Citation
Remembering Morgan County's new deal

Material Information

Title:
Remembering Morgan County's new deal
Creator:
Ainlay-Conley, Jacquelyn
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xii, 131 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
1929 - 1939 ( fast )
New Deal, 1933-1939 -- Colorado -- Morgan County ( lcsh )
Depressions -- Colorado -- Morgan County -- 1929 ( lcsh )
Depressions ( fast )
Economic history ( fast )
History -- Morgan County (Colo.) ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Morgan County (Colo.) ( lcsh )
Colorado -- Morgan County ( fast )
Genre:
History. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
History ( fast )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Colorado Denver, 2009.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 126-131).
General Note:
Department of History
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jacquelyn Ainlay-Conley.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
436148364 ( OCLC )
ocn436148364

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REMEMBERING MORGAN COUNTY'S NEW DEAL by J acq u e l yn Ainlay-Conley B.A. University of K a n sas, 1987 A thesis s ubmitted to the University of Colorado Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirement s for the degree of M as ter of Arts History 2009

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This thesis for the Master of Arts of History degree by Jacquelyn Ainlay-Conley has been approved by Pamela Walker Laird r Rebecca Hunt ? James Whiteside

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Ainlay-Conley, Jacquelyn Sue (M. A., History) Remembering Morgan County's New Deal Thesis directed by Professor Pamela Walker Laird ABSTRACT In 1979 James F. Wickens chronicled in Colorado in the Great Depression how the people of Colorado turned to private and county institutions for assistance and then ultimately to the federal government, once again disproving the myth that the West is composed of rugged individualists. However, there remains a lack of scholarship on the relationship between the federal government and rural communities in Colorado during the 1930s. This thesis attempts to correct this oversight. While interning at the Fort Morgan Museum in Morgan County I observed that local residents seemed to have forgotten how much aid the federal government provided to this agricultural community on the high plains of eastern Colorado during the Great Depression. As 2008 was the seventy-fifth anniversary of the New Deal and the seventieth anniversary of the local Rural Electric Association-a New Deal legacy-the topic was particularly timely. Therefore, I chose to research how national efforts influenced one rural Colorado county and how its local residents interacted with those efforts. From the beginning, Morgan County not only accepted but sought federal aid from New Deal programs.

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I presented my findings in an analytical historical narrative and by curating an exhibition at the Fort Morgan Museum. This thesis contains the narrative ; the complete text from the exhibition as well as photographs of the exhibits ; and an evaluation of this hybrid research and public history project. The paper and exhibition concentrated on only a few of the New Deal projects carried out in the Morgan County: education projects; rural electrification; sanitation projects ; and the construction of roads bridges and other infrastructure. I also discussed the young men who joined the Civilian Conservation Corps. This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate s thesis. I recommend its publication. Signed Pamela Walker Laird

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D E DI CATION I d e di cate thi s th es i s t o m y hu s b a n d, L ee, f o r his unwaverin g s upp o rt a nd p atie n ce w hil e l w as compl e tin g thi s th es i s. l a l so d e dicat e thi s thesi s t o m y so n s, B enja min a nd Tho m as. I m a d e it l oo k a l o t h a rd e r th a n it w as F in ally, R o b e rt S t e nb ac k t o ld m e stori es abo ut th e G reat D e pr ess i o n and th e Du s t B o wl wh e n I v i s it e d him at E b e n E ze r Luth e r a n Car e Cent e r in Brus h I enjo y e d hi s t a l es.

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ACKNOWLE DGEMENT This th es i s would n o t h ave b ee n poss ibl e witho ut the e ffort s o f m a n y people. wo uld fir s t like t o tha n k m y prim a r y a dvi so r P a m e l a W a l ke r L a ird w h o e ncour aged m y resear c h pr ov i ded valua bl e ins i g ht s, s h a r e d h e r t a l e nt for e ditin g a n d m a d e the l o n g dri ve o ut to th e pl a in s o f Col o r a d o t o see th e ex hibiti o n I a l so w i s h t o t h a n k the o th e r m e mb e r s o f m y comnuttee, R e b ecc a Hunt a nd James Whites id e, fo r th e ir valua bl e p a rti c ip atio n a nd ag r ee in g t o b e p a rt o f th e pro cess Dr. Hun t r e kindl e d m y p ass i o n f o r mu se um wo rk a nd r ep resent e d th e Unive r s it y of Color a d o D e n ve r at the ex hibition's o p e nin g nig ht r ece pti o n in Fo rt M o r ga n Dr. Whites id e r e in tro du ced m e t o the New D ea l a t opic I ha ve g r o wn quit e f o nd of. Th a nk yo u t o T o m No e l dir ec t o r o f the Publi c Hi s t o r y a nd His t oric Pr ese r vatio n Pr og r a m f o r pr ov idin g m e w ith so m a n y int e rn s hip a nd f ellows hip o pp o rtuniti es w hil e I w as in grad u ate sc h ool. Hi s e nthu s i as m f o r Col o r a d o his t o r y i s ca t c hing. I owe a g r ea t d e bt t o th e s t a ff o f the F o rt Morga n Mu seumMarn e Jurge rm eye r A ndrew Dun e h oo, N ikki e Coop e r a nd S a r a h W oodma n T h ey m e nt o r ed m e, gave m e unlimit e d acce s s to th e ir co ll ectio n s a nd r eso ur ces, a nd s upp o rt ed m e in so m a n y ways. I al so offe r m y g r a titud e t o th e community of Fort Morg an Col o r a d o S o m a n y re s id e nts ass i s t e d in thi s proj ect: J esse Cha ney o f th e F o rt M o r ga n T imes, J a n ice Di x on of th e M o r g an County Exte n s ion S e rvi ce, Morgan C o unt y Tre a s ur e r R o b e rt Sage a nd hi s s taff B e tty Finl e y Bill Garci a Martin Go e dert D o roth y Luhr s, And y Murine, Marjori e a nd the lat e Donald Naill, Mary Pre s ton Cec il W e tzbar ge r a nd Alberta Zittle B e n Hamilton cons tructed a r e plica of a WPA flyti g ht privy th a t oth e r mu seums e n vy Fin a lly thank y ou to the Morg an County Rura l El ec tri c Authority f o r s pon s orin g the exhibit. Congratulation s on their s e v enti e th anm ver s ar y

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TABLE O F C O NT E TS Fig ur es .............. . ...... ....... . .......... . . .... . . . x i C H A PT E R J INTRODUCTION ..... ........... .... .......... . . . . ..... l 2. T H E GR EA T D E PR ESS ION AND N EW DEA L IN MORGA N C O U NTY ......... .................... ... ...... 6 The Great D e pr ess i o n ... . ... ..... ...................... l 0 A gric ultural D e pr ess i o n o n the Plains .... ..... ......... ...... II On th e E d ge o f th e Du s t B owl ... ................... . ...... 1 4 Farm Life in th e 1 930s ..... ...... .... .............. ... . . 1 6 G e ttin g H e lp .... ......... .............................. 1 9 F e d e ral Aid .. ... . ..... .................... ............ 22 Education Proj e ct s ...... . . . ...... . ....... .... .... . 24 Electrif y ing Morg an County ............... . . ......... ... 28 Ci v ilian Cons ervation Corps .... . . . ....... ... .... . . . 3 5 Sanitation ..... ..... ............. ...... ..... . .... ... 38 Road s and Brid g e s ............... . . ......... .... ..... .45 Publi c Works Admini s tration Proj ec t s .......... ........ ... .4 8 Collaboration Between the Federal and State Government s, and Morgan County ....... ......................... . ... 51 Vll

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3 THE EXHIBfTION ............................ ...... . . ... 53 Vlll

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I n t rod u ctory Pan e l ........... ......... ....... ........ 55 1 930 s V i g n ette .......................... . ............. 57 T h e G r ea t D e pr ess i o n the Agric ultur a l Dep r ess i o n a n d Farm Lif e in the l 930 s .............. . ........ ....... 59 On the E d ge of the Ous t B ow l ... . ........................ 62 Gett i n g H elp .... . ....... ........ ....................... 64 E du catio n Pr o j ec t s ..................................... 66 E l ec trif ying M o r ga n Count y ...... . ..... .... ........... . 70 C i vilia n Con se r vatio n Corp s .. ....... ..................... 76 Sa n i t ation ............ ....... .... . . .................. 83 R oads and Bri dge s .............. . ...... ........ .... . 87 Publi c Works Admini s tration Pr o j ec t s .. .... ................. 92 4. EVALU ATION OF EXHIBITION .... ........ . . ........ .... 9 4 APPENDIX A. HANDOUT FOR V I SITORS OF RESOURCES AVAILABLE AT THE FORT MORGAN PUBLIC LIBRARY . ....... . . .... 101 B NEW D E AL AGENC IES AND PROGRAMS IN MORGAN COUNTY ...... ............................. 10 2 C. NEW D E AL PROJECTS IN MORGAN COUNTY ...... ........ 103 D NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE ARTICLES ABOUT THE EXHIBIT ................. ................. . 107 lX

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BfBLIOGRAPHY ..... ......................... . . . ..... ...... ... 126 X

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LIST OF F IGURES F I GU R E 3 1 R e membe rin g M o r g an Coun ty's N e w D ea l .......... .... . 5 3 3.2 Ma p of R e m e mb e rin g M o rgan Co un ty's N e w D ea l .... ........ 54 3.4 1 930 s V i g n e tt e o n Rise r . .... . . ............ ............ 5 7 3.5 S e ct i o n s o n th e G r e at D e pr e s s i o n t h e A gricult ur a l D e pr ess io n a n d Farm Life in t h e 1 930 s ...... ........................ . 5 9 3.6 O n the Ed g e of the Dus t Bow l Exh ib i t ... ...... . ......... ... 6 2 3 7 Gett i n g H elp Ex hib i t . ........ .... ...... ..... . ..... . 64 3 8 E xhibit s o n E du c a t i o n P r o j ec t s a nd E l ec trifyin g M o r ga n Co unt y . . ...... . ........ ....... 66 3 9 P o rt io n of Ex hibit o n Rur a l E l ect ri f i cat i o n ................... 7 0 3 .10 P a n e l o n Count y Ex t e n s i o n A ge nt R ay E Cann o n ............. 73 3.11 In te r act i ve E x hibit ... . . ...... . . ...... ............... 7 4 3. 1 2 Case w ith CCC Trunk ........... . ... ..... ....... . . . 7 6 3. 1 3 CCC Ex hibit C ase wi th G r o up L abe l . .... ..... ......... . 7 8 3. 14 S a nit a ti o n E xhibit w ith Group L a b e l ...... . . . . . ..... . . 83 3.15 Ex te rior of R e plica WPA Fl y Ti g ht Pri vy ............. .... ... 83 3 16 Interi o r of Repli c a WPA Fly Ti g ht Pri vy ...... ....... ... ... 84 3.17 R oa d s a nd Bridges Ex hibit C ase w ith Gro up L a b el. ... ......... 8 7 3 1 8 P a n e l on Ro a d s a nd Brid ges ........ ..................... .. 8 7 X l

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3. I 9 Publi c W o rk s Admini s tr atio n Pr o j ec t s Exhibit Pan e l with Group L a b e l ............. ........ .............. 92 Xll

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C H APTE R 1 fNTRODUCTION During the G r ea t D ep r ess i o n w h e n f e d era l a uth o rit y s pread int o a r eas h e r etofore r e s e r ved by eac h s t a te, the influ e n ce of federalism di sse minat ed thr o u g hout the s tat e and lo ca l gove rnm e nt s and down to the peopl e. How did Colorado citize n s, who at this tim e numb e r e d over a million r eac t t o thi s n ew f e d e r a l influ e nce? J a m es F. Wickens Co l orado in. the Gre at D epre ssion, 1 9791 J a m es F. Wicken s answered thi s question in 1 979, a nd man y others, in Co l orado in the Gre at D epre ss i on. H e c h ose the s ubj ect b eca use h e found that, up until th e tim e h e wa s writing the his toriography of th e N ew Deal n eg l ected s tudi e s of s tate s in th e W est. Ins t ea d according to Wicken s, they emphasized how the nation rea c ted as a whole."2 Wicke n s acce pted the challenge of examining the impact of the New Deal in one w es t ern s tate. He found that Colorado ultimately accepted the newl y crea t e d f e deral pro gr am s, once again disproving the myth that th e Wes t i s composed of rugged individu alis ts. Rugged yes, because they were tough but individualist s no. He chronicled how the people of Colorado turned to private and county institution s for assistance and then ultimately to the federal government. There remains, neverthele ss, a lack of scholarly research and writing on th e New Deal in rural communities of Col orado and, while interning at the Fort Morgan 1 J a m es F. Wi c ken s Col orado in the Great Depression (New York: Garland Publi s hin g 1979), ii. 2 Wick e n s, Colorado in the Great D epress i on, ii. 1

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Mu se um I l ea rn ed tha t the r e was a l ac k o f writin g o n M o r ga n Count y his t o r y in ge n e r al. In a dditi o n [ o b serve d n ea r a mn es i a am o n g l oca l r es id e nt s a b out h o w mu c h aid the f e d e r a l governm e nt pr ovide d t o the co unt y durin g th e Grea t D e pr ess i on. As 2 00 8 was the sevent yfifth a nniv e r s ar y of the N e w D ea l a nd th e seve nti eth anni ve r sa ry of th e local Rural Ele c tri c Association a N e w D eal l eg a c ythe topi c was parti cularly tim e ly. Th e refor e, in the s pirit o f Wi c k e n s, I und e rt oo k thi s c h alle n ge How did n atio nal effo rt s inOuen ce on e rur a l Colorad o count y? How we r e th ese e ff orts r ece i ve d ? Thi s th es i s h as thr ee compo n e nt s : a n a rr ative b ase d on m y r esea r c h a mu se um ex hibiti o n and an ev aluati o n of th e exhibition a nd pr ocess ln c h a pt e r 2 r introdu ce th e Grea t D e pr ess i o n of the 1930 s and the N e w D eal, focu s in g primaril y on the e ff ec ts and e ffort s in Morgan County. I identif y th e variou s fed e r a l pro g r a m s and a gencies that w e re active in the county, describ e some of th e New D e al proje c t s and their benefits and brieOy explain the relationship s between th e federal agenci es, local gov e rnment, and organization s such as the Parent Teacher Associations and the Farm e rs' Union I u s ed both primary and secondary sources for researching the Gre at Depression and the New Deal in Morgan County. Primary resource s included th e daily newspaper of the county seat the Fort Morgan Times, minutes from the county commissioners meetings, microfilmed records of the Civilian Works Administration, various government surveys and censuses, and oral histories in the 2

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Fort M o r ga n Mu se um's collectio n s In addition, I ut ilized manu scr ipt collectio n s in the D e n ve r Publi c Library, th e Col orado His tori ca l So c i e ty, and the Fort Morga n Mu se um ; r eco rd s from the M o r ga n Count y Ex t e n s i o n Serv i ce; a nd the archives of th e Morgan Count y Rur a l Electric Association. Sc h o l arly b oo k s and journals pr ov id e d ba c k g round information and h e lp e d t o place th e eve nt s in M o r ga n Count y w ithin n a tion a l a nd s t a te contexts. Ph o to g r a ph s and a m a p of the ex hibiti on, and the l abe l text a r e includ ed in chapte r 3. Fo r the seco nd p a rt of th e pr o j ect, I pla nn e d a n d c ur a t e d a s pecial ex hibiti o n for t e mp o r a r y in s tallation in the Fort Morgan Mu se um I carrie d out all the s t eps invo l ve d in curation from the initial r esea r c h to ass i s tin g th e s taff in di s mantling the exh ibiti o n I se lect e d objects from th e mu se um's collec tion and obtaine d ph o to g raphs from th e collections of th e Colorado Hi s t orica l Society, D e nver Publi c Library and Col orado State Archives. Abiding by the mu seum's protocol and with the assistance of staff, I borrowed artifacts from community members. I also collected photograph s from resident s, copie s of which are now in the museum's permanent coll ection. I wrote text a s well as se l ected the type and paper for the labels. The staff and a volunteer worked as a team with me to edit, format print, and mount the l abel s. The director and museum educator printed and mounte d the photographic images and hel ped me to insta ll the exhibition. Based on plan s I obtained from the Nevada Historical Society the city carpenter built a replica of a 3

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W o rk s Pro g r ess Admini s trati o n o uth o u se S t a ff fro m the F ort M o r ga n Libr a r y compil e d a lis t of b oo k s and the mu se um c urat or. Nikki e Coo per c r e at e d a h a ndout for th ose who w a nt e d t o l earn mor e a b o ut the Gr e at D e pr ess i o n the N e w Deal, and Pres id e nt Fr a nklin D Roo se v e lt.3 A ndr e w Dun e h oo, the mu se um e du ca t o r d esig n e d and wrote the label for an interacti ve a wa s htub with cloth es and a n a g itator so th a t visitor s could e xperi e n c e what it w as like t o wa s h l a undry with that devic e. Rememberin g Morg an County s N e w D ea l o p e n e d on Au g u s t 26, 2008 follow e d by a r ec epti o n h e ld o n S e pt e mb e r 9. Mu se um Edu ca tor Andre w Duneho o and I w o rk e d to ge th e r t o d e v e l o p pr og r a mming. l gave a t a lk on the his t o r y of the Morg an County Rural Electric A ss o c i a tion o n Oct o b e r 8, and the followin g e venin g Dun e hoo facilitated a pan e l dis cu ss ion on th e C ivilian Con se rvation Corp with two former enroll ees and myse lf. The exhibition closed on F e bruary 2 2009 Exhibition visitor s included interstate travelers on l-76, my colleagues from the National Park Service, University of Colorado Denver faculty, descendants of Morgan County residents researching family genealogy, and resident s of the community. Both children and adult s visited the exhibition. The adult s included a l a rge number of s enior citizen s who had experienced the Great Depression themselves and often wrote comments in the visitors' book. These comments will provide one ba s is for my evaluation of this project, which is covered in chapter 4. In addition, the exhibition and its programs 3 See appendix A for a cop y of the handout. 4

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received a g r atify in g a m o unt o f local press cover age, w hi c h th e evalu atio n w ill a lso discu ss. 5

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C H A PT E R 2 TH E G R EA T D EPRESSION A ND N E W DEAL IN MORGAN COU NTY On Oct o b e r 2 6 1 93 7, the Supe rvisor of the Gre el e y Dis tri c t o f the WPA prai s ed the cit y o f F o rt Morg an for receiving "more fed eral appropri atio n s than a n y oth e r c ity in N o rth e rn Colorado "4 Th e city ha s alway s b ee n prompt and r e ady t o c o o p e r a t e with those in c h a r ge o f fe d e ral project s." A yea r l a t e r the As s oc i a t e d Pr e ss newswir e se nt o ut a s t o r y titl e d M o r g an County Guin e a Pi g for F a rm Loan E x p e rim e nt s "5 Th e a rticl e ga rn e r e d M o r ga n County some n atio n a l a tt e nti on. Th e writ e r d e s c rib e d h o w local F a rm Security Admini s trati o n ( FSA ) a g e nt s t a u g ht bu s in ess skill s t o f a rm c ouple s who wanted to borrow money thu s hopin g t o decrease their d e bt. According to the Associated Press, the experiment was s o succe s sful that the local FSA supervisor was confident it wou ld become a mod e l for other agricultural communities. Today some members of the local community mi g ht be uncomfortable or e ven embarrassed by the compliment and the attention while others would s imply be s urprised that their relatives embraced such fed e ral as s i s tance. 4 "Fort Morgan Ha s Receiv e d More Federal Appropriat i on s than Any City in N o rth ern C o lor a d o, Fort Morgan Tim es October 26, 1 937. 5 Mor g an Count y Guine a Pig for Farm Lo a n Exp e riments Fort Morgan Tim es, March 2 9 1938. 6

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Many M o r ga n County r eside nt s are aware tha t th e Publi c W orks Admini s trati o n built th e co unt y co urth o u se. But few l oca l s. l e t a l one outs ider s, know of th e num erou s New D ea l pro g r a m s that t ou c h e d thi s agric ultural area o n th e edge o f the Dust Bowl. Many of th e New Deal a lph abe t agen c i es wer e ac tiv e h e re: the W o rk s Pro g re ss Administration (WPA), th e Publi c Works Admini s tration (PWA), the Rural Electrification Administration ( R EA), the N atio n a l Youth A dmini s tration ( NY A ), and th e Farm Security Admini s tration (FSA). A lth o u g h the C i v ili a n Con se rv atio n Corps (CCC) did not h ave a camp in M o r ga n Co unt y yo un g m e n filled th e available county quota s a nd ventur e d t o project s in pla ces lik e Bu e n a Vi s t a a nd the Poudre Valley. State age n c i es s uch as th e B oa rd of H ea lth a nd th e Bo a rd of Ed u cat ion carried out project s or provided se rvi ces funded p ar ti a lly with f e d e r a l dollar s from New Deal agencies. Morgan County also benefited from increased fin anc ing of existing government agencies such as the Bureau of Reclamation, which built the Bi g Thompson project providing power to the local REA. Farmers and rancher s recei ve d subsidies from the Agricultural Adjustm e nt Adminis trati o n These programs brought improved sanitation, improved farm-to-market roads, education for adults, and provided recreation a l pro gra m s for youth, hot lunches for school-age children, clothe s for the needy in come for impoveri shed families subsidies for farmers, and electricity for some rural residents. Though 7

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s t ro n g y R e publi ca n the co unt y uti I i z cd R ooseve lt s p rogra m s t o their full est. How di d thi s all co m e a b o ut':> M o r ga n Count y i s o n the hig h plains of n o rth eas t ern Col o r a d o and prim a ril y rur al. F o rt M o r ga n i s the both the co unt y sea t a n d a tr a d e ce nt er. T ow n s th a t w e r e in exi s t e nc e in th e 1 93 0 s a nd ar e s till ex t a nt t o d ay incl ud e Bru s h Goodri c h Hillro se, Hoyt Orc h a rd Sn y d e r W e ld o n a, and Wi gg in s Communiti es tha t ex i s t e d durin g t h e D e pr ess i o n but a r e n o l o n ge r ex t a nt inc lud e A d e n a A nt e l o p e S prin gs, Bij o u B e nd G a ry, L a mb T win Silo, and Union. In the L 93 0 s th e m a j ority of the po pul atio n of M o r ga n Co unt y f a rm e d o r w o rk e d a s ag ri c ultural l a bor e rs. R eside nt s e n gaged in b o th dry l a nd a nd irri ga t e d farmin g At th a t tim e th e South Pl a tt e Rive r whi c h flows fro m eas t t o wes t throu g h th e c e nt e r o f th e co unty, se rv e d as the p r im a r y so urce o f irri g ati o n wa t er. A 175mile s y s tem of c an a l s di s tribut e d wat e r to 1 3 5 ,000 ac r es o f land ab o ut on e s ixth of the total area of th e county. The prin c ipal crops in th e irri g ated a rea w e re s u ga r beet s, alfalfa and barley. Oth e r c rop s in th e county included corn pinto bean s potatoes wheat barley, and oats. Farmer s als o g r e w gra in sorg hum s, millet and sweet clover for c attle fe e d They rai sed cows, sh eep, pi gs and poultry.6 Beets were the mos t important cash c rop in the self-proclaimed Sugar Bowl of America, and s u gar production wa s v ery import a nt to the community .7 Great 6 R.E C anno n Annu a l R e p o rt Ext e n s i o n Se rvi ce, C o l o rad o Agric ultur a l C oll ege," S e ptemb e r 3 0 194 0 M o r ga n Count y Ext e n s i o n S ervice, Fort Mor ga n C O 4. 8

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West e rn S ugar domi n a t e d the econ o m y o f n o rth e a s t ern Col o ra d o a n d M o r ga n Coun ty was a n import an t bee t B o th the c i t i e s of Bru s h a n d Fo rt M o r g a n h ad s u g a r f ac tori es M o ney rec e i v e d f r o m G reat W es t e rn w e nt t o g rower s, l abo r e r s, a nd l a nd owne r s, a n d in turn th e l o c a l econ o m y thr o u g h s t o r es, bu s in esses, a nd b a n k s In 1930 th e p o pul a tion o f M o r g a n C o unt y was 1 8,28 4.9 U s in g t e rm s a nd s t at i st ics fr o m th e c e n s u s o f th a t yea r 92 p e rcent of th e n a ti veb o rn p o pul atio n was whit e 7.5 p e rcen t wa s o f Mex i c a n d es c e nt t w e n ty o n e res id e nt s were of J a p a n ese descent a nd thirt y o n e wer e Ne g r o 1 0 Immi g r a nt s m a d e up 11 percent o f th e p o pul ation.11 M o s t o f th e 2, 074 immi g r a nt s wer e Germ a n s from Ru ss i a o r Mexican s. 1 2 B o th g r o u ps did mu c h of th e s toop wor k in th e beet f i e ld s fo r g r o w e r s wh o contra c t e d w ith G reat W es t e rn S ugar. 7 I va n E i c h er. H i stor y o f M o r ga n Co unt y Co l o r a d o ," ( m a s t e r's thes i s, Co l o r a d o Sta t e Teac h e r s College, 1 937), 1 3. 8 Willi a m J o hn M ay Jr. The G r e at W e s t ern S u ga rland s : The Hist ory of th e G r e a t W e s t ern Su gar Comp a n y a n d th e E co n o m i c D evel opm e nt of the G r e at Pl a i ns ( New Y ork: G arland Publi s hin g, In c 1 989) 71. 9 U S Bur ea u of the Ce n s us, Co l o r a d o P op ul a tion o f Counti e s b y D ece nni a l C e nu s / 9 0 01 990, C o mpil e d a nd e dit e d b y R ic h ard L. F o r s t all, P o pul atio n Divi s i o n U.S. Bur e au o f the Cen s us, W as hin gto n D C M arc h 2 7 199 5 http ://www ce n s u s gov/po pul atio n/ ce n co unts/c o 1 9009 0 t xt (accesse d Fe bru a r y 27 2 007) 1 0 Sara h W oo dm a n n o titl e, ( d a t a t able s o n the co untry o f or i gin o f M o r ga n Co unt y r es id e nt s c o mpil e d f r o m d ece nni a l c e n s u s o f 1 930) May 2 006 Mu s eum Ed u ca tor files, Fo rt M o r ga n Mu se um F ort M o r ga n C O 11 Woodm a n ( d a t a t able s co mpil e d fro m d ece nni a l c e n s u s o f 1 930). 1 2 W oo dm a n ( d a t a t a b le s co mpil e d fro m d ecennia l c e n s u s o f 1 930). 9

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Th e G r eat D e pr ess i o n Th e Great D e pr ess i o n l as t e d fro m 1 929 t o 1 94 1 Durin g thi s p eriod, both m anufac turin g a n d co n s tru ctio n dra m atically d e clin e d b a nk s suffe r e d wid es pr ead f a ilur es, a nd un e mploym e nt r a t es s k y r oc ket e d ln O c t o b e r o f 1929 th e U nit e d Sta t es s t oc k m a rk e t c r as h e d A symptom o f a collap sing econ omy, thi s event m a rk e d the turn fr o m th e pros p e r o u s 1920 s Th e Gross N atio n a l Pr o du c t f ell 50 p e rcent b e tween 1929 a nd 1 933. Bus in ess inves tm e nt s f ell fro m t we nt y f o ur billi o n t o three billi o n A ut o m otive m anufac turin g fell 66 p e rcent. Ir o n a nd s teel pr o du ctio n f ell 6 0 p e rcent Co n s tru ctio n s hr a nk 8 0 p e rcent. A gric ultur a l s urplu ses l e d to a colla pse of pri ces, ca u s in g farm incom e t o f all from s i x billion dollar s to tw o billi o n The d e clin e in pr od u ctio n meant f e w e r jobs for work e r s. In 19 3 1 o n e -third of all e mpl oyees work e d p a rt tim e. By 1932 thirteen million people were unemploye d .1 3 Of tho se with jobs many w e r e unde remployed. The unemployme nt rate eventuall y p eaked in 1 933 with a quarte r of the civilian labor force out of work.1 4 Nationall y m o re than fiv e thou s and banks failed between 192 9 a nd 1 9 33. D e po s it o r withdrawa l s fueled b y pani c, underc apitali z ation ero s ion of a sse t s du e t o sto c k and real e s t a t e price collapse s, and defaulted loan s all contributed t o 20 percent 1 3 D a vid K e nn e dy Fr ee d o m fro m F ear: th e Americ an P eople in D epre s s i o n and W a r 1 9 29-1 9 4 5 ( N e w Y o rk: Oxfo rd Univer s it y Pr ess, 1999) 163; a nd Willi a m E. Leu chte nburg, Frankli n D R oosevelt and th e New De al ( N e w York : H a rper a nd R o w 1 963 ), I. 1 4 R oss R o b e rt s on His t ory o f th e Americ an Eco n o m y (N e w Y o rk : Harcourt Brace J ova n ov i c h 1973) 682. 10

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of th e n atio n's ba n k s closing their doors D e p osito r s l os t seve n b illi o n dolla r s in th e s e b a nk failur es w hil e s i x hundred tho u sa nd h o m eown e r s l os t th e ir p ropert y du e t o acce l e r a t e d forecl os ur es.1'i In M o r g a n Count y t h e Hill rose B a n k failed in D ecembe r o f 1 932.1 6 Three yea r s l a t e r a t l eas t t wo m o r e b a nk s t he F ir s t S t a t e B a n k of Wi ggins a nd th e P e opl es Sta t e B a nk o f F o rt M o r ga n we nt und er. 1 7 A gric ultur a l D ep r ess i o n o n th e Hig h Plains Durin g W o rld W a r I a nd th e early 1920 s A m erica n farm e r s es peci ally w heat farm e r s, enjoyed b oo m yea r s as th ey fed a wa r t o rn a n d l ate r a recoverin g E u ro p e E n co ura ge d b y th e fe d e r a l gove rnm e nt a nd e n a b l e d b y mech anical a nd t ec hn o l og ical innovatio n s, farm e r s dra m aticall y in c r ease d th e ir pr o du ctiv it y a nd ex p a nd ed ac r oss th e Great Pl a in s in a feat so m e hi s t oria n s h ave call e d th e "Grea t Plow-up.'"8 F armers borrowe d mon e y for more l a nd and n e w ma c hin e r y But as pro du c tion in c r e ased a nd dema nd fell a gricultur a l s urplu ses l e d t o a c ollapse o f commo dity pri ces. The farm economy was alread y di s tre sse d wh e n Ameri c a e nt e r e d th e Great D epress ion. How did thi s happen ? 1 5 K enne dy, Fr ee d o m f r o m Fea r 1621 63. 1 6 Hill rose B ank Quit s Bu siness F ort M o r ga n Tim es, D ece m be r 1 7 1 932. 17 St ockholde r s of B ank Su e d f o r $ 9 ,092 0 6," F ort M o r gan Tim es, A pril 6, 1 936 ; and "P eoples S t a t e B ank A sse t s Brin g $ 1040 ," F ort M o r ga n Tim es, S e pt e mb e r 1 6, 1 936. 1 8 S ee, f o r exa mpl e, D o n ald Wors t e r Th e Dirt y Thirti es : A Stu dy in Agric ultur a l Cap it alis m ," G r ea t Pl a in s Quart e rl y 6 ( Sprin g 1986): I 07 116 11

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E nti ced by the growing demand for agricultural products the Enlarged Homestead Act of 1909, and th e Stoc k Rai sing A c t of 1 916, a nd the constru ctio n of irri gat i on systems, farmers a nd rancher s s et tl ed o n land on which previous generation s of s pecul ators had passed. Morgan Count y saw dramatic growth in it s population after the turn of th e ce ntury. From 1900 to 1930 th e population g rew n ea rly s ix time s, from 3,268 to 1 8 284.1 9 The g r eates t inc rease occurred between 1910 to 1920 when th e population boomed from 9,577 to 16, 124 ?0 This new influ x also occ urred durin g a brief p eriod of slig htl y e levat e d rainfall.2 1 Without realiz in g it families took up ac reage th a t they would n o t be ab l e to s u s tain o nce normal conditions return ed The recent settl e m e nt o n th e plains coinc id ed with advances in agricultural machinery and the ability of th e manufac turin g indu s trie s to mas s produce equipment. Farmers in ves ted in new mechanical equipment lik e combine harvesters which could harvest, thre s h, and clean grain crops. However, it was the availability of gasoline-engine tractors that dramatically changed farming. In 1911 there were 1 9 U.S Bureau of th e Ce n s u s, Colorado Population of Counti e s by Decennial Census 1900-1990 20 U.S. Bureau of the Census Colorado P opu lati o n of Counties by D ecen nial Census, 1900-1990. 21 D eo n Wolfenbar ge r New Deal R esource s of Eastern Co l orado, National R eg i ste r of Histo ric Pla ces Multiple Prop erty Documentation Form, September 23, 2005 84. 12

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a ppr oxima t e l y 4 ,000 g a s o lin e tr ac t o r s in o p e r atio n o n A m erica n farm s In 1920 the r e w e r e 246, 000. B y 1 9 3 0 the r e w e r e 92 0 ,000 ]2 Wheat ac r e a ge in th e s t a t e tripl e d b e t wee n 1 9 1 3 a nd 1 9 1 9.23 Pr o du ct i o n g rew but so did d e bt. Ln orde r t o ca s h in o n th e boom yea r s f a rm e r s wa nt e d m o r e ac reage. M a n y b o rrowed m o ney t o enla r ge th e ir o p e r atio n s, a nd they in ve s te d in new t ec hn o logy in orde r to inc r e as e th e ir pr o du ctio n a ve r y precari o u s s itu atio n Farm e r s a lread y l i v e d f r o m the pla nt i n g t o h a r v es t se a s o n s b y b o rrowin g m o n ey to p ay for s uppli e s a n d l abo r w hil e tr ying t o p a y down m o rt gages. The y could p ay off d e b t s durin g good y e a r s, but th o s e d e bt s fue l e d a nig htm a r e wh e n econ o mi c o r cl im atic c o nditi o n s beca m e un favo r a b l e By th e l a t e 1920s n e ith e r the n atio n a L agric ultur a l eco n o m y n o r th e e n v i ro nm e nt h e ld o ut. The inc reas e d suppLy of agric ultur e pro du c t s combine d w ith a decrease in th e ir d e m a nd cau se d commo dit y pri ces t o dro p. E ve n thr o u g h th e 1 93 0 s farmer s continu e d t o produc e m o r e th a n cons um e r s could afford to buy, and a s a r esuLt m a n y farme r s could no longer pay their t axes or d e bt s The n on the Great Pl a in s, th e drou ghts a nd w ind s o f th e Dirt y Thirties" set in. Some f arme r s a djacent t o th e South Pl a tt e Ri ve r s urviv e d but the dry-l a nd f armers s aw th e ir wheat a nd co rn dry up in their fie ld s. 22 Will ard W es ley Co c hr a n e The D evel op m en t of A m eric a n Ag r i c u ltur e ( Univer s i ty of Minn esota Pre ss, 1 993) I 0 8. 2 3 Wi c k e n s Col ora d o i n the G r ea t D ep r e ssio n I 13

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On the E d ge o f the Du s t Bowl As if the agric ultur a l d epre ss i o n w as n o t e n o u g h f a rm e r s o n the G r eat Plains durin g th e 1 93 0 s face d a n a dditi o n a l ca t as tr o ph e-a m a nm a d e e n v i ro nment a l ni g htm a re. 2 4 Y ea r s of poor l a nd m a nagem e nt pr actices, coupl e d w ith o n e of the wor s t dro u g ht s in th e record e d his t o r y o f th e plain s, caused dry t o p soil to blow awa y in du s t s t o rms. M o rgan Count y w as o n th e e d ge o f a multi -s tat e a r ea th a t b eca m e k nown as the Du s t Bow!.2 5 The g reat ex p a n s i o n of f a rm e r s a nd r a n c h ers o nt o th e plains du ring th e Teen s occurr e d in a r eas w ith m a r g inall y p ro du c ti ve l a nd The ir pra ctice s th e r e p rov e d to be costly. With th e ir new m ac hin es, th e settler s plowed up th e so d th a t a n c h o red th e soil. In th e ir a tt empts t o meet w a rtim e d e m a nd s a nd lat er, th e ir d e bt s, they i g n o red tr a diti o n a l f anning prac ti ces s u c h as c rop r o t a tion in f a v o r o f m ax imi zing th e i r s h o rt t e rm produ c tion. R a n c h e r s g razed more cattle than w as s u s t a in a bl e; h e n ce, th e ir ove r s tock e d ran ges l e d to the thinnin g of native grass e s, further damag in g th e l a nd .26 24 S ee G r ea t Plains Dr o u ght Area C o mmitt ee, R e p ort o f th e G r ea t Pl a in s Dro u g ht Are a Co mmitlee, Committ ee C h a irm a n M o rri s L. C oo k e 2 7 Au g u s t 1 93 6 Available o nlin e fr o m the New D ea l N e t wo r k a t http : //n ew d ea l.f eri.o r g /h o pkin s /h o p 2 7 .htm (a ccesse d S e pt e mb e r 7, 2008); and the wo r k o f cont e m po r a r y his t oria n s s u c h as D o n ald W o r s ter. 25 Wh i l e the Du s t Bowl fluctu a te d geog raphi cally b ase d o n pr ec ipit atio n a nd soil co n ditio ns, t h e h ar d es t hit a r ea e n co mp asse d co unti es in so uth eas t ern C ol o r a d o so uthw es t ern K a n sas, wes t ern Okl a h o m a, n o rth ern T exas, a nd n o rth eas tern N e w M ex ico 26 Great Plains Drou g ht Area Committ ee, R e p ort. 14

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For m os t of th e 1 930 s, the weat her in Col o r ado was d r y and h o t27 The region e ntered o n e of its dri es t e r as in r ecorde d his t o ry. a nd it wo uld b e a decad e befor e rainfall became abundant o n ce again. A drou g ht s tru c k in 1 93 1 a nd mor e fol lowed in 1934, I 937, a nd 1 939 .2 8 Wind s impl y pic k e d up th e soil a nd blew it away c reatin g the du s t s torms associated wit h th e p erio d ln I 934 th e newl y aiTived ag ricultural extension agent, Ray E. Cannon, report ed, Mu c h of thi s dry l a nd s hould n eve r have been broken up and th e qui c k e r that it can be put back in n at i ve pa s tur e th e b e tt er. Mos t of th e land b e in g lig ht and sa ndy, i s b e in g b lown away. "29 The du s t sto rm s wreaked h avoc o n everyd ay lif e. Farm e r s a nd ranchers l os t c rop s and liv es to c k Homemake r s co uld not keep th e dirt out o f the ir h o u ses Janitor s and t eac her s literally s hovel e d dirt o ut of sc hool s t o keep th e m open. Peopl e used weat her stripping and ra gs to sea l windows, do o rway s, and other openings. The dust storms made walking and drivin g dangerou s. R es ident s like Alb e rta Zittle remember how dan gero u s it could get. It would be so dark a t three o clock in the afternoo n that you didn't hardly know where you were goi n g. It was terrifying. The dust, it just burned your skin there was so much of it .''30 27 Steph e n J. Leon a rd Trial s and Triumph s : A Col orado P o rtr ait of the G r ea t De pr ess ion With FSA Photogra phs (N i wot: Univer s ity of Colorado Press, 199 3) 112. 28 Wick e ns, Colorado in th e Gr eat D epression, 2 1 9; and Leonard, Trial s and Triumphs, I 14-116. 29 Cannon "Annual Report 1934," Nov e mb e r 3 0 1 934, 23. 30 Albert a Zittle int e rview May 29, 2008, tr a n sc ript Fort Mor ga n Mu se um Fort M o r ga n CO, I 15

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F a r m L i f e in the 1 93 0 s W hil e u rb a n Ame r i c a f e lt the p a i n s o f the D e pr ess i o n in r u r a l a r e a s co n d i t i o n s w e r e i n m a n y wa ys w o r se. L ivin g in th e co u ntr y wa s no t easy. R oad s wer e poor a n d few farm o r ra n c h fam ili es h ad e l ec tric i ty, te l e ph o n es, runnin g water, o r plu m bin g in th e i r home s. F i r es from cooking s tove s a n d acc ident s wi th m ac hin e r y wer e common, as w e r e d isea s e s fro m p oor s a nit atio n M a n y e lderly Morg a n Count y r es ide n t s r e co unt tha t Ev e r ybod y w as poor."3 1 Lif e wa s e s peci ally h a r d for d r y l a n d farm e r s f a r m e r s who l acked a n irrigati o n so ur ce s u c h a s a dit c h a n d r elie d s o l e l y o n rain to wat e r th e i r c rops. M a n y o f th e s e f a rm e r s b ar e l y got by. In M o r g a n C o un ty, farm e r s w ith i rrigatio n co uld still grow b eets a nd o th e r c r o p s bu t t h o se o n dry l a n d sectio n s face d dest itut e conditi o n s Due to dro u g ht co n d iti o n s, th e ir w h eat corn a nd b ea n cro p s f aile d M a rtin Goed e rt r e m embe r s hi s f a mil y h av in g a h a rd tim e on th e ir d ry-l a nd fa rm near A d e n a, W e couldn' t r a i se a n y crop s from '31 32 33 a nd '34, a nd th e folks was gettin g hun g r y "32 Farme r s f u e l e d th e ir s t oves w i t h corn that they could not se ll s urr e nd e r e d th eir cars t o b a n ks, a nd lost c r o p s t o dro u ght a nd g r ass h o pp e r s. 33 A t l eas t 400,000 3 1 Cecil Wetzba r ge r inte r v iew, M ay 29 200 8 tran sc ript Fort M o r g a n Mu se um Fort M o r ga n CO 7. 32 M arti n Goe d ert, int e r v i ew, Jun e 6 2008 tra n s c ript Fort M o r ga n Muse um Fo rt M o r ga n C O 2. 33 Wetz b a r ge r int e r v i ew 8; a n d "G r a ss h oppe r s Becoming R e a l M e n a c e to County Fort M o rgan Tim es, Jun e 2 7 1937 16

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f a mili es l os t th e ir farm s a c ro ss the Unite d S t a t es durin g the 1930s .:l-t Th e F o rt M o r g a n Ti mes r e p orte d a r e co r d numb e r o f f a rm m o r t g a g e for eclo s ur e s in M o r g a n Co unt y be tween 1 9 33 a n d 1 936 .35 So m e l a ndown e r s a n d fa rm t e n a nt s gave up a n d m ove d int o town s o r l eft th e ar ea. T h e p o pul atio n o f M o r ga n Count y d e clin e d fro m 1 8,2 84 in 193 0 t o 1 7,214 in 1 940a dro p o f 6 p e rc e nt. 36 As bad as it was f o r farm e r s, it wa s w o r se fo r fie ld hand s. Great W es t e rn Sugar m a d e profit s d urin g th e D e pr ess i o n -even p aying b o nu ses t o yea r r o und e mployee s a nd di vide nd s t o s t oc kh olde rs.37 Y e t th e ave rage M ex ican f a mjl y wh o s t oo p e d in th e s u g a r beet fie ld s could n o t m a k e e nou g h m o ney t o cover th e ir living ex p e n ses fn th e w int e r go v e rnm e nt r elie f r o l es essenti ally carri e d beet wo rk e r s w h o co uld n o t s upp o rt th e m se l ves o n th e ir m e a ge r w ages fr o m sea sona l work. 38 Lore n a Hi c ko c k a f o rm e r n e w s p a p e r r e p o rt e r who se rv e d a s a "confidenti a l in vestig ator f o r Eleanor Roosevelt a nd H a rry Hopkin s visited Morg an County in June of 1934 She 34 G e r ald N as h The F e d eral Lands c ap e : An Eco n o mi c His t ory of th e Tw e nti e th -Ce ntury Wes t ( Tu cso n : Unive r sity o f Ari zo n a Pr ess 1 999) 27. 35 R e cord Numb e r o f Fa rm M ortgage F o r eclos ure s in M o r g an Co unty," F ort M o r g an Tim es, O c t o b e r 17, 1 936. 36 U.S Bure a u o f t h e C e n s us, Co l o rad o P o p u l at i o n of Co unti es b y Dec e nni a l Cen s u s I 900I 990. 37 G r ea t W e s t ern Su gar. A nnu a l R e p orts D e n ve r : Gr ea t W es t ern S u ga r 1929 1 941, W estern His t ory and G e n ea l ogy C olle ctio n D enve r Publi c Libr a r y 38 Stat e of Co lor a d o With Rural R e li e f in Col o rad o : F e brua ry -N ove mb e r I93 5 Re se arch Bulletin N o I b y Olaf F. Lar so n A pril 1936, W o rk s Pro j ec t s Admini s tr atio n M ss Coll ectio n # 689, Co l o rad o Hi s t orical S oc i e ty, D e n ve r Col o rado. In a ddition I g l e an e d th e p attern of beet w orke r s o n r e lief r olls fro m a rticl es in th e Fort M o r ga n Tim es s u c h as Ali e n s R e mov e d From WPA P a yroll a s C ut is Ord e r e d April 2 1936; Lab o r Won t W ork f o r P a y Offer e d Th e m April 23 1936 ; and Only On e of E ver y I 0 M e n Offe r e d W o rk in N o rth ern B ee t Fields Will Ac ce pt ," April 2 8, 1936. 17

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co mp l a i n e d Wha t we r e ally d i d, I g u ess w as t o s ub s i di ze t h e G reat W es t ern S u ga r Compa n y b y c a rr y i n g all of th e M ex i c a n l abo r a nd a g ood ma n y farm e r s. t oo, o n r elief l a s t w int e r "39 Not all the m e m orie s o f thi s time a r e n egative M a n y senio r citize n s r e m embe r thi s a s a t im e th e community bond e d togeth e r a nd c hildr e n s till f o und ways to h ave fun. Fa rm f a mili es h e lp e d each o th e r durin g c ru c i a l tim e s. O n e M o r g a n Count y r es ident r ecalle d Wh e n it cam e h arve s t tim e t o thr es h th e g r ain, eve r y b o d y w e nt t o e ac h f a rm f ollowing th e thr es h e r t o all th e f a rm s a n d the r e wa s n o c o s t of l a b o r b ec a u s e ever y b o d y ex c h a n ge d l a b or. They h ad t o beca u se t h e y c o uldn t hir e a n ybody They co uldn t p ay th e m Eve r y b o d y w o uld g o t o thi s fa rm a nd th e n ever y b o d y w o uld go t o th a t fa rm ."4 0 The annu a l Fa rm e r s Union pi c ni c, see d s h ows, wom e n's club s 4-H a nd community e ducatio n events in th e rural school s g av e rur a l famili es a c h a nce to s o c ialize.4 1 Many fa mili es e nded th e w eek with a speci a l s up e r on Sundays This w as one of Doroth y Luhrs's fond es t m e mories: "On Sundays w e a lways went to c hurch a nd then w e w e nt to someone's hou s e or they came to ours famil y o r n e i g hb o r's. The r e w ould b e t e n to twenty p e opl e. The r e wer e l o t s o f p o tlu c k 39 Lore n a Hic ko k On e T hird of a N ati o n : Lor e n a Hic k ock R e p orts o n t he G r e a t D e p r ess i o n, E dit e d b y Ric h a rd L o witt a n d M a urin e B eas l ey (Urba n a a nd Chicago : Univer sity of Illin o i s Pr ess, 1 98 1 ) 283 40 W e t z b a r ge r int erv i ew 8. 4 1 Cann o n "Annu a l R e p o rt 1936," D ece mb e r I 1 936 22 23, and 110 18

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d inn ers. They bake d their own bre ad. Th e r e was roast b eef, frie d chicke n potato sa l ad, cake or pie or both a nd l ots of Jell 0 s alad s I t wa s goo d food..J2 Gettin g H e lp Local organizations and charities tri e d t o provide ass istan ce to those in n eed. In Morgan County, the Boy Scouts collec ted c loth es and s ho es for the needy, and the Red Cross distributed vegetables and s hipped in train cars of flo ur and w h eat.43 A s the financial s itu at ion worsened, more a nd m o r e peopl e soug ht aiel from th e cou nt y a nation a l trend Nationwide by 1 929, local governm e nt s provid e d sev e ntyfive percent of all relief.44 However, local governm e nt s found th e ir resources in s ufficient to meet the increasing need for r elief, and by 193 L they were forced to turn to s tate governments for aid. In turn, states r a n out of mon ey, necess itating federal programs. Prior to the Depression, Morgan County provided some financial assistance and a few loans to sick individuals or families who were supporting disabled children in exchange for property conveyances and the transferrin g of life insurance 4 2 Dorothy Luhrs intervi ew, August 14, 2008 transcript, Fort Morgan Mu seum, Fort Morgan CO. 4 3 Relief for Wint er is Planned," Fort M organ Times Augu s t 24, 1 932; "Sy s tematic Or ganizat ion in Rul es for Red Cross Relief Thi s Winter," Fort M o r gan Tim es, August 3 1 1932; "Red Cross Asking for Cash to Buy Shoe s and Stockings," Fort Morgan Tim es, September 3, 1932; Ve ge tables Given to R e d Cross Find Many Seeking Them ," Fort Morgan Times, September 19, 1932 ; and "Boy Scout s to Call at All Home s Wednesday for Used Clothing, Fort Mor g an Times, August 30 1932 44 U.S. Federal Work s Agency, Final Rep ort of the WPA Pro g ram, /935-4 3 (Wes tport CT: Greenwood Pr ess, 1976), I 19

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T h e Mo th e r's Com pensatio n F un d pr ovided mo n e t ary assista n ce t o s in g l e moth ers o r th e g u a r d i a n s of o rph a ned c hil d r e n a pr ocess whic h r eq uir ed a p e titi o n t o t h e count y court s46 B y Jun e o f 1 932, Mo rga n County was p aying r e nt for thir ty nin e fa mili es, th e ca r e of s i x teen indi v i d u a l s in c ludin g a f a mil y of c hildr e n a nd th e m e dical bill s f o r nin e r es id e nt s in h os pit a l s in D e n ve r47 Th at sa m e m o nth th e c it y of Bru s h p a id f o r g roceries for tw e nt y-three people. The econ omic d ow nturn eventu ally over w h elmed b oth the count y coff e r s a n d th e local o ffi c i a l s w h o a tt empted t o cope. Accor ding t o the meetin g minut es of th e county commiss i o n e r s, th e commi ss i o n e r s l a id off the wo m e n's rest room a tt e n da n t f o r th e c it y h all in M ay of 1 932 "du e t o th e unu s u a l a m o unt o f calls up o n t h e c it y for h e lp ."4 8 The n ex t m o nth they tr a nsferred m o ney fr o m t h e contin ge ncy fund t o adminis t e r th e count y durin g thi s e m e r ge ncy. The co unt y commiss i o n e r s appear to h ave been h a ndlin g th e inte rviews of those seekin g a id th e mselves, whic h mu s t have beco m e a d a untin g t as k .49 Flooded w ith requ es t s for a ss istan ce, th e 45 M o r ga n Co unt y B oa r d of Commiss i o n e r s, Proceed i ngs of the Cou nty Comm issioners (vol. 6, 279) M ay 3, 1 932, M o r ga n Co unt y Co urth o u se, For t M o r ga n CO. 46 M o r ga n Co unt y Boa r d of Commissio n e rs, Proceedi n gs (vol. 6 3), M ay I 1 929. 47 Mo r ga n County Board of Commissio n e rs, Proceed in gs (vol. 6, 282), Jun e I 1 932. 48 M o r ga n County B oard of Co mmi ss i o n ers P r oceed in gs (vol. 6, 279), M ay 3 1932. This actio n did n o t h ave the s upport of the fem a l e r eside nt s of the co unty T h e n ex t m o nth a co mmitt ee r e pr ese ntin g th e Fe d e rati o n of W o m e n 's C lub s m e t w ith co mmi ss i o n e r s t o ask for the re-insta t e m e nt of Mrs. R o b e rti e M c Cl ain. T h e co mmi ss i o n e r s r esc ind e d albe it only t empo r a rily. Th e e l ec t e d offic i a l s p e rm a n e ntl y di sco ntinued h e r se r v i ces in Feb ru a r y o f 1 933. S ee (vol. 6, 28 5), Jun e I 1 932, a nd ( v ol. 6, 35 5), February I I 933 49 M o r ga n Co unt y Board of Commiss i o n e rs, Proceed i ngs (vol. 6 355), Fe bru ary I 4 1 933. 20

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commi ss i o n e r s m e t in May o f 1933 t o fig ur e o ut a sys t e m for r elief. [n Jun e, they a pp o int e d Mrs. B.J. S i e b e l as S ec r e t a r y o f the M o rgan County W e lf a r e Bureau. They tasked h e r w ith t ak in g car e of tr a n s i e nt s; p ay in g the house r e nt s a nd m e di ca l a nd g rocery bill s of those in n eed; a rr a n g in g for th e burial of poor re s id e nt s; a nd invest i ga tin g a pplications for th e Mothe r's Compensation Fund and newl y-c reated ld 50 o age p e nsiOnS.' Whil e the count y d e alt with the inc r ease in r eq u es t s for ass i s tan ce, the s tat e a tt empte d to r ed uce un e mploym e nt by ex p a ndin g highway construction. Morgan Count y a s k e d f o r a nd recei ved its s h a r e inc ludin g a "st a te aid bridge" ac r oss th e South Platte Riv e r at Narrows. ) I As th e crisis deepened Morgan County in c r eas ingly so u ght h e lp from the f e deral governme nt. ln Septembe r 1932 the cornrnissioners r equested a $79,000 allotment$2 5 ,000 from a $2,000,000 sum Colorado wanted from the f e deral government for highway projects and an additional $54,000 directly from Washington to hire unemployed local men to work on county highway projects. 5 2 The cornrnissioners justified their reques t by explaining that they had spent as much on re lief by September of that year as they had in all of 1931. 50 M orga n County B oard of Co mmi ss ioner s Pr ocee din gs (vol. 6 389) June 12, 1933. 51 M o r ga n County B oard of Co mmi ss ion e rs, Pr oceedings (vol. 6, 386), May 31, 1933. 52 County Asks for $25 000 in R elief Work Fort Mor gan Time, August 27, 1932 21

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Co nditi on s in Morgan Count y co ntinu e d t o deteriorate durin g the f all o f 1 932. Accordin g t o the Fort Morga n Tim e s thi eves, n o doubt hun g r y r es ident s broke int o th e count y food w a r e h o use a nd s tol e flo ur lard a nd other Great W es t e rn Sugar foremen a rran ge d for bee t workers to swap th e ir l abo r with local farm e r s in r e turn for unmarketable produc e. In exch a nge for fixing fences or c uttin g down weeds, th e workers recei ve d potat oes or ca bba ge, which co uld b e s t o r ed o r o th e r vege t ables, which could b e dri e d and con s um e d durin g th e winter. 5 4 F e d e r a l Aid Assistance a rriv e d in th e form of more federal aid. Pr eside nt Franklin Delan o Roosevelt b elieved th e federal gove rnm e nt had a res pon s ibility to help those in ne ed, and-in contrast to hi s predecessor Herbert Hooverh e sa w massive government intervention as a way to combat the Depression. After winning the ele c tion in 1932, Roosevelt called on citizens in his inaugural address "to minister to ourse lve s and our fellow man ... we can not merely take but give as well."55 He pledged to act quickly. 53 Thi eves R aid Co unty F oo d Warehou se," Fort M o r ga n Tim es, September 6 1932. 5 4 Gr ea t W es t ern Fieldmen Aid in Alleviating Food Crisis ," Fort M o r ga n Times, S e pt e mb e r 16, 1932. 55 Franklin D Roo sevelt, The Publi c Pap e rs and Address es of Franklin. D. R ooseve lt vol II ed Samuel R ose nman (New York : R a ndom Hou se, 1938 1950 11-16. 22

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Two d ays afte r becomin g pr esident, Roosevelt c losed all banks f o r a f o ur da y b a nk h o lid ay" t o g i ve Con g r ess tim e to pa ss th e E m e r ge n cy B a n king Act and t o allow th e Treas ur y Department tim e t o ins pect all b a nkin g ins tituti o n s befor e th ey reopened. A few day s l a ter, h e e n co ur age d Con g r ess t o pa ss econ om i c legi s l at i o n reducing veterans payments and federal e mployee sa l aries. H e proposed that Con gress pas s a n un employme nt r elief bill to establis h a work pro g ram for unemployed m e n in co nservati o n projec ts. They p asse d th e bill a nd h e s i g n ed it o n M a r c h 3 1 thu s creating th e Emerg e ncy Con servat i o n Works (ECW) program m o r e commonly known as th e C ivilian Conservatio n Coq )s (CCC).5
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phr ase taken from the s p eec h h e gave w h e n accepting th e D e m oc r atic preside nti a l nomination o n Jul y 2 1 932.5 9 The N e w Deal con s i s t e d of var i o u s ac t s, pro g ram s a nd federal age n c i es a im e d a t providin g r elief, r e form, a nd recover y t o th e p eo ple a nd th e co untry's eco n omy. The collectiv e acro n y m s for the vario u s Depression-era c reat ed age n c i es are oft e n describ ed as Alphabet Soup." From th e beginnin g, M orga n Count y n ot only acce pted but so u g ht federal a id from New D ea l pro g r a m s.60 Ln Mor ga n County, th e e fforts o f th ese age n c i es were assoc i ated with several themes: co n se rv a tion e du ca tion public h ea lth r ecreatio n rur a l rehabilitation tran s portation a nd impr ov in g local governm e nt fac iliti es. This thesis and th e exhibition con cent r a t e o n only a few of the project s carri ed o ut in th e county: education project s; rur a l e l ect rifi catio n ; sa nitation project s; a nd th e con s truction of roads, brid ges, a nd other infra s tru c ture .6 1 The young men who joined the Civilian Conse rvation Corps are a l so di sc u ssed. E ducation Proje c t s The New DeaL influenced th e e ducation of both adults and youth in Morgan County. Governme nt agencies p a id workers to te ac h self-improvement and 59 Roosevelt Publi c Pap e rs and Addr esses, 647 60 For a lis t of N ew Deal agenc i es and pr ograms tha t were active in M o rg a n County, see appendix B. 61 For a co mpl e t e lis t of N ew D ea l Proj ec t s in Morgan County see a pp e ndix C. 24

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voc ati o n a l c l asses carr y o ut s c hool improvem e nt pr o j ec t s, a nd assis t in p rograms th a t s upp o rt ed s c h oo l a g e c hildr e n The proje c t s varie d from c iti z e n s hip a n d lit e ra c y cla sses for ad ult s t o g r ading sc hool playg r o unds. In Morga n County, the New Deal agenci es m os t assoc i ated w ith e ducation were th e Civil Works Adminis tr at i o n (CWA) and th e W o rk s Progre ss Admini s tration (WPA).62 Local sc h oo l board s thro u g h o ut Morga n County s p o n so red buildin g a nd g r o und s improvement proj ec t s th ro u g h the CW A One of th e fir s t New Dea l age n cies, the C W A was only a t emporary o r ganiza tion c r eated b y Roosevelt t o provide jobs t o th e un e mployed t o get them throu g h th e w int e r of 1 933. That year CW A workers carri ed o ut proj ec t s at a lm os t ever y Morgan Count y sc hool.63 They g rad e d a nd g ravel ed g r o und s r e p a ir e d playground equipme nt a nd plante d tr ees.64 ln Gary, workers built a fence t o s top cattle from wandering onto th e school grounds. Communities valued these improvements. When it looked like some of the projects 6 2 In 1 939, by order of Ro oseve lt the W orks Pro g r ess Administration reorgani ze d and becam e the Works Project Ad mini s tr atio n 6 3 U.S. C i vil W o rk s Adminis tr a tion "A pplic a tions for Approval of C i vil W orks P rojects (Fo rm s L -34) and R epo rt s of Co mpl eted T r a n s ferred o r Di sco ntinu e d Pr ojects (Fo rm s S 1 6), Morga n Cou nt y, Colorado "; (M i c r ofic h e R ee l 1 2); R ecords of the W orks Pro g r ess Administration R ecord Group 69 ; National Archi ves a t College P ark College Park, MD 64 According to CW A r ecords of Mor ga n Co unt y, g rading and g r ave lin g s chool gro und s e n a bled children attendin g rur a l sc h oo l s to pl ay in the sc hool grounds durin g d a mp weather. There was v ery little cement on any o f the rur a l sc h oo l gro und s, and during wet weather the ground s b eca m e so muddy tha t it wa s imp oss ibl e t o u se them. Applicants for fund s also stressed that th e grave llin g would red uc e the amount of work n ecessa ry to k ee p the school buildin gs cl ea n 25

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wo uld not be co mpl e t e d before the CW A c l ose d local r es id e n ts and p a r ents h elped t o fini s h the m65 R oosevelt es t ablis h ed the Work s Pr og r ess Admini s tr atio n (WPA) m ode l e d aft e r the C W A in M ay 193 5. Th e WPA evaluat e d proj ec t prop osa l s b ase d o n seve ral c rit e ria. The administrators look e d at how man y eligible worker s liv ed in the a r ea, what typ es of the s kill s the pote ntial workers po ssesse d a nd h ow u seful th e project was t o the community. Eac h WPA project r equired so m e t ype o f gove rnm ent s p o n s or. The s p onso rin g e ntit y co uld b e a s tate a ge n cy, a count y b oard o f co mmi ss i o n e r s, or eve n a sc h oo l di s trict. The s pon so r pr ovide d the cos t of the m ateria l s w hil e the WPA provid ed th e cos t of labor. For exampl e, in 1936 t h e Snyder School Board s pon so r e d a project to build a gara ge for thr ee sc h oo l buses, and to reroof th e hig h school and grade sc hool.66 The project employed ten m en. The school board provided the materials, and the WP A paid the workers' wa ges. School boards took full advantage of the WP A. In Wigg in s WP A workers di s mantled and moved two one-room sc hool houses into town and then u se d th e material s to constru c t an agricultural s hop .67 WPA workers constructed an addition to the Peace Valley School and refloored the gymnasiums of Fort Morga n's Lin co ln 65 For exa mple in Orchard volunteer s fini s h e d a ground s proje ct, which includ e d gra ding and lev e ling, plantin g trees and ins tallin g irri gat ion 66 Unbound Scrapbook 1935 1941, Work s Project s Administration Collection (MSS #689), Colorado Historical Society, D e nver (hereafter cited as MSS #689, CHS) 67 Unbound Scrapbook I 935I 941, MSS #689 CHS. 26

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B a k e r a nd Centr a l Schools.6 8 A few sc hool s s t arte d sc h oo l lun c h p rogr a m s incl u ding Centr a l Sch ool.69 Fo r fifteen cents a we e k stude nts could ea r h o t m ea l s pre p a r e d a nd ser ve d b y WPA w o rk e rs. The Centr a l P a r e nt Teach e r Associ atio n work e d with th e ir sc hool board t o s p o n so r th e progr am. Th e sc hool board provide d th e cookin g equipme nt. In addition to school board s, th e County Commi ss i o n e r s a nd th e State Board of E ducati o n s p o n so r e d pro j ec t s The Count y Commi ss i o n e r s p a id f o r two sewin g room s, o n e in Bru s h a nd o n e in F o rt M o r g an w h e r e un e mployed wom e n l ea rn e d how t o use p a tt e rn s, run a sewin g m ac hin e, a nd t ailo r c l o th es70 The S t a t e Board of E ducatio n received WPA fund s f o r a dult e ducatio n a n d in turn gave local communities th e p o w e r to orga nize th e ir own e du catio n pro g r a m s based on th e ir o wn need s and des ir es Subsequently th e school s y s t e m s o f F o rt Morgan a nd Bru s h h e ld cl asses for Spani s h s peakers .71 68 Unb o und S c r a pb oo k 1 93 5 1941 MSS # 689 C HS 69 "Centr a l S c h oo l Childr e n G e t H o t Lun c h es a t Sm all Cos t by Virtu e o f P .T.A. Pr o j ec t F ort M o r ga n Tim es, J anua r y 4, 1 938. 70 Th e Sewing Pr o j ec t o f the WPA," F ort M o r ga n Tim es, M a r c h 26 1 937. Th e county pr o vid e d the cl ass r oo m s p a ce n otio ns, and se win g m ac hin es The WPA p aid the s tud e nt s and t eac h e r s w hil e the S tate D e p a rtm ent o f Publi c W e lf a re s uppli e d the f a bri c. In a dditi o n t o t eac hin g j o b s kills, the sew in g r oo m s h a d a noth e r b e n e fit: the clothin g pr o du ce d was g i ve n t o the co unt y a n d dis tri b ut e d t o those o n r e i i ef. 71 Ad va n ces for M ex i ca n M e n's Cla sses T o ld ," F ort M o r ga n Tim es, N o v e mb e r 1 6, 193 6 ; a nd Direc t ory a nd Annu a l R e p o rt Adult E duc atio n R ecreatio n and Nur se r y Sch oo l Pro g r a ms, Col o r a d o W P A .," 1939-1940 MSS # 6 89 CHS In 1 938 the sc h oo l b o ard ex p ande d th e ir p rog ram to include c o mmunity r ecre ation opp o rtunities. S ee Adult Educ atio n and R ec re atio n Dir ec t o r N a m e d ," F ort M o r ga n Tim es, Jun e 2 2, 1938. 27

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In progr a m s segregat e d b y gende r s tud ents co uld tak e reading, w ritin g, and Engli s h lan g u age c l a sses M e n o uld a l so s tudy for c iti ze n s hip t es t s w hil e women learn e d to sew attended l ec tur es on Ameri ca n his t o r y and lis t e n e d t o talks o n h ea lth a nd hygiene Althou g h th e Fori Morgo n Tim es and m os t lik e l y community members called th e adult ed u ca tion cla ss es Mexican c l asses," some of th e m a l e stud e nt s were in fact Spani s h s p e akin g American c iti ze ns. They stud i e d American hi story, math a nd letter writing. The div e r s it y of s pon so r s hip of WPA pro g r a m s in Morgan County exemplifi es th e agency's mi ss i on t o coop e rat e with s tate and local governm e nt s a nd i s ev id e nce of l oca l l ea d e rs' w illin g n ess t o work with th e fede r a l govern m e nt. Electrifying Morgan County Perhap s the electrification of Morgan County i s the mos t evident demonstration of th e ability of Morgan County lead e r s and re s ident s to work cooperatively with the federal government. The Rural Electrification Administration (REA) and related federal pro g ram s worked with l ocal farmers and the county extension agent to energize th e countryside. Thi s was not a case of a federal agency corning into a community and carrying out a project. Rural residents played an 28

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active r o l e a nd even t ailo re d the pr o j ec t t o m ee t the ir prim a r y d es ire-en o u g h e lectri city t o power wa t e r In 1935 w h e n Presid ent Roosevelt c reat e d th e R E A only o n e o f o ut o f nin e f a mili es o n f a rm s in Col o r a d o b a d e l ec tri c ity.73 M os t utilit y companies ser ve d urb a n a reas a nd did n o t ex t e nd l in es t o f a rm e r s a nd oth e r rur a l res id e nt s because th e y b elieved it t o b e n e ith e r f e a s ib l e n o r pr o fit a b l e.74 The REA pro v id e d low-cost loan s a nd exp e rtise t o cooper atives t o co n s tru c t e l ec trical sys t e m s B y 1 940, th e pro p o rti o n of f a milies o n f a rm s w ith e l ec tri c i t y h a d inc reased t o o n e in fo ur7 5 The fo undin g m embe r s of th e M o r g an Count y Rur a l E l ec tri c Associ atio n (MCRE A ) con s id e r e d Count y Ex t e n s i o n Agent Ra y E C a nnon t o b e th e f a th e r o f th e pro j ect. 7 6 H e moved t o Fort M o rgan in 1933 to ass i s t with th e Wheat R eductio n 72 The r o l e l oca l f arme r s playe d in the e l ec trifi catio n o f M o r ga n Co unt y i s co n s i s t ent with w h a t his tori a n Bri a n Canno n pr o p os ed in his case s tudy o n the formation o f e l e ctrical c oo p e rati ves in the n o rth ern and centr a l Rock y M o unt ain Regi o n durin g th e N e w D eal. Bri a n Canno n a r g u e d tha t tha t in m a n y cases N e w Deal age n c ies, es p ec i ally the REA e mp o w e re d w es t erne r s r athe r tha n r a n rou g h s h od o v e r the m See P owe r R e l atio ns: We s t ern Rur a l Coo p e r atives a nd the N ew D ea l ," The W es t ern Hi s t orica l Q u arterly. Vol. 3 1 N o 2 (S umm er, 2000), 1 331 6 0 73 Wi c k e n s, Co l orado in the G r ea t Depress i o n 27 1 ; and "Ente rpri se a nd Coo p e r atio n of All Wh o C o ntribut e d t o RE A Pr o j ec t Highly Pr a i se d ," F ort M o r ga n Tim es, M ay 15, 1940. 74 U S. D e p a rtm ent o f Agric ultur e, Rur a l E l ec trificatio n Admini s trati o n A Brief His t 01y o f the Rur a l and E l ec tri c T e l e ph o n e Pr og ram s ( W as hin g t o n DC: GPO, D ece mb e r 198 5) I 75 Wi c k e n s, Co l o r ado in th e Gr e at Depress i o n 271; and Ent e rpri se a nd C o op e r atio n o f All Wh o Contribut e d t o REA Pr o j ec t Hig hly Pr a i se d ," F ort M o r g an Tim es, May 15, 1 940 76 C a nn o n Annu a l R e p o rt 193 8," D ece mb e r I 1 938, 2 5 29

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P ro g r a m aft e r the passage o f the Agric ultur a l A d j u s tm e nt Act.77 H e w h o l eh ea rt ed l y t hrew himsel f int o h e l p in g th e suff e rin g communi t y Ln additi o n t o his a d m ini s tr ative duti es as sociat ed w ith s ub s idies, h e pr ov id e d info rmati o n o n c re dit d ebt adjus tm e nt a nd o th e r agric ultur a l focused r elief a nd r e h a bilit atio n pr o g r a m s of th e New Deal.7 8 H e a lso c arri e d o ut t y pic a l exte n s i o n wor k H e offer e d a d v ice o n to pi cs s u c h as soil conser v ation th e pr eve ntion o f lives to c k di seases, a nd th e pr od u ctio n o f c lean e r milk. Cann o n sympa thized with th e pli g ht o f l oca l fa rm f a mili es a n d embraced the vario u s N e w Deal progr a m s as a way t o improve th e ir lives. Wh e n summarizing his wo r k f o r his a nnu a l re p o rt in 1936 h e w r o t e "A sympa th etic e ncouragem e nt was g i ve n t o rural people a t a ll tim es t o h e lp th e m w o r k o ut som e o f th e ir pr o bl e m s a nd t o h e lp th e m b e b e tt e r f a th e r s, n e i ghbors and c itizen s. Con s id e ra bl e e ff o rt was m a d e in s uppl y in g and s uggesting entertainment in th e rura l communities a nd in tr y in g t o make th e home and community a b e tter place in which to live."79 A s part of hi s outreach efforts Cannon joine d th e local Farm e r s Educ ati o n a l a nd Coope rativ e Uni o n (Farme rs' Union). Hi s e nthu s i as m invigor a t e d and 77 T h o u g h M o r ga n Co unt y h ad a Count y Ex t e n s i o n A gent f ro m 1 9 1 4-1921 the re h ad n o t bee n o n e f r om 1 92 1 until the a rri va l of R a y E Canno n in 193 3. C anno n m ove d t o F o rt M o r ga n to ove r see the n ew l y c r ea t e d gove rnm e nt ag ri c ultur a l s ub s idy pr og r a m in n o rth ern W eld a n d M o r ga n Co unti es Su bse qu ently th e M o r ga n C o unty Commi ss i o n e r s the Exte n s i o n D e partm e nt o f the Co l o r a d o A g ricultural C oll ege, and the United Sta t es D e partm e nt of A gric ultur e a g reed t o hir e C ann o n p e rm a n ently as a n ex t e n s i o n agent f o r M o r ga n C ounty 78 Ca nn o n Annu a l Report 1 9 36 ," D ece m be r I 1 936, 17. 79 Canno n Annu a l R e p o rt 1936," Decem be r I 1 93 6 17. 30

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stre n g th e n ed th e local c h ap t e r80 H e atte nded th e majorit y of the meeti n gs of Local 274 in Fo r t M o r gan. info rm ed th e m e m be r s of vario u s governm en t pro g r ams, spon so r ed recreatio n a l a n d soc i a l h ou r s aft e r th e meetin gs, a n d offe r ed his o ffice for use in pl a nnin g th e a nnu a l F
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e l ect rifi catio n pr ojec t85 Afte r h ea rin g the prese nt atio n m e mb e r s of th e o r ganizatio n h e ld communit y inform at i o nal m ee tin gs and went from farm t o farm collectin g the n a m es of tho se who were int e r es t e d in ge ttin g e l ec tri c ity. With th e h e lp o f A ge nt Cannon, th ey formed a coop e rativ e a nd sold s h a r es. Incorporat e d on April27, 1 937, MCREA w as th e second e lectri ca l coop e rativ e in Colorad o; Grand Valley Rural Powe r Lin es in Grand Junc tion wa s the first.86 Although both n atio n a l a nd l oca l prop o n e nt s so ld rural e lectrification as a m ea n s of easing th e domestic lif e o f farm famili es acro ss America, from the beginnin g part of th e quest for e l ec tri city o n f a rm s in M o r ga n Count y was to pow e r irri ga tion pumps.87 While water pumps mu s t h ave see m e d lik e a godsend to farm e r s on the eastern pl ains of Colorado, their use po sed a probl e m they required a lot of energy and their usage peaked in the summer. This was already an issue for the existing municipal power plant in Fort Morgan, which could not keep up with the seasonal irrigation pump load of the farmers it serv e d .88 The cooperative needed a power source that could meet their maximum load requirements in the summer. The REA was hes itant when the Morgan County farmers indicated that they 85 "U nion t o Mak e Survey H o m es for Pr ojec t ," Fort M o r ga n Tim es, N o v e mb e r I 6, 1 936. 86 "50th Anniver sary: Rural Electrification," Fort M o r ga n Times, s p ecial sec tion, M a rch 3 0 I 985, 4 ; a nd Mona Neel ey (e dit or of Colorado Cou n ty Life ) email m essage to author, July I 2008. 87 "Action St a rted on Rural Electrification Proj ect: New Dist rict s are Formed," Fo11 Morgan Tim es, M a rch 2, 1937 88 Cannon, "Annual R e port I 937 De ce mber I I 937, 29 ; a nd "City Council Hold s Special M ee tin g to Di scuss Power Probl e m with REA Official ," F ort Mor ga n Tim es, July 30, 1937. 32

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want ed t o s u pply e l ec tri c a l power t o irri g atio n pumps-so m e thin g n o othe r l o c a l R EA had tri e d. A lth o u g h the R EA e n g i neer s in Was hin gto n con s i d e r e d th e p r oj ec t worth y they deem ed it ''a n unu s u a l o n e o n account of th e irri gatio n pump l oad "89 In orde r t o u s e th e ex i s tin g F ort M o r ga n pla nt, th e pl a nt would r equire ex t e n s i ve up g r a d es. The c it y d i d n o t h ave t h e fund s n o r w as it w illin g t o tak e o ut a loan ; a nd th e R E A w as unwillin g t o loan the M C R E A more f und s t o ass i s t w ith th e con s tru ctio n9 F indin g a s o urce th a t co uld prov id e e lectri c ity for s u c h a hi g h peak load d e m a nd in th e summe r proved t o b e a chal l e n ge th a t th e f e d e r a l governm e nt a nd th e l oca l f a rm e r s resol v e d to ge th er. ln orde r t o acc o mpli s h th e i r goal s, th e M C REA di v id e d th e pr o j ec t int o two phases: e a s t a nd w est. T h ey con s tru c t e d th e eas t p o rti o n fir s t whi c h began ope r a ti o n s on May ll, 1 93 8, with th e d e di c ation of a s ubs tation in Bru s h .9 1 Whe n th e e lectricit y s tarted flo win g, M o r g an County could boas t that it had the only R E A project in th e nation th a t powe r e d irri g ation wells and that it also had the lar ges t kilowatt load proportional to th e miles of l ine of any power project.92 At the dedi c ation cer e m o n y, a r e presentative of th e REA prai sed th e project: the fruit s of 89 Ca nn on, Annu a l R e p ort, 1 937, D ece mb e r I 1937 29 90 "Cit y C oun cil H olds S p ec i a l M ee tin g t o Disc u ss Pow e r Probl e m with REA Offi c i a l F ort M o r ga n T i m e s Jul y 30 1 93 7 The c ity ev e ntu ally appli e d and r ece i ve d a g r a nt from an othe r N e w D ea l age n cy t o up g r a d e e quipm e nt and build a n a dditi o n f o r the municip a l p o w e r plant. See sectio n o n Publi c W o rk s Admini s tr atio n 9 1 V a s t Thro n g Witn esse s REA En e r g i zatio n F ort M o r ga n T i m es M a y 12, 1 938. 92 "Ce l e br a ti o n t o Mark E n e r g i zing o f R .E. A Pr o j ec t F o rt M o r g an Tim es M ay 3, 1 938 33

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th e pr o j e c t w ill n o t only b e n e fit the co n s um e r s th e m se l ve s b ut b y ex a m p l e. w ill b f I d .,91 e n e Itt 1 e c o unty, s t at e a n n at1o n Fo r the s h o rt t e rm the M C R EA pur c h a s e d surplus p ower f r o m t h e S t e rli n g di s tri c t o f the Publi c Ser v ice Company o f C ol o r a d o t o e n e r g i z e th e lin e s .94 This wa s only a t e mp o r a r y arra n ge m e nt because th e Publi c S e r v ice Compa n y could n o t s uppl y th e a dditi o nal e l e ctri c it y need e d t o pow e r the w es t ern h a lf o f th e count y The M C R EA board of direct o r s negoti a t e d w ith th e U.S R e cl a m atio n Ser v i ce-a f e d e r a l a g e ncy w hose bud ge t saw dra mati c incr eases as a r e s ult o f the New Deal .9:; The R ec l a m atio n Ser v ice a llocat e d $ 400 000 t o build power lin e s fr o m G reel e y Col o r a d o, t o Wi ggins.96 The Fo rt M o r ga n Tim e s r e p o rt e d tha t a t th e d e dicatio n of th e s ub s t a tion in Wiggin s o n May 15, 1 9 40 th e ge n e r a l counsel f o r th e REA, Y D Nic hol so n describ e d th e pr o j e ct "as o n e o f th e mos t unu s u a l in th e n a ti o n," and th a t s uch project s a s th ese, on which farmer s are learnin g how to utilize land a lread y settled are our new f rontiers."97 93 V as t T hr o n g Witn esses REA E n e r g i zatio n F ort M o r ga n Tim e s M ay 1 2, 1 938. 94 Canno n Annu a l R e p o rt 1 93 7 ," D ece mb e r I 1 93 7 29 ; and Annual R e p ort, 1 9 3 8 ," D ece m ber I 1 938, 24 95 Canno n Annu a l R e p ort, 1 938 D ece mb e r I 1 938, 26. 96 Canno n Annu a l R e p ort, 1 938 D ece mb e r I 1 938, 26. Th e p owe r lin es f ro m G reel ey initi ally ca rri e d e l ec tri c it y f r o m d a m s built by th e WPA in Wyomin g L a t e r the Co l o r a d oBi g Th o mp so n Pro j ec t a n othe r proj ec t tha t rec eive d inc r eas ed fundin g durin g the N ew D ea l pr ovide d p o w e r t o the M C REA. 9 7 Ent e rpri se a nd Coo p e r atio n of All Who Contribut e d t o R .E.A. Proj ec t Highly Pr a i se d F ort M o r ga n Tim es, M ay 15, 1 94 0 34

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C i vilia n Conserva t io n Corvs T h e C ivilia n Conser vatio n Corp s known a s the CCC. was o n e of P r es i de nt R ooseve lt's fir st experimenta l p rogr ams a n d p r oved t o be o n e his most popular. Eve n t oday the CCC i s o n e o f the age n c i es tha t m os t peop l e assoc i a t e w ith the G r ea t D e pr ess i o n a nd th e New D eal. A lth o u g h r eside nt s of Brus h a nd F ort M o r ga n tri e d un s u ccess full y t o secure a CCC ca m p in M o r ga n County, the age n cy st ill h a d a n im pact o n a rea-m a n y fa mili es b e nefi ted f r o m the e nr ollees' m o nthl y allo tm e nt9 8 Young m e n fr o m M o r ga n Count y ve n t ur e d t o th e f o u r co rn ers o f the s t a t e t o e ngage in co n servatio n wo r k o n f e d e r a l l ands and d r o u ght-s tricken farm s, a n d to co n s tru c t r ec r eat i o n pr o j ec t s a n d road s in p arks a n d for ests. O ve r 200 yo un g m e n fr o m M o r ga n C ount y enrolle d i n t h e CCC. T h e purp ose o f th e CCC w as to g i ve wo rk t o une mpl oye d yo un g m e n pr ov id e income t o th e ir f amilies, a nd r es tor e th e nati on's n a tur a l r esources. In r e turn f o r a n Army-lik e lifes tyl e, the re c ruit s rec e iv e d three meal s a day a nd a m o nthly a llowan ce. Of th e $30 a month e ach e nroll e e recei ve d a p o rti o n we nt h o me-u s u ally $2 5. Ora l hi s t o ries o f thr ee of th e e nr ollees fr o m M o r ga n County-M a rtin Goed e rt Donald N ai ll a nd Cecil W e t z b a r ge r -are in the collectio n of th e F o rt Morga n Museum.99 The ir s tori es ar e s imil ar. All three w e r e fr o m l a r ge famili es 98 Fort M o r g an Tim es, "Esta bli shment o f CCC Camp H e r e i s Co nt e mpl a t e d ," Febru a r y 7 1 93 4 99 M a rtin G oe d e rt int erv i ew, Jun e 6 2 0 08, tr a n sc ript Fo rt M o r ga n Mu seum, Fort M o r ga n C O ; D o n ald N a ill inte rvi e w M ay 2 9, 200 8, tr a n sc ript F o rt M o r ga n Mu se um Fo rt M o r ga n C O ; and Cecil W etz b a r ge r int e rvi e w M ay 29, 2008, tr a n sc ript, Fo rt M o r ga n Mu seum, For t M o r ga n C O 35

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wh o lived o n dry l a n d f a rm s Dur i n g the 1 93 0 s, t wo o f the f a mili e s l o s t th e ir f a rm s w hil e t h e thir d f a mil y f ell b e hin d in the i r t ax es but w as ev e ntu ally ab l e t o cat c h up. T h ey all r e p o rt ed th a t the allo tm e nt sent h o m e m ad e a d i ffe r e nce in the lives o f the ir f a mili e s Martin Go e d e rt, r e m e mbered th a t a good s hirt cos t seven ty f i ve cent s a nd a p a ir of s h oes w a s t wo a nd a h a l f d ollars thu s "you co uld get b y o n it. "1 00 Ea c h CCC ca mp w o rk e d with a governm e nt a g e ncy s u c h a s th e Fores t S e r v i ce, th e N atio n a l P a rk S e r v i c e, th e Bureau of Recla m atio n o r th e s t a t e p a rk sys t e m The t y p e of t a s k s e nr olle e s c a rri e d o ut dep e n d e d o n th e p a rtn e rin g agency's mi ss i o n Work varie d fro m devel o pin g publi c ca mp g r o unds, t o insec t contr o l and w eed era dicatio n t o buildin g r oa d s Som e e nr ollees e ve n fou g ht for e s t fir e s At l eas t thirt y three M o rgan Count y e nr ollees w e nt t o Camp NP 4 l oca t e d within R oc k y Mountain Nati o nal P a r k .1 0 1 One of th e m Donald N a ill r e m e mb e r e d buildin g trail s and battlin g a b eetle infestation th e r e. A f ter cuttin g d o wn trees they r emoved th e branches, burne d th e bu g -infe s t e d mat e rial, and c ut th e trunk s and bra nches into logs.1 0 2 Once th e e nr ollees peel e d th e b a rk from th e lo gs, the y u s ed th e m in cons tru c tion project s 100 Goede rt int e r v i ew 3 1 0 1 Li s t o f CCC Enr ollees fro m Mor ga n Co unty, 2 008, Fort M o r ga n Mu seum C ollectio ns, Fort M o r ga n Mu seum, Fo rt M o r g a n C O 102 N aill, inte rvi ew 4. 36

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Cecil W e t z bar gc r who was from Bru s h went t o a Soil Con se r va tion Service Camp n ca r S t e rling. Wh e n h e a rri ved a t the camp in April 1940 administ r a t ors gave him the ta sk of wate rin g tr ees. T h e othe r young e nr ollees were buildin g s tock p o nd s for cattl e but W e t z barger co uld n o t lift th e h eavy iron wheelbarrows fill e d with dirt h e wa s too skinn y a nd we a k H e persev e r e d and pro g res se d fr o m watering th e n ew l y plant ed l aw n a nd tr ees of the camp which h a d jus t bee n established, to working in the co mp a ny's kitchen. l co uldn t h a ndle th e wheelbarrows but I co uld h a ndl e a s p a tula ."10:; Like m a ny, Wet z bar ge r l earne d a vocational skill. After l eav in g the CCC h e worked for yea r s as a cook in r esta ur a nt s befor e e nt e rin g sa l es. 104 Others learn ed drafting m ec h a nic s, and carp e ntry. All three rem embe r e d th e food and were grateful for the opportunity to b e in th e CCC. They said they ate bett e r th a n did their familie s at home. Naill fondly remembers eating ic e cream at the camp. He thought it probably tasted so good '"Cause we hadn t had much of it. "1 05 According to Goedert the CCC "was a necessity for life, believe me. 'Cause we sure needed something to eat and that wa s a pleas ure to be there. "106 1 03 Wetzbarger int e rview, I and 2. 104 WeLzbarg e r interview 5. 1 05 Naill int e rvi ew, 9. 106 Go e d e rt, int e rview 6. 37

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Sa nit atio n Du e t o adva n ces in k nowl e d ge a h out di seases, th e recogniti o n of the imp o rt a nce o f publi c health and inc r eases in th e s t a nd a r d of livin g of m a n y A m erican s, th e health of m a n y c iti ze n s improv e d durin g th e early twe nti e th centur y 107 The lif e ex p ec t a n cy o f th e average American rose fro m 47.3 yea r s in 1900 t o 5 9 7 yea r s in 1 93 0 .1 08 Unfortun a t e ly a d va n ces in m e di cine a nd publi c health did n o t b e n e fit all Ame ri ca n s. F a mili es with l o w incom es oft e n l ive d in un sa nit a r y co nditi o n s, l ac k e d nutriti o u s food s, and did n ot h ave acce ss t o health c a re. Beca u se m os t p eople p aid f o r th e ir own m e dical ca r e m a n y did n o t see k a tt e nti o n unl ess th e ir injuri es o r s i c kn ess appear e d serio u s o r lif e threat e ning. Rura l f a mili es faced se v e ral health chall e n ges. Sanitatio n wa s poor o n f arms a nd a lmo s t n o n ex i s t e nt in ag ricultur a l field s wh e r e beet w o rk e r s toil e d They liv e d with out runnin g water which made it hard to keep both th e ir homes a nd th e mselv es clea n Famili es drank a nd irrigated with water contaminated by anim a l excrement and th e discharge of outhouses In addition life on farm s was hazard o u s. The F o rt M o r g an Tim es provid es numero u s e xampl e s of death s from di sease, a s well a s injuri es and fata l iti es from a ccident s invo l ving farm equipme nt, g en e r a t o r s, and 107 J o hn Duffy, The S anit arians: A Hist ory o f Am eric an Pu b li c H e alth ( Urb a na and Chicago: The Univer sity o f Illin o i s Pr ess, 1990), 256 108 Duffy, The Sa nitaria n s 2 56 38

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unpred i c t ab l e a nim a ls.1 09 Pri o r to e l e c tri city f amilies r elied on kero se n e which wa s hig hly flammable. for lig htin g Ac c ident s with fir es f rom k it c h e n s to ves maimed a nd killed people .110 Whe n someon e o n a farm g ot s i ck o r hurt, th e y usually had t o travel lon g di s t a nces o n unpaved roads to get tr ea tm e nt. Until th e New Deal lo ca l governm e nt s pr ov ided m os t public health ser v i ces and their s tren g th a nd effectiveness varie d g reatly.111 In Morgan County th e county commiss i o n e r s p aid physicians in some of the l o c a l tow n s t o provide care for the indigent populati o n a nd som e of the sc h oo l s h ad nur s e s Durin g th e 1930s, th e United States Publi c Health Service, th e Colorad o State Board of Health a nd va riou s M o r ga n Count y e l ec t ed bodies a nd communit y organizations worked with New Deal agen c i es t o improve publi c health in Morgan County. New Deal money funded nur s in g services t o screen for di seases, and teach nutrition and sanitation. Federal fund s went towa rd the construction of sewage treatment facilities and privies.112 1 09 Diphth e ria T a k es Lif e of Gerladeen J oc hum ," Fort M organ Tim es, M e l vin Akers B ad l y Burn e d Is R ecove rin g," Fort Morgan Tim e s D ecember 9 1 936; "Fa mily of 8 Vic tim s of Gas," Fort M o r ga n Tim es, Janu a r y 22, 1937 ; "Accidenta l D eaths Exceed War Fatalities, Fort M o r ga n Times, Jul y I I 937; Red Cross L a unche s Accident Prevention Campa i g n Again," Fort Morgan Tim es N ove mber 2, 1937 ; and "Six Burn e d t o D eath in B arn," Fort Morgan Tim es, N ove mb e r I9 1 937. 110 B etty Harri s 5, W eldo n a Di es fro m Burns Friday, Fort Morgan Tim es, M arc h 20 1937; and "Fo ur D ead in Orchard Fire," Fort M o r gan Tim es, March I 1 931. 11 1 Duffy The Sanitarian s, 256. 112 Some of the public h ea lth efforts hav e a lr eady b ee n discus s ed in this p a per-su c h as the schoo l lun c h programs in the ed u catio n sec tion 39

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FERA. a nd the n its offs h oo t C W A, paid f o r a v i s itin g nur se t o se r ve Morga n Count y in th e w int e r of 1 934.11' The nur se c all e d o n s i ck l ow-inco m e r eside nt s a n d adv i sed rural famili es o n preventativ e m atte r s s u c h as the imp o rt a n ce of a pr o p e r diet a nd h o m e sa nit atio n Thi s se r v i ce e nd e d with th e d e mi se of the CW A in the s prin g of the sam e year. According to a l oca l a dmini s tr ato r th e project pro vide d eco nomi c b e nefit s, and h e argued in favor of c ont inuin g s u c h a pro g ram. Man y fa mili es in thi s county n eed adv ice o n diet a nd s anita tion It i s b elieved th a t certain types of illne ss can be r e duced thr o u g h co rr ec t ins tru ctio n t o certain cla sses of the people of thi s county .... It i s very des ir ab l e that thi s proje c t co ntinu e as valuabl e eco nomi c results will b e obtain e d throu g h it being ex t e nd ed."114 In 19 35 Con g r ess passed the Soc i a l Security Act. In a ddition to providing retirement pen s ion s, th e ac t provid ed funds to s t a t es for un employme nt in s uranc e, maternal and child car e, care for th e blind and public health services in general. In October of 1936 the State Board of Health Divi s ion of Public Health hired Mary Robin so n to serve Morgan County as a public health nurse .1 1 5 She canied out health screenings in sc hool s that did not hav e sc hool nur ses, assisted in clinic s for crippled children, and immunized preschoolers. She also gave advice on maternity 113 U .S. Civil W orks Admini s tr atio n "Applic atio n s f or Approval of Civi l W o rk s Pr o j ects (For m s L34) and Report s of Co mpl e t e d Transferred o r Discontinued Pr ojects (Fonns S-16), M o r ga n County Colorado"; (Microfiche R ee l 1 2); R ecords of the Work s Progre ss Administration R ecord Group 69 ; N at ional Archive s at College P ark, Coll ege P a rk MD d ocume nt n o. 26534 114 R eco rds of th e Work s Progr ess Admini s tration Rec o rd Group 69 d ocume nt n o. 26 534. 115 "New County Nur se Take s up Duti es in Public He a lth Pla n ," Fort M o r ga n Tim es, October 6 1 936. 40

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a n d infant c a r e a ss i s t e d t h e l o c a l h e a l t h board s o n th e c o ntr o l o f communic ab l e di ea ses and g av e h o m e ins tru ctio n on how to c a r e for tho se suffe rin g f r o m s u c h illn e ss e s Robinso n worked with es t a bli s h e d o r g anizatio n s w ithin th e community -coop e r a tin g w ith l o c a l s c hool s PT As o n immuni za ti o n progr a m s .116 S h e a l so t a u g ht R e d C r oss h o m e h y g i e n e cl asses a nd cl asses in carin g f o r s i c k famil y m embe r s t o t h e m a n y wom e n s club s .1 1 7 In a d d iti o n t o f un ding program s a im e d a t e ducatin g t h e publi c about th e d a n ge r s o f un s anita r y c o nditi o n s New D ea l progr a m s in M o r ga n Count y carri e d o ut con s tru ctio n pr o j ec t s t o deal w ith th e pr oble m. Sewage di s p os al m o r e acc ur a t e l y th e l ac k of t h e tr ea tm e nt of r aw sewage, was a health p roble m in th e county as in othe r part s of Col o r a d o. 118 M o s t c iti es a nd t o wn s, includin g Bru s h a nd F o rt M o r ga n dumpe d untrea t e d sewage into rive r s a nd s tr eams. In 19 3 4 th e Col o rado M edica l A ss ociation publi s hed two pape r s b y Dr. Edward Chapman o n th e pre v a l e nc e of filth di seas es"-typhoid fev e r a m ebic d yse nter y, and infectiou s diarrh e a in it s journal Col o rad o M e di cine.119 Amo n g hi s 1 1 6 "Miss R o bin s o n G i v es Sc h edule a t M ay M ee t ," F ort M o r ga n T i m es, M a y 1 4 1 937 117 New Co unt y N u rse Takes up Duti es in Publi c Health Pla n ," F ort M o r g an Tim e s Oc t o b e r 6 1 936 1 1 8 Co l o r a d o D e p a r t m e n t of Publi c H ea lth Public H ea lth Informatio n Offi ce H ea l t h i n Co l orado : The Fir s t On e H undre d Y e a r s ( D e n ve r : Col o r a d o D e p a rtm e nt of H ea lth Publi c Informat i o n Offi ce 1 969), 2 4 119 E dward C h a pm a n 'Th e M e n ace t o Lif e and H ea lth from Impr o p e r S e wage Di s p osa l in Co l o r a d o ," C o l orado M e di c in e T h e Co l o r a do Stat e Medi ca l S o ci ety, V ol. 3 1 N o. I ( Jan., 193 4 ) 4 1 0 ; a nd S ewage Di s p osal-A M a j o r Publi c H ea lth Pr oble m in C o l o r a d o," Col o rad o M e di c in e Th e Co l o r a d o S ta t e M edica l S oc i e t y Vol. 3 1 N o I 0 ( O ct., 1 93 4 ) 337-34 2 41

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findings. th e annu a l d ea th r a t e of c hildr e n und e r th e age t wo wh o di e d fro m dia rrhea and ente riti s in Col o r a d o b e tw ee n 1929 and 1931 w as d o ubl e th e n atio n a l averag e.120 H e attribut e d th e hig h di se a se rat es t o th e la c k of se w age tr e atm e nt f ac iliti es a nd th e commo n but ill egal, pra ctice of dumping r a w se wage int o s tream s u se d f o r . 1 2 1 1rn gat10n. Mos t o f our c iti es and t o wn s p o ur it [ sewage] untr ea t e d int o o ur s tream s a nd riv e r s s tr ea m s a nd riv e r s whi c h du e to th e ir s m all s ize and dry clim a t e, in m os t ins t a n ces a r e totall y ina d e qu a t e to dilut e o r purify pro p erly th e stuff we dump into th em. Mos t of our s tr e am s b e low o ur prin c ipal town s a r e th e r e for e, s impl y ope n sewe r s a nd ba c t erio logi cally r e m ain s o for the bal a nce o f their cour se throu g h our s t a te. These ar e th e s tream s with whic h w e . k d 122 1rngate o ur tru e gar e n s On a m a p C h apma n id e ntifi e d counti es with hig h e r th a n th e n atio n a l average annu a l death rates from diarrh e a and ente ritis and typhoid a nd lab e l e d so m e riv e r s a s "gro ss y contaminate d by sewage. 123 He mark e d both Morgan C o unt y a nd th e South Platt e River a s contaminated Typhoid fever o c curred twic e as o ften a s th e national rate in the thirty-one countie s with gros s ly contaminated s tr e am s, and th e rate of diarrhea and enteriti s in children under the age of two was almo s t triple Chapman claimed that there was an epidemic of diarrhea every year in Colorado wh e n produce grown on farms irrigated with contaminated water reach e d the 1 2 C h a pm a n Sew age Dis posa l ," 3 38. 121 C hapm a n The M enac e to Life and Health ," 9 1 2 2 Chapman 'The M e n ac e t o Life and H e alth, 4 1 2 3 Ch a pm a n "The M e n a c e t o Life and H ea lth 7. 42

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. m a rk et. H e was n o t th e o nl y o n e to vo 1ce co ncern. In 1 932, Col o rado s t a t e h ea lth offi c i a l s m e t w ith health officer s and count y a n d city offi c i a l s f rom Morgan W e l d, Adam s a n d D e nver Coun t i es t o discu ss the ir r igatio n of ve ge t a bl es w ith untreat ed sewage.1 2 5 Health offic i a l s threat e n e d t o b a r produce irrigat e d with cont aminate d wat e r f ro m publi c sal e a nd prohibit it fro m c rossin g s tate lin e s In 1 93 6 th e c it y of Bru s h s p o n so r e d a WPA pro ject t o con s tru c t a s e wage treatment pl a nt.126 F o rt M o rgan f ollowed in 1 938.127 Both built s im p l e sewage di s posal pl a nt s b ase d o n th e m o difi e d Imhoff prin c ipl e. The Imh o f f t a nks cont a in ed two c h ambe rs: a n upp e r c h ambe r w here sedimentatio n took p lace a n d a lower c h ambe r w h e r e micr o bes a naer o bically d i ges t ed th e slud ge. T h e constructi o n of t h e pl a nt in Brus h took seven months a nd e mployed twel ve WPA w o rk e r s .128 124 C h a pm a n Th e M e n ace t o Life a nd H ea lth I 0 ; Acco r ding t o C h a pm a n the n e i g hb o rin g s t a t es of K a n sas, N eb r as k a, a nd W yo min g h a d fewer "fi lth diseases" tha n Col o r a d o b eca u s e farm e r s did n o t u se sewage-co nt a min a t ed wa te r f o r irri gatio n purp oses. See M e n ace t o Lif e and H ea l t h ," 5 125 Co l o r a d o D e p a rtm e nt of Publi c H ea lth H e a l t h in Col orad o, 27 126 Ph o t o Album with Tex t c ir ca 1 9361 9 4 0, Pho t o A l bum 4 00, B ox 9, Pho t o 1 90, W PA P h oto Collectio n W es t ern Hi s t o r y a nd G e n ea l ogy Collection. D e n ve r Public Libr a ry. 127 T h o u g h the c it y o f Fo rt M o r ga n carried out the p r e limin a r y p l a nnin g for a W P A projec t t o buil d a pla nt in 1 936, the c it y council t oo k n o actio n B y J anua r y of 1 938 all t h e c iti es dep os itin g sewage in th e So uth Pl a tt e exce pt for Fort Co llins, L o n g m o nt and F ort M o r ga n h a d co mpli ed w ith th e St a t e B oard of H ea th's r e qu est t o co n struc t pla nts. T h e d ir ec t o r of sa nit a r y e n ginee rin g f o r t h e S t a te B oa rd of H ea lth a tt e nd e d a Fort M o r ga n City Coun cil m ee tin g a n d as k e d for the city's coope r atio n Th o u g h i t was w ithin the power of the b oa rd t o c o mp e l t h e city to build a se wage pla nt, t h e e n g ineer a d v i se d th e b oa rd w o uld pr e f e r t o h a v e the c ity d o it of it s ow n vo liti o n ." F ort M o r ga n co n s tru c t e d it s pla nt l a te r tha t y ear. S ee Wirin g, Plumbin g, Heatin g Bid s f o r Fir e H o u se, Jail Ar e Le t b y City Co un cil," F o rt M o r ga n Tim es, O c t obe r 7 1936; a n d "Cit y M ay B e R equired t o Build a Sewage Trea tm ent Pl ant," F o r t M o r ga n Times J anua r y 1 9, 1 938. 128 U nb o und S c r a pb ook, 1 93 5 1 941, MS S #689 C HS. 43

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Whil e m a n y families in Brush and Fort Morgan h ad indoor p l u m bing rural r eside nt s, tho se in the s m alle r towns, a n d s tud e nts at countr y sc h oo l s still r elied o n pri v i es, a l so known as o uth ouses. Some o uth o u ses were co n s tru c t ed over pit s whil e others had drain s tha t e mpti e d int o the So uth Platte. N e ith e r disp osed of exc rem e nt in a sanitary wayb oth co nt a min a t ed water so urc es. It was impossible to ke e p mo s t outhouses clea n a nd they ofte n b ec am e breeding g round s for flies, a known vector for di sease. Durin g th e New Deal the U nit ed States Publi c H ea lth Service carried o ut a mass iv e campai g n t o e du ca t e the publi c a b o ut the dangers of unsa nit a r y o uth o u ses a nd e nc o ur age d state a nd l oca l h ea lth departments t o carry o ut progr a m s th a t constructed sa nit ary privies in accordance with h ea lth se r v ice plan s a nd specifications. Ofte n calle d fly -tig ht privi es, these WPA-cons tructed s tructure s had several features that made them a vast improvement over their prede cesso rs. The privies had concrete s l a b floor s and sea t rise rs This provided a washable s urface, and in conjunction with a receptacle lid prevented flie s from reachin g the waste matter. The rec e ptacl e (s ub s tru c tur e) had a sc reened ve nt pipe to allow odors to escape, and the pri vy building h a d s h e lt e r e d openings at the top of th e four walls to allow ventilation. W o rk e r s equipped doors with springs to ensure that the y remained consistently closed. A key fundamental of the success of the new fly-tight privy was location The U.S. Public Health Service released specifications on where workers should dig the pits for the privie s : at least a hundred feet from any well, spring, or 44

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sour ce of do m estic wa t e r n eve r l ess th a n fift y feet-and o n g r ound t h a t was dow n I "'J s l o p e fr o m the wa t e r s uppl y A n a dmini s tr a t o r dir ec t e d th e count y w id e WPA pri vy pr o j ec t o ut of th e l o c a l Rura l Resettl e m e nt Div i s i o n office.130 The Rur a l Resettl e m e nt Di v i s i o n was p a r t of th e Resettl e m e nt Admini s tr a tion (RA), a N e w D e al a genc y a im e d at comba tin g rur a l poverty.1 3 1 B y th e tim e th e N e w Deal was o v e r WPA work e r s built a nd in s t alle d a lm os t 32, 000 s a nit a r y pri v i es ac r os s Col o r a d o .1 3 2 A few o f these a rtifact s s till d o t th e countr yside in M o r ga n County. Road s and Brid ges The New D ea l improved th e country's tran s portation infra s tru cture. Hi ghway, road a nd bridge project s m a d e up a lar g e part of governme nt s p e ndin g during th e Gre at D e pre ss ion. From the beginning Morgan County encouraged these efforts. In 193 4 an e arly New Deal a g ency, the CW A hired unemploye d m e n to 129 U S Trea s ur y D e p ar tm e nt Publi c H e alth S e r v i ce, The Sa nita ry Pri vy, Suppl e m e nt t o N o. I 0 8 t o the Publi c H ea lth R e p orts ( Washin g t o n DC: GPO, 1933 ) 6-7 130 Pri vy Pr o j ec t s t o S t art H e r e in the Int e r es t o f Public H ea lth ," F ort M o r g an Tim es, J anua r y 2 4 1 936 1 3 1 In 193 7 the R esettle m e nt Admini s tr atio n ( RA ) b eca m e p a rt of a n o th e r N e w D ea l c reatio n the F a rm S e curit y Admini s tration (FSA) 132 Wick e n s, Col o r a d o in th e G r e at D epress i o n 412 45

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g r a d e a n d g r ave l roads fee din g th e hig h way near th e town s of Brus h Ga ry, Hillr ose. S n yde r and W eldo na. m This effo r t co ntinu e d w ith l a t e r agen c i es lik e the WPA. Car own e r s hip r o se dra m atically durin g the 1920 s a n d 1 930 s, t h e refo r e r oads beca m e a hig h pri o rit y for th e f e d e r a l a nd s t a t e governme nt. ln rur a l areas, age n c i es wo r king w ith agric ultur a l communiti es sa w impr oved farmt om a r ket r oa d s as cruc i al. Fo r those living in th e countryside, r oa d improvem e nt s a l s o m e a nt b e tt e r acce ss t o e du catio n a nd health ca r e In a dditi o n the co n s tru ctio n o f road s, sewers, a n d b rid ges was l a b o r i nt e n s i ve, p rov i d in g o pp o r t uniti es to e mpl oy m any wo rk e rs. Co mmuniti es value d thi s w o rk. Accordin g t o a his t oric preser vatio n s ur vey publi s h e d b y Col o r a d o Preserv a tion Inc in 2008, WPA w o rk e r s ca rri e d o ut r oa d . C I d 114 tm prove m e nt pro Ject s tn e v e r y eas t e rn o ora o county. Thi s f oc u s o n tr a n s portation w as es peci a ll y c ritical t o M o r ga n County's r eco v e r y followin g a d e vastatin g flood of th e South Pl a tt e a nd it s tribut ar i es on May 31, 1935 The flood w as h e d out most of the county's brid g e s and ro a d s a nd i s olated town s and resid e nt s A s a result the s tate highwa y d epartme nt a nd th e M o r g an Count y Commiss i o n e r s sponsore d the con s tructi o n of over fift y brid ges a nd c ountle ss mil es of ro a d s by WPA laborer s .135 Farmers made b a dl y need e d e xtra 133 U.S. C i vil W o rk s Admini s tr atio n Appli catio n s f o r App rova l of C i vil W o rks Pr o j ects (Fo rm s L 34) and R e p o rt s o f Co mpl e t e d Tra n s f e rred o r Disco ntinu e d P ro j ec t s ( F orms S 1 6), M o r ga n C ounty, Co l o r a d o"; (Microfic h e R ee l 12); R e c o rd s of th e Work s P rog r ess Admini s tr at i o n R ecord Group 69 ; Natio n a l Ar chives at College P a rk C o lle ge P ar k MD. 134 Abigail C hri s tm a n "The N e w D ea l Le gacy o n Co l o r a do's Eas t ern Plains," ( D e n ve r : Co l o r a d o Pr ese rv atio n Inc : 200 8) 26. 46

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incom e by re ntin g o ut th e ir h o r ses f o r u sc o n the pr o j ec ts. In addition t o g rad in g a nd g ravelin g farm to-mark e t road s a n d count y hig h ways. WPA w orkers manufactured d II d I ki I I 16 a n m s ta e mt e r oc' n g pre-ca s t con c re t e c u verts. In Fort M o rgan resid e nt s b e n e fited from a new s t o rm se w e r sys tem. In order to obtain the matching funds requir e d for th e WPA project, the c ity created storm sewer di s trict s, a nd re s id e nt s paid a n assessm e nt. 137 The fac t that th ey were willing t o do so durin g th e tr y in g economi c times s p e ak s volumes abo ut the ir suppo rt of th e project. At it s p eak, th e proj ec t e mployed 140 m e n The c it y also s ponsored the m a nufa c tur e and in s t alla tion of c urb s a nd g utt e r s o n c it y s treets. A local r es ident remembe r e d what it was like befor e WPA workers ca n i e d out the proje c ts. "After the y finally put in the c urb s and g utt e r s, a nd th e n eventu ally put th e black top on it, it was heaven. Befor e we had rut s .... [The road s ] were jus t dirt and, of course, there was nowhere for the water to go before they put the c urb s and gutters in so the streets would just be a mess. It was jus t a different kind of world."138 135 This s t atistic talli ed by the author u sing the minutes of the M orga n County B oard Commissioners (vol. 7 56) September 16, 1935, 56 ; and the WPA photo a lbum s in the WPA Pho t o Collection of th e W es tern His tory and Genealogy Collection a t the D enve r Publi c Libr ary. 136 Unbound S c rapbook I 935-1941 MSS #689 CHS. 137 "Owner's Share of Improv e ment i s $4,043," Fort M o r gan Tim es, Jul y 9, 1 936. 138 Zittle, int e rvi ew, I. 47

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P u blic W o r k s Ad mini s tr atio n P r o j ec t s Th e Publi c W o rk s A dmini s tr atio n ( PW A) o n e o f Roosevelt's f ir s t N e w D ea l ex p e rim e nt s, ex i s t ed f r o m 1 933 t o 1 939.139 T h o u g h people o ft e n co n f u se th e PW A w ith th e WPA, th e two wer e ve r y di ffe r e nt. Ins t ead of wo rkin g w ith a local s pon so r a nd hirin g un e mployed l a b o r e r s lik e the WPA, the PW A award e d g r a nt s to p ubli c b o di es f o r con s tru ctio n Publi c b o di es includ e d th e f e d e r a l gove rnm e nt s t a t es, counti es, c iti es, a n d oth e r p ubli c age n c i es. T h e publi c b o dy, r e f e rr e d t o as t h e o wn e r would th e n hir e a pri va t e contr ac t o r T h u s, thi s age n cy a tt empte d t o pump fund s in to th e pri va t e sec t or. T h e own e r p aid 55 per cent of t h e t o t a l pr o ject cost a nd th e PW A award e d g rant s for th e r e m a inin g 45 p e rcent.1 4 Fo r the m os t p a rt PW A pr o j ec t s wer e mu c h l a r ge r th a n WPA p ro j ec t s, a nd th ey incl ud e d s tru ctures th a t n o n -s kill e d l a bor co uld n o t t ackle T h e PW A built c it y h os pit a l s, college librari es, s t a t e penit e ntiari es, a nd s t a t e capit a ls. Counties and local governments acro ss th e nation took advantage of New Deal pro grams t o con s tru c t fa c ilitie s th a t th e y need e d The PW A award e d three g rant s for proje c t s in M o r g an County: two t o th e City of Fort Morg an a nd one to th e county. In 1935 th e C it y o f Fmt Morg an appli e d fo r a PW A grant to h e lp build a n e w firehou s e and c ity j a il. The loca l pape r d es crib e d the structure a s Fort 1 39 In 1 93 9 th e f e d e r a l gove rnm e nt tr a n sfe rr e d the PW A WP A Publi c R o ad s Admini st r atio n and U nit e d Stat es H o u s in g A u t h o rit y t o the Fe d era l W o rk s A ge n cy. 140 U S Publi c W o r ks A dmini s tr atio n Pub l ic Buil d ings: A r c h i t ec tur e und e r th e Pub li c W orks A d mini s tr atio n 1 933 t o 1 939 ( W as hin g t o n D C: Gove rnm e nt Printin g Offi ce, 1 939) VI. 48

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M o r ga n's g r e at es t need.''141 Wh e n compl e t e d the buildin g incl uded q u arte r s for th e f ir e d e p a r t m e nt office s pace for the police d e p a rtm e nt. a nd a j ail in t h e b ase m e nt. The buil ding i s s till ex t a nt a nd r e m ains h o m e t o th e F ort M o r ga n F ir e Departm e nt. In 1937 th e C i ty of F ort Morga n r eques t e d a g r a nt t o enla r ge a n d improve th e muni c ip a l p o w e r pl a nt. In 1 938 F ort M o rgan received a PWA g rant of $ 1 35,000a f e d e r a l governm e nt contributi o n th a t e qu a led 45 p e rcent of th e $300,000 estima t e d cos t of th e proj ect.142 Acco rdin g t o th e c it y s up e rint e nd e nt th e power pla nt was t axe d a lm os t t o ca p ac it y," and th e p l a nt need e d t o b e e nl a rged f o r futur e need s a n d e m e rgen c i es. Improvem e nt s includ e d purchasing a nd in s tallin g new ge n e r a tin g equipme nt a nd a ddin g a wing t o the po w e r pl a nt buildin g. T o d ay th e c i ty u ses th e buildin g for th e ir m a int e n a n ce d e p a r t m e nt s In Au g u s t 1 93 5 th e county commi ss ion e r s a ppli e d f o r a g r a nt t o build a n e w c ourthou se. The proj ect moved forward quicldy.1 43 B y December they w e r e taking con s truction bid s .1 44 They brok e g round on December 31 and laid th e corners ton e 1 4 1 New F ir e h o u se a n d J ail Will Pr o vid e City With L o n g N ee d e d Structur e," F o r t M o r gan Tim es, Jul y 27, 1 936. 1 4 2 C it y R ece iv es Allot m e nt t o Enla r ge Pla nt ," F ort M o r ga n Tim es, Jun e 2 3 1938. 143 The co unty c o uld move qui ckly be ca u se it a lr ea d y h a d it s s h a r e o f the c on s tru ctio n cos t s o f the n e w co urth o u se. The co unt y r a i se d the fund s throu g h a mill l evy pri o r to th e Grea t D e pr ess i o n S ee M o r ga n County t o H ave Complet ely N e w Courth o u se," F o rt M o r ga n Tim es, April 8 1936 144 M o r ga n Count y B oa rd o f C ommi ss i o n e rs, Pr ocee din gs ( v ol. 7 93) D ece mb e r 2 1 1 93 5 49

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o n Ma r c h ll, 1 936.1 4 T h e pro ject m oved f o r wa r d so fast because th e count y a lr ea d y h a d it s s h a re o f th e con s tru ctio n cos t s o f the n ew courth o use.14c T h e co unt y h ad r a i se d th e f un d s thr o u g h a mill levy pri o r t o the G rea t D epressi o n b ut h es it a t e d t o b uil d for fea r o f go in g int o d e bt. The PW A pr ov id ed t h e i r opp o rtunity. Ori g inall y th e county p lanne d t o re tain th e o ld courth o use, con s tru c t a new a dditi o n a nd th e n r e m o d e l th e i nt erio r a nd ex t erio r of the old bui lding t o confo rm t o th e new a dditi on. However a s th e ne w a dditi o n n ea r e d co mpl etio n th e count y commi ss i o n e r s c h a nged th e ir minds -aft e r meetin g w ith th e a r c hitecta n d d ec id e d t o t ea r d o wn th e orig in a l structure a nd build th e new courth o use as o n e com p l e t e buildin g.1 4 7 Th e Fort M o rgan Tim es appl a ud e d the ir d ec i s i o n The newsp a p e r d esc ribed th e orig in a l pla n as ha v in g a "$100 ,000 a ddi t i o n t o a $ 19,000 b uilding."148 T h e r es ultin g beauti f ul M o d e rni s tic -s t y l e county courth o u se w ith A rt Deco d e t a ilin g s till ser ves the community. 145 M o r ga n Count y B oard of C ommi ss ion e r s, Pr ocee din gs (vol. 7, 9 6), D ecembe r 3 1 1 935; and Buildin g i s Rig ht W ay t o E nd D e pr ess i o n S ays G o v John so n Durin g Co urt H o u se Exe r c i ses," For t M o r ga n Tim es, M a r c h 1 2, 1 936. 1 4 6 M o r ga n Co unt y t o H ave Comp l e te l y N ew Co urth o u se," F ort M o r ga n Tim es A pril 8, 1 936 147 Old Co urth o u se t o b e R aze d a nd Bui l l Like New Additi o n "Fort M o rgan T im es, A pril 7 1 936 1 4 8 M o r ga n Count y t o H ave Co mplet e ly N e w Co urth o u se," F ort M o r ga n Tim es, A pril 8, 1 936. so

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Collaboratio n Betw ee n th e Fed e r a l and S t a t e Gove rnm e nt s and Mor g a n County Gover no r Edwi n C. J ohnso n s p o k e at th e corne r s to n e ce r e m o n y for t h e new M o rga n Count y Cour tho use.1 4 9 J ohnso n de s pite b e i n g a D emocrat, d i d not s u ppo r t th e New Deal a nd resen ted fed e r a l int e r ve nti o n H e wa s deepl y devoted t o th e West e rn values, o r m y th s, of indi v idu alis m a nd local r es po n s ibility. At th e corn e r s t o n e cer e m o n y fo r th e new courth o u se, h e vo i ced his di sdain for t h e fe d e r a l governm e nt a nd pr aised local governm e nt s for bei n g in to u c h w ith local needs. Acco rdin g t o th e For t M orga n T i m es, h e s tressed the imp o rt a nce of local governm e nt in county, town a nd sc hool aff a ir s in con t r a s t w ith n at i o n a l governm e nt whic h i s so f a r removed fr o m th e local community. The r e i s n eed f o r diffe r e nt b r a n c h es of governm e nt. Local governme nt i s dealt with b y peopl e w h o a r e famili a r w ith th e con d iti o n s a nd need s whi c h i s n o t possibl e b y a dmini s tr atio n of publi c affa ir s f r o m a di s t a n ce.1 50 J o hn so n gave th e s peech ir onically a t cel ebratio n of a buildin g pro j ec t p a rti a ll y funde d with f e d e r a l d o ll a rs. Hi s comme nt s m ay have been cli c h e d a ntiNew Deal rh e t o ri c, but they ac tu ally h e lp t o ex pl ain w h y f e d e r a l e f fo rt s in M o rgan Count y wer e so s uccessful-all th e level s of governme nt wer e in vo l ve d in can ying o ut local project s. As thi s th es i s explo r es, New Deal e r s d id n o t impose pr o j ec t s 149 "Big E d ," as J o hn so n was calle d serve d as governo r o f Co l orado f r o m 1 933 t o 1 937. H e the n serve d as a Unit e d St a t es S e n a t o r ( 1 93 7 1 955) b e f o r e r e turnin g t o Co l ora d o t o se r ve a second t e rm as governo r ( 1 9 5 51 9 57). 150 Buildin g i s Rig ht W ay t o End D e pr ess i o n Says Gov. J ohnso n D urin g Co urt H o u se Exe r c i ses ," F ort M o r ga n Tim es, M arc h 1 2, 1 936 51

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r e m ote l y from Wa s hin g t on. r athe r the l oca l co m mun i t y advoca t e d for project s and collabo r a t e d with f e d e ral and sta t e age n c i es. F urth ermo re, gove rnm ent worke r s w h o t ook up r eside n ce in M o r ga n County. like the co unt y ex t e n s i o n a gent a n d the v i s itin g nur se w h ose sa lari es we r e paid parti ally w ith f e d e r a l fund s, brid ged the ga p b etwee n Wa s hin g ton and the l oca l co mmunity. Th e following c h a pt e r do c um e nt s the ex hibiti o n that I c uratecl for the Fort Mor ga n Mu se um based o n thi s n a rr ative. The co n c ludin g c h a pt e r pr ovides an evaluatio n o f the exhibit i o n 52

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CHAPTER 3 THE EXHIBITION FIGURE 3.1 Remembering Morgan County s New Deal. The exhibition installed in one-half of the lower gallery of the Fort Morgan Museum covered one thousand square feet. This chapter includes a map of the exhibition all of the exhibition labels and photographs of the sections. I arranged the text and photographs in the same order as a visitor walking through the exhibition would view the material. 53

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Ed t Map A uca wn V Trunk adio ectn mg El ry M County 1vilian Conservation Corps Getting Help isitors On the Edge of the Dust Bowl D P dof 0 nd Fannin n ctJve fJ Ag1tator Farm Life in the 1930s The Agricultural Depression The Great Depression .--------, Calendar from j L Fai l ed Bank 'Jnel Bank Stock Certificates 1930s Vi nette Reed Chair Sanitation Sewage Treatmen Plant Blueprint WP A Fly-tight Privy R eplica Roads and Bridges Public Works Administration Projects Letter uilt rame Photograph of Presi ent Warren G. Harding jvisit+ Book FIGURE 3.2 Map of Remembering Morgan County's New Deal. 54

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Introductory Panel FIGURE 3.3 Introductory Panel. Exhibit Title: Remembering Morgan County's New Deal Introductory Label: During the Great Depression of the 1930s the citizens of Morgan County carried out many projects to improve their communities better their lives and provide jobs in a rough economy. In those difficult times they often cooperated with the state and federal agencies that reached out to them as part of the New Deal. Federal programs offered Morgan County improved sanitation farm-to-market roads and electricit y to rural residents. They also provided recreational programs for youth educational classes for adults hot lunches for school age children clothes for the needy income for impoverished families subsidies for desperate farmers and ranchers and jobs for young men The photographs y ou will see in this exhibit are from the collections of the Denver Public Library the Colorado Historical Society the Colorado State Archives the Fort Morgan Fire Department the Morgan County Extension Office and the Morgan 55

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County Rural Electric Association. The objects are from the Fort Morgan Museum permanent collections or on temporary loan from local community members. Acknowledgement Label: This exhibit was made possible by a generous gift from the Morgan County Rural Electric Association. 56

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1930s Vignette FIGURE 3.4 1930s Vignette on Riser. Captions and Objects: (Rocking Chair Fort Morgan Museum Collection: A-1979.006.0007)1 5 1 Chair Circa 1930s An itinerant laborer made this chair from willows along the Platte River here in Morgan County Donated by Theodore Hawes 1 5 1 For the ease of the reader infonnation pertaining to the objects described in the captions is enclosed in parentheses including the fonnal title of the artifact (if known) or a description. 57

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(Quilt Fort Morgan Museum Collection: A-1985.021.0001) Friendship Quilt Circa 1929 This quilt features the embroidered signatures of members of the Friendly Club and other women from Hillrose. Donated by Agnes Honebein (Framed Photograph of Warren G Harding Fort Morgan Museum : P-2008.036.000 1) Signed Portrait of President Warren G. Harding May 19, 1921 Presented to Miss Pauline Trumbo of Fort Morgan. (Letter Fort Morgan Museum Collection: D-XXXX.002.0564b) Letter from Gwendalyn Williams Pearson May 13, 1940 The letter on the chair is from Gwendalyn Pearson of Tiskilwa Illinois. She was a teacher at North Star School from 1932 to 1935. In 1940 she wrote her former students thanking them for a friendship quilt. Here are excerpts: I have many memories associated in my three years with you. In fact the dust storms muddy roads snowdrifts rattle snakes and other hazards seem almost fantastic to me now. Out here a crop failure is practically an unknown thing but still the people grumble and are discontent. I wish they could be transplanted among you to learn lessons in cheerfulness and thankfulness in a land where things are not so easy to obtain. 58

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The Great Depression the Agricultural Depression and Farm Life in the 1930s FIGURE 3.5 Sections on the Great Depression the Agricultural Depression and Farm Life in the 1930s. Group Label: The Great Depression The Great Depression lasted from 1929 to 1941, a period defined by the stock market crash in October of 1929 to America s entry into World War II. During the Depression banks failed both manufacturing and construction dramatically declined and farmers who already faced a depressed market were further hampered by the Dust Bowl. Unemployment rates skyrocketed-in 1933 a quarter of the American labor force was out of work. Of those who had jobs many found themselves working part time. Captions and Objects: (Calendar Fort Morgan Museum Collection : A-1982.042.0060) Calendar from Peoples Bank in Fort Morgan 1932 Donated by Regina Borchardt The Peoples Bank in Fort Morgan closed in December of 1935 59

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(Photocopy of Newspaper Article) Hillrose Bank Quits Business December 17, 1932 Fort Morgan Tim e s Between 1929 and 1933 one in five banks in the United States closed their doors including the Hillrose Bank Group Label: The Agricultural Depression During World War I and the 1920s many American ranchers and farmers enjoyed boom years as they fed a war torn and later recovering Europe Some borrowed money to enlarge their acreage and invest in new technology like tractors in order to increase their production. Their increased production combined with a decreased demand for their products by the late 1920s caused commodity prices to drop and as a result many farmers could no longer pay their taxes or debts Captions and Objects: (Photocopy of Advertisement in Newspaper) Public Sale March 13, 1937 Fort Morgan Tim es (Black and White Photographs of Tractor Fort Morgan Museum Collection : P1987.005.0001 and P-1987 .005 .0002) M. J. Goedert and Tractor 1927 Donated by Martin Goedert (Left) Photo ofM. J. Goedert standing by a 1927 Avery Tractor model 2550. This photo was taken on theM. J. Goedert Farm located south of Fort Morgan (Right) Photo of the same Avery Tractor with a belt attached to the belt pulley in action on the Goedert farm Group Label: Farm Life in the 1930s While urban America felt the pains of the Depression in rural areas conditions were in many ways worse. Living in the country was not easy. Few farms or ranches had 60

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electricity or telephones roads were poor and there was no running water or plumbing in houses. Fires from cooking stoves and accidents with machinery were common as were diseases from poor sanitation. Many elderly Morgan County residents recount Everybody was poor." Life was especially hard for dry land farmers farmers who lacked an irrigation source such as a ditch. They relied on rain to water their crops. Many of these farmers barely got by. They fueled their stoves with com that they couldn t sell, surrendered their cars to banks and lost crops to drought and grasshoppers. At least 400 000 families lost their farms in the United States during the 1930s The population of Morgan County declined from 18, 284 in 1930 to 17, 214 in 1940-a drop of 6 percent. Captions and Objects: (Post Card ofDryland Farming in Morgan County Fort Morgan Museum Collection P-2006.002 0021) Postcard 1927 61

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On the Edge of the Dust Bowl -.......... -. ..,_ .... ...... ...... ..... ----__.. ........... --... _......, __ __ ...,. _______ --.... .......... --..... FIGURE 3.6 On the Edge of the Dust Bowl Exhibit. Group Label: On the Edge of the Dust Bowl Beside the agricultural depression farmers in the Great Plains during the 1930s faced an additional catastrophe Years of overgrazing and poor land management practices coupled with one of the worst droughts in the nation's history caused dry top soil to blow away in dust storms Morgan County was on the edge of a large area that was known as the Dust Bowl. Many Morgan County residents remember the dust storms of the Dirty Thirties. Martin Goedert grew up in a sod house near Adena. He has vivid memories of times when there was so much dirt in the air that he couldn t tell whether it was night or day. That dirt would blow so bad you couldn t run an engine [truck] after noon after twelve. And the sk y would get plum black. The chickens would go to roost at four o clock in the afternoon. And the fence rows was piled up and over with dirt so that there wasn t any fence there no more. 62

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Captions and Objects: (Image of Map of the Dust Bowl Imbedded on Label ; Public Broadcasting Service The American Experience: Surviving the Dustbowl ," http :// www pbs.org / wgbh/amex / dustbowl/maps / index html accessed August 19, 2008.) No Title Used Sub Label: (Color Photograph of Robert Stenback Taken for Exhibit) Robert Stenback Robert Stenback grew up in Brush. He was a teenager during the 1930s. In an oral history he recounted what happened when he and his brother got caught in a dust storm. My dad sent Jack and me on an errand out south of town He was sixteen and he could drive. We got out there somewhere and I couldn t see from here to that wall [seven feet]. So I got outside the car and walked along the car to keep him out ofthe ditch. I mean he couldn't see that far. It was just awful. That day just to show you how bad it was sometime during the day my glasses blew off and I didn t know it. And I need my glasses. It was bad And then I remember dad crying about the car. It cost about six or seven hundred dollars to repair the car from the dust and dirt that had gotten in. The dirt frosted the windows and got in the engine They had to replace parts of the engine. It was awful days. 63

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Getting Help FIGURE 3.7 Getting Help Exhibit. Group Label: Getting Help Local organizations and charities tried to provide assistance to those in need. In Morgan County the Boy Scouts collected clothes and shoes for the needy and the Red Cross shipped in train cars of flour and wheat. As the depression wore on more and more people sought aid from the county and the state. And as the crisis deepened Morgan County increasingly sought help from the federal government. Assistance arrived in the form of the New Deal. The New Deal consisted of various acts programs and federal agencies aimed at providing relief reform and recovery to the people and the country s economy. 64

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Sub Label: New Deal Programs in Morgan County Some of the New Deal Programs that were active in Morgan County were: Agricultural Adjustment Act / Administrat i on (AAA) Civil Works Administration (CWA) Farm Credit Administration (FCA) Farm Security Administration (FSA) Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) National Youth Administrat i on (NY A) Public Works Administration (PWA) Resettlement Administratio n (RA) Rural Electrification Administration (REA) Social Security Administration (SSA) Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Works Progress Administrat i on (WPA) Captions and Object s : (Black and White Photograph) Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Denver September 15, 1932 In Denver Franklin D. Roosevelt poses with Senator Edward Costigan on his right and an unidentified man on his left Roosevelt stopped in Colorado while campaigning for president in 1932 The phrase "New Deal came from a speech Roosevelt gave six weeks before this picture was taken when he accepted the Democratic presidential nomination. Photograph by Harry Rhoads Denver Public Library Western History Collection Call No RH-5798 65

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Education Projects FIGURE 3.8 Exhibits on Education Projects and Electrifying Morgan County. Group Label: Education Projects The New Deal influenced the education of both adults and youth in Morgan County. Government agencies paid workers to teach self-improvement and vocational classes carry out school improvement projects and assist in programs that supported school-age children. The projects varied from citizenship and literacy classes for adults to grading school playgrounds. Several Morgan County communities participated in WPA rural education programs. Farmers and their families gathered every two weeks for Community Nights where they sang songs put on plays and explored topics related to the business of agriculture. At least four schools in Morgan County started school lunch programs. 66

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Captions and Objects: (Photocopy ofNewspaper Article) "Central School Children Get Hot Lunches at Small Cost by Virtue of P.T.A. Project" Fort Morgan Times January 4 1938 At Central School in Fort Morgan the Parent Teacher Association worked with the school board to sponsor a school lunch program WP A workers prepared and served the meals. The school board provided the cooking equipment. Students paid fifteen cents a week to help cover the cost of the food. (Black and White Photograph) Women's Sewing Project Circa 1938 This picture is of a sewing project in Mesa County however there were two sewing rooms in Morgan County. The WPA paid unemployed women in Brush and Fort Morgan while they learned to sew. The women learned how to use modern patterns run a sewing machine and tailor clothes. The county provided the classroom space notions and sewing machines. The WP A paid the teachers and the State Department of Public Welfare supplied the fabric In addition to teaching job skills the sewing rooms had another benefit. The clothing produced was given to the county and distributed to those on relief During the Christmas season the sewers turned from making clothes to sewing toys for children in need Denver Public Library WPA Photo Collection United States Works Progress Administration ; C Photo Album 400 Box 2 Photo No. 72 67

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Sub Label: Building Improvement Projects Local School Boards throughout Morgan County sponsored building and grounds improvement projects through the Civil Works Administration (CW A) and the WP A. The CWA was one of the first New Deal agencies. It was a temporary organization-it only lasted five months. Roosevelt created the CWA to give jobs to unemployed people to get them through the winter of 1933. It served as a model for the WPA. Workers carried out CWA projects at almost every Morgan County school. They graded and graveled grounds repaired playground equipment, and planted trees. In Gary workers built a fence to stop cattle from wondering on to the school grounds. Local residents helped when it looked like some of the projects would not be completed before the CW A ended Captions and Objects: (Black and White Photograph) Lincoln School, Fort Morgan January 27 1937 WP A workers lowered the floor in the gymnasium of Lincoln School. Here they are painting the ceiling and refinishing the floor. Denver Public Library WPA Photo Collection United States Works Progress Administration ; C Photo Album 400 Box 9 Photo No. 32 (Black and White Photograph) Snyder High School Circa 1936 In addition to reroofing the high school and the grade school WP A workers built a garage large enough to shelter three school buses Colorado Historical Society MSS No. 689 68

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(Black and White Photograph) Refurbishing the Community Hall, Wiggins February 20 1936 In the community hall owned by the Wiggins School District workers installed a new wood floor and redecorated the building. Denver Public Librar y, WPA Photo Collection United States Works Progress Administration; C Photo Album 400 Box 9 Photo No 180 (Black and White Photograph) Agricultural Shop, Wiggins Circa 1936 The WP A dismantled two rural one-room school houses moved them to Wiggins, and constructed this three-roomed agricultural shop. Colorado Historical Society MSS No. 689 (Black and White Photograph) No Title Used Workers are preparing the foundation for the agricultural shop. Notice the community center in the left of the photograph February 20 1 936 Denver Public Library WPA Photo Collection United States Works Progress Administration ; C Photo Album 400 Box 9 Photo No. 1 69

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Electrifying Morgan County FIGURE 3.9 Portion of Exhibit on Rural Electrification Group Label: Electrifying Morgan County Morgan County Extension Agent Ray E. Cannon and members of the local Farmers Union worked with the Rural Electrification Administration (REA) to bring power to many rural residents. Electrifying rural areas took a lot of capital. Most utility companies did not extend lines to farmers because they believed it was not feasible. The REA loaned money and provided expertise to rural residents so that they could start their own electrical cooperatives. After hearing a presentation on the REA members of the Farmers Union went from farm to farm collecting the names of those who were interested in getting electricity and plotted their farms on a map With the help of Agent Cannon they formed a cooperative and sold shares. Anyone wishing to hook up to the lines needed to become a co-op member by buying at least one share. Besides powering household appliances electricity could power water pumps From the beginning part of the desire for electricity by farmers in Morgan County was to run irrigation pumps Pumps used a lot of energy When the Morgan County REA 70

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project was completed it had the largest kilowatt load per miles of line of any power project in the United States. It was also the first REA project in the nation to provide power to irrigation wells. Captions and Objects: (Photocopy ofNewspaper Article) "Vast Throngs Witness REA Energization" May 12, 1938 Fort Morgan Times On May 11, 1938 electricity flowed through 170 miles of line east of Brush supplying power to 350 homes and 70 water pumps. (Black and White Photograph) Board of Directors 1937 Incorporated on April27, 1937 the Morgan County Rural Electric Association was the second electrical cooperative in Colorado; Grand Valley Rural Power Lines in Grand Junction was the first. Morgan County REA Archives (Map Fort Morgan Museum Collection: D-XXXX.002.0292) Installation Map 1936-1937 The REA used this map for planning It was most likely drawn by Extension Agent Ra y E. Cannon. Notice the small circles and the squares on land parcels. 71

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(Black and White Photograph) Hanging Wire Circa 1938 Morgan County REA Archives In addition to providing electricit y to farmers the REA project also provided temporary emplo y ment to many county residents. Future rural power consume r s received first preference. Farmers dug postholes by hand and with machines Private contractors strung t h e wire. (Revers ibl e Electric Toaster Fort Morgan Museum Collection : A-1985 008.000 1 b) Toa s ter 1920s (Table Radio Fort Morgan Museum Collection : A-1992.001.0006) Philco Radio, Model 39-7 1939 (Question for Vis itors in Case with Radio) What were the three most popular electrical appliances for Morgan County farm families to buy first ? The answer is on the other side of the case. An s wer : R adios irons and washing machines. 72

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Sub Label: FIGURE 3.10 Panel on County Extension Agent Ray E. Cannon. (Black and White Photograph from Morgan County Rural Electric Association Archive) Ray Cannon When the New Deal started in 1933 Morgan County did not have a County Extension Agent. Ray Cannon was hired temporarily to assist with the new programs aimed at helping farmers. After a few months the county commissioners saw the benefit of Cannon s work and agreed to hire him as a County Extension Agent. Morgan County provided Agent Cannon with an office and money for monthly expenses while the United States Department of Agriculture paid his salary With his help farmers received subsidies from the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) for cutting back on the production of wheat corn and hogs. Many farmers got cash payments for resting soi l or replenishing their soil with nutrient-crops through the Agricu ltural Conservation Program. Some applied for 73

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loans from the Emergency Seed Loan Office for seed and feed or to the Farm Security Administration (FSA) for loans for food and clothing The founding members of the Morgan County REA considered Cannon to be the father of the project. He mapped the proposed lines requested the allotment and helped organize the cooperative. FIGURE 3.11 Interactive Exhibit. Sub Label: (Wash Tub Agitator Washboard and Clothing Items from the Museum Education Department) The Weekly Wash Use your imagination and try your hand at washing the clothes just like people without electricity would have done during the Great Depression. Fill the basin full of water. Use the agitator to stir the water. Scrub the clothes on the washboard. 74

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Imagine that your family lived without electricity. Would life be more difficult or easier? Think about everything you do with electricity. What would you miss? Sub Label: (Color Photograph of Dorothy Luhrs Taken for Exhibit) Dorothy Luhrs Dorothy and John Luhrs were married in 1935 and farmed south of Fort Morgan. They did not have electricity during the first few years of their marriage. It took all da y to do the laundry. We had a washhouse. It had a coal stove. On washday we would heat up water in a copper boiler. They held 13 gallons of water. You would fill up the boiler and then add two tablespoons of lye. That would soften the water. As the water heated the lye would break down the minerals and form a scum. The scum would come to the top. You skimmed it off. Then you had a washing machine you worked b y hand Some people didn t have washing machines. They had big tubs and scrub boards. 75

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Civilian Conservation Corps FIGURE 3.12 Case with CCC Trunk. Sub Label: (Trunk) Civilian Conservation Corps Trunk Circa 1936 This trunk belonged to Verlin Jensen. He and his brother were living in Obert Nebraska when they both joined the CCC We know from oral family history that Verlin spent two years in the CCC. He lived in three possibl y four-different camps. Observe the numbers on the inside of the trunk lid. We learned through research that these are numbers for CCC camps. Camp 2736 was in Ponca Nebraska, and 2737 was in Harrington Nebraska. Camp 789 was in Roubaix South Dakota near Deadwood. This matches information passed down through famil y history On Loan from Betty Finley and her son Randy Finley of Snyder 76

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(Color Photograph of Martin Goedert Taken for Exhibit) Sub Label: Martin Goedert It took two years for Martin to get into the CCC He was twenty-one when he arrived at the Poudre Canyon Camp in Roosevelt National Forest. He remembers his family having a hard time on their farm near Adena. Well in the thirties if you had been around we was so ... we couldn t raise any crops from thirty-one thirty-two thirty-three and thirty-four and the folks was getting hungry ." His allotment helped his family. The money that I made in the CCC camp twenty-two of that went home and I got eight dollars in camp. But now they didn t spend all ofthe twenty-two mom told me she would save what she could and I can t remember what was saved if any Martin believes it was enough to help his family get by. A pair of good shoes cost two and a half [dollars] ... and a good shirt cost seventy-five cents ." Martin built log latrines using only hand tools. He helped count the number of deer that hunters shot during the hunting season. One of his most memorable jobs was fighting a big forest fire in Rollinsville For six days the y dug trenches trying to keep it from spreading When asked about what he thought of being in the CCC Martin replied "It was a necessity for life believe me Cause we sure needed something to eat and that was a pleasure to be there. 77

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FIGURE 3.13 CCC Exhibit Case with Group Label Group Label: Civilian Conservation Corps Although Morgan County did not have its own Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp-Brush and Fort Morgan community members tried to get one the CCC still had an impact on the area. Over 230 young men between the ages of 17 and 28 enrolled in the CCC and went to camps all over Colorado. The purpose of the CCC was to give work to unemployed young men restore the nation's natural resources and provide income to their families. In return for an Army-like lifestyle the recruits received three meals a day and a monthly allowance Of the $30 a month each enrollee received $25 went home. Each camp worked with a government agency including the Soil Conservation Service the National Park Service the Bureau of Reclamation and the state park system The type of tasks enrollees carried out depended 78

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on the agency s mission Some young men built trails and public campgrounds while others dug stock ponds or constructed dams Unless otherwise noted photographs pertaining to the CCC are from the Colorado State Archives Civilian Conservation Corps Collection. Sub Label: (Color Photograph of Donald Naill Taken for Exhibit) Donald Naill Donald thinks he heard about the CCC through the Wiggins Courier-his town s paper. Both he and his brother Doyle were in the CCC together in Rocky Mountain National Park. They burnt trees infected with beetles. Using pick axes jackhammers and shovels his crew built a hiking trail. Donald really enjoyed his time in the CCC and made lifelong friends. He was active in a CCC Alumni group. In 1990 the park invited him and other former members to celebrate Rocky's 751h anniversar y Sub Label: (Color Photograph of Cecil Wetzbarger Taken for Exhibit) Cecil Wetzbarger Cecil grew up in Brush He remembers arriving at a CCC camp west of Sterling. The enrollees were building stock ponds and constructing dams in ravines to store water for cattle. Cecil was very thin and could not lift the big iron wheelbarrows full of dirt Instead he got a job watering the lawn and the trees of the new camp From there Cecil moved into the kitchen. He worked his way up from washing pots and pans to being First Cook. Cecil thought the food was good. They had steaks roast and stew Many of the young men complained about some of the dishes like creamed chipped beef on toast but not Cecil. I thought I am in heaven He knew he was eating better than his family at home and most of Morgan County. He gained weight though he doesn t remember how much. I was a skinny little kid when I got there. Believe it or not! 79

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Captions and Objects: (Black and White Photograph) Barracks Inspection Circa 1935 Part of the daily routine in a CCC camp included a morning inspection. (Felt Pennant Tie Clasp and Black and White Photograph) Pennant, Tie Clasp, and Photograph from CCC Camp NP-4-C 1938 Brothers Donald and Doyle Naill were in a camp in Rocky Mountain National Park In this photograph Doyle is in the back row and Donald is in the front. Donald made little black dots to mark their locations. On Loan from Donald and Marjorie Naill of Fort Morgan (Fabric Patch and Color Photograph) CCC Patch and Alumni Gathering 1990 On loan from Donald and Marjorie Naill (Black and White Photograph) Cook and Bakery Training Circa 1940 Some CCC enrollees learned new skills like drafting mechanics carpentry and cooking. (Black and White Photograph) Cecil Wetzbarger in his Cook's Uniform Circa 1940 Donated by Cecil Wetzbarger 80

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(Black and White Photograph) Retreat, CCC Camp No. 809 Wellington CO Circa 1940 At 6:00 in the evening enrollees lined up facing the flagpole for Retreat. After the lowering of the flag it was dinner time Twenty seven young men from Morgan County served at this Soil Conservation Camp in Larimer County. (Black and White Photograph) Building a Small Reservoir Matheson CO 1939 The reservoir stored water for irrigating a tree break and stock. The enrollees who worked on this project for the Soil Conservation Service lived in a camp near Hugo Four enrollees from Morgan Co unt y served there: Theodore Da v idson Melvin Feyerherm Ray Horton and Fred Wells. (Black and White Photograph) Wellington in Larimer County, CO Circa 1940 What you see in this picture was carried out by the CCC What do you call these features ? Why would they do this ? What is the purpose ? (Black and White Photograph) Fire Fighting School Rocky Mountain Nationa l Park April 1939 81

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(Black and White Photograph) The "Bugging" Crew at Work Rocky Mountain National Park Circa 1940 CCC enrollees battled insect infestations in national parks and forests. After cutting down trees they removed the branches burned the bug-infested material and cut the trunks and branches into logs After peeling the bark from the logs the logs were used for construction projects 82

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Sanitation FIGURE 3.14 Sanitation Exhibit with Group Label. FIGURE 3.15 Exterior of Replica WPA FlyTight Privy. 83

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FIGURE 3.16 Interior of Replica WPA Fly -Tight Privy. Group Label: Sanitation During the 1930s the Colorado State Department ofHealth and various Morgan Count y elected bodies worked with New Deal agencies to improve public health in Morgan County. One of the aspects they focused on was improving sanitation. Sewage disposal more accurately the lack of the treatment of raw sewage was a health problem in Morgan County as in other parts of Colorado. Most cities and towns dumped untreated sewage into rivers and streams including Brush and Fort Morgan. Sanitation was poor on farms and almost nonexistent in agricultural fields where beet workers toiled. In 1932 Colorado State Health Officials met with health officers and county and city officials from Morgan Weld Adams and Denver Counties to discuss the irrigation of vegetables with untreated sewage. Health officials threatened to bar produce from those and other counties from public sale or to allow it to cross state lines. The cities of Brush and Fort Morgan built sewage treatment plants through the WPA. The state health department sponsored a statewide outhouse-building project. By the time the New Deal was over the WPA had built and installed almost 32 000 fly-tight sanitary privies in Colorado. 84

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Captions and Objects: ( Bl ack and White Ph oto) WPA Worker Constructing Sewage Disposal Tank, Brush September 3 1936 Denver Public Library WPA Photo Collection United States Works Pro gress Administrat ion ; C Phot o A lbum 400 Box 9 Photo 190 (Black and White Photo) Sewage Disposal Tank, Brush 1936 Construction of a tank known as a Modified Imhoff. Colorado Historical Society MSS No. 689 (Civil Engineering Plan Fort Morgan Museum Collection: D-1994 025.0020) Blueprint of Fort Morgan Sewage Disposal Tank Circa 1938 (Replica ofWPA Fly-Tight Priv y ) WP A FlyTight Privy Construction b y B en Hamilton City of Fort Morgan Carpenter Ben Hamilton constructed this reproduction of a WPA outhouse for the museum. He used plans published by the United States Public Health Serv ic e in 1933. Specia l Features of thi s privy type include Mesh over ventilat ion openings A concrete base which allowed the privy floor to be washed A spring on the door which made it close automatically 85

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(Printed Copy of Poster) WPAPOSTERS Outwitted by Community Sanitation 1940 John Buczak Federal Art Project Library of Congress Work Projects Administration Poster Collection Call No. POS-WPA-ILL.B83 no. 4 (Printed Copy of Poster) Your Home is Not Complete Without a Sanitary Unit Circa 1936 Artist Unknown WPA Federal Art Project Library of Congress Work Projects Administration Poster Collection Call No POS-WPA-ILL.Ol.Y67 no. I (Photocopy of Map) Maps of Colorado Waterways Contaminated b y Raw Sewage 1934 This map came from an article Dr. Edward Chapman wro t e advocating that cities and towns construct sewage treatment plants Dr. Chapman found evidence of "filth diseases "-typhoid fever amebic dysentery and infectious diarrhea in rivers and streams in Colorado. At that time many of the vegetab l es grown in Colorado including those in Morgan County were irrigated with contaminated water. From The Menace to Life and Health From Improper Sewage Disposal in Colorado ," Colorado Medicin e : The Journal of th e Colorado State Medical Society Vol.31 ,no. 1 Denver Public Library Western History and Genea l ogy (Photocopy ofNewspaper Article) "Privy Project to Start Here in Interest of Public Health" January 24 1936 Fort Morgan Tim es 86

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Roads and Bridges FIGURE 3.17 Roads and Bridges Exhibit Case with Group Label. FIGURE 3.18 Panel on Roads and Bridges 87

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Group Label: Roads and Bridges The New Deal had one of its greatest effects on transportation infrastructure. Highway road and street projects were a large part of government spending during the Depression. Car ownership rose dramatically during the 1920s and 1930s therefore roads became a high priority for the federal and state government. In addition the construction of roads sewers and bridges was labor intensive providing opportunities to emplo y many workers This focus on transportation was critical to Morgan County s recovery following a devastating flood in 1935 The flood washed out most ofthe county s bridges and roads. As a result the state highwa y department and the Morgan Count y Commissioners sponsored the construction of 52 bridges and miles of road and highway construction The WP A did much of the work Both those living on farms and in towns benefited from WP A projects Roads were crucial to those living on farms who needed to move produce and stock from farm to market or get children to school. In Fort Morgan resident s benefited from a new storm sewer system and curbs and gutters. Sub Label: (Color Photograph of Alberta Zittle Taken for Exhibit) Alberta Zittle Alberta Zittle was born and raised in Fort Morgan She remembers what it was like before the local WP A workers installed the storm sewers and the curbs and gutters. We could just rake everything out on to the road We could bum leaves roast marshmallows and do whatever you wanted to. After they finally put in the curbs and gutters and then eventually put the black top on it it was heaven! Before we had ruts. The roads were just dirt and of course there was no where for the water to go before they put the curbs and gutters in so the streets would just be a mess It was just a different kind ofworld. You know people would roast .... they would build bonfires and then put potatoes in to kind of roast. And I suppose a lot probably did com too because they had a lot of things they could cook. They let us do that for a number of y ears At Halloween time y ou could have a bonfire out there. But after they put in the curbs and gutters we stopped Oh it was heavenly then! 88

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Captions and Objects: (Transit Fort Morgan Collection : XX-01.657a-f) Surveying Transit Circa 1900 Surveyors used horizontal transits such as this to lay out road bridge, and other construction projects (Black and White Photograph) Farm-to-Market Road, North of Fort Morgan April 9 1937 Denver Public Library WPA Photo Collection United States Works Progress Administration; C Photo Album 400 Box 9 Photo 22 (Black and White Photograph) Curbs and Gutters, Fort Morgan July 27 1936 Looking south on State from Sixth A venue. Denver Public Library WPA Photo Collection United States Works Progress Administration ; C Photo Album 400 Box 9 Photo 170 (Portion of Steel Form) Concrete Divider Circa 1936 This steel divider was used by the WP A to construct curbs and gutters in Fort Morgan. The city street department used this up until 2002. On loan from the City of Fort Morgan 89

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(Color Photograph of Stee l Form Set Up) N o Titl e Used Photograph by Bill Garcia Bui l ding Maintenance Technician, City of Fort Morgan (Black and White Photograph) Co ncr et e C ul ve rt s 1936 The Morgan County Commissioners sponsored the manufacturing and installation of interlocking pre cast concrete culverts for the county s highways and various farm to-market roads Colorado Historical Societ y, MSS No 689 (Black and White Photograph) E r e ctin g F l o od B a rri e r Jul y 9 1936 WP A workers construct a flood barrier to protect the highway in the background. Denver Public Librar y, WPA Photo Collection United States Works Progress Administration ; C Photo Album 400 Box 9 Photos 526 (Black and White Photograph) S t orm Sewe r Sys t e m Fo rt Mo r gan 1936 Colorado Historical Society MSS No. 689 (Black and White Photograph Fort Morgan Museum Collection : P-1988 009 0005) F l oo d of '35, Bru s h Ma y 1935 Donated by Floyd Starlin 90

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(Black and White Photograph) Brid ge No. 24 February 20 1936 Farmers made needed extra income by renting out their horses for use in the construction ofbridges and roads Denver Public Library WPA Photo Collection United States Works Progress Administrat i on; C Photo Album 400 Box 9 Photo 590 (Black and White Photograph) C on s truction of N arro ws Brid ge March 5 1936 Denver Pub l ic Library, WPA Photo Collection United States Works Progress Administration ; C Photo Album 400 Box 9 Photos 513 and 514 (Black and White Photograph) Na rr ows Brid ge Circa 1936 This bridge crossed the Bijou Creek six miles west of Fort Morgan. Colorado Historical Society MSS No 689 91

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Public Works Administration Projects FIGURE 3.19 Public Works Administration Projects Exhibit Panel with Group Label. Group Label: Public Works Administration Projects The Public Works Administration (PW A) one of Roosevelt s first New Deal agencies existed from 1933 to 1939 The PWA attempted to pump funds into the private sector-industries like construction The agency awarded grants to public bodies for building projects. Public bodies included states counties cites and other federal agencies The public bod y, referred to as the owner would then hire a private contractor to construct the project. The owner paid at least 55% percent of the total project cost and the PW A awarded grants up to the remaining 45%. 92

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Captions and Object s : ( B ac k a nd White Ph o togr a ph ) Muni cipal Fire Station a n d Jail 1 94 1 In 1 936 th e C it y o f Fo rt M o r ga n a ppli e d f o r a PW A g r a nt t o h e lp co n s tru c t a buildin g t o b e u sed b y th e fir e d e p a rtm e nt police d e partm e nt, a nd h o use th e c it y j a il. T o d ay thi s buildin g o n M a in Street i s s till u se d a s a fir e s t atio n City o f Fo rt M o r ga n F ir e D e p a rtm e nt A r chives (Black a nd White Ph o togr a ph T ake n f o r Ex hibit ) Morgan Co u nty Cou r t h o u se Con s tru c t e d in 1 936 (Co l o r Ph o togr a ph T ake n for Exhibit ) Interior Co m t h ouse P laqu e ( Ph o tocop y o f Ph o to g r a ph from N e w s p a p e r Clipping, Fo rt M o r g an Museum C ollectio n ) Fort Mo r ga n Power P l a nt Improve m e n ts 1 938 Improvements includ e d purchas in g and in s tallin g n e w g e n e r a ting equipment a nd addin g a win g t o th e p o w e r p l ant building. Fort M o r g an receiv e d a PW A g r ant of $ 135 ,000-a f e d e ral governme nt c ontribution whi c h equale d 45 % of th e $300,000 es timated cos t of the pro ject. 93

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CHAPTER 4 EVA LUATION OF EX HI B I TION Reflectin g on the writt e n comm e nt s f r o m v i sito r s and the amount of l oca l pr ess cover age, the ex hibition was a s u ccess. The s ubj ec t matt e r th e Great D epress ion and the New Deal, was the rig ht topi c a t the right tim e. The Fort Morga n mu seum e du ca tor r e port e d that 6 649 peopl e v i s ited the mu se um durin g the fiv e month s th e ex hibition wa s o p en.152 On e hun dred and f o rt y seve n vis it o r s s i g n e d t h e ex hibiti o n g u es t book, thirty-t wo l eft s hort comme nt s .153 All of the comment s were complim e nt ary. Of s i g nifi ca nc e were comments wr itt e n b y se nior c iti ze n s w h o lived throu g h th e Gr ea t D epress i o n One wrot e, Brin gs back a l ot of m e mori es Another conunented, 'They go t it rig ht. I was the r e Visitors related to the topi c. The mu seum curato r set o ut a notebook for thos e who wanted to s hare their memories of the Great Depress ion a nd the New Deal.154 The three visitors who wrote in the book cl ea rl y connected with the material pre se nt e d. One visitor from Denve r wrote of his father's se rvice in a CCC camp near Sterling and the impact it had on hi s father he s ubsequ e ntly s tudi e d agronomy 152 Andrew Dun e h oo, telephon e conv e rsation with a uthor M a r c h 4 2009. 153 Th e museum will retain the page s from th e g u es t book in th e ir adminis trative files 154 The museum will access i o n th e three e ntri es in the n otebook into the ir a r chives. 94

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in c ollege a n d wen t o n t o w o r k f o r the S oil Con se r vatio n S e r v ice. The v i s i t o r a l so described how his m a t erna l g r a ndpare n t s tr a d e d butt e r f r o m t h e ir d a ir y farm f o r flo ur s a lt s u g ar. a n d c l o thin g Thus they m a n aged t h e D ep r ess i o n w ellf e d a n d b et t e r th a n m a n y A vi s it o r fr o m N e br a s k a s h a r e d th a t s h e h a d jus t f ini s h e d readin g T h e W o r st Hard Tim e for h e r book club a nd th a t th o u g h h e r f a mil y h a d foo d o n th e ir farm th e y h a d littl e cash 155 H a nd m e down c l othes w e r e th e n o rm," s h e w r o t e. A l ocal v i s it o r recognized pict ur e s o f th e sc hool agricult ur e b uildin g a nd th e c ommunity bu i ldin g in Wiggin s S h e w r o t e th a t th e community b uildin g h o used t h e sc h oo l b ell, a n d n ow th a t b ell i s in th e Wiggins Community Churc h S h e a dd e d t h a t d urin g t h e 1950s th e sc hool used th e a gricult ur e buildin g a s a lun chroom These comme nt s pr ov id e e vid e nce th a t th e exhibiti o n wa s m e a nin g ful to both local r es id e n t s a nd vi s itor s from outs id e o f Morg an Count y and th a t New D e al Pro j ec t s h a v e a continu e d impact o n th e ir communities. The local m e di a e x t e n s i ve l y c o ve r e d th e exhibition a nd accompan y in g programmingm o r e proof that th e s ubject aroused int e r est. Jesse C h a n e y o n e o f th e s t a ff reporte r s f r o m th e F o rt Morg a n Tim es, w r o t e f i ve a rticl es.156 In a dditi o n th e e ditor of th e newsp a p e r fo c used a n edito ri a l o n th e exhibiti o n H e m e ntion e d how n ews sources are curre ntl y comparing today's f in a nci a l turm o il to the Great 1 5 5 Th e v i s it o r wa s refe rrin g t o Tim othy E ga n The W o r s t H a r d Time: The U ntol d S t o ) o f Th ose W ho Surv i v e d the G r e at Ame r i c a n D us t Bowl ( B o s t o n : H o u ghto n Mifflin Harc o u rt 2005). 1 5 6 Fo r the c itati o n s o f th e article s a nd the ir comp l e t e t ex t s e e ap p e ndi x D 95

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Depr ess i o n a n d e n cou r aged r ea d e r s t o v i s i t the ex hibiti o n t o 'ge t a sense o f those t e rribl y tr ying tim es ... H e qu estio n e d wh e th e r the tim i n g of t h e exhibit i o n was a coin c id e n ce o r perhaps a 'fortuitou s l y tim e d l esson in r ea lit y." 157 R ocky M o untain News politi ca l report e r M.E Sprengelmeyer wa at th e Fort Morgan Muse um two week s pri o r t o th e F ort Mor ga n Tim es e ditorial a nd cam e to a s imil a r con c lu s ion Spreng l e meyer w r o t e in th e visitors' g u es t book "Timely?''158 I think th e ex hibiti o n was a s uccess. It h ad widespread community s upport wh ich ca n b e seen in th e number of local resident s a nd ins titutions w h o loaned object s, allowed m e t o look through th e ir files for photograph s, and even donated funds. Wh e n I began sea r c hin g for artifac t s to borrow for u s e in the exhibiti o n t o supple m e nt those in th e museum's collection l cont acte d th e Morga n County Rura l Electric Association ( M C R EA). Their local publi c r e l atio n s d e partm e nt offered to print a one-page a rticl e in th e statewide monthly magazine Colorado Country Life.159 I described the project and provided my name and contact information in case any readers had items relat e d to the New Deal or the MCREA that they were willing to 157 Ed it oria l Mu seum S how Spark s D e j a Vu ," F ort M o r ga n Times, October 15, 2008. For a complete text o f f the editoria l see ap p e ndi x D. 158 Spren ge lmeyer was in Fort M orga n to cove r se n a tori a l ca ndid a t e Bob Schaffer' s camp a i g n meeting in the mu s e um co mmunity room H e mentioned the ex hibit in his co lumn At the Fort M o r ga n libr a ry, w h e r e they h ap p e n to b e ho s tin g a s pe c i a l mu se um ex hibit co mm e m o r ating the New Deal pr ojects in the co unt y during the Grea t D epress ion of the 1 930s, Schaffer said he's concerne d a b o ut the eco nomy, too ." Schaffer Hear s of Strains on the Pl ains R ocky M ountain News, October I 2008. 159 Jacqui Ainlay-Conley, Privie s a nd Policie s : Th e New Deal in M o r ga n County ," Col orado Country Life (A u g u st 2008): 8. See appe ndix D for a copy of the article. 96

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loan t o the mu se um for t h e ex hibiti on. T h e MCREA was so int e rested in th e exhibitio n tha t w h e n Nikki e Cooper the mus e um curator, cont ac t e d the m for a possi b l e donation t o defray cost s, they offer e d t o spon sor th e ex hibiti on, prov idin g five hundred dollars .160 Accordin g to Coop e r thi s was th e fir s t tim e th e MCREA 161 d o n a t e d fund s t o th e museum. r think th e layout of th e ex hibiti o n and th e c h o ice o f t ex t worked well. Vi s it o r s could easily move aro und th e s p ace and could read a ll of th e l a b e l s W e decide d earl y o n t o include a n o uth o u se, whic h proved t o be imme n se l y popular. Whe n I t old th e museum s t a ff a b o ut th e WPA fly-tight pri vy con s tru c tion th a t went o n all over Colorado, they imme di a t e l y s h a r e d how th e public loves o uth o uses. The museum s t o r e even sells books about them. Though finding pl a n s was diffi c ult i t was well worth th e effort.162 This was a l so another example of community s upp o rt. The city carpenter who built th e r eplica of a fly-tight privy did not balk when initi a lly asked to take on the challenge. Thoug h it was difficult for him to find some 160 Nikkie Coo p e r t e l e phone conv e r satio n with a uthor Jul y 2008. 161 M arne Jur ge rmeyer conve r satio n with a uth o r August 2008 162 I initi ally co nt ac t ed t h e Color a d o D e p art m ent of Publi c H ea lth and Environment to see if they had a n y WPA fly-tig ht pla n s in the ir a rchiv es. Then I po ste d a req u es t for plans o n a n o nlin e forum for New D ea l resea rch e r s. The National Archiv es in Wa s hin g t o n D C, did not h ave any plan s I conta c t e d the Co l o r ado, T exas, Nev a da and New Mexi co St a t e Historic Pre servatio n Offi ces (SHPO). Finally, a sta ff m e mb e r from the N eva d a SHPO knew of a f o rm e r colleague who h a d completed a s urv ey of WPA pri v i es in th a t state. M e lla Rothwell H a rmon now a curator at the Nevada Stat e Hi s t orica l Society found a nd se nt pl a n s t o the mu se um 97

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of th e part s a n d m a t eria l th ey wer e ite m s fr o m the 1930s n o l o n ge r r ea di l y availab l e t oday h e never compl ain e d a nd looked o n it as a c h alle n ge. Visito r s c l early f o und the ex hibiti o n m e m o r ab l e, m ea nin gful. and tim e ly. However th e museum does not h ave a formal es t ablis hed m e thod of evaluating th e ir ex hibiti o n s; th e r efore it was n o t p oss ibl e t o analy ze w h e th e r v i s itors go t th e "big idea of R e m e mb e rin g Morg an County's New Deal.1 6:1 Accordin g t o n oted museum expert Beverly Serrell, "The big idea provides a n unambigu o u s focu s for th e exhibit team throu g h o ut th e ex hibit developme nt proc ess b y clearly s t ating in o n e noncompound sent e nc e the purpose and th e scope o f th e ex hibit. "164 Th e ex hibit s, or sec tion s, expl ai n ed the cau ses of th e agricultur a l depress i o n a nd d esc rib e d th e conditi o n s of the rural lif e durin g thi s era in M organ County. They a l so described some of th e New Deal age nci es and provided l oca l exampl es. But th e s ubtl e bi g idea of the exhibition was that Morgan County so u g ht federal aid and willingly a nd cooperatively worked with the federal government to improve th e lives of re sidents and their community during the New Deal. Essentially, the federal government did not come in and autonomously carry out New Deal project s in the community. The community and th e government worked together. 163 The Fort M o r gan Museum staff inform ally evaluates it s exhibits by looking at r esponses in the guest regi s try books or by occasionally interactin g with vis itors Beverly Serrell provided examples of how museums can mea s ur e whether or not th e ir visitor s got the big idea in Exhibit Lab els: An Int e rpr e tive Approa c h ( AJtaMira Press, 1 996), 219-231 164 Serre! Exhibit Lab e ls 2 98

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When I c ur a t e an ex hibiti o n again, l will inc lud e a summative evaluatio n pr ocess int o the proj ect. [think it i s important t o g au ge wheth e r or n o t vis i to r s ge t th e big idea o f a n ex hibiti on. As Sen-ell s tr esses in h e r book, afte r the ex hibition i s comple t e d "an evaluation can tell yo u whether o r n o t th e visitor's ex p erie nce s uccessfully r e Oect e d or incorp ora t e d th e big idea."165 In thi s case, I would have follow ed one of Sen-ell's s uggestio n s and c reat ed a n o p e n -e nd e d qu es tionnair e asking th e visitors t o explain bri e O y in the ir own word s w hat they thought the purpose of th e ex hibiti o n was and t o write a bout so m e thin g they learned.1 66 Finally it seem s lik e a m ajo r overs i g ht n o t t o h ave included m o r e o n farm s ub s idi es when curat in g a n ex hibiti o n on the New D ea l in rural America. l did m e ntion the topi c o n o n e label th a t of Agricultural Agent Ray E Cannon, but it was s parse. I did not re ally attempt to t ac kl e s ub s idi es or many of the other New Deal programs aim e d at farmers land conservation, reducing commodity and livestock production, or the various types of loans. This was a conscious decision made in consultation with museum staff. We decided to highlight New Deal projects in the exhibits with which the museum had associated artifacts or those project s on which we thou g ht we might b e able to obtain objects or photographs. Many of the New Deal programs aimed at farmers left only archival evidence. The staff and I decided that we did not want the exhibition to be one-dimensional--essentially an illustrated 165 Serr ell, Exhibit Labels, 7. 166 Serrell, Exhibit Lab e l s 224. 99

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b oo k o n w alls I d o n o t regr ctthc deci s i o n h mvcver. I thin k it woul d h ave been b e nefi c i a l t o h ave provid e d a h ando ut f o r th ose w h o we r e inte rested in the t o pic. 100

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A PP EN DI X A HAN D O U T F OR V I S ITOR S O F RES O U R CES AVA I LA BL E AT TH E F OR T MORGA N P U B LIC LIBRARY Want to learn more? The Fort Morgan Public libra ry has put together l i sts of books a nd movies in t h e ir coll ect i on that give more informati on about ph otography and the New Deal. Through the Lens: The Remembering Morgan Shutterbug Show Coun ty's New Deal Adult N o n -Ficti o n Ad u l t n o n -fiction Y ose mite and the Rang e of Light The CCC C h ron i cles : Camp n e w spapers W illi am Henry Jackso n's the Pioneer of the CCC Photographer Brother can you spare a d im e Odd J obs The Great Depression and t h e N e w Adve ntures i n C l oseup Photography Dea l A fri can Wil dl i fe Times of Sorrow and Hope : Anasazi Places Document i ng everyday li fe The Are of Outdoor Photography How Capi ta li sm saved Ame ric a Basi c 35 Mm Photo Guide The Greatest Gen erati on g rows u p A Cam era Two Kids a nd a camel Libe r a l Fasci sm C hil dre n of the W il d West The Great Depress i on: a n eyewitness Colorad o 187 0-2000 h i story Comp l ete I diots Guide to Photography WPA Guide to 1 9 30 s Col o r ado Images of War Thi s Fabulous Century Eisenh ower .EiruQn Eyew i tness to Ame rica Wife of Moo n The Worst Hard T i me V i deos Born into Broth els Mandate the Pres i d ent and the P eo pl e Arches The Great Depress i o n Kidi The Grapes of Wrath L ook Book Snowfl a k e B entle y K ids Out of the Dust 101 I ' \I :I :, i : .:: 1i l m [ ,. .1. ;: : l j ' I I f I 'I' ;.I j: I ';

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APPENDI X B NEW DEAL AGENCI ES AND PROGRAMS IN MORGAN COUNTY Agri cultura l Adjustment Act/ Administration (AAA) Civil Works Adminis tr atio n (CW A ) Farm C redit Adnunistration (FCA) Farm Security Administration (FSA) Fed e r a l H o u s in g Adminis trati o n (FH A) Fed e ral E mergency Reli e f Adminis tr atio n (FERA) National Youth Admini stration (NY A) Publi c Works Admini s tr at ion (PW A) Resettlement Admjnistrati o n ( R A) Rura l E lectrificatio n Admini st r atio n ( REA) Social Security Admini s tr atio n (SSA) Soil Conservation S ervice (SCS) Works Prog ress Admini stration (WPA) 102

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APPENDIX C NEW D EAL PRO JECTS IN MORGAN COU NTY New Deal Agency Project Sponsor(s) AAA F arm S ub s idies S tarte d as a FERA Proj ec t a nd the n tra n s f e rr e d t o CW A Vis iting Nur se Progr a m M orga n Co unty Im pro v e d City o f Bru s h CWA P arks City o f Bru s h Co n s tru c t e d N ew C e m e t ery C WA i n Bru s h C i ty o f B r u s h R e built S e w e r Outl e t a nd Div erte d Str ea m Flo w in C WA Brus h Ci ty o f Bru s h En c l ose d An Op e n Irrig a tion Dit c h Running Thr o ugh Fort C WA M or g a n (Platte Av e Ditch) C ity o f F ort M orga n Gr a ded and L e vel e d N e w Addition to C e m e t ery in Fort CWA Morgan City of Fort Morgan Built an Extension of th e Sanitary Sewer in Fort CWA Morgan City of Fort Morgan Improved the Fort Morgan Municipal Pool Park and CWA Playground City of Fort Morgan Landscaped Fort Morgan CWA Municipal Power Plant City of Fort Morgan Graveled and Graded Streets and Improved Crossings to Street Corners in the Fort Morgan Business CWA District City of Fort Morgan Painted Street Markers and Posts, and Exterior of Fort Morgan Municipal Power CWA Plant and Library City of Fort Morgan 103

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Surveyed f or Potent ial CWA Home S ub sistence Pro j ect M o rgan County Graded and Graveled F arm t o Market Roads (Fort Morgan N o rth F ort Morgan Orchard W e l dona Snyde r Hill rose, and Gary) F eeding into State and F ede r a l CWA Highway s M orga n County Grade d and Graveled All School Playground s in City Schoo l Distric t No. 3 a n d M orga n CWA of Fort Morgan County F ertilized Grass of All Schools in the City of Fort Schoo l Dis tri c t No. 3 and Morgan CWA Morgan Co unty Painted the Exterior of All School Dis tri ct No. 3 and Morgan C WA Schools in F ort M organ Coun ty Graded and Graveled Gro und s o f P eace V alley, North Star and W oods School Dis tri c t No. 3 and Morgan CWA Schools Coun ty G r ade d a nd Grave led Grounds of Pleasan t Ridge, Bijou View Ad e na, Centerville O K and Valley School Dis trict No 1 3 a nd CWA View Schools Morgan County Leveled and Resurfa ced Playground of Wiggin s Wiggins S c hool Board and CWA School Morgan County Graded and Leveled School Grounds and Fenced Gary School District No 7 and CWA Grounds of School in Gary Morgan County Repaired Playground Equipment Built a Fence Planted Trees, Graded and Leveled Grounds and Built a Tennis Court at School in Snyder School District No. 1 and CWA Snyder Morgan County Graded and Graveled School Grounds and Painted and Plastered School Basement in Weldona School District No.4 CWA Weldona and Morgan County 104

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Gr a ded and Lev e l e d Sc ho o l Gr o und s Plant e d Trees, and Ins t alled Irri gation Or c h ard Schoo l Distric t No 11 CWA Sys t e m f or S c hool Ground s and M orga n County School Distric t No. 3 and Morgan CWA Tore Down Od ell S c hool County Num e ration o f Prices Paid CWA By Farmers U .S. Department of A gricu lture Bureau o f Hom e E cono mics, U CWA Rural Housing S urv ey S. Department o f Agri cult u re L oca l Survey o f M orga n County for State His t ory CWA Project Colorado S tat e His t orica l Society Painted Int er i o r s of the Fort M orga n Carnegie Libr ary, Municip a l P ower Plant City H all and Fir e Department Buildings ; Paint e d th e Ext e rior of the F ort M orga n City Hall Fire Department Camp Ground Buildings, and Bath Hou s e Pier a nd Bridge at th e Muni ci p a l CWA Swimming Pool. City of Fort Morg a n Rebuilt County Br i dg es Washed Out During Flood s CWA in 1933 Morgan C o unty Trimmed Dead Branches CWA and Pruned Trees Morgan County Cooperatively Purchased Tools for Use on Work City of Fort Morgan City of CWA Relief Projects Brush and Moman County Recreational Programs for NYA Youth Constructed Morgan County PWA Courthouse Morgan County Constructed Fort Morgan Fire Station Police Station PWA and Jail City of Fort Morgan Fort Morgan Power Plant PWA Improvements City of Fort Morgan REA and Bureau of Electrification of Rural Reclamation Morgan County 105

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Soil Co n servatio n Service Demo n stra t ion F arms S SA Co unt y Publi c Health Nurse Co l o r ado S t a t e Boar d o f H ea lth SS A O l d A ge P e n s i o n s Sc h oo l Lun c h Pr o gr a m in Sch oo l Dis tri c t a n d L oca l P a r e nt WPA F ort M orga n a n d Bru s h T eac h e r A ssoc i atio n WPA F oo d C a nning Pr o ject M orga n C o unty C o mmi ss i o n e r s Con s tru c t e d Bru s h S e w a g e WPA Dis po sal Pla nt C ity o f Bru s h Constru c ted Fort Morgan WPA Sew a ge Dis po sal Pla nt City o f Fort Morg a n Adult Edu c ation Cla ss e s in C o lor a d o St a te Board o f WPA Bru s h and Fort Morg a n Edu catio n S e wing R oo m s in Bru s h and WPA F ort Morg a n M orga n C o unty Con s tru c tion of FlyTight C o lor a d o St a t e D e p a rtm e nt o f WPA Sa nit ary Privi es H ea lth M orga n County E x t e n s i o n Mix ed and Dis tribut e d Age n c y Colorado St a t e WPA Gr ass hopper P o i s oning D e p a rtm e nt of Agri c ultur e WPA Rur a l Edu catio n Pr ogJa m Constructed County Bridg es to Replace Those Des troyed WPA by Flood s in 1935 Morqan County Manufactured and Installed Concrete Culverts for Highways and Farm-toWPA Market Roads Morgan County Constructed School Agricultural Shop in Wiggins and Installed New Wood WPA Floor in Community Hall School District 124, Wiggins Reroofed High School and Grade Schools and Built WPA Bus Garage in Snyder School District No 1, Snyder Installed New Curbs Gutters and Storm Sewer WPA System in Fort Morgan City of Fort Morgan WPA Constructed Roads Morgan County Refloored Gymnasiums in Lincoln Baker and Central WPA Schools Fort Morgan School District Addition to Peace Valley School District No. 3 Morgan WPA School County 106

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APPE DlX D NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZ I NE A RTICLES ABOUT THE EXHIBIT Editorial Fort M organ Times. O c tober I 5, 2008. J acq ui Ai nla y Con l ey, Pri v i es and Polici es : The New Deal in Morga n Count y," Colorado Country Life (A u g u s t 2008) : 8. Jesse C h a n ey, "New Deal Ex hibit at Museum Will Di splay Life Si zed Privy ," A u g u s t 22, 2008 ; 1930s Banking Woes Reveal e d at Ex hibit, September 1 0 2008; "Farm Need s Pushed Count y E l ec trificati o n ," October 15, 2008; "Museum Event s t o Reveal Hi s t ory of M C R EA, CCC," Octobe r 7, 2008; a nd "CCC Camps Easy C h o i ce for Lo ca l M e n ," O c tober 1 6, 2008. All in th e For t M organ T im es. Editorial Museun1 show sparks deja vu To say we live in troubling economic times would be a monumental understatement. Listening to the news from Washington, Wall Street and around the world we hear reports peppered with references comparing today's financial turmoil to the Great Depression. While pundits and commentators have always been prone to exaggeration these are not comparisons that are often made lightly Perhaps it is coincidental, then-or maybe it's a fortuitously timed lesson in reality-that the Fort Morgan Museum currently has an exhibition called Remembering Morgan County s New Deal. A two-part series by Times staff writer Jesse Chaney on features of the new exhibit starts in today s edition. It can be a bit off-putting to consider the circumstances that were in place during the Depression and to look around at what s going on today But if you can stand to imagine the possibilities, it s worth a visit to this sobering exhibit for some New Deal deja vu. 107

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Consider : Th e effects of the Dep ress ion were more severe in rura l areas, and the eco nomi c depression on a r ea f ar m s was leading many young people to leave and head for new hope a nd n ew opportunities in big c ities Fearing the potential devastation to the agricultural foundation of the country the federal government stepped in and spearheaded an effort to bring electricity to rural areas. The primary goal was not to light homes but to run irrigation pumps to help the farmers The government also created other programs like the Civilian Conservation Corps creating innumerable public works projects to provide work for th e many people who had no jobs no income and not much hope (see Thursday s Times for a story on some local men who served in CCC camps) For their labors the CCC workers got food clothing, medic a l attention and a cash allowance, most of which they were required to send home to their families It was a long and difficult road. But our country eventually came out the other side. The exhibit also has some of the good news : The electrification effort led to fivefold increases in land values a vast expansion of the amount of land under cultivation and record boosts in agricultural production. And at least one CCC worker from Fort Morgan said the experience was the best thing that ever happened to me. You grow up fast" Whether you lived through the Great Depression or felt its lingering effects or even if all you know about it is from the history books or family stories it may be worth a visit to the local museum to get a sense of those terribly trying times We may have more difficult times ahead, and we can only hope the current government intervention bears similar fruit 108

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MCREA NEWS Priv ies and Polic ies: The New Deal in Morgan County T he Great Depression ra\'ng<.:d the United Statc..-s from 1933 to 1940. In rural communities like Morgan County an agricultural depression was felt earli er. Fr.anklin Delano Roosevelt and his administration tri<.>d to provide relief to a fearful and hung r y populace. reform market stability and C'ncouragc cronomie reco\'cry through a series of programs and initiatives known ao; the New Deal. Did you know that the city of Fort Morgan received more federal appropri ations than any other city in northern Colorado? (Gary Lapp. #1570201) You may know that Publics Administratinn grants hdped build the cotmt) courthouse. But do you know of the numerous New Deal programs that touched this area on the edge oft he Dust Bowl? Many of the New Deal alphabet agencies were acti\'l' here: the Works Progress Administration. the Publi c Works Administration. the National Youth Administration and the Farm Security Administration. Although the Ci\'ilian Conscn'()()(} Do you or one of your relatives have a memory about the Depression or dust storms you would he willing t o share? If your family was laboring in the beet fields. how did they cope? If you have an item or a s t ory. pl ease C'ontact Ja('qui AinlayConlcy at 303 940 142 5 or thro ugh email at sandy cat@.eccntral.com. MCREA thank$ Ja cquiAinlny Con/('yfor providing information to magazine Power Supplier A n nounces New Efficiency Cred i ts Program T ri -Statc Generation and Transmission, MCR.F.A:s power provider. has implement(."tl new energy efficiency credits programs for certain rcfriger-d tors, free7..ers and air co nditioners. The programs offered by Tri-State are in addi t ion to current MCREA effic iency credits. For more in form a ti o n go to the enCrg)' efficiency page on the website. www.mcrea.org. or call m e mhcr !'Cn;ces at 970 867. THINKING OF CHRISTMAS ALREADY? NCREA is ple.1sed to annoooce that K will be canyq eregy .. fficient LED mas lights this season M expecbng to haYe them avabble for sale at the MCRfA dfict sometime in October. Sorry. no advance orders wll be taken. More infor mat1on will be included in ned month's Colorado Country Life. Ronald Seiler #1543300. WWW COLOR AOOCOUNTRYllfE COO P 109

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New Deal exhibit at museum will display life-sized privy By JESSE CHANEY Times Staff Writer Friday August 22 2008 Jesse Chaney/Fort Morgan Times Jacqui Ainlay Conley a graduate student from the University of Colorado in Denver displays a reconstructed fly-proof privy a type of sanitary outhouse used during the Great Depression With a life-size replica of a fly-tight privy as the centerpiece the Fort Morgan Museum s newest temporary exhibit will unveil the culmination of two years of research on the New Deal agencies in Morgan County Organized by Jacqui Ainlay-Conley a graduate student from the University of Colorado in Denver the "Remembering Morgan County s New Deal exhibit will tentatively open Saturday to coincide with her thesis on the New Deal in Morgan County. Constructed exclusively for the exhibit by Fort Morgan building maintenance technician Ben Hamilton the replicated fly-tight privy will show how rural America dealt with growing sanitation problems during the Great Depression 110

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The original outhouses were constructed to alleviate the problem of sewage polluting the Platte and other Colorado rivers said Conley a former Fort Morgan Museum intern These were actually very thought-out outhouses that replaced the outhouses that people used to have," she said The main difference with the fly tight privies were the screens i nstalled on all ventilation areas to prevent flies from entering Ainlay-Conley said The doors were also equipped with springs she said so they would close immediately after a person had finished. Although the base of the repl ica is made of wood Ainlay Conley said the original floors were created with concrete so they could be easily sanitized Th i s was just cleaner," she said You could wash it out. In collaboration with the Colorado State Health Department the Works Progress Administration (WPA) built and installed 31, 000 of the outhouses in Colorado Ainlay Conley said Most of those were placed in rural communities like Fort Morgan she said Also i ncluded in the exhibit will be the original 1936 hand-drawn map used to plan the electrification of Morgan County farms and ranches Ainlay Conley said R.E Cannon the local state agent for the then federal Rural Electric Administration was instrumental in bringing power to rural Morgan County Through grants from the adm i nistration she said Cannon helped bring power to rural farms from 1938 to 1940 I think R.E. Cannon drew this (map) himself," she said The exhibit will also display cement forms the WPA used in the 1930s to install curbs and gutters in Fort Morgan as well as numerous other items used by the federal agencies and programs that employed Morgan County residents during the Depression Those that applied for program funding at the time included the Fort Morgan and Brush city councils and the Morgan County Commissioners Ainlay Conley said All independent school boards in the county also applied for grants she said 111

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" They all applied for grant money for projects and they all got them," she said. The Fort Morgan Museum will host a variety of free events in connection with the exhibit. The first will be an open house which will be held from 4:30 to 7 p.m. on Sept. 9 Refreshments will be served and Ainlay-Conley and museum staff will be available for interpretation From 5 : 30 to 7 p m on Oct. 8 Ainlay-Conley will deliver a presentation on the formation of the Morgan County Rural Electric Administration and explain how electricity was delivered to the county From 5 : 30 to 7 p .m. on Oct. 9 she will offer a presentation about the 230 men from Morgan County who traveled to the different Civilian Conservation Corps camps She said three former members of the CCC are scheduled to talk about their experiences and answer any questions at the event. For more information on the exhibit or programs contact Fort Morgan Museum Educator Andrew Dunehoo at 970-542-4010 extension 6. Contact Jesse Chaney at farm@fmtimes com 112

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1930s banking woes revealed at museum exhibit By JESSE CHANEY Times Staff Writer Wednesday September 10, 2008 A surveying transit from about 1900 which was used to lay out road bridge and other construction projects of the time is on display at the new Fort Morgan Museum exhibit Remembering Morgan County s New Deal." A toaster from the 1920s is one of the many artifacts on display at the new Fort Morgan Museum exhib i t Remember i ng Morgan County s New Deal. Visitors to an open house at the Fort Morgan Museum on Tuesday learned that financial institutions were not immune to the economic downturn of the 1930s. During the reception for the museum s newest exhibit Remembering Morgan County s New Deal, visitors learned that President Franklin D Roosevelt led an effort during the Great Depression to temporarily close all banks and only reopen those with enough stability to continue The Emergency Banking Act was passed on March 9 1933 113

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" As a result of that every state and county had to verify the bank that they were putting their money into was solvent," said exhibit organizer Jacqui Ainlay-Conley a graduate student from the University of Colorado in Denver Although a number of Morgan County banks managed to survive during the Great Depression Ainlay-Conley said local government was only allowed to deposit federal money into two banks in Fort Morgan and two in Brush There were four banks in Morgan County where they could deposit federal funds," she said The other ones didn t pass." An early wash tub w i th accessories at the new Fort Morgan Museum exh i bit Remember ing Morgan County s New Deal," shows the tools early Americans used to clean their clothes Sponsored in part by the Morgan County Rural Electric Association the New Deal exhibit presents a variety of information about life in Morgan County during the Depression Also included are numerous artifacts of the time including an antique surveying transit from about 1900. According to the exhibit surveyors used the transits to lay out road bridge and other construction projects of the time Also included is a life-size replica of a fly-tight privy," a 1920s toaster and a Philco 139-7 radio from 1939 among many other artifacts from the Great Depression era. 114

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A Philco 1397 rad i o from 1 9 39 is on d ispl ay i n the foreground as Verna Segelke Norma Lingo and Kaye Aldr ich, from left browse t he art i facts and i nformation on d i sp l ay at the new Fort Morgan M useum exhibit Remembering Morgan Coun t y s New Deal. As they enjoyed complimentary refreshments the nearly 40 visitors to the open house had the chance to preserve in a handwritten book their life experiences related to the Depression The museum will host several free events in connection with the exhibit which will tentatively remain in the lower gallery until Nov 1 From 5 : 30 to 7 p .m. on Oct. 8 Ainlay-Conley will deliver a presentation of the formation of the Morgan County Rural Electric Association and explain how electricity was delivered to the county. The original 1936 hand-drawn map used to plan the electrification of Morgan County farms and ranches is on display at the exhibit. From 5 : 30 to 7 p.m. on Oct. 9 Ainlay-Conley will offer a presentation about the 230 men from Morgan County who traveled to the different Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camps. Three former members of the CCC are scheduled to talk about their experiences and answer any questions at the event. For more information on the exhibit or programs contact Fort Morgan Museum Educator Andrew Dunehoo at 542-4010 extension 6 115

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Contact Jesse Chaney at farm@fmtimes.com 116

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Museum events to reveal history of MCREA, CCC By JESSE CHANEY Tim es Staff Wri ter Tuesday O c tober 7 200 8 In conjunction with its newest exhibit Remembering Morgan County s New Deal," the Fort Morgan Museum will host two special presentations this week about life in Morgan County during the Great Depression. From 5 : 30 to 7 p.m on Wednesday exhibit organizer Jacqui Ainlay-Conley will deliver a presentation about the formation of the Morgan County Rural Electric Administration and explain how electricity was delivered to the county The original 1936 hand-drawn map used to plan the electrification of Morgan County farms and ranches is on display at the exhibit. From 5 : 30 to 7 p m on Thursday Ainlay-Conley will offer a presentation about the 230 men from Morgan County who traveled to the different Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camps Three former members of the local CCC are scheduled to talk about their experiences and answer any questions at the event. The New Deal exhibit will tentatively remain in the lower gallery of the museum until Nov 1 For more information on the exhibit or programs contact Fort Morgan Museum Educator Andrew Dunehoo at 970-542-4010 extension 6 -Contact Jesse Chaney at farm@fmtimes com 117

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Farm needs pushed county electrification By JESSE CHANEY T i mes Staff Writer Wednesday October 15, 2008 REA Archives/Special To The Times A circa 1938 photo depicts a worker installing one of Morgan County s first power lines Editor s Note : This is the first in a two-part series about the New Deal in Morgan County The second installment will address the 230 Morgan County men who traveled to various Civilian Conservation Corps ( CCC) camps During the years of the Great Depression populations on rural Morgan County farms were seriously threatened by the bright lights of the big city. "People really were losing their children to the cities," said Jacqui Ainlay Conley, organizer of the Fort Morgan Museum's newest exhibit Remembering Morgan County s New Deal. 118

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" And the economic depression on farms only exacerbated that. During a presentation Wednesday about the electrification of Morgan County Ainlay-Conley said then U.S president Franklin D Roosevelt worked to bring electricity to farms because the effects of the Depression were more drastic in rural areas. One thing New Dealers really couldn t handle was more people leaving farms and that was another reason why they really pushed these programs in rural areas," she said "To improve life but also to keep a population stable. Electricity originally didn t reach farmland because most companies didn t think it would be feasible to run lines to rural areas Ainlay Conley said. Electricity took a lot of capital," she said. It was a large infrastructure and required a lot of investment. The national push to electrify rural areas started on May 11, 1935 when Roosevelt issued an executive order to create a Rural Electric Administration (REA) Ainlay-Conley said The administration provided technical expertise and low-cost loans to nonprofit organizations to help them start their own electrical cooperatives she said REA Archives/Special To The Times A 1937 photo depicts the first directors of the Morgan County Rural Electric Assoc i ation From left are in rear President Ernest Rosener Glenn Trewett Conrad C Daily Project Super i ntendent O S More J R Henderson Vice President N .C. Wagers and Treasurer W F Tormohlen In front are from left Secretary Ray Cannon Harry Bigler George T. White Attorney J J Patterson and O E K i nnaman 119

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The man credited with electrifying Morgan County was R.E. Cannon Ainlay Conley said, who came from a failing dairy farm in Arvada and became a local extension agent. In November 1936 she said, Cannon invited REA officials to talk to members of the Fort Morgan Farmer's Union about the potential formation of a local cooperative The farmers learned that each user would be expected to pay a minimum fee to help pay off a 20-year loan she said and 1 174 farmers vowed to use electricity if it were made available Ainlay-Conley said Cannon determined that Morgan County farmers mainly wanted the electricity to supply power to irrigation pumps which would require much more power than lines normally carried Engineers in Washington approved Cannon s grant proposal for the project, but they were uncertain whether the peak power load would work. Construction on the project started as organizers were still attempting to solve the power dilemma she said Morgan County s electrification project was constructed in two phases Ainlay-Conley said The first substation was built in Brush and organizers applied for more funds to build a substation and electric infrastructure in Wiggins a year later The first power source for east Morgan County came from the Public Service Company of Colorado in Sterling Ainlay-Conley said. Since the company had a surplus of current she said it was willing to provide the power to the eastern part of the county at a lower rate than the Fort Morgan plant. The western substation received electricity from Greeley Ainlay Conley said which received its power from water projects in Wyoming and later from the Colorado-Big Thompson project. When the estimated $1 million project was complete she said the Morgan County REA project consisted of more than 375 miles of power lines On the eve of the project's grand opening Ainlay-Conley said the project superintendent told The Fort Morgan Times that the irrigation wells would increase the average value of land from $10 an acre to at least $50 per acre One year later she said a committee noted that 19 000 acres of previously dry farmland was receiving irrigation water 120

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"In 1940 sugar beet corn and alfalfa farmers in Morgan County saw record breaking increases in their production," she said -Contact Jesse Chaney at farm@fmtimes com 1 2 1

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CCC camps easy choice for local men By JESSE CHANEY T i mes Staff Writer T hur sday October 16, 2008 A circa 1938 photo taken in the living quarters of a CCC camp shows the military like lifestyle of the enrollees During a presentation at the Fort Morgan Museum last Thursday Fort Morgan s Martin Goedert left and Cec i l Wetzbarger discuss their involvement in CCC camps during the Great Depression Edi tor s Note-Th i s is the second in a two part series about the New Deal in Morgan County Before enrolling in the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1941, Fort Morgan s 85-year-old Cecil Wetzbarger said his family cooked meals over dried cow chips because they couldn t afford coal and there was no wood to burn 122

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Martin Goedert 91, of Fort Morgan said his daily diet consisted of bread and syrup because nothing else was available before he enlisted in the CCC in 1937 Since the Great Depression had obviously taken its toll on rural America Wetzbarger said it was an easy decision to go to work for the CCC "We had to do something to help the family out and that was a good way," he said at a presentation Thursday at the Fort Morgan Museum Held in conjunction with the museum s newest exhibit Remembering Morgan County s New Deal," the presentation featured the two local men who served in CCC camps Longtime Fort Morgan resident and former CCC enrollee Don Naill was also scheduled to attend but could not get to the museum Thursday due to his poor health. Naill passed away early Monday morning but he contributed to the exhibit a portion of transcribed oral history a tie clasp a pennant and a group photo from his CCC camp at Rocky Mountain National Park During the presentation exhibit organizer Jacqui Ainlay-Conley said the New Deal consisted of various legislative acts programs and federal agencies aimed at providing relief to U.S citizens and the country s economy. The CCC was one of then U S President Franklin D Roosevelt's first experimental programs of the New Deal she said Roosevelt established the CCC program originally named the Emergency Conservation Work (ECW) program in 1933 to relieve unemployment and restore the country s natural resources through public works Ainlay-Conley said He was trying to meet two goals with this one agency," she said adding that the name was officially changed to the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1937 CCC camps were operated and supervised by the U S Army Ainlay-Conley said and the National Park Service and National Forest Service primarily organized the work projects enrollees completed The U S Department of Labor recruited the workers who were originally required to be between the ages of 18 and 25 years old 123

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Each CCC camp consisted of 200 men completing work projects designed to last six months which was the amount of time each enrollee was required to serve. Each camp was affiliated with a different agency and the type of work completed depended on this affiliation. Wetzbarger who worked for the Soil Conservation Service in Sterling in 1940 and 1941, said he primarily worked in the kitchen because he was too small to complete physical labor. I started out washing those big pots and pans and then dishes," he said Over the course of about five months Wetzbarger said, he worked his way into positions with the bakery became the second cook and finally the first cook There was much turnover in the kitchen because people didn't like the work he said They didn't want to stay in there and then they went back out on the end of a wheelbarrow," he said Goedert who served in 1937 and 1938 worked for the National Forest Service at Roosevelt National Forest he said. "In the summer time they d send us up into the mountains where it was higher to work on campgrounds and things like that," he said "In the winter they brought us down to Fort Collins." The government required the bulk of the funds allotted to the CCC to be spent on labor costs related to the work projects rather than the procurement of expensive equipment Ainlay-Conley said They wanted money spent on manpower not on purchasing equipment," she said. "Therefore, it was much better to have 30 young strapping men with shovels than one bulldozer on a project. Additionally Ainlay-Conley said the workers chopped down trees and removed the bark instead of purchasing expensive frame wood needed for various projects 1 24

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In exchange for their labor the workers received food and clothes and learned job skills The enrollees also received medical attention and a cash allowance she said but the men were required to send to their families $25 of the $30 they made each month They received a small stipend of money every month and their families benefited from the enrollees monthly allotment," she said Goedert said a good pair of shoes in those days cost about $2 50 so the extra spending money was a significant benefit to the families Wetzbarger said the government chose where enrollees would work and his camp in Sterling consisted of men from throughout Colorado Life on the military-like camps was tough he said but he still thinks fondly of the educational experience. That's the best thing that ever happened to me," he said You grow up fast. Contact Jesse Chaney at farm@fmtimes.com 1 25

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B I BLIOG R AP HY Non-published Primary Somce s Blo e d orn Resear c h Cente r and Fo rt M o r ga n Mu se um Collectio ns. Fo rt M o r ga n Mu se um Fo rt M o r ga n CO. Cann o n R ay E. "A nnu a l R e p o rt Ex t e n sio n S e r v i ce, Col o r a d o Agric ultur a l College," (1934, 1 935 1 940) Morgan Co unt y Ext e n s i o n Ser v i ce, Fort M o r ga n CO. C i v ili a n Con se r vatio n Corp s Collect i o n Co l o r ado S t a t e A r chive s Den ver. Gr ea t W es t e rn S u gar. A n nua l R e ports D e n ve r : G r ea t Wes t e rn S u ga r 19291 94 1 W es t e rn Histo r y and Gen ea l ogy Collecti o n D e n ve r Publi c Lib r a r y M o r ga n Count y Boa r d of Commi ss i o n e r s Pr oceedings of th e County Co mmi ss i oners, 1 9291942, Mo r ga n Count y Courth o u se, Fort M o r ga n CO. M o r ga n Count y Rur a l E l ec tri c Assoc i atio n Ar chives. Fo rt M o r ga n C O Morg an County Rura l E l ec tri c A ssoc i a tion Mor g an Co unt y Rura l E l ec tri c Assoc i a ti o n Silv e r Jubil ee, Bloe d ern R esearc h C e nter, Fort M o rgan Museum, Fort Morga n C O Trierw eile r B. H Annu a l R e p o rt E x t e n s i o n S e rv i ce, C o lor a d o A gric ultur a l Coll ege," (19 41 a nd 1942) M o r g an County Ext e n s i o n S e r v i ce, Fort Morg an CO. Works Proj ec t s A dmini s tr ation. M ss Colle ction #6 89. Col o r a d o Hi s t o ric a l So c i e ty, D e n ver. Works Pro g r ess A dmini s tr atio n WPA Phot o C o ll ectio n West e rn Hi sto r y a nd G e n e al ogy Collec ti o n D e n ve r Publi c Libr a r y 126

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Publi shed Primar y Sources Ai n l ay-Conley, J acq u i ... Priv i es a n d P olic i es : T h e N ew D ea l in M o r ga n Co unty, .. Colorodo Co unlry Life, A u g u s t 2008, 8. C h ap m a n E d wa r d N. T h e M e n ace t o Life a nd H ea lth f r o m Impr oper Sewage Dis p osa l in Col o r a d o." Co l orado M e di c i n e 3 1 no. l (J anua r y 1 934 ): 4 1 0 ---."Sewage Disposa l A M a j o r Publi c H ea lth Proble m in Co l o r a d o," Co l o r ado M e d i c in e 3 1 no. 1 0 ( O c t o b e r 1 934): 337 3 42. For t M o r ga n Tim es, 1 9291 94 0 a n d 2 008. Hickok, L o r e na. On e T hi rd of a Na ti o n : Lo r e11.a Hi c kok R e p o r ts on the Great D e p r ess i o n E dit e d b y Ric h a r d Lowitt and M a urin e B eas l ey. Urba n a a n d Chicago: Unive r s it y o f Illin o i s Pr ess, 1 98 1 Natio n a l A r chives at College P a rk Co lle ge P a rk MD. R ecords of the W o rk s Pr o g r ess Administratio n R G 69 R ooseve lt F r a n k lin D M essage t o Co n g r ess o n th e N atio n a l Health Progr a m ." 23 J anua r y 1 939. Available o nlin e fro m th e A m erican Pr es id e n cy Pro j ec t a t http ://www.p r es i d e n cy.ucs b .e d u /ws/ ind ex p hp ?p i d= 15699 (accesse d M a r c h 8, 200 9) Spren g elm e y e r M .E S c haff e r H e ar s of Strain s o n th e Plain s R ocky M o unt a in N ews. O c t o b e r 1 2008. U.S. Bureau of th e Cen s us. C o l o r a d o P o pulati o n Chan ge b y C o un ty 1 9 00-19 90 C ompil e d a nd e dit e d by Ric h a rd L. Fors tall Population Di v i s ion U S. Bur e au o f th e Cen s us. W as hin g ton, DC, March 27, 1995. http ://www .ce n s us. gov/ p o pul atio n/cen co unt s/co l 9 00 9 0 t x t (a c cesse d F e bru a r y 27, 2 007). U S F e d e r a l W o rk s A ge n c y Final R e p o rt of th e WPA Prog ram 1 93 5 --43 W es tp o rt C T : Gree nwood Pr ess 1976 U S Gre at Plain s Drou g ht Area Committee. R eport of th e Gre at Plains Dro u g ht Are a C ommittee. Committee Chairman Morris L. Cooke. Was hin g ton D C: GPO, Au g u s t 27 1936 Available online from the New Deal Network a t http:/ / newdeal.feri.o r g /h o p ki n s /h o p 2 7 htm (acce ss ed Sept e mb e r 7 200 8) 127

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