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Evaluating the instructional leadership of the school principal in the state of Kuwait

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Title:
Evaluating the instructional leadership of the school principal in the state of Kuwait
Creator:
Al-Azemi, Abdulaziz S
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Arabic
Physical Description:
x, 129 leaves : ill., forms ; 29 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
School principals -- Kuwait ( lcsh )
Leadership ( lcsh )
Leadership ( fast )
School principals ( fast )
Kuwait ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Colorado at Denver, 1995. Educational leadership and innovation
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 63-67).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Doctor of Philosophy, Educational Leadership and Innovation.
General Note:
School of Education and Human Development
Statement of Responsibility:
by Abdulaziz S. Al-Azemi.

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University of Colorado Denver
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|Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
34232841 ( OCLC )
ocm34232841

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Full Text
EVALUATING THE INSTRUCTIONAL
LEADERSHIP OF THE SCHOOL PRINCIPAL
IN THE STATE OF KUWAIT
by
Abdulaziz S. Al-Azemi
B.A., Kuwait University, 1987
M.A., University of Colorado, 1990
M.A., Michigan State University, 1992
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Educational Leadership and Innovation
1995


1995
by Abdulaziz Saud Al-Azemi
All rights reserved


This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy
degree by
Abdulaziz Al-Azemi
has been approved for the Graduate School
by
Date {- 2 *?5


IN THE NAME OF ALLAH
MOST GRACIOUS MOST MERCIFUL


Al-Azemi, Abdulaziz (Ph. D., Educational Leadership and Innovation)
Evaluating the Instructional Leadership of the School Principal in the State of
Kuwait
Thesis directed by Assistant Professor Sharon Ford
ABSTRACT
This study was designed to evaluate Kuwaiti school principals'
instructional leadership. The effectiveness of Kuwaiti school principals in
performing their roles as instructional leaders has not been adequately assessed.
The ministry's school administration programs are carried out without assessing
trainees' needs.
The researcher sought a) teachers' appraisal of the instructional
leadership of their respective principals and b) principals' perceptions of their
responsibilities as instructional leaders. A total of 556 teacher questionnaires
were returned, representing a 96% response rate. Descriptive statistical
analyses were conducted to examine teachers' and principals' responses.
Teachers' responses were analyzed by ANOVA and are reported by school
principal's behavior, school, and school district.
The findings of this study indicated that: a) Instructional leadership is a
construct that consists of highly related elements; b) most of school principals are
interested in establishing an orderly school climate; c) although principals indicated
that evaluation of teacher instruction is their number one responsibility, teachers
responded that principals do not point out specific strengths and weaknesses of
teacher's instruction, and the majority of principals indicated that they need more
IV


training on teacher evaluation; d) school principals also indicated that assessing and
improving student achievement are major functions of the school principal,
however, a considerable percentage of them do not monitor students progress and do
not contribute to their improvement.; e) a substantial percentage of principals do
not establish positive human relations with teachers, according to teachers'
perceptions; f) non-Kuwaiti teachers rated their principals' instructional
leadership higher than Kuwaiti teachers did; g) school principals indicated that the
following are the barriers of their instructional leadership: 1) the huge amounts of
non-instructional responsibilities, 2) parents' excessive and unorganized visits,
and 3) student problems; h) they also indicated that the following can improve their
instructional leadership: 1) more authority in teacher selection, 2) more authority
in curriculum delivery, and 3) more awareness of the goals of education.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I
recommend its publication.
Signe
v


DEDICATION
This study is dedicated to
my father,
my mother,
and my wife


CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I INTRODUCTION ........................................................ 1
Statement of the Problem ....................................... 4
Research Questions...................................... 5
Need for the Study...................................... 6
Limitations of the Study........................................ 7
Definition of Terms............................................. 7
II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE ................................. 9
Introduction ................................................... 9
Instructional Leadership in the USA ............................ 9
The Kuwaiti System of Public Education.......................... 13
Educational Policy and Planning ........................ 14
Principalship in Kuwait .................................. 17
In-service Training Programs ...................... 19
Research on Principalship .............................. 21
Principalship in Britain ....................................... 24
III METHODOLOGY ........................................................ 31
Introduction ................................................... 31
Design of Instruments .......................................... 31
Face Validity and Pilot Testing ................................ 32
Vll


Sampling .............................................;....... 33
Protocol ...................................................... 34
Data Organization and Analysis .............................. 35
Construct Validity and Reliability ............................ 35
IV FINDINGS ......................................................... 39
Introduction ................................................. 39
Findings Pertaining to Research Questions .................... 40
Research Question One................................... 40
Research Question Two .................................. 44
Research Question Three .............................. 49
Research Question Four ................................. 50
V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND DISCUSSION .............................. 52
Introduction ................................................. 52
Summary of the Design of the Study ........................... 53
Summary of the Main Findings .................................. 54
Conclusions .... ........................................... 57
Implications, Discussion, and Recommendations ................. 58
REFERENCES ........................................................... 63
viii


APPENDICES
Appendix A : School Work Manual .................................. 68
Appendix B : Responsibilities of Secondary School Principals ... 77
Appendix C : Items of Teachers Questionnaire .................... 79
Appendix D : Teacher Questionnaire ............................... 81
Appendix E : Principal Questionnaire ............................. 91
Appendix F : Educational Administrator Evaluation Form ........... 94
Appendix G : Letter to the Ministry of Education
Asking for Permission................................ 97
Appendix H : Ministry's Permission to do the Study ................. 98
Appendix I : Factor Analysis ...................................... 101
Appendix J : Correlation Matrix...................................... 104
Appendix K : Perceived Instructional Responsibilities
of School Principals ................................... 108
Appendix L : Perceived Barriers of Principal's
Instructional Leadership............................. 110
Appendix M : Means and Standard Deviations of the Areas of
Principal's Instructional Leadership ................... 112
IX


Acknowledgments
I would like to express my sincere gratitude and thanks to Allah for His
guidance throughout doing this work and for all the blessing He has bestowed upon
me. I am also grateful to my father, my mother, my wife, and my brothers and sister
for their support and prayers.
This study would not have been done without the help of Allah, then many
people. I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. Sharon Ford, my advisor
and chairperson of the dissertation committee who oversaw this work from a
seven-page rough draft to the final printed dissertation, to Dr. Michael Murphy
and Dr. Alan Davis, members of the dissertation committee, for their constructive
guidance, recommendations, and encouragement.
Special thanks are due to my dear brother Abdullah Al-Mhelby for the
time and efforts he paid to help me conduct this study.
I also would like to express my appreciation and thanks to Dr. Ernest
House and Dr. John Haas, members of the dissertation committee and to
Dr. Muhammad Al-Musailim, Dr. Bader Al-Omar, Dr. Mark Swadener, and
Dr. Rodney Muth for their assistance. I also would like to thank the school
principals and teachers for the time they spent participating in this study.
x


' CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The School Work Manual, published by the Kuwaiti Ministry of Education in
1987, stated that the school principal is an educational leader who should be able to
evaluate teachers' instructional performance, to monitor students' progress, and to
help both teachers and students improve effectiveness. A number of studies,
however, indicate that school administrators in Kuwait are immersed in clerical
work and correspondence with the ministry which inhibits them from performing
their roles as instructional facilitators (al-Tammar, 1983; al-Musailim, 1987).
Keefe (1987, pp. 50-51) defines instructional leadership as "the
principal's role in providing direction, resources, and support to teachers and
students for the improvement of teaching and learning in the school."
Many researchers maintain that the leadership behavior of the school
principal plays a crucial role in the academic performance of students (Lipham,
1981; Andrews, 1989). Researchers have focused attention on principals'
instructional leadership, because instruction is the core technology of schools, and
student learning is the product. They propose that school administrative leadership
and school organization can affect instruction and, hence, student learning (Erickson,
1978; Bidwell, 1979; Bossert, Dwyer, Rowan, & Lee, 1982).
Researchers have tried to analyze how organizational forms and principals'
leadership practices affect the concrete, day-to-day experiences of teachers and
students (Bossert, 1988).
1


Research on effective schools and school improvement indicates that
principals' appropriate clinical supervision and teacher evaluation and staff
development enhance student achievement (Cawelti, 1987). A number of studies
indicate that behaviors such as observing teacher's instructional methods and the
principal's ability to help teachers improve effectiveness are correlated with higher
student achievement (Maryland State Department of Education, 1978; Lipham,
1981; Heck, Larsen, & Marcoulides, 1990).
Studies consistently report that successful schools have a system of clear
instructional objectives for monitoring and assessing students' performance
(Bossert et al., 1982). Heck and his associates (1990) indicated that the school
principal should ensure systematic monitoring of student progress by staff and
emphasize test results for program improvement. Hallinger and Murphy (1987a, p.
57) also maintain that "principal involvement in monitoring student progress both
within individual classrooms and across grades is an equally potent, but
underemphasized, area of principal activity."
Sergiovanni (1991, p. 90) contends that "effective schools establish a
variety of methods for communicating as well as working with parents and the
community." Those schools make sure that parents are involved in all aspects of
their children's learning and school activities.
Bossert and his associates (1982) presented a model for analyzing the
instructional management role of the principal. They suggested that principal
instructional management behavior affects two basic features of the school's social
organizationinstructional organization and school climate. In these two contexts,
they wrote, "various social relationships are formed and which, in turn, shape
2


teachers' behavior and students' learning experiences-that produce student
learning" (p. 39).
Instructional organization relates to behaviors such as observing teachers'
instructional methods and helping them improve effectiveness, evaluating curricular
programs, securing resources for school programs, and ensuring systematic
monitoring of student progress by staff.
School climate, on the other hand, refers to the attitudes of the staff and
students toward school environment that influence learning in the school (Bossert et
al., 1982). Principals shape the learning climate directly and indirectly by: (a)
Maintaining high visibility to communicate priorities and expectations, (b)
communicating instructional goals, (c) creating a reward system that reinforces
academic achievement (Hallinger & Murphy, 1987a), (d) establishing a safe
orderly environment, (e) motivating staff members, and (f) establishing positive
human relations with teachers (Gross & Herriott, 1965; Miller, 1976; Lipham,
1981; Bossert et al., 1982; Andrews, 1989).
In conclusion, the literature on instructional leadership reveals that
(a) teacher evaluation and instructional development, (b) student academic progress
monitoring, (c) school climate, and (d) parent involvement are critical to student
academic achievement (Maryland State Department of Education, 1978; Edmonds,
1979; Lipham, 1981; Cawelti, 1987). Those studies maintain that the school
principal is responsible for and can promote the above areas toward the
improvement of student academic achievement.
3


Statement of the Problem
The effectiveness of Kuwait school principals in performing their roles as
instructional leaders has not been adequately assessed (al-Ameeri, 1991). The
purposes of this study are: (a) to analyze, through the perceptions of teachers,
Kuwaiti secondary school principals instructional leadership performance according
to the ministry's principal's job descriptions cited in the School Work Manual
(1987) and (b) to examine school principals' perceptions of the responsibilities of
the school principal as an instructional leader and the perceived obstacles that may
limit their instructional leadership.
The researcher chose teacher assessment as the primary source for data
analysis because of the close proximity of teachers to their respective principals.
Teachers have the greatest opportunity to observe the principal's relevant
instructional leadership behaviors (Hallinger, 1983; Andrews, 1989).
School district was considered as one of the variables in this study since
previous studies have indicated that the distribution of school administrators and
teachers in the five school districts was not balanced (proportionally) in quality and
quantity (Ministry of Education, 1989; al-Musailim & al-Abdelhadi, 1992).
Nationality of teachers has been also considered as one of the variables in the
study because of the different academic backgrounds of Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti
teachers. Most Kuwaiti teachers have had their teacher education and training in
Kuwaiti academic institutions, primarily, at Kuwait University. Their preparation
programs, therefore, tend to be similar. The vast majority of non-Kuwaiti teachers,
however, have had their teacher education in their home countries, primarily, in
Egypt and Syria, in addition to other Arab countries. Teachers of different academic
4


backgrounds are expected to have different perceptions of schooling. It is worth
mentioning here that the percentage of non-Kuwaiti secondary school teachers in
Kuwait is 69 percent (Ministry of Education, Educational Statistics, March 1993).
The effect of gender was also examined in this study. Male teachers'
perceptions of their principals' instructional leadership have been compared with
those of female teachers. Al-Hadhood and al-Jaber (1989) found that
female and male teachers perceived their principals' leadership styles differently.
Research Questions
The study will attempt to answer the following questions:
1. How do teachers perceive their Kuwaiti public secondary school
principals' instructional leadership with regard to:
(a) principals' evaluation and development of teacher instruction,
(b) principals' monitoring of students' progress and improvement,
(c) principals' establishment of a positive school climate, and
(d) principals' involvement of parents in school programs?
2. What differences exist in teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional
leadership performance with regard to:
a) the district in which a principal works,
b) the nationality of teachers, and
c) the gender of the school? (i.e. boys' schools or girls' schools).
3. What do secondary school principals in Kuwait perceive as the
responsibilities of the school principal as an instructional leader?
5


4. What barriers do secondary school principals in Kuwait perceive as
limiting their instructional leadership?
Need for the Study
When asked about their involvement in the Ministry's in-service education
programs, secondary school administrators in Kuwait indicated that they perceived
no involvement in activities such as needs assessment and planning and limited
involvement in the evaluation of the programs (al-Ameeri, 1991). Al-Ameeri
recommended that trainees' needs be assessed before the beginning of in-service
school administration education programs.
Executives and decision makers, both in the central office of the Ministry of
Education and school districts in Kuwait, do not know for sure whether school
principals are performing their roles as instructional leaders. This is because the
Kuwaiti educational system, to the present time, does not follow a criterion-
referenced and well-defined procedure to evaluate the performance of school
principals (Ministry of Education, Educational Administrator Evaluation Form,
1975) (Appendix F). The form that is used by district and ministry executives for
the evaluation of school principals is a general form used to evaluate a number of
other educational administrators at both the district and ministry levels as well as
other school administrators. This form is used to evaluate district and ministry
officials such as department heads, directors, and academic supervisors, as well as
school administrators such as assistant principals. Analyzing and evaluating
principals' performance adequately can help improve the Ministry's school
6


administration education programs, which in turn can improve principals'
instructional leadership behavior.
Limitations of the Study
1. This study will gather information about principals of Kuwaiti public
secondary schools only.
2. The study will deal only with the perceptions of teachers and principals of
secondary schools.
3. Principals' behavior examined in the study are consistent with those
outlined in the Principal's Responsibilities in the Ministry's School Work Manual.
1987 (Appendix A).
Definition of Terms
Instructional leadership. In this study, instructional leadership is "the
principal's role in providing direction, resources, and support to teachers and
students for the improvement of teaching and learning in the school" (Keefe, 1987,
pp. 50-51).
After reviewing the related literature in the United States and the Kuwaiti
Ministry of Education job descriptions for school principals, the following appear to
be required by the principal in order to perform his/her role as an instructional
leader:
. Be aware of and communicate instructional goals to teachers, students, and parents.
. Evaluate teachers' instructional practice.
. Help teachers improve instructional effectiveness.
7


. Monitor students' academic progress systematically.
. Provide advice and coordinate with the faculty involved to help improve student
academic performance.
. Maintain high visibility.
. Systematically involve parents in school programs.
. Create a school environment that induces student cognitive and social growth.
Ministry of Education. The government branch responsible for administering
and overseeing the work of educational institutions in the country. It is headed by the
Minister of Education--a political figure who is a cabinet member.
8


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
Introduction
The Dictionary of Education by Shafritz, Kooppe, and Soper defines
instructional leadership as, "One function for school principals that is contrasted
with responsibilities related to the management of school resources . specifically,
it relates to improving the quality of instruction in the classroom" (Shafritz,
Kooppe, & Soper, 1988, p. 247).
Instructional leadership is referred to in Kuwait as the technical (non-
managerial) side of the school principal's job--as the other side is the managerial
(Ministry of Education, School Work Manual. 1987a).
Instructional Leadership in the U.S.A.
Smith and Andrews (1989) indicated that the school principal as
instructional leader means that the principal is perceived by close associates as:
1. Providing the necessary resources needed for achieving a school's academic
goals.
2. Possessing knowledge and skills in curriculum and instructional matters that
can enhance teachers' instructional practice.
3. Being a skilled communicator in one-on-one, small-group, and large-group
settings.
4. Being a visionary who is out and around creating a visible presence for the
staff, students, and parents, at both the physical and philosophical levels, concerning
what the school is all about.
9


Smith and Andrews maintain that the principal as an Instructional
Resource should:
1. Demonstrate the ability to evaluate and reinforce appropriate and effective
instructional strategies.
2. Know resources that enhance instruction.
3. Supervise the staff, using strategies that focus on the improvement of
instruction.
4. In the process of assessing the educational program, use students' outcome
information that is directly related to instructional issues.
5. Demonstrate the ability to:
a) Motivate staff members,
b) State clear expectations to the staff, and
c) Provide clear feedback.
6. Know staff members' strengths and weaknesses.
7. Assign staff members according to their strengths.
8. Match staff members' needs to professional development opportunities (Smith
& Andrews, 1989, pp. 14-16).
James Keefe, the then Director of Research of the National Association of
Secondary School Principals, maintains that a growing body of evidence on effective
instruction, school productivity, school learning climate, and learning styles
emphasizes the view that leadership is critical to initiate and sustain any process of
school improvement" and that "certain behaviors of the principal are necessary for
effective school leadership (Keefe, 1987, p. 49). Keefe defines instructional
leadership as "the principal's role in providing direction, resources, and support to
10


teachers and students for the improvement of teaching and learning in the school"
(pp. 50-51).
There are at least three distinct forms of instructional leadership
competence, according to Keefe. Each form is distinct but an interdependent part of
the larger role of the school principal. They are:
1. Content competence: Knowledge of subject matter practices and trends.
2. Methodological competence: Knowledge of instructional strategies and
modalities and the ability to assist teachers in improving instructional delivery.
3. Supervisory competence: Knowledge of the administrative and
interpersonal skills of instructional supervision.
Instructional leadership, according to Keefe, could be conceptualized in four
broad domains: Formative, Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation.
1. Formative: Principal's awareness of important trends in school
curriculum, new approaches to organizing schools, and the state of the art in
instructional media and methodology.
2. Planning: Principal's ability to help teachers assess student needs,
establish goals for the school, helping teachers see the relationship of these goals to
the instructional program, and set expectations for instruction.
3. Implementation: Applying the formative and planning aspects of
principal's competencies in various forms of activities that enhance the quality of
teaching and learning.
4. Evaluation: The quality of student learning and growth will be seen in
several signs, among which are: Achievement test scores, average daily attendance,
11


library and media usage, and number of students participating in cocurricular
activities (Keefe, 1987).
Based on the descriptions of the behavior of principals in instructionally
effective schools, Philip Hallinger (1983) defined the principal's role as
instructional manager in 11 job functions. He developed an instrument consisting of
71 items from the 11 job functions stated in behavioral terms. He also tested both
the internal consistency and validity of the instrument and found that all 11 rating
scales met acceptable standards of reliability and confirmed the validity of the
instrument. The job functions were:
I
1) Frames the school's goals.
2) Communicates the school's goals to staff and students.
3) Supervises and evaluates instruction.
4) Coordinates curriculum.
5) Monitors student progress.
6) Protects instructional time.
7) Promotes instructional improvement and professional
development.
8) Maintains high visibility.
9) Provides incentives for teachers.
10) Enforces academic standards.
11) Provides incentives for learning (Hallinger, 1983).
12


The Kuwaiti System of Public Education
Introduction
The central Ministry of Education in Kuwait, as in most other Arab countries,
1) formulates and implements educational policy for the entire country, 2) finances
public education at all levels, 3) administers all public schools below the university
level, 4) finances Kuwait University, 5) supervises private schools, 6) trains,
recruits, promotes, dismisses, and retires teachers, and 7) builds, rents, and
maintains school buildings. The ministry, also 8) provides equipment, books, and
other school facilities and health services, 9) plans and implements school
curricula, and 10) administers examinations in all public schools. It is also
responsible for educational relations with international organizations and foreign
governments as well as for students studying abroad (al-Tammar, 1983; al-Ahmad,
Isa, al-Farra, & Taha, 1986).
The centralized administrative approach adopted by the Ministry of
Education, therefore, does not permit school principals to make any minor or
temporary adjustment to the curriculum. The ministry is solely responsible for
designing and building the curriculum, writing and publishing textbooks, and
producing instructional media. School principals, also, do not control the
appointment and promotion of their staff (Ministry of Education, School Work
Manual. 1987a; School Districts Manual. 1987b).
The school system in Kuwait begins with voluntary kindergarten education
for 2 years from the ages of 4 to 6, followed by mandatory elementary and
intermediate education, each for 4 years from the ages of 6 to 14. This is followed
by voluntary secondary education for 4 years. Public schools in Kuwait in the
13


elementary, intermediate and, secondary levels are segregated according to gender.
There are nearly equal numbers of schools for boys and girls. Male schools have
male teaching and administrative staffs, and female schools have female teaching and
administrative staffs, except kindergartens which have all female staffs.
Educational Policy and Planning.
The Supreme Council of Education is in charge of educational policy and
planning in Kuwait. This council consists of a number of university professors,
experienced educators, and other top executives of public affairs institutions. The
Supreme Council is headed by the Minister of Education. The mission of the council
is 1) to provide general guidelines, 2) offer advice for the Office of the Minister as
well as other senior offices of the Ministry, 3) organize and promote research in
education, and 4) create educational plans (Ministry of Education, 1989).
The Ministry of Education jurisdiction decree. In the late 1970s, the
government's administrative performance was widely criticized. (al-Musailim,
1987). The Kuwait National Assembly adopted a project entitled "Reconstruction of
the Governmental Executive and Administration". The project required that all
government organizations arid ministries should have a written document clarifying
their jurisdictions and limitations. The Ministry of Education jurisdiction decree
was passed and approved by the Cabinet in 1979.
The decree consisted of three sections. Section one stated that the Ministry of
Education is responsible for the contribution to the growth of society and of the
younger generation, in the light of Islamic principles, Arabic culture, and
contemporary civilized cultures and consistent with Kuwait's environment and the
14


attainment of its progress. Section two indicated that the Ministry has the following
duties:
1. Proposing general educational policies and plans through higher councils
of education and other consultative committees.
2. Deciding on educational matters, such as, school levels, improvement of
the curriculum, and setting admission procedures and examination rules.
3. Administering of adult education and eliminating illiteracy programs,
special education, and religious, vocational and technical institutions.
4. Preparing, implementing, and supervising school programs in sports,
social, and cultural activities.
5. Sending students abroad for higher education.
6. Cooperating with other ministries and organizations concerned with youth
affairs and interests as well as with other foreign friendly countries and educational
associations for the improvement of education in the country (Kuwait Today
Journal. 1979).
An Amiri Decree of Public Education was issued in 1987 and specified
schooling levels and certifications and the functions of the Supreme Council of
Education (Ministry of Education, 1989).
Decentralizing the educational system: The school district system of
education. In the late 1970s educational policy and decision makers in Kuwait decided
to create the district system, as the numbers of schools, students, and teachers were
rapidly increasing. They became aware of the defects of the centralized system of
education and that "the time is coming for radical change in the ministry's
15


administrative structure", as stated in a report presented to the ministry by its
Department of Organization (1978, p. 2).
The report was a response from the Undersecretary to the request of the then
Minister of Education to evaluate the administrative performance of the Ministry and
to study the idea of establishing educational districts in the three provinces of Kuwait
at that time, April 1975. In his request, the Minister advised that school districts
would be part of and dependent on the Ministry (Ministry of Education, Department
of Organization, 1978).
A school-district system of education was initiated by the Ministry in 1981.
The first school district, al-Ahmadi, was established in February 1981 (Ministry of
Education, ministerial decree no. 30/1981). The system was completed when a
ministerial decree was issued in June 1986 to establish the fourth and the fifth
districts.
The School District Manual (1987b) was issued by the ministry after the
opening of the last school district. It contains detailed descriptions of the duties and
responsibilities of school district officers, as well as the rules and regulations that
govern the constituencies of the educational process in the district.
The main powers and duties of the school district managers are:
a) Suggest new school sites, b) follow up school work of both teachers and school
administrators, c) provide schools with technical needs, such as instructional media,
d) manage student records, e) manage students and teaching staff transference,
f) coordinate subjects senior-supervisors' work, g) supervise and manage students
testing and certification, h) supervise social and psychological services for district's
16


students, and i) coordinate and supervise schools' extra-curricular activities
(ministerial decree no. 22306/1983).
Authorities of the central office of the Ministry of Education. The Manual also
covers a number of rights and authorities (27 items) that will be controlled by the
central office of the ministry.
The following are some of the authorities that the ministry continues to hold:
a) Establishes the educational policy according to the national goals of the country,
b) creates the plans, projects, and programs that will implement the country's
educational policy, c) decides on the strategies that can disseminate education and
literacy in the country, d) designs and builds the curriculum, writes and publishes
textbooks, and produces instructional media, e) provides school districts with all
needed personnel, f) evaluates and follow up with the educational and teaching
strategies and methods employed by all different public and private educational
institutions in the country, g) designs school buildings, h) modifies, suspends, or
invalidates school district resolutions, and i) promotes teachers and school
administrators to higher positions.
Principalship In Kuwait
Selection and Promotion of School Building Administrators: (Head teacher. Assistant
Principal, and School Principal).
The process of promoting a classroom teacher to a school administration
position consists of a number of official procedures. Criteria governing advancement
in academic rank includes length of service in the teaching profession and length of
service in a particular rank. School principals make recommendations to school
17


district officials who transfer the recommendations to central office executives
concerning teachers they believe should be considered for promotion. A written
recommendation about the teacher from the principal, based on the evaluation of both
the principal and the supervisor, is a prerequisite for the nomination.
General qualifications required for school administration positions: head
teacher, supervisor, assistant principal, and school principal. Potential
administrators should:
1. Have had excellent evaluation reports in the preceding two years from
both the academic supervisor and school principal.
2. Have participated in the in-service School Administration Training
Program offered by the ministry.
3. Have received no penalty in the preceding two years.
4. Have passed successfully the personal interview with the Ministry's
Promotion Committee.
The promotion decision shall be issued by the central Department of
Coordination and Follow-up of Public Education.
Experience requirements for head teacher and supervisor promotion.
1. Four-year university degree.
2. Teaching experience of 4 years for those who have an educational
university degree and 5 years for those who have a non-educational university
degree.
3. Potential administrator must be a head teacher before he/she can be
considered for supervisor promotion.
18


Experience requirement for assistant principal.
Three years of teaching experience as head teacher or supervisor.
Experience requirement for school principal.
Three years experience as assistant principal.
(ministerial decree no. 494/89).
In-service Training Programs in. School Administration
Training programs in school administration were first introduced in Kuwait
in 1974 when the ministry issued decree number 75952 to establish its first
training center which became part of the Department of Research and Technical
Coordination. In December 1979, the Training Center became an independent
department within the ministry (al-Ameeri, 1991).
The Training Center prepares and organizes two training programs each year.
In its 1993 detailed plan for its in-service training programs, the Center included a
number of objectives and outlined the programs' curriculum. The duration of the
in-service was one to three months depending on the intensity of the program, "to
prepare classroom teachers for school administration positions, such as head
teacher, supervisor, assistant principal, and school principal" (p.1).
Objective of the training programs. The objective of the training programs
was to provide potential school administrators with:
1. The needed skills and behaviors of effective educational leadership.
2. Goals of school administration in the State of Kuwait.
3. Responsibilities of school principal and assistant principal.
4. Recent trends in school curriculum and curriculum evaluation methods.
19


5. Common problems of school administration.
Main components of the curriculum of the training programs.
1. Educational goals: general goals of education in Kuwait and their relation to
the goals of schooling levels, i.e., elementary, intermediate, and secondary levels,
and their relation with the goals of subjects areas and the role of school
administration in attaining those goals.
2. Responsibilities of school administration: Notion of school administration,
the relationship between the school administration and the school district, and the
relationship between school administration and academic supervision.
3. Educational research and its role in educational improvement.
4. School administration and teachers: Educational leadership and positive
human relations, communication in school administration, the role of school
administration in teacher professional development.
5. School administration, students, and educational psychology: The role of
school administration in student guidance and counseling, methods of educational
measurement, assessment, evaluation, and intelligence tests.
6. School administration and school curriculum: Philosophy of school
curriculum, important and recent trends, components and evaluation of school
curriculum.
7. School administration and supervision: Evaluation of teacher instructional
performance, teaching methodology, instructional media, and extra-curricular
activities (Ministry of Education, 1993).
20


Research on Principalship
In his extensive study of the perceptions of secondary school principals and
assistant principals regarding their involvement in the ministry's in-service
education, al-Ameeri (1991) concluded that secondary school administrators
recognized the importance of their involvement in in-service education activities,
such as needs assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation. School
administrators, however, perceived no actual involvement in needs assessment,
planning, or implementation of the programs. Actual involvement in evaluation was
perceived only through questionnaires at the end of each in-service training cycle.
AI-Ameeri (1991) recommended that trainees' needs be assessed before the
beginning of an in-service education program.
In her study of the role of the secondary school principal in
Kuwait, al-Tammar (1983) indicated that
Centralization of educational administration adopted by the
Ministry of Education deprives principals from taking an active
part in such fundamental issues as selection of new teachers and
the allocation of discretionary funds within their school budget.
This exclusion hinders their ability to influence the educational
direction of their school (p.118-119).
She also indicated that school principals preferred to have considerable
opportunity for independent thought and action. School principals, also, perceived
parents' involvement as very limited, and they recommended increasing the
involvement of parents and the community in all aspects of planning and advising in
their schools. In addition, secondary school principals identified three main
constraints on their ability to fulfill their responsibilities. They were: (a) Lack of
Ministry flexibility, (b) parents apathetic or irresponsible about their children,
21


and (c) students lack of motivation. Al-Tammar proposes that a decentralized
educational system that makes the principal more independent would release his/her
capacity to create and stimulate change toward the better for schooling and education.
She maintains that decentralization of education in Kuwait could produce more
effective principals (al-Tammar, 1983).
School principals spend most of their work hours in their offices, attempting
to finish the mountains of paperwork required by the ministry. The instructional
role of the principal, al-Musailim (1987) asserted, however, requires that he/she
visits classrooms and evaluates teachers, the curriculum, and students' progress.
Kuwaiti school principals, with the huge amount of managerial responsibilities they
are obliged to handle throughout the academic year, lack the adequate time for
instructional supervision (al-Musailim, 1987).
In June 1985, the Amir of the State of Kuwait issued a decree forming an
advisory committee whose mission was to evaluate the state's educational system.
Two years later, the committee reported its findings and made a number of
recommendations. The major issues discussed in the report were educational
goals, policy, and planning, as well as educational administration. In relation to
school administration, the committee recommended that the evaluation of school
principals' performance needed to be revised and improved (Ministry of Education,
1989).
In his study of public secondary school principals' job satisfaction, Safar
(1987) suggested that the ministry's authorities should take appropriate measures
to help raise principals' level of satisfaction with respect to autonomy, development
and advancement, and involvement in decision making.
22


The perceptions of Kuwaiti teachers and principals indicated that the
Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) subscale of production
emphasis was the leadership behavior which secondary school principals
demonstrated most. This denotes, according to Ali (1984), that principals had
performed well in applying pressure for productive output. It also reflects the
concern of the Ministry of Education for output rather than input.
In another study, entitled "Leadership Style for Male and Female Principals
of Public Schools in Kuwait as Perceived by Teachers", al-Hadhood and al-Jaber
(1989) found that there was a significant difference between the perceptions of male
and female teachers of their principals' leadership style. Female teachers perceived
their principals as more concerned with human relations than male teachers did.
In their study "Advantages and Disadvantages of Converting to
Decentralization in the Kuwaiti Public Education System", al-Musailim and al-
Abdelhadi (1992) pointed out that the distribution of school administrators and
teachers in the five school districts was not balanced (proportionally) in quality and
quantity; some school districts have significantly more and better qualified school
teachers and administrators than other districts, according to the perceptions of
school administrators.
Female elementary school principals were found to differ in their
contribution to teachers' instructional evaluation and development according to their
years of experience as school principals. Principals of 6 to 15 years of experience
in school principalship promote more group work and devote more time to
instructional supervision than those with experience of less than 6 years or more
than 15 years (al-Jaber, 1989).
23


Principalship in Britain
Introduction
The following section of this chapter will provide a brief discussion of the
role of the British school principal. Kuwait has a good academic and cultural
relationship with the United Kingdom and the United States as well as with other
countries. With such a good academic relationship, the Kuwaiti educational system
is likely to be influenced by some of the aspects of the educational systems of the
above mentioned countries.
Historical Background
The role of school principals, who are called head teachers in Britain, has
changed according to the different assumptions the English society has had about
schooling throughout history (Jones, 1987). Those assumptions or attitudes toward
schooling have developed through three phases-the Classical-academic (up to about
1955), the Socio-economic Pastoral (1955-75), and the Organizational
Development (1975 present).
There were two assumptions behind the Classical-academic phase. First, that
the better the teacher the more the pupils will learn. The second assumption, which
may sound contrary to the first one, was that intellectual abilities are
predetermined. It followed from these assumptions that separate educational
institutions would best serve the economic needs of society: hence, grammar schools
were for the elite, the future leaders, professionals, and administrators; technical
schools for the craftsmen and technicians; and secondary moderns for the large
masses of unskilled workers. The model assumed a stable state of intelligence, social
class, and position in society.
24


One of the popular assumptions in the Socio-economic Pastoral phase
(1955-75) was that if socio-economic differences between pupils were removed,
then they would all have a fair and equal chance, which advocates equality of
opportunity. The manifestations of this were the development of comprehensive
schools of mixed-ability teaching and the idea of social priority schools. The other
attempt to give pupils an equal chance in spite of their background came through the
development of pastoral care systems. The idea behind this movement was that the
extra caring school could mitigate or potentially remove the damaging psychological
effects of inadequate parenting.
The Organizational Development phase was based on the belief that nature
(pupils' predetermined abilities) and nurture (the socio-economic conditions) could
be changed only in a limited way by good teaching and social engineering and care.
Having that belief, the people began to look at other factors such as the culture of the
school and the way it is organized and run, the hidden curriculum, and the attitudes
of people in the school.
Jones (1987) believes that there are basically four periods or styles of the
English headship, with some variations, that correspond, in a way or another, with
the three phases of Schooling-Monarchic, Bureaucratic, Anarchic, and Organic. The
role of the English head teacher has gone through those four periods or styles
throughout history. The Monarchic period corresponds with the Classical-academic
phase of schooling. This period goes back to the days of the nineteenth century's head
teachers, who were mostly men, and
25


enjoyed enormous public respect, prestige, private loyalty, and
obedience. Their power and leadership were unquestioned. When
the Head came into view, every body stood up and was silent,
Nobody, but nobody, would argue unless this was part of the
permitted culture of the school (Jones, 1987, p. 43).
Baron (1956) argued, however, that the Monarchic head is not synonymous
with the autocratic head. Baron maintained that the despotism, if there, was benign
or even benevolent; the autocracy was made acceptable by a touch of inspirational
leadership, charisma, wisdom and oratory.
Monarchic head teachers' jobs in the Classical-academic era was made easier.
Their task was much easier than their Comprehensive counterparts since education
was streamed and the aims and expectations were clear. Homogeneous groups of
pupils were much easier to coach.
The Bureaucratic headship, which corresponds with the Socio-economic
Pastoral phase, followed the establishment of the large Comprehensives of the fifties
and sixties. There was an attempt to make the head into a kind of chief executive, a
systems man, who, through his elaborate system of line management, had the whole
of organization at his fingertips. The influence of big business was apparent in this
phase. Terms such as accountability, spans of control, and chains of command
became common in the headship lexicon.
During those days, schools were expected to overcome the socio-economic and
the affective ills of the society, which were unrealistic. Thus, head teachers
were expected to provide a panacea for all the problems of society. They found
themselves under increased strain; running heterogeneous institutions with conflicts
of expectations, treatment, different teaching and learning styles, and with
inevitably greater tension between the constituent members.
26


The end of that era (mid-seventies) witnessed the call for a democratic school
administration and teacher participation. Anarchic head teachers at that time were
forced by their staffs to be democratic. They witnessed the weakening of their
positions. They not only felt helpless, but also intimidated (Jones, 1987). One of
the head teachers of that time acknowledged that head teacher's authority diminished
as procedures became more democratic and participation became widespread at all
levels. He, however, talked about the leadership by continually renewed assent and
that head teacher's personal influence could be greater in such democratic school
climate (Jennings, 1977).
One way of reducing this feeling of powerlessness is for the head teacher to
adopt what Jones (1987) calls an Organic style of leadership. Jones indicates that
this style co-existed with the Bureaucratic and Anarchic phases of headship. The
philosophy behind Organic style rejects the mechanistic and authoritarian systems of
school management, in favor of organic development and a school organization that is
sufficiently flexible to adopt to external changes. Jones maintains that the over-
organized school is incapable of responding sufficiently and quickly to the needs of its
external environment. Poster (1976), who is an advocate of Organic headship, still
sees that the power of heads as unquestionable and that calling them middle managers
limits their roles.
Jones (1987) indicates that there are many head teachers who are genuinely
interested in moving toward a more organic/shared power and less bureaucratic
leadership style. This trend, Jones contends, holds the most hope for the future of
schools in the current climate.
27


Role Requirements and Authorities
School principals in Britain are considered the most important and
influential persons in the education of children in Britain (Clegg, 1980). They are
charged by the local education authorities and boards to be totally responsible for all
matters of the school, including curriculum. They decide on which subjects will be
taught and how much time will be allocated for each subject. The entire organization
of the school is also decided by head teachers (Stevenson, 1985).
James Stevenson (1985), a US high school principal who spent a sabbatical
leave in England where he visited secondary schools and lived with teachers and head
teachers, indicated that most head teachers establish excellent social relations and
communication with their teachers. They have lunch with them and visit them in
their rooms. They allow teachers to have much input into the curriculum. Head
teachers, however, have the final word about what content is to be included.
Budgeting is, also, an important responsibility of head teachers. They
receive a total sum from the Local Education Authority (LEA) and they decide where
all money will be spent. Along with this, they receive a total sum for staff salaries
and must decide on how this money is to be allocated. Salaries are decided on the
education and the responsibility level of each teacher. Head teachers make decisions
on promotions, and salaries are raised or lowered depending on the responsibilities a
teacher assumes.
The British National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) conducted a
study on 250 new head teachers throughout England and Wales. The study aimed at
eliciting the demands made on head teachers in their first years of headship,
identifying the requisite skills and knowledge needed to carry out their new roles,
28


and to provide guidelines for in-service programs. Most of the head teachers
indicated that they acquired most of the management skills and knowledge during the
years they spent as deputy head teachers and through their participation in Senior
Management Teams (Weindling, 1990).
Weindling (1990) believes that although the term instructional leadership
is not used in Britain, most head teachers in Britain are closer to the ideal
instructional leader than their US counterparts. Head teachers in England and Wales
today teach 15 to 20 percent of their time each week. Teaching allows them to "stay
in touch with the pulse of the classroom and to be aware of teachers' problems."
(p.42). Another component of instructional leadership is the need for a strong
vision for the future of the school. Almost all the new head teachers who participated
in the study had a clear vision for their schools, according to Weindling.
All British secondary schools now have a senior management team consisting
of the head teacher, 2 or 3 deputy head teachers, and in some large secondary
schools, another 3 or 4 senjor teachers. Each member of this team teaches an
average of about 50 percent of the week and has specific management responsibilities
for an area such as curriculum, staff development, administration, or pastoral
program.
Pastoral programs are rough equivalents of counseling in the United States,
but they are rather extended and include the entire school staff. They are more
formal and are emphasized by all head teachers. British head teachers consider the
pastoral program an essential element in schooling and an attempt to help each child
grow socially, emotionally, and morally (Stevenson, 1985).
29


In Britain, no certification is needed to become a head teacher. Preparation is
largely through experiential learning and attendance at various short courses
provided by universities and Local Education Authorities. Although attendance at a
major course in educational management is not a prerequisite for headship, it
appears that LEA selectors consider attendance at one or more courses to be an
important form of preparation for headship (Weindling, 1990).
It is apparent from this review that British school principals, despite their
declining powers, still play a more influential role than their Kuwaiti counterparts.
Their authorities in teacher appointment and pay, school budgeting, and curriculum
clearly surpass Kuwaiti principals'.
30


CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
Introduction
Two questionnaires, one for teachers and one for principals, were
constructed to examine the perceptions of teachers and school principals regarding
school principals' instructional leadership. A total of 557 questionnaires were
distributed to teachers in 50 randomly selected secondary schools. An average of 11
teachers from each school were randomly selected. Fifty questionnaires were also
distributed to the principals of the selected schools.
Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted to describe teachers' and
principals' perceptions. Factorial analysis of variance was used to test for
differences associated with district, nationality, and gender. Each step in this
procedure is described in this chapter.
Design of Instruments
The researcher compiled a number of job responsibilities for Kuwaiti
secondary school principals (Appendix B). The responsibilities have been classified
into four main domains. They are: (a) Teacher evaluation and instructional
development, (b) student monitoring, (c) school climate, and (d) parent
involvement (Hallinger, 1983; Ministry of Education, School Work Manual, 1987a;
Cawelti, 1987; Andrews, 1989; Heck, Larsen, & Marcoulides, 1990). The
researcher used the above four domains of principal's instructional leadership
behavior for the development of the items of the teachers' questionnaire.
31


The teachers' questionnaire consists of a number of descriptions of behaviors
of the principal in the above mentioned four domains of instructional leadership.
These are: (a) Teacher evaluation and instructional development, items 1 to 8; (b)
student monitoring and improvement, items 9 to 15; (c) school climate, items 16 to
25; and (d) parental involvement, items 26 to 28 (Appendix C). The items of the
questionnaire were then scrambled and reordered in a random way. Teachers were
asked to rate their respective principal's instructional leadership behavior
according to the questionnaire (Appendix D). Descriptive statistical analyses were
conducted to examine teachers' perceptions of the instructional leadership
performance of school principals.
Another questionnaire was developed for school principals (Appendix E).
The principals' questionnaire is semi-structured and has a limited number of open-
ended questions which ask principals about (a) what they perceive as their
responsibilities as instructional leaders, and (b) the perceived barriers that may
limit their instructional leadership. A content analysis of principals' responses was
conducted. Principals' responses were compiled and classified into a number of
domains. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted to examine principals'
responses. Teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional leadership behavior
were related to what principals perceive as their major instructional
responsibilities and the perceived barriers.
Face Validity and Pilot Testing
The teachers' questionnaire was sent to 20 secondary school teachers for pilot
testing. These teachers were asked to give their opinion of the validity of the items of
32


the questionnaire. They were asked to a) answer the items of the questionnaire first
and to critique them item by item, and b) to indicate whether teachers would be able
to notice those behaviors in their school principals. All of the 20 teachers completed
their questionnaires and provided their comments and suggestions for questionnaire
improvement. Some of the items of the questionnaire were modified according to
these teachers suggestions.
The principals' questionnaire was sent to 6 school principals in Kuwait who
were asked to give their opinions about the validity of the questions. All of these six
principals indicated that the questions were appropriate.
Finally, both the teachers' and principals' questionnaires were sent to 2
professors of Educational Psychology and Measurement at the College of Education of
Kuwait University who provided the researcher with their comments about the
structure and the scale of the questionnaire.
Sampling
All 94 Kuwaiti public secondary schools were stratified according to school
district and gender. A sample of 50 schools, 25 boys' schools and 25 girls' schools,
were initially randomly selected from the five districts. District administrators,
then, made some adjustments to the schools selected in order to avoid newly opened
schools. Twenty-seven boys' schools and 23 girls' schools were finally selected with
the approval of district administrators (Table 3.1). An average of 11 teachers were
randomly selected from each of the 50 schools, resulting in a total of 577 teachers.
A total of 577 questionnaires were distributed via school social workers to
282 male teachers and 295 female teachers, representing 8.2% of the 7,006
33


secondary school teachers in Kuwait (Ministry of Education, Educational Statistics,
March 1993). The 50 schools selected represent 53% of the 94 public secondary
schools in the 5 school districts in Kuwait. Questionnaires were also distributed to
the 50 principals of the schools whose teachers participated in the study.
Table 3.1 School Samples Stratified According to School District and Gender
District no. 1 District no. 2 District no. 3 District no; 4 District no. 5 Total
Numbers of Secondary 9 Boys 12 Boys 10 Boys 10 Boys 6 Boys 47
Schools 10 Girls 10 Girls 11 Girls 10 Girls 6 Girls 47
Total 19 schools 22 schools 21 schools 20 schools 12 schools 94
Numbers of 6 Boys 5 Boys 6 Boys 7 Boys 3 Boys 27
Samples 5 Girls 5 Girls 5 Girls 5 Girls 3 Girls 23
Total 11 schools 10 schools 11 schools 12 schools 6 schools 50
Protocol
The researcher met with the 50 school principals and handed them the
ministry's permission to conduct the study (Appendix H) and their questionnaires
which included letters explaining to them the. purpose and nature of the study and
methodology used to gather data. The researcher asked the school principal for
her/his permission to distribute the questionnaires, via the school social worker, to
previously selected teachers.
The researcher then distributed the questionnaires to the social worker who
distributed them to the selected teachers. The teachers were asked to complete the
questionnaire, put it in a provided envelope and seal it, without writing their name
or the school's name on the questionnaire or on the envelope. They were instructed to
34


hand it back to the social worker, or to the researcher when the researcher came to
collect the questionnaires from the social worker.
All needed measures have been taken to make sure that principals would have
no access to teachers' responses. Principals were informed that their teachers were
completing a questionnaire examining their perceptions of the role of the school
principal. Principals were assured that all respondents and data would remain
confidential and that schools would not be identified in the reporting of data.
Data Organization and Analysis
Teachers' raw responses were entered in one data set using Microsoft Works
3 data base software program. Schools were iabeled by numbers; school 1 through
school 50. Teachers' responses, then, were combined and aggregated by their
respective schools in order to compare the data across school principals. The
gathered data were then analyzed statistically using the statistics software StatView
SE+Graphics.
Construct Validity and Reliability
The 28 items of the questionnaire were factor analyzed in one combined data
set (Appendix 1,1) to determine whether the items of the questionnaire were related
to each other or not, and to determine whether there was empirical support for the
existence of the four domains of principal's instructional leadership.
The factor analysis indicated high correlation among all of the items of the
teachers' questionnaires. The factor analysis, however, did not confirm the existence
of the four domains of instructional leadership. Instead, all items loaded heavily on
one factor which indicated that instructional leadership, according to the gathered
35


data, is one whole construct and not a number of independent domains. Thus, a school
principal who is doing well in some instructional leadership behaviors will tend to
be rated as doing well in the other behaviors also. Hence, reporting the data by the
presumed four domains of instructional leadership was not the best way to analyze
the instructional leadership behavior of school principals.
Instead, data were analyzed for 13 specific areas of principal's instructional
leadership, measured by 5 individual questionnaire items and 8 combinations of
items. The data indicated significantly high correlations among 8 combinations of
items that share common meaning and high internal consistency reliability (Table
3.2). (See Appendix C and Appendix J)
Those combined items include :
(1) Items 3 and 4 which refer to pointing out specific strengths and weaknesses of
teacher's instructional practices,
(2) Items 1 and 7 which refer to working with head teachers for teacher
instructional evaluation and improvement,
(3) Items 9, 10, and 11 which relate to monitoring student progress,
(4) Items 12 and 13 which relate to contributing to student improvement,
(5) Items 16 and 17 which relate to referring to the goals of education,
(6) Items 19 through 22 which relate to principal's human relations with teachers,
(7) Items 24 and 25 which relate to honoring high-achieving students, and
(8) Items 27 and 28 which relate to parental involvement.
The other five individual items include: Item 2 (Visit teachers in
classrooms), item 5 (Curriculum plan progress follow-up), item 8 (Take special
36


care of new teachers), item 18 (Establish an orderly school climate), and item 23
(Take time to talk with students). *
Table 3.2 Internal Consistency Reliability of the Combined Items
Areas of Instructional Leadership ltem(s) Internal Consistency Reliability
1) Visit Teachers 2 *
2) Specific Evaluation 3 & 4 .82
3) Curr. Plan Progress 5 *
4) Work/Head Teacher 1 & 7 .76
5) Care for New Teachers 8 +
6) Student Progrs. Montr. 9, 10, & 11 .88
7) Student Improvement 12 & 13 .81
8) Refer to Goals of Educ. 16 & 17 .82
9) Human Relations/T. 19 through 22 .9
10) Talk with Students 23 *
11) Orderly School Climate 1 8 *
12) Student Honoring 24 & 25 .86
13) Parental Involvement 27 & 28 .79
* Internal Consistency Reliability cannot be calculated for single items
Differences were first tested using the combined and individual questionnaire items
summed to form a single leadership score, for the 50 individual principals (i.e. in
each of the 13 areas of instructional leadership). (See Appendix M for the means and
37


standard deviations of the 13 combined and individual questionnaire items for all
individual 50 schools).
The three significant main effects, a) district, b) nationality, and c) gender,
were then analyzed through separate 3-way factorial ANOVA for each of the 13 areas
of instructional leadership.
38


CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS
Introduction
The data presented in this chapter were gathered from public secondary
school teachers and principals employed by the Ministry of Education in Kuwait in
the academic year 1993-94. A total of 556 secondary school teachers returned
their completed questionnaires from the 577 teachers who received their
questionnaires. This represented a 96 percent response rate.
Forty-seven principals returned their completed questionnaires from the 50
principals who received their questionnaires. This represented a 94 percent
response rate. Fifty-five percent of respondent principals were males and the other
45% were females. It is worth mentioning here that all school principals in Kuwait
are Kuwaitis according to the ministry's statistical reports of March 1993.
The distribution of respondent teachers by gender, nationality, position, and
school district is shown in tables 4.1 and 4.2.
Table 4.1 Distribution of Respondent Teachers by Gender,
Nationality, and Position
Male Female Kuwaiti Non-Kwt Head Teach Teacher
267 289 243 313 106 450
48% 52% 44% 56% 19% 81%
Table 4.1 shows that the representation of male and female teachers is 48%
and 52% respectively, and the representation of Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti teachers
is 44% and 56% respectively. Also, 19% of the respondents were head teachers.
39


Table 4.2 Counts of Teachers by School District and Nationality
Nationality
District Kuwaiti Non-Kuwti Totals
District 1 57 71 128
District 2 59 55 114
District 3 55 77 132
District 4 49 66 115
District 5 23 44 67
Totals 243 313 556
Findings Pertaining to the Four Research Questions
Research Question One
Research question one addressed teachers' perceptions of their school
principals' instructional leadership behavior in four areas of instructional
leadership: (a) Teacher evaluation and instructional development, (b) student
progress monitoring, (c) school climate, and (d) parental involvement. Teachers
were asked to assess their principals' instructional leadership performance in the
above areas. Table 4.3 shows the means and percentages of the frequency of the 50
school principals' engagement in the 13 areas of instructional leadership. Those 13
areas are consistent with expectations in the ministry's job description of school
principals.
Research Question One (a). How do teachers perceive their Kuwaiti public
secondary school principals' instructional leadership with regard to principals'
evaluation of teacher instruction and their contribution to teacher instructional
development?
Items 1-5 of the areas of instructional leadership on Table 4.3 address this
question. According to teachers' perceptions:
40


a) Ninety-eight percent of school principals in Kuwait visit teachers in
classrooms frequently.
b) Forty percent of principals do not frequently point out specific strengths
and weaknesses of teacher's instructional practices.
c) Twenty-eight percent of them do not frequently follow up curriculum plan
progress.
d) Twenty-six percent of them do not frequently take special care of new
teachers.
e) Eight percent of them do not frequently work with head teachers for
teacher instructional evaluation and improvement.
Research Question One fb). How do teachers perceive their school principals'
instructional leadership with regard to principals' monitoring of students' progress
and improvement?
Items 6 and 7 of the areas of instructional leadership on Table 4.3 address
this question. Fourteen percent of principals do not frequently monitor student
progress, and 20% of them do not contribute to student improvement.
Research Question One (cl. How do teachers perceive their principals'
instructional leadership with regard to principals' establishment of a positive school
climate?
Items 8-12 of the areas of instructional leadership on Table 4.3 address this
question. According to teachers' perceptions:
a) Sixteen percent of school principals do not frequently refer to the goals of
education.
41


b) Twenty percent of school principals do not frequently establish positive
human relations with teachers.
c) Thirty-six percent of principals do not frequently talk with students
during breaks.
d) Ninety-six percent of them honor high-achieving students frequently.
e) Ninety-eight of school principals in Kuwait were found to be very
interested in establishing an orderly school climate.
Research Question One fd). How do teachers perceive their principals'
instructional leadership with regard to principals' involvement of parents in school
programs?
Item 13 of the areas of instructional leadership on Table 4.3 addresses this
question. Ninety-six percent of school principals involve parents in school
programs, according to teachers' perceptions.
42


Table 4.3 Means and Percentages of the Frequency of School Principals'
Engagement in the 13 Areas of Instructional Leadership.
Mean Almost Never Occas- ionally Frequ- ently Almost Always
Areas of Instructional Leadership % % % %
1) Visit Teachers 3.17 0 2 64 34
2) Specific Evaluation 2.64 4 36 52 8
3) Curr. Plan Progres Follow-up 2.77 2 26 64 8
4) Work with Head Teachers 3.22 0 8 40 52
5) Care for New Teachers 2.88 0 26 52 22
6) Student Progress Monitoring 3.06 0 14 40 46
7) Student Improvement 2.89 0 20 56 24
8) Refer to the Goals of Educ. 3.06 0 16 38 46
9) Human Relation with Teachers 2.96 0 20 42 38
10) Talk with Students 2.81 10 26 36 28
11) Orderly School Climate 3.5 0 4 1 6 80
12) Student Honoring 3.45 0 4 18 78
13) Parental Involvement 3.31 0 4 28 68
Grand Mean (of all 28 items combined for all 50 school principals) 3.05
The Scale of Principal's Instructional Leadership
1 to 1.75 Almost Never. 1.76 to 2.5 Occasionally.
2.51 to 3.25 Frequently. 3.26 to 4 Almost Always.
Findings pertaining to research question one are indicating that, for the most
part, teachers are perceiving their principals' instructional leadership to be
positive. However, a considerable percentage of teachers perceive principals to not
be performing adequately in the areas of a) specific evaluation, b) curriculum plan
43


progress follow-up, c) taking special care of new teachers, d) student improvement,
and e) human relations with teachers.
Research Question Two
What differences exist in teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional
leadership performance with regard to:
a) the district in which a principal works,
b) the nationality of teachers, and
c) the gender of the school? (I.e. boys' schools or girls' schools).
Table 4.4 shows that teachers' perceptions were found to differ significantly
with regard to the school district and nationality, but not significantly according to
the gender of teachers.
Table 4.4 3-way Factorial ANOVA of District, Nationality,
and Gender for all of the 28 Items Combined
Source: DF Sum of Squares Mean Square F-test P value
Dis#(A) 4 11.29 2.82 6.02 .0001
Nat (B) 1 8.47 8.47 18.07 .0001
AB 4 2.9 .72 1.54 .188
Gen (C) 1 .72 ,72 1.55 .2143
AC 4 4.37 1.09 2.33 .0549
BC 1 .1 .1 .21 .6504
ABC 4 6.9 1.73 3.68 .0057
Error 529 247.96 .47
44


Research Question Two (a). What differences exist in teachers' perceptions of
principals' instructional leadership performance with regard to the school district?
The three-way factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant
differences in teachers' perceptions in 12 areas of principal's instructional
leadership (Table 4.5). There were no significant differences, however, in the area
of "Curriculum plan progress follow-up" among the principals in the 5 school
districts.
Overall, the instructional leadership performance of principals in districts 2
and 5 is significantly better than that of principals in district 3 (Table 4.6).
Table 4.5 Means of Teachers' perceptions of Principals' Performance in the 13
Areas of Instructional Leadership in the 5 School Districts
Areas of Instructional Leadership Dist. 1 Dist. 2 Dist. 3 Dist. 4 Dist. 5 F P
1) Visit Teachers 3 3.27 3.1 3.27 3.28 2.8 .0255
2) Specific Evaluation 2.47 2.82 2.64 2.64 2.64 2.93 .0205
3) Curr. Plan Proqress 2.77 2.84 2.57 2.89 2.79 2.27 .0611
4) Work / Head Teachers 3.1 3.34 3.1 3.34 3.27 4.49 .0014
5) Care for New Teacher 2.65 3.08 2.91 2.9 2.85 4.26 .0022
6) Student Prgress Mntr 3.06 3.21 2.8 3.06 3.3 6.6 .0001
7) Student Improvement 2.83 3.06 2.81 2.83 2.98 3.59 .0067
8) Refer to Goals Educ. 2.89 3.17 2.96 3.14 3.26 5.12 .0005
9) Human Relations / T. 2.85 3.1 2.77 3.1 3.07 7.28 .0001
10) Talk with Students 3.04 2.91 2.78 2.65 2.46 6.67 .0001
11) Order School Climate 3.49 3.75 3.25 3.65 3.68 9.41 .0001
12) Student Honoring 3.58 3.47 3.25 3.42 3.65 4.18 .0024
13) Parental Involvment 3.29 3.39 3.21 3.27 3.37 3.25 .0121
Total Score (28 items) 2.98 3.18 2.93 3.1 3.15 . 6.02 .0001
45


Table 4.6 Multiple Comparison Among School Districts for all Items Combined
Comparison: Mean Diff. Fisher PLSD Scheffe F-test
Group 1 vs. Group 2 -.18 .18 .95
Group 1 vs. Group 3 .07 .18 .15
Group 1 vs. Group 4 -.1 .18 .31
Group 1 vs. Group 5 -.15 .21 .5
Group 2 vs. Group 3 .25 .18* 1.84
Group 2 vs. Group 4 .08 .19 .17
Group 2 vs. Group 5 .03 .22 .01
Group 3 vs. Group 4 -.17 .18 . .87
Group 3 vs. Group 5 -.22 .21* 1.06
Group 4 vs. Group 5 -.05 .22 .05
* Significant at 95%
Research Question Two (b). What differences exist in teachers' perceptions of
principals' instructional leadership performance with regard to the nationality of
teachers?
Overall, non-Kuwaiti teachers rated their principals significantly much
higher than their Kuwaiti counterparts (Table 4.7), in all of the 13 areas of
principals' instructional leadership. The three-way factorial ANOVA (Table 4.4)
indicated that there was no interaction between district and nationality; that is, the
difference between Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti responses was found to be consistent in
all of the 5 school districts. Discussion of possible reasons for this difference is in
chapter five.
The high rating that the non-Kuwaiti teachers gave their school principals
could significantly contribute to the high correlations among most of the
questionnaire items. Therefore, another factor analysis was conducted to the
responses of Kuwaiti teachers only (Appendix I, 2 and Appendix J, 2). The second
factor analysis produced similar results; that is, high correlations among most of the
items. This demonstrates that the high correlation was not attributable to the special
46


status of the non-Kuwaiti teachers. This is supported by the consistency between the
responses of Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti teachers. Table 4.7 indicates that although the
ratings of non-Kuwaiti teachers are considerably higher than those of Kuwaiti
teachers in all of the 13 areas of instructional leadership, their responses appear to
be consistent (i.e. do not contradict) with those of Kuwaiti teachers.
Table 4.7 Means of Perceptions of Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti Teachers
of Principals' Performance in the 13 Areas of Instructional Leadership
Areas of Instructional Leadership Kuwaiti Teachers non-Kwti Teachers F P
1) Visit Teachers 3.03 3.27 9.84 .0018
2) Specific Evaluation 2.52 2.73 7.37 .0068
3) Curr. Plan Progress Follow-up 2.5 2.96 13.75 .0002
4) Work with Head Teachers 2.98 3.4 15.92 .0001
5) Care for New Teachers 2.64 3.04 7.35 .007
6) Student Progress Monitoring 2.82 3.24 16.19 .0001
7) Student Improvement 2.66 3.06 10.62 .0012
8) Refer to the Goals Educ. 2.81 3.25 13.69 .0002
9) Human Relation with Teachers 2.72 3.14 4.73 .0301
10) Talk with Students 2.48 3.02 16.63 .0001
11) Orderly School Climate 3.31 3.71 15.47 ".0001
12) Student Honoring 3.32 3.56 11.75 .0007
13) Parental Involvement 3.08 3.46 14.89 .0001
Total Score 2.86 3.21 18.07 .0001
The Scale of Principal's Instructional Leadership
1 to 1.75 Almost Never. 1.76 to 2.5 Occasionally.
2.51 to 3.25 Frequently. 3.26 to 4 Almost Always.
47


Research Question Two (cl. What differences exist in teachers' perceptions of
principals' instructional leadership performance with regard to
the gender of the school? (I.e. boys' schools or girls' schools).
Overall, there is no significant effect for gender (Table 4.4). Male teachers
(in boys' schools) and female teachers (in girls' schools) perceive their principals
similarly in 12 areas of principals' instructional leadership; there was, however,
significant difference with regard to principals' human relations with teachers
(Table 4.8). Female teachers perceived their principals' human relations with them
significantly lower than male teachers did.
Table 4.8 Male and Female Teachers' Perceptions with regard to Principals'
Human Relations with them
Source: DF Sum Sguares Mean Sguare F-test
Between groups 1 11.37 11.37 22.65
Within groups 554 278.2 .5 p = .0001
Total 555 289.58
Gender Count Mean Std. Dev. Std. Error
Males 267 3.21 .68 .04
Females 289 2.92 .74 .04
48


Research Question Three
What do secondary school principals in Kuwait perceive as the
responsibilities of the school principal as an instructional leader?
With regard to what school principals perceive as their major responsibilities as
instructional leaders (Table 4.9), school principals indicated that the following were their
major instructional responsibilities:
1. Evaluation of teacher instruction.
2. Assessment of student achievement.
3. Classroom visitation.
4. Follow-up of curriculum plan progress.
5. Improvement of student achievement (Appendix K).
Table 4.9 The perceived instructional responsibilities of school principals.
Rank Responsibility Frequency *.
1 Evaluation of teacher instruction 32
2 Assessment of student achievement 13
3 Classroom visitation 1 2
4 Follow up curriculum plan progress 11
5 Improvement of student achievement 1 0
* The frequencies in Table 4.9 are based on responses from 47 principals.
49


Research Question Four
What barriers do secondary school principals in Kuwait perceive as limiting
their instructional leadership?
With regard to the major barriers that are limiting their instructional leadership
(Table 4.10), school principals mentioned the following:
1. The huge amounts of non-instructional responsibilities such as office works and school
maintenance.
2. Parents' excessive, unnecessary, and unorganized visits.
3. Student problems.
4. Ministry's and/or district's interference in school administrators' work.
5. Principal's limited authority in teacher selection, hiring and firing, and transference
(Appendix L).
Table 4.10 The Perceived Barriers that Limit Principals' Instructional Leadership.
Rank Barriers Frequency *
1 Non-instructional duties: Office work and school maintenance are consuming most of their time 34
2 Parents' excessive, unnecessary, and unorganized visits 1 0
2 Student problems 1 0
3 Ministry and/or district interference in school administrators' work 8
3 Limited authority in teacher selection, hiring and firing, and transference 8
* The frequencies in Table 4.10 are based on responses from 47 principals.
50


With regard to the things that school principals believe they need most in
order to become more effective instructional leaders, the vast majority of principals
indicated that they needed all of the following and ranked them according to their
significance: ail of the school principals ranked "more authority in teacher
selection" as number one, 91% of them ranked "more time for instructional
responsibilities" as number two, 85% ranked "more training on teacher evaluation"
as number three, 80% ranked "more authority in curriculum delivery" as number
four, 80% ranked "more awareness of the goals of secondary education" as number
five, and 78% of them ranked "more awareness of the goals of subject areas" as
number six.
51


CHAPTERV
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND DISCUSSION
Introduction
This study was designed to analyze and evaluate the instructional leadership
behavior of school principals in Kuwait. The study was conducted with secondary
school principals since some aspects of the instructional leadership of elementary
school principals have been investigated in previous studies.
School principals in Kuwait are supposed to be instructional leaders
according to the Ministry of Education job descriptions and guidelines. A number of
studies indicated, however, that the non-instructional responsibilities of school
principals are consuming most of their time. Those studies, however, did not
provide any analysis or assessment of the instructional leadership behavior of school
principals.
Also, the Ministry of Education does not yet follow a well-defined procedure
for evaluating the leadership of school principals. The form that is used by district's
and ministry's executives for the evaluation of school principals, is a general form
used to evaluate a number of other educational administrators at both the district and
ministry levels and other school administrators as well.
Additionally, school administration training programs, organized by the
Ministry of Education for school administrators, are carried out without assessing
trainees' needs prior to the beginning of those in-service programs.
The findings of this study could be generalized to the population of school
principals in Kuwait for two reasons. Firstly, both the schools and teachers were
52


selected randomly. Secondly, there is only one version of job description for school
principals, issued by the Ministry of Education, for all schooling levels, elementary,
intermediate, and secondary.
Summary of the Design of the Study
The researcher chose to examine principals' instructional leadership from
two different perspectives. First, the researcher decided to seek teachers' appraisal
of the instructional leadership of their respective school principals, since teachers
are the ones who work and deal with principals most directly and frequently,
especially with regard to principal's instructional responsibilities. The second
perspective was principals' perceptions of their responsibilities as instructional
leaders and the perceived barriers of their instructional leadership.
The researcher designed a questionnaire, consisting of a number of
instructional leadership behaviors, by which teachers assessed their school
principal's leadership. The main source defining principal's behaviors, referred to
for the development of the questionnaire, was the prescribed job description of
school principals which was issued by the Ministry of Education in the School Work
Manual (1987a). The researcher also consulted the literature dealing with school
principal's instructional leadership for that purpose as well (Hallinger, 1983;
Cawelti, 1987; Andrews, 1989; Heck, Larsen, & Marcoulides, 1990).
A total of 577 secondary school teachers in 50 schools were randomly
selected from the records of school districts. The 50 schools were randomly selected
from the 94 secondary schools in all of the 5 school districts in Kuwait. Teachers'
questionnaires were handed to them by school social workers.
53


The other perspective sought was the principals'. Another questionnaire was
designed for school principals. The school principals of the 50 schools selected were
asked about a) their major responsibilities as instructional leaders and b) the
obstacles that may limit their instructional leadership.
Five hundred fifty-six teacher questionnaires were returned, representing a
96% response rate. Also, 47 of the 50 school principals returned their
questionnaires, representing a 94% response rate.
Teachers' responses were analyzed by ANOVA to examine their perceptions of
principals' instructional leadership behavior. The analyzed data were reported by
area of instructional leadership, school, and school district.
Principals' responses, on the other hand, were compiled and classified
according to a) the areas of principal's responsibilities and b) the perceived factors
that are limiting school principals' instructional leadership.
Summary of the Main Findings of the Study
With regard to research question one, which relates to teachers' perceptions
of their school principals' instructional leadership; a) the vast majority of school
principals (98%) visit teachers in classrooms frequently, b) forty percent of
them, however, do not frequently point out specific strengths and weaknesses of
teacher's instructional practices, c) twenty-six percent of them do not frequently
take special care of new teachers, and d) twenty-eight percent of them do not
frequently follow up curriculum plan progress.
With regard to the area of student progress monitoring and improvement;
fourteen percent of principals do not frequently monitor students' academic
54


progress, and twenty percent of them do not frequently contribute to student
improvement.
With regard to the area of school climate; a) sixteen percent of principals do
not frequently refer to the goals of education, b) twenty percent of them do not
frequently establish positive human relations with teachers, c) thirty-six percent
of them do not frequently talk with students during breaks, d) the vast majority of
principals (96%) honor high-achieving students frequently, and e) the vast
majority of them (98%) are very interested in establishing an orderly school
climate. With regard to parental involvement; the majority of principals (96%)
involve parents in school programs.
Research question two addressed the differences in teachers' perceptions of
principals' instructional leadership performance with regard to a) the district in
which a principal works, b) the nationality of teachers, and c) the gender of the
school.
The data showed significant differences among districts in teachers'
perceptions of school principals' performance in a number of instructional
leadership areas. The instructional leadership performance of principals in district
3 was significantly lower than that of principals in districts 2 and 5.
Non-Kuwaiti teachers were found to value their principals' instructional
leadership much higher than their Kuwaiti counterparts and that was consistent in
all of the 5 school districts.
There was no significant effect for gender, however. Male teachers and
female teachers perceive their principals similarly in 12 areas of principals'
instructional leadership; there was, however, significant difference with regard to
55


principals' human relations with teachers. Female teachers perceived their
principals' human relations with them significantly lower than male teachers did.
Research question three addressed school principals' perceptions of their
instructional responsibilities. They indicated that the following are the major
responsibilities of the school principal as an instructional leader:
a) Evaluation of teacher instruction.
b) Assessment of student achievement.
c) Classroom visitation.
d) Follow-up of curriculum plan progress.
e) Improvement of student achievement.
Research question four addressed school principals' perceptions of the
barriers of their instructional leadership. They indicated that the following are the
main barriers of their instructional leadership:
a) The huge amounts Of non-instructional responsibilities such as office works and
school maintenance.
b) Parents' excessive, unnecessary, and unorganized visits.
c) Student behavioral or social problems.
d) Ministry's and/or district's interference in school administrators' work.
e) Principal's limited authority in teacher selection, hiring and firing, and
transference.
The vast majority of school principals indicated that the following can
improve their instructional leadership:
a) More authority in teacher selection.
b) More time for instructional responsibilities.
56


c) More training on teacher evaluation.
d) More authority in curriculum delivery.
e) More awareness of the goals of secondary education.
f) More awareness of the goals of subject areas.
Conclusions
The findings of this study indicated that instructional leadership is a
construct that consists of highly related elements. The gathered data showed that
principal's instructional leadership behaviors were highly correlated. Thus, when a
principal is found to be doing well in some of the areas of instructional leadership,
he/she will tend to do well in the other areas also.
School principals in Kuwait consider evaluation of teacher instruction their
most important function; the majority of them, however, do not provide teachers
with specific comments about their instruction. School principals acknowledge their
need for more training on teacher evaluation.
School principals also believe that assessing and improving student
achievement are major functions of the school principal. However, a considerable
percentage of them do not monitor students progress and do not contribute to their
improvement.
Although school principals believe that they should follow up curriculum
plan progress, a considerable percentage of them do not do that frequently.
School principals in Kuwait contend that the non-instructional
responsibilities are consuming most of their time. They also believe that they need
57


more awareness of the goals of education, and that more authority in teacher
selection and curriculum delivery can improve their instructional leadership.
Implications. Discussion, and Recommendations
Both the literature on principal's instructional leadership and the guidelines
of the Kuwaiti Ministry of Education emphasize that school climate shapes teachers'
behavior and students' learning experiences. The related literature maintains that
school administrators, primarily principals, can promote school climate toward the
improvement of teacher performance and student achievement. School climate here
relates to the social relationship between school principal and staff and students.
This includes: a) Principals motivating and establishing positive human relations
with teachers, and b) principals maintaining high visibility to communicate goals,
expectations, and priorities (Bossert et al., 1982; Smith & Andrews, 1989).
The findings of this study revealed, however, that the majority of school
principals in Kuwait do not establish positive human relations with teachers. Most
of school principals rarely work to keep faculty morale high, pay faculty members
friendly visits in their departments, or take time to meet and talk with teachers.
This necessitates the ministry's and district's authorities to educate school
administrators and direct their attention to the crucial role of school climate and how
they can promote it toward the enhancement of student learning.
The findings, also, indicate that school principals are aware of the importance
of teacher instructional evaluation and development as their major responsibility.
Their teachers, however, indicated that principals were not providing them with
specific feedback of their instructional practices. Teachers also indicated that a
58


considerable percentage of school principals do not frequently monitor student
progress or contribute to their improvement. School principals also indicated that
they need more awareness of instructional goals.
A number of studies maintain that the school principal as an instructional
leader should demonstrate the ability to evaluate and reinforce appropriate and
effective instructional strategies and to supervise the staff, using strategies that
focus on the improvement of instruction. Those studies also emphasize the
principals role in monitoring and assessing student progress (Hallinger & Murphy,
1987a; Keefe, 1987; Smith & Andrews, 1989).
School principals themselves acknowledged that they need more training on
teacher evaluation. Thus, ministry's and district's authorities should a) help
principals improve their skills in the above areas, and b) encourage them to
understand, adopt, and communicate the goals of education. Central authorities look
at school principals as educational leaders and expect them to help teachers and
students improve effectiveness. Central authorities, also, should assess school
administrators needs (such as clinical supervision) before designing their training
programs.
School principals also contended that their little authority in teacher
selection and curriculum delivery and the ministry's and district's interference in
their work are limiting their instructional leadership. Central authorities should
not hold school principals accountable for the outcomes of their schools unless
principals have the authority to decide on teacher selection and curriculum delivery
and other instructional matters.
59


Central authorities need to be aware of their priorities in regard to their
expectations of school principal's instructional leadership. If their expectations are
high, then they need to consider possible interfering factors such as the excessive
amounts of non-instructional responsibilities. Efforts needed to be made to reduce
those demands in order to help school principals become more effective instructional
leaders.
School principals were found to be considerably interested in honoring high-
achieving students; they, however, do not spend much of their time talking with
students. This indicates the kind of the social relationship between school principals
and students in Kuwait, which appears to be a more formal than friendly
relationship; especially when we see the principals' substantial interest in
establishing an orderly school climate.
The data of this study indicated that non-Kuwaiti teachers rated their
principals significantly higher than Kuwaiti teachers. This significant difference
needs to be further investigated. A possible interpretation of this observation is that
non-Kuwaiti teachers were concerned about the confidentiality of their responses.
They were probably apprehensive about their principals possibly identifying their
responses. This is supported by the fact that non-Kuwaiti teachers, unlike Kuwaitis,
are hired by the Ministry of Education by contracts of limited periods of time.
Although this is a possible interpretation, the way questionnaires were
designed, distributed, and collected leave very little chance for principals to access
teachers' responses. Teachers' were instructed not to write their names on the
questionnaire or on the envelope. They circled numbers on the questionnaire only,
thus no sample of their handwriting appeared. School social workers were also
60


instructed to distribute and collect questionnaires from teachers by hand and to keep
them in a safe place until the researcher came to collect them one or two days later.
Moreover, even if some teachers were apprehensive about the confidentiality of their
responses, this alone cannot justify the highly significant difference between their
responses and Kuwaiti teachers' responses, especially when the difference was
consistent in all of the five school districts. Additionally, the responses of non-
Kuwaiti teachers were found to be consistent with those of Kuwaiti teachers (Table
4.7, p. 47).
Another possible interpretation would be related to the attitudes of Kuwaiti
teachers toward their school principals (all school principals in Kuwait are
Kuwaitis). Firstly, the attitudes of Kuwaiti teachers could be affected by the way
school principals perceive or value them; school principals may value non-Kuwaiti
teachers higher than Kuwaitis. Another possibility would be that Kuwaiti teachers'
expectations of their school principals might have been higher than their principals'
actual abilities.
The gathered data also revealed that male and female teachers perceived most
of the behaviors of their principals' instructional leadership similarly. They,
however, differed with regard to principals' human relations with them. Female
teachers rated their principals' human relations with them significantly lower than
their male counterparts. This difference needed to be further investigated.
Al-Hadhood and al-Jaber (1989) found that female elementary school
teachers perceived their principals to be more concerned with human relations (i.e.
people-oriented) than male elementary school teachers did. The findings of this
study indicate, however, that male secondary school principals establish relatively
61


better human relations with their teachers than female school principals do. Female
teachers' expectations of their principals' human relations with them might have
been higher than they perceived.
The findings also indicated that the majority of school principals were
interested in involving parents in school programs. They, however, asserted that
parents' excessive and unorganized visits were consuming much of their time and,
thus, constraining their instructional leadership. School principals indicated that
students' social and behavioral problems were, also, consuming much of their time.
Although student behavioral problems in Kuwait are largely taken care of by
assistant principals, school ward supervisors, and school social workers, this issue
appears to be drawing much of the concern and time of school principals as well.
Those two issues needed to be further examined. They also should be carefully
addressed by both school and district administrators.
This study might be conducted in other educational systems, or other
schooling levels, such as intermediate or elementary, to examine the relationship
between principals' and teachers' perceptions with regard to the role of the school
principal as an instructional leader.
Further studies needed to be conducted in Kuwait to investigate the significant
difference in the performance of school principals among the five school districts,
with special attention to district 3 and its school principals. Those studies could look
at other district and school effects such as school size and school principal's type of
training and experience.
62


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programs in school administration, in Arabic, Kuwait.
_____ (1993b) Educational statistics of March 1993, in Arabic, Kuwait.
_____ (1989) Ataqrir alkhitami li taqueem alnizam altarbawi fi doulat alkuwait.
[Final report of the evaluation of the educational system of the State of
Kuwait] in Arabic.
_____ (1987b) Dalil almanatiq atta'limivah [School districts manual], in Arabic,
Kuwait.
_____ (1978) Department of organization, a report in Arabic, Kuwait.
65


______ (1975) Taqrir 'n kafaah [Educational administrator evaluation form], in
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allamarkaziyah fi nizam att'lim al'am fi alkuwait. [Advantages and
disadvantage of converting to decentralization in the Kuwaiti public education
system], in Arabic. Unpublished paper.
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multifactor theories of principal leadership: Implications for the evaluation
of school principals. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education. 1 (1).
93-109.
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Educational.
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cautionary note. Educational Researcher. 12 (4), 24-31.
Safar, H. (1987). A study of job satisfaction as perceived by secondary school
principals in Kuwait. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State
University, East Lansing, Ml.
Sergiovanni, T. (1991). The principalship: A reflective practice perspective.
Needham Heights, MA : Allyn and Bacon.
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Stevenson, J. (1985). The English headmaster: Implications for the American
principalship. Contemporary Education. 56. (2), 92-96.
66


al-Tammar, J. (1983). The role of the secondary school principal in the State of
Kuwait. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The George Washington
University, Washington, DC
Teddlie, C., Kirby, P., & Stringfield, S. (1989). Effective versus ineffective schools:
Observable differences in the classroom. American Journal of Education. 97
(3), 221-236.
Weindling, D. (1990). The secondary school head teacher: New principals in the
United Kingdom. NASSP Bulletin.74 (526), 40-45.
Weindling, D., & Earley, P. (1987). Secondary school headship: The first years,
Windsor, England: The NFER- Nelson.
67


APPENDIX A
School Work Manual
68


Summary of School Principal Responsibilities,
cited in School Work Manual, published by
the Ministry of Education, 1987
The School Work Manual (1987a) contains descriptions of the responsibilities of a
school principal, assistant principal, head teacher, and ward supervisor.
Introduction
The School principal is the chief officer in the school. He/she is responsible
for all the educational, managerial, instructional, social, and cultural aspects and
activities that take place in the school. He/she should be aware of and approve in
advance all of the above activities. The school principal should distribute the work to
school personnel who should be accountable before him/her.
The successful principal ought to be fully aware of the country's general goals
of education, goals of individual subject areas, and goals of the schooling level of
his/her school, i.e., elementary, intermediate, or secondary. He/she, also, should be
aware of the nature of the schooling level and its curriculum, the role of academic
supervision, rules and regulations of the school district and the Ministry of
Education and its educational policy and organizational structure. School principals
should work keenly to achieve the ministry's and country's goals.
The successful school principal ought to be a role model for his/her students
and teachers and a leader of positive human feelings towards his/her teaching and
administrative staffs. He/she should be just, democratic, open-minded, and loyal to
his/her religion as well as country.
69


Part I Plan: Principal work distributed
through the months of the school year.
September:
1. Review the school budget of students, classrooms, and teachers. Follow up the
process of filling in teachers vacancies.
2. Hold the first meeting of the teaching and administrative staffs for acquaintance
purposes.
3. Form the following committees:
a) Textbook committee : Check the availability of textbooks and instructional
media.
b) Classroom committee: Distribute classrooms on school wards and prepare
student names lists.
c) Master Schedule committee which is headed by assistant principal.
4. Select school wards' supervisors.
5. Form School Council from assistant principal, head teachers, social worker, and
headed by the principal. School Council has the following responsibilities:
a) New school year preparation.
b) Set up and follow up school general policy and plan.
c) Create a positive school environment characterized by a spirit of one family
and brotherhood.
d) Prepare the rules and regulations of school master schedule.
e) Deal with and solve students' problems.
f) Coordinate classroom examinations.
g) Patronize talented students.
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6. Form School Supervisory Council from school wards supervisors and headed by
assistant principal. The Supervisory Council has the following responsibilities:
a) Follow up students daily attendance.
b) Maintain order in school.
c) Monitor students behavioral problems and study it with social worker.
7. Meet with head teachers to put a plan to support and acquaint new teachers to
their new school environment.
8. Select classroom mentors.
9. Review teachers' subject matter preparation notebooks prior to the first day of
classes.
October
10. Survey Secondary first grade students to examine their academic progress.
11. Study head teachers' reports of teachers' evaluation while conferring with head
teachers, and sign them (both principal and head teachers).
12. Visit new teachers in their classrooms, observe their instruction, and discuss it
with them
13. Check school library and look at its Visit schedule and Check-out records.
14. Provide teachers with examination stationary and other needs.
15. Prepare an outline for the plan of extra-curricular activities according to the
school district plan.
16. Design a program for students' field trips.
17. Follow up students of high absenteeism.
18. Form Parent-Teacher Council according to official regulations and hold its first
meeting.
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November
19. Work with the social worker to organize instructive (informative) seminars
for parents and students -- after securing permission from school district.
20. Prepare a report about test results in the first half of the First Semester and
send it to the Office of Superintendent for Educational Affairs of the school district.
21. Invite parents to meet with their children's teachers and discuss their academic
progress according to a timetable.
22. Examine test results of the first half of the First Semester with head teachers
and discuss the appropriate procedure to improve low-achieving students.
23. Monitor teachers of poor instructional abilities ~ write reports about them
and send them to the Office of Superintendent for Educational Affairs.
December/January
24. Prepare for the tests of the second half of the First Semester.
25. Supervise and report on test results.
February
26. Study the results of the second half of the First Semester tests during a meeting
of the School Council.
27. Send results report to the Office of Superintendent for Educational Affairs.
28. Invite parents to meet with their children's teachers and discuss their academic
progress according to a timetable.
29. Hold a meeting with the teaching staff to discuss the positive and negative aspects
of the First Semester.
30. Honor abpve-average and talented students on the Day of Knowledge.
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31. Honor students who have done superior work in extra-curricular activities on
the National Day (independence Day).
March
32. Prepare for and supervise the tests of the first half of the Second Semester .
33. Follow up with students who had poor grades.
34. Write a report of school maintenance needs for next school year and send it to
school district.
35. Write a report about teachers of poor instructional abilities, describing
whether they are qualified to continue teaching, and send it to the Office of
Superintendent for Educational Affairs.
36. Prepare a list of teaching and administrative staffs transference and send it to
school district.
37. Prepare for final examinations.
April
38. Write down final examinations timetable and form examinations' observation
and reading committees.
39. Prepare teachers' evaluation reports with academic supervisors.
40. Hold the final Parent-Teacher meeting with the cooperation of social worker.
Mav
41. Supervise the final preparations for final examinations.
42. Observe final examinations.
43. Prepare the results and report on them.
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44. Prepare school Final Report which should contain school achievements,
problems, and suggestions for the improvement of school work and send it to school
district.
45. Prepare students' certificates.
46. Send teachers' evaluation reports and students attendance report to district.
47. Prepare school inventory lists and send them to district.
June
48. Form classrooms for the next school year according to final results.
49. Write down students' grades in their school records.
50. Send students' certificates to parents.
Principal Daily Agenda
1. Attend and supervise the programs of the Morning Audience.
2. Check teachers' sign-in sheet.
3. Look at school mail and students' daily attendance sheets.
4. Visit teachers in their classrooms.
5. Check in advance the school broadcasting programs.
6. Attend school prayer.
7. Supervise students leaving school at the end of the school day.
Things to Be Done Weekly
1. Hold a School Council meeting.
2. Attend some meetings of teachers of a given subject area and meet teachers in
their departments.
74


3. Review head teachers' plans for teachers' visitation.
4. Follow up head teachers and academic supervisors reports of teachers' evaluation
and observations.
5. Review the minutes of the meetings of the Supervisory Council.
6. Review the library visitation and check-out records.
7. Review the school's physician visitation records.
Things to Be Done Monthly
1. Hold a Parent-Teacher Council meeting .
2. Review teachers subject matter preparation notebooks and sign them.
3. Follow up students' academic progress check students' grades by classroom.
4. Monitor teachers of poor instructional abilities.
5. Review head teachers written observations of respective teachers.
6. Check what has been accomplished of school curriculum and check whether it is
progressing according to the official curriculum plan.
7. Observe school extra-curriculum programs and activities.
8. Review Check-out records of school library.
9. Check students' attendance records and statistics.
Part II Principal's Technical (Instructional^ Responsibilities
School Principal should:
1. Work with the School Council to design school master schedule of classes.
2. Visit teachers (in the classroom) at least twice a year.
3. Evaluate teachers' instructional performance.
75


4. Work with head teachers in putting a plan to support and acquaint new teachers to
their new school environment.
5. Monitor teachers of poor instructional abilities.
6. Work with head teachers and cooperate with academic supervisor in putting a
plan for the improvement of teachers of poor instructional abilities.
7. Encourage both students and teachers to use the school library.
8. Establish positive human and social relations with teachers and work to keep
their morale high.
9. Organize informative seminars for parents.
10. Monitor students academic progress through classroom visits, head teachers'
and academic supervisors' reports, students' examination records, etc.
11. Monitor low-achieving students, inform their parents, and coordinate with head
teacher to provide advice to the teacher involved.
12. Acknowledge and encourage students' improvement.
13. Recognize, encourage, and honor high-achieving and talented students.
14. Establish an orderly school environment.
15. Identify, understand, and know how to deal with students' behavior and motivation
with the cooperation of assistant principal, ward supervisors, social worker, and
classroom mentors.
76


APPENDIX B
Responsibilities of Secondary School Principal
abstracted from School Work Manual (1987a)
School principal should:
1. Be aware of the goals of individual subject areas, as well as the goals of Secondary
Education.
2. Work with head teachers to support and acquaint new teachers with their new
school environment.
3. Review teachers' subject matter preparation notebooks.
4. Visit new teachers in their classrooms, observe their instruction, and discuss it
with them.
5. Visit teachers in their classrooms (at least twice a year for each teacher) and
evaluate their instructional performance.
6. Review head teachers' plans for teachers visitation.
7. Follow up head teachers' and academic supervisors' reports of teachers evaluation
and observations.
8. Monitor teachers of poor instructional abilities.
9. Work with head teachers and cooperate with academic supervisors to prepare a
plan for the improvement of teachers of poor instructional abilities.
10. Attend some meetings of teachers in each subject area and meet teachers in their
departments.
77


11. Establish positive human and social relations with teachers and work to keep
their morale high.
12. Work with the school's social worker to organize informative seminars for
parents.
13. Examine test results of the first and second semesters with head teachers.
14. Monitor students' academic progress through classroom visits, head-teachers'
and academic supervisors' reports, and students' examination records.
15. Monitor low-achieving students and inform their parents.
16. Discuss with head teachers the appropriate procedures to improve low-
achieving students and coordinate with them to provide advice to the teachers
involved.
17. Acknowledge and encourage students' improvement.
18. Honor high-achieving and talented students and those who do superior work in
extra-curricular activities.
19. Follow-up and check whether school curriculum is progressing according to the
official curriculum plans.
20. Observe and follow up school extra-curricular programs and activities.
21. Establish a positive school climate.
78


APPENDIX C
Items of Teacher Questionnaire
To what extent does your principal ... ?
Almost Frequ- Occasi- Almost Don't
Always ently onally Never Know
4 3 2 1 ?
A) Teacher Evaluation and Instructional Development
1. Follow up head teachers' evaluation of teachers.
2. Visit teachers in classrooms.
3. Point out specific strengths of your instructional practices.
4. Point out specific weaknesses of your instructional practices.
5. Follow up curriculum plans' progress.
6. Encourage you to use different and innovative instructional methods.
7. Work with head teachers to help improve teacher instruction.
8. Take special care of new teachers.
B) Student Progress Monitoring and Improvement
9. Review test results with teachers.
10. Follow up students' academic progress.
11. Monitor low-achieving students' improvement.
12. Discuss with you procedures to improve low-achieving students.
13. Provide helpful advice to teachers of low-achieving students.
14. Encourage teachers to monitor istudents' progress.
79


15. Follow up extra-curricular programs.
C) School Climate
16. Encourage teachers to conform to instructional goals.
17. Refer to the goals of Secondary Education.
18. Establish an orderly school climate.
19. Establish positive human relations with teachers.
20. Work to keep faculty morale high.
21. Visit teachers in their departments, (friendly visits)
22. Take time to meet and talk with teachers.
23. Take time to talk with students during breaks.
24. Honor high-achieving students.
25. Honor students who do superior work in extra-curricular activities.
D) Parental Involvement
26. Organize informative seminars for parents.
27. Encourage parents1 systematic monitoring of students' progress.
28. Involve parents in school programs.
80


APPENDIX D
Teacher Questionnaire
81


Teacher Questionnaire, Cover Letter
Dear respected teacher,
I am a graduate student at the University of Colorado in the United States. I am
completing my Ph.D. degree in Educational Administration. As part of the
requirements of this degree, I am studying the instructional leadership role of
secondary school principals in the State of Kuwait.
The questionnaire you are about to answer is the primary instrument used
for data collection in this study. The objective of the questionnaire is to elicit
teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional leadership. Specifically, it aims at
eliciting teachers' perception of principals':
1. Teacher evaluation and instructional development.
2. Monitoring of students' progress and improvement.
3. Establishment of a positive school climate.
4. Involvement of parents in school programs.
Please do not write your name or your school's name on the questionnaire or
on the envelope. Your principal and your school's name will not be mentioned or used
in the study and your responses will be held in the strictest confidence. Please note
that this study does not aim at evaluating individual principals; rather, it aims at
analyzing the instructional leadership behavior of secondary school principals in
Kuwait in general.
While answering the questionnaire or at any time, please do not hesitate to
ask me or my research assistant about any question or clarification you might need.
Please put the completed questionnaire in the provided envelope, seal it, and
return it to the school social worker by hand, or if you prefer, hand it to the
researcher or his assistant when either of them come to collect the questionnaires
from the social worker.
Thank you for your support and taking the time to respond to the
questionnaire. Your response is greatly appreciated.
Abdulaziz al-Azemi
82


Teacher Questionnaire
Part I
Please provide the following information about yourself by checking one response in
each section.
1. Are you a Kuwaiti citizen: Yes. (1) No. (2)
2. Number of years taught: Two years or less.(1) Three to five years.(2)
Six to ten years.(3) More than ten years.(4)
3. Position: Head teacher. (1) Classroom teacher. (2)
4. What is the subject area you teach?
Arabic/lslamic Education. (1) English / French. (2)
Sciences / Mathematics. (3) Social Studies. (4)
5. How many years will you have worked with the current principal
at the conclusion of this school year?
Two years or less. (1) Three to five years. (2)
More than five years. (3)
6. School District:
7. Gender:
Capital. (1)
Hawalli. (2)
Farwania. (3)
Male. (1)
Ahmadi. (4)
Jahra. (5)
Female. (2)
83


Part II
Please read each statement carefully. Circle the number that indicates the
extent to which you feel your principal demonstrated each behavior during
the years you have worked with him.
Please use the following scale when responding to the items below:
4 = Almost Always. 3 = Frequently. 2 = Occasionally.
1 = Almost Never. ? = Don't Know.
If an item does not relate to you, please circle the "?"
Please refer only to your current principal when responding to the
following items.
To what extent does your principal. .
8. Refer to the goals of Secondary
Education.
9. Point out specific strengths of your
instructional practices.
10. Point out specific weaknesses of
your instructional practices.
11. Establish positive human relations
with teachers.
12. Encourage parents' systematic
monitoring of students' progress.
13. Work with head teachers to help
improve teachers' instruction.
?
Almost Frequ- Occas- Almost Don't
Always ently ionally Never Know
4 3 2 1 ?
4 3 2 1 ?
4 3 2 1 ?
4 3 2 1 ?
4 3 2 1 ?
4 3 2 1 ?
84


Almost Always Frequ- ently Occas- ionally Almost Never Dont Know
14. Review test results with teachers. 4 3 2 1 ?
15. Discuss with you procedures to improve low-achieving students. 4 3 2 1 ?
16. Involve parents in school programs. 4 3 2 1 ?
17. Follow up head teachers' evaluation of teachers. 4 3 2 1 ?
18. Monitor low-achieving students' improvement. 4 3 2 1 ?
19. Establish an orderly school climate. 4 3 2 1 ?
20. Encourage you to use different and innovative instructional methods. 4 3 2 1 ?
21. Work to keep faculty morale high. 4 3 2 1 ?
22. Provide helpful advice to teachers of low-achieving students. 4 3 2 1 ?
23. Visit teachers in their departments, (friendly visits) 4 3 2 1 ?
24. Visit teachers in classrooms. 4 3 2 1 ?
25. Follow up students' academic progress. 4 3 2 1 ?
26. Take time to talk with students during breaks. 4 3 2 1 ?
27. Honor high-achieving students. 4 3 2 1 ?
85


28. Organize informative seminars for parents. Almost Always 4 Frequ- ently 3 Occas- ionally 2 Almost Never 1 Don't Know ?
29. Take special care of new teachers. 4 3 2 1 ?
30. Take time to meet arid talk with teachers. 4 3 2 1 ?
31. Follow up curriculum plans1 progress. 4 3 2 1 ?
32. Encourage teachers to conform to instructional goals. 4 3 2 1 ?
33. Encourage teachers to monitor students' progress. 4 3 2 1 ?
34. Honor students who do superior work in extra-curricular activities. 4 3 2 1 ?
35. Follow up extra-curricular programs. 4 3 2 1 ?
86


The Arabic Version of Teacher Questionnaire
87


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Full Text

PAGE 1

( EVALUATING THE INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP OF THE SCHOOL PRINCIPAL IN THE STATE OF KUWAIT by Abdulaziz S. AI-Azemi B.A., Kuwait University, 1987 M.A., University of Colorado, 1990 M.A., Michigan State University, 1992 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Educational Leadership and lnnovation 1995

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1995 by Abdulaziz Saud AI-Azemi All rights reserved

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This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy degree by Abdulaziz AI-Azemi has been approved for the Graduate School by -, Sharon Ford Mur hy Alan Davis -st House Date 1-2-95

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IN TilE NAME OF ALLAH MOST GRACIOUS MOST MERCIFUL

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AI-Azemi, Abdulaziz (Ph. D., Educational leadership and Innovation) Evaluating the Instructional Leadership of the School Principal in the State of Kuwait Thesis directed by Assistant Professor Sharon Ford ABSTRACT This study was designed to evaluate Kuwaiti school principals' instructional leadership. The effectiveness of Kuwaiti principals in performing their roles as instructional leaders has not been adequately assessed. The ministry's school administration programs are carried out without assessing trainees' needs. The researcher sought a) teachers' appraisal of the instructional leadership of their respective principals and b) principals' perceptions of their responsibilities as instructional leaders. A total of 556 questionnaires were returned, representing a 96% response rate .. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted to examine teachers' and principals' responses. Teachers' responses were analyzed by ANOVA and are reported by school principal's behavior,. school, and school district. The findings of this study indi.cated that: a) Instructional leadership is a construct that consists of highly related elements; b) most of school principals are interested in establishing an orderly school climate; .c) although principals indicated that evaluation of teacher instruction is their number one responsibility, teachers responded that principals do not point out specific strengths and weaknesses of teacher's instruction, and the majority of principals indicated that they need more iv

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training on teacher evaluation; d) school principals also indicated that assessing and improving student achievement are major functions of the school principal, however, a considerable percentage of them do not monitor students' progress and do not contribute to their improvement.; e) a substantial percentage of principals do not establish positive human relations with teachers, according to teachers' perceptions; f) non-Kuwaiti teachers rated their principals' instructional leadership higher than Kuwaiti teachers did; g) school principals indicated that the following are the barriers of their instructional leadership: 1) the huge amounts of non-instructional responsibilities, 2) parents' excessive and unorganized visits, and 3) student problems; h) they also indicated that the. following can improve their instructional leadership: 1) more authority in teacher selection, 2) more authority in curriculum delivery, and 3) more awareness of the goals of education. This abstract accurately represents the content of the 'candidate's thesis. recommend its publication. v

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DEDICATION This study is dedicated to my father, my mother, and my wife

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CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Research Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Need for the Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Limitations of the Study ............ ; . . . . . . . . . . 7 Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Introduction I I 0 o I I 0 o o I I o o 0 I I I o 1 I I o o 0 I I o o o o 1 I o o 1 I I o o 1 1 Instructional Leadership in the USA ...................... The Kuwaiti System of Public Education Educational Policy and Planning 9 9 13 14 Principalship in Kuwait ... ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 In-service Training Programs . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Research on Principalship . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Principalship in Britain I I I I I"' I I I I OO I 1 0 I I I"' I I I I I I"' I I I I"' I I 24 Ill METHODOLOGY ................. I I I o o I I I I I I I I I o"o o I I I I o o I 31 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Design of Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Face Validity and Pilot Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 vii

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Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Data Organization and Analysis ............ .. . . . . . . . 35 Construct Validity and Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 IV FINDINGS ............................................... Introduction ........................ ................... Findings Pertaining to Research Questions Research Question One Research Question Two 39 39 40 40 44 Research Question Three .......... ; . . . . . . . . 49 Research Question Four ............................ 50 V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND DISCUSSION Introduction 52 52 Summary of the Design of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Summary of the Main Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 57 Implications, Discussion, and Recommendations 58 REFERENCES . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 viii

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APPENDICES Appendix A : School Work Manual 68 Appendix B : Responsibilities of Secondary School Principals . 77 Appendix C : Items of Teacher's Questionnaire . . . . . . . . 79 Appendix D : Teacher Questionnaire Appendix E : Principal Questionnaire Appendix F : Educational Administrator Evaluation Form Appendix G : Letter to the Ministry of Education Asking for Permission ....................... Appendix H : Ministry's Permission to do the Study .......... Appendix I : Factor Analysis ............................. Appendix J : Correlation Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix K : Perceived Instructional Responsibilities 81 91 94 97 98 101 104 of School Principals . . . . . . . . . . . 1 08 Appendix L : Perceived Barriers of Principal's Instructional Leadership . . . . . . . . . 11 0 Appendix M : Means and Standard Deviations of the Areas of Principal's Instructional Leadership . . . . . . 112 ix

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Acknowledgments I would like to express my sincere gratitude and thanks to Allah for His guidance throughout doing this work and for all the blessing He has bestowed upon me. I am also grateful to my father, my mother, my wife, and my brothers and sister for their support and prayers. This study would not have been done without the help of Allah, then many people. I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. Sharon Ford, my advisor and chairperson of the dissertation committee who oversaw this work from a seven-page rough draft to the final printed dissertation, to Dr. Michael Murphy and Dr. Alan Davis, members of the dissertation committee, for their constructive guidance, recommendations, and encouragement. Special thanks are due to my dear brother Abdullah AI-Mhelby for the time and efforts he paid to help me conduct this study. I also would like to express my appreciation and thanks to Dr. Ernest House and Dr. John Haas, members of the dissertation committee and to Dr. Muhammad AI-Musailim, Dr. Bader AI-Omar, Dr. Mark Swadener, and Dr. Rodney Muth for their assistance. I also would like to thank the school principals and teachers for the time they spent participating in this study. X

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The School Work Manual, published by the Kuwaiti Ministry of Education in 1987, stated that the school principal is an educational leader who should be able to evaluate teachers' instructional performance, to monitor students' progress, and to help both teachers and students improve effectiveness. A number of studies, however, indicate that school administrators in Kuwait are immersed in clerical work and correspondence with the ministry which inhibits them from performing their roles as instructional facilitators (ai-Tammar, 1983; ai-Musailim, 1987). Keefe ( 1987, pp. 50-51) defines instructional leadership as "the principal's role in providing direction, resources, and support to teachers and students for the improvement of teaching and learning in the school." Many researchers maintain that .the leadership behavior of the school principal plays a crucial role in the academic performance of students (Lipham, 1981; Andrews, 1989). Researchers have focused attention on principals' instructional leadership, .because instruction is the core technology of schools, and student learning is the product. They propose that school administrative leadership and school organization can affect instruction and, hence, student learning (Erickson, 1978; Bidwell, 1979; Bossert, Dwyer, Rowan, & Lee, 1982). Researchers have tried to analyze how organizational forms and principals' leadership practices affect the concrete, day-to-day experiences of teachers and students (Bossert, 1988). 1

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Research on effective schools and school improvement indicates that principals' appropriate clinical supervision and teacher evaluation and staff development enhance student achievement (Cawelti, 1987). A number of studies indicate that behaviors such as observing teacher's instructional methods and the principal's ability to help teachers improve effectiveness are correlated with. higher student achievement (Maryland State Department of Education, 1978; Lipham, 1981; Heck, Larsen, & Marcoulides, 1990). Studies consistently report that supc.essful schools have a system of clear instructional objectives for monitoring and assessing students' performance (Bossert et al., 1982). Heck and his associates (1990) indicated that the school principal should ensure systematic monitoring of student progress by staff and emphasize test results for program improvement. Hallinger and Murphy (1987a, p. 57) also maintain that "principal involvement in monitoring student progress both within individual classrooms and across grades is an equally potent, but underemphasized, area of principal activity." Sergiovanni (1991, p. 90) contends that "effective schools establish a variety of methods for communicating as well as working with parents and the community." Those schools make sure that parents are involved in all aspects of their children's learning and school activities. Bossert and his associates (1982) presented a model for analyzing the instructional management role of the principal. They suggested that principal instructional management behavior affects two basic features of the school's social organization--instructional organization and school climate. In these two contexts, they wrote, "various social relationships are formed and which, in turn, shape 2

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teachers' behavior and students' learning experiences--that produce student learning" (p. 39). Instructional organization relates to behaviors such as observing teachers' instructional methods and helping them improve effectiveness, evaluating curricular programs, securing resources for school programs, and ensuring systematic monitoring of student progress by staff. School climate, on the other hand, refers to the attitudes of the staff and students toward school environment that influence learning in the school (Bossert et aL, 1982). Principals shape the learning climate directly and indirectly by: (a) Maintaining high visibility to communicate priorities and expectations, (b) communicating instructional goals, (c) creating a reward system that reinforces academic achievement (Hallinger & Murphy, 19878.), (d) establishing a safe orderly environment, (e) motivating staff members, and (f) establishing positive human relations with teachers (Gross & Herriott, 1965; Miller, 1976; Lipham, 1981; Bossert et aL, 1982; 1989). In conclusion, the literature on instructional leadership reveals that (a) teacher evaluation and instructional development, (b) student academic progress monitoring, (c) school climate, and (d) parent involvement are critical to student academic achievement (Maryland State Department of Education, 1978; Edmonds, 1979; Lipham, 1981; Cawelti, 1987). Those studies maintain that the school principal is responsible for and can promote the above areas toward the improvement of student academic achievement. 3

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Statement of the Problem The effectiveness of Kuwait school principals in performing their roles as instructional leaders has not been adequately assessed (ai-Ameeri, 1991 ). The purposes of this study are: (a) to analyze, through the perceptions of teachers, Kuwaiti secondary school principals' instructional leadership performance according to the ministry's principal's job descriptions cited in the School Work Manual (1987) and (b) to examine school principals' perceptions of the of the school principal as an instructional leader and the perceived obstacles that may limit their instructional leadership. The researcher chose teacher assessment as the primary source for data analysis because of the close proximity of teachers to their respective principals. Teachers have the greatest opportunity to observe the principal's relevant instructional leadership behaviors (Hallinger, 1983; Andrews, 1989). School district was considered as one of the variables in this study since previous studies have indicated that the distribution of school administrators and teachers in the five school districts was not balanced (proportionally) in quality and quantity (Ministry of Education, 1989; ai-Musailim & ai-Abdelhadi, 1992) . Nationality of teachers has been also considered as one of the variables in the study because of the different academic backgrounds of Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti teachers. Most Kuwaiti teachers have had their teacher education and training in Kuwaiti academic institutions, primarily, at Kuwait University. Their. preparation programs, therefore, tend to be similar. The vast majority of non-Kuwaiti teachers, however, have had their teacher education in their home countries, primarily, in Egypt and Syria, in addition to other Arab countries. Teachers of different academic 4

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backgrounds are expected to have different perceptions of schooling. It is worth mentioning here that the percentage of non-Kuwaiti secondary school teachers in Kuwait is 69 percent (Ministry of Education, Educational Statistics, March 1993). The effect of gender was also examined in this study. Male teachers' perceptions of their principals' instructional leadership have been compared with those of female teachers. AI-Hadhood and ai-Jaber (1989) found that female and male teachers perceived their principals' leadership styles differently. Research Questions The study will attempt to answer the following questions: 1. How do teachers perceive their Kuwaiti public secondary school principals' instructional leadership with regard to: (a) principals' evaluation and development of teacher instruction, (b) principals' monitoring of students' progress and improvement, (c) principals' establishment of a positive school climate, and (d) principals' involvement of parents in school programs? 2. What differences _exist in teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional leadership performance with regard to: a) the district in which a principal works, b) the nationality of teachers, and c) the gender of the school? (i.e. boys' schools or girls' schools). 3. What do secondary school principals in Kuwait perce.ive as the responsibilities of the school principal as an instructional leader? 5

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4. What barriers do secondary school principals in Kuwait perceive as limiting their instructional leadership? Need for the Study When asked about their involvement in the Ministry's in-service education programs, secondary school administrators in Kuwait indicated that they perceived no involvement in activities such as needs assessment and planning and limited involvement in the evaluation of the programs (ai-Ameeri, 1991 ). AI-Ameeri recommended that trainees' needs be assessed before the beginning of in-service school administration education programs. Executives and decision makers, both in the central office of the Ministry of Education and school districts in Kuwait, do not know for sure whether school principals are performing their roles as instructional leaders. This is because the Kuwaiti educational system, to the present time, does not follow a criterion referenced and well-defined procedure to evaluate the performance of school principals (Ministry of Education, Educational Administrator Evaluation Form, 1975) (Appendix F). The form that is used by district and ministry executives for the evaluation of school principals is a general form used to evaluate a number of other educational administrators at both the district and ministry levels as well as other school administrators. This form is used to evaluate district and ministry officials such as department heads, directors, and academic supervisors, as well as school administrators such as assistant principals. Analyzing and evaluating principals' performance adequately can help improve the Ministry's school 6

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administration education programs, which in turn can improve principals' instructional leadership behavior. Limitations of the Study 1. This study will gather information about principals of Kuwaiti public secondary schools only. 2. The study will deal only with the perceptions of teachers and principals of secondary schools. 3. Principals' behavior examined in the study are consistent with those outlined in the Principal's Responsibilities in the Ministry's School Work Manual. 1.9..61. (Appendix A). Definition of Terms Instructional leadership. In this study, instructional leadership is "the principal's role in providing direction, resources, and support to teachers and students for the improvement. of teaching and learning in the school" (Keefe, 1987, pp. 50-51). After reviewing the related literature in the United States and the Kuwaiti Ministry of Education job descriptions for school principals, the following appear to be required by the principal in order to perform his/her role as an instructional leader: Be aware of and communicate instructional goals to teachers, students, and parents . Evaluate teachers' instructional practice . Help teachers improve instructional effectiveness. 7

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. Monitor students' academic progress systematically . Provide advice and coordinate with the faculty involved to help improve student academic performance . Maintain high visibility . Systematically involve parents in school programs . Create a school environment that induces student cognitive and social growth. Ministry of Education. The government branch responsible for administering and overseeing the work of educational institutions in .the country. It is headed by the . Minister of Education--a poiitical figure who is a cabinet member. 8

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THEHELA TED LITERATURE Introduction The Dictionary of Education by Shafritz, Koeppe, and Soper defines instructional leadership as, "One function for school principals that is contrasted with responsibilities related to the management of school resources . specifically, it relates to improving the quality of instruction in the classroom" (Shafritz, Koeppe, & Soper, 1988, p. 247). Instructional leadership is referred to in Kuwait as the technical (nonmanagerial) side of the school principal's job--as the other side is the managerial (Ministry of Education, School Work Manual, 1987a). Instructional Leadership in the U.S.A. Smith and Andrews (1989) indicated that the school principal as instructional leader means that the principal is perceived by close associates as: 1. Providing the necessary resources needed for achieving. a school's academic goals. . 2. Possessing knowledge and skills in curriculum and instructional matters that can enhance teachers' instructional practice. 3. Being a skilled communicator in one-on-one, small-group; and large-group settings. 4. Being a visionary who is out and around creating a visible presence for the staff, students, and parents, at both the physical and philosophical levels, concerning what the school is all about. 9

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Smith and Andrews maintain that the principal as an "Instructional Resource" should: 1. Demonstrate the ability to evaluate and reinforce appropriate and effective instructional strategies. 2. Know resources that enhance instruction. 3. Supervise the staff, using strategies that focus on the improvement of instruction. 4. In the process of assessing the educational program, use students' outcome information that is directly related to instructional issues. 5. Demonstrate the ability to: a) Motivate staff members, b) State clear expectations to the staff, and c) Provide clear feedback. 6. Know staff members' strengths and weaknesses. 7. Assign staff members according to their strengths. 8. Match staff members' needs to professional development opportunities (Smith & Andrews, 1989, pp. 14-16). James Keefe, the then Director of. of the National Association of Secondary School Principals, maintains that "a growing body of evidence on effective instruction, school productivity, school learning climate, and learning styles emphasizes the view that leadership is critical to initiate and sustain any process of school improvement" and that "certain behaviors of the principal are necessary for effective school leadership" (Keefe, 1987, p. 49). Keefe defines instructional leadership as "the principal's role in providing direction, resources, and support to 10

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teachers and students for the improvement of teaching and learning in the school" (pp. 50-51). There are at least three distinct forms of instructional leadership competence, according to Keefe. Each form is distinct but an interdependent part of the larger role of the school principal. They are: 1. Content competence: Knowledge of subject matter practices and trends. 2. Methodological competence: Knowledge of instructional strategies and modalities and the ability to assist teachers in improving instructional delivery. 3. Supervisory competence: Knowledge of the administrative and interpersonal skills of instructional supervision. Instructional leadership, according to Keefe, could be conceptualized in four broad domains: Formative, Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation. 1. Formative: Principal's awareness of important trends in school curriculum, new approaches to organizing schools, and the state of the art in instructional media and methodology. 2. Planning: Principal's ability to help teachers assess student needs, establish goals for the school, helping teachers see the relationship of these goals to the instructional program, and set expectations for instruction. 3. Implementation: Applying the formative and planning aspects of principal's competencies in various forms of activities that enhance the quality of teaching and learning. 4. Evaluation: The quality of student learning and growth will be seen in several signs, among which are: Achievement test scores, average daily attendance, 11

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library and media usage, and number of students participating in cocurricular activities (Keefe, 1987}. Based on the descriptions of the behavior of principals in instructionally effective schools, Philip Hellinger (1983) defined the principal's role as instructional manager in 11 job functions. He developed an instrument consisting of 71 items from the 11 job functions stated in behavioral terms. He also tested both the internal consistency and validity of the instrument and found that all 11 rating scales met acceptable standards of reliability and confirmed the validity of the instrument. The job functions were: 1) Frames the school's goals. 2} Communicates the school's goals to staff and students. 3) Supervises and evaluates instruction. 4) Coordinates curriculum. 5) Monitors student progress. 6) Protects instructional time. 7) Promotes instructional improvement and professional development. 8) Maintains high visibility. 9} Provides incentives for teachers. 1 0} Enforces academic standards. 11) Provides incentives for learning (Hallinger, 1983). 12

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The Kuwaiti System of Public Education Introduction The central Ministry of Education in Kuwait, as in most other Arab countries, 1) formulates and implements educational policy for the entire country, 2) finances public education at all levels, 3) administers all public schools below the university level, 4) finances Kuwait University, 5) supervises private schools, 6) trains, recruits, promotes, dismisses, and retires teachers, and 7) builds, rents, and maintains school buildings. The ministry, also 8) provides equipment, books, and other school facilities and health services, 9) plans and implements school curricula, and 1 0) administers examina.tions in all public schools. It is also responsible for educational relations with international organizations and foreign governments as well as for students studying abroad (ai-Tammar, 1983; ai-Ahmad, lsa, ai-Farra, & Taha, 1986). The centralized administrative approach adomed by the Ministry of Education, therefore, does not permit school principals to make any minor or temporary adjustment to the curriculum. The ministry is solely responsible for designing and building the. curriculum, writing and publishing textbooks, and producing instructional media. School principals, also, do not control the appointment and promotion of their staff (Ministry of Education, School Work Manual, 1987a; School Districts Manual, 1987b). The school system in Kuwait begins with voluntary kindergarten education for 2 years from the ages of 4 to 6, followed by mandatory elementary and intermediate education, each for 4 years from the ages of 6 to 14. This is followed by voluntary secondary education for 4 years. Public schools in Kuwait in the 13

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elementary, intermediate and, secondary levels are segregated according to gender. There are nearly equal numbers of schools for boys and girls. Male schools have male teaching and administrative staffs, and female schools have female teaching and administrative staffs, except kindergartens which have all female staffs. Educational Policy and Planning. The Supreme Council of Education is in charge of educational policy and planning in Kuwait. This council consists of a number of university professors, experienced educators, and other top executives of public affairs institutions. The Supreme Council is headed by the Minister of Education. The mission of the council is 1) to provide general guidelines, 2) offer advice for the Office of the Minister as well as other senior offices of the Ministry, 3) organize and promote research in education, and 4) create educational plans (Ministry of Education, 1989). The Ministry of Education jurisdiction decree. In the late 1970s, the government's administrative performance was widely criticized. (ai-Musailim, 1987). The Kuwait National Assembly adopted a project entitled "Reconstruction of the Governmental Executive and Administration". The project required that all government organizations arid ministries should have a written document clarifying their jurisdictions and limitations. The Ministry of Education jurisdiction decree was passed and approved by the Cabinet in 1979. The decree consisted of three sections. Section one stated that the Ministry of Education is responsible for the contribution to the growth of society and of the younger generation, in the light of Islamic principles, Arabic culture, and contemporary civilized cultures and consistent with Kuwait's environment and the 14

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attainment of its progress. Section two indicated that the Ministry has the following duties: 1. Proposing general educ!'ltional policies and plans through higher councils of education and other consultative committees. 2. Deciding on educational matters, such as, school levels, improvement of the curriculum, and setting admission procedures and examination rules. 3. Administering of adult education and eliminating illiteracy programs, special education, and religious, vocational and technical institutions. 4. Preparing, implementing, and supervising school programs in sports, social, and cultural activities. 5. Sending students abroad for higher education. 6. Cooperating with other ministries and organizations concerned with youth affairs and interests as well as with other foreign friendly countries and educational associations for the improvement of education in the country (Kuwait Today Journal, 1979). An Amiri Decree of Public Education was issued in 1987 and specified schooling levels and certifications and the functions of the Supreme Council of Education (Ministry of Education, .1989). Decentralizing the educational system: The school district system of education. In the late 1970s educational policy and decision makers in Kuwait decided to create the district system, as the numbers of schools, students, and teachers were rapidly increasing. They became aware of the defects of the centralized system of education and that "the time is coming for radical change in the ministry's ,15

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administrative structure", as stated in a report presented to the ministry by its Department of Organization (1978, p. 2). The report was a response from the Undersecretary to the request of the then Minister of Education to evaluate the administrative performance of the Ministry and to study the idea of establishing educational districts in the three provinces of Kuwait at that time, April 1975. In his request, the Minister advised that school districts would be part of and dependent on the Ministry (Ministry of Education, Department of Organization, 1978). A school-district system of education was initiatedby the Ministry in 1981. The first school district, ai-Ahinadi, was established in February 1981 (Ministry of Education, ministerial decree no. 30/1981 ). The system was completed when a ministerial decree was issued in June 1986 to establish the fourth and the fifth districts. The School District Manual (1987b) was by the ministry after the opening of the last school district. It contains detailed descriptions of the duties and responsibilities of school district officers, as well as the rules and regulations that govern the constituencies of the educational process in the district. The main powers and duties of the school district managers are: a) Suggest new school sites, b) follow up school work of both teachers and school administrators, c) provide schools with technical needs, such as instructional media, d) manage student records, e) manage students and teaching staff transference, f) coordinate subjects senior-supervisors' work, g) supervise and manage students testing and certification, h) supervise social and psychological services for district's 16

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students, and i) coordinate and supervise schools' extra-curricular activities (ministerial decree no. 22306/1983). Authorities of the central office of the Ministry of Education. The Manual also covers a number of rights and authorities (27 items) that will be controlled by the central office of the ministry. The following are some of the authorities that the ministry continues to hold: a) Establishes the educational policy according to the national goals of the country, b) creates the plans, projects, and programs that will implement the country's educational policy, c) decides on the strategies that can disseminate education and literacy in the country; d) designs and builds the curriculum, writes and publishes textbooks, and produces instructional media, e) provides school districts with all needed personnel, f) evaluates and follow up with the educational and teaching strategies and methods employed by all different public and private educational institutions in the country, g) designs school buildings, h) modifies, suspends, or invalidates school district resolutions, and i) promotes teachers and school administrators to higher positions. Principalship In Kuwait. Selection and Promotion of School Building Administrators: (Head teacher, Assistant Principal. and School Principal). The process of promoting a classroom teacher to a school administration position consists of a number of official procedures. Criteria governing advancement in academic rank includes length of service in the teaching profession and length of service in a particular rank. School principals make recommendations to school 17

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district officials who transfer the recommendations to central office executives concerning teachers they believe should be considered for promotion. A written recommendation about the teacher from the principal, based on the evaluation of both the principal and the supervisor, is a prerequisite for the nomination. General qualifications required for school administration positions: head teacher. supervisor. assistant principal. and school principal. Potential administrators should: 1 Have had excellent evaluation reports in the preceding two years from both the academic supervisor and school principal. 2. Have participated in the in-service School Administration Training Program offered by the ministry. 3. Have received no penalty in the preceding two years. 4. Have passed successfully the personal interview with the Ministry's Promotion Committee. The promotion decision shall be issued by the central Department of Coordination and Follow-up of Public Education. Experience requirements for head teacher and supervisor promotion. 1. Four-year university degree. 2. Teaching experience of 4 years for those who have an educational university degree and 5 years for those who have a non-educational university degree. 3. Potential administrator must be a head teacher before he/she can be considered for supervisor promotion. 18

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Experience requirement for assistant principal. Three years of teaching experience as head teacher or supervisor. Experience requirement for school principal. Three years experience as assistant principal. (ministerial decree no. 494/89). In-service Training Programs in. School Administration Training programs in school administration were first introduced in Kuwait in 1974 when the ministry issued decree number 75952 to establish its first training center which became part of the Department of Research and Technical Coordination. In December 1979, the Training Center became an independent departme_nt within the ministry (ai-Ameeri, 1991 ). The Training Center prepares and organizes two training programs each year. In its 1993 detailed plan for its in-service training program$, the Center included a number of objectives and outlined the programs' curriculum. The duration of the in-service was one to three months depending on the intensity of the program, "to prepare classroom teachers for school administration positions, such as head teacher, supervisor, assistant principal, and school principal" (p.1 ). Objective of the training programs. The objective of the training programs was to provide potential school administrators with: 1. The needed skills and behaviors of effective educational leadership. 2. Goals of school administration in the State of Kuwait. 3. Responsibilities of school principal and assistant principal. 4. Recent trends in school curriculum and curriculum evaluation methods. 19

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5. Common problems of school administration. Main components of the curriculum of the training programs. 1. Educational goals: general goals of education in Kuwait and their relation to the goals of schooling levels, i.e., elementary, intermediate, and secondary levels, and their relation with the goals of subjects areas and the role of school administration in attaining those goals. 2. Responsibilities of school administration: Notion of school administration, the relationship between the school administration and the school district, and the relationship between school administration and academic supervision. 3. Educational research and its role in educational improvement. 4. School administration and teachers: Educational leadership and positive hunian relations, communication in school administration, the role of school administration in teacher professional development. 5. School administration, students, and educational psychology: The role of school administration in student guidance and counseling, methods of educational measurement, assessment, evaluation, and intelligence tests. 6. School administration and school curriculum: Philosophy of school curriculum, important and recent trends, components and evaluation of school curriculum. 7. School administration and supervision: Evaluation of teacher instructional performance, teaching methodology, instructional media, and extra-curricular activities (Ministry of Education, 1993). 20

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Research on Principalship In his extensive study of the perceptions of secondary school principals and fiSSistant principals regarding their involvement in the ministry's in-service education, ai-Ameeri (1991) concluded that secondary school administrators recognized the importance of their involvement in in-service education activities, such as needs assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation. School administrators, however, perceived no actual involvement in needs assessment, planning, or implementation of the programs. Actual involvement in evaluation was perceived only through questionnaires at the end of each in-service training cycle. AI-Ameeri (1991) recommended that trainees' needs be assessed before the beginning of an in-service education program. In her study of the role of the secondary school principal in Kuwait, ai-Tammar (1983) indicated that Centralization of educational administration adopted by the Ministry of Education deprives principals from taking an active part in such fundamental issues as selection of new teachers and the allocation of discretionary funds within their school budget. This exclusion hinders their ability to influence the educational direction of their school (p.118-119). She also indicated that school principals preferred to have considerable opportunity for independent thought and action. School principals, also, perceived parents' involvement as very limited, and they recommended increasing the involvement of parents and the community iri all aspects of planning and advising in their schools. In addition, secondary school principals identified three main constraints on their ability to fulfill their responsibilities. They were: (a) Lack of Ministry flexibility, (b) parents apathetic or irresponsible about their children, 21

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and (c) students lack of motivation. AI-Tammar proposes that a decentralized educational system that makes the principal more independent would release his/her capacity to create and stimulate change toward the better for schooling and education. She maintains that decentralization of education in Kuwait could produce more effective principals (alTammar, 1983). School principals spend most of their work hours in their offices, attempting to finish the mountains of paperwork required by the ministry. The instructional role of the principal, ai-Musailim (1987) asserted,. however, requires that he/she visits classrooms and evaluates teachers, the curriculum, and students' progress. Kuwaiti school principals, with the huge amount of managerial responsibilities they are obliged to handle throughout the academic year, lack the adequate time for instructional supervision (ai-Musailim, 1987). In June 1985, the Amir of the State of Kuwait issued a decree forming an advisory committee whose mission was to evaluate the state's educational system. Two years later, the committee reported its findings and made a number of recommendations. The major issues discussed in the report were educational goals, policy, and planning, as well as educational administration. In relation to school administration, the committee recommended that the evaluation of school principals' performance needed to be revised and improved (Ministry of Education, 1989). In his study of public secondary school principals' job satisfaction, Safar (1987) suggested that the ministry's authorities should take appropriate measures to help raise principals' level of satisfaction with respect to autonomy, development and advancement, and involvement in decision making. 22

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The perceptions of Kuwaiti teachers and principals indicated that the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) subscale of production emphasis was the leadership behavior which secondary school principals demonstrated most. This denotes, according to Ali (1984), that principals had performed well in applying pressure for productive output. It also reflects the concern of the Ministry of Education for output rather than input. In another study, entitled "Leadership Style for Male and Female Principals of Public Schools in Kuwait as Perceived by Teachers", and ai-Jaber (1989) found that there was a significant difference between the perceptions of male and female teachers of their principals' leadership style. Female teachers perceived their principals as more concerned with human relations than male teachers did. In their study "Advantages and Disadvantages of Converting to Decentralization in the Kuwaiti Public Education System", ai-Musailim and ai Abdelhadi (1992) pointed out that the distribution of school administrators and teachers in the five school districts was not balanced (proportionally) in quality and quantity; some school districts have significantly more and better qualified school teachers and administrators than other districts; according to the perceptions of school administrators. Female elementary school principals were found to differ in their contribution to teachers' instructional evaluation and development according to their years of experience as school principals. Principals of 6 to 15 years of experience in school principalship promote more group work and devote more time to instructional supervision than those with experience of less than 6 years or more than 15 years (ai-Jaber, _1989). 23

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Principalship in Britain Introduction The following section of this chapter will provide a brief discussion of the role of the British school principal. Kuwait has a good academic and cultural relationship with the United Kingdom and the United States as well as with other countries. With such a good academic relationship, the Kuwaiti educational system is likely to be influenced by some of the aspects of the educational systems of the above mentioned countries. Historical Background The role of school principals, who are called head_ teachers in Britain, has changed according to the different assumptions the English society has had about schooling throughout history (Jones, 1987). Those assumptions or attitudes toward schooling have developed through three phases--the Classical-academic (up to about 1955), the Socio-economic Pastoral (1955-75), and the Organizational Development (1975 present). There were .two assumptions behind the Classical-academic phase. First, that the better the teacher the more the pupils will Jearn. The second assumption, which may sound contrary to the first one, was that intellectual abilities are predetermined. It followed from these assumptions that separate educational institutions would best serve the economic needs of society: hence, grammar schools were for the elite, the future leaders, professionals, and administrators; technical schools for the craftsmen and technicians; and secondary moderns for the large masses of unskilled workers. The model assumed a stable state of intelligence, social class, and position in society. 24

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One of the popular assumptions in the Socio-economic Pastoral phase (1955-75) was that if socio-economic differences between pupils were removed, then they would all have a fair and equal chance, which advocates equality of opportunity. The manifestations of this were the development of comprehensive schools of mixed-ability teaching and the idea of social priority schools. The other attempt to give pupils an equal chance in spite of their background came through the development of pastoral care systems. The idea behind this movement was that the extra caring school could mitigate or potentially remove the damaging psychological effects of inadequate parenting. The Organizational Development phase was based on the belief that nature (pupils' predetermined abilities) and nurture (the socio-economic conditions) could be ctlanged only in a limited way by good teaching and social engineering and care. Having that belief, the people began to look at other factors such as the culture of the school and the way it is organized and ruri, the hidden curriculum, and the attitudes of people in the school. Jones (1987) believes that there are basically four periods or styles of the English headship, with some variations, that correspond, in a way or another, with the three phases of. schooling--Monarchic, Bureaucratic, Anarchic, and Organic. The role of the English head teacher has gone through those four periods or styles throughout history. The Monarchic period corresponds with the Classical-academic phase of schooling. This period goes back to the days of the nineteenth century's head teachers, who were mostly men, and 25

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enjoyed enormous public respect, prestige, private loyalty, and obedience. Their power and leadership were unquestioned. When the Head came into view, every body stood up and was silent, Nobody, but nobody, would argue unless this was part of the permitted culture of the school (Jones, 1987, p. 43). Baron (1956) argued, however, that the Monarchic head is not synonymous with the autocratic head. Baron maintained that the despotism, if there, was benign or even benevolent; the autocracy was made acceptable by a touch of inspirational leadership, charisma, wisdom and oratory. Monarchic head teachers' jobs in the Classical-academic era was made easier. Their task was much easier than their Comprehensive counterparts since education was streamed and the aims and expectations were clear. Homogeneous groups of pupils were much easier to coach. The Bureaucratic headship, which corresponds with the Socio-economic Pastoral phase, followed the establishment of the large Comprehensives of the fifties and sixties. There was an attempt to make the head into a kind of chief executive, a systems man, who, through his elaborate system of line management, had the whole of organization at his fingertips. The influence of big business was apparent in this phase. Terms such as accountability, spans of control, and chains of command became common in the headship lexicon. During those days, schools were. expected to overcome the socio-economic and the affective ills of the society, which were unrealistic. Thus, head teachers were expected to provide a panacea for all the problems of society. They found themselves under increased strain; running heterogeneous institutions with conflicts of expectations, treatment, different teaching and learning styles, and with inevitably greater tension between the constituent members. 26

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The end of that era (mid-seventies) witnessed the call for a democratic school administration and teacher participation. Anarchic head teachers at that time were forced by their staffs to be democratic. They witnessed the weakening of their positions. They not only felt helpless, but also intimidated (Jones, 1987). One of the head teachers of that time acknowledged that head teacher's authority diminished as procedures became more democratic and participation became widespread at all levels. He, however, talkedabout the leadership by continually renewed assent and that head teacher's personal influence could be greater in such democratic school climate (Jennings, 1977). One way of reducing this feeling c;>f powerlessness is for the head teacher to adopt what Jones (1987) calls an Organic style of leadership. Jones indicates that this style co-existed with the Bureaucratic and Anarchic phases of headship. The philosophy behind Organic style rejects the mechanistic and authoritarian systems of school management, in favor of organic development and a school organization that is sufficiently flexible to adopt to external changes. Jones maintains that the over organized school is incapable of responding sufficiently and quickly to the need_s of its external environment. Poster (1976),who is an advocate of Organic headship, still sees that the power of heads as unquestionable and that calling them middle managers limits their roles. Jones (1987) indicates that there are many head teachers who are genuinely interested in moving toward. a more organic/shared power and Jess bureaucratic leadership style. This trend, Jones c'ontends, holds the most hope for the future of schools in the current climate. 27

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Role Requirements and Authorities School principals in Britain are considered the most important and influential persons in the education of children in Britain (Clegg, 1980). They are charged by the local education authorities and boards to be totally responsible for all matters of the school, including curriculum. They decide on which subjects will be taught and how much time will be allocated for each subject. The entire organization of the school is also decided by head teachers (Stevenson, 1985). James Stevenson (1985), a US high school principal who spent a sabbatical leave in England where he visited secondary schools and lived with teachers and head teachers, indicated that most head teachers establish excellent social relations and communication with their teachers .. They have lunch with them and visit them in their rooms. They allow teachers to have much input into the curriculum. Head teachers, however, have the final word about what content is to be included. Budgeting is, also, an important responsibility of head teachers. They receive a total sum from the Local Education Authority (LEA) and they decide where all money will be spent. Along with this, they receive a total sum for staff salaries and must decide on how this money is to be allocated. Salaries are decided on the education and the responsibility level of each teacher. Head teachers make decisions on promotions, and salaries are raised or lowered depending on the responsibilities a teacher assumes. The British National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) conducted a study on 250 new head teachers throughout England and Wales. The study aimed at eliciting the demands made on head teachers in their first years of headship, identifying the requisite skills and knowledge needed to carry out their new roles, 28

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and to provide guidelines for in-service programs. Most of the head teachers indicated that they acquired most of the management skills and knowledge during the years they spent as deputy head teachers and through their participation in Senior Management Teams (Weindling, 1990}. Weindling (1990) believes that although the term instructional leadership is not used in Britain, most head teachers in Britain are closer to the ideal instructional leader than their US counterparts. Head teachers in England and Wales today teach 15 to 20 percent of their time each week. Teaching allows them to "stay in touch with the pulse of the classroom and to be aware of teachers' problems." (p.42). Another component of instructional leadership is the need for a strong vision for the future of the school. Almost all the new head teachers who participated in the study had a clear vision for their schools, according to Weindling. All British secondary schools now have a senior management team consisting of the head teacher, 2 or 3 deputy head teachers, and in some large secondary schools, another 3 or 4 senior teachers. Each member of this team teaches an average of about 50 percent of the week and has specific management responsibilities for an area such as curriculum, staff development, administration, or pastoral program. Pastoral programs are rough equivalents of counseling in the United States, but they are rather extended and include the entire school staff. They are more formal and are emphasized by all head teachers. British head teachers consider the pastoral program an essential element in schooling and an attempt to help each child grow socially, emotionally, and morally (Stevenson, 1985). 29

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In Britain, no certification is needed to become a head teacher. Preparation is largely through experiential learning and attendance at various short courses provided by universities and Local Education Authorities. Although attendance at a major course in educational management is not a prerequisite for headship, it appears that LEA selectors consider attendance at one or more courses to be an important form of preparation for headship (Weindling, 1990). It is apparent from this review that British school principals, despite their declining powers, still play a more influential role than their Kuwaiti counterparts. Their authorities in teacher appointment and pay, school budgeting, and curriculum clearly surpass Kuwaiti principals'. 30

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CHAPTER Ill METHOOOLOGY Introduction Two questionnaires, one for teachers and one for principals, were constructed to examine the perceptions of teachers and school principals regarding school principals' instructional leadership. A total of 557 questionnaires were distributed to teachers in 50 randomly selected secondary schools. An average of 11 teachers from each school were randomly selected. Fifty questionnaires were also distributed to the principals of the selected schools. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted to describe teachers' and principals' perceptions. Factorial analysis of variance was used to test for differences associated with district, nationality, and gender. Each step in this procedure is described in this chapter. of Instruments The researcher compiled a number of job responsibilities for Kuwaiti secondary school principals (Appendix 8). The responsibilities have been classified into four main domains. They are: (a) Teacher evaluation and instructional development, (b) student monitoring, (c) school climate, and (d) parent involvement (Hallinger, 1983; Ministry of Education, School Work Manual, 1987a; Cawelti, 1987; Andrews, 1989; Heck, Larsen, & Marcoulides, 1990). The researcher used the above four domains of principal's instructional leadership behavior for the development of the items of the teachers' questionnaire. 31

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The teachers' questionnaire consists of a number of descriptions of behaviors of the principal in the above mentioned four domains of instructional leadership. These are: (a) Teacher evaluation and instructional development, items 1 to 8; (b) student monitoring and improvement, items 9 to 15; (c) school climate, items 16 to 25; and (d) parental involvement, items 26 to 28 (Appendix C). The items of the questionnaire were then scrambled and reordered in a random way. Teachers were asked to rate their respective principal's instructional leadership behavior according to the questionnaire (Appendix D). Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted to examine teachers' perceptions of the instructional leadership performance of school principals. Another questionnaire was developed for school principals (Appendix E). The principals' questionnaire is semi-structured and has a limited number of open ended questions which ask principals about (a) what they perceive as their responsibilities as instructional leaders, and (tJ) the perceived barriers that may limit their instructional leadership. A content analysis of principals' responses was conducted. Principals' responses were compiled and classified into a number of domains. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted to examine principals' responses. Teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional leadership behavior were related to what principals perceive as their major instructional responsibilities and the perceived barriers. Face Validity and Pilot Testing The teachers' questionnaire was sent to 20 secondary school teachers for pilot testing. These teachers were asked to give their opinion of the validity of the items of 32

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the questionnaire. They were asked to a) answer the items of the questionnaire first and to critique them item by item, and b) to indicate whether teachers would be able to notice those behaviors in their school principals. All of the 20 teachers completed their questionnaires and provided their comments and suggestions for questionnaire improvement. Some of the items of the questionnaire were modified according to these teachers' suggestions. The principals' questionnaire was sent to 6 school principals in Kuwait who were asked to give their opinions about the validity of the questions. All of these six principals indicated that the questions were appropriate. Finally, both the teachers' and principals' questionnaires were sent to 2 professors of Educational Psychology and Measurement at the College of Education of Kuwait University who provided the researcher with their comments about the structure and the scale of the questionnaire. Sampling All 94 Kuwaiti public secondary schools were stratified according to school district and gender. A sample of 50 schools, 25 boys' schools and 25 girls' schools, were initially randomly selected from the five districts. District administrators, then, made some adjustments to the schools selected in order to avoid newly opened schools. Twenty-seven boys' schools and 23 girls' schools were finally selected with the approval of district administrators (Table 3.1 ). An average of 11 teachers were. randomly selected from each of the 50 schools, resulting in a: total of 577 teachers. A total of 577 questionnaires were distributed via school social workers to 282 male teachers and 295 female teachers, representing 8.2% of the 7,006 33

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secondary school teachers in Kuwait (Ministry of Education, Educational Statistics, March 1993). The 50 schools selected represent 53% of the 94 public secondary schools in the 5 school districts in Kuwait. Questionnaires were also distributed to the 50 principals of the schools whose teachers participated in the study. Table 3.1 School Samples Stratified According to School District and Gender District District District District District Total -no. 1 no. 2 no. 3 no:4 no. 5 Numbers of Secondary 9 Boys 12 Boys 10 Boys 10 Boys 6 Boys 47 Schools 1 0 Girls 10 Girls 11 Girls 10 Girls 6 Girls 47 Total 19 schools 22 schools 21 schools 20 schools 12 schools 94 Numbers of 6 Boys 5 Boys 6 Boys 7 Boys 3 Boys 27 Samples 5 Girls 5 Girls 5 Girls 5 Girls 3 Girls 23 Total 11 schools 10 schools 11 schools 12 schools 6 schools 50 Protocol The researcher met with the 50 school principals and handed them the ministry's permission to conduct the study (Appendix H) and their questionnaires which included letters explaining to them the. purpose and nature of the study and methodology used to gather data. The researcher asked the school principal for her/his permission to distribute the questionnaires, via the school social worker, to previously selected teachers. The researcher then distributed the questionnaires to the social worker who distributed them to the selected teachers. The teachers were asked to complete the questionnaire, put it in a provided envelope and seal it, without writing their name or the school's name on the questionnaire or on the envelope. They were instructed to 34

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hand it back to the social worker, or to the researcher when the researcher came to collect the questionnaires from the social Worker. All needed measures have been taken to make sure that principals would have no access to teachers' responses. Principals were informed that their teachers were completing a questionnaire examining their perceptions of the role of the school principal. Principals were assured that all respondents and data would remain confidential and that schools would not be identified in the reporting of data. Data Organization and Analysis Teachers' raw responses were entered in one data set using Microsoft Works data base software program. Schools were iabeled by numbers; school 1 through school 50. Teachers' responses, then, were combined and aggregated by their respective schools in order to compare the data across school principals. The gathered data were then analyzed statistically using the statistics software StatView SE+Graphics. Construct Validity and Reliability The 28 items of the questionnaire were factor analyzed in one combined data set (Appendix I, 1) to determine whether the items of the questionnaire were related to each other or not, and to determine whether there was empirical support for the existence of the four domains of principal's instructional leadership. The factor analysis indicated high correlation among all of the items of the teachers' questionnaires. The factor analysis, however, did not confirm the existence of the four domains of instructional leadership. Instead, all items loaded heavily on one factor which indicated that instructional leadership, according to the gathered 35

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data, is one whole construct and not a number of independent domains. Thus, a school principal who is doing well in some instructional leadership behaviors will tend to be rated as doing well in the other behaviors also. Hence, reporting the data by the presumed four domains of instructional leadership was not the best way to analyze the instructional leadership behavior of school principals. Instead, data were analyzed for 13 specific areas of principal's instructional leadership, measured by 5 individual questionnaire items and 8 combinations of items. The data indicated significantly high correlations among 8 combinations of items that share common meaning and high. internal consistency reliability (Table 3.2). (See Appendix C and Appendix J) Those combined items include : (1) Items 3 and 4 which refer to pointing out specific strengths and weaknesses of teacher's instructional practices, (2) Items 1 and 7 which refer to working with head teachers for teacher instructional evaluation and improvement, (3) Items 9, 1 0, and 11 which relate to monitoring student progress, (4) Items 12 and 13 which relate to contributing to student improvement, (5) Items 16 and 17 which relate to referring to the goals of education, (6) Items 19 through 22 which relate to principal's human relations with teachers, (7) Items 24 and 25 which relate to honoring high-achieving students, and (8) Items 27 and 28 which relate to parental involvement. The other five individual items include: Item 2 (Visit teachers in classrooms), item 5 (Curriculum plan progress follow-up), item 8 (Take special 36

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care of new teachers), item 18 (Establish an orderly school climate), and item 23 (Take time to talk with students). Table 3.2 Internal Consistency Reliability of the Combined Items Areas of ltem(s) Internal Consistency Instructional LeadershiQ_ Reliability 1) Visit Teachers 2 2) Specific Evaluation 3 & 4 .82 3) Curr. Plan ProQress 5 4) Work/Head Teacher 1 & 7 .76 5) Care for New Teachers 8 6) Student Progrs. Montr. 9, 10, & 11 .88 7) Student Improvement 12 & 13 .. 81 8) Refer to Goals of Educ. 16 & 17 .82 9) Human Relationsrr. 19 through 22 .9 1 O) Talk with Students 23 11) Orderly School Climate 18 12J Student Honoring 24 & 25 .86 13) Parental Involvement 27 & 28 .79 Internal Consistency Reliability cannot be calculated for single items Differences were first tested using the combined and individual questionnaire items summed to form a single leadership score, for the 50 individual principals (i.e. in each of the 13 areas of instructional leadership). (See Appendix M for the means and 37

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standard deviations of the 13 combined and individual questionnaire items for all individual 50 schools). The three significant main effects, a) district, b) nationality, and c) gender, were then analyzed through separate 3-way factorial ANOVA for each of the 13 areas of instructional leadership. 38

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CHAPTER IV FINDINGS Introduction The data presented in this chapter were gathered from public secondary school teachers and principals employed by the Ministry of Education in Kuwait in the academic year '1993-94. A total of 556 secondary school teachers returned their completed questionnaires from the 577 teachers who received their questionnaires. This represented a 96 percent response rate. Forty-seven principals returned their completed questionnaires from the 50 principals who received their questionnaires. This represented a 94 percent response rate. Fifty-five percent of respondent principals were males and the other 45% were females. It is worth mentioning here that all school principals in Kuwait are Kuwaitis according to the ministry's reports of March '1993. The distribution of respondent teachers by gender, nationality, position, and school district is shown in tables 4.1 and 4.2. Table 4.1 Distribution of Respondent Teachers by Gender, Nationality, and Position Male Female Kuwaiti Non-Kwt Head Teach 267 289 243 313 106 48% 52% 44% 56% 19% Teacher 450 81% Table 4.1 shows that the representation of male and female teachers is 48% and 52% respectively, and the represE?ntation of Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti teachers is 44% and 56% respectively. Also, 19% of the respondents were head teachers. 39

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Table 4.2 Counts of Teachers by School District and Nationality Nationality District Kuwaiti Non-Kuwti Totals District 1 57 71 128 District 2 59 55 114 District 3 55 77 132 District 4 49 66 115 District 5 23 44 67 Totals 243 313 556 Findings Pertaining to the Four Research Questions Research Question One Research question one addressed teachers' perceptions of their school principals' instructional leadership behavior in four areas of instructional leadership: (a) Teacher evaluation and instructional development, (b) student progress monitoring, (c) school climate, and (d) parental involvement. Teachers were asked to assess their principals' instructional leadership performance in the above areas. Table 4.3 shows the means and-percentages of the frequency of the 50 school principals' engagement in the 13 areas of instructional leadership. Those 13 areas are consistent with expectations in the ministry's job description of school principals. Research Question One (a). How do teachers perceive their Kuwaiti public secondary school principals' instructional leadership with regard to principals' evaluation of teacher instruction and their contribution to teacher instructional development? Items 1-5 of the areas of instructional leadership on Table 4.3 address this question. According to teachers' perceptions: 40

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a) Ninety-eight percent of school principals in Kuwait visit teachers in classrooms frequently. b) Forty percent of principals do not frequently point out specific strengths and weaknesses of teacher's instructional practices. c) Twenty-eight percent of them do not frequently follow up curriculum plan progress. d) Twenty-six percent of them do not frequently take special care of new teachers. e) Eight percent of them do. not frequently work with head teachers for teacher instructional evaluation and improvement. Research Question One (b). How do teachers perceive their school principals' instructional leadership with regard to principals' monitoring of students' progress and improvement? Items 6 and 7 of the areas of instructional leadership on Table 4.3 address this question. Fourteen percent of principals do not frequently monitor student progress, and 20% of them do not contribute to student improvement. Research Question One (c). How do teachers perceive their principals' instructional leadership with regard to principals' establishment of a positive school climate? Items 8-12 of the areas of instructional leadership on Table 4.3 address this question. According to teachers' perceptions: a) Sixteen percent of school principals do not frequently refer to the goals of education. 41

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b) Twenty percent of school principals do not frequently establish positive human relations with teachers. c) Thirty-six percent of principals do not frequently talk ,with students during breaks. d) Ninety-six percent of them honor high-achieving students frequently. e) Ninety-eight of school principals in Kuwait were found to be very interested in establishing an orderly school climate. Research Question One (d). How do teachers perceive their principals' instructional leadership with regard to principals' involvement of parents in school programs? Item 13 of the areas of instructional leadership on Table 4.3 addresses this question. Ninety-six percent of school principals involve parents in school programs, according to teachers' perceptions. 42

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Table 4.3 Means and Percentages of the Frequency of School Principals' Engagement in the 13 Areas of Instructional Leadership. Mean Almost OccasFrequ-Almost Never ion ally ently Always Areas of % % % % Instructional Leadership 1 )_ Visit Teachers 3.17 0 2 64 34 2) Specific Evaluation 2.64 4 36 52 8 3) Curr. Plan ProQres. Follow-up 2.77 2 26 64 8 4) Work with Head Teachers 3.22 0 8 40 52 S) Care for New Teachers 2.88 0 26 52 22 6)_ Student Progress Monitoring 3.06 0 14 40 46 7)_ Student Improvement 2.89 0 20 56 24 8)_ Refer to the Goals of Educ. 3.06 0 16 38 46 9) Human Relation with Teachers 2.96 0 20 42 38 1 OJ Talk with Students 2.81 10 26 36 28 11) Orderly School Climate 3.5 0 4 1 6 80 12) Student Honoring 3.45 0 4 18 78 13) Parental Involvement 3.31 0 4 28 68 Grand Mean (of all 28 items combined for all 3.05-50 school principals)' The Scale of Principal's Instructional Leadership 1 to 1.75 Almost Never. .76 to 2.5 Occasionally: 2.51 to 3.25 Frequently. 3.26 to 4 Almost Always. Findings pertaining to research question one are indicating that, for the most part, teachers are perceiving their principals' instructional leadership to be positive. However, a considerable percentage of teachers perceive principals to not be performing adequately in the areas of a) specific evaluation, b) curriculum plan 43

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progress follow-up, c) taking special care of new teachers, d) student improvement, and e) human relations with teachers. Research Question Two What differences exist. in teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional leadership performance with regard to: a) the district in which a principal works, b) the nationality of teachers, and c) the gender of the school? (I.e. boys' schools or girls' schools}. Table 4.4 shows that teachers' perceptions were found to differ significantly with regard to the school district and nationality, but not significantly according to the gender of teachers. Table 4.4 3-way Factorial ANOVA of District, Nationality, and Gender for all of the 28 Items Combined Source: DF Sum of Squares Mean Square Dis#(A) 4 11.29 2.82 Nat (B) 1 8.47 8.47 AB 4 2.9 .72 Gen (C) 1 .72 .72 AC 4 4.37 1.09 8C 1 1 1 ABC 4 6.9 1.73 Error 529 247.96. .47 44 F-test P value 6.02 .0001 18.07 .0001 1.54 .188 1.55 .2143 2.33 .0549 .21 .6504 3.68 .0057

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Research Question Two @). What differences exist in teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional leadership performance with regard to the school district? The three-way factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in teachers' perceptions in 12 areas of principal's instructional leadership (Table 4.5). There were no significant differences, however, in the area of "Curriculum plan progress follow-up" among the principals in the 5 school districts. Overall, the instructional leadership performance of principals in districts 2 and 5 is significantly better than that of principals in district 3 (Table 4.6). Table 4.5 Means of Teachers' perceptions of Principals' Performance in the 13 Areas of Instructional Leadership in the 5 School Districts Areas of Instructional Dist. Dist. Dist. Dist. Dist. F Leadership 1 2 3 4 5 p 1) Visit Teachers 3 3.27 3.1 3.27 3.28 2.8 .0255 2) Specific Evaluation 2.47 2.82 2.64 2.64 2.64 2.93 .0205 3) Curr. Plan Progress 2.77 2.84 2.57 2.89. 2.79 2.27 .0611 4) Work I Head Teachers 3.1 3.34 3.1 3.34 3.27 4.49 .0014 5) Care for New Teacher 2.65 3.08 2.91 2.9 2.85 4.26 .0022 6) Student Proress Mntr 3.06 3.21 2.8 3.06 3.3 6.6 .0001 7) Student lmbrovement 2.83 3.06 2.81 2.83 2.98 3.59 .0067 8) Refer to Goals Educ. 2.89 3.17 2.96 3.14 3.26 5.12 .0005 9) Human Relations I T. 2.85 3.1 2.77 3.1 3.07 7.28 .0001 1 0) Talk with Students 3.04 2.91 2.78 2.65 2.46 6.67 .0001 11) Order School Climate 3.49 3.75 3.25 3.65 3.68 9.41 .0001 12) Student Honorino 3.58 3.47 3.25 3.42 3.65 4.18 .0024 13) Parental lnvolvment 3.29 3.39 3.21 3.27 3.37 3.25 .0121 Total Score (28 items) 2.98 3.18 2.93 3.1 3.15 6.02 .0001 45

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Table 4.6 Multiple Comparison Among School Districts for all Items Combined Comparison: Mean Diff. Fisher PLSD Scheffe F-test Group 1 vs. Group 2 -. 1 8 .18 .95 Group 1 vs. Group_ 3 .07 .18 .15 Group_ 1 vs. Group 4 -. 1 .18 .31 Group 1 vs. Group 5 -.15 .21 .5 Group 2 vs. Group 3 .25 1 8 1.84 Group_ 2 vs. Group_ 4 .08 .19 .17 Group 2 vs. Group 5 .03 .22 .01 Group 3 vs. Group 4 -.17 .18 .87 Group 3 vs. Group 5 -.22 21 1.06 Group_ 4 vs. Group 5 -.05 .22 .05 Significant at 95% Research Question Two (b). What differences exist in teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional leadership performance with regard to the nationality of teachers? Overall, non-Kuwaiti teachers rated their principals significantly much higher than their Kuwaiti counterparts (Table 4.7), in all of the 13 areas of principals' instructional leadership. The three-way factorial ANOVA (Table 4.4) indicated that there was no interaction between district and nationality; that is, the difference between Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti responses was found to be consistent in all of the 5 school districts. Discussion of possible. reasons for this difference is in chapter five. The high rating that the non-Kuwaiti teachers gave their school principals could significantly contribute to the high correlations among most of the questionnaire items. Therefore, another factor analysis was conducted to the responses of Kuwaiti teachers only (Appendix I, 2 and Appendix J, 2). The second factor analysis produced similar res.ults; that is, high correlations among most of the items. This demonstrates that the high correlation was not attributable to the special 46

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status of the non-Kuwaiti teachers. This is supported by the consistency between the responses of Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti teachers. Table 4.7 indicates that although the ratings of non-Kuwaiti teachers are considerably higher than those of Kuwaiti teachers in all of the 13 areas of instructional leadership, their responses appear to be consistent (i.e. do not contradict) with those of Kuwaiti teachers. Table 4.7 Means of Perceptions of Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti Teachers of Principals' Performance in the 13 Areas of Instructional Leadership Areas of Kuwaiti non-Kwti F Instructional Leadership Teachers Teachers p 1) Visit Teachers 3.03 3.27 9.84 .0018 2) Specific Evaluation 2.52 2.73 7.37 .0068 3) Curr. Plan Progress Follow-up 2.5 2.96 13.75 .0002 4) Work with Head Teachers 2.98 3.4 15.92 .0001 5) Care for New Teachers 2.64 3.04 7.35 .007 6) Student Progress Monitoring 2.82 3.24 16.19 .0001 7) Student Improvement 2.66 3.06 10.62 .0012 B) Refer to the Goals Educ. 2.81 3.25 13.69 .0002 9) Human Relation with Teachers 2.72 3.14 4.73 .0301 1 0) Talk with Students 2.48 3.02 16.63 .0001 11) Orderly School Climate 3.31 3.71 15.47 .0001 12) Student Honoring 3.32 3.56 11.75 .0007 13) Parental Involvement 3.08 3.46 14.89 .0001 Total Score 2.86 3.21 18.07 .0001 The Scale of Principal's Instructional Leadership 1 to 1.75 Almost Never. 1.76 to 2.5 Occasionally. 2.51 to 3.25 Frequently. 3.26 to 4 Almost Always. 47

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Research Question Two (c). What differences exist in teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional leadership performance with regard to the gender of the school? (I.e. boys' schools or girls' schools). Overall, there is no significant effect for gender {Table 4.4). Male teachers (in boys' schools) and female teachers (in girls' schools) perceive their principals similarly in 12 areas of principals' instructional leadership; there was, however, significant difference with regard to principals' human relations with teachers (Table 4.8). Female teachers perceived their principals' human relations with them significantly lowerthan male teachers did. Table 4.8 Male and Female Teachers' Perceptions with regard to Principals' Human Relations with them Source: [F Sum Squares Mean S_quare F-test Between oroups 1 11.37 11.37 22.65 Within groups 554 278.2 .5 p = .0001 Total 555 289.58 Gender Count Mean Std. Dev. Std. Error Males 267 3.21 .68 .04 Females 289 2.92 .74 .04 48

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Research Question Three What do secondary school principals in Kuwait perceive as the responsibilities of. the school principal as an instructional leader? With regard to what school principals perceive as their major responsibilities as instructional leaders (Table 4.9), school principals indicated that the following were their rriajor instructional responsibilities: 1. Evaluation of teacher instruction. 2. Assessment of student achievement. 3. Classroom visitation. 4. Follow-up of curriculum plan progress. 5. Improvement of student aehievemerit (Appendix K). Table 4.9 The perceived instructional responsibilities of school principals. Rank Responsibility Freouencv *. .. 1 Evaluation of teacher in"struction 32 2 Assessment of student achievement 1 3 3 Classroom visitation 1 2 4 Follow up curriculum plan progress 1 1 5 Improvement of student achievement 1 0 The frequencies in Table 4.9 are based on responses from 47 principals. 49

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Research Question Four What barriers do secondary school principals in Kuwait perceive as limiting their instructional leadership? With regard to the major barriers that are limiting their instructional leadership (Table 4.1 0), school principals mentioned the following: 1. The huge amounts of non-instructional responsibilities such as office works and school maintenance. 2. Parents' excessive, unnecessary, and unorganized visits. 3. Student problems. 4. Ministry's and/or district's interference in school administrators' work. 5. Principal's limited authority in teacher selection, hiring and firing, and transference (Appendix L). Table 4.10 The Perceived Barriers that Limit Principals' Instructional Leadership. Rank. Barriers Frequency 1 Non-instructional duties: Office work and school maintenance are consuming most of 34 their time 2 Parents' excessive, unnecessary, and unorganized visits 1 0 2 Student problems 1 0 3 Ministry and/or district interference in school administrators' work 8 3 Limited authority in teacher selection, 8 hiring and firing, and transference *The frequencies in Table 4.10 are based on responses from 47 principals. 50

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With regard to the things that school principals believe they need most in order to become more effective instructional leaders, the vast majority of principals indicated that they needed all of the following and ranked them according to their significance: all of the school principals ranked "more authority in teacher selection" as number one, 91% of them ranked "more time for instructional responsibilities" as number two, 85% ranked "more training on teacher evaluation" as number three, 80% ranked "more authority in curriculum delivery" as number four, 80% ranked"more awareness of the goals of secondary education" as number five, and 78% of them ranked "more awareness of the goals of subject areas" as number six. 51

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CHAPTERV SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND DISCUSSION Introduction This study was designed to analyze and evaluate the instructional leadership behavior of school principals in Kuwait. The study was conducted with secondary school principals since some aspects of the instructional leadership of elementary school principals have been investigate? in previous studies. School principals in Kuwait are supposed to be instructional leaders according to the Ministry of Education job descriptions and guidelines. A number of studies indicated, however, that the non-instructional responsibilities of school principals are consuming most of their time. Those studies, however, did not provide any analysis or assessment of the instructional leadership behavior of school principals. Also, the Ministry of Education does not yet follow a well-defined procedure for evaluating the leadership of school principals. The form that is used by district's and ministry's executives for the evaluation of school principals, is a general form used to evaluate a number of other educational administrators at both the district and ministry levels and other school administrators as well. Additionally, school administration training programs, organized by the Ministry of Education for school administrators, are carried out without assessing trainees' needs prior to the beginning of those in-service programs. The findings of this study could be generalized to the population of school principals in Kuwait for two reasons. Firstly, both the schools and teachers were 52

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selected randomly. Secondly, there is only one version of job description for school principals, issued by the Ministry of Education, for all schooling levels, elementary, intermediate, and secondary. Summary of the Design of the Study The researcher chose to examine principals' instructional leadership from two different perspectives. First, the researcher decided to seek teachers' appraisal of the instructional leadership of their respective school principals, since teachers are the ones who work and deal with principals most directly and frequently, especially with regard to principal's instructional responsibilities. The second perspective was principals' perceptions of their responsibilities as .instructional leaders and the perceived barriers of their instructional leadership. The researcher designed a questionnaire, consisting of a number of instructional leadership behaviors, by which teachers assessed their school principal's leadership. The main source defining principal's. behaviors, referred to for the development of the questionnaire, was the prescribed job description of school principals which was issued by the Ministry of Education in the School Work Manual (1987a). The researcher also consulted the literature with school principal's instructional leadership for that purpose as well (Hallinger, 1983; Cawelti, 1987; Andrews, 1989; Heck, Larsen, & Marcoulides, 1990). A total of 577 secondary school teachers in 50 schools were randomly selected from the records of school districts. The 50 schools were randomly selected from the 94 secondary schools in all of the 5 school districts in Kuwait. Teachers' questionnaires were handed to them by school social workers. 53

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The other perspective sought was the principals'. Another questionnaire was designed for school principals. The school principals of the 50 schools selected were asked about a) their major responsibilities as instructional leaders and b) the obstacles that may limit their instructional leadership. Five hundred fifty-six teacher questionnaires were returned, representing a 96% response rate. Also, 47 of the 50 school principals returned their questionnaires, representing a 94% response rate. Teachers' responses were analyzed by ANOVA to examine their perceptions of principals' instructional leadership behavior. The analyzed data were reported by area of instructional leadership, school, and school district. Principals' responses, on the other hand, were compiled and classified according to a) the areas of principal's responsibilities and b) the perceived factors that are limiting school principals' instructional leadership. Summary of the Main Findings of the Study With regard to research question. one, which relates to teachers' perceptions of their school principals' instructional leadership; a) the vast majority of school principals (98%) visit teachers in classrooms .frequently, b) forty percent of them, however, do not frequently point out specific strengths and weaknesses of teacher's instructional practices, c) twenty-six percent of them do not frequently take special care of new teachers, and d) twenty-eight percent of them do not frequently follow up curriculum plan progress. With regard to the area of stud.ent progress monitoring and improvement; fourteen percent of principals do not frequently monitor students' academic 54

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progress, and twenty percent of them do not frequently contribute to student improvement. With regard to the area of school climate; a) sixteen percent of principals do not frequently refer to the goals of education, b) twenty percent of them do not frequently establish positive human relations with teachers, c) thirty-six percent of them do not frequently talk with students during breaks, d) the vast majority of principals (96%) honor high-achieving students frequently, and e) the vast majority of them (98%) are very interested in establishing an orderly school climate. With regard to parental involvement; the majority of principals (96%) involve parents in school programs. Research question two addressed the differences in teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional leadership performance with regard to a) the district in which a principal works, b) the nationality of teachers, and c) the gender of the school. The data showed significant differences among districts in teachers' perceptions of school principals' performance in a number of instructional leadership areas. The instructional leadership performance of principals in district 3 was significantly lower than that of principals in districts 2 and 5. Non-Kuwaiti teachers were found to value their principals' instructional leadership much higher than their Kuwaiti counterparts and that was consistent in all of the 5 school districts. There was no significant effect for gender, however. Male teachers and female teachers perceive their principals similarly in 12 areas of principals' instructional leadership; there was, however.; significant difference with regard to ., 55

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principals' human relations with teachers. Female teachers perceived their principals' human relations with them significantly lower than male teachers did. Research question three addressed school principals' perceptions of their instructional responsibilities. They indicated that the following are the major responsibilities of the school principal as an instructional leader: a) Evaluation of teacher instruction. b) Assessment of student achievement. c) Classroom visitation. d) Follow-up of curriculum plan progress. e) Improvement of student achievement. Research question four addressed-school principals' perceptions of the barriers of their instructional leadership. They indicated that the following are the main barriers of their instructional leadership: a) The huge amounts of non-instructional responsibilities as office works and school maintenance. b) Parents' excessive, unnecessary, and unorganized visits. c) Student behavioral or social problems. d) Ministry's and/or district's interference in school administrators' work. e) Principal's limited authority in teacher selection, hiring and firing, and transference. The vast majority of school principals indicated that the following can improve their instructional leadership: a) More authority in teacher selection. b) More time for instructional responsibilities. 56

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c) More training on teacher evaluation. d) More authority in curriculum 'delivery. e) More awareness of the goals of secondary education. f) More awareness of the goals of subject areas. Conclusions The findings of this study indicated that instructional leadership is a construct that consists of highly related elements. The gathered data showed that principal's instructional leadership behaviors were highly correlated. Thus, when a principal is found to be doing well in some of the areas of instructional leadership, he/she will tend to do well in the other areas also. School principals in Kuwait consider evaluation of teacher instruction their most important function; the majority of them, however, do not provide teachers with specific comments about their instruction. School principals acknowledge their need for more training. on teacher evaluation. School principals also believe that assessing and improving student achievement are major functions of the .school principal. However, a considerable percentage of them do not monitor students' progress and do not contribute to their improvement. Although school principals believe that they should follow up curriculum plan progress, a considerable percentage of them do not do that frequently. School principals in Kuwait contend that the non-instructional responsibilities are consuming most of their time. They also believe that they need 57

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more awareness of the goals of education, and that more authority in teacher selection and curriculum delivery can improve their instructional leadership. Implications, Discussion, and Recommendations Both the literature on principal's instructional leadership and the guidelines of the Kuwaiti Ministry of Education emphasize that school climate shapes teachers' behavior and students' learning experiences. The related literature maintains that school administrators, primarily principals, can promote school climate toward the improvement of teacher performance and student achievement. School climate here relates to the social relationship between school principal and staff and students. This includes: a) Principals motivating and establishing positive human relations with teachers, and b) principals maintaining high visibility to communicate goals, expectations, and priorities (Bossert et al., 1982; Smith & Andrews, 1989). The findings of this study revealed, however, that the majority of school principals in Kuwait do not establish positive human relations with teachers. Most. of school principals rarely work to keep faculty morale high, pay facuity members friendly visits in their departments, or take time to meet arid talk with teachers. This necessitates the ministry's and district's authorities to educate school administrators and direct their attention to the crucial role of school climate and how they can promote it toward the enhancement of student learning. The findings, also, indicate that school principals are aware of the importance of teacher instructional evaluation and development as their major responsibility. Their teachers, however, indicated that principals were not providing them with specific feedback of their instructional practices. Teachers also indicated that a 58

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considerable percentage of school principals do not frequently monitor student progress or contribute to their improvement. School principals also indicated that they need more awareness of instructional goals. A number of studies maintain that the school principal as an instructional leader should demonstrate the ability to evaluate and reinforce appropriate and effective instructional strategies and to supervise the staff, using strategies that focus on the improvement of instruction. Those studies also emphasize the principal's role in monitoring and assessing. student progress (Hallinger & Murphy, 1987a; Keefe, 1987; Smith & Andrews, 1989). School principals themselves acknowledged that they need more training on teacher evaluation. Thus, ministry's and district's authorities should a) help principals improve their skills in the above areas, and b) encourage them to understand, adopt, and communicate the :goals of education. Central authorities look at school principals as educational leaders and expect them to help teachers and students improve effectiveness. authorities, also, should assess school administrators needs (such as clinical supervision) before designing their training programs. School principals also contended that their little authority in teacher selection and curriculum delivery and the ministry's and district's interference in their work are limiting their instructional leadership. Central authorities should not hold school principals accountable for the outcomes of their schools unless principals have the authority to decide on teacher selection and curriculum delivery and other instructional matters. 59

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Central authorities need to be aware of their priorities in regard to their expectations of school principal's instructional leadership. If their expectations are high, then they need to consider possible interfering factors such as the excessive amounts of non-instructional responsibilities. Efforts needed to be made to reduce those demands in order to help school principals become more effective instructional leaders. School principals were found to be considerably interested in honoring high achieving students; they, however, do not spend much of their time talking with students. This indicates the kind of the social relationship between school principals and students in Kuwait, which appears to be a more formal than friendly relationship; especially when we see the principals' substantial interest in establishing an orderly school climate. The data of this study indicated that non-Kuwa_iti teachers rated their principals significantly higher than Kuwaiti teachers. This significant difference needs to be further investigated. A possible interpretation of this observation is that non-Kuwaiti teachers were concerned about the confidentiality of their responses. They were probably apprehensive about. their principals possibly identifying their responses. This is supported by the fact that non-Kuwaiti teachers, unlike Kuwaitis, are hired by the Ministry of Education by contracts of limited periods of time. Although this is a possible interpretation, the way questionnaires were designed, distributed, and collected leave very little chance for principals to access teachers' responses. Teachers' were instructed not to write their names on the questionnaire or on the envelope. They circled numbers on the questionnaire only, thus no sample of their handwriting appeared. School social workers were also 60

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instructed to distribute and collect questionnaires from teachers by hand and to keep them in a safe place until the researcher came to collect them one or two days later. Moreover, even if some teachers were apprehensive about the confidentiality of their responses, this alone cannot justify the highly significant difference between their responses and Kuwaiti teachers responses, especially when the difference was consistent in all of the five school districts. Additionally, the responses of non Kuwaiti teachers were found to be consistent with those of Kuwaiti teachers (Table 4.7, p. 47). Another possible interpretation would be related to the attitudes of Kuwaiti teachers toward their school principals (all school principals in Kuwait are Kuwaitis). Firstly, the attitudes of Kuwaiti teachers could be affected by the way school principals perceive or value them; school principals may value non-Kuwaiti teachers higher than Kuwaitis. Another possibility would be that Kuwaiti teachers' expectations of their school principals might have been higher than their principals' actual abilities. The gathered data also revealed that male and female teachers perceived most of the behaviors of their principals' instructional leadership similarly. They, however, differed with regard to principals' human relations with them. Female teachers rated their principals' human relations with them significantly lower than their male counterparts. This difference needed to be further investigated. AI-Hadhood and ai-Jaber (1989) found that female elementary school teachers perceived their principals to be more concerned with human relations (i.e. people-oriented) than male elementary school teachers did. The findings of this study indicate, however, that male secondary school principals establish relatively 61

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better human relations with their teachers than female school principals do. Female teachers' expectations of their principals' human relations with them might have been higher than they perceived. The findings also indicated that the majority of school principals were interested in involving parents in school programs. They, however, asserted that parents' excessive and unorganized visits were consuming much of their time and, thus, constraining their instructional leadership. School principals indicated that students' social and behavioral problems were, also, consuming much of their time. Although student behavioral problems in Kuwait are largely taken care of by assistant principals, school ward supervisors, and school social workers, this issue appears to be drawing much of the concern arid time of school principals as well. Those two issues needed to be further examined. They also should be carefully addressed by both school and district administrators. This study might be conducted in other educational systems, or other schooling levels, such as intermediate or elementary, to examine the relationship between principals' and teachers' perceptions with. regard to the role of the school principal as an instructional leader. Further studies needed to be conducted in Kuwait to investigate the significant difference in the performance of school principals among the five school districts, with special attention to district 3 and its school principals. Those studies could look at other district and school effects such as school size and school principal's type of training and experience. 62

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REFERENCES ai-Ahmad, A.; lsa, M. ; ai-Farra, F.; & Taha, H. (1986). Al-idarah wa al-khadamaat atta'limiyah fi att'lim al'am bi doulat alkuwait. [Educational administration and services in the public education of the State of Kuwait], in Arabic, Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Science. Ali, K. (1984). Leadership behavior of secondary school principals as perceived by teachers and principals in the State of Kuwait. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. ai-Ameeri, M. (1991 ). Perceptions of public secondary school principals and assistant principals regarding their iiwolvement in inservice education offered by the Ministry of Education in Kuwait. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. Andrews, R. (1989). Teacher and supervisor assessment of principal leadership and academic achievement. In B. Creemers T. Peters & D. Reynolds (Eds.), School effectiveness and school improvement. Rockland, MA: Swets & Zeitlinger. Andrews, R., & Soder, R. (1987). Principal instructional leadership and school achievement. Instructional Leadership, 44, 9-11. Baron, G. (1956). Some aspects of the headmaster tradition researches and studies. In V. Houghton et al (Eds.), Management in education: The management of organizations and individuals. London, England, Ward Lock Educational. Bidwell, C. (1979). The school as a formal organization: Some new thoughts. In G. L. lmmegart & W. L. Boyd (Eds.), Problem-finding in educational administration. Lexington, MA: Heath. Bossert, S. (1988). School effects. In N. Boyan (Ed.), The handbook of research on educational administration. New York: Longman. Bossert, S., Dwyer, D., Rowan, B., & Lee, G. (1982). The instructional management role of the principal. Educational Administration Quarterly, 1ft (3), 34-64. Boyan, N. (1988). Describing and explaining administrator behavior. In N. Boyan (Ed.) The handbook of research on educational administration. New York: Longman. 63

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Cawelti, G. (1987). How effective instructional leaders get results. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of School Administrators. New Orleans, LA. (1980). Effective instructional leadership produces greater learning. Thrust for Educational Leadership. 9 (3), 8-10. Clegg, A. (1980). About our schools. Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell Publisher. Edmonds, R. (1979). Some schools work and more can. Social Policy, 9 (2), 28-32. Erickson, D. A. (1978). Research on educational administration: The state-of-the art. Educational 9-14. Fowler, F. (1993). Survey research methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Gross, N., & Herriott, R. (1965). Staff leadership in public schools: A sociological inquiry. New York: Wiley. ai-Hadhood, D., & ai-Jaber, Z. (1989). An-namat al-giadi linuzar wa nazirat madaris att'lim al'am fi doulat alkuwait. [Leadership style for male and female principals of public schools in Kuwait as perceived by teachers] in Arabic. Risalat UI-Khaleej AI-Arabi no. 28. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Hallinger, P. (1983). Assessing the instructional management behavior of principals. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Hallinger, P., & Murphy, J. (1987a). Assessing and developing principal instructional leadership. Educational Leadership. 45 (1 ), 54-61. Hallinger, P., & Murphy, J. (1987b). Instructional leadership in the school context. In W. Greenfield Instructional leadership: Concepts. issues, and controversies. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Heck, R., Larsen, T., & Marcoulides, G. (1990). Principal leadership and school achievement: Validation of a causal model. Educational Administration Quarterly. 26 (2), 94-125. Henry, G. (1990). Practical samp.ling. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. House, E. (1983). Assumptions underlying evaluation models. In G. Madaus M. Scriven & D. Stufflebeam (Eds.), Evaluation models: Viewpoints on educational and human services evaluation. Boston, MA: Kluwer-Nijhoff Publishing. 64

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ai-Jaber, Z. (1989). Dour nazirat almadrasah alebtidaiah fi annomo almihani lilmu'alimah. [The role of female elementary school principal in teacher professional development] in Arabic; Educational Journal, 6 (20), 199 229. Kuwait: College of Education, Kuwait University. Jennings, A. (1977). Management and headship in the secondary school. London, England, Ward Lock Educational. Jones, A. (1987). Leadership for tomorrow's schools. Oxford, England, Basil Blackwell Publisher. Keefe, J. (1987). The critical questions of instructional leadership. NASSP Bulletin April 1987. Krathwohl, D. (1993). Methods of educational and sociaL science research. Longman: New York. Kuwait Today Journal. (1979) no. 1328, Kuwait Government Press. Lipham, J. (1981 ). Effective principal. effective school. Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals .. Maryland State Department of Education (1978). Process evaluation: A comprehensive study of outliers. Baltimore: Maryland University Center of Educational Research and Development. Miller, W. (1976). Can a principal's improved behavior result in higher pupil achievement? Educational Leadership 33 (5), 336-338. Ministry of Education (1987a), Dalil al'mal almadrasi [School work manual], in Arabic, Kuwait. (1993a) Department of Personnel Development, In-service training programs in school administration, in Arabic, Kuwait. (1993b) Educational statistics of March 1993, in Arabic, Kuwait. __ (1989) Ataqrir alkhitami li taqueem alnizam altarbawi fi doulat alkuwait. [Final report of the evaluation of the educational system of the State of Kuwait] in Arabic. (1987b} Dalil almanatiq atta'limiyah [School districts manual], in Arabic, Kuwait. (1978} Department of organization, a report in Arabic, Kuwait. 65

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(1975) Tagrir 'n kafaah [Educational administrator evaluation form], in Arabic Kuwait. ai-Musailim, M. (1987). Current problems of educational administration in the State of Kuwait, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Durham University, England. ai-Musailim, M., & ai-Abdelhadi, M. (1992). ljabiat wa salbiyat attawajeh nahwa allamarkaziyah fi nizam att'lim al'am fi alkuwait. [Advantages and disadvantage of converting to decentralization in the Kuwaiti public education system], in Arabic. Unpublished paper. Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill. Pitner, N. & Hocevar, D. (1987). An empirical comparison of two-factor versus multifactor theories of principal leadership: Implications for the evaluation of school principals. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education. 1 (1). 93-109. Poster, C. (1976). School decision-making. London, England, Heinemann Educational. Rowan, B., Bossert, S., & Dwyer, D. (1983). Research on effective schools: A cautionary note. Educational Researcher, 1.2. (4), 24-31. Safar, H. (1987). A study of jcib satisfaction as perceived by secondary school . principals in Kuwait. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, MiGhigan State University, East Lansing, MI. Sergiovanni, T. (1991 ). The principalship: A reflective practice perspective. Needham Heights, MA : Allyn and Bacon. Sergiovanni, T., Burlingame, M., Coombs, F. & Thurston, P. (1992). Educational governance and administration. Needham Heights, MA : Allyn and Bacon. Shafritz, J., Koeppe, R., & Soper, E. (1988). The dictionary of education. New York: Facts on File Publications. Smith, W. & Andrews, R. (1989). Instructional leadership: How principals make a difference. Alexandria, VA : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Stevenson, J. (1985). The English headmaster: Implications for the American principalship. Contemporary Education. 56, (2), 92-96. 66

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ai-Tammar, J. (1983}. The role of the secondary school principal in the State of Kuwait, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The George Washington University, Washington, DC Teddlie, C., Kirby, P., & Stringfield, S. {1989). Effective versus ineffective schools: Observable differences in the classroom. American Journal of Education, 97 {3), 221-236. Weindling, D. {1990). The secondary school head teacher: New principals in the United Kingdom. NASSP Bulletin.74 {526), 40-45. Weindling, D., & Earley, P. {1987). Secondary school headship: The first years, Windsor, England: The Nelson. 67

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APPENDIX A School Work Manual 68

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Summary of School Principal Responsibilities, cited in School Work Manual, published by the Ministry of Education, 1987 The School Work Manual {1987a} contains descriptions of the responsibilities of a school principal, assistant principal, head teacher, and ward supervisor. Introduction The School principal is the chief officer in the. school. He/she is responsible for all the educational, managerial, instructional, social, and cultural aspects and activities that take place in the school. He/she should be aware of and approve in advance all of the above activities. The school principal should distribute the work to school personnel who should be accountable before him/her. The successful principal ought to be fully aware of the country's general goals of education, goals of individual subject areas, and goals of the schooling level of his/her school, i.e., elementary, intermediate, or secondary. He/she, also, should be aware of the nature of the schooling level and its curriculum, the role of academic supervision, rules and regulations of the school district and. the Ministry of Education and its educational policy and organizational structure. School principals should work keenly to achieve the ministry's and country's goals. The successful school principal ought to be a role model for his/her students and teachers and a leader of positive human feelings towards his/her teaching and administrative staffs. He/she should be just, democratic, open-minded, and loyal to his/her religion as well as country. 69

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Part I Plan: Principal work distributed through the months of the school year. September: 1. Review the school budget of students, classrooms, and teachers. Follow up the process of filling in teachers vacancies. 2. Hold the first meeting of the teaching and administrative staffs .for acquaintance purposes. 3. Form the following committees: a) Textbook committee : Check the availability of textbooks and instructional media. b) Classroom committee: Distribute classrooms on school wards and prepare student names lists. c) Master Schedule committee which is headed by assistant principal. 4. Select school wards' supervisors. 5. Form School Council from assistant principal, head teachers, social worker, and headed by the principal. School Council has the following responsibilities: a) New school year preparation. b) Set up and follow up school general policy and plan. c) Create a positive school environment characterized by a spirit of one family and brotherhood. d) Prepare the rules and regulations of school master schedule. e) Deal with and solve students' problems. f) Coordinate classroom examinations. g) Patronize talented students. 70

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6. Form School Supervisory Council from school wards supervisors and headed by assistant principal. The Supervisory Council has the following responsibilities: a) Follow up students daily attendance. b) Maintain order in school. c) Monitor students behavioral problems and study it with social worker. 7. Meet with head teachers to put a plan to support and acquaint new teachers to their new school environment. 8. Select classroom mentors. 9. Review teachers' subject matter preparation notebooks prior to the first day of classes. October 10. Survey Secondary first grade students to examine their academic progress. 11. Study head teachers' reports of teachers' evaluation while conferring with head teachers, and sign them (both principal and head teachers). 12. Visit new teachers in their classrooms, observe their instruction, and discuss it with them 13. Check school library and look at its Visit schedule and Check-out records. 14. Provide teachers with examination stationary and other needs. 15. Prepare an outline for the plan of extra-curricular activities according to the school district plan. 16. Design a program for students' field trips. 17. Follow up students of high absenteeism. 18. Form Parent-Teacher Council according to official regulations and hold its first meeting. 71

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November 19. Work with the social worker to organize instructive (informative) seminars for parents and students -after securing permission from school district. 20. Prepare a repo.rt about test results in the first half of the First Semester and send it to the Office of Superintendent for Educational Affairs of the school district. 21. Invite parents to meet with their children's teachers and discuss their academic progress according to a timetable. 22. Examine test results of the first half of the First Semester with head teachers and discuss the appropriate procedure to improve low-achieving students. 23. Monitor teachers .of poor instructional abilities -write reports about them and send them to the Office of Superintendent for Educational Affairs. December/January 24. Prepare for the tests of the second half of the First Semester 25. Supervise and report on test results. February 26. Study the results of the second half of the First Semester tests during a meeting of the School Council. 27. Send results report to the Office of Superintendent for Educational Affairs. 28. Invite parents to meet with their children's teachers and discuss their academic progress according to a timetable. 29. Hold a meeting with the teaching staff to discuss the positive and negative aspects of the First Semester. 30. Honor above-average and talented students on the Day of Knowledge. 72

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31. Honor students who have done superior work in extra-curricular activities on the National Day (Independence Day). March 32. Prepare for and supervise the tests of the first half of the Second Semester 33. Follow up with students who had poor grades. 34. Write a report of school maintenance needs for next school year and send it to school district. 35. Write a report about teachers. of poor instructional abilities, describing whether they are qualified to continue teaching, and send it to the Office of Superintendent for Educational Affairs. 36. Prepare a list of teaching and administrative staffs transference and send it to school district. 37. Prepare for final examinations. April 38. Write down final examinations timetable and form examinations' observation and reading committees. 39. Prepare teachers' evaluation reports with academic supervisors. 40. Hold the final Parent-Teacher meeting with the cooperation of social worker. May 41. Supervise the final preparations for final examinations. 42. Observe final examinations. 43. Prepare the results and report on them. 73

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44. Prepare school Final Report which should contain school achievements, problems, and suggestions for the improvement of school work and send it to school district. 45. Prepare students' certificates. 46. Send teachers' evaluation reports and students attendance report to district. 47. Prepare school inventory lists and send them to district. June 48. Form classrooms for the next school year according to final results. 49. Write down students' grades in their school records. 50. Send students' certificates to parents. Principal Daily Agenda 1. Attend and supervise the programs of the Morning Audience. 2. Check teachers' sign"in sheet. 3. Look at school mail and. students' daily attendance sheets. 4. Visit teachers in their classrooms. 5. Check in advance the school broadcasting programs. 6. Attend school prayer. 7. Supervise students leaving school at the end of the school day. Things to Be Done Weekly 1. Hold a School Council meeting. 2. Attend some meetings of teachers of a given subject area and meet teachers in their departments. 74

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3. Review head teachers' plans for teachers' visitation. 4. Follow up head teachers and academic supervisors reports of teachers' evaluation and observations. 5. Review the minutes of the meetings of the Sup_ervisory Council. 6. Review the library visitation and check-out records. 7. Review the school's physician visitation records. Things to Be Done Monthly 1. Hold a Parent-Teacher Council meeting 2. Review teachers subject matter preparation notebooks and sign them. 3. Follow up students' academic progress -check students' grades by classroom. 4. Monitor teachers of poor instructional abilities. 5. Review head teachers' written obserVations of respective teachers. 6. Check what has been accomplished of school curriculum and check whether it is progressing according to the official curriculum. plan. 7. Obsel"ie school extra-curriculum programs and activities. 8. Review Check-out records of school library. 9. Check students' attendance records and statistics; Part II Principal's Technical (Instructional) Responsibilities School Principal should: 1. Work with the School Council to design school master schedule of classes. 2. Visit teachers (in the classroom) at least twice a year. 3. Evaluate teachers' instructional performance. 75

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4. Work with head teachers in putting a plan to support and acquaint new teachers to their new school environment. 5. Monitor teachers of poor instructional abilities. 6. Work with head teachers and cooperate with academic supervisor in putting a plan for the improvement of teachers of poor instructional abilities. 7. Encourage both students and teachers to use the school library. B. Establish positive human and social relations with teachers and work to keep their morale high. 9. Organize informative seminars for parents. 10. Monitor students' academic progress through classroom visits, head teachers' and academic supervisors' reports, students' examination records, etc. 11. Monitor low-achieving students, inform their parents, and coordinate with head teacher to provide advice to the teacher involved. 12. Acknowledge and encourage students' improvement. 13. Recognize, encourage, and honor high-achieving and talented students. 14. Establish an orderly school environment. 15. Identify, understand, and know how to deal with students' behavior and motivation with the cooperation of assistant principal, ward supervisors, social worker, and classroom mentors. 76

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APPENDIX B Responsibilities of Secondary School Principal abstracted from School Work Manual (1987a) School principal should: 1. Be aware of the goals of individual subject areas, as well as the goals of Secondary Education. 2. Work with head teachers to support and acquaint new teachers with their new school environment. 3. Review teachers' subject matter preparation notebooks. 4. Visit new teachers in their classrooms; observe their instruction, and discuss it with.them. 5. Visit teachers in their classrooms (at least twice a year for each teacher) and evaluate their instructional performance. 6. Review head teachers' plans for teachers visitation. 7. Follow up head teachers' and academic l:jUperilisors' reports of teachers evaluation and observations. B. Monitor teachers of poor instructional a.bilities. 9. Work with head teachers and cooperate with academic supervisors to prepare a plan for the improvement of teachers of poor instructional abilities. 1 0. Attend some meetings of teachers in each subject area and meet teachers in their departments. 77

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11 Establish positive human and social relations with teachers and work to keep their morale high. 12. Work with the school's social worker to organize informative seminars for parents. 13. Examine test results of the first and second semesters with head teachers. 14. Monitor students' academic progress through classroom visits, head-teachers' and academic supervisors' reports, and students' examination records. 15. Monitor low-achieving students and inform their parents. 16. Discuss with head teachers the appropriate procedures to improve low achieving students and coordinate with them to provide advice to the teachers involved. 17. Acknowledge and encourage students' improvement. 18. Honor high-achieving and talented students and those who do superior work in extra-curricular activities. 19. Follow-up and check whether school curriculum is progressing according to the official curriculum plans. 20. Observe and follow up school extra-curricular programs and activities. 21. Establish a positive school climate. 78

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APPENDIXC Items of Teacher Questionnaire I o what extent does your principal . ? Almost Always FrequOccasiAlmost Don't ently onally Never Know 4 3 2 1 ? A) Teacher Evaluation and Instructional Development 1. Follow up head teachers' evaluation of teachers. 2. Visit teachers in classrooms. 3. Point out specific strengths of your instructional practices. 4. Point out specific weaknesses of your instructional practices .. 5. Follow up curriculum plans' progress. 6. Encourage you to use different and innovative instructional methods. 7. Work with head teachers to help improve teacher instruction. 8. Take special care of new teachers. B) Student Progress Monitoring and Improvement 9. Review test results with teachers. 10. Follow up students' academic progress. 11. Monitor low-achieving students' improvement. 12. Discuss with you procedures to improve low-achieving students. 13. Provide helpful advice to teachers of low-achieving students. 14. Encourage teachers to monitor students' progress. 79

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15. Foilow up extra-curricular programs. C) School Climate 16. Encourage teachers to conform to instructional goals. 17. Refer to the goals of Secondary Education. 18. Establish an orderly school climate. 19. Establish positive human relations with teachers. 20. Work to keep faculty morale high. 21. Visit teachers in their departments. (friendly visits) 22. Take time to meet and talk with teachers. 23. Take time to talk with students during breaks. 24. Honor high-achieving students. 25. Honor students who do superior work in extra-curricular activities. D) Parental Involvement 26. Organize informative seminars for parents. 27. Encourage parents' systematic monitoring of students' progress. 28. Involve parents in school programs. 80

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APPENDIXD Teacher Questionnaire 81

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Teacher Questionnaire, Cover Letter Dear respected teacher, I am a graduate student at the University of Colorado in the United States. I am completing my Ph.D. degree in Educational Administration. As part of the requirements of this degree, I am studying the instructional leadership role of secondary school principals in the State of Kuwait. The questionnaire you are about to answer is the primary instrument used for data collection in this study. The objective of the questionnaire is to elicit teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional leadership. Specifically, it aims at eliciting teachers' perception of principals': 1. Teacher eva-luation and instructional development. 2. Monitoring of students' progress and improvement. 3. Establishment of _a positive schoo.l climate. 4. Involvement of parents in school programs. Please do not write your name .or your school's name on the questionnaire or on the envelope. Your principal and your school's name will not be mentioned or used in the study and your responses will be held in the strictest confidence. Please note that this study does not aim at evaluating individual principals; rather, it aims at analyzing the instructional leadership behavior of secondary school principals in Kuwait in general. While answering the questionnaire or at any time, please do not hesitate to ask me or my research assistant about any question or clarification you might need. Please put the completed questionnaire in the provided envelope, seal it, and return it to the school social worker by hand, or if you prefer, hand it to the researcher or his assistant when either of them come to collect the questionnaires from the social worker. Thank you for your support and taking the time to respond to the questionnaire. Your response is greatly appreciated. Abdulaziz ai-Azemi 82

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Teacher Questionnaire Part I Please provide the following information about yourself by checking one response in each section. 1. Are you a Kuwaiti citizen: 0 Yes. (1) 0 No. (2) 2. Number of years taught: 0 Two years or less.(1) 0 Three to five years.(2) 0 Six to ten years.(3) 0 More than ten years.(4) 3. Position: 0 Head teacher. (1 >. 0 Classroom teacher. (2) 4. What is the subject area you teach? 0 Arabic/Islamic Education. (1) 0 Sciences I Mathematics. (3) 0 English I French. (2) 0 Social Studies. (4) 5. How many years will you have worked with the current principal at the conclusion of this school year? 0 Two years or less. (1) o Three to five years. (2) 0 More than five years. {3) 6. School District: 7. Gender: o Capital. (1) 0 Hawalli. (2) 0 Farwania. (3) 0 Male. (1) 83 0 Ahmadi. (4) 0 Jahra. (5) 0 Female. (2)

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Part II Please read each statement carefully. Circle the number that indicates the extent to which you feel your principal demonstrated each behavior during the years you have worked with him. Please use the following scale when responding to the items below: 4 =Almost Always. 3 =Frequently. 2 = Occasionally. 1 = Almost Never. ? =Don't Know. If an item does not relate to you, please circle the "?" Please refer only to your current principal when responding to the following items. ---. ------------------------------To what extent does your principal ... ? Almost Frequ-Occas-Almost Don't ently ion ally Never Know 8. Refer to the goals ofSecondary 4 3 2 1 ? Education. 9. Point out specific strengths of your 4 3 2 1 ? instructional practices. 1 0. Point out specific weaknesses of 4 3 2 1 ? your instructional practices. 11. Establish positive human relations 4 3 2 1 ? with teachers. 12. Encourage parents' systematic 4 3 2 ? monitoring of students' progress. 13. Work with head teachers to help .4 3 2 1 ? improve teachers' instruction. 84

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Almost Frequ-Occas-Almost Don't Always ently ion ally Never Know 14. Review test results with teachers. 4 3 2 1 ? 15. Discuss with you procedures to improve low-achieving students. 4 3 2 1 ? 16. Involve parents in school 4 3 2 1 ? programs. 17. Follow up head teachers' evaluation 4 3 2 1 ? of teachers. 18. Monitor low-achieving 4 3 2 1 ? students' improvement. 19. Establish an orderly school 4 3 2 1 ? climate. 20. Encourage you to use different and 4 3 2 1 ? innovative instructional methods. 21. Work to keep faculty morale high. 4 3 2 1 ? 22. Provide helpful advice to teachers 4 3 2 1 ? of low-achieving students. 23. Visit teachers in their 4 departments. (friendly visits) 3 2 1 ? 24. Visit teachers in classrooms. 4 3 2 1 ? 25. Follow up students' academic 4 3 2 1 ? progress. 26. Take time to talk with students 4 3 2 1 ? during breaks. 27. Honor high-achieving students. 4 3 2 1 ? 85

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Almost FrequOccasAlmost Don't Always ently ionally Never Know 28. Organize informative 4 3 2 1 ? seminars for parents. 29. Take special care of new teachers. 4 3 2 1 ? 30. Take time to meet arid talk with 4 3 2 1 ? teachers. 31. Follow up curriculum plans' 4 3 2 1 ? progress. 32. Encourage teachers to conform 4 3 2 1 ? to instructional goals. 33. Encourage teachers to monitor 4 3 2 1 ? students' progress. 34. Honor students who do superior 4 3 2 1 ? work in extra-curricular activities. 35. Follow up extra-curricular 4 3 2 1 ? programs. 86

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The Arabic Version of Teacher Questionnaire 87

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'! '! '! '! '! '! ' '! '! '! '! '! '! ' r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r ! ! t t t t 'i.-, 't:JI .. -:11 :)A r---'-""' "':',L-..1 dJ (\ dJ (\. t.o c)c. ,.,...':1'1 (\Y '-"'J.lll i.K.L.-J.,':l'l '-"'J.lll t.o ('"' r.} '"'I 'I (H (t!W t.o "liiJ"il (\o L>.o (" I ,.!!" (W UbJI (\A J.l:a.. (\\ J.>.b (Y. ("' (n .r+"WI ,_} ..lJi:! (Y'\" 89

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h' I y r ,.; (n y r r U"".,iil r+-.. (.,-"\ y r ...,)lbll (.,-v r' y r t .::.I,Jol.i (YA 'l y r t (.,., 'l r t r+-.. (T' . y r t 't'"'JJ.ll L. (T'\ 'l y r .t (T'.,' y r t crJall (T'T' y r t . jtt-1_,....\i rfo. (n 'l y r t 'CJ"""'JJ.l.l (T'o ll..i.JI Lo:ILa dl -w...u I.S" IJ ..r-t'A -90

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APPENDIXE Principal Questionnaire 91

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Principal Questionnaire, Cover Letter Dear respected school principal, My name is Abdulaziz ai-Azemi. I am a graduate student at the University of Colorado in the United States. I am doing my Ph.D. degree in Educational Administration. As part of the requirements of this degree, I am studying the instructional management role of secondary school principals in the State of Kuwait. Please note that this study does not aim at evaluating individual principals; rather, it aims at analyzing the instructional management of school principals in Kuwait in general. Your name and the school's name will not be identified, mentioned, or used in the study. The researcher will make sure that all respondents and data will be held in the strictest confidence. The researcher needs to distrib_ute questionnaires to a random sample of teachers. The objective of teachers' questionnaire is to elicit teachers' perceptions of the role of the school principal. The researcher has secured the Ministry's official permission to conduct the study in its secondary schools (attached). Thank you for your cooperation and support. Your cooperation is greatly appreciated. 92 Abdulaziz ai-Azemi

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Principal Questionnaire (1) What are, in your opinion, the major responsibilities of the school principal as an instructional leader? Please order them according to their importance to you . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e e. e e e t 0 0 0 0 t e e e e I e e e I 0 e e e oo e. e. . e e e e e e e e e I o eo o e e 0 o e 0 I e to . e e e o o o e e e e e e e e e I . o eo o e e e e e e eo e eo e e e eo I o 0 e e e e I e e e I o eo o o 0 eo e e e e e. eo e e o e (2) What are, in your opinion, the obstacles that may limit the instructional leadership of school principals in Kuwait? Please list the 4 most significant obstacles and order them according to their significance. e 0 e e e eo e e e eo e eo e e eo e eo I e . e e e t e e e. e ........................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ (3) Which of the following do you believe school principals in Kuwait need most in order to become more effective instructional leaders? Check the most needed here. Rank your choices in order of importance here. (Number 1 means most important) ) More authority in teacher selection. ) More authoriW in school curriculum delivery. ) More training on how to evaluate teacher instruction. ) More awareness of the goals of the subject areas. ) More awareness of the goals of Secondary Education. ) More time for instructional responsibilities. What other things do school principals need to do to improve their instructional leadership; please specify and rank your responses according to their importance. ( ) ...................................................... ( ) ...................................................... 93

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APPENDIXF Educational Administrator Evaluation Form 94

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Translation of Educational Administrator Evaluation Form Report Items Upper Immediate Next Grade Supervisor Immediate Grade Supervisor Grade 1. Personality: Personal Appearance, 20 His/Her work relations with superiors, colleagues, the public, . etc. ---------------------2. Job Performance: 40 Punctuality, Knowledge of the job and its demands, Productivity: quality and quantity, Work-time utilization, Instructions implementation, School resources safekeeping. ---------------------------3. Personal Abilities: 40 Responsibility undertaking, Ability to take action, Creativity & Innovation, Supervision and organizational abilities. Overall Grade 100 95

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Appendix F (continued) Descriptive report of main strengths and weaknesses: Immediate supervisor's evaluation: ........................................................................................................................ Position: ..................... Signature: ........................ Next immediate supervisor's evaluation: ..................................................................................... ................. ................................... ......................................................................................................................... Position: ..................... Signature: ........................ Department. Head opinion: ........ ...................................................................................................................... Signature: ....................... .. Date: ................................. .. (Ministry of Education, Educational Administrator Evaluation Form, 1975) 96

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APPENDIXG Translation of A Letter to the Ministry of Education Asking for its Permission to Conduct the Study in its Secondary Schools. Mr. Undersecretary for Educational Affairs, Ministry of Education. Dear Sir, My name is Abdulaziz ai-Azemi. I am a scholarship holder from Kuwait University to pursue my doctoral degree in Educational Administration in the United States. My dissertation topic is Evaluating Secondary School Principal Instructional Leadership in The State of Kuwait. I need to distribute a questionnaire (attached) to a random sample of teachers in a random sample of public secondary schools. The questionnaire will elicit teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional I will make sure that all respondents and data will remain confidential and that principals and schools will not be identified. I would like to have your official permission to conduct the study in a random sample of the Ministry's secondary schools. Sincerely Abdulaziz ai-Azemi 97

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APPENDIXH The Ministry's Permission to Conduct the Study 98

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In nllltnlntnn cn:nce e sa l-, tl'jWI J i..r-.:,J ..!'Jiot .dJ.;, J &..1J.a J l-11 &111 i.b.J.JI WI 1 u-t('jW1 1 I til I ;.a._. 99

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Translation of the Ministry's Permission Managers of School Districts Dear Sirs Greeting Ministry of Education Department of Coordination and Follow Up of Public Education Please instruct whom it may concern to assist Abdulaziz ai-Azemi and his research assistant to do his study in school administration in Kuwait. Please be advised that the researcher and his. assistant will distribute questionnaires to a random sample of secondary schools in your school districts. Thank you for your cooperation. Signed Director, Department of Coordination and Follow Up of Public Education. Ministry of Education. 100 copy for Mr. Abdulaziz ai-Azemi. Department files.

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Appendix I Factor Analysis 101

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APPENDIX I (1) Factor Analysis of All Teachers' Responses to All Items Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 It 1 .78 -.03 .14 -.27 -.04 -.07 It 2 .69 .18 .03 .31 -. 1 6 .. 32 It 3 .7 .46 -.13 -.18 .24 .11 It 4 .62 .52 .13 -. 1 .24 .. 04 It 5 .76 .22 .22 -.05 -.16 -.06 It 6 .81 -.03 -.17 -.17 -.07 -.07 It 7 .81 1 -.18 .-.08 .02 -.01 It 8 84 11 -. 17 .13 .06 .12 It 9 .76 .12 .. 04 .15 -.38 .04 It 10 .83 .05 .21 .09 -.13 11 It 11 .79 -.09 1 -.05 -.26 -.03 .. It 12 .83. .14 -.07 .05 -.22 -.21 It 13 .87 4.31 E-4 -.04 .06 -. 1 -.14 It 14 .84 -.06 .22 -.07 -.08 .02 It 15 .75 -.29 .17. .13 .03 -.04 It 16 .8 .17 19 -.18 4.65E-3 .01 It 17 .76 1 -. 01 -.24 .09 -. 12 u 18 .78 -.12 -.16 -.18 -.01 .24 It 19 .78 -.26 -.36. 2.25E-3. .23 -. 01 It 20 82 -.17 -.35 l.56E-3 .08 -.04 It 21 .74 -.04 -.24 .34 -.01 -.03 It 22 .84 -.02 -.25 .21 .03 .03 It 23 .6 .04 .25 .4 .28 -.45 It 24 .72 -. 4 .27 -.13 .17 .22 It 25 .76 -.38 .28 .09 1 .13 It 26 .64 .12 .. 18 .23 .25 .21 It 27 .76 -.22 -.06 -.22 -.01 -.03 It 28 .8 -.07 .03 -.15 .01 -.26 Orthogonal Transformation Solution-Varimax 102

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Appendix I (2} Factor Analysis of Kuwaiti Teachers' Responses Only to All Items Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 It 1 .78 -.08 -.02 -. 3 .08 It 2 .74 -4.17E-3 .12 .16 -.21 It 3 .68 -.46 .18 -. 1 .32 It 4 .63 -.06 .53 -.13 .23 It 5 .77 .09 .1 8 -.27 -.21 It 6 .83 -:2 .08 -.14 .06 It 7 .82 -.19 -.02 -1.32E-3 .02 It 8 .85 -.19 -.08 .17 -.01 It 9 .81 -.12 .1 8 .07 -.24 It .83 .26 .14 .08 -.21 It 11 .83 .09 .04 -4.05E-3 -.26 It 12 84 -.18 11 .11 -.01 It 13 .89 .01 .04. .08 -.08 It 14 84 .24 -.02 -.12 -.04 It 15 .73 .22 -.08 .12 .31 It 16 .78 .17 .02 -.37 -. 1 It 17 .81 .01 03 -.17 .05 It 18 .84 -.09 .03 -.14 -.16 It 19 .77 -. 1.9 -.42 .15 .1 8 It 20 .86 -.2 -.28 .08 .04 It 21 .74 -.16 -.1 9 .3 -.23 It 22 .85 -.18 -. 11 .2 -.13 It 23 .55 .42 .34 .48 .2 It 24 .75 .34 -.34 -.17 .08 It 25 .72 .46 -.27 -.08 .06 It 26 .69 23 .17 .17 :12 It 27 .82 .02 -.13 -.07 .17 It 28 .82 -. 01 -. 01 -1.32E-4 .17 Orthogonal Transformation Solution-Varimax 103

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Appendix J Correlation Matrix 104

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APPENDIX J (1) Correlation Matrix ot All Teachers' Responses Correlation Matrix of Items 1 through' 16 It 1 It 3 It 4 It 7 It 9 It 10 It 11 It 12 It 13 It .16 It 1 1 It 3 .54 1 It 4 .44 .69 1 It 7 .62 .63 .52 1 It 9 .62 .57 .48 .66 1 It 10 .62 .57 .49 .7 .77 1 It 11 .55 .49 .45 .. :62 .72-.65 1 It 12 .62 .52 .51 .61 .66 .72 .66 1 It 13 .64 .48 .43 .62 .7 .73 .66 .68 1 It 16 .66 6 .54 .64 .6 :sa .57 .67 .62 1 It 17 .59 .57 .46 .62 .6. .62 .5 .57 .53 .69 Correlation Matrix of Items 19 through 28 It 19 It 20 It 21 It 22 It 24 It 25 It 27 It 19 1 It 20 . 79. 1 .. It 21 .58 .6 1 It 22 .7 .72 .67 1 It 24 .52 .47 .37 .49 1 It 25 .57 .51 -.43 .55 .76 1 It 27 .56 .57 .44 .57 .58 .56 1 It 28 .54 .57 .44 .56 .51 .56 .65 105

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Appendix J (2) Correlation Matrix of Kuwaiti Teachers' Responses Only to All 28 Items 106

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Correlation Matrix of Kuwaiti Teachers' Responses Only to All Items Itt lt2 It3 lt4 ItS lt6 It7 ItS lt9 ItlO It 11 It 12 It 13 It 14 It 15 It 16 Itl 1 It2 .54 1 it3 .6 .5 1 It4 .49 .44 .57 1 ItS .65 .57 .44 .56 1 It6 .65 .54 .68 .59 .66 1 lt7 .62 .67 .66 .52 .6 .64 1 ItS .65 .63 .66 .48 .61 .68 .73 1 It9 .58 .61 .55 .52 .62 .65 .69 .7 1 It 10 .59 .68 .42 .53 .62 .61 .6 .64 .69 1 ltll .63 .57 .46 .47 .69 .68 .63 .7 .74 .74 1 It 12 .67 .63 .62 .52 .57 .77 .72 .67 .74 .7 .71 1 It 13 .65 .63 .57 .54 .69 .75 .73 .76 .75 .78 .81 .79 1 It14 .69 .58 .47 .49 .64 .66 .62 .67 .65 .76 .7 .7 .78 1 It 15 .53 .51 .45 .44 .54 .57 .55 .62 .51 .56 .6 .6 .68 .61 1 lt16 .64 .53 .51 .46 .74 .71 .61 .56 .56 .67 .63 .53 .67 .74 .47 1 It17 .67" .57 .59 .49 .64 .64 .65 .67 .66 .65 .67 .67 .67 .68 .56 .69 lt18 .63 .68 .6 .56 .66 .7 .71 .72 .72 .72 .69 .. 64 .7 .67 .5'* .69 lt19 .55 .51 .57 .35 .44 .62 .67 .72 .52 .54 .53 .59 .66 .56 .54 .54 It20 .69 .55 .58 .42 .57 .74 .71 .77 .65 .65 .65 .76 .78 .68 .57 .61 It21 .5 .59 .46 .33 .57 .61 .58 .69 .58 .55 .63 .63 .67 .56 .49 .53 It22 .61 .65 .56 .52 .61 .71 .69 .85 .71 .68 .7 .71 .74 .63 .58 .56 lt23 .3 .44 .27 .44 .36 .36 .36 .43 .41 .6 .43 .46 .51 .5 .48 .38 lt24 .64 .49 .38 .39 .54 .51 .58 .6 .48 .64 .61 .5 .64 .71 .6 .64 It25 .51 .51 .3 .36 .55 .54 .56 .53 .5 .64 .6 .49 .59 .68 .67 .63 It26 .47 .54 .45 .44 .53 .52 .51 .6 .53 .58 .56 .5 .57 .56 51 .56 It27 .67 .56 .53 .48 .6 .66 .69 .64 .6 .64 .67 .69 .71 .72 .64 .63 It28 .66 .54 .54 .47 .65 .72 .65 .66 .68 .6 .66 .72 .73 .67 .69 .63 --It 17 It 18 It 19 It 20 It 21 It 22 1 .71 1 .61 .65 1 .69 .68 .84 1 .51 .57 .66 .72 1 .61 .76 .75 .78 .74 1 .43 .32 .34 .37 .39 .42 .58 .61 .63 .64 .48 .6 .58 '.58 .58 .56 .46 .57 .54 .56 .49 .5 .49 .52 .68 .69 .69 .75 .57 .62 .7 .6 .63 .71 .6 .64 --lt23 It 24 1 .35 1 .45 .81 .56 .54 .43 .63 .46 .55 It 25 It 26 1 .5 1 .59 .52 .56 .58 It 27 It 28 1 .74 i I:'-. 0 rl

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APPENDIXK Perceived Instructional Responsibilities of School Principals What are, in your opinion, the major responsibilities of the school principle as an instructional leader? Rank Item Frequency 1 Evaluation of teacher instruction 32 2 Assessment of student achievement 1 3 3 Classroom visitation 1 2 4 Curriculum plan progress follow-up 1 1 5 Improvement of student achievement 1 0 6 Co-operate with supervisors 9 7 Monitor low-achieving students 8 7 Support and promote high-achieving students 8 8 Improve teacher instruction 7 9 Supervise the work of academic departments 6 9 Evaluate goal attainment 6 9 Review and study examination results 6 9 School master time table 6 9 Identify student behavior 6 1 0 Supervise examinations 5 10 Provide the requirements of the teaching/learning 5 process 1 0 Supervise the non-instructional staff 5 1 0 Co-operate with head teachers 5 1 1 Supervise teacher punctuality and compliance 4 1 1 Planning 4 1 1 Promote the relationship between the school, families, 4 and the community 1 1 Supervise extra-curricular activities 4 1 1 Support new teachers 4 1 2 Implement ministry's and/or district's instructions 3 1 2 Assessment of teacher's competency in content area 3 1 2 Examine teachers' preparation notebooks 3 108

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Perceived Instructional Responsibilities of School Principals (continued) Rank Item .Frequency 13 Assess teacher's relationship with students 2 13 Provide teachers with suggestions for the 2 improvement of the teachinQ/IearninQ process 13 Job distribution 2 13 Problem solving 2 1 3 Identify the teacher's personality 2 13 Examine students' notebooks 2 1 3 School maintenance 2 1 3 Goal awareness 2 13 Policy setting 2 13 Student records. (checking) 2 13 School council meetiilQ 2 13 Organizing school work 2 13 Promote students' talents 2 13 Deal with student problems 2 14 Evaluate teacher's use of instructional media 1 14 Assess teacher's influence cin students 1 14 Apply reward and punishment 1 14 Teacher professional development 1 14 Principal professional development 1 14 Daily managerial and office work 1 14 Staffing (teachers) 1 14 Student disciplining: The nurture (upbringing) 1 aspect of schooling 1 4 ParenVteacher council meeting 1 14 Awareness of the functions of school administration 1 14 Directing the school work 1 1 4 Supervise the counselinQ proQrams 1 1 4 Setting the criteria for student evaluation 1 14 Supervise the selection of instructional media 1 14 Provide ministry and district authorities with suggestions for the improvement of the educational 1 process 14 Apply I use scientific research methodology 1 1 4 Help old teachers. improve their performance 1 14 Understand motivation and human relations 1 14 Understand the age characteristics of secondary 1 school students 14 Encourage teacher leadership 1 14 Co-operate with ministry and district authorities. 1 109

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APPENDIXL Perceived Barriers of Instructional Leadership What are, in your opinion, the obstacles that may limit the instructional leadership of school principles in Kuwait? Rank Item Frequency 1 Non-instructional duties: Office work 34 and school maintenance 2 Parent's excessive and unorganized visits 1 0 2 Student problems : 1 0 3 Ministry and/or district interference in school 8 administration work 3 Limited authority in teacher selection and 8 transference 3 Ministry and/or district asking_ for 8 a lot of statistical reports. 3 Huge amounts of responsibilities 8 and limited time available 3 Shortaqe of trained inamiqerial staff 8 4 Limited support .an9 co-ordination with 7 ministry and/or district authorities 5 Teacher transference 6 5 Unqualified teachers 6 6 ShortaQe of teachers .. 5 6. Principals' limited knowledge in : 5 content area and teach ina methods 7 Principals' limited authority 4 7 Limited co-operation of parents 4 8 Crowded classrooms 3 9 Teachers lack of .motivation 3 9 Supervisor's excessive and unnecessary, visits 3 9 Shortage of financial resources 3 9 Teacher weak personality 3 110

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Perceived Barriers of Instructional Leadership (continued) 1 0 Ministry and district centralized administration 2 1 0 Inappropriate school buildinQ 2 1 0 Supervisor's limited co-operation with principal 2 1 0 Principals' lack of knowledQe of the Qoals of education 2 1 0 Lack of teacher co-operation 2 1 1 Inadequate training in teacher evaluation 1 1 1 Old aQe poor health 1 1 1 Busy with other works or responsibilities 1 1 1 The new teacher evaluation procedure 1 1 1 Students accumulated. poor attainment 1 1 1 Overlapping of instructional and non-instructional 1 duties 111

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APPENDIXM Means and Standard Deviations of the 13 Areas of Principals' Instructional Leadership for Individual Schools Visiting Teachers, Teacher Specific Evaluation, and Curriculum Plan Progress Follow-up Means and Standard Deviations SchiD Dstrct# Visit so Specific so Curr Plan Teachers Evaluation Pro_g_ress Grand Mean 3.17 2.64 2.77 School 1 1 3.40 0.70 2.75 0.98 3.11 School 2 1 2.82 0.75 1:59 0.74 2.11 School 3 1 3.27 0.65 3.09 0.83 3.00 School 4 1 3.10 0.74 3.00 0.47 2.70 SchoolS 1 2.67 0.98 2.42 1.00 3.00 School 6 1 2.58 1.00 2.23 1.29 2.18 School 7 1 2.73 1. 01 1.67 0.83 2.86 School 8 1 3.00 0.82 3.00 0.79 2.50 School 9 1 2.33 0.78 2.46 0.96 2.73 School 10 1 3.58 0.51 2.50 0.64 3.18 School 11 1 3.75 0.62 2.27 0.65 2.91 School 12 2 2.89 0.93 2.62 0.52 2.78 School 13 2 3.22 1.09 2.89 1.14 3.12 School 14 2 3.12 0.99 2.71 0.39 3.00 School 15 2 3.00 0.89 2.73 1.10 2.90 School 16 2 3.75 0.45 3.38 0.86 3.67 School 17 2 3.44 0.81 3.03 0.96 3.33 School 18 2 3.42 0.79 3.08 1.26 2.90 School 19 2 3.25 0.87 2.12 1.05 1.44 School 20 2 3.23 0.44 3.31 0.52 2.77 School 21 2 3.08 0.76 2.27 0.75 2.42 112 so 0.93 1.17 0.89 0.95 '0.89 1.08 0.90 1.00 1 .19 0.75 0.94 1.30 0.99 0.82 0.99 0.89 0.90 0.88 0.73 1.17 1.16

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Visiting Teachers, Teacher Specific Evaluation, and Curriculum Plan Progress Follow-up Means and Standard Deviations (continued) SchiD Dstrct# Visit so Specific SD Curr Plan SD Teachers Evaluation Progress School 22 3 3.10 0.99 2.05 0.86 2.50 1.08 School 23 3 3.00 0.47 2.86 1.18 3.50 0.97. School 24 3 3.10 0.74 2.80 1.01 2.56 1.01 School 25 3 3.33 0.50 3.44 0.85 3.00 0.82 School 26 3 3.67 0.78 2.83 .. 0.94 2.91 1.30 School 27 3 2.75 0.97' 1.96 1 .11 2.36 1.21 School 28 3 3.23 1.09 2.32 0.87 2.38 '1.41 School 29 3 3.14 0.66 3.18 0.82 2.18 0.87 School 30 3 3.13 0.92 2.77 0.94 2.50 1.09 School 31 3 3.00 0.88 2.50 .04 2.15 1.07 School 32 3 2.8-5 1.14 2.42 1 15 2.62 1.39 School 33 4 3.00 0.76 2.06 1.05 2.88 1.25 School 34 4 3.25 0,71 .. 2.50 -1.07 2.62 0.92 School 35 4 3.56 0.88 3 .. 00 o.9o 3.11 1.36 School 36 4 3.40 0.70 2.80 1.06 3.33 0.71 School 37 4 3.11 0.78 2.56' 1.02 3.00 1.07 School 38 4 3.70 0.48 2.70 1.11 3.00 1.25 School 39 4 3.67 0.71 2.69 .. 0.84 3.00 1.12 School 40 4 3.25. 0.97 2.92 0.95 3.20 1.13 School 41 4 3.50 0.85 3.55 0.55 3.11 1.05 School 42 4 3.00 0.94 2.38 0.74. 2.70 1.49 School 43 4 2.67 1.00 1.85 1.05 1.88 0.99 School 44 4 3:20. 0.79 2.69 1.10' 2.78 0.67 School 45 5 3.38 0.92 2.07 0:98 2.43 0.98 School 46 5 3.83 0.41 2.50 0.84 3.17 0.41 School 47 5 3.42 0.67 .2.58 1 .16 2.92 1.08 School 48 5 3.23 0.83 2;89 0.96 2.38 1.19 School 49 5 3:20 1.01 2.79 1.22 2.93 1.07 School 50 5 3.00 0.82 2.73 0.83 2.82 1.17 113

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Goals of Education, Working with Head teachers, and Special Care for New Teacher Means and Standard Deviations SchiD Dstrct# Goals Ed SD Wrk/Head T SD Care NewT SD Grand Mean 3.06 3.22 2.88 School 1 1 3.40 0.67 3.56 0.53 2.12 0.99 School 2 1 2.10 1.05 2.35 0.97 2.00 1.00 School 3 1 3.40 0.70 3.77 0.4.7 3.10 0.57 School 4 1 3.40 0.74 3.45 0.55 3.33 0.71 School 5 1 3.20 0.92 3.18 1.08 3.09 .0.70 School 6 1 2.70 0.72 3.21 0.75 2.42 1.08 School 7 1 2.20 1.03 2.44 1.12 2.00 0.58 School 8 1 2.60 1.08 3.04 0.85 2.91 0.94 School 9 1 0.88 2.75 0.89 2.22 0.97 School 10 1 3.30 0.62 3.25 0.81 2.67 0.99 School 11 1 2.70 0.75 3.05 0.82 2.92 0.67 School 12 2 3.20 0.87 3.56 0.58 3.14 1.07 School 13 2 2.80 0.96 3.50 0.27 3.12 0.64 School 14 2 3.50 0.61 3.25 0.96 2.83 0.98 School 15 2 3.10 1.00 3.41 0.49 2.90 1.10 School 16 2 3.80 0.44 3.71 0.58 3.75 0.62 School 17 2 3.30 0.62 3.22 0.93 3.36 0.93 School 18 2 3.30 0.71 3.70 0.48 3.20 1.03 School 19 2 1.90 1.06 2.92 L02 2.62 1.19 School 20 2 3.50 0.46 3.46 0.54 3.15 0.90 School 21 2 2.90 0.75 2.88 1.00 2.30 0.95 School 22 3 3.30 0.94 3.50 0.62 3.50 0.71 School 23 3 3.80 0.42 3.94. 0.17 3:78 0.44 School 24 3 3.50 0.55 3.50 0.82 3.70 0.48 School 25 3 3.50 0.71 3.69 0.37 3.00 0.82 School 26 3 3.20 0.72 3.54 0.62 3.60 0.70 School 27 3 2.20 1.18 2.42 .06 2.00 1.41 School 28 3 2.40 1.27 2.42 1.22 2.33 1.51 School 29 3 3.10 0.75 3.07 0.58 2.75 0.75 School 30 3 2.60 0.98 2.65 1.07 2.18 1.08 School 31 3 2.50 1.08 3.42 1.06 3.08 0.90 School 32 3 2.80 1.00 2.75 1.20 2.38 1.26 114

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Goals of Education, Working with Head teachers, and Special Care for New Teacher Means and Standard Deviations (continued) SchiD Dstrct# Goals Ed SD Wrk/Head T SD Care NewT SD School 33_ 4 3.30 0.92 3.50 0.71 2.75 0.71 School 34 4 3.40 0.56 3.50 0.65 3.38 0.92 School 35 4 3.30 0.78 3.61 -0.60 3.11 1.05 School 36 4 3.20 0.85 3.50 0.71 3.00 0.82 -School 37 4 3.00 1.12 3.56 0.58 2.88 1.55 School 38 4 3.30 1.05 3.50 0.78 3.70 0.48 School 39 4 3.40 0.73 3.22 0.80 3.33 1.00 School 40 4 3:10 0.87 3.27 0.90 2.60 1.17 School 41 4 3.10 0.94 3.44 0.68 2.75 1.28 School 42 4 3.30 1.05 3.35 0.67 2.40 1.35 School 43 4 -1.90 1.01 2.67 1.25 2.33 1.41 School 44 4 3.20 0.63 3.15 0.85 2.67 0.71 School 45 5 2.70 0.76 3.25-0.93 2.57 -0.98 School 46 5 3.30 0.41 3.20 0.4_5 3.20 0.84 School 47 5 3.30 o:91 3.21. 0.96 2.91 1.22 School 48 5 3.20 0.77 3.04 0.99 2.17 1.19 School 49 5 3.40 0.85 3.430.68 3.00 1.24 School 50 5 3.30 0.56 3.40 0.74 3.31 0.75 115

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Student Progress Monitoring and Student Improvement Means and Standard Deviations SchiD Dstrct# St Prgrs SD Student SD Monitrin_g lrhprvmnt Grand Mean 3.06 2.89 School 1 1 3.53 0.46 3.50 0.47 School 2 1 2.74 0.75 2.14 1.05 School 3. 1 3.44 0.55 3.23 0.65 School 4 1 .53 0.38 3.35 0.67 School 5 1 2.75 0.93 3.00 0.95 School 6 1 2.82 0.73 2.71 0.96 School 7 1 2.35 0.97 1.96 1.05 School 8 1 3.38 0.68 3:27 0.73 School 9 1 2.61 0.97 2.58 1.04 School 10 1 3.38 0.52. 2.29 0.81 School 11 1 3.18 0.63 3.17 0.69 School 12 2 3.33 0.78 3.11 0.86 School 13 2 3.39 0.75 3.06 0.95 School 14 2 3.42 0.41 3.12 1.09 School 15 2 3.18 0.73 3.09 0.94 School 16 2 .3.72 0.48 3.79 0.45 School 17 2 3.28 0.80 3.00 0.71 School 18 2 3.71 0.49 3.42 0.85 School 19 2 2.11 0.80 2.12 0.96 School 20 2 3.46 0.72 3.38 0.51 School 21 2 .67 0.96 2.58 1.22 School 22 3 3.13 0.65 3.10 0.77 School 23 3 3.73 0. 71 3.65 0.75 School 24 3 3.27 0.64 3.45 0.69 School 25 3 3.26 0.62 3.28 0.67 School 26 3 3.53 0.63 3.46 0.75 School 27 3 2.10 1.13 1.96 1.20 School 28 3 2.27 1.24 2.18 1.38 School 29 3 2.30 0.68 2.38 1.04 School 30 3 2.34 0.84 2.37. 1.03 School 31 3 2.67 0.86 2.85 0.90 School 32 3 2.85 1.06 2.85 1.12 School 33 4 3.40 0.44 3.00 0.65 School 34 4 3.25 0.91 2.75 1.31 School 35 4 3.33 0.63 3.39 0.86 School 36 4 3.20 0.71 2.90 0.77 School 37 4 3.11 0.83 3.22 0.83 School 38 4 3.43 0.57 3.25 0.75 116

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Student Progress Monitoring and Student Improvement Means and Standard Deviations (continued) SchiD Dstrct# St Prgrs SD Student SD Monitrin_g lm_pJvmnt School 39 4 3.30 0.75 3.28 0.67 School 40 4 2.82 1.01 2.42 1.08 School 41 4 2.97 0.92 2.75 1.03 School 42 4 3.13. 0.64 1.00 School 43 4 2.47 0.80 2.15 1.05 School 44 4 2.65 0.82 2.55 0.96 School 45 5 3.06 1.00 2.79 1.15 School.46 5 3.42 0.31 2.92 0.49 School 47 5 3.11 0.84 3.12 0.96 School 48 5 3.18 0.96 2.77. 1.27 School 49 5 3.62 0.57 3.14 1.03 School 50 5 3.28 0.67 3.04 '0.99 117

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Human Relations with Teachers, Talking with Students, and Orderly School Climate Maintenance Means and Standard Deviations SchiD Dstrct# Human R so Talk with so Ordr Sch so Teachers Students Climate Grand Mean 2.96 2.81 3.5 School 1 1 2.81 0.72 3.00 0.63. 3.70 0.48 School 2 1 2.48 0.88 3.27 0.79 2.73 1.27 School 3 1 3.59 0.30 3.00 0.89 4.00 0.00 School 4 1 3.38 0.64 2.40 0.84 3.90 0.32 School 5 1 3.25 0.59 3.22 0.83 3.25 0.96 School 6 1 3.06 0.81 3.08 1.08 0.49 School 7 1 2.18 0.84 2.00 0.00 3.08 0.90 School 8 1 2;63 1.05 3.38 0.92 3.31 0.86 School 9 1 2.68 0.77 2.00 0.93 3.50 0.67 School 10 1 2.17 0.76 3.50 0.52 3.75 0.45 School 11 1 3.23 0.58 3.82 0.40 3.58 0.67 School 12 2 3.53 0.51" 3.56 0.53 3.89 0.33 School 13 2 3.03 0.62 2.88 0.35 3.78 0.44 School 14 2 3.35 0.86 3.00 0.76 4.00 0.00 School 15 2 3.02 0.96 3.55 0.69 3.91 0.30 School 16 2 3.72 0.50 3.50 0.67 3.83 0.39. School 17 2 2.74 0.93 2.38 1.12 3.80 0.41 School 18 2 3.40 0.89 3.40 0.70 3.91 0.30 School 19 2 2:81. 0.89 1.67 1.21 3.33 0.99 School 20 2 3.30. 0.48 3.00 0.82 4.00 0.00 School 21 2 2.48 0.96 1.91 0.83 3.15. 0.90 118

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Human Relations with Teachers, Talking with Students, and Orderly School Climate Maintenance Means and Standard Deviations (continued) SchiD Dstrct# HumnR SD Talk with SD Ordr Sch SD Teachers Students Climate School 22 3 3.50 0.64 3.50 0.85 3.67 0.71 School 23 3 3.65 0.54 3.56 0.73 3.80 0.42 School 24 3 3.42 0.62 3.10 0.57 4.00 0.00 School 25 3 3.22 0.68 2.38 1.19 4.00 0.00 School 26 3 3.34 0.80 3.10 1.10' 3.67 0.65 School 27 3 1.98 1.23 2.36 1.21 2.27 1.27 School 28 3 2.08 1.27 2.12 0.83. 3.15 1.07 School 29 3 2.42 0.67 2.60 0.97. 3.46 0.78 School 30 3. 1.82 0.67 1.73. 0.79 2.80 1.15 School 31 3 3.18 0.70 2;58 0.90 3.21 1.05 School 32 3 2.63 1.06 3.73 0.65 2.46 1.20 School 33 4 3.16 0.68 2.29 1.38 3.75 0.46 School 34 4 3.41 0.69 3.38 1.06 4.00 0.00 School 35 4 3.58 0.76 3.11 1.05 3.78 0.44 School 36 4 '3.62 0.56 3.20 1.03 3.44 0.73 School 37 4 3.56 0.66 2.75 0.71 3.89 0.33 school 38 4 3.67 0.49 3.30 1.06 3.90 0.32 School 39 4 3.44 0.79' 3.00 0.71 3.89 0.33 School 40 4 2.71 1.14 1.88 1.36 3.67 0.49 School 41 4 2.81 1.14 3.10 1.1 0 3.70 0.68 School 42 4 2.72 0.60. 1.83 1.17 3.67 0.71 School 43 4 2.20 1.02' 1.17 0.41 2.90 1.20 School 44 4 2.75 0.56 .1.25 0.50 3.40 0.84 School 45 5 3.15 0.74 2.62 0.92 3.88 0.35 School 46 5 3.60 0.40 3.67 0.52 4.00 0.00 School 47 5 3;07 0.93 2.36. 1.03 3.42 0.79 School 48 5 2.31 1 2.22 1.20 3.50 0.67 School 49 5 3.19 0.92 2.60 1.17 3.93 0.26 School 50 5 3.41 0.65 1.62 0.74 3.54 0.52 119

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High-achieving Student Honoring and Parental Involvement Means and Standard Deviations SchiD Dstrct# Student so Parent so Honorif!g_ lnvolvmnt Grand Mean 3.45 3.31. School 1 1 3.40 0.52 3.75 0.42 School 2 1 3.14 0.87 2.50 0.87 School 3 1 3.64 0.60 3.55 0.47 School 4 1 3.70 0.68 3 .70 0.48 School 5 1 3.54 0.81 3.46 0.69 School 6 1 3.58 0.67 3.29 0.66 School 7 .1 . 3.68 0.64 .2.83 0.94. School 8 1 3.67 0.62 3.27 0.83 School 9 1 3.33 0.91 2.96 0.99 School 10 1 3.92 0.19 3.75 0.45 School 11 1 3.71 0.58 3.27 0.61 School 12 2 3.61 0.33 3.67 0.56 School 13 2 78 0.36 3.50 0.46 School 14 2 3.88 0.23 3.62 0.58 School 15 2 3.59 0.92 3.77 0.47 School 16 2. 3.71 0.45 3.58 0.63 School 17 2 3.41 0.78 3.32 0.32 School 18. 2 3.79 0.50 3.75 0.40 School 19 2 2.79 0.84' 2.62 1.00 School 20. 2 3.81 0.38 3.54 0.38 School 21 2 2.62 0.83. 2.75 1.01 School 22 3 3.90 0.21 3.40 0.52 School 23 3 3.75 0.79 3;70 .0.48 School 24 3 3.85 0.34 3.70 .35 School 25 3 3.22 0.87 3.11 . 0. School 26 3 3.58 0.73 3.29 .. 0.96 School 27 3 2.08 1.28 2.67 1.07 School 28 3 2.88 1.22 2.95 0.99 School 29 3 3.43 0.62 3.32 0.61 School 30 3 2.46 0.82 2.77 0.92 School 31 3 3.75 0.38 3.32 0.58 School 32 3 3.15 1 .18 3.33 0.94 120

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High-achieving Student Honoring and Parental Involvement Means and Standard Deviations (continued) SchiD Dstrct# Student so Parent so Honoring lnvolvmnt School 33 4 3.56 0.68 3.71 0.39 School 34 4 3.75 0.38 3.62 0.44 School 35 4 3.61 0.82 3.50 0.79 School 36 4 2.95 0.96 3.25 0.54 School 37 4 3.28 0.80 3.39 0.89. School 38 4 3.40 0:66 3.65 0.41 School 39 4 3.61 0.55 3.56 0.68 School 40 4 3.33 0.96 2.75 1.11 School 41 4 3.65 0.41 2.89 0.89 School 42 4 3.65 0.58 3.61 0.70 School 43 4 2.85 1.05 2.44 1.16 School 44 4 3.56 0.68 3.11 0.82 School 45 5 3.75 0.46 3.44 0.73 School 46 5 4.00 0.00 3.50 0.55 School 47 5 3.17. 1.17 2.92 0.93 School 48 5 3.46 0.78 3.10 o:88 School 49 5 3.87 0.35 3.87 0.30 School 50 5 3.81 0.48 3.33 0.62 121

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Items 6, 14, 15, and 26 Item 6 Encourage teachers to use different and innovative instructional methods (grand mean 3.12) School: Mean: so School 1 4 0 School2 2.4 1.35 School 3 3.818 .405 School 4 3.7 .483 School 5 3.364 .924 School 6 3.273 .905 School 7 2.25 1.165 School 8 2.769 1.092 School 9 2.25 .965 School 10 2.636 1.206 School 11 2.583 .793. School 12 3.5 .535 School 13 3.375 .518 School 14 3.5 .535 School 15 3.2 .789 School16 3.833 .389 School 17 3.188 .981 School 18 3.545 .522 School 19 2.091 1.044 School 20 3.385 .65 School 21 3 1.095 School 22 3.2 .919 School 23 3.8 .632 School 24 3.3 .675 School 25 3.889 .333 School 26 3.333 .888 School 27 2.273 1.348 School 28 2.273 1.272 School 29 3.286 .726 School 30 2.615 1.044 School 31 2.818 1.168 School 32 2.462 1.391 122

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Item 6 Encourage teachers to use different and innovative instructional methods (continued) School Mean so School 33 3.5 .756 School 34 3.375 1.061 School 35 3.444 .726 School 36 3.2 .919 School 37 3.375 .744 School 38 3.778 .441 School 39 3.556 .726 School 40 3.1 .994 School 41 3.4 .699 School 42 3.222.972 School 43 2.111 1.167 School 44 3.556 .726 School 45 3 1.069 School 46 3.333 .516 School 47 3 .953 School 48 3.1 School 49 3.714 .469 School 50 2.636 1.12 123

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Item 14 Encourage teachers to monitor students' progress. (grand mean 3.21) School: Mean: so School 1 3.4 .699 School 2 2.5 1.08 School 3 3.545 .688 School 4 3.1 .738 School 5. 3.083 .996 School 6 3.083 .669 School 7 2.556 .882 School 8 3.417 .515 School 9 2.917 .996 School 10 3.583 .515 School 11 3.583 .793 School 12 3.444 .882 School 13 3.625 .518 School 14 3.167 .408 School 15 3.273 .905 School 16 3.75 .622 School 17 3.375 719 School 18 3.75 .452 School 19 2.455 1.036 School 20 3.692 .48 School 21 2.667 .888 School 22 3.3 .949 School 23 3.7 .675 School 24 3.8 .422 School 25 3.667 .5 School 26 3.25. .965 School 27 2.25 1.357 School 28 2.9 1.287 School 29. 2.923 .862 School 30 2.667 1.047 School 31 3.154 .689 School 32 3.385 .961 124

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Item 14 Encourage teachers to monitor students' progress. (continued) School Mean so School 33 3.5. .535 School 34 3.429 .535 School 35 3.556 .726 School 36 3.25 .463 School 37 3.222 .972 School 38 3.4 .699 School 39 3.333 .707 School 40 3.091 .831 School 41 3.1 .738 School 42 3.222 .972 School 43 2.667 1.323 School 44 3.1 .738 School 45 3 1.069 School 46 3 .632 School 47 2.917 .996 School 48 2.917 .9 School 49 3.667 .617 School 50 3.545 .688 125

PAGE 137

Item 15 Follow up extra-curricular programs. (grand mean 3.37) School: Mean: so School 1 3.556 .527 School 2 2.727 1.104 School 3 4 0 School 4 3.3 .949 School 5 3.545 .82 School 6 3.083 1.084 School 7 3.444 1.014 School 8 3.615 .65 School 9 3.167 .835 School 10 3.75 .452 School 11 3.917 .289 School 12 3.333 .707 School 13 3.778 .441 School 14 3.875 .354 School 15 3.818 .405 School 16 3.833 .389 School 17 3.267 .799 School 18 3.8 .422 School 2.8 1.317 School 20 3.615 .506 s'chool 21 2.636 1.027 School 22 3.7 .483 School 23 3.8 .632 School 24 3.8 .422 School 25 3.375 .744 School 26 3.75 .866 School 27 2.583 1.084 School 28 2.692 1.109 School 29 3 .953 School 30 2.067 1.033 School 31 3.308 751 School 32 3.231 1.166 126

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Item 15 Follow up extra-curricular programs. (continued) School Mean so School 33 3.75 .463 School 34 3.375 .744 School 35 3.444 .726 School 36 3.3 .483 School 37 3.444 .527 School 38 3.7 .675 School 39 3.111 .782 School 40 3.455 1.036 School 41 3.5 .85 School 42 3.5 .707 School 43 2.778 .972 School 44 3 .707 School 45 3.625 .518 School 46 3.333 .516 School 47 3.167 1.03 School 48 3.667 .651 School 49 3.867 .352 School 50 3.25 .866 127

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Item 26 Organize informative seminars for parents. (grand mean 2.69) School Mean so School 1 2.143 .9 School 2 2.222 1.202 School 3 2.222 1.093 School4 2.222 1.202 School 5 3.1 .994 School 6 2.455 1.128 School 7 2.8 1.135 School 8 2.769 .832 School 9 2 1 School 10 3.333 .866 School 11 2.727 .786 School 12 2.333 1 School 13 2.444 .726 School 14 3 .894 School 15 2.909 1.044 School 16 3.333 .778 School 17 2.714 1.139 School 18 .3.182 .751 School 19 2.25 1.138 School 20 2.923 1.115 School 21 2.222 .. 833 School 22 2.444 1.014 School 23 3.444 .726 School 24 2.778 1.093 School 25 2.286 1.38 School 26 2.8 1.033 School 27 2.273 1.104 School 28 2.8 1.229 School 29 3.308 751 School 30 2 .853 School 31 3 1.038 School 32 2.5 1.243 128.

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Item 26 Organize informative seminars for parents. (continued) School Mean so School 33 1.429 .787 School 34 -3 .756 School 35 2.889 .928 School 36 2.143 .69 School 37 2.714 .756 School 38 3.3 .675 School 39 2.556 1.236 School 40 2.917 .793 -School 41 2.25 1.035 School 42 3.1 1.197 School 43 2.333 1.323 School 44 2.286 .951 School 45 2.75 .886 School 46 3 .894 School 47 2.545 1:036 School 48 2.636 .924 School 49 3.8 .414 School 50 2.5 .707 129