Citation
The influence of sodium in recycled water on ponderosa pine in Denver urban parks

Material Information

Title:
The influence of sodium in recycled water on ponderosa pine in Denver urban parks
Creator:
Sudderth, James manning ( author )
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (77 pages). : ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Ponderosa pine -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Water reuse -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Salinity ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Review:
Recycled water is used in place of potable water to irrigate vegetation in urban parks and conserve water for human consumption. However, recycled water is high in sodium and has been linked to increased necrosis in trees compared with those irrigated with potable water. The extent of necrosis in Denver urban parks, specifically with regard to different sized trees, was examined in three parks, two irrigated with recycled water and the other using potable water. Tissue analysis of ponderosa pine needles irrigated with recycled and potable water indicated a correlation between sodium level and needle tip necrosis for recycled water (r2 = 0.69) and no correlation for potable water (r2 = 0.00). Diameter-at-breast height (DBH), as a measure of tree size, was not a significant factor associated with necrosis (p-value = 0.44). However, DBH were smaller and needle lengths shorter for parks using recycled water for an extended period of time (10-53 years) than those using potable water. The duration of exposure to recycled wastewater was a determining factor of needle necrosis. Therefore, park managers trying to limit necrosis of ponderosa pine could measure tree size and needle lengths to determine the approximate level of exposure to sodium. Sodium levels of 3,000 ppm or higher in the needles resulted in significantly higher levels of necrosis. Therefore, laboratory tests could help directly determine the level of sodium in the needles allowing park managers to estimate how close a ponderosa pine is to the 3,000 ppm threshold necrosis limit.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Colorado Denver. Environmental science
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references.
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe Reader.
General Note:
Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences
Statement of Responsibility:
by James manning Sudderth.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
904765569 ( OCLC )
ocn904765569

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PAGE 52

T_ ! 1>=! d; C?ABDEAF!=O!,LN?!"=NABLCMA! =O!(LCDFMLPA!3NLC?!,PAMEAF!LCD!*LNEO=BCEL!&L?EGA! :BLFFAF!O=B!/AM8MNAD!1L?AB! %BBERL?E=C;v ;/(&&($!6*'(+3 ! iEFXLK!*@N=BEDA!DEF?BE7>?E=C!EC!FLN? ] F?BAFFAD! '+%$%&!&,/#.#$, =>F!?BAA!FPAMEAF; t B+**!':1&#(/(01K! b` Tc ] ^c;! i=7ANK>NL?E=C!=O!3@AC=NEM!*=KP=>CDF!EC!?@A!&AMB=?EM! 2BALF!=O!2>F?BLEC!LCD!/AD!3ECA!&AADNAF!->A!?=!,LN?!,PBL8; t A$$,/&!(@!F(3,$1 ;!JJ < J ` JHU ] JTI;! ! !

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T^ ! ,YLCFAL!3LBX "BAAe&AADNA -5# =O!?BAA V MKW "=?LN! (ACR?@V MKW &AMB=FEF! (ACR?@VSJ ?@ =O!LC!EC M@ W PABMAC? C AMB=FEF &L!(AGAN!VPPKW ! ! ! SL Jc;b Sc;cb _;S H ! S7 ! Sc;S _;S H ! SM ! SJ;H S;^ S ! SD ! SJ;b _;_S H ! SA ! Sb;TS S ;^ S ! 24: Jc;b Sb;TH H;^ S SSTI;J ! ! ! HL T^;^ SJ;J H^ S^ ! H7 ! Sc;_ SS J ! HM ! Sc;S _I Sb ! HD ! SJ;^ _^ HS ! HA ! SJ;I S_ b ! 24: T^;^ SJ;c HH ST HIIH;U ! ! !

PAGE 55

TJ ! _L ^H;J HI;I Sc U ! _7 ! SJ;^ cJ _S ! _M ! Sc;S H ! _D ! S^;c Sc SS ! _A ! Sc;^ HT ST ! 24: ^H;J Sc;_J HH S_ SH_T;H ! ! ! TL cH;J ST;S S S ! T7 ! Sb;^c ST b ! TM ! Sb;TS Sc U ! TD ! Sb;S J T ! TA ! Sb;HJ J ! 24: cH;J Sc;TU SI ^ cHb;S ! ! ! ^L _b;J Sc;_ S S ! ^7 ! S^;c HT S^ ! ^M ! S_;J^ H ! ^D ! ST;T^ ST SI !

PAGE 56

Tc ! 24: _b;J S^;Hb SI c S_IS;b ! ! ! JL JS;H Sb;^c HS SS ! J7 ! SJ;_^ cJ Tc ! JM ! HI;Sc SU U ! JD ! SJ;b_ TT HJ ! JA ! SJ;b_ _J HH ! 24: JS;H Sc;c^ _U H_ HbbUb ! ! ! cL J^ HI S S ! c7 ! Sc;U_ S J U ! cM ! Sc;cb J^ _c ! cD ! Sc;^ TJ HJ ! cA ! SU;b J ! 24: J^ Sb;JI Hc S^ HUbI;_ ! ! ! bL ^_;S HI;Sc S S ! b7 ! HI;bI b T ! bM ! HS;US SS ^ !

PAGE 57

Tb ! bD ! S^;^J H ! bA ! HS;^ S_ J ! 24: ^_;S HI;I Hc T UJI;H ! ! ! SIL T^;^ HI;bI S b b ! SI7 ! SU;^_ ST c ! SIM ! HI;JT HT SH ! SID ! Sb;HJ ^ ! SIA ! HI;JT SJ b ! 24: T^;^ SU;Uc S^ b TJU;S ! ! ! SSL ^^;S SJ;_^ S I ! SSS7 ! S^;^J J T ! SSM ! SJ;b_ S I ! SSD ! Sc;U_ S I ! SSA ! Sc;J_ b ^ ! 24: ^^;S SJ;bJ H STb;S ! ! ! SHL T_;T U;IT S U HS !

PAGE 58

TU ! SH7 ! ST;S ^ ! SHM ! S_;_T b J ! SHD ! SJ;H b^ ^_ ! SHA ! S_;IH S S ! 24: T_;T S_;ST HT Sc bHb;b ! ! ! S_L JH;H SJ;b_ SI J ! S_7 ! Sb;HJ ST b ! S_M ! Sc;J_ b ^ ! S_D ! Sb;^c SS J ! S_A ! Sb;HJ SI ^ ! 24: JH;H Sc;US SI J S_TT;_ ! ! ! STL ^H;J S_;TU S_ U ! ST7 ! SH;^^ SI b ! STM ! S_;J^ TS _I ! STD ! S^;HT SS c ! STA ! Sc;J_ S I !

PAGE 59

^I ! 24: ^H;J ST;^S S^ SS bbI;S ! ! ! S^L TS;T HI;JT SHc JH ! S^7 ! Sb;SI S S ! S^M ! SJ;UU S S ! S^D ! SU;I^ S S ! S^A ! Sc;U_ S S ! 24: TS;T Sb;^T Hc S_ b_S;T !

PAGE 60

^S ! 5LBC>K!,=>?@ "BAA e&AADNA -5#!VSI ?@ =O! LC!ECM@ W "=?LN! (ACR?@V MKW &AMB=FEF! (ACR?@V KK W PABMAC? &AMB=FEF &L!(AGAN! VPPKW SL JT SJ;_^ S S ! S7 ! Sb;TS H ! SM ! SU;I^ H ! SD ! S_;Sb ^ T ! SA ! S^;c S S ! 24: JT SJ;^T H H SIJ^;S ! ! ! HL ^U;S SU;b ^ H ! H7 ! HI;I H ! HM ! Sb;^c S ;S ! HD ! Sb;c_ ^ ! HA ! SJ;UU S ;S ! 24: ^U;S Sb;bH H S T^_ ! ! ! _L ^U;c Sb;HJ S ;S !

PAGE 61

^H ! _7 ! Sc;cb b T ! _M ! S^;^^ J ^ ! _D ! SJ;b J ! _A ! S_;_T S S ! 24: ^U;c SJ;_^ T J_b;S ! ! ! TL Tb;^ SJ;b SI ^ ! T7 ! Sc;U_ S S ! TM ! HI;I SI ^ ! TD ! SH;c ^ T ! TA ! SJ;^ ^ ! 24: Tb;^ SJ;cU J bSc;J ! ! ! ^L ^^;T SU;HI ;S I ! ^7 ! HH;bJ I;S I ! ^M ! Sb;SI S S ! ^D ! SU;HI I;^ I ! ^A ! HH;Ic I;S I ! 24: ^^;T HI;HU I;_ I USI;c

PAGE 62

^_ ! ! ! ! JL TH;H ST;HU I;S I ! J7 ! S^;c ^ ! JM ! Sc;S S S ! JD ! SU;I^ ^ ! JA ! ST;UH H ! 24: TH;H SJ;HS H JHI;c ! ! ! cL ^J;T HI;bI SJ b ! c7 ! HI;I SU SI ! cM ! ST;JS J T ! cD ! SJ;_^ ^ ! cA ! ST;SH S H ! 24: ^J;T Sc;Sc SI ^ bHS;H ! ! ! bL ^_;b HS;T_ S S ! b7 ! HI;bI ^ H ! bM ! SU;I^ b T ! bD ! SU;^_ ^ H !

PAGE 63

^T ! bA ! SJ;b ^ H ! 24: ^_;b SU;^H ^ H SSJJ;H ! ! ! UL JJ;_ Sb;HJ ^ ! U7 ! Sb;HJ ^ ! UM ! SJ;_^ ^ ! UD ! S^;_U ^ ! UA ! Sb;HJ ^ ! 24: JJ;_ Sc;_ ^ U^T;U ! ! ! SIL ^b;U Sb;^c b T ! SI7 ! SU;^_ J ! SIM ! SU;HI I;S I ! SID ! Sb;c_ I;S I ! SIA ! SU;b I;S I ! 24: ^b;U SU;Sc H U^T;U !

PAGE 64

^^ ! 6ACCAD8!:=NO!*=>BFA "BAA e&AADNA -5#!V MKW "=?LN! (ACR?@VMKW &AMB=FEF! (ACR?@V KKW PABMAC? &AMB=FEF &L!(AGAN! VPPKW SL JS;H SU;J _;S H ! S7 ! S^;IU S;^ S ! SM ! SU;b U;^ ^ ! SD ! HI;Sc U;^ ^ ! SA ! SU;b J;_ ! 24: JS;H Sb;bU ^;^ S_HJ ! ! ! HL TJ;H ST;S S ;^ S ! H7 ! SJ;^ HI;J S_ ! HM ! SJ;^ SU SH ! HD ! SJ;_^ SU SH ! HA ! SS;H ST;H S_ ! 24: TJ;H UT;H S^;H SI SS_J ! ! ! _L ^c;T ST;U_ H^;T HS ! _7 ! S^;^J HH;H Sc !

PAGE 65

^J ! _M ! ST;HU Hb;J H_ ! _D ! S^;IU _J;J _H ! _A ! S_;J^ Sc;^ S^ ! 24: ^c;T ST;^b HJ;T HH ScHS ! ! ! TL ^H;_ SS;c^ TU TH ! T7 ! SU;JU cJ I; _U ! TM ! Sb;SI SHT Jb ! TD ! SU;b JH _S ! TA ! HI Jc __ ! 24: ^H;_ Sc;bJ c^ T_ T_cS ! ! ! ^L ^^;T SJ;J J T ! ^7 ! SJ;^ J T ! ^M ! S^;TI S S ! ^D ! ST;JS S S ! ^A ! S^;HT SS c ! 24: ^^;T S^;Jc J Sb^T ! ! !

PAGE 66

^c ! JL ^c;S ST;T_ S S ! J7 ! SI;Tb S H ! JM ! SS;T_ I;^ S ! JD ! S_;Sb S S ! JA ! S_;bH I;^ S ! 24: ^c;S SH;Jc S S SIJI ! ! ! cL TJ;_ ST;HU S S ! c7 ! SS;Jb S S ! cM ! b;TS I;^ S ! cD ! S_;IH TI _I ! cA ! SS;US _c _S ! 24: TJ;_ SS;bJ SJ S_ SJHI ! ! ! bL TI;S SI;U^ ^J ^S ! b7 ! SI;Tb TS _U ! bM ! SH;cI cJ JI ! bD ! U;bT __ _T ! bA ! SI;II Tc Tb !

PAGE 67

^b ! 24: TI;S SI;cU ^S TJ TT_U ! ! ! UL __;^ SH;^^ I;S I ! U7 ! S_;_T I;S I ! UM ! SH;cI I;S I ! UD ! SH;^^ I;S I ! UA ! S_;TU I;S I ! 24: __;^ SH;U_ I;S I S^JJ ! ! ! SIL _J;b Sc;_ S U b ! SI7 ! S^;HT S_ b ! SIM ! ST;UH H ! SID ! ST;UH S S ! SIA ! Sc;_ ^ T ! 24: _J;b S^;UT b ^ SbI_ ! ! !

PAGE 68

^U ! !33-).4O'" &!,4"%!$4*)'&5%L-#'5#-.'1*%'.-$-%04)4)/' #*.450',-L-,#'*1')--.,-# '

PAGE 69

JI ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 'EBF?!MLNE7BL?E=C *=CMAC?BL?E=C! VPPKW 27F=B7LCMA 2GABLRA!27F=B7LCMA S I;IUc I;S I;S I;IUUI I;c^ I;IcJ I;Ic^ I;IcT I;Ic^I I;T I;ITH I;ITH I;IT_ I;ITH_ I;H I;ISJ I;ISc I;ISc I;ISJc I;S I;IIU I;IIU I;IIU I;IIUI I;I^ I;IST I;IS_ I;IST I;IS_c y = 0.096 x + 0.003 R! = 0.989 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Absorbance Concentration (ppm) First Calibration Graph

PAGE 70

JS ! ,AM=CD!*LNE7BL?E=C *=CMAC?BL?E=C! VPPKW 27F=B7LCMA 2GABLRA!27F=B7LCMA S I;IUH I;IUH I;Ibb I;IUIJJc I;c^ I;IJU I;IJc I;IJ_ I;IJJ___ I;T I;I_J I;I_c I;I_U I;I_c___ I;H I;ISc I;ISb I;IS^ I;ISJJJc I;S I;IS I;IIb I;IS I;IIU___ I;I^ I;IIJ I;IIJ I;IIc I;IIJ___ ! ! y = 0.089 x + 0.001 R! = 0.999 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Absorbance Concentration (ppm) Second Calibration graph

PAGE 71

JH ! "@EBD *=CMAC?BL?E=C! VPPKW 27F=B7LCMA 2GABLRA!27F=B7LCMA S I;Ibb I;Ibc I;IbU I;Ibb I;c^ I;IcH I;IcS I;IcH I;IcSJJc I;T I;I_^ I;I_^ I;I_T I;I_TJJc I;H I;IH^ I;IH^ I;IH^ I;IH^ I;S I;IS I;IS I;IS I;IS I;I^ I;II_ I;II_ I;IIH I;IIHJJc ! ! ! ! ! y = 0.089 x + 0.002 R! = 0.989 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Absorbance Concentration (ppm) Third Calibration Graph

PAGE 72

J_ ! '=>B?@ *=CMAC?BL?E=C! VPPKW 27F=B7LCMA 27F=B7LCMA!2GABLRA S I;Ibb I;IU I;IU I;IbU_ I;c^ I;Ic_ I;IcH I;IcH I;IcH_ I;T I;I_J I;I_J I;I_c I;I_J_ I;H I;I_S I;I_ I;I_ I;I_ I;S I;SH I;IS_ I;SIH I;ISH_ I;I^ I;II_ I;IIH I;IIH I;IIH_ ! ! ! y = 0.088 x + 0.004 R! = 0.978 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Absorbace Concentration (ppm) Fourth Calibration Graph

PAGE 73

JT ! !33-).4O'& ."2P'3-%&-)$')-&%*#4#P'!).'#*.450',-L-,'1*%'-!&2'$%--'#-3-%!$-.'"@'3!%(# !

PAGE 74

J^ ! ! ! 3;G6MDA'+6GA: 5LBC>K!,=>?@ "BAA -5# VMKW PABMAC?!C AMB=FEF &L!NAGAN! V PPK W 7S JT S SIJ^;S 7H ^U;S S T^_ 7_ ^U;c J_b;S 7T Tb;^ bSc;J 7^ ^^;T USI;c 7J TH;H H JHI;c 7c ^J;T ^ bHS;H 7b ^_;b H SSJJ;H 7U JJ;_ U^T;U 7SI ^b;U H U^T;U ! ! %A7H7DA>'+6GA: ,YLCFAL!3LBX ! 6ACCAD8!:=NO!*=>BFA "BAA -5# VMKW PABMAC?! C AMB=FEF &L!NAGAN! V PPK W ! "BAA -5# VMKW PABMAC?! C AMB=FEF &L!NAGAN! V PPK W FS Jc;b S SSTI;J ! XS JS;H S_HJ FH T^;^ ST HIIH;U ! XH TJ;H SI SS_J F_ ^H;J S_ SH_T;H ! X_ ^c;T Sb ScHS FT cH;J ^ cHb;S ! XT ^H;_ T_ T_cS F^ _b;J c S_IS;b ! X^ ^^;T Sb^T FJ JS;H H_ HbbU;b ! XJ ^c;S S SIJI Fc J^ S^ HUbI;_ ! Xc TJ;_ S_ SJHI Fb ^_;S T UJI;H ! Xb TI;S TJ TT_U FSI T^;^ b TJU;S ! XU __;^ S S^JJ FSS ^^;S H STb;S ! XSI _J;b ^ SbI_ FSH T_;T Sc bHb;b ! FS_ JH;H J S_TT;_ ! FST ^H;J SS bbI;S ! FS^ TS;T S_ b_S;T !

PAGE 75

JJ ! !33-).4O'. .!$!'*1'%-&@&,-.'+!$-%'3!%(#'4)&,5.4)/'#&!$$-%3,*$'+4$2'%-/%-##4*)' &*-114&4-)$'!).'$!",-'%-3%-#-)$4)/'."2P'#*.450',-L-,P'3-%&-)$')-&%*#4#P' !).'$*$!,')--.,-',-)/$2P'!).'%-/%-##4*)'&*-114&4-)$ ! !

PAGE 76

Jc ! ! ! ! y = 0.000 x 0.122 R! = 0.884 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Percent necrosis Na level ppm Kennedy park y = 0.000 x + 0.036 R! = 0.424 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Percent necrosis Na level ppm Swansea Park

PAGE 77

Jb ! ! !