Citation
New tests for determining in-soil stress strain properties of geotextiles

Material Information

Title:
New tests for determining in-soil stress strain properties of geotextiles
Creator:
Arabian, Vasken Varten
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
225 leaves : illustrations, color photographs ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geotextiles -- Testing ( lcsh )
Geotextiles -- Testing ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 157-158).
Thesis:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Science, Department of Civil Engineering
Statement of Responsibility:
by Vasken Vartan Arabian.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
19783063 ( OCLC )
ocm19783063
Classification:
LD1190.E53 1988m .A72 ( lcc )

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NEW TESTS FOR DETERMINING IN-SOIL STRESS STRAIN PROPERTIES OF GEOTEXTILES by Vasken Vartan Arabian B.S., University of Colorado at Denver,1985 M.S., University of Colorado at Denver, 1988 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Department of Civil Engineering 1988

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This thesis for the Master of Science degree by Vasken Vartan Arabian has been approved for the Department of Civil Engineering by Chang)? Date: #"7 .2-J, r

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Arabian, Vartan Vasken (M.S., Civil Engineering) New Tests for Determining In-Soil Stress Strain Properties of Geotextiles Thesis directed by Associate Professor Tzong H. Wu A study was undertaken to develop a new device for investigating in-soil stress-strain behavior of geotextiles. The new device allows for uniaxial tension loads to be applied to a geotextile specimen while confined laterally by a cylindrical soil column. Two sizes of devices were manufactured: 2 in. and 6 in. in diameter. The device can be adapted to a conventional triaxial test cell and through the confining pressure of the cell, overburden pressure can be simulated in the test. Repeatability of the new device and a previously developed cubical device was examined. It was found that the new device produced much more reliable stress-strain relations than the cubical device. This is attributed to (1) the new device eliminates the use of a sheet metal clamp which induces frictional resistance against the confining soil in the cubical device, and (2) the application of overburden pressure in the new device is better controlled than that of the cubical device. In addition, soil-geotextile frictional properties for soils with different fraction of fines

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iv are studied. It was found that the fine content as small as 10% may influence soil-geotextile interface behavior. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Signed es1s

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STATEMENT BY AUTHOR This thesis has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirement for an advanced degree at the University of Colorado at Denver. Request for reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by Dr. Tzong H. Wu. Signed:

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vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my advisor, Dr. Tzong H. Wu, for his valuable assistance throughout this study. I would like to thank him for providing me with great help, generous time and effort, and constructive criticism. Also, I would like to thank Dr. Nien-Yin Chang, who has been my role model and mentor. I am thankful also to Dr. James C.Y. Guo for reviewing the manuscript of this thesis. I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my parents and to my brother for their patience, support and encouragement throughout this study program.

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CHAPTER I. CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT vi LIST OF TABLES ix LIST OF FIGURES x INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 1.2 1.3 Problem Statement . Study Objective ... Method of Research . 1 1 7 7 II. CUBICAL TEST EQUIPMENT AND III. 2. 1 2.2 2.3 2.4 TEST MATERIALS 9 Cubical Test Equipment .. The So i 1 s . The Geotextiles ... Sample Preparation . 9 11 11 14 STRESS-STRAIN AND FRICTIONAL BEHAVIOR 3.1 3.2 3.3 OF THE GEOTEXTILES TESTED IN THE CUBICAL EQUIPMENT .. Repeatability of the StressStrain Test of a Nonwoven Geotex ti 1 e .. Stress-Strain Test of a Woven Geotex t i 1 e . Friction Test .................. 3.3.1 3.3.2 Friction Tests of the Geotextiles Results and Discussion 20 20 40 51 55 of Results . 55 IV. CYLINDRICAL TEST EQUIPMENT AND SAMPLE PREPARATION . 60 4.1 Cylindrical Test Equipment (6 Inches Diameter Sample) ..... 60

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v i i i CONTENTS (continued} 4.2 Sample Preparation for the 6 Inches Diameter SoilGeotextile Sample . 67 4.3 Cylindrical Test Equipment (2 Inches Diameter Sample) 93 4.4 Sample Preparation for the 2 Inches Diameter SoilGeotextile Sample 101 V. STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF A NONWOVEN GEOTEXTILE TESTED IN THE 2 INCHES CYLINDRICAL TEST EQUIPMENT 137 5.1 Stress-Strain Tests 137 VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 152 6.1 6.2 BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES Summary Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 153 157 A. Conventional Stress-Strain Test Data . . . . . . . . . . 159 B. Pullout {Friction} Test Data 199 C. Cylindrical Stress-Strain Test Data . . . . . . . . . . 217

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ix TABLES Table 1. Physical Properties of #30 Ottawa Sand . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2. Typical Physical Properties of Trevira 1125 15 3. Typical Physical Properties of Mirafi SOOX 16 4. Stress-Strain Test Conditions on the Geotextile (Trevira 1125) and Pull-out Test Conditions of the Sheet-Metal Clamp (ML) . 21 5. Applied loads (lbs.) Required to Induce 5 % 10% 15% 25% Strain for Test Numbers RP-1 Through RP-20 ... 27 6. Stress-Strain Test Conditions on the Woven Geotextile (MIRAFI SOOX) 41 7. Applied Loads (lbs.) Required to Induce 5 % 10% 15% 25% Strain for Test Numbers RP-A Through RP-C 46 8. Pullout Test Conditions of Trevira 9. 1125 and Mirafi SOOX .. 56 Coefficient of variation in ( % ) of the applied loads at 5 % 10% 15% and 25% strain for the repeatability tests performed with the Cylindrical and Cubic a 1 Devices .. 148

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Figure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. FIGURES Typical Geotextile Reinforced Earth Structures ................... Stress-Strain Apparatus {Siel et al., 1986) ............................ Grain Size Distribution Curve of the Ottawa No. 30 Sand . A Method of Showering Sand . More than 5 % Straining Occurred Across the Fixed End of the Geotextile and it Was Possible for These Screws to Tear up the Geotextile Sample at the Pin Puncture Points . Reinforced Fixed End of Trevira 1125 4 10 12 17 23 24 7. The Reinforced Fixed End of Trevira 8. 1125 Reduced the Necking Significantly 25 Far End of Trevira 1125 With and Without Epoxy Hardener 26 9. Applied Loads Required to Induce 5 % Strain for Test Numbers RP-1 Through RP-20 28 10. Applied Loads Required to Induce 10% Strain for Test Numbers RP-1 Through RP-20 29 11. Applied Loads Required to Induce 15% Strain for Test Numbers RP-1 Through RP-20 30 12. Applied Loads Required to Induce 25% 13. Strain for Test Numbers RP-1 Through RP-20 . . . 31 Frictional Resistance Between the. Sheet Metal Clamps and Ottawa #30 Sand at 10 PSI Overburden ... 33

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FIGURES (continued) 14. Average Frictional Resistance Between the 3 Sheet Metal Clamps and #30 Ottawa Sand at 10 PSI xi Overburden . . . . . . 34 15. Average Frictional Resistance Between the Sheet Metal Clamp and Ottawa #30 Sand at 30 PSI Overburden Pressure . . . . . . . . . . 35 16. Frictional Resistance Between the Sheet Metal Clamp and Ottawa #30 Sand at 10 PSI and 30 PSI Overburden Pressures . 36 17. Corrected Load Versus Horizontal Deformation for Repeatability Test No. RP-1 38 18. 19. Stress Versus Strain for Repeatability Test NO. RP-1 The Screws at the Moving End Metal Clamp Tore up the Geotextile Sample at the Pin Puncture Points 20. The Reinforced Moving End of Mirafi 500X Did Not Allow any Tearing Up of the Geotextile Sample at the Pin Puncture Points. And Woven Geotextiles Maintained a Constant Lateral Width During Horizontal 39 43 Stretching . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 21. After-test Mirafi 500X Specimens With and Without Epoxy Hardener .. 45 22. Applied Loads Required to Induce 5 % Strain for Test Numbers RP-A Through RP-C 47 23. Applied Loads Required to Induce 10% Strain for Test Numbers RP-A Through RP-C . 48

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xii FIGURES (continued) 24. Applied Loads Required to Induce 15% Strain for Test Numbers RP-A Through RP-C . . 49 25. Applied Loads Required to Induce 25% Strain for Test Numbers RP-A Through RP-C 50 2 6. 2 7. Corrected Load Versus Horizontal Deformation for Repeatability Test No. RP-B Stress Versus Strain for Repeatability Test Number B 28. Coefficient of Friction Vs. Test Numbers for the Geotextiles Confined in Three Different Soil Types at 10 PSI Overburden 52 53 Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 29. Coefficient of Friction vs. Test Numbers for the Geotextiles Confined in Three Different Soil Types at 30 PSI Overburden Pressure . . . . . . . . . 58 30. 31. 32. 3 3. The Cylindrical Test Equipment Top Platen of the Cylindrical Test Equipment (Diameter = 6 Inches, Not to Scale) ................ Top Platen of the Cylindrical Test Equipment . Bottom Platen of the Cylindrical Test Equipment (Diameter = 6 Inches, Not to Scale) .................... 34. Bottom Platen of the Cylindrical 61 63 64 65 Test Equipment .. 66 35. Cylindrical Test Assembly During Soil-Geotextile Sample Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . 68

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36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. FIGURES (continued) Apply Epoxy Hardener to Both Ends of the Geotextile (Step 2, Sample Preparation) ....... Fasten the Hollow Cylindrical Tube to the Base of the Triaxal Cell (Step 6, Sample Preparation) . Attach One End of the Geotextile to the Bottom Platen by Screwing a Semi-Circular Plate Onto the Soil Geotextile Lower Platen (Step 8, Sample Preparation) Attach a Membrane of the Proper Diameter to the Base Platen. Install Two 0-Rings Around the Membrane Over the Two Grooves of the Lower Platen (Steps 9 and 10, Sample Preparation) Place the Specimen Mold Around the Rubber Membrane Over the Lower Platen and Fold the Lower and Upper Portions of the Membrane Over the Mold (Step 11, Sample Preparation) . Apply a Vacuum of 200 to 250 mm of Mercury to the Mold and Adjust the Membrane so that the Surface is Smooth and Without Wrinkles, Bags, or Twists {Step 12, Sample Preparation) ........ Place a Semi-Circular Filter Paper on the Right-Hand Side of the Geotextile Onto the Vacuum Hole on the Base of the Lower Platen {Step 13, Sample Preparation) . Carefully Place the Sand in the Mold Using a Raining Device {Step Sample Preparation) . xiii 69 70 72 73 74 77 79 80

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44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. FIGURES (continued) Continue to Fill the Mold Until the Required Specimen Height of 2 Inches is Attained. Make Sure that the Top of the Soil Sample is Flat and Level (Step 16, Sample Preparation) Place the Semi-Circular Plate on the Top of the Leveled Soil Sample (Step 17, Sample Preparation) Place the Upper Platen on the Top of the Semi-Circular Plate (Step 18, Sample Preparation) Attach the Opposite End of the Geotextile to the Top Platen by Driving 6 Screws Through a Semi Circular Plate Which Could be Connected Hermetically to the Upper Platen (Step 19, Sample Preparation) ......... Roll the Membrane Off the Mold Onto the Top Platen (Step 22, Sample Preparation) . Install Two 0-Rings Over the Membrane So That the Membrane Is Tightly Sealed Between the 0-Rings and the Loading Cap (Step 23, Sample Preparation) .................. Apply a Vacuum of 200 to 250 mm of Mercury to the Specimen Through the Hollow Cylindrical Tube and Remove the Mold from the Specimen (Step 26, Sample Preparation) Fill the Chamber With the Confining Fluid While the Vacuum is Still Applied to the Soil-Geotextile Sample (Step 30, Sample Preparation) ..................... xiv 82 85 86 87 88 89 91 92

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52. 53. FIGURES (continued) The original 2 inches diameter cylindrical test equipment . Top platen of the 2 inches diameter cylindrical test equipment . 54. Original bottom platen of the 2 inches diameter cylindrical test XV 94 95 equipment......................... 96 55. Revised bottom platen of the cylindrical test equipment (diameter= 2 inc., not to scale) 97 56. New modified bottom platen of the 2 inch. cylindrical test equipment) 98 57. Bottom of the new modified bottom platen of the 2 inch. cylindrical test equipment 99 58. The new modified 2 inch diameter cylindrical test equipment 100 59. The new modified cylindrical test equipment during soil-geotextile sample preparation . 104 60. Apply epoxy hardener to both ends of the geotextile to ensure that straining occurs only across its effective length which is 4.625 in. -for the original device (Step 2, sample preparation) 105 61. Apply epoxy hardener to both ends of the geotextile to ensure that straining occurs only across its effective length which is 2 in. -for the revised device (Step 2, sample preparation) 106 62. Smooth the edges of the reinforced fabric (Step 3, sample preparatiGn) 108

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63. 64. 65. 66. FIGURES (continued) Drill holes in the reinforced ends of the geotextile (Step 4, sample preparation) ............. Attach one end of the geotextile to the bottom platen by screwing a semi-circular plate onto the soil-geotextile specimen pedestal or lower platen (Step 7, sample preparation) Place a semi-circular filter paper on one side of the geotextile onto the vacuum hole on the base of the lower platen (Step 8, sample preparation) Attach a membrane of the proper diameter to the base platen (Step 9, sample preparation) xvi 109 110 111 112 67. Place two rubbers hands around the membrane 68. 69. 70. over the two grooves of the lower platen (Step 10, sample preparation) 114 Place the specimen mold around the rubber membrane over the pedestal or lower platen and fold the upper portion of the membrane over the mold (Step 11, sample preparation) Apply a vacuum of 200 to 250 mm of mercury to the mold and adjust the membrane so that the surface is smooth (Top view, Step 12, sample preparation) Carefully place the sand in the mold using the raining device (Step 14, sample preparation) 115 116 117

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FIGURES {continued) 71. Continue to fill the mold until the required specimen height of 4.625 inches is attained. Make sure that the top of the soil sample is xvii flat and leveled {Step 15, sample preparation) 119 72. Place the semi-circular plate on the top of the leveled soil sample (Step 16, sample preparation) 120 73. Place the upper platen on the top of the semi-circular plate (Step 17, sample preparation) 121 74. Attach the opposite far end of the geotextile to the top platen by driving 2 screws through a semi circular plate which could be connected hermetically to the upper platen {Step 18, sample preparation) 122 75. Take a small level and level the top platen {Step 19, sample preparation) 123 76. Roll the membrane off the mold onto the top platen {Step 21, sample preparation) 124 77. Install two rubber bands {or 0-rings) over the membrane so that the membrane is tightly sealed between the rubber bands and the loading cap (Step 22, sample preparation) 125 78. Apply a vacuum of 200 to 250mm of mercury to the specimen through the vacuum tube in the bottom platen and remove the mold from the specimen {Step 24, sample preparation) 12 7

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79. 80. 81. 82. 83. FIGURES (continued) Take a small level and make sure the top platen is leveled (Step 25, sample preparation) Place the lucite cylinder on the cell base, being sure the base is free of soil grains so that an airtight seal can be obtained and allow the piston to rest on the top platen (Step 27, sample preparation) Vernier caliper used to measure the height of the sand-geotextile specimen Rubber 0-ring and 0-ring expander Cylindrical mold used in forming the sand-geotextile specimens 84. Scale used to weigh the Ottawa #30 xviii 130 131 133 134 135 sand . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 85. The necking of the geotextile sample was very significant during the test . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 86. 8 7. 88. The necking of the 2 inches by 2 inches geotextile sample (Trevira 1125) during the test Results of the in-soil loaddisplacement for repeatability test number 1 and 2 . Results of the in-soil stress-strain for repeatability test number 1 and 2 ....................... 140 141 142

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89. FIGURES (continued) Load vs. Displacement relationship for the geotextile confined in Ottawa #30 sand prepared in identical conditions for repeatability test numbers 1 2 3 4 a n d 5 . . . . . . . . . 90. Stress vs. strain relationship for 91. 92. 93. 94. in-soil geotextile confined in Ottawa #30 sand prepared in identical conditions for repeatability test numbers 1 2 3 4 a n d 5 . . . . . . . . Load vs. Displacement relationship for the geotextile confined in Ottawa #30 sand prepared in identical conditions for repeatability test numbers 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 ......... Stress vs. strain relationship for in-soil geotextile confined in Ottawa #30 sand prepared in identical conditions for repeatability test numbers 4 5 6 7 a n d 8 A device that will be used in the second phase of the research to hold the geotextile specimen straight during sample preparation . A zero raining device will be used in the second phase of the research to place the Ottawa #30 sand within the inner mold xix 144 145 146 147 150 151

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Problem Statement Soil is inherently strong in compression and shear, but weak in tension. Therefore, an attractive approach for improving the load carrying capacity of soil is through an attack on its weakest component, the tensile strength. In the late fifties, Henrie Vidal, a French architect and engineer, investigated the frictional effects of reinforcement in soil with the aim of improving the mechanical properties of the soil in the direction in which the soil is subjected to tensile strain. As a result of his investigations, Vidal launched a new civil engineering material known as Reinforced Earth. Reinforced Earth is a composite construction material in which the stiffness and strength of an earth fill is enhanced by the addition of steel or aluminum strip reinforcement. The basic mechanism of Reinforced Earth involves the mobilization of frictional resistance between the soil and the reinforcement to achieve as closely as possible a no-lateral-deformation (K0 ) condition, i.e., restricting lateral deformation of the earth mass.

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2 A major problem concerning Reinforced Earth is the long-term durability of the metallic reinforcement. The usual practice, at least in the U.S. is to increase the thickness of the metallic strips to allow for corrosion. However, corrosion rates are highly unpredictable for underground structures, and it is this uncertainty that compels engineers to search for alternative reinforcement materials. One viable alternative reinforcement material which has gained tremendous popularity in recent years is woven and nonwoven fabric materials (ASTM: "geotextile"). In actual construction, geotextilereinforced earth structures have demonstrated many advantages over conventional earth structures, including: ( 1 ) lower costs; ( 2 ) a more flexible earth structure is created; (3) stronger resistance to corrosion and bacterial action; (4) backfill can contain fines; (5) no drainage problems; (6) unskilled labor can be used; (7) no heavy equipment is required;. and (8) minimum excavation is required.

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3 Geotextiles have been employed successfully for many earth reinforcement applications, including embankments over soft foundations, retaining walls, slope reinforcement, bearing capacity improvement of shallow foundations, and bridge abutments {see Figure 1). In analyzing geotextile-reinforced earth structures consideration must be given both to internal and external stability. External stability involves the overall stability of the earth structure. In general, the conventional methods for analyzing non-reinforced earth structures (e.g. overall slide out stability, bearing capacity, lateral sliding, and settlement) are equally applicable to geotextile-reinforced structures. Internal stability, on the other hand, involves checking the reinforcement stability against failure by {1) tensile rupture of the geotextile, and (2) pullout of the geotextile from the surrounding earth fill. In this study, the material properties relating to the internal stability of geotextile-reinforced earth structures are investigated. Namely, the study addresses the stress-strain-strength characteristics of geotextiles and the frictional behavior between geotextile and soil.

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.. Aggregate surface 0 0 0 C' 0 \ 0 0 0 0 Geotextile a) Subgrade stabilization 0 0 0 0 ;) 0 0 0 : .. " 0 o) 0 () Q ;) r:l e Geotextile .;, ;) J b) Soft foundation reinforcement Figure 1: Typical Geotextile Reinforced Earth Structures 4

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5 Footing Geotextile c) Footing foundation reinforcement Geotextile d) Geotextile reinforced earth walls Figure 1 (continued): Typical Geotextile Reinforced Earth Structures

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0 ........:.. . . . Fabric l ay.ers _ ...:,_ So il b a c k f il l Foundation material e) Bridge abutment . Footing .. ..: ._ . < . . \ .. : . .' :. ._: : . : . : : G e o t e x t i l e -:----------------L-.:._ ... -. . . . . . . . . . . . .. -:. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . f) Footing foundation reinforcement Figure 1 (continued): Typical Geotextile ReiDforced Earth Structures 6

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7 1.2 Study Objectives The objectives of this study were three-fold. The first objective was to develop a new cylindrical device for investigating in-soil stress-strain characteristics of geotextiles and to compare its performance against a previously developed cubical test device. The second objective of this study was to examine the repeatability of the two test devices. The third objective of this study was to investigate soil-geotextile frictional characteristics for soils with different fractions of silt. 1.3 Method of Research The stress-strain characteristics of a geotextile are dependent upon such factors as soil confinement, soil type, soil density and overburden pressure, as well as the age and moisture content of the geotextile. A total of twenty-three stress-strain tests were conducted to examine test repeatability using a cubical test device developed at the University of Colorado at Denver (Siel et al., 1986). Two types of geotextile were tested: woven and nonwoven. The nonwoven geotextile studied was Trevira 1125 . The woven geotextile tested was Mirafi SOOX. The tests

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were conducted using the same soil type (Ottawa #30 sand), same soil density (107 pcf) and same overburden pressure (10 psi). 8 A total of twelve friction tests were conducted using the conventional cubical test device to obtain the soil-geotextile interface-frictional properties. The Ottawa mixed with 0 % 10% and 25% of silt were tested. The soils are prepared at a constant unit weight of 107 pcf. In addition, a new cylindrical test device was devised during the course of this study. A total of eight stress-strain tests were repeated to check for test repeatability using the new device. The repeatability tests were conducted using the same soil type (#30 Ottawa sand), same soil density (107 pcf), same confining (overburden) pressure and same geotextile (Trevira 1125). The geotextile was tested under the same conditions as those of the cubical stress-strain tests.

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CHAPTER II CUBICAL TEST EQUIPMENT AND TEST MATERIALS 2.1 Cubical Test Equipment The stress-strain tests were conducted by using a test apparatus developed at the University of Colorado at Denver (Siel et al., 1986). The apparatus, shown in Figure 2, consisted of a test box, which was designed to be used with a Wykeham Farrance direct shear 1 oadi ng frame. The cubical test box was constructed of aluminum with a steel top loading cap. The test box was designed with a metal clamp to affix one end of the geotextile to the test box, and a slot on the opposite side through which a movable clamp extended to securely grab the other end of the geotextile sample. The test box was designed so that the geotextile sample was entirely within the test box and subject to the constant overburden pressure throughout the test. The displacements of the geotextile specimen were measured by attaching a d i a 1 gage to the test box w h i c h moved away form the clamped end as the displacement occurred. The interior dimensions of the test box were .6.5 inches by 4.75 inches by 2.5 inches deep.

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Normal Load 0.5" Sand 2.5" Cla111P Sand 0.5" (a) Side View 0.3" sand 6.5" Clamp Geotex_. tile Sand 0.3" 0.3" 4.75" (b) Plan View 10 Geotextile '-Sheet Metal Clamp 0.3" Polyester Sheet -r.e tal Clamp Axial F orce f-I Dial Guage Figure 2: Stress-Strain Apparatus (Siel et al ., 1986)

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11 The top loading cap was 6.5 inches by 4.75 inches to distribute the normal load uniformly over the confining soil in the test box. One size of metal clamp was used for the test 3 inches (in the loading direction) by 4.5 inches. The clamp was directly connected to the direct shear loading mechanism, as depicted in Figure 2. To minimize the soil particles migrating out of the test box through the slot, a polyester plastic sheet with an opening slightly larger than the thickness of the geotextile was glued to the cubical box slot. 2.2 The Soils Two types of soils were used for the cubical tests: {1) #30 Ottawa sand, and {2) Fines {silt passing through #200 sieve). The gradation of dry #30 Ottawa sand is shown in Figure 3. Table 1 shows the physical properties of Ottawa sand used in this study. Both soils were prepared at a density of 107 pcf. 2.3 The Geotextiles Two types of geotextile were used in this study. One was a nonwoven, needle-punched, polyester geotextile called Trevira 1125, manufactured by Hoechst Fibers Industries. The other was a woven fabric, called Mirafi 500X, manufactured by Mirafi, Inc.

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100 .. 60 c u ... 20 0 I 12 Gravel Sand I l I Silt Clay I U.S. standard sie" si:u I I .. 2 i 0 0 0 .:. .:. .:. z z z i i i I I I 1 II i! I 1:1N :1 II: I I II II I l 11 I I IIlii II\ II II 11!111 111 II II I lllll il ll 11:111 IIIII I Ill i II I I! II I 1: I !!1 I 11!11 II II II I I I i II Ill I I 1: I II I i 111:11111 11111111 I IIIII Ill! II I I :II I 11:11111 i IIIII I I IIIII I I li II I I! Ill 111 ll I : IIIII I IIIII I IIIII I I I I 1:11 I II :11111 I Ill 1 : I I 1:111 : IIIli II I I ., ... 1; I ; I ., : 111111 I I I I I I -o o o., .. ("''f ..,o ..... 1' 0 0 0 0 0 Grarn mm IIIII II I \Ill I Ill II I IIIII II II 1111 I I ..... g 8 0 Q Figure 3: Grain-size Distribution curve of the Ottawa No. 30 Sand

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Table 1 Physical Properties of #30 Ottawa Sand Sand Type Unified Soil Classification Specific Gravity Particle Size: D5o (mm) Cc* Cu** Dry Unit 'Ymaximum (pcf) 'Yminimum ( p c f) Cc = SP 2.65 0.50 1. 21 # 3 0 0 t t a \ a 1. 43 112.19 97.52 ** Cu = 13

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Tables 2 and 3 show some typical physical properties of the geotextiles provided by the manufacturer. It is to be noted that among those properties are the strength and elongation characteristics. These properties were obtained by ASTM procedures in which the geotextile was tested in isolation. 2.4 Sample Preparation 14 The sand placement in the cubical test equipment was carried out by using a showering method as illustrated in Figure 4. A series of trials were made with the small-scale raining device. It is believed that the device provides a consistent means for placing the sand uniformly in the cubical test equipment. With a rain height of 2/16 inches the soil density is approximately 107 pcf. The procedures of sample preparation are described in the following: 1} Trim the geotextile specimen to the selected size in the machine direction. 2} Line up the geotextile with the centerline of the sheet metal clamp and glue the specimen to the surface of the sheet metal clamp and leave it overnight for the glue to set.

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15 TABLE 2 Typical Physical Properties of Trevira 1125 Fabric Weight {oz/yd2) Thickness {mils) {ASTM D-1777) Grab Strength {lbs, MD/CD) {ASTM D-4632) Grab Elongation { % MD/CD) {ASTM D-4632) Trapezoid Tear Strength {lbs, MD/CD) {ASTM D-4533) Puncture Strength -5/16" {lbs) {ASTM D-3787) Mullen Burst Strength {psi) {ASTM D-3786) Water Flow Rate {gal/min/ft2) {ASTM D-4491) AOS (sieve size mm) 7.4 110 270/225 75/85 105/95 115 390 120 70-120 Standard Role Width {ft.) Standard Roll Length (ft.) 12.5 and 15.0 300 MD =Machine Direction CD = Cross Machine Direction

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16 TABLE 3 Typical Physical Properties of Mirafi 500X Grab Tensile Strength {lbs.} {ASTM D-1682-64} Grab Tensile Elongation { % } {ASTM D-1682-64} Burst Strength {psi} {ASTM D-3786-80a} Trapezoid Tear Strength {lbs.} {ASTMD-1117-80) Puncture Resistance {lbs.) (ASTM D-3787-80) 200 30{max} 400 115 85

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. I : I I i f : . . I ( I f 0 4 "" 0 ,. '', , , .- ''' ' =. '_. o : o J 0 . . . . .. : .. ...... : '. . . . : ... ... ... : .: .: .. ;., ... .. . . . . . . ......... Figure 4 A Method of Showering Sand 17

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18 3) Hold the raining device on the top of the cubical test box to allow for a rain height of 2/16 inches above the bottom of the test equipment. 4) Place a predetermined amount of sand (to form approximately 0.5 in. soil layers in the box) in the raining device and level the surface in the device. 5) Release the opening at the bottom of the raining device and allow the sand to 11rain11 uniformly in the cubical test box. 6) Raise the raining device to a height of 2/16 inches above the new soil surface. 7) Place the same amount of sand in the raining device and allow the sand to 11rain11 in the box in the same manner as step 5. 8) Repeat steps 4 through 7 until the soil surface reaches the height of the front slot. 9) Use additional sand (preweighted) to rain through the four edges of the cubical test box to obtain a more level surface. 10) Remove the raining device and use a level device (spatula) through the front slot of the cubical box to ensure a level surface. 11a) For the conventional stress-strain test: place the geotextile specimen on the top of .the sand surface and affix the far end of the geotextile to the

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19 back of the cubical test equipment. 11b) For friction test: place the specimen through the slot of the box on the top of the sand surface without affixing the far end of the geotextile to the test box. 12) Repeat steps 4 through 7 to place an additional 1.25 inches of sand above the geotextile specimen. 13) Remove the raining device and level the top layer of the soil surface. 14) Place the loading cap which is 6.5 inches by 4.75 inches on the top layer of the sand surface and apply the overburden pressure.

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CHAPTER III STRESS-STRAIN AND FRICTIONAL BEHAVIOR OF THE GEOTEXTILES TESTED IN THE CUBICAL EQUIPMENT 3.1 Repeatability of the Stress-Strain Test of a Nonwoven Geotextile A total of twenty-seven stress-strain tests were performed on the Trevira 1125 geotextile. Twenty of these tests (RP-1 through RP-20) were performed to check for test repeatability. One size of the geotextile sample was used: 3 inches wide by 1 inches long. These wide and short sample shapes were chosen for two reasons: (1) to avoid significant necking of the sample during the test, and (2) to minimize side friction by placing the geotextile sufficiently far from the side walls of the cubical test box. In conducting the tests, one end of the geotextile was secured between two thin sheet metals (4.5 inches wide by 3 inches long) using epoxy resin and hardener. The test was performed by pulling one end ("moving end") of the geotextile specimen through the metal clamp while holding the other end ("fixed end") stationary. The stress-strain test conditions are summarized in Table 4. The stress-strain test data are presented in Appendix A.

PAGE 40

2 1 TABLE 4 Stress-Strain Test Conditions on the Geotextile Pull-Out Test Conditions 1125) and (Trevira of the Sheet-Metal Test Soil Overburden Soil SJbo.l l)'pe Pressure Ouslty Ips f) I pcf) A (ln-fsohtlon) I 30 I Ottawa 10 107 sand 130 c Ottawa 30 107 sand 130 D Ottawa 10 107 send + lOS fl nes flO [ Ottawa 30 107 send + lOS flnu 130 F Ottawa 10 107 sand + 2SS ff nes 130 G Otta\ofa 30 107 sand + 2SS fines 130 RP Otta\ofa 10 107 11 20) sand 130 RP ML Ottawa 10 107 ( 1 -J) sand HL-4 130 Ottawa 30 107 sand Clamp (ML). Geotextlle Geotextllt C:eotextlle Dl rectton Size End (Inch) Condition Machine l x I Unrelnforced end Machine 3 x I Unrelnforced end Machine 3 X l Unrein forced end Unrel nforced Machine J X l end Unrein forced Machine J X I end Unrein forced Machine 3 X l end Unrein forced Machine 3 X I end Reinforced Machine 3 X 1 end using epoxy hardener

PAGE 41

22 Tests A through G were discarded because even though the fixed end of the geotextile was affixed with a metal clamp to the cubical test box, more than 5 % straining occurred across the far restrained end (refer to Figure 5). Also, when the horizontal load was applied it was possible for these screws to tear up the geotextile sample at the pin puncture points (refer to Figure 5). Consequently, it was necessary to reinforce the fixed end of the geotextile using epoxy hardener to restrain the straining for the portion affixed to the test box, which is 1 inch in length (refer to Figure 6). This reinforcing procedure of Trevira 1125 reduced the necking significantly (refer to Figure 7). Figure 8 shows a comparison of the after-test Trevira 1125 samples with and without epoxy hardener. The repeatability stress-strain tests were performed at a constant strain rate of 1.2 mm per minute. The repeatability stress-strain tests were continued to 25% strain. In the field, geotextiles are usually strained less than 20% One overburden pressure was used: 10 psi. Table 5 shows the applied loads required to induce 5, 10, 15, and 25% strain for test numbers RP-1 through RP-20. Figures 9 through 12 show the applied loads required to induce 5 % 10% 15% and 25% strain for

PAGE 42

Figure 5: 23 More than 5 % straining occurred across the fixed end of the geotextile and it was possible for these screws to tear up the geotextile sample at the pin puncture points.

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24 Figure 6: Reinforced fixed end of Trevira 1125.

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Figure 7: The reinforced fixed end of Trevira 1125 reduced the necking significantly. 25

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Figure 8: Far end of Trevira 1125 with and without epoxy hardener. 26

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27 TABLE 5 Applied Loads (lbs.) Required to Induce 5%, 10% 15% 25% Strain for Test Numbers RP-1 Through RP-20 Test Numbers Strain Strain Strain Strain = 5 % = 10% = 15% = 25% RP 1 64.5 84 99 123.5 RP -2 50.5 61.5 89 125 RP -3 27 57 73 96.5 RP -4 57 86 104 128.5 RP -5 31 58 79 105 RP -6 51 78 90.5 111. 5 RP 7 60 80 99 115 RP -8 57 76 89 114 RP -9 44 71.5 86 112.5 RP 10 52 75 87 106 RP -11 62 89 100.5 117 RP -12 57 77.5 91 111. 5 RP -13 39 67.5 82 106.5 RP 14 57.5 81.5 100 129.5 RP -15 25 63 83 110 RP -16 66 86 101 126 RP -17 56 77 92 115.5 RP 18 65.5 85 99.5 122.5 RP -19 32 61 76 103 RP -20 66.5 90 105 130

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100.0 90.0 80. 0 70.0 60. 0 II) .0 ..... -50.0 "'C "' 0 -1 40.0 JO.O 20.0 10.0 0.0 Figure 9: 28 D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mean 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 20 2 1 Test Numbers RP-1 through RP-20 = me an = 51 SO = standard deviation = 13.46 Coefficient of variation = SO X 100 % = 26.4% M Applied loads required to induce 5% strain for test numbers RP-1 through RP-20.

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29 120 108 96 0 0 84 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mean 0 0 0 .72 0 Ill 0 ..0 r-0 0 60 0 0 0 "0 10 0 -J 48 36 24 12 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 11 1 2 1 3 14 15 1 6 17 18 19 20 21 Test Numbers RP-1 through RP-20 M = mean = 75.2 SD = standard deviation = 10.60 Coefficient of variation = SD X 100 % = 14% M Figure 10: Applied loads required to induce 10% strain for test numbers RP-1 through RP-20.

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. VI ..0 r"'0 0 -I 30 140 126 112 0 0 98 .0 0 0 0 0 0 Mean 0 84 0 0 0 70 0 0 56 42 28 14 0 1 2 .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 .3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 20 2 1 Test Numbers RP-1 through RP-20 M = mean = 91.28 SO = standard deviation = 9.52 Coefficient of variation = SO X 100% = 10.4% M Figure 11: Applied loads required to induce 15% strain for test numbers RP-1 through RP-20.

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VI .Q ..... "t:) "' 0 ....J 31 208 192 176 160 144 128 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 an 0 0 0 112 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 96 0 80 64 4-8 32 16 0 1 2 3 5 6 7 B 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Test Numbers RP-1 through RP-20 M = mean = 115.45 SO = standard deviation = 9.63 Coefficient of variation = SO X 100 % = 8.4% M Figure 12: Applied loads required to induce 25% strain for test numbers RP-1 through RP-20.

PAGE 51

32 test numbers RP-1 through RP-20. In these figures the mean, the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation for each strain level were also computed. It may be seen that the lower the strain, the higher the coefficient of variation. The variation of applied load at 5% strain was alarmingly large, indicating that the stress-strain properties of geotextiles under small strains which would be very significant in some applications as determined by this test were most likely unreliable. El-fermaoui and Nowatzki (1982) reported that the frictional resistance developed between the galvanized steel movable clamp and the confining soil was assumed to be very small compared with the shear stresses developed on the soilgeotextile interface and was neglected. However, Figures 13 through 16 indicate that the frictional resistance between the 4.5 in. by 2-1/16 in. clamp (embedded area) and the soil is very significant. It should be noted that the above-mentioned load-deformation relations of the geotextile were obtained by subtracting the frictional forces of the clamp, which are dependent on the displacement, from the applied forces at the corresponding displacements. Figure 13 depicts the results of friction tests conducted at 10 psi overburden pressure. The three

PAGE 52

VI .Q r-"'C ra 0 ...J Jo.oo r-------------------.::.3..::3__, 25.00 20.00 15 .00 10.00 5.00 0.00 0.00 40.00 C: RP-ML-1 A: RP-ML-2 80.00 120.00 160.00 200.00 240.00 280.00 Displacement x 1Q-3 (inch) Figure 13: Frictional resistance between the sheet metal clamps and Ottawa #30 sand at 10 psi overburden.

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28.00 24.00 20.00 16.00 Vl ..0 -c ttl 12.00 0 -1 e.oo -4-.00 0.00 0.00 34 4-Q.OO 80.00 120.00 160.00 200.00 240.00 280.00 Displacement x lo-3 (inch) Figure 14: Average frictional resistance between the 3 sheet metal clamps and Ottawa #30 sand at lOpsi overburden.

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35 120.00 110.00 100.00 90.00 80.00 VI 70.00 .Q .... 60.00 "'0 10 0 50.00 -J 40,00 JO.OO 20.00 10.00 0.00 0 20 4-0 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 Displacement x lo-3 (inch) Figure 15: Average frictional resistance between the sheet metal clamp and Ottawa #30 sand at 30psi overburden pressure.

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36 100 30 psi eo VI ..0 60 ,.... 0 ...J 40 10 psi 20 o 2o 40 60 eo 100 120 140 160 1ao 200 220 240 260 2so Displacement x 1Q-3 (inch) Figure 16: Frictional resistance between the sheet metal clamp and Ottawa #30 sand at 10psi and 30psi overburden pressures.

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37 tests shown in Figure 13 had the same soil type, soil density, metal direction, metal dimensions, and same overburden pressure. Figure 14 depicts the average of the three friction tests at an overburden pressure of 10 psi. Figure 15 depicts the frictional resistance between the sheet metal clamp and Ottawa #30 sand at 30 psi overburden pressure. Figure 16 shows a comparison of the frictional resistance at 10 psi and 30 psi overburden pressures. As may be expected, the higher the overburden pressure, the higher the mobilized shearing stresses on the sheet metal clamp interface. The in-soil stress-strain repeatability test No. RP-1 results were corrected for the frictional resistance, as shown in Figures 17 and 18. The applied total forces shown in Figure 17 was corrected by subtracting from them the average frictional resistance of the 3 sheet metal clamps. The stresses were computed by dividing the corrected horizontal load by the crosssectional area of the fabric. The cross-sectional area of the fabric equals the lateral width of the specimen times its thickness. It was assumed that the thickness of the specimen did not change during loading, even in the reduced section. The strain was computed by dividing the horizontal change in length by the original length of the fabric specimen. The in-soil

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38 136.00 128.00 120.00 112.00 10<4.00 96.00 P (applied) 88.00 80.00 VI ..Q ,.... 72.00 "C 64.00 I'd 0 56.00 -J 48.00 <40.00 32.00 24.00 P (corrected) = P (applied) -P (clamp only) 16 .00 P (clamp only) 8.00 0.00 0.00 40.00 80.00 120.00 160 .00 200.00 240.00 Displacement x 1o-3 (inch) Figure 17: Corrected load versus horizontal deformation for repeatability test No. RP-1. 280.00

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800.00 750.00 700.00 650.00 600.00 550.00 ::: 500.00 V) c..450.00 V) 400.00 V) <11 s... .350.00 -4-.l V) .300.00 250.00 200.00 150.00 100.00 50.00 0.00 0.00 39 40.00 80.00 1 20.00 1 60.00 200.00 240.00 280.00 Strain (x lQ-3) Figure 18: Stress versus strain for repeatability test No. RP-1.

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40 stress-strain test results of Rp-2 cannot be corrected for the frictional resistance because under 3% strain the total applied load is less than the frictional resistance of the sheet metal clamp, thus making it impossible for a reasonable correction. This confirms the observation stated earlier, that the cubical test equipment provide unreliable stress-strain properties of geotextiles at small strains. 3.2 Stress-Strain Test of a Woven Geotextile A total of ten stress-strain tests were performed on the Mirafi 500X woven geotextile. Three of these tests were performed to check for test repeatability (RP-A through RP-C). All test specimens were 3 inches wide by 4 inches long, 2 inches of the specimens were sandwiched between the sheet metal clamps and 1 inch at the back fixed-end clamp resulting in 1 inch effective extensible geotextile length. An ink line was marked on each specimen at the back of the clamp prior to the tests to indicate possible clamp slippage. The test conditions are summarized in Table 6. The stress-strain test data are presented in Appendix A. Tests H through N were discarded because when the horizontal load was applied the screws at the far end metal clamp tore up the geotextile sample at

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41 TABLE 6 Stress-Strain Test Conditions on the Woven Geotextile (Mirafi 500X) Tut Sotl Owerburden So 11 Geotextl h Geotutfh GnteJttlh Syabal Type Pressure Dtnsfty Direction Size End Ips! I lpcfl linch I Condition H H1chlnt 3 Jt l I fnholltfonl end 130 Unretnforctd b t taw a 10 107 Hlchlnt 3 Jt l tnd sand f30 Ottawa 30 107 Hachlnt 3 I tnd sand 130 K Ottawa 10 107 Hchlnt J l tnd Sind + lOS fines 130 l Ottawa 30 107 Hac hint 3 Jt l end sand + lOS fines 130 H Ottawa 10 107 Hachlnt 3 Jt l tnd sand + 25S fines 130 Unrtlnforced N Ottawa 30 107 Hachtne 3 l end sand + 25. s tf nes fJO reinforced RP Ottawa 10 107 Machine 3 lt 1 end lA C) sand

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42 the pin puncture points (refer to Figure 19}. Consequently, for the repeatability tests it was necessary to reinforce the far end of the geotextiles using epoxy hardener. The reinforced far end of M irafi 500X did not allow any tearing up of the geotextile sample at the pin puncture points (refer to Figure 20}. It is to be noted that the woven geotextiles maintained a constant lateral width during horizontal stretching; whereas the nonwoven geotextile necked fairly significantly. Figure 21 shows a comparison of the after-test Mirafi 500X specimens with and without epoxy hardener. The repeatability stress-strain tests were performed at a constant strain rate of 1.2 mm per minute. The repeatability stress-strain tests wer e continued to 25% strain. One overburden pressure was used: 10 psi. Table 7 shows the applied load required to induce 5 % 10 % 15% and 25% strain for test numbers RP-A through RP-C. Figures 22 through 25 show the applied loads required to induce 5 % 10% 15% and 25% strain for test numbers RP-A through RP-C. In these figures the mean, the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation were also computed. It may be seen that the lower the strain, the higher the coefficient of variation. In other words, the

PAGE 62

Figure 19: ... .... ._ I 4 ... . J . . , 3 a The screws at the moving end metal clamp tore up the geotextile sample at the pin puncture points. 43

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Figure 20: 44 The reinforced moving end of Mirafi SOOX did not allow any tearing up of the geotextile sample at the pin puncture points. And woven geotextiles maintained a constant lateral width during horizontal stretching.

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J-: .. : I Figure 21: After-test Mirafi SOOX specimens with and without epoxy hardener. 45

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TABLE 7 Applied Loads (lb.) Required to Induce 5%, 10%, 15%, 25% Strain for Test Numbers RP-A Through RP-C Test Numbers Strain Strain Strain Strain RP -A RP -B RP C = 5% = 10% = 15% = 25% 93 145.5 167 153.5 65 136 155 145 72 131 159.5 148 46

PAGE 66

200 180 160 140 120 Cl) .0 100 ,.... IU 80 0 -J 60 40 20 0 0 Mean 0 0 RP-A RP-B RP-C Test Numbers RP-A through RP-C M = mean = 76.67 SD = standard deviation = 14.57 Coefficient of variation = SD X 100 % = 19% M 47 Figure 22: Applied loads required to induce 5 % strain for test numbers RP-A through RP-C

PAGE 67

48 200 180 160 0 Mean 140 u 0 120 en ..0 r100 "'0 Ia 0 ...J 80 60 40 20 0 RP-A RP-B RP-C Test Numbers RP-A through RP -C M = mean = 137.50 SD = standard deviation = 7.37 Coefficient of variation = SD X 100 % = 5.36% M Figure 23: Applied loads required to induce lOX strain for test numbers RP-A through RP-C

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49 200 180 0 Mean 160 u 0 140 en 120 ..c r100 "C n::l 0 ...J 80 60 40 20 0 RP-A RP-B RP-C Test Numbers RP-A through RP-C M = mean = 160.50 so = standard deviation = 6.06 Coefficient of variation = so X 100 % = 3.77% M Figure 24: Applied loads required to induce 15% strain for test numbers RP-A through RP-C

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50 200 180 160 Mean 0 -:-140 0 ..... (,1) .a ,.._ 120 "'0 ra 0 100 -J 80 60 40 20 0 RP-A RP-B RP-C Test Numbers RP-A through RP-C M = mean = 148.83 so = standard deviation = 4.31 Coefficient of variation = so X 100 % = 2.89% M Figure 25: Applied loads required to induce 25% strain for test numbers RP-A through RP-C

PAGE 70

the dispersion of the applied load data set is higher at smaller strains. 51 Again, the applied forces in the tests were partially resisted by the frictional resistance between the confining soil and the sheet metal clamp. Consequently, to obtain stress-strain relations of the geotextile, the applied total forces must be corrected by subtracting from them the average frictional resistance of the sheet metal clamp. The in-soil load displacement and stress-strain for repeatability test No. B results were shown in Figures 26 and 27, respectively. The in-soil stress-strain test results of RP-C cannot be corrected for the frictional resistance because under 1 % strain the total applied load is less than the frictional resistance of the sheet metal clamp, thus making it impossible for a reasonable correction. From the tests performed in this study, it was concluded that the cubical test equipment provides uncertainties in determining the stress-strain properties of geotextiles at small strains (say less than 5 % strain) which would be very significant in many soil reinforcement applications. 3.3 Friction Test Soil-geotextile interface bonding plays an

PAGE 71

200 180 160 140 120 II) .0 ,..... 100 "'0 I1:J 0 ...J 80 60 52 p (applied) p (corrected) = p (applied) -p (clamp only) P (clamp only) 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 Displacement x lQ-3 (inch) Figure 26: Corrected load versus horizontal deformation for repeatability test No. RP-8.

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VI c. VI VI <1J s... +-l V) 3600 3200 3000 2800 2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 1600 1200 1000 800 600 -400 200 0 0 53 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 .300 Strain (x lQ-3) Figure 27: Stress versus strain for repeatability test number B.

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54 important role in the design of geotextile-reinforced earth structures. Of special practical significance is the interface frictional characteristics between geotextile and natural backfill which often contains fines. This section shows the effect of the fine-grained portion of the soil on the magnitude of the interface coefficient of friction. The interface coefficient of friction fL can be defined by the following formula: where: O""n The fully mobilized shearing stresses along the soil geotextile interface = Tt on= b = L = 2bl overburden pressure ultimate force applied to the geotextile (corrected for clamping plate friction) width of the geotextile specimen length of the geotextile specimen

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It is assumed that the tangential shearing stresses are the same on the two faces of the reinforcement. 3.3.1 Friction Tests of the Geotextiles 55 A total of twelve pullout tests were performed on the Trevira 1125 and Mirafi 500X. One size of the geotextile sample was used: 3 inches wide by 1 inch long. In conducting the tests, one end of the geotextile was secured between two thin sheet metals using epoxy resin and hardener. A 4.5 inch by 3 inch long metal clamp was used. The test was performed by pulling on one end of the geotextile specimen while the other end was not attached to the cubical test box. The pullout tests were performed at a constant strain rate of 0.12 mm per minute. The pullout test conditions are summarized in Table 8. 3.3.2 Results and Discussion of Results The pullout test data are presented in Appendix B. The effect of soil type on the coefficient of friction is depicted in Figures 28 and 29. All the coefficients of friction reported herein have been corrected for clamping plate friction. It is seen that the geotextile pullout characteristics are very

PAGE 75

Test Sybol 0 p Q R s T u Y X y l TABLE 8 Pullout Test Conditions of Trevira 1125 and Nirafi SOOX s 011 0Ytrburden So 11 Geototfle l:eoteatlle Type Prtssure Density Direction SIze I P 'II I pc tJ II nch I IJO Ottawa 10 10 7 Hachlne J X 1 sand flO Ottawa 10 I 0 7 sand Hachtne J X I + lOS fInes tJO Otta\ia 10 I 0 7 sand Machine J X I ... 25S rt ne s 130 Ott8wa 10 I o 7 Hachl n e J X I sand fJO Ott8W8 10 I 0 7 Hachlnt J X I sand + lOS rt ne s 130 Ottawa to I 0 7 Hachlne J X I sand + zss fInes IJO Otta-.a JO 10 7 Hachlne J X I sand IJO Ottawa 30 I 0 7 Hac hint J X I S8nd + 101 fInes 130 Ott alia 30 I 01 Hac hint 3 X I sand + 251 rt ne s f)O Ottawa 30 107 Hachlne 3 x. I sand no I 0 7 Hachlne J 1 Ottalia JO sand + lOS fines 130 107 Hachlne 3 X I Ottalia 30 sand + ZB r In e s 56 Stpll Trevlr llZS Trevlra 112 5 Trevtra 112 s Hlrart 500 X HI r a r I so ox HI r a f I so ox I I 2 5 Trevlrl 112 s Trevlra 112 5 Hlrafl so ox Hlrafl so ox Htrafl so ox

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0.45 0.42 0.39 0.36 0 Trevira 1125 c:: 0.33 0 ..... 0 .30 Mirafi 50 0X ...., u ..... 0.27 s.. 1+0.24 1+-0 0.21 ...., c:: <1J 0 18 .,.... u 0.15 .,.... 1+1+0.12 <1J 0 u 0.09 0.06 O.OJ 0 .00 0 5 10 15 20 25 Silt content by weight ( %) Figure 28: Coefficient of friction vs. test numbers for the geotextiles confined in three different soil types at 10 psi overburden pressure. 57 30

PAGE 77

s::: 0 .... ..., (.) .... s.. 0 ..., s:::
PAGE 78

59 different for three different soils with different silt contents which were prepared at the same density. This indicates that the effect of fine content on the frictional property is very significant. Consequently, friction tests of the geotextile should be performed in the confinement of the soil to be used in the field.

PAGE 79

CHAPTER IV CYLINDRICAL TEST EQUIPMENT AND SAMPLE PREPARATION 4.1 Cylindrical Test Equipment--6 Inch Diameter Sample In this study a new cylindrical test equipment was designed and built to perform the stress-strain test of the geotextiles in a conventional triaxal cell device. A description of the apparatus and test procedures will be discussed in this section. The test apparatus allow for uniaxial tension tests to be performed for a geotextile in isolation as well as in the confinement of soil subject to different overburden pressures (confining pressure). The test set-up for the cylindrical confined tension test is shown in Figure 30. The cylindrical test equipment was made up of four separate parts: a triaxial cell, a cylindrical hollow tube, a bottom platen, and a top platen. The cylindrical hollow tube allowed short (relative to its width) geotextile specimens be tested and the vacuum be applied to the soil-geotextile specimen during sample preparation. The bottom platen was rested on the hollow cylindrical tube which was connected to the base of the triaxal cell. To attach one end of the geotextile to the bottom platen, a semi-circular plate ,. 'I

PAGE 80

LL1 u cite -'! 'nder cyl1 ru memb bber rane f i1 ter -p a per OS -ring eals ru bber gas I I' --pressure 61 loading ram .. top platen \ . ; .. -, 7 I bottom platen 'S c:: . r---: IL I I I I cell water ; .J soil / 1:1 A / sample II I r" I ,.....v v t geotext I ile l! l ( I \ 67 I I u u I -\-! ., hollow r, ,, lr cylindrical drain ' age ' tube I I I J-I: l_l-_ ----I I -------J L.----------? bottom base plate vacuum (and/or sample saturation and drainage} Figure 30: The cylindrical test equipment

PAGE 81

62 with seven holes through which seven screws pass was screwed onto the bottom platen, while the opposite end of the geotextile was fastened to the top platen by driving six screws through another semi-circular plate which could be connected hermetically to the top platen. The details of the top and bottom platens are illustrated in Figures 31, 32, 33 and 34. The soil-geotextile specimen is enclosed in a thin rubber membrane sealed to the top and bottom platens by rubber 0-ring seals. The sealed sample is placed in a water-filled cell; the cell pressure supplies a uniform radial total stress to the vertical sides of the soil-geotextile sample. An equal uniform vertical stress was applied by the top rigid platen which is attached to a tension loading ram. The cylindrical test apparatus was designed so that the geotextile sample was entirely within the test apparatus and subject to the overburden pressure throughout the test. To apply the overburden pressure to the soil-geotextile system, a confining pressure was employed. All geotextile samples were 6 inches wide by 2 inches long. When assembled, the soil specimen was a cylinder with interior radius dimension of 3 inches and a height of 2 inches. The most significant feature of the cylindrical test equipment was designed in such a

PAGE 82

Grooves placing O-r1ng seals 0.5 in. 1 inch 1 inch Figure 31: Top platen of the cylindrical test equipment (diameter = 6 inch, not to scale). 63

PAGE 83

Figure 32: Top platen of the cylindrical test equipment. 64

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Geotextile 65 , Semi-circular plate Vacuum ---hole 2 1 n. Grooves ---for placing the 0-ring seals Pre-drilled holes Holes in the bottom platen Bottom platen Figure 33: Bottom platen of the cylindrical test equipment (diameter = 6 inch, not to scale).

PAGE 85

Figure 34: Bottom platen of the cylindrical test equipment. 66

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way that no sheet metal clamp was used in order to avoid the frictional resistance between the soil and clamp. 4.2 Sample Preparation for the 6 Inch Diameter Soil-Geotextile Sample 67 The overall assembly of the soil-geotextile composite during sample preparation is shown in Figure 35. The procedures of sample preparation are described as follows: 1) Trim the geotextile specimen to the selected size in the machine direction. 2) Apply epoxy hardener to both ends of the geotextile; leave it overnight for the glue to set (refer to Figure 36). 3) De-air the lines connected to the base of the triaxial cell. 4) Install two 0-rings at the very bottom and top of the hollow cylindrical tube. 5) Apply silicone grease to the bottom and top of the hollow cylindrical tube; this will provide a more impervious joint. 6) Fasten the hollow cylindrical tube to the base of the triaxal cell (see Figure 37).

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68 Groove for placing the 0-ring seal Top platen Semi-circular -plate ...... Soil -sample ?> Filter paper Semicircular plate Bottom platen Sample preparation Air mold Hollow _,. ...... _,. cylindrical ...... tube 0-ring seals Figure 35: Cylindrical test assembly during soilgeotextile sample preparation.

PAGE 88

Figure 36 Apply epoxy geotextile. hardener (Step 2, to both ends of the sample preparation) 69

PAGE 89

Figure 37: Fasten the hollow cylindrical tube to the base of the triaxal cell. (Step 6, sample preparation) 70

PAGE 90

71 7) Attach the bottom platen to the top of the hollow cylindrical tube. 8) Attach one end of the geotextile to the bottom platen by screwing a semi-circular plate onto the soil-geotextile specimen pedestal or lower platen (refer to Figure 38). 9) Attach a membrane of the proper diameter to the base platen (refer to Figure 39). To provide a more impervious joint, the base platen was lightly coated with silicone grease prior to attaching the membrane; this will increase the seal between the membrane and the bottom platen. 10) Install two 0-rings around the membrane over the two grooves of the lower platen (refer to Figure 39). 11) Place the specimen mold around the rubber membrane over the pedestal or lower platen and fold the lower and upper portions of the membrane over the mold (refer to Figure 40). 12) Apply a vacuum of 200 to 250 mm of mercury to the mold and adjust the membrane so that

PAGE 91

72 Figure 38: Attach one end of the geotextile to the bottom platen by screwing a semi-circular plate onto the soil-geotextile lower platen. (Step 8, sample preparation)

PAGE 92

73 Figure 39: Attach a membrane of the proper diameter to the base platen. Install two 0-rings around the membrane over the two grooves of the lower platen. (Steps 9 and 10, sample preparation)

PAGE 93

74 Figure 40: Place the specimen mold around t he rubber membrane over the lower platen and fold the lower and upper portions of the membrane over the mold. (Step 11, sample preparation)

PAGE 94

Figure 40 (continued): Top view. (Step 11, sample preparation) 75

PAGE 95

76 the surface is smooth and without wrinkles, bags, or twists (refer to Figure 41). 13) Place a semi-circular filter paper covering the vacuum hole on the base of the lower platen (refer to Figure 42). 14) Hold the geotextile specimen straight. 15) Carefully place the sand in the mold using a raining device as discussed in section 2.4 (refer to Figure 43). To maintain the density constant (107 pcf) through the sample height, the height was divided into equal increments and the quantity of soil for each height was computed and that portion was placed in increments and as evenly as possible on the two sides of the specimen. 16) Continue to fill the mold until the required specimen height of 2 inches is obtained. Make sure that the top of the soil sample is flat and leveled. The reinforced far end of the geotextile specimen should make an angle of 90 degrees with the top of the soil sample (refer to Figure 44).

PAGE 96

77 Figure 41: Apply a vacuum of 200 to 250 mm of mercury to the mold and adjust the membrane so that the surface is smooth and without wrinkles, bags, or twists. (Step 12, sample preparation)

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78 Figure 41 (continued): ( S t e p 12, s ampl e preparation)

PAGE 98

79 Figure 42: Place a semi-circuler filter paper on the right-hand side of the geotextile onto the vacuum hole on the base of the lower platen. (Step 12, sample preparation)

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80 Figure 4 3 : Carefully place the sand in the mold using a raining device. {Step 15, sample preparation)

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Figure 43 (continued): ( Step 15, sample preparation) 81

PAGE 101

82 Figure 44: Continue to fill the mold until the required specimen height of 2 inches is attained. Make sure that the top of the soil sample is flat and level. (Step 16, sample preparation)

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Figure 44 (continued): (Step 16, sample preparation) 83

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84 17) Place the semi-circular plate on the top of the leveled soil sample (refer to Figure 45). 18) Place the upper platen on the top of the semi-circular plate (refer to Figure 46). 19) Attach the opposite end of the geotextile to the top platen by driving 6 screws through a semi-circular plate which could be connected hermetically to the upper platen (refer to Figure 47). 20) Take a small 1 evel and 1 evel the top platen. 21) Coat the grooves of the top platen with silicone grease to obtain a more leakproof sea 1 22) Roll the membrane off the mold onto the top platen (refer to Figure 48). 23) Install two 0-rings over the membrane so that the membrane is tightly sealed between the 0-rings and the loading cap (refer to Figure 49). 24) Roll the bottom of the membrane off the mold. 25) Remove the vacuum from the mold.

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85 Figure 45: Place the semi-circular plate on the top of the leveled soil sample. (Step 17, sample preparation)

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86 Figure 46: Place the upper platen on the top of the semi-circular plate. (Step 18, sample preparation) ''' .

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87 Figure 47: Attach the opposite end of the geotextile to the top platen by driving 6 screws through a semi-circular plate which could be connected hermetically to the upper platen. (Step 19, sample preparation)

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88 Figure 48: Roll the membrane off the onto the top platen. (Step 22, sample preparation)

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89 Figure 49: Install two 0-rings over the membrane so that the membrane is tightly sealed between the 0-rings and the loading cap. (Step 23, sample preparation)

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90 26) Apply a vacuum of 200 to 250 mm of mercury to the specimen through the hollow cylindrical tube and remove the mold from the specimen (refer to Figure 50). 27) Inspect the sample for imperfections. If the membrane has holes and leaks or if the sample is not of constant diameter or if the top platen is not leveled, the soilgeotextile composite must be remade. 28) Place a lucite cylinder on the cell base, make sure the base is free of soil grains so that an airtight seal can be obtained. 29) Allow the piston to rest on the top platen. 30) Fill the chamber with the confining fluid while the vacuum is still applied to the soil-geotextile sample (refer to Figure 51 ) 31) Remove the vacuum from the specimen. 32) Place the cell in a loading (tension) machine. 33) Apply a confining pressure and perform the extension test. 34) Continue the test until the strain exceeds 20 percent of the specimen height (0.4 inches).

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91 Figure 50: Apply a vacuum of 200 to 250 mm of mercury to the specimen through the hall cylindrical tube and remove the mold from the specimen. (Step 26, sample preparation)

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92 Figure 51: Fill the chamb e r with the confining fluid \'J h i 1 e t h e v a c u u m i s s t i l 1 a p p 1 i e d t o t h e soil-geotextile (Step 30, sample preparation)

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4.3 Cylindrical Test Equipment--2 Inches Diameter Sample 93 In addition to the 6-in. cylindrical test device, a 2-in. cylindrical device was also manufactured. The 2-in. device, although may be more sensitive to test inaccuracy because of the smaller scales, is readily available in most soil laboratories. A description of the 2-in. apparatus and test procedures will be discussed in this section. Initially the 2-in. device adopted the same design as the 6-in. device. Other than the difference in the dimensions, the only difference is that the 2-in. device did away with the hollow cylindrical rod used in the 6-in. device and the bottom platen sit directly on the base of the triaxial cell, as shown in Figure 52. Figures 53 and 54 show the top and bottom platens of the 2-in. device. During the course of this study, the bottom platen was revised, as depicted in Figures 55, 56, and 57 to improve the grab of the geotextile. Figure 58 shows the assembly of the revised test device. All geotextile samples were 2 inches wide and 4.625 inches long. Again, the Ottawa #30 sand prepared at a unit weight of 107 pcf was used.

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94 Rubber gasket Loading / s .. / I I I C e 11 water Lucite _, Top platen ylinder \ c . embrane M . Filter -0-rings _, ? I ... J I _J \ !! :I ..... II I . r I I . . I ./ I\ l \ ( .........-! ( I ,, 0 u I I I I I I I I I -l-... I /_so / V" sam i 1 ple Geote x t i 1 e ?" v / Drai nage t """ ;L__ ----r= Cell pressure Bottom base plate Vacuum (and/or sample saturation and drainage) Figure 52: The original 2 inches diameter cylindrical test equipment.

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Figure 53: Top platen of the 2 inches diameter cylindrical test equipment. 95

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Figure 54: Original bottom platen of the 2 inches diameter cylindrical test equipment. 96

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97 Semi-circular plate Groove for placing the 0-ring seal Screw i n Bottom platen Figure 55: Revised bottom platen of the cylindrical test equipment (Diameter= 2 inc., not to scale)

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Figure 56: New modified bottom platen of the 2 inch. cylindrical test equipment. 98

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99 Figure 57: Bottom of the new modified bottom platen of the 2 inch. cylindrical test equipment.

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Cy Me Lucite platen _, Top linder _i Jl u 1 1 I I mb.rane . i I - I Filter '.ill ___. 0-ring '.'1.!1. \I I \ 7 I I I I I I .J I ... 100 Loading ram _,., .r' A ---l IL : : Cell w ater L S oi / sam 1 ple Geot ex tile Drai nage .. : ------r= \ Cell pressure Bottom base plate Vacuum ( and/or sample saturation and drainage) Figure 58: The new modified 2 inch diame ter cylindrical test equipment

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101 4.4 Sample Preparation for the 2 Inch Diameter SoilGeotextile Sample Before preparing the test sample the base of the triaxial cell has to be carefully wiped off with a clean rag to remove any standing water. This prevented the possibility of water from being raised up by capillary effect through the vacuum tube and wetting the soil. The vacuum line in the base of the triaxial cell has to be dried. If water is present in this line, when a vacuum is applied to the sand-geotextile specimen, water will be drawn into the sand-geotextile specimen. The author learned the hard way that it is very important to determine prior to the test if there are any small holes present in the rubber membrane to be placed around the sand-geotextile specimen before the membrane is ever used. On several occasions the author carefully prepared a sand-geotextile specimen to the required density and upon filling the triaxial cell with water discovered what appeared to be one or two small wet spots on the supposedly dry sand-geotextile specimen. Upon application of cell pressure to the sand-geotextile specimen, water was observed to be passing through the rubber membrane inundating the test specimen, hence squandering away hours of valuable

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102 engineering time. To detect holes in a rubber membrane before it is placed around the soil-geotextile specimen, the rubber membrane may be inflated with water. One method which the author used was to place the membrane between the pedestal base and top cap of the triaxial cell. A rubber 0-ring was placed on the pedestal with a second 0-ring placed on the top cap of the triaxal cell. The 0-rings helped to form a water tight seal when the membrane was inflated. The triaxial cell back pressure line was connected to a water supply line and the membrane was slowly inflated with water. When the membrane had been inflated with water, the outside surfaces of the membrane were wiped off with a dry cloth so that newly formed drops of water passing through the membrane could be detected. One membrane which the author tested in this manner had two pin hole leaks from which the water shot out and on another membrane, a leak was present wherein the water was seen to slowly drip. After a membrane has been tested and found not to contain any holes, the inside and outside of the membrane should be wiped off with a cloth. The membrane should be completely dry before the sandgeotextile specimen is formed to prevent sand from

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103 adhering to the inside of the membrane. When cutting out the filter paper care must be exercised such that the half filter paper discs are neither larger nor smaller than the side of the lower platen on which it was placed. If the half filter paper disc is larger than the lower platen, the edges of the filter paper will be lifted up by the surrounding rubber membrane resulting in a reduction in sample diameter at its contact with the lower platen. Conversely if the paper disc is smaller in diameter than the left hand side of the lower platen, sand can come in direct contact with the lower platen around the perimeter of the filter paper disc. The overall assembly of the soil-geotextile composite during sample preparation is shown in Figure 59. The procedures of sample preparation are described as follows: 1) Trim the geotextile specimen to the selected size in the machine direction. 2) Apply epoxy hardener to both ends of the geotextile; leave it overnight for the glue to set (refer to Figures 60 and 61). 3) Smooth the edges of the reinforced fabric so that it does not damage the membrane

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Top platen --Soil Filter Membrane 0-ring Bottom platen mold Semi-circular plate 104 Figure 59: The new modified cylindrical test equipment during soil-geotextile sample preparation.

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Figure 60: 105 Apply epoxy hardener to both ends of the geotextile to ensure that straining occurs only across its effective length which is 4.625 in.-for the original device. (Step 2, sample preparation)

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106 Figure 61: Apply epoxy hardener to both ends of the geotextile to ensure that straining occurs only across its effective length which is 2 in.-for the revised device. (Step 2, sample preparation}

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107 {refer to Figure 62). 4) Drill holes in the reinforced far ends of the geotextile (refer to Figure 63). 5) De-air the lines connected to the base of the triaxial cell. 6} Attach the bottom platen to the base of the tri axal cell. 7) Attach one end of the geotextile to the bottom platen by screwing a semi-circular plate onto the soil-geotextile specimen pedestal or lower platen (refer to Figure 64). 8) Place a semi-circular filter paper on one 9) side of the geotextile onto the vacuum hole on the base of the lower platen (refer to Figure 65} Attach a membrane of the proper diameter to the base platen (refer to Figure 66). To provide a more impervious connection, the base platen was lightly coated with silicone grease prior to attaching the membrane; this will increase the seal between the membrane and the bottom platen. 10) Place two rubber bands (or 0-rings) around the membrane over the two grooves of the

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108 Figure 62: Smooth the edges of the reinforced fabric. (Step 3, sample preparation)

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109 Figure 63: Drill holes in the reinforced ends of the geotextile. (Step 4, sample preparation)

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110 Figure 64: Attach one end of the geotextile to the bottom platen by screwing a semi circular plate onto the soil-geotextile specimen pedestal or lower platen. (Step 7, sample preparation)

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111 Figure 65: Place a semi-circular filter pap e r on one side of the geotextile onto the vacuum hole on the base of the lower platen. (Step 8, sample preparation)

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112 Figure 66: Attach a membrane of the proper diameter to the base platen. (Step 9, sample preparation)

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113 lower platen (refer to Figure 67). 11) Place the specimen mold around the rubber membrane over the pedestal or lower platen and fold the upper portion of the membrane over the mold (refer to Figure 68). 12) Apply a vacuum of 200 to 250 mm of mercury to the mold and adjust the membrane so that the surface is smooth and without wrinkles, bags, or twists (refer to Figure 69). 13) Hold the geotextile specimen straight. 14) Carefully place the sand in the mold using the raining device as discussed in section 2-4 (refer to Figure 70). To maintain the density constant (107 pcf) through the sample height, the height was divided into equal increments and the quantity of soil for each height was computed and that portion was placed in increments. 15) Continue to fill the mold until the required specimen height of 4.625 inches is attained. Make sure that the top of the soil sample is flat and leveled. The reinforced far end of the geotextile specimen should make an angle of 90 degrees with the top of the soil sample (refer to

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114 Figure 67: Place two rubber bands around the membrane over the two grooves of the lower platen. (Step 10, sample preparation)

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115 Figure 68: Place the specimen mold around the rubber membrane over the pedestal or lower platen and fold the upper portion of the membrane over the mold. (Step 11, sample preparation)

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116 Figure 69: Apply a vacuum of 200 to 250 mm of mercury to the mold and adjust the membrane so that the surface is smooth. (Top view, Step 12, sample preparation)

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117 Figure 70: Carefully place the sand in the mold using the raining device. (Step 14, sample preparation).

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118 F igure 71). 16) Place the semi-circular plate on the top of the leveled soil sample (refer to Figure 7 2) 17) Place the upper platen on the top of the semi-circular plate (Refer to Figure 73). 18) Attach the opposite end of the ge otextile to the top platen by driving two screws through a semi-circular plate which could be connected hermetically to the upper platen (refer to Figure 74). 19) Take a small level and 1 eve 1 the top platen (refer to figure 7 5) 20) Coat the grooves of the top platen with silicone grease to obtain a more leakproof s ea 1 21) Roll the membrane off the mold onto the top platen (refer to Figure 76) 22) Install two rubber bands (or 0-rings) over the membrane so that the membrane is tightly sealed between the rubber bands and the loading cap (refer to Figure 77} 23} R emove the vacuum from the mold 2 4 } Apply a vacuum of 200 to 250 mm .of mercury to the specimen through the vacuum tube in

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119 Figure 71: Continue to fill the mold until the required specimen height of 4.625 inches is attained. Make sure that the top of the soil sample is flat and leveled. (Step 15, sample preparation)

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120 Figure 72: Place the semi-circular plate on the top of the leveled soil sample. ( Step 16, sample preparation)

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Figure 73: Place the upper platen on the top of the semi-circular plate. (Step 17, sample preparation) 121

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122 Figure 74: Attach the opposite far end of the geotextile to the top platen by driving 2 screws through a semi-circular plate which could be connected, hermetically .to the upper platen. (Step 18, sample preparation)

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75: Take a small 1 evel and 1 evel the .top platen. (Step 19, sample preparation) 123

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124 Figure 76: Roll the membrane off the mold onto the top platen. (Step 21, sample preparation)

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125 Figure 77: Install two rubber bands (or 0-rings) over the membrane so that the membrane is tightly sealed between the rubber bands and the loading cap. (Step 22, sample preparation)

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126 the bottom platen and remove the mold from the specimen (refer to Figure 78). 25) Take a small level and make sure the top platen is leveled (refer to Figure 79). 26) Inspect the sample for imperfections. If the membrane has holes and leaks or if the sample is not of constant diameter or if the top platen is not leveled, the soilgeotextile composite must be remade. 27) Place the lucite cylinder on the cell base, being sure the base is free of soil grains so that an airtight seal can be obtained and allow the piston to rest on the top platen (refer to Figure 80). 28) Fill the chamber with the confining fluid while the vacuum is still applied to the soil-geotextile sample. 29) Remove the vacuum from the specimen. 30) Place the cell in the extension machine. 31) Apply a confining pressure of 10 psi. 32) Perform the extension test. 33) Continue the test until the strain exceeds 20 percent of the specimen height.

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127 Figure 78: Apply a vacuum of 200 to 250 mm of mercury to the specimen through the vacuum tube in the bottom platen and remove the mold from the specimen. (Step 24, sample preparation)

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128 Figure 78 (continued): Apply a vacuum of 200 to 250 mm of mercury to the specimen through the vacuum tube in the bottom platen and remove the mold from the specimen. (Step 24, sample preparation)

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129 Figure 78 (continued): Apply a vacuum of 200 to 250 mm of mercury to the specimen through the vacuum tube in the bottom platen and remove the mold from the specimen. (Step 24, sample preparation)

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Figure 79: Take a small level and make sure the top platen is leveled. (Step 25, sample preparation) 130

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131 Figure 80: Place the lucite cylinder on the cell base, being .sure the base is free of soil grains so that an airtight seal can be obtained and allow the piston to rest on the top platen. (Step 27, sample preparation)

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132 The thickness of the membrane and the diameter of the soil-geotextile specimen were measured using a vernier caliper. The height of the soil-geotextile specimen was measured using the vernier caliper shown in Figure 81. The 0-rings were placed over the rubber membrane using the 0-ring expander shown in Figure 82. Forming of the sand-geotextile specimen was facilitated by use of the 2.020-inch diameter by 5-inch long split mold shown in Figure 83. The split mold was positioned on the base of the triaxial cell with a clamp placed around the mold to hold the two halves of the mold tightly in place. Based on the required relative density of the specimen and the known volume of the mold and minusing the volume of the geotextile, it was possible to calculate the required weight of Ottawa #30 sand to be placed within the mold. The required amount of Ottawa #30 sand was weighed in the Ohaus dial a gram scale shown in Figure 84. This scale had a maximum capacity of 2610 grams and an accuracy of + 0.1 gram.

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133 Figure 81: Vernier caliper used to measure the height of the sand-geotextile specimen.

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134 Figure 82: Rubber 0-ring and 0-ring expander.

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135 Figure 83: Cylindrical mold used in forming the sandgeotextile specimens.

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136 Figure 84: Scale used to weigh the Ottawa #30 sand.

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CHAPTER V STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF A NONWOVEN GEOTEXTILE TESTED IN THE 2-INCH CYLINDRICAL TEST EQUIPMENT 5.1 Stress-Strain Tests A total of seven stress-strain testes were performed using the original 2 inch diameter cylindrical test device. The original cylindrical test equipment was reported in section 4-3. One size of the geotextile was used: 2 inches wide by 4.625 inches long. All the tests were conducted with the geotextile in the confinement of a #30 Ottawa sand prepared at 107 pcf. The geotextile was loaded in its machine direction. A constant confining (overburden) pressure of 10 psi was used for all the tests. The tests were performed at a constant strain rate of 1.2 mm per minute. All the tests were continued to 35% strain. These test results were discarded because necking of the samples were very severe during the tests, as shown in figure 85. Because of necking of test specimens it was not possible to obtain accurate stress-train relationship of the geotextile, since the crosssectional area of the geotextile varied significantly during the tests.

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Figure 85 138 The necking of the geotextile s ample was very significant during the test.

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139 Subsequently, the test device was revised, as described in section 4-3. With the revised device, the effective length of the geotextile was reduced from 4.625 inches to 2 inches by increasing the reinforced area at the two ends of the test specimen (shown in figure 61). These short sample shapes (2 inches x 2 inches) were chosen to reduce the necking of the sample during the test. A total of eight stress-strain tests were performed on these short samples (2 inches x 2 inches). All the tests were conducted in the identical test conditions as those of the longer samples. The tests were continued to 50% strain. The stress-strain test data are presented in Appendix C. Figure 86 shows the test sample at 50% strain. The results of the in-soil load-displacement repeatability test number one and two are shown in figure 87. The in-soil stress-strain relationship for repeatability test number one and two are shown in figure 88. The stresses were computed by dividing the load by the initial cross-sectional area of the fabric. The cross-sectional area of the fabric equals the width of the specimen times its thickness. It was assumed that the thickness of the specimen did not change during loading, even in the deformed section .

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Figure 86: The necking of the geotextile sample test. inches by 2 2 (Trevira 112 5) inches during 140 the

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141 78 72 66 0 : RP -1 60 :RP-2 54 48 Vl 42 .0 ,..... 36 10 30 0 -l 24 18 12 6 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 JO 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Displacement in inches (xlo-2) Figure 87: Results of the in-soil load-displacement for repeatability test number 1 and 2.

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142 BOO 750 7 00 650 0 : RP -1 600 550 ll : RP -2 500 .,.. Ill 450 0.. 400 Ill Ill 350 <1J s.. ....., 300 V) 250 200 1 50 1 00 50 0 0 2 5 5Q 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 3 25 Strain (xlo-3 ) Figure 88: Results of the in-soi l stress-strain for repeatability test number 1 and 2.

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143 The strain was computed by dividing the change in length by the original length of the fabric specimen. Figures 87 and 88 show that the tests are "repeatable". Figure 89 shows the load-displacement relationships for the geotextiles confined in the Ottawa #30 sand prepared in identical conditions for repeatability test numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Figure 90 shows their stress-train relationships. For repeatability test numbers 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 the loaddisplacement and stress-strain relationships are shown in Figure 91 and 92, respectively. It is seen that the only non-repeatable test was test number eight, probably because the sample was not properly prepared. Test number eight was discarded because of its inconsistency with the rest of the repeatability tests. Table 9 shows the coefficients of variation of the applied loads at 5 % 10% 15% and 25% strains for the repeatability tests performed with the cylindrical and cubical devices. It may be seen that the variation of the applied load for each strain level was significantly smaller with the cylindrical device than with the cubical device, indicating that the cylindrical device provides more reliable stress-strain properties of the geotextile than the cubical device.

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144 BO 0 : RP -1 0 70 RP-2 w i!i 0 o RP-3 i!i X 0 X 0 60 i!i 0 X : RP-4 X 0 Vl iS ..c 0 r-50 +: RP-5 @ /). + '\:) tO + 0 --l g + 30 1!!1 + 20 0 0 10 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 25 JO J5 4 0 45 50 55 60 65 70 Displacement in inches (x1o-2) Figure 89: Load vs. Displacement relationship for the geotextile confined in Ottawa #30 sand prepared in identical conditions for repeatability test numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

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145 900 0 : Rp-1 800 0 6 : RP-2 i ll 0 700 0 : R P -3 i!i i!i X 0 X 0 X : RP -4 i!i 0 600 X .,... 0 Ill + : RP -5 i5 0 c.. + 500 tJ. Ill + Ill Q) + s... 400 8 .f-.1 + V') 300 8 + 200 0 8 0 100 0 0 5 1 0 15 20 25 JO J5 Strain ( % ) Figure 90: Stress vs. Strain relationship for the insoil geotextile confined in Ottawa #30 sand prepared in identical conditions for repeatability test numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

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146 90 0 Rp-4 80 6 RP-5 0 70 RP-6 II X RP-7 B 0 0 60 II + RP-8 0 + B 0 + VI ..Q 50 0 + ,..... Q 0 + "'C 40 X + ., X 0 0 + 0 0 ...J X & + 30 0 + X 6. + B + 20 0 + + 10 + 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 .30 .35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Displacement in inches (x1o-2) Figure 91: Load vs. Displacement relationship for the geotextile confined in Ottawa #30 sand prepared in identical conditions for repeatability test numbers 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8.

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147 900 0 : Rp-4 BOO A : RP -5 9 2:':1 0 : R P -6 II 700 0 II X 0 : RP -7 II 0 600 + + II 0 + .,.... : RP -8 VI 0 + c. 500 0 + VI X + VI X 0 0 + Q) 400 s.. 8 0 + +-l X V) 0 + JOO X t. + B + 200 0 + 2:':1 + 100 + 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 .35 Strain (%) Figure 92: Stress vs. Strain relationship for the insoil geotextile confined in Ottawa #30 sand prepared in identical conditions for repeatability test numbers 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8.

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Table 9 Coefficient of variation in ( % ) of the applied loads at 5 % 10% 15% and 25% strain for the repeatability tests performed with the cylindrical and cubical devices Coefficient of Variation in ( % ) Strain Strain Strain =5% =10% =15% Tests RP-1 through RP-7 Cylindrical 18.43 7.34 4.67 Device {2"x2" samples) Tests RP-1 through RP-20 26.40 14.00 10.40 Cubical Device {3"x111 samples) 148 Strain =25% 3.04 8.40

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149 To improve preparation of test samples, in particular to improve uniformity of the soil for future research, the author designed two devices. The first device, as shown in figure 93, was designed to hold the geotextile specimen straight during sample preparation without a bend, angle, or curve. The second device shown in figure 94 is a zero raining device which can be used to obtain better uniformity after the sand has been placed in the sample preparation mold. The first device was designed with an outer mold to affix the two metal rods to the outer mold, and a thin sheet metal plate on the opposite side of the outer mold welded to the two metal rods through which two screws extended to securely grab the other thin sheet metal plate at the other side of the geotextile sample. Altogether there are two outer molds, four metal rods and two thin sheet metal plates. A clamp should be placed around the outer mold to hold the two halves of the outer mold tightly in place. The zero raining device may be placed within the inner mold and the sand previously weighed will be poured into the zero raining device. By slowly and smoothly lifting up the zero raining device, the sand will fall through the screened opening on the end of the zero raining device.

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Thin metal Same device at the other side of the geotextile sample ,.L ___ .!-I I 150 (screws) rod inches Outer mold Figure 93: A device that will be used in the second phase of the research to hold the geotextile specimen straight during sample preparation.

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151 Sheet metal handle Soil sample Geotextile Width of the opening = thickness of geotextile + 2 (thickness of the thin sheet metal plate of figure 93) Figure 94: A zero ra1n1ng device will be used in the second phase of the research to place the Ottawa #30 sand within the inner mold.

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CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 6.1 Summary A new cylindrical test device was developed for investigating in-soil stress-strain behavior of geotextiles. Two sizes of the device were manufactured: 2 in. and 6 in. in diameter. Repeatability of the new device and cubical device previously developed at the University of Colorado at Denver was examined. In addition, the frictional characteristics of geotextiles and soils with different fractions of fines were studied. A total of twenty-three stress-strain tests were conducted to examine test repeatability of the cubical test device. Two types of geotextile were tested: woven and nonwoven. The nonwoven geotextile studied was Trevira 1125. The woven geotextile tested was Mirafi SOOX. The repeatability tests were conducted with the geotextiles in the confinement of Ottawa #30 sand prepared at the same density (107 pcf) under the same overburden pressure (10 psi). A total of twelve friction tests were also conducted to study the soil-geotextile characteristics. Ottawa #30 sand with 0 % 10% and 25%

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of silt prepared at the same density (107 pcf) were tested. 153 A total of 8 stress-strain tests were repeated to check for test repeatability using the cylindrical test device. The repeatability tests were conducted with the same geotextiles (Trevira 1125) in the confinement of Ottawa #30 sand prepared at the same density (107 pcf) under the same overburden pressure (10 psi). The geotextile was confined in the same embedment conditions as those of the conventional cubical equipment under the same confining (overburden) pressure. 6.2 Conclusions The findings of the aforementioned experimental tests can be summarized as follows: 1. The 3 inches wide by 1 inch long Trevira 1125 nonwoven geotextile necked noticeably during uniaxial tensile loading. Mirafi 500X woven geotextile of the same specimen size maintained a fairly constant width during uniaxial tensile loading. By reinforcing both ends of Trevira 1125, the necking could be reduced significantly. Reinforcement of both ends of

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154 Mirafi 500X did not allow any tearing up of the geotextile sample at the pin puncture points. 2. In conducting the cubical tests, the frictional resistance between the confining soil and the sheet metal clamp was found to be very significant and should be accommodated for correct interpretation of the stress-strain relations and frictional properties of geotextiles. 3. The repeatability tests conducted on the cubical test device revealed that the device provided unreliable stress-strain properties of geotextiles at low strains (say, less than 5 % strain) which could be very significant in soil reinforcement applications. 4. The frictional characteristics of the geotextiles were very different in the confinement of an Ottawa #30 sand, the Ottawa sand with 10% silt, and the Ottawa sand with 25% silt prepared at the same density--an indication of the importance of fines.on soilgeotextile interface behavior.

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155 5. The stress-strain tests performed on the 4.625 inches long geotextile samples in the 2 inch diameter cylindrical device experienced significant necking and should not be used. 6. The eight tests which were performed on the 2 inches wide by 2 inches long geotextile samples in the 2-inch cylindrical device show very good repeatability. The 6 inch-diameter device was not used in this study. However, it is believed that the 6-inch device may provide even better results since errors resulted from sample preparation may be much smaller with the 6-inch device. 7. The results of this study indicated that the cylindrical device gave more reliable stressstrain properties of geotextile than the cubical device. This might be because: (1) the cylindrical device did away with the sheet metal clamp, thus avoiding correction of the frictional resistance due to the clamp, and (2) control of the overburden pressure i n the cylindrical device is better controlled than

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that of the cubical device. 8. In view of the limited test number obtained from the cylindrical test device, a better understanding of geotextile stress-strain behavior can be achieved if more testes are conducted. To improve the cylindrical test device, it is believed that further investigation of the sample preparation procedure is warranted. 156

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Bonaparte, R., R.D. Holtz, and J.P. Giroud, "Soil Reinforcement Design Using Geotextiles and Geogrids," Symposium, ASTM Committee D-35 on Geotextiles and Related Products, June 1985, pp. 13-14. 2. Christopher, B. and R.D. Holtz, "Geotextile Engineering Manual," Course Text, Prepared for Federal Highway Administration, National Highway Institute, Washington, D.C., 1985. 3. El-Fermaoui, A., and E. Nowatzki, "Effect of Confining Pressure on Performance of Geotextiles in Soils," Second International Conference on Geotextiles, Las Vegas, Nevada, Vol. 3, 1982, pp. 799-804. 4. Haliburton, T.A., C.C. Anglin, and J.D. Lawmaster, "Testing of Geotechnical Fabric for Use as Reinforcement, .. Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, Vol. 1, December 1978. 5. Helwany, M.B., "Numerical Simulation of Soil Geotextile Interaction in Pullout Test," Master's Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado, Denver, 1987. 6. McGown, A., K.Z. Andrawes, and M.H. Kabir, 11Load Extension Testing of Geotextiles Confined In-Soil ,11 Second International Conference on Geotextiles, Las Vegas, Nevada, Vol. 3,1982, pp. 783-798. 7. Siel, B., "Investigation of the Effectiveness of Textile Reinforcement in Strengthening an Embankment Over Soft Foundation, .. Master's Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado, Denver, 1986. 8. Su, C.K., "Investigating Soil-Geotextile Interaction Mechanism, .. MAster's Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado at Denver, Denver, 1986. 9. Wu, T .H. and 0. Takariti, 11Long-Term Creep of Geotextile in the Confinement of Soils Under Sustained Loading," Report to Colorado Department of Highways, Denver, Colorado, 1986.

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158 10. Vanleeuwen, J.H., "New Methods of Determining the Stress-Strain Behavior of Woven and Non-Woven Fabrics in the Laboratory and in Practice," Proceedings of the International Conference on the Use of Fabrics in Geotechnics, Ecole Nationale des Pants et Chausses, Paris, Vol. II, April 1977.

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APPENDIX A CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST DATA

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CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No. : -'-'"--------Overburden Pressure: Soil Type: Soil Density: Samples TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Sample Size: .:3:_:;x:......:1-=i'-"n=-=--------displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) 0.005 0.5 0. 130 _80_ 0.010 1. 5 0 1 35 81.5 0.015 2. 5 0. 1 40 83 0.020 4 0.145 84.5 0.025 6.5 0.1 so 85.5 0.030 10 0.155 87 0.035 1 3. 5 0. 160 8 8 0.040 17.5 o 165 89. 5 0.045 20.5 0.170 90.5 0.050 24.5 0.175 92 0 .055 28. 5 o. 180 93 0 .060 32 0 185 94 0.065 35 0.190 95 0.070 37.25 0. 195 96 0.075 40.5 0.200 97 0.080 43. 5 0.205 97.5 0.085 49 0.210 98.25 0.090 5 6 0.215 98.75 0.095 6 1 5 0.220 99.5 0.100 67 0.225 100 o. 105 69 0.230 100.5 0. 11 0 72 0.235 100.75 0.115 73.5 0.240 101 0. 120 76 0.245 101.5 0.125 77.5 0.250 102 160 I

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CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: Soil Type: ottawa 130 sand Sample: TREVIRI\ 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: __________ Soi 1 Density: ...:.1..::0....:.7-=.P..::C'-"'F---------------Samp 1 e Size : .:;;J_.:.:x'--'-1-=i"'n....:.----------------displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in. I load ( lbs. I 0.005 2 0. 130 74 0.010 3.5 0. 1 35 76 0.015 5 0.140 76.5 0.020 8 0 .145 81 0.025 1 1 0. 1 so 83 0.030 14 5 0.155 85 0.035 17 0.160 87 0.040 20 0 165 90 0.045 23 o. 170 93 0.050 26.S 0. 175 95 O.OS5 29.5 0. 180 97.5 0.060 33 0. 18S 99.5 0.06S 35.5 0. 190 101 0.070 38 0. 1 95 103 0.075 43.5 0.200 105 0.080 47.S 0.205 106.5 0.085 50 0.210 108 0.090 52.5 0.215 109.5 0.095 55 0.220 108 0.100 58 0.22S 112.5 0. 1 OS 60.5 0.230 109.5 0. 110 64.5 0.235 115 0. 1 1 5 67 0.240 114 0. 120 70 0. 245 118 0. 125 71.5 0 2SO 116 161

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162 CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: c Overburden Pres sure: _1:...;0::....."'-P"'s"'i:...,_ _____ Soil Type: I JO ottawa sand Soil Density: Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Size: Sample Direction: Machine displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load (lbs. ) 0.005 5 0. 130 1 5 2 5 0.010 6 0. 135 1 5 7 5 I 0.015 9.5 0.140 161. 5 0 .020 10.5 0 145 1 65. 5 0.025 1 3.5 0. 150 1 69 0.030 19 0.155 172.5 0.035 26.5 0. 160 1 7 6 0.040 J.\.5 0 165 1 79. 5 0.045 43 0. 170 162. 5 0.050 50.5 0. 175 1 6 0 0.055 so 0. 180 19 0 0.060 65 0 165 1 9 3 0.065 7 3 0. 190 1 9 6 0.070 79 0. 195 1 98.5 0.075 86 0.200 I 201 0.080 93 0 .205 2 04 0.085 100 0. 2 1 0 2 07 0.090 106 0.215 I 209.5 I 0.095 11 2 0.220 212. 5 0.100 118 0.225 2 1 5 0.105 1 23 5 0.230 2 19 0. 110 129 0.235 22 0 0. 115 134 0 .240 2 22 o. 120 139 0.245 2 2 3 0. 125 146 0 .250 224. 5

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163 CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: Overburden Pressure: Soil Type: 130 ottawa snnd+10\Soil Density: 107 PCF fines Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Samp 1 e Size : .:lc....::x:__:1__,1::;no..::. ________________ Sample Direction: Machine displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) displacement (in.) load (lbs.) 0.005 4.7 0. 130 120 0.010 12.5 0.135 121. 7 0.015 24. 4 0. 140 123. 7 0.020 32.7 0.145 125.2 0.025 38.5 0. 150 126.4 0.030 45.7 0.155 128. 3 0.035 49 0.160 130 0.040 54.3 0. 165 131.5 0.045 60.7 0.170 133 0.050 67 0. 175 1 34 0.055 7 3.7 0 180 1 35. 5 0.060 79.5 0.185 1 38. 6 0.065 86 0.190 1 39. 4 0.070 91 3 0. 1 95 141 0.075 97 0.200 14 1. 3 0.080 100. 5 0.205 143.3 0.085 104 0.210 144 0.090 104.3 0.215 144.9 0.095 107 0.220 1 4 6. 5 0. 100 108.3 0.225 147. 7 0. 1 OS 111 0.230 1 48. 9 0. 11 0 112 0.235 150.4 0. 115 114 0.240 151.6 0. 120 1 1 6 0.245 152. 7 0. 125 118 0.250 154

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164 CONVENTIONAL STRES S -STRAIN TEST Test No.: E Overburden Pres sure: _:3:..0:......tP:..:S:..i:.... _____ Soil Type: I J O ottawa sand+101-Soil Density: __________________ __ fine s Sample: TREV!RA 11 25 Sample Size: .:::3-"x:.....;1c,__;i:..:n"-'-. --------Sample Direction: Machine displacement (in.) load (lbs. ) displacement (in.) load (lbs.) 0.005 6.3 0.130 18]. 5 0. 01 0 15 0 135 18 5 o 015 41 0.140 186.6 0.020 57 5 0. 1 4 5 187.8 I 0.025 80 0 1 so 189 0.030 97 7 0.155 190.1 0.035 11 4 2 0.160 191.7 0.040 1 26.] 0. 165 1 93 0.045 1 3 7 0. 17 0 1 93.7 0 .050 143.7 0.175 195.3 0.055 148 0 1 80 195.7 0.060 1 5 2 0. 185 1 96.8 0.065 155.2 0.190 1 97 3 0.070 1 57. 5 0. 1 9 5 1 98.5 0.075 1 6 1 0.20 0 1 99 0.080 1 63 0.205 20 0 0.085 1 66. 5 0.21 0 200.7 0.090 16 9 0. 2 1 5 2 01.6 0 .095 170.5 0.220 2 0 2.4 0. 00 173.2 0 22 5 2 02.4 0. 1 OS 175.6 0.230 2 0 2.7 0 110 177. 2 0.235 2 04 o. 115 179. 1 0 .240 20 5 0. 120 180. 7 0.245 2 05.1 0.125 181 1 0.250 20 5.5

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CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: Overburden Pressure: Soil Type: #30 ottawa sarxh25\ fines soil Density: -'-1..;;.0-'-7--"-P..;:C.o.F ________________ Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Sample size: displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load (lbs.) 0.005 0 0. 1 30 77.2 0.010 0 0. 135 80 0.015 0 0.140 81.9 0.020 0.2 0 145 03.5 0.025 1. 6 0.150 84.6 0.030 3 0.155 86.2 0.035 5.9 0. 160 87.4 0.040 10.2 0. 165 88.5 0.045 13 0 170 89 7 0.050 16.5 0. 175 91 0.055 20 0.180 91. 7 0.060 24 o. 185 9 3 0.065 28.4 0. 190 93. 7 0.070 33.5 0. 195 94 5 0.075 38. 6 0.200 95 5 0.080 43 7 0 .205 96.5 0.085 49.2 0. 21 0 97 2 0 .090 5 3 5 I 0. 21 5 9 8 0.095 57 5 0.220 99 0. 100 60 0 .225 100 0. 1 OS 61.0 0.230 100. 6 0. 1 1 0 63 0.235 101.2 0. 115 67. 3 0 .240 102 0.120 71.2 0.245 102.75 0.125 76.4 0.250 103.5 165

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CONVENTIONAL STRESS STRAIN TEST Test No. : __;:G ________ Overburden Pressure: Soil Type:l3 0 ottawa sand+ 25\ fines Soil Density: ________ Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Sample Size : displacement (in.) load (lbs. ) displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) 0.005 13. 4 0.130 188 2 0.010 22 8 0 .135 189. 4 0.015 44.9 0.140 1 90. 4 0.020 68.5 0. 145 1 90 6 0.025 90.S 0. 1 so 1 91. 7 0.030 109.S 0. 15S 1 9 1 4 0.035 127 0. 160 194 0.040 140 0. 16S 19S.3 0 .045 147.2 0.170 19S.3 o.oso 152 7 0 .175 197.2 o.oss 1 58 3 0 .180 1 9 8 0.060 162.2 0. 185 198.8 0.065 1 65 7 0 190 2 00 0.070 168.9 0 1 9 5 2 02 7 0.07 5 1 72 0 .200 2 0 2 7 0.080 174 4 0.205 204 3 0.085 177 2 0 .210 206 0.090 17 8 7 0.215 2 07 0.095 181.1 0.22 0 2 08 3 0. 100 1 82.3 0 .22S 2 09 0. 1 OS 183 8 0 .230 2 10 0.110 18 5 5 0.235 211.5 0 11 s 186.2 0.240 212.2 0 .120 187.4 0.24S 213 0.125 188.2 0.250 2 14 166 I

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167 CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: H Overburden Pressure: Soil Type: Soil Density: Sample: MIRAFI 50 OX Sample Size: Sample Direction: Machine displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) 0.005 0 0. 130 99. 2 0.010 0.5 0. 135 102 0. 01 5 1.4 0.140 1 04o3 0.020 3. 4 0. 1 45 106.3 0.025 S o2 0. 1 so 108.3 O o030 8 o 7 0.155 11 Oo 3 0.035 11. 4 0. 1 60 11 2 0 6 0.040 17.7 0 0 1 6 5 113 0 8 0.045 23o6 0 0 170 11 6. 5 I 0.050 31.5 0 0 175 11 7 0 3 0.055 38o6 0 180 118 0 1 0,060 47 0 0 185 11 9 0 3 0.065 53 0 5 0 0 190 120o5 Oo070 63 0 0 195 1 21 0 3 0.075 67.3 Oo200 122 0.080 72.5 Oo205 122o4 I 0.085 75.8 0. 210 122 0 0.090 79.5 0. 21 5 1 21 0 2 0.095 82o7 0.220 120o8 I 0.100 85 I 0.225 120o8 I 0 o 1 OS 87.4 Oo230 120o8 0. 11 0 89o 8 0.235 120o8 0. 115 91. 7 0.240 120 0.120 94.5 0.245 120 I 0.125 I 96.8 0.250 107 I

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CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No. : Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Sample: HIRAFI SOOX Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: lJL..l1:U Soil Density: Samp 1 e Size : .::3:........:X::.._.:...._1.!:i.!.!n:..:------------------displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load (lbs. ) 0.005 0 0.130 107 0.010 9.5 0. 1 J5 107.9 0.015 1 5 0. 1 40 100. 7 0.020 21.2 0. 1 4 5 109 0.025 29. 1 0. 150 109 0.030 39.4 0.155 109 0.035 47.2 0. 160 109.5 0.040 54.7 0. 165 109.5 0.045 63 0. 170 109. 5 0.050 71 0 175 109 0.055 78 0. 180 108 0.060 83.5 0. 185 107 0.065 87.4 0. 190 106.3 0,070 90. 1 0. 195 106. 3 0.075 92.1 0.200 106.3 0.080 94.5 0.205 106 0.085 96.5 0. 210 106 0.090 98.5 0.215 1 OS. 5 0.095 100 0.220 104. 7 0. 100 101.2 0.225 104 0.105 102.4 0.2JO 1 OJ. 1 0.110 104 0.2J5 1 OJ. 1 0. 115 105 0.240 102.7 0. 120 106 0.245 102.7 0. 125 106.3 0.250 102.7 168

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CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No. : --'J'---------Soil Type: I 3 0 ottawa sand Sample: MIRA F I 500X Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: _____ __ Soil Density: ________ Sample 51 ze: :::.3___,x'--'1---"1"'n:..: ________ __ displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in. l load ( lbs. ) 0.005 0 0. 130 6 8.6 0.01 0 0.4 0 .135 89.4 0. 015 1 6 0 140 6 9.8 0.020 15 0. 145 89.8 0.025 33.8 o. 150 9 0 2 0.030 39. 4 0. 155 9 0.2 0.035 47. 3 0 .160 90. 5 0.040 53.5 0 165 90.9 0.045 59. 8 0.170 90. 7 0.050 6 4 6 0. 175 90. 9 0.055 6 6 9 0. 180 9 1.3 0.060 70.5 Q 185 92. 1 0.065 74.6 0. 190 92.5 0.070 76.4 0. 1 9 5 92.9 0.075 60. 3 0.20 0 91. 7 0.080 80. 7 0.205 92. 1 0.085 81. 9 0 .210 92. 5 0.090 82.7 0. 215 92. 5 0.095 83. 5 0.220 93. 3 0.100 84.3 0.225 94 0. 1 OS 85 0.230 94. 5 0. 11 0 8 5.6 0.235 95.3 0. 1 1 5 86.6 0.240 9 6 0.120 87 0.245 96.9 0. 125 88.2 0.250 97.3 169

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170 CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: Overburden Pressure: Soil Type: 130 ottawa sand+10\ fines Soil Density: ..:.1.::.0...:.7.....:.P..=C:.:.F ________________ Sample: MIRAFI 500X Samp 1 e size : =3-"x'--'1-=ic.:.:n:...:-----------------Sample Direction: Machine displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load (lbs.) 0.005 0. 4 0. 130 118. 1 0.010 2 0.135 1 22.8 0. 01 5 2.4 0. 1 40 1 25. 5 0.020 5.5 0.145 129. 1 0.025 8.7 o. 150 1 31. 5 0.030 1 o. 3 0.155 134.2 0.035 1 3 0. 160 136. 6 0.040 15.7 0.165 137.7 0.045 18.9 o. 170 141 I 0.050 22.4 0. 175 143.3 0.055 28 0. 180 1 45. 6 0.060 34.6 0. 185 147. 6 0.065 41 o. 190 150 0.070 47. 2 0. 195 1 51. 2 0 .075 54 0.200 152.7 0.080 60.3 0.205 1 54 3 0.085 69.3 0. 210 1 55. 1 0.090 75. 6 0. 215 156 0.095 Ill. 5 0.220 1 56.7 0.100 87 8 0.225 157 0.105 93 7 0 .230 157.3 0.110 100 o.:-:s 1 58 3 o. 115 104.7 0 240 1 5 8 6 0. 120 109. 5 0.245 159.2 0. 1 25 115 0.250 159. 6

PAGE 190

171 CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: Overburden Pressure: Soil Type: 130 ottawa sanch -10\ f.UieS Soil Density: ..:.1..:0...:.7--=.P.=C:.:.F ________________ Sample: KIRAFI 500X Sample size: .::3.....::x'-'-1-=ic:.:n:..:-----------------Sample Direction: Machine displacement (in. l load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load (lbs.) 0.005 0 2 0. 130 182 7 0.010 0 2 0. 135 183.8 0.015 1.6 0.140 185.4 0.020 7 0 145 187.4 0.025 2 6 0. 150 189.4 0.030 46.5 0.155 191. 3 0.035 68.5 0. 160 192.1 0.040 85.8 0.165 193. 7 0.045 103.2 0. 170 194. 5 0.050 117.3 0. 175 195.3 0.055 133.8 0.180 195.7 0.060 138.6 0.185 196 0.065 144.9 0. 190 196.8 0.070 148.8 0.195 197.6 I 0.075 152.7 0.200 198 0 .080 1 5 6 0.205 199 0.085 159 o. 210 199. 2 0.090 162.2 0. 2 1 5 199. 2 0.095 164.6 0.220 199.6 0. 100 167.3 0.225 199 2 0,105 169.3 0.230 198.8 0. 110 172.4 0.235 198.4 0. 115 174.8 0.240 197.2 o. 120 177.2 0.245 193.3 0.125 179.5 0.250 193

PAGE 191

172 CONVENTIONAL STRESS STRAIN TEST Test No.: Overburden Pressure: Soil Type: 130 ottawa sand+25\ fines Soil Density: 107 PCF Sample: MIRJ\FI soox Si!LIIIpl e Size: "'3---"x:........;.1--=1""n"'-.-----------------Sample Direction: Machine displacement (in. ) load (lbs. ) d .isplacement (in. ) load ( lbs.) 0.005 0 o. 130 6 6 2 0.010 0 0.135 6 6 2 0. 01 5 0 4 0. 140 66.5 0 .020 11 o. 145 67.3 0.025 20 0.1 so 6 7. 5 0.030 26 o. 155 6 7. 7 0.035 31.5 0.160 67.2 0 .040 36.2 0. 165 67 0.045 39. 8 0.170 65 0 .050 44 0 .175 65.2 0 .055 48 0 1 8 0 6 4 6 0.060 5 1 2 o 185 6 4 0 .065 53 7 0. 190 6 3 0.070 5 6 0. 1 95 62.4 0.075 57 8 0.200 62.2 0 .080 60 0 .205 60. 6 0.085 61 0.210 60. 4 0.090 62 0. 2 1 5 5 9 0.095 62.6 0.220 56. ) 0.100 63 0.225 56.3 0. 1 OS 63.4 0.230 55. 1 0. 110 64. 2 0.235 55. 1 0. 115 65.2 0.240 55. 1 0. 120 6 6 0 .245 5 5.1 o 125 66.2 0.250 54. 7

PAGE 192

173 CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: OVerburden Pressure: l.ll.._Rsi Soil Type: 130 ottawa san1+25\ fines Soil Density: .:.1..::0:....:7:....-!P:....:C:::.:F,_ ________ Sample: MIJlAFI SOOX Sample Size: Sample Direction: Machine displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load (lbs.) 0.005 1.6 o. 130 97.6 o. 010 14.2 0.135 97.2 0.015 26.7 0. 140 96.5 0.020 49.6 o. 145 95.6 0.025 56.7 0. 150 95 0.030 65.4 0. 155 94 0.035 71.6 0. 160 93.3 0.040 76.6 0.165 92.1 0.045 80.3 0. 170 91.7 0.050 84.2 0.175 91.7 0.055 66.6 0.180 91.5 0.060 67.6 o. 165 9 1.1 0.065 69.4 0. 190 90.5 0.070 90.6 0. 1 95 90.2 0.075 91.7 0.200 69.7 0.080 93.3 0.205 89. 4 0.085 95.3 0. 21 0 88.6 0.090 96.5 0. 21 5 87.8 0.095 97. 2 0.220 66.6 0. 100 98 0.225 86.4 0. 1 OS 96 0.230 85.6 0. 1 10 96 0.235 65.4 0. 115 98 0.240 65 0.120 98.4 0.245 64.6 0.125 96.4 0_. 250 84.8 -----

PAGE 193

CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test N o.: RP-1 Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Sam ple: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: Soil Density: __________________ Sample Size: displacement I in. l load ( lbs.) displacement (in. l load ( lbs. l 0.005 31 0 130 93 0.010 42 0 0 135 94. 5 0.015 46 0 14 0 96 Oo020 52 0. 145 97 0.025 55 0. 150 99 0.03 0 57 0. 155 100 0 .035 60 0.160 101. 5 0.040 61 0 0 165 102.5 0.045 62o5 0 170 104 0.050 64.5 o. 175 105o5 0.055 66o5 0. 160 107 0.060 70o 5 0 0 165 106 0.065 76o 5 0 190 109 Oo070 77.5 Oo195 111 O o075 76 Oo200 11 2 Oo080 78. 5 0.205 11 3 5 0.085 79 O o210 11 4. 5 Oo090 60 Oo215 11 50 5 Oo095 82 Oo220 117 0.100 8 4 Oo225 118 0 1 OS 85 Oo230 119 o. 11 0 86o5 Oo235 120 Oo 115 68 Oo240 121 0 5 0 0 120 90 Oo245 122o5 Oo 125 92 Oo250 123o5 174

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175 a::NVFNI'ICNAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No. : RD-1 OVerburden Pressure: 1 0 ooi TBE1liRA 11 25 Soil Type: 830 ottawa sarxi Soil Density: Sant>le Direction: Machl.ne Sant>le She: 3 x 1 in. 'lhlckness of in. Cross-Sectional Area of SiJn1>le: 0.111732 tn2 Pplate(lbs) P(lbs) w/ PoorrectP-Pplate Pt:orrec A f ..displacement E. strain...!fmetal only fabric (lbs) a-=srress Afab (in.) (psi r1c 1 lin. 17 h 11 18.4 1/Q R 0 005 0.005 _jfi 2 42 25. 8 1R7 0.010 0 .01 0 18.8 46 27,2 191 q 0.015 0 015 70. 1 52 31 7 ?J1h 0.020 0 020 ...21 55 34 219. R 0 025 0.025 21. 3 57 35. 7 251 .8 0.030 0.030 _21 .8 60 38.2 269.5 0 035 0.035 22. 5 61 38.5 271. 6 0.040 0 040 23.5 67, 5 39 275. 2 0.045 0.045 23.8 64 .'i 40. 7 287 2 0.050 0.050 24 66. 5 42.5 299.8 0 0 5 5 0 0 5 5 24.2 20. 5 46.3 326.7 0.060 0.06 0 24.2 76.5 52. 3 369 0.065 0 .065 24. 2 77 .s 53 3 376 0 0 7 0 0 0 70 24.2 78 53.8 na h 0.075 0.075 74 78.5 54.5 384 5 0 080 0 080 21. R 79 55.2 3R9.'i 0.085 0 0 85 23 .. 6 80 56.4 397 .9 0 090 0.090 23.6 82 58.4 412 0.095 0.0 95 23.6 84 60.4 426 2 0.10 0 o. 100 23.6 85 61.4 433.2 0.105 0.105 7 1 c; 86.5 63 444 5 0.110 0.110 2J .'i 88 64.5 455 0 115 0.115 71 1 QO 66.7 470.6 0.120 0.12 0 23 Q2 6 9 486 .tl 0 1 2 5 o 1 2 5 22.5 Q1 70 5 497.4 0.130 o 1 3 0 22.5 94.5 72 508 o 135 0.1 3 5 _21 8 _96 74.2 5 23.5 0 .140 0 .140 21.8 en 75.2 530.6 0 145 o 1 4 5 71. h 99 77.4 546 1 0 1 5 0 0.1 5 0 21.1i 100 78.4 5 5 3 2 o 155 o 155 21.5 101.5 A.O 564 4 0. 160 I) 1 6lJ 21 5 102. 5 81 571.5 0.165 0 1 6 5 21.2 104 8 2 8 581.2 0.170 o. 1 70 A 1 0 5 5 84 7 597 6 0.175 0.175 /O.R 107 8 6 2 608 2 0 1 80 0.180 20.3 108 87 7 618. 7 0 185 0.1 8 5 20.2 109 88 8 6 26.5 o. 190 0.190 19.8 111 91 2 643. 5 0 195 0. 195 19.8 117 Q7 7 6 5 0.5 0 2 0 0 0.200 19 5 111 c; 94 6 6 j .2 0 205 0 20 5 19. 3 114 5 95 2 671.7 0.210 0.210 1R. R 115 5 96 7 6 8 2.] 0 215 0 .215 18.8 117 98.2 692.8 0 220 0.220 18. 6 118 99. 4 701.3 0 225 0.2 25 18. 3 119 100 7 710.5 0 230 0.230 18 120 102 7 1 9 6 0 235 0.235 17. 7 121.5 103 8 717 4 0.240 0 .240 17.7 122.5 104.8 719 .4 0 245 0 245 17.5 123.5 106 747 Q 0.250 0.250

PAGE 195

CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: RP-2 Soil Type: 30 ottawa sand Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: 10 psi Soil Density: __________________ Sample Size: displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) displacement (in. ) load ( lbs.) 0.005 2.5 0. 130 78 0.010 3 0 1 35 81 0.015 4 0.140 86 0.020 5.5 0 1 45 87 0.025 9 o 150 89 0.030 17 0.155 91 0.035 32 0.160 93 0.040 43 o. 165 95.5 0.045 48 0.170 97 t-0.050 50.5 0. 175 99 0 .055 51 o. 180 101.5 0.060 52 0.185 103 0.065 52 o. 190 105 0.070 52 0. 1 95 107 0.075 52.5 0.200 108 0.080 53.5 0.205 109.5 0.085 55 0.210 111. 5 0.090 57 0.215 11) 0.095 59.5 0.220 11 5 0.100 61.5 0 .225 116.5 0. 1 OS 64 0.230 119 0.110 66 0.235 120 0. 115 69 0.240 1 21. 5 0. 120 72 0.245 123 0. 125 75 0.250 125 176 ,.

PAGE 196

CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: RP-3 Overburden Pressure: 10 psi Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Soil Density: __________________ Sample : TR EV IRA 1 1 2 5 Samp 1 e size : .::3'---"x=--:1'--'i:..:n;:..;:....--------------Sample Direction: Machine displacement (in.) load ( lbs. ) displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) 0.005 0.5 0. 130 68 o. 0 1 0 0. 5 o. 135 69 0.015 0.5 0.140 70.5 0.020 0 5 o. 145 71.5 0 .025 4. 5 0. 150 73 0.030 1 3 0. 1 55 74 0.035 19 0. 160 76 0.040 23 0.165 76.5 0.045 25 0.170 78 0.050 27 0. 175 79 0.055 29. 5 0. 180 81 0.060 35 0. 185 62 0.065 37 0. 190 83 0.070 42 0 .195 84 0.075 44 0.200 85 0.080 46.5 0.205 86.5 0.085 49 0.210 87.5 0.090 52 0.215 89 0.095 54.5 0.220 89.5 0.100 57 0.225 90.5 0.1 OS 59.5 0.230 92 o. 110 61.5 0 .235 93 0. 115 63 0.240 94 0.120 65 0.245 95 0.125 66 0.250 96.5 177

PAGE 197

CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: RP-4 Soil Type: I 30 ottaw a san d Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Directio n : Machine Overburden Pressure: 10 psi Soil Density: __________________ Sample Size: displacement (in.) l oad (lbs.) displacement (in.) l oad ( lbs.) 0 .005 3 0 130 98 0.010 1 0.135 99 0.015 15 0 1 40 101 0.020 17 0.145 102 0.025 24 0.150 104 0.030 4 0 0. 1 55 105.5 0.035 43 0. 160 107 0.040 49 0.165 108 0.045 53 0.170 110 0.050 57 0.175 111 0.055 62 0 1 BO 11 2. 5 0.060 66 0.185 11 4 0.065 69 0. 190 115 0 .070 71.5 0 195 11 6 0.075 74 0.200 11 7 0.080 17 0.205 11 B. 5 0.085 79 0 .210 119.5 0.090 81. 5 0.215 1 21 0 .095 B5 0 .220 122 o. 100 86 0.225 123 0 1 OS 87 0.230 125 0. 110 90 0.235 125.5 o 115 92 0.240 126.5 o 120 94 0.245 127.5 0.125 95 0.250 128.5 1 78

PAGE 198

179 CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: RP-5 Overburden Pressure: Soil Type: 1 30 ottawa sand Soil Density: Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Size: Sample Direction: Machine displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) 0.005 0.5 0. 1 )0 73 0.010 0.5 0. 1 35 74 0.015 0.5 0. 140 76 0.020 4 0. 1 45 77.5 0.025 17 0.150 79 0.0)0 25 0. 1 55 60. 5 0.035 26 0.160 62 0.040 29 0. 165 63.5 0.045 30 0. 170 65 0.050 31 0. 175 67 0.055 31. 5 0 160 88 0.060 33 0. 165 69.5 0.065 34. 5 0. 190 91 0.070 37 0. 195 92 0.075 40 0.200 93 5 0.060 43 0.205 95 0.085 47 0. 21 0 96 0.090 51 0.215 97 0.095 54 0 .220 96 0. 100 56 0.225 99 0. 1 OS 61 0.230 100 0.110 64 0.235 101.5 0.115 66.5 0.240 102.5 0. 120 69 0.245 104 0.125 70.5 0.250 105

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180 CONVENTIONAL STRESS STRJ\IN TEST Test No.: RP-6 Overburden. Pressure: __________ __ Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Soil Density: __________________ Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Samp 1 e Size : .=3c....:::x:..._:1__,i:.:n:..;:..----------------Sample Direction: Machine displacement (in. I load ( lbs. I displacement (in. I load ( lbs. I 0.005 6 0 0 130 86 0 .010 20 0 .135 87 0.015 27 0 0 1 4 0 88. 5 0.020 31 0 5 0 0 145 89.5 0.025 35 0.150 90.5 0.030 38 0 0 1 55 91 0 5 0.035 42 o. 160 92.5 0.040 45 0 0 1 65 93.5 0.045 49 0 0170 94.5 0.050 51 0 0 175 96 0.055 55 0 0 180 97 0.060 58.5 0 0 185 98 0.065 61 0. 19 0 99 0.070 6 4 0 0 195 100 0.075 66.5 0.200 101 0.0!!0 69 0.205 102 0.085 72 0. 210 1 03 0 5 0 .090 74 0 0 21 5 104 0 5 0 .095 76 0.220 105. 5 0.100 78 0 .225 106.5 0. 1 OS 80 0 .230 107.5 o. 110 81 0.235 108.5 0. 115 82.5 0.240 109. 5 0 0 120 84 0.245 110.5 0 0 125 85 0.250 111 0 5

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CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: Soil Type: f 30 ottawa sand Sample: TREVIR A 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: 10 pv' Soil Density: ________________ __ Sample Size: displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) displacement (in.) load ( lbs. I 0.00 5 18 0. 130 92 0.010 23 o. 135 94 0.015 30 0. 1 40 95 0.02 0 35 0. 14 5 98 0.025 41 0 .150 99 0.0 3 0 45 0 155 100 0.035 49.5 0. 160 102 0.040 53 0. 165 103 0.045 57 0. 170 104 0.050 60 0.175 105 0.05 5 63 0.180 107 0.060 65 0. 185 108 0.06 5 66 0.190 110 0.070 67 0. 195 111 0.075 69 0.200 100 0.080 71.5 0.205 102 0.085 74 0. 210 104 0.09 0 76 0.215 106 0.09 5 78 0.220 108 0. 100 80 0.225 109 0.1 O S 82 0.230 109.5 o 110 84. 5 0.235 111 0 115 86.5 0.240 1 1 2 0. 120 88 0.245 114 0 125 90.5 0.250 115 1 81

PAGE 201

CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: RP8 Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine overburden Pressure: Soil Density: ________________ __ Sample Size: displacement ( in.) load (lbs. ) displacement (in.) load (lbs.) 0.005 1 6 0.130 85 0.010 26 0. 1 35 86 0.015 32 0 .140 87. 5 0.020 36 0. 1 45 88.5 0.025 41 0 150 6_2_ 0.030 45 0.155 90. 5 0.035 49 0. 160 91. 5 0.040 52 o. 165 9) 0.045 55 0. 170 94 0.050 57 0. 175 95 0.055 59 0. 160 96. 5 0.060 61.5 0 185 98 0.065 63.5 o. 190 99.5 0.070 55 0. 195 101 0.075 67.5 0 .200 101.5 0.080 69 0.205 103 0.085 71 0.210 2 0 .090 72. 5 0. 215 106 0.095 75 0.220 107 0. 100 76 0.22 5 108 0. 1 OS 76 0.230 109 0. 110 79 0.235 11 o. 5 0.115 80.5 0.240 111.5 0. 120 82 0.245 11 3 0.125 83 0.250 114 182

PAGE 202

183 CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: Overburden Pressure: l.JL..wLi Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Soil Density: Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Size: Sample Direction: Machine displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load (lbs.) I I 0.005 3 0.1)0 60 5 i 0.010 12 0. 135 62 0.015 20 0. 140 63 5 0.020 26 0. 145 65 0.025 30 0.150 66 0.030 32 0.155 67.5 0.035 35 0. 160 69 0.040 37 0.165 91 0.045 41 0.170 92 0.050 44 0. 175 93 0.055 48 0.180 94 0 .060 52 0.185 95 0.065 57 0. 190 96. 5 0.070 59 o 195 98 0.075 62 0.200 99 0.060 64 0.205 1 00. s 0.085 66 0.210 101.5 0.090 68 o. 215 103 0.095 70 0.220 104 0. 100 71. 5 0.225 105.5 0.105 73 0.230 107 0. 110 75 0.235 106 0. 115 76 0.240 110 o. 120 77.5 0.245 111.5 0. 125 79 0.250 112. 5

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CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No. : --'R"'P._-.:...1'-'0"--------Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: 10 psi Soil Densl ty: ...;.1....;;0-'-7---"'P....;;C"'"F ________ Sample Size: displacement (ln.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load (lbs.) 0.005 0 0.130 83 0.010 3 0.135 84 0. 01 5 8 0. 1 40 84.5 0.020 18 0.145 85.5 0.025 25 0.150 87 0.030 31 0. 1 55 88 0.035 36 0.160 89 0.040 42 0.165 90 0.045 ,J,7 0.170 91. 5 0.050 52 0.175 92.5 0.055 56 o 180 93.5 0.060 60 o. 185 94.5 0.065 63 0. 190 95 0.070 66 0.195 96 0.075 68 0.200 97 0.080 70 0 .205 98 0.085 72 0 .210 99 0.090 71 0. 215 100 0.095 74.5 0.220 101 o. 100 75 0.225 101 5 0. 1 OS 76 0.230 10 3 0.110 77 0.235 103.5 o. 115 79 0.240 104 0.120 80 0.245 105 0.125 81 0.250 106 184

PAGE 204

CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: RP-11 Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: 1 o psi Soil Density: ________________ __ Sample Size: displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (ln.) load ( lbs.) 0.005 23 0.130 96 0.010 28 0. 135 97 0.015 32 0. 1 40 98.5 0.020 36 0. 145 99. 5 0.025 1 0.150 100. 5 0.030 46 0. 155 101. 5 0.035 5 1 0.160 102 0.040 55 0.165 103 0.045 59 o. 170 104 0.050 62 0. 175 105 0.055 66 o. 180 106 0.060 70 o. 185 107 0.065 73 0. 190 108 0.070 77 0 195 108.5 0.075 80 0.200 109 0.080 82 0,205 10 0.085 84 0.210 11 0 5 0.090 86 0.215 111. 5 0.095 88 0.220 112.5 0 100 89 0.225 1, J o. 105 91 0.230 , 4 0,110 92 0.235 11 4. 5 0. 11 5 93 0.240 115 o. 120 94 0.245 116 0.125 95.5 0.250 117 185

PAGE 205

CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No,: RP-12 Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: 10 psi Soil Density: ________________ __ Sample Size: displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) 0.005 25 0.130 86 0.010 39 0.135 87. 5 0.015 40 o. 140 89 0.020 40 0.145 90 0.025 38 0.150 91 0.030 44 0., 55 92. 5 0.035 48 o. 160 93.5 0.040 50 0., 65 94 0.045 54.5 0. 170 95 0.050 57 0. 175 97 0.055 61 o. 180 98 0.060 6-1 0. 185 99 0.065 66 0. 190 100 0.070 68 0. 195 101 5 0.075 69 0 .200 102. 5 0.080 71 0.205 103.5 0.085 73 0.210 104. 5 0.090 74. 5 0. 21 5 1 OS. 5 0.095 76 0.220 106. 5 o., 00 77.5 0.225 107 0. 1 OS 79 0.230 108 0. 1, 0 80.5 0.235 109 0. 115 82.5 0.240 110 o. 120 83 0.245 110.5 0.125 85 0.250 111.5 186

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187 CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: RP-13 Overburden Pressure: 10 psi Soil Type: II 30 ottawa sand Soil Density: ________________ __ Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Size: __ Sample Direction: Machine displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in. l load (lbs. l 0.005 0 5 0. 130 76 0.010 1.5 0.135 16 0.015 6 0. 140 79 0.020 1 2 0. 145 60.5 0.025 17 0.150 62 0.030 21 0. 155 83 0.035 26 0.160 65 0.040 30.5 0.165 66 0.045 35 0. 170 61 0.050 39 0.115 68.5 0.055 42 o. 180 90 0.060 45 o. 185 91 0.065 47.5 0. 190 92 0.070 51 0. 195 93. 5 0.075 53 0.200 94.5 0.060 57 0.205 96 0.065 59 0.210 97 0.090 62 0.215 96 0.095 65 0.220 99 0. 100 67. 5 0.225 100 0. 1 OS 69 0.230 101.5 o. 110 70.5 0.235 103 0. 11 5 72 0.240 104 0. 120 74 0.245 105 0.125 75 0.250 106.5

PAGE 207

CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: overburden Pressure: 10 psi Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Soil Density: ________________ __ Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Size: Sample Direction: Machine displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load (lbs.) 0.005 8 0. 130 93 0.010 18 0. 135 95 0.015 26 0.140 96.5 0.020 37 0.145 96 0.025 40 0.150 100 0.030 44 0.155 101.5 0 .035 47 0.160 103 0.040 50 0.165 104. 5 0.045 54 0.170 106 0.050 57.5 0.175 __1_Q_Il_ 0.055 61 o. 180 109 0 .060 64 0. 185 111 0.065 66 0.190 11 2 0.070 6 9 0 195 I 1 4 0.075 71 0.200 115 0.060 7 3 0.205 11 7 0.085 75.5 0 .210 I 18 0.090 78 o. 215 119 0.095 79. 5 0.220 1 21 0. 100 81. 5 0.225 122 0. 1 OS 84 0 .230 1 22.5 o. 110 86 0.235 124.5 0. 11 5 88 0.240 1 2 6 o. 120 _90 0.245 127 0.125 91 0.250 129 5 188

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Test No.: CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TESr Overburden Pressure. Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Soil Density: I Sample S 1 z e : Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine l displacement (in. l load (lbs.) displacement (inj ) load ( lbs.) 0.005 0.5 o. 130 77 0 .010 1 o 135 I 79 0.015 6 0. 1 40 80 0.020 7 0.145 I 82 0.025 9 0 150 83 0.030 1 3 0.155 I 85 0.035 16 0.160 86 0.040 19 0. 165 87.5 0.045 22 o. 170 89 0.050 25 0. 175 90. 5 0.055 29 o 180 92 0.060 33 0. 185 I 93 0.065 37 0. 190 94.5 0.070 41. 5 0. 195 96 0.075 45. 5 0.200 97 0.080 49 0.205 99 0.085 53 0. 210 100 0.090 56 0.215 101 0.095 60 0.220 102.5 0. 100 63 0.225 1 04 0.1 OS 67 0.230 105 0. 110 69.5 0.235 106 0 11 5 72 0.240 107 0. 120 74 0.245 109 o. 125 75 0.250 110 -189

PAGE 209

CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: RP-16 Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: __________ Soil Density: ________________ __ Sample Size: displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load (lbs.) 0.005 16 o. 130 95 0.010 25 0.135 96 5 0.015 32 0.140 98 0.020 36 0. 145 99.5 0.025 45 0.1 so 101 0.030 51 0.155 102 0.035 56 0.160 103.5 0.040 60 0. 165 104. 5 0.045 63 0.170 106 0.050 66 0.175 107 0.055 66 0.160 108 0 .060 70.5 0.185 110 0.065 72 5 0. 190 111 0.070 75 0. 195 112 0.075 76. 5 0.200 113.5 0.080 79 0.205 115 0.085 81 0.210 116 0.090 82 0.215 117 0.095 84 0.220 118.5 o 100 86 0.225 120 0. 1 OS 87 0.230 1 21 o. 110 89 0.235 1 22 0.115 90 0.240 123 o. 120 92 0 .245 124. 5 0.125 93 0.250 126 190

PAGE 210

191 CONVENTIONAL STRESS STRAIN TEST Test No.: ___ R_P_-_1_7 _____________ overburden Pressure: __ Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Soil Density: ________________ __ Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Size: Sample Direction: Machine displacement (in. l load (lbs.) displacement (in. l load ( lbs.) 0.005 8 0.130 86 0.010 14 0. 135 87 0.015 29 0.140 89 0.020 33 0.145 90.5 0.025 38 0.150 92 0.030 42 o. 155 93 0.035 45.5 0.160 94 0.040 0.165 95 0.045 52. 5 0.170 96.5 0.050 56 0.175 98 0.055 59.5 0.180 99 0.060 62 0.185 100.5 0.065 64.5 0.190 101.5 0.070 66.5 o. 195 102.5 0.075 68.5 0.200 103.5 0.080 70.5 0.205 105 0.085 72 0. 210 106 0.090 7 3 5 0.215 108 0 .095 75 0.220 109 o. 100 77 0.225 110 0. 105 78.5 0.230 111 o. 110 80.5 0.235 112 o. 115 82 0.240 113 0. 120 83 0.245 11 4 0. 125 84 0.250 115.5

PAGE 211

192 CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: RP-18 Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Sample: TRE VIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: 10 psi Soil Density: Sample Size: displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load (lbs.) 0.005 16 0.130 q1 c; 0.010 32 0. 135 96 0.015 39 0.140 97 0.020 44 0 .145 98 0.025 49 0.150 99. 5 0.030 54 0.155 10 1 0.035 58 0. 160 102 0.040 60 0.165 103. 5 0.045 63 0. 170 104. 5 0.050 65.5 0. 175 106 0.055 68 o. 180 107.5 0.060 70 0 165 1 08. 5 0.065 72.5 0. 190 109.5 0.070 74 0. 195 111 0.075 76.5 0 200 11 2 0.080 78 0.205 11 3 0.085 80 0.210 11 4 0 .090 82 0.215 116 0.095 83. 5 0.220 117 o. 100 85 0.225 118 0 1 O S 86.5 0.230 118. 5 0.110 88 0.235 120 0. 11 5 89.5 0.240 121 o. 120 91 0.245 122 0. 125 92 0.250 122.5

PAGE 212

193 CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: RP-19 Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: Soil Density: ________________ __ Sample Size: displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load (lbs.) 0.005 7.5 0. 1 30 70. 5 0.010 8 0. 135 71.5 o. 015 1 0.140 73 0.020 5 0. 1 45 74 0.025 15.5 0.150 76 0.030 17 o. 155 77 0.035 21 0., 60 79 0.040 25.5 0. 165 80.5 0.045 29 0.170 82 0.050 32 0. 175 84 0.055 36 0.180 85 0.060 40 0., 85 87 0.065 43 0. 190 80 0.070 46 0. 195 90 0.075 49 0 .200 91 0.080 51 0.205 92 0.085 54 0.210 93 0.090 56 0.215 94.5 0.095 59 0.220 95.5 0.100 61 0.225 96.5 0.1 OS 62.5 0.230 98 0. 1, 0 64 0.235 99 0. 115 65.5 0.240 100.5 0., 20 67 0.245 101.5 0.125 68.5 0.250 103

PAGE 213

CONVENTIONAL STRESS STRAIN TEST Test No.: Overburden Pressure: __________ Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Soil Density: ________________ __ Sample Size: displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in. I load (lbs.) 0 .005 20 0. 1 30 9 9 0. 01 0 24 0. 135 100.5 0.015 27 o. 140 102 0.020 34 0.145 103. 5 0.025 40 0 .150 105 0.030 46 0.155 107 0.035 52 o. 160 108 0.040 57 0. 165 1 10 0.045 62 0 .170 111 0.050 66.5 0. 175 11 3 0.055 70.5 0.180 115 0.060 73 0.185 116 0.065 75. 5 0.190 117. 5 0.070 78 0.195 119 0.075 80 0.200 120.5 0.080 82 0.205 122 0.085 84 0.210 123 0.090 86 0.215 1 2 4 0.095 8 8 0 .220 1 2 6 o 100 90 0.225 127 0. 1 OS 91 0.230 126 0. 11 0 93 0.235 1 28. 5 0. 115 94. 5 0.240 129 0. 120 96 0.245 129.5 0.125 97. 5 0.250 130 194

PAGE 214

CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: ______________ Soil Type: #30 ottawa sand Sample: HIRAFI 500X Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: __ Soil Density: ________________ __ Sample Size: displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load (lbs.) 0.005 5. 5 0. 130 1 63 0 .010 19 0.135 1 64 0.015 32 0.140 165 0.020 42 0. 145 166 0.025 50 0.150 167 0.030 59 0. 1 55 169 0.035 67 0.160 169 0.040 77 0.165 168.5 0.045 85 0.170 168 0.050 93 0. 175 168 0.055 99 0. 180 167 0.060 105 0. 185 166 0.065 112 0. 190 165 0.070 119 0. 195 1 64 0.075 1 23 0.200 163.5 0.080 1 29 0.205 163 0.085 132 0.210 162 0.090 1 37 0. 21 5 162 0.095 1 41 0.220 161.5 0.100 1 45. 5 0.225 161 0.105 149 0.230 160. 5 0.110 1 53 0 .235 1 59. 5 0. 11 5 155 0.240 158 0. 120 158 0.245 156 0. 125 160 0.250 1 53. 5 195

PAGE 215

196 CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: OVerburden Pressure: Soil Type: #30 ottawa sand Soil Density: Sample: HIRAFI 500X Sample Size: Sample Direction: Machine displacement lin.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load (lbs.) 0.005 13 o. 130 1ti 0.010 17 0. 1 35 147 0.015 22 0. 140 148 0.020 28 0. 145 151 0.025 35 0. 150 155 0.030 41 0.155 155 0.035 46 o. 160 155 0.040 53 0. 11;5 1 54. 5 0.045 58 0.170 1 5J. 5 0.050 65 0. 175 152.5 0.055 73 0.180 1 51.5 0.060 132 0. 185 151 0.065 92 0. 190 150.5 0.070 99 0. 195 150 0.075 105 0 .200 149.5 0.080 111 0.205 149 0.085 11 6 0 .210 146 0.090 124 0. 21 5 146 0.095 131 0.220 147 0.100 136 0.225 1 4 6. 5 0. 1 05 139.5 0.230 146.5 0. 11 0 141 0.235 146 0. 115 142 0.240 1 4 5. 5 0. 120 144 0.245 1 4 5. 5 0. 125 H5 0.250 145 I

PAGE 216

197 a:.NVENl'IUiAL SlRESS-SlTh'\IN TESr Test No. : Rp--B OVerburden Pressure: _tO os.L Sample: 11IRAFI 500X Soil Type: 130 ottawa r.anc) Soil beruiity: _1-'-07'---'PCF-=-----------Direction: Machine Sarlt>le Size: J x 1 in. 'thickness of in. Croes-Sectional Area of Sample: o 011211 tn2 Pplate( lbs) P(lbs) w/ PcorrectP-Pplate G-: Pcorrect A Y zdisplacement metal only fabric (lbs) =stress Afabric (in.) (psi) 1 1in. 12. 6 11 0 4 8 .46 0.005 0.005 16.2 17 0.!1 0.010 0.010 18.8 22 3 2 67 7 0.015 0.015 20.3 28 7 7 1E;7.QA 0.020 0 0 2 0 21 35 14 0 025 0 025 21.J 41 19.7 416.'1!1 0.030 0.0 3 0 21 .8 48 26. 2 <;<;4.<; 0.035 0 .035 22. 5 53 30.5 _645.6 0.040 0 0 40 23.5 58 34.5 710 u 0 045 0 045 23.8 65 41 .2 872 0 050 0 050 24 73 49 Jrl17 I,; 0.055 0.055 24.2 82 57.8 1223 4 0.060 0 06 0 24.2 92 67.8 143 5.1 0.065 0 0 65 24.2 99 74.8 1 583.27 0.07 0 0 .070 24.2 105 80.8 1710 .J 0.075 0 0 7 5 24 111 87 _l8_tl ,_2 0.0 80 0.0 80 23. A 116 92.2 57 0.0 85 0.0 85 23.6 124 11)0.4 2125 .14 0 090 0 090 23.6 l J 1 107.4 2273. 3 0.095 0.09 5 23 6 lJb 112.4 2379 .14 0.100 o. 1 00 23.6 139._5_ 115.9 2453 .22 0 .105 0 105 23.5 141 117.5 2487 0.110 o. 111) 23.5 142 118.5 0 .11 5 o. 115 23.3 144 120.7 2551. 8 0 1 2 0 0. 120 23 145 122 2582.3 0 125 o 1 2 5 22.5 146 123.5 2 614 0. 1 JO 0 1 JO 22. S 147 .124 5 2635 .25 0 135 0 1J5 21.8 148 1 ?E;. 7 2671.24 o. 140 o 140 21.8 151 12'1.2 2734.74 0. 145 o. 1 4 5 21.6 155 111 4 2 823 .64 0.150 0. I S O 21.6 155 113 4 2823 6 4 0.15 5 1). 155 21 .5 155 1]]. s 2825 .75 0. 1 6 0 0 .1 6 0 21.5 154.5 1)) 281 0 1 6 5 0 1 55 21. 2 1'i1 5 132 J 2 800.4 0.170 0.1 7 0 20.8 152.5 131 7 2787. 6 0.17 5 o 175 20.8 151.5 1 3 0.7 2766.5 0 1 8 0 0.18 0 Jn 1 151 130.7 270,6,_2 o 1 85 0 i IJ5 70. 7 150 5 130.3 2758 0. 1 9 0 0 1 9 0 1Q R 150 130 2 2755.9 f). 1 3 5 0.1 95 1'1. a 149.5 129. 7 2745.32 0.200 0 .200 19. 'i 149 129.5 21ll 0 .205 0 .205 19. 3 148 128 7 2724.2 0 210 0.210 18.8 148 129.2 2734.7 0 215 0.215 18.8 147 128.2 2713.6 0.220 0 220 18.6 _146 .'i 127.9 2707.2 0.225 0 225 18.3 <; 17R 7 2713 .57 0.230 0 230 18 14E; 128 2709.3 0 235 0 .235 17.7 14'i c; 127.8 2705 1 0.240 0.240 17.7 14'i s 127.8 2705. 1 0.245 0 245 17.5 14<; 127 .5 2698.75 0 250 0.250

PAGE 217

198 CONVENTIONAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No. : ______ Soil Type: 130 ottawa sand Sample: HIRAFI 500X Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: -'-1 ""O_p""s"'i,__ ____ Soil Density: ________ Sample Size: displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load (lbs.) 0.005 9 0.130 150 0.010 14 0. 135 153 0.015 24 o. 140 156 0.020 30 0.145 157.5 0.025 38 o. 150 159.5 0.030 44 0.155 159 0.035 53 0.160 159 0.040 58 0.165 158.5 0.045 61 0. 170 158.5 0.050 72 0. 175 158 0.055 81 0.180 157 0 .060 86 0.185 156.5 0.065 93 0. 190 1 55. 5 0.070 101 0.195 1 5 5 0.075 107 0.200 1 5 4 0.080 111 0.205 153 0.085 11 7 0.210 152 0.090 119 0.215 1 51 0.095 124 0.220 1 51 0.100 131 0.225 ISO 0. 1 OS 135 0.230 149.5 o. 110 138 0.235 149.5 0. 115 142 0.240 149 0. 120 144.5 0.245 1 48. 5 0. 125 147 0.250 140

PAGE 218

APPENDIX B PULLOUT (FRICTION) TEST DATA

PAGE 219

200 CONVENTIONAL PULLOUT TEST Test No. : __,0.__ ________ Overburden Pressure: _1,_,0'--"'ps,.,i._ ____ Soil Type:l30 ottawa sand Soil Density: ________ Sample: TREVlRA 1125 displacement (in.) load (lbs.) I displacement (in.) load (lbs.) 0.005 0.4 0. 130 8.3 0. 010 0.4 0. 1 35 8.3 0. 01 5 0.4 0. 1 40 8.5 0.020 0.4 I 0. 145 8.7 0.025 2 0. 150 8. 7 0.030 4 0. 155 8. 7 0.035 5 0. 160 8.7 0.040 6 0.165 8 7 0.045 6.3 0.170 8 7 0.050 6.7 0. 175 8.7 0.055 6.7 0. 180 8.7 0.060 7 0. 185 8.7 0.065 7 3 0. 190 8.7 0 .070 7.3 0. 195 I 8.7 I 0.075 7.3 0.200 8.7 0.080 7.3 0.205 8.7 0.085 7.3 0.210 8.7 0.090 7. 7 0. 21 5 8. 7 I 0.095 7.7 I 0.220 8.7 0.100 7.7 0.225 8.7 0. 1 OS 7.7 0.230 8.7 0.110 7.9 0.235 8.7 o. 115 7.9 0.240 8.7 0. 120 8 0.245 8.7 I 0. 125 8.3 0.250 8. 7 I

PAGE 220

201 CONVENTIONAL PULLOUT T E ST Test No.: p Overburden Pressure: __ ________ __ So i 1 Type : 130 ottawa sand+l 0\ fines Soi 1 Density : ...:.1..:0...:.7---=.P..::Cc::.F ________________ __ Sample: TREiliRA 1125 displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) displacement (in. ) load ( lbs.) 0.005 0.6 0. 1 30 16. 5 0.010 1.2 0. 1 35 16.5 0 01 5 5.5 0. 140 16.5 0.020 8 li 0. 145 16.5 0 .025 10.6 0 1 50 16.5 0.030 11 0. 155 16.5 0.035 11. 0 0. 160 16. 5 0.040 12.2 0 .165 16.5 0.045 12. 2 0. 1 7 0 16. 5 0.050 12. 2 0 1 7 5 17. 1 0 .055 1 2. 2 0.180 17.3 0.060 12. 2 0. 165 17. 3 0.065 12.2 0. 190 1 7 3 0.070 1 3 0. 1 9 5 17.7 I 0.075 1).4 0.200 17.7 I 0 .080 15 0.20 5 17.7 0.085 16.2 0.210 17.7 0.090 16. 2 0.21 5 17. 7 16.2 0.22 0 17. 7 I 0.095 I 0 100 16. J 0.225 16.9 0 105 16.) 0.230 18.9 0.110 16. 3 0.235 1 8. 9 0. 115 16.3 0.240 18. 9 0 120 16.) 0.245 18. 9 I 0. 125 16.5 0.250 18.9

PAGE 221

202 CONVENTIONAL PULLOUT TEST Test No.: Overburden Pressure: __ Soil Type : 130 ottawa sanr;:l+25\ f1nes Soil Density : ________________ __ Sample : 'ffiEVIRA 1125 displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load ( lbs. l 0.005 9.5 0. 1 30 27.6 0.010 13.8 0. 1 35 27.6 0 .015 17.7 0. 1 40 27.6 0.020 19.7 0. 145 27.6 0.025 21.2 0.150 27.6 0.030 22.2 0. 155 27.6 0.035 23.6 0. 1 60 27.6 0.040 25 0. 1 55 27.2 0.045 26 0. 170 27.2 0.050 26.7 0. 175 27.2 0.055 27.2 0 180 27.2 0.060 27.2 0 185 27.2 0.065 27.2 0. 1 90 27 0.070 27.2 0. 1 95 27 0 .075 2 7 6 0.200 26.7 0.080 27. 6 0.205 26. 7 0.085 27.6 0.210 26.7 0.090 27.6 0. 21 5 26.7 0.095 27.6 0. 220 26.7 I 0. 100 28 0.225 26. 7 0. 1 OS 2 8 0.230 25. 6 0. 110 28 0.235 26.6 0. 115 28 0.240 26.4 o. 120 28 0. 245 26.4 0. 125 28 0.250 26.2 I

PAGE 222

203 CONVENTIONAL PULLOUT TEST Test No.: R Overburden Pressure: ________ __ Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Soil Density: ________________ __ Sample: MIRAFI SOOX displacement (in. I load (lbs. I displacement (in. I load (lbs. I o.oos 0 0. 1 30 40 5 0.010 0 0. 13S 39. 4 0.015 0 0.140 38.6 0.020 0 0. 1 45 38.6 0.02S 0 0.1 so 38.6 0.030 0 0.155 37 0.035 0 0 .160 36. 6 0.040 0 0 1 65 35 0.045 0 0. 170 33 0.050 0 0. 17S 2 8 7 o .oss 5.S 0.180 28.7 0.060 22.8 0. 1 85 28.7 0.065 34.1; 0 190 2 8 7 I 0.070 39.4 0. 1 95 27.9 0.075 41. 3 0.200 26.3 I 0.080 42. 9 0.205 26.3 0.085 43. 3 0.210 26.3 I 0.090 43.7 0 21 5 26. 3 I 0.095 44. 5 0 .220 26.3 o 100 -14. s 0.22S 26. 3 0. 1 OS 44. 5 0 .230 26.3 0. 11 0 44.S 0.235 26.3 0 11 s 44 0.240 2 6 3 0. 1 20 44 0.24S 26.3 o. 12S 43.3 0.2SO I 26.3 I

PAGE 223

CONVENTIONAL PULLOUT TEST Test No.: Overburden Pressure: ________ __ Soil Type: 130 ottawa sa!!!1+10\ finesSoil Density: -'-1-=-0-'-7-=-P-=C=-F----------------Sample: displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) 0.005 0 0. 130 16.5 0.010 1.2 0. 1 35 16.3 0.015 3.5 0. 140 16.3 0.020 9 0.145 16.1 0.025 13 o. 150 16. 1 0.030 15 o. 155 16.1 0.035 16.1 0. 160 16.1 0.040 17. 3 0. 165 I 16.1 0.045 18.1 0. 170 16.1 0.050 18.5 0. 175 15.7 0.055 18.5 0.180 15.3 I 0.060 I 18.5 0. 185 15.1 0.065 18.5 o. 190 15 0.070 18.1 0 1 95 14.5 I 0.075 17.7 0.200 14. 1 I 0.080 16.5 0.205 13.7 0.085 16.1 0.210 13. 7 I 0.090 16 0 21 5 13.3 0.095 16 0.220 13. 1 I 0. 100 16 3 0.225 13.1 0. 1 OS 16.3 0.230 13 0. 110 16.5 0.235 13 0. 11 5 16.5 0.240 13 0. 120 17 0.245 12.7 o. 125 17 0.250 12.5 204

PAGE 224

205 CONVENTIONAL PULLOUT TEST Test No.: Overburden Pressure: Soil Type:l30 ottawa sand+25\ fines Soil Density: ..:.1..:;0...:.7---=:.P-=C.::..F ________________ Sample: MIRJ\FI saax displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) 0.005 2 0. 130 12.6 0.010 2.4 0 1 35 12.6 0.015 2.4 0. 140 _1.2._1_ 0.020 6.3 0.145 _12.2._ 0.025 10.3 0 1 so 12.2 I 0.030 12 0. 155 I 12 0.035 13.2 0.160 12 0.040 13.6 0 1 65 11.6 0.045 14.4 I 0.170 11.6 0.050 14.6 0. 175 11. 6 0.055 14.7 0.1130 11.4 0.060 14.6 0. 1 65 11.4 0.065 14.6 a. 190 11.2 0.070 14.6 a. 1 95 11 0.075 14.6 0 .20a 11 0.060 14.6 0.205 10.6 0.065 14.8 0.210 10.6 I 0.090 I 14.6 0. 21 5 I 10.6 0.095 14.4 0 .220 10.6 I 0. 1 oa 14.2 0.225 10.6 o. 105 14 0.230 1a.2 0. 1 I \J 13.6 0 .235 10 0. 115 13 4 0. 240 10 0. 1 20 13.2 0.245 9.8 0. 125 13 0.250 I 9.8

PAGE 225

206 CONVENTIONAL PULLOUT TEST Test No.: Overburden Pressure: Soil Type: It 30 ottawa sand Soil Density: ________________ __ Sample: TREVIRA 1125 displacement (in. l load (lbs. l displacement (in. l load ( lbs.) 0.005 2.8 0 0 130 75 0.010 2.8 0 0135 75 0.015 2.8 0.140 75 0.020 2.8 0 0 1 45 75 0.025 2 8 0 0 150 75 0.030 2.8 0.155 75 0.035 5. 1 0 0160 75 0.040 13.8 0.165 75 0.0-15 24.5 0 0 170 75 0.050 41 0 0175 75 0.055 s o 0 0 180 74. 5 0.060 I 56 0 0 185 74.5 0.065 60 0. 190 74.5 I 0.070 63 0 0 1 9 5 74.5 0.075 66 0.200 74.5 0.080 68.5 0.205 74.5 0 .085 71 0. 210 74.25 0.090 72 0 0 21 5 74 0.095 73 0.220 73.5 0. 100 74 0.225 73.5 0. 105 74.5 0 .230 73.5 0. 110 75 0.235 73.5 0. 115 75 0.240 73.5 0 0 1 20 75 0 0 24 5 73.2 0 125 75 0.250 73.2

PAGE 226

207 CONVENTIONAL PULLOUT TEST Test No. : Overburden Pressure: __________ __ Soil Type: 130 ottawa sarx:l+l 0\ tloe:J Soil Density: -'-1-=-0_7--"-P-"C-=-F---------------Sample: TREVIRA 1125 I I displacement (in. l load ( lbs. l displacement (in.) load ( lbs. l 0.005 13 0 0 1 30 _j_J_(}_]_ 0.010 16 1 0.135 110_ 1 0.015 21! 0 0 1 40 _j_J_(}_]_ 0.020 48. 4 0 0 14 5 i 117_R 0.025 65.3 0 0 150 ill 0.030 78 0 0 155 I 132.3 0.035 88.2 0.160 124.4 0.040 94.5 0. 165 123 0.045 96.8 0 0 170 123 0.050 100.2 o. 175 123 0.055 103.1 0 0 180 122.5 0.060 106.7 0. 185 121 0 .065 110.6 0 0 190 120 0.070 112.6 0 0 1 95 120 0.075 115 0.200 117.3 0 .080 117.3 0.205 115.7 0.085 118.5 0.210 115 0.090 118.9 0.215 114.5 0.095 121.2 0 .220 114.1 0 0 100 123.2 0.225 113.7 0. 1 OS 124.8 0 .230 113.3 0 0 110 126.7 0.235 113 0. 11 5 128 0.240 112.5 0 0 1 20 128 0.245 111. 8 0 0 125 I 129.5 0.250 110.2

PAGE 227

208 CONVENTIONAL PULLOUT TEST Test No.: Overburden Pressure: __________ Soil Type:IJO ottawa sand+25\ fines Soil Density: ..:.1..::c0...:.7_,_P..:C.:.F ________________ Sample: TREVIRA 1125 displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement ( in.) load ( lbs. ) 0.005 2.4 0.130 71 0 .010 2.4 0 1 35 71 0.015 2.4 0 1 40 71 0.020 2.4 0. 1 4 5 71 0 .025 2.75 0. 150 70. 5 0 .030 6 3 0. 155 7 0 0 .035 15.1 0 160 70 0.040 28 0 .165 6 9 3 0.045 43 0 170 I 69.3 0.050 5 3 0 175 69.3 0.055 58. 5 0. 180 68.9 I 0 .060 61.5 0 18 5 68. 1 0 .065 63.4 0. 19 0 68. 1 0.070 65 0. 195 60. 1 0.075 66. 1 0.200 6 7 7 0.080 67 0.205 67. 1 0.085 67.3 0.210 67 0.090 6 7.7 0 21 5 6 7 0 .095 68. 5 0 .220 66 5 I o. 100 69.5 0.225 66.2 0. 105 69 7 0.230 66. 2 0. 110 70 0 .235 65.7 0.115 70.3 0.240 65.) 0. 1 20 70. 5 0.2 45 65 0.125 I 71 0.250 I 64 5 I

PAGE 228

209 CONVENTIONAL PULLOUT TEST Test No.: Overburden Pressure: Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Soil Density: ..:.1..=0...:.7--=.P..=Cc::.F _____________ SAlllple: HIRAFI SOOX displacement (in.) load (lbs. l displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) 0.005 4 0. 130 108 0.010 4 0. 1 35 108 ,_1 0.015 4 o. 140 107 ell 0.020 4,3 0. 1 45 107 0.025 5 o. 150 106 0.030 5.9 0. 155 1 04. 3 0.035 18.1 0.160 104 0.040 41 0. 165 102.3 0.045 59.8 0. 170 102. 3 0 .050 78.7 I 0.175 102 0.055 94.5 0. 180 101. 2 0.060 1 OS. 1 0. 185 99.6 0.065 112. 6 0 190 98.4 0.070 11 B. 1 0.195 97.6 0.075 116.5 0.200 96.8 0.080 117. 3 0.205 98 0.085 116.5 0.210 97.2 0.090 115.7 0.215 97.2 0.095 113.4 0.220 97.2 o. 100 11 3 0.225 97.2 0 1 OS 112.2 0.230 95.6 0. 110 111 0.235 96.8 0. 115 109.4 0.240 94. 5 o. 120 109 0. 245 94.9 0. 125 109 I 0.250 91. 4 I

PAGE 229

210 CONVENTIONAL PULLOUT TEST Test No.: Overburden Pressure: __________ Soil Type :130 ottawa sand+10\ fines Soil Dens! ty: ..:..1..::.0..:..7-=..P.=C:;..F ________________ __ Sample: HIRAFI 500X displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) I displacement I in.) load I lbs.) 0.005 2 0.130 67.4 0.010 2 0. 1 35 69 0.015 4 0. 1 4 0 06.2 I 0 .020 7.5 0. 145 62. 7 I 0.025 16.5 0. 150 62. 7 0.030 18 0. 155 61 1 0.035 20.5 0.160 60.3 0.040 26.3 0. 1 65 79.5 0.045 H 0. 170 76.7 0.050 56.7 0 175 76 0.055 67 0 160 76.4 0 .060 75.6 0. 1 65 I 74.6 0.065 63.6 0. 190 74 0.070 95 0 1 9 5 72. 4 0.075 96.4 0.200 7 1 2 0.080 101.6 I 0.205 71 I 0 .065 1 OJ. 1 0.210 70 0.090 107 0.215 70 I 0.095 126 0.220 69.3 I 0. 100 127.5 I 0.225 69.3 0. 105 127.5 0.230 69.3 o. 110 125. 2 0.235 66. 5 0 .115 125.6 0.240 66.5 0. 120 115.7 0.245 66.5 0.125 96.4 0.250 67.7

PAGE 230

211 CONVENTIONAL PULLOUT TEST Test No. : __:Z::_ _______ Overburden Pressure: _____ Soil Type:l30 ottawa sand+25\ finesSoil Density: .:.1.=c0.:.7_,_P.:::C=..F ________ Sample: MIRAFI soox displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) 0.005 4.1 0. 1 30 62_2 0.010 4.1 0. 1 35 61.8 0. 015 4. 1 0. 140 60.6 0.020 4.1 0 145 60 0.025 4.1 o. 150 59.25 0.030 4.3 o. 155 58-3 0.035 5.5 0. 160 57.5 0.040 7 0.165 57 0.045 21.25 0.170 5 7 0 .050 37.8 0.175 57 0.055 51.2 0 1 BO 56.8 0.060 57.5 0 185 I 56.7 0.065 61 0. 1 9 0 56.3 I 0 .070 62.6 01 95 l 56 0.075 64 0.200 55.4 0 .080 64.2 0 .205 I 55.3 0 .085 64.2 0. 21 0 55.1 0.090 63.8 0. 2 1 5 55.1 0.095 63.6 0 220 55 0. 100 63.4 0 .225 54.5 0. 105 63 0 .230 54.3 0. 110 62.8 o ... J5 54 0. 115 62.8 0. 240 53.5 0. 1 20 62.4 0_245 52.4 0 125 62. 4 I 0.250 51.8 I

PAGE 231

212 CONVENTIONAL PULLOUT TEST Test No.: _____ Overburden Pressure: ) Soil Type: I JO ottawa sand Soil Density: ..:.1:..::0...:.7-=..P..:C.:..F ________ Sam ple: sheet metal clamp only displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) displacement (in.) load I lbs.) 0.005 1 J 0. 1 JO 77 c;o 0.010 17 o 1 JS 22 50 0.015 20 0 140 77 0.020 21 0.145 22 0.025 22 o. 150 21 .'iD 0.030 22 0. 1 55 2 I .SD 0.035 22 o. 160 21 0.040 22 50 0 165 71 0.045 23 0. 170 21 0.050 2J so 0.175 7 0.055 21 c;o 0.180 71 0.060 23 o;o 0. I 85 20 <;O 0.065 21 c;o 0. 190 70 c;o 0.070 21 c;o 0. 195 70 0 .075 21 c;o 0.200 20 0.080 :;>1 c;o 0.205 1
PAGE 232

213 CONVENTIONAL PULLOUT TEST Test No : _..R""'P"-'-::..11,..I..,.-:...2..__ ____ Overburden Pressure:! Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Soil Density: Sample: sheet metal clamp only displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load ( lbs. ) 0.005 12 0 1 3 0 25.50 0 .010 14 0. 135 25 50 o. 015 17.50 o 140 25 0.020 2 0 0 145 2 5 0.025 20.50 o 150 2S 0.030 21 0. 1 55 25 0 .035 22 0. 1 6 0 2S 0.04 0 2 3 0 1 6 5 25 0.045 25 o. 170 74 so 0.050 25.50 0 1 7 5 7 4 0.055 26 0. 1 8 0 2 4 0.060 26.50 0. 185 23 5_0_ 0.065 26.50 0 190 7 1 'iO 0 .070 26.5 0 0.19 5 2 ] 0.075 2 6.50 0 .200 23 0.080 26 so 0.205 22.'iU 0 ,085 2fi so 0.210 ? 7 0.090 ?fi o;n 0 .215 21 'so 0.095 2 6 .50 0 2 2 0 21 .50 0 .100 26.50 0 .225 21 5_0_ 0. 1 OS 26.50 0.230 2 1 0. 110 26 so 0.235 20 50 0. 115 26.5 0 0.240 20 0.120 26.50 0.245 20 o. 125 26.50 0.250 20

PAGE 233

214 CONVENTIONAL PULLOUT TEST Test No. : _;R:..:.;Po...---:H-"L=----:3"-------Overburden Pressure: Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Soil Density: ________ __ Sample: sheet metal clamp only displacement (in. I load ( lbs. I I displacement (in. I load ( lbs. I 0 .005 13 0. 130 19 so 0.010 17.50 0.135 19 50 0.015 19 0. 1 40 18 50 0.020 20 0.145 1 A c;o 0.025 20 50 0. 1 50 1 R 'lO 0.030 21 0. 155 18.50 0.035 21.50 0. 160 10.50 0. 040 22 0. 1 65 18.50 0.045 22.50 0 .170 18 0.050 22.50 0. 175 17 50 0.055 22. so 0. 180 17 50 0.060 22.50 0. 165 17 0.065 22.50 0.190 16.50 0.070 22.50 0.195 16.'i0 0.075 22.50 0.200 16.50 0.080 22 0.205 16.50 0.085 22 0.210 16 '50 I 0.090 21. 50 0 .215 lfi 0.095 21 c;o o. 220 11i I o. 100 21 c;n 0.225 1'i.'i0 0. 1 OS 21 c;o 0.230 15 c;o o. 110 _2_1 0.235 1 c; c;o 0. 11 5 21 0.240 1 c; c;n 0. 120 _20 so 0.245 '" c;n o. 125 20 0.250 15

PAGE 234

215 CONVENTIONAL P ULLOUT T EST Test No.: Average RpMl 1 2 3 Overburde n Pressure:1 Soil Type: I 30 ottawa sand Soil Density: ..:1-=0'-'7--=-P-=C:.::.F ________________ Sample: sheet metal clamp only displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load ( lbs. ) 0.005 12.6 0.130 22. 5 0.010 16. 2 0 1 35 22. 5 0.015 18.8 o. 140 21. 8 0.020 20.3 0. 145 21.8 0.025 21 0. 1 so 21.6 0.030 21. 3 0 .155 21 6 0.035 21 8 0 1 6 0 21. 5 0.040 _22 'i o. 165 21. 5 0.045 2l 5 0 1 70 21.2 0.050 2] A 0. 175 2 0 8 0 .055 24 o 180 2 0 8 0.060 24. 2 0.185 20. J 0 .065 24.2 0. 190 2 0 2 0.070 24.2 0 195 19.0 0.075 24. 2 0 .200 19.8 0.080 2 4 0.205 1 9 5 0 .085 23.8 0 .210 1 9 3 0.090 23.6 0.215 18. 8 0.095 23. 6 0. 220 1 8 8 o. 100 23.6 0.225 18. 6 0. 1 OS 2 3 6 0.230 1 8 ] 0. 11 0 23. 5 0.235 18 o. 115 23.5 0 .240 17 7 o. 120 2 3 3 0.245 17. 7 o. 125 23 0 .250 17. 5

PAGE 235

216 CONVENTIONAL PULLOUT TEST Test No.: Overburden Pressure: Soil Type: 130 ottaya sand Soil Density: Sample: Sheet Metal Clamp only displacement (in.) load (lbs.) displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) 0.005 4 0 130 _911. _a 0.010 4 3 0. 135 __2_8_6_ I 0. 015 18.9 o. 140 9 8 4 0 .020 42. 1 0 14 5 98. 4 0.025 61.4 0. 150 98. 4 0.030 76.7 0. 1 55 98 0.035 85.8 o. 160 98 0 .040 92.5 0. 1 65 97.6 0.045 96.8 0 170 I 97. 6 0.050 100 0. 1 75 97.2 0.055 101.5 0. 180 96. 8 0.060 1 02. 7 0 185 96 0 .065 103. 1 0 190 9 6 0.070 I 104. 7 0 1 95 95.6 0.075 1 04. 3 0.200 95. 6 0.080 104. 3 0.205 95.3 I 0.065 103. 9 0.210 I 95.3 0.090 1 03. 1 0.215 95. 3 I 0.095 102.3 0.220 94. 5 0. 100 102 0.22 5 94. 5 0. 1 OS 100 0 .230 93.7 0. 110 99.6 0 .235 93. 7 o. 115 99.6 0.240 93.3 0 120 99.2 0.245 93 0. 125 98. 8 0.250 I 92. 1

PAGE 236

APPENDIX C CYLINDRICAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST DATA

PAGE 237

218 CYLINDRICAL STRESS-S'rRAIN TEST Test No.: S oil Type: #30 ottawa sand Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: Soil Density: Sample Size: 2 in.x 2 in. Thickness of Sample: 0.047 in. displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) strain (') stress (psi) 0.0 5 1 2 2 5 127 o. 10 2 0 5 211.6 6 0. 15 30 7 5 317.5 0.20 35 10 370.41 0.25 40 12.5 423.33 0.30 46 15 486.83 0.35 so 17. 5 529.16 0.40 55 20 582. 08 0.45 60 22.5 635 0 .50 64 25 677.33 0.55 68 27 5 719.66 0.60 71 30 751. 4 1 0.65 75 I 32.5 793.75 0. 70 I 79 35 836.08 0.75 82 37. 5 867.83 0 .80 84 40 889

PAGE 238

219 CYLINDRICAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: RE-2 Overburden Pressure: 10 ESi Soil Type: #30 ottawa sand Soil Density: 107 Ecf Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Size: 2 in.x 2 in. Sam ple Direction: Machine Thickness of Sample: 0.047 in. displacement (in. l load (lbs. l strain ( ,, stress (psi) 0.05 15 2.5 158.75 0. 10 23 5 2 43.41 0.15 30 7.5 317.5 0.20 37 10 391 .'5 8 0 .25 42 12.5 444.5 0.30 48 15 508 0.35 52 17.5 550.33 0 .40 56 20 592.66 0.45 60 22.5 635 0.50 64 25 677.33 0.55 68 27.5 719.66 0 6 0 70 30 740.83 0 .65 72 32.5 762 0 .70 74 35 I 783. 16 0.75 76 37. 5 804.33 0 .80 77 40 814.91

PAGE 239

220 CYLINDRICAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: Soil Type: #30 ottawa sand Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: Soil Density: __ ________________ Sample Size: 2 in.x 2 in. Thickness o f Sample: 0.047 in. displacement (in. ) load (lbs. ) strain (\) stress (psi) 0.05 1 7 2.5 179. 91 0.10 22 5 232.83 0. 15 31 7.5 328.08 0.20 37 10 391.58 0.25 41 12.5 433.91 0.30 45 1 5 4 7 6 .25 0.35 49 17.5 518.58 0.40 52 20 5 50. 33 0 45 55 22.5 5112.08 0.50 59 25 624.41 0.55 61 27.5 6 45 .58 0.60 65 30 687.91 0 65 69 32. 5 730.25 0.70 72 35 762 0.75 75 37. 5 793.75 0.80 79 40 8 3 6 .08 I

PAGE 240

221 CYLINDRICAL STRESS STRAIN TEST Test No.: Soil Type: #30 ottawa sand Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: Soil Density: Sample Size: 2 in.x 2 in. Thickness of Sample: 0.047 in. displacement (in.) load (lbs.) strain ( ') stress (psi) o.os 16 2. 5 169.33 0.10 24 5 254 0.15 31 7. 5 328.08 0.20 36 10 381 0.25 40 12. 5 423.33 0 .30 45 1 5 476.25 0.35 so 17.5 529.16 0.40 54 2 0 571. 5 0.45 58 22.5 613.83 0.50 62 2 5 656. 16 0 .55 65 27.5 687.91 0.60 70 3 0 740.83 0.65 72 32. 5 762 0.7 0 78 35 8 2 5 5 0.75 81 37.5 8 5 7 .25 0.80 84 40 889 I

PAGE 241

222 CYLINDRICAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: Soil Type: #30 ottawa sand Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: __ __________ Soil Density: Sample Size: 2 in.x 2 in. Thickness of Sample: 0 .047 in. displacement (in.) load ( lbs.) strain ( ') stress (psi) 0.05 16 2. 5 169. 33 0. 10 28 5 296.33 0. 15 34 1. 5 359.83 0.20 40 10 423.33 0. 25 45 12.5 476.25 0.30 50 1 5 529. 1 6 0.35 53 17.5 560.91 0.40 57 20 603.25 0 45 6 0 22 5 635 0.50 64 25 677.33 0.55 68 27.5 i 719.66 0.60 71 30 751. 41 0.65 12 3 2 5 762 0.70 I 35 0.75 ; 37.5 0.80 40

PAGE 242

223 CYLINDRICAL STRESS STRAIN TEST Test N o : Soil Type: #30 ottawa sand Samp l e : TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: Soil Density: Sample Size: 2 in.x 2 in. Thickness of Sam ple: 0.047 in. displace ment (in. ) l o a d ( lbs.) strain (\) stress (psi) 0.0 5 19 2.5 201.08 0.10 25 5 264.58 o. 15 35 7 5 370.41 0.20 I 40 10 423.33 0 .25 45 12.5 476.25 0.30 49 15 518. 58 0.35 53 17.5 560. 91 0.40 56 20 592.66 0. 45 60 22.5 I 635 I 0.50 64 25 677.33 0.55 I 68 27.5 719.66 0.60 71 30 751. 41 0.65 75 32. 5 793.75 0.70 79 35 836.08 0.75 82 37.5 867.83 0 .80 85 40 899.58 I

PAGE 243

224 CYLINDRICAL STRESS STRAIN TEST Test No.: Soil Type: 130 ottawa sand Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: ________ __ Soil Density: Sample Size: 2 in.x 2 in. Thickness of Sample: 0.047 in. displacement (in.) load ( lbs. ) strain (') stress (psi) 0.05 27 2.5 285.75 0. 10 34 5 359.83 0.15 39 7 5 412.75 0.20 43 I 10 455.08 0.25 46 1 2. 5 486.63 0.30 50 15 529. 16 0.35 53 17. 5 560.91 0.40 58 20 613. 63 0.45 60 22.5 635 0.50 64 25 677.33 0.55 68 27. 5 719. 66 0.60 71 30 751. 41 0.65 74 32.5 783.16 0.70 78 35 825.5 0.75 80 37.5 646.66 0.80 64 40 689

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225 CYLINDRICAL STRESS-STRAIN TEST Test No.: Soil Type: #30 ottawa sand Sample: TREVIRA 1125 Sample Direction: Machine Overburden Pressure: Soil Density: Sample Size: 2 in.x 2 in. Thickness of Sample: 0.047 in. displacement (in.) load (lbs.) strain (') stress (psi) 0.05 10 2. 5 105.83 o. 10 1 5 5 158.75 0. 15 20 7.5 211.66 0.20 24 10 254 0.25 20 12.5 296.3) 0.30 31 15 I 328.08 0 .35 35 17.5 370.41 0.40 39 20 412.75 0. 45 42 22.5 444. 5 0.50 45 25 476.25 0.55 I 50 27 5 529.16 0.60 54 I JO 571 5 0.65 57 32.5 603.25 635 0.70 60 35 ' 0.75 63 )7. 5 666.75 0.80 65 40 I 687.92