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The chant "esmiss-esmoor" in E. M. Forster's A Passage to India

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Title:
The chant "esmiss-esmoor" in E. M. Forster's A Passage to India
Creator:
Applegate, Robert David
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
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Language:
English
Physical Description:
v, 89 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of Humanities)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Humanities

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Subjects / Keywords:
Passage to India (Forster, E. M.) ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (M.H.)--University of Colorado at Denver, 2005. Humanities
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 88-89).
General Note:
Department of Humanities and Social Sciences
Statement of Responsibility:
by Robert David Applegate.

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University of Colorado Denver
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|Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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66525686 ( OCLC )
ocm66525686

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Full Text
THE CHANT ESMISS-ESMOOR IN
E. M. FORSTERS A PASSAGE TO INDIA by
Robert David Applegate B.A., St. Johns College (New Mexico), 1998
A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Humanities


This thesis for the Master of Humanities
degree by
Robert David Applegate has been approved by
t2. / & /
Date


Robert Applegate (Master of Humanities)
The Chant Esmiss-Esmoor in E. M. Forsters Passage to India
Thesis directed by Associate Professor Mark Tanzer
ABSTRACT
This paper considers the chant Esmiss-Esmoor in the trial scene of E.M. Forsters A Passage to India and its relationship to the caves. Heideggers examination the mood of anxiety and the existential attunement with the nothing assist in the discussion of the Marabar caves in A Passage to India. This existential anxiety exists as the basic condition of human existence, and this paper considers its relationship to the experience of the caves in an attempt to reconcile Heideggers anxiety with Bhabhas loss of cultural plurality in the atmosphere of colonial India. Mrs. Moores spiritual journey finds its significance in a reconstitution of Brian Mays provisional Forsterian sublime; the sublime in Forster loses the overarching universal connotation to become a weaker sublime based on connectedness.
This Abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis. I recommend its publication.
Signed
m


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I wish to first thank my committee for their perseverance during this writing period and patience in waiting for me to actually write this thesis: additional thanks to Jeffrey Franklin, associate professor of English, for his guidance over the years and to my advisor, Mark Tanzer, chair and associate professor of philosophy, for assisting me in gaining an elementary understanding of Heidegger.
Furthermore, I convey my gratitude to Fr. Joseph Hirsch for encouraging me to return to graduate studies after a two-year hiatus and to my brother, Matt for allowing me to hitch rides to the Norlin library on the Boulder campus. My appreciation goes also to Timothy Ziebell, whose discussions on literature and theology have allowed me to maintain intellectual balance.


CONTENTS
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION: ARTICULATING
THE QUESTION...........................................1
2. MRS. MOORES SPIRITUAL JOURNEY
AND BRIAN MAYS FORSTERIAN SUBLIME..................15
Mays Forsterian Sublime........................15
Seeing Double...................................26
Remembrance as Sublime
Recollection in Azizs Consciousness..............29
Reflections on Mrs. Moores Journey:
Beginning and End.................................36
3. HOW THE OPENNESS TO THE NOT NOTHING
MITIGATES COLONIAL ANXIETY............................47
Adelas Entanglement..............................47
Homi Bhabhas Account of the Caves................63
How the New Signifier Esmiss-Esmoor
Enters the World of the Novel.....................68
4. CONCLUSION...........................................81
WORKS CITED...................................................88
v


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION: ARTICULATING THE QUESTION
Chapter twenty-four of A Passage to India presents the reader with a trial in which a British woman accuses Dr. Aziz, an Indian, of trying to assault her in one of the Marabar caves. On the witness stand, she retracts the charge when McBryde asks her the prefigured question, The prisoner followed you, didnt he (254). To this she answers, I am not quite sure.. .1 cannot be sure... (254). She cannot be sure about what happened to her in the caves. This recalcitrance is the only thing that saves Aziz from prison. Even in the face of Adelas retraction, many of the Anglo-Indians do not believe in his innocence: That Marabar case broke down because the poor girl couldnt face giving her evidence (291). What does this mean? She cannot bring herself to giving her evidence. Was she not the wronged party, and are they not supposed to scrutinize her testimony, rather than think that she had failed to do her part? There remains a public dimension to this trial that we must consider in order to understand it more fully. The public desire to see Aziz punished and Adelas private violation present the reader with a discrepancy we may access only by a deeper consideration the Anglo-Indian reaction to Adelas wrong. Moreover, the reader must wonder why she confesses at this point. She allows her accusation to be brought
1


to trial. Why recant now? The only way of understanding this retraction must follow from an understanding of what she finds in the caves and how the Indian crowds invocation of Mrs. Moore as the Hindi-phonic Esmiss-Esmoor resonates with Adela herself. This sound connects the absent English woman to the trial. Adelas reaction to the chant presents a bizarre resonance in her mind. Most of the other Anglo-Indians find it disturbing: Mr. Heaslop, how disgraceful dragging in your dear mother (250). They apologize to Adela for this chant, for they perceive that it must be upsetting to her. However, she replies, Not the least. I dont mind (251). The narrator adds to perplexity: She had spoken more naturally and healthy than usual... Dont worry about me, Im much better than I was. She had to shout her gratitude, for the chant, Esmiss Esmoor, went on (251). What is the reason for her reaction to the chant, and how does it work in the novels narrative account of what Mrs. Moore herself finds in the caves? This question elucidates the purpose of this entire paper: we will see how the crowds invocation the political signification Esmiss-Esmoor becomes a new signification through which Adela bridges, imperfectly and with limited understanding, the divide between her and India, creating a catalyst for her decision; this newness of the signification presents a political force, which resonates with Adela, apart from her entanglement with the concerns thrust upon her by the Anglo-Indian enclave.
Before considering this thesis statement further, we should examine the nature of the Anglo-Indian enclave itself. There exists in India a latent colonial tension,
2


which we must articulate in order to understand why the colonizers disdain the invocation of Mrs. Moore so vehemently. To begin, let us consider the facts of the case as the narrator relates them. We begin with Adelas experience in the caves. Without narrative insights into the minds of the characters, we will consider only the naked facts in the case. Adela enters the cave at the end of chapter fifteen. In chapter sixteen, Aziz finds her fleeing from the cave down the side of the Kawa Dol. The narrator provides the reader with Azizs alibi; he goes to have a cigarette (270). What does she finds in the caves? The facts relate that Aziz could not have committed an assault; we have the narrators account. Further, Mrs. Moore comments, Of course hes innocent (227). She knows Azizs character, and she believes that her friend cannot be guilty. Forsters employs Mrs. Moores character defense as a means bringing the colonial Other, as Forsters contemporary Occidental reader would have seen him (and see him still, perhaps), into the realm of identification with the cultural Self.
In Chapter Two of this paper, we will consider the sense in which Mrs. Moore becomes present, in her absence, at the trial through the chant Esmiss-Esmoor.
Brian May, in his book Modernist as Pragmatist, argues that this call relates to Godboles persistent call to Krishna: Come, come, come... but he does not come. Godbole remarks that absence is not non-existence, and, thus, he must call to Krishna to come (Passage, 197-198). We will see that the connectedness to the absent relates to, what he calls, the Hindu sublime or Forsterian sublime. His argument
3


takes into account both the caves, as a de-romanticization of the sublime, but regards the true sublime moments in the novel as those existing at the Hindu festival and in Azizs remembrance of his deceased wife: At times, he forgets her, and, at other times, he felt that she had sent all the beauty and joy of the world into Paradise (57). We will see here that Azizs thoughts circulate between thinking of her in Paradise and losing all hope of Paradises embrace of her. The meaning of the Forsterian sublime does not lie in the absolute fixity of the celestial home, as it does for Wordsworth, but in the connectedness that human beings try to make with one another and the supernatural in a kind of mystical attempt to call forth connections that do not manifest themselves as present. This attempt to understand Mays Forsterian sublime will provide us with an understanding of the invocation of Mrs. Moore at the trial and how it brings this sense of well being to Adela.
In returning to the divide between Adela and the Anglo-Indians, which occurs because they are offended by the crowds chanting and she is not, we return to the prejudices of the enclave itself. Deborah Raschke regards the meaning of the imagined outrage done to Adela as an allegory of the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857 in which Indian mercenaries, among others, rebelled against their colonial masters and killed men, woman, and children in the process (16). We will consider this point in a moment, but we take into account a historical note on the Mutiny of 1857. Bhabha, in The Location of Culture, points to a number of causes for this event, which the British would later term Mutiny. He points to the leveling zeal of the
4


government to implement land reforms that would liberate the Indian peasants from their Indian landlords and the infamous annexation of the Kingdom of Oudh as creating a sense of social dislocation in northern India (202-3). Bhabha comments on this moment of social dislocation: Panic spreads. It does not simply hold together the native people but binds them affectively, if antagonisticallythrough the processes of projection with their masters (203). This passage presents a liminal space or space of hybridity in which the colonist and colonized compete for power in the same cultural space. The Sepoy Rebellion was caused by a reaction against colonial encroachment. The British approach India with these oppressive changes to the social structure of India. These attempts were made for the sake of the British will to create a more familiar space in which to live. They desire to make India their home. On the other hand, these changes present the colonized with a displacement in their cultural referent by attacking the caste system and appropriating territory for the British Raj.
In taking into account this rebellion, McBryde comments, Read any of the Mutiny records; which, rather than the Bhagavad Gita, should be your bible in this country (187). When McBryde makes this comment, he illustrates a fundamental point regarding the his cultural standpoint. He considers the indigenous population as a threat to his way of life. He was bom in India, but sees this constant threat through the collective memory of the Anglo-Indian enclave. McBrydes comment gives a dismissive generalization. He negates the culture itself by replacing it with
5


the defense of his own colonial reference point. He does not regard the Bhagavadgita as essential to understanding India. In fact, to address this concern would be to consider the Other in as a viable force. Fielding, of course, presents the same problem. He takes Azizs position during the trial, but the last chapter of the novel finds him debating Aziz about the merits of colonialism. Fielding takes the position of the liberal colonialist who wants to educate Indians, so they may take their rightful places as British subjects, a place that they can never fully take. Aziz, on the other hand, counters with nationalist concerns. Fielding argues, Away from us, Indians go to seed at once (360). He finds that his connection with Aziz cannot withstand the tug of colonial concerns. The British must stay in India, or it will be a madhouse. It is worth noting here, however, that Fielding takes Azizs side during the trial. Still, he does takes his side at the expense of his temporary exile from the club: Seasoned and self-contained, devoid of the fervours of nationality and youth, the schoolmaster did what was for him an easy thing (210). We find, in Fieldings statement, another interesting dichotomy between the concerns of the individual to do justice and the concerns of the enclave. The concerns of the enclave manifest themselves in this feeling of violation that comes from one of their colonial position being attacked. They do not regard the case with an impartial eye, but treat it as an attack by the entire Indian populous.
The club scene after the Marabar incident illustrates an irrational unbalance when the British build a conspiracy theory that seems to implicate the whole of India
6


in Adelas outrage. They seek to indict an entire race. Callendar says to Fielding,
They paid that other Indian to make you lateGodbole. He was saying his prayers.
I know those prayers (207). A moment later, he adds, Heaslop also found out
something from his mother. Aziz paid a herd of natives to suffocate her in a cave
(207). Obviously he refers to the encumbering crowd Mrs. Moore finds in the cave,
but Ronny repeats this accusation in the scene between Mrs. Moore, Adela and
himself. In his bungalow, Ronny reiterates Callendars accusation that Aziz was the
mastermind of some grand conspiracy:
He planned it, I know. Still, you fell into his trap just like Fielding and Antony before you...Forgive me for speaking so plainly, but youve no right to take up this high and mighty attitude about law courts. If yourre ill, thats different; but you say your all right and you seem so, in which case I thought youId want to take your part, I really did.
(223)
He tells his mother that she ought to take her part in this case, and writes her testimony for her. He tells her that she should take her part and explain how Aziz had paid off these Indians to suffocate her in the caves. Mrs. Moore, however, knows that this suffocation in the caves was not Aziz doing, nor was it the doing of anyone.
She finds that the vile naked thing that strikes her face is only the pad of a little baby (162). She realizes that the experience of the caves imposes an uncertainty that negates positive expression; one cannot point to anything that happens in those caves as producing a narrative in the traditional sense of signifying something definite. The signification of the babys pad does not correspond to her experience of a vile
7


naked thing. The narrator comments on the echo in the cave, Bourn is the sound as far as the human alphabet can express it.. .Hope, politeness, the blowing of a nose, the squeak of a boot, all produce bourn (163). The narrator admits that no one may account for this sound, but that this cave echoes this sound in the face of all experiences. One may not interrogate the cave to ask what it is or how the experience of the echo resonates anthropomorphic sounds. Rather, the very sound the cave makes, as the narrator confesses, is indescribable and uncertain. The only manner in which Mrs. Moore comes to the conclusion that her experience does not match a realistic account, is to see the baby. She realizes that one may never be certain of what one finds in the caves, because of their failure to echo words or cultural signs; as the narrator puts it, If one had spoken vileness in that place, or quoted lofty poetry, the comment would have been the sameou-boum. (165). We see that Mrs.
Moore will not do her part and lie about finding something, like an assault from a herd of Indians.
Through this description of the caves inability to echo human concerns, we find that the narrator presents an account of Mrs. Moores experience that we do not find explicitly articulated in Adelas experience. The narrator leaves the reader with Adelas entrance into the caves at the end of chapter fifteen and her harrowing flight from the caves toward the beginning of chapter sixteen. Aziz certainly does not know how to account for this flight: Accustomed to sudden changes of plan, he supposed that she had run down the Kawa Dol impulsively, in hope of a little drive (171).
8


Aziz does not even know what frightened her. We will take into account this flight in Chapter Three as an inability to connect meaningfully with him, in spite of her curiosity towards him. We note here that the narrator does not account for her experience, and no one else may give an articulate account for this event. We find, in Mrs. Moores account, the bourn absent of signification, without human alphabet. Adela confesses to confesses to Ronny that she doubts that Aziz attempted to assault her: It would be appalling if I was wrong. I should take my own life (229). Ronny then tells her that the whole station knows that she is right. He adds that the case must come to trial, .. .the machinery has started (229). Her private outrage becomes a matter for the whole of the enclave, and, even in the face of her doubts, the community must bring her to trial anyway because they feel insulted by such an affront. They attempt to fill in this gap between the absence of narration and their own understanding of the Indian population through the context of the Sepoy Rebellion.
At this point, however, we find that Adelas ability to decide her own fate does not disappear in the novel. In fact, the narrative rests on an understanding of this decision of Adelas to admit uncertainty. Deborah Raschke, in E. M. Forsters A Passage to India: Re-envisioning Platos Cave, states that some critics regard the caves a choice in which Adela chooses the plot direction of the novel (16). We see that the plot direction becomes chosen for her by the enclave. Raschke, however, finds her decision not to lie about her uncertainty more appealing as a violation of the
9


imperial romance:
Her version of the Aziz story in court is a refusal of the romance as much as it is a refuse to lie, a refusal to become the passively inscribed woman who is rescued by and defined by the storming, chivalric hero. (16)
The enclave, seeing India^hrough the lease of the Sepoy Rebellion, finds her affront a
violation of their narrative. They want her to do her part, just as Ronny wants to
see Mrs. Moore to take her part, in reinforcing their chivalric role in this story.
This role provides an integrity to the colonial power that justifies its existence in
India. They find their role in India disturbed by Adelas refusal to lie.
In understanding identity and cultural significance, we must consider the caves again as a devaluation of cultural signification even between Adela and Aziz. We find that she still tries to account for her experience in the caves. This assessment illustrates the lack of definition within the caves. Even with Fielding, after the trial, she tries to figure out exactly what happened to her. She wonders if it had been another intruder. She and Fielding wonder if it might have been the guide or Pathans (269). Still, she assesses the uncertainty of her experience at the trial. In refusing to reinforce colonial rule, Miss Quested had renounced her own people (257). The problem of the uncertainty is a private matter. The Anglo-Indians insist that they are certain by virtue of filling in this narrative. They see, of course, a woman running from an Indian and then argue that this must be it: she must be running from something; there must be something that frightens her. She, after
10


the trial, tries to figure what this thing is for herself, but this thing amounts to nothing, and the narrative lacks the space in which to account for this nothing. Leland Monk, in his article, Apropos of Nothing, refers to this nothing as a narrative device:
The central, crucial, pivotal scene of the novel is not represented and, as the rhetoric attached to the caves suggests, it is strictly speaking unrepresentable. The answer to the question the rest of the novel asks but resolutely refuses to answer, What happened to Miss Quested in the Marabar cave?, is Nothing. (396)
Thus, Forster leaves this nothing out. One moment, we find Adela speaking with
Aziz and, the next moment, she runs down the side of the hill. Mrs. Moores
experience provides us with some insight into the nothing, but her experience,
according to Monk, is traumatic, disruptive, inexplicable and unassailable (396).
The Nothing in the cave refuses to signify itself descriptively; Bourn or Ou-
boum does not provide the reader with anything to latch onto. It provides nothing
or the lack of meaningful experience. This statement of lack of meaningful
experience means a lack of signification. Signs point to beings or ideas. Leland
Monk has to a recourse to Heidegger: Philosophically speaking, the nothing
contained in the Marabar Caves is nothing less than what Heidegger calls non-being
(395). According to Heidegger, thinking does something against its own essence
when it thinks about the nothing (What is Metaphysics?, 97). Thinking is thinking
of beings, not nothing. Thinking tries to render the world meaningful with signs. It
11


points to things that exist, but non-existence itself or the nothing finds that it discloses nothing that to which we may point. The juxtaposition between being and nothing will be taken up later. We will find that this juxtaposition underlies what Brian May, in his book, Modernist as Pragmatist: E. M. Forster and the Fate of Liberalism, refers to as the Forsterian sublime, a sublime that is de-romanticized and weaker than the indeterminacy found in the caves, but exists in the despite the caves. We see in Mrs. Moores departure from India to England, which she never reaches, a connectedness with the landscape of India. The landscape itself protests that it is not nothing. The Indias protest that they exist and mean something: As she drove through the huge city which the West has built and abandoned in a gesture of despair, she longed to stop, though it was Bombay, and disentangle the hundred Indian that passed each other on the streets (233). They call to her, So you thought an echo was India; you took the Marabar caves as final...What have we in common with them... (233). Brian May will argue that this moment illustrates a connectedness between Mrs. Moore and India. This connectedness finds its expression in the interrogation of India; like Godbole, she calls to India to come to her in a meaningful way. India comes, but it is not the romantic sublimity of Wordsworths intimations of the celestial home, as we will see later, but as something more fragile. This goal of homecoming will prove important in our examination of Heidegger, who finds it to be the authentic goal of human beings, but a goal that cannot be satisfied. Still, the call to India to come provides sublime moments, in spite of the overall inability to
12


interrogate a culture that is foreign to our own.
At this point, we must consider Heideggers insight on the manner in which language calls into being signs that carry with them meaning. Heidegger contends, Signs are something ontically at hand which as this definite useful thing functions at the same time as something which indicates the ontological structure of handiness, referential totality, and worldliness (Being and Time, 76). The primitive Da-sein, the human being without the need to consider the sign as something other than useful to communicating to oneself and others what this sign represents, creates the sign for purposes of utility, but this more sophisticated Da-sein may take language as at hand in order to illustrate the structure in which human beings subjectively order the world for themselves ontologically. Let us leave this last part alone since we will concern ourselves with the initial openness that one finds in the clear nothing of anxiety where human beings find the world once again open in away that they did not consider before having fallen into this inauthentic being with others or the entanglement that others place on one; in the case of A Passage to India, Adela becomes caught up in and falls prey to the concerns of Anglo-Indias need to fulfill its cultural narrative in the context of the Sepoy Rebellion. With the initial openness to the world, human beings create a sign to bridge the gap between themselves and the world. We will find, likewise, the creation of a new sign or signification in the case of the term Esmiss-Esmoor that bridges the gap between Adela and the crowd. She finds that India calls to her at the trial, not as a cave, but as an imperfect term,
13


mostly inert, that remains something and not nothing. This idea of a new term will allow us to consider how India manifests itself as having meaning, even if only through an imperfect sign, but this meaning will awaken Adela from her entanglement with the enclave and their cultural narrative into the realm of being able to see the openness of the world of beings apart from the directives others place on her.
14


CHAPTER TWO
MRS. MOORES SPIRITUAL JOURNEY AND BRIAN MAYS FORSTERIAN SUBLIME
Mays Forsterian Sublime
Mrs. Moore encounters an active force in the caves, which reduces all things to filth. For her, all things remain, but they mean nothing. Piety, Pathos, courage, poetry, the tree, God, etc (165) remain for Mrs. Moore, but they have no meaning for her. We will not attempt to assail this passage head on or consider her encounter with this devastating force in isolation. We must first provide some account of how she exists in the novel in general. The cave incident provides a profound insight into the spiritual journey of this female protagonist. They cannot, however, be seen as the final word of the novel. Doing so would ignore Mrs.
Moores final outcome. In the Mosque section, she connects with Aziz in a way that transcends, in a very limited way, her Christianity and his Islam, which we will consider in a moment. She also connects with Godbole in the Temple section in which she appears in his vision; we must take this point up again in a few pages.
Even at the trial, the crowd of Indians outside chants the Hindi-phonic Esmiss-Esmoor. The narrator in A Passage to India depicts the character of Mrs. Moore as a woman on a spiritual peregrination in which she moves through the various comers of
15


India with some openness to what they have to offer her. The narrator comments early in the novel that she sees India as a spirit, rather than Adelas view of it as a frieze (48). One of our objectives must be to consider what the narrator means in contending that Mrs. Moore regards India as a spirit. How does she move through India, what does she find there and how does it change her?
Before pushing forward with these questions, we must ask what is Forsters purpose in presenting the reader with the devaluation in the caves? Here, Mrs. Moore finds a bleak vision of the world in which all things become meaningless. The caves refuse to echo her concerns; pathos and piety remain, but the caves rob her of their meaning. They refuse to even echo these signs, and present her merely with the uncanny echo bourn. Still, the reader may argue that her presence at the Hindu festival and the mosque provide meaning through the connections that she creates in the face of racial and religious boundaries. Furthermore, her absence at the trial provides even more weight than her presence. Had she been at the trial, the crowd would not have taken it upon themselves to call to her with the chant Esmiss-Esmoor. Thus, Passage presents the reader with a paradox; Mrs. Moore finds the world meaningless at one moment, and, in another, becomes become a force in India, even posthumously, by connecting herself to the indigenous population. For this reason, we must also considers Godboles exposition on presence and absence.
To provide clarity to this connectedness that Mrs. Moore performs, both as a present figure and an absent figure whose departure makes her all the more forceful,
16


we must consider Brian Mays The Modernist as Pragmatist: E. M. Forster and the Fate of Liberalism, which accounts for the interplay between meaning and meaninglessness in Passage through the elucidation of the Forsterian sublime. By meaninglessness, again, we do not signify absence, which will be shown to have profound meaning, but meaninglessness proper. Mays argument first rests on significance of connectedness in the novel and with the dynamics of presence and absence. Insight into the Forsterian sublime assists the reader in seeing that meaning exists even after the incident at the caves. The caves remain, but Mrs. Moore finds a sublime that brings intimations through the call of the hundred India in her departing from India.
Having introduced this new term of the Hindu sublime, Brian Mays project requires explanation. The reader will see how Mrs. Moore leaves India, and this ending will show the manner in which she finds meaning even in her end. May describes a sublime state that exists in Forsters Hinduism, but differs from the romantic sublime. The sublime, as the romantics understand it, consists of a moment of individual wonder at the awesome power that the solitary pilgrim finds in the world. The Prelude offers an number of concrete example in which Wordsworths speaker conveys a sense of the sublime through the use of landscape imagery. May observes that Wordsworths sublime intimations remain momentary and suffer a collapse inward because of their ephemeral nature (127). The nature of the romantic sublime provides a huge bulk of literary criticism, and May attempts to
17


render a fuller explication of it than the project of this paper finds tenable to recount.
Rather, this paper considers a few of Mays reflections on the romantic sublime,
which he contends has Wordsworth as its avatar (123). He boils down an
observation from Francis Ferguson who comments:
Orthodox western sublimity is the private adventure of the solitary walker. Solitude is the very thing that the romantic seeks and seems to require. Romantic consciousness, Ferguson writes, emerges in reaction to the proliferation of consciousnesses, or rather it claims other consciousnesses. (131-132)
The romantic sublime is a positive sublime in its goal of appropriating the true
consciousness in favor of these other consciousnesses. This appropriation of other
consciousness seeks to reach a universal consciousness, apart from the maelstrom of
everyday drudgery. The romantics sought a return to nature, apart from the alienation
of the Industrial Revolution of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In
nature, they seek freedom and authenticity in bucolic innocence. Still, this sublime
finds its expression in an ego-centricism within the individuals isolation in nature.
By illustrating this positive romantic sublime, May describes the way in which Forster subverts the romantic sublime with this Hindu sublime. He argues that Forsters Hindu sublime seeks to connect human beings with one another, the supernatural and everything else (132). The novel serves as an attempt to connect peoples and places in general. Aziz connects with Fielding and Adela during the first section and disconnects with them during the Caves section. The Indian crowd
18


outside the court connects Mrs. Moore to the trial. In the Temple section, Godbole connects Mrs. Moore to the wasp. The meaning and purpose of what May calls the Hindu sublime lies in the characters connections. This point becomes clearer with a few illustrations.
According to May, the character of Godbole relates the best example of the Forsterian sublime (132). In the scene at the government college (with Mrs. Moore, Fielding and Dr. Aziz present), Godbole calls to Krishna, Come, come, come, but Krishna does not come (85). Godbole contends later in the novel that Krishnas absence is not non-existence and, therefore, he must entreat of Krishna to come (198). The problem of Krishna presents one of the greatest difficulties in understanding this novel. The reader must wonder how Krishna exists and how he does not exist. Mostly, Krishna remains absent, but Godbole attempts to connect with him by calling him. He will not come to Godbole probably in full force as the incarnation of the Vishnu. Still, in a sense, he does appear to Godbole. In the Temple section of this novel, Godbole finds the vision of Mrs. Moore at the festival:
It was his duty, as it was his desire, to place himself in the position of the God and to love her, and to place himself in her position and to say to the God, Come, come, come, come. This was all he could do. How inadequate! But each according to his capacities, and he knew that his were so small. (326)
Godbole connects to Mrs. Moore at this festival, but this connection is inadequate.
19


At this point, the Hindu sublime rests in an interrogation of the individuals place in the universe. Godbole, being a devotee of Krishna, finds that he must call forth his Lord. He offers up this prayer to a god who never comes, but he uncovers something of his participation in the tmi verse. Such a role cannot find the fullness that he might desire. The call comes almost in desperation and promises no satisfaction, but it is all that Godbole can do. How else can Godbole connect with the supernatural? He would not even gain a sense of connection with the supernatural without the call.
In understanding this connection between the everyday understanding of unconnected events and the Hindu connectedness with the divine, this paper must consider the narrators general account of the festival. The narrator reflects that Krishna himself is both absent and present at the festival: he is not yet bom in the reenactment ceremony; he will be bom at midnight; he was bom centuries ago;
nor can He ever be bom, because He is the Lord of the universe who transcends human processes (317). The narrator describes the image of Krishna to be bom as a small silver teaspoon-sized deity (318). Additionally, the worshippers themselves become Krishna, as they play practical jokes on one another: God can play practical jokes upon Himself, draw chairs away from beneath his posteriors, set his own turbans on fire, and steal His own petticoats when He bathes (324). Here, the reader realizes that the worshippers are and are not Krishna. Krishna exists here, but cannot exist here. The vision of the god comes in the entreaty to come and make himself manifest, most explicitly, through the various actions of the worshippers themselves.
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The tricksters stand in the place of the god and provide merriment, while the recipients of these tricks accept their losses as part of the festival: It was their duty to play various games to amuse the newly bom God, and to simulate his sports with the wanton dairy maids of Brindahan (324). They become Krishna through a kind of interaction or synthesis with him. Both stand in the place of Krishna, and both participate in this Hindu sublime of supernatural interaction. They are themselves and Krishna, and they are not Krishna.
In understanding the true implication of the festival, we must consider the act of invocating the god. Krishnas presence would dispossess revelers of their synthetic connectedness through merriment. The manifestation of Krishna as a concrete incarnate deity would bring a realism to this festival that would make it completely different. It would be like opening the door for Elijah during Passover to find that Elijah enters. This concreteness would be something else entirely.
Similarly, the non-existent Krishna would not provide them with a god to invoke.
They must believe in Krishna in order to invoke him. They find the absent, but existent Krishna through invoking his name, praying to him, symbolizing him and honoring him with rituals and amusements. Through all these aspects of the festival, they make him manifest through invocation while he remains absent. This merriment does not satisfy the need to see the god, but provides them with the invocation itself and renders this festival meaningful in a provisional way. It provides Krishna and does not provide Krishna. This invocation changes them, not Krishna. They forget
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their commonplace concerns regarding personal property. Even the Rajah, who was at deaths door, comes to the festival to honor Krishna (322). The worshippers forget about the concerns that confront them as part of everyday life and lose these concerns by participating in the festival. The reader must wonder at the importance of these concerns. How important are they?
Later we will take up the problem of everyday concern in our understanding
of Heidegger who regards the everyday being in the world as an existence
entangled with the concerns apart from who one is. Here, we remember the narrators
insight: Most of life is so dull that there is nothing to be said about it.. .Inside a
cocoon of work or social obligation, the human spirit slumbers for the most part
(146). Forster echoes Wordsworths Ode (Intimations of Immortality),: Our birth
is but a sleep and a forgetting (299). Wordsworth regards the true home of the
human being as elsewhere:
The Soul that rises with us, our lifes Star,
Hath had elsewhere its setting,
And cometh from afar:
Not in entire forgetfulness,
And not in utter nakedness,
But trailing clouds of glory do we come from God, who is our home:
Heaven lies about us in our infancy!(299)
Wordsworths speaker contends that the soul finds its true home elsewhere in the celestial sphere, removed from the baggage of the humdrum world that weighs down this soul:
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But it will not be long Ere this be thrown aside,
And with new joy and pride The little actor cons another part,
Filling from time to time his humorous stage
With all the Persons, down to palsied Age,
That Life brings with her in her Equipage;
As if his whole vocation Were endless imitation. (300)
The soul becomes encumbered with the concerns of life as an endless interplay of
being in the world of Persons who provide only a humorous stage. Wordsworth
advances the idea that life is but an endless imitation in the midst of their concerns
in the public sphere, and these concerns bring with them their own Equipage.
Wordsworths speaker argues that in living, we forget our true vocation for the
vocation of being in this world, which is not our home. Later, Heidegger will take up
this point about the homecoming, which he regards, like Wordsworth, as the true
vocation of human being, but Heidegger contends that this goal never realizes itself.
In illustrating the romantic sublime, the Ode puts forward the idea that there
was a time when the world seemed fresh and golden, full of delightful meaning.
These lines open the poem:
There was a time when meadow grove and stream,
The earth and every common sight,
To me did seem Appareled in celestial light,
The glory and the freshness of a dream. (297)
The reader finds Wordsworths Child of Joy (298) in the midst of delightful
meaning and joy where everything radiates this celestial light. The skeptic must
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ask when did you ever find this world of meaning? The speaker points to a primordial condition in which the sublime romantic consciousness becomes manifest, but the Child loses the sense of the sublime with worldly entanglements. The only way to regain the sense of the sublime lies in isolating ones self, from the world of this Equipage, in Natures realm. Nature provides an imagery that intimates the celestial home, if only momentarily. May points out that the sublime experiences a collapse inward, which once again removes the speaker from the sublime moment. One returns to the world of Equipage, or worldly obligation, where one finds the sense of the celestial home lost once again.
On the matter of this Equipage, Forster and Wordsworth agree. Both regard most of life as entailing no significance to the true desires of homecoming. Mrs. Moore desires to be one with the universe (231), and the narrator finds that she gets exactly what she desires:
Visions are supposed to entail profundity, butWait till you get one, dear reader! The abyss also may be petty, the serpent of eternity made of maggots; her constant thought was: Less attention should be paid to my future daughter-in-law and more to me, there is no sorrow like my sorrow, although when the attention was paid she rejected it irritably. (231)
She becomes inconsolable in the face of the caves. The caves provide her with exactly what she wants. She desires to see India in her quest to be one with the the universe, but India presents itself as a cave. What does this cave mean? The cave presents Mrs. Moore with the impossibility of determining exactly what exists besides
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the echo that robs words of the signification and robs existence of its meaning.
The cave overtakes her, and she desires consolation, but she cannot find what that consolation might be. However, we find Adelas revelation, while the thorns are being extracted from her backside after the Marabar incident: In space things touch, in time things fall apart (214). Mrs. Moore achieves the her consolation only in time and the move away from this overbearing loss of meaning. This point requires a return to the Hindu sublime. This sublime, as we will see, does not erase the impact of the caves. The caves still remain, but they find their power subverted by a consciousness that there exists something besides them. Admittedly, this Hindu sublime exists in a fragile, less transcendent and less powerful way than the romantic sublime, and it finds itself subverted by direct proximity to the caves, but it exists nonetheless. Later, we will find how Heidegger expresses this term in the phrase: there are beings and not nothing (103), but we are left, at this point, between the Hindu sublime and the caves.
In returning to Forster, we see that the call to Krishna does not provide the deity himself. Will he ever come? One does not know, and Forsters narrator does not provide the reader with the sense that he will ever come to the revelers. We are left with the call itself, which provides the only means of connecting absence to presence. How inadequate, but the call provides a provisional connection between presence and absence in which we may connect meaning with meaninglessness.
Taken as rational facts, the revelers signify mere coincidence, but find their meaning
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through Forsters metaphor of Krishna playing tricks on obliging Krishna. In this festival, the narrator presents the reader with the coming of Krishna in the interconnectedness underlying the festival itself.
In a contrary manner, the cave present a devaluation of the sublime that subverts all anthropomorphic demands. The cave refuses to echo anthropomorphic concerns, If one had spoken vileness in that place, or quoted lofty poetry, the comment would have been the same-ou-boum (165). However, we will take up the matter of the hundred Indias (232) that Mrs. Moore finds on her way to the Steamer bound for England. They call to her in as though they were wanton maids, inviting her to come. They insist upon their juxtaposition from India: What have we in common with them (233)? Thus, India presents itself as both meaningful and meaningless in the face with the caves.
Seeing Double
In order to understand the nature of this paradox latent within the Hindu sublime, we must consider Leland Monks article Apropos of Nothing: Chance and Narrative in Forsters A Passage to India in which he comments on Forsters employment of coincidence and the supernatural. Monk argues that this festival presents simultaneous affirmation and negation of divinity in the religious beliefs of the Hindus (396). Monk argues that this double vision of affirmation and negation provides not just a linguistic pun, but a challenge to the rationalist mind. Monk
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mentions also the Islamic creed, there is no God but God as providing another paradox that Western rationalism cannot embrace because it negates and affirms at the same time (397). Fielding considers this creed and dismisses it as a religious pun not a religious truth (Passage, 307). He cannot accept the implied negation that this creed rests on: there is no God but God; God exists, but no other gods exist besides God. Chapter Three of this paper will consider the question of negation and the nothing. Here it suffices to note another supernatural truth, even if it only applies to Islam, that rests upon a negation. Both Monk and Heidegger regard the question of negation as indicative of an active nothing, which underlies the whole of the experience of being. It also, according to May, underlies this Forsterian sublime (142). The nothing subverts the sublime and always underlies it. Continual consciousness of the nothing would never permit the connectedness of the Hindu sublime to manifest itself. However, in treating of the negativity that underlies sublime, we find that the Hindu presents something that is more precious and authentic because of the paradox between meaning and coincidence.
In lending clarity to this negative element that underlies the Hindu sublime, May once again gives the qualities of the romantic sublime: [djaintiness, artificiality, temporality and transcendability (139). He admits also that the romantic sublime evades definition (139). May establishes all of these qualities as properties of the romantic sublime, but we will limit ourselves to the last of these qualities, transcendability. This quality indicates that the romantic sublime, much like an active
27


agent, transcends the wonderers consciousness in order to uncover a greater consciousness. If only we go to the English countryside, natural innocence might trigger our primal connection to our celestial home. The romantic sublime finds its ability to transcend our Equipage or our commonplace concerns thrust upon us by virtue of existing with others in the world. Contrarily, this paper will illustrate how the nothing transcends even the Hindu sublime in A Passage to India.
In illustrating the untranscendability of the Hindu or Forsterian sublime, May points to Mrs. Moores exit from India. In the end, she experiences an epiphany on her way to steamer bound for Britain, which offers her something other than the caves. She sees the city of Asirgarh: What could she connect with it except its own name? Nothing; she knew no one who lived there. But it had looked at her and seemed to say: I do not vanish (232). Meaning reconstitutes itself after the experience of the caves. She begins to see India anew, ... she longed to stop.. .and disentangle the hundred Indias that passed each other in the streets (233). These Indias inform her that they exist as well as the Marabar: So you thought an echo was India; you took the Marabar Caves as final?...What have we in common with them, or they with Asirgarh? (233). This passage leaves Mrs. Moore with another form of Monks double valence. The nothing exists, and all beings remain insignificant in the face of it. He refers to this scene specifically as artificial and contingent; the hundred Indias say, Goodbye' having asserted only their difference from the Marabar, scarcely their triumph over it. The very hope of finality is thereby, and
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auspiciously eradicated (138). May contends that this nothing is larger and stronger than the Forsterian Hindu sublime, but the sublime still exists (139).
These personified Indias are not part of this uneradicable nothing.
Remembrance as Sublime Recollection in Azizs Consciousness
Since the reader of this paper must now wonder at the choice of intertwining the terms Hindu sublime with Forsterian sublime, we will offer two reasons for why they are the same for the purpose at hand. The first of these, rests in Mays choice to use the term Forsters Hindu pragmatic sublimity toward the end of his treatise, at which point he addresses the school of pragmatism in regard to the Forsterian sublime (142). This paper leaves other critics to examine Mays synthesis of the Forsterian sublime with pragmatism.1 Such an examination remains inessential to understanding the basis for a sublime grounded in connectedness. Secondly, the experiences of Aziz, who is not even Hindu, display this same Forsterian sublimity. Chapter eight of Passage presents the reader with Azizs pensiveness over the picture of his dead wife. Here, the narrator relates the story of how the marriage had been arranged. He had fallen in love with her after being married for a number of years, and she died soon after he had fallen in love with her (57). The narrator relates
1 Pragmatism is an American school of thought whose proponents include C.S. Peirce, William James and John Dewey. Contemporary work in pragmatism is conducted by Comel West and Richard Rorty. This school attempts to address ideas and concepts in philosophy according to their viability or their ability to solve problems that philosophers find in conceptual conflicts.
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Azizs doubts about the eschatological destination of human souls:
.. .his belief in the life to come would pale to a hope, vanish, reappear, all in a single sentence or a dozen heart-beats, so that the corpuscles of his blood rather than he seemed to decide which opinion he should hold and how long. It was so with all his opinions. Nothing stayed, nothing passed that did not return; the circulation was ceaseless and kept him young, and he mourned his wife the more sincerely because he mourned her seldom. (57-58)
The awesome power of these images trigger a sense of continual lapse and recovery. His bodily movements keep the cycle of faith and despair. The irony nothing stayed, nothing passed that did not return creates a beautiful ambiguity that connotes a vivacious attempt to love she who will not, in this life, return. This passage relates the problem of human faith in the divine, which Aziz continually questions. The narrator comments that he does not question the existence of the one God, but, when matters become more local, he has doubts about the world to come (57). Strangely, the genuineness of his connection with his faith lies in his constant doubting, for this process of doubt and reassertion of faith makes that faith all the more vivid. Had he taken for granted that his wife was in Paradise, he would have left thoughts of her reward in the back of his mind; these doubts produce a longing for him to mourn her. Like Godboles invitation to Krishna, he must call forth this faith in Paradise and waits for this faith to answer, and the answer appears and flees. His mind considers the possibility of Paradise both as certain and dubious within a few heart-beats. This space between certainty and uncertainty provides Aziz with a place to mourn. This
30


act of faith is just that, an action that Aziz must perform in order to realize again that there is a God and He has rewarded his wife.
A moment after this reflection on doubt and belief, the narrator describes the paradox that reveals Azizs process of remembrance. The narrator comments on the manner in which the deceased wife escapes full conscious memory; the memory of his wife remains incomplete and vague: He desired to remember his wife and could not. Why could he remember people whom he did not love? They were always so vivid to him, whereas the more he looked at this photograph, the less he saw (58). Aziz recollects most people with ease, because they mean little to him. They existed or exist, and he doubts not die facts that his memory provides him. His memory suffices for his recollection of most people. His memory of his wife, on the other hand, provides an active contemplation of the will to love, and his mind fuses her memory with his desire to see her again in Paradise and to love that memory with active passion. This memory lacks the static mo: of an indifferent fact. The narrator comments on deceased persons in general: .. .the more passionately we invoke them the further they recede (58). The will to recollect the absent wife produces a greater sense of her absence.
Through this process of reminiscence, Aziz calls forth his own wife from the grave, but she does not come. To do otherwise, would negate the meaning he places on her. Who else could provide meaning for her, except her husband and family? Choosing to regard her fate as certain and final would render her an
31


indifferent fact. He must stand in the place of the divine and, through his faith in the world to come, embrace her entrance into paradise, and he must stand in his own place and bid the divine to reconnect him with his beloved.
Later in the novel, Fielding realizes on the roof of the Nawab Bahadurs
house, in breaking the news of Mrs. Moores death to Aziz, that the dead are not
really dead until they are felt dead (283). Aziz refuses to let go of his friendship
with Mrs. Moore after her death. In this way, he is more a friend to her than her own
son, whose spiritual out look is that of the Fifth Form of the English public school:
Presumably she goes to heaven, anyhow she clears out (286). Further, Azizs
friendship with her continues in a very mysterious manner. She influences even his
decision to withdraw his libel suit against Adela:
Aziz yielded suddenly. He felt it was Mrs. Moores wish that he should spare the woman who was about to marry her son, that it was the only honour he could pay her.. .It was fine of him, as he foresaw, it won him no credit with the English. They still believed he was guilty... (290)
Fielding tries to persuade him to do justice to Adela, but how can she restore Aziz name after her false accusations? In regard to her accusation made against Aziz, she commits a crime that has irrevocable effects. Her acquiescence to the charge cannot be undone in colonial circles in which the English now hold Azizs guilt as fact, even after the trial. To do otherwise, would undermine their solidarity and supposed moral superiority over the Indian population. Again, we see that the British empire views
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his crime only through the lens of the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857. Seeing it otherwise, opens would create a disintegration in their ability to uphold their solidarity in the face of the Other; as the narrator reflects on Ronny Moores own attitudes, One touch of regretnot the canny substitute but the true regret of the heartwould have made him a different man, and the British Empire a different institution (53). Still, the narrator comments on how Fielding, an atheist, employs necromancy in order to secure Azizs capitulation; he conjures up the name of the dead woman, Mrs. Moore. In this manner, Mrs. Moores ghost comes to Aziz to get him to drop the charge. His gesture towards her honor offers her supplication, while remaining dead.
Having considered the significance of Aziz gesture as one of friendship, it remains one of exploitation on another level. Fielding draws on Azizs religious belief in honoring the dead to retract his vengeance. The reader may regard this technique in two ways; it may either be a direct abuse of his friend, or it may be an honoring of Mrs. Moore. If it is an abuse, the reader must take either Adelas side or that of Aziz. She does spare Aziz from incarceration, even though she tarnishes his honor. Hence, Fieldings actions tempt the reader to believe that he was acting for the best possible outcome. Fielding indicates that the punitive damages demanded by Aziz would impoverish Adela (280) The reader does not want to see her go away without a penny. Her acquiesce seems all too human for us to condemn her, and she does express the regret that endears us to her. Contrarily, the reader should ask if Adela provides just recompense for her wrong done to Aziz. Indeed, is Aziz, like
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Shylock in The Merchant of Venice, the wronged Other who suffers at the expense of the harmonious ending? Aziz comes out as the weaker party, and Forster permits the Adela to return to Britain with her small fortune intact. According to Alan Friedman, in Fictional Death and the Modernist Enterprise, the short sentence Aziz yielded suddenly signifies a feminization of Aziz. Friedman argues that his empathy for Mrs. Moores wishes and his willing subordination to the masculine Fielding consign him to the role of the feminine (202). Thus, Fielding reinforces the colonial order of master/subordinate.
The second way of looking at Fieldings manipulation is more optimistic and relates directly to the supernatural prowess of Mrs. Moores shade. Fieldings own personal beliefs do not prevent him from evoking the name Mrs. Moore. His necrophile incantation succeeds where his rational arguments fail. Through this second train of thought, Azizs motives stand as those of friendship for Mrs. Moore. His self-sacrifice may be expressed as an instance of the Forsterian sublime. He desires to honor his deceased friend, who remains a force in the novel after her death. According to Alan Friedman the fact of suddenness and strange relations of the facts concerning Mrs. Moore death makes her death ambiguous (197). This ambiguity comes from the fact that the narrator does not depict her death on board the steamer. The news comes from a cable, and Fielding conveys the news by chance encounter with Hamidullah (274). On the roof of the Nawab Bahadurs Fielding relates Mrs. Moores death to Aziz, who refuses to believe him: He had tried to kill Mrs. Moore
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this evening.. .but she still eluded him (284). Once again, the dead are not dead until they are felt dead. Aziz never lets Mrs. Moore clear out, but offers her the honor of letting her sons erstwhile fiancee off with only the cost of the defense. The synthesis between presence and absence remains crucial to most of Forsters novels: The norm in Forster is the oddly angled and retrospective death, which denies death its full validation, and thereby creates a sense of continuing presence even as absence is intensely felt during the remainder of the novel (198). The death of Mrs. Moore, ironically, empowers her more than had she been actively present. It enables a movement towards this sublime interconnection with the supernatural. In the case of Aziz, her specter allows him to find some sort of closure by dropping his libel suite. He may, at least, pay her this honor. We will see later that the Hindu goddess Esmiss-Esmoor is a catalyst for his acquittal. Her absence allows her name to insinuate itself in the trial in such a way as to both restore Adelas sense of well being and present a political slogan for the crowd that connects Adela to India through the enunciation of a new Hindu goddess.
Later in this paper, this lack of connection will find its expression in a discourse on anxiety. Like Heideggers dissolution of being in the face of the nothing found in the mood of anxiety, the role of the Anglo-Indian finds its dissolution in the face of the other. If the reader discounts Mrs. Moores supernatural role as mediator, the fight between Aziz and Adela may have continued, and such the underlying conflict between the enclave and the Indians clearly continues through the
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appropriation of Fielding into affairs of the British Raj.
Reflections on Mrs. Moores Journey: Beginning and End
This section attempts to explain what happens to Mrs. Moores spiritual disposition during the course of the novel. Mays idea of the Fosterian sublime provides a good lens through which to view her journey. Mrs. Moore displays an openness toward India that Miss Quested, who finds only the terror of the caves and her act of conscience, does not. In the same manner, Fielding comes to India intent on remaining an educator at the government college, but finds himself an agent of the Lieutenant-Governor at the end. He marries Mrs. Moores daughter who has ideas that he does not share (357). The narrator never develops this character of Stella, but indicates that she has an interest in Hinduism (359). Still, the final chapter of the novel depicts an imperialist Fielding arguing in favor of the need for British control of India and an Aziz who says, India shall be a nation! No foreigners of any sort! Hindu and Moslem and Sikh and all shall be one! (361). The relationship between Fielding and Aziz represents the relationship between Britain and India. There can be no healthy relationship between Imperialism and nationalism. On the other hand, we find that Mrs. Moore does manage to connect with Aziz in the beginning and with the hundred India that wave goodbye to her in the end.
In spit of this harsh division, Aziz tells Fielding, a few pages earlier, that he will always associate his name with Mrs. Moores name (359). Aziz had thought that
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Fielding had married Adela Quested, and he stands corrected at this point. Mrs. Moores name helps sooth tensions between Fielding and Aziz, but, of course, there are greater political matters, which separate these two characters. This section must consider the friendship between Mrs. Moore and Aziz and how it indicates that her spiritual disposition allows for an openness to the colonial Other. Her openness gives her the best vantage point to connect with the Other in a partial manner, with some meaningful interrogation, that is not nothing. Indeed, this not nothing will come to signify the initial openness to the world that Heidegger finds when human beings depart from the mood of anxiety and find the world once again open to their concern.
Before illustrating Mrs. Moores recovery of the sublime, which this paper will argue consists in her attainment of the Forsterian sublime, this paper must remark on her state before the caves. Chapter two of Passage introduces the reader to Mrs. Moore through the realm of the mosque. She encounters Aziz at this point who tells her, at first, to go away: Madam, this is a mosque, you have no right here at all; you should have taken off your shoes; this is a holy place for Moslems (17-18). To this she replies, I have taken them off...I left them at the entrance (18). Her gesture changes everything for Aziz. He not longer regards her as the colonial mistress who comes to survey the mosque, but as a woman open to the community of Moslems. In reality, Aziz knows that she is not a Moslem. Mrs. Moore identifies herself at the bridge party as a Christian. Even in the Temple, the narrator refers to her as
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Christian. Forster might illustrate that she finds her religion meaningless in the face of the Marabar Caves, but the narrator brings her religious identity up again at the festival. Her assumed Islamic identity seems not to negate her identity as a Christian or her place at the festival: He was a Brahman, and she Christian, but it made no difference (326). In the mosque and, later, at the outing, as we will see, Aziz regards her as a Moslem who is not a Moslem, for he would rather think of her as one of his camp.
In order to lend clarity to this point, we must consider this scene further. In removing her shoes, Mrs. Moore entertains her ephemeral Islamic identity. Aziz explains his former misapprehension by saying that so few ladies take the trouble, especially if thinking no one is there to see. She replies, That makes no difference. God is here (18). To which God does she refer? Is she talking about Ala or Jehovah? Moslems and Christians have very different concepts of God; the insistence of the unity of the Islamic God cannot stand for the triune God of the Christians in an absolute dogmatic sense. The Christian cannot say God and expect the term to signify the same unity that the Moslems hold. Still, Mrs. Moore leaves her dogmatic rigor behind and assumes that God is God, even in the Mosque. This connection provides room for heresy, but it allows the Christian and Moslem to connect. Aziz immediately accepts her place at the mosque by asking, how can I do you some service now or at any time? (18).
Through their connection at the mosque, Aziz and Mrs. Moore become fast
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friends. They talk about their children, a topic that Aziz considers sacred. She tells
him that she has three, and he, of course, has three:
Listen, please. I am about to tell you the names my childrens names. The First is called Ahmed, the second Karim, the thirdshe is the eldestJamila.
Three children are enough. Do you not agree with me?
(20)
She does agree with him. We note the significance of the number three as Trinitarian, but we do not press this connection. It remains symbolic, but unconnected to the dogma of her Christian faith. It exists only coincidentally, and the question of its Trinitarian significance does not present us with an answer. In the course of their conversation, they then gossip about Mrs. Callendar (20-21). The kindness that both of these characters display towards one another is profound. Later, when the Fielding and Godbole do not arrive at the train station in time for the expedition to the Marabar, Aziz fears that the entire outing has been ruined. Mrs. Moore allays these fears by saying, We shall be all Moslems together now, as you promised (145).
The true implication of this comment is that it puts the personal before cultural identities, if for a moment only; through this moment, she provides a provisional home or pragmatic connection for her friendship with Aziz.
In the middle of this book, the reader encounters the caves. The narrator does not even lend a train of thought for what Adela finds in the caves. She enters the caves at the end of chapter fifteen and flees from them at the beginning of sixteen. Leland Monk argues that her encounter in the caves is an encounter with the
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nothing, and Forster leaves her narrative encounter with the nothing out of the text
because it is unrepresentable (395-396). On the other hand, the narrator does relate
Mrs. Moores disposition after her encounter with the caves. The problem of the
caves presents a devaluation for Mrs. Moore, and we will take up this devaluation
again Chapter Two, but where does it leave her? She encounters an instance in which
she cannot communicate anything to the cave, and the cave fails to resonate an echo
that she could identify as helpful to her desire to be one with the universe. The
intimations that the realm of nature should relate to the solitary wonders
consciousness in the romantic peregrination are not there. She encounters an
experience that triggers an intimation without significance to her consciousness; the
natural world intimates nothing. She loses her fundamental sense of her self and her
values fall away after her short sojourn into the caves:
If one had spoken vileness in that place, or quoted lofty poetry, the comment would have been the same-ou-boum. If one had spoken with the tongues of angels and pleaded for all the unhappiness and misunderstanding in the world, past, present, and to come, for all the misery men must undergo whatever their opinion and position, and however much they dodge and bluff-it would amount to the same, the serpent would descend and return to the ceiling. Devils are of the North, and poems can be written about them, but no one could romanticize the Marabar because it robbed infinity and eternity of their vastness, the only quality that accommodates them to mankind.
(165)
Very much like a vortex, the caves negate the values that one places on them. Greatness and vastness strike the romantic with the delight of solitudes oneness with
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of cosmic forces. However, the leveling power of caves overtakes even the vastness of these landmarks. Things still remain; piety, courage, etc. remain, but the caves rob them of their significance. The romantics try to touch supernatural platitudes; here, eternity and infinity prove strangers to the romantic. The caves refuse to echo the signification that one utters; the answer to all these significations remains Bourn.
Earlier in this chapter, Adela mentions Grasmere, a clear allusion to the lake district inhabited by Wordsworth. The narrator then explains how the plain below the Marabar hills differs from Grasmere. Grasmere is Romantic yet manageable, but an untidy plain stretched to the knees of the Marabar (152). The narrator describes these hills themselves as a series of fists and finger (5-6). Nigel Messenger, in his article Imperial Journeys. Bodily Landscapes and sexual Anxiety: Adelas Visit to the Marabar Caves in A Passage to India," describes them as a variant of grotesque realism (106). Obviously, Forster desires to posit what these hills are not, a romantic picturesque, to what the are, indeterminate. The anthropomorphic fists and fingers indicate the disorder of the human form, instead of a positive expression of it.
In addition, the cave negates canny signification, which human beings require to see meaning. Without this meaning, human beings regard the universe as hostile. We require the assurance that we will find a place within it, and this assurance is integral to our being. We need the world to resonate, in a useful manner, the
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demands that we place on it. When we employ the signification sun, for instance, we require the sun to be what we think it is. In spite of the desire to find hospitality, Messenger disputes the idea advanced by critics, such as Deborah Raschke (Raschke, 12), that the cave represents a womb. The description of this Marabar does not uphold this contrivance, and the caves are not procreative in the literal sense of the word:
The Marabar caves are not a place of procreationat least not of the heterosexual kind. The dominant images of echo and reflection that they contain are essentially sterile and self-reflexive; the eroticism they undoubtedly hold is doomed to exquisite frustration, lying as it does outside the patterns of nature. (107)
This conclusion about the intestinal nature of the caves comes from the narrators depiction: the hole belched (162). Moreover, the interior of the cave, when the match strikes, produces little snakes and worm coils (163). Here, Messenger finds that the cave resembles a rectum more than it reminds one of a womb (106).
The argument that Foster propagates a new sort of positive aesthetic or philosophy appears dubious according to Messenger. He finds these caves pregnant only with frustration. The echo produces a self-reflection that robs one of the meaning of the words that one presents to the caves.
Before moving into this frustration as basic devaluation of human meaning, this paper must briefly note Messengers comment that they caves illustrate the authors own encumbrance regarding his own sexuality. Obviously, the friendship
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between Aziz and Fielding has homoerotic undertones, and the reader may find a few other examples of homoeroticism in A Passage to India. This paper just has too much to tackle and will ignore this point in Messengers argument for the sake of brevity. It leaves this homosexual frustration for other critics to examine.
To resume the matter of the caves effect on Mrs. Moore, this paper need examine a few more details regarding her dissolution of meaning. She loses all sense her former ideals and cannot find consolation even in her religion: Religion appeared, poor talkative Christianity, and she knew that all its divine works from Let there be Light to It is finished only amounted to bourn (166). Christianity exists as a concern of Mrs. Moore before her encounter. She argues with the callousness of the Anglo-India administration by presenting a Christian position on how the British ought to rule India. She argues for a moral approach to colonialism predicated by her Anglican Christianity:
The English are out here to be pleasant.. .God has put us on the earth in order to be pleasant to each other. God...is...love...
God has put us on earth to love our neighbours and to show it, and He is omnipresent, even in India, to see how we are succeeding. (53)
This position remains a colonialist position, but one that seems more charitable. It calls for colonial reform, rather than colonial withdrawal. She grounds her position in principles of charity and justice. With the advent of the caves, however, she finds her Christianity meaningless. How can the Raj unite India under the flag of colonialism with Christianity? She herself finds that she must set aside her identity to even
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connect with Aziz. Moreover, the caves illustrate how the personal terms love and pleasantness do not overarch the entire universe. These terms imply connection, and connections do not come easily in India. They remain as fragile and limited in the interrogative process of the Forsterian sublime; diffuse connections exist in this novel, amid the overarching cultural conflicts. India never fully answers the questions that one asks of it; it invites, Come, but does not provide a full explication of its significance and refuses to answer Mrs. Moores spiritual peregrination with any absolutely meaningful response.
In the context of the cave, Mays argument conveys that nothing in the caves transcends the Forsterian sublime. The narrator relates that Mrs. Moore loses interest after her visit to the cave, even in Aziz, and the affectionate and since words that she had spoken to him seemed no longer hers but the airs (166). This friendship passes temporarily into emptiness, as do her words. There is only the echo, bourn. Still, earlier, we pointed to Mays account of her passage from India, .. .she longed to stop.. .and disentangle the hundred Indias that passed each other in the streets (233). These Indias inform her that they exist as well as the Marabar: So you thought an echo was India; you took the Marabar caves as final?...What have we in common with them, or they with Asirgarh (233)? This weaker and less final sublime reemerges at this point as a way of bringing her character back from the paralysis in which the cave leaves her. Here, we see Marabar/Asirgarh dichotomy in light of the double valence described by Monk. Her ability to find the significance
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of India meets finite limits and appears meaningless in the face of nothing, but it still exists and remains a catalyst for the connection between the Christian woman and Godbole, and between the lady in the Mosque and Aziz.
Having mentioned this last connection, this paper will later bring up the Hindu goddess Esmiss-Esmoor and her role in the trial. She becomes a force for the crowd outside, and the reader must ask how does she come to the aid of Aziz? Here, this chapter must leave the reader with the idea of Mrs. Moores absence as allowing for her narrative apotheosis. Remember, the Anglo-Indians cannot be convinced by Azizs innocence by virtue of his character. Adelas confession only secures Azizs legal acquittal.
The next chapter will take up this question from with a Heideggerian lens in the hope of elucidating the experience of the caves, particularly Adelas experience of them, from a philosophical perspective. This project will provide better language with which to address the caves and their role in the novel. Heideggers reflections on the nothing will allow a compliment for Brian Mays work on the Forsterian sublime and will allow the critic fuller exposition of Monks idea of double valence. The anxiety of the loss of meaning, or the refusal of the caves to resonate the demands that one places them, will allow us to see India for what it is at bottom, the inability to find cultural significance. It will also allow us to understand the inability of Adela to relate to Aziz, generating a sexual frustration that finds its expression through the unrepresented encounter she has with the caves. On the other
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hand, we find that India presents itself at the trial in the form of the Hindu goddess Esmiss-Esmoor and in Mrs. Moores own departure from India. The caves are, the loss of what Bhabha calls the implausibility of conversation is (126), but so is Asirgarh and the hundred Indias. caves. These personified Indias call to her and insist that they exist, that they mean something, and are not nothing. They present a response to Mrs. Moores openness to the world, which becomes all the more vivid, because they are and are not the uncanny echo of found in the caves.
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CHAPTER THREE
HOW THE OPENNESS TO THE NOT NOTHING MITIGATES COLONIAL ANXIETY
Addas Entanglement
In taking up the matter of Adelas decision not to lie about the uncertainty that she finds in the caves, we take up three major points. The first comes from her role as the wronged maiden, as we mentioned in Chapter One. We must consider how the Anglo-Indians force their narrative of the imperial romance onto the narrative Adelas flight from the cave and assign themselves the role of chivalric avengers of Adelas supposed assault. The second point comes from the anxiety that Adela finds in the cave itself. She finds that the object of her curiosity, Aziz, remains unable to respond to her advances and her attempts to connect with him through conversation. Bhabha describes her attempt as a failure in to establish viable conversation in the face of cultural plurality (126). We will consider this point further in this chapter. The third point that we seek to make in this chapter comes from a new relationship that Adela finds between herself and India through the new signification Esmiss-Esmoor. The call of Mrs. Moore will assume an appeal from India to bring Mrs. Moore to acquit Aziz. The call finds different meanings for different segments of the populations. For Amritao, and the Indian pleaders, it
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signifies a political protest in the face of the injustice at the tried. The crowd outside has no idea what the name Mrs. Moore points to in reality and incorporates it into their language as Esmiss-Esmoor, realizing that the appeal to her represents a protest of the courts proceedings. Adela connects the name to her friend, Mrs. Moore, whose kinship with her we will consider in a moment. This term means different things to different people, but Esmiss-Esmoor becomes a signifier for generating political action among the crowd. To barrow Bhabhas terminology, this term becomes a multi-accentual sign through which culturally plural terms become possible in a limited manner, with different emphases, but touching on a specific appeal (179).
In understanding the problems of entanglement with societys concerns, like the enclaves need for self-justification through the narrative of imperial romance of the Sepoy Rebellion and the Adelas decision to act apart from these concerns imposed on her, we have recourse to Heideggers analysis of human being as thrown being into the world and the human being as fallen prey to the concerns imposed upon one by society. Taking into account these aspects will assist us in our critical approach to Adelas dilemma and her decision not to lie. In Heideggerian philosophy, human beings fall prey to the concerns of the everyday being in the world of concerns. Most of the time, according to Heidegger, the individual loses what one is essentially: thrown being into an uncanny world. Human beings try to render beings useful to them, but the world proves to be very hostile to the concerns
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of the isolated human being. What Heidegger means by the thrownness of human being will become clearer as this section progresses. Indeed, for both Bhabha and Heidegger, as we will soon see, the concerns of ones society ensnare the individual in its web, providing one with both the blessings of cultural reference, a false home in ones own society, and the curse of having fallen prey to the concerns of the same society through which one relies to furnish a place of meaningful articulations of the individuals place in the world. Unfortunately, what the human being is at bottom, without entanglement in the everyday concerns of society, is thrown being into world. These everyday attachments, which are something akin to the Equipage of Wordsworth, are not really the essential attachments of human beings. In the case of A Passage to India, the Anglo-Indian enclave imposes its narrative understanding of itself onto its members. Its members rely upon the enclave for their security.
Without the enclave, its members become lost in the world without, what Bhabha calls, the artifice of signification (126), through which they may find language and significations to justify their existences. We will see how the colonial power requires the narrative of the imperial romance in order to exist as a people in the face of adversity from the colonial Other, who exists outside the realm of their artifice of signification.
Already, in the mosque scene, we find that Mrs. Moore by virtue of being a Christian does not agree with the Islamic notion of one God, in one person;
Trinitarian doctrine cannot withstand the Unitarian agenda of the Islamic creed:
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There is no God but God. However, she finds herself able to communicate with Aziz by not pressing Christian dogma and, thus, creating God as a less defined term. Aziz, likewise, agrees not to let the term God rest in an ambivalence that creates the possibility for a limited cultural plurality. They both take God apart from the concerns of religious doctrines and let this term rest on an agreed consideration, apart firom the rigor that their respective religions would place on them. Later, we will find the ambivalence of the term Esmiss-Esmoor as creating a new signification, apart from the concerns of existent cultural narratives. At this point, however, we find that most of the significations that we employ in everyday parlance are imposed, and room exists in this friendship for a kind of limited and ambiguous religious plurality, apart from the inherent specificity of the theological creeds of either Christianity or Islam, in the realm of the personal.
In Heideggers philosophy, humans beings exist, in their thrown state, as beings without the information that society provides through acculturation and the everyday concerns imposed upon us outside our desires and concerns for authentic meaning. This enthrallment into the concerns of the they creates an inauthentic means of signification, which human beings choose because isolation is excruciating. We desire to find the world entirely meaningful but, when we come to understand the meaninglessness that underlies it, we have recourse to, what Heidegger calls, das Man or the they. The narrative of the imperial romance denotes a perfect illustration of the concerns of the they. Having given a few reflections on the
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imperial romance or the cultural referent that the English hold as a reaction to the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857, we will now see that this chivalric lens provides the general view that the Anglo-Indian enclave has of itself; it sees itself as the defenders of civilization, which it regards as Occidental civilization, in the face of the Other. McBrydes summarizes the attitude of the enclave in his comment to Fielding, after Azizs arrest: Read any of the Mutiny records; which, rather than the Bhagavad Gita, should be your bible in this country (187). McBrydes comment gives a dismissive generalization. He negates the culture itself by replacing it with the defense of his own colonial reference point.
In understanding this reliance on cultural definition, most realize the tenuous situation that the British occupy in India. They cannot find their true cultural home in the face of an overwhelming hostility to their cultural identity. They know well that they are not welcomed in India. They know also that the cultures of India present problematic cultural expressions, which they must ignore in order to fulfill their defense of Western civilization. McBrydes statement on the Mutiny records should be taken a conscious flight from the authentic attempt to pursue Indias call come to a flight into the enclosed cultural space of the enclave. In their disregard for the possibility of any sort of negotiated understanding between their colonial aims and the aims of India, Passage portrays the British living in India as homeless. Ronny remarks, India isnt home (33). The very term Anglo-Indian conveys a sense of being neither India nor British. Their identity becomes that of an army of
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occupation. Another example of a character who lives for this publicness is Mr. Turton. The narrator describes him, Always brave and unselfish, he was now fused by some white and generous heat; he would have killed himself, obviously, if he had thought it right to do (180). He places his own desires and concerns into the hands of the very enclave that he leads, becoming himself enthralled by the concern for the tenuous position of the occupying force. When Miss Quested asks to meet some of the Indian population with whom they mix, Turton dismisses her: Well, we dont come across them socially...Theyre full of all the virtues, but we dont and its now eleven-thirty, and too late to go into reasons (26). Mr. Turton refuses even to interact with India for fear of compromising the concerns of this British outpost.
Before embarking on what Heidegger considers to be the ensnarement or entanglement the human being in the affairs of the everyday being in the world, we must consider how he regards human being in its essence or as it really is. Heidegger argues, in What is Metaphysics?, that the individual human being or Da-sein is thrown being into the world, held out into the nothing (103). We find ourselves in the world of beings without a lexicon with which to understand what we, and we attempt to build a home for ourselves in which to live. We desire to render the world meaningful to our experience of it. However, beings possess a negative dimension that Da-sein, which is always subjective experience of the world, cannot render manifest to itself. It can make no sense out of most of what it finds in the world, and the meaning that it does find is always provisional. We find that Da-sein
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spends most of its time apart from what it is by occupying itself with the everyday concerns of being in the world. The world of culture provides the best example of ones estrangement from who one is as being without pre-ascribed meaning. In the moment at which one finds ones self isolated from meaningful experience of the world, one becomes faced with a decision. One may either pursue ones own concerns or those imposed upon one from the outside. Ones own concerns remain a mystery, and the subjectivity of Da-sein as thrown into the world without predication does not provide the answer in a universal sense. There remains nothing to inform one how to pursue ones own aims in a hostile world. Da-sein becomes left to its own devices. On the other hand, Da-sein may flee into the world imposed upon it by social concerns. The call to care and guilt are not among these social enthrallments, however. Many act against the will of the collective in trying to satisfy the desires of care and conscience in a way that no one imposed upon them.
Rather, they act in way that satisfies their own most potentiality for being (Being and Time, 276). What this satisfaction is and the fact that it may never be attained present a mystery that we may not give explicate in this our discourse. Still, the call of conscience and guilt present a marked exception to the enthrallment that others in society place on one. In the case of the enclave, the need to fulfill the cultural narrative of the imperial romance represented by the British reaction to the Sepoy Rebellion presents one with Adelas entanglement. On the other hand, rejection of the enclaves demands leads her out into the isolation from her cultural referent, into
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the abyss of finding herself thrown into the loss of cultural referent at the caves. This thrownness leads to a profound sense of anxiety in the face of the negation of cultural meaning, and she becomes left to her own devices in order once again to render the world meaningful in the face of a culture that refuses to echo her own authentic desires. We will see that her flight from the caves represents a flight into the entangled and inauthentic concerns of the enclave; while her refusal to lie represents the authentic aim of asserting her own concerns, contrary to those of the British.
In order to illustrate this point about ones dilemma between the authentic concerns of human being and human beings false refuge from itself, we turn to Being and Time, which elucidates the manner in which most human beings live apart from themselves most of the time in a kind of entangled existence with others. Heidegger argues that we find the world uncanny by virtue of the inherent hostility it displays towards us. Remember, that one does not choose where one is in the world or at what time. One has already made these decisions, in some cases, or, in most cases, finds the facts of ones life existing entirely independent of ones ever having chosen them. The subjectivity of human existence requires a radical approach of taking human beings as existing in one place, at one time; hence, translators, such as William Richardson, render the term Da-sein as There-being as a literal translation of the German term Dasein (50). I have arbitrarily chosen employ Joan Stambaughs Da-sein in recognition of Heideggers own belief that human being or Da-sein itself remains an unfamiliar term for us to interrogate. In her Translators Preface to
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Being and Time, she states, It was Heideggers insight that human being is uncanny; we do not know who, or what that is, although, or perhaps because, we are it (xiv). Da-sein does not decide the circumstances of its existence; it does not lay its own ground. Rather, it has chosen that already in a way that it could never expressly release this that-it-is-and-has-to-be from its being a self and lead it into the there.. .Because it has not laid the ground itself {Being and Time, 262). Da-sein cannot change the past, and it cannot release itself from the facticity that beings have; Da-sein manifests them to itself in a kind of discovery that beings require to become manifest. Beings exist both as manifest beings for Da-sein in that they have meaning, but unmanifested to Da-sein in that Da-sein cannot render them meaningful entirely. We are given a finite number of possibilities to pursue, and being does not hold our aims as its own.
In order to make this point more lucent, we return once again to William Richards reflection on the need for Da-sein to manifest beings. Da-sein is always there in such a way that it cannot be elsewhere. It cannot get behind itself. In his Through Phenomenology to Thought, Richardson describes Da-sein as an irruption into being: Existence thus understood, is conceived as an imiptioriXEinbruch) into the totality of beings, by reason of which these being as beings become manifest
(44). This sentence describes the reciprocal relationship that Da-sein has with beings. It allows them to manifest themselves to Da-sein, and, because Da-sein is always subjective by virtue of being mine, this manifestation of beings is the manifestation
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itself. Heidegger is not a solipsist in that he regards beings as having a facticity that Da-sein cannot negate; the tree remains as a fact even if I do not see it, but, for me to make the tree manifest, I must see the tree. This treatment of Da-sein as irruption illustrates that questions of the manifestation of beings prior to the existence of Da-sein remain unanswerable. Da-sein makes beings manifest to itself, not to others. It may signify beings to others through language, but it does not appropriate the apprehensions of others. According to Richardson, the existence of beings outside Da-seins manifestation renders the very question outside its own perimeters of Heideggers investigation (44). One may be told of the existence of the Brooklyn Bridge, but the bridge itself is never manifest to one before one discovers it. This process of discovery makes the world known to oneself. Heidegger regards his project as different from anthropology and psychology, which describe human beings in terms of predispositions and tendencies. The Freudian psychologist, for instance, may regard all human beings as egos, existing between the id and superego.
Sexuality plays a large role as Freuds modus operandi of human behavior. Heidegger, however, considers his phenomenology as more radical and transparent than this application of general predispositions. For him, these disciplines treat human beings too much like a things (Being and Time, 44). On the contrary, Da-sein remains too personal and too subjective to even be treated as a being made manifest by itself through same process that makes other beings manifest. Each Da-sein exists as mine or as something unique to that Da-sein
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At this point, we find the example of the Hindu festival once again instructive. Leland monk argues that Krishna appears at the festival in both the supernatural and the aleatory (398). He both exists as a band of tricksters and does not exist as this band. Krishna himself is, was not, is not, was; he will be bom at midnight and cannot be bom, for He is the Lord of the Universe (317). The paradox of the Krishna who cannot be bom and will be bom creates kind of sublime interaction between the people at the festival; God can play practical jokes upon Himself, draw chairs away from his posteriors, set his turbans on fire... (324). As we have seen in Chapter Two, they play various games to amuse the newly bom God (324). Leland Monk observes that the interactions between the worshippers creates a merriment between the paradoxical elements supernatural interaction and meaningless chance. Likewise, Godbole connects with Mrs. Moores ghost through the vision outside the temple. He places himself in the place of Krishna and loves her, and places himself in her position and invites the God: Come, Come, Come, Come.. .How inadequate! It does not seem much, still it is more than I am myself (326). We see here that Godbole must call forth meaning from his vision of Mrs. Moore; without calling to the vision, it remains a mere hullicination. In the same manner, beings require Da-sein to make them manifest, otherwise they have no meaning, and remain empty facts. The vision requires Godbole to manifest its meaning through his interaction with it.
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In returning to the case of entanglement with others, we find a false
existence, apart from our authentic goal of creating a home among the world of
beings. The problem that Heidegger presents the reader remains perplexing in light
of this new conflict. Authentic Da-sein finds its situation untenable in its attempt to
render the totality of beings completely meaningful. They have an element of
meaninglessness or facticity which Da-sein may not manifest to itself. The tricksters
remain mere tricksters, and they are not Krishna. Godbole cannot stand in the place
of the Lord of the Universe, and the dead Englishwoman does not live again as an
incarnate person. Da-sein, Heidegger contends, finds the meaninglessness of the
world in its isolation as thrown into the totality of beings; it finds itself unable to
manifest complete canniness out of being. In confronting this inherent
meaninglessness in the world, it becomes being held out into the nothing (55) or
being without a home in which to make the universe entirely useful to its purposes.
Thus, to be one with the universe becomes to be one with a universe that is hostile
to ones attempts to make it manifest. This realization that the world is, at bottom,
unmanifestable creates an anxiety that it tends to flee. Where does it go? It flees
into worldly entanglements and entanglements of race and nationalism, in particular:
Da-sein flees from thrownness to the alleviation that comes with the supposed freedom of the they-self. We characterized this flight as the flight from the uncanniness that fundamentally determines individualized being-in-the-world. Uncanniness reveals itself authentically in the fundamental attunement of Angst, and, as the most elemental disclosedness of
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thrown Da-sein, it confronts being in the world with the nothingness of the world about which it is anxious in the Angst about its owranost potentiality-of-being.
(.Being and Time, 255)
We ought not ascribe truly negative connotations to this flight from the uncanniness of the world. Most people, most of the time find themselves caught up in the affairs of the world. Indeed, we try to justify our place by existing among the world of other human beings, but, in fleeing our uncanny existence, we live apart from that existence. We become a being for others, rather than a being for self. Adela flees the uncanniness of the caves, which refuse to echo any human alphabet that she places on them. She finds that she cannot carve out a place for herself in the real India. We will see this uncanniness more clearly in a moment when we consider her experience in light of Bhabhas insight.
With the subversion of the romantic sublime in the face of the nothing, as we discussed in chapter two, we find Wordsworths Ode (Intimations of Immortality) once again helpful in considering how human beings attempt to find a home in which to dwell, but this home evades them. Wordsworths speaker contends that one finds, in the sublime consciousness of the solitary wonderer, intimations that our home exists elsewhere, apart from the Equipage in which we find ourselves entangled. The wonderers inability to sustain this state of sublimity suffers a collapse inward, because of ones inability keep ones self apart from everyday concerns. Likewise, we find that Azizs remembrance of his wife and
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Godboles vision of Mrs. Moore do not find their full satisfaction. Even Mrs. Moores departing intimations of the hundred Indias, produce only an invitation, but fail to satisfy her need to explore them. She departs without another journey through India, but returns as the Hindu goddess; the irony remains in that she failed to find her absolute home in India, yet India transforms her into an appeal with the call Esmiss-Esmoor. We will consider how the appeal or call to Mrs. Moore, a call for her to come, produces a new signifier that is neither indigenous to the Indian lexicon, nor is it appealing to the imperial romance that provides the British with narrative self-justification. Most of the other Anglo-Indians find it disturbing: Mr. Heaslop, how disgraceful dragging in your dear mother (250). They find that it appropriates their signification of Heaslops mothernot even a signification of the woman herselfinto their call for Mrs. Moore to come and defend Azizs character. They apologize to Adela for this chant, for they perceive that it must be upsetting to her. However, she replies, Not the least. I dont mind (251). She remembers her friend Mrs. Moore, who might be her only friend in India: She had spoken more naturally and healthy than usual...Dont worry about me, Im much better than I was. She had to shout her gratitude, for the chant, Esmiss Esmoor, went on (251).
In elucidating this passage, we will come to see that the caves echoes plague Adela in such a way as to create an existential anxiety in the loss of Indias ability to echo her desires in a meaningful way. She tries to connect with Aziz, but she fails, and this failure extinguishes her possibility for meaningful communication with Aziz.
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She confronts the loss of value, as Mrs. Moore does, but displays a completely different reaction. We find that she becomes ensnared by the aims and desires of the Anglo-Indian community. Adela confesses to Ronny that she doubts that Aziz attempted to assault her: It would be appalling if I was wrong. I should take my own life (229). Ronny then tells her that the whole station knows that she is right. He adds that the case must come to trial, .. .the machinery has started (229). Ronnys reaction to her confession displays a total negation of the aims of Adela; the peer pressure he places on her is enormous. How can he dismiss her so flippantly? He sees the public narrative of the Mutiny as more indicative of the conflict than Adelas personal desire to come clean. He contends that she must be mistaken, for the truth of the imperial romance represents his true referent for all representations of India.
One of the clearest examples of Adelas ensnarement comes in the McBrydes bungalow. She becomes almost entirely divorced from herself at this point. She resolves to marry Ronny and live the life she dreaded, as the wife of a civil servant of the British Raj:
Mrs. McBryde wished her an affectionate good-byea woman with whom she had nothing in common and whose intimacy oppressed her. They would have to meet now, year after year, until one of their husbands was superannuated. Truly Anglo-India had caught her up with a vengeance and perhaps it served her right for having tried to take up a line of her own. (219)
Maria Davidis, in her article Forsters Imperial Romance: Chivalry, Motherhood and
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Questioning in A Passage to India, argues that Forster sets the form of a traditional romance that portrays the Anglo-Indians as coming to the rescue of Adela (259). Adelas assumption of the role of damsel in distress leads the chorus of Anglo-Indians to desire revenge, according to Davidis (260). On the other hand, we will find that the appeal to Esmiss-Esmoor provides a way out of her entanglement.
Wordsworth also articulates this problem as that of Equipage or the identity that we take on by virtue of being in the world, with others. Both Heidegger and Forster express this problem differently. Forster, as we understand, finds the world full of concerns that signify nothing that may be pointed to as providing the true purpose of living:
Most of life is so dull that there is nothing to be said about it... Inside its cocoon of work or social obligation, the human spirit slumbers for the most part.. .There are periods of the most thrilling day in which nothing happens, and though we exclaim, I do enjoy myself, or I am horrified, we are insincere.. .and a perfectly adjusted organism would be silent. (146)
We find, in this passage, a concern that human beings are not quite themselves and, for this reason, they try to amuse themselves with these entertainments, As if his whole vocation/ Were endless imitation (Wordsworth, 300). In Forster, the problem which human beings confront when their entanglement with society slips away produces an anxiety when one confronts the Other, as we will see. The Other for Bhabha and Forster represents, what Bhabha calls, the incommensurabilty of conversation4* (126). In other words, the divide that separates the British and the
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Indians lies in a problem of their mutually exclusive cultural reference points. This inability to communicate becomes particularly clear in the case of the Anglo-Indians who see their role in India as the chivalric defenders of civilization against the onslaught of the savage Indians. According to Bhabha, as we will see, Adela finds her disturbed artifice of signification disturbed by the conversation that she has with Aziz just before entering the cave. Let us consider this problem of the inability to communicate to the colonial Other. Deliberation on this problem will assist us in understanding anxiety as an existentialist dilemma and as well as a cultural concern.
Homi Bhabhas Account of the Caves Before embarking on this quest, we must ask what we mean by signs and, thus, we have recourse to Heidegger who informs us most succinctly what signs are. For Heidegger, signs exist, for primitive Da-sein, as a means of pointing to the utility of the world (Being and Time, 76). Words reveals, in ones initial discovery of them, a kind of usefulness that illustrates how Da-sein tries to make the world manifest to itself. Heidegger argues, Language is a primordial poetry in which a people speaks being (Introduction to Metaphysics, 171). Human beings, in their initial openness to the world, create signs for the purposes of utility. These signs take on a life of their own and have an existence independent of ones first uttering them. However, words take on a new dimension when one utters them out of everyday entanglements with others. Human beings exaggerate life in a feeble attempt to connect with one another,
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but authentic concern for one another is rare. We see, in the case of the Anglo-Indian enclave, that their concern for Adela remains self-reflective in fulfilling their role as avengers of the damsel in distress. Likewise, having fallen prey to her role, she finds her narrative significance imposed upon her by others who try to get her to give her evidence. Bhabha takes up the caves in his Location of Culture as the basis for understanding the unworkable aspect of narration in of A Passage to India (123). According to Bhabha, the text tries to bridge the gap between the cultures of India and Britain, but fails to achieve this demand by virtue the incommensurability of the two cultures. For Bhabha, this divide signifies the entire Anglo-Indian problem, as well as Forsters inability to connect the characters of Adela and Aziz. They find that India presents them with a difficulty that results from extinction of the recognizable object of culture in its disturbed artifice of signification, at the edge of experience (126). This idea presents the strangeness of the conflict in a very bizarre manner that requires an elucidation of terms.
In accounting for this point, we turn to the page preceding Adelas entrance into the caves in order to understand the problem of the impossibility of connection between these two characters. We will consider this passage as indicative of the impossibility of the narrative in light of Bhabhas reflection. Adela finds the cave during her quest to find India; she opens herself up to India and finds more than she bargained for. Before entering the caves, Adela offends Aziz by asking him how many wives he has. Aziz considers himself an educated Moslem and regards the
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question as preposterous and offensive: It challenged a new conviction of his community, and new convictions are more sensitive than old. If she hand asked, Do you worship one god or several? he would not have been offended (169). This unintended affront comes because she is not a part of his community. This community presents the unconnected Other for Adela. Her question comes from Mrs. Turtons prior quip, Mohammedans always insist on the four (169). Her cultural reference point cannot even ask the right questions. She is curious about Aziz: Aziz! What a charming name (32); and A Mohammedan! How perfectly magnificent (30)! In spite of her curiosity, she sees India from the point of view of the enclave. Furthermore, her question lacks any sort of compassion for his position. In the mosque, Mrs. Moore connects with Aziz by building up a connection apart from her cultural concerns. She finds a viable connection with God, as an ambiguous term, Who connects the two characters by virtue of their not questioning the religious difference between Christian and Moslem. Mrs. Moore also connects in the personal realm of family, but not by asking a culturally preconceived question like how may wives do you have? Adelas question about polygamy leaves only the divide between her and Aziz.
In considering Adelas inability to even interrogate the cultural Other, Bhabha describes the Marabar caves in the following manner: There, the loss of the narrative of cultural plurality; there the implausibility of conversation and commensurability; there the enactment of undecidable, uncanny colonial present...
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(126). The problem with the caves does not represent the mere conflict between the two cultures. The experience of the cave cannot be called a conflict. The cave exists as a realization that what one recognizes as culturally significant falls apart when interrogated by a recourse to the edge of experience, which lies in the inability of different cultures to find common ground. In India, we see the British imposing their culture on India, which sometimes results in disastrous consequences like the Mutiny of 1857. Still, Bhabhas long and profoundly concise treatise need not occupy an overwhelming voice in our project; we will content ourselves to ask how the caves represent an extinction of the recognizable object of culture in its disturbed artifice of signification, at the edge of experience.
In finding the loss of conversation, she enters the cave, reflecting on her impending marriage and how sightseeing bores her (169). She find herself disconnected with the events at hand. She cannot find a way of connecting with the curious Indian, with whom she is fascinated. At the government college, left alone with him and the introspective Godbole, she brings up the invitation Aziz made previously to come to his house: Mrs. Moore and everyoneI invite youplease (73). Adela had no idea that he was just trying to be polite. She brings up the invitation, but, from Aziz perspective, she invites herself: Good heavens, the stupid girl had taken him at his word (79). The narrator relates also, his invitation gratified her (73), and describes her as attentive to Aziz (78). It is to Aziz that she first relates her intention not to settle in India (77), implying that her engagement
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with Ronny is off. Stunned by her brashness, Mrs. Moores presents us with a pun: Dont come too Adela; you dislike institutions (78). Adela tries to connect with Aziz in an amorous manner. We should not disregard the sexual innuendos at the government college. At the Marabar hills, with so many people around, how is it that a man and woman venture off together, with only their guide? We remember that Adela remarks on Mrs. Moores encounter with Aziz at the mosque as finding the real India (30). Similarly, here, she interrogates Aziz about India, Then tell me everything, or I shall never understand India (79). She persists in asking questions and attempting to connect with the real Aziz, but her efforts find themselves frustrated by virtue of the prejudices that she carries with her from her own culture.
In seeing the impossibility of communication, we find that Adela becomes thrown into a space that Bhabha refers to as the edge of experience where there is an extinction of the recognizable object of culture in its disturbed artifice of signification. In entering the cave, the reader finds Forsters inability to resolve the narrative in a way that would connect these two with some in a sort of articulation or signification with which the they could bridge this gap. Adela presents the best amorous advance towards Aziz by asking him about polygamy. We find Adelas question, but the only response from Aziz, before the caves, is to relate the fact that he only has one wife, and he omits the fact that that wife is now departed. He thinks, Damn the English even at their best (169). Still, he says nothing because he does not even know how to say what this comment means to him. He does not even know
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how to not invite her to his house. Words echo between Aziz and Adela, but, in spite of her initial fascination, and, perhaps more because of it, she finds only frustration in trying to connect.
How the New Sienifier Esmiss-Esmoor
Enters the World of the Novel
In taking up again Adelas decision not to lie, we notice her two conflicting concerns: the first is not her concern, but an entanglement imposed upon her by her own people to uphold their narrative account of what they think happened to her; the second concern is the more honest desire not to lie. This second concern we find more satisfying, for it answers our sense of an ethical imperative to be honest, and it acquits Mrs. Moores friend, Aziz. We have seen that Adela becomes lost through her encounter with the caves, as Bhabha describes, with the loss of the artifice of signification, at the edge of experience. Here, she loses anything to which she may point to as meaningful. The Other refuses to echo her advances, just as beings refuse to permit Da-sein to make itself manifest entirely. This anxiety leads her into the false security of the enclave and its narrative lens of the imperial romance. Still, the echo remains for her, and she cannot satisfy herself with who she is: a person unable to find a meaningful connection with India. This sense of loss we find prominently in her failure to converse meaningfully with Dr. Aziz. In returning to Heidegger, we will find a philosophical expression for the lack of narration in the
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caves. Leland Monk contends that the nothing in the Marabar is identical to the nothing in Heidegger by virtue of its ability to nihilate or render meaningless the significance of being (395). Monk points to the basic concern of Heideggers Introduction to Metaphysics, Why is there something rather than nothing? (Monk, 395). Rhetorically, we may wonder at what Adela expected to find in her quest to discover the real India. Did she think that India could be penetrated in its totality and rendered entirely meaningful to her? The very question finds no absolute answer, for nothing underlies the whole of India. We find a diverse place, filled with different cultures that have little connection to one another. In India, we find no common language, no common religion and no common identities.
Heidegger discusses the mood of anxiety, which, from an evasive self
reflection, comes to know the nothing. Before we consider the meaning of this
evasive self-reflection, we must consider the mood of anxiety further. The essay
What is Metaphysics? distinguishes the mood of anxiety from the mood of fear.
Fear remains particular: children fear the dark; parents fear harm coming to their
children; agoraphobics fear public spaces. Conversely, Heidegger observes that
anxiety lacks a particular correlative object. He states:
Anxiety is indeed anxiety in the face of..., but not in the face of this or that particular thing. The indeterminateness of that in the face of which or for which we become anxious is no mere lack of determination but rather the essential impossibility of determining it. (100-101)
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Da-sein experiences the an inability to determine what it is anxious about in the mood of anxiety. In the world of beings, Da-sein, as thrown already into the world, finds no foundation upon which to render the world meaningful to it outside its own ability as a thrown being into the world. It has not laid its own ground, nor does Da-sein determine its possibilities. Beings still remain as facts, but Da-sein loses its ability to render them meaningful in the face of anxiety. Heidegger argues this claim that anxiety negates the identities we possess: All things and we ourselves sink to indifference. At bottom therefore it is not as though you or I feel ill at ease; rather it is this way for some one. All things and we ourselves sink into indifference (101). The meanings that we place on ourselves disappear in the face of anxiety and return in the same uncanniness that we find extant in other beings. In the case of Mrs. Moores disposition after the cave, the narrator relates, She lost all interest, even in Aziz, and the affectionate and sincere words that she had spoken to him seemed no longer hers but the airs (166). Even her words become foreign to herself.
Moreover, Heidegger reflects on the paradox that, in the mood of anxiety, beings as a whole recede from us, but in their recession they turn toward us and oppress us: We can get no hold on things. In the slipping away beings only this no hold on things comes over us and remains (101). Anxiety renders beings empty facts, meaning nothing. Still, in their meaninglessness, we find the world so alien to ourselves that it oppresses us. In this way, the colonizer tries to penetrate the colonized, but finds more than one expected. The colonized was not just an exciting
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new world, but a world entirely mysterious to that of the colonizer.
In the novel, we find that the echo renders all significations meaningless. The echo refuses to draw any qualitative distinctions. The narrator comments on the echo in the cave, Bourn is the sound as far as the human alphabet can express it...Hope, politeness, the blowing of a nose, the squeak of a boot, all produce bourn (163). The narrator admits that no one may account for this sound, but that this cave echoes Bourn at any call directed towards it. One may not interrogate the cave to ask what it is or ask the echo to resonate anthropomorphic sounds or, even, to differentiate between the blowing of a nose and the squeak of a boot. Rather, the very sound the cave makes, as the narrator confesses, is indescribable and uncertain: If one had spoken vileness in that place, or quoted lofty poetry, the comment would have been the sameou-boum. (165). Both Mrs. Moore and Adela find themselves afflicted by the echo, and, afterwards, their experiences of the caves impress themselves on all their other experiences. Mrs. Moore finds herself paralyzed temporarily by the echo: She was by no means the dear old lady outsiders supposed, and India had brought her into the open (223). Her thoughts reflect that she becomes uncomfortable, even with herself: My body, my miserable body.. .Why isnt it strong. Oh, why cant I walk away and be gone (233)? We note, in this passage, an anxiety that oppresses her, because she finds that her life means nothing; she is not even comfortable within her own skin. Life remains only a series of meaningless events:
Not to die...but when I have seen you and Ronny
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married... Ill retire then to a cave of my own...Somewhere where no young people will come asking questions and expecting answers.. .Why cant I finish my duties and be gone? Why do I have headaches and puff when I walk? And all the time this to do and that to do and this to do in your way and that to do in her way, everything sympathy and confusion and being one anothers burdens.. .And all this rubbish about love, love in a church, love in a cave, as if there is the least difference, and I held up from my business over trifles! (224-226)
I have chosen to give some of Mrs. Moores statements across a few pages in order to illustrate her anxiety. The irony of her anxious disposition lies in the fact that, in her desire to be one with the universe (231), she leads to even the loss of the meaning of her own existence. She finds that her existence rests on a series of meaningless events, signifying nothing. She finds the conventions of her own culture foreign, like marriage, and wants to be left alone. Beings, in their recession, come upon her and oppress her in such a way that she may not connect anything with anything else. She does not remain in this complete paralysis at the end of the novel, but this disposition effects the rest of her experience in India. Even of the protest of the hundred Indias, she finds them, as Brian May describes, .. .having asserted only their difference from the Marabar, scarcely their triumph over it. The very hope of finality is thereby, and auspiciously, eradicated (138). The connections that she makes with India are still present with this underlying meaninglessness, but they call to her nonetheless. They tell her that her attempt to be one with the universe finds a meaninglessness or a nothing, which she cannot transcend. These Indias, however,
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assert their call as something other than the nothing. This not nothing or other than nothing remains important, and we will see how the call Esmiss-Esmoor confronts Adela with an India that still evades her grasp, but is not nothing or not entirely meaningless.
When Adela returns to Ronnys bungalow, after her encounter with the caves, she finds a peculiar kinship with Mrs. Moore, who has heard the same meaningless echo. Mrs. Moore once again pays attention to Adela when she mentions the echo that plagues her so assiduously: I cant get rid of it; to which, Mrs. Moore replies, I dont suppose you ever shall (221-222). Then, Adela inquires further about the echo, but Mrs. Moore cannot answer her question: If you dont know, you dont know; I cant tell you.. .As if anything can be said! I have spent my life in saying or listening to sayings; I have listened too much (222). She realizes that the only sanity is to say nothing about the lack of meaning that the echo conveys, for the nothing, as Monk points out, is unrepresentable (396). Likewise, Adela decides that Aziz is innocent at this point: I made an awful mistake (225). This brief moment of confession leads to the ephemeral cessation of her echo: My echos much better now (225). At this point, we find that she moves away, for the moment, from the anxiety she experienced in the cave to a decision based on ethical concern. She admits that she would kill herself if she were wrong (225), and she would kill her chance at ever escaping the enthrallment of the enclave by persisting with their lie. She does resume, under Ronnys duress, this lie imposed upon her by the
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chivalric Ronny, and her echo continues as well. The echo may do either of two things: it may either drive her further into the entangled lie of the enclave; or it may lead her to confess. The only thing that may provide a true balm for this echo, this meaningless call, will be a new call to the openness of India in the form of Esmiss-Esmoor. The call of Esmiss-Esmoor will be shown to provide a catalyst through which she comes to herself through her own authentic decision.
Having taken up the matter of anxiety, Heidegger relates that anxiety exposes our attunemenf with the nothing. Heidegger argues that attunement discloses Da-sein in its thrownness, initially and for the most part in the mode of evasive turning away (Being and Time, 128). When one turns away from this mood, one becomes faced with a choice: one may either flee towards the everyday being with others, as Adela does after her encounter with the cave, or one may attempt to address the world of beings once again in the authentic call to care. Again, this call is very vague, because it discloses only a nullity in Da-seins being that it must work through in trying to find it homecoming in the world of being; this goal of homecoming or call out of uncanniness (Being and Time, 258) never comes to realize its god. Still, it remains the goal of authentic Da-sein. Otherwise, we are left with only the existence that others would impose upon us. Adela finds that she cannot overcome the effects echo of the cave, in spite of losing herself to the enclave. Conversely, in the bungalow, when she talks about the echo with her friend, her echo subsides temporarily. Moreover, at the mention of Mrs. Moore at the trial as Esmiss-
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Esmoor, she returns to a sense of well being: She had to shout her gratitude, for the chant, Esmiss Esmoor, went on (251). Clearly, she becomes caught, after the caves, in this anxiety over the inability to communicate with Aziz, who is India to her. She finds that she must rejoin her own people where she finds a false security in the face of the Other. However, she takes the plight of the Other in renouncing her own people. The echo continues intensely until she refuses to lie. Thus, ultimately, she decides to take the more authentic road, over the entanglement with her own people.
We return her to our original question: how does the chant Esmiss-Esmoor
restore Adela to her authentic concerns for her own integrity? How does the chant
convince her not to lie? Very simply, she finds that there is a name that she may
connect with India, the name of the Hindu goddess. We see also that authentic Da-
sein evades this mood of anxiety, as it does in the course of time, to return to find the
world meaningful in a limited and provisional, but significant way. The sense of
turning away from anxiety and examining ones own attunement with the nothing
creates an openness to beings once again, but in a peculiar manner. Heidegger calls
this openness original, because it illustrates the openness that Da-sein possesses in
moving away from meaninglessness. As we have said before, most of the time, Da-
sein finds its world entangled by everydayness. Heidegger contends that beings gain
true significance when juxtaposed against the nothing:
In the clear night of the nothing of anxiety the original openness of beings as such arises: that they are beingsand not nothing. But this and not nothing
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we add in our talk is not some kind of appended clarification. Rather, it makes possible in advance the revelation of beings in general. The essence of the originally nihilating nothing lies in this, that it brings Da-sein for the first time before beings as such. (What is Metaphysics?, 103)
Heidegger speaks of the clear night of the nothing in almost mystical terms. Beings appear once again for Da-sein as it emerges in an irruption to make them manifest to itself. Having gone through this mood of anxiety, we will fall, often, into the everyday world in the course of our existence, but one wonders if we will fall completely. The echo remains, and one knows that meaninglessness underlies all existence. Likewise, one knows that one may never truly understand the colonial Other in absolute cultural terms; the Other yet eludes description from the cultural reference point of Britain. The daughter of Mrs. Moore, Stella, is out in India to encounter the Other, but one does not know that she will get what she desires entirely. To be one with the universe remains a very authentic goal, but it is never satisfied as a rendering of India as entirely meaningful. However, this not nothing provides a profound understanding that endows Da-sein with a sense of openness that lends authenticity to what Da-sein is by virtue of its thrownness in the world. The impediments to trans-cultural inquiry rest on understanding that the Other does not even come with commensurabilty.
In clarifying this question the of the openness of being in the face of the nothing, Maria Davidis contends that Mrs. Moores absence is crucial to Azizs
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acquittal. She reminds the reader of Godboles observation that the space between absence and presence is the space in which he calls to Krishna come, come, come (A Passage to India, 198). Likewise, Davidis argues that this space exists at this trial scene, but the Indians outside do not summon Krishna; they summon Mrs. Moore or Esmiss-Esmoor. Davidis states that Mrs. Moores conviction in Azizs innocence rests on her belief in his character (271). The rationale of British colonialism will never consider this character defense as grounds for his acquittal. His character, as an Indian, must be suspect. However, Davidis reflects on Mrs. Moores apotheosis as vital to Azizs defense:
.. .her absence allows her transformations into a text that may be written upon, a name that does not rhyme with Turton or Burton and that can be mobilized in the service of political action... Seemingly made of nothing, its [Esmiss-Esmoor] force is strengthened by the material it collects, its sweeping binding together disparate elements and making out of them a force that no one of them would possess in isolation. (272)
Mrs. Moore remains absent, and she, as middle-class English woman, can do nothing.
Her physical existence after the cave proves paralyzed. Besides, her love for Aziz
cannot serve as a defense. As Adela remarks, Love is of no value in a witness
(275). Mrs. Moore appears, at the trial, as a force that connects Adela to the crowd.
She realizes the call of Mrs. Moore comes through this new signification, Esmiss-
Esmoor, which connects her meaningfully to India. India no longer echoes only
bourn, but it echoes, also, Esmiss-Esmoor. India protests that it is something
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and not nothing. This not nothing finds its truth in seeing its fragility in the face of the caves. Davidis argues that the signification Esmiss-Esmoor seems to be made of nothing. In fact, this term does not have a long pedigree of cultural signification. Rather, we find an openness to language in this new signification Esmiss-Esmoor, which enables Adelas call to action and Azizs acquittal. The term comes into existence through the Indian populous in the act of enunciative origination and allows her a name that she may associate with India. We find that Bhabha would call this a multi-accentual signification, which has different meanings for different peoples, but acts as a term negotiated between disparate parties.
In The Location of Culture, we find Bhabhas recourse to Stuart hall and Cornel West, who deal in trans-cultural significations. For instance, West takes the matter of African-American drumbeats as a case of cultural dislocation. According to West, the drum fell out of use as the originary anguish of an entirely African people, but reprises itself as innovatively producing a heterogeneous product; now, the drumbeat exists part and parcel of the subversive energies of the black underclass youth, energies that are forced to take a cultural mode of articulation (Bhabha, 176).
We find that signs may reprise themselves in multi-accentual ways, apart from their original intent. In this manner, old signs take on different meanings, and these meanings resonate with different cultures in different ways. With the name, Esmiss-
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Esmoor we find the chant coming from people who may not even understand who she is or what importance she has to the trial. They only know that they must call forth her presence in order to assert their political ends. Likewise, the call does not fall on deaf ears, and Adela finds a connection to India that she did not realize previously. She now hears the call of India, and it calls, in a tenuous manner, the name of her friend. India once again opens itself to Adela, and this new openness of seeing India as not nothing allows her to address its call.
At this point, Adela does Aziz a service by letting him go. She understands that this demand comes because the echo bourn must find its mitigation in the evasive turning away. She realizes that the cave exists, but so does the authentic appeal to recant in the form of Esmiss-Esmoor. Mrs. Moores prophetic statement that the echo will always remain for Adela is true. We find, as we have mentioned before, that she and Fielding try to solve the mystery of what happened to her through rational means. Still, the best answer that they arrive at is that a gang of Pathans attacked her (269). She never embraces the idea that she could have been attacked by uncertainty itself or, what Heidegger calls, the nothing. On the other hand, she finds the mitigation of her echo in the call Esmiss-Esmoor. Her anxiety provides the openness to seeing her choice. She chooses to answer the call of India, which she discovers only in this name. The name its is a very inadequate description of India, but it is not nothing.
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Having explored the loss of the artifice of signification and the nothing, we find the colonial position as Forster describes it in its reality: nation held out into the Other. The Anglo-Indians find themselves enthralled, in the end, to themselves. They cannot escape the cage that they have made for themselves, except through answering Indias call to come. As Bhabha contends, Indias call only invites; it does not disclose the object of admiration (125). We find also that human existence itself becomes caught between the everyday concerns society places on one and the desires that one has for asserting ones own place in the world. The concerns of authentic desires are more uneasy and promise no security, but are the authentic expressions of human existence. In the case of Adela, we find the choice of the authentic road, but her decision asserts that the Anglo-Indian position is baseless by virtue of the lie of the imperial romance. It cannot see its own position in its quest for self-justification and to solidify power.
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CHAPTER FOUR
CONCLUSION
For the most part, A Passage to India remains a novel about the frustrations inherent within the colonial system. The imperial attachments of the post-trial Fielding and the nationalist interests of Aziz impede their friendship. Each asks the question, Why cant we be friends now?.. .Its what I want. Its what you want (362). With the last words of the novel, the land itself protests their friendship: No, not yet, and the sky said, No, not there (362). The ending creates an uneasy peace between Aziz and Fielding. Neither would betray his country, but both desire to connect with one another on a personal level. The novel leaves the reader with a sense of guarded optimism in the face of ethnic boundaries; the sky and the land convey the sense that, in the course of time, there will be a true negotiation between the colonizer and the colonized, but that unassailable animosity pervades the present tense of the novel. Moreover, the building of a better future becomes left to the realm of uncertainty. What does this future mean, and what demands will future negotiations place on the British and the Indians? We view the novel from the hindsight of British withdrawal from India and Indias emergence as a developing nation.
In spite of our position in history, we must return to Forsters guarded
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optimism and his negotiated term of Esmiss-Esmoor. The issue of new significations occupies many pages in The Location of Culture, but we will look at one of Bhabhas conclusions. Part of Bhabhas project lies in trying to disentangle our old homogenous cultural categories of class, gender, race, etc. and to work towards political negotiations among disparate groups. In the case of politics, Bhabha finds that new signifiers enter the world in order to create political forces apart from cultural reference points. Bhabha points to some political examples, like the Labour Party in Britain, in which different people, from different cultural reference points, attempt to unite through a political identity. Here, one finds an alliance of among progressive forces that are widely dispersed and distributed across a range of class, cultural and occupational forces centered around a space of historical necessity (28). Bhabha states that what Britain needs, in order for the Labour Party to work, is a little more political negotiation between its various factions (28): We need a little less pietistic articulation of political principle (around class and nation); a little more of the principle of political negotiation (28). The importance of this political negotiation illustrates a pragmatic approach and an open address to the problems of political power. The Yorkshire coal miner, the Pakistani immigrant and the feminist must try to work together for political consensus, in Bhabhas estimation, even if their cultural reference points find little in common. We find that political parties are reinventing themselves constantly to negotiate the political objectives of their members, apart from their members cultural
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backgrounds. New concerns create new identities for old political parties, which were otherwise nonexistent thirty years ago. We could go on about the new identities, which Bhabha regards as a kind of hybridity, but we will return to the idea of the name Esmiss-Esmoor as a multi-accentual signification.
In returning to the novel, the term Esmiss-Esmoor becomes a new call, negotiated between India and Adela that requires no trans-cultural conversion. The fact that this term means different things to different factions at the trial does not change its political force. Adela sees it as uniting her friends name to India, and the Indians regard it as a protest to the trials proceedings. Bhabha accounts for such significations as enunciative signifiers, apart from culturally specific reference points:
It is the ambivalence enacted in the enunciative present -disjunctive and multiaccentualthat produces the objective of political desire, what [Stuart] Hall calls arbitrary closure, like the signifier. But arbitrary closure is also the cultural space for opening up new forms of identification that may confuse the continuity of historical temporalities, confound the ordering of cultural symbols, traumatize tradition. (179)
Bhabha argues that new significations arise in an arbitrary closure of terms that
might have different historical meanings. The term Mrs. Moore becomes a term
that loses its history, for the Indian crowd. The term no longer signifies a woman
belonging to an English family. Now, the Indians enunciate the term Esmiss-
Esmoor as their chant of protest. The reason why the Anglo-Indians react badly to
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the appropriation of their term lies in the trauma that the Indians inflict upon the culture of Britain. They see that the crowd takes one of their names out of its original context. We see it, from our vantage point, as a new force for the Indians, through which they call a new goddess to acquit Aziz. Very much like the chant Attica became a generalized anti-establishment slogan in the 1970s, the chant Esmiss-Esmoor becomes an anti-British slogan for the Indians.
Having made a few remarks on this term Esmiss-Esmoor, we return to the general matter of the call as an instrument of consciousness and sublimity. We see that meaning comes from the reciprocity between the individual human being and other beings. In the Forsterian sublime, intimations come from the interaction with the object itself. Mrs. Moores departure from India provides an example of sublime interaction; we find the multitudinous Indias speak to her: So you thought an echo was India; you took the Marabar caves as final?...What have we in common with them, or they with Asirgarh (233)? Here, the reader finds that Mrs. Moore once again finds meaning, but meaning remains provisional in that it is something and is not nothing; as we have mentioned, for Heidegger, this not nothing creates an openness to beings that Da-sein could not manifest previously. The fact that she may not take the meaning of the Indias for granted remains significant and provides for an openness that these Indias had not possessed. Now, the nothing can subvert these Indias, and they must assert themselves in Mrs. Moores consciousness as having meaning in the face of the nothing. Mrs. Moores sublime connection to India
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becomes more precious in that it exists apart from both the meaningless dimension of beings and the entanglement with others.
In these connections, we see that the true goal of homecoming or the goal of manifesting the totality of beings to oneself becomes impossible. Wordsworths Ode (Intimations of Immortality) relates a desire to find the true home, apart from worldly concerns:
Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting;
The Soul that rises with us, our lifes Star,
Hath had elsewhere its setting,
And cometh from afar:
Not in entire forgetfulness,
And not in utter nakedness,
But trailing clouds of glory do we come from God, who is our home:
Heaven lies about us in our infancy! (299)
The soul still grasps some of the celestial faculties of the prenatal soul when one is bom, but one begins to lose them as one ages. Consciousness of this great universal home provides a way of looking at the romantic sublime as a homecoming.
Perhaps, the need to posit a universal celestial home provides a delusional escape through the romantic sublime, but Heidegger reveals that the human beings primordially condition rests not in this positive sublimity of being one with God and the cosmos. The primal condition that renders human beings aware of their true selves lies in understanding the essential thrownness of Da-sein into the world and the anxiety, or uncanniness, that underlies this thrownness. The sublime connectedness that exists between Aziz and Mrs. Moore in their friendship, which transcends death,
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and Godboles vision of Mrs. Moore at the caves presents significance in the face of the divide between the living and the dead and the rift between East and West. Still, both the divide and the connections remain paradoxically. Human beings may manifest the world for themselves and fail to manifest it at the same time.
By the Temple section of the novel, we find that the narrator revels a paradox in the description of the festival. The novel takes human existence away from the platitudes of the great consistent systems of thought, which attempt to describe human consciousness in universal terms. The colonial mindset attempts to recreate India as it thinks it ought to be, rather than dealing with it as it is. In the end, Fielding believes that India could a good servant of Britain if it would listen to its masters tutelage. His brand of liberal imperialism calls upon India to embrace the progress of Western civilization, as if that were its authentic goal. Such a goal, however, violates the indigenous culture itself; like entangled Da-sein, it tries to get India to live apart from itself. Hence, we see the bane of colonialism as a struggle between the progress of the Occident and the strange identity of India. It is India that never manifests itself entirely to the Western characters in this novel. The authentic wonderer, Mrs. Moore, attempts to answer Indias call. The entanglement of the enclave serves a trap for all the British, except Mrs. Moore. The lie of the imperial romance remains a lie that the Anglo-Indians uphold for the purpose of justifying their existence. Fielding, of course, lives in this self-justification of liberal imperialism, but the Other will escape from this further attempt to subvert its
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identity.
Through these connections, which never satisfy themselves fully in the novel, we notice that both Forster and Heidegger regard the world as too alien to control. The problem of Da-seins inability to manifest the world to its satisfaction enacts itself in colonial domination and colonial inquiry. Colonial domination must take its own cultural identity as superior; if it does not, it seems to go native. Colonial inquiry, on the other hand, produces characters who undergo spiritual transformations, like Mrs. Moore, or characters, like Adela, who find that their investigation frightens them and flee into the lies that colonizers employ to romanticize their roles. In light of Heideggers reflections, the role of the honest wanderer constitutes the authentic life, but it is also the more solitary existence. Forster warns the reader that the goal to be one with the universe (231) furnishes the wanderer with uncertainty itself.
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WORKS CITED
Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. London and New York: Routledge, 1994.
Davidis, Maria M. Forsters Imperial Romance: Chivalry, Motherhood and
Questioning in A Passage to India." Journal of Modern Literature 23.2 (1999): 259-276.
Forster, Edward Morgan. A Passage to India. New York, San Diego and London: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1924.
Friedman, Alan. Fictional Death and the Modernist Enterprise. New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time. Trans. Joan Stambaugh. Albany, New York: State University of New York, 1996.
An Introduction to Metaphysics. Trans. Ralph Manheim. New Haven and
London: Yale University Press, 1959.
What is Metaphysics? Basic Writings: Revised and Expanded Edition. Ed.
David Farrell Krell. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1993. 93-110.
May, Brian. The Modernist as Pragmatist: E. M. Forster and the Fate of Liberalism. Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press, 1997.
Messenger, Nigel. Imperial Journeys. Bodily Landscapes and Sexual Anxiety: Adelas Visit to the Marabar Caves in A Passage to India." Journal of Commonwealth Literature HA (1998): 99-110.
Monk, Leland. Apropos of Nothing: Chance and Narrative in Forsters A Passage to India." Studies in the Novel 26.4 (Winter, 1994): 392-404.
Raschke, Deborah. E. M. Forsters A Passage to India: Re-envisioning Platos Cave. The Comparatist 21:2 (May, 1997): 9-25.
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Richardson, William. Heidegger: Through Phenomenology to Thought. New York: Fordham University Press, 1963.
Steiner, George. Martin Heidegger. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.
Wordsworth, William. Ode (Intimations of Immortality). William Wordsworth: The Major Works. Ed. Stephen Gill. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1984. 297-302.
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n\./\ I THE CHANT "ESMISS-ESMOOR" IN E. M. FORSTER'S A PASSAGE TO INDIA by Robert David Applegate B.A., St. John's College (New Mexico), 1998 A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Humanities 2005

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This thesis for the Master of Humanities degree by Robert David Applegate has been approved by ____ :___ _______________ __________ Cynthia Wong Date

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Robert Applegate (Master of Humanities) The Chant "Esmiss-Esmoor" in E. M. Forster's A Passage to India Thesis directed by Associate Professor Mark Tanzer ABSTRACT lbis paper considers the chant "Esmiss-Esmoor" in the trial scene ofE.M. Forster's A Passage to India and its relationship to the caves. Heidegger's examination the mood of anxiety and the existential "attunement" with the nothing assist in the discussion of the Marabar caves in A Passage to India. lbis existential anxiety exists as the basic condition of human existence, and this paper considers its relationship to the experience of the caves in an attempt to reconcile Heidegger's anxiety with Bhabha's loss of"cultural plurality" in the atmosphere of colonial India. Mrs. Moore's spiritual journey finds its significance in a reconstitution of Brian May's provisional "Forsterian sublime"; the sublime in Forster loses the overarching universal connotation to become a weaker sublime based on "connectedness." This Abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I recommend its publication. Signed lll

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to first thank my committee for their perseverance during this writing period and patience in waiting for me to actually write this thesis: additional thanks to Jeffrey Franklin, associate professor of English, for his guidance over the years and to my advisor, Mark Tanzer, chair and associate professor ofphilosophy, for assisting me in gaining an elementary understanding of Heidegger. Furthermore, I convey my gratitude to Fr. Joseph Hirsch for encouraging me to return to graduate studies after a two-year hiatus and to my-brother, Matt for allowing me to hitch rides to the Norlin library on the Boulder campus. My appreciation goes also to Timothy Ziebell, whose discussions on literature and theology have allowed me to maintain intellectual balance.

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CONTENTS CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION: ARTICULATING THE QUESTION ................................................................................... 1 2. MRS. MOORE'S SPIRITUAL JOURNEY AND BRIAN MAY'S "FORSTERIAN SUBLIME" .......................... 15 May's "Forsterian Sublime" ......................................................... 15 "Seeing Double" ........................................................................... 26 Remembrance as Sublime Recollection in Aziz's Consciousness .......................................... 29 Reflections on Mrs. Moore's Journey: Beginning and End ........................................................................ 36 3. HOW THE OPENNESS TO THE "NOT NOTHING" MITIGATES COLONIAL ANXIETY ................................................ 47 Adela's Entanglement ................................................................... 4 7 Homi Bhabha's Account of the Caves .......................................... 63 How the New Signifier "Esmiss-Esmoor" Enters the World ofthe Novel ...................................................... 68 4. CONCLUSION .................................................................................... 81 WORKS CITED .................................................................................................. 88 v

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION: ARTICULATING THE QUESTION Chapter twenty-four of A Passage to India presents the reader with a trial in which a British woman accuses Dr. Aziz, an Indian, of trying to assault her in one of the Marabar caves. On the witness stand, she retracts the charge when McBryde asks her the prefigured question, "The prisoner followed you, didn't he" (254). To this she answers, "I am not quite sure .. .I cannot be sure ... (254). She cannot be sure about what happened to her in the caves. This recalcitrance is the only thing that saves Aziz from prison. Even in the face of Adela's retraction, many of the Anglo-Indians do not believe in his innocence: "That Marabar case broke down because the poor girl couldn't face giving her evidence" (291). What does this mean? She cannot bring herself to "giving her evidence." Was she not the wronged party, and are they not supposed to scrutinize her testimony, rather than think that she had failed to do her part? There remains a public dimension to this trial that we must consider in order to understand it more fully. The public desire to see Aziz punished and Adela's private "violation" present the reader with a discrepancy we may access only by a deeper consideration the Anglo-Indian reaction to Adela's wrong. Moreover, the reader must wonder why she confesses at this point. She allows her accusation to be brought 1

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to trial. Why recant now? The only way of understanding this retraction must follow from an understanding of"what" she finds in the caves and how the Indian crowd's invocation ofMrs. Moore as the Hindi-phonic "Esmiss-Esmoor" resonates with Adela herself. This sound connects the absent English woman to the trial. Adela's reaction to the chant presents a bizarre resonance in her mind. Most of the other Anglo-Indians find it disturbing: "Mr. Heaslop, how disgraceful dragging in your dear mother" (250). They apologize to Adela for this chant, for they perceive that it must be upsetting to her. However, she replies, "Not the least. I don't mind" (251 ). The narrator adds to perplexity: "She had spoken more naturally and healthy than usual ... 'Don't worry about me, I'm much better than I was.' She had to shout her gratitude, for the chant, Esmiss Esmoor, went on" (251 ). What is the reason for her reaction to the chant, and how does it work in the novel's narrative account of what Mrs. Moore herself fmds in the caves? This question elucidates the purpose of this entire paper: we will see how the crowd's invocation the political signification "Esmiss-Esmoor" becomes a "new" signification through which Adela bridges, imperfectly and with limited understanding, the divide between her and India, creating a catalyst for her decision; this "newness" of the signification presents a political force, which resonates with Adela, apart from her entanglement with the concerns thrust upon her by the Anglo-Indian enclave. Before considering this thesis statement further, we should examine the nature of the Anglo-Indian enclave itself. There exists in India a latent colonial tension, 2

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which we must articulate in order to understand why the colonizers disdain the invocation of Mrs. Moore so vehemently. To begin, let us consider the facts of the case as the narrator relates them. We begin with Adela's experience in the caves. Without narrative insights into the minds of the characters, we will consider only the naked facts in the case. Adela enters the cave at the end of chapter fifteen. In chapter sixteen, Aziz fmds her fleeing from the cave down the side of the Kawa Dol. The narrator provides the reader with Aziz's alibi; he goes to have a cigarette (270). What does she fmds in the caves? The facts relate that Aziz could not have committed an assault; we have the narrator's account. Further, Mrs. Moore comments, "Of course he's innocent" (227). She knows Aziz's character, and she believes that her friend cannot be guilty. Forster's employs Mrs. Moore's character defense as a means bringing the colonial "Other," as Forster's contemporary Occidental reader would have seen him (and see him still, perhaps), into the realm of identification with the cultural "Self." In Chapter Two of this paper, we will consider the sense in which Mrs. Moore becomes present, in her absence, at the trial through the chant "Esmiss-Esmoor." Brian May, in his book Modernist as Pragmatist, argues that this "call" relates to Godbole's persistent call to Krishna: "Come, come, come ... but he does not come. Godbole remarks that absence is not non-existence, and, thus, he must call to Krishna to come (Passage, 197-198). We will see that the "connectedness" to the absent relates to, what he calls, the "Hindu" sublime or Forsterian sublime. His argument 3

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takes into account both the caves, as a "de-romanticization" of the sublime, but regards the true sublime moments in the novel as those existing at the Hindu festival and in Aziz's remembrance of his deceased wife: At times, he forgets her, and, at other times, "he felt that she had sent all the beauty and joy ofthe world into Paradise" (57). We will see here that Aziz's thoughts circulate between thinking of her in Paradise and losing all hope of Paradise's embrace of her. The meaning of the Forsterian sublime does not lie in the absolute fixity of the "celestial home," as it does for Wordsworth, but in the connectedness that human beings try to make with one another and the supernatural in a kind of mystical attempt to call forth connections that do not manifest themselves as present. This attempt to understand May's Forsterian sublime will provide us with an understanding of the invocation of Mrs. Moore at the trial and how it brings this sense of "well being" to Adela. In returning to the divide between Adela and the Anglo-Indians, which occurs because they are offended by the crowd's chanting and she is not, we return to the prejudices of the enclave itself. Deborah Raschke regards the meaning of the imagined "outrage" done to Adela as an allegory of the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857 in which Indian mercenaries, among others, rebelled against their colonial masters and killed men, woman, and children in the process (16). We will consider this point in a moment, but we take into account a historical note on the "Mutiny of 1857." Bhabha, in The Location of Culture, points to a number of causes for this event, which the British would later term "Mutiny." He points to the "leveling zeal" ofthe 4

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government to implement land reforms that would "liberate" the Indian peasants from their Indian landlords and the "infamous annexation" of the Kingdom of Oudh as creating a "sense of social dislocation in northern India" (202-3). Bhabha comments on this moment of social dislocation: "Panic spreads. It does not simply hold together the native people but binds them affectively, if antagonistically-through the processes of projection with their masters" (203). This passage presents a liminal space or space of hybridity in which the colonist and colonized compete for power in the same cultural space. The Sepoy Rebellion was caused by a reaction against colonial encroachment. The British approach India with these oppressive changes to the social structure of India. These attempts were made for the sake of the British "will" to create a more familiar space in which to live. They desire to make India their home. On the other hand, these changes present the colonized with a displacement in their cultural referent by attacking the caste system and appropriating territory for the British Raj. In taking into account this rebellion, McBryde comments, "Read any of the Mutiny records; which, rather than the Bhagavad Gita, should be your bible in this country" (187). When McBryde makes this comment, he illustrates a fundamental point regarding the his cultural standpoint. He considers the "indigenous population as a threat to his "way oflife." He was born in India, but sees this constant threat through the collective memory of the Anglo-Indian enclave. McBryde's comment gives a dismissive generalization. He negates the culture itselfby replacing it with 5

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the defense of his own colonial reference point. He does not regard the Bhagavadgita as essential to understanding India In fact, to address this concern would be to consider the ''Other" in as a viable force. Fielding, of course, presents the same problem. He takes Aziz's position during the trial, but the last chapter of the novel finds him debating Aziz about the merits of colonialism. Fielding takes the position of the "liberal" colonialist who wants to educate Indians, so they may take their rightful places as British "subjects," a place that they can never fully take. Aziz, on the other hand, counters with nationalist concerns. Fielding argues, ''Away from us, Indians go to seed at once" (360). He finds that his connection with Aziz cannot withstand the "tug" of colonial concerns. The British must stay in India, or it will be a madhouse. It is worth noting here, however, that Fielding takes Aziz's side during the trial. Still, he does takes his side at the expense of his temporary exile from the club: "Seasoned and self-contained, devoid ofthe fervours of nationality and youth, the schoolmaster did what was for him an easy thing" (21 0). We find, in Fielding's statement, another interesting dichotomy between the concerns of the individual to do ''justice" and the concerns of the enclave. The concerns of the enclave manifest themselves in this feeling of violation that comes from one of their colonial position being attacked. They do not regard the case with an "impartial" eye, but treat it as an attack by the entire Indian populous. The club scene after the Marabar incident illustrates an irrational unbalance when the British build a conspiracy theory that seems to implicate the whole of India 6

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in Adela's "outrage." They seek to indict an entire race. Callendar says to Fielding, "They paid that other Indian to make you late-Godbole. He was saying his prayers. I know those prayers" (207). A moment later, he adds, "Heaslop also found out something from his mother. Aziz paid a herd of natives to suffocate her in a cave" (207). Obviously he refers to the encumbering crowd Mrs. Moore finds in the cave, but Ronny repeats this accusation in the scene between Mrs. Moore, Adela and himself. In his bungalow, Ronny reiterates Callendar's accusation that Aziz was the mastermind of some grand conspiracy: He planned it, I know. Still, you fell into his trap just like Fielding and Antony before you ... Forgive me for speaking so plainly, but you've no right to take up this high and mighty attitude about law courts. If your're ill, that's different; but you say your all right and you seem so, in which case I thought you'ld want to take your part, I really did. (223) He tells his mother that she ought to take her part in this case, and writes her testimony for her. He tells her that she should take her part and explain how Aziz had paid off these Indians to suffocate her in the caves. Mrs. Moore, however, knows that this "suffocation" in the caves was not Aziz doing, nor was it the doing of anyone. She finds that the "vile naked thing" that strikes her face is only the pad of "a little baby" (162). She realizes that the experience of the caves imposes an uncertainty that negates positive expression; one cannot point to anything that happens in those caves as producing a narrative in the traditional sense of signifying "something" definite. The signification of the baby's pad does not correspond to her experience of a '"vile 7

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naked thing." The narrator comments on the echo in the cave, '"Bourn' is the sound as far as the human alphabet can express it ... Hope, politeness, the blowing of a nose, the squeak of a boot, all produce 'bourn"' (163). The narrator admits that no one may account for this sound, but that this cave echoes this sound in the face of all experiences. One may not interrogate the cave to ask what it is or how the experience of the echo resonates anthropomorphic sounds. Rather, the very sound the cave makes, as the narrator confesses, is indescribable and uncertain. The only manner in which Mrs. Moore comes to the conclusion that her experience does not match "a realistic account," is to see the baby. She realizes that one may never be certain of what one finds in the caves, because of their failure to echo words or cultural signs; as the narrator puts it, "If one had spoken vileness in that place, or quoted lofty poetry, the comment would have been the same-'ou-boum."' (165). We see that Mrs. Moore will not "do her part" and lie about finding something, like an assault from a herd of Indians. Through this description of the cave's inability to echo human concerns, we find that the narrator presents an account of Mrs. Moore's experience that we do not fmd explicitly articulated in Adela's experience. The narrator leaves the reader with Adela's entrance into the caves at the end of chapter fifteen and her harrowing flight from the caves toward the beginning of chapter sixteen. Aziz certainly does not know how to account for this flight: "Accustomed to sudden changes of plan, he supposed that she had run down the Kawa Dol impulsively, in hope of a little drive" (171). 8

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Aziz does not even know what frightened her. We will take into account this flight in Chapter Three as an inability to connect meaningfully with him, in spite of her curiosity towards him. We note here that the narrator does not account for her experience, and no one else may give an articulate account for this event. We fmd, in Mrs. Moore's account, the "bourn" absent of signification, without "human alphabet." Adela confesses to confesses to Ronny that she doubts that Aziz attempted to assault her: "It would be appalling if I was wrong. I should take my own life" (229). Ronny then tells her that the whole station knows that she is right. He adds that the case must come to trial, ... the machinery has started" (229). Her private "outrage" becomes a matter for the whole of the enclave, and, even in the face of her doubts, the community must bring her to trial anyway because they feel insulted by such an affront. They attempt to fill in this gap between the absence of narration and their own understanding of the Indian population through the context of the Sepoy Rebellion. At this point, however, we find that Adela's ability to decide her own fate does not disappear in the novel. In fact, the narrative rests on an understanding of this decision of Adela's to admit uncertainty. Deborah Raschke, in "E. M. Forster's A Passage to India: Re-envisioning Plato's Cave," states that some critics regard the caves a choice in which Adela chooses the plot direction of the novel (16). We see that the plot direction becomes chosen for her by the enclave. Raschke, however, finds her decision not to lie about her uncertainty more appealing as a violation of the 9

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"imperial romance": Her version of the Aziz story in court is a refusal of the romance as much as it is a refuse to lie, a refusal to become the passively inscribed woman who is rescued by and defined by the storming, chivalric hero. (16) The enclave, seeing lndia,through the lease of the Sepoy Rebellion, finds her affront a violation of their narrative. They want her to do "her part," just as Ronny wants to see Mrs. Moore to take her part, in reinforcing their "chivalric" role in this story. This role provides an integrity to the colonial power that 'justifies" its existence in India. They fmd their role in India disturbed by Adela's refusal to lie. In understanding identity and cultural significance, we must consider the caves again as a devaluation of cultural signification even between Adela and Aziz. We find that she still tries to account for her experience in the caves. This assessment illustrates the lack of defmition within the caves. Even with Fielding, after the trial, she tries to figure out exactly what happened to her. She wonders if it had been another intruder. She and Fielding wonder if it might have been "the guide" or "Pathans" (269). Still, she assesses the uncertainty of her experience at the trial. In refusing to reinforce colonial rule, "Miss Quested had renounced her own people" (257). The problem of the uncertainty is a private matter. The Anglo-Indians insist that they are certain by virtue of filling in this narrative. They see, of course, a woman running from an Indian and then argue that this must be it: she must be running from "something"; there must be "something" that frightens her. She, after 10

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the trial, tries to figure what this thing is for herself, but this thing amounts to "nothing," and the narrative lacks the space in which to account for this nothing. Leland Monk, in his article, "Apropos ofNothing," refers to this nothing as a narrative device: The central, crucial, pivotal scene of the novel is not represented and, as the rhetoric attached to the caves suggests, it is strictly speaking unrepresentable. The answer to the question the rest of the novel asks but resolutely refuses to answer, "What happened to Miss Quested in the Marabar cave?," is "Nothing." (396) Thus, Forster leaves this nothing out. One moment, we find Adela speaking with Aziz and, the next moment, she runs down the side of the hill. Mrs. Moore's experience provides us with some insight into the nothing, but her experience, according to Monk, is '"traumatic, disruptive, inexplicable and unassailable" (396). The "Nothing" in the cave refuses to signify itself descriptively; "Bourn" or "Oubourn" does not provide the reader with anything to latch onto. It provides "nothing" or the lack of meaningful experience. This statement of lack of meaningful experience means a lack of signification. Signs point to beings or ideas. Leland Monk" has to a recourse to Heidegger: "Philosophically speaking, the 'nothing' contained in the Marabar Caves is nothing less than what Heidegger calls non-being" (395). According to Heidegger, thinking does something against its own "essence" when it thinks about the nothing ("What is Metaphysics?," 97). lbinking is thinking of beings, not nothing. lbinking tries to render the world meaningful with signs. It II

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points to things that exist, but non-existence itself or the nothing finds that it discloses nothing that to which we may point. The juxtaposition between being and nothing will be taken up later. We will find that this juxtaposition underlies what Brian May, in his book, Modernist as Pragmatist: E. M Forster and the Fate of Liberalism, refers to as the "Forsterian sublime," a sublime that is de-romanticized and weaker than the indeterminacy found in the caves, but exists in the despite the caves. We see in Mrs. Moore's departure from India to England, which she never reaches, a connectedness with the landscape of India. The landscape itself protests that it is "not nothing." The "lndias" protest that they exist and mean something: "As she drove through the huge city which the West has built and abandoned in a gesture of despair, she longed to stop, though it was Bombay, and disentangle the hundred Indian that passed each other on the streets" (233). They call to her, "So you thought an echo was India; you took the Marabar caves as final ... What have we in common with them ... (233). Brian May will argue that this moment illustrates a connectedness between Mrs. Moore and India. This connectedness finds its expression in the interrogation of India; like Godbole, she calls to India to come to her in a meaningful way. India comes, but it is not the romantic sublimity of Wordsworth's intimations of the "celestial home," as we will see later, but as something more fragile. This goal of "homecoming" will prove important in our examination of Heidegger, who finds it to be the "authentic goal" of human beings, but a goal that cannot be satisfied. Still, the call to India "to come" provides sublime moments, in spite of the overall inability to 12

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interrogate a cultw"e that is foreign to our own. At this point, we must consider Heidegger's insight on the manner in which language calls into being signs that carry with them meaning. Heidegger contends, "Signs are something ontically at hand which as this definite useful thing functions at the same time as something which indicates the ontological structure of handiness, referential totality, and worldliness" (Being and Time, 76). The "primitive Da-sein," the human being without the need to consider the sign as something other than useful to communicating to oneself and others what this sign represents, creates the sign for purposes of utility, but this more sophisticated Da-sein may take language as "at hand" in order to illustrate the structure in which human beings subjectively order the world for themselves "ontologically." Let us leave this last part alone since we will concern ourselves with the initial openness that one finds in the "clear nothing of anxiety" where human beings find the world once again open in away that they did not consider before having fallen into this "inauthentic being with others" or the entanglement that others place on one; in the case of A Passage to India, Adela becomes caught up in and "falls prey" to the concerns of Anglo-India's need to fulfill its cultuml narrative in the context of the Sepoy Rebellion. With the initial openness to the world, human beings create a sign to bridge the gap between themselves and the world. We will find, likewise, the creation of a new sign or signification in the case of the term "Esmiss-Esmoor" that; bridges the gap between Adela and the crowd. She finds that India calls to her at the trial, not as a cave, but as an imperfect term, 13

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mostly inert, that remains "something" and not nothing. This idea of a new term will allow us to consider how India manifests itself as having meaning, even if only through an imperfect sign, but this meaning will awaken Adela from her entanglement with the enclave and their cultural narrative into the realm of being able to see the openness of the world of beings apart from the directives others place on her. 14

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CHAPTER TWO MRS. MOORE'S SPIRITUAL JOURNEY AND BRIAN MAY'S "FORSTERIAN SUBLIME" May's "Forsterian Sublime" Mrs. Moore encounters an active force in the caves, which reduces all things to "filth." For her, all things remain, but they mean nothing. "Piety, Pathos, courage, poetry, the tree, God, etc" (165) remain for Mrs. Moore, but they have no meaning for her. We will not attempt to assail this passage head on or consider her encounter with this devastating force in isolation. We must first provide some account of how she exists in the novel in general. The cave incident provides a profound insight into the spiritual journey of this female protagonist. They cannot, however, be seen as the final word of the novel. Doing so would ignore Mrs. Moore's final outcome. In the "Mosque" section, she connects with Aziz in a way that transcends, in a very limited way, her Christianity and his Islam, which we will consider in a moment. She also connects with Godbole in the "Temple" section in which she appears in his vision; we must take this point up again in a few pages. Even at the trial, the crowd of Indians outside chants the Hindi-phonic "EsmissEsmoor." The narrator inA Passage to India depicts the character of Mrs. Moore as a woman on a spiritual peregrination in which she moves through the various comers of 15

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India with some openness to what they have to offer her. The narrator comments early in the novel that she sees "India as a spirit," rather than Adela's view of it as a "frieze" ( 48). One of our objectives must be to consider what the narrator means in contending that Mrs. Moore regards India as a spirit. How does she move through India, what does she find there and how does it change her? Before pushing forward with these questions, we must ask what is Forster's purpose in presenting the reader with the devaluation in the caves? Here, Mrs. Moore fmds a bleak vision of the world in which all things become meaningless. The caves refuse to echo her concerns; "pathos and piety" remain, but the caves rob her of their meaning. They refuse to even echo these signs, and present her merely with the uncanny echo "bourn." Still, the reader may argue that her presence at the Hindu festival and the mosque provide meaning through the connections that she creates in the face of racial and religious boundaries. Furthermore, her absence at the trial provides even more weight than her presence. Had she been at the trial, the crowd would not have taken it upon themselves to call to her with the chant "Esmiss Esmoor." Thus, Passage presents the reader with a paradox; Mrs. Moore finds the world meaningless at one moment, and. in another, becomes become a force in India, even posthumously, by connecting herself to the indigenous population. For this reason, we must also considers Godbole's exposition on presence and absence. To provide clarity to this connectedness that Mrs. Moore performs, both as a present figure and an absent figure whose departure makes her all the more forceful, 16

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we must consider Brian May's The Modernist as Pragmatist: E. M Forster and the Fate of Liberalism, which accounts for the interplay between meaning and meaninglessness in Passage through the elucidation of the Forsterian sublime. By meaninglessness, again, we do not signify absence, which will be shown to have profound meaning, but meaninglessness proper. May's argument first rests on significance of connectedness in the novel and with the dynamics of presence and absence. Insight into the Forsterian sublime assists the reader in seeing that meaning exists even after the incident at the caves. The caves remain, but Mrs. Moore fmds a "sublime" that brings intimations through the call of the "hundred India" in her departing from India. Having introduced this new term of the "Hindu" sublime, Brian May's project requires explanation. The reader will see how Mrs. Moore leaves India, and this ending will show the manner in which she finds meaning even in her end. May describes a sublime state that exists in Forster's Hinduism, but differs from the romantic sublime. The sublime, as the romantics understand it, consists of a moment of individual wonder at the awesome power that the solitary pilgrim fmds in the world. The Prelude offers an number of concrete example in which Wordsworth's speaker conveys a sense of the sublime through the use of landscape imagery. May observes that Wordsworth's sublime intimations remain momentary and suffer a "collapse inward" because of their ephemeral nature (127). The nature of the romantic sublime provides a huge bulk of literary criticism, and May attempts to 17

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render a fuller explication of it than the project of this paper finds tenable to recount. Rather, this paper considers a few of May's reflections on the romantic sublime, which he contends has Wordsworth as its "avatar" (123). He boils down an observation from Francis Ferguson who comments: Orthodox western sublimity is the private adventure of the solitary walker. Solitude is the very thing that the romantic seeks and seems to require. "Romantic consciousness," Ferguson writes, "emerges in reaction to the proliferation of consciousnesses, or rather it claims other consciousnesses." ( 131-132) The romantic sublime is a "positive" sublime in its goal of appropriating the true consciousness in favor of these other consciousnesses. 1bis appropriation of other consciousness seeks to reach a universal consciousness, apart from the maelstrom of everyday drudgery. The romantics sought a return to nature, apart from the alienation of the Industrial Revolution of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In nature, they seek freedom and authenticity in bucolic innocence. Still, this sublime fmds its expression in an ego-centricism within the individual's isolation in nature. By illustrating this positive romantic sublime, May describes the way in which Forster subverts the romantic sublime with this "Hindu" sublime. He argues that Forster's "Hindu" sublime seeks to connect human beings with one another, the supernatural and everything else (132). The novel serves as an attempt to connect peoples and places in general. Aziz connects with Fielding and Adela during the first section and disconnects with them during the section. The Indian crowd 18

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outside the court connects Mrs. Moore to the trial. In the "Temple" section, Godbole connects Mrs. Moore to the wasp. The meaning and purpose of what May calls the "Hindu" sublime lies in the characters' connections. This point becomes clearer with a few illustrations. According to May, the character of Godbole relates the best example of the Forsterian sublime (132). In the scene at the government college (with Mrs. Moore, Fielding and Dr. Aziz present), Godbole calls to Krishna, "Come, come, come," but Krishna does not come (85). Godbole contends later in the novel that Krishna's "absence" is not "non-existence" and, therefore, he must entreat of Krishna to come ( 198). The problem of Krishna presents one of the greatest difficulties in understanding this novel. The reader must wonder how Krishna exists and how he does not exist. Mostly, Krishna remains absent, but Godbole attempts to connect with him by calling him. He will not come to Godbole probably in full force as the incarnation of the Vishnu. Still, in a sense, he does appear to Godbole. In the "Temple" section of this novel, Godbole finds the vision of Mrs. Moore at the festival: It was his duty, as it was his desire, to place himself in the position ofthe God and to love her, and to place himself in her position and to say to the God, "Come, come, come, come." This was all he could do. How inadequate! But each according to his capacities, and he knew that his were so small. (326) Godbole connects to Mrs. Moore at this festival, but this connection is "inadequate." 19

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At this point, the "Hindu" sublime rests in an interrogation of the individual's place in the universe. Godbole, being a devotee of Krishna, finds that he must call forth his Lord. He offers up this prayer to a god who never comes, but he uncovers something ofhis participation in the universe. Such a role cannot fmd the fullness that he might desire. The call comes almost in desperation and promises no satisfaction, but it is all that Godbole can do. How else can Godbole connect with the supernatural? He would not even gain a sense of connection with the supernatural without the call. In understanding this connection between the everyday understanding of unconnected events and the Hindu connectedness with the divine, this paper must consider the narrator's general account of the festival. The narrator reflects that Krishna himself is both absent and present at the festival: he "is not yet born" in the reenactment ceremony; he will be born "at midnight"; he was born centuries ago; "nor can He ever be born, because He is the Lord of the universe who transcends human processes" (317). The narrator describes the image of Krishna "to be born" as a small silver teaspoon-sized deity (318). Additionally, the worshippers themselves become Krishna, as they play practical jokes on one another: "God can play practical jokes upon Himself, draw chairs away from beneath his posteriors, set his own turbans on fire, and steal His own petticoats when He bathes" (324). Here, the reader realizes that the worshippers are and are not Krishna. Krishna exists here, but cannot exist here. The vision of the god comes in the entreaty to come and make himself manifest, most explicitly, through the various actions of the worshippers themselves. 20

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The tricksters stand in the place of the god and provide merriment, while the recipients of these tricks accept their losses as part of the festival: "It was their duty to play various games to amuse the newly born God, and to simulate his sports with the wanton dairy maids ofBrindahan" (324). They become Krishna through a kind of interaction or synthesis with him. Both stand in the place of Krishna, and both participate in this "Hindu" sublime of supernatural interaction. They are themselves and Krishna, and they are not Krishna. In understanding the true implication of the festival, we must consider the act ofinvocating the god. Krishna's presence would dispossess revelers of their synthetic connectedness through merriment. The manifestation of Krishna as a concrete incarnate deity would bring a realism to this festival that would make it completely different. It would be like opening the door for Elijah during Passover to fmd that Elijah enters. This concreteness would be something else entirely. Similarly, the non-existent Krishna would not provide them with a god to invoke. They must believe in Krishna in order to invoke him. They find the absent, but existent Krishna through invoking his name, praying to him, symbolizing him and honoring him with rituals and amusements. Through all these aspects of the festival, they make him manifest through invocation while he remains absent. This merriment does not satisfy the need to see the god, but provides them with the invocation itself and renders this festival meaningful in a provisional way. It provides Krishna and does not provide Krishna. This invocation changes them, not Krishna. They forget 21

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their commonplace concerns regarding personal property. Even the Rajah, who was at death's door, comes to the festival to honor Krishna (322). The worshippers forget about the concerns that confront them as part of everyday life and lose these concerns by participating in the festival. The reader must wonder at the importance of these concerns. How important are they? Later we will take up the problem of everyday concern in our understanding of Heidegger who regards the "everyday being in the world" as an existence entangled with the concerns apart from who one is. Here, we remember the narrator's insight: "Most of life is so dull that there is nothing to be said about it ... Inside a cocoon of work or social obligation, the human spirit slumbers for the most part" (146). Forster echoes Wordsworth's "Ode (Intimations oflmmortality),": "Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting" (299). Wordsworth regards the true home of the human being as elsewhere: The Soul that rises with us, our life's Star, Hath had elsewhere its setting, And cometh from afar: Not in entire forgetfulness, And not in utter nakedness, But trailing clouds of glory do we come from God, who is our home: Heaven lies about us in our infancy!(299) Wordsworth's speaker contends that the soul finds its true home elsewhere in the celestial sphere, removed from the baggage of the humdrum world that weighs down this soul: 22

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But it will not be long Ere this be thrown aside, And with new joy and pride The little actor cons another part, Filling from time to time his 'humorous stage' With all the Persons, down to palsied Age, That Life brings with her in her Equipage; As if his whole vocation Were endless imitation. (300) The soul becomes encumbered with the concerns of life as an endless interplay of being in the world of"Persons" who provide only a "humorous stage." Wordsworth advances the idea that life is but an "endless" imitation in the midst of their concerns in the public sphere, and these concerns bring with them their own "Equipage." Wordsworth's speaker argues that in living, we forget our true vocation for the vocation of being in this world, which is not our home. Later, Heidegger will take up this point about the "homecoming," which he regards, like Wordsworth, as the ''true vocation" of human being, but Heidegger contends that this goal never realizes itself. In illustrating the romantic sublime, the "Ode" puts forward the idea that there "was a time" when the world seemed fresh and golden, full of delightful meaning. These lines open the poem: There was a time when meadow grove and stream, The earth and every common sight, To me did seem Appareled in celestial light, The glory and the freshness of a dream. (297) The reader fmds Wordsworth's "Child of Joy" (298) in the midst of delightful meaning and joy where everything radiates this "celestial light." The skeptic must 23

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ask when did you ever find this world of meaning? The speaker points to a primordial condition in which the sublime romantic consciousness becomes manifest, but the "Child" loses the sense of the sublime with worldly entanglements. The only way to regain the sense of the sublime lies in isolating one's self, from the world of this "Equipage," in ''Nature's" realm. Nature provides an imagery that intimates the "celestial home," if only momentarily. May points out that the sublime experiences a "collapse inward," which once again removes the speaker from the sublime moment. One returns to the world of"Equipage," or worldly obligation, where one finds the sense of the "celestial home" lost once again. On the matter of this "Equipage," Forster and Wordsworth agree. Both regard most of life as entailing no significance to the true desires of homecoming. Mrs. Moore desires ''to be one with the universe" (231 ), and the narrator fmds that she gets exactly what she desires: Visions are supposed to entail profundity, but-Wait till you get one, dear reader! The abyss also may be petty, the serpent of eternity made of maggots; her constant thought was: "Less attention should be paid to my future daughter-in-law and more to me, there is no sorrow like my sorrow," although when the attention was paid she rejected it irritably. (231) She becomes inconsolable in the face of the caves. The caves provide her with exactly what she wants. She desires to see India in her quest to be "one with the the universe," but India presents itself as a cave. What does this cave mean? The cave presents Mrs. Moore with the impossibility of determining exactly what exists besides 24

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the "echo" that robs words of the signification and robs existence of its meaning. The cave overtakes her, and she desires consolation, but she cannot fmd what that consolation might be. However, we fmd Adela's revelation, while the thorns are being extracted from her backside after the Marabar incident: "In space things touch, in time things fall apart" (214). Mrs. Moore achieves the her consolation only in time and the move away from this overbearing loss of meaning. lbis point requires a return to the "Hindu" sublime. lbis sublime, as we will see, does not erase the impact of the caves. The caves still remain, but they find their power subverted by a consciousness that there exists something "besides them." Admittedly, this "Hindu" sublime exists in a fragile, less transcendent and less powerful way than the romantic sublime, and it finds itself subverted by direct proximity to the caves, but it exists nonetheless. Later, we will find how Heidegger expresses this term in the phrase: "there are beings and 'not nothing"' (103), but we are left, at this point, between the Hindu "sublime" and the caves. In returning to Forster, we see that the call to Krishna does not provide the deity himself. Will he ever come? One does not know, and Forster's narrator does not provide the reader with the sense that he will ever come to the revelers. We are left with the call itself, which provides the only means of connecting absence to presence. How "inadequate," but the call provides a provisional connection between presence and absence in which we may connect meaning with meaninglessness. Taken as rational facts, the revelers signify mere coincidence, but fmd their meaning 25

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through Forster's metaphor of Krishna playing tricks on obliging Krishna. In this festival, the narrator presents the reader with the coming of Krishna in the interconnectedness underlying the festival itself. In a contrary manner, the cave present a devaluation of the sublime that subverts all anthropomorphic demands. The cave refuses to echo anthropomorphic concerns, "If one had spoken vileness in that place, or quoted lofty poetry, the comment would have been the same-'ou-boum"' (165). However, we will take up the matter of the "hundred Indias" (232) that Mrs. Moore finds on her way to the Steamer bound for England. They call to her in as though they were ''wanton maids," inviting her to "come." They insist upon their juxtaposition from India: "What have we in common with them" (233)? Thus, India presents itself as both meaningful and meaningless in the face with the caves. "Seeing Double" In order to understand the nature of this paradox latent within the "Hindu" sublime, we must consider Leland Monk's article "Apropos of Nothing: Chance and Narrative in F<:>rster's A Passage to India" in which he comments on Forster's employment of coincidence and the supernatural. Monk argues that this festival presents "simultaneous affirmation and negation of divinity in the religious beliefs of the Hindus" (396). Monk argues that this double vision of affirmation and negation provides not just a "linguistic pun," but a challenge to the "rationalist mind." Monk 26

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mentions also the Islamic creed, ''there is no God but God" as providing another paradox that Western rationalism cannot embrace because it negates and affirms at the same time (397). Fielding considers this creed and dismisses it as a "religious pun" not a "religious truth" (Passage, 307). He cannot accept the implied negation that this creed rests on: ''there is no God but God"; God exists, but no other gods exist besides God. Chapter 1bree of this paper will consider the question of negation and the nothing. Here it suffices to note another supernatural truth, even if it only applies to Islam, that rests upon a negation. Both Monk and Heidegger regard the question of negation as indicative of an active "nothing," which underlies the whole of the experience of being. It also, according to May, underlies this Forsterian sublime (142). The nothing subverts the sublime and always underlies it. Continual consciousness of the nothing would never permit the "connectedness" of the "Hindu" sublime to manifest itself. However, in treating of the negativity that underlies sublime, we find that the "Hindu" presents something that is more precious and authentic because of the paradox between meaning and coincidence. In lending clarity to this negative element that underlies the Hindu sublime, May once again gives the qualities of the romantic sublime: "[ d]aintiness, artificiality, temporality and transcendability" (139). He admits also that the romantic sublime evades definition (139). May establishes all of these qualities as properties ofthe romantic sublime, but we will limit ourselves to the last of these qualities, transcendability. This quality indicates that the romantic sublime, much like an active 27

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agent, transcends the wonderer's consciousness in order to uncover a greater consciousness. If only we go to the English countryside, natural innocence might trigger our primal connection to our "celestial home." The romantic sublime finds its ability to transcend our "Equipage" or our commonplace concerns thrust upon us by virtue of existing with others in the world. Contrarily, this paper will illustrate how the nothing transcends even the "Hindu" sublime in A Passage to India. In illustrating the untranscendability of the "Hindu" or Forsterian sublime, May points to Mrs. Moore's exit from India. In the end, she experiences an epiphany on her way to steamer bound for Britain, which offers her something other than the caves. She sees the city of Asirgarh: "What could she connect with it except its own name? Nothing; she knew no one who lived there. But it had looked at her and seemed to say: 'I do not vanish"' (232). Meaning reconstitutes itself after the experience of the caves. She begins to see India anew, ... she longed to stop ... and disentangle the hundred Indias that passed each other in the streets" (233). These Indias inform her that they exist as well as the Marabar: "So you thought an echo was India; you took the Marabar Caves as fmal? ... What have we in common with them, or they with Asirgarh?" (233). This passage leaves Mrs. Moore with another form of Monk's double valence. The nothing exists, and all beings remain insignificant in the face of it. He refers to this scene specifically as "artificial" and "contingent"; the hundred Indias say, "'Goodbye' having asserted only their difference from the Marabar, scarcely their triumph over it. The very hope offmality is thereby, and 28

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auspiciously eradicated" (138). May contends that this nothing is larger and stronger than the Forsterian "Hindu" sublime, but the sublime still exists (139). These personified lndias are not part of this uneradicable nothing. Remembrance as Sublime Recollection in Aziz's Consciousness Since the reader of this paper must now wonder at the choice of intertwining the terms "Hindu" sublime with Forsterian sublime, we will offer two reasons for why they are the same for the purpose at hand. The first of these, rests in May's choice to use the term "Forster's 'Hindu' pragmatic sublimity" toward the end of his treatise, at which point he addresses the school of pragmatism in regard to the Forsterian sublime (142). This paper leaves other critics to examine May's synthesis of the Forsterian sublime with pragmatism. Such an examination remains inessential to understanding the basis for a sublime grounded in connectedness. Secondly, the experiences of Aziz, who is not even Hindu, display this same Forsterian sublimity. Chapter eight of Passage presents the reader with Aziz's pensiveness over the picture of his dead wife. Here, the narrator relates the story of how the marriage had been arranged. He had fallen in love with her after being married for a number of years, and she died "soon after he had fallen in love with her" (57). The narrator relates 1 Pragmatism is an American school of thought whose proponents include C.S. Peirce, William James and John Dewey. Contemporary work in pragmatism is conducted by Cornel West and Richard Rorty. This school attempts to address ideas and concepts in philosophy according to their viability or their ability to solve problems that philosophers find in conceptual conflicts. 29

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Aziz's doubts about the eschatological destination of human souls: ... his belief in the life to come would pale to a hope, vanish, reappear, all in a single sentence or a dozen heart-beats, so that the corpuscles of his blood rather than he seemed to decide which opinion he should hold and how long. It was so with all his opinions. Nothing nothing passed that did not return; the circulation was ceaseless and kept him young, and he mourned his wife the more sincerely because he mourned her seldom. (57-58) The awesome power of these images trigger a sense of continual lapse and recovery. His bodily movements keep the cycle of faith and despair. The irony "nothing stayed, nothing passed that did not return" creates a beautiful ambiguity that connotes a vivacious attempt to love she who will not, in this life, return. This passage relates the problem of human faith in the divine, which Aziz continually questions. The narrator comments that he does not question the existence of the one God, but, when matters become more local, he has doubts about ''the world to come" (57). Strangely, the genuineness of his connection with his faith lies in his constant doubting, for this process of doubt and reassertion of faith makes that faith all the more vivid. Had he taken for granted that his wife was in Paradise, he would have left thoughts of her reward in the back of his mind; these doubts produce a longing for him to mourn her. Like Godbole's invitation to Krishna, he must call forth this faith in Paradise and waits for this faith to answer, and the answer appears and flees. His mind considers the possibility of Paradise both as certain and dubious within a few heart-beats. This space between certainty and uncertainty provides Aziz with a place to mourn. This 30

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act of faith is just that. an action that Aziz must perform in order to realize again that there is a God and He has rewarded his wife. A moment after this reflection on doubt and belief, the narrator describes the paradox that reveals Aziz's process of remembrance. The narrator comments on the manner in which the deceased wife escapes full conscious memory; the memory of his wife remains incomplete and vague: "He desired to remember his wife and could not. Why could he remember people whom he did not love? They were always so vivid to him, whereas the more he looked at this photograph, the less he saw" (58). Aziz recollects most people with ease, because they mean little to him. They existed or exist. and he doubts not the facts that his memory provides him. His memory suffices for his recollection of most people. His memory of his wife, on the other hand, provides an active contemplation of the will to love, and his mind fuses her memory with his desire to see her again in Paradise and to love that memory with active passion. This memory lacks the static mo.: of an indifferent fact. The narrator comments on deceased persons in general: ... the more passionately we invoke them the further they recede" (58). The will to recollect the absent wife produces a greater sense of her absence. lbrough this process of reminiscence, Aziz calls forth his own wife from the grave, but she "does not come." To do otherwise, would negate the meaning he places on her. Who else could provide meaning for her, except her husband and family? Choosing to regard her fate as certain and final would render her an 31

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indifferent fact. He must stand in the place of the divine and, through his faith in '1he world to come," embrace her entrance into paradise, and he must stand in his own place and bid the divine to reconnect him with his beloved. Later in the novel, Fielding realizes on the roof of the Nawab Bahadur's house, in breaking the news of Mrs. Moore's death to Aziz, that the dead are not "really dead until they are felt dead" (283). Aziz refuses to let go of his friendship with Mrs. Moore after her death. In this way, he is more a friend to her than her own son, whose "spiritual out look is that of the Fifth Form" of the English public school: "Presumably she goes to heaven, anyhow she clears out" (286). Further, Aziz's friendship with her continues in a very mysterious manner. She influences even his decision to withdraw his libel suit against Adela: Aziz yielded suddenly. He felt it was Mrs. Moore's wish that he should spare the woman who was about to marry her son, that it was the only honour he could pay her .. .lt was fine of him, as he foresaw, it won him no credit with the English. They still believed he was guilty. . (290) Fielding tries to persuade him to do "justice" to Adela, but how can she restore Aziz name after her false accusations? In regard to her accusation made against Aziz, she commits a crime that has irrevocable effects. Her acquiescence to the charge cannot be undone in colonial circles in which the English now hold Aziz's guilt as fact, even after the trial. To do otherwise, would undermine their solidarity and supposed moral superiority over the Indian population. Again, we see that the British empire views 32

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his crime only through the lens ofthe Sepoy Rebellion of 1857. Seeing it otherwise, opens would create a disintegration in their ability to uphold their solidarity in the face of the "Other"; as the narrator reflects on Ronny Moore's own attitudes, "One touch of regret-not the canny substitute but the true regret of the heart-would have made him a different man, and the British Empire a different institution" (53). Still, the narrator comments on how Fielding, an atheist, employs "necromancy" in order to secure Aziz's capitulation; he conjures up the name of the dead woman, Mrs. Moore. In this manner, Mrs. Moore's ghost comes to Aziz to get him to drop the charge. His gesture towards her honor offers her "supplication," while remaining dead. Having considered the significance of Aziz gesture as one of friendship, it remains one of exploitation on another level. Fielding draws on Aziz's religious belief in honoring the dead to retract his vengeance. The reader may regard this technique in two ways; it may either be a direct abuse of his friend, or it may be an honoring of Mrs. Moore. If it is an abuse, the reader must take either Adela's side or that of Aziz. She does spare Aziz from incarceration, even though she tarnishes his honor. Hence, Fielding's actions tempt the reader to believe that he was acting for the best possible outcome. Fielding indicates that the punitive damages demanded by Aziz would impoverish Adela (280) The reader does not want to see her go away without a penny. Her acquiesce seems all too human for us to condemn her, and she does express the regret that endears us to her. Contrarily, the reader should ask if Adela provides just recompense for her wrong done to Aziz. Indeed, is Aziz, like 33

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Shylock in The Merchant of Venice, the wronged "Other" who suffers at the expense of the harmonious ending? Aziz comes out as the weaker party, and Forster permits the Adela to return to Britain with her small fortune intact. According to Alan Friedman, in Fictional Death and the Modernist Enterprise, the short sentence "Aziz yielded suddenly" signifies a "feminization" of Aziz. Friedman argues that his empathy for Mrs. Moore's wishes and his willing subordination to the "masculine" Fielding consign him to the role of the ''feminine" (202). Thus, Fielding reinforces the colonial order of master/subordinate. The second way of looking at Fielding's manipulation is more optimistic and relates directly to the supernatural prowess of Mrs. Moore's shade. Fielding's own personal beliefs do not prevent him from evoking the name "Mrs. Moore." His necrophile incantation succeeds where his rational arguments fail. Through this second train of thought, Aziz's motives stand as those of friendship for Mrs. Moore. His self-sacrifice may be expressed as an instance of the Forsterian sublime. He desires to honor his deceased who remains a force in the novel after her death. According to Alan Friedman the fact of suddenness and strange relations of the facts concerning Mrs. Moore death makes her death ambiguous (197). This ambiguity comes from the fact that the narrator does not depict her death on board the steamer. The news comes from a cable, and Fielding conveys the news by chance encounter with Hamidullah (274). On the roof of the Nawab Bahadur's Fielding relates Mrs. Moore's death to Aziz, who refuses to believe him: "He had tried to kill Mrs. Moore 34

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this evening ... but she still eluded him" (284). Once again, ''the dead are not dead until they are felt dead." Aziz never lets Mrs. Moore clear out, but offers her the honor ofletting her son's erstwhile fiancee off with only the cost of the defense. The synthesis between presence and absence remains crucial to most of Forster's novels: "The norm in Forster is the oddly angled and retrospective death, which denies death its full validation, and thereby creates a sense of continuing presence even as absence is intensely felt during the remainder of the novel" (198). The death of Mrs. Moore, ironically, empowers her more than had she been actively present. It enables a movement towards this sublime interconnection with the supernatural. In the case of Aziz, her specter allows him to find some sort of closure by dropping his libel suite. He may, at least, pay her this honor. We will see later that the Hindu goddess "Esmiss-Esmoor" is a catalyst for his acquittal. Her absence allows her name to insinuate itself in the trial in such a way as to both restore Adela's sense of well being and present a political slogan for the crowd that connects Adela to India through the enunciation of a new Hindu goddess. Later in this paper, this lack of connection will fmd its expression in a discourse on anxiety. Like Heidegger's dissolution of being in the face of the nothing found in the mood of anxiety, the role of the Anglo-Indian finds its dissolution in the face of the "other." If the reader discounts Mrs. Moore's supernatural role as mediator, the fight between Aziz and Adela may have continued, and such the underlying conflict between the enclave and the Indians clearly continues through the 35

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appropriation of Fielding into affairs of the British Raj. Reflections on Mrs. Moore's Journey: Beginning and End This section attempts to explain what happens to Mrs. Moore's spiritual disposition during the course of the novel. May's idea of the Fosterian sublime provides a good lens through which to view her journey. Mrs. Moore displays an openness toward India that Miss Quested, who fmds only the terror of the caves and her act of conscience, does not. In the same manner, Fielding comes to India intent on remaining an educator at the government college, but fmds himself an agent of the Lieutenant-Governor at the end. He marries Mrs. Moore's daughter who has "ideas" that he does not share (357). The narrator never develops this character of Stella, but indicates that she has an interest in Hinduism (359). Still, the final chapter of the novel depicts an imperialist Fielding arguing in favor of the need for British control of India and an Aziz who says, "India shall be a nation! No foreigners of any sort! Hindu and Moslem and Sikh and all shall be one!" (361). The relationship between Fielding and Aziz represents the relationship between Britain and India. There can be no healthy relationship between Imperialism and nationalism. On the other hand, we find that Mrs. Moore does manage to connect with Aziz in the beginning and with the hundred India that wave goodbye to her in the end. In spit of this harsh division, Aziz tells Fielding, a few pages earlier, that he will always associate his name with Mrs. Moore's name (359). Aziz had thought that 36

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Fielding had married Adela Quested, and he stands corrected at this point. Mrs. Moore's name helps sooth tensions between Fielding and Aziz, but, of course, there are greater political matters, which separate these two characters. This section must consider the friendship between Mrs. Moore and Aziz and how it indicates that her spiritual disposition allows for an openness to the colonial "Other." Her openness gives her the best vantage point to connect with the "Other" in a partial manner, with some meaningful interrogation, that is "not nothing." Indeed, this "not nothing" will come to signify the initial openness to the world that Heidegger fmds when human beings depart from the mood of anxiety and find the world once again open to their concern. Before illustrating Mrs. Moore's "recovery" of the sublime, which this paper will argue consists in her attainment of the Forsterian sublime, this paper must remark on her state before the caves. Chapter two of Passage introduces the reader to Mrs. Moore through the realm of the mosque. She encounters Aziz at this point who tells her, at first, to go away: "Madam, this is a mosque, you have no right here at all; you should have taken off your shoes; this is a holy place for Moslems" (17-18). To this she replies, "I have taken them off ... l left them at the entrance" (18). Her gesture changes everything for Aziz. He not longer regards her as the colonial mistress who comes to survey the mosque, but as a woman open to the community of Moslems. In reality, Aziz knows that she is not a Moslem. Mrs. Moore identifies herself at the "bridge party" as a Christian. Even in the "Temple," the narrator refers to her as 37

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Christian. Forster might illustrate that she finds her religion meaningless in the face of the Marabar Caves, but the narrator brings her religious identity up again at the festival. Her assumed Islamic identity seems not to negate her identity as a Christian or her place at the festival: "He was a Brahman, and she Christian, but it made no difference" (326). In the mosque and, later, at the outing, as we will see, Aziz regards her as a Moslem who is not a Moslem; for he would rather think of her as one of his camp. In order to lend clarity to this point, we must consider this scene further. In removing her shoes, Mrs. Moore entertains her ephemeral Islamic identity. Aziz explains his former misapprehension by saying that "so few ladies take the trouble, especially if thinking no one is there to see." She replies, "That makes no difference. God is here" (18). To which God does she refer? Is she talking about Ala or Jehovah? Moslems and Christians have very different concepts of God; the insistence of the unity of the Islamic God cannot stand for the triune God of the Christians in an absolute dogmatic sense. The Christian cannot say "God" and expect the term to signify the same unity that the Moslems hold. Still, Mrs. Moore leaves her dogmatic rigor behind and assumes that God is God, even in the Mosque. This connection provides room for heresy, but it allows the Christian and Moslem to connect. Aziz immediately accepts her place at the mosque by asking, "how can I do you some service now or at any time?'' (18). Through their connection at the mosque, Aziz and Mrs. Moore become fast 38

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friends. They talk about their children, a topic that Aziz considers sacred. She tells him that she has three, and he, of course, has three: Listen, please. I am about to tell you the names my children's names. The First is called Ahmed, the second Karim, the third-she is the eldest-Jamila. Three children are enough. Do you not agree with me? (20) She does agree with him. We note the significance of the number three as Trinitarian, but we do not press this connection. It remains symbolic, but unconnected to the dogma ofher Christian faith. It exists only coincidentally, and the question of its Trinitarian significance does not present us with an answer. In the course of their conversation, they then gossip about Mrs. Callendar (20-21). The kindness that both of these characters display towards one another is profound. Later, when the Fielding and Godbole do not arrive at the train station in time for the expedition to the Marabar, Aziz fears that the entire outing has been ruined. Mrs. Moore allays these fears by saying, "We shall be all Moslems together now, as you promised" (145). The true implication of this comment is that it puts the personal before cultural identities, if for a moment only; through this moment, she provides a provisional home or pragmatic connection for her friendship with Aziz. In the middle of this book, the reader encounters the caves. The narrator does not even lend a train of thought for what Adela finds in the caves. She enters the caves at the end of chapter fifteen and flees from them at the beginning of sixteen. Leland Monk argues that her encounter in the caves is an encounter with the 39

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"nothing," and Forster leaves her narrative encounter with the nothing out of the text because it is "unrepresentable" (395-396). On the other hand, the narrator does relate Mrs. Moore's disposition after her encounter with the caves. The problem of the caves presents a devaluation for Mrs. Moore, and we will take up this devaluation again Chapter Two, but where does it leave her? She encounters an instance in which she cannot communicate anything to the cave, and the cave fails to resonate an echo that she could identify as helpful to her desire to "be one with the universe." The intimations that the realm of nature should relate to the solitary wonder's consciousness in the romantic peregrination are not there. She encounters an experience that triggers an intimation without significance to her consciousness; the natural world intimates nothing. She loses her fundamental sense of her self and her values fall away after her short sojourn into the caves: If one had spoken vileness in that place, or quoted lofty poetry, the comment would have been the same-"ou-boum." If one had spoken with the tongues of angels and pleaded for all the unhappiness and misunderstanding in the world, past, present, and to come, for all the misery men must undergo whatever their opinion and position, and however much they dodge and bluff-it would amount to the same, the serpent would descend and return to the ceiling. Devils are of the North, and poems can be written about them, but no one could romanticize the Marabar because it robbed infinity and eternity of their vastness, the only quality that accommodates them to mankind. (165) Very much like a vortex, the caves negate the values that one places on them. Greatness and vastness strike the romantic with the delight of solitude's oneness with 40

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of cosmic forces. However, the leveling power of caves overtakes even the vastness of these landmarks. Things still remain; "piety, courage, etc." remain, but the caves rob them of their significance. The romantics try to touch supernatural platitudes; here, eternity and infinity prove strangers to the romantic. The caves refuse to echo the signification that one utters; the answer to all these significations remains "Bown." Earlier in this chapter, Adela mentions Grasmere, a clear allusion to the lake district inhabited by Wordsworth. The narrator then explains how the plain below the Marabar hills differs from Grasmere. Grasmere is "Romantic yet manageable," but "an untidy plain stretched to the knees ofthe Marabar" (152). The narrator describes these hills themselves as a series of"fists and finger" (5-6). Nigel Messenger, in his article "Imperial Journeys. Bodily Landscapes and sexual Anxiety: Adela's Visit to the Marabar Caves in A Passage to India," describes them as a ''variant of 'grotesque realism'" (106). Obviously, Forster desires to posit what these hills are not, a "romantic picturesque," to what the are, indeterminate. The anthropomorphic "fists and fingers" indicate the disorder of the hwnan form, instead of a positive expression of it. In addition, the cave negates canny signification, which hwnan beings require to see meaning. Without this meaning, hwnan beings regard the universe as hostile. We require the assurance that we will fmd a place within it, and this assurance is integral to our being. We need the world to resonate, in a useful manner, the 41

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demands that we place on it. When we employ the signification "sun," for instance, we require the sun to be what we think it is. In spite of the desire to find hospitality, Messenger disputes the idea advanced by critics, such as Deborah Raschke (Raschke, 12), that the cave represents a womb. The description of this Marabar does not uphold this contrivance, and the caves are not "procreative" in the literal sense of the word: The Marabar caves are not a place of procreation-at least not of the heterosexual kind. The dominant images of echo and reflection that they contain are essentially sterile and self reflexive; the eroticism they undoubtedly hold is doomed to exquisite frustration, lying as it does outside the patterns of nature. ( 1 07) This conclusion about the intestinal nature of the caves comes from the narrator's depiction: '"the hole belched" (162). Moreover, the interior of the cave, when the match strikes, produces little "snakes" and "worm coils" (163). Here, Messenger fmds that the cave resembles a rectum more than it reminds one of a womb (I 06). The argwnent that Foster propagates a new sort of positive aesthetic or philosophy appears dubious according to Messenger. He fmds these caves pregnant only with frustration. The echo produces a "self-reflection" that robs one of the meaning of the words that one presents to the caves. Before moving into this frustration as basic devaluation of human meaning, this paper must briefly note Messenger's comment that they caves illustrate the author's own encumbrance regarding his own sexuality. Obviously, the friendship 42

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between Aziz and Fielding has homoerotic undertones, and the reader may find a few other examples of homoeroticism in A Passage to India. This paper just has too much to tackle and will ignore this point in Messenger's argument for the sake of brevity. It leaves this homosexual frustration for other critics to examine. To resume the matter of the cave's effect on Mrs. Moore, this paper need examine a few more details regarding her dissolution of meaning. She loses all sense her former ideals and cannot fmd consolation even in her religion: "Religion appeared, poor talkative Christianity, and she knew that all its divine works from 'Let there be Light' to 'It is finished' only amounted to 'boum"' (166). Christianity exists as a concern of Mrs. Moore before her encounter. She argues with the callousness of the Anglo-India administration by presenting a Christian position on how the British ought to rule India She argues for a moral approach to colonialism predicated by her Anglican Christianity: The English are out here to be pleasant ... God has put us on the earth in order to be pleasant to each other. God .. .is .. .love ... God has put us on earth to love our neighbours and to show it, and He is omnipresent, even in India, to see how we are succeeding. (53) This position remains a colonialist position, but one that seems more charitable. It calls for colonial reform, rather than colonial withdrawal. She grounds her position in principles of charity and justice. With the advent of the caves, however, she finds her Christianity meaningless. How can the Raj unite India under the flag of colonialism with Christianity? She herself finds that she must set aside her identity to even 43

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connect with Aziz. Moreover, the caves illustrate how the personal terms "love" and "pleasantness" do not overarch the entire universe. These terms imply connection, and connections do not come easily in India. They remain as fragile and limited in the interrogative process of the Forsterian sublime; diffuse connections exist in this novel, amid the overarching cultural conflicts. India never fully answers the questions that one asks of it; it invites, "Come," but does not provide a full explication of its significance and refuses to "answer" Mrs. Moore's spiritual peregrination with any absolutely meaningful response. In the context of the cave, May's argument conveys that "nothing" in the caves transcends the Forsterian sublime. The narrator relates that Mrs. Moore loses interest after her visit to the cave, "even in Aziz, and the affectionate and since words that she had spoken to him seemed no longer hers but the air's" (166). This friendship passes temporarily into emptiness, as do her words. There is only the echo, "bown." Still, earlier, we pointed to May's account of her passage from India, ... she longed to stop ... and disentangle the hundred lndias that passed each other in the streets" (233). These Indias inform her that they exist as well as the Marabar: "So you thought an echo was India; you took the Marabar caves as finai? ... What have we in common with them, or they with Asirgarh" (233)? This weaker and less final sublime reemerges at this point as a way of bringing her character back from the paralysis in which the cave leaves her. Here, we see Marabar/ Asirgarh dichotomy in light of the "double valence" described by Monk. Her ability to fmd the significance 44

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of India meets finite limits and appears meaningless in the face of nothing, but it still exists and remains a catalyst for the connection between "the Christian woman" and Godbole, and between "the lady in the Mosque" and Aziz. Having mentioned this last connection, this paper will later bring up the Hindu goddess "Esmiss-Esmoor" and her role in the trial. She becomes a force for the crowd outside, and the reader must ask how does she come to the aid of Aziz? Here, this chapter must leave the reader with the idea of Mrs. Moore's absence as allowing for her narrative apotheosis. Remember, the Anglo-Indians cannot be convinced by Aziz's innocence by virtue of his character. Adela's confession only secures Aziz's "legal" acquittal. The next chapter will take up this question from with a Heideggerian lens in the hope of elucidating the experience of the caves, particularly Adela's experience of them, from a philosophical perspective. This project will provide better language with which to address the caves and their role in the novel. Heidegger's reflections on the nothing will allow a compliment for Brian May's work on the Forsterian sublime and will allow the critic fuller exposition of Monk's idea of"double valence." The anxiety of the loss of meaning, or the refusal of the caves to resonate the demands that one places them, will allow us to see India for what it is "at bottom," the inability to find cultural significance. It will also allow us to understand the inability of Adela to relate to Aziz, generating a sexual frustration that finds its expression through the unrepresented encounter she has with the caves. On the other 45

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hand, we find that India presents itself at the trial in the form of the Hindu goddess "Esmiss-Esmoor" and in Mrs. Moore's own departure from India. The caves are, the loss of what Bhabha calls the "implausibility of conversation" is ( 126), but so is Asirgarh and the "hundred Indias." caves. These personified "Indias" call to her and insist that they exist, that they mean something, and are "not nothing." They present a response to Mrs. Moore's openness to the world, which becomes all the more vivid, because they are and are not the uncanny echo of found in the caves. 46

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CHAPTER THREE HOW THE OPENNESS TO THE "NOT NOTHING" MITIGATES COLONIAL ANXIETY Adela's Entanglement In taking up the matter of Adela's decision not to lie about the uncertainty that she finds in the caves, we take up three major points. The first comes from her role as the "wronged maiden," as we mentioned in Chapter One. We must consider how the Anglo-Indians force their narrative of the "imperial romance" onto the narrative Adela's flight from the cave and assign themselves the role of"chivalric" avengers of Adela's supposed assault. The second point comes from the anxiety that Adela fmds in the cave itself. She finds that the object of her "curiosity," Aziz, remains unable to respond to her advances and her attempts to "connect" with him through conversation. Bhabha describes her attempt as a failure in to establish viable conversation in the face of cultural plurality (126). We will consider this point further in this chapter. The third point that we seek to make in this chapter comes from a new relationship that Adela finds between herself and India through the new signification "Esrniss-Esmoor." The call of Mrs. Moore will assume an appeal from India to bring Mrs. Moore to acquit Aziz. The call finds different meanings for different segments of the populations. For Arnritao, and the Indian pleaders, it 47

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signifies a political protest in the face of the injustice at the trial. The crowd outside has no idea what the name "Mrs. Moore" points to in reality and incorporates it into their language as "Esmiss-Esmoor," realizing that the appeal to her represents a protest of the court's proceedings. Adela connects the name to her friend, Mrs. Moore, whose kinship with her we will consider in a moment. 1bis term means different things to different people, but "Esmiss-Esmoor" becomes a signifier for generating "political action" among the crowd. To barrow Bhabha's terminology, this term becomes a ''multi-accentual" sign through which culturally plural terms become possible in a limited manner, with different emphases, but touching on a specific appeal (179). In understanding the problems of entanglement with society's concerns, like the enclave's need for self-justification through the narrative of"imperial romance" of the Sepoy Rebellion and the Adela's decision to act apart from these concerns imposed on her, we have recourse to Heidegger's analysis of human being as ''thrown being" into the world and the human being as "fallen prey" to the concerns imposed upon one by society. Taking into account these aspects will assist us in our critical approach to Adela's dilemma and her decision not to lie. In Heideggerian philosophy, human beings "fall prey" to the concerns of the everyday being in the world of concerns. Most of the time, according to Heidegger, the individual loses what one is essentially: ''thrown being" into an uncanny world. Human beings try to render beings useful to them, but the world proves to be very hostile to the concerns 48

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of the isolated human being. What Heidegger means by the thrownness of human being will become clearer as this section progresses. Indeed, for both Bhabha and Heidegger, as we will soon see, the concerns of one's society "ensnare" the individual in its web, providing one with both the blessings of cultural reference, a false home in one's own society, and the curse ofhaving "fallen prey" to the concerns of the same society through which one relies to furnish a place of meaningful articulations of the individual's place in the world. Unfortunately, what the human being is at bottom, without entanglement in the everyday concerns of society, is ''thrown being into world." These everyday attachments, which are something akin to the "Equipage" of Wordsworth, are not really the essential attachments of human beings. In the case of A Passage to India, the Anglo-Indian enclave imposes its narrative understanding of itself onto its members. Its members rely upon the enclave for their security. Without the enclave, its members become lost in the world without, what Bhabha calls, ''the artifice of signification" (126), through which they may find language and significations to justify their existences. We will see how the colonial power requires the narrative of the "imperial romance" in order to exist as a people in the face of "adversity" from the colonial "Other," who exists outside the realm of their "artifice of signification." Already, in the mosque scene, we find that Mrs. Moore by virtue of being a Christian does not agree with the Islamic notion of one God, in one person; Trinitarian doctrine cannot withstand the Unitarian agenda of the Islamic creed: 49

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"There is no God but God." However, she finds herself able to communicate with Aziz by not pressing Christian dogma and, thus, creating "God" as a less defmed term. Aziz, likewise, agrees not to let the term "God" rest in an ambivalence that creates the possibility for a limited "cultural plurality." They both take "God" apart from the concerns of religious doctrines and let this term rest on an agreed consideration, apart from the rigor that their respective religions would place on them. Later, we will fmd the ambivalence of the term "Esmiss-Esmoor" as creating a new signification, apart from the concerns of existent cultural narratives. At this point, however, we find that most of the significations that we employ in everyday parlance are imposed, and room exists in this friendship for a kind of limited and ambiguous religious plurality, apart from the inherent specificity of the theological creeds of either Christianity or Islam, in the realm of the personal. In Heidegger's philosophy, humans beings exist, in their thrown state, as beings without the information that society provides through acculturation and the everyday concerns imposed upon us outside our desires and concerns for authentic meaning. This enthrallment into the concerns of the "they" creates an inauthentic means of signification, which human beings choose because isolation is excruciating. We desire to fmd the world entirely meaningful but, when we come to understand the meaninglessness that underlies it, we have recourse to, what Heidegger calls, das Man or the ''they." The narrative of the "imperial romance" denotes a perfect illustration of the concerns of the "they." Having given a few reflections on the 50

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"imperial romance" or the cultural referent that the English hold as a reaction to the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857, we will now see that this "chivalric" lens provides the general view that the Anglo-Indian enclave has of itself; it sees itself as the defenders of civilization, which it regards as Occidental civilization, in the face of the "Other." McBryde's summarizes the attitude of the enclave in his comment to Fielding, after Aziz's arrest: "Read any of the Mutiny records; which, rather than the Bhagavad Gita, should be your bible in this country" (187). McBryde's comment gives a dismissive generalization. He negates the culture itselfby replacing it with the defense of his own colonial reference point. In understanding this reliance on cultural definition, most realize the tenuous situation that the British occupy in India They cannot find their true cultural home in the face of an overwhelming hostility to their cultural identity. They know well that they are not welcomed in India. They know also that the cultures of India present problematic cultural expressions, which they must ignore in order to fulfill their defense of Western civilization. McBryde's statement on the Mutiny records should be taken a conscious flight from the authentic attempt to pursue India's call "come" to ajlight into the enclosed cultural space of the enclave. In their disregard for the possibility of any sort of negotiated understanding between their colonial aims and the aims of India, Passage portrays the British living in India as "homeless." Ronny remarks, "India isn't home" (33). The very term "Anglo-Indian" conveys a sense of being neither India nor British. Their identity becomes that of an "army of 51

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occupation." Another example of a character who lives for this publicness is Mr. Turton. The narrator describes him, "Always brave and unselfish, he was now fused by some white and generous heat; he would have killed himself, obviously, if he had thought it right to do" (180). He places his own desires and concerns into the hands of the very enclave that he leads, becoming himself enthralled by the concern for the tenuous position of the occupying force. When Miss Quested asks to meet some of the Indian population with whom they mix, Turton dismisses her: "Well, we don't come across them socially ... They're full of all the virtues, but we don't and it's now eleven-thirty, and too late to go into reasons (26)." Mr. Turton refuses even to interact with India for fear of compromising the concerns of this British outpost. Before embarking on what Heidegger considers to be the ensnarement or entanglement the human being in the affairs of the everyday being in the world, we must consider how he regards human being in its essence or as it really is. Heidegger argues, in "What is Metaphysics?," that the individual human being or Da-sein is thrown being into the world, "held out into the nothing" (103). We fmd ourselves in the world of beings without a lexicon with which to understand what we, and we attempt to build a "home" for ourselves in which to live. We desire to render the world meaningful to our experience of it. However, beings possess a negative dimension that Da-sein, which is always subjective experience of the world, cannot render manifest to itself. It can make "no sense" out of most of what it fmds in the world, and the meaning that it does find is always provisional. We fmd that Da-sein 52

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spends most of its time apart from what it is by occupying itselfwith the everyday concerns of being in the world. The world of culture provides the best example of one's estrangement from who one is as being without pre-ascribed meaning. In the moment at which one fmds one's self isolated from meaningful experience of the world, one becomes faced with a decision. One may either pursue one's own concerns or those imposed upon one from the outside. One's own concerns remain a mystery, and the subjectivity ofDa-sein as thrown into the world without predication does not provide the answer in a universal sense. There remains nothing to inform one how to pursue one's own aims in a hostile world. Da-sein becomes left to its own devices. On the other hand, Da-sein may flee into the world imposed upon it by social concerns. The "call to care" and "guilt" are not among these social enthrallments, however. Many act against the will of the collective in trying to satisfy the desires of care and conscience in a way that "no one" imposed upon them. Rather, they act in way that satisfies their "own most potentiality for being" (Being and Time, 276). What this satisfaction is and the fact that it may never be attained present a mystery that we may not give explicate in this our discourse. Still, the call of conscience and guilt present a marked exception to the enthrallment that others in society place on one. In the case of the enclave, the need to fulfill the cultural narrative of the "imperial romance" represented by the British reaction to the Sepoy Rebellion presents one with Adela's entanglement. On the other hand, rejection of the enclave's demands leads her out into the isolation from her cultural referent, into 53

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the abyss of finding herself thrown into the loss of cultural referent at the caves. This throWIUless leads to a profound sense of anxiety in the face of the negation of cultural meaning, and she becomes left to her own devices in order once again to render the world meaningful in the face of a culture that refuses to "echo" her own "authentic" desires. We will see that her flight from the caves represents a flight into the entangled and inauthentic concerns of the enclave; while her refusal to lie represents the authentic aim of asserting her own concerns, contrary to those of the British. In order to illustrate this point about one's dilemma between the authentic concerns of human being and human being's false refuge from itself, we tum to Being and Time, which elucidates the manner in which most human beings "live apart" from themselves most of the time in a kind of entangled existence with others. Heidegger argues that we fmd the world uncanny by virtue of the inherent hostility it displays towards us. Remember, that one does not choose where one is in the world or at what time. One has already made these decisions, in some cases, or, in most cases, fmds the facts of one's life existing entirely independent of one's ever having chosen them. The subjectivity of human existence requires a radical approach of taking human beings as existing in one place, at one time; hence, translators, such as William Richardson, render the term Da-sein as "There-being" as a literal translation of the German term "Dasein" (50). I have arbitrarily chosen employ Joan Stambaugh's "Da-sein" in recognition of Heidegger' s own belief that human being or Da-sein itself remains an unfamiliar term for us to interrogate. In her "Translator's Preface" to 54

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Being and Time, she states, "It was Heidegger's insight that human being is uncanny; we do not know who, or what that is, although, or perhaps because, we are it" (xiv). Da-sein does not decide the circumstances of its existence; it does not "lay its own ground." Rather, it "has chosen that already" in a way that it could never "expressly release this 'that-it-is-and-has-to-be' from its being a self and lead it into the there ... Because it has not laid the ground itself' (Being and Time, 262). Da-sein cannot change the past, and it cannot release itself from the facti city that beings have; Da-sein manifests them to itself in a kind of discovery that beings require to become manifest. Beings exist both as manifest beings for Da-sein in that they have meaning, but unmanifested to Da-sein in that Da-sein cannot render them meaningful entirely. We are given a finite number of possibilities to pursue, and being does not hold our aims as its own. In order to make this point more lucent, we return once again to William Richard's reflection on the need for Da-sein to manifest beings. Da-sein is always there in such a way that it cannot be elsewhere. It cannot "get behind itself." In his Through Phenomenology to Thought, Richardson describes Da-sein as an "irruption" into being: "Existence thus understood, is conceived as an "irruption"(Einbruch) into the totality of beings, by reason of which these being as beings become manifest" (44). lbis sentence describes the reciprocal relationship that Da-sein has with beings. It allows them to manifest themselves to Da-sein, and, because Da-sein is always subjective by virtue ofbeing "mine," this manifestation of beings is the manifestation 55

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itself. Heidegger is not a solipsist in that he regards beings as having a facticity that Da-sein cannot negate; the tree remains as a fact even if "I" do not see it, but, for me to make the tree manifest, I must see the tree. This treatment of Da-sein as irruption illustrates that questions of the manifestation of beings prior to the existence of Da sein remain unanswerable. Da-sein makes beings manifest to itself, not to others. It may signify beings to others through language, but it does not appropriate the apprehensions of others. According to Richardson, the existence of beings outside Da-sein's manifestation renders the very question outside its own perimeters of Heidegger's investigation (44). One may be told of the existence of the Brooklyn Bridge, but the bridge itself is never manifest to one before one discovers it. This process of discovery makes the world known to oneself. Heidegger regards his project as different from anthropology and psychology, which describe human beings in terms of predispositions and tendencies. The Freudian psychologist, for instance, may regard all human beings as egos, existing between the id and superego. Sexuality plays a large role as Freud's modus operandi of human behavior. Heidegger, however, considers his phenomenology as more "radical and transparent" than this application of general predispositions. For him, these disciplines treat human beings too much like a ''things" (Being and Time, 44). On the contrary, Da sein remains too personal and too subjective to even be treated as a being made manifest by itself through same process that makes other beings manifest. Each Da sein exists as "mine" or as something unique to that Da-sein 56

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At this point, we find the example of the Hindu festival once again instructive. Leland monk argues that Krishna appears at the festival in both the "supernatural and the aleatory" (398). He both exists as a band of tricksters and does not exist as this band. Krishna himself"is, was not, is not, was"; he will be born at midnight and cannot be born, "for He is the Lord of the Universe" (317). The paradox of the Krishna who cannot be born and will be born creates kind of "sublime" interaction between the people at the festival; "God can play practical jokes upon Himself, draw chairs away from his posteriors, set his turbans on fire ... (324). As we have seen in Chapter Two, they "play various games to amuse the newly born God" (324). Leland Monk observes that the interactions between the worshippers creates a "merriment" between the paradoxical elements supernatural interaction and meaningless chance. Likewise, Godbole connects with Mrs. Moore's ghost through the vision outside the temple. He places himself in the place of Krishna and "loves her," and places himself in her position and invites the God: "Come, Come, Come, Come ... How inadequate! 'It does not seem much, still it is more than I am myself'" (326). We see here that Godbole must call forth meaning from his vision of Mrs. Moore; without calling to the vision, it remains a mere hullicination. In the same manner, beings require Da sein to make them manifest, otherwise they have no meaning, and remain empty facts. The vision requires Godbole to manifest its meaning through his interaction with it. 57

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In returning to the case of"entanglement" with others, we find a false existence, apart from our authentic goal of creating a home among the world of beings. The problem that Heidegger presents the reader remains perplexing in light of this new conflict. Authentic Da-sein fmds its situation untenable in its attempt to render the totality of beings completely meaningful. They have an element of meaninglessness or facticity which Da-sein may not manifest to itself. The tricksters remain mere tricksters, and they are not Krishna Godbole cannot stand in the place of the "Lord of the Universe," and the dead Englishwoman does not live again as an incarnate person. Da-sein, Heidegger contends, finds the meaninglessness of the world in its isolation as "thrown" into the totality of beings; it finds itself unable to manifest complete canniness out of being. In confronting this inherent meaninglessness in the world, it becomes "being held out into the nothing" (55) or being without a home in which to make the universe entirely useful to its purposes. Thus, ''to be one with the universe" becomes to be one with a universe that is ho-stile to one's attempts to make it manifest. 1bis realization that the world is, at bottom, ''unmanifestable" creates an anxiety that it tends to flee. Where does it go? It flees into worldly entanglements and entanglements of race and nationalism, in particular: Da-sein flees from thrownness to the alleviation that comes with the supposed freedom of the they-self. We characterized this flight as the flight from the uncanniness that fundamentally determines individualized being-in-the-world. Uncanniness reveals itself authentically in the fundamental attunement of Angst, and, as the most elemental disclosedness of 58

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thrown Da-sein, it confronts being in the world with the nothingness of the world about which it is anxious in the Angst about its ownmost potentiality-of-being. (Being and Time, 255) We ought not ascribe truly negative connotations to this flight from the uncanniness of the world. Most people, most ofthe time fmd themselves caught up in the affairs of the world. Indeed, we try to justify our place by existing among the world of other human beings, but, in fleeing our uncanny existence, we live apart from that existence. We become a "being for others," rather than a being for self. Adela flees the uncanniness of the caves, which refuse to echo any "human alphabet" that she places on them. She fmds that she cannot carve out a place for herself in the "real" India. We will see this uncanniness more clearly in a moment when we consider her experience in light ofBhabha's insight. With the subversion of the "romantic sublime" in the face of the nothing, as we discussed in chapter two, we fmd Wordsworth's "Ode (Intimations of Immortality)" once again helpful in considering how human beings attempt to find a "home" in which to dwell, but this home evades them. Wordsworth's speaker contends that one fmds, in the sublime consciousness of the solitary wonderer, intimations that our home exists elsewhere, apart from the "Equipage" in which we fmd ourselves entangled. The wonderer's inability to sustain this state of sublimity suffers a "collapse inward," because of one's inability keep one's self apart from everyday concerns. Likewise, we fmd that Aziz's remembrance of his wife and 59

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Godbole's vision of Mrs. Moore do not find their full satisfaction. Even Mrs. Moore's departing intimations of the "hundred Indias," produce only an invitation, but fail to satisfy her need to explore them. She departs without another journey through India, but returns as the Hindu goddess; the irony remains in that she failed to find her absolute home in India, yet India transforms her into an appeal with the call "Esmiss-Esmoor." We will consider how the "appeal" or call to Mrs. Moore, a call for her to "come," produces a new signifier that is neither indigenous to the Indian lexicon, nor is it appealing to the "imperial romance" that provides the British with narrative self-justification. Most of the other Anglo-Indians find it disturbing: "Mr. Heaslop, how disgraceful dragging in your dear mother" (250). They find that it appropriates their signification ofHeaslop's mother-not even a signification of the woman herself-into their call for Mrs. Moore to come and defend Aziz's character. They apologize to Adela for this chant, for they perceive that it must be upsetting to her. However, she replies, "Not the least. I don't mind" (251). She remembers her friend Mrs. Moore, who might be her only friend in India: "She had spoken more naturally and healthy than usual ... 'Don't worry about me, I'm much better than I was.' She had to shout her gratitude, for the chant, Esmiss Esmoor, went on" (251 ). In elucidating this passage, we will come to see that the cave's echoes plague Adela in such a way as to create an existential anxiety in the loss of India's ability to echo her desires in a meaningful way. She tries to connect with Aziz, but she fails, and this failure extinguishes her possibility for meaningful communication with Aziz. 60

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She confronts the loss of value, as Mrs. Moore does, but displays a completely different reaction. We find that she becomes ensnared by the aims and desires of the AngloIndian community. Adela confesses to Ronny that she doubts that Aziz attempted to assault her: "It would be appalling if I was wrong. I should take my own life" (229). Ronny then tells her that the whole station knows that she is right. He adds that the case must come to trial, ... the machinery has started" (229). Ronny's reaction to her confession displays a total negation of the aims of Adela; the "peer pressure" he places on her is enormous. How can he dismiss her so flippantly? He sees the public narrative of the Mutiny as more indicative of the conflict than Adela's personal desire to "come clean." He contends that she must be mistaken, for the truth of the "imperial romance" represents his true referent for all representations of India. One of the clearest examples of Adela's ensnarement comes in the McBrydes' bungalow. She becomes almost entirely divorced from herself at this point. She resolves to marry Ronny and live the life she dreaded, as the wife of a civil servant of the British Raj: Mrs. McBryde wished her an affectionate good-bye-a woman with whom she had nothing in common and whose intimacy oppressed her. They would have to meet now, year after year, until one of their husbands was superannuated. Truly Anglo-India had caught her up with a vengeance and perhaps it served her right for having tried to take up a line of her own. (219) Maria Davidis, in her article "Forster's Imperial Romance: Chivalry, Motherhood and 61

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Questioning in A Passage to India," argues that Forster sets the form of a traditional romance that portrays the Anglo-Indians as coming to the rescue of Adela (259). Adela's assumption ofthe role of"damsel in distress" leads the chorus of AngloIndians to desire revenge, according to Davidis (260). On the other hand, we will find that the appeal to "Esmiss-Esmoor" provides a way out of her entanglement. Wordsworth also articulates this problem as that of "Equipage" or the identity that we take on by virtue of being in the world, with others. Both Heidegger and Forster express this problem differently. Forster, as we understand, finds the world full of concerns that signify nothing that may be pointed to as providing the true purpose of living: Most of life is so dull that there is nothing to be said about it ... Inside its cocoon of work or social obligation, the human spirit slumbers for the most part ... There are periods of the most thrilling day in which nothing happens, and though we exclaim, "I do enjoy myself," or "I am horrified," we are insincere ... and a perfectly adjusted organism would be silent. (146) We find, in this passage, a concern that human beings are not quite themselves and, for this reason, they try to amuse themselves with these entertainments, "As if his whole vocation/ Were endless imitation" (Wordsworth, 300). In Forster, the problem which human beings confront when their entanglement with society slips away produces an anxiety when one confronts the "Other," as we will see. The "Other" for Bhabha and Forster represents, what Bhabha calls, "the incommensurabilty of conversation" (126). In other words, the divide that separates the British and the 62

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Indians lies in a problem of their mutually exclusive cultural reference points. This inability to communicate becomes particularly clear in the case of the Anglo-Indians who see their role in India as the "chivalric" defenders of"civilization" against the onslaught of the "savage" Indians. According to Bhabha, as we will see, Adela finds her "disturbed artifice of signification" disturbed by the conversation that she has with Aziz just before entering the cave. Let us consider this problem of the inability to communicate to the colonial "Other." Deliberation on this problem will assist us in understanding anxiety as an existentialist dilemma and as well as a cultural concern. Homi Bhabha's Account of the Caves Before embarking on this quest, we must ask what we mean by signs and, thus, we have recourse to Heidegger who informs us most succinctly what signs are. For Heidegger, signs exist, for primitive Da-sein, as a means of pointing to the utility of the world (Being and Time, 76). Words reveals, in one's initial discovery of them, a kind of usefulness that illustrates how Da-sein tries to make the world manifest to itself. Heidegger argues, "Language is a primordial poetry in which a people speaks being" (Introduction to Metaphysics, 171). Human beings, in their initial openness to the world, create signs for the purposes of utility. These signs take on a life of their own and have an existence independent of one's first uttering them. However, words take on a new dimension when one utters them out of everyday entanglements with others. Human beings exaggerate life in a feeble attempt to connect with one another, 63

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but authentic concern for one another is rare. We see, in the case of the AngloIndian enclave, that their concern for Adela remains self-reflective in fulfilling their role as avengers of the "damsel in distress." Likewise, having "fallen prey" to her role, she finds her narrative significance imposed upon her by others who try to get her to "give her evidence." Bhabha takes up the caves in his Location of Culture as the basis for understanding the "unworkable" aspect of narration in of A Passage to India (123). According to Bhabha, the text tries to bridge the gap between the cultures of India and Britain, but fails to achieve this demand by virtue the "incommensurability" of the two cultures. For Bhabha, this divide signifies the entire Anglo-Indian problem, as well as Forster's inability to connect the characters of Adela and Aziz. They find that India presents them with a difficulty that results from "extinction of the recognizable object of culture in its disturbed artifice of signification, at the edge of experience" (126). This idea presents the strangeness of the conflict in a very bizarre manner that requires an elucidation of terms. In accounting for this point, we tum to the page preceding Adela s entrance into the caves in order to understand the problem of the impossibility of connection between these two characters. We will consider this passage as indicative of the impossibility of the narrative in light ofBhabha's reflection. Adela finds the cave during her quest to find India; she opens herself up to India and finds more than she bargained for. Before entering the caves, Adela offends Aziz by asking him how many wives he has. Aziz considers himself an "educated Moslem" and regards the 64

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question as preposterous and offensive: "It challenged a new conviction of his community, and new convictions are more sensitive than old. If she hand asked, 'Do you worship one god or several?' he would not have been offended" (169). This unintended affront comes because she is not a part of his community. This community presents the unconnected "Other" for Adela. Her question comes from Mrs. Turton's prior quip, "Mohammedans always insist on the four" (169). Her cultural reference point cannot even ask the right questions. She is curious about Aziz: "Aziz! What a charming name" (32); and "A Mohammedan! How perfectly magnificent" (30)! In spite ofher curiosity, she sees India from the point of view of the enclave. Furthermore, her question lacks any sort of compassion for his position. In the mosque, Mrs. Moore connects with Aziz by building up a connection apart from her cultural concerns. She finds a viable connection with "God," as an ambiguous term, Who connects the two characters by virtue of their not questioning the religious difference between Christian and Moslem. Mrs. Moore also connects in the personal realm of family, but not by asking a culturally preconceived question like "how may wives do you have?" Adela's question about polygamy leaves only the divide between her and Aziz. In considering Adela's inability to even interrogate the cultural "Other," Bhabha describes the Marabar caves in the following manner: "There, the loss of the narrative of cultural plurality; there the implausibility of conversation and commensurability; there the enactment of undecidable, uncanny colonial present ... 65

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(126). The problem with the caves does not represent the mere conflict between the two cultures. The experience of the cave cannot be called a "conflict." The cave exists as a realization that what one "recognizes as culturally significant" falls apart when interrogated by a recourse to "the edge of experience," which lies in the inability of different cultures to fmd common ground. In India, we see the British imposing their culture on India, which sometimes results in disastrous consequences like the "Mutiny of 1857." Still, Bhabha's long and profoundly concise treatise need not occupy an overwhelming voice in our project; we will content ourselves to ask how the caves represent an "extinction of the recognizable object of culture in its disturbed artifice of signification, at the edge of experience." In finding the loss of conversation, she enters the cave, reflecting on her impending marriage and how sightseeing bores her ( 169). She find herself disconnected with the events at hand. She cannot find a way of connecting with the "curious" Indian, with whom she is fascinated. At the government college, left alone with him and the introspective Godbole, she brings up the invitation Aziz made previously to come to his house: "Mrs. Moore and invite you---please" (73). Adela had no idea that he was just trying to be polite. She brings up the invitation, but, from Aziz perspective, she invites herself: "Good heavens, the stupid girl had taken him at his word" (79). The narrator relates also, "his invitation gratified her" (73 ), and describes her as "attentive" to Aziz (78). It is to Aziz that .she first relates her intention not to "settle in India" (77), implying that her engagement 66

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with Ronny is off. Stunned by her brashness, Mrs. Moore's presents us with a pun: "Don't come too Adela; you dislike institutions" (78). Adela tries to connect with Aziz in an amorous manner. We should not disregard the sexual innuendos at the government college. At the Marabar hills, with so many people around, how is it that a man and woman venture offtogether, with only their guide? We remember that Adela remarks on Mrs. Moore's encounter with Aziz at the mosque as finding "the real India" (30). Similarly, here, she interrogates Aziz about India, "Then tell me everything, or I shall never understand India" (79). She persists in asking questions and attempting to connect with the "real" Aziz, but her efforts find themselves frustrated by virtue of the prejudices that she carries with her from her own culture. In seeing the impossibility of communication, we find that Adela becomes thrown into a space that Bhabha refers to as the "edge of experience" where there is an "extinction of the recognizable object of culture in its disturbed artifice of signification." In entering the cave, the reader finds Forster's inability to resolve the narrative in a way that would connect these two with some in a sort of articulation or signification with which the they could bridge this gap. Adela presents the best amorous advance towards Aziz by asking him about polygamy. We find Adela's question, but the only response from Aziz, before the caves, is to relate the fact that he only has one wife, and he omits the fact that that wife is now departed. He thinks, "Damn the English even at their best" ( 169). Still, he says nothing because he does not even know how to say what this comment means to him. He does not even know 67

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how to not invite her to his house. Words echo between Aziz and Adela, but, in spite ofher initial fascination, and, perhaps more because of it, she fmds only frustration in trying to connect. How the New Signifier "Esmiss-Esmoor" Enters the World ofthe Novel In taking up again Adela's decision not to lie, we notice her two conflicting concerns: the first is not her concern, but an entanglement imposed upon her by her own people to uphold their narrative account of what they think happened to her; the second concern is the more honest desire not to lie. This second concern we find more satisfying, for it answers our sense of an ethical imperative to be honest, and it acquits Mrs. Moore's friend, Aziz. We have seen that Adela becomes lost through her encounter with the caves, as Bhabha describes, with ''the loss of the artifice of signification, at the edge of experience." Here, she loses anything to which she may point to as meaningful. The "Other" refuses to echo her advances, just as beings refuse to permit Da-sein to make itself manifest entirely. This anxiety leads her into the "false security" of the enclave and its narrative lens of the "imperial romance." Still, the echo remains for her, and she cannot satisfy herself with who she is: a person unable to fmd a meaningful connection with India. This sense of loss we find prominently in her failure to converse meaningfully with Dr. Aziz. In returning to Heidegger, we will find a philosophical expression for the lack of narration in the 68

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caves. Leland Monk contends that the nothing in the Marabar is identical to the nothing in Heidegger by virtue of its ability to nihilate or render meaningless the significance of being (395). Monk points to the basic concern ofHeidegger's Introduction to Metaphysics, "Why is there something rather than nothing?" (Monk, 395). Rhetorically, we may wonder at what Adela expected to find in her quest to discover the "real" India. Did she think that India could be penetrated in its totality and rendered entirely meaningful to her? The very question finds no absolute answer, for nothing underlies the whole oflndia. We find a diverse place, filled with different cultures that have little connection to one another. In India, we find no common language, no common religion and no common identities. Heidegger discusses the mood of anxiety, which, from an "evasive" self reflection, comes to know the nothing. Before we consider the meaning of this evasive self-reflection, we must consider the mood of anxiety further. The essay "What is Metaphysics?" distinguishes the mood of anxiety from the mood of fear. Fear remains particular: children fear the dark; parents fear harm coming to their children; agoraphobics fear public spaces. Conversely, Heidegger observes that anxiety lacks a particular correlative object. He states: Anxiety is indeed anxiety in the face of ... but not in the face of this or that particular thing. The indeterminateness of that in the face of which or for which we become anxious is no mere lack of determination but rather the essential impossibility of determining it. (100-101) 69

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Da-sein experiences the an inability to determine what it is anxious about in the mood of anxiety. In the world of beings, Da-sein, as thrown already into the world, finds no foundation upon which to render the world meaningful to it outside its own ability as a thrown being into the world. It has not laid its own ground, nor does Da-sein determine its possibilities. Beings still remain as facts, but Da-sein loses its ability to render them meaningful in the face of anxiety. Heidegger argues this claim that anxiety negates the identities we possess: "All things and we ourselves sink to indifference. At bOttom therefore it is not as though 'you' or 'I' feel ill at ease; rather it is this way for some 'one'. All things and we ourselves sink into indifference" (101). The meanings that we place on ourselves disappear in the face of anxiety and return in the same uncanniness that we find extant in other beings. In the case of Mrs. Moore's disposition after the cave, the narrator relates, "She lost all interest, even in Aziz, and the affectionate and sincere words that she had spoken to him seemed no longer hers but the air's" (166). Even her words become foreign to herself. Moreover, Heidegger reflects on the paradox that, in the mood of anxiety, "beings as a whole" recede from us, but in their recession they turn toward us and oppress us: "We can get no hold on things. In the slipping away beings only this 'no hold on things' comes over us and remains" (101). Anxiety renders beings empty facts, meaning nothing. Still, in their meaninglessness, we find the world so alien to ourselves that it oppresses us. In this way, the colonizer tries to penetrate the colonized, but finds more than one expected. The colonized was not just an exciting 70

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new world, but a world entirely mysterious to that of the colonizer. In the novel, we find that the echo renders all significations meaningless. The echo refuses to draw any qualitative distinctions. The narrator comments on the echo in the cave, "'Bourn' is the sound as far as the human alphabet can express it ... Hope, politeness, the blowing of a nose, the squeak of a boot, all produce 'bourn'" (163). The narrator admits that no one may account for this sound, but that this cave echoes "Bourn" at any call directed towards it. One may not interrogate the cave to ask what it is or ask the echo to resonate anthropomorphic sounds or, even, to differentiate between the "blowing of a nose" and the "squeak of a boot." Rather, the very sound the cave makes, as the narrator confesses, is indescribable and uncertain: "If one had spoken vileness in that place, or quoted lofty poetry, the comment would have been the same---'ou-bourn."' (165). Both Mrs. Moore and Adela find themselves aftlicted by the echo, and, afterwards, their experiences of the caves impress themselves on all their other experiences. Mrs. Moore finds herself paralyzed temporarily by the echo: "She was by no means the dear old lady outsiders supposed, and India had brought her into the open" (223). Her thoughts reflect that she becomes uncomfortable, even with herself: "My body, my miserable body ... Why isn't it strong. Oh, why can't I walk away and be gone" (233)? We note, in this passage, an anxiety that oppresses her, because she finds that her life means nothing; she is not even comfortable within her own skin. Life remains only a series of meaningless events: Not to die ... but when I have seen you and Ronny 71

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married .. .I'll retire then to a cave of my own ... Somewhere where no young people will come asking questions and expecting answers ... Why can't I finish my duties and be gone? Why do I have headaches and puff when I walk? And all the time this to do and that to do and this to do in your way and that to do in her way, everything sympathy and confusion and being one another's burdens ... And all this rubbish about love, love in a church, love in a cave, as if there is the least difference, and I held up from my business over trifles! (224-226) I have chosen to give some of Mrs. Moore's statements across a few pages in order to illustrate her anxiety. The irony of her anxious disposition lies in the fact that, in her desire "to be one with the universe" (231 ), she leads to even the loss of the meaning of her own existence. She finds that her existence rests on a series of meaningless events, signifying nothing. She finds the conventions of her own culture foreign, like marriage, and wants to be left alone. Beings, in their recession, come upon her and oppress her in such a way that she may not connect anything with anything else. She does not remain in this complete paralysis at the end of the novel, but this disposition effects the rest of her experience in India. Even of the protest of the "hundred Indias," she finds them, as Brian May describes, ... having asserted only their difference from the Marabar, scarcely their triumph over it. The very hope of finality is thereby, and auspiciously, eradicated" (138). The connections that she makes with India are still present with this underlying meaninglessness, but they call to her nonetheless. They tell her that her attempt to "be one with the universe" finds a meaninglessness or a nothing, which she cannot transcend. These "Indias," however, 72

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assert their call as something other than the nothing. lbis "not nothing" or other than nothing remains important, and we will see how the call "Esmiss-Esmoor" confronts Adela with an India that still evades her grasp, but is "not nothing" or not entirely meaningless. When Adela returns to Ronny's bungalow, after her encounter with the caves, she finds a peculiar kinship with Mrs. Moore, who has heard the same meaningless echo. Mrs. Moore once again pays attention to Adela when she mentions the echo that plagues her so assiduously: "I can't get rid of it"; to which, Mrs. Moore replies, "I don't suppose you ever shall" (221-222). Then, Adela inquires further about the echo, but Mrs. Moore cannot answer her question: "If you don't know, you don't know; I can't tell you ... As if anything can be said! I have spent my life in saying or listening to sayings; I have listened too much" (222). She realizes that the only sanity is to say nothing about the lack of meaning that the echo conveys, for the nothing, as Monk points out, is "unrepresentable" (396). Likewise, Adela decides that Aziz is innocent at this point: "I made an awful mistake" (225). lbis brief moment of confession leads to the ephemeral cessation of her echo: "My echo's much better now" (225). At this point, we find that she moves away, for the moment, from the anxiety she experienced in the cave to a decision based on ethical concern. She admits that she would "kill herself' if she were wrong (225), and she would kill her chance at ever escaping the enthrallment of the enclave by persisting with their lie. She does resume, under Ronny's duress, this lie imposed upon her by the 73

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"chivalric" Ronny, and her echo continues as well. The "echo" may do either of two things: it may either drive her further into the entangled lie of the enclave; or it may lead her to confess. The only thing that may provide a true balm for this echo, this meaningless call, will be a new call to the openness of India in the form of "Esmiss Esmoor." The call ofEsmiss-Esmoor will be shown to provide a catalyst through which she comes to "herself' through her own authentic decision. Having taken up the matter of anxiety, Heidegger relates that anxiety exposes our "attunement" with the nothing. Heidegger argues that attunement "discloses Da sein in its thrownness, initially and for the most part in the mode of evasive turning away" (Being and Time, 128). When one turns away from this mood, one becomes faced with a choice: one may either flee towards the everyday being with others, as Adela does after her encounter with the cave, or one may attempt to address the world of beings once again in the authentic call to care. Again, this call is very vague, because it discloses only a nullity in Da-sein's being that it must work through in trying to find it "homecoming" in the world of being; this goal of homecoming or "call out of uncanniness" (Being and Time, 258) never comes to realize its goal. Still, it remains the goal of authentic Da-sein. Otherwise, we are left with only the existence that others would impose upon us. Adela finds that she cannot overcome the effects echo of the cave, in spite oflosing herself to the enclave. Conversely, in the bungalow, when she talks about the echo with her friend, her echo subsides temporarily. Moreover, at the mention of Mrs. Moore at the trial as "Esmiss74

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Esmoor," she returns to a sense of well being: "She had to shout her gratitude, for the chant, Esmiss Esmoor, went on" (251 ). Clearly, she becomes caught, after the caves, in this anxiety over the inability to communicate with Aziz, who is India to her. She finds that she must rejoin her own people where she fmds a false security in the face ofthe "Other." However, she takes the plight of the "Other" in renouncing her own people. The echo continues intensely until she refuses to lie. Thus, ultimately, she decides to take the more authentic road, over the entanglement with her own people. We return her to our original question: how does the chant "Esmiss-Esmoor" restore Adela to her authentic concerns for her own integrity? How does the chant convince her not to lie? Very simply, she fmds that there is a name that she may connect with India, the name of the Hindu goddess. We see also that authentic Dasein evades this mood of anxiety, as it does in the course of time, to return to find the world meaningful in a limited and provisional, but significant way. The sense of turning away from anxiety and examining one's own attunement with the nothing creates an openness to beings once again, but in a peculiar manner. Heidegger calls this openness "original," because it illustrates the openness that Da-sein possesses in moving away from meaninglessness. As we have said before, most of the time, Dasein fmds its world entangled by everydayness. Heidegger contends that beings gain true significance when juxtaposed against the nothing: In the clear night of the nothing of anxiety the original openness of beings as such arises: that they are beings-and not nothing. But this "and not nothing" 75

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we add in our talk is not some kind of appended clarification. Rather, it makes possible in advance the revelation of beings in general. The essence of the originally nihilating nothing lies in this, that it brings Da-sein for the first time before beings as such. ("What is Metaphysics?," I 03) Heidegger speaks of the "clear night of the nothing" in almost mystical terms. Beings appear once again for Da-sein as it emerges in an irruption to make them manifest to itself. Having gone through this mood of anxiety, we will fall, often, into the everyday world in the course of our existence, but one wonders if we will fall completely. The echo remains, and one knows that meaninglessness underlies all existence. Likewise, one knows that one may never truly understand the colonial "Other" in "absolute" cultural terms; the "Other" yet eludes description from the cultural reference point of Britain. The daughter of Mrs. Moore, Stella, is out in India to encounter the "Other," but one does not know that she will get what she desires entirely. "To be one with the universe" remains a very authentic goal, but it is never satisfied as a rendering of India as entirely meaningful. However, this "not nothing" provides a profound understanding that endows Da-sein with a sense of openness that lends authenticity to what Da-sein is by virtue of its ''thrownness" in the world. The impediments to trans-cultural inquiry rest on understanding that the "Other" does not even come with "commensurabilty." In clarifying this question the of the "openness" ofbeing in the face of the nothing, Maria Davidis contends that Mrs. Moore's absence is crucial to Aziz's 76

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acquittal. She reminds the reader of Godbole's observation that the space between absence and presence is the space in which he calls to Krishna "come, come, come (A Passage to India, 198)." Likewise, Davidis argues that this space exists at this trial scene, but the Indians outside do not summon Krishna; they summon Mrs. Moore or "Esmiss-Esmoor." Davidis states that Mrs. Moore's conviction in Aziz's innocence rests on her belief in his character (271 ). The rationale of British colonialism will never consider this character defense as grounds for his acquittal. His character, as an Indian, must be suspect. However, Davidis reflects on Mrs. Moore's "apotheosis" as vital to Aziz's defense: ... her absence allows her transformations into a text that may be written upon, a name that does not rhyme with Turton or Burton and that can be mobilized in the service of political action ... Seemingly made of nothing, its [Esmiss-Esmoor] force is strengthened by the material it collects, its sweeping binding together disparate elements and making out of them a force that no one of them would possess in isolation. (272) Mrs. Moore remains absent, and she, as middle-class English woman, can do nothing. Her physical existence after the cave proves paralyzed. Besides, her love for Aziz cannot serve as a defense. As Adela remarks, "Love is of no value in a witness" (275). Mrs. Moore appears, at the trial, as a force that connects Adela to the crowd. She realizes the call of Mrs. Moore comes through this new "EsmissEsmoor," which connects her meaningfully to India. India no longer echoes only "bourn," but it echoes, also, "Esmiss-Esmoor." India protests that it is "something" 77

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and "not nothing., This "not nothing" finds its truth in seeing its fragility in the face of the caves. Davidis argues that the signification "Esmiss-Esmoor" seems to be made of nothing. In fact, this term does not have a long pedigree of cultural signification. Rather, we find an openness to language in this new signification "Esmiss-Esmoor," which enables Adela's call to action and Aziz's acquittal. The term comes into existence through the Indian populous in the act of enunciative origination and allows her a name that she may associate with India. We find that Bhabha would call this a "multi-accentual" signification, which has different meanings for different peoples, but acts as a term negotiated between disparate parties. In The Location of Culture, we fmd Bhabha's recourse to Stuart hall and Cornel West, who deal in trans-cultural significations. For instance, West takes the matter of African-American drumbeats as a case of cultural dislocation. According to West, the drum fell out of use as the "originary anguish" of an entirely African people, but reprises itself as "innovatively producing a heterogeneous product"; now, the drumbeat exists "part and parcel of the subversive energies of the black underclass youth, energies that are forced to take a cultural mode of articulation" (Bhabha, 176). We fmd that signs may reprise themselves in multi-accentual ways, apart from their original intent. In this manner, old signs take on different meanings, and these meanings resonate with different cultures in different ways. With the name, "Esmiss78

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Esmoor" we find the chant coming from people who may not even understand who she is or what importance she has to the trial. They only know that they must call forth her presence in order to assert their political ends. Likewise, the call does not fall on deaf ears, and Adela finds a connection to India that she did not realize previously. She now hears the call of India, and it calls, in a tenuous manner, the name ofher friend. India once again opens itself to Adela, and this new openness of seeing India as "not nothing" allows her to address its call. At this point, Adela does Aziz a service by letting him go. She understands that this demand comes because the echo "bourn" must find its mitigation in the "evasive turning away." She realizes that the cave exists, but so does the authentic appeal to recant in the form of"Esmiss-Esmoor." Mrs. Moore's prophetic statement that the echo will always remain for Adela is true. We fmd, as we have mentioned before, that she and Fielding try to solve the mystery of what happened to her through rational means. Still, the best answer that they arrive at is that "a gang of Pathans" attacked her (269). She never embraces the idea that she could have been attacked by uncertainty itself or, what Heidegger calls, the nothing. On the other hand, she finds the mitigation of her echo in the call "Esmiss-Esmoor." Her anxiety provides the openness to seeing her choice. She chooses to answer the call of India, which she discovers only in this name. The name its is a very "inadequate" description of India, but it is "not nothing." 79

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Having explored the "loss of the artifice of signification" and the nothing, we find the colonial position as Forster describes it in its reality: nation held out into the "Other." The Anglo-Indians find themselves enthralled, in the end, to themselves. They cannot escape the cage that they have made for themselves, except through answering India's call to "come." As Bhabha contends, India's call only invites; it does not disclose the object of admiration (125). We find also that human existence itself becomes caught between the everyday concerns society places on one and the desires that one has for asserting one's own place in the world. The concerns of authentic desires are more uneasy and promise no security, but are the authentic expressions of human existence. In the case of Adela, we find the choice of the authentic road, but her decision asserts that the Anglo-Indian position is baseless by virtue of the lie of the "imperial romance." It cannot see its own position in its quest for self-justification and to solidify power. 80

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CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION For the most part, A Passage to India remains a novel about the frustrations inherent within the colonial system. The imperial attachments of the post-trial Fielding and the nationalist interests of Aziz impede their friendship. Each asks the question, "Why can't we be friends now? ... It's what I want. It's what you want" (362). With the last words of the novel, the land itself protests their friendship: '"No, not yet,' and the sky said, 'No, not there"' (362). The ending creates an uneasy peace between Aziz and Fielding. Neither would betray his country, but both desire to connect with one another on a personal level. The novel leaves the reader with a sense of guarded optimism in the face of ethnic boundaries; the sky and the land convey the sense that, in the course of time, there will be a true negotiation between the colonizer and the colonized, but that unassailable animosity pervades the present tense of the novel. Moreover, the building of a better future becomes left to the realm of uncertainty. What does this future mean, and what demands will future negotiations place on the British and the Indians? We view the novel from the hindsight of British withdrawal from India and India's emergence as a developing nation. In spite of our position in history, we must return to Forster's guarded 81

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optimism and his negotiated term of"Esmiss-Esmoor." The issue of new significations occupies many pages in The Location of Culture, but we will look at one ofBhabha's conclusions. Part ofBhabha's project lies in trying to disentangle our old homogenous cultural categories of class, gender, race, etc. and to work towards political negotiations among disparate groups. In the case of politics, Bhabha finds that new signifiers enter the world in order to create political forces apart from cultural reference points. Bhabha points to some political examples, like the Labour Party in Britain, in which different people, from different cultural reference points, attempt to unite through a political identity. Here, one fmds "an alliance of among progressive forces that are widely dispersed and distributed across a range of class, cultural and occupational forces" centered around a space of "historical necessity" (28). Bhabha states that what Britain needs, in order for the Labour Party to work, is a little more "political negotiation" between its various factions (28): "We need a little less pietistic articulation of political principle (around class and nation); a little more of the principle of political negotiation" (28). The importance of this political negotiation illustrates a pragmatic approach and an "open" address to the problems of political power. The Yorkshire coal miner, the Pakistani immigrant and the feminist must try to work together for political consensus, in Bhabha's even if their cultural reference points find little in common. We find that political parties are reinventing themselves constantly to negotiate the political objectives of their members, apart from their members' cultural 82

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backgrounds. New concerns create new identities for old political parties, which were otherwise nonexistent thirty years ago. We could go on about the new identities, which Bhabha regards as a kind ofhybridity, but we will return to the idea of the name "Esmiss-Esmoor" as a multi-accentual signification. In returning to the novel, the term "Esmiss-Esmoor" becomes a new call, negotiated between India and Adela that requires no trans-cultural conversion. The fact that this term means different things to different factions at the trial does not change its political force. Adela sees it as uniting her friend's name to India, and the Indians regard it as a protest to the trial's proceedings. Bhabha accounts for such significations as "enunciative" signifiers, apart from culturally specific reference points: It is the ambivalence enacted in the enunciative present -disjunctive and multiaccentual-that produces the objective of political desire, what [Stuart] Hall calls "arbitrary closure," like the signifier. But arbitrary closure is also the cultural space for opening up new forms of identification that may confuse the continuity of historical temporalities, confound the ordering of cultural symbols, traumatize tradition. (179) Bhabha argues that new significations arise in an "arbitrary closure" of terms that might have different historical meanings. The term "Mrs. Moore" becomes a term that loses its history, for the Indian crowd. The term no longer signifies a woman belonging to an English family. Now, the Indians enunciate the term "EsmissEsmoor" as their chant of protest. The reason why the Anglo-Indians react badly to 83

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the appropriation of their term lies in the trauma that the Indians inflict upon the culture of Britain. They see that the crowd takes one of their names out of its original context. We see it, from our vantage point, as a new force for the Indians, through which they call a new goddess to acquit Aziz. Very much like the chant "Attica" became a generalized anti-establishment slogan in the 1970's, the chant "Esmiss Esmoor" becomes an anti-British slogan for the Indians. Having made a few remarks on this term "Esmiss-Esmoor," we return to the general matter of the "call" as an instrument of consciousness and sublimity. We see that meaning comes from the reciprocity between the individual human being and other beings. In the Forsterian sublime, intimations come from the interaction with the object itself. Mrs. Moore's departure from India provides an example of sublime interaction; we find the multitudinous "Indias" speak to her: "So you thought an echo was India; you took the Marabar caves as final? ... What have we in common with them, or they with Asirgarh" (233)? Here, the reader finds that Mrs. Moore once again finds meaning, but meaning remains provisional in that it is "something" and is "not nothing"; as we have mentioned, for Heidegger, this "not nothing" creates an openness to beings that Da-sein could not manifest previously. The fact that she may not take the meaning of the "lndias" for granted remains significant and provides for an openness that these "Indias" had not possessed. Now, the nothing can subvert these Indias, and they must assert themselves in Mrs. Moore's consciousness as having meaning in the face of the nothing. Mrs. Moore's sublime connection to India 84

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becomes more precious in that it exists apart from both the meaningless dimension of beings and the entanglement with others. In these connections, we see that the true goal of "homecoming" or the goal of manifesting the totality of beings to oneself becomes impossible. Wordsworth's "Ode (Intimations of Immortality)" relates a desire to find the true home, apart from worldly concerns: Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting; The Soul that rises with us, our life's Star, Hath had elsewhere its setting, And cometh from afar: Not in entire forgetfulness, And not in utter nakedness, But trailing clouds of glory do we come from God, who is our home: Heaven lies about us in our infancy! (299) The soul still grasps some of the celestial faculties of the prenatal soul when one is born, but one begins to lose them as one ages. Consciousness of this great universal home provides a way of looking at the romantic sublime as a "homecoming." Perhaps, the need to posit a universal "celestial home" provides a delusional escape through the romantic sublime, but Heidegger reveals that the human being's primordially condition rests not in this positive sublimity of being one with God and the cosmos. The primal condition that renders human beings aware of their true selves lies in understanding the essential thrownness of Da-sein into the world and the anxiety, or uncanniness, that underlies this thrownness. The sublime connectedness that exists between Aziz and Mrs. Moore in their friendship, which transcends death, 85

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and Godbole's vision of Mrs. Moore at the caves presents significance in the face of the divide between the living and the dead and the rift between East and West. Still, both the divide and the connections remain paradoxically. Human beings may manifest the world for themselves and fail to manifest it at the same time. By the "Temple" section of the novel, we fmd that the narrator revels a paradox in the description of the festival. The novel takes human existence away from the platitudes of the great consistent systems of thought, which attempt to describe human consciousness in universal terms. The colonial mindset attempts to recreate India as it thinks it "ought" to be, rather than dealing with it as it is. In the end, Fielding believes that India could a good servant of Britain if it would listen to its master's tutelage. His brand of"liberal" imperialism calls upon India to embrace the progress of Western civilization, as if that were its authentic goal. Such a goal, however, violates the indigenous culture itself; like entangled Da-sein, it tries to get India to live apart from itself. Hence, we see the bane of colonialism as a struggle between the progress of the Occident and the strange identity of India. It is India that never manifests itself entirely to the Western characters in this novel. The authentic wonderer, Mrs. Moore, attempts to answer India's call. The entanglement of the enclave serves a trap for all the British, except Mrs. Moore. The lie of the "imperial romance" remains a lie that the Anglo-Indians uphold for the purpose of justifying their existence. Fielding, of course, lives in this self-justification of"liberal" imperialism, but the "Other" will escape from this further attempt to subvert its 86

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identity. Through these connections, which never satisfy themselves fully in the novel, we notice that both Forster and Heidegger regard the world as too alien to control. The problem ofDa-sein's inability to manifest the world to its satisfaction enacts itself in colonial domination and colonial inquiry. Colonial domination must take its own cultural identity as superior; if it does not, it seems to "go native." Colonial inquiry, on the other hand, produces characters who undergo spiritual transformations, like Mrs. Moore, or characters, like Adela, who find that their investigation frightens them and flee into the lies that colonizers employ to "romanticize" their roles. In light ofHeidegger's reflections, the role of the honest wanderer constitutes the authentic life, but it is also the more solitary existence. Forster warns the reader that the goal ''to be one with the universe" (231) furnishes the wanderer with uncertainty itself. 87

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WORKS CITED Bhabha, Homi K. The Location ofCulture. London and New York: Routledge, 1994. Davidis, MariaM. "Forster's Imperial Romance: Chivalry, Motherhood and Questioning in A Passage to India." Journal of Modern Literature 23.2 (1999): 259-276. Forster, Edward Morgan. A Passage to India. New York, San Diego and London: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1924. Friedman, Alan. Fictional Death and the Modernist Enterprise. New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time. Trans. Joan Stambaugh. Albany, New York: State University ofNew York, 1996. ----An Introduction to Metaphysics. Trans. Ralph Manheim. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1959. ---"What is Metaphysics?" Basic Writings: Revised and Expanded Edition. Ed. David Farrell Krell. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1993. 93-110. May, Brian. The Modernist as Pragmatist: E. M Forster and the Fate of Liberalism. Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press, 1997. Messenger, Nigel. "Imperial Journeys. Bodily Landscapes and Sexual Anxiety: Adela's Visit to the Marabar Caves in A Passage to India." Journal of Commonwealth Literature 33.1 (1998): 99-110. Monk, Leland. "Apropos ofNothing: Chance and Narrative in Forster's A Passage to India." Studies in the Novel26.4 (Winter, 1994): 392-404. Raschke, Deborah. "E. M. Forster's A Passage to India: Re-envisioning Plato's Cave." The Comparatist 21:2 (May, 1997): 9-25. 88

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Richardson, William. Heidegger: Through Phenomenology to Thought. New York: Fordham University Press, 1963. Steiner, George. Martin Heidegger. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989. Wordsworth, William. "Ode (Intimations oflmmortality)." William Wordsworth: The Major Works. Ed. Stephen Gill. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1984. 297-302. 89