re-creation of deceased actors on a synthetic
13 Foley, D., van Dam, A., et al (1982). Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics.
24


background was achieved with stars like Fred Astaire, being brought back to
life to sell soft drinks, no SAG contract or residuals necessary.
Designers generating computer-based images are leading to the high-
level advancement of computer-generated sets and characters used in
motion picture production. Over the past 15 years many computer graphics
companies have been laboring to construct realistic images of the human
body and create imaginary people.
The exploration for digital visual realism is turning designers, creating
2D, 3D and 4D objects such as buildings, cities, furniture and automobiles,
into filmmakers of a kind. Within synthetic space, in an effort to see how a
design will appear as the viewer moves though and around synthetic objects,
designers are, perhaps unconsciously, in the process of developing cinematic
narrative, visualizing responses both effective and affective.
Presently, the essential obstacle in fabricating complete visual realism
is the visual richness of the natural environment. Real images have an
enormous amount of textures, forms, colors, light and shadow. Synthesizing
reality into a digital rendering is as complex as nature and animating digital
renderings in a convincing method is even more formidable. In venturing to
25


mirror reality, the production designer of Twister imitated nature when he
formulated the design of the motion picture. Computer-oriented challenges
for the film were unprecedented. To duplicate the effects of tornado behavior
ILM had to integrate the live-action with computer generated images into a
seamless whole. Physical and digital crews worked together in creating many
of the shots in the film. Computer enhancements were created for many of
the physical shots aside from the tornado imagery.
Highly realistic images also communicate 3D spatial relationships. As
Foley and van Dam et al indicated in their landmark 1982 book,
Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics ,The fundamental difficulty
in depicting spatial relationships is that all practical display devices have been
2D. Therefore 3D objects must be projected into two dimensions. Loss of
information within the two-dimensional plane can produce ambiguities in the
image and, of course, there is still no practical technology of three-
dimensional projection. On the practical side, having a device capable of
storing the vast amount of digital information a rendered complex image
posses is a common requirement for increasingly realistic computer-aided
design animations. Even for the most powerful of computers, the amount of
time and storage capacity necessary to render and store complex digital
animations on computer remains problematic. Digital video animation must
26


be transferred to video frame by frame, or, for motion picture processes, via
optical printer.
Integrating computer graphics with motion picture production was
initially unconvincing. Very high resolutions were needed for each frame.
Graphic imagery for television required substantially less resolution (756x486
NTSC) compared with the thousands of lines necessary to create a suitable
film image. The issue of generating high-resolution images also continues to
lead to improved computing technology for storing and processing vast
amounts of data.
Terminology previously related to the field of motion picture production
has been modified to include developments in computer graphics and image
processing. Animation and live-action have been redefined by computer
animation within the conventional framework of motion picture production and
design process and practice. Animation as a practice was traditionally
associated to hand-drawn or pixilated characters, usually on cels, transparent
acetate sheets. Live-action did refer to the use of living characters and
physical environments in production. Image processing is largely altering
these concepts. Live-action can be fabricated without physical characters. A
dataglove can be utilized in the animation of characters within real time as
27


virtual puppets. Of course, the hand-drawn (cartoon) celluloid animation has
been all but replaced by computer animation methods, virtually implemented
with a background consisting of a bitmap or polygon graphic and the
foreground cells have become mostly polygonal shapes. It has become a
forgone conclusion that these processes have become closely matched the
processes that designers face through computer aided design. Both in
education and practice, the designer increasingly relies on what is becoming
a myriad of computational animation Software systems available.
Photo realistic computer-generated films such as Final Fantasy
exemplifies the manipulation of physical and synthetic characters and spaces.
As the computer technology continues to rapidly improve, it is not unfeasible
to consider synthetic spaces and characters that exactly mirror reality with the
framework of cinema and design. In the not too distant future, designs and
motion pictures may be produced where animation and live-action merge to
become seamlessly indistinguishable from each other. The film Gladiator is
an excellent example of how designers and filmmakers have converged areas
of knowledge. A living actor holding off a hungry tiger in a photo-realistic
digitally designed Roman Coliseum is being replaced by a synthetic double.
28


Realistic synthetic designs and motion pictures, though approaching
technical feasibility still cannot of course fully duplicate reality. However, the
issue is no longer whether or not digital illusions can compete with image
quality of the more traditional forms of design and film production, but when a
fuliy digital cinema/architecture will become a reality. The improvements in
artificial intelligence are leading to behavioral realism as well as visual
realism, where synthetic creations behave as they would in real-life
conditions. The future of both design and cinema cannot be examined
without taking into account these and other emerging technologies such as
virtual reality, which may enable cinema to move beyond synthetic films to
some form of all-encompassing 3D and 4D spatial environment.
In Blade Runner, by 2109 genetic engineering has become one of the
worlds most robust industries. There are artificial animals as pets and sub-
standard food. The genetically engineered humans, "replicants" are a
manufactured working class. The artificial people are almost virtually identical
to real people, nevertheless their "human" counterparts consider their
synthetic creations lifeless and therefore can kill them without feeling
remorse. Ironically, given the films synthetic premise, none of the sets and
many of the effects were not computer-generated. Miniatures of the futuristic
cityscape were physically constructed. Within the interior of the Tyrells office,
29


process plates were utilized for the other pyramid outside the window. The
pyramid was built, photographed and plates prepared for front projection on
the set. Traditional matte painting techniques were utilized for the
background imagery.
The computer-generated animations and backgrounds in Jumanji were
suddenly made possible by Industrial Light & Magic groundbreaking work on
Jurassic Park. ILM had designed the computer dinosaurs and constructed
the software programs to computer-generate animals with realistic fur and
hair for Jumanji. Nevertheless, designing the shots on computer were far
more expensive than physical production. For example, it was less costly to
have real walls and falling books during the rhino stampede through the
library than to computer-animate the sequence. Computer images prior to
Jumanji mostly consisted of hard edges or smooth surfaces.
The production and animation of synthetic space, allowing the
representation of objects and motions across time by rapidly projecting a
sequence of individual pictures, is allowing for the possibility to animate what
might be termed as synthetic reality. Since live-action can also be digitally
animated with some degree of realism, real images are digitally processed to
30


become animated characters. The concept has considerable ramifications for
the future of motion picture and design applications.
The creation of realistic computer-generated images are best designed
ana constructed using interactive real-time workstations However, viewing
animation displayed in real-time, especially when the objects are solid, in
color, lit and shadowed, or, in other terms rendered, cannot be presently
computed and displayed in real-time because of the image complexity. A
real-time preview of an animated sequence is best achieved when reducing
visual fidelity, animating the synthetic object at a decreased resolution.
If the characteristics of cinema display a representational form of
architecture as well as narrative, computer aided design processes approach
mirroring cinematic methodology with the introduction of intelligent, object-
based technology. Juxtaposing both technologies, the objects designed
through narrative structure using the combined technology becomes more
perfect, more absolute. In essence, the technological ability to essentially
model realism provides the means to virtually craft reality.
Three-dimensional modeling systems, such as Maya and 3-D Studio
Max, make possible a CAD "virtual camera" to move through implied 3-D
31


designed space. Lightscape is software enabling both the designer and
filmmaker to create production quality virtual lighting schemes. Unix and shell
scripting, as well as Soft Image, the primary software used by Lucasfilm, are
developed from computer aided design systems originally intended for use in
architectural rendering.
The development and adaptation of these technologies place
developers of software programs at the cutting edge of motion picture
production and production design technology. Celluloid film itself as a
narrative medium retains the ever-increasing potential to become as
functionally obsolete as its nitrate predecessor as digital optical technology
reaches production quality.
Reality is said to be what people make of it and technology has
become an integral part of realism ever since the development of the first
stone tool. As high technology, the metamorphosing computer is increasingly
used to link design processes with the narrative forms of motion picture
production. The perceptions created from the products being produced are
altering realities to such an extent that illusion and reality itself become
integrated. Though, through the fabrication of narrative alone, even without
pictures, perception can be altered with striking effect.
32


Narrative and Technology
During the summer of 1845 when Henry David Thoreau moved to the
restful northern shore of Walden Pond, conducting his two-year-long
"experiment in simplicity," along the opposing southern shore railroad tracks
had already been laid. Of his experiences living beside the pond, Thoreau
would years later publish within the pages of Walderr, "I went to the woods
because I wished to live deliberately, to [confront only the essential facts of
life. And see if I could not learn what it had to teach and not, when I came to
die, discover that I had not lived." The quote is posted on the site where
Thoreau built his ten-by-fifteen-toot experimental home mostly with his own
hands on land belonging to his friend and fellow transcendentalist, Ralph
Waldo Emerson (Thoreau, 1995 [1854]).14 When Thoreau did come to die in
1862, the site that he popularized with his romantic story was developed into
an amusement park by the railroad only four years following Thoreau's death.
The site now has corporate sponsors to preserve the fragile ecology of
Walden Pond and thousands of tourists seeking to follow the writer's over-
worn path are turned away every summer. So much for the irony of complex
issues born out of Thoreau's experiment to "simplify, simplify".
Thoreau, H.D. (1995 [1854]). Walden; or Life in the Woods, New York, Dover.
33


Arguably, the foundation of narrative form is simple and unchanging. A
story has its beginning, middle and end. Nevertheless, the concept of
narrative has at its core a methodology of designing and imposing perception
without allowing for the exchange of viewpoint. (You can't talk back to a book
in print, film on the screen, or, computer aided design rendering without
appearing somewhat disturbed). Such developmental technologies serve to
enhance the planned nature of narrative framing, and any technology used
as a medium for the exposition of narrative is inherently a designed form of
communication. Nevertheless, exploratory studies are examining the
possibility of "interactive" narrative.
Narrative structure of course has no consciousness and not until
Thoreau intentionally devised and executed a plan for discerning meaning
from his observations at Walden Pond did meaningful imagery become
associated with the site. Designing perceptions within the narrative model
synthesizes reality into viewpoint. Thoreau endeavored to discover the basic
essentials of life, the reality of existence apart from the encroaching revolution
in industrial technology that would generate another reality. The train tracks
at Walden Pond are a physical metaphor for such representational opposition
between nature and the built environment.
34


Narrative and the continued genesis of knowledge-based media are
vehicles to change perception through distributed story. The mind can
absorb a reality, formulate it through the technological medium and have the
experience re-interpreted as an alternative reality. The creation of Thoreau's
book Walden and the effectual results exemplifies the process. What was
Thoreaus experiment with reality now only exists as text to form perception.
Before the Renaissance, the "rebirth" of intellectualism, and through
the period of the so-called Dark Ages, painter's eyes viewed their architectural
world obliquely on canvas. The reality they perceived then resembles a
largely isometric world today. At the dawn of the 15th century when Florentine
painter Filippo Brunelleschi extensively realized the technology of accurately
copying a three-dimensional image onto a two-dimensional plane, the system
of geometrical linear perspective modified artistic perception. Painters of the
time became inspired to compose more "realistic" observations with the
technology that eventually led to the development of the camera obscura.
Painting, architecture, cinema, language, literature, data-based
computing, in fact, any collection of knowledge is technology in the broadest
sense of the word. As technology develops, designed perceptions of reality
become increasingly integrated; an explanation why technology as a unifying
35


medium is provoking the common use of learned database-computing
languages. Technology provoked the Age of Modernity, enabling a
fundamental leap beyond merely documenting architecture and culture on
film. With the technological innovation of moving pictures, storytellers also
became filmmakers as the film product itself was metamorphosed into a
medium for creating narrative, ultimately, to become a form of narrative. The
ability to combine technological elements to manipulate reality promoted the
formation of a new reality.
Linking reality back to narrative, the transcendentalist and storyteller
Thoreau, together with his Walden, became an unreality to the behavioral
engineer and storyteller, B.F. Skinner, who developed the existence of
Walden Pond into his basis in fact, Walden Two. Skinner, too, lived within
close proximity of the pond and no doubt read of Thoreau's experiment
concerning the site. The experimental psychologist and proponent of operant
behavoralism published his version of utopia in 1948, ninety-four years after
Thoreau's publication.
Born in 1904, Skinner was a product of modernity. For him, the
progressive world of industrialized technology approached simplicity.
Skinner's reality perceived the world of the naturalist as an abstract place that
36


could readily be fixed and improved upon though technological innovation.
For instance, he experimented in altering the behavior of severe psychotics,
not to mention various other human and animal organisms.
Walden Two was Skinner's experiment derived metaphorically from
Walden Pond. Though the site had become a historical landmark and the
property of the state, Skinner's narrative had again evolved the meaning of
Walden Pond as well, revising Thoreaus transcendental (primordial)
philosophy to be synonymous with the utopian community. Thoreau's
narrative "experiment in simplicity" was otherworldly to Skinner who rejected
an obsolete romantic past in favor of an engineered idealized future within the
fictional Twin Oaks Community (Skinner, 1958).15
When Skinner died in 1990 he was buried at Mount Auburn cemetery
approximately thirty miles away from Henry David Thoreau and with Walden
Pond proximate to their graves, physical metaphors of existence and
perception. Both Thoreau's and Skinner's utopia exemplify the bi-directional
influences of the technology of their time. Experimenting within Walden
Pond, the authors perceived an identical environment and then created
15 Skinner, B.F. (1958). Walden Two. New York, Macmillan.
37


perception through narrative that is adversely opposed. This opposition
therefore uniquely tied to the examination of drama theory and dilemma
theory within the scope of this study.
The integration of computer aided design processes and motion
picture production has enabled the creation of greater cinematic illusions
through the reproduction and reinvention of perception. And what was once
merely the viewpoint of Skinners narrative is now on the verge of becoming
reality an interpretation of Thoreau's illusionary Walden that leads to a
another utopian world, where not only perception is more simply designed,
but, also, the selective genes of humanity. The relevance of such
interpretations is examined within the context of drama theory and its
application in Chapter 5.
In considering narrative aspects of both science and art, at one time
the only person that would purchase a mad van Gogh painting was his
sympathetic brother. It was a strange paradox that invaluable art was
considered worthless when first created. Not until collectors started assigning
ever-increasing value to the art did the paintings become priceless. Today a
single piece of artist's work, if it could be purchased at auction, could fund the
building of a skyscraper. Just a little bit of paint on canvass and perhaps
38


something more than narrative. It is a testament to the incalculable value of
the artistic spirit.
Narrative Aspects of Arts, Sciences and Industry
The experiences of an individual appear to us arranged in a series of
events; in this series the single events which we remember appear to be
ordered according to the criterion of earlier and later, which cannot be
analyzed further. There exists, therefore, for the individual, an l-time, or
subjective time. This in itself is not measurable. This was what Einstein
presented when introducing The Meaning of Relativity to his Princeton
audience in 1921. It was his Pre-Relativity view of a scientific narrative', a
sequence of events in which earlier11 may be considered beginning and
later determined as end". There was the common historic belief that
subjective experiences had no place in a scientific worldview since human
experiences were not believed to be measurable. Before Einstein introduced
a theory of curved space, the straight lined geometry of a Newtonian universe
was also reflected in the linear systems thinking of the Industrial Revolution.
When purposefully analyzing narrative applications concerning planners and
designers, delineating where exacting science ends and creative art begins
may become a subjective experience for the individual to interpret.
39


It was primarily a mid 18th to late 20th Century phenomenon that
juxtaposed science with the arts. The Industrial Revolution virtually reified the
pure sciences. The big machines, the exacting, empirical ideas that came
along with their success compelled fragmented and compartmentalized
thought. In discarding more ancient schools of thought, the scientist could
never be an artist. But, in this 21st Century, as industry and technology
become more sophisticated, more "intelligent" links are again being formed
between industry, science and fields of thought that were imagined to be
hitherto dissimilar. Its no wonder that Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) and his
emotional art was so unwelcome and misunderstood, impressionism taking
rise out of the beginnings of the transformation of industry. For van Gogh, his
art took root out of the industrial mines in Belgium where he first worked as an
evangelist for the poor. It could be argued that the minister-turned-artist put
down the Bible and picked up a paintbrush in reaction to the upheaval of
industry that split art from science. Van Goghs disruptive and schizophrenic
representations may be considered more than a metaphor for his
revolutionary times.
It could also be argued that the greatest leaps of knowledge have
occurred when science and art were not in opposition. In earlier times, these
segmented fields of thought were viewed much differently. Some of the
40


greatest minds of the Renaissance, in that reawakening of knowledge
recognized that the arts and sciences were inextricably linked.
Again, one of the instrumental figures that sparked the Italian
Renaissance was the Florentine architect, artist and scientist Flippo
Brunelleschi (1377-1446). He applied science and mathematics to
architectural rendering and painting, further developing a means for three-
dimensional perspective drawing, enabling the more accurate recreation of
the physical world on canvass. What a telling tale of the importance of
literature and narrative, that entire systems of university education could be
completely reformed by differing viewpoints between science and the arts as
the Renaissance and Reformation spread through England:
In the fifteenth century, when the College (Queens'
College, Cambridge) was founded, students were all
prospective clergymen. Nevertheless the curriculum in
the two English universities laid a heavy emphasis on
Logic and Mathematics, and Theology was only studied
by the small minority who went on to a higher degree.
The dominant philosophy of the period was nominalism,
embodying a very flexible, skeptical and empirical
outlook, which led, amongst other things, to a spirit of
scientific enquiry. However, in fifteenth-century Italy, a
renewed interest in the Humanities was changing the
direction of studies. An emphasis on Literature, History,
and Moral Philosophy, all treated with reference to
classical antiquity, particularly Roman antiquity, came to
be regarded as a more suitable educational program. At
41


the same time the invention of printing enabled the Latin
and Greek literary texts to be much more freely available.
The new classical literary emphasis of the Renaissance
first affected Cambridge during the Chancellorship of
Bishop John Fisher, President of Queens' from 1505 to
1508. As the sixteenth century progressed the emphasis
on the Humanities gradually gained ground at the
expense of science which fell into neglect for over a
century, (Scarr, 1983).16
As the age of enlightenment spread to France, Rene Descartes
(1596-1650) set out to prove that science and philosophy were within the
same sphere of study. His first written investigation of scientific method Rules
for the Direction of the Mind led to his great philosophical realization of
Cogito, ergo sum, I think, therefore I am." His additional studies in
metaphysics, physiology, optics, and analytic geometry formed many of the
modern foundations built from Cartesian science and philosophy.
In considering a digital renaissance, no wonder the Massachusetts
Institute of Technologys Media Laboratory was born out of its school of
architecture in 1989. At MIT, the phrase MEDIA ARTS AND SCIENCES
signifies the study, invention and creative use of enabling technologies for
understanding and expression by people and machines. In the pursuit of
16 Scarr, M. (Ed.) (1983). Queens' College Cambridge. St. Ives, Cornwall, Beric Tempest &
Co.
42


science and technology the Media Lab has become successful through the
incorporation of art and architecture with the previous academically separated
fields of science and engineering. The drivers of the Media Lab are industry.
Business continues to fund the development of the lab that is rapidly
becoming one of the major research institutions in the world. But, most
importantly, what is making the idea work is the collaboration between
scientists, artists, and business. Again, only the technology is new, the idea
is an ancient one.
Digital Design and Digital Film Industries
Technology is becoming crucial for all industries, including design and
film. One major difference between design and film industries, is that the
social elements defining what can be a hit1', or, what is popular, piays an
important role in the success of a film. This issue, though not as crucial to
designers is becoming more important to digital designers responding to
converging technologies. Thus, technology needs to be combined with a
social effect, or community effect in predicting a potential success of a film or
linked digitally designed products such as video games that also utilize design
principles. This feedback loop (Figure 2.1) and linkage between technology
and social community effects is shown in below :
43


design/ social
film effects
new
technology
Figure 2.1: Technology and social component linkages
Again, the importance of technology, especially the emergence of
digital technology that is accelerating change in design and film industries
exemplifies the importance of combining research that takes into account the
technology based effects (Arthur, 1994) along with the more sociological
literature (Abramhamson and Fombrun, 1994). In this sense, there is a close
match between knowledge management research, (Grant, 1996) and
research in creative industries such as design and film.
44


Therefore, the first example in Chapter 4 focuses on the one of the
most successful companies that has combined technology and film, the
company created by George Lucas. George Lucas has done as much to
shape popular culture as anyone alive and Nigel Andrews of the Financial
Times claims that the filmmaker is "the Force" in trans-global product
merchandising. "It's safe to say, in fact, that Star Wars single-handedly
created the film-merchandising business," (Lucas & Baxter, 1999).17
LucasArts Games, Lucas Arts Learning, Skywalker Sound, THX Sound,
Lucasfilm and Industrial Light and Magic, at one time no financial pages even
listed these companies because Lucas himself owned every share of stock.
Lucasfilm has not only succeeded as the model tor motion picture
production companies outside of Hollywood, George Lucas as an individual
and as a CEO of Industrial Light and Magic (ILM) is in the process of
recreating the technology of film production and distribution with his special
effects company. 24p and related technologies are about to change forever
the process of filmmaking and George Lucas is the key creative player in the
digital technology's development. His participation in the development of a
"New Hollywood" was based not only on good business sense, or perhaps
17 Baxter, J. 1999. George Lucas: a biography. London, HarperCollins Publishers.
45


more accurately, good timing. George Lucas was just at the right place at the
right time.
Linking Design & Planning Pedagogy to Cinema
In linking design and planning pedagogy to cinema, it would be
imperative to see how films have traditionally been used as a teaching
resource, largely examined through Champouxs detailed research on the
subject. Though Champoux explains how film can be used in organization
behavior and management theories and applied concepts, the argument can
just as readily be applied to design theories and applied concepts. An in
depth understanding of using film as a resource for teaching design theories
and practices also requires a factorization of film characteristics, viewer
responses, and different uses of film as a medium (Champoux, 1999).18 Film
is widely used as a teaching asset since thousands films that are available on
videotape and digital video disk (DVD), which illustrate relevant
issues in many academic fields of study (Martin & Porter, 2002).19 This is
contrasted with the pre-1980 access to filmed material, since the rental
process was slow, limited, and expensive due to limits in the technology,
18 Champoux, E.J. (1999). Film as a teaching resource. Journal of Management Inquiry. 8(2):
206-217.
19 Martin, M., & Porter, M. (Eds.). (2002). Video movie guide 2002. New York: Ballantine.
46


reducing film's accessibility as a resource (D. D. Smith, 1973).20 Due to the
extraordinary growth in the availability of films, more and more educators
have urged its adoption by others (Maynard, 1969, 1971, 1977).21 (Wegner,
1977)22 was a pioneer in using this medium although educational films were
being mass marketed on 16mm film, particularly within the US, in the 1950s.
There has been a wide range of positive effects/influences across a broad
array of disciplines and topics that provide positive proof of films as a medium
of instruction, (Bloom, 1995; Foreman & Thatchenkery, 1996; Funderburk,
1978; Ruby, 1976).23
The advantage of using cinema for teaching planning and design rests
on its ability to make one see and grasp things which might not be possible
though other forms of communication such as, lectures, books, examinations,
etc. Thus, the unique characteristic of cinema is the extraordinary
communication power, which enables it to provide personal experience to
every viewer. In such a situation, the viewer is not a passive observer. Their
20 Smith, D.D. (1982). Teaching undergraduate sociology through feature films. Teaching
Sociology, 10, 98-101
21 Maynard, R. A. (1969). The social studies and media. Social Studies, 60, 327-329.
22 Wegner, H. (1977). Teaching with film. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational
Foundation.
23 Bloom, M.E. (1995) Using early silent film to teach French: The language of cine ma
muet. ADFL-Bulletin, 27, 25-31.
47


views, their observations and their responses add to the phenomenal power
of communication that film offers. In terms of key film characteristics, the
following observations are worth focusing upon: 1) Film records physical
reality but sees it differently from ordinary human experiences (Arnheim,
1957)24 2) Film also is unequaled in its ability to hold and direct the attention
of the viewer; 3) Lens techniques, camera movements, camera angles,
framing of shots, and film editing can create gripping views not readily found
in reality (Carroll, 1985).25
Close-up shots, a technique first used by D. W Griffith in After Many
Years (1908) (Arnheim, 1957, p.48), let a person peer into reality in an
uncommon way (Balazs, 1952)26 This technique lets a director show a
viewer something that might go unnoticed with ordinary vision (Pudovkin,
1929).27 The close-up shots in 12 Angry Men, for example, show the
emotions each juror felt during their decision-making process in a murder trial.
24 Arnheim, R. (1957). Film as art, Berkeley: University of California Press.
25 Carroll, N. ( 1985). The power of movies. Daedalus, 114, 79-103.
26 Balazs, B. (1952). Theory of the film. New York: Dover.
27 Pudovkin, V. (1929). Film technique and film acting. London: Vision Press.
48


One aspect to consider is the ability of film media to create a balance
between perception and reality. Focusing techniques can show a physical
reality as seen by the human eye or show it in a different way (Bazin, 1967).
A major reason for this strength of focusing techniques lies in the area of film
editing. This can create a series of images intended to have a specific effect
on the viewer, both because of the unique sequence of shots and due to the
reinforcing special-effects that transcend the recording of physical reality,
(Dancyger, 1997; Reisz & Millar, 1968; Worth, 1966, 1968, 1969). A
prominent example of an editing technique that gives film a unique quality is
the widely used shot / reverse shot to show social interaction between two or
more parties (Bordwell, 1996).28 The objective of all such editing techniques
is to involve the ubiquitous observer who is present in different scenes and
can see both the verbal and non-verbal actions of different players, providing
an integrated message to the viewer. This is all the more important in the
case of design theory where non-verbal messages can communicate the key
elements. Thus, the result is unlike real world experiences because an
observer to a conversation is unlikely to face one party and move quickly to
face the other (Reisz & Millar, 1968).
28 Bordwell, D. (1996). Cnvention, construction, and cinematic vision. In D. Bordwell & N.
Carroll (Eds), Post-theory: Reconstructing film studies. Madision. University of Wisconsin
Press.
49


Design and planning students are not simply passive observers, but
they can have a wide range of responses, some of which would be initiated
by the film's unique aspects (Allbritton & Gerrig, 1991; Gerrig & Prentice,
1996)29 Therefore, the example in Chapter 4 focuses upon the Open
University (OU). The OU is in a very real sense, becoming a type of film
studio for education. Its requirements to fill the needs of learners primarily
using the Internet as the medium for information transfer, combined with the
development of emerging digital design and digital cinema technologies, has
compelled the OU and its engineers to think more as designers and
filmmakers. The BBC maintains a permanent presence on the Open
Universitys more than 4 square block campus. Thus, Chapter 4 not only
examines the development of a film company, but also the technologies that
are linking cinematic development to hypermedia education.
29 Allbritton, D. W., & Gerrig, R. J. (1991). Participatory responses in prose understanding.
Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 603-626.
50


CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGIES
Attempting to answer the fundamental question whether or not it is
possible to incorporate drama theory into the a design narrative, the study of
primarily narrative formulas for this investigation are directed towards the
study of multimedial design and, in particular the design concept of spatial
narrative A design narratology is linked with that of narrative theory, drama
theory and film theory. Since a cinema-architecture (see literature review)
has evolved from these theories to form its own discipline based upon the
technology of the medium (Penz and Thomas, 1997)30 the development of an
interactive conceptual model utilizing narrative and drama formulas will
illustrate an application of the theory of design narrative. The model will
utilize elements of dilemma theory since it, as illustrated within Chapter 5, is
shown to be closely associated with drama theory.
Digital technologies continue to drastically change the nature of
30 Penz, F. and Thomas, M. (1997) Cinema and Architecture Melies, Mallet-Stevens,
Multimedia, London, British Film Institute.
51


creative industries such as design and film (Cotton and Oliver 1993)31. The
film industry, which was always difficult to measure in terms of value and
predictability, has become even more complex due to the emergence of
digital technology. Therefore, additional research issues emerge out of the
following:
The effect of digital technologies on the dynamics of design and
film production.
Explication of theories that are crucial to the future development of
design and film as creative enterprises.
The potential linkages between dilemma theory and drama theory
research as they apply to design processes and practices.
Methodology
The methodology of this investigation is a combination of conceptual
synthesis and applications, focusing on the "conceptual relations" of the
relevant data. Conceptual synthesis allows for the introduction of conceptual
31 Cotton, B. and Oliver, R. (1993). Understanding Hypermedia: from multimedia to virtual
reality. London: Phaidon Press Ltd.
52


relations that synthesize utilitarian and logical concepts, extending the logics
of preference, the process philosophy of Nicholas Rescher, (Ruspini, 1998)32.
The synthesis is explicated within the context of a conceptual model,
constraint-dependent procedures are based upon the fusion of drama theory
and dilemma theory with existing digital design software applications, to
qualify the relative design, cinematic and management solutions to various
learning, decision-making and planning problems. The conceptual model will
characterize amalgamation of the theories and concepts of this investigation.
As proposed in the introduction, the traditional research on digital
technology, which has largely been explored in the computer science
literature, has drawn from and become increasingly relevant to design and
cinema in the development of graphical information technologies. Conceptual
synthesis as a method is increasingly being used within the field of computer
science to address design, cinema and related management issues. The
following brief abstract is an example:
Conceptual Design of Mechanisms: Synthesis of Design
Alternatives and Spatial Configuration Design. In the
conceptual design phase, it is very important to generate and
32 Ruspini, E. (1998). Truth as Utility: A Conceptual Synthesis, Artificial Intelligence
Center,SRI International, Menlo Park
53


select feasible and promising design concepts to reduce cost
and cycle time of the product development. Obtaining good
design concepts usually requires the generation of a large
amount of possible design concepts and further elaborate
evaluation/assessment to select more promising design
concepts. Thus, a synthesis method to generate feasible and
promising design concepts in the concept generation stage
will be very useful for later evaluation process by allowing the
designer to concentrate on more promising design concepts
(NEC Research Index, 1999).33
Within the field of computer science, research is underway specifically
related to both the fields of design and motion pictures. Kinematic or motion
synthesis is a study to understand the motion of three-dimensional digital
structures (NEC Research Index, 1999)
Chapter 4 presents of two examples, Lucasfilm and the Open University.
Lucasfilm was selected because of the company's pioneering efforts in
special effects, digital technologies and organizational structures. Lucasfilm
has engineered innovative production and post-production techniques
influencing a multitude of medial communications producers, from developers
of digital design animation programs to virtual learning institutions. The Open
Universitys system of delivering virtual education through its developing
33
NEC (1999). Synthesis of Design Alternatives and Spatial Configuration Design, NEC
Research Index, [Internet document] http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/264316.html, Accessed:
07/20/02
54


relationship with the BBC continues to transform what began a paper-based
correspondence school into Europes largest provider of distance education.
The example was chosen since the OU is rapidly becoming a production
studio for virtual learning, integrating aspects of both digital design and
cinema in the planning and implementation of virtual learning programs. This
strand of research also reveals the relevance of engineering cinematic
techniques into virtual learning systems, a potential pedagogical tool for
planning and design theory and practice.
Modern critical theory includes narrative as an Approach/School
(Lavery, 2002).34 Modern design and literary theories and trends to share
much of the same critical approaches As suggested in Chapter 1, the
critical approaches within the field of English literature also influence design
study. Thus, the primary critical approach to this investigation is also
narratological.
Narrative History
And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every
tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life
also in the mist of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good
and evil. Genesis 2: verse: 9
34 Lavery, D. (2002) Internet document 738S.htm>
55


Story is embedded in history. Narrative and history, in examining the
etymologies of words, there is no differentiation in their meaning. The Oxford
English Dictionary from the onset defines history as, 1. A relation of incidents
(in early use, either true or imaginary; later only of those professedly true); a
narrative, tale, story. Obs. (exc. as applied to a story or tale so long and full of
detail, as to resemble a history in sense)." There is also a traditional
connection made between history and drama: 6. a. A story represented
dramatically, a drama. 1. A pictorial representation of an event or series of
incidents; in 18th c. a historical picture.35 Therefore, history and story;
narrative and drama, are related means to systematically record and recount
events. Arguments have been made that history is in fact an example of
dramatic narrative (Loewenstein, 1990).36 In this instance, the example
focuses upon the relation between Miltons literary imagination and his
historical vision.
There are ancient stories that have lasted for millennia from which to
draw a critical view of narrative as it relates to design issues. Man and
35 Oxford English Dictionary (1989) Second Edition [ad. L. historia narrative of past events,
account, tale, story, a. Gr. a learning or knowing by inquiry, an account of one's inquiries,
narrative, history, f., knowing, learned, wise man, judge : -, f. -, to know. (The form
histoire was from F.) Cf. STORY, an aphetic form of history.]
36 Loewenstein, D. (1990). Milton and the Drama of History, Historical Vision, Iconoclasm,
and the Literary Imagination, Cambridge University Press.
56


woman know the story of what happened after eating that fruit from the tree of
knowledge, being condemned as it were to an eternal search for knowledge
ever since humans became self-aware.
Humans have developed systems for the storage and transfer of
knowledge, and narrative, as a system for storing and transferring
information, has been one of the most persistent results of systems of
thought. The Bible is quoted above as more than a religious text. It is an
example of narrative text, most likely derived from the oral tradition of
storytelling, and before the Greeks, Hebrews and Egyptians set pen to
papyrus. At the time the first New Testament was compiled and scribed in
Greece around 50 AD, the Greeks had long before mastered the narrative
form. Even in Aristotles time 400 years earlier, he had scribed the Poetics
when the civilization was already well into decline. Aristotle's Poetics, written
in 350 BCE, is not a compilation of poems. Rather, it is an examination of
narrative, the morality plays of Epic poetry, Tragedy and Comedy.
In examining the verse quoted from the book of Genesis again, it
becomes clear that the author(s) understood both narrative and drama. In a
single verse, the reader may recall this garden in the mist that is eastwards of
Eden. There is an "image" created within the text, of place, of space for the
57


mind to see. In a very visual way spatial narrative is defined here, as well as
the defined moral drama, or dilemma as the case may be, that is the
difference between right and wrong. Thus, the initial story was textualized,
and then later pictured in stained glass, until now when the technology, the
knowledge acquired over time, allows such symbolic narratives to be retold as
cinema. Narrative is therefore an influential and sustainable method for
communication of textual, graphic and spatial concepts, evoking lasting
impressions, and compelling the further development of new bodies of
knowledge through evolving applications of narrative structures. The
historical drama of this issue is exemplified in the Skinner versus Thoreau
analogy, which is synonymous with their spheres of thought e.g., empiricism
versus naturalism, phylogeny versus ontogeny (Skinner, 1966)37, further
pointing to issues between narrative and technology in Chapter 2.
Design Narrative
It therefore stands to reason that modern academics within the field of
literature have initially defined the study of design narrative. Narratology is a
type of formalist criticism that explains and analyzes the structures, modes,
37 Skinner, B F. (1966). The Phylogeny and Ontogeny of Behavior: Contingencies of
reinforcement throw light on contingencies of survival in the evolution of behavior. Science, 9
September 1966, Vol. 153, Pgs. 1205-1212.
58


and techniques of narrative (Abrams, 1981 )38. In bringing the issue into a
more contemporary view, narrative has come to mean virtually anything,
becoming its own study of itself, the growing field of 'narratology1. Despite
arguments to restrict narratology to prose narratives (Genette, 1988: 17)39,
and in addition to Architecture and Planning, the disciplines of Cognitive and
Social Science; Neuro, Cognitive, and Clinical Psychology; Linguistics and
Semiotics; Business and Management have been enhancing the literature
with modified narrative concepts (Hevern, 2001 )40.
The purpose of this study is an attempt is to examine key concepts and
theories of narrative viewpoints within the context of design process and
practice. Drama theory is principally identified as the relevant link to defining
what is termed herein as design narrative, modeled in Chapter 5. By
reconnecting dramatic principles with its traditional counterpart, narrative, the
creation of more engaging designed spaces is an experiential result.
38 Abrams, M.H (1981) A Glossary of Literary Terms, (4th ed.), New York, Holt-Saunders
International Editions.
39 Genette, G. (1980 ). Narrative Discourse, Trans. Jane E. Lewin. Oxford: Blackwell.
40 Hevern, V. W. (2001, October). Narrative psychology: Internet and resource guide [Online].
Syracuse, NY: Author. Available:
59


The concept of design narrative is most applicable to the evolution of
digital design thinking where convergence continues to join many aspects of
cinema with design. Interpretations of design narrative, which include spatial
narrative, have a basis in film theory. Both cinema and drama are examined
for their relevance to design.
Spatial Narrative
It may be said that designers of the built environment have always
tacitly if not consciously understood the theoretical and practical relevance of
chronological space that both reflects and influences human behavior and
affect. Narrative is story, a plot, a theme to be retold again and again,
through space and over time.
An enigmatic outcome of the design process is perhaps the intangible
connection between the seen but not sensed and sensed but not seen
aspects inherent in narrative. This phenomenon makes it a nevertheless
fundamental reality of the built environment. In other words, people cannot
touch stories, however, we can be profoundly touched by them. While the
concept of spatial narrative has become a fashionable and even essential
part of the lexicon of design education and practice, its introduction into the
academic literature is quite recent. It differs from design narrative in that it
60


lacks half of the narrative formula that contributes to what is termed spatial
drama. The term 'narrative space' itself seems to have originated in a seminal
work by a film theorist, Stephen Heath (1981 )41. In one of the remarkably few
essays to engage explicitly in the use of cinematic space, the study lies
squarely within the semiotic-psychoanalytic tradition of film theory (Clarke,
1997)42. This could also explain why the language of psychology in turn
adopted the term narrative in the mid-1980's, further defining terminology of
sequential spatial perception (Sartin, 1986).
Drama Theory
There is a prevailing rule among storytellers that portend, "There is no
story without drama". It is a striking paradox to note that narrative, as story,
has been all but divorced of its dramatic elements outside of the literature of
drama while narrative becomes widely accepted as a multidisciplinary study.
It is as if technology-based societies and their supporting systems would
attempt to reduce or even eliminate emotional connections within the
systems. This is only a subjective observation resulting from some collective
mechanized contemporary vision of a more pure science. Within
41 Heath, S.. (1981) 'Narrative Space', in Questions of Cinema, London, Macmillan, pgs. IQ-
75.
Clarke, D. (1997) 'Previewing the Cinematic City', in The Cinematic City, London,
Routledge, pgs. 1-18.
61


contemporary fields utilizing dramatic principles, the classical tradition of
"tragedy" has become clearly unwelcome as a means of pscho-social
expression and analysis. Nevertheless German theorists like Friedrich
Nietzshe believed the dramatic form could link human consciousness with the
absolute. These issues therefore do have substantial relevance to design
process and practice in that they attempt to address the more obscured
aesthetic values of design creation that are difficult to test and, nevertheless,
central to this investigation.
In 1958, during the shooting of North by Northwest, the director, Alfred
Hitchcock, is said to have remarked: "You know we're not making a movie.
We're constructing an organ. The kind of organ that you see in a theatre.
And now we press this cord and the audience laughs. And we press that
cord and they gasp. And we press these notes and they chuckle. And he
[Hitchcock] said someday we won't need the movie. We'll just attach them to
electrodes and play the various emotions for them to experience," (Lehman,
2000).43
Within the field of computer graphics even drama theory has been
43 Lehman, E. (2000). Destination Hitchcock: The Making of North by Northwest. Turner
Entertainment Co.
62


reinvented in contemporary terms as a new science. While steps are being
taken to make Hitchcock's prediction a reality, closer examination reveals,
however, the principles and terminology of the new drama theory remain
essentially the same as the traditional theory. Only the applications and the
technology have evolved, as exemplified by cinema's adaptation of dramatic
principles from the theatre. New technology channels are therefore allowing
for the continuing adaptation and wider use of drama's theoretical principles.
For those who would promote drama theory as a new science, they
adopt selected commonly understood fundamentals of narrative without
discerning and perhaps resisting the underlying complex reasoning behind
dramatic structure This flawed view of drama theory prevents building
effective dramatic tools with the purpose of engaging and moving observer
perceptions and affect. Rather, the notions of a new theory of drama have
primarily resulted from the emergence of game theorists such as A.W. Tucker
in the 1940s and his Prisoners Dilemma (Axelrod, 1984), which continues
to be developed and studied within a variety of disciplines including sociology,
political science, planning, management, biology and philosophy.
Reinventive notions aside, drama theory is essentially about
understanding and creating emotional connectivity to a narrative. There are
contemporary physical manifestations of this for design theorists to consider.
63


The sound and light shows that are developed around the historic monuments
of Europe and the Middle East have the intention of generating an emotional
tie with the architecture and its setting within a historical context. Spectators
are seated in front of the Great Pyramid of Giza as laser lights and music
takes them through the history of the structure and its builders. The pyramid
becomes more than a theatrical set for a play. It becomes theatre in itself.
Inspiring structures have certainly been called dramatic and whether or
not designers intended them to be so beyond their functions as tombs,
coliseums, temples, bridges, office buildings, or even single family residences
is for more subjective analyses. It should not be overlooked, however, that
exteriors and interiors of ancient and modern structures are increasingly
being lit to create or heighten dramatic effect. As budgets afford, even
theatrical lighting specialists may be called in to create permanent lighting
installations for the structure. Fireworks covering Buckingham Palace for the
Queen's fiftieth jubilee, the organized pomp and circumstance of graduation
ceremonies among grand university buildings, and even the disquieting
ritualized Nazi celebrations in front of the Reichstag that resurrected more
ancient spectacles; they all point to drama as the narrative tie between culture
and architecture.
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Drama theoretic application on the Web has found an advocate.
Psychologist Hilary McLelan outlines the emerging field of experience
design in her article paraphrased here: "It is essential to think about
education online as comprehensively as possible. Experience design offers
designers of online courses a comprehensive model informed by research
and development in a number of areas that can provide a foundation for the
effective design of online experiences that are functional and purposeful,"
(McLellan 2000)44. However, dilemma theory is perceived to more closely
mirror real-life applications of drama theory. Since dramatic formulas are
applicable to interactive virtual learning of real-life dilemmas, dilemma theory
is particularly suitable and exclusively applied to the development of the
conceptual model. Experience design is mentioned here as recognition of its
existence and as a further example of the new and emerging theories
grounded in drama theory and developments in digital technologies.
Like the conflicting interpretations of reality that are reflected in
Chapter 2, examining the position Skinner took to Thoreau's literary work, so
too did the great classical theorists take issue with the veiled deeper realities
mirrored in drama theory. In Plato's Republic, the dramatic arts were
44 McLellan, H. (2000). Experience Design. CyberPsychology & Behavior, Vol. 3: No. 1, pg.
59-69.
65


repudiated with the belief that they acted as a disingenuous stimulus to
human emotions and fabricated an inferior imitation of reality.45 Plato's
student, Aristotle, took an opposing view, developing the first significant text
of Western drama theory, the Poetics.46 The Aristotelian approach to formal
criticism began to again be resurrected by mid-19th century naturalists like
Thoreau who would create a literary basis for scientific experimentation in
works such as Walden, written in 1853. Nine years later, drama theorists
such as Gustav Freytag would attempt to empirically examine the principles
of drama and lay down its structural system.
Jan Manfred in his concise Guide to the Theory of Drama asserts the
position that a play is a type of text just like a novel or a poem. He confirms
that most theorists assume the true nature of a play lies in its orientation
toward a public performance, toward becoming a 'play in performance'. The
play's text is variously seen as a guide to a performance, comparable to a
blueprint, a musical score (Krieger 1995: 78), or even a recipe for baking a
cake (Searle 1975: 329) As to the role of the audience, audience reactions
(laughing, crying etc.) are not only integral parts of a performance; they also
45 Plato (1955 [336BCE-368BCE]). Plato: The Republic. Trans. By Desmond Lee, Penguin
Classics.
46 Aristotle (1989 [350 BCE]). Aristotle's Poetics. Trans. By S.H. Butcher, New York, Hill and
Wang.
66


have immediate feedback effects (on both performers and audience). All of
this is reflected in Pfister's basic definition (Manfred 2002: 1)47. For the
purposes of this study, such ideas will be examined as not only relevant to
stage designers, but designers of multimedia utilizing narrative frameworks.
A play is a multimedial form designed to be staged in a public
performance. A play is 'multimedial' in the sense that it uses both auditory
and visual media, (Pfister 1977)48. Extending Pfister's definition, Jahn
interprets a play as a multimedial narrative form because it presents a story (a
series of action units). Note that, on this view there are two main narrative
forms: epic narratives and dramatic narratives (Jahn 2002). For the purposes
of designing a narratological model, the later form will be incorporated.
Dilemma Theory
Defined by Dr. Charles Hampden-Turner, dilemma theory has been
developing over the past 30 years. It is a multidisciplinary approach, derived
from many sources, but primarily from classic Greek tragedy, Sigmund Freud
and neo-Freudians such as Jung, and Adler who were influenced by classical
47 Jahn, M. 2002. A Guide to the Theory of Drama. Part II of Poems, Plays, and Prose: A
Guide to the Theory of Literary Genres. English Department, University of Cologne.
48 Pfister, M. (1977). Das Drama: Theorie und Analyse. Munchen: Fink.
67


mythology, and systems theorists like Ludwig von Bertalanffy, from which
dilemma theory derives the idea of self-organizing systems. These systems
seek higher levels of development and complexity and are governed by
positive and negative feedback (Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars 2000)49.
People and organizations from diverse backgrounds learn to build
consensus by finding an actionable middle ground as a result of applying this
theoretical system. What also makes dilemma theory different from other
logic-based systems theories like game theory is the perceived incorporation
of dramatic principles focusing on conflict and resolution. The application of
dilemma theory is found in Chapter 5, Method.
Systems Theory
The systems thinking that allows for a holistic perspective of spatial
narratolical examination is therefore a crucial aspect of the conceptual
synthesis. Thus, an application of systems theory is included in the process
used for the development of the theoretical model.
"When we try to pick up anything by itself we find it is attached
to everything in the universe." John Muir
49 Hampden-Turner, C. and Trompenaars (2000). Building Cross-Cultural Competence,
London, Wiley.
68


In John Muirs quotation, the environmentalist and explorer eloquently
summed up what systems theory means to the fields of both design and
cinema, and why a more universal theory connecting narrative to drama
within a design and planning context has been attempted. Portraying how the
complex views of systems theory apply to the complex issues concerning
digital designers and filmmakers, even within the context of management
education and practice concerning such creative industries, requires the
exploration of definitions in order to explain the relationship between systems
theory and the linked fields of study. It is argued herein that there are now
important connections between the aforementioned fields and the theories
and technologies relating to them. The following overview of systems theory
has been included to defend the position and provide a more definitive
explanation with regards to its use in this fusion of ideas; a blending reflected
in the theory's history and continued adaptation through development.
The systems-like thinking that originated in the early 1950s had its
foundations in responding to mechanistic views largely due to the
advancements in technology. Systems theorys relevance to planning is a
more recent phenomenon, recognized by planners, in both professional and
69


academic circles, as an analytical tool to aid in the investigation and decision-
making of complex situations and processes.
Researching sources from both academia and the professions, the
word "system" probably has more varied meanings than any other word in
use today. The Oxford English Dictionary defines system as, A set or
assemblage of things connected, associated, or interdependent, so as to form
a complex unity; a whole composed of parts in orderly arrangement according
to some scheme or plan; rarely applied to a simple or small assemblage of
things. Of course "system" has also been assimilated into the jargon of
computer engineers (Ljung,1999) and any number of other fieids and
professions.
The definition that may be most applicable to researchers is that of
biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy, one of the major contributors to the systems
theory, i.e., A system is an entity, which maintains its existence through the
mutual interaction of its parts. The basic importance in von Bertalanffy s
idea is one of "mutual interaction," sustaining the parts of the system over
time.
70


A
B
Figure 3.1: Systems Theory
This definition of a system suggests something beyond mere cause
and effect. Rather than simply A affects B, there is the understanding that B
also affects A. Experts in their fields such as Dr. Raymond G. Studer and Dr.
Charles Hampden-Turner have incorporated systems theory as an integral
part of their respective disciplines. Systems Theory" or "Systems Research"
appears to constitute a somewhat broadly defined academic domain that not
only applies to planning and management, but also appears to apply to most
traditional disciplines, from mathematics, technology and biology to
philosophy and the social sciences. It is said to be more specifically related to
the recently developing "sciences of complexity", including artificial
71


intelligence, neural networks, dynamic systems, chaos, and complex adaptive
systems. Systems theory dates back to the late 1940's and primarily the
1950's when such thinkers as Wiener, von Bertalanffy, Ashby and von
Forester founded the contours thereof through a series of interdisciplinary
deliberations.
Since systems theorys origination, researchers continue to refine and
apply it to new interdisciplinary applications. Systems theory or systems
science contends that regardless how complex or diverse the temporal
values, various types of organization can be revealed. Human organizations
can be explained via concepts and principles tnat are independent of the
specific domain being studied. Therefore, if general laws" are uncovered, the
analysis and solving of problems in any domain would be feasible, and
pertaining to any type of system. The systems approach thus distinguishes
itself from the more traditional analytic approach by emphasizing the
interactions and connectedness of the different components of a system.
(Heylighen, F.; Joslyn, C.; Turchin, V.s 1999).50 Although the systems
approach in principle considers all types of systems, in practice it focuses on
more complex, adaptive, self-regulating systems, which Weiner character
50 Heylighen, F.; Joslyn, C.; Turchin, V., (1999): "What are Cybernetics and Systems
Science", Principia Cybernetics Web, Principia Cybernetica, Brussels.
72


typed as "cybernetic". Within cyberspace," as a developing multimedial
environment, the systems approach is perceived to be relevant to the
integration of dramatic formulas in digital design processes and practices, as
illustrated in Chapter 5.
While a linear systems and design approach has been specifically
developed for computer designers (Chen, 1998),51 systems thinking itself can
also be traced back to its ancient Greek origins. In the nineteenth century
academic George Boole converted Greek logic into symbolic representations.
Boole, like the Greeks, prohibited loops in logic chains. These logic chains
such as INPUT, PROCESS, OUTPUT were derived from and fed the
Industrial Revolution Once there was a given outcome there was no way
back
51 Chen, C. (1998): Linear System Theory and Design Oxford Series in Electrical and
Computer Engineering.
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Source: Principia Cybernetica
Figure 3.2: Logic System
The above model (Figure 3.2) is what has apparently been adapted by
modern planning professionals, as exemplified in the planning of modern
subway systems, (Wirasinghe,1999).52 It is a loop that allows for an
environment to be taken through an input, altered through a system and
through the output, the changed information is put back into the environment.
The model allows for a much richer and phenomenalogically valid view of
interconnectivity and fostered interdisciplinary access to, and use of, systems
theory (Studer, 1971 ).53
52 Wirasinghe, S.C. (1999). Planning of subway transit systems" in International
Symposium on Transportation and Traffic Theory (14th : 1999 : Jerusalem, Israel).
Transportation and traffic theory : proceedings. Amsterdam ; New York : Pergamon, 1999.
pgs. 759-777.
53 Studer, R. G. (1971). Human systems design and the management of change. In L. von
Bertalannfy and A. Rappoport (Eds.), December 1971, General Systems Yearbook, Vol. XVI.
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CHAPTER 4
EXAMPLES
The evolution of digital design technology, it is argued, has become
integrally related to industrial developments in cinema technology. Two
developments are explicated herein exemplifying the convergence
phenomenon merging the medial technologies of cinema and design,
providing the rational for demonstrating concepts of design narrative and
spatial drama. A leading motion picture studio and its transition from
analogue towards digital technology production is juxtaposed with a leading
correspondence school that has evolved into an educational technology/
production studio for virtual learning. In both instances, there is evidence that
cinematic and design processes and practices exemplify a shared vision
through the use of digital design technology.
Lucasfilm was selected for examination because of the companys
development of digital design as cinema. Lucasfilm also provides an example
of how the drama theory model has converged with architecture and film as
knowledge-based communication, thereby supporting the design narrative
research model. The examination of virtual learning developed by the Open
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University also explicates the design narratological model. The OU was
chosen as an example because the organization represents a knowledge-
based environment of the evolving narrative history type. The Open
University experiments with converging media, merging text with moving
images and digital design via the Internet. Thus, the OU became an
appropriate venue to demonstrate properties of the research model.
Example 1: Lucasfilm Ltd.
As the major motion picture studio system finally collapsed in
Hollywood in the late 1950's from the advent of television, filmmakers needed
to find a new ways to be trained. The apprentice system that made directors
like Frank Capra and producers like Daryl F. Zanuk no longer existed in the
1960's. Since directors, writers, and producers were not under exclusive
contract to the studios, it became the job of the major southern California
universities to provide the education and training. It was in the 1960's that
UCLA and USC film schools became the primary sources for providing
Hollywood and the film industry the talent that would take the industry in an
entirely new direction. It is no wonder that the founders of the so called "New
Hollywood" came out of these institutions to found studios in northern
California, far enough away from the old ways of doing film business in
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southern California (Baxter 1999).54
But it was not George Lucas who led the move away from the Los
Angeles area in the late 1960's. Francis Ford Coppola, a UCLA film school
graduate incorporated Zoetrope studios in San Francisco in1969, intending to
create a fresh, new Flollywood based on the Laterna, a collaborative Swedish
film enterprise. Zoetrope was named after the first mechanical device that
created the illusion of movement. The zoetrope, also called a wheel of life
was a cylinder, open at the top with a series of slits in the circumference. As
the wheel was spun a series of figures in successive positions appeared to
move. The childs toy was the predecessor to the motion picture camera.
Coppola was a visionary and interested in collaboration. He saw Hollywood
as restrictive and even obsolete to his vision of a renewed cinematic art.
Shooting the Rain People under his company's name with funding from
Warner Bros., it was the 29-year-old Coppola who gave the 25-year-old
George Lucas his break into professional filmmaking following graduation
from USC's film school. But in the end Coppola was more of an artist than a
businessman. Instead of Coppola leading a cinematic renaissance with his
company, Zoetrope fell into anarchy and then bankruptcy. Coppola went on
54 Baxter, J. (1999). George Lucas: a Biography. London, Harper Collins Publishers.
77


to direct The Godfather and it was Lucas who went on to build a San
Francisco film industry.
In 1971 George Lucas founded his own independent production
company north of the Golden Gate Bridge in Marin County. Lucasfilm Ltd.
was based on Coppola's wish for a collaborative environment for creative
filmmaking, however, unlike Coppola, Lucas had a natural sense of good
business practice. Even now Lucas is more of a producer, entrepreneur and
CEO than he is a director. To date Lucas has only directed four films and in
1971, based on the lukewarm success of his first film THX1138, a Zoetrope
production and Warner Brothers release, Lucasfilm was formed to produce
American Graffiti. The film that was a huge success and launched the career
of George Lucas was done as a Lucasfilm Ltd ./Coppola Company production,
released through Universal Pictures. Again, because Coppola's film
company, Zoetrope had gone bankrupt, Coppola established another
company bearing his name and so did George Lucas. Coppola produced
American Graffiti and Lucas wrote and directed the film.
With the tremendous success of American Graffiti, Lucas established
Industrial Light and Magic in 1975 outside of San Francisco in Marin County.
This Lucas company, wholly owned by Lucas was established to produce the
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visual effects for Star Wars, a story he had written the year before. In the
same year Sprocket Systems (later known as Skywalker Sound) was
incorporated by Lucas for the purpose of editing and mixing Star Wars.
With the initial $3.5 million dollar budget Lucas (and Lucasfilm)
obtained from 20th Century Fox for the production of Star Wars, he founded
Industrial Light and Magic. Though ILM was incorporated in Marin County, it's
initial studio was a leased two-story warehouse in Van Nuys, a city in the San
Fernando Valley about 10 miles northwest of Hollywood. In the mid 70's no
filmmaker could fully escape Hollywood and the same was true for Lucas,
regardless of his desire to create his own film community in northern
California. The Industrial Light and Magic name was invented by Lucas to
conceal the companys purpose for creating Star Wars special effects,
suggesting that the business was wholesaling electronic components in the
suburban industrial park. The Van Nuys facility's remoteness and low rent
was what the new company required, despite the 120-degree temperatures
inside during the summer months. Lucas not only wanted to keep his new
company quiet with the type of film he was making, the company was also
non-union and Lucas was concerned about union reprisal. Lucas initially
hired the great special effects artist, John Dykstra and a team of eight and
within a year company employees expanded to 75. Star Wars didn't cost the
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projected 3.5 million. With over four hundred special effects shots, the figure
was almost the special effects budget alone. The film's total budget rose to
$8.7 million for Fox to produce. Lucas compromised his salary, agreeing to
be paid $50,000 to co-write the script and $100,000 to direct the film. It was
almost a low budget salary for a major studio motion picture. Instead Lucas
would negotiate sequel, merchandising and soundtrack rights, believing that
his film would be a success. After opening in 1977, Star Wars became the
largest grossing motion picture up to that time. The score with Lucas owned
the rights too won an Academy Award.
Throughout the 1980's ILM raked in huge profits from doing the special
effects for films such as Raiders of the Lost Ark, E.T., The Empire Strikes
Back and Return of the Jedi. With ample funding, Lucas was able to build his
145,000 square foot Technical Building at the 235-acre Skywalker Ranch in
Marin County.
An experimental filmmaker, John Whitney Jr., who developed the initial
program for computer animation used by the industry in the early '80's said of
the near future, "it will be possible to create the likeness of a human being, to
generate speech electronically, and the result will evoke an emotional
response. We may be able to recreate stars of the past, cast them in new
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roles, bring them forward into new settings if stills and old films can be used
to make the likeness, the database," (Whitney, Baxter 1999). Whitney had
foresight. ILM had experimented with digital effects, making a short computer
animation, Point Reyes, simulating a drive along the Peninsula of Marin
County. In 1981, Lucas had told Time magazine, "Revenge of the Jedi will be
the last picture we'll shoot on film," however, within Lucas' special effects
company there were those who remained unconvinced about the computer's
ability to replace living actors and physical locations. In 1983, the computer
division of ILM moved to in San Rafael and was divided into Lucasfilm
Games. The company developed video games that they licensed to Atari.
ILM's much larger optical division, which held 75 percent of the special-effects
market, specialized in model animation and motion control on special effects
motion pictures such as Back to the Future and Goonies. Lucasfilm Games
division became self-supporting with its initial two games.
Remarkably, Lucas also owned Pixar, the company that solely
developed computer-generated films, (Baxter 1999). However, the company
was a drain on Lucasfilm. In the mid-eighties, computer-generated animation
cost a fortune and product was not of a quality that is common today. Rather
than make Star Wars IV a cost-prohibitive computer-generated motion
picture, Lucas sold Pixar to Steven Jobs, co-founder of Apple Computers for
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$10 million dollars in 1985. Pixar studios was then moved by Jobs to Point
Richmond, California. Over the next ten years $50 million was invested into
the company to further develop digital animation for film.
In 1993 Lucas various companies had become so large that a new
corporate structure was needed to allow for "management flexibility and
accountability". As part of the restructure, Lucas formed three companies and
ILM became part of Lucas Digital Limited.
Lucasfilm Ltd. Film and Television Production, THX and Lucas Licensing
LucasArts Entertainment Company Games and Learning
Lucas Digital Ltd. Industrial Light and Magic and Skywalker Sound
In 1997, Pixar became credited with developing the first purely synthetic
motion picture, Toy Story. The company also developed Renderman, the
software program used to create the dinosaurs in Jurassic Park. Though
Lucas and Industrial Light and Magic lost the edge on purely computer-
generated images to Pixar, Lucas remarked that he had no regrets.
'I had Pixar for ten years,' he said. 'At that time it was a
primarily a hardware company that developed a lot of
technology: digital printers, the first non-linear editing system
we developed, high-speed graphics. I wasn't particularly
interested in that business. I'm a movie company. But I had
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companies that needed those technologies, Industrial Light
and Magic and Lucasfilm. A couple of guys at Pixar, Ed
Catmull and John Lasseter, wanted to do computer-animated
movies. There was a lot of investment that had to be made
there, and I wasnt really interested in spending $50 million
developing animated films. I would much rather take that $50
million and develop a game company, or a lot of other things,
than push the special-effects company. It was basically a
hardware company with a couple of guys whose hearts were
into the animated films. So they went off, and Steve [Jobs]
bought it, and after a few years Steve sold the hardware
company to somebody else, and he took John and Ed and a
few of those guys and said, "OK, I want to make movies, too,
so let's all get together and make movies," and that's really
where it started. ILM is exactly like Pixar, except we don't do
animated movies. We do animated pieces in feature films. I
didn't need two companies that were doing the same thing,
(Lucas, Baxter 1999).
Now Microsoft is successfully playing the hardware game with its Xbox
for computer-generated games software. They are following Sony Pictures
with their roots in the electronics and diversifying into hardware development
for entertainment. Microsoft Pictures or Microsoft Games might be an
outcome of a digitally reinvented motion picture industry.
New Technologies
It is essential to analyze the new digital technology of 24P, what is
most likely to be the beginning of the next generation of industry standard
cinema technology. An analysis of the technology points to its new uses, not
only in cinema, but as explored in previous chapters, the relevance of cinema
83


and the developing technological aspects that are inherent in the medium,
applicable to design pedagogy, theory and practice. ILM has played a
fundamental role in research and development of the 24P system that is
about to revolutionize traditional production practices.
Motion picture film such as Kodak and Fuji still has the highest
resolution of any media format currently used in production. Though the film
stock that is commonly used for projection in theatres is 35mm, increased
resolution can be obtained through even larger film stock such as the 70mm.
The bigger the film stock the greater the resolution
Regardless of the size of the film, however, the standardized shooting
and projection speed has been historically set at 24 frames per second. As
cameras and projectors became motorized, the realization that the human
eye perceived movement of static pictures best at the rate of 24 frames of
picture per second moving through the projector. It became the minimum
speed necessary to create both the natural and aesthetic look that made still
pictures appear to move.
Different from the chemical processes that reproduce physical images
on film, videotape is an electronic analogue medium that was standardized as
84


the NTSC format to run at approximately 30 frames per second to achieve the
appearance of natural movement. Single frames of video image are recorded
at almost 30 pictures per second to create the same effect that is achieved
with motion picture film's 24 frames.
Up until the recent past it was all but impossible to get film and
videotape to combine into a single standard that would join the two formats
through a common frame rate. Film had to be converted to videotape by
reproducing extra frames of film to meet the 30 fps NTSC standard of video
and converting video to film posed bigger problems. Video would flicker on
film because of the incompatible speeds at which the two systems would run
The PAL standard that was developed in Europe made standardization even
more difficult since the video was designed to run at 25 frames per second.
In the PAL format film was usually sped up by 5% to match the frame rate of
the system. Up until very recently there has been no acceptable technology
capable of unifying these three primary systems of production.
Digital video technology has finally permitted the video to run at the 24
fps standard. 24 progressive (24 p) is the term now used by high definition
video, which indicates that 24 frames of picture are shot and projected
progressively. The remarkable evolution of 24p digital video is rapidly
85


becoming a standard that is allowing video to more closely resemble film.
Motion picture production processes are now being applied to the ever-
increasing image quality of high definition video. Film can now be converted
to high definition digital video and projected in a HD digital video format. The
quality of these HD images is approaching the quality of projected film. What
is noticeably absent from the HD image however is grain created through the
chemical process associated with film resolution. The digital pixel that is
associated with digital resolution is beginning to rival film resolution because
storage mediums are affording the use of more of them. More pixels in the
image, there is greater resolution and the higher quality the image. Film grain
is random where digital pixels are exacting. It is becoming an aesthetic
choice as to, which is more desirable to shoot and to watch.
Still another obstacle that high definition video must address if it is to
rival if not replace film is the issue of contrast ratios. Film allows for much
darker blacks than the best of high definition video. Nevertheless the move
towards digitally generated images in film production has been clearly
established. Entire digitally animated motion pictures are being produced and
converted to film. As optical digital technology rapidly improves while film
technology remains almost unchanged, most likely the digital optical image
will produce the wider contrast ratio to equal and even surpass the film image.
86


A new medium of "video cinema" is being born out of these rapidly
improving digital video technologies. Some within the camps of what were
often considered to be opposing fields of production (film and video) are now
saying that a new art from is being created out of the digital technology. In a
very real sense both film and video are being reshaped into a single media
that is digitally oriented. With now readily useable digital optical production
processes, both film and videotape, as analogue media, are at risk of
becoming obsolete technologies before the end of the decade.
The production of motion picture and television product may in the end
be using the same digital equipment. TV and film production has been
historical opposites primarily because of the differences in the media
technologies. Films would never be shot on videotape and video would be
relegated to sitcoms and soap operas. Once TV video programming is
dominantly produced at the film rate of 24 progressive frames per second,
there will be increasing blend between video and film, enabling the transfer
between the two formats on a frame-by-frame equivalence.
The likelihood that video cinema will be viewed on the Internet is a
possibility that cannot be overlooked. The Web is already a global network
that presently permits the viewing of small of film to video transfer and pure
87


video information. The 24 fps digital video format will permit the reduction of
current video by 20%, allowing for greater amounts of video information to
travel over the Internet regardless of broadband technology. Arguably, the
market may be the final determinant of a singular digital video format.
However, presently it is the entertainment industry that is moving to develop
24p as the digital video system for motion picture and television production.
There are a number of 24p camera systems being introduced to the
industry. Digital filmmaking has already become a reality. The most
formidable and soon to be best known of the systems is Sony's new CineAlta
camera, first introduced through a collaboration by Sony and Panavision in
April 1999. The 24P HDCAM is CineAlta's high definition digital video camera,
equipped with dual audio channels and able to accept wide range of
Panavision optics. Panavision lenses and camera systems have long been
the standard within the industry and it is remarkable that a joint venture with
Sony electronics would produce a whole new technology for shooting motion
pictures. Sony in particular has been most instrumental in developing the
new 24p technology that Industrial Light and Magic (ILM) has been
enthusiastically supporting. CineAlta's digital 24p system can arguably be
perceived to have finally achieved equivalence to traditional 35mm film in
terms of picture quality.
88


The 24p digital system will be internationally recognized through the
theatrical release of George Lucas' latest Star Wars episode, the first major
motion picture to be shot without film, using 24p technology. The new
CineAlta cameras and post-production equipment are being used by
Lucasfilm to create an entirely digitally generated feature film that includes
live action. "I think I can safely say I'll never ever shoot another film on film,"
said Lucas during the digital shooting of the feature. "The same goes for
digital editing. I've been editing digitally tor over 15 years and I won't go back
to a linear way of working," (Lucas, Pennington 2001 ).55
Lucas has been the primary creative force in reshaping the technology
of filmmaking. He moved out of Hollywood and established the special
effects studio Industrial Light and Magic (ILM) in Marin County, outside of San
Francisco. In the 80s, the industry thought of Lucas just as another renegade
filmmaker whose far away companies would eventually fail, going the way of
Francis Ford Coppolla's collapsed independent studio, Zoetrope. Lucas and
ILM encouraged Panavision and Sony to develop digital video for the 1997 re-
release of his first Star Wars episode. The special edition release
55 Pennington, A 2001. The final frontier. Screen to Screen. Summer. 6-7.
89


incorporated digital cinematography with the 20-year-old footage was a
technological success.
ILM continues to be at the forefront of reshaping motion picture
technology. The Episode II production of Star Wars, which began principal
photography in Australia in June of 2001, was shot completely without the use
of film in all aspects of production and postproduction. Six CineAlta HDCAM
digital cameras were used in the production of the film. The images were
recorded onto digital tape smaller than the size of a VCR. The motion picture
is currently being digitally edited. "Digital filmmaking is inevitable," says
Lucas, "I'm not trying to convert people. I'm simply using the system
(CineAlta's 24p system) and letting people know how it worked for me. The
film industry is only now catching up with the digital revolution that has been
happening in the broadcast environment for a long, long time now," (Lucas,
Pennington 2001).
High definition cameras are revolutionizing production processes not
only because of the dramatically improved quality of the digital image. The
images that are created are also very precise. With film, even the best
director of photographys and lighting directors never knew what they had with
complete certainty until the film was developed and projected. The new
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Full Text

PAGE 1

DESIGN NARRATIVE: SPATIAL DRAMA AND ITS APPLICATION TO VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS by Raymond Ferris Abelin B A., University of California, Los Angeles, 1978 M .A., University of Southern California 1983 MDesS Harvard University, 1998 MBA, Cambridge University 2002 A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Design and Planning 2003 r--1 I :. LA.t

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2003 by Raymond Ferris Abelin All rights reserved. II

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Th i s thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy degree by Raymond Ferris Abelin has been approved by Raymond G. Studer Fahriye Sancar Ha orgenthaler Michael Jenson Date

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Abelin, Raymond Ferris (Ph.D., Design and Planning) Design Narrative: Spatial Drama and its Application to Virtual Environments Thesis directed by Professor Raymond G. Studer ABSTRACT The identification and study of design narrative describes a technology driven phenomenon applicable to the past twenty years of technological innovation. As a fusion of principles inherent in dramatic cinema and digital design, the theory has a growing place in the communication of digital and physical design and planning information systems. The basis of design narrative is formulated upon a concept of spatial drama, established within the context of convergence of developing digital communications media. Narrative with its progressively broadening range of definitions and even surprising associations, in the past had its strongest association to drama Cinema, despite its development as a technological medium has nevertheless certainly incorporated the principles of narrative, of which, drama has historically been a component. Narrative systems are therefore central to and interchangeable with methods for conveyance of dramatic information. This assumption forms the premise of thi s investigation intending to show that spatial drama, the foundations of which are based upon contrasting values, can be synthesized into digitally designed narrative, particularly within virtual environments and other medial communications platforms. There is the perceived problem with applications of narrative in design, especially concerning digitally designed spatial environments that lack purpose, structure and interest. The resulting narratological model introduces the new concept of spatial drama Design narrative links spatial narrative to spatial drama for the intentional creation of dramatic contrast within sequential space This theory contributes to a deeper understanding of spatial issues concerning the use medial technologies. The virtual learning paradigm produced for Europe's Open University (OU) and the Cambridge Program on Industry (CPI) subsequently demonstrates aspects of the model developed in this investigation. This is accomplished through the depiction of Dr. Charles HampdenTurner's iv

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dilemma theory as both a core concept for the narratological model and OU' s distance learning program Learning and the Connected Economy. Dilemma theory focuses upon opposition and reconciliation of opposing forces. The theory is largely applied to the areas of cross-cultural and organizational behavior Therefore, the development of a computer-animated graphical portrayal of dilemmas is used to examine spatial drama, within the parameters of the OU' s Web-based course and within the framework of a digitally designed narrative This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis recommend its publication. v

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Various research institutions university departments, academics and colleagues have contributed to the creation of this work. In terms of institutions, I would like to acknowledge UCLA and USC film schools where I did initial undergraduate and masters degrees Studies in new media, especially aesthetics of digital design technology, were done through post professional graduate degree studies at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design and the MIT Media Lab. The MBA focusing upon convergence issues between media and business was carried out at Cambridge University s Judge Institute of Management and research towards the doctoral degree has been conducted through the University of Colorado, Denver and Boulder with additional studies at the Cambridge University Moving Image Studio. The Cambridge Program for Industry s joint venture with the Open University facilitated the means to explore this study s premise. In terms of the actual supervision of this study at the University of Colorado, Denver and Boulder, deepest thanks to rugged individualists who encourage blazing new trails, my Supervisor, Dr Raymond G Studer; the Committee Members, Dr Fahriye Sancar, Dr. Hans Morgenthaler and Dr. Michael Jenson; and the Director of the Ph.D program, Dr. Willem van Vliet, enabling a progressive interdisciplinary study of theories and applied concepts connecting cinema, design and planning At Cambridge University, debt is owed to Dr. Charles Hampden-Turner of the Judge Institute of Management, author and lecturer in Cross-Cultural

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Management; the Cambridge Committee Member who enabled me to analyze links between his dilemma theory and its applications to design issues within the context of drama theory. Davis Lewis rendered the storyboarded characters. At the Cambridge University Moving Image Studio, a department devoted to the study of film/architecture; thanks to Dr Franc;ois Penz for the early interest he took this research, providing the production facilities and personnel for the demonstration of the virtual learning narrative model. At Harvard University, many thanks to Mimi Truslow, Dr. Christine Smith and Giuliana Bruno for their insights into building that transcend the physical environment. At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a thank you to Dr Bruce Blumburg and his Synthetic Characters Group for initially placing the study of interactive digital animation within arms reach. At the Cambridge Program for Industry, Dr. Jake Reynolds was instrumental in obtaining the funding for and administering the development of the model used to illustrate concepts put forward in this investigation. The funding itself was provided by the Open University towards the OpenCambridge project, Learning in the Connected Economy. Dr Robin Mason, Chris Pegler and Dr. Martin Weller were the project managers who are gratefully acknowledged. Finally, I would like to acknowledge Kim Kelly, artist and Ph.D. Coordinator at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Department of Architecture and Planning and Ann M. Howry Ellis, colleague and Instructor of the course Imaging and Creativity Her support and creative vision are reflected in this work.

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CONTENTS Figures... . .. ....................... ... ............... .... ................ ...... ...... x Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION. .... .... .. . ....................... . .. .... ................ 1 Presumptions...... ... ...... ... .... ................... ......... ...... .... 4 Purpose of the Study .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... . . ... .. .... ... .. ... 7 2 LITERATURE REVIEW............. ... ... .... .... .. ... ..................... 12 Architecture and Cinema .... . ........ ...... ... ... ...... ........ .. . 13 Planning and Cinema...................... ....... . ..... .. ... ... . 18 Object Oriented Desig n and Cinema.. ................... .. .... 22 Narrative and Technology.. ..... ... .......... ... ... ..... ... 33 Narrative Aspects of Arts, Sciences and Industry ...... 39 Digital Design and Digital Film Industries...... ....... . 43 Lin king Design & Planning Pedagogy t o Cinema ... . 46 3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGIES ... . .... ... . 51 Methodology..... ......... ......................... ........ . ... .... . . 52 Narrative History .. .. .. . . . . .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 55 Design Narrative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Spatial Narrative............ .................... ... ... ....... 60 Drama Theory ... ....... ... .... .... ...... .... ... ....... ... 61 Dilemma Theory . ..... ............... . .. ... ... .... . ...... 67 Systems Theory ... . ..... .... .... .... .... . ........... . . . 68 viii

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4 EXAMPLES ........... ....... .... . ................... ....... ... . .... . . ..... 75 Example 1 : Lucas F ilm, Ltd. ... ........ . ...... ..... ... ......... . . 76 New Technologies ... . . .... .... .... .. ....... ... ............ 83 Example 2: The Open University.................................... 92 5 METHOD. ...... ... ....... ........................ ..... .. ..... . ... . .... .... 98 Narratolog i cal Model... .................. .. . .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. ... 98 Synthesis of Models .... .... ..... ... ............... .... .... 99 6 CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER RECOMMENDATIONS ......... 122 APPENDIX ...... . . ......... . .............. . ..... .... . .... .... ... ... .... . . 132 EXHIBITS . .. .. .. ... .. ... .... . . . . . . .... . ... ... . ....... . . .... . . . ..... 144 Exhibit A : Storyboards ... ........................... .................. 145 Exhib i t B : Demonst r at ion....... ........ .... .... ............... ...... 174 REFERRENCES.... . ... . . .... .... ........ .. .. . . .... .. . . .... . . ...... . 1 75 ix

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FIGURES Figure 2 1 Technology and social component linkages...................... 44 3 1 Systems Theory ..... .... ....... ..... .. ... ..... .... .... ... . .... ... ... 71 3.2 Logic System....................... ... .......... .... .......... ....... . 73 5 .1.1 Freytag Pyramid... ... ..... .... ... ...... .................. ... ... . .... . 100 5 1.2 Modified Freytag Model .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 03 5 1 3 Dramatic Narrative Trajectory ....... .. ......... ........... ........... 104 5.1.4 4 Phase Cycle .. ...... .. ......... .... .. ................... ....... ... ...... 105 5 1.5 Kolb s Cycle ..... .... ....... .... ..... ............ ..... ... .. ............... 106 5.1.6 Pfister's Tree Diagram..... ...... .. . .. ........... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 107 5.1. 7 Dramatic Conflict.. ................. .... ... .. ... ... ... . ..... ...... ..... 108 5 1.8 Dilemma Theory ........ ..... ........ .-............................. ..... 110 5.1.9 Spatial Narrative......... .................... .... ... ... .... . ..... ..... 111 5.1.1 0 Design Narrative ... ... .. ... ............................................. 112 5 1 .11 Narrative Dramatic Trajectory... ..... ............. ...... .. ...... ... 114 5.1.12 Spatial Drama........................... .......... ......... .... .......... 116 5.1.13 Spatial Contrast. ............ ...................... .... ........ ........ 118 X

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This study is an analysis of the knowledge-based aspects and connections between design, planning and film, the related business issues, and field applications to Internet based learning The Internet, as a knowledge-based medium, is a catalys t for integrating and accelerating the convergence of design and film production and education. Therefore, an virtual learning application ls used to demonstrate the properties of the model developed in this investigation. Through an analysis of the recent technologies, a theory of design narrative suggests a re-definition of moving images as design. It is argued that an interdisciplinary study of design and cinema will shed further light on the "innovative" aspects of research questions posited within the design and planning field Such research questions include the difficulties of measuring the creative aspects of design and film that are a primary factor compelling the convergence phenomenon and driving the ongoing development of communications media In the supervision of this work, there is the key view pertaining to the basic nature of the argument: 1

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"Planning Design, and Management are the fundamental instruments of intervention that we utilize to realize purposeful systems, specifically people-environment systems. That is, we plan, design and manage environments for the purpose of supporting/influencing human behavior and/or affect (e. g., emotional responses). This environment could be, for example a film, a physical/virtual setting, a management system, an organization, a fiscal system, or an educational system All of these are people-environment systems In other words planning, design, and/or management decisions are relevant to realizing all classes of purposeful (goal directed) people-environmental systems, be they economic, social or physical (including graphic displays) It is argued that the introduction of both narrative (a story) and drama (the introduction of salient emotional or motivational content) are integral aspects of organizing i.e., planning, designing and managing people environment phenomena wherein part i cular human behavior and affect (emotions) are seen as the intended outcomes," (Studer, 2002) .1 In determining the above-mentioned scope of the research the intent is to provide an original contribution to the literature. T his intention leads to the task of defining and modeling what is termed herein as design narrative a theory examining the introduction modeling and demonstration of spatial drama. Concepts addressing convergent technologies are developed and studied to advance and clarify the use of narrative terminology and its applications. Such applications include advancing new concepts and practices in medial communications incorporating and influencing the processes, education, and business of design and planning. 1 Studer Raymond G (2002) Unpublished personal communication 2

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Key research questions analyzed in this dissertation acknowledge the difficulties of measuring certain creative aspects of knowledge-based industries such as design and cinema (Grant 1996) Measuring creativity, the empirical analysis of subject matter involving creative content and its affect does not have a well-established research history focusing on the integration of design and cinema Creativity and science as approaches to knowledge acquisition are often placed in opposition. It could be said that, within the people-environment systems that matte up arts and sciences communities prior to the industria l application and widespread use of digitally designed graphical systems, creat i vity, as a notion was primarily relegated to the f ine arts This view has of course radically changed, as detailed within this investigation. Since "creativity" is being integrated into t he literature of both the sciences and the arts concepts such as "narrative" are finding new meaning. However, the sequential characteristics of narrative have been generally adopted without its dramatic associations that are essential to the purposeful outcomes in the creative and performing arts. These disciplines have historically been concerned with eliciting emotional responses however that creativity is a significant aspect of design study, and considering that aspects of narrative theory have become accepted by both the contemporary arts and sciences, the formulation of a 3

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theory joining a more comprehensive view of narrative with design points to the following research questions : Why has narrative become part of contemporary interdisciplinary critical t heory and detached from its historical association to drama? Is drama theory applicable to design and planning issues utilizing narrative frameworks via the development of medial communications technologies? How can design and planning processes and practices be favorably impacted by the introduction o f design narrative into the contemporary discourse on narrative within knowledge-based environments? Presumptions Design narrative theory describes a technology dri ven phenomenon applicable to the past twenty years of technological innovation As a fusion of principles inherent in dramatic cinema and digital design the theory has a growing place in the communication of digital and physical design and planning information systems. Thus the future of design narrative is being established within the context of convergence of digital design mediums : multimedia platforms, CAD CGI, 2D and 3D animation digital cinema mobile c ommunications systems utilizing graphical interfaces and the Internet. Therefore the theory addresses one of the most important problems of this 4

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study, the inadequate definition and use of narrative in design. It is posited that narrative, since it has been widely accepted without drama, represents story disconnected from emotions. One goal of this research is to better explicate linkages between creative industries such as design and film, which share many of the characteristics of more widely researched areas such as technology and e commerce (Shapiro and Varian, 1999) This suggests that the tradit i onal research on technology, which has largely been developed in the computer science literature, requires a more cross disciplinary study related to design and film Also included is the examinati o n of r elevant management literature that is used to reveal connections driving development of creative i ndustries further defining new med ia. For these reasons the film industry is chosen as an excellent example for study in the combining of complex effects. The social, psychological and community forces which Influence the development and application of new technologies within creative industries such as design and film need to be more thoroughly integrated into tradit i onal design education focusing on technology research It is argued that the film industry is an increasingly i mportant research area for design research. Like the Internet, the film industry has globalized. 5

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Also like Web-based communication, cinema is rapidly becoming a digital medium in which designers play increasingly critical roles. Such trends contribute to the purposeful examination of cinematic narrative and drama as knowledge-based medial communications aspects of digital design. Multi-cultural dilemma theory, in essence, attempts to discover commonalties between opposites (Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars, 2002). Though regarded as a substantially different sphere of thought and expression, a fundamental principle of drama is to define opposites point and counterpoint, often to characterize some moral principle some truth through the conflict of opposites. In addition t o energizing the interaction of opposing views within cultures and societies, the theory has potential links to the digital media technologies faci l itating the convergence of previously unrelated technologies and fields of study. The framework of drama can become particularly applicable to the "reconciliation" of dilemmas as defined by Hampden-Turner, through the use of new-media technologies and the incorporation of conflict and resolution, the foundations of drama By sensationally "visualizing" the dilemma the applied research model attempts to explain adversarial points-of-view and create a vehicle whereby design and cinematic principles can be conveyed, analyzed, and understood. 6

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Purpose of the Study The purpose of this investigation is to connect dilemma theory with drama theory as digitally designed narrative space. in the context of our knowledge-based society and through the use of dramatic visualization. Dilemma theory is particularly suitable to research within multimedia-designed space since the dilemmas defined intrinsically require visual representation. Traditionally in the research literature, concepts like image perception and association were covered under behavioral and cognitive science. However, as digital media technologies become the medium tor linking design with cinema, concepts such as image perception have become more dramatized and play a more crucial rote in the assessing and addressing of design issues The digital revolution is not only creating a convergence of technology but also of academic disciplines that even a decade ago, would not have been imagined What was the exclusive domain of filmmakers and fine artists is being integrated into disciplines such as architecture, communication, education and management e.g., marketing, organizational behavior, and information systems. The tools in dramatic filmmaking, the cameras lights, 7

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actors, and their continuing adaptation to the Internet is compelling evidence of visual representations redefining realities. The Internet has introduced as its main features a screen and pictures that are rapidly becoming moving pictures with sound, visual effects the incorporation of design principles and soon with broadband even the capacity for interactive storytelling. This technology has turned companies l i ke Microsoft and Sony into the high tech studios of the future Certainly, e commerce is at the early stages of developing portals that are rap i d l y be c oming cinematic The gatekeeper is a ser i es o f pictures and mult i media creations redefining d i gital design thinking. Co n sequently designers of the future must adopt and have been adopting cine m atic princi p les. The s tory of the Internet its h i story and development reads like motion picture history. With i n knowledge-based societies the use of visual media such as the introduction of video and digital animation on the Internet, is prompt ing users to think like filmmakers induced by the interact i ve nature of the medium The role of digital technology continues to reform traditional fields of study disrupting systems while paradox i cally bringing them together. Dilemma theory research through the incorporation of dramatic methods will attempt to more effect i vely examine the issues facing des i gners employing 8

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digital media. The linkage between dilemma and drama is historic. The fundamental importance of concepts such as opposition and reconciliation in dilemma theory are tied to the dramatic structure of resolution through conflict. Cinema, as technology, is in the process of being revolutionized by digital technology and design methodology. The AOL!Time-Warner merger was the largest merger in history, which combined new and traditional media enterprises Despite outcomes, the corporate merger of Vivende/Universal exemplifies the issue, where traditional business, the Internet, cinema and design combine to form entirely new modes of thinking In defining design narrative, the introduction and analysis of spat ial drama is intended to provide an innovative approach to research concerning narrative struct u res. Additionally it is impossible to overlook the business and management aspects of the aforementioned fields and the issue must also be taken into consideration when investigating the realities that are motivating broader based theory and practice of planning, design and cinema. The discipline of behavioral science that has been applied to the study today's organizational behavior (OB) was first used as a means of investigating design related 9

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issues (Studer, 1970; Studer and Stea, 1966). 2 An analysis of the design industry and its potential linkages to knowledge-based society also involves the convergence of previously unrelated disciplines as well as technologies Overall, the attempt is made herein to examine the disciplines and technologies that strengthen linkages between what was previously thought of as unrelated fields of inquiry, leading to introduction of a theories of design narrative and spatial drama. Therefore, the approach to the investigation is outlined as follows: Review of the h i story of narrative and narrative forms as they relate to the design theory of spatial narrative Review of literature pertaining to design, cinema and object-oriented design. Analysis and definition of spatial narrative. Analysis and definition of design narrative pertaining to spatial organization of data as spatial drama. 2 Studer R.G (1970) The dynamics of behavioral contingent physical systems In H Proshansky, W .H lttelson L Rivlin (Eds .), Environmental Psychology: Man and H i s Physical Setting, New York Holt Rinehart and Winston Studer R.G. and Stea D (1966) Architectural programming and human behavior. Journal of Social Issues October 1966 Vol. 22, No 4 10

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Dilemma theory and drama theory and links to design and planning practice and education. Examination of theories relevant to design narrative Examination of conceptual synthesis as a methodology Examination of Lucasfilm and relevant technologies. Examination Open University and its production approach to education Research method integrating drama dilemma and systems theories and formulas as the conceptual synthes i s Design of a spatial narratological model as a demonstration of the conceptual synthesis An essential purpose of design narrative is t o examine t he unpredictable but requisite nature of emotional values attributed to dramatic spatial representation This position is a constitutive factor for modeling and demonstrating spatial drama in this investigation Since as detailed in the following narrative characteristics represent more predicable aspects of spatial information the subsequent literature review addresses known convergent technologies linking narrative to the relevant areas of study. 11

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW It may be argued that plann i ng and design are actually one discipline In any event it is clearly difficult to ascertain where planning ends and design begins In the following review of relevant literature there is evidence pointing to the importance of cross-dis t iplinary research juxtaposing cinema with design and planning essent ial to the purpose of understanding convergence issues influencing the future of digital design analysis and applications : Architecture and Cinema Planning and Cinema Object Oriented Design and Cinema In the first area of examination Architecture and Cinema, the comparatively small but growing body of literature over the past decade and particularly in the last five years is a testament to the convergence phenomenon relating to both the fields of design and cinema. Within universities, the notion of the union of the disciplines has been generally 12

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slower to gain the interest of researchers in design and film, disproportionate to the ongoing revolution in industry Surprisingly, the academic literature has been largely developing out of the social sciences especially in the areas of sociology and anthropology where also principally within the last decade, there has been growing interest in the study of visual sociology and visual anthropology This issue taken up i n the second area for exam i nation Planning and Cinema. The rapid and continuing advances in d i g i tal technologies persist to have a dramatic impact on the design and film industries and subsequently on schools of design and film The r e f ore research on the subject becomes even more relevant. Computer graph ics, CAD multimedia, computer generated imaging (CGI) and the Internet are just a few of the interconnecting factors driving convergence. These issues are examined in the third area of the literature review, Object Oriented Design and Cinema. Architecture and Cinema Most screen presentations of the architect's life distort those aspects that can be labeled realistic. The movies have no use for that workaday professional world whose too-common characteristics are long days and lean 13

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paychecks, teamwork and compliance, creeping frustration and mid-life disillusion' as (Levinson, 2000)3 points out. However, the relationship between architects and filmmakers goes much deeper than the so-called unrealistic representations of idealized architects on film. The reality is that throughout the history of cinema, architecture has contributed significantly to motion picture development. In fact a number of noteworthy film directbrs began their careers preparing as architects, as did Fritz Lang, long before he made Metropolis (1926). Carl Dreyer recognized as an architectural filmmaker o f documentaries such as The Danish Village Church (Landsbyk i rken 1941) claimed that architecture was cinema s closest relative Concurrently legendary architects have experimented with film Frank Lloyd Wright is known to have been a sagacious amateur filmmaker It is Wright's own 16mm footage of his Larkin Building (whip pans of swirling red bricks from tower to tower) that makes-up the only surviving filrn record of the building (Grigor, 1994 ) .4 3 L ev i nson N (2000) Tal l Build i ngs Tall Tales : on Arch i tects i n the Movi es in M Lamster M Arc hitecture and Film Princeton Arch i tec t ural Press 4 Grigor M (1994 ) Spa c e in Time : F ilming Arc h itecture Arc h i tecture & F i l m Londo n : Jo h n Wil e y & Son Ltd 14

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Even Le Corbusier made surviving 16mm avant-garde films of his own that rivaled films such as Man Ray s Les Mysteres du chateau duDe (1928). In one of Corbusier s films he uses his sporty convertible automobile his girl friends, their modern fashions, and his modern designs He experiments with editing repetitive images as patterns, timing and cinematic surrealism Corbusier was a member of (ClAM) Congres International de I Architecture Moderne, initially sharing a similar agenda with CICI (Congres International du Cinema lndependant) at La Sarrat, Switzerland in 1928 Corbusier is documented to have attended the La Sarraz meeting where manifestos of the architectural and cinemati c avant-garde met to define the new modern age and advancing what Hans Richter termed as a universal language of the arts (Bullock, 200 1 ).5 It is claimed, Art and technology began to fuse during the 1920's," (Mandelbaum and Myers, 2001 ).6 Perhaps there is some truth to this view, since both architecture and cinema rely on technology, the broadening body of knowledge that advances artistic expression. In the 20 's, the burst of 5 Bullock N (1998) Introduction in F Penz (ed) Cinema & Architecture : Melies Mallet Stevens Multimed i a London : British Film Institute pgs 6 7 6 Mandelbaum H and Myers E (2001 ) Screen Deco Hennessey & Ingalls 15

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technological innovation allowed both architects and filmmakers to break new ground It was then called Art Moderne but eventually became known as Art Deco the popular design philosophy of the "modern and futuristic. As with German Expressionism of the period, the French movement of Deco found its way into the film arts and eventually into the film industry of Hollywood Le Corbusier's personal experiments with film in the 1920 s as a means of cinematically expressing his architectural theories are a fusion of design and film. His non-elitist expression of modernism as art further advanced the movement. Joseph Urban was a Vienna born architect who, is credited w i th establishing Wiener Werkstatte and the principles of the International Style in the US when he relocated in the early 1900 's. He concurrently designed approximately thirty motion pictures for William Randolph Hearst's Cosmopolitan Pictures drastically altering contemporary stagecraft and revitalizing American architecture, (Carter & Cole, 1992).7 Again, through the 1920 s and 1930 s American landscape architect Florence Yoch also 7 Carter R. and Cole R. (1992) Joseph Urban : Architecture Theatre Opera Film A b bev ill e Press 16

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designed the sets for such noteable films of the 1930 s such as Romeo and Juliet and Gone with the Wind, (Yoch, 1989). 8 Circumstances that are argued to have fused art and technology in the 1920 s compelling great movements in the modern arts such as Deco, can be similarly applied to the remarkable digital technology revolution that became pervasive throughout 1990 s It is a widening revolution that continues to reform the arts, business c:tnd technology itself Though those in the computer sciences are generally responsible for engineering and providing the technologies that designers and filmmakers use, the academic literature in computer science has understandably not adequately investigated the convergence issues pertaining to the fields of design and film. Interestingly this also seems to be the case for the majority of design and film theorem research "There is a perceived polarity (however artificial) between technology and the humanities, between science and art between right brain and left. The burgeoning field of multimedia is likely to be one of those disciplines, like architecture, that bridges the gap." 8 Yoch J (1989) Landscaping the American Dream : The Gardens and Film Sets of Florence Yoch : 1890-1972 Harry N Abrams Inc 17

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So argues Nicholas Negroponte, Director of the MIT Media Lab.9 If multimedia has become a field unto itself, the characteristics of cinema are its fundamental contributors that further join it to architecture. Planning and Cinema When examining the context of cinema's relationship to planning, there is far more to the issue than the discourse on Metropolis and Blade Runner, the archetypal films depicting the city. Nevertheless, there are some who may still believe that the 1982 movie Blade Runner captures everything about the future of the metropolis a view that was held by the senior editor of Architectural Record, ( Hoyt 1994 ).10 There is the assumpt i on that such points of view result from the deficient base of academic research that specifically addresses the issue. Again this is precisely the reason why more thorough investigation has become necessary especially when considering the evolution of planning processes and practices attributed to the introduction of digital media technologies As with architecture there is a limited, but nevertheless long history of 9 Negroponte N (1995) Being Digital London : Hodder and Stoughton 10Hoyt C 1991, Blade Runner still on the cutting edge familiar as it is. Architectural Record, October 18

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evidence pointing to the relationship between planning processes and practices and cinematic expression Cambridge University Moving Image Studio (CUMIS) archival research from the Bauhaus-Archiv and Sw iss Werkbund uncovered several early urban planning films though it is surmised that many more were destroyed during the Second World War in Europe. (The City of Tomorrow) Die Stadt von Morgen (1929) directed by von Gordbeck and Katzen reflects the pervasive modernist movement of the time with utopian overtones that contrast elements of Dark Expressionism that define past present and future This city of tomorrow dep i cts a feuda l past t hat leads to urban decay poverty and unplanned c i ties where the ndustr ial r e v olution has led dangerous chemical factories bui lt next to schools and r esid e ntial neighborhoods The planners designe r s and f i lmmakers manufacture a modern and idealized city whereby a v ersion of today s zoning distr i cts is created to stimulate societal development and harmony Another urban planning film (The New Apartment) Die Neue Wohnung (1930/31) is directed by Hans Richter the same filmmaker who argued for a common language with designers along with Corbus i er at the 1928 ClAM and CICI La Sarraz meeting In the US, city planning films begin to be produced i n the l ater 1930 s The lesser-known version of The City (1939 ) by Willard Van Dyke was found in a New York film archive 19

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Not only the filmmakers have been making films for planners Urban planner, historian and sociologist Lewis Mumford is considered one of the great urbanists of the 20th Century. His seminal text The Culture of Cities became the basis of the script for what could be viewed as the most noteworthy planning film of its time also entitled The City (1939).1 1 Mumford narrates his views to a musical score written by Aaron Copland in the film that was commissioned by the American Institute of Planners, funded by a major grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York A visionary planner, Mumford recognized the power of cinema working with some of Hollywood s best to create a beautiful fantasy of cinematic documentary that defined social values of the age, the unreachable values of utopian community. Nevertheless the Mumford Center for Comparative Urban and Regional Research, established by Mumford himself in 1 988 in Albany New York is a center for interdisciplinary scholarship and a testimony to the aspirations of reaching for idealism. The center s ... broad-based collaboration among urban scholars from a variety of fields",12 also points to the linkage of urbanplanning s connection to sociologyand sociology s recognition of cinema as 11 Go l d J .R. and Ward V (1997) Of Plans and Planners : Documen t ary f ilm and the challenge of the urban future 1935 1952 in D Clark (ed) The Cinematic City London : Routledge pgs 59-82. 12 Mumford Ce nt er for Comparat i ve Urban and Regiona l Research [ Internet Docume nt] Web s it e a ccessed January 2002 20

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a related interd i sciplinary field leading to the development of the disc i plines of visual-sociology and visual-anthropology. A review of the literature reveals significant writings relating c i nema to socio J ogy poli t ical science, psychology commun i cat i on and management all disciplines with which planning has devel oped some degree of scholarly affiliation : (Proctor & Adler 1991; Foreman & Thatchenkery 1996 ; Fails 1988 ; Schermer, J 1988). Though the l iterature primarily supports cinema s value as a teaching tool the greater value of cinema applicable to planning processes and practices is in the power of the medium to reach large numbers of people in a way that is traditionally dramatic, if not enterta i ning. Societies view s of its cities are often formed in the movie theatre. Therefore, it is believed that planning scholars will more closely examine cinematic applications, as the medium becomes digital and integrated into the other medial communications platforms Planners like sociologists, psychologists architects and filmmakers, are also being compelled to come to terms with adapting to the use of digital animation technologies New and innovative methods of research utiliz i ng concepts inherent in cinema and other developing digital media will forward the evolution and advancement of planning theory and 21

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practice. For instance producing and cutting between a 3 dimensional animated topographic map, site plan and integrated foundation and structures would certainly require an understanding of motion picture production and editing techniques. Object Oriented Design and Cinema The literature review on object oriented design is largely modified from research papers developed while at Harvard GSD, linking Foley and van Dam s seminal writings on interactive computer graphics with digital design and dramatic cinema The tools of both 2D and 3D digital design and animation continue to advance the future of man/machine interaction in the creation of designed synthetic space This has fostered the integration of computer aided design processes with motion picture production. It follows that research undertaken will attempt to provide a means of better examining and understanding design narrative within both physical and virtual environments Reviewing the pertinent literature regarding computer-aided design points to the analysis of the motion picture as emerging digital design media. Next generation computer graphics imaging technologies are appurtenant to the inevitable creation of digital image-processed space as both photo-realistic cinema and object orientated design. 22

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With its beg i nnings at the dawn of this century the motion picture is a relatively modern and purely technological form of narrative. The nature of cinema has at its core machinery and materials. A story cannot be told through the medium without cameras lenses projectors chemicals celluloid and ever increas i ngly computers The term cinema short for cinematograph was coined from this chiefly British machine developed as a camera projector and thus portable theater. The machine's name is no doubt derived from the Greek kinema meaning movement and so too its mechanical predecessor the kinescope It is now commonly accep ted that many technologies are in the process of converging. Since the inception of c i nema the long list of technolog i cal advancements that lead to the development of talkies celluloid film Technicolor Cinemascope v i deo most recently includes computing technologies Early examples of computer generated images were initially small sequences built into the main body of the film. Computer graphics were confined to images on computer screens and most of the displays were primarily textual. Computer generated i mages were usually wire-frame contour maps. Science fiction films such as 2001 A Space Odyssey and Alien exemplifies the method of application The astounding digital revolution that has given birth to image processing a means to create and manipulate pictures is enabling the design and rendering of images of such spectacular qual i ty that they can no 23

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longer be dismissed as simply "computerized" re-creations of reality. Since the mid-sixties when the field of computer graphics became established, the objective of producers of computer-generated images has been to create digital images so realistic that the observer accepts the image as a real object rather than a synthetic object (Foley & van Dam, 1982) .13 This striving to attain "visual realism" has placed image processing on the verge of becoming both actualized cinema and design, as well as merging the two fields of study. Development and transformation of these increasingly digital media mirrors in a strange way the invention of the photograph and the subsequent technological discoveries that enabled moving pictures The phenomenon called persistence of vision m which the human eye perceives motion of still pictures that are rapidly projected is attr i buted to the illusion of movement. With pictorial animation clearly established as exceptionally suitable for computer manipulation it is no wonder that efforts are underway to more effectively author computer-generated animations for cinema, as well as design and planning processes and practices This reality continues to open up enormous possibilities for designers and filmmakers Even in the mid 90's, the digital re-creation of deceased actors on a synthetic 13 Foley, D., van Dam A., et al (1982). Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics 24

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background was achieved with stars like Fred Astaire being brought back to life to sell soft drinks no SAG contract or residuals necessary. Designers generating computer-based images are leading to the high level advancement of computer-generated sets and characters used in mot ion picture production. Over the past 15 years many computer graphics companies have been laboring to construct realistic images of the human body and create imaginary people The exploration for digital visual realism i s t u rning designers creating 2D 3D and 40 objects such as build i ngs c ities furniture an d automobiles into filmmakers of a kind. Within syn t het i c space i n an effort t o see h ow a design will appear as the viewer moves though and around synthetic objects designers are perhaps unconsciously in the process of developing cinematic narrative, visualizing responses both effective and affective Presently the essential obstacle i n fabricat ing c omplete visua l realism i s the visua l richness of the natural environment. Real images have an enormous amount of textures, forms colors, light and shadow. Synthesizing reality into a d i gital rendering is as complex as nature and animating digital renderings in a convincing method is even more formidable. In venturing to 25

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mirror reality, the production designer of Twister imitated nature when he formulated the design of the motion picture Computer-oriented challenges fo r the film were unprecedented. To duplicate the effects of tornado behavior ILM had to integrate the live-action with computer generated images into a seamless whole Physical and digital crews worked together in creating many of the shots in the film. Computer enhancements were created for many of the physical shots aside from the tornado imagery. Highly realistic i mages also commun i cate 3D spat ial relationships. As Foley and van Dam et al indicated in their landmark 1982 book, F undamentals of Interactive Computer Graphic s ,"The fundamental difficulty in depicting spat ial relationships is that all practical display d ev i ces have been 2D. Therefore 3D objects must be projected i n to two dimensions.'' Loss of i nformation within the two-dimensional plane can produce ambiguities i n the image and of course, there is still no practical technology of three dimensional projection. On the practical side having a device capable of storing the vast amount of digital information a rendered complex image posses is a common requirement for increasingly realistic computer-aided design animations. Even for the most powerful of computers the amount of time and storage capacity necessary to render and store complex digital animations on computer remains problematic Digital video animation must 26

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be transferred to video frame by frame, or, for motion picture processes via optical printer. Integrating computer graphics with motion picture production was initially unconvincing. Very high resolutions were needed for each frame. Graphic imagery for television required substantially less resolution (756x486 NTSC) compared with the thousands of lines necessary to create a suitable film image. The issue of generating high-resolution images also continues to lead to improved compu t ing technology for storing and processing vast amounts of data. Terminology previously related to the field of motion picture production has been modified to include developments in computer graphics and image processing. Animation and live-action have been redefined by computer animation within the conventional framework of motion picture production and design process and practice Animation as a practice was traditionally associated to hand-drawn or pixilated characters, usually on eels, transparent acetate sheets. Live-action did refer to the use of living characters and physical environments in production Image processing is largely altering these concepts Live-action can be fabricated without physical characters. A dataglove can be utilized in the animation of characters within real time as 27

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v i rtual puppets. Of course, the hand-drawn (cartoon) celluloid animation has been all but replaced by computer animation methods virtually implemented with a background consisting of a bitmap or polygon graphic and the foreground cells have become mostly polygonal shapes It has become a f orgone conclusion that these processes have become closely matched the processes that designers face through c omputer aided design Both i n education and practice the des i gner i ncreasingly relies on what is becoming a myriad of computational animation s oftware systems available Photo realistic c omputer-generated films such as Final Fantasy ex emplifies the manipulation of phy sical a n d synthetic c hara c ters an d s paces As the computer technology continues to rapidly i mprove it is not unfeasible t o consider synthetic spaces and characters that exa c tly m i rror reali t y with the f ramework of cinema and design In the not too distant future designs and motion pictures may be produced where animation and live-action merge to become seamlessly indistinguishable from each other The film Gladiator is an excellent example of how designers and filmmakers have converged areas of knowledge. A living actor holding off a hungry tiger in a photoealistic digitally designed Roman Coliseum is being replaced by a synthetic double 28

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Realistic synthetic designs and motion pictures, though approaching technical feasibility still cannot of course fully duplicate reality. However, the issue is no longer whether or not digital illusions can compete with image quality of the more traditional forms of design and film production, but when a ful y digital cinema/architecture will become a reality. The improvements in artificial intelligence are leading to behavioral realism as well as visual realism, where synthetic creations behave as they would in real-life cond i tions. The future of both design and cinema cannot be examined without taking into account these and other emerging technologies such as virtual reality which may enable cinema to move beyond synthetic films to some form of all-encompassing 30 and 40 spatial env i ronment. In Blade Runner by 2109 genetic engineering has become one of the worlds most robust industries There are artificial animals as pets and sub standard food. The genetically engineered humans, "replicants" are a manufactured working class The artificial people are almost virtually identical to real people, nevertheless their "human" counterparts consider the i r synthetic creations lifeless and therefore can kill them without feeling remorse. Ironically, given the film s synthetic premise, none of the sets and many of the effects were not computer-generated. Miniatures of the futuristic cityscape were physically constructed. Within the interior of the Tyrell s office 29

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process plates were utilized for the other pyramid outside the window. The pyramid was built photographed and plates prepared for front projection on the set. Traditional matte painting techniques were utilized for the background imagery. The computer-generated animations and backgrounds in Jumanji were suddenly made possible by Industrial Light & Magic groundbreaking work on Jurassic Park. ILM had designed the c o mputer dinosaurs and constructed the software programs to computer-generate animals with realistic fur and hair for Jumanji. Nevertheless, designing the shots on computer we r e far more expensive than physical production. For example, it was less costly to have real walls and falling books during the rhino stampede through the library than to computer animate the sequence Computer images prior to Jumanji mostly consisted of hard edges or smooth surfaces. The production and animation of synthetic space, allowing the representation of objects and motions across time by rapidly projecting a sequence of individual pictures, is allowing for the possibility to animate what might be termed as synthetic reality Since live-action can also be digitally animated with some degree of realism, real images are digitally processed to 30

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become animated characters. The concept has considerable ramifications for the future of motion picture and design applications. The creation of realistic computer-generated images are best designed and constructed using interactive real-time workstations However, viewing an i mation displayed in real-time especially when the objects are solid in color, lit and shadowed, or, in other terms rendered, cannot be presently computed and displayed in real-time bE!cause of the image complexity. A real-time prev iew of an animated sequence is best achieved when reducing v i sual fidelity animating the synthetic object at a decreased r esolution If the characteristics of cinema display a representational form of ar c hitecture as well as narrative computer aided design processes approach mirroring cinematic methodology with the introduction of intelligent object based technology Juxtaposing both technologies, the objects designed through narrative structure using the combined technology becomes more perfect more absolute In essence, the technological abili t y to essentially model realism provides the means to virtually craft reality. Three-dimensional modeling systems, such as Maya and 3-D Studio Max, make possible a CAD "virtual camera" to move through implied 3-D 31

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designed space. Lightscape is software enabling both the designer and filmmaker to create production quality virtual lighting schemes Unix and shell scripting, as well as Soft Image, the primary software used by Lucasfilm are developed from computer aided design systems originally intended for use in arc hitectural rendering. The development and adaptation of these technologies place developers of software programs at the cutting edge of motion picture production and production design technology. Celluloid film itself as a narrative medium retains the ever inc r eas i ng potential t o become as functionally obsolete as its nitrate predecessor as digital optical technology reaches production quality Reality is said to be what people make of it and technology has become an integral part of realism ever since the development of the first stone tool. As high technology, the metamorphosing computer is increasingly used to link design processes with the narrative forms of motion picture production. The perceptions created from the products being produced are altering realities to such an extent that illusion and reality itself become integrated Though through the fabrication of narrative alone, even without pictures, perception can be altered with striking effect. 32

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Narrative and Technology During the summer of 1845 when Henry David Thoreau moved to the restful northern shore of Walden Pond, conducting his two-year-long "experiment in simplicity," along the opposing southern shore railroad tracks had already been laid. Of his experiences living beside the pond, Thoreau would years later publish within the pages of Walden; "I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to [con]front only the essential facts of life And see if I could not learn what i t had to teach and not when I came to die, discover that I had not lived." The quote is posted on the site where Thoreau built his ten-by-fifteen-foot exper i mental home mostly with his own hands on land bel onging to his friend and fellow transcendentalist, Ralph Waldo Emerson (Thoreau 1995 [1854]).14 When Thoreau did come to die in 1862, the site that he popularized with his romantic story was developed into an amusement park by the railroad only four years following Thoreau's death The site now has corporate sponsors to preserve the fragile ecology of Walden Pond and thousands of tourists seeking to follow the writer's over worn path are turned away every summer. So much for the irony of complex issues born out of Thoreau's experiment to "simplify, simplify". 14 Thoreau H D (1995 [1854]) Walden ; or Life in the Woods New York Dover 33

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Arguably the foundation of narrative form is simple and unchanging. A s tory has its beginning middle and end Nevertheless the concept of n arrative has at its core a methodology of designing and imposing perception w i thout allowing for the exchange of viewpoint. (You can't talk back to a book in print, film on the screen or, computer aided design rendering without appearing somewhat disturbed) Such developmental technologies serve to e nhance the planned nature of narrative framing, and an y technology used as a medium for the exposition of narra t ive is i nherently a designed form of c omm u nication Nevertheless exploratory studies are examining the po ss i bility of "interactive" narrative Narrative structure of course has n o con s c i ousness and not unti l T horeau intentionally devised and executed a plan fo r discerning meaning from his observations at Walden Pond did meaningful imagery become associated with the site. Designing perceptions within the narrative model synthesizes reality into viewpoint. Thoreau endeavored to discover the basic essentials of life the reality of ex i stence apart from the encroaching revolution i n industrial technolog y that would generate another reality. The train tracks at Walden Pond are a physical metaphor for such representational opposition between nature and the built environment. 34

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Narrative and the continued genesis of knowledge-based media are vehicles to change perception through distributed story. The mind can absorb a reality, formulate it through the technological medium and have the experience re-interpreted as an alternative reality. The creation of Thoreau's book Walden and the effectual results exemplifies the process What was Thoreau s experiment with reality now only exists as text to form perception. Before the Renaissance, the "rebirth" of intellectualism, and through the period of the so-called Dark Ages, painter's eyes viewed their architectural world obliquely on canvas. The reality they perceived then resembles a largely isometric world today. At the dawn of the 15th century when Florentine painter Filippo Brunelleschi extensively realized the technology of accurately copying a three-dimensional image onto a two-dimensional plane, the system of geometrical linear perspective modified artistic perception. Painters of the time became inspired to compose more "realistic" observations with the technology that eventually led to the development of the camera obscura. Painting, architecture, cinema, language, literature, data-based computing, in fact, any collection of knowledge is technology in the broadest sense of the word As technology develops, designed perceptions of reality become increasingly integrated; an explanation why technology as a unifying 35

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medium is provoking the common use of learned database-computing languages. Technology provoked the Age of Modernity, enabling a fundamental leap beyond merely documenting architecture and culture on film With the technolog i cal innovation of moving pictures, storytellers also became filmmakers as the film product itself was metamorphosed into a medium for creating narrative, ultimately to become a form of narrative The ability to combine technological elements to manipulate reality promoted the formation of a new reality Linking reality back to narrative the transcendentalist and storyteller Thoreau, together with his Walden became an unreality to the behavioral engineer and storyteller B F Skinner, who developed the existence of Walden Pond into his basis in fact, Walden Two Skinner, too, lived within close proximity of the pond and no doubt read of Thoreau's experiment concerning the site. The experimental psychologist and proponent of operant behavoralism published his version of utopia in 1948, ninety-four years after Thoreau's publication. Born in 1904, Skinner was a product of modernity. For him, the progressive world of industrialized technology approached simplicity. Skinner's reality perceived the world of the naturalist as an abstract place that 36

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could readily be fixed and improved upon though technological innovation For instance, he experimented in altering the behavior of severe psychotics not to mention various other human and animal organisms Walden Two was Skinner's experiment derived metaphorically from Walden Pond Though the site had become a historical landmark and the property of the state Skinner's narrat i ve had again evolved the meaning of Walden Pond as well, revising Thoreau s transcendental (primordial) philosophy to be s ynonymous with the utopian community Thoreau's narrative "experiment in simplicity" was othetworldly to Skinner w h o rejected an obsolete romantic past in favor of an engi n eered ideal i zed future with i n the f i ct i onal Twin Oaks Community (Skinner 1958) .15 When Skinner died in 1990 he was buried at Mount Auburn cemetery approximately thirty miles away from Henry David Thoreau and with Walden Pond proximate to their graves, physical metaphors of existence and perception. Both Thoreau's and Skinner's utop i a exemplify the bi-directional influences of the technology of their time. Exper i menting within Walden Pond the authors perceived an identical environment and then created 15 Skinner B F (1958) Walden Two. New York Macmillan 37

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perception through narrative that is adversely opposed. This oppos i tion therefore uniquely tied to the examination of drama theory and dilemma theory within the scope of this s t udy The i ntegration of computer aided design processes and mot i on p i cture production h as ena b led the creation of greate r cinematic illusions through the reproduction and reinvention of perception And what was once merely the viewpoint of Skinner's narra t ive is now on the verge of becoming reality-an interpretation of Tho r eau's illusiona r y Walden that leads to a a nother utopian world where not only per c eption is more simply des i gned but a l so t he selective genes of humanity The r e le vance of such i nterpretations is examined within the conte xt of drama theory and its application in Chapter 5 In considering narrative aspects of both science and art, at one time the only person that would purchase a mad van Gogh painting was his sympathetic brother. It was a strange paradox that invaluable art was considered w G rthless when first created. Not until collectors started assigning ever-increasing value to the art did the paintings become priceless. Today a single piece of artist's work, if it could be purchased at auction could fund the building o f a skyscraper Just a little bit of paint on canvassand perhaps 38

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something more than narrative. It is a testament to the incalculable value of the artistic spirit. Narrative Aspects of Arts, Sciences and Industry 'The experiences of an individual appear to us arranged in a series ot events; in this ser i es the single events which we remember appear to be ordered according to the criterion of earlier' and later, wh ich cannot be analyzed further. There exists, therefo r e for the individual, an 1-time, or subjective time This in itself is not measurable.' This was what Einstein presented when introducing The Meaning of Relativity to his Princeton audience in 1921 It was his P r e Relativ i ty view of a scientific narrative ; a sequence of events in wh ich earl i er ma y be conside red beginning and later determined as end There was the common historic belief that subjective experiences had no place in a scientific worldview since human experiences were not believed to be measurable Before Einstein i ntroduced a theory of curved space, the stra i ght lined geometry of a Newtonian universe was also reflected in the linear systems thinking of the Industrial Revolution When purposefully analyzing narrative applications concerning planners and designers delineating where exacting science ends and creative art begins may become a subjective experience for the individual to interpret. 39

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It was primarily a mid 18t h to late 20th Century phenomenon that juxtaposed science with the arts. The Industrial Revolution virtually reif ied the pure sciences The big machines t he exacting empirical ideas tha t came along with their success compelled fragmented and compartmentalized thought. In discard ing more ancien t s chools of thought the scientist could never be an artist. But , in this 21st Century a s i ndustry and technology become more sophisticated, more "intelligent" links are again being formed between industry science and fields O f thought that were imagined to be hitherto dissimilar. It's no wonder that Vincent van Gogh (1853 1890 ) and his emotional art was so unwelcome and misunderstood i mpressionism t aking rise out of the beginnings of the transforrna fon of industry F or van Gogh his art took root out of the i ndustrial mines I n Belg i um w h ere he fir st worked as an evangelist for the poor. I t could be argued that the m i nister-turned-artist p ut down the Bible and picked up a paintbrush in reaction to the upheaval of industry that split art from science. Van Gogh s disruptive and sch i zophrenic representations may be considered more than a metaphor for his revolutionary times. It could also be argued that the greatest leaps of knowledge have occurred when science and art were not in opposition. In earlier times, these segmented fields of thought were viewed much differently. Some of the 40

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greatest minds of the Renaissance, in that reawakening of knowledge recognized that the arts and sciences were inextricably linked Again one of the instrumental figures that sparked the Italian Renaissance was the Florentine architect artist and scientist Flippo Brunelleschi (1377 1446) He applied science and mathematics to architectural rendering and painti n g further developing a means fo r threedimensional perspective drawing enabling the more accurate recreation of the physical world on c anvass. What a telling tale of the importan c e of l i terature and narrative that entire systems of university education cou l d be c ompletely reformed by differing view p o i nts between science and t h e arts as th e Renaissance and Reformation spread through England : In the fifteenth century when the College (Queens' College, Cambridge) was founded, students were all prospective clergymen. Nevertheless the curriculum in the two English universities laid a heavy emphasis on Logic and Mathematics, and Theology was only studied by the small minority who went on to a higher degree The dominant philosophy of the period was nominalism embodying a very flexible skeptical and empirical outlook which led amongst other things to a spirit of scientific enquiry. However in fifteenth-century Italy, a renewed interest in the Humanities was changing the direction of studies. An emphasis on Literature History and Moral Philosophy all treated with reference to classical antiquity particularly Roman antiquity came to be regarded as a more sui table educational program. At 41

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the same time the invention of printing enabled the Latin and Greek literary texts to be much more freely available The new classical literary emphasis of the Renaissance first affected Cambridge during the Chancellorship of Bishop John Fisher, President of Queens' from 1505 to 1508 As the sixteenth century progressed the emphasis on the Humanities gradually gained ground at the expense of science which fell into neglect for over a century, (Scarr 1983).16 As the age of enlightenment spread to France Rene Descartes (1596-1650) set out to prove that science and philosophy were within the same sphere of study. His first w r itten investigation of scientific method Rules for the Direction of the Mind led to his great philosophical realization of Cog ito ergo sum "I think, therefo r e I am." His additional studies in metaphysics, physiology optics, and analytic geometry fo r med many of the modern foundations built from Cartes i an science and philosophy In considering a digital renaissance, no wonder the Massachusetts Institute of Technology s Media Laboratory was born out of its schoo l of architecture in 1989. At MIT the phrase MEDIA ARTS AND SCIENCES signifies the study, invention and creative use of enabling technologies for understanding and expression by people and machines In the pursuit of 16 Scarr M (Ed.) (1983) Queens College Cambridge St. lves Cornwall Beric Te m pest & Co. 42

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science and technology the Media Lab has become successful through the incorporation of art and architecture with the previous academically separated fields of science and engineering. The drivers of the Media Lab are industry Business continues to fund the development of the lab that is rapidly becom ing one of the major research institutions in the world But most importantly what is making the idea work is the collaboration between scientists, artists and business Again only the techno l ogy is new the idea is an ancient one Digital Design and Digital Film Industries Technology is becoming crucial for all Industries, including design and film. One major difference between design and film i ndustr i es i s that the social elements defining what can be a hit or what is popula r p l ays an important role in the success of a film. This issue, though not as crucial to designers is becoming more important to digital designers responding to converging technologies. Thus technology needs to be combined with a social effect or community effect in predicting a potential succe s s of a film or li nked dig i tally designed products such as video games that a l so utilize design principles. This feedback loop (Figure 2 1) and linkage between technology and social community effects is shown in below : 43

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design/ film social effects new technology Fig ure 2 1 : Technology and socia l component linkages Again the importance of technology especially the emergence of digital technology t hat is accelerating change in design and film industries exemplif i es the importance of combining research that takes into account the technology based effects (Arthur 1994) along with the more sociological literat ure (Abramhamson and Fombrun 1994 ) In this sense there i s a close match between knowledge management research (Grant 1996) and research in creative industries such as design and film 44

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Therefore, the first example in Chapter 4 focuses on the one of the most successful companies that has combined technology and film the company created by George Lucas. George Lucas has done as much to shape popular culture as anyone alive and Nigel Andrews of the Financial Times claims that the filmmaker is "the Force" in trans-global product merchandising. "It's safe to say, in fact, that Star Wars single-handedly created the film-merchandising business (Lucas & Baxter, 1999).1 7 LucasArts Games Lucas Arts Learning, Skywalker Sound, THX Sound, Lucasfilm and Industria l Light and Magic, at one time no financial pages even listed these companies because Lucas himself owned every share of stock Lucasfilm has not only succeeded as the model tor motion picture production companies outside of Hollywood George Lucas as an individual and as a CEO of Industrial Light and Magic (ILM) is in the process of recreating the technology of film production and distribution with his special effects company 24p and related technologies are about to change forever the process of filmmaking and George Lucas is the key creative player in the digital technology's development. His participation in the development of a "New Hollywood" was based not only on good business sense, or perhaps 17 Baxter J 1999 George Lucas : a biography. London HarperCollins Publishers 45

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more accurately, good timing. George Lucas was just at the right place at the right time. Linking Design & Planning Pedagogy to Cinema In linking design and planning pedagogy to cinema, it would be i mperative to see how films have traditionally been used as a teaching resource, largely examined through Champoux's detailed research on the subject. Though Champoux explains hbw film can be used in organization behavior and management theories and applied concepts, the argument can just as readily be applied to design theories and applied concepts. An in depth understanding of using film as a resource f or teaching design theor i es and practices also requires a factori z ation of film characteristics, viewer responses and different uses of film as a medium (Champoux, 1999).1 8 Film is widely used as a teaching asset since thousands films that are available on videotape and digital video disk (DVD), which illustrate. relevant issues in many academic fields of study (Martin & Porter, 2002).19 This is contrasted with the pre-1980 access to filmed material, since the rental process was slow limited, and expensive due to limits in the technology, 18 Champoux E J (1999) Film as a teaching resource Journal of Management Inquiry 8(2) : 206-217 1 9 Martin, M., & Porter M (Eds ) (2002) Video movie guide 2002 New York : Ballantine 46

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reducing film's accessibility as a resource (D. D. Smith, 1973).2 0 Due to the extraordinary growth in the availability of films, more and more educators have urged its adoption by others (Maynard, 1969, 1971, 1977).2 1 (Wegner, 1977)22 was a pioneer in using this medium although educational films were being mass marketed on 16mm film particularly within the US in the 1950 's. T here has been a wide range of positive effects/influences across a broad array of disciplines and topics that provide positive proof of films as a medium of instruction, (Bloom, 1995; Foreman & Thatchenkery, 1996; Funderburk, 1978; Ruby, 1976).23 The advantage of using ci nema for teach i ng planning and design rests on its ability to make one see and grasp things which might not be possible though other forms of communication such as, lectures books, examinations etc. Thus, the unique characteristic of cinema is the extraordinary communication power, which enables it to provide personal experience to every viewer. In such a situation, the viewer is not a passive observer Their 20 Smith, D.D (1982) Teach i ng undergraduate sociology through feature films Teaching Sociology, 10 98 -101 21 Maynard, R. A. (1969). The social studies and media Socia/ Studies 60 327-329 22 Wegner H (1977) Teaching with film Bloomington IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educat i onal Foundation 23 Bloom M E (1995) Us i ng early silent film to teach French : The language of cine o ma muet. ADFL-Bulletin, 27 25-31 47

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views, their observations and their responses add to the phenomenal power of communication that film offers. In terms of key film characteristics, the following observations are worth focusing upon: 1) Film records physical reality but sees it differently from ordinary human experiences (Arnheim, 1957).24 2) Film also is unequaled in its ability to hold and direct the attention of the viewer; 3) Lens techniques, camera movements camera angles, framing of shots, and film editing can create gripping v1ews not readily found in reality (Carroll, 1985).25 Close-up shots a technique first used by D. W Griffith in After Many Years (1908) (Arnheim 1957, p.48), let a person peer in t o reality in an uncommon way (Balazs, 1952).2 6 This technique lets a director show a viewer something that might go unnoticed w1th ordinary vision (Pudovkin, 1929).27 The close-up shots in 12 Angry Men, for example, show the emotions each juror felt during their decision-making process in a murder trial. 24 Arnheim R. (1957) Film as art, Berkeley : University of California Press 25 Carroll, N ( 1985) The power of movies Daedalus, 114, 79-103 26 Balazs, B (1952) Theory of the film New York : Dover 2 7 Pudovkin V (1929). Film technique and film acting London : Vision Press 48

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One aspect to consider is the ability of film media to create a balance between perception and reality Focusing techniques can show a physical reality as seen by the human eye or show it in a different way (Bazin, 1967) A major reason for this strength of focusing techniques lies in the area of film editing. This can create a series of images intended to have a specific effect on the viewer, both because of the unique sequence of shots and due to the reinforcing special-effects that transcend the recording of physical reality, (Dancyger, 1997; Reisz & Millar, 1968; Worth, 1966, 1968, 1969). A prominent example of an editing technique that gives film a unique quality is the widely used shot I reverse shot to show social interaction between two or more parties (Bordwell 1996).28 The objective of all such editing techniques is to involve the ubiquitous observer who is present in different scenes and can see both the verbal and non-verbal actions of diffe r ent players providing an integrated message to the viewer. This is all the more important in the case of design theory where non-verbal messages can communicate the key elements Thus, the result is unlike real world experiences because an observer to a conversation is unlikely to face one party and move quickly to face the other (Reisz & Millar 1968). 28 Bordwell, D (1996) Cnvention construction, and cinematic vision In D Bordwell & N Carroll (Eds) Post-theory : Reconstructing film studies Madision Un i versity of Wisconsin Press 49

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Design and planning students are not simply passive observers but they can have a wide range of responses some of which would be initiated by the film's unique aspects (Allbritton & Gerrig 1991 ; Gerrig & Prentice 1996).29 Therefore, the example in Chapter 4 focuses upon the Open Un i versity (OU). The OU is in a very real sense becoming a type of film studio for education It's requirements to fill the needs of learners pr i marily using the Internet as the medium for information transfer combined with the development of emerging digital design and digital cinema technologies, has compelled the OU and its engineers to think more as designers and filmmakers. The BBC maintains a permanent presence on the Open University s more t han 4 square block campus Thus Chapter 4 not only examines the development of a film company but also the technologies t h at are linking cinematic development to hypermedia education 29 Allbritton D W & Gerr i g R. J (1991 ). Participatory responses i n prose understanding Journal of Memory and Language 30 603 626 50

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CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGIES Attempting to answer the fundamental question whether or not it is p o ssible to incorporate drama theory into the a design narrative, the study of primarily narrative formulas for this i nvestigation are directed towards the s tudy of multimedia! design and in particular the design concept of spatial narrative A design narratology is linked with that of narrative theory drama t heory and film theory. Since a cinema architecture (see literature review) has evolved from these theories t o form its own dis c ipl i ne based upo n the technology of the medium (Penz and Thomas 1 997 )30 the development of an interactive conceptual model util i zing narrative and drama formulas w ill illustrate an application of the theory of desig narrative. The model will utilize elements of dilemma theory since it, as illustrated within Chapter 5 is shown to be closely associated with drama theory. Digital technolog i es continue to drastically change the nature of 30 Penz, F and Thomas M (1997) Cinema and Architecture : Melies Mallet-Stevens Mult i media London British Film Institute 51

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creative industries such as design and film (Cotton and Oliver 1993)31. The film industry which was always difficult to measure in terms of value and predictability has become even more complex due to the emergence of d i gital technology. There f ore additional research issues emerge out of the following: The effect of digital technologies on the dynamics of design and film production Explication of theories that are crucial to the future development of design and film as creative enterprises The potential linkages between dilemma theory and drama theory research as they apply to design processes and practices Methodology The methodology of this investigation is a combination of conceptual synthesis and applications focusing on the "conceptual relations" of the relevant data. Conceptual synthesis allows for the introduction of conceptual 31 Cotton B and Oliver R. (1993). Understanding Hypermedia : from multimedia to virtual reaHty. London : Phaidon Press Ltd. 52

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relations that synthesize utilitarian and logical concepts, extending the logics of preference, the process philosophy of Nicholas Rescher, (Ruspini, 1998)32 The synthesis is explicated within the context of a conceptual model, constraint-dependent procedures are based upon the fusion of drama theory and dilemma theory with existing digital design software applications, to qualify the relative design, c i nematic and management solutions to various learning, decision-making and planning problems. The conceptual model will characterize amalgamation of the theories and concepts of this nvestigation As proposed in the introduction, the traditional research Ofl digital technology which has largely been explored in the computer science literature, has drawn from and become increasingly relevant to design and cinema in the development of graphical information technologies. Conceptual synthesis as a method is increasingly being used within the field of computer science to address design, cinema and related management issues The following brief abstract is an example : Conceptual Design of Mechanisms: Synthesis of Design Alternatives and Spatial Configuration Design. In the conceptual design phase, it is very important to generate and 32 Ruspini E (1998) Truth as Utility : A Conceptual Synthesis Artificial Intelligence Center SRI International Menlo Park 53

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select feasible and promising design concepts to reduce cost and cycle time of the product development. Obtaining good design concepts usually requires the generation of a large amount of possible design concepts and further elaborate evaluation/assessment to select more promising design concepts. Thus, a synthesis method to generate feasible and promising design concepts in the concept generation stage will be very useful for later evaluation process by allowing the designer to concentrate on more promising design concepts (NEC Research Index, 1999).33 Within the field of computer science, research is underway specifically related to both the fields of design and motion pictures. Kinematic or motion synthesis is a study t o understand the motion of thre e -dimensional digital structures (NEC Research I ndex 1999) Chapter 4 presents of two examples, L ucasfilm and the Open University. Lucasfilm was selected because of the company's pioneering efforts in special effects, digital technologies and organizational structures. Lucasfilm has engineered innovative production and post-production techniques influencing a multitude of medial communications producers, from developers of digital design animation programs to virtual learning institutions. The Open University s system of delivering virtual education through its developing 33 NEC (1999) Synthesis of Design Alternatives and Spatial Configuration Design NEC Research Index (Internet document] http : // citeseer .nj. nec com/264316 html, Accessed : 07/20/02 54

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relationship with the BBC continues to transform what began a paper-based correspondence school into Europe's largest provider of distance education. The example was chosen since the OU is rapidly becoming a production studio for virtual learning, integrating aspects of both digital design and cinema in the planning and implementation of virtual learning programs. This strand of research also reveals the relevance of engineering cinematic techniques into virtual learning systems, a potential pedagogical tool for planning and design theory and practice Modern critical theory" includes narrative as an Approach / School (Lavery, 2002) .34 Modern design and literary theories and trends to share much of the same critical approaches As suggested in Chapter 1, the critical approaches w thin the field of English literature als o infl u ence design study Thus the primary critical approach to this investigation is also narratological Narrative History And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food ; the tree of life also in the mist of the garden and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Genesis 2 : verse : 9 34 Lavery D (2002) Internet document 55

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Story is embedded in history. Narrative and history; in examining the etymologies of words, there is no differentiation in their meaning. The Oxford English Dictionary from the onset defines history as, 1 A relation of incidents (in early use either true or imaginary ; later only of those professedly true) ; a narrative tale story Obs. ( exc as applied to a story or tale so long and full of detail, as to resemble a history in sense). There is also a traditional connection made between history and drama : "6. a A story represented dramatically a drama. 7 A pictorial representation of an event or series of incidents ; in 18th c. a historical picture. 35 Therefore, history and story ; narrative and drama are related means to systematically record and recount events. Arguments have been made that his tory i s in fact an example of dramatic narrative (Loewenstein, 1990).3 6 I n this instance, the example focuses upon the relat ion between Milton s literary imagination and his historical vision There are ancient stories that have lasted for millennia from which to draw a critical view of narrative as it relates to design issues. Man and 35 Oxford English Dictionary (1989) Second Edition [ad L. historia narrative of past events account, tale, story a Gr. a learning or know i ng by inquiry an account of one's inquiries narrative, history f -knowing, learned wise man, judge : f. -, -to know (The form h ist oire was f rom F ) Cf STORY an aphetic form of history ] 36 Loewenstein D (1990) Milton and the Drama of History Historical Visi on Iconoclasm and the Literary Imagination Cambridge University Press 56

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woman know the story of what happened after eating that fruit from t he tree of knowledge, being condemned as it were to an eternal search for knowledge ever since humans became self-aware Humans have developed systems for the storage and transfe r of knowledge and narrative, as a system fo r stor ing and transferring i nformation has been one of the most p ersis t ent results of systems of thought. The Bible is quoted above as more than a relig i ous text. It is an e xample of nar rative text most l ikely d erived from the oral tradition o f s torytelling and before the Greeks Hebrews and Egyptians set pen to p apyrus At the time t he first New Testament w as compiled and scr ibed in Greece around 50 AD the Greeks had l ong bef ore mastered the narrative f orm Even i n Aristotle s time 400 years e arlier he had s c r ibed the Poetics when the civilization was already well into decline. Aristotle's Poetics written in 350 BCE is not a compilation of poems Rather i t is an examination of narrative the morality plays of Epic poetry Tragedy and Comedy In examining the verse quoted f rom the book of Genesis aga i n it becomes clear that the author(s) understood both narrative and drama. In a single verse the reader may recall this garden in the mist that is eastwards of Eden There is an "image" created within the text of place of space for the 57

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mind to see In a very visual way spatial narrative is defined here as well as the defined moral drama, or dilemma as the case may be, that is the d i fference between right and wrong. Thus the initial story was textualized and then later pictured i n stained glass until now when the technology the knowledge acquired over time allows such symbolic narratives to be retold as c i nema Narrative is therefore an i nfluential and sustainable method for c ommunication of textual, graphic and spat i al concepts evok ng lasting impressions and compelling the further d evelopment of new bodies of k nowle d ge through evolving applicat i o ns of narrative structures The his t orical drama of this issue is exemplif i ed i n the Skinner versus T horeau a nalogy which is synonymous with the i r spheres of thought e g., e m p iricism ve r s us naturalism phy l ogeny versus ontogeny (Skinner 1966)37 f urt h er po i nting to issues between narrat i ve and t e chnology in Ch a pter 2 Design Narrative It therefore stands to reason that modern academics within the field of l i terature have i nitially defined the study of design narrat i ve Narratology is a type of formalist criticism that expla i ns and analyzes the structures modes 37 Sk i nner B F (1966) The Phy l ogeny and Ontogeny of Behavior: Continge n c ies o f rei nfo r cemen t t h r ow light o n c ontingenc ies of s u rvival in the evolut ion o f behav i o r S c ien c e 9 Sep t ember 1966 Vol. 153 Pgs 1205-1212 58

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and techniques of narrative (Abrams, 1981 )38 In bringing the issue into a more contemporary v i ew, narrative has come to mean virtually anything becoming its own study of i tself the growing field of 'narratology'. Despite arguments to restrict narratology to prose narratives (Genette 1988 : 17)39 and in addition t o Architec t ure and Planning, the disciplines of Cognitive and Social Science; Neuro Cognitive, and Clinical Psychology; Linguistics and Semiotics; Business and Management have been enhancing the literature with modified narrative concepts (HeVern 2001 )40 The purpose of this s tudy is an attempt is to exami n e key concepts and theories of na r rative v i ew p oints within the c on t ext o f design process and practice Drama theory is principatly i dentified as the relevant link to defining w h at i s termed here i n as design na r rative modeled in Chapter 5 By reconnecting dramatic principles with its traditional counterpart narrative the c r eation of more engaging des i gned spaces i s an experiential result. 36 Abrams M .H (1981) A Glossary of Lit e rary Terms (4th ed. } New York Holt-Saunders Internat i onal Editions 39 Genette G ( 1980 ) Narrat ive Di sco u rse Trans Jane E Lewin Oxford : Blackwell 4 0 Hevern V W (2001 Oc t ober ) Narrat ive psychology : Internet and resource guid e [Onl i ne] S yr acuse NY : Au t hor Availab l e : < http :// maple lemoyne edu /-hevern/ narpsych html> 59

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The concept of design narrative is most applicable to the evolution of d i gital design thinking where convergence continues to join many aspects of cinema with design. Interpretations of design narrative, which include spatial narrative, have a basis in film theory. Both cinema and drama are examined for their relevance to design Spatial Narrative It may be said that designers of t he built environment have always tacitly if not consciously understood t he the retical and practical relevance of c hronological space that both reflects and i nfluences human behav ior and affect. Narrative is story; a plot, a theme to be retold again and again through space and over time An enigmatic outcome of the design process is perhaps the intangible connection between the seen but not sensed and sensed but not seen aspects inherent in narrative. This phenomenon makes it a nevertheless fundamental reality of the built env ironment. In other words people cannot touch stories, however, we can be profoundly touched by them While the concept of spatial narrative has become a fashionable and even essential part of the lexicon of design education and practice, its introduction into the academic literature is quite recent. It differs from design narrative in that it 60

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lacks half of the narrative formula that contributes to what is termed spatial drama. The term 'narrative space' itself seems to have originated in a seminal work by a film theorist, Stephen Heath ( 1981 )41. In one of the remarkably few essays to engage explicitly in the use of cinematic space, the study lies squarely within the semiotic-psychoanalytic tradition of film theory (Clarke, 1997)42 This could also explain why t he language of psychology in turn adopted the term narrative in the mid-1980's, further defining terminology of sequential spatial perception (Sartin, 1986). Drama Theory There is a prevailing rule among storyte t lers that portend, "There i s no story without drama" It is a striking paradox to note that narrative, as story, has been all but divorced of its dramatic elements outside of the lit erature of drama-while narrative becomes widely accepted as a multidisciplinary study. It is as if technology-based societies and their supporting systems would attempt to reduce or even eliminate emotional connections within the systems. This is only a subjective observation resulting from some collective mechanized contemporary vision of a more pure science. Within 41 Heath S . (1981) 'Narrative Space', in Questions of Cinema, London Macmillan pgs 1975 42 Clarke D (1997) 'Preview ing the Cinematic City' in The Cinematic City London, Routledge, pgs 1-18 61

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contemporary fields utilizing dramatic principles, the classical tradition of "tragedy" has become clearly unwelcome as a means of pscho-social expression and analysis. Nevertheless German theorists like Friedrich Nietzshe believed the dramatic form could link human consciousness with the absolute. These issues therefore do have substantial relevance to design process and practice in that they attempt to address the more obscured aesthetic values of design creation that are difficult to test and, nevertheless, central to this investigation. In 1958, during the shooting of North by Northwest the director, Alfred Hitchcock, is said to have remarked : "You know we're not making a movie. We're constructing an organ. The kind of organ that you see in a theatre. And now we press this cord and the audience laughs. And we press that cord and they gasp. And we press these notes and they chuckle. And he [Hitchcock] said someday we won't need the movie. We'll just attach them to electrodes and play the various emotions for them to experience," (Lehman, 2000).43 Within the field of computer graphics even drama theory has been 43 Lehman, E (2000) Destination Hitchcock: The Making of North by Northwest Turner Entertainment Co 62

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reinvented in contemporary terms as a new science While steps are being taken to make Hitchcock's prediction a reality closer examination reveals, however, the principles and terminology of the new drama theory remain essentially the same as the traditional theory Only the applications and the technology have evolved, as exemplified by cinema's adaptation of dramatic principles from the theatre New technology channels are therefore allowing for the continuing adaptation and wider use of drama's theoretical principles For those who would promote drama theory as a new science they adopt selected commonly underst o od fundamentals of narrative w i thout d iscerning and perhaps res i sting the underlying complex r easoning behind dramatic structure This flawed v iew of d r ama theory p r events building effective dramatic tools with the purpose of engaging and moving observer perceptions and affect. Rather, the notions of a new theory of drama have primarily resulted from the emergence of game theorists such as A W. Tucker in the 1940 s and his Prisoners Dilemma (Axelrod, 1984), which continues to be developed and studied within a variety of disciplines including sociology political science planning, management b i ology and philosophy Reinventive notions aside, drama theory is essentially about understanding and creating emotional connectivity to a narrative. There are contemporary physical manifestations of this for design theorists to consider 63

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The sound and light shows that are developed around the historic monuments of Europe and the Middle East have the intention of generating an emotional tie with the architecture and its setting within a historical context. Spectators are seated in front of the Great Pyramid of Giza as laser lights and music t akes them through the history of the structure and its builders. The pyramid becomes more than a theatrical set for a play It becomes theatre in itself. Inspiring structures have certainly been called dramatic and whether or not designers intended them to be so beyond their functions as tombs coliseums, temples, bridges, office buildings, or even single fam i ly residences i s for more subject i ve analyses. It should not be o v erlooked however that exteriors and interiors of ancient and modern structures are increasingly being lit to create or heighten dramatic effect. As budgets afford, even theatrical lighting specialists may be called in to create permanent lighting installations for the structure Fireworks covering Buckingham Palace for the Queen's fiftieth jubilee the organized pomp and circumstance of graduation ceremonies among grand university buildings and even the disquieting ritualized Nazi celebrations in front of the Reichstag that resurrected more ancient spectacles; they all point to drama as the narrative tie between culture and architecture. 64

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Drama theoretic application on the Web has found an advocate. Psychologist Hilary Mclelan outlines the emerging field of experience design" in her article paraphrased here: "It is essential to think about education online as comprehensively as possible Experience design offers designers of online courses a comprehensive model informed by research and development in a number of areas that can provide a foundation for the effective design of online experiences that are functional and purposeful," (Mclellan 2000)44 However, dilemma theory is perceived to more closely m i rror real-life applications of drama theory. Since dramatic formulas are applicable to interactive virtual !earn ing of real-life dilemmas, dilemma theory i s particularly suitable and exclusively applied to the deve l opment of t he conceptual model. Experience design is mentioned here as recogn i tion of its existence and as a further example of the new and emerging theories grounded in drama theory and developments in digital technologies. Like the conflicting interpretations of reality that are reflected in Chapter 2 examining the position Skinner took to Thoreau's literary wo rk, so too did the great classical theorists take issue with the veiled deeper realities mirrored in drama theory. In Plato's Republic the dramatic arts were 44 Mclellan, H (2000) Experience Design CyberPsycho l ogy & Behavior, Vol. 3 : No. 1 pg. 59-69 65

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repudiated with the belief that they acted as a disingenuous stimulus to human emotions and fabricated an inferior Imitation of reality.45 Plato's student, Aristotle took an opposing view, developing the first significant text of Western drama theory, the Poetics .46 The Aristotelian approach to formal criticism began to again be resurrected by mid-191 h century naturalists like Thoreau who would create a literary basis for scientif i c experimentation in works such as Walden, written in 1853. Nine years later drama theorists such as Gustav Freytag would attempt to empirically examine the principles of drama and lay down its structu r al system. Jan Manfred i n h i s concise Guide to the T heory of D r ama asserts the position that a play is a type of text just like a novel or a poem. He confirms that most theorists assume the true nature of a play lies in its orientation toward a public performance toward becoming a 'play in performance' The play's text is variously seen as a guide to a performance comparable to a blueprint, a musical score (Krieger 1995: 78) or even a recipe for baking a cake (Searle 1975 : 329) As to the role of the aud i ence audience reactions (laughing, crying etc .) are not only integral parts of a performance; they also 45 Plato (1955 [336BCE 368BCE]) Plato : The Republic Trans By Desmond Lee Penguin Classics 4 6 Aristotle (1989 [350 BCE]) Aristotle's Poetics T r ans By S H Butcher New York Hill and Wang 66

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have immediate feedback effects (on both performers and audience). All of this is reflected in Pfister's basic definition (Manfred 2002 : 1 )47 For the purposes of this study, such ideas will be examined as not only relevant to stage designers, but designers of multimedia utilizing narrative frameworks A play is a multimedia! form designed to be staged in a public performance A play is 'multimedia!' in the sense that it uses both auditory and visual media, (Pfister 1977)48. Extending Pfister's definition, Jahn interprets a play as a multimedia! narrative form because it presents a story (a series of action units). Note that, on this v1ew there are two main narrative forms: epic narratives and dramatic n arratives (Jahn 2002). For the purposes of designing a narratological model, the later form w be incorporated Dilemma Theory Defined by Dr Charles Hampden-Turner, dilemma theory has been developing over the past 30 years. It is a multidisciplinary approach, derived from many sources, but primarily from classic Greek tragedy, Sigmund Freud and neo-Freudians such as Jung, and Adler who were influenced by classical 4 7 Jahn, M 2002 A Guide to the Theory of Drama Part II of Poems, Plays, and Prose : A Guide to the Theory of Literary Genres English Department, University of Cologne 4 8 Pfister, M. (1977). Oas Drama: Theorie und Analyse MUnchen: Fink 67

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mythology, and systems theorists like Ludwig von Bertalanffy, from which dilemma theory derives the idea of self-organizing systems. These systems seek higher levels of development and complexity and are governed by positive and negative feedback (Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars 2000)49 People and organizations from diverse backgrounds learn to build consensus by finding an actionable middle ground as a result of applying this theoretical system. What also makes dilemma theory different from other logic-based systems theories like game theory is the perceived incorporation of dramatic principles focusing on conflict and resolution. The application of dilemma theory is found in Chapter 5, ethod Systems Theory The systems thinking that allows for a holistic perspective of spatial narratolical examination is therefore a crucial aspect of the conceptual synthesis Thus an application of systems theory is included in the process used for the development of the theoretical model. "When we try to pick up anything by itself we find it is attached to everything in the universe -John Muir 49 Hampden-Turner C and Trompenaars (2000) Building Cross-Cultural Competence London W i ley 68

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In John Muir s quotation, the environmentalist and explorer eloquently s u mmed up what systems theory means to the fields of both design and cinema, and why a more universal theory connecting narrative to drama within a design and planning context has been attempted. Portraying how the complex views of systems theory apply to the complex issues concerning digital designe r s and filmmakers even within the context of management education and practice concerning suer creative industries, requires the exploration of definitions in order to explain the relationship between systems t heory and the linked fields of study. It i s argued herein that there are now i mportant connections between the aforementioned fields and the theor r es and technologies relating to them. The f ollow ing o verview of systems theory has been included to defend the position and provide a more definitive explanation with regards to its use in this fusion of ideas ; a blending reflected in the theory's history and continued adaptation through development. The systems-like thinking that originated in the early 1950 s had its f oundations in responding to mechanistic v i ews largely due to the advancements i n technology. Systems theory s relevance to plann ng is a more recent phenomenon, recognized by planners, in both professional and 69

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academic circles as an analytical tool to aid in the investigation and decision making o f complex situations and processes Resea r ching sources from both academia and the professions the word system probably has more varied meanings than any other word in us e today. The Oxford English Dictionary defines system as, "A s et or assemblage of things connected, asso c iated or i nterdependent, so as to form a complex unity ; a whole composed of parts in orderly arrangement according to some scheme or plan ; rarely app l ied to a simple or small assemblage of th i n gs. ' O f c ourse "system" has a lso bee n assimilated i n to the jargon of co mpute r engineers ( Ljung 1999 ) and a ny num b e r of o t he r fields and professions The definition that may be most applicable to researchers is that of biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy o ne of the major contributors to the systems theory i.e., A system is an entity which ma i ntains its existence through the mutual intera c tion of i ts parts The basic importance in v o n Bertalanffy s idea is one of "mutual interaction sustaining the parts of the system over time 70

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A B Figure 3 .1: Systems Theory This definition of a s y stem suggests something beyond mere cause and effect. Rather than simply A affects B there is t he unde r standing tha t B also affects A. Experts in their fields such as Dr Raymond G Studer and Dr. Charles Hampden-Turner have incorporated systems theory as an integral part of their respective disciplines. Systems Theory" or "Systems Research appears to constitute a somewhat broadly defined academic domain that not only applies to planning and management but also appears to apply to most traditional disciplines, from mathematics, technology and biology to philosophy and the social sciences It is said to be more specifically related to the recently developing "sciences of complexity", including artificial 71

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intelligence neural networks dynamic systems chaos and complex adaptive systems Systems theory dates back to the late 1940's and primarily the 1950's when such thinkers as Wiener, von Bertalanffy Ashby and von Forester founded the contours thereof through a series of interdisciplinary deliberations. Since systems theory s ori gination researchers continue t o refine and apply it to new interdisciplinary applications. Systems theory or systems s cience contends that regardless how c o mp l e x or diverse t he temporal va l ues various types of organization c an be r evealed H um an organi z ation s can be explained via concepts and pr i n ci ples t h a t are i ndependent of the specific domain being studied. Therefore if ge n eral laws ' are uncovered the a n alysis and solv i ng of p roblems i n any domain would be feasible, and pertaining to any type of system. The systems approach thus distinguishes itself from the more traditional analytic approach by emphasizing the i nteractions and connectedness of the differe n t components of a system ( Heylighen F ; Joslyn C.; Turchin V 1999).50 Although the systems approach in principle considers all types of systems in p r actice it focuses on more complex adaptive self-regulating systems which Weiner character 50 H eylighen F ; Joslyn C.; Turchin V., (1999) : "Wha t are Cybernetics and Syste m s Sc i ence" Pri nc i pia Cybernetica W e b Princip i a Cybernetica, Brusse l s 72

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typed as "cybernetic". Within "cyberspace, as a developing multimedia! environment the systems approach is perceived to be relevant to the integration of dramatic formulas in digital design processes and practices, as illustrated in Chapter .5. While a linear systems and design approach has been specifically developed for computer designers (Chen 1998) 5 1 systems thinking itself can also be traced back to its ancient Greek origins. In the nineteenth century a c ademic George Boole converted Greek logic into symbolic representations. Boole, like the Greeks prohibited loops in logic chains These logic cha ins such as INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT were der i ved from and fed the Industrial Revolution Once there was a given outcome there was no way back 51 Chen C (1998):" Linear System Theory and Design Oxford Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering. 73

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throughp u t Source: Principia Cybernetica Figure 3 2 : Logic System The above model (Figure 3.2) is what has apparently been adapted by modern planning professionals as exemplified in the planning of modern subway systems (Wirasinghe 1999) .52 It is a loop that allows for an environment to be taken through an input altered through a system and through the output, the changed information is put back into the environment. The model allows for a much richer and phenomenalogically valid view of interconnectivity and fostered interdisciplinary access to and use of, systems theory (Studer 1971 ) .53 52 W i rasinghe S C (1999) Planning of subway trans i t systems i n International Symposium on Transportat i on and Traffic Theory (14th : 1999 : Jerusalem Israel ) Transportation and traffic theory : proceed i ngs Amsterdam ; New York : Pe r gamon, 1999 pgs 759-777 53 Studer, R. G (1971) Human systems design and the management of change I n L. von Bertalannfy and A Rappoport (Eds ) December 1971 General Systems Yearbook Vol. XVI. 74

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CHAPTER 4 EXAMPLES The evolution of digital design technology, it is argued, has become integrally related to industrial developments in cinema technology. Two developments are explicated herein exemplifying the convergence phenomenon merging the medial technologies of cinema and design, providing the rational for demonstrating concepts of design narrative and spatial drama A leading motion picture studio and its transition from analogue towards digital technology production is juxtaposed with a leading correspondence school that has evolved into an educational technology/ production studio for virtual learning In both instances, there is evidence that cinematic and design processes and practices exemplify a shared vision through the use of digital design technology Lucasfilm was selected for examination because of the company s development of digital design as cinema Lucasfilm also provides an example of how the drama theory model has converged with architecture and film as knowledge-based communication, thereby supporting the design narrative research model. The examination of virtual learning developed by the Open 75

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University also explicates the design narratological model. The OU was chosen as an example because the organization represents a knowledge based environment of the evolving narrative history type. The Open University experiments with converging media, merging text with moving images and digital design via the Internet. Thus, the OU became an appropriate venue to demonstrate properties of the research model. Example 1 : Lucasfilm Ltd. As the major motion picture studio system finally collapsed in Hollywood in the late 1950's from the advent of television, filmmakers needed to find a new ways to be trained. The apprentice system that made directors like Frank Capra and producers like Daryl F Zanuk no longer existed in the 1960's Since directors, writers, and producers were not under exclusive contract to the studios, it became the job of the major southern California universities to provide the education and training. It was in the 1960's that UCLA and USC film schools became the primary sources for providing Hollywood and the film industry the talent that would take the industry in an entirely new direction. It is no wonder that the founders of the so called "New Hollywood" came out of these institutions to found studios in northern California, far enough away from the old ways of doing film business in 76

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southern California (Baxter 1999).54 But it was not George Lucas who led the move away from the Los Angeles area in the late 1960's. Francis Ford Coppola, a UCLA film school graduate incorporated Zoetrope studios in San Francisco in1969, intending to create a fresh, new Hollywood based on the Laterna, a collaborative Swedish film enterprise. Zoetrope was named after the first mechanical device that created the illusion of movement. The zoetrope, also called a wheel oflife was a cylinder, open at the top with a series of slits in the circumference. As the wheel was spun a series of figures in successive positions appeared to move. The child's toy was the predecessor to the motion picture camera. Coppola was a visionary and interested in collaboration. He saw Hollywood as restrictive and even obsolete to his vision of a renewed cinematic art. Shooting the Rain People under his company's name with funding from Warner Bros. it was the 29-year-old Coppola who gave the 25-year-old George Lucas his break into professional filmmaking following graduation from USC's film school. But in the end Coppola was more of an artist than a businessman Instead of Coppola leading a cinematic renaissance with his company Zoetrope fell into anarchy and then bankruptcy. Coppola went on 54 Baxter J (1999) George Lucas : a Biography London Harper Collins Publishers 77

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to direct The Godfather and it was Lucas who went on to build a San Francisco film industry. In 1971 George Lucas founded h i s own independent production company north of the Golden Gate Bridge in Marin County. Lucasfilm Ltd was based on Coppola's wish for a collaborative environment for creative filmmaking, however, unlike Coppola, Lucas had a natural sense of good business practice. Even now Lucas is more of a producer, entrepreneur and CEO than he is a director. To date Lucas has only directed four films and in 1971 based on the lukewarm success of his first film THX1138 a Zoetrope production and Warner Brothers release Lucasfilm was formed to produce American Graffiti. The film that was a huge success and launched the career of George Lucas was done as a Lucasfilm Ltd./Coppola Company production, released through Universal Pictures Again, because Coppola's film company, Zoetrope had gone bankrupt Coppola established another company bearing his name and so did George Lucas. Coppola produced American Graffiti and Lucas wrote and directed the film. With the tremendous success of American Graffiti, Lucas established Industrial Light and Magic in 1975 outside of San Francisco in Marin County This Lucas company, wholly owned by Lucas was established to produce the 78

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visual effects for Star Wars a story he had written the year before. In the same year Sprocket Systems (later known as Skywalker Sound) was incorporated by Lucas for the purpose of editing and mixing Star Wars With the initial $3.5 million dollar budget Lucas (and Lucasfilm) obtained from 201 h Century Fox for the production of Star Wars, he founded Industrial Light and Magic. Though ILM was incorporated in Marin County, it's initial studio was a leased two-story warehouse in Van Nuys, a city in the San Fernando Valley about 10 miles northwest of Hollywood. In the mid 70's no filmmaker could fully escape Hollywood and the same was true for Lucas, regardless of his desire to create his own film community in northern California. The Industrial Light and Magic name was invented by Lucas to conceal the company's purpose for creating Star Wars special effects suggesting that the business was wholesaling electronic components in the suburban industrial park. The Van Nuys facility's remoteness and low rent was what the new company required, despite the 120-degree temperatures inside during the summer months Lucas not only wanted to keep his new company quiet with the type of film he was making, the company was also non-union and Lucas was concerned about union reprisal. Lucas initially hired the great special effects artist John Dykstra and a team of eight and within a year company employees expanded to 75. Star Wars didn't cost the 79

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projected 3.5 million. With over four hundred special effects shots, the figure was almost the special effects budget alone. The film's total budget rose to $8.7 million for Fox to produce. Lucas compromised his salary, agreeing to be paid $50 000 to co-write the script and $100,000 to direct the film. It was almost a low budget salary for a major studio motion picture. Instead Lucas would negotiate sequel, merchandising and soundtrack rights, believing that his film would be a success. After opening in 1977, Star Wars became the largest grossing motion picture up to that time. The score with Lucas owned the rights too won an Academy Award. Throughout the 1980's ILM raked in huge profits from doing the special effects for films such as Raiders of the Lost Ark, E. T., The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi. With ample funding, Lucas was able to build his 145,000 square foot Technical Building at the 235-acre Skywalker Ranch in Marin County. An experimental filmmaker, John Whitney Jr., who developed the initial program for computer animation used by the industry in the early 'SO's said of the near future, "it will be possible to create the likeness of a human being, to generate speech electronically, and the result will evoke an emotional response We may be able to recreate stars of the past, cast them in new 80

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roles, bring them forward into new settings if stills and old films can be used to make the likeness, the database (Whitney Baxter 1999). Whitney had foresight. ILM had experimented with digital effects making a short computer animation, Point Reyes simulating a drive along the Peninsula of Marin County. In 1981, Lucas had told Time magaz ine, "Revenge of the Jediwill be the last picture we'll shoot on film however within Lucas' special effects company there were those who remained unconvinced about the computer's ability to replace living actors and physical locations. In 1983, the computer division of ILM moved to in San Rafael and was div i ded into Lucasfilm Games The company developed video games that they licensed to Atari. I LM's much larger opt i cal division which held 75 percent of the special-effects market specialized in model animation and mot ion control on specia l effects motion pictures such as Back to the Future and Goonies Luc asfilm Games division became self supporting with its initial two games. Remarkably Lucas also owned Pixar the company that solely developed computer-generated films, (Baxter 1999) However the company was a drain on Lucasfilm In the mid-eighties computer-generated animation cost a fortune and product was not of a quality that is common today Rather than make Star Wars IV a cost-prohibitive computer-generated motion picture Lucas sold Pixar to Steven Jobs co-founder of Apple Computers for 81

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$10 million dollars in 1985. Pixar studios was then moved by Jobs to Point Richmond California Over the next ten years $50 million was invested into the company to further develop digital animation for film. In 1993 Lucas' various companies had become so large that a new corporate structure was needed to allow for "management flexibility and accountability". As part of the restructure, Lucas formed three companies and ILM became part of Lucas Digital Limited Lucasfilm Ltd.Film and Television Product i on, THX and Lucas Licensing LucasArts Entertainment Company Game s and Learning Lucas Digital Ltd. -Industrial Light and Magic and Skywalker Sound In 1997 Pixar became credited with developing the first purely synthetic motion picture Toy Story The company also developed Renderman, the software program used to create the dinosaurs in Jurassic Park. Though Lucas and Industrial Light and Magic lost the edge on purely computergenerated images to Pixar, Lucas remarked that he had no 'I had Pixar for ten years he said 'At that time it was a primarily a hardware company that developed a lot of technology : digital printers the first non-linear editing system we developed, high-speed graphics. I wasn't particularly interested in that business. I'm a movie company But I had 82

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companies that needed those technologies Industrial Light and Magic and Lucasfilm A couple of guys at Pixar Ed Catmull and John Lasseter wanted to do computer-animated movies There was a lot of i nvestment that had to be made there and I wasn t really interested in spending $50 million developing animated films. I would much rather take that $50 million and develop a game company or a lot of other things than push the special-effects company. It was basically a hardware company with a couple of guys whose hearts were into the animated films So they went off and Steve [Jobs] bought it and after a few years Steve sold the hardware company to somebody else and he took John and Ed and a few of those guys and said "OK I want to make mov i es, too so let's all get toge t her and make movies and that's really where it started ILM is exactly like Pixar except we don't do animated movies We do animated pieces in feature films I didn't need two companies that were do ing the same thing' (Lucas, Baxter 1999) Now M i crosoft is successfully playing the hardware game with i ts Xbox f or computer-generated games software. T hey are following Sony P i ctures with the i r roots in the electronics and diversi f ying into hardware development for entertainment. Microsoft Pictures or Microsoft Games m i ght be an outcome of a digitally reinvented motion pictur e industry New Technologies It is essent ial to analyze the new digital t echnology of 24P what i s most l ikely to be the beg i nning of the next generation of industry standard cinema technology An analysis of the technology points to its new uses, not only in cinema but as explored in previous chapters the relevance of cinema 83

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and the developing technological aspects that are inherent in the medium, applicable to design pedagogy, theory and practice ILM has played a fundamental role in research and development of the 24P system that is about to revolutionize traditional production practices. Motion picture film such as Kodak and Fuji still has the highest resolution of any media format currently used in production. Though the film stock that is commonly used for projection in theatres is 35mm, increased resolution can be obtained through even larger film stock such as the 70mm. The bigger the film stock the greater the resolution Regardless of the size of the film however the standardized shooting and projection speed has been historically set at 24 frames per second As cameras and projectors became motorized, the realization that the human eye perceived movement of static pictures best at the rate of 24 frames of picture per second moving through the projector It became the minimum speed necessary to create both the natural and aesthetic look that made still pictures appear to move. Different from the chemical processes that reproduce physical images on film, videotape is an electronic analogue medium that was standardized as 84

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the NTSC format to run at approximately 30 frames per second to achieve the appearance of natural movement. Single frames of video image are recorded at almost 30 pictures per second to create the same effect that is achieved w i th motion picture film's 24 frames Up until the recent past it was all but impossible to get film and videotape to combine i nto a single standard that would jo i n the two formats through a common frame rate Film ha d to be converted to videotape by r eproducing extra frames of film to meet the 30 fps NTSC standard of video and converting video to film posed bigger problems Video would fli cker on film because of the incompatible speeds at wh ich the two systems would run. T he PAL standard that was developed in Europe made standardization even more difficult since the v i deo was des i gned to run at 25 frames per second In the PAL format film was usually sped up by 5% to match the frame rate of the system. Up until very recently there has been no acceptable technology capable of unifying these three primary systems of production Digital video technology has finally permitted the video to run at the 24 fps standard 24 progressive (24 p) is the term now used by high definition video which indicates that 24 frames of picture are shot and projected progressively The remarkable evolution of 24p digital video is rapidly 85

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becoming a standard that is allowing video to more closely resemble film. Motion picture product ion processes are now being applied to the ever increasing image quality of high definition video. Film can now be converted to high definition digital video and projected in a HD digital video format. The quality of these HD images is approaching the quality of projected film What is noticeably absent from the HD image however is grain created through the chemical process associated with film resolution. The digital pixel that is associated with digital resolution is beginning to rival film resolution because storage mediums are affording the use of more of them. More pixels in the image, there is greater resolution and the higher quality the image. Film grain is random where digital pixels are exacting. It is becoming an aesthetic choice as to which is more desirable to shoot-and to watch. Still another obstacle that high definition video must address if it is to rival if not replace film is the issue of contrast ratios. Film allows for much darker blacks than the best of high definition video. Nevertheless the move towards digitally generated images in film production has been clearly established Entire digitally animated motion pictures are being produced and converted to film. As optical digital technology rapidly improves while film technology remains almost unchanged most likely the digital optical image will produce the wider contrast ratio to equal and even surpass the film image. 86

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A new medium of "video cinema" is being born out of these rapidly mproving digital video technologies Some within the camps of what were often considered to be opposing fields of production (film and video) are now saying that a new art from is being created out of the digital technology In a very real sense both film and video are being reshaped into a single media that is digitally oriented. With now readily useable digital optical production processes, both film and videotape, as analogue media, are at risk of becoming obsolete technologies before the end of the decade. The production of motion picture and television product may i n the end be using the same digital equipment. TV and film production has been historical opposites primarily because of the differences in the media technologies. Films would never be shot on videotape and video would be relegated to sitcoms and soap operas. Once TV video programming is dominantly produced at the film rate of 24 progressive frames per second, there will be increasing blend between video and film, enabling the transfer between the two formats on a frame-by-frame equivalence The likelihood that video cinema will be viewed on the Internet is a possibility that cannot be overlooked The Web is already a global network that presently permits the viewing of small of film to video transfe r and pure 87

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video information. The 24 fps digital video format will permit the reduction of current video by 20% allowing for greater amounts of video information to travel over the Internet regardless of broadband technology. Arguably, the market may be the final determinant of a singular digital video format However, presently it is the entertainment industry that is moving to develop 24p as the digital video system for motion picture and teievision production. There are a number of 24p camera systems being introduced to the industry Digital filmmaking has already become a reality The most formidable and soon to be best known of the systems is Sony's new CineAita camera, first introduced through a collaboration by Sony and Panavision in April1999. The 24P HDCAM is CineAita's high definition digital video camera, equipped with dual audio channels and able to accept wide range of Panavision optics. Panavision lenses and camera systems have long been the standard within the industry and it is remarkable that a joint venture with Sony electronics would produce a whole new technology for shooting motion pictures. Sony in particular has been most instrumental in developing the new 24p technology that Industrial Light and Magic (ILM) has been enthusiastically supporting. CineAita's digital 24p system can arguably be perceived to have finally achieved equivalence to traditional 35mm film in terms of picture quality 88

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The 24p digital system will be internationally recognized through the theatrical release of George Lucas' latest Star Wars episode, the first major motion picture to be shot without film using 24p technology. The new CineAita cameras and post-production equipment are being used by Lucasfilm to create an entirely digitally generated feature film that includes live action. "I think I can safely say I'll never ever shoot another film on film," said Lucas during the digital shooting of the feature "The same goes for digital editing I've been editing digitally for over 15 years and I won't go back to a linear way of working," (Lucas Pennington 2001 ).55 Lucas has been the primary creative force in reshaping the technology of filmmaking. He moved out of Hollywood and established the special effects studio Industrial Light and Magic (ILM) in Marin County, outside of San Francisco In the 80's, the industry thought of Lucas just as another renegade filmmaker whose far away companies would eventually fail, going the way of Francis Ford Coppolla's collapsed independent studio, Zoetrope Lucas and ILM encouraged Panavision and Sony to develop digital video for the 1997 re release of his first Star Wars episode The special edition release 55 Pennington, A. 2001. The final frontier Screen to Screen Summer 6 7 89

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incorporated digital cinematography with the 20-year-old footage was a technological success ILM continues to be at the forefront of reshaping motion picture technology The Episode II production of Star Wars, which began principal photography in Australia in June of 2001, was shot completely without the use of film in all aspects of production and postproduction. Six CineAita HDCAM digital cameras were used in the production of the film The images were recorded onto digital tape smaller than the size of a VCR. The motion picture is currently being digitally edited "Digital filmmaking is inevitable says Lucas "I'm not trying to convert people. I'm simply using the system (CineAita's 24p system) and letting people know how it worked for me. The film industry is only now catching up with the digital revolution that has been happening in the broadcast environment for a long long time now," (Lucas Pennington 2001 ) High definition cameras are revolutionizing production processes not only because of the dramatically improved quality of the digital i mage. The images that are created are also very precise. With film, even the best directo r of photography s and lighting directors never knew what they had with complete certainty until the film was developed and projected. The new 90

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digital formats allow for immediate and precise viewing of the acquired images There is no waiting for rushes to be processed from the film lab. The digital information that may be shot in real time and stored on the HDCAM tapes can act as video masters. In a sense the process is very similar to using a standard video tape recorder, only the information recorded is digital. As digital optical images however the information can be re recorded many times down from the original master without loss of image quality. An important aspect of 24P is that it integrates effectively with virtual content production and real time information can be produced with real time blue and green screen shots. For i nstance an actor on the set can be running away from a virtual explosion both choreographed in real time Therefore, film no longer needs to be converted to digital video and since the digital electronic images have no film gra in, they are more r eadily integrated with computer-generated images. Though there are indications that digital 24p systems may rapidly become the standard medium for the mastering of both film and television productions because of the formats flexibility and quality of images there is still a major obstacle for the format overcome in the movie theatres Theatres all over the world still of course use primarily 35mm projectors to screen 35mm films 91

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Example 2: The Open University "Open University courses are delivered as an integrated combination of media and methods, each chosen for its unique contribution to the learning experience It is essential to provide the appropriate balance of media -text, audio, video, interactive simulations, database resources, IT tools and communication environments." The Learning and Teaching Strategy, the Open University The purpose of this example i s to briefly describe the function of the Open University (OU), the world s leading distance university. its relevance to design interests and its incorporation of object-oriented design and cinematic processes and practices The OU promotes hypermedia applications in distance learning continuing to develop its e-learning activities, reflecting advances in technology and increasing global access to personal computers. The university strongly believes that new media offers a more advanced and interactive form of learning than can be gained by using traditional audio visual products or conventional teaching methods alone. 5 6 However its research and development of object-oriented design and cinematic processes 560pen University (2002) E-/eaming & the OU. [Internet Document] http :// www3.open.ac uk/media/factsheets/ 92

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and principles continues to see the university's development as a model in traditional and new media research and development a hypermedia production studio for education. The Open University was c harted over 30 years ago in the United Kingdom In September of 1969 the OU was established by Royal Charter in the wake of Thatcher's Labor government desires to make education more accessible to the wider population Prior to the development of Web-based c ommunication the OU courses were developed as correspondence courses and handled through the physical mail. The OU admitted i ts firs t students in 1971. Since then the OU has become Britain s largest government run university with more than 200 000 distance learning students in 41 countries making it the world s b i ggest non profit provider of distance education The OU also represents about 22% of all part-time higher education students in the UK .5 7 The physical campus in Milton Keynes encompasses about three square blocks including offices for faculty and staff, lecture theatres and education communication, library and dining facilities Other 57 Open Uni ve r sity (2002) About. [Interne t document] http :/ /www open ac uk/abou t/ 93

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unique components of the university is that the BBC maintains an on site production center on the campus grounds and there is a virtual"lnternet stadium" capable of hosting mass audience events with up to 100,000 participants. OU courses are designed for students who study from home or the workplace. Courses are developed utilizing a variety of electronic and physical media including specially-produced textbooks, TV and radio programs, audio and video tapes, computer software and home experiment kits Personal contact and support is provided by a network of 330 regional study centers in the UK and many other parts of the world, usually by means of partnership agreements with other institutions, annual residential schools and locally based tutors .58 There are no educational prerequisites required to study for the OU's Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degree programs. Though majority of the OU's 140,000 students are enrolled for study of undergraduate degrees, 45,000 post graduate students are enrolled. Almost 80% of the undergraduates are employed while studying. Since 1973, about one third of 58 Open University (2002) OU Background Information [Internet Document] http : //www3 open ac uklmedia/factsheets/index asp, Milton Keynes, Media Relations Communications Group 94

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the recipients of the BA and BSc have below the minimum entry level requirements of a traditional university Professional development courses leading to certificate and diploma qualifications are also offered by the OU. The OU s undergraduate degree is obtainable with three years of full time study however, most undergraduates are part-time students with work and/or family responsibilities. Six years is the average time taken to complete the degree with a yearly cost of $1 ,OOOt Many students are funded by their employers Fields of study include more than 360 undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the arts and sciences, mathematics and computing, health and soc ial welfare business and management, educat i on and law and technology The OU is also Europe's largest provider of management development education (Leslie, 2002) .59 "The Knowledge Media Institute was established to address future changes in teaching and learning based on new applications in media technologies The Knowledge Media Institute (KMi) is involved in a broad program of research into new learner-centered technologies based on innovative approaches to sharing, accessing and understanding knowledge. 5 9 Leslie F (2002) OUBS to offer profess i onal development courses http : //www3 open ac uk/media/news-releases/index asp OU Media Relat i ons 95

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The KMi is developing Synchronous Group Working over the Internet since the Web now combines multiple media including live audio and video that can be used in different communication modes" .60 Therefore, much emphasis has been placed on the development and provision of the means of communication between members of the university's community with the objective of overcoming potent ial isolation of students and enabling group activities in a shared space or place (Meacham and Evans 1989; Abrahamson 1998).61 It is noteworthy that space and place are the primary shared concepts of design educa t ion and practice. Research within the OU itself acknowledges the 'mportance of evolving cinematic technologies "One of the most important developments in educational technology is that of hypermedia learning materials including video, sound image Internet and text into one integrated package based on a web format. The integrat ion of the different media is made possible by simply clicking on the hyperlinks," 60 Open University (2002). Open Day. Open University Students Association, OUSA Services Ltd 61 Meacham, D and Ovans D (1989) Distance Education : The Design of Study Materials Open Learning Institute Charles Sturt University Abrahamson C. (1998) Issues i n Interactive Communication i n Distance Education College Student Journal, 32 (1 ), 33-43 96

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Ryan, Valverde, and Rodriquez-Ardura).62 (See Appendix). Since its inception as a paper-based correspondence school, the Open University has been rapidly evolving with the emergent technologies in the delivery of d i stance learning programs. Digital technologies have stimulated the transformation of course development from the physical to virtual environments. In the Open University s process of producing multimedia! courses, they are not only joining properties of cinematic and design processes and practices, they are in the process of moving towards production" techniques mirroring motion picture studios 62 Ryan G ., Valverde M and Rodriquez-Ardura (2001 ) Marketing Education, Distance Learning and Hypermedia : Teaching "Current Issues in Marketing" in a Virtual Campus. Marketing Education Review, Fall 2001, Vol. II, Iss 3, 41. 97

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CHAPTER 5 METHOD In order to establish the design theoretic aspects of narrative and drama a method of conceptual synthesis is applied. The formulation of an illustrated model of design narrative requires an investigation of the phenomenological transition narrative frameworks The synthesis focuses on the relations between design and cinema through the development of a narratological model. Drama theory dilemma theory learning models and expanded systems thinking are synthesized into the properties of the new narrative paradigm of object oriented design. A theoretical model is developed to illustrate how design narrative and spatial drama reform contemporary views of spatial narrative. Narratological Model The objective of developing the conceptual narratological model is to integrate theoretical frameworks and illustrate how spatial drama functions within design narrative For instance Manfred Jahn s argument towards a Cognitive Narratology (Jahn 1997) has been adapted by David Herman using the 1999 MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Sciences (=MITECS) as a catalyst 98

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for analyzing research in cognitive science utilizing narrative theory. Herman thus argues that MITECS is a means for, opening new lines of communication between areas of research that stand to gain from being brought into a closer, more synergistic relation with one another. More than this the essay makes the stronger claim that narrative theory should be viewed as a subdomain of the cognitive sciences," (Herman, 1999).77 In the same modes of reasoning that Herman uses to argue for the reclassification of narratology as a cognitive science, the field of computer science has made initial moves to synthesize even drama theory as a new area of scientific inquiry. Synthesis of Models The modifiable nature of computational design concepts is broadening scope of design. Developing a method for illustrating a design theory based on narrative and drama will use modified systems theory and dilemma theory as well as drama and narrative theoretical models. Innovations in technology during the Industrial Revolution inspired graphical representations of Aristotelian literature in both the arts and sciences during For instance, while 77 Herman D ( 2000 ). Nar ratology as a Cognitive Science. Univers i ty of North Carolina Image & Narrative. 99

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Boole developed his rudimentary graphical mapping of systems thinking based upon the Aristotelian text Fre i tag concurrently mapped Aristotelian analysis of the Classical Greek dramas. Figure: 5 1 .1: Freytag Pyramid Narrative theory writes Andrew Gibson "has repeatedly constructed the space of the text as a unitary, homogeneous space determined by and 100

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organized within a given set of constraints" (Gibson, 1996: 7).78 Dr. Raymond Studer a pioneer in the application of systems thinking in design and planning indicates that the modern systems theory developed as a cross disciplinary means for the explanation of ensembles (Studer 1972, 2002)?9 What developed as "systems" within the sciences has been interpreted as formulas" within the dramatic arts. Therefore, the conceptual synthesis includes the integration and reinterpretation of systems models as well as dramatic formulas. The above illustration (Figure 5.1.1) is traditionally recognized as Freytag's Triangle or Freytag's Pyramid, (Freytag 1965[1863]) 80 In his book Technique of the Drama (1863), the German critic Gustav Freytag proposed a method for studying plots that were derived from Aristotle's concept of unity of action The 'Freytag pyramid' is an established time-line model, which attempts to capture the general structure of a dramatic narrative (Jahn 2002). 78 Gibson, A (1996) Towards a Postmodern Theory of Narrative Edinburgh Edinburgh University Press 79 Studer, R. (1972) General Systems Theory (2002) Unpublished personal communication, University of Colorado Denver/Boulder 8 Freytag Gustav 1965 [1863] Die Technik des Dramas, Darmstadt. 101

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Arguably it is this initial semiotic outline that has formed a basis for related theoretical frameworks and will form the basis a model to capture the multiple, relevant components of the argument. The development of a storyboard will outline the visual and textual elements of the model before entering into production. Current social trends that motivate vast shifts and alterations in theoretical perspectives regarding traditional outlooks of long established and even ancient theories is linked to emerging technologies cultivation of traditional frameworks. The analysis of this phenomenon would be a study in itself. 102

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Spatial Narrative: sequential space (tangiblltty) without drama (intangibility) Figure 5 1.2 : Modified Freytag Model Refining story structure and adapting to changes in technology Freytag s original equilateral design used to explain the form of classical drama, was modified", meeting the needs of the technology of cinema and better defining the plot with unity of action A beginning, middle and end was added and the rising action extended to a more distant climax and more immediate falling conclusion. 103

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Figure 5.1.3: Dramatic Narrative Trajectory The current dramatic narrative model resembles Figure 6.1.3 with the resolution ending nearer to heightened point of the climax Drama is a narrative form that represents or 'tells' a story, sometimes literally so (Pfister 1988 ; Chatman 1990 ; Jahn 2002). For example the opposition in views that Skinner had to Thoreau which motivated an 104

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alternative narrative and established literal dramatic roles of the protagonist and antagonist from the point of view of Skinner's story Freytag's narrative trajectory model that was a precursor to applications of systems theory in this domain has been in turn modified by systems thinking, evidenced by Bremond's 1970 'four-phase cycle' a system explaining possible states of changes within a story Figure 5 1.4 : 4 Phase Cycle 105

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The Bremond model for explaining dramatic narrative (Figure 5 1.4) is not unlike the Kolb Learning Cycle (Figure 5.1. 5), also depicted in four phases, developed 14 years later in 1984 Figure 5.1.5 : Kolb's Cycle 106

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It is interesting to note that a landmark model for learning mirrors that of an earlier model for understanding drama theory and both models are implicitly based on systems thinking. Thus, the two aforementioned models will be synthesized into the proposed narrative model because they inherently depict antithetical positions. Figure 5.1.6 : Pfister's Tree Diagram 107

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Again alluding to systems thinking, a reasonably complementary means for the explanation of formulas for dramatic characterization Jahn (2002) modified a version of Pfister's tree diagram (Pfister 1988 : 184 ) The narrational approach will be integrated into the design framework of the conceptional design narrative model. Figure 5.1.7 : Dramatic Conflict 108

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Opposing points of view that lead to crisis moments, a fundamental principle of "conflict and resolution" in drama theory that is used to create tension, in a material sense, has been adapted for actualized dramatic confrontations development of dilemma reconciliation. Charles Hampden Turners graphical method for dilemma analysis will be a component of the narratologically designed model his theory of "opposition and reconciliation" for "real-life" drama. The example in Figure 5.1.8 maps the Skinner versus Thoreau analogy, discussed in Chapter 3 Narrative and Technology applying the principles of dilemma theory by mapping the defined dilemma onto a dual axis 109

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Figure 5 1 .8: Dilemma Theory Dilemma theory as defined by Charles Hampden-Turner in the operation of cross-cultural management, "reconciles" opposition through the elimination of traditional dramatic roles of the "protagonist" versus "antagonist" (Figure 5 1 .8). Opposing perspect i ves are placed upon a dual axis in deliberation of a means of creating harmony. 110

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Figure 5.1.9: Spatial Narrative It is argued that narrative space explicated throughout this study closely resembles the linear form of the Boole's logic system (see Systems Theory Chapter 3), converted from Aristotelian logic that ignored loops in logic chains Within the context of contemporary planning and design 111

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however, narrative space, as bordering sequential space i s interact i ve, possessing purposeful beginning middle and end or front middle and back Figure 5.1.1 0 : Design Narrative Prev i ous narrat ive models reviewed herein have evolved from systems depicting linear uses of geometric forms reinforced i n des i gn by systems such as geometrical linear perspective and isometric rendering. Articulating a theory of design narrative introducing dramatic principles considers the 112

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bending or curving of representational space The geometry in Figure 5 .1.1 0 is circular more exactly reflecting that of an annulus The geometry would take the form of a torus if the space of narrative design were also three d i mensional, pointing to the non Euclidean nature of perceived design narrative space It has been argued that the use of narrative in contemporary design and planning has utilized only half of the narratological formu l a thereby limiting emotional characteristics of more holistic l iterary/cinematic narrative v i ews. In this model beginni ng, middle and end are substantially more interactive when particularly addressing cyberspace. S i nce two dimensional surfaces can be perceived as three-dimensional space design narrative takes into account the subjective experie n ce of perspecti val views. For instance eyes see straight lines of a long road appearing to converge to a distant vanishing point on the horizon. Visually representing this phenomenal perspective on a sheet of paper o r on a screen is a self expression of conscious vision. Therefore the conscious mind that makes reality a subjective experience also makes representational space an emotional experience. This is why the introduced concept of dramat ic space i s integral and crucial to the non-linear aspects of design narrative 113

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input Figure 5 1 .11: Narrative Dramatic Trajectory A synthesized model of design narrative (Figure 5.1.11) embeds narrative and dramatic elements also within an interactive loop. Narrative input is represented here as outer space and dramatic output as contrasting inner space, with input and output as interchangeable, i.e. dramatic input interacting with narrative output. The most important factor presented however, is the contrast between spaces as reciprocal process This is 114

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further documented in development and explication the model as a storyboard (see Exhibit A) and demonstration of the model (see Exhibit B). The storyboard is used as a pictorial means of sequencing ideas, often represented by both visual and textual information. It is a visual mapping procedure for analyz ing and elucidating narrative elements before a production process is initiated The storyboard may be interpreted as a planning and design method for med ial communications. 115

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F i gure 5.1. 12: Spat ial Drama It has been argued in this study that "spat ial narrat i ve" is a cin ematic concept that has been adopted in design and planning processes a n d practices as a means of explaining sequential space. A theory of spatial drama sees the bending of space. Plainly, how can planners and designers tell spatial stories without drama? A theory of dramatic space (Figure 5.1. 12) 116

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is devised to compliment and contrast spatial narrative. It is posited that this model is applicable to the processes of planning, design and related management issues since these fields represent physical/virtual "people environment systems," (Studer, 1972, 2002). People are of course by nature, emotional beings. Environments per say plainly are not. Since designers and planners are particularly concerned with people-environment systems, it follows that a theory of narrative would be appropriately applied to the understanding of environments, but dtarna can addresses how people act and react emotionally to their environments. 117

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Figure 5.1.13 : Spatial Contrast In this inner ring depicts dramatic space Represented a r e opposing forces contained within defined points. Spatial contrast is linked to emotional interest. Again the primary goal of dramatic principles is to illicit emot ion with contrasting values. For example the blending of bright light and dark shadow creates contrast and thereby contributing to the effect of drama By 118

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representing contrast as dilemma and visually representing emotional human d i lemmas with animated scenes, opposition is "reconciled" (HampdenTurner 2002).81 A narratologically designed system for conveyance of dilemma theory through what is termed herein as micro episodic information is integrated into the conceptual model (see Exhibits A and B) The illustrated characters animated while not specifically representing spatial narrative or drama in themselves, are a means of desc r ibing and creating human associations with the people-environmental systems portrayed. Furthermore, the overall digital design thinking behind the med i al communications aspects of the demonstrated model is intended to characterize the synthesis of theories explicated above as an application for Internet-based learning Demonstration Demonstrating the application of spatial drama in design narrative is carried out through the development of a storyboard and multimedia production utilizing the conceptual model. It is the synthesis of the subsequent models and formulas based on Dr HampdenTurner's dilemma 81 HampdenTurner C and Trompenaars (2001 ) 21 Leaders for the 215 1 Century London Me Graw-Hill. 119

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theory, combined and modified to make up a unique multimedia paradigm for interactive learning. The Cambridge Program for Industry and the Open University are administering the storyboarding and production for Open University's distance learning program, Learning and the Connected Economy. A digitally designed system of four "learning blocks" will be linked to a substantial text-based virtual learning course, though textual elements a l so will be contained w i th i n the model that features animated components visualizing the following d i lemmas : Blo c k 1. -The Connected Learner 1 1 Dependence vs Indepe n dence 1.2 Active vs. Reflective 1.3 Abstract vs Concrete 1.4 Detachment vs Attachment Block 2 The Connected Organization 2.1 Inner Directed vs Outer Directed Organ i zation 2 2 Thick vs Thin 2.3 Just in Case vs Just in Time 2.4 Doing Things Right vs Doing the Right Thing 120

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Block 3 Connected Learning in Practice 3.1 Closed Source vs. Open Source 3.2 Roles of the Teacher vs. Roles of the Learner 3.3 Mass Production vs. Customized Quality 3.4 Explicit Knowledge vs. Tacit Knowledge Block 4 The Connected Economy 4 1 Technical Sophistication vs. Social Initiative 4 2 Structured vs Emergen t Relationsh i ps 4.3 Universal Formulae vs. Cultural Particularity 4.4 Questions vs Answers An impressive literature already exists regarding the benefits and limitations of online and distance education much focusing on the OU Some examples of the pertinent literature are included in this study Though the Open University is less than an ideal test for the concepts advanced in this investigation they have presented a context to develop the above-described model, providing the opportunity for a modest demonstration The narratological model is graphically explicated within this chapter storyboarded as an application (see Exhibit A) and digitally designed to demonstrate the assumptions i nvestigated (see Exhibit B) 121

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CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Excluding the benefit of an all-knowledgeable oracle to provide answers to difficult and fundamental design questions, the incorporation of concepts of design narrative and spatial drama into people-environment systems are presented herein to enhance and enrich the effectiveness of design thinking in virtual and physical environments. The salient features of knowledge generation which presumes difficulties in assessing the so-called intangible characteristics of invention artistic expression and creative vision, are perhaps the most important aspects of design and planning processes and practices. This investigation addresses the complex and fundamental issues pertinent to planning and design practice, education and the related management issues. Examining the connections between knowledge and technological innovation has lead to the proposal of a new theory of narrative Design narrative is the linking of spatial narrative to the original concept of spatial drama, for the intentional creation of dramatic nuances within sequential space. Design narrative is applicable to the evolving knowledge-122

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based medial communication tools that are increasingly incorporated into design and planning processes. Nevertheless an outcome of this i nvestigation suggests that the growing array of graph i cal computing technologies calls for more reflective approaches concern ing synthet i c and built environments Examining "humanistic" issues r egarding the subject of narrative and its application to des i gn and planning it follows that grappling with the idea of creative thought i s certainly linked to emotions The powe r of human e motio n s embodies the quest for discovery that may transcend the temporal. Drama like n arrative possesses the properties that elicit emotiona l connectivity allowing for its application in virtual ( f ictional) or physica l environments Although dramatic space appears t o be real enough i t is impossible to assert with absolute certainty what i s dramatic. This is perhaps why drama has been ignored within the narratological literature outs i de of the literary and dramatic arts. However, without previously realizing the existence of spat ial drama while accepting notions of spatial narrative designers and planners become less effective by under representing the complex human emotional issues e.g. the man i festation of more standardized communities emotionally detached from their historical foundations 123

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The model developed in this study blends narrative space, associated with the "rational" intellect, with dramatic space, representing "irrational" emotions. These two forces have been designed to be linked, complimenting while paradoxically opposing each other, not only to confront, but also to join through opposition. The archetype is an attempt to unify the concrete with the abstract, an essential/inked contrast integral to the processes of planning, design and management of people-environment systems Though such conclusions a r e agreeably not definitively substantiated herein, nevertheless the very nature o f drama provoked the reaching for some deeper understanding that lies beyond the parameters of empir i cal methods. A job better suited for r esearchers in the humanities perhaps than those in the physical sciences. Despite serviceableiviable research methods in the humanities and social sciences (derived for the most part from those in the physical and biological sciences) they too often lead to specious conclusions, regardless of the facts presented. This is reflected in the rich tapestry of the often enigmatic human condition" It is a viewpoint specifically derived from this research that the desire for predictability often leads to problematic formalization and control over what is inherently untamed. 124

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This investigation was driven by the analysis of converging issues/developments linking design and film education and industry with the expanding connections to a knowledge-based society. The exponential changes in digital technology have transformed the pedagogy of many disciplines as the business practices of design and film are also being revised. These integrated factors render this research on design narrative and spatial drama highly relevant to planning and design medial technologies and their applications. The methodology/approach of th i s i nvestigation was a combination of co n ceptual synthesis, analysis of examples and theoretical m odeling Key r esearch questions addressed the formulation and description of design n ar r ative leading to the theory s conceptual linkages to drama, dilemma and systems theories This inquiry into design narrative has also been demonstrated in the development of a storyboard outlining the production of an virtual interactive learning application. Operationalized for use in Web-based education the digitally designed narrative has been validated with encouraging results In the first joint research project between Cambridge and the Open University, the OU elected to implement the model produced in this investigation 125

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incorporating it into their online management course It is argued that the application will serve as a reference for future digitally designed products/solutions to Open University distance education courses and foster greater collaboration between design, film and business i nterests The operationalization o f the narrative model was accomplished with the c ollaboration of Cambridge University Moving Studio web designers architects outside digital animators Open University and Cambridge Program for Industry administrators and educators. For the purposes of this inv estigation the problem solving steps we r e omitted in the explication o f the storyboard and demonstration of the model. Notw i ths t anding the storyboard and digitally designed model have been provided as ind icat ors o f d esign narrative and spatial drama s applicat i on to v i rtua l learning Storyb o arding began in April of 2002 applying the theories of design narr ative and spatial drama to Dr Charles Hampden-Turner s dilemma theory and Dr. Raymond G Studer s work on systems theory However the concept o f designed dramatic applications in virtual environments was initially conceived while attending the Harvard GSD and based on previous professional cinematic experience. A completed 1 st draft of this work was submitted to committee members at the Univers i ty of Colorado and associated professors in the schools of business, architecture and education at the University of Cambridge in December of 2002. Theories of design narrative and spatial 126

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drama where applied while producing and directing the OpenCambr i dge project, utilizing Cambridge University Mov ing Image Studio fac ilities and student technicians. Moreover the techno l ogies used to build the model are changing so rapidly that the specifics of the model bui lding such as use of software programs would not be useful t o f uture builders of digitally designed models Nevertheless as a result of this study researchers associated with t h i s work in the UK and Europe have been inspired by the new research defined herein I t is claimed therefore that the follow ing researc h ob j ect i ves in this investigation have b een ach i eved: 1 Design narrative as a linking o f spatia nar r ative wit h the i ntroduced concept of spatial drama has important and fundamental applications in planning design and rela ted management interests 2. Research i n narrative can help provide insight int o important research areas such creat i ve and knowledge based industries focusing on digital technologies. 127

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3 The film industry is worthy of research by design and planning educators not only because of its global scale and influence but the insights it provides to other issues such as successful organizational structures for managing intangible and creative assets, (Grant, 1996) 4. The emergence of digital animation in the design and film industries is a precursor to the impact of digital-design technologies in other key industries developing computer graphical imaging systems, from telecommunications and Web..,based communication to healthcare 5 The relevance of film/architecture, not only as a research topic, has become increasingly important as a pedagogical tool f or the teach ing of design film and management theories and practice (Penz, 2000 ; Champoux, 1999). Considering future research it is possible to conceive of a research setting to evaluate emotional responses to the model developed in this study The primary purpose of this investigation, however focused on the development and demonstration of the model laying the context for empirical assessment (in terms of learning outcomes) by the Open University. Online education to date has surprisingly little visual informat i on, remaining 128

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somewhat reliant on text to communicate information. Since the Open University, Cambridge Programme for Industry and Cambridge Moving Image Stuido have undertaken their own studies of virtual learning models findings presented in the model of this investigation serve as a road map for the future i ntegration of text and dramatic visual imaging of complex i deas not readily communicated exclus i vely by text. Additionally, the following areas are i dentified for further examination: 1. Continued research of d i gital media communication s technologies in planning, desig n and management contexts. Even while completing t his investigation, new technologies such as the Arri Viper have been introduced, rivaling and surpassing 24 p technology. T h ough digital ideo is becoming a reality for the Internet the d i gital divide between developing countries is exacerbating socio-technological differences. Because the film industry has become increasingly global i zed within the last 10 years with more than half of the sales coming from non-US markets, this industry warrants research by academics throughout the world (Pennington 2001 ). Since film itself is becoming a digital industry as is design, perhaps a more rigorous empirical analysis using data from the internationally released films incorporating digital design can be used to 129

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gain greater insights into the convergence issues and their social effects facing designers and filmmakers 2 Detailed comparative research should be conducted using more of the ever-improving digital tools available to architects, filmmakers and web designers. The limitations dis c overed by placing large amounts of interactive digitally designed animation on the web presently contrad i cts the promise of broadband To date, broadband still does not allow for the rapid transfer of large amounts of graphical information, thus substantially constraining broader-based production techniques when developing web based interacti v e multimedia platforms 3. A more in depth analysis could be undertaken fo c using on the growing relevance of design and film within the context of research in knowledge management since key factors that drive business prosperity are, for example relevant to the growth and development of these creative industries. The increasingly graphically or i ented imaging systems used in medicine and defense are additional examples of crossover through which many design and cinematic principles are being adopted. Since the introduction of the Internet and its revolutionizing effects in transforming traditional business practices, literature on creativity is being enhanced 130

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within the fields of planning design and management. For designers and filmmakers, this suggests that management of the disciplines based on the arts may also become more prevalent. Therefore research in knowledge management is not only warranted within the context of design and cinema studies, it is seen as important to the understanding of more informed relationships between planners, designers and managers. Investigating the history of narrative forms, their characteristics and applications has lead to the development of a new narrative paradigm. The identification and study of design narrative describes a technology driven p henomenon applicable to the past twenty years o f technological innovation. As a f u sion of principles inherent in dramatic cinema and digital design, the theory has a growing place in the communication ot digital and physical design and planning information systems 131

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APPENDIX The review of literature is an excerpt from the case study: Marketing Education, Distance Learning and Hypermedia: Teaching Current Issues in Marketing" in a Virtual Campus". (Ryan, Valverde and Rodriquez-Ardura, 2001 ).82 Other materials are from the OU website, several journal articles on the OU, and examples of Web-based material using alternative applications of drama theory in industry and research. Distance Learning: Definitions and Background: Although distance education has been defined in numerous and diverse ways by various authors, it is generally associated with "openness" and "flexibility." The Further Education Funding Council (1997) defines distance education programs as those in which students study with specially prepared learning materials for their private study and are provided with a marking and comment service for their written work which may also be accompanied by some counseling or tutorial support[ . ] This definition is 82 Ryan G., Valverde, M., and Rodriquez-Ardura 2001 ) Marketing Education, Distance Learning and Hypermedia : Teaching "Current Issues in Marketing" in a Virtual Campus. Marketing Education Review Faii2001 Vol. II, Iss. 3 p.41. 132

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intended to cover situations where study is essentially home based and there is only occasional contact with the institution" 83 Distance learning represents "the bringing together of teachers, learners information, resources and learning support systems in a place (real or virtual) beyond the confines of the host institution," (Johnston, 1997).84 The creation of the Open University in Great Britain in 1969 marked the beginning of a period of significant development and expansion in university education in general (Holmberg, 1995)85 with its emphasis on flexible study methods for an adult population who could now study at home with specially prepared learning materials. However, the main concern in distance education for many years afterwards was the sense of "isolation" often felt by distance education students (Twigg 1997; Besser and Donahue, 1996; Hill 8 3 The Further Education Funding Council (FEFC) 1997) How to Apply for Funding Further Education Council, Bristol. 84 Johnston, R. (1997) Distance Learning Medium or Message Journal of Further and Higher Education, 21, February 107-120 85 Holmberg, B. (1995) The Evolution of the Character and Practice of Distance Education Open Learning 10, June 4 7-53 133

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1997),86 which led to high dropout rates (Kember 1989).87 Thus, much emphasis has been placed on the development and provision of the means of communication between members of the university community, with the objective of overcoming this potential isolation of students and enabling group activities in a shared "space" or "place" (Meacham and Evans, 1989 ; Abrahamson, 1998).88 In recent years, the introduction of new information and communications technologies has enabled greater speed and efficiency in the communication process among the entire university community in distance education (Hara and Kling 1999) .89 Computer-mediated communications that do not require either the physical or temporal coincidence of the participants 86 Twigg C (1997) Is Technology a Silver Bullet? Educom Review, March-April, 28-29 Besser H and Donahue, S. (1996). Introduction and Overview: Perspectives on Distance Independent Education Journal of the American Society for Information Science 47, November 801-804 Hill J R. (1997) Distance Learning Environment Via the World Wide Web, Web Based Instruction B. H Khan ed New Jersey : Educational Technology Publications 87 Kember David (1989), A longitudinal Process Model of Dropout from Distance Education," Journal of Higher Education 60 278-301 88 Meacham D and Ovans D (1989) Distance Education : The Design of Study Materials Open Learning Institute, Charles Sturt University. Abrahamson C (1998) Issues in Interactive Communication in Distance Education College Student Journal 32 (1 ), 33-43 89 Hara, N and Kling R. (1999). Students' Frustrations with a Web Based Distance Education Course. First Monday 4 (December) available May 2001 at http :1 /firstmonday orglissues/issue4 12/hara/index html 134

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facilitate and promote collaboration and group activities, and help students to feel they are part of a university community, thus reducing the sense of isolation (Levin and Waddoups 2000).90 Indeed the technology does not act merely as a medium for the transmission of the message, it also provides a space within which more "human" activities may be developed (Jones 1995).91 For instance, in a virtual campus, individuals are free to "interact" with others whom they encounter in the virtual spaces (such as virtual bar or cafeteria areas, virtual forums or debate spaces) One of the most important developments in educational technology is that of hypermedia learning materials including video, sound, image, Internet and text into one integrated package based on a web format. The integration of the different media is made possible by simply clicking on the hyperlinks Some previous research has been carried out on the use of web based 90 Levin,S .R. and Waddoups G .L. (2000) CTER Online providing Highly Interactive and Effective Online Learning Environments Available May 2001 at http : //faculty ed.uiuc.edu/slevin/site2000.html 91 Jones S G (1995) Understanding Community in the Information Age in Cybersociety : Computer-mediated Communication and Community. S.G Jones ed. CA, Thousand Oaks : Sage Publications, 10-35 135

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hypermedia learning materials (Viali 1998; Matrinez 2000) .92 However much of this is more anecdotal than systematically empirical or critical (Hara and Kling, 1999). Material from OU Websites e-Learning Research The university is home to the Knowledge Media Institute (KMi), a purposebuilt showcase lab that houses some 60 researchers, technologists and designers. It creates and studies near-term future technologies for the ultimate benefit of Open University students, staff, industrial sponsors and a mixture of local and global learning communities (See http : //kmi.open.ac.uk). The Institute of Educational Technology is also to be found at the Open University. Its high quality research into open and distance education, lifelong learning and the use of technology in education is internationally renowned It aims to enhance the student's learning experience by understanding better their use of educational media. Its research among students has helped to 92 Viali L (1998) Hypermedia System to Teach Statistics Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education Rio de Janeiro Brazil, August 17-20 Martinez M (2000) Successful Web Learning Environments : New Design Guidelines Available through ERIC database 136

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shape the university's computer conferencing systems for students. (See http://iet.open.ac.uk). e-Learning Partnerships Not only is the university building on the high levels of expertise in delivering supported open learning it has developed over the past 30 years, it is working with private and public sector partners to provide new opportunities for thousands The Learning Schools Programme which the university operates with Research Machines, has seen more than 150,000 teachers and school librarians in more than 9,000 nationwide register to develop their skills in using new technology in their teaching The scheme uses print, CO-Rom and online materials designed and created by the OU .93 Key Facts and Figures The following statistics demonstrate the OU s extensive experience in production and delivery of large scale e-learning : 93 Open University (2002) E-learning at the Open University 137

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4 About 160,000 OU students and their tutors are online using the university's email conferencing system to contact each other and have online discussions via their PCs ; 5. 80 000 OU assignments-one in ten of all assignments are submitted electronically ; 178 university courses require the student to have online access (for delivery of course materials, study support etc) ; a further 97 allow the student to use online services if they wish 773 000 CO-Roms 30,000 floppy d i sks and 3,000 DVDs were produced in 2001 32million pages on the university's Courses and Qualifications website were accessed in 2001 1. 3.5million page hits on the university's Learner's Guide were made i n 2001. The university has invested million in e-learning over the past seven years as it continues its work. It has an ongoing commitment to : Widen access to higher education and help students overcome the barriers that bar their routes to study ; 138

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Provide high-quality, interactive educational materials that meet students needs most effectively; Operate within the over-arching mission of openness to all. e-Learning Courses and Materials Course materials: Given the large choice of OU courses and the variety of material each uses, the university has developed three brocid streams for its e-learning courses : Web-enhanced: courses in which students choose to use baseline e-services, including digital resources, a course website oredesktop, computer conferencing and study support Use of t hese services while taking these courses is not obligatory. Web-focused: courses in which the use of online information and communication technologies (ICT) is a required element of teaching support; some teaching and student support is delivered online to all students. Web-intensive : courses in which all teaching and student support is delivered online. 139

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The decision about which media to choose for course material delivery i s based on a simple principle Courses adopt e-learn ing techniques where their use will enhance the student learn i ng experience ; media are chosen according to how best they meet the learning objective The range of ICT-based learning mate r ials and s ervices available on undergraduate courses includes : online alternative learning experiences for students who do not attend res i dential schoo l s (which form a part of some courses); e l ectronic marking of assignments; CO-Roms and web-based i nteractive s imulat i o n s ; Webcasts used on course websites and in course mater i als (students of enviro n mental science can receive DVDs tha t i nclude a virtual field trip for example). Course materials in e-book format are also being piloted Digital resources that students are ab l e to access via the Open Library i nclude: 172 course-related websites which have links to 3 825 external resources ; 140

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web access to internet resources of significant use for OU courses (each resource selected by course teams or library staff); an electronic desktop service that provides students via their PC with course news messages, links to resources an online course calendar and access to student and course online conferences. Computer conferencinq services available to students include : FirstCiass email and conferencing facilities available to all students and staff; it allows for message sending and online d i scuss i ons its users logging in at times to suit themselves; Lyceum synchronous conferencing including the university's in-house audio conferencing and on screen whiteboard application ; its users log in and hold real-time conversations in on-screen group work featuring graphics and text. OU COMMITS M TO SUPPORT E STUDIES Reports plans of Open University to use Internet-based technologies to boost learning services as part of the initiative funds Allocation of money for infrastructure services ; Development of an instant messaging-based 141

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applications to reduce isolation of students ; Implementation of an electronic mail management software INSET: Open University s e-init i at i ves The Open University has outlined plans to use Internet-based t echnologies to boost i ts distance learning services as part of a m f unding initiative. The university which has 150 000 students online will use the money to put the infrastructure and serv i ces in place to allow it to fully function as an e-university", said Dean Taylor administrator of technology development at its Learning Tech n olo g ies and Teaching office. 'We have a series of projects in the pipeline as part o f the ini t iative," he said T h es e r ange from administration such as auto m at ing I n ternal process e s to servi ce fo r students such as producing course mat erial s in e-book f o r mat." The prime consideration for the Open University when looking at projects is to use is the media format and applications that will give the students maximum advantage, Taylor said A single system would not be v iable. Each course uses the technology best suited to its needs, he explained. Some courses are best sui ted to text based client/server technology." 142

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To this end, the Open University is rolling out an audio conferencing software package that allows students to log on to a central server and speak to tutors and fellow students This is aimed at courses where real-time interaction is important, for example languages," said Taylor. The university is developing an instant messaging-based application to red u ce students' sense of isolation. Students will be aware when another member of the group logs on, he said. The idea is to give them more of a feeling of belonging. On the mobile side, the Open University is considering the use of Wap technology to offer information, such as the location of the nearest academic l ibrary I t is a so looking at text messaging as a way of contacting students to send tutorial reminders or to alert them to relevant programmes (Thomas 2002) 94 94 Thomas D (2002) OU commits m to support e-studies Computer Weekly 3 July, p 14 143

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EXHIBITS STORYBOARDS AND MODEL 144

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EXHIBIT A STORYBOARDS 145

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1.1: Dependence and Independence EFX: Musical cue upon loading of the Navigator TEXT : v1. 1 1 The Connected Learner is in part dependent on programmed learning but is also potentially independent, able to select from the vast range of data on the internet what is relevant and no t relevant for the learner s purposes. The two extremes of our learning dilemma are placed upon a dual a xis See what happens when we are very dependent (top left) relying entirely on E x pert Input and we can contrast this with being very independent (bottom right) i llustrated by H e at w i thout Light. We often begin by depending quite a lot part i cularly in a new area or medium but then these various media are used to increase our independence. EFX : v .1.1. 1 Musical c ue for master TEXT: v1. 1 2 Dependence of some sort i s i nevitable to some degree because the learner cannot learn without information One learning model suggests that instructions must be poured into your head for you to learn the learner here is a passive recipient of knowledge given by the e xpert The expert has traditionally been a human but many implementations of computer assist e d learning have the same assumption EFX : v.1. 1 2 Typ ing and pouring 146 The Connected Economy The Connected Learner Dependence and Independence 1 1: Dependence and Independence Navigation toolbar indicates Dependence vs. Independence on mouseover Navigator shrinks and moves to top r i ght of frame when clicked upon Nuremberg Funnel animation

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TEXT: v1.1.3 But of course we can also originate ideas by free associating combining and rearranging the information we have internalized These can be creative but if there is too much independence they do not form a cohesive whole Total independence is no answer to the dangers of dependency The mere clash of opinions ends in the waste basket. EFX : 1 1 3 Four men and one woman speaking gibberish. TEXT: 1.1.4 Th i s leads us to INTERDEPENDENCE. You are more reliant than ever upon the Net medium and upon help, criticism and suggestions of the Web community yet this frees you to originate new communications. This occurs when we engage i n DIALOGUE a kind of open-ended agreement-to differ while discovering and enlarging common ground Our interdependence is based on the inputs of others and ourselves EFX: 1 1.4 Notes are introduced one at a time to create a harmonious cord. 1.2: Active vs. Reflective EFX: Navigat i on musical cue (on startup) TEXT: 1.2.1 Understanding the nature of learning is an important first step towards understanding how the internet can support learning 147 Gibberish streams into wastebasket. "Dialogue animates into frame The Connected Economy The Connected Learner Active vs. Renectlve l 1 2 : Nav i gation toolbar indicates Active vs Reflective on mouseover

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Consider the well-known learning theory of D A Kolb portrayed here as a dilemma showing Active Experimentation versus Concrete Experience. Some learners will experiment to gain concrete experience then reflect on this and conceptualize it. So at the top left is the Restless Instigator constantly prodding most incautiously At the bottom right is the Couch Potato, in supine posture who eschews all action. But these extremes cripple the capacity to learn EFX : 1 2 1 Mus ical cue TEXT: v1. 2 2 Active Experiments performed with inadequate Reflection lead to the Restless Instigator who is disturbing the bees nest. Only action followed by reflection will do. EFX: 1 2.2 Poking sti c k and angrily buzz ing b e es TEXT: v 1. 2.3 Reflective Observation undisturbed by the least Activity leads to the Couch Potato. EFX : 1 2 3 "As seen on TV honey .. from b ees" 148 In an active experiment the Restless Instigator prods a bees nest. 1 / Couch Potato watches a jar of honey on the tel e.

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TEXT: v.1.2.4 The helix would usually start with your own Action, otherwise there is little to reflect about, but you then go into reflective and observational mode, before once again Experimenting this time informed by the results of previous action. This cycle of action reflection culminates with the Reflective Practitioner EFX : Buzzing bees. 1.3: Abstract vs. concrete EFX : Navigator' Musical cue (on startup) TEXT: v1.3 1 Mistakes are a valuable source of learning. Concrete errors need to be thought about and compared to abstract ideas then reconsidered The Abstract concept (on the vertical axis) thinks about the concrete experience (on the hori zontal axis) Both are from opposite sides of Kolb's Learning Cycle. By comb i ning thoughts with actions solutions are achieved. EFX : 1 3 1 Musical cue 149 The Connected Economy The Connected Learner Abstract vs Concrete 1.3: Abstract vs. Concrete (Kolb) Navigation toolbar indicates "Abstract vs. Concrete on mouseover. Nav igator shrinks and moves to top right of frame when clicked upon

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TEXT: v1.3 2 All learning involves understanding ideas which can be seen as abstract concepts. EFX : 1.3.2 D r eamy music TEXT: v1. 3 3 The concern here is that these abstract concepts bear little relation to the problem of a crushed henhouse, and the abstract thinker cannot help. Or is the learner a doer failing to think through the task Sometimes Concrete Experience might not be enough to effectively take on difficult tasksrequiring additional learning. EFX: 1 3 3 Picking away at a rock. Worried chickens TEXT : v1.3.4 In order to learn the learner needs to get beyond Abstract versus Concrete to achieve thought through operations guided by ideas -a fusion of two forms of learning. EFX: 1 3.4 Diving board. Dropping boulder. Happy chicken. 150 The three objects move about within the cloud of thought. He is picking away at the rock in vain The rock is leveraged off of the henhouse

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1.4: e-Tyranny EFX : Navigator musical cue (at startup) TEXT : v1.4 1 Being connected to the internet opens up a world of information, which can lead the individual to new The Connected Economy I The Connected Learner e-Tyranny heights of productive learning But, is there a 1.4: e-Tyranny dilemma? Learning began in monastic retreats Isolation and DETACHMENT from the internet may be sometimes useful. But is this still viable in our connected economy. Learning the language of Web based communication is becoming more and more necessary On the other hand the Web can actually pose a danger to objective learning compelling ATIACHMENT to Web-based communication Reconciling the two extremes is moving between them for effective learning. EFX : 1.4 1 Musical cue TEXT: v 1.4.2 The isolated monk would learn from ancient texts The only hint of a Web was the network woven by a spider. Textual knowledge was clearly in the hands of a few The learner was DETACHED from the world like an objective observer perhaps? EFX : 1.4.2 Scribbling crow quill pen on parchment. D is t a nt organ musi c 151 The monk writes on the parchment. The spider swings on its web

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TEXT: v1.4.3 The World Wide Web has opened up a wealth ot knowledge and information However in the worst case the sheer scale of the internet can swam the i ndividual leading to react i ve learning and working methods, information dependency and decision paralysis. The learner can become in fact ATTACHED even addicted to the Web. EFX : 1.4 3 Overpowering organ music TEXT: v1.4.4 The learner connected to the internet may have to get beyond the dilemma of detachment versus attachment to achieve DETACHMENT FOR DEEPER CONNECTION As we become more flexible with the virtual med ium, many connected learners" will experience the opportunity of electronic communication reaching previously unexpected levels of creativity, problem solving and collaboration. EFX : 1.4.4 Musical cue. 152 He struggles in the huge web Th e spiders are now animated yoyos and the learner is playing with them

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TEXT: 2.1 Inner Directed Organization v. Outer Directed Organization: EFX : Navigator Music cue (on startup) TEXT : v2. 1 1 Organizations vary on the dimension of inner direction wherein they believe themselves to be in charge of their own destiny. Verses outer-direction wherein organizations believe they must catch some favorable wind or tide Extreme inn er direct ion can encourage false impressions and conjures up memories of the unsinkable Titanic refusing to heed warnings of icebergs Extreme oute r-dir ect ion makes a company so dependent on its customers and other external events that it l oses it capacity to steer itself Th i s is evidenced in the internal and external attribution theories such as Rotter J (1966), General ized expectanc i es for internal versus external control of reinforcement' Psychological Monographs Vol.80 Whole No 609 EFX : 2 1 1 Mus ic cue TEXT: v2.1 2 Even while the Titanic was sinking the illusion of self-sufficiency was maintained The band played The bars were still open ; the chairs were rearranged as they began to slide Several boats were lowered half-full because people were slow to believe this invinci ble ship could really sink, with such a distinguished cast of characters aboard EFX : 2 1 2 Mus i c cue and breaking objects. 153 The Connected Economy Inner Directed Organisation v. Outer Directer Organisation 2 1 Navigation toolbar indicates Hooks & Lures on mouseover Navigator shrinks and moves to top right of frame when clicked upon

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TEXT: v2.1 3 Yet it is no answer to abandon attempts to steer and so drift helplessly before wind and tide While a company is dependent on its customers and environment to sustain it this does not mean that it should surrender to its fate and long for rescue. A company can bee too responsive and outer-d i rected EFX : 2 1 3 Windy storm. TEXT: v2.1.4 The heads of large Japanese companies like to call themselves the white water people". It is a metaphor for navigating a wild river on a raft, shooting the rap i ds dodging the rocks, going with the raging river but avoiding being capsized You steer frantically in your chosen direction, yet ride currents not of your own making, using your environment for propulsion EFX : 2 1.4 Rushing water EFX : Navigator" music cue (on startup) 154 The Connected Economy Thin v Thick 2.2 Navigation toolbar indicates, Thin v Thick on mouseover Navigator shrinks and moves to top right of frame when cli cked upon.

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2.2 Thick v. Thin TEXT : v2.2.1 The internet typically brings us thin descriptions; a person or product is described in words or small pictures. We have nothing approaching reality which would take a thick description, one that compares to the experience of meeting or touching. The Net is especially weak on issues of i dentity To whom are you communicating a person or a dog? Would-be consumers have proved reluctant to buy from abstract electronic sites lacking location or substance EFX : 2 2 1 Music cue TEXT : v2. 2 2 "On the internet no one knows you are a dog." Indeed you could be anything or anyone A th i n description is unsuited to relationship, to trust or to understanding It leaves too many blanks Its messages are typically unqualified If you critic i ze people on the Net there are no other points of contact to put your remarks in the context of friendship and support EFX : 2 2 2 Whimpering dog typ ing. TEXT: v2.2 3 When you finally meet the real dog it can be quite a shock A big shaggy dog li cking your face is very different from the textual description he gave of himself Nothing prepared you for the affectionate slobbering of your hairy friend EFX : 2 2 3 Pan ting dog and shocked woman 155 "TlllcJ<

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TEXT: v2 2.4 To reconcile this problem, thin textual matter must be blended with the thicker experiences of actual meetings. So that when the dog arrives you have anticipated the encounter You have to keep moving between the two Ideally read ing a text will remind you of recent encounters with the sender the letters will conjure up the person EFX : 2.2.4 Happy dog bark EFX : Navigator" music cue (on startup) 2.3 Just In Case v. Just In Time: 156 The Connected Economy Just In Case v. Just In Time 2 3 Navigation toolbar indicates Just In Case v Just In Time" on mouseover Navigator shrinks and moves to top right of frame when clicked upon.

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TEXT : v2.3 1 Learning can be discipline-centered, just in case you need that d i scipline later in life Or it can be problem-centered just in time to rescue you from hungry jaws Discipline-centered education usually takes place in classrooms early i n life It is designed to equip you for effective living Problem-centered learning is usually work-based and aims to ensure that when you encounter a problem you are prepared EFX : 2.3 1 Music cue TEXT : v2.3 .2 D i scipline-centered learning i s usually theoretical. You many not need to know (ever) the ana t omy of a crocodile but you are taught i t just in case you later encounter it. Students rnay be bored i n class by the remoteness of thi s possibi lity EFX : 2 3.2 "Remember that c r ocod iles is larger than the alligator. TEXT: v2.3.3 Just the opposite applies to problem centered learning The chance of you coming across this problem is quite high The knowledge is practical in saving our lives from predatory problems Often your employer will anticipate such problems and prepare you but on occas i on you must improv i se your response in a cr i sis Either way your learning is likely to be memorable and v i vid EFX : 2 3 3 Creak ing door for jaws Jung le sounds i n background. 157

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TEXT: v2.3.4 Kurt Lewin famously said There is nothing more practical than a good theory." Whether learning comes through theory or practice the pract ice remains a good way of testing the adequacy of the theory If the theory is not enough to keep the crocodiles at bay then modify it using your own practical experience EFX: 2 3.4 Rushing water Jungle sounds in distance EFX: "Navigator musical cue (on startup) 2.4 Doing Things Right v Doing The Right Thing: TEXT : v2 4.1 To most people learning means doing things right, that is reaching a pre-set level of attainment. The curriculum is set by authorities The "game is known i n advance What merit means is getting the ball through the goal posts. But are we doing the right thing? Is this game worth playing in the first place? For example a highly profitable company producing CFC based products may be manufacturing them to a high degree of qua lity but the products themselves have been shown to damage the ozone layer EFX : 2.4 1 Mus i c cue 158 The Connected Economy Doing Things Right v. Doing The Right Thing 2.4 Navigat i on toolbar indicates "Do ing Things R ight v. Doing The Right Thing on mouseover Navigator shrinks and moves to top right of frame when clicked upon.

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TEXT: v2 4 2 Achieving set goals is essential in study and work You take on a m i ssion set targets, strive to meet these and measure your level of success The problem of course, is that the measurements are not always useful. Not all companies that beat industry benchmarks satisfy customers Not all students who get high grades succeed in later life EFX : 2.4 2 Kicking ball. T EXT: v2. 4.3 Human attainments are very var ied and complex. Howard Gardner at Harvard has located eight varieties of intelligence yet we typically measure one. If we are serious about learning we need to challenge our own measures and even discard these where they underestimate the full extent of human endowments and mark down the creativity of learners EFX : 2.4.3 C r ackl ing f i rep l ace T E XT : v2.4 .4 Despite grumbles i n many companies that these are moving the goal posts" there is no alternative. We are forever asking people to do things right before worrying whethe r this i s the r i ght thing to do We set standards hop ing these are worthy of us. Because star>dards are only approximations to more elusive ideals at least half of learning is adjusting goal posts and adding more of these EFX : 2.4.4 Crowd cheering a goal. 159 Image changed to many goals

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EFX : Mus i ca l cue 3.1: Closed and Open Source TEXT 3.1.1 One of the hottest arguments among software developers is between developing closed proprietary solutions (on the top left vertical axis) or open source software (on the horizontal axis bottom right) Open source means that the code by which the software is programmed is freely available A purchaser who owns the source code can ut i lize thi s to customize or totally transform the code Whole communities can work together in elaborating and debugging new codes The result is that innovation is accelerated ( top right) with inventions mounted on inventions. E FX: 3 .1.1 Mus ical cue TEXT : 3 .1. 2 Bill Gates has made the Closed Proprietary Product in the form of M i crosoft s Windows dominant. But he could not have attained his near monopoly position were it not val uable for many millions of users to communicate through a medium common to different computers Nevertheless closed source software br i ngs a pause to the pace of deve l opment because Microsoft has to release complete products rather than continual updates. EFX : 3 1.2 M usical cue 160 The Connected Economy 3 1 : Closed and Open Source Navigation toolbar indicates Closed and Open Source on mouseover. Navigator shrinks and moves to top r i ght of frame when clicked upon

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TEXT : 3.1.3 Partly for this reason the allegiance of many software developers, if not as yet their customers has swung over to developing the open source code In such a case whole communities can work on refining and improving a source code. The best-known brand in this business is Linux called after the Finnish entrepreneur. EFX: 3 1.3 Musical effect TEXT: 3.1.4 Open source software shares the knowledge through which the software product was originally designed. This logic can become a building block for a larger and more complex design, leading to a combination of combinations Bill Gates now claims to have embraced the open source ideal although time will tell. But caveats remain If elaborating the source code leads to a loss of compatibility then value could be destroyed if not created Originality needs to be superimposed on an agreed standard. What advocates of open source hope for is vastly accelerated cooperation and innovation EFX: 3.1.4 Sawing wood & musical cue EFX: Navigator musical cue (on startup) 161 I The Connected Economy I 3.2: Roles of the Teacher Navigation toolbar indicates Roles of the Teacher on mouseover Navigator shrinks and moves to top right of frame when clicked upon

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Text: 3.2: Roles of the Teacher TEXT: 3.2 1 Teachers and styles of teaching are subject to changes of fashion The old-fashioned teacher-in-authority is the sage on-the-stage (top left) demonstrating to a passive audience how it should be done. In reaction to this we have the Resource Person or Guide-on-the-Side (bottom right) who is picked up and used by learners at will and may even be totally ignored Ideally we need a synergy of the two metaphors provided by the conductor of an orchestra (top right) who leaves all players free to master their various instruments yet orchestrates their talents EFX : 3 2 1 Musical cue TEXT: 3.2.2 Our Sage-on-the-Stage is wearing a magician's hat. The whole point of magic is to impress without informing to get your audience to marvel not to understand Charisma is theft from those who hold their teacher in awe and bel i eve that they can never equal his brilliance. EFX: 3.2 2 Violin & gasps TEXT: 3.2.3 Here the Guide is too much on the side. The idea that all learners know how best to use their resource person is probably fallacious. He or she needs to give at least some negative feedback or learners can make no corrections. EFX : 3 2 3 Inst r uments ou t o f t une 162 ROLeS oF "THe -reACHER -CONI'II<."IIlltiJf-441101 c """''"" lllf ..,.. ff 5-ON Sf'N46 Qul06 (1'"00 MUCU) OH Slp6

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TEXT : 3.2.4 The conductor of talents i s responsible for the harmony of all learners and their instruments Harmony is not unison or belting out the same tune Harmony is the blending of diverse themes and tunes The conductor operates at a level above the mastery of individual instruments and the excellence of each player The conductor looks to the blended learning of the whole EFX : 3.2.4 Instruments in key & applause EFX : Navigator musica l cue (on startup) 3.3: Mass Prod. v s Customized Quality TEXT: 3.3 1 There is much talk in e-learning circles of learning objects These are basic elements for the construction of learning projects, similar to the role of building blocks in constructing a house (top left) The compromise solution of unplanned communities is not satisfactory either. There are neither genuinely cheap and standardized nor aesthetically designed and pleasing environments What individual learners can do is master their variety of learning objects and design these into individualized unique configurations (Pieces fly from the heap left and re-arrange themselves top right) That everyone started with similar basic elements shows just how creative re-arrangements of these can be E F X : 3 3.1 M usical cue 163 The Connected Economy I 3.3: Mass Prod. v. Customized Quality Navigation toolbar indicates Mass Production vs. Customized Quality on mouseover Navigator shrinks and moves to top right of frame when clicked upon

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T E XT: 3.3.2 Like blocks learning objects are standardized plentiful and hence cheap. A dirty great pile of so-called learning objects does not comprise a house or for that matter a learning project. Without further instruction the learner will produce something as rudimentary as the blocks themselves. EFX : 3 3 2 Musical cue TEXT : 3.3.3 Ideally the des i gner would exercise c r eative vision to produce something entirely unique This is a l uxury few education systems can afford so that customized teaching remains a utopian city-in-the-clouds E FX: 3 3 3 Dreamy sound TEXT: 3.3.4 What is needed is for each learner to create a personal design out of the abundant supply of cheap components which are designed into a distinctive configuration The unique grows out of standardized elements much as a sonnet consists of known words EFX: 3.3.4 Musical cue 164

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EFX: Nav igat or musical cue ( on startup ) 3.4: Explicit vs. Tacit Knowledge TEXT: 3.4.1 Knowledge may either be explicit in which case it can be widely diffused or tacit in which case it inhabits shared relationships So-called Intellectual Property (top left) consists of codified, articulated knowledge, yet this originates in the shared sense-making and tacit relationships (bottom right) Much may be lost in the process of codification. Knowledge leadersh i p requires that explicit knowledge engages the shared relationships of all concerned (top right) and is renewed by tacit understandings It often helps to weave this knowledge into an ongoing narrative to give it meaning and direction. EFX: 3.4 1 Musical cue TEXT: 3.4 2 The knowledge must now be made explicit and codified into a programme Intellectual Property is human understanding reified so that it can be handled priced and sold Suppliers arrange for a metaphorical key to unlock the value in the program and give access to the buyer That said this explicit knowledge lacks the "magic by which it was created and may not engage the user in the same manner as the creator EFX : 3.4 2 Key in lock 165 The Connected Economy 3.4: Explicit vs. Tacit Knowledge Navigation toolbar indicates "E xplicit Knowledge vs Tacit Knowledge on mouseover. Navigator shrinks and moves to t op right of frame when clicked upon

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TEXT : 3.4.3 It all begins with tacit shared knowing between creators I n such relationships lies buried treasure". These persons understand each other and the challenge they face intu i tively and at many levels What they have between them is not yet fully captured or evaluated They trust their shared excitement. EFX : 3.4 3 Musical cue TEXT: 3.4.4 Knowledge Leadership is often the result of an unfolding narrative which organizes the various codes and gives them personal mean ing and direction The emphas i s is on creating an environment whereby people can be creative whilst still maintaining the benefits for t h e organisation EFX : 3.4.4 Rushing water and mus ical c u e 166

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EFX : Navigator musical cue (on startu p) 4 1 : Socio-Technicallnnovation TEXT: v4.1.1 Innovation in technology routinely occu r s without the social innovation necessary to make the best human use of this technology Social systems get dragged in the dust behind new machines leading to spontaneous social revolts against those technologies and their drivers One more example of this is the Digital Divide (top left) which makes the computer literate separate from the rest of mankind How do we handle the inequalities arising from technical innovations? One possible reconciliation (top right) is to combine social with technological change in a Global Village wherein technology is specifically designed to fit the simpler needs of develop ing communities EFX: 4 1 1 Musical cue 167 The Connected Economy SOCIO-INNOVATION 4 1 : Socio-Technical Innovation Navigation toolbar indicates Socio Technicallnnovation on mouseover Navigator shrinks and moves to top right of frame when clicked upon

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TEX T : 4.1. 2 Digitalization separates those with access from those without and provides benefits and resources which further privilege those who are comfortable operating in the digital world It i s not clear whether access to the technology would help those currently disenfranchised as they often have more pressing needs for basic literacy E F X : 4 1 2 Musical cue TEXT: 4.1.3 In this scenar i o no one i s allowed access unless everyone has access EFX : 4 1 3 Music cue & splashing water TEXT: 4.1.4 The challenge we face is getting diffe r ent cultures e g the sciences and the humanities to talk to each other Together we must create technologies responsive to social needs in a Global Village Necessary to such developments are socio technical systems wherein technology is of human scale and for the immediate human purposes of survival and development. EFX : Mus ic a l cue 168

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EFX: Navigator" musical cue (on startup) 4.2 : Communities of Practice TEXT: 4.2.1 It has been noted that skilled practitioners in innovative industries form clusters of expertise The question then arises can these clusters be somehow contrived (top left) by those in authority or should they be allowed to emerge spontaneously or not at all from the natural proclivities of people (bottom right) Is it possible to enable and facilitate communities (top right) by providing meeting places information resources and amenities that take care of routine tasks, thereby nurturing a culture of innovation? EFX : 4 2 1 Musical cue TEXT 4.2.2 What happens if you just draw people into a container which mandates close proximity? In parts of East Asia electrical and mechanical engineers have been confronted with each other in the hope of furthering mechatronics", the creative syntheses between production machinery and electronic sensors Such enforced intimacies have often but not always disappointed They presuppose that authorities can predict where knowledge breakthroughs will occur. How often is this true? EFX : 4 2 2 Musical cue & motor 169 The Connected Economy 4 .2: Communities of Practice Navigation toolbar indicates Communities of Practice on mouseover. Navigator shrinks and moves to top right of frame when clicked upon

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TEXT 4 2 3 It is sometimes said of Silicon Valley that the most genuine creativity takes place between employees from different companies in coffee bars. Practitioners meet and exchange ideas then decide to resign at a strategic moment and join their current developments together in a new company This helps explain why work done at Bell Labs Xerox Park and at Fairchild went on to enrich Applied Materials, Apple and the fair children". EFX: 4.2.3 Jabbering & musical cue TEXT 4.2.3 Is it possible to combine structured relations with emergent developments? Can we reconcile these into an Enabling and Learning Community? Here the community of practitioners is provided with necessary resources information, equipment, childcare and an underlying infrastructure of support. Such provision frees up its members to innovate and through the inter-stimulation of minds cross-fertilize ideas. The danger is that these amenities may attract those in search of comfort not creativity Several outstanding settings for creative persons have had sterile consequences EFX: 4.2 3 Musical cue EFX : Navigator musical cue (on startup) 170 COfN6 &Afl. The Connected Economy 4.3 : Cross-Cultural Learning Navigation toolbar indicates Cross Cultural Learning on mouseover. Navigator shrinks and moves to top right of frame when clicked upon

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4.3 : Cross Cultural Learning TEXT 4.3.1 It is axiomatic that all the world s people are in some respects alike hence the universality (at top left), yet in other respects unlike each other, hence the cultural particularity (bottom right) Should the whole world join in a universal celebration of Mickey Mouse or should each cultivate its own habits adding to world diversity? Could we go native even if we wanted to? If we act local and think global it may be possible to create a vibrant street culture as aspired to in the United Colours of Benneton" EFX : 4.3 1 Musical cue TEXT: 4.3.2 "Be like us (or like the U S.) is a temptation for any superpower that wants the world to adopt its language and its rules. Whether this is in the interests of cultural diversity is another matter. Like b i o-diversity this favours the survival of multiple life forms Even those who consume the same fast foods and colas may be very different at deeper levels Uniformity is drear and as Bernard Shaw put it if your morals make you dreary depend on it they 're wrong E F X : 4 3 2 Musical cue TEXT: 4 3 3 Going Native may not be the best outcome either. It is rarely done gracefully or well and a person true to their heritage may learn more from others. Mastering the intricacies of just one or two cultures is a lifetime s work and complete knowledge may not be a worthy aim Better surely to respect a difference we can never truly internalize and accept a reality we cannot tame EFX : 4 3 3 M u s ical cue 171 Be u.s

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TEXT : 4 3 4 Our reward can be a vibrant street culture full of colour curiosities and surprising i nteractions Such streets are the historic crucibles of creativity, because so many contrasting values meet and greet each other. Two ideas previously from remote realms of discourse can fuse with each other in a new combination. Such environments contain a vivid cosmopolitan mix of contrasting life styles EFX: 4 3.4 Musical cue & street sounds EFX : Navigator musi ca l cue (on startup ) 4.4 : Questions vs Answers TEXT: 4.4 1 Organisations and institutions in the age of the internet rarely lack data. Indeed there are simply too many answers online to questions never asked! What is urgently needed to bring sense to this profusion are questions hence the many bulletin boards asking for help. Only a group of learners clear about what they are investigating and why, can find their bearings What questions do is create the context in which answers make sense You inquire and you discover EFX: 4.4 1 Musical cue 172 The Connected Economy 4.4: Questions vs. Answers Navigation toolbar indicates Questions vs. Answers on mouseover Navigator shrinks and moves to top right of frame when clicked upon

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TEXT : 4.4.2 The bulletin board you see in institutions asking for help testifies to the fact that we do not know what questions we should be asking or how to process in some systematic manner what we learn. Information not acted upon is waste of time and attention. The desperate shortage is of hypotheses conjectures and anticipations which can be confirmed or confounded by experience EFX : 4.4 2 M u sical cu e TEXT: 4.4.3 Modern environmen t s are a veritable Pandora s Data Bank We are swamped with more statistics and data than we can ever make sense of. Thanks t o bar c odes a r etail outlet knows exactly ho w many fish fingers it sold between noon and 1500 hrs y et it has no conception of what to do with this data w hich i s not knowledge so much as noise". EFX: 4 .4.3 Musi c al cue & p our ing b loc k s TEXT: 4.4.4 It is increasingly the role of top managers and even of seminar educators to pose questions to the rest of us. We are all members of lnq iring Systems with vital roles i n ongoing investigations Less and less do the powers that-be possess the answers even where they pretend to have these Just as questions need answers and theories need data so educators need learners to complete the i r investigat i ons EFX: 4 .4 .4 Mus i cal cue 173

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EXHIBIT 8 DEMONSTRATION The demonstration of the design narrative interactive virtual learning model is submitted as a CD Rom. 174

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