Citation
Water, challenge for the Middle East

Material Information

Title:
Water, challenge for the Middle East a case study of the EuphratesTigris Basin
Portion of title:
Case study of the Euphrates/Tigris Basin
Creator:
Al-Nehayan, Mohammed K
Place of Publication:
Denver, Colo.
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
viii, 112 leaves : col. ill. ; 29 cm.

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of Arts)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
Department of Political Science, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Political Science
Committee Chair:
Edelstein, Joel
Committee Members:
Kazak, Amin
Morris, Glenn

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Water-supply -- Tigris-Euphrates Delta (Iran and Iraq) ( lcsh )
Water-supply ( fast )
Middle East -- Tigris-Euphrates Delta ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of Colorado at Denver, 1996. History
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 109-112).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Arts, Political Science.
General Note:
Department of Political Science
Statement of Responsibility:
by Mohammed K. Al-Nehayan.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
37756985 ( OCLC )
ocm37756985

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Full Text
Water: Challenge for the Middle East
A Case Study of the Euphrates/Tigris Basin
by
Mohammed K. AI-Nehayan
B.A., United Arab Emirates University, 1994
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Arts
Political Science
1996


This Thesis for the Master of Arts degree
by
Mohammed K. Ai-Nehayan
has been approved
by
Amin Kazak


AI-Nehayan, Mohammed Khalifa (M.A., Political Science)
Water: Challenge for the Middle East
A Case Study of the Euphrates/Tigris Basin
Thesis directed by Professor Joel Edelstein
ABSTRACT
Although water was long regarded as a free commodity in the Middle East,
the situation in recent years is quite different as water disputes have been
increasingly critical to many parties in the region. This study focuses on water
problems in the Euphrates/Tigris basin. It argues that there is a danger of a potential
conflict over the waters of the Euphrates/Tigris. The unilateral, separate drive for
development in the basin, will probably lead the co-riparians to a certain degree of
conflict in the near future unless some cooperative measures are taken.
The study has three main objectives: 1) clarifying and identifying the nature
of water problems in the Euphrates/Tigris basin; 2) figuring out the various
dimensions of conflict over the Euphrates/Tigris water; and 3) determine the chances
of cooperation among the riparians in regard to water distribution and use and the
factors affecting such chances.
The findings of this study strongly support its major argument. It shows that:
First, there is a growing tension among the three co-riparians of the Euphrates and
the Tigris Rivers Turkey, Syria and Iraq -- over their waters. The Euphrates/Tigris
in


basin, with all its competing national and economic pressures, provides a clear
example of the strategic importance of water as a scarce commodity. It exemplifies
how fateful the rivalry over shared waters can be. Second, water is being used by the
co-riparians of the basin as a political weapon.
The study concludes that only cooperation and integrated planning will
assign each of the riparians the best available amount of water. The governments of
the three countries should recognize the need to take a reciprocal approach to the
development of the available water resources. If water rights and concerns are not
cooperatively addressed, the prevailing critical conditions will inevitably increase
the existing tensions and may even lead to conflict. The study also stresses that
broader approaches to solving water problems within the basin are urgently needed.
Unilateral efforts, short-term programs and piecemeal approaches will only
aggravate the existing critical conditions.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis. I
recommend its publication.
Joel Edelstein


Acknowledgments
I wish to express my particularly deep sense of gratitude to Dr. Joel
Edelstein, my research advisor, for his incalculable guidance, advice, and assistance
during my two years at the University of Colorado at Denver. I am greatly indebted
to Dr. Edelstein for his critical analysis of my academic work and reading of the
manuscript of this thesis, which provided direction for its development. Dr.
Edelstein constantly encouraged me to pursue my interests, and to hold onto my
independent views. He listened patiently to my attempts to formulate my ideas more
coherently, and helped to clarify my thinking.
A special note of thanks also goes to thesis committee member Dr. Amin
Kazak, who has given graciously and generously of his time and advice throughout
my coursework as well as the preparation of this study. Dr. Kazak kindly offered me
his time and expertise. I owe much to his continuing help, encouragement, support
and advice.
Among other members of the University, I would like particularly to thank
thesis committee member Dr. Glenn Morris for reading the manuscript of this thesis
and offering suggestions for its improvement.


Contents
Page
Table of Contents........................................................vi
Illustrations..........................................................viii
Introduction:.............................................................1
- Research Problem .............................................4
- Research Statements and Major Questions.......................5
- Research Case Study...........................................6
- Research Objectives...........................................7
- Research Importance...........................................8
- Study Approaches............................................. 9
- Study Limitations............................................10
- Study Difficulties ..........................................10
- Study Plan...................................................11
I. The Euphrates/Tigris Basin System:....................................12
1. The Euphrates/Tigris Basin: A General Description..............13
a) The Euphrates River.....................................15
b) The Tigris River........................................17
2. Water Supply and Demand in the Euphrates/Tigris Basin.........21
a) Water Supply and Demand in Turkey.......................21
b) Water Supply and Demand in Syria........................22
c) Water Supply and Demand in Iraq.........................23
II. Water Disputes in the Euphrates/Tigris Basin:........................29
1. Existing Water Projects on the Euphrates/Tigris Basin:...........29
a) Existing Developments on the Euphrates River in Turkey.... 31
b) Existing Major Water Projects in Syria.....................31
c) Major Water Works in Iraq.................................. 33
VI


2. Projected Future Plans in regard to the Euphrates/Tigris:........38
a) The South-east Anatolia Project (SEAP)....................39
b) The Proposed Turkish Peace Pipeline.......................41
3. Riparians Position in regard to the Euphrates/Tigris Waters:....46
a) The Iraqi Position........................................46
b) The Syrian Position.......................................47
c) The Turkish Position......................................47
III. The Legal Setting of the Euphrates and the Tigris Rivers:.............51
1. The Notion of an International River.............................53
2. The Legal Rights of Riparian Countries...........................56
a) The Theory of Absolute Territorial Sovereignty............56
b) The Theory of Absolute Territorial Integrity..............57
c) The Theory of Limited Territorial Sovereignty..............58
3. Principles Regulating the Use of International Waters............61
IV. The Potential for Euphrates/Tigris Basin-wide Cooperation:.. 69
1. Existing Water Agreements in Regard to the Euphrates/Tigris......72
a) The 1987 Turkish-Syrian Protocol..........................74
b) The 1990 Syrian-Iraqi Accord..............................75
2. Challenges to Basin-Wide Cooperation.............................76
3. The Potential for a Cooperative Alternative......................83
Conclusion:.................................................................88
Appendixes...........................................................92
Appendix A........................................................93
Appendix B........................................................99
References...........................................................109
vii


Illustrations
Maps
Map 1.1
Map 1.2
Map 2.1
Map 2.2
Map 2.3
Page
The Euphrates/Tigris Basin..................................14
The Climatic Regions of Turkey, Syria and Iraq..............25
Schematic Representation of Existing and Planned Development
on the Euphrates /Tigris in Iraq..........................32
Schematic Representation of Existing and Planned Development
on the Euphrates/Tigris in Turkey and Syria...............35
The Projected Turkish Peace Pipeline.........................43
Table
Table 1.1 Average Water Supply & Demand Within the Euphrates/Tigris
Basin in Turkey, Syria and Iraq (billion cubic meters)..........26
Table 2.1 The Turkish Peace Pipeline Scheme.......................................44


INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER
The most recent report of the World Bank in regard to the issue of water
(released in March 1996), indicates that the population of the Middle East and
Northern Africa has doubled twice in the last three decades, and is expected to
double again by the end of the coming three decades. That means there will be a
need for more water for various economic activities.
With the exception of Turkey, rainfall is completely inadequate for
cultivation without irrigation in all countries in the region. Continuous increase in
population, whether natural increase or non-natural factors such as immigration, puts
more pressure on the already limited water resources in the area.
Because water is not only necessary for life, but rather it is life itself, all
indicators assert the continuation of the increase of demand on water resources
because of population increase. Limited water resources may become a potential
source of conflict among the riparian countries. Conditions for water related tension:
the regions arid climate, the physical sharing of rivers by more than one country, the
high population growth rates, and the fundamental political, cultural and religious
rift among nations all exist in the Middle East. Historic animosities also hinder the
rational management of water in the area. For example, violent disputes over water
have long been a part of the Arab-Israeli conflict.
l


1111 IIIII II lllllllllll I I I l 11 i II I i
One of the major characteristics of the water problem in the Middle East is
the use of water as a political weapon and a pressure card to solve other problems.
Another characteristic is the absence of organized legal rules and measures for water
distribution among the riparians of international rivers. Both 1929 and 1959 Nile
Water Agreements include only Egypt and the Sudan and not any of the other eight
Nile co-riparians. In the case of the Jordan River, there is a complete non-legal
acquisition of water of both the Litani and the Jordan Rivers by Israel. In regard to
the Euphrates/Tigris, there are only two partial agreements. No serious negotiations
have yet taken place among the three co-riparians of the Euphrates/Tigris basin.
While the water situation in the Middle East is very acute, because of
demographic/economic and political considerations, there is no comprehensive
agreement as to the use and distribution of waters among the riparians of each of the
major river basin systems. Such contradictions complicate the already difficult
economic and political circumstances of the water problem in the Middle East. For
example, Egypt, the Sudan and Ethiopia haggle over the Nile. Syria, Turkey and Iraq
compromise over the Euphrates/Tigris. And Israel, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria
compete over the waters of the Jordan River.
Shared water resources are a strong source of conflict, especially in an arid
area such as the Middle East. While the people of the area constitute 5% of world
population, they have only about 1% of the total world renewable water.
2


II
There is a close relationship between this resource and other phenomena and
developments in the area. A deeper look, especially in the case of shared river
courses among two or more countries, reveals how this issue has a great impact on
the regional balance of power, international and regional alliances of the concerned
parties, and the like. The history of competition and conflict over water resources in
the area has many precedents in this regard. For example, the building of the Aswan
High Dam begins as an Egyptian national project to make use of local economic
resources in more efficient ways, but this local project led to the interference of
several international parties (the U.S., the Soviet Union, and major European
powers), international institutions (the World Bank and the United Nations), and
finally a real change in the trend of international alliances of the countries in the
area. It is not strange, therefore, to assume that the High Dam, if it is not the only
cause, was at least the direct cause of such changes.
Another example can be seen in the Jordan River Basin System. Although the
Arab-Israeli Conflict is older than the dispute over the Jordan River waters, the
dispute over the waters of the Jordan River and its tributaries further complicates the
Arab-Israeli conflict. It was the direct cause behind the establishment of the highest
Arab institution (the Arab Summit Conferences). Also, it was one of the major
causes underlying the Six-Day War in 1967. In addition, water can be regarded as
one of the most important reasons for the continuation of the Israeli occupation of
Southern Lebanon since 1982.
3


ill mini
It would be incorrect of course to view all changes in the area as a result of
political disputes over water. However, water can still be seen as an important cause
of such disputes. It is important to emphasize that the unilateral use of water
resources, ignoring the other parties who share the same source, makes water a
strong subject for the outbreak of conflict.
Research Problem:
Although water was long regarded as a free commodity in the Middle East
because of its plentiful supply, the situation in recent years is quite different as water
disputes have been increasingly critical to many parties in the region, mainly because
of population increase and development plans. In other words, water resources issues
in the area are increasingly becoming major complicating factors because of scarcity,
combined with a highly growing population and a lack of water-sharing agreements
among most of the concerned parties. Therefore, it has been said the price of a drop
of water will exceed the price of a drop of oil. the future conflict in the Middle
East, if any, will be over water. In brief, the issue of water will ultimately determine
the prospects of cooperation and peace or conflict and war in the area.
Acknowledging that a comprehensive solution to the water problem in the
area that can satisfy all the needs of the concerned parties is hard to reach, scholars
argue that there will be only two possible strategic alternatives. The first is a
4



conflictual one, including the outbreak of war in the region to control water
resources. The other possible strategy is cooperation and the establishment of joint
projects. This raises a big question about which of these two strategies will prevail in
the future.
Research Statements and Major Questions:
The current problem over water in the Middle East is already acute and
severe. Several factors appear likely to further complicate the problem in the very
near future. In particular, rapidly growing populations in many countries of the area
intensify water rivalries as seventeen countries compete over water resources in the
three major river basins. Because water supplies are fixed, growing populations
means shrinking per capita water availability. The lack of significant comprehensive
binding agreements that can govern water distribution in the three major river basin
systems is another significant constraint that hinders the development and
management of their waters.
Given the current political situation, unfavorable demographics and the
limited amount of fresh water, tension over water in the region is likely to increase
greatly in the near future unless the concerned parties succeede in reaching some
cooperative agreements. A reciprocal approach to the development of the available
water resources must be adopted. If water rights and concerns are not cooperatively
5


) 1 ) ) )]
II) 1
I I J
addressed, the prevailing critical conditions will inevitably lead to conflict. In other
words, broader approaches to solve water problems in the Middle East are urgently
needed. Unilateral efforts, short-term programs and piecemeal approaches will only
aggravate the existed critical conditions.
Research Case Study:
This study is limited to the water problems of one of the three major river
basins in the Middle East the River Nile, the Jordan River and the Euphrates/Tigris
Rivers. I have chosen the Euphrates/Tigris basin for four reasons.
1. There is a danger of a potential conflict over the waters of the
Euphrates/Tigris. Turkey, the upstream riparian and the source of almost all the
waters of the Euphrates and half of the waters of the Tigris, is carrying out major
projects on the Euphrates. If Turkey managed to complete such projects, this will
have intolerable effects on both Syria and Iraq which may lead to overt conflict over
waters among the riparians of the basin.
2. The current dispute over the waters of the Euphrates/Tigris has its political
aspects.
3. The dispute over the waters of the Euphrates/Tigris waters represents a
unique legal dispute. While Syria and Iraq consider the two rivers as international
rivers governed by international rules in this regard, Turkey on the other hand denies
6


such nature and consider them as transboundaiy rivers. It claims the right to make
use of their waters as it pleases regardless of the negative effects on both Syria and
Iraq.
4. Although bilateral and tripartite meetings have been carried out between
the three co-riparians since the mid-1960s, no fundamental formal agreements have
been reached yet.
Research Objectives:
This study focuses on studying water problems in the Euphrates/Tigris basin.
It seeks to address the following set of questions: What does a closer examination of
water situation in the Euphrates/Tigris basin reveal about the nature of water
problems in the Middle East? What are its dimensions? How serious is the problem?
How can it be related to other phenomena? Which strategic alternative is going to
prevail in the future? What accounts for success in solving water problems in the
Euphrates/Tigris basin? To what extent the international rules governing
international rivers can help preventing the danger of conflict and war among the
riparians of the Euphrates/Tigris basin? What role could concerned international and
regional parties play in this regard? Are there any challenges for water cooperation?
What are they? How can they be overcome?
Accordingly, this study has three main objectives:
7


Ill
First, clarifying and identifying the nature of water problem in the Euphrates/Tigris
basin.
Second, figuring out the various dimensions of conflict over the Euphrates/Tigris
waters.
Third, determine the chances and possibilities of cooperation among the riparians in
regard to water distribution and use, factors affecting such chances and the role of
concerned parties: regional and international.
Research Importance:
My interest in studying water problems in the Euphrates/Tigris basin does not
come out of curiosity. Rather, it comes from its scientific and practical importance.
There is no doubt that this study has a scientific values because of its newness on
one hand and its comprehensiveness on the other hand as it connects the issue of
water with other aspects and considerations.
As for the practical importance of this study, it arises from its focus on water
as a vital commodity and how it affects the political game between nations. Water as
a political tool or weapon does not get much of scholars attention in regard to the
use of water for blackmailing or cooperation and mutual benefit, especially in an
area full of regional conflicts, and most of it lies in arid or semi-arid areas of the
8


Ill I
I lllll
11111111111111
globe such as the Middle East. Accordingly, the results of such a study may benefit
decision-makers in dealing with the issue of water.
Study Approaches:
Because of the compound nature of the phenomenon under study, as it has
natural, economic, legal, historic and political dimensions, a multiple approach must
be adopted. Accordingly, the study will make use of the following approaches:
- the historic approach, which helps in understanding the historic evolution of
the problem;
- the legal approach which help in looking at the general rules of the
international law in regard to the regulation and use of international rivers. Also,
figuring out the existing, if any, binding agreements between the concerned parties;
- the integrative approach, which helps in following the cooperative path
among the riparians of the same water resource;
- the conflict approach, which helps in analyzing conflict trends over water
among the co-riparians of the Euphrates/Tigris as an international rivers basin in the
area; and
- the case study approach, which helps in getting a deep understanding of a
specific case which, in turn, helps in comparing the situation in the various river
basins.
9


Study Limitations:
There are two limitations that must be mentioned:
First, although there are certain problems in regard to water use and distribution in
other major river basins in the Middle East, such as the River Nile and the Jordan
River, the focus in this study will be mainly on the Euphrates/Tigris basin.
Second, this study confines its analysis on water quantities. It does not include any
investigation about water qualities and environmental issues.
Study Difficulties:
Contradicting figures about available water resources, actual and future water
demand of concerned parties create confusion which represents a major difficulty for
this study. There is always a contradiction between the obtained figures according to
their respective sources (e.g., the observed average annual flow of the Euphrates
across the Turkish-Syrian border is 30.7 BCM according to the Turkish sources. The
Syrian corresponding figure is only 28 BCM).
In order to overcome such difficulty, a dual strategy will be adopted: a) not to
depend only upon one source of information, b) consider the average of the
contradicting figures as a valid value.
10


inn in i
Study Plan:
In addition to the introductory chapter and the conclusion, this study is
divided into four chapters. The first offers a general description of the
Euphrates/Tigris basin as well as water supply and demand in each of the three co-
riparians of the basin. It also offers a historical survey of water exploitation and
patterns of utilization of the Euphrates/Tigris waters. The second chapter examines
the international relations among the riparians of the Euphrates/Tigris basin from a
water perspective. It looks at present and projected future plans in regard to the
Euphrates/Tigris rivers. It also attempts to clarify the various positions of the riparian
countries in regard to the use and distribution of the Euphrates/Tigris waters.
Chapter three deals with the legal setting of the Euphrates and the Tigris Rivers in
light of established international principles and rules in regard to shared international
watercourses. Finally, chapter four discusses the cooperative alternative focusing on
the various aspects of water cooperation, existing and suggested cooperative
projects. It also examines the challenges for cooperation.
ll


CHAPTER 1
THE EUPHRATES/TIGRIS BASIN SYSTEM
The Euphrates/Tigris basin is shared by three co-riparians: Turkey, Syria and
Iraq. Climatic patterns within this basin vary from one area to another. Among the
three co-riparians, only Turkey is well endowed with precipitation. But in both Syria
and Iraq, there are wide areas which can be classified as arid or semi-arid. These arid
and semi-arid areas are highly dependent on the waters of the two rivers.
While supply of renewable water in general is limited, demand is always
increasing rapidly in most countries because of population increase and development
plans. This imbalance between water supply and demand may create problems as co-
riparians of international rivers, such as those of the Euphrates/Tigris basin, compete
for the limited water supply.
This chapter offers a general description of the Euphrates/Tigris basin and
examines water supply and demand in each of the three co-riparians of the basin as
well.
12


1. The Euphrates/Tigris Basin: A General Description:
Both the Euphrates and the Tigris Rivers (known as the Twin Rivers)
originate in south-eastern Turkey in a climatic and topographic area quite different
from the one in which they end up in the Persian Gulf. The two rivers begin about 30
kilometers from each other in a relatively cool and humid zone of high mountains
and deep gorges. From there, the Euphrates and the Tigris run onto a wide, flat, hot
and poorly drained areas. However, in their middle courses the two rivers start to
diverge hundreds of kilometers apart, and are joined by some major tributaries,
mainly from the left bank. Some 160 kilometers above the head of the Persian Gulf,
before the end of their relatively long journey, they meet each other again to form
the Shaft al-Axab and discharge together into the Gulf (Hillel, 1994:93-94). Map 1.1
presents the main course of both the Euphrates and the Tigris as well as their major
tributaries.
Because the Twin Rivers are united at Shaft al-Arab forming one
watercourse, and because Turkey, Syria and Iraq share both rivers, scholars have
traditionally treated the two separate river basins as one unit. However, it seems
reasonable, before embarking on our study, to give a somewhat detailed description
of each of the two rivers separately.
13


I
Map 1.1
The Euphrates/Tigris Basin
14


a) The Euphrates River:
The Euphrates (Arabic Furat and Turkish Firat) is the longer of the Twin
Rivers. It follows a course of about 2,350 kilometers through three riparians: 550
kilometers in Turkey, 700 kilometers in Syria and 1100 kilometers in Iraq (Kelani,
1993:12). It originates in the mountains of eastern Turkey between Lake Van and the
Black Sea as a result of the joining of two branches: the western Euphrates or Kara
Su (470 kilometers) and the eastern Euphrates or Murat Su (650 kilometers) which
join together on Turkish territory near Kemar (Fares, 1993:184). From that point, it
descends through the Taurus Mountains to the Syrian border south of Birecik
(Chalabi&Majzoub, 1995:191).
Within the Syrian territories, the Euphrates receives three tributaries which
account for Syrias contribution to the flow of the river: Al-Sajour with its annual
discharge of 180 Million Cubic Meters (MCM), the Belikh (150 MCM) and finally
the principal tributary el-Khabour with its annual discharge of 1.5 Billion Cubic
Meters (BCM) (Fares, 1993:185,186).
After having flowed for about 700 kilometers through Syria, the Euphrates
enters Iraq at the village of Abuo-Kamal, where no further water is added to its flow
from within the Iraqi territories with the exception of irregular and infrequent
diversion of some of the Tigris water to its flow (Kolars, 1994:51).
15


mil
mm
The data on the mean discharge of the Euphrates is a matter of dispute
among concerned scholars. There is a great variation in the data provided according
to the particular source. According to the Turks, the observed average annual flow
across the Turkish-Syrian border is 30.7 BCM. The Syrian corresponding figure, by
contrast, is only 28 BCM (Robins, 1991:88). Kliot considers 31.8 BCM as a valid
value prior to the rivers recent development in Turkey and 29.8 at present (Kliot,
1994:51,108).
While most scholars state that 88% of the Euphrates water comes from the
part of the basin situated in Turkey with the remaining 12% coming from the Syrian
basin of the river (e.g., Chalabi&Majzoub, 1995:191; Beaumont, 1981:56), some
others, such as Kolars, state that these tributaries receive most of their waters from
springs immediately south of the Turkish-Syrian border and have their catchments
inside the Turkish territories. Thus, the flow of these tributaries can be affected by
the tapping of their feeding acquifers inside Turkey. Kolars (1994) states that
Turkeys contribution to the Euphrates water could be as high as 98% of the total
discharge of the river (Kolars, 1994:51).
Kliot also states that Syria has a doubtful water contribution of less than 2%
of the Euphrates flow through the Balikh and western Khabour. He concludes that
almost certainly these two tributaries are fed by Turkish aquifers. Therefore, their
water contribution should be related to Turkey. However, Hillel indicates that the
mean natural flow of the Euphrates is about 30 BCM/year at its entrance into Syria
16


from Turkey and about 32 BCM/year on leaving Syria after having taken in the
Balikh and the western Khabour waters (Hillel, 1994:95). Thus, Turkey contributes
most of the Euphrates waters -somewhere between 88 and 98% of the rivers total
discharge.
The Euphrates, in fact, receives no additional water south of the Syrian city
of Der el-Zor. That is to say, Iraq contributes nothing to the Euphrates waters.
b) The Tigris River:
The Tigris River (Arabic Dijla and Turkish Dicle) originates from a small
mountain lake called Hazar Golu south of the city of Elazig in eastern Turkey (about
30 kilometers from the headwaters of its twin the Euphrates). It has a total length of
1900 kilometers: 360 kilometers in Turkey, about 44 kilometers along the pointed
northern- eastern comer of Syria (36 kilometers constitute its borders there with
Turkey and 8 kilometers constitute its border at that comer with Iraq, and 1500
kilometers in Iraq) (Hillel, 1994:96).
Turkey fares well also in the Tigris basin, it contributes all the water in the
main channel of the river as measured at Mousel, and 50% of the total discharge of
the Tigris. At its entering of Iraq, the Tigris annual flow is between 20 and 23
BCM/year (Kliot, 1994:114).
17


Contrary to the case of the Euphrates, Iraq has a better position with regard to
its contribution to the Tigris flow. In Iraq, the Tigris collects an additional 25 to 29
BCM/year from its left-bank tributaries for an average total of over 50 BCM/year.
The Tigris major tributaries in Iraq are: the eastern Khabour, the Greater Zab, the
Lesser Zab (the three are fed by snowmelt from the high mountains of the Iraqi and
Iranian Kurdistan), the Uzaym and Diyalla, which are fed from the Zagrous
Mountains in Iran (Hillel, 1994:93). Thus, the contribution of the Tigris tributaries
in Iraq is very significant and contribute about one-third of the Tigris flow.
Near Samarra, a barrage diverts Tigris water surplus into the Tharthar
Depression to the west for the purpose of downstream flood protection. At times,
water is diverted from the Tigris into the Tharthar Depression and from there to the
Euphrates (Kolars, 1994:54). The Tigris finally joins with the Euphrates at Al-
Kumah to form the Shatt al-Arab just before discharging together into the Persian
Gulf. It is also worth noting that the Shatt al-Arab is joined on its left bank by the
Karun River, which flows southward from the Iranian province of Khuzistan (Hillel,
1994:96).
The Tigris receives 38% of its water directly from Turkey and approximately
another 11% from tributaries which also rise there (Kolars, 1994:46). It is worth
noting that Iran is a partner in the Tigris basin because of the fact that two of the
major tributaries of the Tigris rise from within its territory: the Lesser Zab and
Diyallah. It also contains the Kharun River, which discharges its water into the Shatt
18


Ill
al-Arab which composed of the unified course of the Euphrates and the Tigris and its
last part constitutes the international border between Iraq and Iran. As a result of
this, Iran is a co-riparian to the Euphrates/Tigris basin (Kolars, 1994:100,115).
However, since it is a minor contributor to the combined Euphrates/Tigris waters
and only through tributaries to the Tigris, its rights in the basin under study,
according to Kolars, are minor. Therefore, this study will focus only on the three
major co-riparians of the Euphrates/Tigris: Turkey, Syria and Iraq. Also of
importance is that Iran has a good water position and currently has no urgent need to
use the waters of the Tigris tributaries that rise from its territory.
The water contribution of the co-riparians to the Euphrates/Tigris are
estimated as follows: Turkeys contribution at 70-74%, Iraq 13-16%, Iran 3-8% and
Syria 2% (Kliot, 1994:115-116).
It is important to note that the flow of both the Euphrates and the Tigris
varies extremely from one year to another. The available records indicate that the
Euphrates annual flow in Turkey at Birecik near the Syrian border ranged from a
maximum of 42.7 BCM in 1963 to a minimum of 15.3 BCM in 1961. The Tigris also
exhibits considerable variations from a recorded minimum of 16.9 BCM to a
maximum of 58.7 BCM (Hillel, 1994:102).
The flow of both rivers also varies along the length of each river depending
on the amount of water received from tributaries. More importantly, there are also
two distinct rise periods: a minor one between the month of November until the end
19


of March, mainly due to rainfall, and a major rise in the months of April and May,
mainly because of snowmelt. In the major rise, the Twin Rivers may carry as much
as ten times the water they carry in their minor rise (Hillel, 1994:97). In short,
variation in the flow of both the Euphrates and the Tigris ranges from condition of
severe drought to destructive flooding. On this basis, the Turks make one of their
strong justifications for implementing the South-East Anatolia Project (SEAP) with
its giant dams and reservoirs capable of smoothing out such variance and providing a
dependable year-round flow downstream. As we shall see later, this argument has
not been persuasive enough for Turkeys co-riparians in the Euphrates/Tigris basin:
Syria and Iraq.
The Twin Rivers are high at an unfavorable time of year, from the standpoint
of most agricultural crops. For this reason, a considerable engineering and skilled
water management has been developed to control and maintain an effective system
of diversion and storage, both to prevent destructive floods and to retain flood waters
for subsequent irrigation during the main growing season.
Flood control constructions have been settled and utilized first in the lower
reaches of the Euphrates/Tigris. The upstream areas have been the last to be
developed (Kolars, 1994:47). Evidence of some of the most ancient waterworks in
the world has been found in lower Mesopotamia (the land between the Twin Rivers).
Perhaps the most impressive of these works, according to Hillel, is the Great
Nahrawan Canal (300 kilometers long and about 30 meters wide) which apparently
20


was built in the 6th century B.C. to convey water from the Tigris eastward to irrigate
lands (Hillel, 1994:97-98).
2. Water Supply and Demand in the Euphrates/Tigris Basin:
After having described the Euphrates/Tigris basin, attention will be given
now to water supply and demand in each of the basins three major co-riparians:
Turkey, Syria and Iraq. This is important for two reasons: 1) it gives a clear idea
about areas of water surplus and those of water shortage within the basin; 2) it helps
to explain the existing, and expected, water-related tension among the co-riparians of
the Euphrates/Tigris.
a) Water Supply and Demand in Turkey:
Apart from the Euphrates/Tigris waters, Turkey has its own other water
resources. In addition to its three international rivers: the Goruh River (442
kilometers within the Turkish territories up to the ex-Soviet Union-Turkish border),
the Euphrates (550 kilometers up the Turkish-Syria border) and the Tigris (360
kilometers up to the Turkish-Iraqi border), Turkey has several internal rivers that rise
from within its territories and pour into the adjacent seas. The most important of
these are: the Kizilirmak River (1355 kilometers), the Sakaiya River (824
kilometers), the Seyhan River (650 kilometers), the Yesilirmak River (519
21


kilometers), the Geyhan River (509 kilometers) and the Gediz River (401
kilometers). In fact, one of Turkeys strengths in regard to water concerns the
internal rivers over which Turkey can exercise complete sovereignty (Mouawad,
1992:767).
In short, Turkey is well endowed with water resources and its current and
future demands will be satisfied quite easily from all its available resources.
b) Water Supply and Demand in Syria:
Syria has an arid and semi-arid climate in most of its territory. Its surface
water, apart from the Euphrates/Tigris and their tributaries, amounts to only 3.9 to
6.6 BCM of water. The Euphrates is Syrias largest river. Within Syria, as mentioned
earlier, three important tributaries feed into it. The most important source is the
Khabour, Syrias major Euphrates tributary. In addition to the Euphrates, Syria has
the Orontes (Arabic: al-Asi), which is an international river shared by Lebanon
(where it originates), Syria and Turkey, and the Yarmouk, which is a tributary of the
Jordan River shared by Syria, Jordan and Israel. Also, Syria has 44 kilometers on the
main course of the Tigris River constituting part of its border with both Turkey and
Iraq. Therefore, Syria is a co-riparian in the Tigris basin according to the Helsinki
Rules. In addition to surface water, Syria has some supply of groundwater (ranging
22


m m mi ii
between 1.78 to 2.67 BCM) which is utilized through 30,000 wells. Unfortunately,
they are over-utilized (Kliot, 1994:137-138).
Syria is certainly in an unfavorable hydrological position within the
Euphrates because of its midstream location and high dependence on the Euphrates
i
and its tributaries for irrigation and hydro-electric power production. In contrast to
Turkey, more than half of the Syrian territory is desert and semi-desert. The
Euphrates alone accounts for as much as 86% of the water available to the country
(Lowi, 1994:273).
Syrias population will reach 18 million by the end of the century. By that
time, its needs will be as high as 13 BCM/year (Sobhi, 1992:16). Experts predict
that Syria will face an annual deficit of about one BCM by the year 2000. And when
Turkey completes its SEAT plan, Syria could lose as much as 40% of its Euphrates
water (Hassan, 1991:136).
c) Water Supply and Demand in Iraq:
The climate of Iraq is also mostly arid, and Iraq relies heavily on the
Euphrates/Tigris waters. Total surface water in Iraq is between 76 and 84.4 BCM,
98% of which related to the Euphrates/Tigris and their tributaries. Iraqs own surface
water resources are only 15.6 BCM. It also has underground waters of about 1.2
BCM (Kliot, 1994:143). Almost two-thirds of the total land of Iraq is desert. Iraqs
23


agricultural production is highly dependent on the Euphrates/Tigris for agricultural
irrigation. Obviously, Iraqs dependence on the Tigris is less complicated since the
river has many major tributaries that rise from within the Iraqi territories.
At present, the Iraqi population is about 18.5 million and consumes 8.6 BCM
of the Euphrates water for different purposes. In the year 2000, they will reach 24
million and their needs will be about 10 BCM/year (Sobhi, 1992:16). It is also
important to know that the average volume of water leaving Turkey to Syria through
the Euphrates is 28.4 BCM/year and represents only 27% of Turkeys water
availability (Beaumont, 1981:55-56).
Of the three riparians of the Euphrates/Tigris basin, in terms of water supply,
Turkey is the best off. The countrys average annual rainfall is adequate for rain-fed
agriculture (Lowi, 1994:273). A quick outlook at Map 1.2 clearly indicates how the
climatic conditions favor Turkey if compared with both Syria and Iraq, whose
territories lie in semi-arid areas with much less rain. The geopolitical meaning of this
is that Turkey, as an upstream riparian, has a significant leverage over both its
downstream co-riparians: Syria and Iraq. When Syria completes its plans for water
withdrawals from the Euphrates, as much as about 30% of the Euphrates flow will
be reduced, thus leaving Iraq with less than 20% of the Euphrates flow. Thus the
possibility of tensions, disputes, or even overt conflict, in the area is extremely high.
For the coming half century, Turkey is the only country among the three co-
riparians of the Euphrates/Tigris basin not projected to have a water shortage. To the
24


Map 1.2
The Climatic Regions of Turkey, Syria and Iraq
Legend:
[ ] Semi Arid Climate 200-400 mm of Rainfall
[ ' ) '] Semi Arid Climate Cold and Dry 200-400 mm of Rainfall
[ iiisl] Mediterranean Climate Dry Summers 400-800 mm of Rainfall
Temperate Cold and Humid Climate with Warm Summers 600-1000 mm of Rainfall
Temperate Cold and Humid Climate, Rainfall in all seasons 1000-2000 mm
Source: (Kliot, 1994:105).
25


contrary, it probably will have water surplus from the Euphrates/Tigris in addition,
of course, to the waters of its internal rivers. It is estimated that Iraq will be the first
to suffer a water shortage. By the year 2005, less than a decade from now, the
shortage is estimated to be as high as 9.5 BCM (see Table 1.1).
Table 1.1
Average Water Supply & Demand Within the Euphrates/Tigris
Basin
in Turkey, Syria and Iraq
(billion cubic meters)
1990 2005 2040
Country Supply Demand Balance Supply Demand Balance Supply Demand Balance
Turkey 46.7 2.8 + 43.9 46.7 12.7 +34.0 46.7 28.7 +18
Syria 30.5 3.7 + 26.8 18.0 7.0 + 9.0 13.6 14.7 1.1
Iraq (Before Aug.90) 78.3 41.5 + 36.8 50.0 59.5 - 9.5 49.3 61.7 -12.4
Source; Adapted from (Kliot, 1994:148).
Obviously, the high demand for water within the Euphrates/Tigris system is
related to high population growth rates and to rapidly growing farming economies,
which are greatly dependent on irrigation. The available data reveals that per capita
water availability is decreasing dramatically in both Syria and Iraq. While per capita
26


i i miiiiii mi mu ii
renewable water resources were 1,196 and 14,706 cubic meters in Syria and Iraq
respectively in 1960, the World Bank data estimates that the corresponding figures
will be as low as 161 and 2,000 by the year 2025 (The World Bank, 1994:68).
It is estimated that Iraq is most likely to face water shortages by the turn of
the century followed by Syria by the end of the coming two decades or so (Kliot,
1994:148). However, Hassan (1991) argues that Syria will face an annual deficit of
about one BCM by the year 2000 as Syrian water experts predict (Hassan, 1991:136).
Kliot (1994) comes to a similar conclusion in regard to Syria when he states that
both Iraq and Syria will face water shortages even earlier if Turkey continues its
enormous development projects on the Euphrates and releases only 16 BCM of the
Euphrates waters across the Turkish-Syrian border. In this case, both Syria and Iraq
will face water shortages by the turn of the century leaving Turkey as the only co-
riparian of the Euphrates/Tigris basin not facing any water shortage (Kliot,
1994:148).
In modem times, the need for more water led all of the three riparians to
proceed with extensive irrigation and hydroelectric power supply projects.
Therefore, numerous large and small dams, barrages and diversion canals have been
built, or planned, for the purpose of controlling the flows of both rivers in Turkey,
Syria and Iraq.
The most important feature of water exploitation and patterns of utilization
of the Euphrates/Tigris waters and the projects carried out on the two rivers in the
27


II III II HIIIHIIIIII III I Mil HIM I II...................1111
last three decades, or still under construction or planned, is the separate planning,
development and lack of co-ordination among co-riparians as opposed to the need
for integrated water plans in the basin. In other words, the evolving pattern of
utilization shows that there is neither integrated planning nor co-ordination among
the co-riparians, and that each is involved in unilateral and separate efforts to
maximize utilization of its own water resources. This will certainly lead to tensions
and conflict among the co-riparians of the Euphrates/Tigris basin. This leads us to
the second part of this study, which deals with water disputes in the Euphrates/Tigris
basin and the riparians contradictory positions in regard to the use of the
Euphrates/Tigris waters.
28


CHAPTER 2
WATER DISPUTES IN THE EUPHRATES/TIGRIS BASIN
This chapter examines the international relations among the three co-
riparians of the Euphrates/Tigris basin from a water perspective. It looks at existing
as well as projected future plans in regard to utilization of the Euphrates and the
Tigris Rivers. This will help us in understanding the various positions of the riparian
countries in regard to use and distribution of the Euphrates/Tigris waters.
Accordingly, this chapter is divided into three sections. The first looks at
existing water constructions on the Euphrates/Tigris basin. The second deals with the
projected future plans in this regard. The third section clarifies the riparians
positions in regard to the use and distribution of the Euphrates/Tigris waters to see
the similarities and the differences among them.
1. Existing Water Projects on the Euphrates/Tigris Basin:
Before 1973, the Euphrates River was running naturally without any major
dam constructions in either Turkey or Syria. Only Iraq, as mentioned earlier, had
some major constructions on both the Euphrates and file Tigris, mainly for
29


iiiii mail i
II III llll I I
downstream flood control. But in the 1970s and the 1980s, several major water
construction projects were carried in each of the Euphrates/Tigris co-riparians.
An important feature of the existing and planned projects on the
Euphrates/Tigris, especially on the Euphrates, in all of the three co-riparians is that
of a competitive, not a complementary nature. A policy that has severe consequences
both on the level of exploitation of the basins waters as well as on the legal position
of the concerned countries. All of the three riparians, especially Turkey which is
involved in an enormous process of dam construction are involved in unilateral
plans to expand their utilization of the Euphrates/Tigris waters. In other words, there
is an almost total lack of cooperation among the three riparians of the
Euphrates/Tigris basin. After the failure of a series of discussions and meetings
among the three co-riparians of the Euphrates/Tigris basin during the 1950s and the
1960s, each country began a unilateral effort to harness the parts of the two rivers
that run through its territory, mainly because of population pressures and increasing
internal water demand.
These unilateral developments, especially on the Euphrates, came very close
to erupting into warfare. If the three riparians: Turkey, Syria and Iraq had coexisted
with varying degrees of tension over the issue of water throughout the 1960s, water
problems not only began to rise, but sometimes led them close to armed conflicts.
But before dealing with such problems, tensions and conflicts, it is imperative to
review existing water developments in each of the concerned parties.
30


a) Existing Developments on the Euphrates River in Turkey:
Turkey has three major existing projects on the Euphrates (see Map 2.1). The
first of these is the Keban Dam, 211 meters high with a 30.7 BCM storage capacity,
built at the joining point of the Kara Su and Murat Su making the Euphrates main
channel. Work on this dam started in mid-1960s and was finished by 1974. Its main
purpose is to generate electricity. Its annual average capacity is 5870 million
kw/hour. The Karakaya Dam is the second major development on the Euphrates in
Turkey about 166 kilometers south of the Keban Dam. Its storage capacity is
smaller than the first dam (about 9.6 BCM). The third, and biggest, is the Attaturk
Dam about 200 kilometers south of the Karakaya Dam and only 65 kilometers from
the Turkish-Syrian border. It has an enormous storage capacity of 84.5 BCM. Unlike
the first two dams, it is a multi-purpose dam. While the main purpose of the first two
dams is generating electricity, this dam aims at irrigating one million hectares of
land (Al-Adli, 1996:249-250).
b) Existing Major Water Profects in Syria:
In Syria, the first major construction on the Euphrates is the Tishreen Dam
near the Turkish-Syrian border, with its small reservoir (1300 MCM), followed
downstream by the Tabqa or al-Thawra Dam with its relatively massive Lake Assad
behind it with a storage capacity of 11,6 BCM. This dam is Syrias biggest water
31


Map 2.1
Schematic Representation of Existing and Planned Development
on the Euphrates/Tigris in Turkey and Syria
Source: (Kolars, 1994:52).
32


storage development on the Euphrates. It provided Syria with 60% of its electricity
in 1989. About 26 kilometers from the al-Thawrah Dam, lies the Baath Dam with
its relatively small storage capacity (90 MCM). Work on this dam was completed in
1988 (Al-Adli, 1996:453). In addition, there are also three small dams on the
Khabour tributary. They are: The Saab Dam, the Shouhei Dam and the Taaf Dam
(see also Map 2.1).
c) Major Water Works in Iraq:
Farthest upstream on the Euphrates in Iraq is the Qadisiya Dam, completed in
1987, with a storage capacity of 7 BCM. Downstream from the Qadisiya Dam is the
Ramadi Barrage, which is used to divert water into the Habbaniya Reservoir. And
finally, farther downstream, is the Hindiya Barrage, which also is built to divert
water for irrigation (Kolars, 1994:83-84).
On the Tigris, there is the Saddam Dam at the city ofMousl, which is used
for hydropower, irrigation and flood control. Then, the Samarra Barrage which is
used to divert flood water into the Tharthar Depression, followed by the Diyalla
Weir Barrage. Far downstream istheAl-Kut Barrage, built in 1939 for the purpose
of irrigation and flood control. There are five other small dams built primarily for
flood control: the Dokan Dam, the Dibbis Dam and the Taqtaq Dam built in 1959 on
33


the Lesser Zab, and the Darbandikhandam(1961)andtheHamrinDam(1987)on
the Diyalla (Kolars, 1994:84). See Map 2.2.
Because of the most recent dam constructions, especially in Turkey and
Syria, the relations between the three co-riparians of the Euphrates/Tigris basin twice
have gone through moments of crisis and tension. The first took place in 1974-1975
between Syria and Iraq after Syria built its al-Thawrah Dam. The Iraqis claimed that
it badly affected its agricultural production. The flow of the Euphrates to Iraq was
reduced by 25% which hurt about three million Iraqi farmers (Mikhamer& Hegazi,
1996:111). While the rivers average annual discharge during the 42 years
between 1931 and 1973 was 29.6 BCM as measured at Hit (200 kilometers
downstream from the Syrian borders) in Iraq, it was only 9.02 BCM in 1973-1974,
and as low as 5.42 BCM in the following year (Fares, 1993:190). As Iraq threatened
to bomb the dam, there was a danger of a military confrontation between the two
Arab countries. Both countries reportedly transferred troops to their mutual border.
Only with the Saudis mediation was the tension eased when Syria agreed to release
more water to Iraq. The two parties finally arrived at an agreement,
according to which Syria agreed to keep only about 40% of the Euphrates flow
within its border and allow the remaining 60% to enter Iraq (Wolf, 1994:29).
In fact, there were some other factors that led to the exacerbation of the
situation. First, the Turks were filling the reservoir behind the Keban Dam which
came by chance at the same time that Lake Assad behind Syrias al-Thawrah Dam
34


Map 2.2
Schematic Representation of Existing and Planned Development
on the Euphrates/Tigris in [raq
Source: (Kolars, 1994:53).
35


nun mu
was being filled, both in order to generate electricity. Second, as Kolars indicates,
this coincided with one of the driest years in the Euphrates basin in decades (Kolar,
1994:49). Third, the crisis came within the context of permanent tension between the
two neighboring Arab countries for ideological and political reasons.
The second crisis came in January 1990 when Turkey temporarily blocked
the course of the Euphrates to one-tenth its normal volume for 27 days to fill its new
massive Ataturk Dam reservoir. The Attaturk Dam is one of the worlds five largest
dams in dam water reserve volume. It is so far the largest project ever attempted in
Turkey. The work on the Attaturk Dam started in 1982 and was completed in 1992.
It has the capacity to generate 2400 megawatts of electricity (Hillel, 1994:105-106).
As a result of the blocking, the Syrian and Iraqi shares of the Euphrates waters were
reduced by 40% and 80% respectively (Kelani, 1993:27).
Both Syria and Iraq were deprived completely of the Euphrates water.
Among the negative effects on Syria: a reduction in electricity generation, fishing
and water shortage for land irrigation. In Iraq, 2,1 million hectares of cultivated land
were abandoned (260,000 hectares for each BCM of water reduction). In addition,
there was a loss of electricity generation, especially 40% of Iraqs electricity is
generated by the Euphrates water (Al-Sharq, 10/11/1992).
It was not strange that Iraq and Syria suddenly united, set aside their rivalries
stemming from the contradicting views of the ruling Baath Party in both countries
and formed an uneasy detente to face the crisis. The two countries went so far as to
36


Ill
hold secret military talks to discuss the possibilities of going to war in case of future
pressure by Turkey (Bulloch&Darwish, 1995:66)
In the Round Table Meetings held between the three countries, the Syrians
insisted on the 1987 Protocol which states that Turkey has a commitment to release
at least 500 CM/S. The Iraqi delegation stated that the historic rights acquired by
Syria, and accordingly Iraq, is 28 BCM (based on the mean average flow of the
Euphrates) or 800 CM/S at the Turkish-Syrian border. The Iraqi representatives
argue that the Turkish commitment in its 1987 Protocol with Syria to release at least
500 CM/S is considered as a minimum flow during the filling ofthe Attaturk Dam.
This average should be between 600 to 700 CM/S until the concerned parties reach
an agreement in regard to the waters of the Euphrates (Mikhamer&Hegazi,
1996:116).
The Turks, for their part, argue that Iraq has the Tigris and it can make good
any shortfalls from the Euphrates, especially since the two rivers are actually linked
together through the Tharthar Canal which holds some potential for the substitution
of Tigris for Euphrates Waters in Iraq (see Map 4). But from the Iraqis point of
view, there are at least two problems with this proposed solution by the Turks. First,
there is the question of servicing water needs of the Tigris upstream areas. Second,
there is no guarantee, with Turkey developing the Tigris, that this river may not be
severely depleted at some stage in the future (Robins, 1991:94-95). This is due to the
fact that in addition to the GAP projects on the Euphrates, GAP also envisages a
37


Ill I 11II III
series of about six major dams, as well as irrigation projects on the Tigris River (see
Map 2.1), to be implemented after the year 2000. If built, the dams will extract an
estimated 5-7 BCM of water, constituting about one-third of the upper Tigris natural
flow into Iraq (Hillel, 1994:106).
2. Projected Future Plans in regard to the Euphrates/Tigris:
Although Iraq plans to build a number of small dams on the main channel of
both the Euphrates and the Tigris and extend the capacity of its existing major
reservoirs, the Turkish plans to develop the Euphrates/Tigris basin will have serious
future negative effects on both Syria and Iraq.
In fact, the Attaturk Dam is but only one of a series of major projects Turkey
plans to implement on the Euphrates and the Tigris. Turkey declared an ambitious
plan to implement a huge project on the Euphrates and develop an irrigation program
known as the Southeast Annatolia Project (SEAP), which may seriously affect the
relations between the three riparians of the Euphrates/Tigris basin. By the year 2000,
Turkey plans to increase its hydroelectric output ten-fold as part of its priority
development of domestic energy resources. The project will also revolutionize
Turkish agriculture in the Eastern Annatolia plains by raising cotton production to
double and rice output to triple. As a direct result of this project, the Euphrates
rivers flow to Syria will be substantially lower than its previous normal flow
38


(George, 1987:27). Further projects by the Syrians would leave for the Iraqis, the last
downstream riparian, a smaller amount of flow than before. This potentially could
create an even more explosive situation over the division of water-flow of the
Euphrates River. In addition, the Turks proposed another project which increases the
worries of their two co-riparians.
a) The South-east Annatolia Project (SEAP):
Turkeys South-east Annatolia Project (Turkish acronym: GAP) is the largest
integrated scheme in Turkeys history. It is an irrigation and power generation
complex which incorporates the construction of 21 dams and 19 hydropower plants
on the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. The GAP was originally planned in the 1960s by
the State Hydraulics Works and was converted in the mid-1980s into an integrated
development project by President Turgut Ozal, who has taken upon himself a deep
personal interest in the project (Gruen, 1992:7).
The GAP is intended to introduce intensive and profitable farming by
bringing irrigation to south-eastern Turkey. One million hectares of land are
scheduled to be irrigated with water from the Euphrates and 625,000 hectares from
the Tigris. The GAP also will have a total of7500 MW installed capacity with an
average annual production of 26 billion KWH (Kolars, 1994:48). In addition, GAP
has a potential for raising the standard of living in south-east Annatolia, an area
39


mostly settled by Kurds, which has remained isolated and underdeveloped until very
recently. The Turks want to ease the discontent of the Kurdish people who constitute
the majority in the region. That is to say, it is a matter of internal security in regard
to the Kurdish problem.
If the GAP project is completed as planned, lower flows would appear
inevitable for both Syria and Iraq. Syria has ambitious plans to expand the amount of
land under irrigation. In the 1970s, there were proposed schemes for reclaiming at
least 640,000 hectares of land in the Euphrates basin. However, progress has been
very slow, and only 61,000 hectares of new land has either been brought into
cultivation or, at least, will be cultivated in the near future (George, 1987:27). Water
requirement for this cultivated area can easily be supplied at the present time from
the 12 milliard cubic meters in the Lake Assad or from the rivers flow. But in the
long-run, any reduction of the Euphrates water entering Syria could be a major
constraint on the countrys agricultural development projects. When completed the
GAP will not leave much water in the Twin Rivers, especially the Euphrates. The
Turkish plans for water usage in the Euphrates/Tigris basin are going to reduce the
amount of water available to its downstream riparians significantly. The most
pessimistic forecasts in Syria and Iraq are that the GAP could cost Syria 40% and
Iraq 90% of the Euphrates flow (Bullock&Darwish, 1996:62).
If Turkeys plans are fully realized, only 13 BCM of water will eventually
flow into Syria. This will be supplemented by 1.8 BCM from within the Syrian
40


territories, mainly from the Khabour River, a major tributary which flows into the
Euphrates in Northeast Syria. Syrias potential net out-take from the Euphrates
system, meanwhile, has been estimated at 7 BCM per year. Iraq could be left with as
little as 8 BCM of water per year (George, 1987:27). Therefore, it seems inevitable
that the already fierce rivalry between the three countries over water will intensify.
No doubt, Turkeys plans will have a serious impact on Syrias long-term
capability to develop irrigated land, not to mention the effects on electric power
generation at the Euphrates Dam at Lake Assad. The situation in regard to Iraq will
be much more complicated as its estimated water needs will reach 17 BCM by the
year 2000. The completion of the Turkish SEAP will deprive 40% of Iraqs
agricultural area in the Euphrates basin from agricultural use (Kelani, 1993:12).
Obviously, Syrias problems over the Euphrates are less grave than those facing Iraq,
which will suffer many difficulties from water engineering schemes of both the
upstream countries. The rivers flow at the Syrian-Iraqi borders is already far below
the recorded flow at Hit measured before Turkey and Syria built their first dams.
b) The Proposed Turkish Peace Pipeline:
The idea of the project was launched for the first time by Turgut Ozal, the
then Turkish Prime Minister, in February 1987 during his visit to the US. The $21
billion projects aim is to pipe water from southern Turkey, an area of surplus water,
41


Ill
to the Arabian Peninsula, an area with water shortages, through a pipeline which will
originate in the Seyhan and Gehan Rivers in Anatolia. The average annual total
discharge of these two rivers is 39.1 MCM/day of which Turkey plans to utilize
approximately 23.0 MCM/day for irrigation and hydroelectric power generation. The
remaining 16.1 MCM/day, which actually flows into the Mediterranean, could be
used in the Peace pipelines (Duna, 1995:121).
The proposed pipe will have two branches. The first is the western pipeline,
which will have a total length of2,650 kilometers and will start in Turkey, traverse
the Nur mountains through a tunnel, continue to Syria (Aleppo, Homa, Homs and
Damascus) and Jordan (Amman) and reach Saudi Arabia (Tabuk, Medina, Yanbu,
Jeddah and Mecca). The second branch, the eastern pipeline (or the Gulf line) will
cross the high Jordan plateau parallel to the Iraq-Jordan border. The route will then
follow the trans-Arabian pipeline (Tapline) to the Gulf. This 3,900 kilometers
pipeline will serve Kuwait, Saudi Arabia (Jubail, Dammam, Hofuf), Bahrain, Qatar,
United Arab Emirates and Oman. The total annual discharge of the first line will be
1,277 BCM or 3,5 MCM/ Day and the second line will be 912 BCM or 2.5
MCM/Day (Kliot, 1994:132-133; Robins, 1991:97). Map 2.3 indicates the planned
route for the two branches of the proposed pipeline and Table 2.1 shows the
projected water supply for each of the said locations.
42


Map 2.3
The Projected Turkish Peace Pipeline
Source: (Kliot, 1994:132).
i
43


Table 2.1
The Turkish Peace Pipeline Scheme
The Western Pipeline The Gulf Pipeline
Location Assumed Water Delivered (CM/Day) Location Assumed Water Delivered (CM/Day)
Turkey 300,000 Kuwait 600,000
Syria Saudi Arabia
Aleppo 300,000 Jubail 200,000
Hama 100,000 Dammam 200,000
Homs 100,000 Al-Khobar 200,000
Damascus 600,000 Hufuf 200,000
1,100,000 Bahrain 800,000
Manama 200,000
Jordan Qatar
Amman 600,000 Doha 100,000
Saudi Arabia UAE
Tabuk 100,000 Abu Dhabi 280,000
Medina 300,000 Duai 160,000
Yanbu 100,000 Shaijah/Ajman 120,000
Jeddah 500,000 Umm Al-Quaiwain/
Mecca 500,000 Ras Al-Khaimah/
1,500,000 Fujairah 40,000 600,000
Oman
Muscat 200,000
Total 3,500,000 Total 2,500,000
Source: (Robins, 1991:97).
44


111 iiiiii
Compared with $5 per cubic meter of desalinated water, the average cost of
water delivered has been estimated at $0.84 per cubic meter for the western pipeline
and $1.07 per cubic meter for the Gulf pipeline. The annual Turkish revenue from
this project has been estimated at two billion dollars per year (Kliot, 1994:133).
While such pipelines are technically, financially and ecologically feasible, as a $2.7
million feasibility study done by the US consultants Brown and Root indicates
(Robins, 1991:96), the concerned Arab states, which are supposed to be benefited by
the project, seem skeptical in regard to the Turkish offer. This stems from practical
fears that the pipelines could easily be cut by anyone, including other Arab states. In
addition, it would make them dependent on Turkey for such a vital commodity as
water. In other words, the obstacles to the project are mainly political (Duna,
1995:122-123).
More importantly, both Syria and Iraq worry about this project and its
negative effects upon them. According to the Middle East newspaper (U.K.) in its
April 12, 1994 issue, the two countries argue that while Turkey increases its use of
the Euphrates waters at their expense, it intends to sell the water of its internal rivers
at the same time.
45


3. Riparians Positions in regard to the Euphrates/Tigris Waters:
As a result of their unilateral efforts to harness the parts of the Twin Rivers
that run through their respective territories, each of the three co-riparians has
attempted to justify its actions. This has led to a complex process of arguments and
counter-arguments and claims and counterclaims. Unfortunately, the differences
among the positions adopted by the concerned parties are far greater than the
similarities.
a) The Iraqi Position:
Iraq, being heir to the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia, claims that it has
possessed ancient rights to the Euphrates/Tigris waters for about 6000 years.
Therefore, it claims long-standing historical rights to utilize the waters of the Twin
Rivers. Because of Iraqs extremely arid climate, the country depends on these two
rivers more crucially than do the upper co-riparians: Syria and particularly Turkey.
No doubt that Iraqs position as a downstream country places it at a strategic
disadvantage relative to the position of the two upstream countries, especially
Turkey, which can exercise more control over the headwaters of both the Euphrates
and the Tigris (Hillel, 1994:102).
46


ii m i ii i
Since only the Euphrates is involved in the first stage of the GAP, Iraq still
hopes to make up for its loss of the Euphrates waters with more from the Tigris
through the Tharthar Canal. But when the GAP is complete, it will involve the Tigris
as well (see the planned dams on the Tigris as indicated on Map 2.1). No doubt that
this increases Iraqs worries. Therefore, it insists on its historical rights in the
Euphrates/Tigris waters.
b) The Syrian Position:
Syria calls for a fair sharing of the Euphrates/Tigris waters. Accordingly, it
accused the Turks of violating the rules that govern international rivers and insists
upon a just and lasting water agreement. The Syrian Tishreen newspaper stated in
this regard that: If every country started to divert rivers claiming they were on their
lands then the whole world would be subject to grave dangers. (BuIloch&Darwish,
1995:75).
c) The Turkish Position:
While both Syria and Iraq consider the Euphrates, and the Tigris, to be
international rivers, the Turks refer to them as transboundary rivers. According to
the Turks, a transboundary river is a river which crosses common political borders
47


whereas an international river is a river that has its opposing banks under the
sovereignty of different countries. Therefore, they argue that waters of international
rivers must be shared by the riparians through the median line while waters of the
transboundary rivers have to be utilized in an equitable, reasonable and optimal
manner (kliot, 1994:162-263).
The recent Turkish President Suliman Demirel, who started his career as a
water technician and has a degree in hydrological engineering has been known as
the king of dams since he was the Director of the State Hydraulic Works. It was
not strange that during his first term as Prime Minister in 1965, it was his
government which succeeded in obtaining the backing of the World Bank for the
implementation of the Keban Dam, the first in the chain of GAPs 21 dams
(Bulloch&Darwish, 1995:74).
In fact, President Demirel was the first official to set out the recent Turkish
hard-line attitude in regard to water as one of Turkeys major natural resources. In
response to a question about the effects of the GAP on Turkeys co-riparians in the
Euphrates/Tigris basin, he stated that:
Neither Syria nor Iraq can lay claim to Turkeys rivers any more than
Ankara could claim their oil. This is a matter of sovereignty. We have a
right to do anything we like. The water resources are Turkeys, the oil
resources are theirs. We dont say we share their oil resources, and they
cannot say they share our water resources (Bulloch& Darwish, 1996:74-
75).
48


III II I II
As we have seen, there are arguments and counterarguments by all of the
three co-riparians of the Euphrates/Tigris basin. The three co-riparians are pursuing
rival doctrines. Both Syria and Iraq consider the Euphrates and the Tigris as
international rivers that should be governed by the international rules in this regard.
Syria, for its part, adopts a doctrine based on limited sovereignty while Iraq adopts
that of absolute territorial integrity.
But, Turkey adopts what is known as the Harmon Doctrine and considers
the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers as transboundary rivers and not international
rivers. It does not see the Euphrates and the Tigris as international rivers. Rather,
they are considered as national rivers but their water runs beyond the Turkish
borders. Accordingly, the Turks believe that the two rivers can not be governed by
the international legal rules that govern international rivers. Therefore, their country
has sovereign rights to utilize their waters as it pleases. As a direct outcome of the
Turkish water policy, both Syria and Iraq are forced to curtail their current plans for
the utilization of the Twin Rivers waters.
Several questions can be raised: How legal is the Turkish hard-line water
attitude? What is an international river? How it can be defined? How can the
international law in regard the issue of water be applied to the Euphrates and the
Tigris Rivers? How can historical rights, for example, be weighed against
proportionate contributions to the flow of the Euphrates/Tigris waters? How does the
dispute over the Euphrates/Tigris waters affect the historical and natural rights of the
49


Kurds? What factors should be followed in allocating the Euphrates/Tigris waters?
Chapter three of this study attempts to define the international codification and rules
in the field of international rivers as well as principles and criteria for water
allocation in the Euphrates/Tigris rivers based upon such codification and rules.
50


CHAPTER 3
THE LEGAL SETTING OF THE EUPHRATES
AND THE TIGRIS RIVERS
Until the early 1970s, no dispute had ever occurred around water usage
among the three co-riparians of the Euphrates/Tigris basin. But when both Turkey
and Syria began to fill their reservoirs behind their first constructed dams, the Keban
Dam and the al-Thawrah Dam in the two countries respectively, tension, disputes,
and even conflicts, began to arise.
As we have seen in chapter 2, each of the three co-riparians is involved in a
unilateral development of the basins water resources. Each of them has a very
different approach in regard to what legally represents an international river. While
Syria and Iraq consider the Euphrates and the Tigris to be international rivers and,
consequently, claim a share of their waters, Turkey, on the other hand, does not
recognize the international character of these two rivers. Rather, it considers them as
transboundary rivers. Therefore, it only speaks of rational and optimal utilization
of their waters. In other words, the Turks assert that they have a right to an unlimited
use of the Euphrates/Tigris waters. They argue that international law recognizes and
51


confirms the sovereign rights of a country over its natural resources, including water
(Chalabi&Majzoub, 1995:212).
At the heart of the dispute over the Euphrates/Tigris waters lies a legal
problem. The dispute obviously falls within the realm of public international law for
two reasons: 1) it is a dispute between sovereign countries; 2) the subject of the
conflict is a multi-national or transnational river (Chalabi&Majzoub, 1995:190).
This raises certain important questions: Does the unilateral measure taken by
Turkey in January 1990 to block the flow of the Euphrates in order to fill the
reservoir behind the Attaturk dam, in the absence of any formal comprehensive
agreement on equitable water allocation between the three co-riparians of the
Euphrates/Tigris, violate international law? Does the Turkish classification of both
the Euphrates and the Tigris as transboundary rivers contradict the definition of
international river basins according to the established international legal rules in this
regard? Is there any legal basis that can help in allocating the waters of international
rivers?
This chapter attempts to answer the above raised questions. Accordingly, it is
divided into three sections. The first seeks a definition of an international river, and
accordingly determines the legal character of the Euphrates and the Tigris Rivers.
The second addresses the established international codification in regard to
international watercourses. The third discusses the principles and rules of allocating
international waters.
52


IIBH1 )))!
1. The Notion of an International River:
Rivers do not recognize borders. Rather, they run in their natural courses.
Increasing need of water because of population growth and development has led to
the eruption of disputes and conflicts over the use and distribution of the shared
waters of international rivers.
The Turks make a clear distinction between an international river and a
transboundary river. For them, an international river is defined as a river the two
banks of which fall under the sovereignty of two or more countries. The waters of
such rivers have to be shared by the riparian countries through the median line. But
the transboundary river is a river which crosses the political borders between
countries at an angle rather than forming mutual boundaries. For this type of river,
Turkey holds that its waters should be used in a fair, reasonable and optimum
manner. The Turks argue that since both the Euphrates and the Tigris have their
source in and are fed on Turkish territory, therefore, they are Turkish rivers whilst
they flow over Turkish territory (Kolars, 1994:64). In addition, they argue that since
both the Euphrates and the Tigris cross the Turkish-SyrianandtheTurkish-Iraqi
borders respectively at an angle rather than their two banks be shared by Turkey and
both Syria and Iraq, they are, according to the Turks definition, transboundary and
not international rivers. This has been affirmed by the Turkish top officials,
including Suleyman Demirel, the Turkish President, who repeatedly asserts that
53


neither the Euphrates nor the Tigris are international waters and nobody (no foreign
authority) can claim resources situated on the Turkish territory. This was also
affirmed by the Late Turkish President Turgut Ozal, who states that :Turkey does not
accept having to share the waters of the Euphrates, as the Euphrates is a Turkish
river. (Chalabi& Majzoub. 1995:211)
Unlike the case with the rivers that Turkey shares with the ex-Soviet Union,
Greece and Bulgaria which Turkey opts to call international rivers, the Turks call
the Twin Rivers they share with Syria and Iraq transboundary rivers. Turkey shares
2763 kilometers of borders with its neighbors, both in Europe and in Asia. A little
less than one-fourth of these borders (615 kilometers) can be termed as wet
boundaries, that is boundaries which are demarcated by a river. In 1927, Turkey
signed a treaty with the ex-Soviet Union which addressed the use of the Coruh, Kura,
Arpa and Aras Rivers. And with the construction of the Arpacay Dam, another treaty
was signed by the two countries in 1973. Similarly, Turkey signed several protocols
with Greece in regard to the control and management of the Meric River which
forms the boundary between the two countries (Kolars, 1994:63-64). In 1968, Turkey
signed a treaty with Bulgaria, which became active in 1971. Most importantly, this
treaty was with regard to a successive river, that is a river which crosses the
boundaries between the two countries. The importance of this treaty is that it is a
relatively recent one in which Turkey explicitly recognizes the international
character of the river that crosses the boundaries between two countries. It also
54


admits that such a river should be governed by the principles of international law,
which puts an obligation on every riparian country to utilize the international
watercourses in such a way as not to cause appreciable harm to other riparian
countries (Al-Adli, 1996:461-462).
Article II of the Helsinki Rules states that an international drainage basin is
a geographical area extending over two or more States determined by the watershed
limits of the system of waters, including surface and underground waters, flowing
into a common terminus. And Article III of the same Rules states that A basin
State is a State the territory of which includes a portion of an international drainage
basin.
Similarly, Article 2 of the United Nations Draft Articles on the Law of the
Non-navigational uses of International Watercourses adopted by the International
Law Commission in 1994 states the following: a) international watercourse means
a watercourse, parts of which are situated in different States; b) watercourse
means a system of surface waters and groundwaters constituting by virtue of their
physical relationship a unitary whole and normally flowing into a common terminus;
c) watercourse State means a State in whose territory part of an international
watercourse is situated.
Thus, an international river is a watercourse that separates or crosses the
territories of several states. Accordingly, the Turkish distinction between
international rivers and they call transboundary rivers is totally contrary to the
55


Ill 1111 111
emerging principles of international law. Therefore, the Euphrates and the Tigris,
which have their source in Turkey and cross Syria and Iraq respectively are
international rivers. Turkeys denial of such character contradicts both the
established international rules in defining the international watercourses as well as
its 1968 treaty with Bulgaria regarding a river that crosses the Turkish-Bulgarian
boundaries.
2. The Legal Rights of Riparian Countries:
There is no doubt that each riparian state has a right to use the waters of
international rivers that run through its territory. However, riparian states differ in
their way of looking at such use. There are three approaches or theories in this
regard.: the Theory of Absolute Territorial Sovereignty, the Theory of Absolute
Territorial Integrity and the Theory of Limited Territorial Sovereignty. These three
theories can be summarized as follows:
a) The Theory of Absolute Territorial Sovereignty:
This theory argues that riparian countries have every right to exercise their
complete sovereignty over the part of the international river that runs through their
own territories. In other words, each riparian country has the right to establish what
so ever projects it chooses to make use of the waters of an international river whilst
56


it runs within its territories, regardless of the consequences they may have on the
other co-riparians. It has been first upheld by Judson Harmon, the US Attorney-
General in a statement made in 1895. As a result of the dispute between the US and
Mexico, the US Government asked the Attorney General Judson Hannon his opinion
in light of international practices relating to the diversions made by the US
Government on the part of the Rio Grande River situated in its territory. J. Harmon
stated that the US has a legal right and absolute sovereignty on the part of the Rio
Grande River that flows within its territory. He indicated that international law does
not bring about any obligation for the US to share the waters of the said river with
Mexico (TMFA, 1996:28). Since then, this theory has been known as the Harmon
Doctrine.
b) The Theory of Absolute Territorial Integrity:
Unlike the above mentioned theory, the theory of Absolute Territorial
Integrity favors downstream riparians. It argues that no one has the right to change
the natural course of a river which flows over its territory. It asserts an important
principle of international law, the principle of good neighborhood which is very
important in regard to the principle of equitable and reasonable use of international
watercourses. It also asserts that no state has the right to take separate actions which
have negative effects on other co-riparians. There are more proponents of this theory
than of the first theory. (Al-Adli, 1996:105).
57


c) The Theory of Limited Territorial Sovereignty:
Because of the impossible acceptance of the first two theories, the majority
of states practically felt the necessity to accept certain limitations on sovereignty.
This led to the birth of the theory of limited territorial sovereignty, which argues that
a state can freely use the waters flowing through its territory on the condition that
this utilization would not cause a significant harm to the territory or to the interests
of another riparian state. In other words, the riparian states have reciprocal rights and
obligations in the utilization of the waters of international rivers. This theory is the
most generally accepted among scholars (Chalabi&Majzoub, 1995:227).
Very few authors adopted the Theory of Absolute Territorial Sovereignty and
the Harmon Doctrine and it is rarely invoked in practice. It has been largely
abandoned nowadays because it contradicts the principles of international law
relating to the responsibility of states for acts committed on their territory and having
harmful consequences on the territory of another state. The theory was criticized on
three grounds: 1) it equates between land, which is a constant element of the states
territory, and water, which is a movable element by its nature, and subjects them to
the same legal judgment based on the principle of the absolute territorial
sovereignty; 2) it ignores the rights of other riparian countries in the waters of
international rivers; and 3) it does not recognize the general principle in international
58


I ill !
law which prohibits causing appreciable harm to the other riparian countries (Al-
Adli, 1996:100).
However, the Turks adopt this theory and claim that international law
acknowledges that the state in which a river has its source has a sovereign right to
the waters of that river. These sovereign rights extend to the portion of the river
which flows on its territory provided that the state does not cause any significant
harm to other co-riparian countries. According to the Turks, the principle not to
cause significant harm must not be understood to mean that one country has a duty to
renounce its own needs to satisfy those of the other co-riparians (Chalabi&Majzoub,
1995:212).
The Harmon Doctrine, to which the Turks adhere, was totally rejected by the
arbitrating Court in the case of Lake Lanoux between France and Spain in 1957. The
Court made it clear that the Harmon Doctrine ignores that
the upstream state has, according to the rules of good faith, the
obligation to take into consideration the different interests of the others,
to seek to give them all satisfaction that is compatible with the pursuit of
its own interests and to show that it has, on this subject, a real concern to
conciliate the interests of the other riparian states with its own.
(Chalabi&Majzoub, 1995:226).
Not only that, but even the US abandoned this doctrine when it found herself
in the position of a downstream riparian. In the dispute between the US and Canada
over the Columbia River, the US abandoned the Harmon Doctrine and adopted
instead the principle of equitable distribution of shared waters (Al-Adli, 1996:99).
59


I
IIIIIIIBMIIII II II 11IIHIIII
The Turkish position in regard to the Euphrates/Tigris waters clearly violates
Article IV of the Helsinki Rules which states that Each basin State is entitled,
within its territory, to a reasonable and equitable share in the beneficial uses of the
waters of an international drainage basin. The Syrian-Iraqi argument that the
Euphrates and the Tigris are international rivers, which can be classified as shared
resources, is right in light of the established international law. Accordingly, the
waters of these two rivers must be shared among the riparian states according to a
quota to be determined. Both countries accused Turkey of acting against the spirit of
good neighborliness and causing a significant harm to their agriculture as well as
hydropower generation.
Nevertheless, the Turkish officials see that their (the Syrians and the Iraqis)
point of view, which demands the renunciation by Turkey of all its irrigation projects
just so that they can have more water, does not make any sense. Kamranlnan,
Turkish Foreign Minister, claims that Turkey possessed the same rights to the waters
of the Euphrates/Tigris as the Arabs did to their oil (Chalibi&Majzoub, 1995:207-
208). It seems that the Turks are drawing a parallel between the legal status of oil
and that of water. When Saudi Arabia stopped giving away its oil, the Turks could no
longer regard their water as a present to be given away for free. The
Euphrates/Tigris water, they argue, is a Turkish wealth because it originates on
their own territory. Accordingly, both the Syrians and the Iraqis have no right to
60


claim it. Obviously, the parallel the Turks draw between water and oil has no solid
foundation.
To sum up, the Turkish allegations, official and unofficial, have no strong
foundations. The Syrian and the Iraqis have the right to utilize the Euphrates/Tigris
waters until an agreement can be reached in regard to these two international rivers.
3. Principles Regulating the Use of International Waters;
There are certain legal rules that regulate the use of international rivers. The
Theory of Absolute Territorial Sovereignty is no longer acceptable. Rather, each
riparian country has the right to utilize the international waters equitably and
reasonably providing not to cause any significant harm to its co-riparians. Such rules
should be applied in cases where there is no bilateral or multi-lateral treaty among
the riparians of an international river.
These rules could be summarized as follows:
- The right of each riparian country to utilize the waters of an international river.
- The equitable and reasonable use of international water.
- An obligation not to cause significant harm to other riparians.
- An obligation to notify other riparians of its proposed water projects which may
substantially affect the interests of other riparians.
61


Hill!
- An obligation to consult and negotiate with other riparians concerning planned
measures.
- Seek third party help to settle disputes in case of the failure of negotiation
(CWRAW, 1992:74).
Both the Helsinki Rules and the United Nations Draft Articles on the Law of
the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses adopted by the
International Law Association in 1994 propose that international rivers have to be
shared equitably and reasonably. Certain factors, though not limited, were listed in
order to determine an equitable and reasonable sharing. Article 5 of the Helsinki
Rules and Article 6 of UN Draft listed the following criteria:
a) The geography of the basin, especially the extent of the drainage area in
each of the riparian countries;
b) the Hydrology of the basin, especially the contribution of water by each of
the basin countries in the waters discharge of the river;
c) The climate affecting each of the countries in the basin;
d) The past and existing utilization of the waters of the basin by riparian
countries;
e) The economic and social needs of each of the co-riparian countries;
f) The population dependent on the waters of the basin in each of the riparian
countries;
62


g) The comparative costs of alternative means of satisfying the economic and
social needs of each riparian country;
h) the availability of other water resources;
i) The avoidance of unnecessary waste in the utilization of waters of the
basin;
j) The practicability of compensation to one or more of the riparian countries
as a means of adjusting conflicts among uses; and
k) The degree to which the needs of a riparian country may be satisfied
without causing substantial harm to another co-riparian.
It is clear that the established rules in regard to international rivers recognize
the past utilization (historical rights) of the waters of an international basin. As we
previously mentioned, Iraq founded its rights in the Euphrates/Tigris waters on: prior
usage, an arid climate, a share in the drainage basin (40% in the Euphrates and 54%
in the Tigris), and a considerable amount of water contribution to the Tigris (about
35%) (Kliot, 1994:116). The Iraqis argue that for thousands of years the Euphrates
and the Tigris have given life to the people of Mesopotamia and thus constitute an
acquired right for these people. Therefore, they argue that no upstream riparian
country is entitled to take away these water rights. The Syrian also made a somewhat
similar claim.
But, for Turkey, the acquired rights raised by Iraq and Syria is a claim put
forward in order to make Turkey release a greater amount of water and to make it
63


accept such thinking. They argue that many scholars believe that the theory of
acquired historical rights alone does not represent much significance. For example,
Professor Stephen McCaffrey, who has been a member of the International Law
Commission (ILC) as of 1985, pointed out that:
A downstream State that was first to develop its water resources could
not foreclose later development by an upstream State by demonstrating
that the later development would cause it harm; under the doctrine of
equitable utilization, the fact that a downstream State was first to
develop (and thus had made prior uses that would be adversely affected
by new upstream uses) would be merely one of a number of factors to be
taken into consideration in arriving at an equitable allocation of the uses
and benefits of the watercourse. (TMFA, 1996:18).
The Turks make use of McCaffreys observation, which indicates that
acquired historical rights cannot be used as a claim to limit the utilization of water
by upstream riparians. In other words, the historical and acquired rights, claimed
by Syria and especially Iraq, are inadequate. They represent only one of many factors
that must be taken into consideration in determining an equitable utilization of
international watercourses.
Also, Article Vn of the Helsinki Rules states that A basin state may not be
denied the present reasonable use of waters of an international drainage basin to
reserve for a co-basin state a future use of such waters. Obviously, Turkeys
massive GAP project to develop the Euphrates/Tigris basin violates this article. The
Turks argue that once their national needs are satisfied, they will be ready to
contribute their national resources to the well-being of the neighboring riparian
64


1111
countries (Chalabi&Majzoub, 1995:226). Because of such efforts, Iraq, the
downstream co-riparian with prior established rights, has been receiving less water
from its upper-stream riparians.
Since most of the water feeding both the Euphrates and the Tigris is
generated from within the Turkish territories (88 to 98% of the Euphrates waters
and about 50% of the Tigris waters), the Turks feel that they have a right to make
use of such natural resource as they please. As we know, Syria contributes to the
flow of the Euphrates via al-Sajour, Balikh and the western Khabour, the three
tributaries that run in its territories. Iraq contributes practically no water to the
Euphrates but does contribute substantially to the Tigris through the tributaries that
rise from within its territory. If equitable sharing of the Euphrates/Tigris waters
would be applied according to the factors based on geography and hydrology, this
would probably, as Kliot views, assign Turkey some 40% of the combined waters,
Iraq 50% and Syria 10% (Kliot, 1994:116). However, he argues that if the factor of
the non-availability of other water resources or population dependence were
considered and given priority in the process of sharing the waters of the
Euphrates/Tigris, both Iraq and Syria would precede Turkeys rights in the
Euphrates/Tigris waters. Kliot believes that these two factors satisfy the principles of
equity and justice than the factor of Turkeys contribution to the water balance of the
basin (Kliot, 1994:150).
65


Rather than giving priority to acquired historical rights, Hillel gives more
weight to the real needs of each of the co-riparians of an international river. For him,
there are certain factors that are associated with real needs such as: the availability
of energy, the need for hydroelectricity, the feasibility of developing economic
alternatives to irrigation-based cultivation, the efficiency of water use, and the size
of each countrys population. (Hillel, 1994:103).
Turkey also violates Article V (h), which examine the availability of
alternative water resources. As we have seen in part I, Turkey has a superior water
supply in comparison with both Syria and Iraq. Turkey has 26 river basins within its
territory with a total average annual runoff of 185 BCM, only 62 BCM of which, as
estimated by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works, will be consumed each year after
the year 2000 (Kolars, 1994:63). That is to say, Turkey has very rich water resources
which could be developed for irrigation, thus leaving large amounts of the
Euphrates/Tigris flow for Syria and Iraq. The Euphrates/Tigris discharge comprises
40% of the total water supply of Turkey as compared with 80-85% in Syria and 98%
in Iraq (Kliot, 1994:150).
The principle of not causing an appreciable harm to other co-riparians also
enjoys wide support. But, from the Turks point of view, domestic policies regarding
water utilization in the three countries have to be reviewed. For the Turks, the Syrian
and the Iraqi claims to share the Euphrates/Tigris waters violate the fair, reasonable
and optimal utilization of the waters of the Euphrates/Tigris. Turkey claims that both
66


Iraq and Syria have a great deal of less fertile and unproductive land which is not
economically feasible for agriculture. However, they insist that Turkey gives them
considerable amounts of water to irrigate these unproductive land. Therefore, the
Turks argue that a study should be made of all the lands in the three countries in
order to determine for which of these lands irrigation makes economic sense. The
Turks assert that the measures preventing the waste of water, in particular the
application of a rational water pricing system, must be implemented (TMFA,
1996:19). Accordingly, Turkey has offered Syria and Iraq a plan for optimal,
equitable and reasonable utilization of the Euphrates/Tigris waters. This suggestion
could be seen by Syria and Iraq as an act of intervention in their domestic policies.
In conclusion, one can say that although the public international law clearly
defines the international watercourses, still there is no legally binding formula based
upon constant principles and rules in regard to utilization and distribution of the
waters of international rivers. There are no general international treaties that regulate
the utilization of the waters of international rivers. It is true that the general rules of
public international law, such as good neighborhood, good intention and the like are
helpful in dealing with the issue of international rivers (Al-Samman, 1992:65). It is
also true that both the Helsinki Rules and the rules of the UN Draft Articles seem
reasonable. They are very helpful, especially when there is no binding formal
agreement between the riparians of an international river (Amer, 1994:454). But,
their usefulness is limited because they do not provide any measures to determine
67


which rule should be given priority over others. In addition, these rules are not
exclusive, as Fares indicates (Fares, 1993:68).
David Goldberg, the Assistant Legal Counsel of the World Bank, is right
when he states that the law on international waterways is one of the most unsettled
areas of international law. (Gruen, 1992:5-6). Therefore, it seems that only
cooperation and integrated planning among the riparians will assign each of them the
best available amount of water resources. This leads us to the fourth and last part of
this study, which addresses the potential for basin-wide cooperation among the
riparians of the Euphrates/Tigris.
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CHAPTER 4
THE POTENTIAL FOR EUPHRATES/TIGRIS BASIN-WIDE
COOPERATION
This chapter addresses the potential for basin-wide cooperation. It examines
the existing agreements in regard to the use and distribution of the Euphrates/Tigris
waters, challenges to cooperation and the means of overcoming such challenges. It is
divided into three sections. The first presents the existing water agreements in regard
to the Euphrates/Tigris. The second discusses the challenges for basin-wide
cooperation. The third section looks at the possible ways of overcoming such
challenges.
Although the recent trends in international law assert that other co-riparians
possess rights that could not be ignored because of the sovereignty of a riparian
country over the part of an international river that runs through its territory,
application of the international legal rules and principles of allocating shared waters
reveals major limitations. These limitations arise from the lack of priority ranking
order of the various factors that determine the allocation of the waters of
international rivers. Giving equal weight to all regulating rules specified by
international law or acknowledging that the rank of these factors varies according to
69


mi nmin
the situation encourages countries to pursue conflicting sovereignty doctrines. Those
who adhere to the Theory of Absolute Territorial Sovereignty focus on the rule
that each riparian has to do what it believes suitable to make use of the waters that
run through its own territory as any other natural resource. And those who adhere to
the Theory of Absolute Territorial Integrity see that no one has a right to change
the course or the flow of and international river.
In other words, there are no clear cut international legal rules to settle
international water disputes. Accordingly, each riparian state adheres to its right to
exercise sovereignty over the part of the river that runs through its territory providing
that it does not cause any appreciable harm to other co-riparians, which is always
interpreted differently by various parties according to their interests.
While Turkey, an upstream country, claims an absolute right to use the water
resources within its territories in whatever way it thinks suits its own interests and
purposes, downstream countries, on the other hand, tend to emphasize that the
natural course and flow of the two rivers must be respected and preserved. They also
claim that their prior use of the two rivers water give them acquired historical rights
that must be taken into consideration and fully respected by Turkey.
Turkey asserts that its commitment to the water needs of Syria and Iraq does
not impose on it any commitment to make any compromise or negotiations that
affects its sovereign rights over the Euphrates/Tigris waters. Accordingly, the Turks
claim that there should be no problem between the three riparians of the
70


Euphrates/Tigris basin because of the Attaturk Dam or any of the GAP projects
because Turkey did not sign any treaty in regard to the utilization and distribution of
these waters. Several Turkish officials and scholars asserted this argument during the
block of the Euphrates River in 1990 (Mouawad, 1992:770).
Also, the Turks argue that the construction of dams on the Euphrates is
designed to regulate the flow of water. Such regulation does not only serve the
interests of Turkey, but also contributes to the water needs of both Syria and Iraq. To
support their argument, the Turks make use of the natural fluctuation of the
Euphrates. They state that the flow of the river may fall as low as 100 CM/S during
the summer while it could reach a high as 7,000 CM/S during the spring when the
snow melts. The existence of the dams enables Turkey to provide a regular flow of
500 CM/S to its neighbors throughout the year, even dining the three consecutive
drought years of 1989, 1990 and 1991. Accordingly, they claim that the main
beneficiaries of this regular flow of water have been Syria and Iraq. In other words,
water storage in Turkey will also have a positive effect on Turkeys co-riparians
since the deficiency in natural flow could be make up by water from the reservoirs
behind the Turkish dams protecting Syria and Iraq from droughts
(Bulloch&Darwish, 1995:68-69).
As noted earlier, the relations between the three co-riparians of the
Euphrates/Tigris basin have gone through moments of crisis and tension, which
impede negotiation of a comprehensive agreement in a spirit of mutual trust. Part of
71


the reason for the unilateral efforts to harness the Euphrates/Tigris and the attempt to
construct storage facilities is the lack of trust among the three co-riparians. Each is
trying to appropriate as much water as possible for itself. While both Syria and Iraq
desperately seek a comprehensive agreement, it seems that Turkey, the upstream
riparian, has no intention of entering into any tripartite agreement with them in
regard to the allocation of the Euphrates/Tigris waters.
1. Existing Water Agreements In Regard to the Euphrates/Tigris:
Formally there is no legal international treaty that regulates the sharing of the
Euphrates/Tigris waters. However, agreements laying down general principles in this
regard were concluded. When Syria and Iraq were under the French and British
mandatory rule, the two ruling powers agreed to establish a committee to coordinate
water utilization in the basin.
During the Mandate era, several agreements on the common utilization of the
Euphrates/Tigris waters were concluded between the British and the French and
between the French and Turks. The most important of these agreements is the
Franco-British Convention of 1920 which asserts the coordination of water
utilization. In accordance with the principle of succession, this convention was
inherited by Syria and Iraq. In addition, there were two agreements between France
and Turkey. The first was in 1920 which put certain regulation for the utilization of
72


I
the Euphrates waters. It was mainly in regard to the Koveik tributary which supply
Aleppo with water. It also addressed the possibility of tapping the waters of the
Euphrates. Article 12 of this agreement states that:
the water of Koveik will be divided between the town of Aleppo and
the town and the region of the North, which have remained Turkish, in
such a way as to give equal satisfaction to both Parties
(Chalabi&Majzoub, 1995:193).
The second agreement was signed in 1930 which confirmed the previous
agreement and established a new principle in regard to the joint ownership of the
Tigris River. It mainly dealt with the issues related to the joint ownership of the
Tigris River. There is also a Friendship Agreement between Turkey and Iraq in 1946
in which Turkey obliged itself to report to Iraq on all its plans to utilize the
Euphrates/Tigris. This even gave Iraq the right to construct dams within the Turkish
territory when the purpose was to prevent downstream flooding (Chalabi&Majzoub,
1995:192-194).
Unfortunately, none of these agreements and protocols received the expected
respect and attention. This lack of respect and attention has increased since the
1960s, when each of the three riparians, especially Turkey and to some extent Syria,
began to implement unilateral projects to harness the two rivers, mainly the
Euphrates.
73


However, there was some sort of cooperation. In addition to the Joint
Technical Committee for Regional Waters which was established in 1980 as an
active organization that reflects a cooperative trend among the Euphrates/Tigris
riparians, there are two partial agreements in regard to the Euphrates/Tigris.
a) The 1987 Turkish-Svrian Protocol:
In 1987, Turkey agreed to increase the flow of the Euphrates from 450 to 500
CM/S, a quantity equal to 15.8 BCM/year out of 28.9 BCM annual average discharge
of the Euphrates River. In fact, there were some prior agreements to this one. In
1964, for the first time, Turkey pledged to release 350 CM/S from the Euphrates
downstream for its co-riparians. In 1976, during Syrias impoundment of water for
the al-Thawrah Dam, Turkey increased the minimum flow to 450 CM/S in order to
prevent a conflict between Syria and Iraq (Kliot, 1994:161). The 1987 Protocol
makes it clear that in the event that the monthly flow should fall below the level of
500 CM/S, Turkey agreed to make up the difference during the following month
(Hillel, 1994:103). Iraq has always objected to the setting of such a low figure. Both
Syria and Iraq interpret this agreement as a temporary measure to cover only the
period of the filling of the Attaturk Dam reservoir. Once the dam is at full capacity,
both countries would expect average flows to return to between 600-700 CM/S
(Robins, 1991:89-90).
74


b) The 1990 Svrian-Iraai Accord:
In 1990, following the Turkish-Syrian Protocol of 1987, Syria and Iraq
agreed that the 15,8 BCM Turkey agreed to release to Syria, or any quantity of
Euphrates waters that enters Syria will be divided between the two countries as
follows: 42% to Syria and 58% to Iraq (Hillel, 1994:103).
There are three remarks on the Turkish-Syrian Protocol and the Syrian-Iraqi
Accord:
First, these two most recent agreements refer only to the Euphrates and not to the
Tigris.
Second, there is no comprehensive agreement.
Third, no serious negotiations have yet taken place among the three riparians of the
Euphrates/Tigris. Turkey, as an upstream riparian, still denies the international
character of the Twin Rivers, which contradicts its 1987 Protocol with Syria, and
insists on its full sovereignty over their waters. Turkey claims that it has no
international commitments in regard to the Euphrates/Tigris waters. The only
obligation the Turks referred to is to negotiate with the concerned parties before
starting on implementing any projects on the two rivers.
75


2. Challenges to Basin-Wide Cooperation:
One of the major characteristics of the water problem in the Euphrates/Tigris
basin is the use of water as a political weapon and a pressure card to solve other
problems. In other words, the relations among the three co-riparians of the
Euphrates/Tigris basin are not limited to water issues since there are other sources
for tension and even conflict. Many scholars argue that the link between water
problems among the Euphrates/Tigris co-riparians and politics is very clear. For
example, Al-Samman sees that the problem of allocating the waters of the
Euphrates/Tigris as a political game affected by political differences (Al-Samman,
1992:23).
Fares states that the main problematic issue between Syria and Turkey is a
political one and that water is not but a tool of mutual pressure between the two
countries (Fares, 1993:60). Similarly, Turan (1993) sees the problem as a man-made
and a political one that is closely tied to politics. He argues that states, being the
major actors in the international system, always try to maximize their sovereign
rights as well as their security. Riparian countries see close linkages between water
availability and their economic security. This leads them to view the control over
water resources as a vital security interest, which can only be legitimized by appeals
to sovereign rights. Also, a riparian country which feels threatened by the actions of
another riparian or riparians may resort to the use of other non-water related
76


resources to modify the behavior of its co-riparians on water questions (Turan,
1993:152-154). Although Turkey has formally stated that the waters of the Euphrates
and the Tigris Rivers will not be used as a political weapon, it is difficult to imagine
that water is not, or will not be used, whether explicitly or implicitly, as a lever of its
foreign policy (Robins, 1991:99).
The above argument is clearly represented in the incident in which Turkey
declared in January 1990 the blocking of die Euphrates River for about a month in
order to be able to fill the reservoir behind its newly built huge Attaturk Dam. This
decision led to a tension in both Turkish-Syrian and Turkish-Iraqi relations. Both
Syria and Iraq protested and demanded that Turkey moderate its enormous GAP
development. According to Kolars (1994), the filling of the reservoir behind the
Attaturk Dam could have been done in two ways: 1) the diversion channel could
have been left partially open, so that some water would continue to flow
downstream; 2) a quicker way was to block the flow of water to Syria altogether.
The second option was the one the Turks chose despite their protocol with Syria in
which Turkey committed itself to allow an average flow of 500 CM/S into Syria.
While the Turks claim that there were some technical necessities behind the
blocking of the river to only one-tenth of its natural flow, the Syrians and the Iraqis
insisted that there were certain political motives and not technical ones behind the
Turkish action (Kolars, 1994:49). Both Syria and Iraq understood the action as a
77


Turkish message that Turkey has its hand on the tap and can starve them of water
whenever it chooses to do so.
It seems that there were certain political motives behind the decision by the
Turkish authorities. Among such motives was the shooting down of a Turkish land-
survey airplane within the Syrian territories by a Syrian Mig-fighter in October 1989,
in which Turkey claimed a compensation of $14.5 million. In addition, there was
Turkish pressure on both Syria and Iraq to stop the Kurds subversive activities
across the borders. The Turkish government threatened to block the flow of the
Euphrates water if Syria did not stop the trespassing of the Kurdish rebels into
Turkey. It seems also that President Assad had decided that he needed something
with which to bargain in his dealings with Turkey over the allocation of the
Euphrates waters. In order to have some extra cards in his hands, President Assad
invited some members of the Turkish Peoples Liberation Army and some other
factions of the revolutionary left, who returned to Turkey from Syria after
completing their training courses in guerrilla warfare against the Turkish regime. By
blocking the Euphrates flow, the Turks wanted to show President Assad that he was
not the only one who could dissimulate (Bulloch&Darwish, 1995:60,66).
Obviously, the Kurdish insurgency is one of the most important political
issues that affects water problems in the Euphrates/Tigris basin. Turkey, which
severely suppresses Kurds within its territory, criticizes Syria for constantly arming
and supporting the Kurdish guerrillas affiliated with the Kurdish Workers Party
78


Ill III 11 III
(PKK). In practice, the Kurdish people were brutally suppressed in their eight
provinces of the countrys southeast, and was discriminated against when they
migrated to the relatively prosperous areas of the country. This largely explains the
GAPs political importance to Turkey which seems unlikely that the Turks will give
up their plans to harness the Euphrates/Tigris in the southeastern part of their
country (Kliot, 1994:125-126).
A major objective of the GAP project, as the Turkish officials frequently
explain to the Syrians and the Iraqis, is to improve living conditions of the Kurds.
The Economic Director in the Turkish Foreign Ministry, Mr. Utkan, once stated that
There are two ways to deal with an unhappy sector of your population; you can
crush them or you can try to improve their living and working conditions. Turkey has
opted for the second.. Turkish officials have expressed fears that Syria may try to
use Kurdish separatist guerrillas to sabotage the Attaturk Dam. From the Turkish
standpoint, the Kurdish revolt endangers Turkeys efforts to develop the GAP. In
October 1989, Prime Minister Ozal accused Syria of violating the 1987 protocol on
security and threatened to cut the flow of the Euphrates River into Syria unless the
latter ended its support to the Kurdish rebels. In fact, the two countries signed this
protocol in which Syria pledged to stop supporting the Kurds in exchange for which
Turkey made its pledge to provide 500 CM/S of water from the Euphrates into Syria
(Gruen, 1992:9). Bulloch and Darwish argue that such support was President Hafez
Assads direct response to Turkeys decision to harness the abundant waters of the
79


I III III
Euphrates/Tigris in a huge project bound to have effects far beyond Turkeys
borders. Bulloch and Darwish (1996) state that the Syrian Government realized that
it had a lever that could be used to force Turkey to take account of its water
demands. Therefore, it believed that it was the time to give full backing to the
Kurdish rebels (Bulloch&Darwish, 1996:59,62).
In 1992, the Turkish Foreign Minister claimed that Syria was using the
Kurdish rebels to put pressure on Turkey over water. He stated that: It is true that
Syria does have a habit of working through proxies. It was about 1980 that we
started talking very seriously about expanding the GAP project, and it was about that
time that Oclan (the Kurdish rebel leader) began getting help from Damascus. You
could make a connection. (Bullock&Darwish, 1996:71).
Another political issue is that Turkey wants to include the Orontes River in
any comprehensive settlement of the water dispute. The Orontes River rises in
Lebanon and flows through Syria and Turkey into the Mediterranean Sea. The Turks
claim that Syria started some constructions over the river without prior consultation
with Turkey. There are two dams constructed on the Orontes: one in Syria and the
other in Lebanon. The Orontes water, the Turks claim, is used for land irrigation in
Alexandaretta. However, during the summer season the river always dried up before
it reached Turkey. The Turkish argue that:
If a comparison is made between the utilization of the Orontes and the
Euphrates, there is justified cause for Turkey to complain about how the
80


water of the Orontes is completely consumed by Syria and Lebanon,
while Turkey releases 500CM/S of water even when the velocity of the
Euphrates falls to 100 CM/S. (Bulloch&Darwish, 1996:69).
But, since the flow of the Orontes River is only 459 MCM/year (that is less
than 2% of the Euphrates total annual flow), it will not hurt Syria at all to share its
water if Turkey agreed to sign a comprehensive agreement in regard to the Euphrates
(Sobhi, 1992:16). In fact, there is another major political issue. Mentioning of the
Orontes by the Turks rang many alarm bells in Damascus. A general agreement with
Turkey would have to cover the Orontes River, but that would bring in the dispute
over the Province of Alexandaretta, as the river runs through that comer area of
Turkey. The Syrians think the Turks would take an agreement on the Orontes as
recognition of Alexandaretta as Turkish. No doubt that the Syrian fears have their
justifications. When Turkey signed the 1987 Protocol with Syria, in which it
committed itself to release 500 CM/S into Syria through the Euphrates, it asked at
the same time for two specific security requests. The first one is to put an end to the
opposition Kurdish Labor Party. The second request was to erase Alexandaretta from
Syrian maps (Abdel-Rahman, 1992:527).
Thus, the conflict over the Province of Alexandaretta (Arabic Iskanderuna,
Turkish Hatay) is another related political issue that could be connected to water
disputes between Turkey and Syria. It is an old conflict between the two countries
since the Province was handed over to Turkey by France, the then mandatory ruler of
81


mu ii i mi mi
Syria, in 1939 as a bribe for entering W.W.II on the side of the Allies. The Syrians
have never accepted this territorial loss. Their maps still show the territory as part of
Syria (Kliot, 1994:165).
It is true that there is a mix between politics and water problems, the late
Turkish President Turgut Ozal repeatedly threatened to block the flow of the
Euphrates to both Syria and Iraq if the two countries continued their support to the
Kurdish rebels in Turkey. The Turks insist that a comprehensive agreement between
Turkey and Syria largely depends on the cooperation between the two countries to
limit the Kurds subversive activities and to include the allocation of the waters of
all shared rivers, especially the Orontes. By reaching such an agreement Turkey
wants the Syrians recognition of its sovereignty over Alexandaretta, which the
Syrians totally reject (Al-Samman, 1992:24).
Also, Turkeys role in Middle East affairs has changed sharply in the last two
decades. The Turks are making their bid for recognition as a major player in the
regions politics. Having failed in their effort to turn toward Europe and to be
accepted by the European Economic Community, the Turks, Mouawad argues, are
trying to make use of their natural resources at a time their surplus manpower is
rejected in Europe (Mouawad, 1992:787). The end of the Cold War and the
dissolution of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact led to the diminishing of the
strategic value of Turkey, from the Western point of view, which was considered as
the guardian of the Turkish strategic straits (Eliwa, 1995:10). In short, Turkey began
82


Ill II
to seek to play an active role in the Middle East and to be recognized as a major
regional power, especially after the two Gulf wars.
In addition to the political challenges, there is also a cultural challenge.
While GAP is a source of great pride to the Turks, it is a source of great worry for
the two downstream riparians. Among the Turkish population the water problems of
the Arab neighbors do not arouse much sympathy. The popular mood expressed by
the Turks reveals that the water problem of the Euphrates/Tigris is the Arabs
problem, not ours. Allah gave them oil under their soil, but gave us water in ours....
When they send us their oil free in their pipelines, well send them water in ours. If
they insist on fighting over the water, well fight (Gruen, 1992:7).
Finally, the differences do not exist only between Turkey on the one hand
and both Syria and Iraq on the other. Rather, there are many differences between the
ruling Baath Party in both of the two concerned Arab countries, Syria and Iraq.
3, The Potential for a Cooperative Alternative:
The present existing agreements in regard to the allocation of the
Euphrates/Tigris waters, together with the unilateral, separate drive for development
in the basin, will probably lead the three co-riparians to a certain degree of conflict
in the near future unless some cooperative measures are taken.
83


Obviously, there are differences among the three riparians. Turkey claims
that both rivers are transboundary. Accordingly, their water should be used in an
equitable, reasonable and optimal manner. It is necessary to conduct an inventory
of all arable lands in the basin in order to establish the optimal crops for each area as
well as the amount of water needed for the successful cultivation of such crops. Both
Syria and Iraq strongly object to the Turkish claims and insist that international law
asserts that the management and sharing of international rivers be equally in the
hands of all the concerned riparians (Kolars, 1994:87-88).
In addition, the Euphrates/Tigris co-riparians have different socio-economic
features which makes it difficult to weigh their rights to the waters of the two rivers.
While Iraq enjoys high incomes derived from oil, it suffers foreign debts and
destruction because of its two Gulf wars. Iraq also has an unfavorable climate and is
totally dependent on the Euphrates/Tigris waters. At the same time, Iraq has
unchallenged acquired historical rights to large amounts of the Twin Rivers water.
Turkey, on the other hand, is making an enormous effort to achieve self-sufficiency
in food production. The country lacks mineral resources and is completely dependent
on oil imports. However, Turkey has sources of water supply. Syria also is greatly
dependent on the Euphrates water. It also lacks mineral resources and suffers
economic difficulties.
Taking all this into consideration as well as other water-related and political
issues, a big effort is needed. In order for negotiations to reach a successful
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II
settlement to the water problems among the Euphrates/Tigris co-riparians, the three
countries need to address solutions not only to water disputes, but also to the
previously mentioned political issues. In other words, workable solutions to water
problems should also address the constraints posed by regional politics. Wolf argues
that water problems could lead directly to both heightened political tensions and
opportunities for cooperation as well (Wolf, 1994:38). Competition will lead only to
more competition while cooperation encourages better relations, which could create
an environment conducive to increased cooperation (Wolf, 1994:7). In short,
political objections to water cooperation must be overcome in order to achieve an
efficient management of the Euphrates/Tigris waters for the benefits of all parties.
Since the single most important impediment to regional water resource
planning is the lack of a basin-wide water authority, any negotiations, Wolf (1994)
argues, should emphasize regional planning as a crucial goal (Wolf, 1994:38). Turan
(1993) states that regional organizations for data collection and water conservation
will help at confidence building between countries of the basin as they feel more
secure. Such organizations which aim to enhance mutual interdependence may help
reduce emphasis placed on sovereignty (Turan, 1993:152).
Wolf also argues that the better a states hydro-strategic position, the less
interest it has in reaching a water-sharing agreement. Therefore, strong third-party
involvement will be necessary for successful negotiations (Wolf, 1994:38). Joyce
Starr and Daneil Stoll argue that the US can play such a role. It can participate in the
85


I
llllllllllll II
II
efforts of developing water resources in the area, including the Euphrates/Tigris,
through the supply of sophisticated technology in the realm of water as well as
providing training programs for water specialists (Starr&Stoll, 1995:155).
Mouawad (1992) adds that the Arab-Turkish economic and political relations
should be developed in order to provide incentives and interests for Turkey to accept
the settlement of the water issue in a way acceptable to the two Arab partners
(Mouawad, 1992:787).
For Kliot (1994), a compromise could be based on a reduction in Turkeys
planned utilization of large amounts of the Euphrates flow, which will leave more
water for Syria and Iraq who are clearly more dependent on it. Both rivers can be
used for electrical hydro-power generation in Turkey as this is a non-consumptive
use of water. Iraq could be able to use water from the Tigris and its tributaries and
divert some of their waters to the Euphrates River through the already existing
Thurthar Canal. He also suggests that an increase of the Euphrates flow to from 15.8
to 19-20 BCM would leave Turkey with 6-8 BCM for impoundment in its storage
reservoirs. This would leave the two downstream countries enough irrigation water
in their section of the Euphrates basin (Kliot, 1994:150). Kliot adds that Turkey
should not have to withdraw more than 5 BCM for its agricultural needs and
hydroelectricity production in the GAP. Iraq should give up some of its share in the
Euphrates water to Syria providing that it could have the total flow of the Tigris at its
disposal (Kliot, 1994:171).
86


To sum up, the unilateral efforts adopted by all of the three co-riparians of
the Euphrates/Tigris basin reflect mutual distrust and lack of confidence because of
political, ideological and cultural differences. Overcoming political impediments is a
necessary step towards an efficient management of the Euphrates/ Tigris waters for
the benefit of all concerned parties. Establishing a basin-wide water authority is
another important step towards water cooperation. The alreading existing Joint
Technical Committee for Regional Waters can help in confidence building. These
efforts can be encouraged and enhanced by an active role of concerned strong third
party, such as the US and international organization, such as the United Nations.
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Ill I
I 11 III
Conclusion:
The sharing of jointly-owned water resources is a complex issue and a source
of tension and conflict in many areas of the world. But in arid areas, such as the
Middle East, this issue is more complicated. Given the current situation, tensions
over water in the region in general are likely to increase greatly in the near future
unless the concerned parties succeed in reaching some cooperative agreements.
The need for more water led all of the three co-riparians of the Euphrates/
Tigris basin to proceed with extensive irrigation and hydroelectric power generation
projects. Therefore, One of the major keys to the geopolitical competition for the
waters of the Twin Rivers, especially the Euphrates, can be found in the tremendous
reservoirs and storage capacity all three countries developed for themselves. There
are numerous large and small dams, barrages and diversion canals which have been
built, or planned, for the purpose of controlling the flows of both rivers in Turkey,
Syria and Iraq. The most important feature of such efforts to harness the
Euphrates/Tigris waters is the lack of coordination among co-riparians as opposed to
the need for integrated water plans in the basin. This feature can be explained by
mutual distrust and lack of confidence because of political, ideological and cultural
differences.
The Euphrates/Tigris basin, with all its competing national and economic
pressures, provides a clear example of the strategic importance of water as a scarce
88


commodity. It exemplifies how fatefiil the rivalry over shared waters can be. There is
a growing tension among the three co-riparians of the Euphrates and the Tigris
Rivers: Turkey, Syria and Iraq over their waters. In 1974, Iraq threatened to bomb
the Syrian Al-Thawrah Dam and massed troops along the Iraqi-Syrian borders.
Turkey blocked the flow of the Euphrates River in January 1990 and used its water
as a political weapon against both Syria and Iraq, the two downstream countries. It
seems that this is likely to happen again in the future if the Euphrates/Tigris waters
continue to be used by its co-riparians as a political weapon.
Turkey, the upstream riparian of both the Euphrates and the Tigris, claims an
absolute right to use the waters of the two rivers within its territory in whatever way
it thinks suits its own purposes and interests. Syria and Iraq, the two downstream
riparians, claim that their prior use of the two rivers water give them acquired
historical rights that must be taken into consideration and fully respected by Turkey.
The three co-riparians are pursuing rival doctrines. Both Syria and Iraq consider the
Euphrates and the Tigris as international rivers that should be governed by the
international rules in this regard. But, Turkey considers the Euphrates and the Tigris
as transboundary rivers. Therefore, they can not be governed by the international
legal rules that govern international rivers. It is most likely that such opposing
positions in the presence of multiple and competing needs would result in conflict,
particularly in the absence of recognized criteria and mechanisms for determining
water shares.
89


There are only two partial agreements in regard to the Euphrates/Tigris basin:
the 1987 Turkish-Syrian Protocol and the 1990 Syrian-Iraqi Accord. However, the
absence of a comprehensive agreement between the three co-riparians of the
Euphrates/Tigris does not mean that the two rivers are not international rivers, as the
Turks claim. According to international law, they are international rivers. Therefore,
Turkey has to negotiate with both downstream riparians in regard to the use of the
two rivers waters. Any Turkish water project on the Euphrates/Tigris without prior
consultation with Syria and Iraq is a violation to the principles of established
international law.
One of the major characteristics of the water problem in the Euphrates/Tigris
basin is the use of water as a political weapon and a pressure card to solve other
problems. In other words, the link between water problems among the
Euphrates/Tigris co-riparians and politics is very clear (e.g., the Kurdish issue, the
dispute between Turkey and Syria over the Province of Alexandaretta and the
political and ideological rivalry between the two competing wings of the Baath
Party in Syria and Iraq).
The Turkish GAP project has very serious effects on both Syria and Iraq. It is
expected that this project will divert as much as half of the Euphrates waters into
irrigation canals. Similar plans for the Tigris will follow. Of course, if Turkey has
the right to use the Euphrates/Tigris waters, it does not have the right to deny the
peoples of the two downstream riparian countries the water they have been using for
90


1111
centuries. Obviously, the Turkish position violates the international law and the rules
of justice.
Disputes over water resources do not necessarily lead to conflict. Rather,
some may lead to cooperation. The likelihood of cooperation or conflict depends
on the fact that partners must feel that their interests will be taken into account. A
solution to the dispute over the Euphrates/Tigris waters can be obtained by applying
the principles and rules applicable to similar disputes which determine the rights and
obligations of each riparian country. A good example in this regard is the 1944
agreement between the U.S., the upstream riparian, and Mexico, the downstream
riparian, in regard to the Colorado, Tijunana and Rio Grande Rivers. This agreement
was concluded after the U.S. abandoned the Harmon Doctrine and adopted instead a
flexible approach (TMFA, 1996:28-29).
It seems that only cooperation and integrated planning among the three
riparians will assign each of them the best available amount of water resources.
Interested scholars recommend that the governments of the three riparians of the
Euphrates/Tigris basin should recognize the need to take a reciprocal approach to the
development of the available water resources. They argue that if water rights and
concerns are not cooperatively addressed, then the prevailing critical conditions
would inevitably increase the existing tensions and may even lead to conflict.
Therefore, they stress that broader approaches to solve water problems among the
three co-riparians of the Euphrates/Tigris basin are urgently needed.
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EARLY COLORADO WOMEN ARTISTS B y Holly Carol Allen B S ., Uni ve rsity of Colorado at D enver, 1981 A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado at Denver & Health Sciences Center in partial fulfiilmcnt of the re quirements for the de gree of Master of Arts in History 2007

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2007 by Holly Carol Allen All rights reserved

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This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Holly Carol Allen has been approved by Thoma/'J. Noel James Whiteside Afv;l 111 ;).007 Date

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Allen Holly Carol (M.A., History) Early Colorado Women Artists Thesis directed by Associate Professor Thomas J Noel ABSTRACT The lives and work of women artists have, for the most part, been neglected in the historical narratives of the development of the Western frontier. Yet women artists made a significant contribution to the development of cultural institutions, art education, and the promotion of women as painters, illustrators, photographers and sculptors, especially in Colorado. Many of the women artists who settled in the West studied art in the East and in Europe, bringing with them an artistic tradition which educated and edified as well as provided a permanent record of the new frontier communities. This thesis looks at the women s contribution to the development of the artistic culture in Colorado and the profession of women as artists, through the biographical and cultural perspective ofthe individual artists practicing in the state from 1860 through the early part of the 20th century. This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I recommend its publication. Signed Thomas J. Noel If

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DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis to my mom and dad. I think they would ha v e been proud to see me finish this I wish they were here v

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My thanks to John Hull and my sister Nancy who encouraged me to continue when I was ready to give up. I also wish to thank my supervisor and friend, Kathryn Maes for allowing me the time I needed to work on the research Thanks also to my advisor Thomas Noel for his support and Professors James Fell and James Whiteside for their advice. VI

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CONTENTS List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . .tx CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 2. WOMEN ARTISTS IN THE 19TH CENTURY. 4 3. EARLY COLORADO ARTISTS. Mary Elisabeth Achey . . . Esther Yates Frazier. . . . 4. DENVER'S ART COMMUNITY . . . . 14 . . . . 16 18 19 Denver Arts Education Organizations and Clubs . 20 Helen Henderson Chain . . . . . . . 28 Henrietta Bromwell . . . . . . . . . 34 Elisabeth Spalding . . . . . . . . . 38 Emma Richardson Cherry . . . . . . . 42 Anne Evans . . . . . . . . . . . 44 5. THE COLORADO SPRINGS ART COLONY ..... 47 Rose Kingsley . . . . . . . . . . 51 Eliza Greatorex . Anne Lodge Parrish. Alice Stewart Hill. Vll 55 56 ...... 58

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Katherine Smalley ........ ... .... ... 60 Anne Van Briggle Ritter . . . . . . . 60 6. LEADVILLE . . . . . . 62 Mary Hallock Foote. . . . 63 7. WOMEN ARTISTS IN THE 20TH CENTURY ...... 75 Federal Art Projects ..... ............ 79 Elsie Ward Hering . . . . . . . . . 83 Laura Gilpin. . . . . . . . . . . 85 II a McAfee. . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Muriel Sibell Wolle ................ 98 Eve Drewelowe. . . . . . . . . . .1 04 Louise Emerson Ronne beck . . . . . . 108 Gladys Caldwell Fisher Nadine Kent Drummond Ethel and Jenne Magafan. 8. LESSER KNOWN AND 114 118 121 VISITING ARTISTS IN COLORADO . . . .126 9. CONCLUSION 148 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . 151 VIII

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 4.1 Mount ofthe Holy Cross Helen Henderson Chain ....... 33 4.2 Mill, Henrietta Bromwell . . . . . . . . . . 36 4.3 Pikes Peak from the Garden of the Gods, Elizabeth Spalding .. 40 5.1 The Gate ofthe Garden ofthe Gods Rose Kingsley ....... 53 5 2 Helen Hunt Jackson, Anne Parrish . . . . . . . 57 6.1 Underground, Mary Hallock Foote . . . . . . .. 69 7.1 Mesa Verde, Laura Gilpin . . . . . . . . . . 90 7.2 The Streets of Blackhawke Muriel Sibell Wolle . ... 100 7.3 Swinging Saplings, Eve Drewelowe. . . . .. 105 7.4 The People vs Mary Elizabeth Smith, Louise Ronne beck . .112 7.5 Rocky Mountain Sheep, Gladys Caldwell Fisher ...... .. 116 7 6 Colorado State Fair Nadine Drummond ........ .... 120 7 7 Lawrence Massacre, Ethel Magafan .............. 122 7.8 House in Leadville Jenne Magafan ....... . ..... 125 8.1 Untitled (Rocky Mountain Landscape) ...... . ...... 136 IX

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CHAPTER l INTRODUCTIONWOMEN ARTISTS IN THE WEST Until the end of the twentieth century, the art created by women in the West had been for the most part overlooked and disregarded. This may be due, as historians Phil Kovinik and Marian Yoshiki-Kovinik assert, "primarily to a longheld view that only male artists can effectively capture the true vi tality and virility of the West in their work."1 The American West itself was associated with masculine images and ideals so it is no surprise that Western art has had a long tradition of male artists depicting the rough and untamed life in the new frontier. Artists like Frederick Remington and Charles Russell portrayed a land of robust cowboys, proud natives galloping horses, and stampeding herds of buffalo while Thomas Moran and Albert Bierstadt painted huge epic romanticized landscapes of towering majestic mountains As the historiography of the West developed in the late twentieth century to incorporate more comprehensive information that included the experiences of women and minorities historians began to utilize the diaries, letters and novels 1 Kovinik Phil and Yoshiki-Kovinik, Marian. A n En cy clop e dia of Women Artist s of the Ameri c an W e st. University of Texas Press Austin 1998. Pg xvii

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written by women to broaden the understanding of the western experience. Yet, the images produced by Western women artists were still largely ignored. In some cases it is difficult to track the work of women artists as it was common practice for women to alter their first names or use only initials in order to conceal their gender and compete more effectively with male artists in the marketplace. Despite certain gender limitations and prejudices the West provided more opportunities for women as it was less encumbered by many of the traditional social hierarchies and cultural restrictions. "Western women thus had more freedom than their Eastern counterparts in almost every sphere of creative endeavor and they pushed the boundaries of femininity sooner and farther."2 For example while American women across the country did not get the right to vote until 1920 four Western states allowed women to vote prior to 1900 Wyoming in 1869 Utah in 1870 Colorado in 1893 and Idaho in 1896. Colorado s first state constitution allowed women to vote in school elections in 1876 which were considered within the traditional sphere ofwomen's concerns and influences They received full franchise in Colorado state elections in 1893. The largest body of works by Western women artists in the late 191 h century were produced in Colorado and Utah, the most heavily populated of the western states. In Denver and Colorado Springs, art schools galleries exhibitions and public competitions were an important part of the cultural life of the cities by 2 Trenton Patricia (editor) independe nt Spirits : Wom e n Paint e r s of the A m e ri c an W es t 1 8901945. U niversity of California Press Berkeley Los Angele s and London. Pg x 2

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the turn of the century in many cases due to the efforts of practicing women artists in those communities These women artists in Colorado will be discussed, in the context of their roles as artists and cultural architects and their environment in the frontier West. Their numbers were relatively small and their inclusion in historical narratives are nearly nonexistent, but the impact they made on the cultural life of Colorado was significant. 3

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CHAPTER2 WOMEN ARTISTS lN THE 19TH CENTURY In early nineteenth century America in the fashion of English training, upper and middle class women and young girls were taught the ladylike skills of fine penmanship drawing, watercolor painting and intricate needlework Needlework and painting were considered appropriate handicrafts for women, and most were self-taught amateurs. However, in the more educated families, women were able to study art by taking private lessons from professional artists or attending private drawing academies. These drawing schools were formed after the American Revolution as professional European artists relocated to America. As a matter of practicality most women were trained in the fundamental skills of sewing, as a function of being a successful housekeeper in order to make clothing, quilts, bed rugs, samplers and decorative embroidery. The more creative ofthese endeavors are generally considered in the category of folk art. Girls were taught quilting skills at a very young age and traditionally were expected to complete a dozen-and-one quilts by the time of their marriage The fmest ofthese was designated the "brida l quilt." Quilting thus was a significant part of women's 4

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lives in nineteenth century Am e rica and "for many the bright colors and imaginative patterns were the principle outlet o f cre a tive expression in a life of unrelenting toil." 3 Quiltmaking encouraged individual creati v ity and design using basic concepts of color line texture and shape The quilt artist exploited the design possibilities through her color relationships value contrasts and inventive variation of the original pattern In the hands of an imaginative quiltmaker many quilts based upon con v entional designs achieved true artistic stature. "4 There are two bas ic types of quilts: the pieced quilt consisting of geometrical shapes that can vary from basic forms to el a borate abstracts and the appliqued quilt which is made by sewing flowers and other realistic forms onto the quilt top. While American and European painting at this time was purely representational women quiltmakers were pioneers in abstract design. "5 Quilt patterns and styles varied greatly by geographic ethnic and economic divisions Genteel Eastern women produced among others elaborate crazy quilts made of expensive satins silks and velvets detailed with intricate embroidery to decorate their sitting rooms. The term crazy quilt" referred to the random shapes of various types of fabrics sewn together and fancifully embroidered at the seams Slave women made story quilts 3 Rubenstein Charlotte S. A m e ri c an Wome n A rti s t s from Ear ly Indian Times to the Present. G.K. Hall & Co., Boston 1982 Pg 30. 4 Dewhurst C. Kurt MacDowell Betty and Ma c Dowell Marsha. A rti s t s in A pr o n s : F olk A rt b y Ameri c an Wom en. E .P. Dutton New York 1979. Pg 4 8 5 Ibid Pg xvii 5

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using local legends biblical tales and accounts of astronomical occurrences passed down from oral tradition. Abolitionists made underground railroad" quilts that signified the route for slaves escaping to the north and suffragists sewed quilts embracing themes ofthe women's rights movement. In the West quilts made by settlers on the westward journey sometimes reflected patterns and colors that were influenced by Native American weaving and basketry. Another form of folk art traditionally created by women was the memorial or mourning picture. Embroidered or painted these pictures were created as a memorial for a departed hero or loved one, and often given as a gift to the family of the deceased. They first appeared as embroidered pictures in eighteenth century America, and became particularly popular after the death of George Washington one of the first heroes of the young nation in 1799. Later as women began painting them, the brushstrokes were often applied to emulate needlework stitches, thus retaining to some extent the original embroidered style of the work. Mourning pictures were comprised of standard motifs that included classical urns mounted on tombstones weeping willow trees sobbing figures and a village or church in the background. "The mourning picture, with its somewhat overdrawn sentimentality, became a favorite subject for the romantic schoolgirl artist who was frequently reminded of her own mortality. This preoccupation with death 6

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encouraged the creation of countless mourning pieces commemorating heroic figures or lamenting deceased relatives ."6 As educational reform created more opportunities for women a division developed between women who saw themselves as amateurs and those beginning to consider art as a profession The number of women entering the field of art expanded rapidly after the Civil War. Prior to the 1860s a number of schools of design offered instruction to women in the industrial and decorative arts, which were closely related to traditional domestic skills and considered much more suitable for women with artistic talent. One of the most reputable of these the Cooper Union Free Art School for Women began in New York City in the 1850s. By the early 1860s traditional art academies previ o usly the domain of men, had begun admitting women interested in academic training in drawing and painting. The American academies, modeled after European institutions, evolved from informal programs to more structured professionalized curricula. And, the enrollment of women into these programs and eventually into the field, increased dramatically. By the 1880s, the women enrolled in arts schools outnumbered the men. The 1870 U.S. census listed 414 women in the professions of artists, sculptors and art teachers. By 1890 the number had risen to nearly 11,000.7 These 6 Dewhurst C. Kurt MacDowell Betty and MacDowell Marsha. Art ists in Aprons: Folk Art by American Women. E P Dutton New York 1979 Pg 66-67. 7 Swinth, Kirsten Painting Professionals : Women Artists & th e Development of Modern Ameri c an Art, 1870-1930. University ofNorth Carolina Press Chapel Hill NC, 2001. Pg 3 7

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figures parallel the expansion of opportunities for women to enter universities and other professions previously reserved for men. The latter half of the nineteenth century is still considered a breakthrough period for women artists, having won the right to study alongside men, thus legitimizing their place in the world of art. However in many academies, the life drawing classes which included nude models, were still segregated by gender if available at all to women. It was considered a breach of decorum for a woman to view the nude human body. Excluding women from life-drawing courses in the fine arts academies was done in order to protect their purity. Art historian Germaine Greer comments that while prohibition from life drawing classes negatively impacted the artistic development of the woman artist, "much more significant. .. was the way in which women were expected to both see and to render the nude. It had been said that women were not sensual enough to be great artists: the fact was that female sensuality was repugnant to accepted taste and inaccessible to most female artists."8 While women were being accepted into the traditional art schools and academies, their entrance into many of the professional arts organizations was limited. In 1877 Helena de Kay Gilder long time friend of Leadville artist Mary Hallock Foote, founded the Society of American Artists. Ironically, that organization, founded by a woman only reluctantly admitted women members in 8 Greer, Germaine The Obstacl e Rac e Farrar Straus Giroux New York 1979 Pg 320 8

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small numbers. By 1889 only 4 of 108 members were women.9 Kirsten Swinth, in Painting Professionals: Women Artists & th e D evelo pment of Modern Amer ican Art 1870-1930, suggests that the opposition to allowing women into the professional art academies and organizations seems to have been reluctance to allow women to pass judgment on the work of male artists, in both the informal settings of club meetings and the formal arenas of exhibition jurie s 10 This is not an unreasonable assumption considering that at this time women were also not allowed to serve on courtroom jurie s due to similar concerns In order to sell artwork it was important to exhibit one 's work to the public. Toward this end, women often banded together to create support for their exhibitions. In 1876 one group initiated a Woman's Pavilion at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition which included women's artwork "as part of a general survey of modem-day female accomplishments ."11 The Woman s Pavilion had over 40 000 square feet of exhibition space and included work of nearly 1500 women from at least 13 countries This type of exposition designed specifically to exhibit the creative work of women became a standard feature at future fairs. But it was not accomplished without a certain amount of controversy. For some, the separation of women s artwork from the main competitive art exhibit in the 9 Swinth, Kirsten. Painting P rofessio nal s: Women Artists & the Development of Modern American Art, 1870-19 30 University ofNorth Carolina Press Chapel NC, 2001. Pg 67-68 10 Ibid. Pg 6 8 11 Tufts, Eleanor. American Women Arti sts, 1830-1930. Intern a tional Exhibitions Foundation for the National Museum of Women in the Arts 1987. Pg 26. 9

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Memorial Hall symbolized the second-class statu s of the women artists "The presence of a separate exhibition facility for women at the Exposition signaled an institutionalizing of women s productions in isolation from those ofmen."12 Additionally while Memorial Hall was used exclusively to exhibit works of fine arts which had been selected by competition the Woman' s Pavilion consolidated amateur and professional artists as well a s industrial arts and handicrafts. Because of this some feminist women artists refused to participate. "Ironically, the building became both the most powerful and conspicuous symbol of the women' s movement for equal rights and the most visible indication of woman' s separate status ."1 3 Art historian Frances Borzello clearly captured the disparity inherent in the separation of wom e n s creative efforts from those of men: "However seriously women took themselves as artists they were never seen by others as a rtists plain and simple they were seen as women artists bearers of society s views on a woman' s place, potential, nature and role ."1 4 The Women s Building at the World s Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago was considered at the time one ofthe greatest exhibition of women' s artwork. The building itself was designed by women, and the exhibits presented sculptures, paintings drawings and prints created by women from all parts of the country Again as in Philadelphia some professional women artists preferred to 12 Chadwick Whitney. Wom e n A rt and S oc i ety Thame s and Hudson, London 1990. Pg 228 13 Ibid. P g 228 1 4 Borzello Frances A World of Our Own : Wome n a s Artis t s since th e R e naissance. Watson Guptill Publication s ew York 2000. Pg 7 10

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compete for exhibition space along with men in the Fine Arts building rather than placing their art in the women' s building that displayed everyth i ng from household good s to embroidery. Despite those concerns the 1 8 93 World s Columbian Exposition was an important stepping stone for a number of women artists. Women s creative presence was more powerfully felt in Chicago in 1 8 9 3 than at any other time in the country s history. "1 5 The most famous training school for art in the United States in the late nineteenth century was the Art Student s League in New York A numbe r of the women artists later active in Colorado studied there prior to making the journey west. The league was founded in the summer of 1875 by a group of dissident studen t s from the National Academy o f Design unhappy with the rigid and conservative nature of the Academy' s curriculum. The classes were conducted by some of the most prominent artists of the time including Thomas Eakins George Inness Augustus Saint-Gaudens, William Merritt Chase and Kenyon Cox.1 6 The League allowed women to take life drawing classes with nude models though the men s and women' s classes were held separatel y until into the mid 1920s By the l ate 1870s American artists considered study in Paris to be the completion of an artist s training to immerse themselves in the rigorou s instruction and the European tradition of figure studies Paris was the center of 15 C h a dwick Wh i tne y. Wom en A rt and S oc i ety T ham es and Hud s on London 1990. P g 24 9 1 6 H e ller Nanc y G. "The A rt S tude nt s L e a gue: 10 0 Y ears", A m e ri c an Artis t S e pt embe r 1 9 7 5 Vol 3 9 I s sue 398. Pg 59 11

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European art instruction and thousands of American art students traveled across the ocean after the Civil War to study there with nearly of third of them being women. In 1888 alone over a thousand American artists and art students attended Parisian academies. 1 7 This emphasis on European training and the study of the human figure impacted the nature of the artwork created by women. Previously the emphasis for women artists was primarily still life and flowers. With entry to the academies and figure drawing classes their work evolved into more v aried genres including figures, landscapes and portraiture. Although more women were developing reputations as landscape artists the field was still primarily dominated by male artists. Data from catalogs for annual exhibitions of the National Academy of Design the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and the Boston Art Club indicate that "women s entry of still-life and flower paintings dropped substantially between 1880 and 1900 from around one-fourth to fewer than 10 percent of all paintings exhibited by women At the same time, they entered figure paintings in increasing numbers. By 1900 women exhibited figure paintings in close to the same proportions as men "1 8 The other area where women enjoyed significant success was portraiture painting. It had become popular for middle and upper-class Americans to 1 7 Swinth, Kirsten Paintin g Professional s : Wome n Artists & the D e velopment of Mode m A m e ri c an A rt 1870-1930 Uni v ersity ofNortb Carolina Press Ch apel Hill NC 2001. Pg 3 7 1 8 Ibid Pg 73 12

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commission paintings of themselves and their families which created another income avenue for artists. Although portrait painting had been present in this country since the early seventeenth century the practice prospered from the early 1800s until the end of the Civil War allowing some women to make a living as traveling portrait painters. 13

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CHAPTER3 EARLY COLORADO ARTISTS The first women artists in Colorado were the Native Americans who produced fine art in basketry, potter, quillwork, weaving and painting on leather. Their work was generally employed in their handmade domestic articles, using geometric and abstract designs as well as animals flowers and figures The designs were commonly symbolic and the objects frequently used for religious rituals. These domestic artistic skills were handed down by generation through maternal lineage. The blankets made entirely by Navajo women are today considered masterpieces of abstract design. However one early book on Colorado history clearly delineates Native American art as separate from that of professional Caucasian artists. In History of Colorado, Volume Ill, author LeRoy Hafen states: "Writers upon the history of art in Colorado have beenfond of mentioning the handicraft of the American Indian as the first step in its development citing the pictographs on canyon walls and decoration of skins as the initial impulse. This interpretation seems to the writer to be erroneous and unjust to the Caucasian artist and to the Indian. In the first place the two periods represented, the methods involved and the trend of creative thought were wholly dissimilar and it is an absurdity to link the arts together, historically or in any other way The art of the Indian is essentially 14

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an industrial art, or craft, based upon religious ceremonials, and purely decorative in character. In this latter aspect only may the two touch. The Indian has nothing to learn from the Caucasian that will not alter or destroy his race expression; the white may, by an intelligent application of Indian principles in design and color harmony, especially in the crafts, develop a new art in the West that will acquire the finest traditional value. But this inspiration lies in the Indian crafts, blanket weaving, pottery and basketry. Considered from the decorative standpoint the Indian was a master craftsman, and handled color with the instinctive genius of the barbarian, an instinct which sophistication tends to dull. "19 The earliest art in Colorado by pioneer artists was primarily executed by visitors and artists traveling in expeditions, recording their impressions of the new land for the education of those in the East. The first Eastern artist on Colorado soil appears to have been Philadelphia engraver Samuel Seymour who accompanied the Major Stephen Long expedition, sent by Secretary of War, John C. Calhoun, across the Western frontier in 1820. Early expeditions frequently included an artist in order to document the terrain and landscapes. In 1863 and 1864 famous landscape artist Albert Bierstad traveled and painted in Colorado. His painting entitled Storm in the Rocky Mountains garnered a great deal of attention when it was exhibited in New York in 1885, selling for an unheard of price of $20,000. 1 9 Hafen, LeRoy R. History of Colorado, Volume Ill. Linderman Co. Inc., Denver. 1927 Pg 1264 15

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Mary Elisabeth Ache y (I 832-1886) One of the earliest known professional women artists in Colorado was Mary Elisabeth Achey. Achey a self-taught artist painted and sketched more widely throughout the West in the period between 1860 and 1885 than did any other female artist-with the possible exception of Mary Hallock Foote. "20 She was born in either Scotland or Germany in 1832, the granddau g hter of a Dutch painter. She grew up in Ohio where she met and married Philip Ache y The couple along with their daughter, Ida carne west in 1 8 5 7 By 1860 they had settled in Nevadaville Colorado where sh e executed one of her first known works titled Ne vada v ill e a 13. 5 x 20 oil painting of the mountain mining town. Between 1862 and 1865 her husband, Philip served in the Second Col o rado Cavalry Volunteers and traveled between Kansas Colorado and Missouri. Achey would on occasion accompany her husband and in 1862 she produced a number of drawings capturing the army fort scenes in Kansas and Colorado. Later that decade she resided in Central City where she continued to paint Colorado landscapes. Her sketches of Clear Creek were noted in the Denver newspapers in 1868-1869 The Rocky Mountain News described one of her works as One of the handsomest oil paintings ever seen in Colorado."2 1 2 Kovinik Phil. The W o man A rti s t is the A m e r ic an West 1 860-19 60. Muckenth a l e r Curlur a l C enter Full e rton C A 1976. Pg 4 21 Roc ky Mountain N ews, Vol. XI 11/ 1 7 / 1 86 9 p .l., c 7 16

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in 1867, Mary Achey's daughter Ida, died following a bout of diphtheria Mary blamed her husband for falling asleep during a night watch over the sick child and left her husband settling with her two sons in Central City where she opened an art studio in 1868, she held an "Oil Painting Carnival" in the local bookstore where she raffled off thirty paintings for $2 50 a ticket, including one titled Pikes Peak with Buffalo Chase. Also included in the auction were six portraits to be painted, with the drawing winners expected to "furnish a likeness of the person they wished painted ."22 Mary Elisabeth Achey remained in Colorado until the mid-1870s when she relocated with her two sons to California as a portrait painter. In 1880 she settled down on a homestead outside of Aberdeen Washington For the next several years she traveled back and forth between Aberdeen and Astoria Oregon where she was able to sell more of her work. In 1885 she married Emerson Woodruff. Throughout her life she supported herself and her sons through her artwork completing over 500 paintings, illustrating scenes of Civil War army camps, indian encampments, landscapes and early settlements, as well as portraits. Mary Elisabeth Achey died of a heart attack in 1886. 22 Central City R egister, November 1868 17

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Esther Yates Frazier (1830-1903) The only other documented woman artist in Colorado during the 1860s was Esther Yates Frazier. Frazier was born October 1 1830 in Douglas Massachusetts. While several of her paintings exist at the Colorado Historical Society very little biographical material is a v ailable. She married Jacob Woodrow and they resided in Iowa during the 1850s In 1860 she and her husband traveled across the plains to Denver by ox team where she remained the rest of her life. Frazier was a self-taught artist who also wrote articles for the Rocky Mountain N ews and completed two books in her later y ears. She wa s remarried to George A Bridge in 1866 then later to Charles Frazier in the mid 1880s. In all she had nine children Her one known residence in Denver was a cabin near the intersection of Blake and 22n d str e ets. The Colorado Historical Society has three of Esther Frazier's paintings in their collection One dated 1861, is entitled Arapah oe -Ch eye nn e En c ampm e nt depicting an encampment near what is now Union Station in Denver. The other two are untitled landscapes around the Evergreen area. 18

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CHAPTER4 DENVER S ART COMMUNITY The two main centers for art in Colorado during the late nineteenth century were Denver and Colorado Springs both fast growing communities due to the influx of fortune seekers from the east in search of gold and silver Denver began as settlements at the junction of Cherry Creek and the South Platte River in 1858 the west side encampment called Auraria and the east side called Denver City. The two settlements were soon unified as one city In the beginning Denver was a rough frontier town where men outnumbered women by mor e than six to one and the central businesses consisted of saloons and houses of ill repute. Violent crime was uncontrolled and robberies often occurred in broad daylight. By 1870 the census reports listed 4,579 citizens in Denver just less than half of them women. While saloons still outnumbered churches eight to one, Denver began to draw a more educated population due to its' clean dry air which attracted individuals suffering from tuberculosis, asthma and other lung and 19

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pulmonary disorders. 23 Many of these new Eastern transplants were established artists and patrons of the arts who became the driving forces behind the creation ofDenver's cultural arts organizations and institutions. By the 1880s Denver was becoming a cultured, modem city of tall office buildings exclusive neighborhoods, and ornate churches and cathedrals a testament to the new wealth in the city. However other parts of Denver remained relatively dirty and unsightly due to the soot from smelters, litter in the streets and raw sewage which was drained into the South Platt e until the sewage system was finished in the mid-1880s. By 1890 Denver s population had shifted to a ratio of four men to three women and Colorado's married women outnumbered unwed females b y more than ten to one "24 As the city grew (from a population of 4,759 in 1870 to almost 1 34,000 in 1900) so did the arts directed and influenced by the men and women artists who had settled there from the East. Art historian Erika Doss maintains that "as a result of the cultural support structure developed by women Denver remained a magnet for Western artists in the twentieth century. 25 23 Dorsett Lyle W The Queen City: A Hi story of D e nv er. Pruett Publishing Co., Boulder CO. 1977 Pg 50 24 Leonard Stephen J. and Noel, Thoma s J D e nv er : Mining Town t o Metropolis. University of C olorado Pres s, Niwot CO 1990 Pg 91 25 Doss Erika. "/Must Paint", Indep ende nt Spirit s: Women Paint ers of the Ameri can West 1 890 1945. University of California Pre ss, Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London 1995. P g 216 20

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Denver Arts Education Organizations and Clubs In the latter quarter of the 1800s a number of art academies, clubs and organizations were formed in Denver. Some ofthem were to have lasting effects on the cultural future of the city, others were short-lived and hampered by internal bickering. Artists had lived in the city since the 1860s, and "by 1884 over fifty artists were listed as Denver residents."26 The first art organization in Denver was the Academy ofFine Arts Association of Colorado, founded in 1876 by John H. Mills. In August of 1882 The Denver Tribune reported that the Academy of Fine Arts had secured the use of the entire 5th floor of the Tabor Grand Opera House Building in order to hold classes and exhibitions and to provide artist studios It began a tradition of Saturday afternoon receptions for artists which lasted for several years. However due to lack of continuing support, the association folded before 1885. The Denver School of Fine Arts operated at the University of Denver, was founded in 1880 and began to offer courses in painting and drawing by Ida De Steignuer. Ex-Governor John Evans was the president of the University Board of Trustees and his daughter, Anne Evans was a powerful proponent of the arts. Denver artist Elisabeth Spalding writes, "The generosity of Governor and Mrs Evans equipped that art school for the University. They and Mrs Bancroft were true patrons of art always encouraging artists by purchase and with real interest in 26 Doss Erika I Must Pa i nt", Ind epe ndent Spiri ts: Women Paint e rs of the American West, /8901945 University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles, and London 1995. Pg 213 21

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their work." 27 In 1892, the school expanded under the leadership of Preston Powers a sculptor and son of the well known Neoclassic artist Hiram Powers The Denver School of Fine Arts was granted exclusive use of the old University building at 1330 Arapahoe Street where the "first organized effort to teach art was instituted "28 In 1880, the Denver Sketch Club was founded, and within a year had changed its' name to the Colorado Art Association. Beginning in 1882 then each year following the Annual National Mining Industrial Exhibition included in addition to the traditional exhibits o n agriculture, mining, machinery, tools textiles and household goods an art exhibition which was set up by a committee headed by Horace W. Tabor senator and mining tycoon, and artist John Harrison Mills. These annual exhibits provided an opportunity for many of Denver s leading artists to display their work. The 1883 exhibit included Colorado artists A. Phimister Proctor Helen Henderson Chain, Charles Craig, J. Harrison Mills Fanny Clark Captain "Jack" Howland, and Charles Partridge Adams who was presented the gold medal. By 1884 the third annual art exhibit included seventy artists, most of which were Colorado residents. 2 7 Spalding Elisabeth. Som e thing of A r t in D e n ve r a s I Think o f It Typescript written for the Denver Fortnightly Club. 1924. Pg 8 28 Hafen LeRoy R History of Colorado Volum e Ill. Linderman Co. Inc. Denver 1927. Pg 1268 22

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The Denver Art Club was formed in 1886 with John D. Howland as president and included many of the previous members of the Academy of Fine Arts Association Howe v er, due to conflict within its membership the club met an earl y demise the following year. In 1889 the Den v er Paint and Clay club was formed and included local women artists Helen Hend e rson Chain Henrietta Bromwell and Emma Richardson Cherry The club held its first annual exhibition i n December of 1889 which included works by Charles Partridge Adams Henrietta Bromwell Helen Henderson Chai n Emma Richardson Cherry Frank Collins Alexis Comparet Helen De Lang e Harriet Winslow Hayden and E dward Hill While this club was also short-lived the members would go on to form and participate in a number of other significant art organizations in the city The Le Brun Art Club was founded in the fall of 1890 by painter and art teacher Harriet Hayden specificall y to support women in their endeavors to become both amateur and professional artists The club was modeled after the Palette Club of Chicago to which Hayden had belonged and was named after Elisabeth Vigee LeBrun, a French portrait painter who lived from 1753 to 1842. The organization provided classes scheduled discussions and provided opportunities for the women artists to exhibit their work. The Le Brun Art Club began with fiv e members in 1890 and expanded to 25 by 1893. Early members of the club included in addition to Hayd e n Henrietta Bromwell Emma Richardson 23

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Cherry Elisabeth Spalding Katherine Smalley Ida Stair Marion Johnson Alice Howes Helen Munson Ida Failing and honorary member Leadville illustrator Mary Hallock Foote. The club held several exhibits in spaces loaned out by the Art League and in the post office annex. The third and last exhibit w as held in April of 1 893, and included landscape s by Bromwell Hayden Cherry Smalley and Spalding and received creditable review s. Though the club only existed for a few short years it did help to support the women artist s o f Denver began to create an art consciousness in the city and pa v ed the way for the founding of both the Den v er Art League and the Arti s ts Club of Denver which became the Denver Art Association and eventually the Denver Art Museum The LeBrun Art Club "s eems to have inspired Den ve r s most powerful business and professional men to follow suit with a n e w organization of their own, the Denver Art L e ague ."29 The Art League was headed by W illiam Ward Shaw as president and Samuel Richard as director. It was active in presenting exhibitions of work b y artists of national importance including a show of over 260 paintings by landscape artist Thomas Moran in January of 1893. It was the practice at the time to fill the walls with paintings hanging them above and below each other with very little space in between. The Denver Art League also opened a School of Fine Arts in September of 1892 which rivaled the University of Denver's School of Fine Arts. The new 29 Marlene C h a mber s (editor ) The D e n ver Art M u seu m : The First Hund re d Years. Den v er Art Mus eum 1996 P g 16 24

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school was directed by Samuel Richards and had on its teaching staff local artists Charles Partridge Adams, Emma Richardson Cherry and Harriet Hayden. The Denver Artists Club was created in 1893 in the studio of founding member Emma Richardson Cherry to sponsor lectures and exhibitions for local artists. The initial members included Charles Partridge Adams Anne Evans, Henry Read, Henrietta Bromwell Elizabeth Spalding and Elsie Ward. Annual dues were $1 for active members and $2 for associates. Their constitution states their mission as the advancement of the art interests of Denver and they focused their first few years on mounting annual juried exhibitions which were held in temporary spaces throughout the city In order to become an active member of the Denver Artists Club c andidates had to be proposed by an active member and approved unanimously by the Executive Committee This practice did on some occasions, create bad feelings amongst local artists who were blackballed. One particular incident reported in the local press described the bitter feelings caused between the newly organized arts club and noted Denver painter Alexis Comparet when his membership, proposed without his consent was blackballed. Emma Richardson Cherry served as the first President of the Denver Artists Club for one year before moving to Houston. Henry Read, an English painter took over the leadership of the club and continued in that position for a number of years. Read also taught art and founded a school that is now the Vance Kirkland Gallery, as well as serving as the head of Mayor Robert Speer s Denver 25

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Art Commission. The club held it s first exhibition consisting of 110 total paintings and drawings in April of 1894. The exhibit included a significant number of works by local women artists including Emma Richardson Cherry Katherine Smalley Henrietta Bromwell Elisabeth Spalding Alice Howes Harriet Winslow Hayden Elsie Ward Blanche Dougan Mary Cecelia Wheeler E v a Roades Ida De Steigner Mrs R H. Worthington Mrs. C.E. Blake Marian Howard Helen Powers Marian J Johnson and Lucie Lipscomb. By January of 1897 the club began to work towards obtaining space for a permanent art gallery. For three years they leased space in the Tabor Opera House block but were forced to find alternative space when it was recla i med f or a remodeling project. In 1899 they initiated a fund rai s ing project to purchase art for a gallery in the newl y commissioned Colorado Museum of Natural History in City Park. However their enthusiasm for the project waned and when the museum finally opened its doors in 1908, the third floor gallery had been furnished with loans by private collectors in Denver. The Denver Artists Club finally began building it s own collection in 1909 with it s first purchase of a painting entitled Hal cy on Day s by Frank Dumond. They set aside $500 each year to purchase one or more of the prize paintings from their annual exhibitions In 1915 the club purchased Twilight Sho wer by Elisabeth Spalding to add to the collection By 1916 the club had purchased 15 paintings. Anne Evans Elisabeth Spalding and Marion Hendrie have been credi t ed with keepin g the Artist s Club alive and 26

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directing the collecting decisions through the first two decades of the twentieth century Anne Evans served on the Denver Library Commission and facilitated an agreement for assigned gallery space for the club in the city s new library at Civic Center. The Artist s Club inaugurated its new library gallery with its 16th Annual Exhibition on February 15, 1910 They continued to utilize the space for lectures and exhibitions until 1925, when the library needed to recover the space for its own expanding collection. In the intervening years there were a number of proposals to include a fine arts building in the expansion of Denver s Civic Center including a plan presented in 1913 by Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. which would have created a twin building to the 191 0 Carnegie Library across the mall. But the proposals were ultimately rejected by the taxpayers. In 1917, the Denver Artists Club incorporated as the Denver Arts Association and hired Reginald Poland as its first art director. George Eggers took over as director in 1921, and the following year the Association acquired the Chappell House at 1300 Logan to be used as a center for the creative arts The house a twenty two room stone mansion built in the 1880s by mining and real estate tycoon Horace Bennett was donated to the Association by Jean Chappell Cranmer and DeLoe Chappell in memory of their father and mother. Initially, the Association planned to use the facility for artist studios and as a gathering place for local arts organizations but after losing the space in the Denver Library in 1925, the house was renovated to incorporate a wing for exhibition space. That 27

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same year, they purchased 46 Navajo textiles for $3100 and decided to devote a room at the Chappell House for a permanent American Indian Art collection. Anne Evans, who was the driving force behind the initial purchase of the textiles, was appointed as head of the committee to build and oversee the Indian art collection. Over 800 works had been acquired by 1930 ln 1923, the Denver An Association had changed its name to the Denver Art Museum. In addition to the Chappell House the museum held exhibitions in space which was allocated in the new City and County Building, beginning in 1932. Finally in 1965, the Denver Art Museum moved forward with plans for a new museum designed by Gio Ponti of Milan, Italy, and Denver architects James Sudler a n d Joal Cronenwett. The building opened in October of 1 971. A dramatic new addition the Hamilton Wing, designed by Daniel Liebeskind opened in the fall, 2006 Helen Henderson Chain (1849-1892) Helen Henderson Chain was one of Colorado's most important women artists of the period. She is one ofvery few women artists who are noted in most of the traditional Western art history literature. Chain was born on July 31, 1849 in Indianapolis and moved with her family (father George Henry Porter Henderson, mother Sarah Maria Bacon, two older brothers and two younger brothers) to San Francisco in 1855. It was there she developed a lifelong interest in Japanese and 28

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Chinese art. After her mother passed away in 1862 when she wa s 13, she returned to Indianapolis where she was adopted into her aunt's family. Helen was educated at the Illinois Female College in Jacksonville, where she began her formal studies in art Her studies included brief periods in Europe and New York where she studied with George Innes. In 1870 she married James A. Chain and relocated to Denver, continuing her studies in art with Hamilton Hamilton, a young easterntrained painter from New York. Chain's paintings were primarily mountain landscapes in oils and watercolors, at a time when women landscape artists were rare ; even rarer in the rugged terrain o f the Rocky Mountains. Most of her scenes were Colorado land s capes but she also traveled and painted in New Mexico, Mexico and California. She is reportedly the first woman to sketch Mount of the Holy Cross on location, w hich she visited for the first time in 1877-two years after Thomas Moran completed his fa mous painting of the scene. She may have also been the first woman artist to sketch the Grand Canyon on location in 1882. Chain was an avid mountain climber who scaled many of Colorado's peaks including Pikes Peak, Grey's Peak and Longs Peak. She was the first to exhibit New Mexico pueblo scenes at the National Academy of Design in 1882.3 Chain provided the illustrations for John L. Dyer' s Snow Shoe Itinerant, which was published in 1891. 3 Kovinik, Phil and Yoshiki-Kovinik, Marian, An Encyclopedia o.fWo m e n Artists of the American West University of Texas Press Austin 1998. Pg xviii 29

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Helen Henderson Chain established the city s first art school in her studio located in the McClintock Building in 1877. Art instruction under Chain included extended sketching trips in the Rocky Mountains. One of her more successful students was Charles Partridge Adams who won a gold medal at the 1882 Mining & Industrial Exposition with one of his yellow sunset paintings and continued a significant career as a successful Western artist. Chain along with a number of other women artists in Denver, was instrumental in the establishment and support of art organizations in the city In 1889 she along with Henrietta Bromwell and Emma Richardson Cherry formed the Paint and Clay Club. Then after the rather quick demise of the club she helped establish the all-women LeBrun Art Club in 1891 which "although shortlived helped to bring an art consciousness to the city and had much to do with the founding of the Artists Club of Denver two years later."3 1 Helen and her husband James were well-known and active in the social life ofDenver, through its cultural organizations and the Central Presbyterian Church, where Helen taught Sunday school classes They donated both their time and money to a number of charitable causes. In 1888 the Chains moved from their home on Broadway to a home on 16th Street, on the present site ofthe Daniels and Fisher tower. They also owned a ranch in Buena Vista which they visited 31 Kovinik Phil and Y oshiki-Kovinik Marian A n En cy clop e dia o f Women A rt i st s of th e Am eri c an W e st Univ ersity o f Texas Press Au s tin 1998. Pg xviii 30

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frequently James was part owner of the Chain & Hardy Book and Stationary Store at 161h and Larimer Street. In 1891 they opened an art gallery described as having incandescent lights with reflectors which are kinder to colors in the paintings than gas lights. "32 The Chains had no children and were able to travel extensi v ely The Denver Times once claimed them to be probably the most traveled couple in Colorado."33 Helen s family fondly nicknamed her "Trot" due to her frequent expeditions. In 1892 the Helen joined the Fortnightly Club one ofDenver's first women's club which had been established in 1881 as a discussion and study group. In March the Chains set off on a world tour that was to last for two years. Helen's first paper for the Fortnightly Club was an illustrated description of their experiences in Japan. She also authored a 33 page essay on the history and tradition of Japanese art for the Club dated September 5 1892 from Pekin China On October 8 1892 they set off on the steamer Bokhara from Shanghai bound for Hong Kong. The ship encountered a typhoon where the "vessel was dashed to pieces on a desert island."34 More than 200 travelers were drowned but 23 survived on the island for two days before being rescued. It was reported that 32 Petteys Chris "Colorado's First Women Artists" Empir e Ma g a zine, The D e nv e r Post. May 6, 1979 Pg 39 33 Denv e r Times October 19, 1892 3 4 Glo ry that Was Gold 1934 pg 32 31

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"years afterward Mrs. Chain's wedding ring was washed up on the shore of the China Sea. "3 5 In one of many published obituaries, The Denver Sun described Helen Henderson Chain as an artistic genius and in her death the art circles of Colorado lose one of its leading lights. Her paintings adorn many Denver homes. Her artistic taste made the collection and mounting of Colorado wild flowers of so great popularity as to create a new industry. To her is due largely the rising art spirit of the West, the organization of art clubs of various kinds and the introduction into many homes of fine art where chromos served before. Her inspiration came from nature and her artistic touch from the masters of the old world. "36 35 Glo ry that Was Gold, 193 4, pg 32 36 The D e nv e r Sun October 20 1892 32

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Figure 4.1 Mount of the Hol y Cro ss, Helen Henderson Chain 33

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Henrietta Bromwell ( 1859-1946) Henrietta Bromwell known as "Nettie", was born in Charleston, Indiana on July 13, 1859. Her mother Emily Payne Bromwell was a New England aristocrat and her father, Henry Pelham H. Bromwell a Republican Congressman Her mother died in January of 1865, several months after the birth of her third child, daughter Emily. Baby Emily died one month later. When Henrietta was eleven she moved to Denver with her paternal grandmother and her brother where they resided at 1117 Eighth Street which is now the Auraria Higher Education Center campus. Her brother died from a bout of typhoid fever in 1881. Shortly after their relocation to Denver her father wa s elected to the Colorado Constitutional Territorial Council and in 1875 served as a delegate to the Colorado Constitutional Convention. As a delegate Henry P e lham Bromwell, advocated for full enfranchisement of women in the state s new constitution. 37 Henrietta Bromwell has been described as "a solitary woman, who never married and appears to have had few close friends ."38 She studied briefly at the Denver School of Fine Arts at the University of Denver which at that time was located on Fourteenth and Arapahoe Street. Her artwork was primarily pen and ink drawings and paintings in oil and watercolor. Historian William H. Gerdts 37 Abbott Carl Leonard Stephen H., McComb David G. Colorado A His tory of the C e nt e nnial State University of Colorado Press Niwot CO 1994 Pg 188 38 Tim e and Plac e: On e Hundred Y e ar s of Women Artist s in Colorado 1900-2000 Center for the Visual Arts, Denver CO, 2000 Pg 13 34

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considers Bromwell "Denver's leading woman landscape painter at the end of the century ."39 Although Henrietta lived well into her 80's the majority of her work as an artist occurred before 1904 when she was in her mid-40's. However since she did not sign or date many of her paintings it is difficult to establish a chronology of her work. The majority of her artwork is landscapes in which "she captures the stark lonely quality of the American West without the predilection to romanticize nature which was common among artists from the East or Europe ."40 These landscapes depicted wooded trails farm house s and mountain scenes Another favorite subject was the urban landscape of the evolving city of De nver especially in a district known as the Bottoms", an industrial area along the banks of the South Platte River in central Denver. These paintings include scenes of mills along the river and factories One painting of a church in moonlight though not specified, may be St. Elizabeth 's. which would hav e been visible from her home in Auraria 39 Gerdts William H Art Across A m erican: Two Centuries of R egio nal Paint i n gs, Volume Three: the Far Midwest Ro cky Mountain W e st, Southwest, Pacific A bbeville Press Publishers New York., 1990. Pg 117 40 Time and Place: One Hundred Years of Women Artists in Colorado 19002000. Center for th e Visual Arts Den ve r CO, 2000 Pg 14 35

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Figure 4.2 Mill Henrietta Bromwell Bromwell was an active exhibitor in the 1890s and early 1900s In 1893 she, along with several other prominent female artists (Emma Richardson Cherry Anne Evans and Elisabeth Spalding) and four male artists founded the Artists Club of Denver which later became the Denver Art Museum. Henrietta served as the club's Secretary during the first four years. The club was primarily created in order to provide exhibition opportunities for local artists Their exhibits were held annually and drew large crowds as well as critical attention. In 1897 Henrietta exhibited works in Chicago New York and Philadelphia. And in 1898 she and 36

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Charles Partridge Adams were selected to represent Colorado in the Trans Mississippi Exhibition, a significant honor in her professional career. Henrietta also taught art in her studio located in the Majestic Building at 16th and Broadway. She offered instruction in drawing, painting and outdoor sketching. In January of 1903 her father Henry Pelham Bromwell died at his horne at 646 Williams Street in a duplex that she inherited Henrietta is last mentioned as an exhibitor in the 1903 Artists Club Annual Exhibition. After this date there are no further mentions of her involvement in artistic endeavors Instead she concentrated her efforts on completing several books that her father began but which he never published In June of 1903 she formed the Henry Bromwell Masonic Publishing Company in order to publish Restorations of Masonic Geometry and S y mbolry the book her father was working on when he died In the years between 1905 and 1907, Henrietta traveled throughout Colorado by rail selling subscriptions to her father's book. She chronicled her travels in a diary and sketchbooks which she later donated to the Denver Public Library Western History Section. Also toward the end of her life she donated 96 paintings and drawings family albums and scrapbooks to the Colorado Historical Society. In 1933 she published The Colorado Portrait and Biographical Index a five volume genealogy index. 37

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Nettie Bromwell spent thelast decade of her life in social isolation and near poverty She continued to live in the duplex inherited from her father until her neighbors went to court in 1941, claiming she was unable to take care of herself or her property. A judge declared her mentally incompetent and she was placed in Mount Airy a psychiatric hospital where she died in 1946 after a long illness Bromwell Elementary School in Denver is named after her father. Elisabeth Spalding (1868-1954) Elisabeth Spalding w as born in Erie, Pennsylvania in 1868 the daughter of John Franklin Spalding and Lavinia Spencer Spalding. She moved with her family to Denver in 1874 when her father was named Missionary Bishop in the Episcopal Church and she became a life long resident of the city Active as a practicing artist she was also instrumental in creating and supporting arts organizations in Denver. Elisabeth was one of the founding members ofthe all-woman LeBrun Art Club, established in 1890 and later was an influential force behind the Artist's Club of Denver, created in 1893. "There can be little doubt that the personal contacts and aesthetic sensibilities formed by (Marion) Hendrie, Spalding and Anne Evan's during the late 1890s played a large part in shaping the character of 38

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the Artists' Club exhibitions and collecting decisions for the next two decades."41 Spalding was a prolific painter and an active exhibitor with numerous pieces included in each of the club's annual exhibitions. She was also a member of Denver s Fortnightly Club along with fellow artist Helen Henderson Chain. One ofthe club s projects was a drive to discourage billboard advertising in the state. Elisabeth created two landscapes for a brochure, one portraying a peaceful landscape along a winding road the second was the identical landscape cluttered with billboard advertisements The brochure claims that "Billboards are a hazard to safety ", "Some states have laws against them-has yours?" "Let us keep the beauty of our scenery ", and "Abolish all highway advertising." In an essay written for the Fortnightly Club Spalding wrote "All through these year s of study and exhibition the question constantly recurs what is art and h av e we got it in Denver ? We often felt that good artists were few and far between "42 41 Chambers, Marlene (editor). The D e n ve r Art Museum : The Fir s t Hundr e d Y ears Denver Art Museum Denver CO 2000. Pg. 66 42 Spalding Elisabeth Something of Art in Denver as I Think of it" typescript for the Denver Fortnightly Club 1924 Pg 9. 39

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Figure 4 3 Pikes Peakfrom the Garden of the Gods Elisabeth Spalding Elisabeth Spalding first traveled to New York in 1890 to study drawing and painting at the Cooper Union School of Arts & Design She later returned to New York in order to continue her studies at the Art Students League Her education in art also included brief trips to England and France While in New York Spalding studied with Leonard Ochtman, Birge Harrison, John Twachtmann, Rhoda Holmes Nicholls and J Alden Weir. Her studies with these famous Impressionist painters greatly influenced the style of her work Spalding worked primarily in watercolors depicting impressionistic studies of landscapes and flowers mostly in 40

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Colorado. In April of 1925, The E c ho published an article highlighting her Colorado landscapes and stated that "The observer of her work feels that she and the mountains are intimate Her brush strokes are sweeping and deft ; in them is sureness and strength. The mountains are distinctly her metier and she paint s them with equal charm in watercolors or oils."43 Throughout her life Elisabeth Spalding continued to paint exhibit and receive awards and recognition for her work. In 1920 she won the Kremer Prize at the Chicago Art Institute Watercolor Exhibition, and in 1931 was awarded first prize for Flower Watercolor at the Denver Art Museum In 1932 she had solo watercolor exhibitions in both Stockholm and Paris and in 1938 she held a one man retrospective show at the Chappell House in Denver that included 60 watercolors and oils Spalding never married and lived with her parent s at 853 Washington Street. Bishop Spalding died in March of 1902 and her mother, Lavinia, passed away in D ecember 1929. Elisabeth continued to live her Washington Street home until her death in May, 1954. 4 3 "Vivid Painting s of Colorado Mountains: An Account of Elizabeth Spaldings Work ", Th e Ec ho Aprill925, Vol3 No .3. Pg 5 41

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Emma Richardson Cherry ( 1869-1954) Emma Richardson was born in Aurora Illinois on February 28, 1859 Her father Perkins Richardson, was an architect. After graduating from high school in Aurora she attended the Art Institute in Chicago then in 1882 moved to New York to study at the Art Students League where she studied with William Merritt Chase, George de Forest Brush Henry Bainbridge McCarter Rhoda Holmes Nicholls, and Kenyon Cox. Emma continued her studies in Europe at the Academies Julian Delechluse and Merson in Paris and took private lessons from Zanetti-Zilla in Italy She worked in oils, watercolors and pastels and painted western landscapes wildflowers portraits and figures When she returned to the United States she taught at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln, as well as a summer ses s ion at the Metropolitan Museum in New York. She married Nebraska oil broker Dillon Brooke Cherry in 1887 and the couple relocated to Denver, Colorado the following year where they resided at 141 h and Broadway. In 1893, Cherry helped establish the Artists' Club of Denver serving as its' first President, and participated in the organization and their exhibitions for the next several years. Fellow artist Elisabeth Spalding once noted "I find myself feeling that true are appreciation in came to Denver with Emma 42

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Richardson Cherry. There had been a smallness of outlook among the early group. She was altruistic and public spirited." 44 In 1899 the Cherrys moved to Houston Texas where they spent the remainder of their lives. Though she resided in Denver for only 6 years and is generally considered a Texas artist Cherry was instrumental in establishing one of the most important arts organization in Colorado. In Houston Cherry helped form the Houston Public Art League, which later became the Museum of Fine Arts. She directed the Elisabeth Ney Museum in A ustin and helped organize the San Antonio Art League Cherry continued to work as an artist and exhibited extensively including the Paris Salon, the Art Institute of Chicago the World s Colulmbian Exposition in Chicago the Western Art Association in Omaha Fort Worth Art Museum, Southern States Art League the Houston Art League, the Texa s Wildflower Competitive Exhibition and the Texas State Fair. Emma Richardson Cherry died in Houston on October 29, 1954 at the age of 94. 44 Spalding, Elisabeth Something of Art in Denver as I Think of it ", typescript for the Denver Fortnightly Club 1924. Pg 11. 43

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Anne Evans (1871-1941) Anne Evans, while not well known as a successful artist in her right was a driving force in the development of the cultural and art organizations in Denver. She was born in 1871 in London, to parents Margaret Gray Evans and John Evans, while the family was traveling through Europe. Shortly after her birth her family came to Colorado, where her father had been appointed the second territorial Governor by President Abraham Lincoln. John Evans also founded the University of Denver. Anne aspired to be an artist and in her early teens was sent to Europe to attend school in Paris and Berlin In 1898 she traveled east to attend the Art Students League in New York where she studied painting and drawing. After returning to Denver, she continued to paint, and completed a number of portraits. On the strength of a portrait she had made of her father she was accepted as one of the first Associate members of the Artist Club of Denver in 1893 Although she never seriously pursued her own career as an artist she remained actively involved in the organization throughout her lifetime In addition to her participation on the board of the Denver Artists' Club Anne Evans also sat on the Library Commission, the Denver Art Commission, and the Denver Planning Commission. She was a driving force in the creation on the new city library in Civic Center in particular the library's Western History Department, and is credited with working out the agreement allotting gallery space for the club in the new Denver Public Library, which opened in February of 1916 at West Colfax and Bannock Streets 44

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By 1925, the Denver Artists Club which had since changed its name to the Denver Art Association and finally the Denver Art Museum, was housed in the Chappell House on Logan Street and had built an addition to use as an exhibition space. Anne Evans convinced that native Indian folk art was an important addition to the museums collection, supervised the purchase of 46 Navajo saddle blankets as the foundation of the permanent American Indian Art collection This purchase, costing $3100 initially brought criticism from other trustees who did not believe the native textiles were appropriate for a fine arts museum. The next year Evans was appointed as the head of the committee to build the Indian art collection which grew to over 800 objects in the next four years including blankets pottery basketry and jewelry Late in 1929 Anne took over as Interim Director of the Denver Art Museum for a brief period while the search for a permanent director was conducted She later resigned from the board of the museum after a dispute with the city administration over a statue for the civic center. Mayor Benjamin Stapleton wanted to erect a statue in honor of Mayor Robert Speer which Evans and other members of the art commission opposed. After two members of the commission who were critical of the proposal were discharged by the Mayor and replaced with two new members who sided with the administration on the issue, Evans resigned in protest. 45

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Evans then focused her energies on the Central City Opera House and the development of a Central City Opera Festival. She wa s the President ofthe Central City Opera House Association until her death Anne Evans devoted her life to the arts philanthropy and community projects to develop a thriving cultural life in the city of Denver. The Rocky Mountain News referred to her as an empire builder in the arts."45 She never married and lived the majority of her life in the family home at 1310 Bannock Street. The house now the Byers-Evans House Museum, commemorates in part Anne s effort to promote the arts in Colorado Evans died following a heart attack on January 6 1941. Upon her death she bequeathed her own p r ivate collectio n of Indian baskets blankets and pottery to the Denver Art Museum. 45 R ocky M o untain News. 6 /21 I 1964 46

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CHAPTERS THECOLORADOSPruNGSARTCOLONY The town site for Colorado Springs was laid out in the summer of 1871, on the route ofthe General William Jackson Palmers new Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. The first train from Denver arrived via the new rails in October of that year. The sett lement housed a population of about 300, many of them living in portable houses shipped out from Chicago. In the 1870s Colorado Springs became known as "Little London" because so many Engli s hmen had settled there Eight years later, i n 1 879 the town ha d grown to around 5000. Colorado Springs incorporated on September 2, 1882. Artists were attracted to the area due to the magnificent landscapes that included Pikes Peak the Garden of the Gods, and Manitou Springs. Many others moved to the area to take advantage of the healing properties of the local mineral springs and clean thin air. Sanitariums proliferated to handle the large number of tuberculosis patients that flooded the region in hopes that the fresh air, sunshine and a dry climate would cure their consumption. The first art colony in Colorado was formed in Colorado Springs in the early 1870s. Earl y artists in the area included Eliza Greatorex Walter Paris 47

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Thomas and Anne Parrish, Rose Kingsley and Alice Stewart Hill. Rose Kingsley, generally considered an amateur artist, arrived in Colorado Springs in 1871. The first professional artist to reside in Colorado Springs was Walter Paris, an English watercolorist, who arrived in 1872. Le Roy Hafen described some of the challenges encountered by early Colorado artists, in History of Colorado Volume Ill: "Pioneer artists of the golden '80's, both in Denver and Colorado Springs, where art development has centered found peculiar conditions to combat. The mining magnates who contributed in no small degree to the succ e ss of the theatre were free spenders but their ideas of art were peculiar. The first attempts towar d artistic expression in the mining camps ran to gold en cherub s g ilded women pouring gilded grapes from gilded cornucopias, golden lions and deer sportively perched upon the cornices of public buildings and hotels."4 6 T he C olorado Springs art establishment was f o rmed separately from that o f Denver, and was structured much more informally. In 1888, the first major art exhibition was held in Colorado Springs to benefit the Bellevue Sanitarium. Later in February of 1900, Colorado College held its first art exhibition representing the works of local artists. The Colorado Springs Academy of Art was established in 1912 by Charlotte and Susan Learning who were alumnae of the Art Institute of Chicago. They organized exhibits and formed the Colorado Springs Art Club, which later united with the Colorado Springs Art Society. 46 Hafen LeRoy R. H i sto ry of Colorado Volum e III. Linderm a n C o. Inc., Denver. 1927 Pg 1267 48

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This combined organization established a school the Broadmoor Art Academy which was founded in October of 1919 in the former residence of Mr. & Mrs. Spencer Penrose (on the site which is now the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center). Spencer and Julie Penrose, famous for building the Broadmoor Hotel in 1918 donated the family residence at 30 West Dale as well as $1 000 per year for the first five years to assist with the maintenance and upkeep. The founding trustees of the academy included D.V. Donaldson Francis Drexel Smith Julie Penrose Anne Gregory Ritter and Charles Tutt. The inaugural exhibition was held that first winter in December of 1919 John Fabian Carlson, well known Eastern landscape painter was hired in 1920 as Director of the academy and landscape in s tructor. The location and climate were ideal for outdoor landscape painting Ca r lson often took his students to sketch and paint on location in nearby Garden of the Gods, Pikes Peak and Crystal Park. Carlson was soon joined by Robert Reid a well known portraitist and muralist from New York and Swedish born painter Birger Sandzen. In addition to the traditional instruction in painting and drawing, the Academy was under government contract from 1921-1923 to train ex servicemen how to make a living at graphic design and commercial art. The Broadmoor Art Academy would become one of the most important summer teaching institutions in the West "becoming even more significant after 1926 when 49

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it became associated with Colorado College. "4 7 Painter Ernest Lawson was hired as a landscape painter in I 927. Lawson was already famous as a member of Robert Henri s The Eight ", a group of social realists with a spe cific American s tyle of paintin g that broke with the tradition of the National Acad e my T h re e years later Boardman Robinson from the Art Students League in New York relocated to Colorado Springs to take over the Director position which he held for 15 y ears. Boardman was nationall y recognized a s an illustrator and a murali st. He and Thomas Hart Benton are g enerally recognized as the founders o f the American Mural movement of the 1930 s "4 8 In 1936, G e orge Biddl e b e arne the Director o f the Colo rado Springs Fine Arts C e nter. Biddl e was bes t kno w n for conceiving th e ide a for the Public Works of Art Project t h e first of t he f e d e rally funded art program s during the depression designed to put unemployed citizens back to work on useful projects and to provide decorations for public buildings The art education program at the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center continued into the early 1950s with steadily declining enrollments. The Center was unable to compete with the growing number of universities offering 47 G er dts, William H Art Acr oss A m e rica : T wo C e ntur ies of Regi onal Pa i n ti n gs. Volum e T h ree, The F ar Midwes t R ocky Mountain W e st Sou th west P a c ific Abbe ville Pres s Publi s her s N e w York 1990 P g.l26 48 Cuba Stanle y J ohn F. Ca rl son and the Art i s t s of th e B r oadm oor Acade m y D av e Cook Fine Art D e nver C O 1 9 9 9 P g 22 50

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professionally oriented art degrees. Additionally, their emphasis on realist art did not attract the growing number of students interested in studying abstract express10msm Rose Kingsley ( 1844-1925) Rose Kingsley was born and raised in Chester England, the daughter of the Reverend Charles Kingsley who later became the Canon of Westminster. The Reverend Kingsley was the author of several well-selling novels, including Westward Ho, Hereward the Wake and H y patia. On September 22, 1871, Rose boarded a ship from Liverpool with her brother Maurice for a visit to America. She landed in New York, rode trains across the mid-west to Denver and arrived in Colorado Springs on November 1, 1891 via the newly opened Denv er and Rio Grande line. During her winter there she produced a number of pen and ink sketches which would later be converted to woodblock engravings to illustrate her travel book South by West or Winter in the Rocky Mountains and Spring in Mexico which was published in 1874 by W Isbister & Co. Her sketches illustrate the landscapes buildings people and animals she encountered during her travels. The drawings range from a fairly simplistic renderings of her first shanty to intricate, highly detailed mountain landscapes. 1n her travel book, she describes the new frontier settlement: 51

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"You may imagine Colorado Springs as I did to be a sequestered valley with bubbling fountains, green grass and shady trees : but not a bit of it. Picture to yourself a level elevated plateau of greenish-brown without a single tree or plant larger than a Spanish bayonet (Yucca) two feet high sloping down about a quarter of a mile to the railroad track and Monument Creek and you have a pretty good idea of the town-site as it appears in November 1871. The streets and blocks are only marked out by a furrow turned with the plough and indicated faintly by a wooden house finished or in process of building here and there scattered over half a mile of prairie About twelve houses and shanties are inhabited most of them being unfinished or run up for temporary occupation. "49 49 Kingsley Rose South by W es t : or Winter in th e Ro cky Mountains and Spring in M ex i c o W. Isbister & Co., London, 1874 Pg 47-4 8 52

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The Gate of the Garden of the Gods Figure 5.1 Rose Kingsley, from South by West or Winter in the Rocky Mountains and Spring in Mexico Upon her arrival in Colorado Springs, Rose Kingsley lived in a 16 by 12 foot shanty, which had been erected in three days. However, after several weeks in the primitive abode the Kingsleys relocated to rooms above a store which also housed the stage office near the comer of Cascade and Pikes Peak. The following year 1872, Rose traveled to Mexico City by rail with General and Mrs. 53

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William Palmer. She documented her trip by keeping a travel journal and sketching the various sites along the way They returned to Colorado Springs in 1874 where Rose continued to contribute to the developing cultural and educational organizations in the city Her brother Maurice was a trusted representative of General Palmer. Early on in her residence Rose and several other settlers set out to create a reading room in order to give the young men of the growing town a place to gather as an alternative to drinking and gambling in nearby Colorado City. This organization was named the Fountain Society of Natural Sciences. Kingsley also played the organ in Foote s Hall for the first churches services offered in the settlement and organized a concert to raise funds for the reading room Rose King s ley often took excursions in the foothills with companions William and Mary Palmer and novelist Helen Hunt. In her book she describes hiking expeditions through deep snow to explore the nearby canyons and mountains. She is reputed to be the first woman to ascend the mountain which was later named after her Mount Rosa. Mount Rosa is the cone-shaped mountain just south of Pikes Peak and is thought to be the actual mountain mistakenly climbed by Zebulon Pike in 1806 rather than Pikes Peak. 54

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Eliza Greatorex (1819-1897) Although not truly a resident of Colorado Eliza Greatorex was the first woman artist of prominence to visit and work in the area. She was born in 1819 and grew up in Ireland. In 1840 she settled in New York where she later met and married prominent musician and teacher Henry W. Greatorex. She studied landscape painting in Paris, Munich and New York City. In 1858 she began painting professionally to support her two daughters fo11owing the death of her husband. Greatorex was the first woman to be elected as a member of the National Academy in 1868. In 1873 she traveled to the Rocky Mountains with her daughters Kathleen and Eleanor also artists, by the Great Western Train, where they visited Manitou Springs P ueblo Colorado Springs and Denver. During this trip she made a number of pen and ink landscape drawings of the region which illustrated her tra vel book Summer Et c hings in Colorado, which was published later that same year by G.P. Putnam's Sons A number of the drawings were also published in national periodicals enhancing her reputation as a "western artist". Her book describes the spectacular scenery, and the people she encountered and their stories of life in Colorado She notes the distinctive role of women in the west and writes "I speak especially ofthe women of Colorado, present and future. There is, here perhaps less worship ofwomen's beauty and accomplishments, but man places her nearer to himself-she shares 55

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and guides his life and thought is the light the comfort the home. "50 After her trip to the west she returned to New York and later in 1885, settled in Paris. Little is documented of her work or career beyond the publication of her book. Anne Lodge Parrish (1850-1900) After the death of his first wife, Colorado Springs artist and businessman Thomas Parrish returned to Philadelphia to study at the Academy of Fine Arts. There he met and married Anne Willcox, and brought her back to Colorado Springs to settle. At that time Anne Parrish was already an established portraitist and she later studied with Thomas Eakins. Upon th e ir return they opened a studio at 209 North Weber Street and began offering art instru c tion. ln 1888 along with artist Frank T. Lent, the Parri s hes established the first art school in Colorado Springs. Anne continued to work as a professional artist earning commissions for portrait paintings. The Colorado Pioneer Museum in Colorado Springs has in its collection portraits of Anne and Katherine Adams daughters of Massachusetts physician Dr. Benjamin Adams and one of Helen Hunt Jackson, rendered from a photo taken in 1870. Art historian William H. Gerdts claims that Anne Parrish 50 Greatorex Eliza. Summer Et c hing s in Colorado G.P. Putnam s Sons, New York. 1873. P g 92 56

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"became Colorado s outstanding figure and portrait painter of the late nineteenth century. "5 1 Figure 5 2 H e l e n Hunt Ja c kson Anne Parrish 51 G e rdt s, Willi a m H Art Acr oss A m e r ica: Two C e nturi es of Regi ona l P a int i n gs, Volum e Thr ee : the F ar Midwes t Ro cky Mou ntai n West S o uth wes t Pa cific. Abb ev ill e Pre ss Publi s hers New York 1990 Pg 126 57

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Her daughter born in 1888 and also named Anne went on to become a relatively well-known writer. She received three Newberry Medal A wards for her children's books (in 1925 1931 and 1951 ) Alice Stewart Hill (1851-1896 ) Alice Stewart was born in Amboy, New York in 1851, one ofthree daughters of Judge George Stewart As a child she moved with her family to Beaver Dam Wisconsin where she initially began the study of drawing. At the age of 22, she traveled to New York City to study art at both the Cooper Union Institute and at the National Academy of Design. In 187 4, following her studies in New York, she rejoined her family now relocated in Colorado Springs Stewart was apparently fascinated by the large variety ofwildflowers in Colorado and went to Chicago specifically to study the art of flower pai n ting. Once back in Colorado Springs she taught classes in flower painting and spent numerous hours hiking among the nearby hills and canyons in search of interesting and undocumented flora The Colorado Springs Pioneer Museum has in its collection a leather-bound book entitled Wild Flo we rs of Colorado containing 17 small untitled watercolors done by Alice Stewart. The small paintings are highly detailed intricate and delicate, with fme lines and vivid shades of pinks, yellows purples and blues 58

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In 1886 she illustrated a book written by her friend Helen Hunt Jackson. Jackson s A Procession of Flowers in Colorado was first published by Robert Brothers of Boston in a deluxe limited edition of one hundred copies, each individually illustrated in watercolor by Stewart. The flower illustrations in each copy were unique and followed no set pattern of design or color The book was later published for mass consumption without illustrations. Alice Stewart also illustrated Colorado Favorites and A Colorado Wreath by Virginia Donaghe. In a series of articles entitled "Brush and Pencil in Early Colorado Springs" published in the Colorado Springs Gazette and Telegraph in 1924 Gilbert McClurg writes of her "Alice Stewart Hill will be remembered, among local artists, as spending gentle, sunny days in searching out the unknown blossoms grouping them with characteristic grace of arrangement painting each detail with loving though making them distinctly her own and at the s a me time enriching art in making them known to all. 5 2 Alice Stewart married local financier Francis B. Hill in 1887 or 1888. She spent her last years at Jackson Sanitarium a health resort in D anville New York, until her death at the age of 45 in 1896. Her remains were returned to Colorado to be buried in the Evergreen Cemetery in Colorado Springs 52 McClurg, Gilbert "Brush and Pencil in Early Colorado Springs ", Colorado Springs Gazette and Te l e graph. 1924 Pg 28 59

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Katherine Smalley ( 1852-1942 ) Katherine Smalley was born in 1852 and grew up in Waverly, Iowa. At the age of 34 she went to Chicago to study with Charles Corwin at the Chicago Art Institute. In 1885 she won the Chicago Art Institute medal for drawing and painting life studies. Smalley headed West to Denver in 1888 where she painted oil and pastel portraits. The next year she moved to Colorado Springs where she found little demand for portraits and began painting landscapes and working in watercolors. Smalley was one of the only female artists in Colorado Springs who exhibited work in Denver. Her paintings were included in exhibits sponsored by both the LeBrun Club and the Artist s Club of Denver. Little else is known ofher life and artistic career after the mid-1890s. Anne Van Briggle Ritter ( 1868-1929) Anne Van Briggle Ritter was born in 1868 in Plattsburgh New York. She studied landscape painting in New York with Charles Melville Dewey attended the Victoria Lyceum in Berlin and spent three years (from around 1890-1893) at the Colorosse Academy in Paris. While in Paris two of her paintings were selected for exhibition at the Paris Solon. It was in France that Anne met artist Artus Van Briggle They became engaged several years later in 1895 Artus moved to Colorado Springs in 1899, on the advice of his doctor in hopes of improving his tuberculosis The following year, Anne joined him in Colorado where she became 60

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supervisor of art in a local high school. Although Artus s health continued to deteriorate they married in 1902 in the garden ofHelen Hunt's house on Cheyenne Mountain. Artus experimented and des igned fine vases and tiles In 1902 he established the Van Briggle Pottery company one of the greatest art potteries of America. "53. Shortly after their marriage Artus checked into a sanitarium in Denver and passed awa y in 1904 After his death Anne continued as art director for the pottery company In 1908 Anne married Swiss mining engineer Etienne Ritter. The pottery company languished and e v entually closed in 1910 but was later reopened with revised policies that would cheapen the product in order to make it c ommercially successful. Despite the change in product the company continued to struggle and on Jul y 29, 1913 the assets of the Van Briggle P o ttery Company w ere auctioned on the s teps of the El Paso County Courthouse. After the demise of the company Anne returned to painting landscapes and still life She had a studio at the Broadmoor Art Academy and exhibited her paintings at the Denver Public Library Exhibit records indicate that Anne produced portraits however most of her work available in public collections are landscapes and one nude figure. In 1923 she and her husband relocated to Denver where she taught classes in landscape and life drawing at the Chappell House and at the University of Denver Art School. She died in Den v er in 1929 53 Tim e an d Place: On e Hundr e d Y ears o f A rti s t s in Col orado 19 00-2000, C e nter for the V i s ual Art s Exhibit Cat a log Den v er CO 2000 P g 17 6 1

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CHAPTER6 LEADVILLE Around 1874, a small mining settlement named Slabtown was begun after a discovery of lead carbonates in the area. It was officially renamed Leadville on July 16, 1877. By then the settlement had grown to include a post office, hotel, and several mercantiles. Horace Austin Warner Tabor was one of the first businessmen and in February of 1878 was elected the towns' first mayor. By the spring of 1879 new arrivals were entering Leadville at a rate of more than 100 per day. The population by that time had reached over 5 000 with an equal number scattered at various mine sites outside of Leadville. White Americans made up over two thirds of the population with the largest number of immigrants being Irish The one ethnic group not represented were Orientals, as the town had banned them. At that time, most of the women residing in Leadville were waitresses, dance hall girls or prostitutes. In addition to the various shops springing up in the new settlement, there were over 100 saloons listed in the 1880 city directory 5 4 The town was a jerry rigged hovel of habitation. There was no uniformity. Tents butted against fine 54 Blair Edward L e adville: Colorado s Ma g i c City Fred Pruett Books, Boulder, CO 1980 Pg 76 62

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newly constructed brick buildings . Buildings were constructed according to the size of purse, size oflot, and type and amount of materials available. 55 The town was hectic and noisy twenty-four hours a day Engineer Arthur D Foote was one of the first professional miners to arrive in Leadville His wife author and illustrator Mary Hallock Foote joined him in the spring of 1879, a few months after his own arrival. Mary Hallock Foote (1847-1938) Mary Hallock Foote was named by illustrator William Allen Rogers one of the most accomplished illustrators in America."56 Additionally she has been hailed as "the only woman who was an important early Western illustrator engraver painter author." 57 While many of the women artists discussed here are relatively unknown with little biographical information available Mary Hallock Foote s life is well documented through her own writings, her autobiography which was published after her death, and at least two other bio graphies published in the last 25 years Her life was also the basis for Wallace Stegner s Pulitzer Prize winning novel Angle of Repos e 55 Blair Ed w ard. L eadv ill e : Colorado's Ma g i c City. Fred Pruett Books Boulder CO 1980. Pg 57 56 Taft Robert. Arti s t s and Jlfustrators of the Old W es t 1 8 50-1900 Charle s Scribner s Sons N ew York London 1953 Pg 172 5 7 Samuels Peggy and Harold The Illu s tra te d Biographi c al En cyclop e dia of A rti s t s of the Ame ri c an W es t Dougleda y & Co. Garden City, NY 1976 Pg 173 63

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Mary Hallock was born in 1847 on a farm outside the Hudson River town ofMilton, New York. Although the Hallocks were Quakers, they did not participate in the village s social or churchgoing life. An earlier dispute involving her Uncle Nicholas rendered them isolated from the Milton and New York Quaker society. She was raised a well-read young woman with an active mind and an interest in the current events of the world around her. "It was our father s custom in the evening to read aloud to the family assembled the Congressional debates and the editorials in the N ew York Tribune A child of eight or nine would have been lacking in ordinary intelligence if she had not gathered some notion of what they were talking about the great speakers in Conrsess who were battling for or against the extension of slavery." 8 Mary was influenced early on by her Aunt Sarah an outspoken anti-slavery and women s rights activist. Between 1856 and the Ci v il War, on Aunt Sarah's invitation the Hallocks hosted a number of lecturers from the New York AntiSlavery Society including Frederick Douglass and Susan B. Anthony She was educated in Poughkeepsie at the Female Collegiate Institute where she took her first art lessons with Margaret Gordon in the early 1860s In 1864 at the age of seventeen Mary Hallock was recognized by her teachers and family as a budding artistic genius and took the unusual step for a lady of her era of enrolling in the School of Design for Women (also known as the Cooper Institute) in New York City. At that time the Cooper Institute was one of 58 Paul Rodman W editor. A V i c torian G e ntlewoman in th e Far W est: R e min isce n ces of Mary Hallo c k Foote. Huntington Library, San Marino CA 1972. Pp52-53 64

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the very few places a woman could get an art education. Despite the prevailing attitudes against women in the profession she was determined to be an artist. "59 During the next three years Mary trained for a career as a black-and-white illustrator, under the instruction of William J. Linton. Linton came from the English art tradition and specialized in wood block engraving. The study of woodcut illustration attracted few amateurs because of its difficulty Foote was taught to draw directly on the wood block rather than using the easier method of drawing on paper and tracing the reverse image on the wood. This ensured a more accurate representation. To make a wood block engraving, the block was prepared with a powdered wash The sketch was then penciled on the block making dark lines against the white background. The block was then given to an engraver who would excise the white from the black lines. The image would appear in relief and could then be inked and printed on paper. Foote also studied privately with William Rimmer, Samuel F. Johnson John H .F. Whitney and Charles H. Burt. lt was at the art school that she met Helena de Kay, who would become her lifelong friend and correspondent. Her professional debut was the publication of four drawings in A.D Richardson's best seller Beyond the Mississippi and her career as an illustrator continued with contracts to illustrate various giftbook editions of Longfellow's The Skeleton in Armor, and The Hanging of the Cran e (the other 14 illustrations 59 Reed Walt and Reed Roger. The Illustrator in America, 1 88 0-1980 A Centu ry oflllustration. New York Madison Square Press 1984. Pg 35 65

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for this book were done by landscape artist Thomas Moran), as well as Whittier's Mabel Martin, and Hawthorne s The Scarlet Letter. At this time most women illustrators "if employed at all, were mostly relegated to such fancies as trade cards and pictures of pretty babies."6 Foote's drawings for these books featured closely cropped character studies with the figure placed in the center, as the predominant subject. During this time she was also commissioned to illustrate articles and stories by prominent writers for Scribner s magazine A survey of (Scribner's) issues between 1870 and 1874 reveals that Mary's work soon appeared with the same frequency as that of such acknowledged artists as Edwin Austin Abbey and Joseph Pennell."6 1 In 1874 her friend, Helena, married Richard Gilder editor of Scribner s Monthl y, which later became Century Magazine. On February 9, 1876 Mary Hallock m a rried Arthur De Wint Foote a young mining engineer. From this point on, her life consisted of following her husband throughout the west in his search for opportunities and success. Their first journey took them to New Almaden California, where Arthur was hired to survey a mine. They remained there for one year during which she gave birth to her first child, Arthur Burling Foote in 1877. While most of the servants in the settlement were Chinese men, Mary insisted on hiring a woman to 60 Bickford-Swarth ou t Doris. Mary Hallo c k Foot e: Pion ee r Woman Illustrator Berryhill Press Deansboro NY, 1996. Pg l 61 Johnson Lee Ann M a ry Hallo c k Foote. Twayne Publishers a Division of G K Hall & Co. Boston 1980 Pg 21 66

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assist her, in part due to her need for a female model to complete the illustrations for The S c arlet Letter. During this period, Mary continued to write and send illustrations to her friend Helena. The drawings accompanying her letters back east illustrated everyday life in the mining camp-the houses, the people and the land. Helena and her husband Richard convinced Mary to write articles to accompany her engravings. The first of these were published in S c ribner's Monthl y as a serial entitled A California Mining Camp published in February of 1878. From Almaden the Foote s moved to Santa Cruz, where Arthur worked unsuccessfully on developin g a mixture for hydraulic cement. In 1878 Arthur headed to Leadville in response to the silver rush. During that winter men were pouring in faster than the stages could bring them ... The road over Mosquito Pass . began to look like the route of a demoralized army; there were well-ploughed tracks upon tracks and sloughs of mud dead horses and cattle by hundreds scattered along wherever they dropped and human wreckage in proportion. "6 2 In Leadville the F ootes lived in a one room cabin built oflogs at 216 West Eighth Street, where Mary spent her days working on her engraving blocks and writings. While Arthur brought home visiting engineers and other company worker s to entertain Mary did not venture out in the town often. Arthur was apparently protecting her from the coarse elements of mining camp life She does, 62 Paul Rodman W. editor. A V i c torian G e ntl e woman in th e Fa r W es t : R e mini sce n ces o f Mary Hallo c k Foot e Huntington Library San Marino CA 1 972 Pg 165 67

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however describe a few evenings dining out at the Clarendon Hotel. One evening they were joined by Helen Hunt Jackson a celebrated author and proponent of justice for Indians, who, within the next two years would publish her most famous work, A Century of Dishonor. In his history of Leadville Edward Blair writes, "Mary Hallock Foote was all the things Leadville was not. She was a lady oflong lineage, a writer and illustrator and charming feminine and strangely wise "63 Though surrounded by the roughness of a mountain mining camp the Foote's maintained a certain sense of eastern gentility, entertaining men and women of prominence in their rustic cabin. The Foote s log home in Lead v ille was a frequent focus for ... men of the camp who came to discuss literary philosophical and artistic as well as scientific questions."64 Arthur Foote had managed the Adelaide mine in Leadville for a couple of years but after several attempted take-overs of the mine he decided to shut it down and return to Milton. Back in New York Mary drew on her experiences in Colorado to write her first novel The Led Horse Claim a westernized version of Romeo and Juliet woven among the story of a boundary dispute between two Leadville mines (the Adelaide and the Argentine). The book ran as a serial in Century Magazine from November 1882 through March of 1883. It was published 63 Blair Edward L eadvill e : Colorado' s Magi c City. Fred Pruett Books Boulder CO, 1980. Pg 57-58 64 Spense Clarke C. Mining Engine e r s and the American West : The La c e Boot Brigade, 1 8 491933 New Haven & London Yale Univ ersity Press 1970. Pg 332 68

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under the same title in book form by James R.Osgood and Company in 1883 and included several of her illustrations Figure 6 1 Underground, Mary Hallock Foote 69

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Interestingly she had to rewrite the conclusion in order to have a happy ending before it could be published as a book. In one of the illustrations that of a woman in the mine you can clearly see the detail of the engraving and the varying direction and weight of the marks that create depth The Footes traveled to Mexico in January of 1881, where Arthur had been hired to investigate mines. Mary w rote three illustrated travel articles based on this trip. The first article was published as the lead essay in the first issue of Richard Gilder's new journal, Century Magazine, which succeeded Scribner s in November of 1881. In 1882 Arthur traveled to Wood River Idaho to manage a mine. That fall Mary gave birth to her second child Elizabeth Townsend Foote ( b 9 / 9 / 1882). In 1883 she and her two children headed west to join Arthur who had created a new partnership, the Idaho Mining and Irrigation Company. His plan was to build an irrigation system in the canyon and valley ofthe Boise River, a tributary of the Snake River. It was a monumental undertaking and as it turned out not a particularly good time to begin a new company as the 1883 recession had turned into a depression by 1884. It was Mary's income from her published stories, novels and illustrations that kept the family financially afloat. The Footes settled in the canyon, in relative isolation ten miles outside of Boise. Their stone house was built with proceeds Mary made on her serialized 70

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second novel John Bodewin 's Testimon y, which was based on her Leadville experiences. Although the plots and characters of the Colorado novels are conventional and trivial the writings are valuable for their presentation of facets of life in a mining camp discussion of legal complications in mining operations descriptions of social changes when Eastern culture came in contact with primitive Western conditions and explanation of the effect of exploitation of Western resources by Eastern investors "65 On June 23, 1886, her third child was born daughter Agnes During the next four years the Foote s were constantly on the brink of failu r e as Arthur continued to try to secure funding for his canal venture. Mary continued to write primarily illustrated stories for Century Magazine Through her stories and drawings she introduced readers in the East to the settlers miners and engineers who inhabited the new West. Her most popular illustrated series was entitled Pi c tur es of the Far West, which was published in Century Magazine during 188 8 -1889. This series is considered by many her best work which showcases her "premier talents as a woodcut illustrator. "66 This collection of drawings reflects a gentle, rural West. Yet many of them also capture the remoteness and enormity of the vast landscape surrounding them reflecting her own sense of isolation. Historian Richard Etulain 65 Benn Mary Lou "Mary Hallock Foote: Early Leadville Writer ", Colorado Magazine Vol XXXlll No.2, April1956 Pg 102 66 E tulain Richard. R e -imag i n i n g th e Modem American West : A ce ntury of Fi c tion History and Art The University of Arizona Press Tucson AZ 1996 Pg 74 71

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points out that her earliest frontier art reflected her tentati v e romantic reactions to this s trange new West, but bi t b y bit ... her artwork included more probin g depictions of the West she was beginnin g to comprehend "6 7 O ver the ne x t se v eral y ears, th e Footes mo ve d to Boise then to a ne w house on the Mesa. The canal project was cons idered an enormous failur e and Arthur reluctantl y took a job with the g overnments Geological Surve y (Ev entually the Bureau of Reclamation under Theodor e Roo s e v elt completed the canal, but it was not finished until 1909 ). Mary and the children move d to Boise whi le Arthur traveled to Baja, California to open an on y x mine. Mary continued to write, completing two novels The Las t Assem b ly Ball (1889 ) her last novel based on her Leadv ille experiences an d The Ch osen V all ey ( 1892 ), which centered on th e canal project. B o th ran as serials in C en t ury b e for e being published in book form. Arthur was later offered a job by his brother-in-law James Hague to supervise the North Star Mine near Ri v erside California In 1895 the Foote's moved to North Star Cottage in nearb y Grass Valley where they remained for 30 years. Mary continued her writing but had for the most part abandoned her art. Her last known illustration was published in th e March 1906 issue of the St. N ic hola s Ma g a z in e In 1917 she wrote Edith B o nham dedicated to her best 67 67 E tul a in Richard R e imag inin g the Modern A m e r ic an West : A cent u ry of Fiction H istory and A rt Th e U ni versity o f Ari z on a Pre ss Tucson, A Z 1 9 9 6 P g 7 3 72

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friend Helena Gilder and in 1919, The Ground Swell, a tribute to her daughter, Agnes, who had died from appendicitis at age 18. In all, Mary Hallock Foote published sixteen novels. In 1932, because ofthe depression and financial concerns, Mary and Arthur Foote returned to the east to live with their daughter Betty in Hingham, Massachusetts Arthur Foote passed away in August of 1933. Mary Hallock Foote died June 25, 1938 at the age of 90 of arteriosclerosis. Though never lauded for literary excellence Foote was considered one of the most accomplished of American illustrators"68 and "one of the finest illustrators of her time in America ."69 She worked during a period considered to be the Golden Age of American woodcut illustration. Her fame as an artist was due in part to her success as a writer allowing her to be published frequently in Scribner's and Century magazines where her stories of the West were accompanied by her engravings. Her illustrations ofthe West evoke stylistic similarities of Frederic Remington and Winslow Homer. "However, in her illustrations she did not represent the myth of the rough and tumble Wild West; rather, her anecdotal vision showed the civilizing influence of the pioneers and how they imposed their refined on women and children and their lives in the West. The drawings evoke a sense of barrenness and isolation and imply an intimacy with the scenes not often found in 68 Mainiero Lina Editor. Ame ri c an Wome n Writ e rs. Volume 2 Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., New York 1979 Pg 62 69 Gerdts William H A rt A c ro ss Am e ri ca: T w o C e nturi es of Regional Painting. Abbeville Pres s Publishers NY, 1990 Pg 73

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Western illustrations. Her contribution to the portrayal of the West was the uniquely female perspective. Lee Ann Johnson writes in her biography of Mary Hallock Foote One suspects that had Foote not been a woman in a man s profession and had she not retired early from the field her credentials as a leading nineteenth century illustrator would need no introduction "70 Mary Hallock Foote has not been credited for helping to create the image of the West yet her work is an important perspective. Her images reflect an alternative to a purely masculine point of view of the 0 ld West and provide a realistic representation of family life in the new frontier. Although Mary Hallock Foote rarely exhibited her work she did participate in the first exhibition of the short-lived LeBrun Club of Denver in 1892. And in 1893 she was invited to exhibit drawin g s and watercolors at the World's Columbian Exhibition. While her illustrations are still a v ailable through the published books and magazines, most of the original sketches have disappeared In the beginning she drew directly on wood engraving blocks which were destroyed in the process of printing. Later she would submit the drawings to be engraved on wood by someone else. Small collections of her drawings reside at Cooper Union in New York City and the Library of Congress. 70 Johnson Lee Ann Ma ry Hallo c k Foote. T w a y ne Publi s hers a Division ofG.K. Hall & Co., Boston 1980. Pg 155 74

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CHAPTER 7 WOMEN ARTISTS IN THE 20TH CENTURY The tum of the century brought new opportunities for women to study and pursue professional careers as artists. Art schools expanded and more universities included the visual arts as professional majors. Women enrolled in colleges in vast numbers. And while the ultra conservative programs such as the National Academy of Design still did not permit women to attend anatomy lectures until 1914 more liberal institutions like the New York School of Art and the Art Students League allowed women the same access to nude models as male students, although the men s and women's figure drawing classes were held separately for a number of years to come. Women artists sold their work, entered competitions won prizes earned tra v eling scholarships, were awarded commissions participated in national and international exhibitions and generally took part in the activities of the contemporary art world. The growing tide of feminism, promoting women' s causes including birth control access to higher education economic independence and suffrage contributed to the changing circumstances for women. Hundreds of women were 75

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able to support themselves as artists, earning the respect of the artistic community Yet while the situation was improving women still found themsel v e s regarded separately as "women artists Art historian Frances Borzello claims that equality of opportunity turned out in practice to be rather an illusion."71 The reality was that men remained primarily in charge of the artistic power structures as directors of the art schools owners of galleries trustees of the museums, and art critics. Men also were the most influential patrons of art Many of the male art instructors voiced the belief that women art students were not as serious in their studies or were only in school to fmd a husband To much of the traditional art community women artists were still considered amateurs not requiring a profession to support themselves. Then there was the issue of gender in the actual art work. While talent was supposedly genderless the matter of differences was f requently raised with critics attempting to identify the feminine components in their work. Women were always afraid that if they admitted their work had specifically female qualities it was tantamount to labeling it as weak and in some way less than men s work. "72 The work of women artists as in the World Fairs of the previous century, was often separated such as group shows of "women artists Cultivating a reputation as an artist other than as the second-class woman artist remained difficult. 71 Borzello Frances A World of Our Own: W o m e n a s A rti s t s Sin ce the R e nai ssance.WatsonGuptill Publication New York 2000. P g 170 72 Ibid Pg 1 8 3 76

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The tum ofthe century is often referred to as the Golden Age of Illustration. There was a high demand for artists to depict scenes for newspapers magazines and books and many women such as Mary Hallock Foote made an acceptable living as illustrators At the beginning of the twentieth century, artists working in the same style or subject matter (i.e impressionism abstraction) organized together to hold their own exhibitions and to promote and sell their own work. This was a move away from the established art organizations and its system of juried exhibitions. In 1910 Robert Henri John Sloan and other New York artists organized the Exhibition of Independent Artists, which allowed anyone paying the $1 0 entry fee to exhibit. Women were able to participate more easily in these independent societies and organizations often serving as directors or exhibition organizers than in the closed system of juried exhibitions of the traditional art establishment. By the 1920s the number of independent galleries increased, some owned by women such as Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney and Edith Halpert. While galleries owned by women did not exclusively cater to women artists, they were generally more inclusive. The first third of the twentieth century saw a number of new art movements, much of it influenced by the European works exported widely through exhibitions that allowed young American artists to be exposed to new forms without having to travel or study abroad. The techniques included impressionism 77

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modernism cubism, fauvism expressionism surrealism and abstraction In 1908, a group of artists calling themselves "The Eight" introduced the country to the Ash Can School which depicted raw realistic views oflower-class urban life expressing a concern for the living conditions of the underprivileged immigrants arriving in the country in great numbers The leading artists in this movement were John Sloan George Luks Everett Shinn and Robert Henri. While The Eight" consisted of only male artists, a number of women painters became involved in this urban realism movement. Women painters also benefited greatly by the growth of art colonies and arts schools being developed across the country in resort loca t ions like Woodstock New York, Provincetown Massachusetts Ogundquit Maine Laguna B e ach California and Taos New Mexico Art historian Charlotte Rubinstein indicates that "women artists played a large role in these communities and flourished at the open art exhibitions organized by the local art associations where they were not at the mercy of the bia s es of the chauvinistic male jurors."73 The 1930s introduced a new style of representational realism known as American Scene painting that portrayed daily life in both rural and urban scenes. The prominent artists in this school were Grant Wood Thomas Benton Hart and Thomas Currey. While the technique was not initially popular with the public it became the basis for much of the art work commissioned during the New Deal 73 Rubinstein Charlotte. Ame rican Wom e n A rtists : from Earl y Indian Tim es t o the Pres e nt G.K Hall & Co., Boston, 1982 Pg 200 78

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federal arts projects. This style was embraced by many women artists who benefited from federal programs during the Depression In the 1940s and 1950s the United States had become a world leader in art with artists working in a variety of styles including abstract modes expressionism and realism. While a number of women artists found success in the 1930s through the federal art programs it be came more difficult to succeed in the following decades. "The forties, fifties and sixties turned out to be a period of increased discrimination. Th e leading galleries carried few works by women and very few women had solo shows in major museums in this period."74 After World War II women returned to their relatively passive roles in the family through the conservative and conforming fifties. The feminist movement which had nearly dissolved after the right to vote had been won, would not be revived until the 1960s. Federal Art Projects During the Great Depression a number of federally funded arts projects were developed, through various New Deal programs to assist with the unemployment situation and provide artwork and sculptures for public buildings. Each were distinct programs with differing goals administrations budgets policies and purposes although the distinctions were not always clear in the eyes 74 Rubinstein Charlotte. A m e ri c an Women Art i sts: from Earl y Indian Times to th e Presen t G.K Hall & Co., Bo s ton 1982 Pg 268 79

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of the public. Durin g one of the most difficult period s in the country s history, artists were commissioned to create works depicting optimistic pictures of idealized American workers and farmers and significant events in U.S. history The work was primarily representational, in the American scene style most popular at the time. In May of 1933, the Federal Emergency Relief Act was passed and created the Federal Emergenc y Relief Administration (FERA ) From this there emerged a v eritable alphabet soup o f government acronyms. U nd er FERA the Civil Works Administration (CW A ) was established. In December of 1933 a grant from the CW A funded the creation of the Public Works of Art Project ( PW AP) which was the first of the federally funded art program s in the 1930s. The PWAP under the direction of Ed w ard Bruce operated for only six month s, but pro v ided emplo y ment for over 3 700 artists who created mural s, oi l paintings watercolors sculpture s a n d crafts f or public building s In Oct ober of 1934 the S e c t ion of Painting and Drawing (later to be called the Section of Fine A rt s and most often referred to as simply The Section ") was established under the direction of the Treasury Department. The U.S. Treasury Department was responsible for the architecture and construction of all new Federal buildings including post offices throughout the country The Section under the leadership of Edward Bruce was responsible for the "decoration of all new public federal buildings Unlike the other New Deal art projects the Section 80

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was not concerned with providing relief work for unemployed artists but to provide high quality art for Federal buildings. Most of the Section work was done by artists appointed by the administration. The rest of the work was commissioned through competitions. Most of the competitions were not open to the general artistic public. Restrictions were frequently placed making the competitions only open to artists who lived in a particular state or region. Other competitions were by invitation only. The Works Progress Administration (WP A) was created on May 6 193 5 by Executive Order 7034 issued by Franklin D Roosevelt. In August of that year the WP A Federal Project Number One was established, which included music drama writing and art. Holger Cahill was appointed to direct the Federal Art Project, referred to as the WPA/FAP. The primary objective of the FAP was to get artists off the relief rolls and to integrate the arts with the community T he WP AJF AP was a broad based program that encompassed mural painting easel painting, sculpture graphic arts photo and film technical projects art exhibitions art education the Index of American Design ( a visual archive of American decorative arts from the colonial period through the nineteenth century) and the establishment of over one hundred community art centers throughout the country The program existed for eight years, during which it created 2 566 murals, 108,500 easel paintings 17,700 sculptures and 240,000 prints. 81

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The fourth Federal art program was the Treasury Relief Art Projects (TRAP) which was funding by a WP A grant in July of 1935 The grant was given to the Treasury Department to produce work for Federal buildings. Unlike the Section TRAP was required to employ artists based upon financial need The program lasted for only three years. The federal art programs were active throughout the 1930s employing hundreds of artists until the funding began to dwindle with the military escalation in Europe around 1939. Funding was terminated completely in June of 1943. While these projects created numerous opportunities for women, the artists involved in the federal art programs were predominantly men. For instance in the 48 State Post Office competition, 28 % of the entries were from women, but only 17% of the final commissions went to women artists. 75 However, if taken as a whole the various Ne w Deal arts programs included women in proportions closer to the number in the general population Approximately 40 percent of the artists on reliefwere women according to a 1935 survey 76 Women were also well represented in a number of administrative positions in the federal arts projects including regional and state directors. Among the women artists employed through these programs were several Colorado artists including Doris Lee Ila McAfee Gladys Caldwell Fisher Nadine Drummond, Ethel and Jenne Magafan and Louise 75 Melosh Barbara Eng e nd ering Culture: Manhood and Womanhood in New D eal Publi c A rt and The atre. Smithsonian Institute Press Washington & London 1991. Pg 227 76 Rubinstein CharlotteS A m e ri c an Wome n Arti st s : from E arl y Indian Times to the Pr e s e nt G.K. Hall & Co. New York 1982. Pg 215 82

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Ronne beck. Although much of the federall y funded art was lost destroyed or painted over, a number of mu r als and sculptures b y these artist s still exist in post offices and other federal and public buildings across the West. Elsie Ward Hering ( 1872-1922) Elsie Ward has been considered "perhaps one of the most important sculptors of the early part of the century ." 77 She was born in 1872 on a farm in Howard County, Missouri to parents Thomas and Alice Talbot Ward Her family relocated to Denver around 1887 where Elsie attended North High S c hool. After her graduation in 1889 she studied drawing and sculpture with several local artists including Preston Powers (son of famed sculptor Hiram Powers) Ida M Stair Samuel Richards and Henry Read at the Denver Woman s Club and the Den v er School of Fine Arts She joined the Denver Art Association and began exhibiting her work around 1894 with the Denver Artists Club In 1896 Elsie traveled to New York City to continue her studies at the Art Student s League where her instructors included Daniel Chester French, Siddons Mowbray and Augustus Saint-Gaudens While there she took first place in an exhibition for a sculpture entitled "Youth 77 Colorado Wome n in the A rt s 1860-1960 D&K Printing Boulder Colorado 1979 Pg 20 83

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Her sister Margaret was an art teacher who encouraged Elsie to continue her studies With financial support from her sister Elsie headed to Pari s in 1898 During her studies there she created a figure for a drinking fountain called Boy and Frog for which she later recei v ed a medal at the 1904 St. Louis Worlds Fair. There is a cement cast of the figure at the Denver Botanical Garden s. She also exhibited a piece at the Society o f American Artist s in Pari s Elsie return e d briefly to Denver in 1900 and set up a studio. Within the year she was contacted by her former teacher Augustu s Saint-Gaudens with an offer of a position as a s t udio assistant. She then moved to Cornish New Hampshire whe r e she assisted Saint-Gaudens from 1902 unti l his death fiv e years later in 1907 While working for Saint-Gaudens Ward continued to create her own sculptures including a commis s ion by the Hug uenot Group for a piece for the Charleston E x position of 1902 The sculpture entitled Mother and Child stood in front of the Woman's Building and was awarded a silver medal. She also completed a large work of a father mother and two children to commemorate early French settler s and a portrait statue of frontiersman George Rogers Clark. In 1906 she entered a competition for a Civil War Memorial for the grounds of the Colorado State Capital in Denver. Her design a female winged victory carrying a laurel and a palm wa s selected out of 30 entries. However the sculpture was ne v er built due to reported opposition to the design from the veterans of the G A R., and the legislatures reluctance to fund the $15 000 required to cast the 84

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bronze piece. In the end a bronze figure of a s oldier donated b y sculptor John Howland who sat on the jury for the competition was erected in its place in 1909. After the death of Saint-Gauden s, Ward remained in New Hampshire and completed the commissions in progress including the Baker Memorial in Mt. Kisco which depicted a seated Christ in bronze with a background of prayin g angels in bas-relie f of white marble. Ward was especiall y noted for her ability to sculpt wings. "78 Elsie Ward returned to Denver in 1910 where she married Henry Hering another of Gaudens assistants. The couple moved to New York where her husband continued to work as a sculptor. Elsie assisted her hus band in his studio but did little of her own work She did however e xe cute a baptismal font in 1917 which she designed in the early 1900s of an angelc hild with detailed wings holding a shell. The font was originall y housed in St. George s C hurch in New York City but was later moved to the former All Saints Episcopal Church at W. 32nd and Wyandot in Denver. Elsie Ward Hering died in 1923 at the age of 51. Laura Gilpin (1891-1979 ) Laura Gilpin pioneered the field of landscape photography for women artists. In a field dominated by men she carved out a place for herself chronicling the architecture the landscape and the people of the American Southwest for over 78 Schlosse r, E lizabeth Mode m S c ulptur e in D e n ve r 191 9-19 60 Ocean V iew Bo o ks, Denver 1995 Pg. 13 85

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sixty years through both photos and narrative text. Landscape photography in the West originated with the male photographers who accompanied the government survey teams in the 1860s and 1870s. The work was extremely difficult requiring them to haul heavy equipment chemicals and breakable glass plates up steep inclines and rugged terrain Very few women had even attempted such a challenge. Laura Gilpin was born on April 22, 1891 in Austin Bluffs Colorado just north of Colorado Springs Her father Frank Gilpin who was related to William Gilpin the first governor of the Colorado Territory had moved to Colorado from Baltimore in 1880. At the time ofLaura' s birth he was managing a mine in Central City Over the next thirty years Frank Gilpin would attempt a number of occupations with varying degrees of success including mining ranching, and investing and eventually end up as a furniture craftsman. In 1896 the family moved to Colorado Springs where Laura attended the private Ferris School. Her best friend there was Anne Parrish daughter of the Colorado Springs artist of the same name. Laura and Anne, through family acquaintances had become friends with General William Jackson Palmer, the founder of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad and Colorado Springs Together they would go on long walks or horseback rides around the Pikes Peak area. Laura attributed her life-long fascination with landscape to General Palmer. 79 79 Sandwei ss, Marth a A. Laura Gilpin : An Endurin g Grace. Amon Carter Museum Fort Worth Texas. Pg 15 86

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On her twelfth birthday in 1903 she was gi v en a Brownie camera which was the beginning of her interest in photography Then in 1905 her mother took Laura and her younger brother to New York for a portrait sitting with the leading woman photographer of the time, Gertrude Kasebier. Kasebier also born in Colorado would become her friend and mentor encouraging Laura to pursue her interest in photography. She recommended that Laura study at the Clarence White School of Photography after completing high school. That same year Laura was sent East to attend the Baldwin School in Bryn Mawr Pennsylvania where she felt distinctly out of place. Her biographer, Martha A Sandweiss writes Laura felt acutely aware of her special status as a westerner proclaiming her identity by wearing cowboy outfits to school parties and balls. "80 In the fall of 1907, she transferred to the Rosemary Hall School in Greenwich Connecticut but returned home to Co lo rado before receiving her high school diploma She traveled east again in 1910 to study violin at the New England Conservatory ofMusic. Her family had by then moved to an 1800 acre ranch in Austin Colorado and finances were so tight that they were no longer able to support her education. Laura had to return to Colorado after only six months in Boston. Back at home she raised turkeys the first of many entrepreneurial enterprises. Her poultry business turned out to be quite successful, allowing her to save enough money to move to New 80 Sandweiss Martha A Laura Gilpin: An Enduring Grace. Amon Carter Mu s eum Fort Worth Texas. Pg 17 87

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York in the fall of 1916 to study photography at the Clarence White School under Max Weber and Paul Anderson That same year her first published photograph, a view of the Grand Canyon, appeared in a photography magazine. At the Clarence White School Laura was instructed in a particular style of photography called pictorialism. Pictorialism was a photographic movement that was popular beginning around 1885, following the widespread introduction of dryplate processing that emphasized mood instead of description. The style reached it's height in the early twentieth century. Pictorialism embraced the concept that art photography needed to emulate the painting and etching of the time. The primary methods used to create this result were soft focus special filters and lens coatings, heavy manipulation in the darkroom and exotic printing processes. Rough surfaced printing paper was also used to further soften a picture's focus and fine needles were employed to etch the surface of the prints. "Pictorialists believed in manipulating the reality seen through the lens in order to create a certain mood. "8 1 In a sense this was the photographers attempt to assert artistic control over the image, rather than create direct reproductions. Gilpin was strongly influenced by White's style and the use ofpictorialism and "embraced his idea of photography as a personally expressive art. "82 While in New York, she worked extensively with the platinum printing process which employs contact printing 81 Danneberg Julie. Women Artists of the West: Five Portrait s in Creativity and Courage Fulcrum Publishing, Golden, CO 2002 Pg 42 82 Norwood, Vera and Monk, Janice editors The D eser t is No Lady: Southwestern Landscapes in Woment s Writing and Art Yale University Press New Ha v en 1987. Pg 64 88

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only ; a format she would continue to use throughout her life despite its general discontinuance among later photographers After her graduation from the Clarence White School Gilpin returned to Colorado Springs and began her career as a professional photographer promoting her services for portraits advertisements and brochures. At that time photography offered a less expensive alternative to painted portraits Her brochure offered portraiture for $35 for a studio sitting and $50 for a h ome sitting ; each included three platinum prints. Laura continued taking landscap e photos of the nearb y mountains and prairies that she entered in competiti v e e x hibitions resulting in her participation in fourte e n group exhibitions in 1920 During that time she beg an taking camping trips in Colorado and New Mexico to further explore and photograph the local geography. In 1921 Gilpin joined the faculty of th e Broadmoor Art Academy, becoming the first, and only, instructor of photography in residence The following year she tra veled to Europe for a few months to study art culture and architecture. Gilpin took her first trip to the Native American cliff dwellings in Mesa Verde in the southwestern comer of Colorado, in 1924 and returned in 1925. In describing Mesa Verde, with the forests on one side plains and deserts on another and mountains on two other sides she writes, It would be difficult to find 89

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anywhere a landscape more v aried ." 83 ln this en v ironment she created dramatic black and white photos with striking use of light and s hado w s to create depth. As she pursued a focus on h e r landscape photography she began to develop her own sense of design and composition As her expertise grew she abandoned the softfocus pictorial style for a more clearly-focused representational approach. Figure 7.2 M e sa V e rde, Laura Gilpin 83 Gilpin Laura The Pue blo s : A C am era Chronicle. Uni v ersity of Texas Pre s s Austin & London 1968. Pg 4 3 90

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Gilpin continued to find commercial ways to support her photography. In 1926 she self-published a booklet of her photos entitled The Pikes P eak Region: Reproductions from a Series of Photographs by Laura Gilpin. The booklet is large (approximately 8 x 11 ")and tied at the center binding with a string with sheer tissue paper between each of the 15 black and white photos. In it, she also, for the first time, included some narrative text to accompany her photographs. She described the Garden of the Gods as a place of gigantic forms of entrancing moods of mystery. But in the late afternoon the Gods ofthe Garden are awake and one may almost see them walking among the rich shadows of their sculptured dwellings "8 4 The next year she produced a similar booklet with her photographs of Mesa Verde entitled The Mesa Verde National Park: Reproductions from a Series of Photographs by Laura Gilpin. Gilpin also advertised a series of slides of archeological monuments in Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona, which could be rented for a $1 0 fee, along with an accompanying lecture that she created presented "in a form which may be easily and fluently read even by persons unfamiliar with the subject."8 5 During this period, Gilpin also worked in Central City for five years photographing theatre productions for famed New York play 84 Gilpin Laura. The Pik es P eak Region : R eproduc tions of a S e ri es o f Photograph s b y Laura Gilpin. Gilpin Publishing Company Colorado Springs 1926.Pg 4 85 Gilpin Laura Pict o rial Lant ern Slid es of th e South w e s t (pamphlet) 91

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designer Robert Edmund Jones. In 1930 Gilpin was elected an Associate of the Royal Photographic Society of Great Britain. During the Depression it became harder to make a living through her photographs and publications. Though she continued to travel throughout the Southwest to photograph she needed to secure a more constant income to support her travels and materials, so she and a friend opened the Fairfield Turkey Farm on three hundred acres of land outside of Colorado Springs which specialized in pinon-fed gourmet turkeys that were sold to expensive restaurants throughout the country. Gilpin also took photographs for W .E. & A A Fisher, one of Colorado's largest and best known architectural firms documenting the firms building projects While working in the Southwest Gilpin 's interest in Native Americans and their culture intensified. Her approach to landscape photography with the land being an environment that shaped and affected human activity set her apart from other landscape photographers, such as William Henry Jackson, Timothy O Sullivan and Ansel Adams. For Gilpin the southwestern landscape was neither an empty vista awaiting human settlement nor a jewel-like scene resisting human intrusion. It was a peopled landscape with a rich history and tradition of its own, 92

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an environment that shaped and molded the lives of its inhabitants. "86 She developed a unique approach to documenting the landscapes through photographs combined with narrative that described the connection between the cultures and the land the past and the present the relationships between people and the environment they inhabit. In 1941, she published her first major book The Pu e blo s : A Camera Chronicle It contained dramatic black and white photos taken from 1921 while she was still utilizing the soft-focus style to 1941 of pueblos and ruins in Colorado New Mexico and Arizona During World War II, Gilpin worked as a public relations photographer for the Boeing Company in Wichita Kansas After the war she relocated to Santa Fe New Mexico O v er the next twenty-five years Gilpin would continue to travel across the Southwest photographing the landscape and the people that inhabited it. She frequently traveled with her long time friend Elizabeth Forster, a nurse who had worked with the Navajos in the 1930s. Gilpin published three more books of photography with narrative: Temple s in Yucatan (1947) The Rio Grande : River of Destin y (1947) and The Enduring Navajo (1968). Through her books and the integration of human culture with landscape, she presented the American West to the world in a way which had not been seen before "Gilpin created a record of the 8 6 N orwood Vera and Monk Janice editors The D e s e rt i s N o Lady: Southwes t e rn Lands c ap e s i n Wome n s Writin g a n d Art Yale Uni v ersity Press New H a ven 1987. Pg 63 93

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Southwest as a historical landscape with a past measured not just in geological or evolutionary time but in human time, as evidenced by architectural ruins ancient trails and living settlements. It was a landscape with intrinsic beauty but one whose greatest meaning derived from its potential to change and be changed by humankind."87 Gilpin had established her niche as a cultural landscape photographer integrating the lives of inhabitants with the vastness of the land. In the preface of The Enduring Navaho Gilpin describes the challenges faced by the indigenous tribe : "Within the boundaries of their 25, 000 square mile reservation more than 100 000 Navaho People, the largest tribe of Indians in North America are striving for existence on a land not productive enough to sustain their increasing population. They are striving not only to exist, but also to meet an encroaching way of life with which they are in a large measure unfamiliar. It is within the last thirty years that the Navah o have been faced with this growing necessity for change a change so gr eat for them that we can scarcely comprehend it. Their traditional mode of living ... is being changed through their adaptation to an utt erly alien existence." 88 Gilpin s treatment and narrative of the Native Americans used as her subjects has been criticized in recent times. Historian James Faris claims that Gilpin was insensitive and lacked knowledge ofNavajo customs and beliefs infusing her Western views of their culture in a patronizing way and persisting in getting access to their ceremonies, rituals and sacred objects He cites an example of a photo she took of a family posing by their son s coffin draped in an American 87 Norwood, Vera and Monk Janice editors. The D esert is No Lady: Southw este rn Lands capes in Wom e n 's Writing and Art Yale University Press New Ha v en 1987 Pg 71 88 Gilpin Laura. The E nduring Navaho. University ofTexas Press Austin & London 1968. P g vii 94

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flag and asks "Is Gilpin not skating the edge of exploitation or banality to have set it all up so deliberately to provoke a setting that would maximize the visual image (the stoic Navajo in grief) in the white public s mind?"8 9 Faris further attacks her for not getting permission from the Navajo to publish their photographs and for being insensitive to the native belief that public exposure of their photographic images can possibly have negative repercussions for those depicted. In support of this claim he cites a lawsuit filed after Gilpin s death against her estate by one of the Navajo woman (and her child) photographed. His claims may be accurate, from the perspective of a scholar in the 1990s but does not consider the practices and beliefs of the time period in which Gilpin worked Through most of her life Laura Gilpin made very little money from her photographs and publications and remained relatively unknown. It was not until the 1970's that she began to be recognized for her work. In 1974 the Governor of New Mexico awarded her one ofthe First Annual Awards for Excellence in the Arts, and in 1977 Governor Dick Lamm of Colorado presented her with the Governors Award in the Arts & Humanities. Laura Gilpin took her last photographic trip at age 88 just weeks before her death in 1979 She returned to photograph the Rio Grande from the air in a small plane. By that time she was in a wheelchair due to a painful hip condition caused by years of hauling heavy camera equipment. Gilpin passed away two 89 Faris James. Navajo and Photograph y : A C ri tical Hi s tory of th e Representation of an American People. Univer s ity ofNew Mexico Press Albuquerque 1996 Pg 240 95

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months later, on November 30, 1979 due to heart failure and was buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Colorado Springs Ila McAfee (1897-1995) Ila McAfee enjoyed a long career a s a painter specializing in animals ranch scenes Nati v e Americans and landscapes She was born October 21, 1897 on a ranch in Saguache County south of Gunnison Colorado where she spent her childhood. She reportedly traveled the 10 mile round trip to elementary school on horseback each day. After graduating from Gunnison High School in 1916 McAfee traveled to Los Angeles to study painting at the West Lake School of Art and the Haz Art School. She returned to Colorado to attend Western State College in Gunnison where she studied with Catherine and Henry Ricter and graduated in 1919. After r e ceiving her degree McAfee went east to enter art school in Chicago. She left school after a brief period to study privately with muralist James E. McBurney where she worked as his assistant from 1920-1924 While in Chicago she also studied with sculptor Lorado Taft In 1925 McAfee traveled to New York to continue her art studies at both the Art Students League and the National Academy of Design. While in New York she illustrated stories for various magazines including Ranch Romances and Blu e Book. In 1926, she returned to her home ranch in Saguache County with 96

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artist Elmer Page Turner to be married. Turner had also been a student of muralist McBurney Ila and Elmer settled in Taos New Mexico in 1928 where she remained for the next 65 years They both remained active artists and built a studio onto their house called the White Horse Studio In the late 1930 s and early 1940's, McAfee was awarded commissions to do a number of WP A post office murals including Pre-Settlement Day s for Edmond, Oklahoma in 1939 Wealth of the West for Gunnison, Colorado in 1940 and Texas Longhorns-A Vanishing Breed for Clifton, Texas in 1941 She also created a mural depicting the crowding out of the Indians by the white settlers for the post office in Cordell, Oklahoma McAfee presented three murals to the Greeley Library in 1945, as a tribute to her mother-in-law Edith Turner who was a library assistant there The murals depicted antelope deer and buffalo on the Colorado prairies. Elmer Turner died in 1966 and McAfee remained in Taos, continuing to paint. In 1982 she published a book of art and poetry entitled Indians Horses Hills, etc. In 1993 after nearly sixty-five years in Taos, McAfee returned to Colorado to live in a retirement home in Pueblo near her sister. She passed away on April 18, 1995 at the age of 97. The Denver Post hailed her as "one of the foremost painters of horseflesh in the country "90 90 Po s t Empir e 12/ 2 / 1956 97

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Muriel Sibell Wolle (1898-1977) Muriel Wolle is best known for her documentation, in drawings paintings and historical research of western mining and ghost towns. She was born April3 1898 in Brooklyn New York where she spent her childhood. She attended the New York School ofFine and Applied Art (which is now Parsons School of Design) graduating in 1920 with degrees in both costume design and advertising Upon graduation Wolle moved to Texas to take a teaching position at the Texas State College for Women, where she stayed for three years She then returned to New York to teach at her former alma mater, the New York School ofFine and Applied Art. In 1926 she took a vacation trip to Colorado and visited Central City, a trip which changed the course of her life She describes her first impression of Central City: "The place was full of echoes and memories and history and I felt strangely stirred by it. Here was a piece of the old west, a tangible witness to Colorado's pioneering It was disappearing fast ; it was important that it be preserved: it challenged me . .. The place itself seemed to cry out for a pictorial rendering, and I determined then and there to try my hand at it and to return in September to sketch the streets and individual buildings. After that I decided to return again and again until I had Central City on paper."9 1 Wolle returned to her teaching position in New York following her Colorado vacation, but became determined to revisit the West in order to pursue 9 1 Wolle Muriel Sibell. Stamp e d e to Timberline: The Gho s t Town s and Minin g Camp s of Colorado Ohio University Press Athens, 1949. Pg 7 98

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her fascination with the frontier mining camps. She resigned her position in New York and began to search for teaching positions in the West. Within a few months she was appointed to the art faculty at the University of Colorado in Boulder, a perfect location for her research. At the university she was selected a Department Chair a position she would hold for over 21 years (1928-1949). At the time there were only two other women department heads at the university: the head of Physical Education for Women and the head of Home Economics. Wolle was the only woman chairing a department that included both men and women faculty. She was promoted to full Professor in 1930, and remained at CU until her retirement in 1966. In addition to her teaching and administrative duties Wolle also designed scenes and costumes for the CU Theatre Department from 1927 to mid-1940's, c ontributing to over 90 productions. On October 26, 1945 she married colleague Francis Wolle, a Professor in the English Department. 99

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Figure 7.2 The Streets of Blackha w k e Muriel Sibell Wolle From the time she moved to Boulder until nearly the end of her life Wolle spent countless hours traveling the Rocky Mountains b y car wagon horseback and foot, to sketch and research the hundreds of mining and ghost towns scattered throughout the mountains. She initiall y created her sketches in watercolor but found the method to be too time consuming She then would spend five to ten minutes doing a rough sketch of each subject on site which she would later work on at home, additionally referring to photographs she had taken of the site and allowing an additional couple of hours to complete each piece using lithographic 100

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crayons and occasionally adding watercolors In the preface of her first book, Wolle writes: Perhaps it is strange that someone brought up in a big eastern city completely ignorant of mining and all that goes with it, should willingly abandon the east and become steeped in the history of pioneer Colorado. And perhaps it is equally strange that from a single mountain drive such an absorbing hobby was born. As the result of one ride, I dedicated myself to recording pictorially the mining towns of the state before they disappeared or before those which are still active were 'restored past all semblance of their past glory ; and almost without knowing it, I was also deep in history."92 Her initial collection of drawings accompanied with historical narrative was published in two pamphlets: Ghost Cities ofColorado in 1933, and Cloud Cities of Colorado in 1934 The pamphlets sold for $1. She continued her expeditions and research in Colorado for over 22 years, visiting 240 mining communities She kept a running chart of all the mining towns, those still in existence and those long deserted and marked each off with a red dot as she found and sketched it. As the red dots increased in number I began to look toward the day when the record would be complete and I could stop traipsing over impossible roads in search of invi s ible towns." 93 However just as soon as she would mark one town off, someone would inevitably inquire about a place she had not heard about yet and she d have to add another location to the list. 92 Wolle Muriel Sibell. Stamp e d e to Timb e rli'!e: The Gho s t Tow n s and Minin g Camps of Colorado Ohio Uni v ersity Press Athens, 1949. Preface (unnumbered) 9 3 Ibid. Preface (unnumbered) 101

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In the late 1940s she attempted to have her collection published in book form which she titled Stamped e to T i mberline but it was rejected by numerous publishing companies as it was deemed to be only o f local interest. So in 1949 she and her husband Francis published the book themselves and had it printed. They stored boxes of the books in their garage and handled their own distribution The book was later picked up by the Ohio University Press. Stamped e to Timbe rline documents Wolle s travels using maps histori c al background and anecdotes she collected along the way by talking to librarians town officials waitresses and gas station attendants. The book include s over 200 drawings By the time the second edition was published in 1974, Wolle had located and documented over fifty additional sites. After documenting the mining camps in Colorado Wolle expanded her research to the nearby Rocky Mountain states The Bonan z a Trail published in 1953 included all twelve western mining states and Montana Pay Dirt: A Guide to the Mining Camp s o f the Treasure State published in 1963 focused on the camps in Montana. Muriel Sibell Wolle was an active artist throughout her life and exhibited widely. She was a member of"The Prospectors" an organization of five University of Colorado artists who exhibited in major art centers in 22 states between 1931 and 1941. She had one person shows at the Denver Art Museum in 1933 and 1956 the Colorado Springs Fine Art Center in 1945 and at the Maryland 102

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Art Institute in Baltimore in 1945. Wolle won the watercolor division of the 441 h Annual Exhibit of the National Association of Women Artists and Sculptors in New York City for Spru ce Str ee t Man s ion depictin g a house in Boulder In 1974 s he was selected b y the University of Colorado faculty as the Facul ty Re s earch Lecturer of the Year the first woman to be chosen for the honor And in 1975 Govern Dick Lamm presented her with the Governor s Award for the Arts and Humanities The CU Alumn i Association honored Woll e in 1976 with its highest tribute the Norlin Award for outstanding achie v ement in her profession an award that she had designed twenty seven years earlier. Wolle retired from the Uni ve r s ity in 1966 U pon her ret i rement she donated her collection of o v er 200 Kachina d olls v alued at $9 000 at the time to the Uni v ersity. In 1966 when the Fine Arts department moved into the recently vacated engineerin g buildi ng, it was renamed the Muriel Sibell Wolle Fine Art s Building in her honor. Wolle died on January 9 1977, of a heart attack at age 78. After her death the University of Colorado honored her a s one of the three Alumni of the Century." Muriel Sibell Wolle not only contributed to the art of the West but left a visual documentation and record of many of the mining camps which are no longer in existence Without her efforts many of these s ites might have been lost entirely. Additionally her detailed drawings of individual buildings have assisted preservationists in restoring sites to their original form 103

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Eve Drewelowe ( 1899-1988) Eve Drewelowe was a painter who worked as an artist for most of her 89 years. She was born April 15, 1899 on a farmstead in New Hampton, Iowa the eighth of thirteen children. She spent her childhood in Iowa and, after high school, went to Iowa City where she had received a scholarship to attend the University of Iowa. After earning her BA in Graphics and Plastic Arts in 1923 she married fellow student Jacob VanEk. The next year Drewelowe became the first student to receive an MA in Fine Arts from the University of Iowa. She had majored in Painting and Art History. Later that year she and her husband moved to Boulder, Colorado where he had been hired as an Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Colorado. VanEk would later become the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences there. Soon after her arrival, Drewelowe became a charter member of the Boulder Arts Guild, where she lobbied for exhibition space and recognition for Boulder artists. She participated in the annual exhibitions sponsored by the Guild. Drewelowe worked tirelessly as an artist early on rendering mostly Western and Colorado landscapes in oil, watercolor and pen and ink echoing the social realism of Edward Hopper and Thomas Hart Benton. Her later style leaned more towards abstract expressionism. In all, she created over 1000 works. She would also occasionally teach for the University of Colorado as an adjunct lecturer. 104

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Drewelowe was regarded as a devoted feminist "staunchly maintaining her maiden name when it was not an acceptable or widely held practice."94 In 1929 she and her husband took a worldwide trip visiting twenty-nine countries in thirteen months, much of the travel in the Far East. During their travels she documented the trip by sketching the various sites She returned to the U.S. with six sketchbooks filled with ink drawings which would be used as the basis of future paintings. Figure 7 3 Swinging Saplings Eve Drewelowe 94 Ro cky Mountain News October 24 1988. Pg 112 105

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Upon her return she held her first one-woman exhibit at the CU Library gallery, which included twenty two oil paintings and sixteen ink drawings. This was followed by numerous other one-woman exhibits, including the Argent Galleries in New York in 1940 and 1941 and the Denver Art Museum, in 1933 1936 and 1939. She also participated in the "American Art Today exhibit at the Ne w York Worlds Fair in 1940. In 1935 she again traveled abroad with her husband this time to Denmark Finland England France Italy, Greece Turkey and Russia where she completed two more sketchbooks of source material for later paintings. While working to further her career as an arti s t, Drewelowe struggled to resist the demands of domesticity. She was not interested in playing the role of company wife and social hostess to her husbands colleagues and purposefully chose a smaller bouse which would not be conducive to e n t e rtaining. In the late 1930s Drewelowe experienced a major physical collapse that she attributed to her 'chores as the Dean s wife. "9 5 She fell ill on a trip to New York in 1940 and underwent emergency surgery at the Mayo Clinic Following that ordeal she spent the next ten years in and out of hospitals with a gastrointestinal illness though it did not restrict her or diminish her desire to paint. Of her medical situation 95 Do s s Erika. I Mus t Paint: Women Arts of the Rocky Mountain Region ". Inde p endent Spirit s: Wome n Paint e r s o f t h e A m e rican West 1 8 90-1945 University of California Press Berkeley, Los Angeles and London 1995 Pg 228. 106

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Drewelowe wrote, "It was as simple as that. . A one day division of my life into two parts .. A before my illness and a life following .. which was my Reincamation."96 It was about this time that her work changed dramatically She began to experiment with abstract forms and shapes using round canvasses and the use of textural materials adhered to surfaces In addition to continuing to depict landscapes, which had taken on a decidedly expressionist technique she also used African and tribal influences in her work. In 1979 Eve Drewelowe received the Distinguished Alumni Award from the University of Iowa, in honor of her professional accomplishments and in appreciation for her donations supporting the university s Museum of Art and the School of Art and Art History. The gallery in the University oflowa art building w as named the Eve Drewelowe Gallery in her honor. The city of Boulder awarded her a grant in 1981 to finance the painting and exhibition of "translations" of her earliest watercolors of an undeveloped Boulder in the 1920s and 1930s. ln the mid 1980s Drewelowe began to sort through her extensive body of work in preparation for a retrospective exhibit of her work at the University of Iowa. Researchers assisting the artist found "paintings and drawings ; along with diaries, letters notebooks, prescriptions and receipts hidden in every nook and cranny of her home in cupboards between mattresses even in 9 6 Drewelowe Eve. The Earl y Y e ars of Eve D rewelowe: 1930 s -1940 s Boulder Center for the Visual Arts 1987 exhibit catalog Pg 3 107

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the stove and dishwasher. "97 In her last years Drewelowe with the assistance of researchers catalogued her artwork which was to be willed to the University of Iowa after her death in order to memorialize her life work. Eve Drewelowe passed away on October 23, 1988, at the age of 89. Louise Emerson Ronnebeck (1901-1980) Louise Ronne beck painted primarily in the style of Regionalism, also known as American Scene painting and was known by and large for her mural work sponsored by the Federal art programs in the 1930s and early 1940s. She was b orn Mary Louise Harrington Emerson on August 25 1 901 in the Germantown section ofPhiladelphia the youngest of three daughters. Her father was a succes s ful engineering consultant who established the Emerson Institute of New York City in 1900 and was the nephew of famed writer Ralph Waldo Emerson. Louise grew up in New York and attended Barnard College. After her graduation in 1922 she studied at the Art Students League with urban realist painter Kenneth Hayes Miller, George Bridgman and sculptor Leo Lentelli. Louise's own technique was greatly influenced by the representational style of Miller s painting During the s ummers of 1922 and 1923 she traveled to France to 9 7 Doss Erik a I Must Paint: Women Arts of the Rocky Mountain Region". Inde p ende nt Spirits : Wom e n Paint e r s of the A m e ri can W e st 1 8901945 Uni v ersity of California Press Berkeley Los Angeles, and London, 1995. Pg 228 108

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study at the American Academy in Fountainebleau, where she studied fresco painting with Paul-Albert Baudouin. In the summer of 1925 Louise and her sister Isabel visited artist Mabel Dodge in Taos, New Mexico. It was there that Louise met her future husband German sculptor Arnold Ronnebeck who had accompanied his friend painter Marsden Hartley to Taos. Louise and Arnold married the following year in New York City, with Mabel Dodge and Tony Luhan in attendance and soon after moved to Denver where Arnold had been appointed Director of the Denver Art Museum. The Ronnebecks would continue to spend v acations in Taos visiting with their friends in the art community there including Leo and Gertrude Stein Alfred Stieglitz Marsden Hartley Walter Ufer Erne s t Blumenschein Andrew Dasburg and Georgia O'Keefe. In Denver Louise worked hard to establish herself as an artist, despite the demands of marriage and motherhood She continued to use her maiden name professionally until 1930 Her first child, Arnold was born in 192 7 followed by a daughter Ursula, in 1929 The attic of their home on 435 Clermont Street next to Steck Elementary School, was her s tudio where she painted scenes of school children and family outings frequently using her own children as models. In 1930 the Rocky Mountain News profiled Ronnebeck in an article which noted Louise Emerson who in private life is Mrs Arnold Ronnebeck, is out to prove that a woman can be a successful artist and mother at the same time ... Between the 109

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childrens meal times the mother rests while the artist works "9 8 The article quotes her as commenting, 1 never go to bridge parties I seldom go to teas, and I work all odd hours in my studio. "99 Ronnebeck painted more than twelve murals for public spaces in the 1930 s and early 1940 s including two frescoes for the fas;ade at More y Middle School three panels at the entrance of the Robert W. Speer Memorial Hospital (now Denver Health Center) Kent Schoo l for Girls, Children's Hospital in Denver the Church of the Holy Redeemer the nativity scene for the pediment of the Denver City and County Building the Worland, Wyoming Post Office and the Grand Junction Colorado Post Office Her favorite medium was fresco, a method of painting water-based pigments on freshly applied plaster. The paint then dries and sets with the plaster to become a permanent part of the wall, making the colors more durable and resistant to aging. The method of fresco demands great technical skill as it must be completed quickly while the plaster is wet and cannot be corrected without adding another coat of plaster. Ronnebeck was one of the few artists in Denver still using fresco in the 1940's It was considered even more unusual for a woman artist as the work with plaster required a great deal of heavy lifting 98 Ro cky Mountain N ews February 10, 1930 99 Ibid 110

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Ronnebeck also worked in easel painting She and her husband owned a summer cabin near C entral City Colorado where she painted scenes of the mining town including one entitled Colorad o Min esc ap e In 1936 Loui s e painted The P e opl e vs Mm y Eli z ab eth Smith a courtroom scene based upon a high profile court case in Denver. Ronnebeck attended the four da y trial of Mary Elizabeth Smith, a seventeen year old mother who wa s accused of shooting her husband with a .22 rifle in order to avoid divorce. The courtroom drama created headline news and captured the interest of the community. Smith was spared the death penalty and was acquitted by reason s of insanity The painting i s considered one of the artist s most compelling works which best shows Ronnebeck s s torytelling sensitivity and sense of drama ."100 T he artist included h e rself i n the crowd of courtroom onlookers a figure on the left with her head resting on her hands. 100 Doss, E rika I Mus t Pai nt: Women Arts o f the Rock y Moun t a in Re g ion In dep en d e n t Spir its: Wom e n P ai nt e r s o f th e A m e ri c an West, 1 8 90-1945 Univer s ity of California Pre ss, Ber k eley, Los Angele s and London 1995. Pg 2 3 4 111

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Figure 7.4 The People vs. Mary Elizabeth Smith Louise Emerson Ronnebeck During the Depression it was difficult for artists to su pport themselves and many turned to the New Deal federally funded art projects for employment. Between 193 7 and 1944 Ronne beck entered 16 competitions for mural commissions, from which she was awarded two. 1 0 1 Both commissions were funded by the Treasury Department Section of Painting and Sculpture. In 1939 she received her first contract, for $570, to paint a mural in the Worland, Wyoming Post Office. The painting entitled The Fertile Land Remembers depicts a pioneer 101 Fablman Betsy. Louise Emerson Ronnebeck : A New Deal Artist of the American West Woman s Art Journal Vol. 22, No .2. Pg 13 112

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family in a covered wagon in the center with galloping Indians and bison in the background to represent the past of the frontier and oil wells and irrigated fields in the foreground to represent the civilization of the territory This mural was later relocated to the post office in Casper, Wyoming Ronnebeck s second commission was for the post office in Grand Junction Colorado in 1940. The title of the mural is Harvest and it depicts a farmer and his wife gathering a peach crop in the foreground, and the departure of the Ute Indians in the background. A waterwheel in the distance symbolizes the introduction of irrigation into the western plains The themes of agriculture, industry and white civilization driving out the natives were common in the post office murals, most don e in the representational Regionalist style that was popular in the country at that time In 1992 the mural was reinstalled in the Wayne N. Aspinall Federal Building in Grand Junction. Ronnebeck was also active in home front art activities during the war and in 1942 she was recognized by Governor Ralph Corr as a Hero of the Week for the murals she executed for the U S O Men' s Service Center. From 1945 to 1950, Ronnebeck taught drawing and painting in the Art Department at the University of Denver under Vance Kirkland She also taught courses at the Colorado Military School which is now the Colorado Academy During this time she was frequently commissioned to paint portraits including children society matrons and even an Episcopal bishop. In 1946 she had a one-113

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woman exhibit at Denver's City Hall that included 21 paintings. One of her frescoes a panel of a mother and child entitled Maraba Twlight was purchased by the Denver Art Museum Her last public commission in the state in 1952, was an abstract fresco for the lobby of the Weld Country Hospital in Greeley. Arnold Ronnebeck died on November 14, 1947 from throat cancer. In 1954 Louise moved to Bermuda, where she remained for nearly twenty years, teaching art at the Bermuda Hig h School for Girls She created her last mural there in 1966 for the St. Brendan's Hospital. After the death of her husband she simply "lost heart .. ... and painted little of significance "1 0 2 Louise Emerson Ronnebeck returned to Denver in th e fall of 1973 and passed away on February 16, 1980 at the age of 78. Gladys Caldwell Fisher ( 1906-1952) Sculptor Gladys Caldwell Fisher was born on April 6 1906 in Loveland Colorado. Her family moved to Denver when she was eleven where she attended Morey Junior High School Manual High School and East High School. While in high school she enrolled in the Beaux Arts Atelier to study sculpture with Robert Garrison. Upon graduation from East High School in 1926, Gladys was awarded a scholarship from Denver's Allied Arts which pro v ided her the opportunity to move to New York to continue her study of sculpture at the American School of 102 Fahlman, Bets y. "Louise E merson Ronnebeck : A New Deal Artist of the American West." Woman s Art Journal Vol. 22, N o 2 Pg 12 114

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Architecture with Alexander Archipenko She then received additional funds from Denver's Allied Arts which funded a subsequent trip to Paris to study at the Ecole de la Grande Chaumiere with Antoine Bourdelle Jose DeCreeft, Aristide Maillot and George Hilbert. Fisher spent a brief period in New York City after returning from Europe where she taught sculpture and opened her own studio. She focused her work primarily on animal sculptures and preferred to work in hard stone and hard woods. Gladys conceived her sculptures by observing and sketching animals in their environment. Gladys Caldwell returned to Denver in 1932 where she worked actively as a sculptor and taught for both the Uni v ersity of Denver and the Denver Art Museum for the next tw e nty years She married Alan Berney Fisher, a well known Denver architect in 1936 They raised a son Arthur who died in 1960 at the age of 16 and daughter Nora. Fisher won a number of commissions from the federal art projects which emerged during the Depression For her first commission in 1936, she sculpted two Rocky Mountain sheep from Indiana limestone on marble bases, each weighing nearly ten tons for the main branch of the Denver Post Office building at 18th and Stout Streets To prepare for this work, she spent time in Yellowstone National Park observing sheep in their natural habitat. 115

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Figure 7 5 Ri cky Mountain Sh ee p Gladys Caldwell Fisher In 1938 she was awarded $750 to carve a mahogany relief entitled Kiowa Travoi s for the post office in Los Animas, Colorado The mural, which is 8 feet long and 21 inches high carved into a single 2 inch thick piece of mahogany depicts scenes along the old Santa Fe Trail including Fort Lyon and Bents Fort with buffalo Texas longhorn steer antelope an ox team and a pioneer. In 1939, she created a pair of grizzly bear cubs for the entrance to the Mammoth Hot Springs Post Office in Yellowstone Park These sculptures created some controversy as the depictions were slightly abstract drawing complaints that they 116

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did not resemble real bears. Another federal art project commission was a three panel bas relief in lava stone called A m eric an Indian Orpheus and th e Animals portraying an Indian figure with a buffalo antelope bear and mountain lion for the Denver City and County Building. In addition to the federal arts projects commissions Fisher sculpted a relief called Orph e u s of the Indian for the Denver Art Museum, Drinkin g Fa w n made of Colorado travertin e marble which was exhibited at the Rockefeller Center in New York, a limestone Russian wolfhound a limestone cheetah a marble frog a tufa stone bobcat an oak mongoose and a snakewood giraffe. A Maylayan Collar bear of black Belgian marble which sh e made for her son Arthur, was donated after his death to the Sisters of Charity in Pueblo and now resides on the fifth floor of the Denver Public Library Fisher was commissioned by Frieda Lawrence, the widow of English author D.H. Lawrence to create a r e d fox sculpture in reference to his nickname. The fox was exhibited at the Denver Art Museum for two weeks before being sent to Frieda in New Mexico Fishers work was exhibited widely, including the Paris Salon the Society of Independent Artists the Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, and the Denver Art Museum. 117

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Gladys Caldwell Fisher died after a long illness on April 19, 1952, at age 46 in her home at 1360 Race Street in Denver. In her obituary the Rocky Mountain News called her the quietest genius who e ver lived in Denver. 103 Nadine Kent Drummond (1912-1966) Nadine Drummond was born September 2 1912 in Trinidad Colorado where she spent her ear l y years. The town of Trinidad mainly supported by its coal fields suffered a serious decline after the end of World War I resulting in massive layoffs and poverty Drummond s father w as a merchant and was forced to move his family from Trinidad in 1928 when his busines s failed They moved for a tim e to Denver then settled in C olorado Springs. After high school Nadine received a scholarship to attend the Broadmoor Art Academy at Colorado College where she studied painting under Robinson Boardman George Biddl e and Doris Lee developing in the style of r e gionalism painting th at w as popular at that time While attending college she did freelance work a s an illustrator. She graduated from Colorado College in 1934 married Mowbray T Drummond and settled in Pueblo Colorado. Over the course of the ne x t few years Nadine won commission s for murals sponsored by the federal arts projects Her work at that time chronicled the small towns and farming communities in southern Colorado that were deeply 103 Ro cky Mountain News. April 26 1952. 118

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affected by the Depression as well as by drought dust storms and grasshopper invasions. One such painting made in 1940 entitled Farm Auction in Trinidad is a dark portrayal of the farmers struggle and ultimate loss. Drummond worked in a v ariety of mediums including oils watercolors gouaches and lithographs. While in Pueblo Drummond was employed at the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center as a teaching assistant to Boardman Robinson and Arnold Blanch and also taught art courses at Pueblo Junior College. She won first prize in the Nebraska "Six States Exhibit in 1941 and held one-woman shows in Pueblo in 1943 Denver in 1944 and Colorado Springs in 1944. She and her husband moved briefly to San Francisco but returned to Colorado in 1947 and settled in Denver where Nadine would remain for the next nineteen year s, unt i l her death. In Denver she continued her work as a painter and taught art at the Denver Country Day School and the Denver Opportunity School. 119

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Figure 7 6 Colorado Stat e Fair Nadine Drummond Drummond moved into a dorm on the University of Colorado campus in Boulder during the summer of 1949 in order to study painting with expressionist Max Beckman. The experience had a noticeable impact on her work, which became more expressionist and abstract over the next few years She was invited to become a member of the Colorado Fifteen, a group of professional artists dedicated to the avant-garde formed in 1948. The organization was well-known, with membership by invitation only During the 1950 s she won a silver medal from the Museum of Modem Art in Paris and first prize for her painting Crater Lake, at the Colorado State Fair. 120

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Following the death of an infant son and the death of her husband in 1961 Drummond suffered from deep depression and alcoholism although she continued her painting, working in her home studio in Denver at 649 Cook Street. Her work became darker and more abstract o v er the next se v eral years. She experimented in monoprints a process where paint is applied to glass or metal then printed on to paper. In 1961, she had a s olo exhibit of 5 0 monoprints at the International House in Denver. The following year she was one of twelve women painters selected to represent the United States in the Sev enth Annual International Exhibition of Women Artists at the Musee d Art Moderne in Paris Nadine Kent Drummond died in Denver in October of 1966 at the age of 54. Ethel Magafan (1914-1993) and Jenne Magafan (1914-1952) Twins Ethel and Jenne Magafan were born in Chicago on August 10 1914 to a Greek father and a Polish mother. Their father Petros Magafan had only just come to America from Greece in 1912. The Magafan family moved to Colorado Springs in 1919 for health reasons, and subsequently relocated to Denver in 1930 where the girls attended East High School. The twins stayed together nearly all of their lives studying with the same artists and pursuing similar professional projects. It is no surprise that their painting styles and themes are quite analogous. Their high school art instructor Helen Perry gave them encouragement and financial assistance to study with Frank Mechau at the Mechau School of Modem 121

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Art in Denver. When Mechau took a teaching position at the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center formerly the Broadmoor Art Academy Jenne and Ethel followed where they continued their studies with him as well as Boardman Robinson and Peppino Mangravite Mechau hired the sisters as assistants to work with him on a mural commission It was through his recommendations that Jenne and Ethel entered numerous competitions for mural projects through the Treasury Department's Section of Fine Arts Both rece i ved considerable support from the federally funded New Deal art projects Ethel was awarded six post office mural commissions which included Threshing for Auburn Nebraska in 1938 Prairie Fir e for Madill Oklahoma in 1941, and Hor se Corral for the South Denver Post Office in 1942. Figure 7.7 Lawrenc e Massacre Ethel Magafan In 193 7 Ethel submitted a design for the post office mural competition in Fort Scott Kansas based upon the Lawrence massacre. (Fig 7.4) The Treasury 122

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Department found her work outstanding, but apparently the subject matter was too "disturbing" to be considered 1 04 Jenne received five post office contracts, including Winter in Nebraska for Albion, Nebraska in 1939, Western Town for Helper, Utah in 1941 and Cowboy Dance for Anson, Texas in 1941. In 1942, the painting in Anson received the Peixetto Memorial Prize for murals. Together, Ethel and Jenne were awarded a highly competitive commission for their mural, Mountains in Snow to be installed in the federal Social Security Building in Washington D.C. The twins remained in Colorado Springs until 1941, then briefly moved to Los Angeles and Cheyenne Wyoming before settling in Woodstock New York, an established artists community in 1945. Ethel married artist Bruce Currie and Jenne married artist Eduardo Chavez. Though they lived in New York, both sisters frequently returned to the West, and continued to use western themes in their work. Their painting developed from their earlier representational style to a more semi-abstract technique. Jenne Magafan spent most of 1951 in Italy, as her husband Eduardo had received a Fulbright grant to study there The same year Ethel had also received a grant to study in Greece. This was the longest separation that the twins had experienced Both couples returned to Woodstock New York in October of 1952 and less than a week after their arrival home Jenne died suddenly of a cerebral 104 Rubinstein CharlotteS. America n Wome n A rtists : from Indian Tim es to the Pr ese nt G.K.Hall .& Co New York. 1982 Pg 234 123

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aneurysm at the age of38. Ethel remained in New York and continued to work as an artist. She exhibited widely and had a number of one-woman shows. In 1968, Ethel was elected a National Academician. ln 1971, the Department if Interior employed her to create on-location sketches of western scenes which were exhibited at the National Gallery in Washington D.C. The Smithsonian Institute later toured the exhibit across the country. Ethel created a mural entitled Grant at the Battle of the Wildern e ss in 1978 for the Fredericksburg National Military Park in Chancellorsville, Virginia She passed away on April 24 1993 at the age of 78. 124

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Figure 7.8 Hou se in L e adville, Jenne Magafan 125

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CHAPTERS LESSER KNOWN AND VISITING ARTISTS IN COLORADO In addition to the artist s discussed previously, a number of other women practiced and taught art in the state evidenced by their participation in exhibits and arts organizations. For many, their involvement was transitory, and their biographical information scarce. Other s were successful artists who did not actually reside in Colorado, but traveled through the state documenting their experiences through sketches and paintings. Mattie Evelyn Banta (1868-1956) was born Martha Evelyn Stockwell on December 28, 1868 in Claremont, Illinois. She was educated at the State University in Bloomington, Illinois. Mattie later married Buford A. Banta and in 1890 they traveled from Richmond County Illinois to Colorado Springs by horse and wagon. Initially they lived on a ranch in the Bijou Basin, then built a cabin at St. Peters Dome where Buford prospected for gold. They moved to Cripple Creek in 1893, after gold was discovered there. Mattie became the first school teacher in Cripple Creek. Her paintings included landscapes and Colorado wildflowers She 126

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later returned to Colorado Springs and remained there until her death in November of 1956. Blanche Dougan Cole (1868-1956) was born on August 12, 1869 in Richmond Indiana In the mid-1870 s her family moved to Leadville Colorado then settled in Denver She traveled to Europe in 1887 to study with sculptor Preston Powers in Florence Italy then went to Spain to work with James Whistler. Blanche returned to Colorado in 1893 and married artist William H. Cole the following year. They moved to Hinsdale, Illinois but Blanche divided her time between Illinois and Colorado writing newspaper arti c les for both The Denver Post and The Chicago Tribune. Her news articles were often accompanied by her own illustrations. During th i s period newspapers were transitioning into additional use of photographs they continued to employ artists as illustrators due to the high cost of reproducing photography and its limitations to static subjects Coles early work was primarily portraits. Then, in 189 8, she was employed by a railroad to travel to the Moquis reservation in northern Arizona to make sketches and write a guidebook. From that point her work shifted to western landscapes and Native Americans. She participated in the Denver Artists Club and had paintings shown in their annual exhibit for seven years. Other exhibits included the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, and the Alaska-Yukon Expo in Seattle in 1909. Cole also taught art while in Denver. In 1903, the Coles moved to Los Angeles where Blanche continued to paint create sculptures, and 127

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teach art. In 1904 she retumed to Europe to study with Charles Lasar at the Academie Julian in Paris for a year. Between 1907 and 1911, the Santa Fe Railway Company purchased eight of her paintings. And by 1923 she headed the art section of the MacDowell Club. Cole died in Los Angeles on December 1, 1956 Mary Collins (1839-1928) was born Mary Hodgson in Au Sable New York. She moved to Denver in 1863 and married Edward H. Collins two years later. Collins apparently did not take up painting until after she was married. Historian Doris Ostrander Dawdy asserts that it was likely that her husband a botanist encouraged her to collaborate with him "105 Her subjects included landscapes wildflowers and plant life but she was recognized mostly for her flower paintings. Her contemporaries in the field considered Collins a grand artist in the world offlowers."106 Mary Collins died on January 18 1928 at her home on 2927 Champa Street in Denver.. Alice Cooper (1875-1937) was born on April 8 1875 in Glenwood Iowa Her father Isaac Cooper was one of the early mining men and promoters of Colorado At an early age her family moved to Denver where Alice grew up and studied sculpture under Preston Powers. After graduation from high school, she went east to study at the Art Institute of Chicago with famed sculptor Lorado Taft, 1 05 Dawdy, Doris Ostrander Arti s t s of th e Am e ri can W es t : A Bibliographi c Dic tionary : Artist s Born B efore 190 0 V olume 3 Swallow Press Ohio University Press Athens, Chicago and London 1974 Pg 94 106 Ibid. Pg 94 128

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and at the Art Students League in New York. She returned to Chicago in 1901 and worked as an assistant instructor of sculpture for a year. In 1904 Cooper won a competition to create a Sacajawea sculpture for the Lewis and Clark Exposition in Portland, Oregon The life-sized bronze statue entitled In Honor of Greatness portrayed a Native American woman and her papoose and cost $7 000 for materials The funds for the statue were raised by the Sacajawea Statue Association Alice Cooper married railroad lawyer Nathan M. Hubbard in 1905 and moved to Des Moines, Iowa, where they raised three daughters. Cooper continued to make sculptures including fountains with young girls and nymphs, which were sold through Tiffanys in New York. Her work was exhibited at the Art Institute of Chicago, the Pennsylvania Academy ofFine Arts and the National Academy of Design. During her last years she lived in Denve r and Chicago, spending summers at the Bar Fork cattle ranch in Carbondale, Colorado Alice Cooper died in Chicago on March 4 1937. Mary Lenora Dalton (1871-1943) was born on August 3, 1871 in Sioux City Iowa Her family traveled to Colorado by covered wagon and settled in Silver Cliff, where Mary attended elementary school. In the mid-1880's the family moved to Pueblo. Mary began painting at an early age and continued throughout her life, although she received no formal art training. Her work consisted mainly of watercolor landscapes of farm and ranch scenes. In addition to painting, Mary was a musician, and taught music for a number of years 129

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She married twice Her second husband was a minister and they moved together around the state as he changed parishes living in Meeker, Estes Park, Glenwood Springs Canon City and the African-American community of Dearfield. The couple eventually settled in Greeley, Colorado where Mary remained until her death in 1943. The only known painting of Dalton 's still in existence is a watercolor owned by the Black American West Foundation in Denver. Georgiana M. de L Aubiniere (1874-1930) was born in Balsallheath England on Jul y 30 1848, the daughter of renowned watercolorist, John Steeple She studied art in England then moved to Paris where she met French painter Constant de L'Aubiniere. They married in 1874 and set out on a tour ofFrance and England. From 1882 to 1889 they traveled across North America. While in Colorado Georgiana painted a number oflandscapes including In the Ute Pass, In the Garden of the Gods, Pikes P e ak from Colorado Springs Passing Storm and Middle Park, Colorado. During 1885-86 the de L' Aubinieres lived in San Francisco and advertised as portrait and landscape painters They then moved to Canada, where they were commissioned by the government to paint a series of 14 oils for Queen Victoria They returned to England around 1900 and settled on the coast of Cornwall both continuing to exhibit at the Royal Academy. Georgiana M de L'Aubiniere died on February 13, 1930 in Cornwall. Helen Margaret George (1883-1982) was born and raised in England She went to Paris to study art with Emile Antoine Bourdelle and Othon Friesz George 130

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had a hearing disability and her physician recommended she spend time in the American West because of the medical advantages of its dry climate. She came to Denver in 1914 and remained for the next five years, taking trips throughout Colorado and New Mexico to sketch and paint. Her work consisted mainly of western landscapes and Native Americans. In New Mexico "she frequented the pueblos and produced intimate sketches of the people and their way oflife."107 Her paintings were exhibited at the Denver Art Museum the Tucson Fine Arts Association, and the Museum of New Mexico. She returned to England around 1920 where she remained until her death in 1982. Harriet Clark Winslow Hayden (1840-1926) was born in Franklin Massachusetts She studied painting with Worthington Whittredge at the Chicago Institute of Art. She worked in oils and watercolors and painted primarily flowers and still lifes, although she occasionally worked with landscapes and figures. When she moved to Denver, she became a founding member of the Le Brun Art Club based upon a similar club she had belonged to in Chicago. The group consisted of women artists who met in her studio to work from a model discuss art related issues and hold exhibitions of their work. The Club was controversial at the time because its members painted using nude models, which was considered by many an inappropriate activity for women. Hayden remained in Denver until her death in 1926. 107 Kovinik Phil and Yoshiki-Kovinick Marian. An Enc yclopedia of Women Artists of the American West. University ofTexas Press Austin 1998 Pg 108. 131

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Elsie Haddon Hayne s ( 1881-1963) was born in England on November 8, 1881 the daughter of prominent Cambridge professor and historian John Holland Rose. She was raised in Wimbleton England. Haynes attended Herkomer Art School in Hertfordshire England, then later studied in Brussels, Bruges Belgium and Paris She met American William H. Haynes in France when they were both working in a YMCA hut during World War I. They married in 1918 and moved to Nebraska. They later settled in Denver, where Elsie continued to work as an artist, painting flowers, portraits and landscapes Her favorite landscapes were those in and around Estes Park where she had her husband had a summer cabin She became known as one of the regions outstanding pastel painters."1 08 Haynes was a charter member of the Denver Artists Guild which was founded in 1928. The Guild held monthly meetings and annual exhibits at the Chappell House. In 1960 she was honored by the Guild. as one of two charter members remaining. In 1955 the manager of the Brown Palace Hotel purchased her pastel of South Boulder Canyon to present to President Eisenhower who was at Lowry Field recuperating from a heart attack. The painting later hung in the Eisenhower residence in Gettysburg Pennsylvania Haynes had an impressive exhibition record including the Royal Academy in London the Broadmoor Art Academy the Pasedena Art Institute and the Denver Art Museum. Her painting of Longs Peak is in the 108 Rocky Mountain News. July 12, 1962. Pg 117 132

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collection of the Denver Public Library. In addition to being an artist Haynes published two books of poetry. She died in Denver on May 10, 1963. Sara Gray Holden (1850-1922) was born on October 20 1850 in Brookline, Vermont. She attended the Boston School of Art, where she later taught. In 1883 she moved to Georgetown, Colorado a small mining town to take the position of principal at the Academy of Art In 1887 she moved to Grand Lake Colorado where she remained for the next ten years. Holden s primary focus was landscapes and occasionally religious works, using charcoal crayons, oil and watercolor. Her painting, entitled Empire Valley, Colo r ado is in the Historic Georgetown collection. Holden moved to Indiana around 1897-98 but continued to spend her summers in Grand Lake. In 1920 she returned to Vermont, and remained there until her death on November 30 192 2. Grace Church Jones (1868-1959) was born September 17, 1868 in West Falls New York. She studied art at the Buffalo Art Students League beginning at the age of 15. Jones continued her studies in Paris then returned to New York where she returned to the Art Students League, then from 1903-04 attended the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn In 1893 she married William Wright Jones and the couple relocated west to Denver in 1899 where Grace taught art at East Denver High School for twenty years She painted landscapes figure studies still lives and murals She later moved to Pueblo. Her exhibition record includes the Provincetown Art Association (Massachusetts), the Society of Independent Artists 133

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in New York, the Spring Salon of N ationale des Beaux Arts (Paris) the Broadmoor Art Academy (Colorado Springs), the Artists Club of Denver, and the Museum of New Mexico. Marguerite Bennett Kassler (1893-1965 ) was born in Tacoma Washington She studied art at Whitworth College and at the Chicago Art Institute She moved to Denver where she married art teacher Charles Moffat Kassler Jr. While in Denver she studied sculpture with Robert Garrison Kassler worked in stone and bronze making portrait busts, figures and animals. In 1932 the Kasslers moved to Paris where she studied with sculptors Charles Despiau Emile Antoine Bourdelle and George Hilbert who was an assistant to Auguste Rodin. While in Paris she was commissioned by the French government to create a bronze portrait sculpture of composer Maurice Ravel. Although she was married Marguerite continued to use her maiden name Bennett on her works. When she was in Europe she traveled throughout France, Morocco and Tunisia in Africa. Her works including a Martinique dancer, a Hindu girl a Bisharin boy, a Sudanese girl and the head of a Tahitian woman were influenced by her travels abroad. "Bennett Kassler was a leader for her time in looking to other cultures for the expression of her own sculptural ideas." 10 9 She had numerous exhibitions in Paris including the Salon d Automn the Salon d Ete, the Salon des Independents the Salon des Americains and the Balerie de Paris The Denver Art Museum held one-woman exhibits of her 109 Schlosser Elizabeth M o d e rn Sculptur e in D e n ve r (1919-1960). Ocean V iew Books, Denver 1995 Pg 28 134

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work in 1940 and 1947. In 1934 she moved to Taxco, Mexico where she resided for the next thirty years until her death in 1965. Frances Kent Lamont (1899-1975) was born in Lawrence Park, New York. She studied sculpture in Paris with Solon Borglum and Charles Despiau and at the Art Students League in New York with Mahonri M. Young. She also attended the Bennett School and the American School of Sculpture. In 1926 she married and moved to Colorado, where the couple lived at the Perry Park Ranch near Larkspur. Lamont worked in bronze pewter aluminum, crystal and granite, creating figures in the style of abstract realism She was commissioned to create a number of war memorials for New Canaan Connecticut New Rochelle, New York and the Mellon Gardens Her exhibits include the Museum of Modem Art the Whitney Museum the Pennsylvania Academy and the Ogunquit Museum. The Chappell House i n Denver held one-woman shows of her work in 1930 1942 and 1952. Denver writer Elizabeth Schlosser comments, "Kent Lamont was much admired in Denver ; the newspapers and journals of the era are filled with news of her East Coast shows." 110 Maude Leach (1869-1927) was born Maude McMullan on December 19 1 86 9 in Oil City, Pennsylvania She married Clarence W Leach and they moved to Denver where Maude studied painting with Alexis Comparet and Henry Reed. 110 Schlosser Elizabeth. Modern Sculpture in Denver (1 919-1960). Ocean View Books, D e nver 1995. Pg 48. 135

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Her oil paintings were primarily landscapes of Denver and the Rocky Mountains In 1911 she had a solo exhibit at the Daniels and Fisher store in Denver. Maude taught for a number of years in the Littleton Public Schools and retired to Pueblo until her death in April of 1927 Figure 8.1 Untitl e d ( Ro c ky Mountain Lands c ape), Maude Leach Charlotte Learning (1871-1972) was born January 16, 1871 in Chicago Illinois She spent her childhood there and went on to study at the Art Institute of Chicago She also studied with Albert Herter and William Chase in New York and Frank Duveneck in Cincinnati After her graduation from the Art Institute in 1898 she remained there as a teacher for a number of years She also held positions in the Oak Park Schools and at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts Learning later 136

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moved to Colorado Springs with her sister Susan where they established the Academy of Fine Arts in 1911. In 1916 the academy became affiliated with Colorado College where Learning continued as a Professor of Art until 1926. From 1926 to 1930 Learning beaded the Pueblo Academy of Fine Arts then returned to Colorado Springs She painted landscapes and figures but was best known for her paintings of animals. Learning remained in Colorado Springs until her death on January 4 1972 just days short of her 101 st birthday Doris Lee (1904-1983) was born Doris Emrick February 1 1904 in Aledo Illinois. She attended Rockford College where she studied fme arts and philosophy and graduated in 1927. After graduation she married Russell Werner Lee a chemical engineer. They traveled to Paris for several months where Doris studied with cubist Andre L 'Hote. Aft e r returning to the United States she continued her studies at the Kansas City Art Institute with painter Ernest Lawson a social realist and member of "The Eight" a group of painters associated with the Ashcan artists. Doris divorced Russell Lee and in 1930 went to California to study at the San Francisco School of Fine Art under Arnold Blanch, whom she later married in 1939. In 1931, Lee moved to Woodstock New York to live in the Woodstock Artist Colony where she continued her work. Lee is known for her American scene style of painting which included portraits landscapes, trains horses and industrial city scenes In 1935, Lee won the Logan Purchase Prize at the Art Institute of Chicago for her painting entitled Thanksgiving portraying a 137

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whimsical scene ofwomen in a rural kitchen preparing the holiday dinner. However, the wife of the contest sponsor Josephine Hancock Logan upset by the modernist technique used "called the painting atrocious and started a brief 'Sanity in art' movement which sought a return to older and sweeter concepts of beauty."111 Also in 1935 Lee won two mural competitions sponsored by the Treasury Department Section of Painting and Sculpture both for the Post Office Department Building in Washington D.C. one entitled Country Post the other General Store and Post Office. While Doris Lee was an artist of national reputation her ties to Colorado are rather brief. In the summer of 1936 the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center hosted her as a guest artist the first Woodstock artist to be affiliated there. She returned to Colorado Springs the next three summers to teach and influenced a number of Colorado women artists who studied with her. Lee made illustrations for Life magazine won third prize in the 1944 Carnegie exhibition and exhibited widely throughout the country She and her husband co-authored a book It s Fun to Paint. Lee continued to live in Woodstock, New York until her death on June 16, 1983. Elizabeth Mason (1880-1953) was born in Jacksonville Illinois on June 9 1880. The family relocated to Denver where she grew up. Her father William Lee Mason was a jeweler. After graduation from high school, Mason traveled to New York City to study painting at the Art Students League under Arthur Dow 111 Rubenstein Charlotte. A merican Wome n Arti sts from Earl y Indian Times to the Pr ese nt .G.K Hall & Co Boston, 1982. Pg 232 138

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from 1899-1902. She also studied jewelry design there. When she returned to Colorado she worked as an artist and jewelry designer in both Denver and Manitou Springs In 1917-18 she taught art to disabled veterans and in 1920 worked as a recreation aide at the U .S. Army General Hospital in Denver. The following year Mason moved with her family to Santa Barbara California where she served as curator and writer-researcher-lecturer of the Santa Barbara Historical Society There, from 1926-1942 she created 27 dioramas of early Native American tribes and their daily activities. Mason also did historical landmarks for the Daughters ofthe American Revolution and the Native Daughters of the American West and executed sculptures oflndian subjects, such as Chief Manitou and The Smoki Hope Dance. She never married and remained in Santa Barbara until her death on June 13, 1953. Gwen Meux (1893-1973) was born Gwendolyn Dufill on April4, 1893 in St. John's Newfoundland where she grew up. She was a painter, specializing in landscapes although she also worked with portraits and figures. Meux taught art at Owen's Museum in New Brunswick and then from 1922-25 at the University of Oklahoma. In 1925 she married Arthur Gayle Waldrop, who was a faculty member in the journalism department at the University of Colorado After her marriage Meux, moved to Boulder and taught some summer classes at the University. During the years 1931-1939 Meux exhibited with a group of five instructors from the university who dubbed themselves "The Prospectors" and 139

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exhibited their works across 22 states. She exhibited widely and won a number of awards, including the silver medal for painting from the Kansas City Art Institute in 1923 and again in 1929 and honorable mentions at the Denver Museum Exhibition in 1928 and the Mid-West Art Exhibition in 1935 Meux was also a member and served as president, of the Boulder Artists Equity and belonged to the Boulder Arts Association She wrote and illustrated her own articles for a number of publications, including the Christian Scien c e Monitor and Trail and Timberline the monthly magazine for the Colorado Mountain Club. Eleanor Ormes (1862-1938) was born on January 3 1862 in Philadelphia. She attended the Philadelphi a Academy of Fine Art and the Spring Garden Institute also located in Philadelphia In 1890 she married pastor Manly Dayton Ormes and they settled in Colorado Springs where they raised four children After the children were grown, Eleanor returned to painting and became a member of the Broadmoor Art Academy. She worked in watercolors and oils painting still lifes portraits and landscapes. In 1900 she participated in the First Art Exhibition at Colorado College. Her other exhibits include the Broadmoor Art Academy the Artists Club of Denver and the Denver Art Museum. Ernestine Parsons ( 1884-1967) was born and raised in Boonville, Missouri. At the age of 17 she traveled to Canon City, Colorado to be with her brother. In 1904 she moved to Colorado Springs to attend Colorado College. She studied art at the Broadmoor Art Academy under Randall Davey and later with Boardman 140

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Robinson at the Colorado Sprin g s Fine Arts Center. She worked mostly in oils painting Colorado landscapes mining towns, and Victorian buildings. Parsons exhibited across the country including one-person shows at the Denver Art Museum in 1925 and at the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center in 1944 1952 1956 and 1958 Other exhibits included the Carnegie Institute in 1928 Albright Art Galleries in 1927 and 1930 Wooster College and Central City Colorado. Most of her life she worked as a history teacher in the Colorado Springs High School so she devoted her weekend s and holidays to her artwork. She was also noted for her artistic gardening and had many photographs of her gardens featured in Bette r Homes and Gard e n s and House Beautiful Parsons lived in Colorado Springs until her death on July 30, 1967. Rosina Emmet Sherwood (18 4 3-1948 ) wa s born in New York City and grew up in upper N ew York S t ate H e r family included artist s Lydia Field Emmet and Ellen Emmet Rand. Sherwood went to Europe several times in the late 1870s and 1880 s to continue her art studies One ofher instructors was Tony Robert Fluery at the Academie Julian. Back in New York City she became one of William Merritt Chase s first students. Her earliest works are illustrations for magazines including Harper's. Sherwood resided in New York throughout her life but traveled widely, including a trip to Colorado in 1881 where she completed a number of painting s of the Rocky Mountains She married Arthur Sherwood in 1887 and continued to paint while raising five children. Her children were 141

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frequently models for her paintings and illustrations. In 1893 Sherwood painted a mural entitled The R e public's W e l c om e to H e r D au ght e r s for the Woman's Building at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Ida M Stair ( 1 8 63-1913) was born on March 22 1863 in Indiana She studied paintin g in New York under William Chase and Ken y on Cox then moved to Denver where she studied sculpture with Preston Powers. Stair participated in a number of early arts or g anization s in Denver including the Le Brun Club the Denver Art L e ague and the Artists Club of Den v er Her sculpture The W ing e d Victory, was centered in a fountain and formerly located at the 2151 A venue entrance to C ity Park in Denver. She also created an intaglio entitled L eft of Pa r ad ise ofher children which was exhibited at the World s Fair in Chicago. Stair lived in Den v er until her death on December 5 1913. E stell e Stinchfield ( 1878-1945 ) was born in Sil ver Plume Colorado on June 26 1878. Her family moved to Minnesota wher e s he grew up and became a teacher. In the earl y 1900 s she returned to Colorado teaching in the Boulder public schools until 1911. She then moved to Denv er where she held a teaching position at North High School. Stinchfield later traveled to Europe to study art in Paris and London. She worked in oils watercolor pastel and lithograph, using Colorado landscapes, people and animals as her s ubjects. After returning to Denver around 1924 she taught art at the University of Denver (1930-1932) then relocated to Greeley where she held a faculty position at Colorado State Teachers 142

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College (now the University ofNorthern Colorado) until her retirement in 1945. In 1936 Stinchfield, along with five other artists where selected to represent Colorado at the First National Exhibition of American Art in New York. She lived in Greeley until her death in October of 1945. Lucile A. Stinson (1888-1981) was born in Ogallala Nebraska on September 19 1888. She married Alton 0 Stinson and relocated to the Southwest where she was an artist in Almogordo New Mexico and Denver Colorado She worked primarily in pastels, completing Western landscapes including scenes in Yellowstone and Glacier National parks. Stinson lived in Denver and resided there at the time of her death on S e ptember 27, 1981 at the age of93. Pansy Stockton (1895-1972 ) was born March 31, 1895 in ElDorado Springs Colorado where her parents David and Jennie Ferguson ran the Grand View Hotel. She later moved to Den v er and married public school teacher Roscoe Stockton. Her early work included landscapes produced in oils watercolor and tempera. Stockton then became interested in making sun paintings using fragments of hundreds of varieties of v egetations including ferns bark weeds leaves and twigs. Some pictures incorporated over 10, 000 different pieces of v egetation which she collected from all over the world. She would occasionally note on the back of the work all of the items used and where she found them. Stockton s work with the sun paintings became the subject for five short 143

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documentary films. In 1941 Stockton mo ved to Santa Fe New Mexico and continued her art studies with Robert Graham Adam Green Kerr and Eliot O Hara In New Mexico in addition to her sun paintings she depicted Southwest pueblos and missions and Native American figures. She became an honorary member of the Sioux Indian nation. She married Howard Fatheree in 1950 and the y remained in Santa Fe until her death in 1972 Emma Homan T hayer (1839-1908) was born in New York City on February 13, 1839. She attended Ru tg ers College then returned to New York to continue her art s tudies at the National Academy of Des ign where she was one of the first s tudents of William Merritt Chase At th e age of 18 she married George Graves and was widowed four years later. She remarried again in three years and mov ed to Denver in 1882 Thayer was primarily known for her floral painting and illustrations She wrote and illustrated two books documenting vegetation entitled W ild Flowers of Col o rado and Wild F l o wers of th e Pac ific Coast. Thayer lived in Denver at the time of her death on June 10, 1908 Myra L. Thomas (1882-1963) was born in Greeley Colorado on April22, 1882. She was raised on her family s ranch east of Ault Colorado. She attended the University of Colorado from 1900-1904 and graduated with a Bachelors degree. She then attended Colorado State Teachers College now University of Northern Colorado and received a second degree in pedagogy Thomas taught for a number of years then went to Illinois in 1916 to study at the Art Institute of 144

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Chicago under George Bello ws She also attended the Art Students League in New York where she studied with Randall Davey and John Sloan. Thomas's paintings were mainly western landscapes and stilllifes working in oil, watercolor and pen and ink sketches While she received acclaim in Chicago from Paris critics for her stilllifes she was best known for her landscapes and depictions of life on the ranch She also painted scenes from New Mexico, Arizona and Utah. Thomas returned to the family ranch in Colorado and continued to paint for several years. She had work exhibited at the Museum ofNew Mexico in Santa Fe, the Society of Independent Artists in New York, the Chicago No-Jury Society of Artists and the Denver Art Museum. In the mid-1930's she discontinued her painting and became a teacher at the Wyatt School near Ault and did not paint for the remainder of her life Myra Thomas died in Greeley Colorado on February 5, 1963 Mabel Landrum Torrey (1886-1976) was born to a pioneer family in a sod house in Sterling Colorado in 1886 She graduated from the Logan County High School, then study art at the Colorado State Teachers College (now the University ofNorthem Colorado). After graduation, she was an elementary school teacher in Sterling in order to save enough money to study sculpture at the Chicago Art Institute. In 1912, she went east to Chicago where she met her husband Fred Torrey, who was also a sculpture student there Her best known sculpture and largest work is Wynken Blinken and Nod based upon the children s poem by 145

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Eugene Field which was commissioned in 1918 by the city of Denver for Washington Park to commemorate the 100111 anniversary of the poets birth. It was created from a nineteen ton block of Tennessee marble. A copy of this sculpture was made for a park in Wellsboro Pennsylvania. Her sculptures were primarily of children, and she often used her daughter Betty Jane as a model. One of her more popular works was a small sculpture titled Robin Song which depicted a figure of a child with an upturned face listening to a robin sing Nearly 10,000 copies of the figure were sold. The Torreys frequently collaborated on works, including a sculpture of Abraham Lincoln and his son Tad, commissioned for the statehouse in Des Moines Iowa. Mabel Landrum Torrey died in Massachusetts in 1976 Frances Hoar Trucksess (1898-1985) was born in Philadelphia. She graduated from the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Art in 1921. After her graduation, she remained in Philadelphia and continued to study drawing and painting with Huger Elliott, Edward Warwick, Felicie Howell and William Forsyth Trucksess worked in casein (a water-based paint like tempera) and watercolors painting landscapes, ghost towns mining towns, seascapes and florals stilllifes. She married in 1927 and moved to Colorado where she was an art instructor at the University of Colorado for a number of years. Trucksess exhibited widely across the country in the 1930's with a group of five art instructors from 146

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the university called "The Prospectors". Later she became the director of art for the public school system in Boulder. Frances Trucksess died in California in 1985. Treva Wheete (1890-1963) was born Mabel Treva Breese in Colorado Springs, Colorado on June 8 1890. Wheete was a printmaker working primarily in wood block prints. She married Glenn Wheete who was also a printmaker. They worked together on a number of projects including a gift print commissioned by the Kansas City Woodcut Society in the 1930' s which was reproduced in several national magazines. Wheete won a medal at the International Prairie Print Makers exhibit in 1934 and also exhibited at the Grand Central Art Galleries in New York in 1937. She and her husband had moved from Colorado Springs to Tulsa Oklahoma around 1917, where she remained until her death in December of 1963. Harriet Freeman Wright (1852-1926) was born October 2 1852 in Belvedere Illinois. She painted mainly Colorado landscapes including Mount of the Holy Cross Garden of the Gods and Pikes Peak. She was active as an artist in both Colorado Springs and Denver. She resided in Denver at the time of her death on July 19, 1926. 147

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CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION Women artists in the West, particularly those in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, have rarely been represented in the traditional historical narratives of Western art and life. The dominant representations of the West were masculine images and mythic land s capes created by male artists It was not until the latter half of the twentieth century that the contributions of Wes tern women artists have been included in the history books and recognized through exhibitions. These artists provide a somewhat different perspective of frontier life in the Rocky Mountain region one not nece s sarily consonant with the predominant rugged and wild interpret a tions. During their time only a very few of Colorado's early women artists received national recognition for their work most notably illustrator and writer Mary Hallock Foote and painter Helen Henderson Chain. However many other w omen were moderately successful in careers as painters illustrators photographers, and sculptors, yet did not receive recognition until later in their lives or after their deaths. 148

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In researching the lives of these women in Colorado, it became clear that in many cases little information exists especially on the earlier artists The best records are those of the writer/artists, like Rose Kingsley Mary Hallock Foote Eliza Greatorex and Muriel Sibell Wolle who documented their experiences in the West through writings and illustrations that still survive through their published works. And, while many may not have made a significant impact on the world of art they were important as pioneers in a field previously dominated by men The first women landscape artists in Colorado were not only breaking traditional roles by working in the format they faced more rugged challenges with the terrain than their counterparts in the East. Traversing the Rocky Mountains was a formidable undertaking, made even more difficult burdened with painting supplies and encumbered by the trappings of nineteenth century garments It is clear that after the turn of the century opportunities for women to study art were expanding through academies private schools and universities. The ability to learn the craft was more accessible. Yet the ability to succeed in the field as a professional was still largely restricted to traditionally "female" arenas such as flower painting decorative painting and portraiture. Finding recognition and acceptance as an artist was hampered by the power structure of the established art world dominated by men. Women artists struggled to get beyond the perception ofbeing amateurs, dabbling in the field, and were determined to be accepted as artists, rather than female artists." 149

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In the 1930s during the Depression women artists were given unprecedented opportunities through the various New Deal federal art projects. Many Colorado artists became known through the murals frescoes and sculptures commissioned by the government programs for public buildings. Unfortunately the progress made by women artists in the thirties did not translate to future success in the field during the following decades. The most significant contribution made by these Colorado women artists was the establishment of, and participation in organizations that would become the major cultural institutions in the state. Many of these women were educated in the East and studied in Europe bringing with the m t he artistic traditions used to establish new cultural and educational institutions in Colorado. The all-woman Le Brun Art Club led to the Denver Artists Club which would later become the Denver Art Museum. The Colorado Springs Art Club merged with the Colorado Springs Art Society to form the Broadmoor Art Academy, which became the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center. Many of the women artists included here w ere largely responsible for the early guilds clubs and societies which supported artists exhibitions and arts education throughout the state. It is likely these contributions will be most remembered and recognized. 150

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BIBLIOGRAPHY A Book of the Artists Club Denver, Denver Art Museum 1903 Abbott Carl, Leonard Stephen J and McComb David G. Colorado A Hi story of the Centennial State. University of Colorado Press Niwot CO 1994. Artists of Colorado 1860's to 1900. Compiled by Opal M Haber Western History Department Denver Public Library 1976 Benn Mary Lou. "Mary Hallock Foote: Early Leadville Writer" Colorado Maga z ine Vol. XXXIII, No. 2, April 1956 Bickford-Swatthout, Doris. Mary Hallock Foote : P i on e er Woman Illustrator Berryhill Press Deansboro NY 1996 Blair Edward. Leadville: Colorado s Mag i c City Fred Pruett Books, Boulder, Colorado, 1980 Borzello, Frances. A World of Our Own : Women a s Artists Since the R e naissance. Watsqn-Guptill Publications New York 2000 Bromwell Henrietta Scrapbook 1875-1876 Scrapbook ofthe Artists Club and art in Denver compiled by Bromwell Colorado Historical Society Hart Library, Denver, Colorado Bromwell Henrietta. Papers, 1868-1938. Notes used to support biographical indexing projects includes newspaper clippings obituaries correspondence, diary of trips Western History Department Denver Public Library, Denver Colorado Chadwick Whitney. Women, Art, and Society Thames and Hudson London 1990. 151

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Colorado Collects Historic Western Art: The Nostalgia of the Vanishing West. Catalogue of exhibition Denver Art Museum Denver, 1973 Colorado Landscape s and the New Age of Discovery. Catalog of an exhibition at the Loveland Museum/Gallery November 3, 2001January 6, 2002; includes an essay by Doug Erion; preface by Susan I son 2001 Colorado Springs Fine Arts C e nter: A History and S elec tion s from the Permanent Collections With foreword and introduction by Paul M. Piazza Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center 1986. Colorado Women Artists 1859-1950. Based upon an exhibition that ran January 19 to April 2, 1989, Arvada Center for the Arts and Humanities 1989 Colorado Women in the Arts. Introduction by Katharine Smith Chafee; catalog of the exhibition May 1979 D&K Printing Boulder, Colorado, 1979 Czestochowski JosephS The American Landscape Tradition : A Study and Gallery of Paintings E.P. Dutton, Inc. New York. 1982 Dallas Sa ndra with Simonds Nanette. The Quilt That Walked to Golden : Women and Quilts in the Mountain West. Breckling Press Elmhurst IL. 2004 Danneberg Julie. Women Artists of the West : Five Portrai ts in Creativity and Courage. Fulcrum Publishing Golden Colorado. 2002 Dawdy Doris Ostrander Artists of the American West: A Biographical Dictionary ; Artist s Born B efore 1900 Volume 3 Swallow Press, Ohio University Press Athens Ohio Chicago and London. 1974 The Denver Art Mus e um: The Fir st Hund re d Years. Essays by Neil Harris Marlene Chambers and Lewis Wingfield Story Denver Art Museum 1996 Denver Art Museum: Take Your Part in Denver's Art. Manuscript bound (10 leaves) history ofthe museum 1893-1939, including origin as Artists / Club of Denver, gift from Fred S. Bartlett 1983 Western History Department Denver Public Library Denver, Colorado Denver Fortnightl y Club. Meeting minutes, by-laws, reports, anniversary files, papers, papers presented, etc Western History Department Denver Public Library 152

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Dewhurst, C.Kurt, MacDowel, Betty and MacDowell, Marsha. Artists in Aprons: Folk Art by American Women. E.P Dutton in association with the Museum of American FolkArt, New York 1979 Dorsett, Lyle W. The Queen City: A History of Denver. Pruett Publishing Company, Boulder Colorado, 1977 Etulain, Richard W., Re-Imagining the Modern American West: A Century of Fi ction, History and Art. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson 1996 Exhibit of paintings by the Artists' Club of Denver Colorado at the Book & Art Store of Paul Raymond. Handwritten announcement of exhibit, 1900 Fahlman, Betsy "Louise Emerson Ronnebeck: A New Deal Artist of the American West" Woman's Art Journal Vol. 22 No.2, (Autumn, 2001Winter, 2002) Pp 12-18 Faris James C Navajo and Photography: A Critical History of the Representation of an American People. University of New Mexico Press Albuquerque, 1996 First Annual Exhibition of the National Mining and Industrial Exposition at Denver August I -September 30, 1882 Pro gramme, Tribune Publishing Company Inc. 1882 Gerdts William H. Art Across America: Two Centuries of R egional Painting 1710-1920 ; Volume Three: The Far Midw es t Rocky Mountain West Southwest, Pa c ific. Abbeville Press Publishers, New York, 1990 Gilpin Laura The Enduring Navajo University ofTexs Press Austin & London 1968 Gilpin, Laura. The Pikes Peak R egion The Gilpin Publishing Company Colorado Springs 1926 Gilpin Laura The Pueblos: A Camera Chronicle. Hastings House, New York, 1941 Goetzmann, William H and William N. The West of the Imagination W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. New York 1986 153

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Greatorex, Eliza. Summer Etchings in Colorado. With introduction by Grace Greenwood, G.P.Putnam's Sons New York 1873 Greer Germaine. The Obstacl e Race: The Fortune s of Women Painters and Their Work. Farrar Straus Giroux New York, 1979 Hafen LeRoy R. and Baker James H. (editor), History of Colorado: Prepared under the Supervision of The Stat e Historical and Natural Histo ry Society of Colorado, Volume III. Linderman Co Inc, Denver, 1927 Heller Nancy G. "The Art Students League : 100 Years" American Artist. Vol. 39 Issue 398 September 1975 pp 56-59, 78-81 Hill, Alice Stewart Scrapbook 1877-1907, Scrapbook of prints postcards, travel memorabilia personal photos and original sketches Western History Department, Denver Public Library Denver Colorado Hillstrom Laurie Collier and Hillstrom Kevin (editors) Contemporary Women Artists. St. James Press Detroit, San Francisco, London, Boston Woodbridge 1999 Jackson Helen H unt Helen Hunt Jackson s Colorado. Hulbert Center for Southwestern Studies, The Colorado College Colorado Springs 1989 James, Edward T. (editor); Notable American Women, 1607-1950 Volume I. Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, Cambridge, 1971 John F. Carlson and Artists of the Broadmoor Academy. Exhibit catalog. Text by Stanley Cuba. Dave Cook Fine Art, Denver Colorado, 1999 Johnson, Lee Ann. Mary Hallock Foote. Edited by David L. Nordlah Indiana University Twayne Publishers, A division ofG.K. Hall & Co., Boston, 1980 Kingsley Rose. South by West: Or Winter in the Rocky Mountain s and Spring in Mexico. With a preface by the Rev. Charles Kingsley W. Isbister & Co., London, 1874 Kovinick Phil, The Woman Artist in the American West 1860-1960. Muckenthaler Cultural Center, Fullerton California 1976; c atalog produced in connection with the exhibition of the same name that ran April2-May 31, 1976 at the Muckenthaler Cultural Center 154

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Kovinik Phil and Yoshiki-Kovinick, Marian An Enc yclo pedia of Women Artists of the American West. Fotward by William H. Goetzmann, University of Texas Press Austin 1998 Loe, Nancy E. Life in the Altitudes: An Illustrated History of Colorado Springs. Windsor Publications Inc. Woodland Hills California., 1983 Leonard, Stephen J and Noel, Thomas J Denver : Mining Camp to Metropolis. University ofColorado Press Niwot, CO 1990 Marturano, Mary Lou. Artists and Art Organi z ation s in Colorado. thesis (M.A.), University of Denver 1962 Maguire James H. Mary Hallo c k Foote. Boise State College Western Writers Series Number 2, Boise State College, Boise Idaho 1972 Mainiero, Lina editor. American Women Writers. Volume 2, Frederick Ungar Publishing Company New York 1979 Marling, Karal Ann. Wall to Wall America : Post Office Murals in th e Great Dep ression. University ofMinnesota Press Minneapolis and London, 1982 Matthews, Maria Henri e tta Bromwell1859-1946: Pieci n g Her Life Together. Part B of a Master of Humanities thesis for the University of Colorado at Denver, Colorado Historical Society Hartt Library Denver Colorado 1979 McClurg Gilbert. Brush and Pencil in Earl y Colorado Springs Colorado Springs (typewritten copy of articles which appeared serially in six successive issues ofthe Colorado Springs Gazette and Telegraph), 1924 Melosh, Barbara Engendering Culture: Manhood and Womanhood in New Deal Publi c Art and Theatre. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington & London, 1991 Miller Darlis A. Mary Hallo c k Foote : Author-Illustrator of the American West. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma 2002 Norwood, Vera and Monk, Janice (editors). The D ese rt Is No Lady : Southwestern Landscapes in Women's Writing and Art. Yale University Press New Haven, 1987 155

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Novak, Barbara. Nature and Culture: American Landscape and Painting 18251875. Oxford University Press, New York Oxford 1995 Ormes Manly Dayton and Ormes Eleanor R. The Book of Colorado Springs. The Denton Printing Co., Colorado Springs, 1933 Paul, Rodman W. (editor), A Victorian Gentlewoman in the Far West: The Reminiscences of Mary Hallock Foote. Huntington Library San Marino, California, 1972 Pettys, Chris. Dictionary of Women Artists: An International Dictionary ofWomen Artists Born Before 1900. G .K. Hall & Co., Boston 1985 Pettys Chris. "Colorado's First Women Artists ", Empir e Magazine, The Denver Post May 6 1979 Pikes P ea k Vision: The Broadmoor Art Academy 1919-1945 Exhibit catalog. Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center Colorado Springs 1989 Reed Walt and Roger. The Illustrator in America: 1880-1980 A Century of Illus tr ation. Madison Square Press New York 1984 Ressler Susan R. (editor). Women Artists of the Ame rican West McFarland & Co., Jefferson NC, 2003 Rubenstein Charlotte Streifer, American Women Artists from Earl y Indian Times to the Present. G .K. Hall & Co., Boston, 1982 Samuels Peggy and Harold. The Illustrated Biographic al Encyclopedia of Artists of the American West Doubleday & Co. Garden City, NY, 1976 Sandweiss, Martha A. Laura Gilpin An Enduring Grace Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, TX, 1986 Schlosser Elizabeth Modern Art in Denver (1919-1960): Eleven Denver Artists. Ocean View Books, Denver 1993 Schlosser Elizabeth. Modern Sculpture in Denver (1919-1960). Ocean View Books, Denver 1995 156

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Shalkop Robert L. A Show of Color: 100 Years of Painting in the Pikes Peak R e gion 18 7 1-19 71. Catalog of exhibition at the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center Colorado Springs, 1971 Spalding Elisabeth. S c rapbook/Papers 1897-1944. Microfilm of Artists Club of Denver/Denver Art Association scrapbook from archives in the Western History Department Denver Public Library Spalding Elisabeth "Something of Art in Denver as I Think of it ", typescript for the Denver Fortnightly Club December 1924 Western History Department Denver Public Library Spense, Clarke C. Mining Engineers and the American West : The Lac e -Boot Brigade 1849-1933 Yale University Press Yale Western American Series 22, New Haven & London 1970 Skalkop Robert L. A Show of Color : 100 Years of Painting in the Pike's Peak Region: An E x hibition in Honor of the Centennial of Colorado Springs, 187119 7 1 Colorado Springs Fine Art Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 1971 Swinth Kirsten. Painting P r ofes s ional s : Women Artists & the Development of Modern American Art 18 7 0-1930 University of North Carolina Press Chapel Hill N C 2001 Taft Robert A r t i sts and Illustra t ors of the Old West 1850-1900. Charles Scribner s Sons New York London 1953 Time and Place : One Hundred Years of Women Artist s in Colorado, 1900-2000 Exhibition catalog with Introduction by Katharine Smith-Warren Center for the Visual Arts Denver, Colorado 2000 Trenton Patricia (editor). Independent Spirits : Ame rican Painters of the American W es t 1890 1945 Autry Museum of Western Heritage in association with the University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles and London 1995 Tufts Eleanor American Women Artists 1830-1930 International Exhibitions Foundation for the National Museum ofWomen in the Arts 1987 Van Trump James D. A Procession of Flowers in Colorado: A Note on a Picture Album Memorial to Helen Hunt Jackson". Huntia Vol. 1, April15, 1964 157

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Western America : Lands c ap e s and Indians: An E x hibition. Exhibit catalog The State Historical Society of Missouri Columbia Missouri. 1994 Wolle Muriel Sibell. Stamp e d e to Timb e rline: The Gho st T ow ns and Mining Camp s ofColorado. Swallow Press Ohio Uni v ersity Press Athens 1949 158

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EARLY COLORADO WOMEN ARTISTS B y Holly Carol Allen B S ., Uni ve rsity of Colorado at D enver, 1981 A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado at Denver & Health Sciences Center in partial fulfiilmcnt of the re quirements for the de gree of Master of Arts in History 2007

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2007 by Holly Carol Allen All rights reserved

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This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Holly Carol Allen has been approved by Afv;l 111 ;).007 Date

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Allen Holly Carol (M.A., History) Early Colorado Women Artists Thesis directed by Associate Professor Thomas J Noel ABSTRACT The lives and work of women artists have, for the most part, been neglected in the historical narratives of the development of the Western frontier. Yet women artists made a significant contribution to the development of cultural institutions, art education, and the promotion of women as painters, illustrators, photographers and sculptors, especially in Colorado. Many of the women artists who settled in the West studied art in the East and in Europe, bringing with them an artistic tradition which educated and edified as well as provided a permanent record of the new frontier communities. This thesis looks at the women s contribution to the development of the artistic culture in Colorado and the profession of women as artists, through the biographical and cultural perspective ofthe individual artists practicing in the state from 1860 through the early part of the 20th century. This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I recommend its publication.

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DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis to my mom and dad. I think they would ha v e been proud to see me finish this I wish they were here v

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My thanks to John Hull and my sister Nancy who encouraged me to continue when I was ready to give up. I also wish to thank my supervisor and friend, Kathryn Maes for allowing me the time I needed to work on the research Thanks also to my advisor Thomas Noel for his support and Professors James Fell and James Whiteside for their advice. VI

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CONTENTS List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . .tx CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 2. WOMEN ARTISTS IN THE 19TH CENTURY. 4 3. EARLY COLORADO ARTISTS. Mary Elisabeth Achey . . . Esther Yates Frazier. . . . 4. DENVER'S ART COMMUNITY . . . . 14 . . . . 16 18 19 Denver Arts Education Organizations and Clubs . 20 Helen Henderson Chain . . . . . . . 28 Henrietta Bromwell . . . . . . . . . 34 Elisabeth Spalding . . . . . . . . . 38 Emma Richardson Cherry . . . . . . . 42 Anne Evans . . . . . . . . . . . 44 5. THE COLORADO SPRINGS ART COLONY ..... 47 Rose Kingsley . . . . . . . . . . 51 Eliza Greatorex . Anne Lodge Parrish. Alice Stewart Hill. Vll 55 56 ...... 58

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Katherine Smalley ........ ... .... ... 60 Anne Van Briggle Ritter . . . . . . . 60 6. LEADVILLE . . . . . . 62 Mary Hallock Foote. . . . 63 7. WOMEN ARTISTS IN THE 20TH CENTURY ...... 75 Federal Art Projects ..... ............ 79 Elsie Ward Hering . . . . . . . . . 83 Laura Gilpin. . . . . . . . . . . 85 II a McAfee. . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Muriel Sibell Wolle ................ 98 Eve Drewelowe. . . . . . . . . . .1 04 Louise Emerson Ronne beck . . . . . . 108 Gladys Caldwell Fisher Nadine Kent Drummond Ethel and Jenne Magafan. 8. LESSER KNOWN AND 114 118 121 VISITING ARTISTS IN COLORADO . . . .126 9. CONCLUSION 148 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . 151 VIII

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 4.1 Mount ofthe Holy Cross Helen Henderson Chain ....... 33 4.2 Mill, Henrietta Bromwell . . . . . . . . . . 36 4.3 Pikes Peak from the Garden of the Gods, Elizabeth Spalding .. 40 5.1 The Gate ofthe Garden ofthe Gods Rose Kingsley ....... 53 5 2 Helen Hunt Jackson, Anne Parrish . . . . . . . 57 6.1 Underground, Mary Hallock Foote . . . . . . .. 69 7.1 Mesa Verde, Laura Gilpin . . . . . . . . . . 90 7.2 The Streets of Blackhawke Muriel Sibell Wolle . ... 100 7.3 Swinging Saplings, Eve Drewelowe. . . . .. 105 7.4 The People vs Mary Elizabeth Smith, Louise Ronne beck . .112 7.5 Rocky Mountain Sheep, Gladys Caldwell Fisher ...... .. 116 7 6 Colorado State Fair Nadine Drummond ........ .... 120 7 7 Lawrence Massacre, Ethel Magafan .............. 122 7.8 House in Leadville Jenne Magafan ....... . ..... 125 8.1 Untitled (Rocky Mountain Landscape) ...... . ...... 136 IX

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CHAPTER l INTRODUCTIONWOMEN ARTISTS IN THE WEST Until the end of the twentieth century, the art created by women in the West had been for the most part overlooked and disregarded. This may be due, as historians Phil Kovinik and Marian Yoshiki-Kovinik assert, "primarily to a longheld view that only male artists can effectively capture the true vi tality and virility of the West in their work."1 The American West itself was associated with masculine images and ideals so it is no surprise that Western art has had a long tradition of male artists depicting the rough and untamed life in the new frontier. Artists like Frederick Remington and Charles Russell portrayed a land of robust cowboys, proud natives galloping horses, and stampeding herds of buffalo while Thomas Moran and Albert Bierstadt painted huge epic romanticized landscapes of towering majestic mountains As the historiography of the West developed in the late twentieth century to incorporate more comprehensive information that included the experiences of women and minorities historians began to utilize the diaries, letters and novels 1 Kovinik Phil and Yoshiki-Kovinik, Marian. A n En cy clop e dia of Women Artist s of the Ameri c an W e st. University of Texas Press Austin 1998. Pg xvii

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written by women to broaden the understanding of the western experience. Yet, the images produced by Western women artists were still largely ignored. In some cases it is difficult to track the work of women artists as it was common practice for women to alter their first names or use only initials in order to conceal their gender and compete more effectively with male artists in the marketplace. Despite certain gender limitations and prejudices the West provided more opportunities for women as it was less encumbered by many of the traditional social hierarchies and cultural restrictions. "Western women thus had more freedom than their Eastern counterparts in almost every sphere of creative endeavor and they pushed the boundaries of femininity sooner and farther."2 For example while American women across the country did not get the right to vote until 1920 four Western states allowed women to vote prior to 1900 Wyoming in 1869 Utah in 1870 Colorado in 1893 and Idaho in 1896. Colorado s first state constitution allowed women to vote in school elections in 1876 which were considered within the traditional sphere ofwomen's concerns and influences They received full franchise in Colorado state elections in 1893. The largest body of works by Western women artists in the late 191 h century were produced in Colorado and Utah, the most heavily populated of the western states. In Denver and Colorado Springs, art schools galleries exhibitions and public competitions were an important part of the cultural life of the cities by 2 Trenton Patricia (editor) independe nt Spirits : Wom e n Paint e r s of the A m e ri c an W es t 1 8901945. U niversity of California Press Berkeley Los Angele s and London. Pg x 2

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the turn of the century in many cases due to the efforts of practicing women artists in those communities These women artists in Colorado will be discussed, in the context of their roles as artists and cultural architects and their environment in the frontier West. Their numbers were relatively small and their inclusion in historical narratives are nearly nonexistent, but the impact they made on the cultural life of Colorado was significant. 3

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CHAPTER2 WOMEN ARTISTS lN THE 19TH CENTURY In early nineteenth century America in the fashion of English training, upper and middle class women and young girls were taught the ladylike skills of fine penmanship drawing, watercolor painting and intricate needlework Needlework and painting were considered appropriate handicrafts for women, and most were self-taught amateurs. However, in the more educated families, women were able to study art by taking private lessons from professional artists or attending private drawing academies. These drawing schools were formed after the American Revolution as professional European artists relocated to America. As a matter of practicality most women were trained in the fundamental skills of sewing, as a function of being a successful housekeeper in order to make clothing, quilts, bed rugs, samplers and decorative embroidery. The more creative ofthese endeavors are generally considered in the category of folk art. Girls were taught quilting skills at a very young age and traditionally were expected to complete a dozen-and-one quilts by the time of their marriage The fmest ofthese was designated the "brida l quilt." Quilting thus was a significant part of women's 4

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lives in nineteenth century Am e rica and "for many the bright colors and imaginative patterns were the principle outlet o f cre a tive expression in a life of unrelenting toil." 3 Quiltmaking encouraged individual creati v ity and design using basic concepts of color line texture and shape The quilt artist exploited the design possibilities through her color relationships value contrasts and inventive variation of the original pattern In the hands of an imaginative quiltmaker many quilts based upon con v entional designs achieved true artistic stature. "4 There are two bas ic types of quilts: the pieced quilt consisting of geometrical shapes that can vary from basic forms to el a borate abstracts and the appliqued quilt which is made by sewing flowers and other realistic forms onto the quilt top. While American and European painting at this time was purely representational women quiltmakers were pioneers in abstract design. "5 Quilt patterns and styles varied greatly by geographic ethnic and economic divisions Genteel Eastern women produced among others elaborate crazy quilts made of expensive satins silks and velvets detailed with intricate embroidery to decorate their sitting rooms. The term crazy quilt" referred to the random shapes of various types of fabrics sewn together and fancifully embroidered at the seams Slave women made story quilts 3 Rubenstein Charlotte S. A m e ri c an Wome n A rti s t s from Ear ly Indian Times to the Present. G.K. Hall & Co., Boston 1982 Pg 30. 4 Dewhurst C. Kurt MacDowell Betty and Ma c Dowell Marsha. A rti s t s in A pr o n s : F olk A rt b y Ameri c an Wom en. E .P. Dutton New York 1979. Pg 4 8 5 Ibid Pg xvii 5

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using local legends biblical tales and accounts of astronomical occurrences passed down from oral tradition. Abolitionists made underground railroad" quilts that signified the route for slaves escaping to the north and suffragists sewed quilts embracing themes ofthe women's rights movement. In the West quilts made by settlers on the westward journey sometimes reflected patterns and colors that were influenced by Native American weaving and basketry. Another form of folk art traditionally created by women was the memorial or mourning picture. Embroidered or painted these pictures were created as a memorial for a departed hero or loved one, and often given as a gift to the family of the deceased. They first appeared as embroidered pictures in eighteenth century America, and became particularly popular after the death of George Washington one of the first heroes of the young nation in 1799. Later as women began painting them, the brushstrokes were often applied to emulate needlework stitches, thus retaining to some extent the original embroidered style of the work. Mourning pictures were comprised of standard motifs that included classical urns mounted on tombstones weeping willow trees sobbing figures and a village or church in the background. "The mourning picture, with its somewhat overdrawn sentimentality, became a favorite subject for the romantic schoolgirl artist who was frequently reminded of her own mortality. This preoccupation with death 6

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encouraged the creation of countless mourning pieces commemorating heroic figures or lamenting deceased relatives ."6 As educational reform created more opportunities for women a division developed between women who saw themselves as amateurs and those beginning to consider art as a profession The number of women entering the field of art expanded rapidly after the Civil War. Prior to the 1860s a number of schools of design offered instruction to women in the industrial and decorative arts, which were closely related to traditional domestic skills and considered much more suitable for women with artistic talent. One of the most reputable of these the Cooper Union Free Art School for Women began in New York City in the 1850s. By the early 1860s traditional art academies previ o usly the domain of men, had begun admitting women interested in academic training in drawing and painting. The American academies, modeled after European institutions, evolved from informal programs to more structured professionalized curricula. And, the enrollment of women into these programs and eventually into the field, increased dramatically. By the 1880s, the women enrolled in arts schools outnumbered the men. The 1870 U.S. census listed 414 women in the professions of artists, sculptors and art teachers. By 1890 the number had risen to nearly 11,000.7 These 6 Dewhurst C. Kurt MacDowell Betty and MacDowell Marsha. Art ists in Aprons: Folk Art by American Women. E P Dutton New York 1979 Pg 66-67. 7 Swinth, Kirsten Painting Professionals : Women Artists & th e Development of Modern Ameri c an Art, 1870-1930. University ofNorth Carolina Press Chapel Hill NC, 2001. Pg 3 7

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figures parallel the expansion of opportunities for women to enter universities and other professions previously reserved for men. The latter half of the nineteenth century is still considered a breakthrough period for women artists, having won the right to study alongside men, thus legitimizing their place in the world of art. However in many academies, the life drawing classes which included nude models, were still segregated by gender if available at all to women. It was considered a breach of decorum for a woman to view the nude human body. Excluding women from life-drawing courses in the fine arts academies was done in order to protect their purity. Art historian Germaine Greer comments that while prohibition from life drawing classes negatively impacted the artistic development of the woman artist, "much more significant. .. was the way in which women were expected to both see and to render the nude. It had been said that women were not sensual enough to be great artists: the fact was that female sensuality was repugnant to accepted taste and inaccessible to most female artists."8 While women were being accepted into the traditional art schools and academies, their entrance into many of the professional arts organizations was limited. In 1877 Helena de Kay Gilder long time friend of Leadville artist Mary Hallock Foote, founded the Society of American Artists. Ironically, that organization, founded by a woman only reluctantly admitted women members in 8 Greer, Germaine The Obstacl e Rac e Farrar Straus Giroux New York 1979 Pg 320 8

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small numbers. By 1889 only 4 of 108 members were women.9 Kirsten Swinth, in Painting Professionals: Women Artists & th e D evelo pment of Modern Amer ican Art 1870-1930, suggests that the opposition to allowing women into the professional art academies and organizations seems to have been reluctance to allow women to pass judgment on the work of male artists, in both the informal settings of club meetings and the formal arenas of exhibition jurie s 10 This is not an unreasonable assumption considering that at this time women were also not allowed to serve on courtroom jurie s due to similar concerns In order to sell artwork it was important to exhibit one 's work to the public. Toward this end, women often banded together to create support for their exhibitions. In 1876 one group initiated a Woman's Pavilion at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition which included women's artwork "as part of a general survey of modem-day female accomplishments ."11 The Woman s Pavilion had over 40 000 square feet of exhibition space and included work of nearly 1500 women from at least 13 countries This type of exposition designed specifically to exhibit the creative work of women became a standard feature at future fairs. But it was not accomplished without a certain amount of controversy. For some, the separation of women s artwork from the main competitive art exhibit in the 9 Swinth, Kirsten. Painting P rofessio nal s: Women Artists & the Development of Modern American Art, 1870-19 30 University ofNorth Carolina Press Chapel NC, 2001. Pg 67-68 10 Ibid. Pg 6 8 11 Tufts, Eleanor. American Women Arti sts, 1830-1930. Intern a tional Exhibitions Foundation for the National Museum of Women in the Arts 1987. Pg 26. 9

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Memorial Hall symbolized the second-class statu s of the women artists "The presence of a separate exhibition facility for women at the Exposition signaled an institutionalizing of women s productions in isolation from those ofmen."12 Additionally while Memorial Hall was used exclusively to exhibit works of fine arts which had been selected by competition the Woman' s Pavilion consolidated amateur and professional artists as well a s industrial arts and handicrafts. Because of this some feminist women artists refused to participate. "Ironically, the building became both the most powerful and conspicuous symbol of the women' s movement for equal rights and the most visible indication of woman' s separate status ."1 3 Art historian Frances Borzello clearly captured the disparity inherent in the separation of wom e n s creative efforts from those of men: "However seriously women took themselves as artists they were never seen by others as a rtists plain and simple they were seen as women artists bearers of society s views on a woman' s place, potential, nature and role ."1 4 The Women s Building at the World s Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago was considered at the time one ofthe greatest exhibition of women' s artwork. The building itself was designed by women, and the exhibits presented sculptures, paintings drawings and prints created by women from all parts of the country Again as in Philadelphia some professional women artists preferred to 12 Chadwick Whitney. Wom e n A rt and S oc i ety Thame s and Hudson, London 1990. Pg 228 13 Ibid. P g 228 1 4 Borzello Frances A World of Our Own : Wome n a s Artis t s since th e R e naissance. Watson Guptill Publication s ew York 2000. Pg 7 10

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compete for exhibition space along with men in the Fine Arts building rather than placing their art in the women' s building that displayed everyth i ng from household good s to embroidery. Despite those concerns the 1 8 93 World s Columbian Exposition was an important stepping stone for a number of women artists. Women s creative presence was more powerfully felt in Chicago in 1 8 9 3 than at any other time in the country s history. "1 5 The most famous training school for art in the United States in the late nineteenth century was the Art Student s League in New York A numbe r of the women artists later active in Colorado studied there prior to making the journey west. The league was founded in the summer of 1875 by a group of dissident studen t s from the National Academy o f Design unhappy with the rigid and conservative nature of the Academy' s curriculum. The classes were conducted by some of the most prominent artists of the time including Thomas Eakins George Inness Augustus Saint-Gaudens, William Merritt Chase and Kenyon Cox.1 6 The League allowed women to take life drawing classes with nude models though the men s and women' s classes were held separatel y until into the mid 1920s By the l ate 1870s American artists considered study in Paris to be the completion of an artist s training to immerse themselves in the rigorou s instruction and the European tradition of figure studies Paris was the center of 15 C h a dwick Wh i tne y. Wom en A rt and S oc i ety T ham es and Hud s on London 1990. P g 24 9 1 6 H e ller Nanc y G. "The A rt S tude nt s L e a gue: 10 0 Y ears", A m e ri c an Artis t S e pt embe r 1 9 7 5 Vol 3 9 I s sue 398. Pg 59 11

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European art instruction and thousands of American art students traveled across the ocean after the Civil War to study there with nearly of third of them being women. In 1888 alone over a thousand American artists and art students attended Parisian academies. 1 7 This emphasis on European training and the study of the human figure impacted the nature of the artwork created by women. Previously the emphasis for women artists was primarily still life and flowers. With entry to the academies and figure drawing classes their work evolved into more v aried genres including figures, landscapes and portraiture. Although more women were developing reputations as landscape artists the field was still primarily dominated by male artists. Data from catalogs for annual exhibitions of the National Academy of Design the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and the Boston Art Club indicate that "women s entry of still-life and flower paintings dropped substantially between 1880 and 1900 from around one-fourth to fewer than 10 percent of all paintings exhibited by women At the same time, they entered figure paintings in increasing numbers. By 1900 women exhibited figure paintings in close to the same proportions as men "1 8 The other area where women enjoyed significant success was portraiture painting. It had become popular for middle and upper-class Americans to 1 7 Swinth, Kirsten Paintin g Professional s : Wome n Artists & the D e velopment of Mode m A m e ri c an A rt 1870-1930 Uni v ersity ofNortb Carolina Press Ch apel Hill NC 2001. Pg 3 7 1 8 Ibid Pg 73 12

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commission paintings of themselves and their families which created another income avenue for artists. Although portrait painting had been present in this country since the early seventeenth century the practice prospered from the early 1800s until the end of the Civil War allowing some women to make a living as traveling portrait painters. 13

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CHAPTER3 EARLY COLORADO ARTISTS The first women artists in Colorado were the Native Americans who produced fine art in basketry, potter, quillwork, weaving and painting on leather. Their work was generally employed in their handmade domestic articles, using geometric and abstract designs as well as animals flowers and figures The designs were commonly symbolic and the objects frequently used for religious rituals. These domestic artistic skills were handed down by generation through maternal lineage. The blankets made entirely by Navajo women are today considered masterpieces of abstract design. However one early book on Colorado history clearly delineates Native American art as separate from that of professional Caucasian artists. In History of Colorado, Volume Ill, author LeRoy Hafen states: "Writers upon the history of art in Colorado have beenfond of mentioning the handicraft of the American Indian as the first step in its development citing the pictographs on canyon walls and decoration of skins as the initial impulse. This interpretation seems to the writer to be erroneous and unjust to the Caucasian artist and to the Indian. In the first place the two periods represented, the methods involved and the trend of creative thought were wholly dissimilar and it is an absurdity to link the arts together, historically or in any other way The art of the Indian is essentially 14

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an industrial art, or craft, based upon religious ceremonials, and purely decorative in character. In this latter aspect only may the two touch. The Indian has nothing to learn from the Caucasian that will not alter or destroy his race expression; the white may, by an intelligent application of Indian principles in design and color harmony, especially in the crafts, develop a new art in the West that will acquire the finest traditional value. But this inspiration lies in the Indian crafts, blanket weaving, pottery and basketry. Considered from the decorative standpoint the Indian was a master craftsman, and handled color with the instinctive genius of the barbarian, an instinct which sophistication tends to dull. "19 The earliest art in Colorado by pioneer artists was primarily executed by visitors and artists traveling in expeditions, recording their impressions of the new land for the education of those in the East. The first Eastern artist on Colorado soil appears to have been Philadelphia engraver Samuel Seymour who accompanied the Major Stephen Long expedition, sent by Secretary of War, John C. Calhoun, across the Western frontier in 1820. Early expeditions frequently included an artist in order to document the terrain and landscapes. In 1863 and 1864 famous landscape artist Albert Bierstad traveled and painted in Colorado. His painting entitled Storm in the Rocky Mountains garnered a great deal of attention when it was exhibited in New York in 1885, selling for an unheard of price of $20,000. 1 9 Hafen, LeRoy R. History of Colorado, Volume Ill. Linderman Co. Inc., Denver. 1927 Pg 1264 15

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Mary Elisabeth Ache y (I 832-1886) One of the earliest known professional women artists in Colorado was Mary Elisabeth Achey. Achey a self-taught artist painted and sketched more widely throughout the West in the period between 1860 and 1885 than did any other female artist-with the possible exception of Mary Hallock Foote. "20 She was born in either Scotland or Germany in 1832, the granddau g hter of a Dutch painter. She grew up in Ohio where she met and married Philip Ache y The couple along with their daughter, Ida carne west in 1 8 5 7 By 1860 they had settled in Nevadaville Colorado where sh e executed one of her first known works titled Ne vada v ill e a 13. 5 x 20 oil painting of the mountain mining town. Between 1862 and 1865 her husband, Philip served in the Second Col o rado Cavalry Volunteers and traveled between Kansas Colorado and Missouri. Achey would on occasion accompany her husband and in 1862 she produced a number of drawings capturing the army fort scenes in Kansas and Colorado. Later that decade she resided in Central City where she continued to paint Colorado landscapes. Her sketches of Clear Creek were noted in the Denver newspapers in 1868-1869 The Rocky Mountain News described one of her works as One of the handsomest oil paintings ever seen in Colorado."2 1 2 Kovinik Phil. The W o man A rti s t is the A m e r ic an West 1 860-19 60. Muckenth a l e r Curlur a l C enter Full e rton C A 1976. Pg 4 21 Roc ky Mountain N ews, Vol. XI 11/ 1 7 / 1 86 9 p .l., c 7 16

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in 1867, Mary Achey's daughter Ida, died following a bout of diphtheria Mary blamed her husband for falling asleep during a night watch over the sick child and left her husband settling with her two sons in Central City where she opened an art studio in 1868, she held an "Oil Painting Carnival" in the local bookstore where she raffled off thirty paintings for $2 50 a ticket, including one titled Pikes Peak with Buffalo Chase. Also included in the auction were six portraits to be painted, with the drawing winners expected to "furnish a likeness of the person they wished painted ."22 Mary Elisabeth Achey remained in Colorado until the mid-1870s when she relocated with her two sons to California as a portrait painter. In 1880 she settled down on a homestead outside of Aberdeen Washington For the next several years she traveled back and forth between Aberdeen and Astoria Oregon where she was able to sell more of her work. In 1885 she married Emerson Woodruff. Throughout her life she supported herself and her sons through her artwork completing over 500 paintings, illustrating scenes of Civil War army camps, indian encampments, landscapes and early settlements, as well as portraits. Mary Elisabeth Achey died of a heart attack in 1886. 22 Central City R egister, November 1868 17

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Esther Yates Frazier (1830-1903) The only other documented woman artist in Colorado during the 1860s was Esther Yates Frazier. Frazier was born October 1 1830 in Douglas Massachusetts. While several of her paintings exist at the Colorado Historical Society very little biographical material is a v ailable. She married Jacob Woodrow and they resided in Iowa during the 1850s In 1860 she and her husband traveled across the plains to Denver by ox team where she remained the rest of her life. Frazier was a self-taught artist who also wrote articles for the Rocky Mountain N ews and completed two books in her later y ears. She wa s remarried to George A Bridge in 1866 then later to Charles Frazier in the mid 1880s. In all she had nine children Her one known residence in Denver was a cabin near the intersection of Blake and 22n d str e ets. The Colorado Historical Society has three of Esther Frazier's paintings in their collection One dated 1861, is entitled Arapah oe -Ch eye nn e En c ampm e nt depicting an encampment near what is now Union Station in Denver. The other two are untitled landscapes around the Evergreen area. 18

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CHAPTER4 DENVER S ART COMMUNITY The two main centers for art in Colorado during the late nineteenth century were Denver and Colorado Springs both fast growing communities due to the influx of fortune seekers from the east in search of gold and silver Denver began as settlements at the junction of Cherry Creek and the South Platte River in 1858 the west side encampment called Auraria and the east side called Denver City. The two settlements were soon unified as one city In the beginning Denver was a rough frontier town where men outnumbered women by mor e than six to one and the central businesses consisted of saloons and houses of ill repute. Violent crime was uncontrolled and robberies often occurred in broad daylight. By 1870 the census reports listed 4,579 citizens in Denver just less than half of them women. While saloons still outnumbered churches eight to one, Denver began to draw a more educated population due to its' clean dry air which attracted individuals suffering from tuberculosis, asthma and other lung and 19

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pulmonary disorders. 23 Many of these new Eastern transplants were established artists and patrons of the arts who became the driving forces behind the creation ofDenver's cultural arts organizations and institutions. By the 1880s Denver was becoming a cultured, modem city of tall office buildings exclusive neighborhoods, and ornate churches and cathedrals a testament to the new wealth in the city. However other parts of Denver remained relatively dirty and unsightly due to the soot from smelters, litter in the streets and raw sewage which was drained into the South Platt e until the sewage system was finished in the mid-1880s. By 1890 Denver s population had shifted to a ratio of four men to three women and Colorado's married women outnumbered unwed females b y more than ten to one "24 As the city grew (from a population of 4,759 in 1870 to almost 1 34,000 in 1900) so did the arts directed and influenced by the men and women artists who had settled there from the East. Art historian Erika Doss maintains that "as a result of the cultural support structure developed by women Denver remained a magnet for Western artists in the twentieth century. 25 23 Dorsett Lyle W The Queen City: A Hi story of D e nv er. Pruett Publishing Co., Boulder CO. 1977 Pg 50 24 Leonard Stephen J. and Noel, Thoma s J D e nv er : Mining Town t o Metropolis. University of C olorado Pres s, Niwot CO 1990 Pg 91 25 Doss Erika. "/Must Paint", Indep ende nt Spirit s: Women Paint ers of the Ameri can West 1 890 1945. University of California Pre ss, Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London 1995. P g 216 20

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Denver Arts Education Organizations and Clubs In the latter quarter of the 1800s a number of art academies, clubs and organizations were formed in Denver. Some ofthem were to have lasting effects on the cultural future of the city, others were short-lived and hampered by internal bickering. Artists had lived in the city since the 1860s, and "by 1884 over fifty artists were listed as Denver residents."26 The first art organization in Denver was the Academy ofFine Arts Association of Colorado, founded in 1876 by John H. Mills. In August of 1882 The Denver Tribune reported that the Academy of Fine Arts had secured the use of the entire 5th floor of the Tabor Grand Opera House Building in order to hold classes and exhibitions and to provide artist studios It began a tradition of Saturday afternoon receptions for artists which lasted for several years. However due to lack of continuing support, the association folded before 1885. The Denver School of Fine Arts operated at the University of Denver, was founded in 1880 and began to offer courses in painting and drawing by Ida De Steignuer. Ex-Governor John Evans was the president of the University Board of Trustees and his daughter, Anne Evans was a powerful proponent of the arts. Denver artist Elisabeth Spalding writes, "The generosity of Governor and Mrs Evans equipped that art school for the University. They and Mrs Bancroft were true patrons of art always encouraging artists by purchase and with real interest in 26 Doss Erika I Must Pa i nt", Ind epe ndent Spiri ts: Women Paint e rs of the American West, /8901945 University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles, and London 1995. Pg 213 21

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their work." 27 In 1892, the school expanded under the leadership of Preston Powers a sculptor and son of the well known Neoclassic artist Hiram Powers The Denver School of Fine Arts was granted exclusive use of the old University building at 1330 Arapahoe Street where the "first organized effort to teach art was instituted "28 In 1880, the Denver Sketch Club was founded, and within a year had changed its' name to the Colorado Art Association. Beginning in 1882 then each year following the Annual National Mining Industrial Exhibition included in addition to the traditional exhibits o n agriculture, mining, machinery, tools textiles and household goods an art exhibition which was set up by a committee headed by Horace W. Tabor senator and mining tycoon, and artist John Harrison Mills. These annual exhibits provided an opportunity for many of Denver s leading artists to display their work. The 1883 exhibit included Colorado artists A. Phimister Proctor Helen Henderson Chain, Charles Craig, J. Harrison Mills Fanny Clark Captain "Jack" Howland, and Charles Partridge Adams who was presented the gold medal. By 1884 the third annual art exhibit included seventy artists, most of which were Colorado residents. 2 7 Spalding Elisabeth. Som e thing of A r t in D e n ve r a s I Think o f It Typescript written for the Denver Fortnightly Club. 1924. Pg 8 28 Hafen LeRoy R History of Colorado Volum e Ill. Linderman Co. Inc. Denver 1927. Pg 1268 22

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The Denver Art Club was formed in 1886 with John D. Howland as president and included many of the previous members of the Academy of Fine Arts Association Howe v er, due to conflict within its membership the club met an earl y demise the following year. In 1889 the Den v er Paint and Clay club was formed and included local women artists Helen Hend e rson Chain Henrietta Bromwell and Emma Richardson Cherry The club held its first annual exhibition i n December of 1889 which included works by Charles Partridge Adams Henrietta Bromwell Helen Henderson Chai n Emma Richardson Cherry Frank Collins Alexis Comparet Helen De Lang e Harriet Winslow Hayden and E dward Hill While this club was also short-lived the members would go on to form and participate in a number of other significant art organizations in the city The Le Brun Art Club was founded in the fall of 1890 by painter and art teacher Harriet Hayden specificall y to support women in their endeavors to become both amateur and professional artists The club was modeled after the Palette Club of Chicago to which Hayden had belonged and was named after Elisabeth Vigee LeBrun, a French portrait painter who lived from 1753 to 1842. The organization provided classes scheduled discussions and provided opportunities for the women artists to exhibit their work. The Le Brun Art Club began with fiv e members in 1890 and expanded to 25 by 1893. Early members of the club included in addition to Hayd e n Henrietta Bromwell Emma Richardson 23

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Cherry Elisabeth Spalding Katherine Smalley Ida Stair Marion Johnson Alice Howes Helen Munson Ida Failing and honorary member Leadville illustrator Mary Hallock Foote. The club held several exhibits in spaces loaned out by the Art League and in the post office annex. The third and last exhibit w as held in April of 1 893, and included landscape s by Bromwell Hayden Cherry Smalley and Spalding and received creditable review s. Though the club only existed for a few short years it did help to support the women artist s o f Denver began to create an art consciousness in the city and pa v ed the way for the founding of both the Den v er Art League and the Arti s ts Club of Denver which became the Denver Art Association and eventually the Denver Art Museum The LeBrun Art Club "s eems to have inspired Den ve r s most powerful business and professional men to follow suit with a n e w organization of their own, the Denver Art L e ague ."29 The Art League was headed by W illiam Ward Shaw as president and Samuel Richard as director. It was active in presenting exhibitions of work b y artists of national importance including a show of over 260 paintings by landscape artist Thomas Moran in January of 1893. It was the practice at the time to fill the walls with paintings hanging them above and below each other with very little space in between. The Denver Art League also opened a School of Fine Arts in September of 1892 which rivaled the University of Denver's School of Fine Arts. The new 29 Marlene C h a mber s (editor ) The D e n ver Art M u seu m : The First Hund re d Years. Den v er Art Mus eum 1996 P g 16 24

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school was directed by Samuel Richards and had on its teaching staff local artists Charles Partridge Adams, Emma Richardson Cherry and Harriet Hayden. The Denver Artists Club was created in 1893 in the studio of founding member Emma Richardson Cherry to sponsor lectures and exhibitions for local artists. The initial members included Charles Partridge Adams Anne Evans, Henry Read, Henrietta Bromwell Elizabeth Spalding and Elsie Ward. Annual dues were $1 for active members and $2 for associates. Their constitution states their mission as the advancement of the art interests of Denver and they focused their first few years on mounting annual juried exhibitions which were held in temporary spaces throughout the city In order to become an active member of the Denver Artists Club c andidates had to be proposed by an active member and approved unanimously by the Executive Committee This practice did on some occasions, create bad feelings amongst local artists who were blackballed. One particular incident reported in the local press described the bitter feelings caused between the newly organized arts club and noted Denver painter Alexis Comparet when his membership, proposed without his consent was blackballed. Emma Richardson Cherry served as the first President of the Denver Artists Club for one year before moving to Houston. Henry Read, an English painter took over the leadership of the club and continued in that position for a number of years. Read also taught art and founded a school that is now the Vance Kirkland Gallery, as well as serving as the head of Mayor Robert Speer s Denver 25

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Art Commission. The club held it s first exhibition consisting of 110 total paintings and drawings in April of 1894. The exhibit included a significant number of works by local women artists including Emma Richardson Cherry Katherine Smalley Henrietta Bromwell Elisabeth Spalding Alice Howes Harriet Winslow Hayden Elsie Ward Blanche Dougan Mary Cecelia Wheeler E v a Roades Ida De Steigner Mrs R H. Worthington Mrs. C.E. Blake Marian Howard Helen Powers Marian J Johnson and Lucie Lipscomb. By January of 1897 the club began to work towards obtaining space for a permanent art gallery. For three years they leased space in the Tabor Opera House block but were forced to find alternative space when it was recla i med f or a remodeling project. In 1899 they initiated a fund rai s ing project to purchase art for a gallery in the newl y commissioned Colorado Museum of Natural History in City Park. However their enthusiasm for the project waned and when the museum finally opened its doors in 1908, the third floor gallery had been furnished with loans by private collectors in Denver. The Denver Artists Club finally began building it s own collection in 1909 with it s first purchase of a painting entitled Hal cy on Day s by Frank Dumond. They set aside $500 each year to purchase one or more of the prize paintings from their annual exhibitions In 1915 the club purchased Twilight Sho wer by Elisabeth Spalding to add to the collection By 1916 the club had purchased 15 paintings. Anne Evans Elisabeth Spalding and Marion Hendrie have been credi t ed with keepin g the Artist s Club alive and 26

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directing the collecting decisions through the first two decades of the twentieth century Anne Evans served on the Denver Library Commission and facilitated an agreement for assigned gallery space for the club in the city s new library at Civic Center. The Artist s Club inaugurated its new library gallery with its 16th Annual Exhibition on February 15, 1910 They continued to utilize the space for lectures and exhibitions until 1925, when the library needed to recover the space for its own expanding collection. In the intervening years there were a number of proposals to include a fine arts building in the expansion of Denver s Civic Center including a plan presented in 1913 by Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. which would have created a twin building to the 191 0 Carnegie Library across the mall. But the proposals were ultimately rejected by the taxpayers. In 1917, the Denver Artists Club incorporated as the Denver Arts Association and hired Reginald Poland as its first art director. George Eggers took over as director in 1921, and the following year the Association acquired the Chappell House at 1300 Logan to be used as a center for the creative arts The house a twenty two room stone mansion built in the 1880s by mining and real estate tycoon Horace Bennett was donated to the Association by Jean Chappell Cranmer and DeLoe Chappell in memory of their father and mother. Initially, the Association planned to use the facility for artist studios and as a gathering place for local arts organizations but after losing the space in the Denver Library in 1925, the house was renovated to incorporate a wing for exhibition space. That 27

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same year, they purchased 46 Navajo textiles for $3100 and decided to devote a room at the Chappell House for a permanent American Indian Art collection. Anne Evans, who was the driving force behind the initial purchase of the textiles, was appointed as head of the committee to build and oversee the Indian art collection. Over 800 works had been acquired by 1930 ln 1923, the Denver An Association had changed its name to the Denver Art Museum. In addition to the Chappell House the museum held exhibitions in space which was allocated in the new City and County Building, beginning in 1932. Finally in 1965, the Denver Art Museum moved forward with plans for a new museum designed by Gio Ponti of Milan, Italy, and Denver architects James Sudler a n d Joal Cronenwett. The building opened in October of 1 971. A dramatic new addition the Hamilton Wing, designed by Daniel Liebeskind opened in the fall, 2006 Helen Henderson Chain (1849-1892) Helen Henderson Chain was one of Colorado's most important women artists of the period. She is one ofvery few women artists who are noted in most of the traditional Western art history literature. Chain was born on July 31, 1849 in Indianapolis and moved with her family (father George Henry Porter Henderson, mother Sarah Maria Bacon, two older brothers and two younger brothers) to San Francisco in 1855. It was there she developed a lifelong interest in Japanese and 28

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Chinese art. After her mother passed away in 1862 when she wa s 13, she returned to Indianapolis where she was adopted into her aunt's family. Helen was educated at the Illinois Female College in Jacksonville, where she began her formal studies in art Her studies included brief periods in Europe and New York where she studied with George Innes. In 1870 she married James A. Chain and relocated to Denver, continuing her studies in art with Hamilton Hamilton, a young easterntrained painter from New York. Chain's paintings were primarily mountain landscapes in oils and watercolors, at a time when women landscape artists were rare ; even rarer in the rugged terrain o f the Rocky Mountains. Most of her scenes were Colorado land s capes but she also traveled and painted in New Mexico, Mexico and California. She is reportedly the first woman to sketch Mount of the Holy Cross on location, w hich she visited for the first time in 1877-two years after Thomas Moran completed his fa mous painting of the scene. She may have also been the first woman artist to sketch the Grand Canyon on location in 1882. Chain was an avid mountain climber who scaled many of Colorado's peaks including Pikes Peak, Grey's Peak and Longs Peak. She was the first to exhibit New Mexico pueblo scenes at the National Academy of Design in 1882.3 Chain provided the illustrations for John L. Dyer' s Snow Shoe Itinerant, which was published in 1891. 3 Kovinik, Phil and Yoshiki-Kovinik, Marian, An Encyclopedia o.fWo m e n Artists of the American West University of Texas Press Austin 1998. Pg xviii 29

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Helen Henderson Chain established the city s first art school in her studio located in the McClintock Building in 1877. Art instruction under Chain included extended sketching trips in the Rocky Mountains. One of her more successful students was Charles Partridge Adams who won a gold medal at the 1882 Mining & Industrial Exposition with one of his yellow sunset paintings and continued a significant career as a successful Western artist. Chain along with a number of other women artists in Denver, was instrumental in the establishment and support of art organizations in the city In 1889 she along with Henrietta Bromwell and Emma Richardson Cherry formed the Paint and Clay Club. Then after the rather quick demise of the club she helped establish the all-women LeBrun Art Club in 1891 which "although shortlived helped to bring an art consciousness to the city and had much to do with the founding of the Artists Club of Denver two years later."3 1 Helen and her husband James were well-known and active in the social life ofDenver, through its cultural organizations and the Central Presbyterian Church, where Helen taught Sunday school classes They donated both their time and money to a number of charitable causes. In 1888 the Chains moved from their home on Broadway to a home on 16th Street, on the present site ofthe Daniels and Fisher tower. They also owned a ranch in Buena Vista which they visited 31 Kovinik Phil and Y oshiki-Kovinik Marian A n En cy clop e dia o f Women A rt i st s of th e Am eri c an W e st Univ ersity o f Texas Press Au s tin 1998. Pg xviii 30

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frequently James was part owner of the Chain & Hardy Book and Stationary Store at 161h and Larimer Street. In 1891 they opened an art gallery described as having incandescent lights with reflectors which are kinder to colors in the paintings than gas lights. "32 The Chains had no children and were able to travel extensi v ely The Denver Times once claimed them to be probably the most traveled couple in Colorado."33 Helen s family fondly nicknamed her "Trot" due to her frequent expeditions. In 1892 the Helen joined the Fortnightly Club one ofDenver's first women's club which had been established in 1881 as a discussion and study group. In March the Chains set off on a world tour that was to last for two years. Helen's first paper for the Fortnightly Club was an illustrated description of their experiences in Japan. She also authored a 33 page essay on the history and tradition of Japanese art for the Club dated September 5 1892 from Pekin China On October 8 1892 they set off on the steamer Bokhara from Shanghai bound for Hong Kong. The ship encountered a typhoon where the "vessel was dashed to pieces on a desert island."34 More than 200 travelers were drowned but 23 survived on the island for two days before being rescued. It was reported that 32 Petteys Chris "Colorado's First Women Artists" Empir e Ma g a zine, The D e nv e r Post. May 6, 1979 Pg 39 33 Denv e r Times October 19, 1892 3 4 Glo ry that Was Gold 1934 pg 32 31

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"years afterward Mrs. Chain's wedding ring was washed up on the shore of the China Sea. "3 5 In one of many published obituaries, The Denver Sun described Helen Henderson Chain as an artistic genius and in her death the art circles of Colorado lose one of its leading lights. Her paintings adorn many Denver homes. Her artistic taste made the collection and mounting of Colorado wild flowers of so great popularity as to create a new industry. To her is due largely the rising art spirit of the West, the organization of art clubs of various kinds and the introduction into many homes of fine art where chromos served before. Her inspiration came from nature and her artistic touch from the masters of the old world. "36 35 Glo ry that Was Gold, 193 4, pg 32 36 The D e nv e r Sun October 20 1892 32

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Figure 4.1 Mount of the Hol y Cro ss, Helen Henderson Chain 33

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Henrietta Bromwell ( 1859-1946) Henrietta Bromwell known as "Nettie", was born in Charleston, Indiana on July 13, 1859. Her mother Emily Payne Bromwell was a New England aristocrat and her father, Henry Pelham H. Bromwell a Republican Congressman Her mother died in January of 1865, several months after the birth of her third child, daughter Emily. Baby Emily died one month later. When Henrietta was eleven she moved to Denver with her paternal grandmother and her brother where they resided at 1117 Eighth Street which is now the Auraria Higher Education Center campus. Her brother died from a bout of typhoid fever in 1881. Shortly after their relocation to Denver her father wa s elected to the Colorado Constitutional Territorial Council and in 1875 served as a delegate to the Colorado Constitutional Convention. As a delegate Henry P e lham Bromwell, advocated for full enfranchisement of women in the state s new constitution. 37 Henrietta Bromwell has been described as "a solitary woman, who never married and appears to have had few close friends ."38 She studied briefly at the Denver School of Fine Arts at the University of Denver which at that time was located on Fourteenth and Arapahoe Street. Her artwork was primarily pen and ink drawings and paintings in oil and watercolor. Historian William H. Gerdts 37 Abbott Carl Leonard Stephen H., McComb David G. Colorado A His tory of the C e nt e nnial State University of Colorado Press Niwot CO 1994 Pg 188 38 Tim e and Plac e: On e Hundred Y e ar s of Women Artist s in Colorado 1900-2000 Center for the Visual Arts, Denver CO, 2000 Pg 13 34

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considers Bromwell "Denver's leading woman landscape painter at the end of the century ."39 Although Henrietta lived well into her 80's the majority of her work as an artist occurred before 1904 when she was in her mid-40's. However since she did not sign or date many of her paintings it is difficult to establish a chronology of her work. The majority of her artwork is landscapes in which "she captures the stark lonely quality of the American West without the predilection to romanticize nature which was common among artists from the East or Europe ."40 These landscapes depicted wooded trails farm house s and mountain scenes Another favorite subject was the urban landscape of the evolving city of De nver especially in a district known as the Bottoms", an industrial area along the banks of the South Platte River in central Denver. These paintings include scenes of mills along the river and factories One painting of a church in moonlight though not specified, may be St. Elizabeth 's. which would hav e been visible from her home in Auraria 39 Gerdts William H Art Across A m erican: Two Centuries of R egio nal Paint i n gs, Volume Three: the Far Midwest Ro cky Mountain W e st, Southwest, Pacific A bbeville Press Publishers New York., 1990. Pg 117 40 Time and Place: One Hundred Years of Women Artists in Colorado 19002000. Center for th e Visual Arts Den ve r CO, 2000 Pg 14 35

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Figure 4.2 Mill Henrietta Bromwell Bromwell was an active exhibitor in the 1890s and early 1900s In 1893 she, along with several other prominent female artists (Emma Richardson Cherry Anne Evans and Elisabeth Spalding) and four male artists founded the Artists Club of Denver which later became the Denver Art Museum. Henrietta served as the club's Secretary during the first four years. The club was primarily created in order to provide exhibition opportunities for local artists Their exhibits were held annually and drew large crowds as well as critical attention. In 1897 Henrietta exhibited works in Chicago New York and Philadelphia. And in 1898 she and 36

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Charles Partridge Adams were selected to represent Colorado in the Trans Mississippi Exhibition, a significant honor in her professional career. Henrietta also taught art in her studio located in the Majestic Building at 16th and Broadway. She offered instruction in drawing, painting and outdoor sketching. In January of 1903 her father Henry Pelham Bromwell died at his horne at 646 Williams Street in a duplex that she inherited Henrietta is last mentioned as an exhibitor in the 1903 Artists Club Annual Exhibition. After this date there are no further mentions of her involvement in artistic endeavors Instead she concentrated her efforts on completing several books that her father began but which he never published In June of 1903 she formed the Henry Bromwell Masonic Publishing Company in order to publish Restorations of Masonic Geometry and S y mbolry the book her father was working on when he died In the years between 1905 and 1907, Henrietta traveled throughout Colorado by rail selling subscriptions to her father's book. She chronicled her travels in a diary and sketchbooks which she later donated to the Denver Public Library Western History Section. Also toward the end of her life she donated 96 paintings and drawings family albums and scrapbooks to the Colorado Historical Society. In 1933 she published The Colorado Portrait and Biographical Index a five volume genealogy index. 37

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Nettie Bromwell spent thelast decade of her life in social isolation and near poverty She continued to live in the duplex inherited from her father until her neighbors went to court in 1941, claiming she was unable to take care of herself or her property. A judge declared her mentally incompetent and she was placed in Mount Airy a psychiatric hospital where she died in 1946 after a long illness Bromwell Elementary School in Denver is named after her father. Elisabeth Spalding (1868-1954) Elisabeth Spalding w as born in Erie, Pennsylvania in 1868 the daughter of John Franklin Spalding and Lavinia Spencer Spalding. She moved with her family to Denver in 1874 when her father was named Missionary Bishop in the Episcopal Church and she became a life long resident of the city Active as a practicing artist she was also instrumental in creating and supporting arts organizations in Denver. Elisabeth was one of the founding members ofthe all-woman LeBrun Art Club, established in 1890 and later was an influential force behind the Artist's Club of Denver, created in 1893. "There can be little doubt that the personal contacts and aesthetic sensibilities formed by (Marion) Hendrie, Spalding and Anne Evan's during the late 1890s played a large part in shaping the character of 38

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the Artists' Club exhibitions and collecting decisions for the next two decades."41 Spalding was a prolific painter and an active exhibitor with numerous pieces included in each of the club's annual exhibitions. She was also a member of Denver s Fortnightly Club along with fellow artist Helen Henderson Chain. One ofthe club s projects was a drive to discourage billboard advertising in the state. Elisabeth created two landscapes for a brochure, one portraying a peaceful landscape along a winding road the second was the identical landscape cluttered with billboard advertisements The brochure claims that "Billboards are a hazard to safety ", "Some states have laws against them-has yours?" "Let us keep the beauty of our scenery ", and "Abolish all highway advertising." In an essay written for the Fortnightly Club Spalding wrote "All through these year s of study and exhibition the question constantly recurs what is art and h av e we got it in Denver ? We often felt that good artists were few and far between "42 41 Chambers, Marlene (editor). The D e n ve r Art Museum : The Fir s t Hundr e d Y ears Denver Art Museum Denver CO 2000. Pg. 66 42 Spalding Elisabeth Something of Art in Denver as I Think of it" typescript for the Denver Fortnightly Club 1924 Pg 9. 39

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Figure 4 3 Pikes Peakfrom the Garden of the Gods Elisabeth Spalding Elisabeth Spalding first traveled to New York in 1890 to study drawing and painting at the Cooper Union School of Arts & Design She later returned to New York in order to continue her studies at the Art Students League Her education in art also included brief trips to England and France While in New York Spalding studied with Leonard Ochtman, Birge Harrison, John Twachtmann, Rhoda Holmes Nicholls and J Alden Weir. Her studies with these famous Impressionist painters greatly influenced the style of her work Spalding worked primarily in watercolors depicting impressionistic studies of landscapes and flowers mostly in 40

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Colorado. In April of 1925, The E c ho published an article highlighting her Colorado landscapes and stated that "The observer of her work feels that she and the mountains are intimate Her brush strokes are sweeping and deft ; in them is sureness and strength. The mountains are distinctly her metier and she paint s them with equal charm in watercolors or oils."43 Throughout her life Elisabeth Spalding continued to paint exhibit and receive awards and recognition for her work. In 1920 she won the Kremer Prize at the Chicago Art Institute Watercolor Exhibition, and in 1931 was awarded first prize for Flower Watercolor at the Denver Art Museum In 1932 she had solo watercolor exhibitions in both Stockholm and Paris and in 1938 she held a one man retrospective show at the Chappell House in Denver that included 60 watercolors and oils Spalding never married and lived with her parent s at 853 Washington Street. Bishop Spalding died in March of 1902 and her mother, Lavinia, passed away in D ecember 1929. Elisabeth continued to live her Washington Street home until her death in May, 1954. 4 3 "Vivid Painting s of Colorado Mountains: An Account of Elizabeth Spaldings Work ", Th e Ec ho Aprill925, Vol3 No .3. Pg 5 41

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Emma Richardson Cherry ( 1869-1954) Emma Richardson was born in Aurora Illinois on February 28, 1859 Her father Perkins Richardson, was an architect. After graduating from high school in Aurora she attended the Art Institute in Chicago then in 1882 moved to New York to study at the Art Students League where she studied with William Merritt Chase, George de Forest Brush Henry Bainbridge McCarter Rhoda Holmes Nicholls, and Kenyon Cox. Emma continued her studies in Europe at the Academies Julian Delechluse and Merson in Paris and took private lessons from Zanetti-Zilla in Italy She worked in oils, watercolors and pastels and painted western landscapes wildflowers portraits and figures When she returned to the United States she taught at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln, as well as a summer ses s ion at the Metropolitan Museum in New York. She married Nebraska oil broker Dillon Brooke Cherry in 1887 and the couple relocated to Denver, Colorado the following year where they resided at 141 h and Broadway. In 1893, Cherry helped establish the Artists' Club of Denver serving as its' first President, and participated in the organization and their exhibitions for the next several years. Fellow artist Elisabeth Spalding once noted "I find myself feeling that true are appreciation in came to Denver with Emma 42

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Richardson Cherry. There had been a smallness of outlook among the early group. She was altruistic and public spirited." 44 In 1899 the Cherrys moved to Houston Texas where they spent the remainder of their lives. Though she resided in Denver for only 6 years and is generally considered a Texas artist Cherry was instrumental in establishing one of the most important arts organization in Colorado. In Houston Cherry helped form the Houston Public Art League, which later became the Museum of Fine Arts. She directed the Elisabeth Ney Museum in A ustin and helped organize the San Antonio Art League Cherry continued to work as an artist and exhibited extensively including the Paris Salon, the Art Institute of Chicago the World s Colulmbian Exposition in Chicago the Western Art Association in Omaha Fort Worth Art Museum, Southern States Art League the Houston Art League, the Texa s Wildflower Competitive Exhibition and the Texas State Fair. Emma Richardson Cherry died in Houston on October 29, 1954 at the age of 94. 44 Spalding, Elisabeth Something of Art in Denver as I Think of it ", typescript for the Denver Fortnightly Club 1924. Pg 11. 43

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Anne Evans (1871-1941) Anne Evans, while not well known as a successful artist in her right was a driving force in the development of the cultural and art organizations in Denver. She was born in 1871 in London, to parents Margaret Gray Evans and John Evans, while the family was traveling through Europe. Shortly after her birth her family came to Colorado, where her father had been appointed the second territorial Governor by President Abraham Lincoln. John Evans also founded the University of Denver. Anne aspired to be an artist and in her early teens was sent to Europe to attend school in Paris and Berlin In 1898 she traveled east to attend the Art Students League in New York where she studied painting and drawing. After returning to Denver, she continued to paint, and completed a number of portraits. On the strength of a portrait she had made of her father she was accepted as one of the first Associate members of the Artist Club of Denver in 1893 Although she never seriously pursued her own career as an artist she remained actively involved in the organization throughout her lifetime In addition to her participation on the board of the Denver Artists' Club Anne Evans also sat on the Library Commission, the Denver Art Commission, and the Denver Planning Commission. She was a driving force in the creation on the new city library in Civic Center in particular the library's Western History Department, and is credited with working out the agreement allotting gallery space for the club in the new Denver Public Library, which opened in February of 1916 at West Colfax and Bannock Streets 44

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By 1925, the Denver Artists Club which had since changed its name to the Denver Art Association and finally the Denver Art Museum, was housed in the Chappell House on Logan Street and had built an addition to use as an exhibition space. Anne Evans convinced that native Indian folk art was an important addition to the museums collection, supervised the purchase of 46 Navajo saddle blankets as the foundation of the permanent American Indian Art collection This purchase, costing $3100 initially brought criticism from other trustees who did not believe the native textiles were appropriate for a fine arts museum. The next year Evans was appointed as the head of the committee to build the Indian art collection which grew to over 800 objects in the next four years including blankets pottery basketry and jewelry Late in 1929 Anne took over as Interim Director of the Denver Art Museum for a brief period while the search for a permanent director was conducted She later resigned from the board of the museum after a dispute with the city administration over a statue for the civic center. Mayor Benjamin Stapleton wanted to erect a statue in honor of Mayor Robert Speer which Evans and other members of the art commission opposed. After two members of the commission who were critical of the proposal were discharged by the Mayor and replaced with two new members who sided with the administration on the issue, Evans resigned in protest. 45

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Evans then focused her energies on the Central City Opera House and the development of a Central City Opera Festival. She wa s the President ofthe Central City Opera House Association until her death Anne Evans devoted her life to the arts philanthropy and community projects to develop a thriving cultural life in the city of Denver. The Rocky Mountain News referred to her as an empire builder in the arts."45 She never married and lived the majority of her life in the family home at 1310 Bannock Street. The house now the Byers-Evans House Museum, commemorates in part Anne s effort to promote the arts in Colorado Evans died following a heart attack on January 6 1941. Upon her death she bequeathed her own p r ivate collectio n of Indian baskets blankets and pottery to the Denver Art Museum. 45 R ocky M o untain News. 6 /21 I 1964 46

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CHAPTERS THECOLORADOSPruNGSARTCOLONY The town site for Colorado Springs was laid out in the summer of 1871, on the route ofthe General William Jackson Palmers new Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. The first train from Denver arrived via the new rails in October of that year. The sett lement housed a population of about 300, many of them living in portable houses shipped out from Chicago. In the 1870s Colorado Springs became known as "Little London" because so many Engli s hmen had settled there Eight years later, i n 1 879 the town ha d grown to around 5000. Colorado Springs incorporated on September 2, 1882. Artists were attracted to the area due to the magnificent landscapes that included Pikes Peak the Garden of the Gods, and Manitou Springs. Many others moved to the area to take advantage of the healing properties of the local mineral springs and clean thin air. Sanitariums proliferated to handle the large number of tuberculosis patients that flooded the region in hopes that the fresh air, sunshine and a dry climate would cure their consumption. The first art colony in Colorado was formed in Colorado Springs in the early 1870s. Earl y artists in the area included Eliza Greatorex Walter Paris 47

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Thomas and Anne Parrish, Rose Kingsley and Alice Stewart Hill. Rose Kingsley, generally considered an amateur artist, arrived in Colorado Springs in 1871. The first professional artist to reside in Colorado Springs was Walter Paris, an English watercolorist, who arrived in 1872. Le Roy Hafen described some of the challenges encountered by early Colorado artists, in History of Colorado Volume Ill: "Pioneer artists of the golden '80's, both in Denver and Colorado Springs, where art development has centered found peculiar conditions to combat. The mining magnates who contributed in no small degree to the succ e ss of the theatre were free spenders but their ideas of art were peculiar. The first attempts towar d artistic expression in the mining camps ran to gold en cherub s g ilded women pouring gilded grapes from gilded cornucopias, golden lions and deer sportively perched upon the cornices of public buildings and hotels."4 6 T he C olorado Springs art establishment was f o rmed separately from that o f Denver, and was structured much more informally. In 1888, the first major art exhibition was held in Colorado Springs to benefit the Bellevue Sanitarium. Later in February of 1900, Colorado College held its first art exhibition representing the works of local artists. The Colorado Springs Academy of Art was established in 1912 by Charlotte and Susan Learning who were alumnae of the Art Institute of Chicago. They organized exhibits and formed the Colorado Springs Art Club, which later united with the Colorado Springs Art Society. 46 Hafen LeRoy R. H i sto ry of Colorado Volum e III. Linderm a n C o. Inc., Denver. 1927 Pg 1267 48

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This combined organization established a school the Broadmoor Art Academy which was founded in October of 1919 in the former residence of Mr. & Mrs. Spencer Penrose (on the site which is now the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center). Spencer and Julie Penrose, famous for building the Broadmoor Hotel in 1918 donated the family residence at 30 West Dale as well as $1 000 per year for the first five years to assist with the maintenance and upkeep. The founding trustees of the academy included D.V. Donaldson Francis Drexel Smith Julie Penrose Anne Gregory Ritter and Charles Tutt. The inaugural exhibition was held that first winter in December of 1919 John Fabian Carlson, well known Eastern landscape painter was hired in 1920 as Director of the academy and landscape in s tructor. The location and climate were ideal for outdoor landscape painting Ca r lson often took his students to sketch and paint on location in nearby Garden of the Gods, Pikes Peak and Crystal Park. Carlson was soon joined by Robert Reid a well known portraitist and muralist from New York and Swedish born painter Birger Sandzen. In addition to the traditional instruction in painting and drawing, the Academy was under government contract from 1921-1923 to train ex servicemen how to make a living at graphic design and commercial art. The Broadmoor Art Academy would become one of the most important summer teaching institutions in the West "becoming even more significant after 1926 when 49

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it became associated with Colorado College. "4 7 Painter Ernest Lawson was hired as a landscape painter in I 927. Lawson was already famous as a member of Robert Henri s The Eight ", a group of social realists with a spe cific American s tyle of paintin g that broke with the tradition of the National Acad e my T h re e years later Boardman Robinson from the Art Students League in New York relocated to Colorado Springs to take over the Director position which he held for 15 y ears. Boardman was nationall y recognized a s an illustrator and a murali st. He and Thomas Hart Benton are g enerally recognized as the founders o f the American Mural movement of the 1930 s "4 8 In 1936, G e orge Biddl e b e arne the Director o f the Colo rado Springs Fine Arts C e nter. Biddl e was bes t kno w n for conceiving th e ide a for the Public Works of Art Project t h e first of t he f e d e rally funded art program s during the depression designed to put unemployed citizens back to work on useful projects and to provide decorations for public buildings The art education program at the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center continued into the early 1950s with steadily declining enrollments. The Center was unable to compete with the growing number of universities offering 47 G er dts, William H Art Acr oss A m e rica : T wo C e ntur ies of Regi onal Pa i n ti n gs. Volum e T h ree, The F ar Midwes t R ocky Mountain W e st Sou th west P a c ific Abbe ville Pres s Publi s her s N e w York 1990 P g.l26 48 Cuba Stanle y J ohn F. Ca rl son and the Art i s t s of th e B r oadm oor Acade m y D av e Cook Fine Art D e nver C O 1 9 9 9 P g 22 50

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professionally oriented art degrees. Additionally, their emphasis on realist art did not attract the growing number of students interested in studying abstract express10msm Rose Kingsley ( 1844-1925) Rose Kingsley was born and raised in Chester England, the daughter of the Reverend Charles Kingsley who later became the Canon of Westminster. The Reverend Kingsley was the author of several well-selling novels, including Westward Ho, Hereward the Wake and H y patia. On September 22, 1871, Rose boarded a ship from Liverpool with her brother Maurice for a visit to America. She landed in New York, rode trains across the mid-west to Denver and arrived in Colorado Springs on November 1, 1891 via the newly opened Denv er and Rio Grande line. During her winter there she produced a number of pen and ink sketches which would later be converted to woodblock engravings to illustrate her travel book South by West or Winter in the Rocky Mountains and Spring in Mexico which was published in 1874 by W Isbister & Co. Her sketches illustrate the landscapes buildings people and animals she encountered during her travels. The drawings range from a fairly simplistic renderings of her first shanty to intricate, highly detailed mountain landscapes. 1n her travel book, she describes the new frontier settlement: 51

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"You may imagine Colorado Springs as I did to be a sequestered valley with bubbling fountains, green grass and shady trees : but not a bit of it. Picture to yourself a level elevated plateau of greenish-brown without a single tree or plant larger than a Spanish bayonet (Yucca) two feet high sloping down about a quarter of a mile to the railroad track and Monument Creek and you have a pretty good idea of the town-site as it appears in November 1871. The streets and blocks are only marked out by a furrow turned with the plough and indicated faintly by a wooden house finished or in process of building here and there scattered over half a mile of prairie About twelve houses and shanties are inhabited most of them being unfinished or run up for temporary occupation. "49 49 Kingsley Rose South by W es t : or Winter in th e Ro cky Mountains and Spring in M ex i c o W. Isbister & Co., London, 1874 Pg 47-4 8 52

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The Gate of the Garden of the Gods Figure 5.1 Rose Kingsley, from South by West or Winter in the Rocky Mountains and Spring in Mexico Upon her arrival in Colorado Springs, Rose Kingsley lived in a 16 by 12 foot shanty, which had been erected in three days. However, after several weeks in the primitive abode the Kingsleys relocated to rooms above a store which also housed the stage office near the comer of Cascade and Pikes Peak. The following year 1872, Rose traveled to Mexico City by rail with General and Mrs. 53

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William Palmer. She documented her trip by keeping a travel journal and sketching the various sites along the way They returned to Colorado Springs in 1874 where Rose continued to contribute to the developing cultural and educational organizations in the city Her brother Maurice was a trusted representative of General Palmer. Early on in her residence Rose and several other settlers set out to create a reading room in order to give the young men of the growing town a place to gather as an alternative to drinking and gambling in nearby Colorado City. This organization was named the Fountain Society of Natural Sciences. Kingsley also played the organ in Foote s Hall for the first churches services offered in the settlement and organized a concert to raise funds for the reading room Rose King s ley often took excursions in the foothills with companions William and Mary Palmer and novelist Helen Hunt. In her book she describes hiking expeditions through deep snow to explore the nearby canyons and mountains. She is reputed to be the first woman to ascend the mountain which was later named after her Mount Rosa. Mount Rosa is the cone-shaped mountain just south of Pikes Peak and is thought to be the actual mountain mistakenly climbed by Zebulon Pike in 1806 rather than Pikes Peak. 54

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Eliza Greatorex (1819-1897) Although not truly a resident of Colorado Eliza Greatorex was the first woman artist of prominence to visit and work in the area. She was born in 1819 and grew up in Ireland. In 1840 she settled in New York where she later met and married prominent musician and teacher Henry W. Greatorex. She studied landscape painting in Paris, Munich and New York City. In 1858 she began painting professionally to support her two daughters fo11owing the death of her husband. Greatorex was the first woman to be elected as a member of the National Academy in 1868. In 1873 she traveled to the Rocky Mountains with her daughters Kathleen and Eleanor also artists, by the Great Western Train, where they visited Manitou Springs P ueblo Colorado Springs and Denver. During this trip she made a number of pen and ink landscape drawings of the region which illustrated her tra vel book Summer Et c hings in Colorado, which was published later that same year by G.P. Putnam's Sons A number of the drawings were also published in national periodicals enhancing her reputation as a "western artist". Her book describes the spectacular scenery, and the people she encountered and their stories of life in Colorado She notes the distinctive role of women in the west and writes "I speak especially ofthe women of Colorado, present and future. There is, here perhaps less worship ofwomen's beauty and accomplishments, but man places her nearer to himself-she shares 55

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and guides his life and thought is the light the comfort the home. "50 After her trip to the west she returned to New York and later in 1885, settled in Paris. Little is documented of her work or career beyond the publication of her book. Anne Lodge Parrish (1850-1900) After the death of his first wife, Colorado Springs artist and businessman Thomas Parrish returned to Philadelphia to study at the Academy of Fine Arts. There he met and married Anne Willcox, and brought her back to Colorado Springs to settle. At that time Anne Parrish was already an established portraitist and she later studied with Thomas Eakins. Upon th e ir return they opened a studio at 209 North Weber Street and began offering art instru c tion. ln 1888 along with artist Frank T. Lent, the Parri s hes established the first art school in Colorado Springs. Anne continued to work as a professional artist earning commissions for portrait paintings. The Colorado Pioneer Museum in Colorado Springs has in its collection portraits of Anne and Katherine Adams daughters of Massachusetts physician Dr. Benjamin Adams and one of Helen Hunt Jackson, rendered from a photo taken in 1870. Art historian William H. Gerdts claims that Anne Parrish 50 Greatorex Eliza. Summer Et c hing s in Colorado G.P. Putnam s Sons, New York. 1873. P g 92 56

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"became Colorado s outstanding figure and portrait painter of the late nineteenth century. "5 1 Figure 5 2 H e l e n Hunt Ja c kson Anne Parrish 51 G e rdt s, Willi a m H Art Acr oss A m e r ica: Two C e nturi es of Regi ona l P a int i n gs, Volum e Thr ee : the F ar Midwes t Ro cky Mou ntai n West S o uth wes t Pa cific. Abb ev ill e Pre ss Publi s hers New York 1990 Pg 126 57

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Her daughter born in 1888 and also named Anne went on to become a relatively well-known writer. She received three Newberry Medal A wards for her children's books (in 1925 1931 and 1951 ) Alice Stewart Hill (1851-1896 ) Alice Stewart was born in Amboy, New York in 1851, one ofthree daughters of Judge George Stewart As a child she moved with her family to Beaver Dam Wisconsin where she initially began the study of drawing. At the age of 22, she traveled to New York City to study art at both the Cooper Union Institute and at the National Academy of Design. In 187 4, following her studies in New York, she rejoined her family now relocated in Colorado Springs Stewart was apparently fascinated by the large variety ofwildflowers in Colorado and went to Chicago specifically to study the art of flower pai n ting. Once back in Colorado Springs she taught classes in flower painting and spent numerous hours hiking among the nearby hills and canyons in search of interesting and undocumented flora The Colorado Springs Pioneer Museum has in its collection a leather-bound book entitled Wild Flo we rs of Colorado containing 17 small untitled watercolors done by Alice Stewart. The small paintings are highly detailed intricate and delicate, with fme lines and vivid shades of pinks, yellows purples and blues 58

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In 1886 she illustrated a book written by her friend Helen Hunt Jackson. Jackson s A Procession of Flowers in Colorado was first published by Robert Brothers of Boston in a deluxe limited edition of one hundred copies, each individually illustrated in watercolor by Stewart. The flower illustrations in each copy were unique and followed no set pattern of design or color The book was later published for mass consumption without illustrations. Alice Stewart also illustrated Colorado Favorites and A Colorado Wreath by Virginia Donaghe. In a series of articles entitled "Brush and Pencil in Early Colorado Springs" published in the Colorado Springs Gazette and Telegraph in 1924 Gilbert McClurg writes of her "Alice Stewart Hill will be remembered, among local artists, as spending gentle, sunny days in searching out the unknown blossoms grouping them with characteristic grace of arrangement painting each detail with loving though making them distinctly her own and at the s a me time enriching art in making them known to all. 5 2 Alice Stewart married local financier Francis B. Hill in 1887 or 1888. She spent her last years at Jackson Sanitarium a health resort in D anville New York, until her death at the age of 45 in 1896. Her remains were returned to Colorado to be buried in the Evergreen Cemetery in Colorado Springs 52 McClurg, Gilbert "Brush and Pencil in Early Colorado Springs ", Colorado Springs Gazette and Te l e graph. 1924 Pg 28 59

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Katherine Smalley ( 1852-1942 ) Katherine Smalley was born in 1852 and grew up in Waverly, Iowa. At the age of 34 she went to Chicago to study with Charles Corwin at the Chicago Art Institute. In 1885 she won the Chicago Art Institute medal for drawing and painting life studies. Smalley headed West to Denver in 1888 where she painted oil and pastel portraits. The next year she moved to Colorado Springs where she found little demand for portraits and began painting landscapes and working in watercolors. Smalley was one of the only female artists in Colorado Springs who exhibited work in Denver. Her paintings were included in exhibits sponsored by both the LeBrun Club and the Artist s Club of Denver. Little else is known ofher life and artistic career after the mid-1890s. Anne Van Briggle Ritter ( 1868-1929) Anne Van Briggle Ritter was born in 1868 in Plattsburgh New York. She studied landscape painting in New York with Charles Melville Dewey attended the Victoria Lyceum in Berlin and spent three years (from around 1890-1893) at the Colorosse Academy in Paris. While in Paris two of her paintings were selected for exhibition at the Paris Solon. It was in France that Anne met artist Artus Van Briggle They became engaged several years later in 1895 Artus moved to Colorado Springs in 1899, on the advice of his doctor in hopes of improving his tuberculosis The following year, Anne joined him in Colorado where she became 60

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supervisor of art in a local high school. Although Artus s health continued to deteriorate they married in 1902 in the garden ofHelen Hunt's house on Cheyenne Mountain. Artus experimented and des igned fine vases and tiles In 1902 he established the Van Briggle Pottery company one of the greatest art potteries of America. "53. Shortly after their marriage Artus checked into a sanitarium in Denver and passed awa y in 1904 After his death Anne continued as art director for the pottery company In 1908 Anne married Swiss mining engineer Etienne Ritter. The pottery company languished and e v entually closed in 1910 but was later reopened with revised policies that would cheapen the product in order to make it c ommercially successful. Despite the change in product the company continued to struggle and on Jul y 29, 1913 the assets of the Van Briggle P o ttery Company w ere auctioned on the s teps of the El Paso County Courthouse. After the demise of the company Anne returned to painting landscapes and still life She had a studio at the Broadmoor Art Academy and exhibited her paintings at the Denver Public Library Exhibit records indicate that Anne produced portraits however most of her work available in public collections are landscapes and one nude figure. In 1923 she and her husband relocated to Denver where she taught classes in landscape and life drawing at the Chappell House and at the University of Denver Art School. She died in Den v er in 1929 53 Tim e an d Place: On e Hundr e d Y ears o f A rti s t s in Col orado 19 00-2000, C e nter for the V i s ual Art s Exhibit Cat a log Den v er CO 2000 P g 17 6 1

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CHAPTER6 LEADVILLE Around 1874, a small mining settlement named Slabtown was begun after a discovery of lead carbonates in the area. It was officially renamed Leadville on July 16, 1877. By then the settlement had grown to include a post office, hotel, and several mercantiles. Horace Austin Warner Tabor was one of the first businessmen and in February of 1878 was elected the towns' first mayor. By the spring of 1879 new arrivals were entering Leadville at a rate of more than 100 per day. The population by that time had reached over 5 000 with an equal number scattered at various mine sites outside of Leadville. White Americans made up over two thirds of the population with the largest number of immigrants being Irish The one ethnic group not represented were Orientals, as the town had banned them. At that time, most of the women residing in Leadville were waitresses, dance hall girls or prostitutes. In addition to the various shops springing up in the new settlement, there were over 100 saloons listed in the 1880 city directory 5 4 The town was a jerry rigged hovel of habitation. There was no uniformity. Tents butted against fine 54 Blair Edward L e adville: Colorado s Ma g i c City Fred Pruett Books, Boulder, CO 1980 Pg 76 62

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newly constructed brick buildings . Buildings were constructed according to the size of purse, size oflot, and type and amount of materials available. 55 The town was hectic and noisy twenty-four hours a day Engineer Arthur D Foote was one of the first professional miners to arrive in Leadville His wife author and illustrator Mary Hallock Foote joined him in the spring of 1879, a few months after his own arrival. Mary Hallock Foote (1847-1938) Mary Hallock Foote was named by illustrator William Allen Rogers one of the most accomplished illustrators in America."56 Additionally she has been hailed as "the only woman who was an important early Western illustrator engraver painter author." 57 While many of the women artists discussed here are relatively unknown with little biographical information available Mary Hallock Foote s life is well documented through her own writings, her autobiography which was published after her death, and at least two other bio graphies published in the last 25 years Her life was also the basis for Wallace Stegner s Pulitzer Prize winning novel Angle of Repos e 55 Blair Ed w ard. L eadv ill e : Colorado's Ma g i c City. Fred Pruett Books Boulder CO 1980. Pg 57 56 Taft Robert. Arti s t s and Jlfustrators of the Old W es t 1 8 50-1900 Charle s Scribner s Sons N ew York London 1953 Pg 172 5 7 Samuels Peggy and Harold The Illu s tra te d Biographi c al En cyclop e dia of A rti s t s of the Ame ri c an W es t Dougleda y & Co. Garden City, NY 1976 Pg 173 63

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Mary Hallock was born in 1847 on a farm outside the Hudson River town ofMilton, New York. Although the Hallocks were Quakers, they did not participate in the village s social or churchgoing life. An earlier dispute involving her Uncle Nicholas rendered them isolated from the Milton and New York Quaker society. She was raised a well-read young woman with an active mind and an interest in the current events of the world around her. "It was our father s custom in the evening to read aloud to the family assembled the Congressional debates and the editorials in the N ew York Tribune A child of eight or nine would have been lacking in ordinary intelligence if she had not gathered some notion of what they were talking about the great speakers in Conrsess who were battling for or against the extension of slavery." 8 Mary was influenced early on by her Aunt Sarah an outspoken anti-slavery and women s rights activist. Between 1856 and the Ci v il War, on Aunt Sarah's invitation the Hallocks hosted a number of lecturers from the New York AntiSlavery Society including Frederick Douglass and Susan B. Anthony She was educated in Poughkeepsie at the Female Collegiate Institute where she took her first art lessons with Margaret Gordon in the early 1860s In 1864 at the age of seventeen Mary Hallock was recognized by her teachers and family as a budding artistic genius and took the unusual step for a lady of her era of enrolling in the School of Design for Women (also known as the Cooper Institute) in New York City. At that time the Cooper Institute was one of 58 Paul Rodman W editor. A V i c torian G e ntlewoman in th e Far W est: R e min isce n ces of Mary Hallo c k Foote. Huntington Library, San Marino CA 1972. Pp52-53 64

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the very few places a woman could get an art education. Despite the prevailing attitudes against women in the profession she was determined to be an artist. "59 During the next three years Mary trained for a career as a black-and-white illustrator, under the instruction of William J. Linton. Linton came from the English art tradition and specialized in wood block engraving. The study of woodcut illustration attracted few amateurs because of its difficulty Foote was taught to draw directly on the wood block rather than using the easier method of drawing on paper and tracing the reverse image on the wood. This ensured a more accurate representation. To make a wood block engraving, the block was prepared with a powdered wash The sketch was then penciled on the block making dark lines against the white background. The block was then given to an engraver who would excise the white from the black lines. The image would appear in relief and could then be inked and printed on paper. Foote also studied privately with William Rimmer, Samuel F. Johnson John H .F. Whitney and Charles H. Burt. lt was at the art school that she met Helena de Kay, who would become her lifelong friend and correspondent. Her professional debut was the publication of four drawings in A.D Richardson's best seller Beyond the Mississippi and her career as an illustrator continued with contracts to illustrate various giftbook editions of Longfellow's The Skeleton in Armor, and The Hanging of the Cran e (the other 14 illustrations 59 Reed Walt and Reed Roger. The Illustrator in America, 1 88 0-1980 A Centu ry oflllustration. New York Madison Square Press 1984. Pg 35 65

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for this book were done by landscape artist Thomas Moran), as well as Whittier's Mabel Martin, and Hawthorne s The Scarlet Letter. At this time most women illustrators "if employed at all, were mostly relegated to such fancies as trade cards and pictures of pretty babies."6 Foote's drawings for these books featured closely cropped character studies with the figure placed in the center, as the predominant subject. During this time she was also commissioned to illustrate articles and stories by prominent writers for Scribner s magazine A survey of (Scribner's) issues between 1870 and 1874 reveals that Mary's work soon appeared with the same frequency as that of such acknowledged artists as Edwin Austin Abbey and Joseph Pennell."6 1 In 1874 her friend, Helena, married Richard Gilder editor of Scribner s Monthl y, which later became Century Magazine. On February 9, 1876 Mary Hallock m a rried Arthur De Wint Foote a young mining engineer. From this point on, her life consisted of following her husband throughout the west in his search for opportunities and success. Their first journey took them to New Almaden California, where Arthur was hired to survey a mine. They remained there for one year during which she gave birth to her first child, Arthur Burling Foote in 1877. While most of the servants in the settlement were Chinese men, Mary insisted on hiring a woman to 60 Bickford-Swarth ou t Doris. Mary Hallo c k Foot e: Pion ee r Woman Illustrator Berryhill Press Deansboro NY, 1996. Pg l 61 Johnson Lee Ann M a ry Hallo c k Foote. Twayne Publishers a Division of G K Hall & Co. Boston 1980 Pg 21 66

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assist her, in part due to her need for a female model to complete the illustrations for The S c arlet Letter. During this period, Mary continued to write and send illustrations to her friend Helena. The drawings accompanying her letters back east illustrated everyday life in the mining camp-the houses, the people and the land. Helena and her husband Richard convinced Mary to write articles to accompany her engravings. The first of these were published in S c ribner's Monthl y as a serial entitled A California Mining Camp published in February of 1878. From Almaden the Foote s moved to Santa Cruz, where Arthur worked unsuccessfully on developin g a mixture for hydraulic cement. In 1878 Arthur headed to Leadville in response to the silver rush. During that winter men were pouring in faster than the stages could bring them ... The road over Mosquito Pass . began to look like the route of a demoralized army; there were well-ploughed tracks upon tracks and sloughs of mud dead horses and cattle by hundreds scattered along wherever they dropped and human wreckage in proportion. "6 2 In Leadville the F ootes lived in a one room cabin built oflogs at 216 West Eighth Street, where Mary spent her days working on her engraving blocks and writings. While Arthur brought home visiting engineers and other company worker s to entertain Mary did not venture out in the town often. Arthur was apparently protecting her from the coarse elements of mining camp life She does, 62 Paul Rodman W. editor. A V i c torian G e ntl e woman in th e Fa r W es t : R e mini sce n ces o f Mary Hallo c k Foot e Huntington Library San Marino CA 1 972 Pg 165 67

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however describe a few evenings dining out at the Clarendon Hotel. One evening they were joined by Helen Hunt Jackson a celebrated author and proponent of justice for Indians, who, within the next two years would publish her most famous work, A Century of Dishonor. In his history of Leadville Edward Blair writes, "Mary Hallock Foote was all the things Leadville was not. She was a lady oflong lineage, a writer and illustrator and charming feminine and strangely wise "63 Though surrounded by the roughness of a mountain mining camp the Foote's maintained a certain sense of eastern gentility, entertaining men and women of prominence in their rustic cabin. The Foote s log home in Lead v ille was a frequent focus for ... men of the camp who came to discuss literary philosophical and artistic as well as scientific questions."64 Arthur Foote had managed the Adelaide mine in Leadville for a couple of years but after several attempted take-overs of the mine he decided to shut it down and return to Milton. Back in New York Mary drew on her experiences in Colorado to write her first novel The Led Horse Claim a westernized version of Romeo and Juliet woven among the story of a boundary dispute between two Leadville mines (the Adelaide and the Argentine). The book ran as a serial in Century Magazine from November 1882 through March of 1883. It was published 63 Blair Edward L eadvill e : Colorado' s Magi c City. Fred Pruett Books Boulder CO, 1980. Pg 57-58 64 Spense Clarke C. Mining Engine e r s and the American West : The La c e Boot Brigade, 1 8 491933 New Haven & London Yale Univ ersity Press 1970. Pg 332 68

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under the same title in book form by James R.Osgood and Company in 1883 and included several of her illustrations Figure 6 1 Underground, Mary Hallock Foote 69

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Interestingly she had to rewrite the conclusion in order to have a happy ending before it could be published as a book. In one of the illustrations that of a woman in the mine you can clearly see the detail of the engraving and the varying direction and weight of the marks that create depth The Footes traveled to Mexico in January of 1881, where Arthur had been hired to investigate mines. Mary w rote three illustrated travel articles based on this trip. The first article was published as the lead essay in the first issue of Richard Gilder's new journal, Century Magazine, which succeeded Scribner s in November of 1881. In 1882 Arthur traveled to Wood River Idaho to manage a mine. That fall Mary gave birth to her second child Elizabeth Townsend Foote ( b 9 / 9 / 1882). In 1883 she and her two children headed west to join Arthur who had created a new partnership, the Idaho Mining and Irrigation Company. His plan was to build an irrigation system in the canyon and valley ofthe Boise River, a tributary of the Snake River. It was a monumental undertaking and as it turned out not a particularly good time to begin a new company as the 1883 recession had turned into a depression by 1884. It was Mary's income from her published stories, novels and illustrations that kept the family financially afloat. The Footes settled in the canyon, in relative isolation ten miles outside of Boise. Their stone house was built with proceeds Mary made on her serialized 70

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second novel John Bodewin 's Testimon y, which was based on her Leadville experiences. Although the plots and characters of the Colorado novels are conventional and trivial the writings are valuable for their presentation of facets of life in a mining camp discussion of legal complications in mining operations descriptions of social changes when Eastern culture came in contact with primitive Western conditions and explanation of the effect of exploitation of Western resources by Eastern investors "65 On June 23, 1886, her third child was born daughter Agnes During the next four years the Foote s were constantly on the brink of failu r e as Arthur continued to try to secure funding for his canal venture. Mary continued to write primarily illustrated stories for Century Magazine Through her stories and drawings she introduced readers in the East to the settlers miners and engineers who inhabited the new West. Her most popular illustrated series was entitled Pi c tur es of the Far West, which was published in Century Magazine during 188 8 -1889. This series is considered by many her best work which showcases her "premier talents as a woodcut illustrator. "66 This collection of drawings reflects a gentle, rural West. Yet many of them also capture the remoteness and enormity of the vast landscape surrounding them reflecting her own sense of isolation. Historian Richard Etulain 65 Benn Mary Lou "Mary Hallock Foote: Early Leadville Writer ", Colorado Magazine Vol XXXlll No.2, April1956 Pg 102 66 E tulain Richard. R e -imag i n i n g th e Modem American West : A ce ntury of Fi c tion History and Art The University of Arizona Press Tucson AZ 1996 Pg 74 71

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points out that her earliest frontier art reflected her tentati v e romantic reactions to this s trange new West, but bi t b y bit ... her artwork included more probin g depictions of the West she was beginnin g to comprehend "6 7 O ver the ne x t se v eral y ears, th e Footes mo ve d to Boise then to a ne w house on the Mesa. The canal project was cons idered an enormous failur e and Arthur reluctantl y took a job with the g overnments Geological Surve y (Ev entually the Bureau of Reclamation under Theodor e Roo s e v elt completed the canal, but it was not finished until 1909 ). Mary and the children move d to Boise whi le Arthur traveled to Baja, California to open an on y x mine. Mary continued to write, completing two novels The Las t Assem b ly Ball (1889 ) her last novel based on her Leadv ille experiences an d The Ch osen V all ey ( 1892 ), which centered on th e canal project. B o th ran as serials in C en t ury b e for e being published in book form. Arthur was later offered a job by his brother-in-law James Hague to supervise the North Star Mine near Ri v erside California In 1895 the Foote's moved to North Star Cottage in nearb y Grass Valley where they remained for 30 years. Mary continued her writing but had for the most part abandoned her art. Her last known illustration was published in th e March 1906 issue of the St. N ic hola s Ma g a z in e In 1917 she wrote Edith B o nham dedicated to her best 67 67 E tul a in Richard R e imag inin g the Modern A m e r ic an West : A cent u ry of Fiction H istory and A rt Th e U ni versity o f Ari z on a Pre ss Tucson, A Z 1 9 9 6 P g 7 3 72

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friend Helena Gilder and in 1919, The Ground Swell, a tribute to her daughter, Agnes, who had died from appendicitis at age 18. In all, Mary Hallock Foote published sixteen novels. In 1932, because ofthe depression and financial concerns, Mary and Arthur Foote returned to the east to live with their daughter Betty in Hingham, Massachusetts Arthur Foote passed away in August of 1933. Mary Hallock Foote died June 25, 1938 at the age of 90 of arteriosclerosis. Though never lauded for literary excellence Foote was considered one of the most accomplished of American illustrators"68 and "one of the finest illustrators of her time in America ."69 She worked during a period considered to be the Golden Age of American woodcut illustration. Her fame as an artist was due in part to her success as a writer allowing her to be published frequently in Scribner's and Century magazines where her stories of the West were accompanied by her engravings. Her illustrations ofthe West evoke stylistic similarities of Frederic Remington and Winslow Homer. "However, in her illustrations she did not represent the myth of the rough and tumble Wild West; rather, her anecdotal vision showed the civilizing influence of the pioneers and how they imposed their refined on women and children and their lives in the West. The drawings evoke a sense of barrenness and isolation and imply an intimacy with the scenes not often found in 68 Mainiero Lina Editor. Ame ri c an Wome n Writ e rs. Volume 2 Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., New York 1979 Pg 62 69 Gerdts William H A rt A c ro ss Am e ri ca: T w o C e nturi es of Regional Painting. Abbeville Pres s Publishers NY, 1990 Pg 73

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Western illustrations. Her contribution to the portrayal of the West was the uniquely female perspective. Lee Ann Johnson writes in her biography of Mary Hallock Foote One suspects that had Foote not been a woman in a man s profession and had she not retired early from the field her credentials as a leading nineteenth century illustrator would need no introduction "70 Mary Hallock Foote has not been credited for helping to create the image of the West yet her work is an important perspective. Her images reflect an alternative to a purely masculine point of view of the 0 ld West and provide a realistic representation of family life in the new frontier. Although Mary Hallock Foote rarely exhibited her work she did participate in the first exhibition of the short-lived LeBrun Club of Denver in 1892. And in 1893 she was invited to exhibit drawin g s and watercolors at the World's Columbian Exhibition. While her illustrations are still a v ailable through the published books and magazines, most of the original sketches have disappeared In the beginning she drew directly on wood engraving blocks which were destroyed in the process of printing. Later she would submit the drawings to be engraved on wood by someone else. Small collections of her drawings reside at Cooper Union in New York City and the Library of Congress. 70 Johnson Lee Ann Ma ry Hallo c k Foote. T w a y ne Publi s hers a Division ofG.K. Hall & Co., Boston 1980. Pg 155 74

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CHAPTER 7 WOMEN ARTISTS IN THE 20TH CENTURY The tum of the century brought new opportunities for women to study and pursue professional careers as artists. Art schools expanded and more universities included the visual arts as professional majors. Women enrolled in colleges in vast numbers. And while the ultra conservative programs such as the National Academy of Design still did not permit women to attend anatomy lectures until 1914 more liberal institutions like the New York School of Art and the Art Students League allowed women the same access to nude models as male students, although the men s and women's figure drawing classes were held separately for a number of years to come. Women artists sold their work, entered competitions won prizes earned tra v eling scholarships, were awarded commissions participated in national and international exhibitions and generally took part in the activities of the contemporary art world. The growing tide of feminism, promoting women' s causes including birth control access to higher education economic independence and suffrage contributed to the changing circumstances for women. Hundreds of women were 75

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able to support themselves as artists, earning the respect of the artistic community Yet while the situation was improving women still found themsel v e s regarded separately as "women artists Art historian Frances Borzello claims that equality of opportunity turned out in practice to be rather an illusion."71 The reality was that men remained primarily in charge of the artistic power structures as directors of the art schools owners of galleries trustees of the museums, and art critics. Men also were the most influential patrons of art Many of the male art instructors voiced the belief that women art students were not as serious in their studies or were only in school to fmd a husband To much of the traditional art community women artists were still considered amateurs not requiring a profession to support themselves. Then there was the issue of gender in the actual art work. While talent was supposedly genderless the matter of differences was f requently raised with critics attempting to identify the feminine components in their work. Women were always afraid that if they admitted their work had specifically female qualities it was tantamount to labeling it as weak and in some way less than men s work. "72 The work of women artists as in the World Fairs of the previous century, was often separated such as group shows of "women artists Cultivating a reputation as an artist other than as the second-class woman artist remained difficult. 71 Borzello Frances A World of Our Own: W o m e n a s A rti s t s Sin ce the R e nai ssance.WatsonGuptill Publication New York 2000. P g 170 72 Ibid Pg 1 8 3 76

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The tum ofthe century is often referred to as the Golden Age of Illustration. There was a high demand for artists to depict scenes for newspapers magazines and books and many women such as Mary Hallock Foote made an acceptable living as illustrators At the beginning of the twentieth century, artists working in the same style or subject matter (i.e impressionism abstraction) organized together to hold their own exhibitions and to promote and sell their own work. This was a move away from the established art organizations and its system of juried exhibitions. In 1910 Robert Henri John Sloan and other New York artists organized the Exhibition of Independent Artists, which allowed anyone paying the $1 0 entry fee to exhibit. Women were able to participate more easily in these independent societies and organizations often serving as directors or exhibition organizers than in the closed system of juried exhibitions of the traditional art establishment. By the 1920s the number of independent galleries increased, some owned by women such as Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney and Edith Halpert. While galleries owned by women did not exclusively cater to women artists, they were generally more inclusive. The first third of the twentieth century saw a number of new art movements, much of it influenced by the European works exported widely through exhibitions that allowed young American artists to be exposed to new forms without having to travel or study abroad. The techniques included impressionism 77

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modernism cubism, fauvism expressionism surrealism and abstraction In 1908, a group of artists calling themselves "The Eight" introduced the country to the Ash Can School which depicted raw realistic views oflower-class urban life expressing a concern for the living conditions of the underprivileged immigrants arriving in the country in great numbers The leading artists in this movement were John Sloan George Luks Everett Shinn and Robert Henri. While The Eight" consisted of only male artists, a number of women painters became involved in this urban realism movement. Women painters also benefited greatly by the growth of art colonies and arts schools being developed across the country in resort loca t ions like Woodstock New York, Provincetown Massachusetts Ogundquit Maine Laguna B e ach California and Taos New Mexico Art historian Charlotte Rubinstein indicates that "women artists played a large role in these communities and flourished at the open art exhibitions organized by the local art associations where they were not at the mercy of the bia s es of the chauvinistic male jurors."73 The 1930s introduced a new style of representational realism known as American Scene painting that portrayed daily life in both rural and urban scenes. The prominent artists in this school were Grant Wood Thomas Benton Hart and Thomas Currey. While the technique was not initially popular with the public it became the basis for much of the art work commissioned during the New Deal 73 Rubinstein Charlotte. Ame rican Wom e n A rtists : from Earl y Indian Tim es t o the Pres e nt G.K Hall & Co., Boston, 1982 Pg 200 78

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federal arts projects. This style was embraced by many women artists who benefited from federal programs during the Depression In the 1940s and 1950s the United States had become a world leader in art with artists working in a variety of styles including abstract modes expressionism and realism. While a number of women artists found success in the 1930s through the federal art programs it be came more difficult to succeed in the following decades. "The forties, fifties and sixties turned out to be a period of increased discrimination. Th e leading galleries carried few works by women and very few women had solo shows in major museums in this period."74 After World War II women returned to their relatively passive roles in the family through the conservative and conforming fifties. The feminist movement which had nearly dissolved after the right to vote had been won, would not be revived until the 1960s. Federal Art Projects During the Great Depression a number of federally funded arts projects were developed, through various New Deal programs to assist with the unemployment situation and provide artwork and sculptures for public buildings. Each were distinct programs with differing goals administrations budgets policies and purposes although the distinctions were not always clear in the eyes 74 Rubinstein Charlotte. A m e ri c an Women Art i sts: from Earl y Indian Times to th e Presen t G.K Hall & Co., Bo s ton 1982 Pg 268 79

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of the public. Durin g one of the most difficult period s in the country s history, artists were commissioned to create works depicting optimistic pictures of idealized American workers and farmers and significant events in U.S. history The work was primarily representational, in the American scene style most popular at the time. In May of 1933, the Federal Emergency Relief Act was passed and created the Federal Emergenc y Relief Administration (FERA ) From this there emerged a v eritable alphabet soup o f government acronyms. U nd er FERA the Civil Works Administration (CW A ) was established. In December of 1933 a grant from the CW A funded the creation of the Public Works of Art Project ( PW AP) which was the first of the federally funded art program s in the 1930s. The PWAP under the direction of Ed w ard Bruce operated for only six month s, but pro v ided emplo y ment for over 3 700 artists who created mural s, oi l paintings watercolors sculpture s a n d crafts f or public building s In Oct ober of 1934 the S e c t ion of Painting and Drawing (later to be called the Section of Fine A rt s and most often referred to as simply The Section ") was established under the direction of the Treasury Department. The U.S. Treasury Department was responsible for the architecture and construction of all new Federal buildings including post offices throughout the country The Section under the leadership of Edward Bruce was responsible for the "decoration of all new public federal buildings Unlike the other New Deal art projects the Section 80

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was not concerned with providing relief work for unemployed artists but to provide high quality art for Federal buildings. Most of the Section work was done by artists appointed by the administration. The rest of the work was commissioned through competitions. Most of the competitions were not open to the general artistic public. Restrictions were frequently placed making the competitions only open to artists who lived in a particular state or region. Other competitions were by invitation only. The Works Progress Administration (WP A) was created on May 6 193 5 by Executive Order 7034 issued by Franklin D Roosevelt. In August of that year the WP A Federal Project Number One was established, which included music drama writing and art. Holger Cahill was appointed to direct the Federal Art Project, referred to as the WPA/FAP. The primary objective of the FAP was to get artists off the relief rolls and to integrate the arts with the community T he WP AJF AP was a broad based program that encompassed mural painting easel painting, sculpture graphic arts photo and film technical projects art exhibitions art education the Index of American Design ( a visual archive of American decorative arts from the colonial period through the nineteenth century) and the establishment of over one hundred community art centers throughout the country The program existed for eight years, during which it created 2 566 murals, 108,500 easel paintings 17,700 sculptures and 240,000 prints. 81

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The fourth Federal art program was the Treasury Relief Art Projects (TRAP) which was funding by a WP A grant in July of 1935 The grant was given to the Treasury Department to produce work for Federal buildings. Unlike the Section TRAP was required to employ artists based upon financial need The program lasted for only three years. The federal art programs were active throughout the 1930s employing hundreds of artists until the funding began to dwindle with the military escalation in Europe around 1939. Funding was terminated completely in June of 1943. While these projects created numerous opportunities for women, the artists involved in the federal art programs were predominantly men. For instance in the 48 State Post Office competition, 28 % of the entries were from women, but only 17% of the final commissions went to women artists. 75 However, if taken as a whole the various Ne w Deal arts programs included women in proportions closer to the number in the general population Approximately 40 percent of the artists on reliefwere women according to a 1935 survey 76 Women were also well represented in a number of administrative positions in the federal arts projects including regional and state directors. Among the women artists employed through these programs were several Colorado artists including Doris Lee Ila McAfee Gladys Caldwell Fisher Nadine Drummond, Ethel and Jenne Magafan and Louise 75 Melosh Barbara Eng e nd ering Culture: Manhood and Womanhood in New D eal Publi c A rt and The atre. Smithsonian Institute Press Washington & London 1991. Pg 227 76 Rubinstein CharlotteS A m e ri c an Wome n Arti st s : from E arl y Indian Times to the Pr e s e nt G.K. Hall & Co. New York 1982. Pg 215 82

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Ronne beck. Although much of the federall y funded art was lost destroyed or painted over, a number of mu r als and sculptures b y these artist s still exist in post offices and other federal and public buildings across the West. Elsie Ward Hering ( 1872-1922) Elsie Ward has been considered "perhaps one of the most important sculptors of the early part of the century ." 77 She was born in 1872 on a farm in Howard County, Missouri to parents Thomas and Alice Talbot Ward Her family relocated to Denver around 1887 where Elsie attended North High S c hool. After her graduation in 1889 she studied drawing and sculpture with several local artists including Preston Powers (son of famed sculptor Hiram Powers) Ida M Stair Samuel Richards and Henry Read at the Denver Woman s Club and the Den v er School of Fine Arts She joined the Denver Art Association and began exhibiting her work around 1894 with the Denver Artists Club In 1896 Elsie traveled to New York City to continue her studies at the Art Student s League where her instructors included Daniel Chester French, Siddons Mowbray and Augustus Saint-Gaudens While there she took first place in an exhibition for a sculpture entitled "Youth 77 Colorado Wome n in the A rt s 1860-1960 D&K Printing Boulder Colorado 1979 Pg 20 83

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Her sister Margaret was an art teacher who encouraged Elsie to continue her studies With financial support from her sister Elsie headed to Pari s in 1898 During her studies there she created a figure for a drinking fountain called Boy and Frog for which she later recei v ed a medal at the 1904 St. Louis Worlds Fair. There is a cement cast of the figure at the Denver Botanical Garden s. She also exhibited a piece at the Society o f American Artist s in Pari s Elsie return e d briefly to Denver in 1900 and set up a studio. Within the year she was contacted by her former teacher Augustu s Saint-Gaudens with an offer of a position as a s t udio assistant. She then moved to Cornish New Hampshire whe r e she assisted Saint-Gaudens from 1902 unti l his death fiv e years later in 1907 While working for Saint-Gaudens Ward continued to create her own sculptures including a commis s ion by the Hug uenot Group for a piece for the Charleston E x position of 1902 The sculpture entitled Mother and Child stood in front of the Woman's Building and was awarded a silver medal. She also completed a large work of a father mother and two children to commemorate early French settler s and a portrait statue of frontiersman George Rogers Clark. In 1906 she entered a competition for a Civil War Memorial for the grounds of the Colorado State Capital in Denver. Her design a female winged victory carrying a laurel and a palm wa s selected out of 30 entries. However the sculpture was ne v er built due to reported opposition to the design from the veterans of the G A R., and the legislatures reluctance to fund the $15 000 required to cast the 84

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bronze piece. In the end a bronze figure of a s oldier donated b y sculptor John Howland who sat on the jury for the competition was erected in its place in 1909. After the death of Saint-Gauden s, Ward remained in New Hampshire and completed the commissions in progress including the Baker Memorial in Mt. Kisco which depicted a seated Christ in bronze with a background of prayin g angels in bas-relie f of white marble. Ward was especiall y noted for her ability to sculpt wings. "78 Elsie Ward returned to Denver in 1910 where she married Henry Hering another of Gaudens assistants. The couple moved to New York where her husband continued to work as a sculptor. Elsie assisted her hus band in his studio but did little of her own work She did however e xe cute a baptismal font in 1917 which she designed in the early 1900s of an angelc hild with detailed wings holding a shell. The font was originall y housed in St. George s C hurch in New York City but was later moved to the former All Saints Episcopal Church at W. 32nd and Wyandot in Denver. Elsie Ward Hering died in 1923 at the age of 51. Laura Gilpin (1891-1979 ) Laura Gilpin pioneered the field of landscape photography for women artists. In a field dominated by men she carved out a place for herself chronicling the architecture the landscape and the people of the American Southwest for over 78 Schlosse r, E lizabeth Mode m S c ulptur e in D e n ve r 191 9-19 60 Ocean V iew Bo o ks, Denver 1995 Pg. 13 85

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sixty years through both photos and narrative text. Landscape photography in the West originated with the male photographers who accompanied the government survey teams in the 1860s and 1870s. The work was extremely difficult requiring them to haul heavy equipment chemicals and breakable glass plates up steep inclines and rugged terrain Very few women had even attempted such a challenge. Laura Gilpin was born on April 22, 1891 in Austin Bluffs Colorado just north of Colorado Springs Her father Frank Gilpin who was related to William Gilpin the first governor of the Colorado Territory had moved to Colorado from Baltimore in 1880. At the time ofLaura' s birth he was managing a mine in Central City Over the next thirty years Frank Gilpin would attempt a number of occupations with varying degrees of success including mining ranching, and investing and eventually end up as a furniture craftsman. In 1896 the family moved to Colorado Springs where Laura attended the private Ferris School. Her best friend there was Anne Parrish daughter of the Colorado Springs artist of the same name. Laura and Anne, through family acquaintances had become friends with General William Jackson Palmer, the founder of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad and Colorado Springs Together they would go on long walks or horseback rides around the Pikes Peak area. Laura attributed her life-long fascination with landscape to General Palmer. 79 79 Sandwei ss, Marth a A. Laura Gilpin : An Endurin g Grace. Amon Carter Museum Fort Worth Texas. Pg 15 86

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On her twelfth birthday in 1903 she was gi v en a Brownie camera which was the beginning of her interest in photography Then in 1905 her mother took Laura and her younger brother to New York for a portrait sitting with the leading woman photographer of the time, Gertrude Kasebier. Kasebier also born in Colorado would become her friend and mentor encouraging Laura to pursue her interest in photography. She recommended that Laura study at the Clarence White School of Photography after completing high school. That same year Laura was sent East to attend the Baldwin School in Bryn Mawr Pennsylvania where she felt distinctly out of place. Her biographer, Martha A Sandweiss writes Laura felt acutely aware of her special status as a westerner proclaiming her identity by wearing cowboy outfits to school parties and balls. "80 In the fall of 1907, she transferred to the Rosemary Hall School in Greenwich Connecticut but returned home to Co lo rado before receiving her high school diploma She traveled east again in 1910 to study violin at the New England Conservatory ofMusic. Her family had by then moved to an 1800 acre ranch in Austin Colorado and finances were so tight that they were no longer able to support her education. Laura had to return to Colorado after only six months in Boston. Back at home she raised turkeys the first of many entrepreneurial enterprises. Her poultry business turned out to be quite successful, allowing her to save enough money to move to New 80 Sandweiss Martha A Laura Gilpin: An Enduring Grace. Amon Carter Mu s eum Fort Worth Texas. Pg 17 87

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York in the fall of 1916 to study photography at the Clarence White School under Max Weber and Paul Anderson That same year her first published photograph, a view of the Grand Canyon, appeared in a photography magazine. At the Clarence White School Laura was instructed in a particular style of photography called pictorialism. Pictorialism was a photographic movement that was popular beginning around 1885, following the widespread introduction of dryplate processing that emphasized mood instead of description. The style reached it's height in the early twentieth century. Pictorialism embraced the concept that art photography needed to emulate the painting and etching of the time. The primary methods used to create this result were soft focus special filters and lens coatings, heavy manipulation in the darkroom and exotic printing processes. Rough surfaced printing paper was also used to further soften a picture's focus and fine needles were employed to etch the surface of the prints. "Pictorialists believed in manipulating the reality seen through the lens in order to create a certain mood. "8 1 In a sense this was the photographers attempt to assert artistic control over the image, rather than create direct reproductions. Gilpin was strongly influenced by White's style and the use ofpictorialism and "embraced his idea of photography as a personally expressive art. "82 While in New York, she worked extensively with the platinum printing process which employs contact printing 81 Danneberg Julie. Women Artists of the West: Five Portrait s in Creativity and Courage Fulcrum Publishing, Golden, CO 2002 Pg 42 82 Norwood, Vera and Monk, Janice editors The D eser t is No Lady: Southwestern Landscapes in Woment s Writing and Art Yale University Press New Ha v en 1987. Pg 64 88

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only ; a format she would continue to use throughout her life despite its general discontinuance among later photographers After her graduation from the Clarence White School Gilpin returned to Colorado Springs and began her career as a professional photographer promoting her services for portraits advertisements and brochures. At that time photography offered a less expensive alternative to painted portraits Her brochure offered portraiture for $35 for a studio sitting and $50 for a h ome sitting ; each included three platinum prints. Laura continued taking landscap e photos of the nearb y mountains and prairies that she entered in competiti v e e x hibitions resulting in her participation in fourte e n group exhibitions in 1920 During that time she beg an taking camping trips in Colorado and New Mexico to further explore and photograph the local geography. In 1921 Gilpin joined the faculty of th e Broadmoor Art Academy, becoming the first, and only, instructor of photography in residence The following year she tra veled to Europe for a few months to study art culture and architecture. Gilpin took her first trip to the Native American cliff dwellings in Mesa Verde in the southwestern comer of Colorado, in 1924 and returned in 1925. In describing Mesa Verde, with the forests on one side plains and deserts on another and mountains on two other sides she writes, It would be difficult to find 89

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anywhere a landscape more v aried ." 83 ln this en v ironment she created dramatic black and white photos with striking use of light and s hado w s to create depth. As she pursued a focus on h e r landscape photography she began to develop her own sense of design and composition As her expertise grew she abandoned the softfocus pictorial style for a more clearly-focused representational approach. Figure 7.2 M e sa V e rde, Laura Gilpin 83 Gilpin Laura The Pue blo s : A C am era Chronicle. Uni v ersity of Texas Pre s s Austin & London 1968. Pg 4 3 90

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Gilpin continued to find commercial ways to support her photography. In 1926 she self-published a booklet of her photos entitled The Pikes P eak Region: Reproductions from a Series of Photographs by Laura Gilpin. The booklet is large (approximately 8 x 11 ")and tied at the center binding with a string with sheer tissue paper between each of the 15 black and white photos. In it, she also, for the first time, included some narrative text to accompany her photographs. She described the Garden of the Gods as a place of gigantic forms of entrancing moods of mystery. But in the late afternoon the Gods ofthe Garden are awake and one may almost see them walking among the rich shadows of their sculptured dwellings "8 4 The next year she produced a similar booklet with her photographs of Mesa Verde entitled The Mesa Verde National Park: Reproductions from a Series of Photographs by Laura Gilpin. Gilpin also advertised a series of slides of archeological monuments in Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona, which could be rented for a $1 0 fee, along with an accompanying lecture that she created presented "in a form which may be easily and fluently read even by persons unfamiliar with the subject."8 5 During this period, Gilpin also worked in Central City for five years photographing theatre productions for famed New York play 84 Gilpin Laura. The Pik es P eak Region : R eproduc tions of a S e ri es o f Photograph s b y Laura Gilpin. Gilpin Publishing Company Colorado Springs 1926.Pg 4 85 Gilpin Laura Pict o rial Lant ern Slid es of th e South w e s t (pamphlet) 91

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designer Robert Edmund Jones. In 1930 Gilpin was elected an Associate of the Royal Photographic Society of Great Britain. During the Depression it became harder to make a living through her photographs and publications. Though she continued to travel throughout the Southwest to photograph she needed to secure a more constant income to support her travels and materials, so she and a friend opened the Fairfield Turkey Farm on three hundred acres of land outside of Colorado Springs which specialized in pinon-fed gourmet turkeys that were sold to expensive restaurants throughout the country. Gilpin also took photographs for W .E. & A A Fisher, one of Colorado's largest and best known architectural firms documenting the firms building projects While working in the Southwest Gilpin 's interest in Native Americans and their culture intensified. Her approach to landscape photography with the land being an environment that shaped and affected human activity set her apart from other landscape photographers, such as William Henry Jackson, Timothy O Sullivan and Ansel Adams. For Gilpin the southwestern landscape was neither an empty vista awaiting human settlement nor a jewel-like scene resisting human intrusion. It was a peopled landscape with a rich history and tradition of its own, 92

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an environment that shaped and molded the lives of its inhabitants. "86 She developed a unique approach to documenting the landscapes through photographs combined with narrative that described the connection between the cultures and the land the past and the present the relationships between people and the environment they inhabit. In 1941, she published her first major book The Pu e blo s : A Camera Chronicle It contained dramatic black and white photos taken from 1921 while she was still utilizing the soft-focus style to 1941 of pueblos and ruins in Colorado New Mexico and Arizona During World War II, Gilpin worked as a public relations photographer for the Boeing Company in Wichita Kansas After the war she relocated to Santa Fe New Mexico O v er the next twenty-five years Gilpin would continue to travel across the Southwest photographing the landscape and the people that inhabited it. She frequently traveled with her long time friend Elizabeth Forster, a nurse who had worked with the Navajos in the 1930s. Gilpin published three more books of photography with narrative: Temple s in Yucatan (1947) The Rio Grande : River of Destin y (1947) and The Enduring Navajo (1968). Through her books and the integration of human culture with landscape, she presented the American West to the world in a way which had not been seen before "Gilpin created a record of the 8 6 N orwood Vera and Monk Janice editors The D e s e rt i s N o Lady: Southwes t e rn Lands c ap e s i n Wome n s Writin g a n d Art Yale Uni v ersity Press New H a ven 1987. Pg 63 93

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Southwest as a historical landscape with a past measured not just in geological or evolutionary time but in human time, as evidenced by architectural ruins ancient trails and living settlements. It was a landscape with intrinsic beauty but one whose greatest meaning derived from its potential to change and be changed by humankind."87 Gilpin had established her niche as a cultural landscape photographer integrating the lives of inhabitants with the vastness of the land. In the preface of The Enduring Navaho Gilpin describes the challenges faced by the indigenous tribe : "Within the boundaries of their 25, 000 square mile reservation more than 100 000 Navaho People, the largest tribe of Indians in North America are striving for existence on a land not productive enough to sustain their increasing population. They are striving not only to exist, but also to meet an encroaching way of life with which they are in a large measure unfamiliar. It is within the last thirty years that the Navah o have been faced with this growing necessity for change a change so gr eat for them that we can scarcely comprehend it. Their traditional mode of living ... is being changed through their adaptation to an utt erly alien existence." 88 Gilpin s treatment and narrative of the Native Americans used as her subjects has been criticized in recent times. Historian James Faris claims that Gilpin was insensitive and lacked knowledge ofNavajo customs and beliefs infusing her Western views of their culture in a patronizing way and persisting in getting access to their ceremonies, rituals and sacred objects He cites an example of a photo she took of a family posing by their son s coffin draped in an American 87 Norwood, Vera and Monk Janice editors. The D esert is No Lady: Southw este rn Lands capes in Wom e n 's Writing and Art Yale University Press New Ha v en 1987 Pg 71 88 Gilpin Laura. The E nduring Navaho. University ofTexas Press Austin & London 1968. P g vii 94

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flag and asks "Is Gilpin not skating the edge of exploitation or banality to have set it all up so deliberately to provoke a setting that would maximize the visual image (the stoic Navajo in grief) in the white public s mind?"8 9 Faris further attacks her for not getting permission from the Navajo to publish their photographs and for being insensitive to the native belief that public exposure of their photographic images can possibly have negative repercussions for those depicted. In support of this claim he cites a lawsuit filed after Gilpin s death against her estate by one of the Navajo woman (and her child) photographed. His claims may be accurate, from the perspective of a scholar in the 1990s but does not consider the practices and beliefs of the time period in which Gilpin worked Through most of her life Laura Gilpin made very little money from her photographs and publications and remained relatively unknown. It was not until the 1970's that she began to be recognized for her work. In 1974 the Governor of New Mexico awarded her one ofthe First Annual Awards for Excellence in the Arts, and in 1977 Governor Dick Lamm of Colorado presented her with the Governors Award in the Arts & Humanities. Laura Gilpin took her last photographic trip at age 88 just weeks before her death in 1979 She returned to photograph the Rio Grande from the air in a small plane. By that time she was in a wheelchair due to a painful hip condition caused by years of hauling heavy camera equipment. Gilpin passed away two 89 Faris James. Navajo and Photograph y : A C ri tical Hi s tory of th e Representation of an American People. Univer s ity ofNew Mexico Press Albuquerque 1996 Pg 240 95

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months later, on November 30, 1979 due to heart failure and was buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Colorado Springs Ila McAfee (1897-1995) Ila McAfee enjoyed a long career a s a painter specializing in animals ranch scenes Nati v e Americans and landscapes She was born October 21, 1897 on a ranch in Saguache County south of Gunnison Colorado where she spent her childhood. She reportedly traveled the 10 mile round trip to elementary school on horseback each day. After graduating from Gunnison High School in 1916 McAfee traveled to Los Angeles to study painting at the West Lake School of Art and the Haz Art School. She returned to Colorado to attend Western State College in Gunnison where she studied with Catherine and Henry Ricter and graduated in 1919. After r e ceiving her degree McAfee went east to enter art school in Chicago. She left school after a brief period to study privately with muralist James E. McBurney where she worked as his assistant from 1920-1924 While in Chicago she also studied with sculptor Lorado Taft In 1925 McAfee traveled to New York to continue her art studies at both the Art Students League and the National Academy of Design. While in New York she illustrated stories for various magazines including Ranch Romances and Blu e Book. In 1926, she returned to her home ranch in Saguache County with 96

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artist Elmer Page Turner to be married. Turner had also been a student of muralist McBurney Ila and Elmer settled in Taos New Mexico in 1928 where she remained for the next 65 years They both remained active artists and built a studio onto their house called the White Horse Studio In the late 1930 s and early 1940's, McAfee was awarded commissions to do a number of WP A post office murals including Pre-Settlement Day s for Edmond, Oklahoma in 1939 Wealth of the West for Gunnison, Colorado in 1940 and Texas Longhorns-A Vanishing Breed for Clifton, Texas in 1941 She also created a mural depicting the crowding out of the Indians by the white settlers for the post office in Cordell, Oklahoma McAfee presented three murals to the Greeley Library in 1945, as a tribute to her mother-in-law Edith Turner who was a library assistant there The murals depicted antelope deer and buffalo on the Colorado prairies. Elmer Turner died in 1966 and McAfee remained in Taos, continuing to paint. In 1982 she published a book of art and poetry entitled Indians Horses Hills, etc. In 1993 after nearly sixty-five years in Taos, McAfee returned to Colorado to live in a retirement home in Pueblo near her sister. She passed away on April 18, 1995 at the age of 97. The Denver Post hailed her as "one of the foremost painters of horseflesh in the country "90 90 Po s t Empir e 12/ 2 / 1956 97

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Muriel Sibell Wolle (1898-1977) Muriel Wolle is best known for her documentation, in drawings paintings and historical research of western mining and ghost towns. She was born April3 1898 in Brooklyn New York where she spent her childhood. She attended the New York School ofFine and Applied Art (which is now Parsons School of Design) graduating in 1920 with degrees in both costume design and advertising Upon graduation Wolle moved to Texas to take a teaching position at the Texas State College for Women, where she stayed for three years She then returned to New York to teach at her former alma mater, the New York School ofFine and Applied Art. In 1926 she took a vacation trip to Colorado and visited Central City, a trip which changed the course of her life She describes her first impression of Central City: "The place was full of echoes and memories and history and I felt strangely stirred by it. Here was a piece of the old west, a tangible witness to Colorado's pioneering It was disappearing fast ; it was important that it be preserved: it challenged me . .. The place itself seemed to cry out for a pictorial rendering, and I determined then and there to try my hand at it and to return in September to sketch the streets and individual buildings. After that I decided to return again and again until I had Central City on paper."9 1 Wolle returned to her teaching position in New York following her Colorado vacation, but became determined to revisit the West in order to pursue 9 1 Wolle Muriel Sibell. Stamp e d e to Timberline: The Gho s t Town s and Minin g Camp s of Colorado Ohio University Press Athens, 1949. Pg 7 98

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her fascination with the frontier mining camps. She resigned her position in New York and began to search for teaching positions in the West. Within a few months she was appointed to the art faculty at the University of Colorado in Boulder, a perfect location for her research. At the university she was selected a Department Chair a position she would hold for over 21 years (1928-1949). At the time there were only two other women department heads at the university: the head of Physical Education for Women and the head of Home Economics. Wolle was the only woman chairing a department that included both men and women faculty. She was promoted to full Professor in 1930, and remained at CU until her retirement in 1966. In addition to her teaching and administrative duties Wolle also designed scenes and costumes for the CU Theatre Department from 1927 to mid-1940's, c ontributing to over 90 productions. On October 26, 1945 she married colleague Francis Wolle, a Professor in the English Department. 99

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Figure 7.2 The Streets of Blackha w k e Muriel Sibell Wolle From the time she moved to Boulder until nearly the end of her life Wolle spent countless hours traveling the Rocky Mountains b y car wagon horseback and foot, to sketch and research the hundreds of mining and ghost towns scattered throughout the mountains. She initiall y created her sketches in watercolor but found the method to be too time consuming She then would spend five to ten minutes doing a rough sketch of each subject on site which she would later work on at home, additionally referring to photographs she had taken of the site and allowing an additional couple of hours to complete each piece using lithographic 100

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crayons and occasionally adding watercolors In the preface of her first book, Wolle writes: Perhaps it is strange that someone brought up in a big eastern city completely ignorant of mining and all that goes with it, should willingly abandon the east and become steeped in the history of pioneer Colorado. And perhaps it is equally strange that from a single mountain drive such an absorbing hobby was born. As the result of one ride, I dedicated myself to recording pictorially the mining towns of the state before they disappeared or before those which are still active were 'restored past all semblance of their past glory ; and almost without knowing it, I was also deep in history."92 Her initial collection of drawings accompanied with historical narrative was published in two pamphlets: Ghost Cities ofColorado in 1933, and Cloud Cities of Colorado in 1934 The pamphlets sold for $1. She continued her expeditions and research in Colorado for over 22 years, visiting 240 mining communities She kept a running chart of all the mining towns, those still in existence and those long deserted and marked each off with a red dot as she found and sketched it. As the red dots increased in number I began to look toward the day when the record would be complete and I could stop traipsing over impossible roads in search of invi s ible towns." 93 However just as soon as she would mark one town off, someone would inevitably inquire about a place she had not heard about yet and she d have to add another location to the list. 92 Wolle Muriel Sibell. Stamp e d e to Timb e rli'!e: The Gho s t Tow n s and Minin g Camps of Colorado Ohio Uni v ersity Press Athens, 1949. Preface (unnumbered) 9 3 Ibid. Preface (unnumbered) 101

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In the late 1940s she attempted to have her collection published in book form which she titled Stamped e to T i mberline but it was rejected by numerous publishing companies as it was deemed to be only o f local interest. So in 1949 she and her husband Francis published the book themselves and had it printed. They stored boxes of the books in their garage and handled their own distribution The book was later picked up by the Ohio University Press. Stamped e to Timbe rline documents Wolle s travels using maps histori c al background and anecdotes she collected along the way by talking to librarians town officials waitresses and gas station attendants. The book include s over 200 drawings By the time the second edition was published in 1974, Wolle had located and documented over fifty additional sites. After documenting the mining camps in Colorado Wolle expanded her research to the nearby Rocky Mountain states The Bonan z a Trail published in 1953 included all twelve western mining states and Montana Pay Dirt: A Guide to the Mining Camp s o f the Treasure State published in 1963 focused on the camps in Montana. Muriel Sibell Wolle was an active artist throughout her life and exhibited widely. She was a member of"The Prospectors" an organization of five University of Colorado artists who exhibited in major art centers in 22 states between 1931 and 1941. She had one person shows at the Denver Art Museum in 1933 and 1956 the Colorado Springs Fine Art Center in 1945 and at the Maryland 102

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Art Institute in Baltimore in 1945. Wolle won the watercolor division of the 441 h Annual Exhibit of the National Association of Women Artists and Sculptors in New York City for Spru ce Str ee t Man s ion depictin g a house in Boulder In 1974 s he was selected b y the University of Colorado faculty as the Facul ty Re s earch Lecturer of the Year the first woman to be chosen for the honor And in 1975 Govern Dick Lamm presented her with the Governor s Award for the Arts and Humanities The CU Alumn i Association honored Woll e in 1976 with its highest tribute the Norlin Award for outstanding achie v ement in her profession an award that she had designed twenty seven years earlier. Wolle retired from the Uni ve r s ity in 1966 U pon her ret i rement she donated her collection of o v er 200 Kachina d olls v alued at $9 000 at the time to the Uni v ersity. In 1966 when the Fine Arts department moved into the recently vacated engineerin g buildi ng, it was renamed the Muriel Sibell Wolle Fine Art s Building in her honor. Wolle died on January 9 1977, of a heart attack at age 78. After her death the University of Colorado honored her a s one of the three Alumni of the Century." Muriel Sibell Wolle not only contributed to the art of the West but left a visual documentation and record of many of the mining camps which are no longer in existence Without her efforts many of these s ites might have been lost entirely. Additionally her detailed drawings of individual buildings have assisted preservationists in restoring sites to their original form 103

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Eve Drewelowe ( 1899-1988) Eve Drewelowe was a painter who worked as an artist for most of her 89 years. She was born April 15, 1899 on a farmstead in New Hampton, Iowa the eighth of thirteen children. She spent her childhood in Iowa and, after high school, went to Iowa City where she had received a scholarship to attend the University of Iowa. After earning her BA in Graphics and Plastic Arts in 1923 she married fellow student Jacob VanEk. The next year Drewelowe became the first student to receive an MA in Fine Arts from the University of Iowa. She had majored in Painting and Art History. Later that year she and her husband moved to Boulder, Colorado where he had been hired as an Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Colorado. VanEk would later become the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences there. Soon after her arrival, Drewelowe became a charter member of the Boulder Arts Guild, where she lobbied for exhibition space and recognition for Boulder artists. She participated in the annual exhibitions sponsored by the Guild. Drewelowe worked tirelessly as an artist early on rendering mostly Western and Colorado landscapes in oil, watercolor and pen and ink echoing the social realism of Edward Hopper and Thomas Hart Benton. Her later style leaned more towards abstract expressionism. In all, she created over 1000 works. She would also occasionally teach for the University of Colorado as an adjunct lecturer. 104

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Drewelowe was regarded as a devoted feminist "staunchly maintaining her maiden name when it was not an acceptable or widely held practice."94 In 1929 she and her husband took a worldwide trip visiting twenty-nine countries in thirteen months, much of the travel in the Far East. During their travels she documented the trip by sketching the various sites She returned to the U.S. with six sketchbooks filled with ink drawings which would be used as the basis of future paintings. Figure 7 3 Swinging Saplings Eve Drewelowe 94 Ro cky Mountain News October 24 1988. Pg 112 105

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Upon her return she held her first one-woman exhibit at the CU Library gallery, which included twenty two oil paintings and sixteen ink drawings. This was followed by numerous other one-woman exhibits, including the Argent Galleries in New York in 1940 and 1941 and the Denver Art Museum, in 1933 1936 and 1939. She also participated in the "American Art Today exhibit at the Ne w York Worlds Fair in 1940. In 1935 she again traveled abroad with her husband this time to Denmark Finland England France Italy, Greece Turkey and Russia where she completed two more sketchbooks of source material for later paintings. While working to further her career as an arti s t, Drewelowe struggled to resist the demands of domesticity. She was not interested in playing the role of company wife and social hostess to her husbands colleagues and purposefully chose a smaller bouse which would not be conducive to e n t e rtaining. In the late 1930s Drewelowe experienced a major physical collapse that she attributed to her 'chores as the Dean s wife. "9 5 She fell ill on a trip to New York in 1940 and underwent emergency surgery at the Mayo Clinic Following that ordeal she spent the next ten years in and out of hospitals with a gastrointestinal illness though it did not restrict her or diminish her desire to paint. Of her medical situation 95 Do s s Erika. I Mus t Paint: Women Arts of the Rocky Mountain Region ". Inde p endent Spirit s: Wome n Paint e r s o f t h e A m e rican West 1 8 90-1945 University of California Press Berkeley, Los Angeles and London 1995 Pg 228. 106

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Drewelowe wrote, "It was as simple as that. . A one day division of my life into two parts .. A before my illness and a life following .. which was my Reincamation."96 It was about this time that her work changed dramatically She began to experiment with abstract forms and shapes using round canvasses and the use of textural materials adhered to surfaces In addition to continuing to depict landscapes, which had taken on a decidedly expressionist technique she also used African and tribal influences in her work. In 1979 Eve Drewelowe received the Distinguished Alumni Award from the University of Iowa, in honor of her professional accomplishments and in appreciation for her donations supporting the university s Museum of Art and the School of Art and Art History. The gallery in the University oflowa art building w as named the Eve Drewelowe Gallery in her honor. The city of Boulder awarded her a grant in 1981 to finance the painting and exhibition of "translations" of her earliest watercolors of an undeveloped Boulder in the 1920s and 1930s. ln the mid 1980s Drewelowe began to sort through her extensive body of work in preparation for a retrospective exhibit of her work at the University of Iowa. Researchers assisting the artist found "paintings and drawings ; along with diaries, letters notebooks, prescriptions and receipts hidden in every nook and cranny of her home in cupboards between mattresses even in 9 6 Drewelowe Eve. The Earl y Y e ars of Eve D rewelowe: 1930 s -1940 s Boulder Center for the Visual Arts 1987 exhibit catalog Pg 3 107

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the stove and dishwasher. "97 In her last years Drewelowe with the assistance of researchers catalogued her artwork which was to be willed to the University of Iowa after her death in order to memorialize her life work. Eve Drewelowe passed away on October 23, 1988, at the age of 89. Louise Emerson Ronnebeck (1901-1980) Louise Ronne beck painted primarily in the style of Regionalism, also known as American Scene painting and was known by and large for her mural work sponsored by the Federal art programs in the 1930s and early 1940s. She was b orn Mary Louise Harrington Emerson on August 25 1 901 in the Germantown section ofPhiladelphia the youngest of three daughters. Her father was a succes s ful engineering consultant who established the Emerson Institute of New York City in 1900 and was the nephew of famed writer Ralph Waldo Emerson. Louise grew up in New York and attended Barnard College. After her graduation in 1922 she studied at the Art Students League with urban realist painter Kenneth Hayes Miller, George Bridgman and sculptor Leo Lentelli. Louise's own technique was greatly influenced by the representational style of Miller s painting During the s ummers of 1922 and 1923 she traveled to France to 9 7 Doss Erik a I Must Paint: Women Arts of the Rocky Mountain Region". Inde p ende nt Spirits : Wom e n Paint e r s of the A m e ri can W e st 1 8901945 Uni v ersity of California Press Berkeley Los Angeles, and London, 1995. Pg 228 108

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study at the American Academy in Fountainebleau, where she studied fresco painting with Paul-Albert Baudouin. In the summer of 1925 Louise and her sister Isabel visited artist Mabel Dodge in Taos, New Mexico. It was there that Louise met her future husband German sculptor Arnold Ronnebeck who had accompanied his friend painter Marsden Hartley to Taos. Louise and Arnold married the following year in New York City, with Mabel Dodge and Tony Luhan in attendance and soon after moved to Denver where Arnold had been appointed Director of the Denver Art Museum. The Ronnebecks would continue to spend v acations in Taos visiting with their friends in the art community there including Leo and Gertrude Stein Alfred Stieglitz Marsden Hartley Walter Ufer Erne s t Blumenschein Andrew Dasburg and Georgia O'Keefe. In Denver Louise worked hard to establish herself as an artist, despite the demands of marriage and motherhood She continued to use her maiden name professionally until 1930 Her first child, Arnold was born in 192 7 followed by a daughter Ursula, in 1929 The attic of their home on 435 Clermont Street next to Steck Elementary School, was her s tudio where she painted scenes of school children and family outings frequently using her own children as models. In 1930 the Rocky Mountain News profiled Ronnebeck in an article which noted Louise Emerson who in private life is Mrs Arnold Ronnebeck, is out to prove that a woman can be a successful artist and mother at the same time ... Between the 109

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childrens meal times the mother rests while the artist works "9 8 The article quotes her as commenting, 1 never go to bridge parties I seldom go to teas, and I work all odd hours in my studio. "99 Ronnebeck painted more than twelve murals for public spaces in the 1930 s and early 1940 s including two frescoes for the fas;ade at More y Middle School three panels at the entrance of the Robert W. Speer Memorial Hospital (now Denver Health Center) Kent Schoo l for Girls, Children's Hospital in Denver the Church of the Holy Redeemer the nativity scene for the pediment of the Denver City and County Building the Worland, Wyoming Post Office and the Grand Junction Colorado Post Office Her favorite medium was fresco, a method of painting water-based pigments on freshly applied plaster. The paint then dries and sets with the plaster to become a permanent part of the wall, making the colors more durable and resistant to aging. The method of fresco demands great technical skill as it must be completed quickly while the plaster is wet and cannot be corrected without adding another coat of plaster. Ronnebeck was one of the few artists in Denver still using fresco in the 1940's It was considered even more unusual for a woman artist as the work with plaster required a great deal of heavy lifting 98 Ro cky Mountain N ews February 10, 1930 99 Ibid 110

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Ronnebeck also worked in easel painting She and her husband owned a summer cabin near C entral City Colorado where she painted scenes of the mining town including one entitled Colorad o Min esc ap e In 1936 Loui s e painted The P e opl e vs Mm y Eli z ab eth Smith a courtroom scene based upon a high profile court case in Denver. Ronnebeck attended the four da y trial of Mary Elizabeth Smith, a seventeen year old mother who wa s accused of shooting her husband with a .22 rifle in order to avoid divorce. The courtroom drama created headline news and captured the interest of the community. Smith was spared the death penalty and was acquitted by reason s of insanity The painting i s considered one of the artist s most compelling works which best shows Ronnebeck s s torytelling sensitivity and sense of drama ."100 T he artist included h e rself i n the crowd of courtroom onlookers a figure on the left with her head resting on her hands. 100 Doss, E rika I Mus t Pai nt: Women Arts o f the Rock y Moun t a in Re g ion In dep en d e n t Spir its: Wom e n P ai nt e r s o f th e A m e ri c an West, 1 8 90-1945 Univer s ity of California Pre ss, Ber k eley, Los Angele s and London 1995. Pg 2 3 4 111

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Figure 7.4 The People vs. Mary Elizabeth Smith Louise Emerson Ronnebeck During the Depression it was difficult for artists to su pport themselves and many turned to the New Deal federally funded art projects for employment. Between 193 7 and 1944 Ronne beck entered 16 competitions for mural commissions, from which she was awarded two. 1 0 1 Both commissions were funded by the Treasury Department Section of Painting and Sculpture. In 1939 she received her first contract, for $570, to paint a mural in the Worland, Wyoming Post Office. The painting entitled The Fertile Land Remembers depicts a pioneer 101 Fablman Betsy. Louise Emerson Ronnebeck : A New Deal Artist of the American West Woman s Art Journal Vol. 22, No .2. Pg 13 112

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family in a covered wagon in the center with galloping Indians and bison in the background to represent the past of the frontier and oil wells and irrigated fields in the foreground to represent the civilization of the territory This mural was later relocated to the post office in Casper, Wyoming Ronnebeck s second commission was for the post office in Grand Junction Colorado in 1940. The title of the mural is Harvest and it depicts a farmer and his wife gathering a peach crop in the foreground, and the departure of the Ute Indians in the background. A waterwheel in the distance symbolizes the introduction of irrigation into the western plains The themes of agriculture, industry and white civilization driving out the natives were common in the post office murals, most don e in the representational Regionalist style that was popular in the country at that time In 1992 the mural was reinstalled in the Wayne N. Aspinall Federal Building in Grand Junction. Ronnebeck was also active in home front art activities during the war and in 1942 she was recognized by Governor Ralph Corr as a Hero of the Week for the murals she executed for the U S O Men' s Service Center. From 1945 to 1950, Ronnebeck taught drawing and painting in the Art Department at the University of Denver under Vance Kirkland She also taught courses at the Colorado Military School which is now the Colorado Academy During this time she was frequently commissioned to paint portraits including children society matrons and even an Episcopal bishop. In 1946 she had a one-113

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woman exhibit at Denver's City Hall that included 21 paintings. One of her frescoes a panel of a mother and child entitled Maraba Twlight was purchased by the Denver Art Museum Her last public commission in the state in 1952, was an abstract fresco for the lobby of the Weld Country Hospital in Greeley. Arnold Ronnebeck died on November 14, 1947 from throat cancer. In 1954 Louise moved to Bermuda, where she remained for nearly twenty years, teaching art at the Bermuda Hig h School for Girls She created her last mural there in 1966 for the St. Brendan's Hospital. After the death of her husband she simply "lost heart .. ... and painted little of significance "1 0 2 Louise Emerson Ronnebeck returned to Denver in th e fall of 1973 and passed away on February 16, 1980 at the age of 78. Gladys Caldwell Fisher ( 1906-1952) Sculptor Gladys Caldwell Fisher was born on April 6 1906 in Loveland Colorado. Her family moved to Denver when she was eleven where she attended Morey Junior High School Manual High School and East High School. While in high school she enrolled in the Beaux Arts Atelier to study sculpture with Robert Garrison. Upon graduation from East High School in 1926, Gladys was awarded a scholarship from Denver's Allied Arts which pro v ided her the opportunity to move to New York to continue her study of sculpture at the American School of 102 Fahlman, Bets y. "Louise E merson Ronnebeck : A New Deal Artist of the American West." Woman s Art Journal Vol. 22, N o 2 Pg 12 114

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Architecture with Alexander Archipenko She then received additional funds from Denver's Allied Arts which funded a subsequent trip to Paris to study at the Ecole de la Grande Chaumiere with Antoine Bourdelle Jose DeCreeft, Aristide Maillot and George Hilbert. Fisher spent a brief period in New York City after returning from Europe where she taught sculpture and opened her own studio. She focused her work primarily on animal sculptures and preferred to work in hard stone and hard woods. Gladys conceived her sculptures by observing and sketching animals in their environment. Gladys Caldwell returned to Denver in 1932 where she worked actively as a sculptor and taught for both the Uni v ersity of Denver and the Denver Art Museum for the next tw e nty years She married Alan Berney Fisher, a well known Denver architect in 1936 They raised a son Arthur who died in 1960 at the age of 16 and daughter Nora. Fisher won a number of commissions from the federal art projects which emerged during the Depression For her first commission in 1936, she sculpted two Rocky Mountain sheep from Indiana limestone on marble bases, each weighing nearly ten tons for the main branch of the Denver Post Office building at 18th and Stout Streets To prepare for this work, she spent time in Yellowstone National Park observing sheep in their natural habitat. 115

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Figure 7 5 Ri cky Mountain Sh ee p Gladys Caldwell Fisher In 1938 she was awarded $750 to carve a mahogany relief entitled Kiowa Travoi s for the post office in Los Animas, Colorado The mural, which is 8 feet long and 21 inches high carved into a single 2 inch thick piece of mahogany depicts scenes along the old Santa Fe Trail including Fort Lyon and Bents Fort with buffalo Texas longhorn steer antelope an ox team and a pioneer. In 1939, she created a pair of grizzly bear cubs for the entrance to the Mammoth Hot Springs Post Office in Yellowstone Park These sculptures created some controversy as the depictions were slightly abstract drawing complaints that they 116

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did not resemble real bears. Another federal art project commission was a three panel bas relief in lava stone called A m eric an Indian Orpheus and th e Animals portraying an Indian figure with a buffalo antelope bear and mountain lion for the Denver City and County Building. In addition to the federal arts projects commissions Fisher sculpted a relief called Orph e u s of the Indian for the Denver Art Museum, Drinkin g Fa w n made of Colorado travertin e marble which was exhibited at the Rockefeller Center in New York, a limestone Russian wolfhound a limestone cheetah a marble frog a tufa stone bobcat an oak mongoose and a snakewood giraffe. A Maylayan Collar bear of black Belgian marble which sh e made for her son Arthur, was donated after his death to the Sisters of Charity in Pueblo and now resides on the fifth floor of the Denver Public Library Fisher was commissioned by Frieda Lawrence, the widow of English author D.H. Lawrence to create a r e d fox sculpture in reference to his nickname. The fox was exhibited at the Denver Art Museum for two weeks before being sent to Frieda in New Mexico Fishers work was exhibited widely, including the Paris Salon the Society of Independent Artists the Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, and the Denver Art Museum. 117

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Gladys Caldwell Fisher died after a long illness on April 19, 1952, at age 46 in her home at 1360 Race Street in Denver. In her obituary the Rocky Mountain News called her the quietest genius who e ver lived in Denver. 103 Nadine Kent Drummond (1912-1966) Nadine Drummond was born September 2 1912 in Trinidad Colorado where she spent her ear l y years. The town of Trinidad mainly supported by its coal fields suffered a serious decline after the end of World War I resulting in massive layoffs and poverty Drummond s father w as a merchant and was forced to move his family from Trinidad in 1928 when his busines s failed They moved for a tim e to Denver then settled in C olorado Springs. After high school Nadine received a scholarship to attend the Broadmoor Art Academy at Colorado College where she studied painting under Robinson Boardman George Biddl e and Doris Lee developing in the style of r e gionalism painting th at w as popular at that time While attending college she did freelance work a s an illustrator. She graduated from Colorado College in 1934 married Mowbray T Drummond and settled in Pueblo Colorado. Over the course of the ne x t few years Nadine won commission s for murals sponsored by the federal arts projects Her work at that time chronicled the small towns and farming communities in southern Colorado that were deeply 103 Ro cky Mountain News. April 26 1952. 118

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affected by the Depression as well as by drought dust storms and grasshopper invasions. One such painting made in 1940 entitled Farm Auction in Trinidad is a dark portrayal of the farmers struggle and ultimate loss. Drummond worked in a v ariety of mediums including oils watercolors gouaches and lithographs. While in Pueblo Drummond was employed at the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center as a teaching assistant to Boardman Robinson and Arnold Blanch and also taught art courses at Pueblo Junior College. She won first prize in the Nebraska "Six States Exhibit in 1941 and held one-woman shows in Pueblo in 1943 Denver in 1944 and Colorado Springs in 1944. She and her husband moved briefly to San Francisco but returned to Colorado in 1947 and settled in Denver where Nadine would remain for the next nineteen year s, unt i l her death. In Denver she continued her work as a painter and taught art at the Denver Country Day School and the Denver Opportunity School. 119

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Figure 7 6 Colorado Stat e Fair Nadine Drummond Drummond moved into a dorm on the University of Colorado campus in Boulder during the summer of 1949 in order to study painting with expressionist Max Beckman. The experience had a noticeable impact on her work, which became more expressionist and abstract over the next few years She was invited to become a member of the Colorado Fifteen, a group of professional artists dedicated to the avant-garde formed in 1948. The organization was well-known, with membership by invitation only During the 1950 s she won a silver medal from the Museum of Modem Art in Paris and first prize for her painting Crater Lake, at the Colorado State Fair. 120

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Following the death of an infant son and the death of her husband in 1961 Drummond suffered from deep depression and alcoholism although she continued her painting, working in her home studio in Denver at 649 Cook Street. Her work became darker and more abstract o v er the next se v eral years. She experimented in monoprints a process where paint is applied to glass or metal then printed on to paper. In 1961, she had a s olo exhibit of 5 0 monoprints at the International House in Denver. The following year she was one of twelve women painters selected to represent the United States in the Sev enth Annual International Exhibition of Women Artists at the Musee d Art Moderne in Paris Nadine Kent Drummond died in Denver in October of 1966 at the age of 54. Ethel Magafan (1914-1993) and Jenne Magafan (1914-1952) Twins Ethel and Jenne Magafan were born in Chicago on August 10 1914 to a Greek father and a Polish mother. Their father Petros Magafan had only just come to America from Greece in 1912. The Magafan family moved to Colorado Springs in 1919 for health reasons, and subsequently relocated to Denver in 1930 where the girls attended East High School. The twins stayed together nearly all of their lives studying with the same artists and pursuing similar professional projects. It is no surprise that their painting styles and themes are quite analogous. Their high school art instructor Helen Perry gave them encouragement and financial assistance to study with Frank Mechau at the Mechau School of Modem 121

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Art in Denver. When Mechau took a teaching position at the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center formerly the Broadmoor Art Academy Jenne and Ethel followed where they continued their studies with him as well as Boardman Robinson and Peppino Mangravite Mechau hired the sisters as assistants to work with him on a mural commission It was through his recommendations that Jenne and Ethel entered numerous competitions for mural projects through the Treasury Department's Section of Fine Arts Both rece i ved considerable support from the federally funded New Deal art projects Ethel was awarded six post office mural commissions which included Threshing for Auburn Nebraska in 1938 Prairie Fir e for Madill Oklahoma in 1941, and Hor se Corral for the South Denver Post Office in 1942. Figure 7.7 Lawrenc e Massacre Ethel Magafan In 193 7 Ethel submitted a design for the post office mural competition in Fort Scott Kansas based upon the Lawrence massacre. (Fig 7.4) The Treasury 122

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Department found her work outstanding, but apparently the subject matter was too "disturbing" to be considered 1 04 Jenne received five post office contracts, including Winter in Nebraska for Albion, Nebraska in 1939, Western Town for Helper, Utah in 1941 and Cowboy Dance for Anson, Texas in 1941. In 1942, the painting in Anson received the Peixetto Memorial Prize for murals. Together, Ethel and Jenne were awarded a highly competitive commission for their mural, Mountains in Snow to be installed in the federal Social Security Building in Washington D.C. The twins remained in Colorado Springs until 1941, then briefly moved to Los Angeles and Cheyenne Wyoming before settling in Woodstock New York, an established artists community in 1945. Ethel married artist Bruce Currie and Jenne married artist Eduardo Chavez. Though they lived in New York, both sisters frequently returned to the West, and continued to use western themes in their work. Their painting developed from their earlier representational style to a more semi-abstract technique. Jenne Magafan spent most of 1951 in Italy, as her husband Eduardo had received a Fulbright grant to study there The same year Ethel had also received a grant to study in Greece. This was the longest separation that the twins had experienced Both couples returned to Woodstock New York in October of 1952 and less than a week after their arrival home Jenne died suddenly of a cerebral 104 Rubinstein CharlotteS. America n Wome n A rtists : from Indian Tim es to the Pr ese nt G.K.Hall .& Co New York. 1982 Pg 234 123

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aneurysm at the age of38. Ethel remained in New York and continued to work as an artist. She exhibited widely and had a number of one-woman shows. In 1968, Ethel was elected a National Academician. ln 1971, the Department if Interior employed her to create on-location sketches of western scenes which were exhibited at the National Gallery in Washington D.C. The Smithsonian Institute later toured the exhibit across the country. Ethel created a mural entitled Grant at the Battle of the Wildern e ss in 1978 for the Fredericksburg National Military Park in Chancellorsville, Virginia She passed away on April 24 1993 at the age of 78. 124

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Figure 7.8 Hou se in L e adville, Jenne Magafan 125

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CHAPTERS LESSER KNOWN AND VISITING ARTISTS IN COLORADO In addition to the artist s discussed previously, a number of other women practiced and taught art in the state evidenced by their participation in exhibits and arts organizations. For many, their involvement was transitory, and their biographical information scarce. Other s were successful artists who did not actually reside in Colorado, but traveled through the state documenting their experiences through sketches and paintings. Mattie Evelyn Banta (1868-1956) was born Martha Evelyn Stockwell on December 28, 1868 in Claremont, Illinois. She was educated at the State University in Bloomington, Illinois. Mattie later married Buford A. Banta and in 1890 they traveled from Richmond County Illinois to Colorado Springs by horse and wagon. Initially they lived on a ranch in the Bijou Basin, then built a cabin at St. Peters Dome where Buford prospected for gold. They moved to Cripple Creek in 1893, after gold was discovered there. Mattie became the first school teacher in Cripple Creek. Her paintings included landscapes and Colorado wildflowers She 126

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later returned to Colorado Springs and remained there until her death in November of 1956. Blanche Dougan Cole (1868-1956) was born on August 12, 1869 in Richmond Indiana In the mid-1870 s her family moved to Leadville Colorado then settled in Denver She traveled to Europe in 1887 to study with sculptor Preston Powers in Florence Italy then went to Spain to work with James Whistler. Blanche returned to Colorado in 1893 and married artist William H. Cole the following year. They moved to Hinsdale, Illinois but Blanche divided her time between Illinois and Colorado writing newspaper arti c les for both The Denver Post and The Chicago Tribune. Her news articles were often accompanied by her own illustrations. During th i s period newspapers were transitioning into additional use of photographs they continued to employ artists as illustrators due to the high cost of reproducing photography and its limitations to static subjects Coles early work was primarily portraits. Then, in 189 8, she was employed by a railroad to travel to the Moquis reservation in northern Arizona to make sketches and write a guidebook. From that point her work shifted to western landscapes and Native Americans. She participated in the Denver Artists Club and had paintings shown in their annual exhibit for seven years. Other exhibits included the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, and the Alaska-Yukon Expo in Seattle in 1909. Cole also taught art while in Denver. In 1903, the Coles moved to Los Angeles where Blanche continued to paint create sculptures, and 127

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teach art. In 1904 she retumed to Europe to study with Charles Lasar at the Academie Julian in Paris for a year. Between 1907 and 1911, the Santa Fe Railway Company purchased eight of her paintings. And by 1923 she headed the art section of the MacDowell Club. Cole died in Los Angeles on December 1, 1956 Mary Collins (1839-1928) was born Mary Hodgson in Au Sable New York. She moved to Denver in 1863 and married Edward H. Collins two years later. Collins apparently did not take up painting until after she was married. Historian Doris Ostrander Dawdy asserts that it was likely that her husband a botanist encouraged her to collaborate with him "105 Her subjects included landscapes wildflowers and plant life but she was recognized mostly for her flower paintings. Her contemporaries in the field considered Collins a grand artist in the world offlowers."106 Mary Collins died on January 18 1928 at her home on 2927 Champa Street in Denver.. Alice Cooper (1875-1937) was born on April 8 1875 in Glenwood Iowa Her father Isaac Cooper was one of the early mining men and promoters of Colorado At an early age her family moved to Denver where Alice grew up and studied sculpture under Preston Powers. After graduation from high school, she went east to study at the Art Institute of Chicago with famed sculptor Lorado Taft, 1 05 Dawdy, Doris Ostrander Arti s t s of th e Am e ri can W es t : A Bibliographi c Dic tionary : Artist s Born B efore 190 0 V olume 3 Swallow Press Ohio University Press Athens, Chicago and London 1974 Pg 94 106 Ibid. Pg 94 128

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and at the Art Students League in New York. She returned to Chicago in 1901 and worked as an assistant instructor of sculpture for a year. In 1904 Cooper won a competition to create a Sacajawea sculpture for the Lewis and Clark Exposition in Portland, Oregon The life-sized bronze statue entitled In Honor of Greatness portrayed a Native American woman and her papoose and cost $7 000 for materials The funds for the statue were raised by the Sacajawea Statue Association Alice Cooper married railroad lawyer Nathan M. Hubbard in 1905 and moved to Des Moines, Iowa, where they raised three daughters. Cooper continued to make sculptures including fountains with young girls and nymphs, which were sold through Tiffanys in New York. Her work was exhibited at the Art Institute of Chicago, the Pennsylvania Academy ofFine Arts and the National Academy of Design. During her last years she lived in Denve r and Chicago, spending summers at the Bar Fork cattle ranch in Carbondale, Colorado Alice Cooper died in Chicago on March 4 1937. Mary Lenora Dalton (1871-1943) was born on August 3, 1871 in Sioux City Iowa Her family traveled to Colorado by covered wagon and settled in Silver Cliff, where Mary attended elementary school. In the mid-1880's the family moved to Pueblo. Mary began painting at an early age and continued throughout her life, although she received no formal art training. Her work consisted mainly of watercolor landscapes of farm and ranch scenes. In addition to painting, Mary was a musician, and taught music for a number of years 129

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She married twice Her second husband was a minister and they moved together around the state as he changed parishes living in Meeker, Estes Park, Glenwood Springs Canon City and the African-American community of Dearfield. The couple eventually settled in Greeley, Colorado where Mary remained until her death in 1943. The only known painting of Dalton 's still in existence is a watercolor owned by the Black American West Foundation in Denver. Georgiana M. de L Aubiniere (1874-1930) was born in Balsallheath England on Jul y 30 1848, the daughter of renowned watercolorist, John Steeple She studied art in England then moved to Paris where she met French painter Constant de L'Aubiniere. They married in 1874 and set out on a tour ofFrance and England. From 1882 to 1889 they traveled across North America. While in Colorado Georgiana painted a number oflandscapes including In the Ute Pass, In the Garden of the Gods, Pikes P e ak from Colorado Springs Passing Storm and Middle Park, Colorado. During 1885-86 the de L' Aubinieres lived in San Francisco and advertised as portrait and landscape painters They then moved to Canada, where they were commissioned by the government to paint a series of 14 oils for Queen Victoria They returned to England around 1900 and settled on the coast of Cornwall both continuing to exhibit at the Royal Academy. Georgiana M de L'Aubiniere died on February 13, 1930 in Cornwall. Helen Margaret George (1883-1982) was born and raised in England She went to Paris to study art with Emile Antoine Bourdelle and Othon Friesz George 130

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had a hearing disability and her physician recommended she spend time in the American West because of the medical advantages of its dry climate. She came to Denver in 1914 and remained for the next five years, taking trips throughout Colorado and New Mexico to sketch and paint. Her work consisted mainly of western landscapes and Native Americans. In New Mexico "she frequented the pueblos and produced intimate sketches of the people and their way oflife."107 Her paintings were exhibited at the Denver Art Museum the Tucson Fine Arts Association, and the Museum of New Mexico. She returned to England around 1920 where she remained until her death in 1982. Harriet Clark Winslow Hayden (1840-1926) was born in Franklin Massachusetts She studied painting with Worthington Whittredge at the Chicago Institute of Art. She worked in oils and watercolors and painted primarily flowers and still lifes, although she occasionally worked with landscapes and figures. When she moved to Denver, she became a founding member of the Le Brun Art Club based upon a similar club she had belonged to in Chicago. The group consisted of women artists who met in her studio to work from a model discuss art related issues and hold exhibitions of their work. The Club was controversial at the time because its members painted using nude models, which was considered by many an inappropriate activity for women. Hayden remained in Denver until her death in 1926. 107 Kovinik Phil and Yoshiki-Kovinick Marian. An Enc yclopedia of Women Artists of the American West. University ofTexas Press Austin 1998 Pg 108. 131

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Elsie Haddon Hayne s ( 1881-1963) was born in England on November 8, 1881 the daughter of prominent Cambridge professor and historian John Holland Rose. She was raised in Wimbleton England. Haynes attended Herkomer Art School in Hertfordshire England, then later studied in Brussels, Bruges Belgium and Paris She met American William H. Haynes in France when they were both working in a YMCA hut during World War I. They married in 1918 and moved to Nebraska. They later settled in Denver, where Elsie continued to work as an artist, painting flowers, portraits and landscapes Her favorite landscapes were those in and around Estes Park where she had her husband had a summer cabin She became known as one of the regions outstanding pastel painters."1 08 Haynes was a charter member of the Denver Artists Guild which was founded in 1928. The Guild held monthly meetings and annual exhibits at the Chappell House. In 1960 she was honored by the Guild. as one of two charter members remaining. In 1955 the manager of the Brown Palace Hotel purchased her pastel of South Boulder Canyon to present to President Eisenhower who was at Lowry Field recuperating from a heart attack. The painting later hung in the Eisenhower residence in Gettysburg Pennsylvania Haynes had an impressive exhibition record including the Royal Academy in London the Broadmoor Art Academy the Pasedena Art Institute and the Denver Art Museum. Her painting of Longs Peak is in the 108 Rocky Mountain News. July 12, 1962. Pg 117 132

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collection of the Denver Public Library. In addition to being an artist Haynes published two books of poetry. She died in Denver on May 10, 1963. Sara Gray Holden (1850-1922) was born on October 20 1850 in Brookline, Vermont. She attended the Boston School of Art, where she later taught. In 1883 she moved to Georgetown, Colorado a small mining town to take the position of principal at the Academy of Art In 1887 she moved to Grand Lake Colorado where she remained for the next ten years. Holden s primary focus was landscapes and occasionally religious works, using charcoal crayons, oil and watercolor. Her painting, entitled Empire Valley, Colo r ado is in the Historic Georgetown collection. Holden moved to Indiana around 1897-98 but continued to spend her summers in Grand Lake. In 1920 she returned to Vermont, and remained there until her death on November 30 192 2. Grace Church Jones (1868-1959) was born September 17, 1868 in West Falls New York. She studied art at the Buffalo Art Students League beginning at the age of 15. Jones continued her studies in Paris then returned to New York where she returned to the Art Students League, then from 1903-04 attended the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn In 1893 she married William Wright Jones and the couple relocated west to Denver in 1899 where Grace taught art at East Denver High School for twenty years She painted landscapes figure studies still lives and murals She later moved to Pueblo. Her exhibition record includes the Provincetown Art Association (Massachusetts), the Society of Independent Artists 133

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in New York, the Spring Salon of N ationale des Beaux Arts (Paris) the Broadmoor Art Academy (Colorado Springs), the Artists Club of Denver, and the Museum of New Mexico. Marguerite Bennett Kassler (1893-1965 ) was born in Tacoma Washington She studied art at Whitworth College and at the Chicago Art Institute She moved to Denver where she married art teacher Charles Moffat Kassler Jr. While in Denver she studied sculpture with Robert Garrison Kassler worked in stone and bronze making portrait busts, figures and animals. In 1932 the Kasslers moved to Paris where she studied with sculptors Charles Despiau Emile Antoine Bourdelle and George Hilbert who was an assistant to Auguste Rodin. While in Paris she was commissioned by the French government to create a bronze portrait sculpture of composer Maurice Ravel. Although she was married Marguerite continued to use her maiden name Bennett on her works. When she was in Europe she traveled throughout France, Morocco and Tunisia in Africa. Her works including a Martinique dancer, a Hindu girl a Bisharin boy, a Sudanese girl and the head of a Tahitian woman were influenced by her travels abroad. "Bennett Kassler was a leader for her time in looking to other cultures for the expression of her own sculptural ideas." 10 9 She had numerous exhibitions in Paris including the Salon d Automn the Salon d Ete, the Salon des Independents the Salon des Americains and the Balerie de Paris The Denver Art Museum held one-woman exhibits of her 109 Schlosser Elizabeth M o d e rn Sculptur e in D e n ve r (1919-1960). Ocean V iew Books, Denver 1995 Pg 28 134

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work in 1940 and 1947. In 1934 she moved to Taxco, Mexico where she resided for the next thirty years until her death in 1965. Frances Kent Lamont (1899-1975) was born in Lawrence Park, New York. She studied sculpture in Paris with Solon Borglum and Charles Despiau and at the Art Students League in New York with Mahonri M. Young. She also attended the Bennett School and the American School of Sculpture. In 1926 she married and moved to Colorado, where the couple lived at the Perry Park Ranch near Larkspur. Lamont worked in bronze pewter aluminum, crystal and granite, creating figures in the style of abstract realism She was commissioned to create a number of war memorials for New Canaan Connecticut New Rochelle, New York and the Mellon Gardens Her exhibits include the Museum of Modem Art the Whitney Museum the Pennsylvania Academy and the Ogunquit Museum. The Chappell House i n Denver held one-woman shows of her work in 1930 1942 and 1952. Denver writer Elizabeth Schlosser comments, "Kent Lamont was much admired in Denver ; the newspapers and journals of the era are filled with news of her East Coast shows." 110 Maude Leach (1869-1927) was born Maude McMullan on December 19 1 86 9 in Oil City, Pennsylvania She married Clarence W Leach and they moved to Denver where Maude studied painting with Alexis Comparet and Henry Reed. 110 Schlosser Elizabeth. Modern Sculpture in Denver (1 919-1960). Ocean View Books, D e nver 1995. Pg 48. 135

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Her oil paintings were primarily landscapes of Denver and the Rocky Mountains In 1911 she had a solo exhibit at the Daniels and Fisher store in Denver. Maude taught for a number of years in the Littleton Public Schools and retired to Pueblo until her death in April of 1927 Figure 8.1 Untitl e d ( Ro c ky Mountain Lands c ape), Maude Leach Charlotte Learning (1871-1972) was born January 16, 1871 in Chicago Illinois She spent her childhood there and went on to study at the Art Institute of Chicago She also studied with Albert Herter and William Chase in New York and Frank Duveneck in Cincinnati After her graduation from the Art Institute in 1898 she remained there as a teacher for a number of years She also held positions in the Oak Park Schools and at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts Learning later 136

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moved to Colorado Springs with her sister Susan where they established the Academy of Fine Arts in 1911. In 1916 the academy became affiliated with Colorado College where Learning continued as a Professor of Art until 1926. From 1926 to 1930 Learning beaded the Pueblo Academy of Fine Arts then returned to Colorado Springs She painted landscapes and figures but was best known for her paintings of animals. Learning remained in Colorado Springs until her death on January 4 1972 just days short of her 101 st birthday Doris Lee (1904-1983) was born Doris Emrick February 1 1904 in Aledo Illinois. She attended Rockford College where she studied fme arts and philosophy and graduated in 1927. After graduation she married Russell Werner Lee a chemical engineer. They traveled to Paris for several months where Doris studied with cubist Andre L 'Hote. Aft e r returning to the United States she continued her studies at the Kansas City Art Institute with painter Ernest Lawson a social realist and member of "The Eight" a group of painters associated with the Ashcan artists. Doris divorced Russell Lee and in 1930 went to California to study at the San Francisco School of Fine Art under Arnold Blanch, whom she later married in 1939. In 1931, Lee moved to Woodstock New York to live in the Woodstock Artist Colony where she continued her work. Lee is known for her American scene style of painting which included portraits landscapes, trains horses and industrial city scenes In 1935, Lee won the Logan Purchase Prize at the Art Institute of Chicago for her painting entitled Thanksgiving portraying a 137

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whimsical scene ofwomen in a rural kitchen preparing the holiday dinner. However, the wife of the contest sponsor Josephine Hancock Logan upset by the modernist technique used "called the painting atrocious and started a brief 'Sanity in art' movement which sought a return to older and sweeter concepts of beauty."111 Also in 1935 Lee won two mural competitions sponsored by the Treasury Department Section of Painting and Sculpture both for the Post Office Department Building in Washington D.C. one entitled Country Post the other General Store and Post Office. While Doris Lee was an artist of national reputation her ties to Colorado are rather brief. In the summer of 1936 the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center hosted her as a guest artist the first Woodstock artist to be affiliated there. She returned to Colorado Springs the next three summers to teach and influenced a number of Colorado women artists who studied with her. Lee made illustrations for Life magazine won third prize in the 1944 Carnegie exhibition and exhibited widely throughout the country She and her husband co-authored a book It s Fun to Paint. Lee continued to live in Woodstock, New York until her death on June 16, 1983. Elizabeth Mason (1880-1953) was born in Jacksonville Illinois on June 9 1880. The family relocated to Denver where she grew up. Her father William Lee Mason was a jeweler. After graduation from high school, Mason traveled to New York City to study painting at the Art Students League under Arthur Dow 111 Rubenstein Charlotte. A merican Wome n Arti sts from Earl y Indian Times to the Pr ese nt .G.K Hall & Co Boston, 1982. Pg 232 138

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from 1899-1902. She also studied jewelry design there. When she returned to Colorado she worked as an artist and jewelry designer in both Denver and Manitou Springs In 1917-18 she taught art to disabled veterans and in 1920 worked as a recreation aide at the U .S. Army General Hospital in Denver. The following year Mason moved with her family to Santa Barbara California where she served as curator and writer-researcher-lecturer of the Santa Barbara Historical Society There, from 1926-1942 she created 27 dioramas of early Native American tribes and their daily activities. Mason also did historical landmarks for the Daughters ofthe American Revolution and the Native Daughters of the American West and executed sculptures oflndian subjects, such as Chief Manitou and The Smoki Hope Dance. She never married and remained in Santa Barbara until her death on June 13, 1953. Gwen Meux (1893-1973) was born Gwendolyn Dufill on April4, 1893 in St. John's Newfoundland where she grew up. She was a painter, specializing in landscapes although she also worked with portraits and figures. Meux taught art at Owen's Museum in New Brunswick and then from 1922-25 at the University of Oklahoma. In 1925 she married Arthur Gayle Waldrop, who was a faculty member in the journalism department at the University of Colorado After her marriage Meux, moved to Boulder and taught some summer classes at the University. During the years 1931-1939 Meux exhibited with a group of five instructors from the university who dubbed themselves "The Prospectors" and 139

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exhibited their works across 22 states. She exhibited widely and won a number of awards, including the silver medal for painting from the Kansas City Art Institute in 1923 and again in 1929 and honorable mentions at the Denver Museum Exhibition in 1928 and the Mid-West Art Exhibition in 1935 Meux was also a member and served as president, of the Boulder Artists Equity and belonged to the Boulder Arts Association She wrote and illustrated her own articles for a number of publications, including the Christian Scien c e Monitor and Trail and Timberline the monthly magazine for the Colorado Mountain Club. Eleanor Ormes (1862-1938) was born on January 3 1862 in Philadelphia. She attended the Philadelphi a Academy of Fine Art and the Spring Garden Institute also located in Philadelphia In 1890 she married pastor Manly Dayton Ormes and they settled in Colorado Springs where they raised four children After the children were grown, Eleanor returned to painting and became a member of the Broadmoor Art Academy. She worked in watercolors and oils painting still lifes portraits and landscapes. In 1900 she participated in the First Art Exhibition at Colorado College. Her other exhibits include the Broadmoor Art Academy the Artists Club of Denver and the Denver Art Museum. Ernestine Parsons ( 1884-1967) was born and raised in Boonville, Missouri. At the age of 17 she traveled to Canon City, Colorado to be with her brother. In 1904 she moved to Colorado Springs to attend Colorado College. She studied art at the Broadmoor Art Academy under Randall Davey and later with Boardman 140

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Robinson at the Colorado Sprin g s Fine Arts Center. She worked mostly in oils painting Colorado landscapes mining towns, and Victorian buildings. Parsons exhibited across the country including one-person shows at the Denver Art Museum in 1925 and at the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center in 1944 1952 1956 and 1958 Other exhibits included the Carnegie Institute in 1928 Albright Art Galleries in 1927 and 1930 Wooster College and Central City Colorado. Most of her life she worked as a history teacher in the Colorado Springs High School so she devoted her weekend s and holidays to her artwork. She was also noted for her artistic gardening and had many photographs of her gardens featured in Bette r Homes and Gard e n s and House Beautiful Parsons lived in Colorado Springs until her death on July 30, 1967. Rosina Emmet Sherwood (18 4 3-1948 ) wa s born in New York City and grew up in upper N ew York S t ate H e r family included artist s Lydia Field Emmet and Ellen Emmet Rand. Sherwood went to Europe several times in the late 1870s and 1880 s to continue her art studies One ofher instructors was Tony Robert Fluery at the Academie Julian. Back in New York City she became one of William Merritt Chase s first students. Her earliest works are illustrations for magazines including Harper's. Sherwood resided in New York throughout her life but traveled widely, including a trip to Colorado in 1881 where she completed a number of painting s of the Rocky Mountains She married Arthur Sherwood in 1887 and continued to paint while raising five children. Her children were 141

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frequently models for her paintings and illustrations. In 1893 Sherwood painted a mural entitled The R e public's W e l c om e to H e r D au ght e r s for the Woman's Building at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Ida M Stair ( 1 8 63-1913) was born on March 22 1863 in Indiana She studied paintin g in New York under William Chase and Ken y on Cox then moved to Denver where she studied sculpture with Preston Powers. Stair participated in a number of early arts or g anization s in Denver including the Le Brun Club the Denver Art L e ague and the Artists Club of Den v er Her sculpture The W ing e d Victory, was centered in a fountain and formerly located at the 2151 A venue entrance to C ity Park in Denver. She also created an intaglio entitled L eft of Pa r ad ise ofher children which was exhibited at the World s Fair in Chicago. Stair lived in Den v er until her death on December 5 1913. E stell e Stinchfield ( 1878-1945 ) was born in Sil ver Plume Colorado on June 26 1878. Her family moved to Minnesota wher e s he grew up and became a teacher. In the earl y 1900 s she returned to Colorado teaching in the Boulder public schools until 1911. She then moved to Denv er where she held a teaching position at North High School. Stinchfield later traveled to Europe to study art in Paris and London. She worked in oils watercolor pastel and lithograph, using Colorado landscapes, people and animals as her s ubjects. After returning to Denver around 1924 she taught art at the University of Denver (1930-1932) then relocated to Greeley where she held a faculty position at Colorado State Teachers 142

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College (now the University ofNorthern Colorado) until her retirement in 1945. In 1936 Stinchfield, along with five other artists where selected to represent Colorado at the First National Exhibition of American Art in New York. She lived in Greeley until her death in October of 1945. Lucile A. Stinson (1888-1981) was born in Ogallala Nebraska on September 19 1888. She married Alton 0 Stinson and relocated to the Southwest where she was an artist in Almogordo New Mexico and Denver Colorado She worked primarily in pastels, completing Western landscapes including scenes in Yellowstone and Glacier National parks. Stinson lived in Denver and resided there at the time of her death on S e ptember 27, 1981 at the age of93. Pansy Stockton (1895-1972 ) was born March 31, 1895 in ElDorado Springs Colorado where her parents David and Jennie Ferguson ran the Grand View Hotel. She later moved to Den v er and married public school teacher Roscoe Stockton. Her early work included landscapes produced in oils watercolor and tempera. Stockton then became interested in making sun paintings using fragments of hundreds of varieties of v egetations including ferns bark weeds leaves and twigs. Some pictures incorporated over 10, 000 different pieces of v egetation which she collected from all over the world. She would occasionally note on the back of the work all of the items used and where she found them. Stockton s work with the sun paintings became the subject for five short 143

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documentary films. In 1941 Stockton mo ved to Santa Fe New Mexico and continued her art studies with Robert Graham Adam Green Kerr and Eliot O Hara In New Mexico in addition to her sun paintings she depicted Southwest pueblos and missions and Native American figures. She became an honorary member of the Sioux Indian nation. She married Howard Fatheree in 1950 and the y remained in Santa Fe until her death in 1972 Emma Homan T hayer (1839-1908) was born in New York City on February 13, 1839. She attended Ru tg ers College then returned to New York to continue her art s tudies at the National Academy of Des ign where she was one of the first s tudents of William Merritt Chase At th e age of 18 she married George Graves and was widowed four years later. She remarried again in three years and mov ed to Denver in 1882 Thayer was primarily known for her floral painting and illustrations She wrote and illustrated two books documenting vegetation entitled W ild Flowers of Col o rado and Wild F l o wers of th e Pac ific Coast. Thayer lived in Denver at the time of her death on June 10, 1908 Myra L. Thomas (1882-1963) was born in Greeley Colorado on April22, 1882. She was raised on her family s ranch east of Ault Colorado. She attended the University of Colorado from 1900-1904 and graduated with a Bachelors degree. She then attended Colorado State Teachers College now University of Northern Colorado and received a second degree in pedagogy Thomas taught for a number of years then went to Illinois in 1916 to study at the Art Institute of 144

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Chicago under George Bello ws She also attended the Art Students League in New York where she studied with Randall Davey and John Sloan. Thomas's paintings were mainly western landscapes and stilllifes working in oil, watercolor and pen and ink sketches While she received acclaim in Chicago from Paris critics for her stilllifes she was best known for her landscapes and depictions of life on the ranch She also painted scenes from New Mexico, Arizona and Utah. Thomas returned to the family ranch in Colorado and continued to paint for several years. She had work exhibited at the Museum ofNew Mexico in Santa Fe, the Society of Independent Artists in New York, the Chicago No-Jury Society of Artists and the Denver Art Museum. In the mid-1930's she discontinued her painting and became a teacher at the Wyatt School near Ault and did not paint for the remainder of her life Myra Thomas died in Greeley Colorado on February 5, 1963 Mabel Landrum Torrey (1886-1976) was born to a pioneer family in a sod house in Sterling Colorado in 1886 She graduated from the Logan County High School, then study art at the Colorado State Teachers College (now the University ofNorthem Colorado). After graduation, she was an elementary school teacher in Sterling in order to save enough money to study sculpture at the Chicago Art Institute. In 1912, she went east to Chicago where she met her husband Fred Torrey, who was also a sculpture student there Her best known sculpture and largest work is Wynken Blinken and Nod based upon the children s poem by 145

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Eugene Field which was commissioned in 1918 by the city of Denver for Washington Park to commemorate the 100111 anniversary of the poets birth. It was created from a nineteen ton block of Tennessee marble. A copy of this sculpture was made for a park in Wellsboro Pennsylvania. Her sculptures were primarily of children, and she often used her daughter Betty Jane as a model. One of her more popular works was a small sculpture titled Robin Song which depicted a figure of a child with an upturned face listening to a robin sing Nearly 10,000 copies of the figure were sold. The Torreys frequently collaborated on works, including a sculpture of Abraham Lincoln and his son Tad, commissioned for the statehouse in Des Moines Iowa. Mabel Landrum Torrey died in Massachusetts in 1976 Frances Hoar Trucksess (1898-1985) was born in Philadelphia. She graduated from the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Art in 1921. After her graduation, she remained in Philadelphia and continued to study drawing and painting with Huger Elliott, Edward Warwick, Felicie Howell and William Forsyth Trucksess worked in casein (a water-based paint like tempera) and watercolors painting landscapes, ghost towns mining towns, seascapes and florals stilllifes. She married in 1927 and moved to Colorado where she was an art instructor at the University of Colorado for a number of years. Trucksess exhibited widely across the country in the 1930's with a group of five art instructors from 146

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the university called "The Prospectors". Later she became the director of art for the public school system in Boulder. Frances Trucksess died in California in 1985. Treva Wheete (1890-1963) was born Mabel Treva Breese in Colorado Springs, Colorado on June 8 1890. Wheete was a printmaker working primarily in wood block prints. She married Glenn Wheete who was also a printmaker. They worked together on a number of projects including a gift print commissioned by the Kansas City Woodcut Society in the 1930' s which was reproduced in several national magazines. Wheete won a medal at the International Prairie Print Makers exhibit in 1934 and also exhibited at the Grand Central Art Galleries in New York in 1937. She and her husband had moved from Colorado Springs to Tulsa Oklahoma around 1917, where she remained until her death in December of 1963. Harriet Freeman Wright (1852-1926) was born October 2 1852 in Belvedere Illinois. She painted mainly Colorado landscapes including Mount of the Holy Cross Garden of the Gods and Pikes Peak. She was active as an artist in both Colorado Springs and Denver. She resided in Denver at the time of her death on July 19, 1926. 147

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CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION Women artists in the West, particularly those in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, have rarely been represented in the traditional historical narratives of Western art and life. The dominant representations of the West were masculine images and mythic land s capes created by male artists It was not until the latter half of the twentieth century that the contributions of Wes tern women artists have been included in the history books and recognized through exhibitions. These artists provide a somewhat different perspective of frontier life in the Rocky Mountain region one not nece s sarily consonant with the predominant rugged and wild interpret a tions. During their time only a very few of Colorado's early women artists received national recognition for their work most notably illustrator and writer Mary Hallock Foote and painter Helen Henderson Chain. However many other w omen were moderately successful in careers as painters illustrators photographers, and sculptors, yet did not receive recognition until later in their lives or after their deaths. 148

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In researching the lives of these women in Colorado, it became clear that in many cases little information exists especially on the earlier artists The best records are those of the writer/artists, like Rose Kingsley Mary Hallock Foote Eliza Greatorex and Muriel Sibell Wolle who documented their experiences in the West through writings and illustrations that still survive through their published works. And, while many may not have made a significant impact on the world of art they were important as pioneers in a field previously dominated by men The first women landscape artists in Colorado were not only breaking traditional roles by working in the format they faced more rugged challenges with the terrain than their counterparts in the East. Traversing the Rocky Mountains was a formidable undertaking, made even more difficult burdened with painting supplies and encumbered by the trappings of nineteenth century garments It is clear that after the turn of the century opportunities for women to study art were expanding through academies private schools and universities. The ability to learn the craft was more accessible. Yet the ability to succeed in the field as a professional was still largely restricted to traditionally "female" arenas such as flower painting decorative painting and portraiture. Finding recognition and acceptance as an artist was hampered by the power structure of the established art world dominated by men. Women artists struggled to get beyond the perception ofbeing amateurs, dabbling in the field, and were determined to be accepted as artists, rather than female artists." 149

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In the 1930s during the Depression women artists were given unprecedented opportunities through the various New Deal federal art projects. Many Colorado artists became known through the murals frescoes and sculptures commissioned by the government programs for public buildings. Unfortunately the progress made by women artists in the thirties did not translate to future success in the field during the following decades. The most significant contribution made by these Colorado women artists was the establishment of, and participation in organizations that would become the major cultural institutions in the state. Many of these women were educated in the East and studied in Europe bringing with the m t he artistic traditions used to establish new cultural and educational institutions in Colorado. The all-woman Le Brun Art Club led to the Denver Artists Club which would later become the Denver Art Museum. The Colorado Springs Art Club merged with the Colorado Springs Art Society to form the Broadmoor Art Academy, which became the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center. Many of the women artists included here w ere largely responsible for the early guilds clubs and societies which supported artists exhibitions and arts education throughout the state. It is likely these contributions will be most remembered and recognized. 150

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BIBLIOGRAPHY A Book of the Artists Club Denver, Denver Art Museum 1903 Abbott Carl, Leonard Stephen J and McComb David G. Colorado A Hi story of the Centennial State. University of Colorado Press Niwot CO 1994. Artists of Colorado 1860's to 1900. Compiled by Opal M Haber Western History Department Denver Public Library 1976 Benn Mary Lou. "Mary Hallock Foote: Early Leadville Writer" Colorado Maga z ine Vol. XXXIII, No. 2, April 1956 Bickford-Swatthout, Doris. Mary Hallock Foote : P i on e er Woman Illustrator Berryhill Press Deansboro NY 1996 Blair Edward. Leadville: Colorado s Mag i c City Fred Pruett Books, Boulder, Colorado, 1980 Borzello, Frances. A World of Our Own : Women a s Artists Since the R e naissance. Watsqn-Guptill Publications New York 2000 Bromwell Henrietta Scrapbook 1875-1876 Scrapbook ofthe Artists Club and art in Denver compiled by Bromwell Colorado Historical Society Hart Library, Denver, Colorado Bromwell Henrietta. Papers, 1868-1938. Notes used to support biographical indexing projects includes newspaper clippings obituaries correspondence, diary of trips Western History Department Denver Public Library, Denver Colorado Chadwick Whitney. Women, Art, and Society Thames and Hudson London 1990. 151

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Colorado Collects Historic Western Art: The Nostalgia of the Vanishing West. Catalogue of exhibition Denver Art Museum Denver, 1973 Colorado Landscape s and the New Age of Discovery. Catalog of an exhibition at the Loveland Museum/Gallery November 3, 2001January 6, 2002; includes an essay by Doug Erion; preface by Susan I son 2001 Colorado Springs Fine Arts C e nter: A History and S elec tion s from the Permanent Collections With foreword and introduction by Paul M. Piazza Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center 1986. Colorado Women Artists 1859-1950. Based upon an exhibition that ran January 19 to April 2, 1989, Arvada Center for the Arts and Humanities 1989 Colorado Women in the Arts. Introduction by Katharine Smith Chafee; catalog of the exhibition May 1979 D&K Printing Boulder, Colorado, 1979 Czestochowski JosephS The American Landscape Tradition : A Study and Gallery of Paintings E.P. Dutton, Inc. New York. 1982 Dallas Sa ndra with Simonds Nanette. The Quilt That Walked to Golden : Women and Quilts in the Mountain West. Breckling Press Elmhurst IL. 2004 Danneberg Julie. Women Artists of the West : Five Portrai ts in Creativity and Courage. Fulcrum Publishing Golden Colorado. 2002 Dawdy Doris Ostrander Artists of the American West: A Biographical Dictionary ; Artist s Born B efore 1900 Volume 3 Swallow Press, Ohio University Press Athens Ohio Chicago and London. 1974 The Denver Art Mus e um: The Fir st Hund re d Years. Essays by Neil Harris Marlene Chambers and Lewis Wingfield Story Denver Art Museum 1996 Denver Art Museum: Take Your Part in Denver's Art. Manuscript bound (10 leaves) history ofthe museum 1893-1939, including origin as Artists / Club of Denver, gift from Fred S. Bartlett 1983 Western History Department Denver Public Library Denver, Colorado Denver Fortnightl y Club. Meeting minutes, by-laws, reports, anniversary files, papers, papers presented, etc Western History Department Denver Public Library 152

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Dewhurst, C.Kurt, MacDowel, Betty and MacDowell, Marsha. Artists in Aprons: Folk Art by American Women. E.P Dutton in association with the Museum of American FolkArt, New York 1979 Dorsett, Lyle W. The Queen City: A History of Denver. Pruett Publishing Company, Boulder Colorado, 1977 Etulain, Richard W., Re-Imagining the Modern American West: A Century of Fi ction, History and Art. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson 1996 Exhibit of paintings by the Artists' Club of Denver Colorado at the Book & Art Store of Paul Raymond. Handwritten announcement of exhibit, 1900 Fahlman, Betsy "Louise Emerson Ronnebeck: A New Deal Artist of the American West" Woman's Art Journal Vol. 22 No.2, (Autumn, 2001Winter, 2002) Pp 12-18 Faris James C Navajo and Photography: A Critical History of the Representation of an American People. University of New Mexico Press Albuquerque, 1996 First Annual Exhibition of the National Mining and Industrial Exposition at Denver August I -September 30, 1882 Pro gramme, Tribune Publishing Company Inc. 1882 Gerdts William H. Art Across America: Two Centuries of R egional Painting 1710-1920 ; Volume Three: The Far Midw es t Rocky Mountain West Southwest, Pa c ific. Abbeville Press Publishers, New York, 1990 Gilpin Laura The Enduring Navajo University ofTexs Press Austin & London 1968 Gilpin, Laura. The Pikes Peak R egion The Gilpin Publishing Company Colorado Springs 1926 Gilpin Laura The Pueblos: A Camera Chronicle. Hastings House, New York, 1941 Goetzmann, William H and William N. The West of the Imagination W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. New York 1986 153

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Greatorex, Eliza. Summer Etchings in Colorado. With introduction by Grace Greenwood, G.P.Putnam's Sons New York 1873 Greer Germaine. The Obstacl e Race: The Fortune s of Women Painters and Their Work. Farrar Straus Giroux New York, 1979 Hafen LeRoy R. and Baker James H. (editor), History of Colorado: Prepared under the Supervision of The Stat e Historical and Natural Histo ry Society of Colorado, Volume III. Linderman Co Inc, Denver, 1927 Heller Nancy G. "The Art Students League : 100 Years" American Artist. Vol. 39 Issue 398 September 1975 pp 56-59, 78-81 Hill, Alice Stewart Scrapbook 1877-1907, Scrapbook of prints postcards, travel memorabilia personal photos and original sketches Western History Department, Denver Public Library Denver Colorado Hillstrom Laurie Collier and Hillstrom Kevin (editors) Contemporary Women Artists. St. James Press Detroit, San Francisco, London, Boston Woodbridge 1999 Jackson Helen H unt Helen Hunt Jackson s Colorado. Hulbert Center for Southwestern Studies, The Colorado College Colorado Springs 1989 James, Edward T. (editor); Notable American Women, 1607-1950 Volume I. Harvard University Press, Belknap Press, Cambridge, 1971 John F. Carlson and Artists of the Broadmoor Academy. Exhibit catalog. Text by Stanley Cuba. Dave Cook Fine Art, Denver Colorado, 1999 Johnson, Lee Ann. Mary Hallock Foote. Edited by David L. Nordlah Indiana University Twayne Publishers, A division ofG.K. Hall & Co., Boston, 1980 Kingsley Rose. South by West: Or Winter in the Rocky Mountain s and Spring in Mexico. With a preface by the Rev. Charles Kingsley W. Isbister & Co., London, 1874 Kovinick Phil, The Woman Artist in the American West 1860-1960. Muckenthaler Cultural Center, Fullerton California 1976; c atalog produced in connection with the exhibition of the same name that ran April2-May 31, 1976 at the Muckenthaler Cultural Center 154

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Kovinik Phil and Yoshiki-Kovinick, Marian An Enc yclo pedia of Women Artists of the American West. Fotward by William H. Goetzmann, University of Texas Press Austin 1998 Loe, Nancy E. Life in the Altitudes: An Illustrated History of Colorado Springs. Windsor Publications Inc. Woodland Hills California., 1983 Leonard, Stephen J and Noel, Thomas J Denver : Mining Camp to Metropolis. University ofColorado Press Niwot, CO 1990 Marturano, Mary Lou. Artists and Art Organi z ation s in Colorado. thesis (M.A.), University of Denver 1962 Maguire James H. Mary Hallo c k Foote. Boise State College Western Writers Series Number 2, Boise State College, Boise Idaho 1972 Mainiero, Lina editor. American Women Writers. Volume 2, Frederick Ungar Publishing Company New York 1979 Marling, Karal Ann. Wall to Wall America : Post Office Murals in th e Great Dep ression. University ofMinnesota Press Minneapolis and London, 1982 Matthews, Maria Henri e tta Bromwell1859-1946: Pieci n g Her Life Together. Part B of a Master of Humanities thesis for the University of Colorado at Denver, Colorado Historical Society Hartt Library Denver Colorado 1979 McClurg Gilbert. Brush and Pencil in Earl y Colorado Springs Colorado Springs (typewritten copy of articles which appeared serially in six successive issues ofthe Colorado Springs Gazette and Telegraph), 1924 Melosh, Barbara Engendering Culture: Manhood and Womanhood in New Deal Publi c Art and Theatre. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington & London, 1991 Miller Darlis A. Mary Hallo c k Foote : Author-Illustrator of the American West. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma 2002 Norwood, Vera and Monk, Janice (editors). The D ese rt Is No Lady : Southwestern Landscapes in Women's Writing and Art. Yale University Press New Haven, 1987 155

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Novak, Barbara. Nature and Culture: American Landscape and Painting 18251875. Oxford University Press, New York Oxford 1995 Ormes Manly Dayton and Ormes Eleanor R. The Book of Colorado Springs. The Denton Printing Co., Colorado Springs, 1933 Paul, Rodman W. (editor), A Victorian Gentlewoman in the Far West: The Reminiscences of Mary Hallock Foote. Huntington Library San Marino, California, 1972 Pettys, Chris. Dictionary of Women Artists: An International Dictionary ofWomen Artists Born Before 1900. G .K. Hall & Co., Boston 1985 Pettys Chris. "Colorado's First Women Artists ", Empir e Magazine, The Denver Post May 6 1979 Pikes P ea k Vision: The Broadmoor Art Academy 1919-1945 Exhibit catalog. Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center Colorado Springs 1989 Reed Walt and Roger. The Illustrator in America: 1880-1980 A Century of Illus tr ation. Madison Square Press New York 1984 Ressler Susan R. (editor). Women Artists of the Ame rican West McFarland & Co., Jefferson NC, 2003 Rubenstein Charlotte Streifer, American Women Artists from Earl y Indian Times to the Present. G .K. Hall & Co., Boston, 1982 Samuels Peggy and Harold. The Illustrated Biographic al Encyclopedia of Artists of the American West Doubleday & Co. Garden City, NY, 1976 Sandweiss, Martha A. Laura Gilpin An Enduring Grace Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, TX, 1986 Schlosser Elizabeth Modern Art in Denver (1919-1960): Eleven Denver Artists. Ocean View Books, Denver 1993 Schlosser Elizabeth. Modern Sculpture in Denver (1919-1960). Ocean View Books, Denver 1995 156

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Shalkop Robert L. A Show of Color: 100 Years of Painting in the Pikes Peak R e gion 18 7 1-19 71. Catalog of exhibition at the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center Colorado Springs, 1971 Spalding Elisabeth. S c rapbook/Papers 1897-1944. Microfilm of Artists Club of Denver/Denver Art Association scrapbook from archives in the Western History Department Denver Public Library Spalding Elisabeth "Something of Art in Denver as I Think of it ", typescript for the Denver Fortnightly Club December 1924 Western History Department Denver Public Library Spense, Clarke C. Mining Engineers and the American West : The Lac e -Boot Brigade 1849-1933 Yale University Press Yale Western American Series 22, New Haven & London 1970 Skalkop Robert L. A Show of Color : 100 Years of Painting in the Pike's Peak Region: An E x hibition in Honor of the Centennial of Colorado Springs, 187119 7 1 Colorado Springs Fine Art Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 1971 Swinth Kirsten. Painting P r ofes s ional s : Women Artists & the Development of Modern American Art 18 7 0-1930 University of North Carolina Press Chapel Hill N C 2001 Taft Robert A r t i sts and Illustra t ors of the Old West 1850-1900. Charles Scribner s Sons New York London 1953 Time and Place : One Hundred Years of Women Artist s in Colorado, 1900-2000 Exhibition catalog with Introduction by Katharine Smith-Warren Center for the Visual Arts Denver, Colorado 2000 Trenton Patricia (editor). Independent Spirits : Ame rican Painters of the American W es t 1890 1945 Autry Museum of Western Heritage in association with the University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles and London 1995 Tufts Eleanor American Women Artists 1830-1930 International Exhibitions Foundation for the National Museum ofWomen in the Arts 1987 Van Trump James D. A Procession of Flowers in Colorado: A Note on a Picture Album Memorial to Helen Hunt Jackson". Huntia Vol. 1, April15, 1964 157

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Western America : Lands c ap e s and Indians: An E x hibition. Exhibit catalog The State Historical Society of Missouri Columbia Missouri. 1994 Wolle Muriel Sibell. Stamp e d e to Timb e rline: The Gho st T ow ns and Mining Camp s ofColorado. Swallow Press Ohio Uni v ersity Press Athens 1949 158