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Evaluating the impact of youth participation in Mathare Youth Sports Association (MYSA) environmental clean-up program in Nairobi's slums

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Title:
Evaluating the impact of youth participation in Mathare Youth Sports Association (MYSA) environmental clean-up program in Nairobi's slums
Creator:
Awuor, George Otieno
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
ix, 170 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Environmental protection -- Citizen participation -- Nigeria ( lcsh )
Young volunteers in community development -- Nigeria ( lcsh )
Youth -- Social conditions -- Nigeria -- Nairobi ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Colorado Denver, 2009. Design and planning
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 161-170).
General Note:
College of Architecture and Planning
Statement of Responsibility:
by George Otieno Awuor.

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University of Colorado Denver
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|Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
436148275 ( OCLC )
ocn436148275

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EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF YOUTH PARTICIPATION IN :MATHARE YOUTH SPORTS ASSOCIATION (lVIYSA) ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN-UP PROGRAl\f IN NAIROBI'S SLUMS By George Otieno Awuor B.A., Karnataka State University, India 1994 Mlisc, University of Mysore, India 1997 MAIS, Arizona State University, 2003 A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Design and Planning, 2009

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This Thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy degree by George Otieno Awuor has been approved by Wt.llem Van Vliet Ben Kirshner Date

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Awuor, George Otieno (PhD, Design and Planning) Evaluating the Impact of Youth Participation in Mathare Youth Sports Association (MYSA) Environmental Clean-Up Program in Nairobi's Slums Thesis directed by Professor Louise Chawla and Professor Willem Van Vliet ABSTRACT This research is about Mathare Youth Sports Association (MYSA), a unique urban self help youth program in one of Nairobi's largest slums. This is a qualitative assessment of youth participation in the Environmental Clean-Up Program based on a premise that children and youth are an important group who need to be involved in planning and developing their conumm.ities. I examine how youth participate and the impacts of their participation on their personal lives, their families, communities, the local environment and institutions. I rely on Hart's (1992) definition which regards participation as sharing decisions that affect one's life and the life of community in which one lives. Given the shortage of comparative evaluations in youth participation, a combination of interviews and observations provide the depth and richness needed to better understand what youth are gaining from this program. I categorize the impact evaluation data into personal, familial, communal, institutional and environmental realms as identified by a PLAN International study in Ecuador, India and Kenya. My fmdings suggest that participation in MYSA motivates youth to clean and improve their neighborhoods. They clear heaps of garbage, unclog drains, plant trees and cut grass and weeds. They also pick rocks and broken bottles from grounds where children and youth from the local community play. Both parents and MYSA members gain personal knowledge about environmental cleaning, toxic waste and recycling. By joining l\1YSA, young people also enhance their social networks, learn new skills and gain confidence about the future. This dissertation contributes to the understanding of how youth participate in programs designed to increase their community involvement. MYSA provides unique experiences and lessons that may help in the recognition of the capacity and abilities of young people to meaningfully participate in improving their lives in Kenya and world wide. This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I recommend its { and Louise Chawla Willem Van Vliet

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DEDIC\TION dissertation dedicated to all the mothers, and community leaders taking care of orphans and children in \v;thout expecting any attention, recognition or rewards

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ACKNO\\"LEDGMENTS I wish to express my deepest gratitude to lVIYSA, the youth and their families for taking time and trouble to share their thoughts and experiences with me. Special thank you is owed to George "Joshe" \X"ambugu, a youth leader at MYSA who I have worked with since 2004. Joshe introduced me to many youth leaders and community members in Eastlands, Nairobi. I owe a lot to my advisors, \X'illem van Vliet, Louise Chawla, Pamela \X'ridt, Ben Kirshner and David Driskell who have been supportive and involved in guiding me through this whole process. Willem and Louise particularly challenged me to improve my writing, encouraging and helping me stay focused. I have great respect for David who I had the opportunity to briefly work \\<-i.th in Nairobi. \\'arching and talking to him in the field helped me improve and sharpen my data collection skills. Special thanks to the PhD program support staff Kim Kelly who guided me through the administratiYe maze for so many years. Thank you all for facilitating the process of completing my dissertation.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS r'igureS----------------------------------Vll ra bles -------ix CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION/BACKGROLTNL)-.--.---.-. -.-.---. --.-.-.1 Research Objective --.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.---.-.-.-. --.-.-.---.--. -1 Research Questions --------8 Background _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. _. 10 l\hthare Youth Sports Organization {MYSA)-.-.-.-.-. .-.-.. .l. 0 Mathare Valley SluRl----------------------13 Structure of the Dissertation----------------------15 2. LITERATURE REVIE\'C ----------------_ --17 Defining Participation--------_ --------------21 \Xlhy is Participation Critical.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.27 Child and Youth Participation: A Brief Histmy----Moving to Action ---------------------33 Examples of Participatory Projects that Contribute to Child and Youth Participation -.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.--.-.-.-.-.-.-.-. 35 Impact of Participation-----------------------39 Challenges to Participation_._._ _._._._ _._._._ _._._._ _._._._._._._. __ 4-3 Reflections on Participation _. _. -. _. _. _. _. -. _. -. _. _. -46 3. RESEARCH METHOD -------------------------50 The Study Sites: l\fl'SA Zones---------------51 Selection of Informants and their Protl.les------------54 Research 59 Data CollectionPrimary Data. ----------------60 IntetTieu;s ---------60 Observations--------------------------64 Vl

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Focus Groupi.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-68 Infom1al Discussions--------------69 Photos and Video Recording--------------69 Quantitative Data Collection-Secondary Data--------70 Data 71 Coding-----------------------------7 3 Advantages and Limitations of Research Methods---------78 -t FINDINGS-------.-.-.-.-.----.-.---.-.--.--.---.-.-.---.-.80 Participation in l\fYSA-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-. ---. -.-.-.-.-.-.-.-. -.-... 85 Youth Views Regarding Participation in 1\f\s,\ 85 Participating in the Environmental Clean-Up Program ......... 91 98 Personal Realm..-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.--.-.-.--.-.-.-99 Familial Realm -----108 Communal Realm----------------------ttl Environmental Realm-----------------------113 Institutional Realm-------------------.117 5. IMPLICATIONS-------------------------------123 APPENDIX Implications for Youth Organizations-------_ ---_________ 124 Implications for City Councils---------------------Implications for Youth-.-.-.---.-.-.--.-.-.-.--.-----.-.-.-. ---139 Conclusion----------------146 A. Interview __ -. _. _. -. --. _. -. _. -. _147 B. Consent Forms...-.-.----.-.-.----.-.---.-.-.-.--.-.--.-.---.-.--150 BIBLIOGRAPHY 161 Vll

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LIST OF FIGL'RES Figure City wide fear of crime surTeys by age------........... 2 Ladder of participation-... ........ ........... -----23 2.1 HarnShier children's consultancy scheme-----------------25 . 3 Map of the eight administratin divisions in Nairobi--------53 3.1 Map of the sixteen MYS,\ zones--54 1\f\"S.\ governance structure-........... ... ----------Photo of at a soccer tournament at Technical high school grounds, Nairobi---------------------R7 4.2 Photo of youth signing up at Huruma for a clean up------------93 4.3 Photo distributing l'vf\"S.\ equipment to members at I Iuruma-........ --95 Photo of youth clean-up in Huruma--------------96 Loading trash onto a truck in ------------97 4.6 Percentage of population liYing below po\'Crty line in Nairobi -100 4.7 Photo of acrobats -community awareness and entertainment---105 4.R Youth digging new ----------i 14 4.9 Photo of heaps of garbage before clean-up-------------........ 115 4. )() Photo of youth unclogging existing drains-................. ---...... ....... -116 4.11 Photo cleared paths after clean-up-------------117 Vlll

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LIST OF T,\BLES T.\BLE 3 Summary of youth segment of participants by age and zone __ ____ 56 3.1 Summan -----------.59 3.2 Summan of data collection methods 70 ---------------3.3 Summary of general information and source;; --J1 3.4 Coding summary_---------------------__ -___ 77 3.5 Summary of impacts node.--------------------------:78 .l.J Summary of findings on participation 119 of tindings on impacts---------------120 lX

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Research Objectives CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND This dissertation 1s a qualitative assessment of the impact of youth part1Clpation 1n the Environmental Clean-Up Program of the l\lathare Youth Sports Association (l\I.YSA). 1\IYS:\, a unique urban self-help youth program, was established in 1987 in one of Nairobi's largest slums. Thousands of youth \vho have no real opportunities after completing school or dropping out early join MYSA and participate in conmmnity service acti,ities. There is agreement that l\11YS:\ programs are successful but there is hardly any empirical e\idencc to support this notion. \\.hen I began thinking about a research project with youth in Nairobi, MYSA was the preferred choice because of my familiarity with their soccer leagues. I grew up in Nairobi and had the opportunity to interact with some l\fYSA members in the local soccer scene. \\'hilc in high school, I played for a local soccer club; some of my teammates were young men from l\fYS.\. The presence of MYS:\ members, in local soccer teams is common because the two 1\fYS:\ teams that participate 1n the local leagues arc ,ery competitive and can only accommodate a few out of the thousands of members who arc actively imolnd in the vast l\ffSA zonal leagues. Thus, many talented M\'SA members, particularly over the age of 18, join other local clubs and play in

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vanous di,,isional leagues where some of the clubs tinancially compensate the young men. Initial infom1ation suggested that members and their communities gain from their involvement in community activities such as environmental clean-ups and other programs that help impron the lives of many in the slums. Many young people living in despair hang on to hope that their lives will change for the better because of MYSA. :\ majority of the young people '"ish to have a source of income that will gin them independence and the ability to assist their families financially. Many others hope to be soccer stars abroad or to become great soccer coaches locally. It is 'With this knowledge that I set out to find out how MYS.\ operated and how members gained from environmental clean-up activities. I believe that tn\' research with l\fl'SA will provide new insights for those engaged in community denlopment projects with young people, particularly young people in challenging circumstances. Gi,en the shortage of comparative evaluations in participation, a combination of inteniews and obsen>ations in my study prmided the depth and richness needed to better understand what youth are ga1n1ng by participating in the clean-up activities. The current literature on child and youth participation is dominated by western literature, and therefore my study is crucial and timely because it adds a Kenyan perspective to discussions about child and youth participation. The different languages and cultural interactions make the Kenvan society diverse and unil]Ue. I lowever, the 2

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cultural diversity which should be celebrated results in conflict and tying of individual identities to tribes and ethnic groups. It is in this context that I attempt to identify new forms of participation that may exist in this unique environment. My assessment of the impacts of youth participation m the l\1YSA Environmental Clean-up Program relied on Hart's (1992) definition, which regards participation as sharing decisions that affect one's life and the life of the community in which one liYes. The evaluation assessed the impacts of participation on young people's personal lives, their conununities, their local enYironment, and institutions such as the Nairobi City Council. The literature on child and youth participation also identifies different components of participation, how participation occurs, and various interpretations of child and youth participation. One of the most widely used concepts is Hart's (1992) ladder of participation, which identifies eight levels, representing different forms of participation. Hart's ladder suggests that the levels of young people's power and influence reflect degrees of participation. Driskell (2002) provides practical guidelines on how to structure and facilitate young people's participation in processes of conununity development. These authors identify tensions and conflicts between adults and young people, and how notions of participation may be resisted, depending on how adults view young people. However, Hart (2002) argues that most of the texts on participation have a \'\'estern bias and that there is a need for further research in Africa and other Southern Hemisphere countries in order to understand child and youth participation in these 3

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regions. In recognition of the gap in the availability of literature and research on child and youth participation in Africa, I set out to learn more about \. My inguiry was based on the premise that children and youth arc an important group who need to be involved in planning and developing their communities. My study focused on the l\fYSA Environmental Clean-Up Program which has attracted attention both locally and internationally, and which was recognized by UNEP and nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. Planners have an obligation to impnwc the guality of life of the communities and cities for which they work. Increasingly, planners recognize that local residents best detine their problems and in many cases offer practical and innovative solutions. Children and youth haw proven that when ginn opportunities, they are both good critics of their environments and produce fresh ideas (Chawla, 2002). Research on child and youth participation suggests that young people want to be involved in issues that affect them and their communities. Their invoh-ement offers them new skills and opportunities to build their self-esteem and say what is on their minds. \'Chen young people are allowed to stratcgize for neighborhood improvements, they can change their communities and in the process also benefit personally through the experience. Invo!Yemcnt of young people and the recognition of their potential gins them confidence and improves their standing in their communities (Swart Kruger with Chawla, 2002). Research also indicates that participation fosters young people's

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resilience, enhances their social competence, problem-solYing skills, autonomy and sense of purpose. They become more creatiYe and are open to learning new skills (Hart, 1997). I spent seven months (January-July, 2007) in Nairobi conducting research on l\1YSA activities and getting to know people living in the slums. I was sensitive and aware of the influence of politics in all aspects of Kenyan society. Ethnicity is a sensitive and powerful tool for politics in Kenya. Some communities feel marginalized, leading to assertions of differences, competing interests and distrust between tribal groups. Resources allocation 1s a maJor source of disputes and discontent at all levels of the soclety. At the time of my research in Nairobi, I was aware of the ethnic tens10ns, particularly in the slums. The coalition that formed the 2002 National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) gonrnment had fallen apart. Some tribes particularly from the Rift Valley, \\'estern Kenya and the Coast provinces felt betrayed and marginalized. i\.s a student in the United States, I felt that my infom1ants saw me as a neutral figure that would not take sides enn though I'm Kenyan and thus identify with a tribe. 1\mid the political fallout and the tension in the country, preparations were underway for elections later in December of 2007. The charged atmosphere exploded when disputes and claims of stolen elections resulted in major violence that tore the country apart. Images of youth from the slums thrmv:ing stones at the riot police were seen all over the world. Thousands of dissatisfied and unemployed youth went on a rampage, demanding the change that they had hoped their voting would bring. 5

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The invohcment of youth in the violence following the botched elections in Kenya is evidence that countries can no longer ignore the millions of young people who are exposed to unsafe cmironments and in cases face discrimination and exclusion. Young people arc isolated and frustrated because they have few opportunities available to help them to do well in life. \X'ith no jobs or source of income, many cannot make ends meet and arc driven to crime and drugs. However, there arc indications that governments, in collaboration \Vith UN Habitat and other organizations, han recognized the need to involn youth in development strategies. ,\ccording to ,\shford (2007), Africa is estimated to be the youngest region in the world, 'W-ith 44 percent of its population under the age of 15 years. \X'ith high rates of urbanization, cities, especially in poor countries, have become home to an increasing number of the world's children and youth (UNICEF, 2002). Consequently, children and youth under the age of 25 are the majority affected by the various problems emanating from urban p(werty (I labitat, 2003). Living in conditions similar to those in Matharc, millions of children and youth worldwide ha,c inadequate food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, shelter, health and education. They are vulnerable to disease, accidents and die young as a result of their poor li'ing environments (Bartlett, 2002; l'NICEF, 2005). In 2007, L'N I labitat and member nations agreed to set aside a youth fund targeting youth-led initiatins. For the first time in Kenya's history, there is a Ministry for Youth ,\ffairs, specifically mandated to attend to the needs of young citizens. The 6

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ministry recently set up a Youth Enterprise Development Fund (YEDF) \\ith allocations of about $14 million for youth enterprises. It may be a sign that after years of neglect, the government is ready to empower youth. Scholars have been suggesting for years that there is urgency in the need to embrace the creative ideas of children and youth in the development and management of the environment and human settlements, especially in poor countries where young people are most affected by urban problems (Driskell, Bannerjee and Chawla, 2001 ). This growth in the acceptance of child and youth participation can especially be attributed to a number of important international agreements. The Com-ention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), Agenda 21 of the Earth Summit, and the Habitat Agenda all recognize that young people have the right to grow up in an em-ironment that protects them in order to increase their chances of grmving up healthy, contident and self respecting. The CRC has become an important tool in efforts to advance the well-being of young people throughout the world. I'm of the opinion that other slums within the counrnand the regton may learn something from the participation of young people in the MYS.\ self-help youth groups. By getting to know people in the slums, I was able to gain knowledge about the everyday lives of poor residents of Nairobi. I hope that the results from my study \\ill show that it is possible for youth organizations and local governments to work together to change policy. The study may also provide lessons and insights for different parts of the world. By contributing to the discussion about youth and their em-ironments, my 7

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research results will help in the recognition of the capacity and abilities of young people to meaningfully participate in improving their lives in Mathare and elsewhere. Research Questions 1. J-loiJJ do.routh partitipate in the Mat!Jare Yo11th Sports /lsJotiatioll (Af} T1) E1111irollmental Clea11-Up Program? In this study I use l'nited Nations definition of 'youth' as persons between the ages of 15 and 2-t-years. Child and youth participation is critical for young people's survinl, especially in poor countries. 1\s indicated in the section above, many governments and organizations have recognized young people's participation as an important component in improving lives of young people. However, in many poor countries, participation is just becoming acceptable and there is still evidence that most gmernments and organizations only pay lip service to the idea of consultation with young people (Bartlett, 2002). Even though the right of children to participate is secured in the CRC, youth are rarely allowed to be directly invoh-ed in creating healthier, secure and enabling environments. Furthennore, KnowlesYanez (2002) finds that youth concerns are hardly addressed in planning. She claims that planners have little or no knowledge about youth experiences and their needs. JlvfYS.\ is a relatively successful youth-led self-help organization with \vorld \vide recognition. However, there is very limited research that has been independently carried out to find out how the organization operates. \'('ith an increase in membership, JlvfYS1\. has become a large organization and it was therefore important to find out how 8

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partiCipation 1s understood and enacted in the MYS.A EnYironmental Clean-Cp Program .As a youth-led organization initiated by the help of adults, it was my goal to find out if young people really haYe a say in the decision-making processes. Insights from answers regarding this question will provide some contributions towards the gap in literature and understanding about how young people participate in I...:.enya. I...:.enya's perspectiYe is unique because young people in I...:.enya constitute a majority of the population, especially in urban areas, and haYe increasingly become aggressiYe in Yoicing their interest to be included in decision making. 2. IFhat impad does partidpation baw OII.J'Oifllg pfoplf's pfrsonallillfS, /om/ mlironnunt. lhfir mmnttmitie.r, a11d in.rtit11tio11.r re.rpo11.riblefor a11d mmnttmiiJ' It is not enough to know and understand how youth are participating. Further understanding of the impacts of young people's engagement in planning is important, as potential benefits of participation to both individual participants and their communities have been identified (Tolman & Pittman, 20()1). Hart (1997) argues that participation fosters young people's resilience, enhances their social competence, problem-soiYing skills, autonomy and a sense of purpose. They become more creative and are open to learning new skills. As child and youth participation becomes widely acceptable, it is important to eYaluate the impacts of participation on the everyday lives of young people, their local enYironment and their communities. Young people must be allowed to articulate what they think they may be gaining through participation. A PLAN CK 9

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report authored by Ackennann, eta!. (2004) proYides a broad structure for looking at the effects of participation. It suggests that impacts may be positive or negative. Answering this second question '\\ill help mm-e the discourse on child and youth participation beyond advocacy to assessing the results and impacts of participation. Background Mathare Youth Sports Association (.VYSA) l\fYSA is a unique urban self-help youth program that links the local youths' love for sports with service to their communities. MYSA started with an aun of i.mpro,ing the living conditions of l\lathare residents and many other neighboring communities. Armed with a simple organizational principle to motivate the youth, "You do something, .MYSA does something; you do nothing, lVIYSA does nothing", the Environmental Clean-l'p Program was established in 1988. The program requires all soccer team members to spend time participating in neighborhood clean-ups in order to earn individual and team points in the soccer leagues. The Environmental Clean-l:p Program enables members to clean their neighborhoods by unblocking the sewer drains, clearing trenches, collecting garbage and most importantly, clearing fields which provide playing grounds for the children and youth in the community (Bruce, 2005). The Environmental Clean-l1p Program has attracted attention widely. The program was recognized by L'NEP and awarded the l"NEP 500 Global Award for Emironmental lnnontion and Achienment in 1992. In 2003, lVIYS.A was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. 10

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l\IYSA was established in a tiny building in Eastleigh, Nairobi in 1987 by a Canadian de,elopment agent and resident of Nairobi named Bob l\Iunro. Through partnership and support from the local community, Munro helped create an organization that links sports \\<-ith community senice activities (1\fitchell, 2003). MYSA ideas and activities have since spread and gained recognition both locally and regionally. According to the current l\f\'SA director, the youth organization has since grown in influence and size. Member Yolunteer numbers are estimated at almost 20,000 boys and girls from 9-20 years old. MYSA ideas and acti,ities have spread regionally to Tanzania, Sudan and 15 locations within the poorer eastern parts of the city. The expansion and growth of 1\-f\'S:\ has been beneficial to the participating youth and their communities. MYSA programs have evohed and expanded and currently include the Jailed Kids' Project, concerned \\<-ith feeding and repatriating youth from the juvenile court system and linking them with their families, and the ShootBack project that helps youth acquire photography and videography skills. The knowledge and skills gained from this project help youth tell stories about their lives in the slums. 1\f\'SA also trains coaches and referees in their Sports and Leadership Academy. Another popular project is the Leadership Award Project which provides scholarships for top MYSA volunteers. The 10,000 Kenya shillings (S147) awards enable winners to pay school fees. Approximately 500 scholarships are awarded annually. There is also a youth exchange program which prmides opportunities for youth in the European l'nion, North America and Mathare to travel and experience a new life with families in these 11

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different locations for short periods of time. Recently, the Anti-Child Labor Project has been actiYely carrying out awareness campaigns against child labor and about rights of children. It ts estimated that about 700 Kenyans die of HIV and AIDS related complications everyday. The slums are the hardest hit by the disease, and in response, MYSA set up an HI\' and AIDS Prevention and Awareness Project that promotes behavior change among the youth. Finally, the Art and Culture Support Groups, \Vhich help youth gain skills in art, drama, music and puppetry, arc especially popular with members who are not necessarilY interested in soccer. l\fYSA community libraries also 0 0 provide members with access to books and safe, quiet spaces to study. Mathare Valley slums Even as MYSA attempts to change conditions and fight deprivation in the slums, the youth still contend with terrible conditions in l\fathare Valley. Located northeast of Nairobi, Matharc is estimated to han a population of more than 100,000 people who currently live in shacks made of old plastic, cardboard and rusted corrugated iron sheets (CN-Habitat, 20tH). Homes are often surrounded by uncollected garbage, contaminated water in blocked drainage, and waste, which exposes the inhabitants to diseases. The valley is noisy and dirty, crammed full of people living in crowded houses built in rows of single rooms that are poorly lit and hardly ventilated. In many cases the tiny shacks provide cooking spaces, resulting in indoor air pollution. However, the valley also has a 12

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Yibrant infonnal economy driYen mainly by second hand clothes vendors and fruit and ngetable sellers (Schilderman, 2004). Many residents, even from middle class neighborhoods, visit the slums to purchase food and clothing because the prices are a bargain. I remember that when I was in high school, I would some of my clothes from the slums. In fact my soccer boots and training kits were easier to find and more affordable in the slums. Back then the slums were relatively safe and violent crimes were rare. Howe,er, over the past two decades, criminal youth gangs have become a growing security problem for the city of Nairobi. According to a CN Habitat (2007) report, 50 per cent of convicted prisoners in the country are aged between 16 and 25 years. According to Mulama (2007), gang activities in Mathare have made life difficult for many residents. The slum is home to dangerous gangs such as the Mungiki sect that has been accused of extortion and terrorizing residents. The Mungiki sect demands payment from every house for security and electricity. The gang consists mainly of dreadlocked youth who champion old Kikuyu traditions such as female genital mutilation and oathtaking. It is beliend that the gang has taken control of the public toilets in the slums and demands that e\'ery house pay a user fee. Various fees demanded by the gang are often unaffordable to many residents, resulting in friction between residents and the Mungiki gang. After deadly slum violence in 2002, the gang was banned. In May 2007, two police officers were shot dead in the slum and in response, it is claimed that the police killed 22 suspects and arrested 100 during overnight gun battles as they stormed Mathare in 13

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search of members of the outlawed sect. Youth in Mathare are constantly harassed by the police, who in many cases erroneously suspect them to be gang members. Some of the youth in the slums have joined MYSA, but there are others who have joined gangs such as Mungiki or the Taliban, mainly because of the high unemployment rates in the city. This has led to a blanket condemnation and distrust of young people by many residents who cannot distinguish between gang members and non-members. To make matters worse, opportunities for formal education for most youth are beyond their reach, and drug abuse and alcoholism fuelled by the local brews, such as the illicit chang'aa, are rife. Figure 1.1 City Wide Fear of Crime Surveys By Age (UN Habitat, 2002) 52% of Nairobi's 3 million residents worry about crime all the time 14

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Structure of Dissertation This dissertation is organized into five chapters. Chapter Two renews the literature on child and youth participation. I begin by examining the definitions of child and youth participation, \vith a focus on community service. I document a brief history of child and youth participation and identify some examples of participatory projects for young people, particularly in poor countries with conditions similar to Mathare slums. I review the impacts of participation, and conclude the chapter by looking at different challenges of child and youth participation in community service projects. These perspectives help me understand the experiences of young people in poor countries who are involved in improving their local environments and communities. Chapter Three outlines my research design and methodology. It describes the context of my research and the locations of the MYSA zones where the study was conducted. I include the profiles of participating informants, the process of selecting informants, the research instruments, and the process of data analysis. I conclude the chapter with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of my study methodology. Chapter Four presents my findings regarding the impacts of young people's participation in the MYS1\ Environmental Clean-Up Program. I identify and describe how the youth understand and view participation. I relate their involvement in the clean up activities to changes in their personal lives, their neighborhoods and their communities in general. I also discuss the role of adults and the roles of the l\fYSA youth in relation to the clean-up activities and community service in general. 15

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Chapter Fin: concludes my dissertation and discusses implications of the study tin dings for further research. I also look at the implications of the ;\JYS. \ clean-up actiYities in relation to the obligations of the Nairobi City Council and local municipal authorities. I ,essons from mY stud\ contribute to the literature on child and youth participation and prmide an opportunity for MYS.\ and other groups to retkct and make changes to their programs. 16

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Introduction CHAPTER2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter renews literature about child and routh participation In planning, especially in poor countries where millions of young people face discrimination, exclusion and unsafe environments. A brief history of child and youth participation and examples of participatory projects with children and youth in poor countries are included in this review. Discussions about impacts of participation and conclusions review some of the different perspectives of child and youth participation in community senice projects. These perspectives help me understand the experiences of young people in poor countries who are invoked m improving their local environments and commumttes. Cities arc home to an increasing number of the world's children and youth (l'NICEF, 2002). The average age of slum dwellers is decreasing; consequently children and youth under the age of 25 are the majority exposed and affected by the nrious problems emanating from urban pmerty (L'N I Iabitat, 2003). Millions of children in cities worldwide have inade(1uate food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, shelter, health and education. It is estimated that about 1.6 million children under fiYC years old die from diarrhea from bad water each year (l'NICEF, 2005). 17

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Makori (1999) argues that while youth compnse 60 o of Kenya's population, the decline in the economy has not produced enough jobs to accommodate young job seekers. The declining economy has resulted in a rise in poverty le,els and unemployment. :\ National Youth Report states that there is a general lack of opportunities for the youth in Kenya, which leads to a loss in potential talent (T\1inistry of Home Affairs, Heritage and Sports, December 2007 election violence in Kenya \\-itnessed young people, especially from the slums, take up crude weapons to fight against what they saw as government injustices. Many disillusioned youth sense that the government favors a few over the others. In an essay in a local newspaper Chris Hart (2008) observed that large nwnbers of unemployed young men in e\ery town and village in Kenya han no hope for the future. They are \\-illing to take risks, especially if the alternative is a life \\-ithout opportunity and hope. They have no means to earn money and status and consequently no chance to afford a wife and a family. They have become angry and ''iolent. The recent election skirmishes resulted in hundreds of deaths and provided some young people \\ith a chance to loot property, intimidate, set up protection rackets and erect roadblocks (Hart, 2008). These unfortunate developments have shown that there is urgent need for youth friendly policies that will provide them with opportunities and hope for the future. There is little doubt that young people are creative, \\-illing to participate and are capable of improving their Ji,es in different parts of the world. However, they often lack access to 18

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shelter, health, education, food, safe drinking water and samtanon facilities. Some die from disease or violence on the streets or in garbage dumps where they find refuge. Planners arc responsible for improving the welfare of people in cities. They control the use of land, transportation, communication net\J .. orks and protect the natural environment. Planners must engage children and youth in finding suitable solutions to their challenges. In cities in the least developed countries, even though children and youth arc a majority of the population, they are in many cases excluded from decision making and civil and social programs. Young people and their families arc ignored and neglected because they are poor. Children and youth are also ignored because they are not adults, and evidence from .\frican countries suggests that they arc most vulnerable and affected by the neglect (Bartlett, 2003; Swart Kruger with Chawla, 2002). Yet even when anned with this knowledge, most governments and local authorities are yet to take steps to address children's needs and assess their priorities (Riggio, 2002). Input from young people is '"ie\vcd as an unnecessary component of planning processes (KnO\des-Yancz, 2005). The result of this neglect is that cities are still largely unfriendly to children and youth. Nairobi prmides an example of major neglect of the poor, resulting in one of the worst gaps between the rich and the poor. \'\'hilc slums take up only 5% of the city's land area, 60" o of Nairobi's population resides in the slums (l'N-Habitat, 2003). Nairobi's eastern "Eastlands" area, 'vhich is a marginalized, low income, densely populated area, is estimated to ha,e 1000 people per hectare. Mathare 19

PAGE 29

\'alley slum densities arc even higher, estimated at a 1,250 people per hectare (Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, 2001 ). The lack of infrastructure to support the high population has led to many problems. In the slums, cmironmental problems have been exacerbated by the inability of the Nairobi City Council to effccti,ely deli,er solid waste management services to the majority of the residents, due to a lack of solid waste management infrastructure and chaotic or unregulated printe sector participation (CNEP, 2005). \\'ith little help from the city authorities, conditions have deteriorated, resulting in defecation in open spaces, and without regular clearing of footpaths, drains and latrines, all residents arc exposed to serious health risks (Lamba, 199--1-). These challlnges and more require that planners in poor countries de,isc new methods of tackling problems that face people, who often make up the majority of the city residents. Scholars agree that when gi\'cn the opportunity, children and youth haYe pn)Yen that they arc capable of identifying their problems and giving fresh ideas (Chawla, 2002). In order for young people to han an influence on decisions made about their cities and their future, they must be allowed and encouraged to participate in the community and social life because in many cases, their sunival literally depends on their taking a bigger role in defining their liYCs and future. 20

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Defining Participation My focus on participation is in reference to young people taking part in collective decision-making. The tem1 "participation," even though widely used, has no single agreeable interpretation and acceptable meaning. Arnstein (1969) defines participation as "the power of the have-not groups to intluence end products of decisions". Hart (1992) and Checkoway (1998) regard participation as sharing decisions that affect one's life and the life of the community in which one lives, while Driskell and others define it as "a form of individual and collective self-realization that engages people in significant decision-making that, ultimately, challenges existing structures of authority and involves genuine transfers of power" (Driskell, Bannerjee and Chawla, 2001 ). Participation may take different forms, such as organizing a group for social action, legislative advocacy or educational and awareness creation to enable a group to discover and develop senices of their own (Checkoway, 1998). All the definitions suggest that participation provides opportunities for young people to seek information, form their views and express their ideas freely \\ith respect and dignity. Roger Hart's (1992) adaptation of Arnstein's (1969) laddf'r q( citizm p(lltitipation as a tool for thinking about children and young people's participation has become a widely used model. Hart's (1992) eight-level ladder of participation suggests that the levels of young people's power and influence reflect the degrees of participation. Hart identified eight levels, representing different forn1s of participation. One type of participation is where young people initiate and direct programs. Adults are involved only in supportive 21

PAGE 31

roles. Another level is adult-initiated, \Vi.th shared decision making with children and youth, in which young people give advice on projects designed and run by adults. The other levels involve young people with specific roles and inform them about how and why they are involved. Hart's last three are categorized as the worst forms of participation. They include tokrnim1 and decoration, which mean young people appear to be given a n>ice but in reality are without choice about what they do or how they participate. Lastly, flltllliplflatioll refers to adults using young people to support causes, pretending that the causes are inspired by young people. This ladder has dominated discussions and thinking about children's participation, especially among practitioners. \\'ith the wide circulation, Hart's ideas have provoked some criticism. Hart (2002) admits that the embrace and interpretation of the ladder has gone beyond his original intentions. He reminds us that his ladder of participation and other articles on participation have a \\'estern bias and recommends that we hesitate to make comparisons 'With local participatory processes, the conditions and environments in Southern countries. Hart advises that any attempts to implement the model should be 'With a lot of caution, especially in Southern cultures. He argues that the understanding of local cultures, political systems and languages gives access to the information and experiences generated by groups. Hart acknowledges and recognizes that participation may successfully occur in different forms other than those identified in his ladder. 22

PAGE 32

Roger Hart's Ladder of Young People's Participation Rung 8: Young people & adults share dedsion-making Rung 7:Young people lead & initiate action Rung 6: shared dedsions with young people Rung 5: Young people consulted and informed Rung 4: Young people assigned and infonned Rung 3: Young people tokenized Rung 2: Young people are deooration Rung 1 : Young people are manipulated Note: Hart explains that the last three rungs are Adapted from Hart, R. (1992). Chddl'9n's Participation from Totsni&m to Citizenship. Florence: IMICEF Innocenti Research Cenlre. Figure 2 Ladder of Participation There have been attempts to "improve" the ladder to accommodate alternative ideas. Treseder (1997) removes three 'non-participation' levels of Hart's ladder and turn the ladder so that it is horizontal to aYoid hierarchical interpretations. Depiction of the ladder as horizontal suggest that participatory activities can and should change with 23

PAGE 33

different and and the ladder as a guide, are not obligated to aim at a certain "ideal" !eYe! of participation. Most recently, Shier (200 I) developed a five level altcrnati,c to I !art's ladder of parttC!panon. lie imprond his model and named it a Schom (Shier, 2002). Tt replaces the bottom three lcnls that llart considers dcceptiYc part!C!panon, I.e. manipulation, decoration and tokenism. Shier's scheme identifies five which require that children arc listened to, supported to express their views, have their ,-icws taken into account, arc invohcd in the decision making process, and share power and responsibility for decision making .. \t each len!, indi,iduals and organizations have different lcn.ls of commitment in three general stages identified as openings, opportunities and obligations (Shier, 2002).

PAGE 34

Lcnb of I'' nit ipuritm H 5 < hi ldr,n l'''''o:r and ro:sp..,nsillilit k:s li'r making. 4. ( hiklro:n ar, ill\''" l.'d in lk;.i-..i<.'ll-making (ll"lX'O:S""-'S'.' -' ChiiJr,n's \io:\\s tako:n inh' ;il'(llllnl. 2 Childro:n ar. in o:xpr,:-;sing tll\:'ir 'i,w-... I.Childr,n ar, lisktwd ''' .\TlR Figure 2.1 Opt' ni nj!s>Opport u nitit',>()b Jig a ti on s Au Yin in d.-cisi,,n. making pHxo:,;s.>,;',' n,;_, poi Ill;_, the nrinimrmr you Rlllll odri<'lt' i{rou th Is il that childro:n and adu II s powo:rand ro:s pon sibi I ity f,v d.'Cisi,,n<.' C!\' Ctmentit;, on the Right:. ?{Ill<' Chiltl you ''' lako: c h ildrcn s inlo account'.) )"''II to ,;upporl ,-hildro:n in their 'io:ws'.' .\ro: you ''' ''' Do.:s Y<'Ur d.xisi<'ll making pr<'-o:ss .:rt.1hlo: you lo .-hi s vi.:ws inl<' ac.ounl'.' Do you ha\O: a of id"".l' and acli,ilio:s lo hdp children lho:ir Do Y )'".' Harry Shier Children's Consultancy Scheme

PAGE 35

Francis and Lorenzo (2002) have gone further and identitied several realms of participation. The tlrst realm considers children as designers, meaning that children have a free hand to shape their own future. This is a romantic view that sees children planning -without adult imolvement. is the second recognized realm where needs of children are advocated by adult planners. Third is the ,'\!rrd.r approach which is based on addressing children's needs and incorporating them into designs. The other approach invohes Architects teaching children about architecture, basically, giving attention to Environmental Education and learning (Francis and Lorenzo, 2002). A lot more focus has been on the RJ..ght.r approach where children as city residents have rights that need to be protected just like any other citizens. This realm requires children's participation in planning and decision-making. The last realm is ProaditJf' which refers to participation with children. This approach combines research, participation and action to engage children and adults in planning and design. Even though children actively participate during the designing process, planners still play an important role as they are left to incorporate the ideas and needs of children. Plans are therefore focused on a vision of both empowering children and making substantive changes to the city environment (1-'rancis and Lorenzo, 2002). The approach has been crucial in the push for the L'N Connntion on the Rights of the Child (CRC). The CRC and Agenda 21 han identified children and youth as major groups that need to be involved in the protection of the environment and the creation of sustainable settlements. The CRC, Agenda 21 and other initiatives have given 26

PAGE 36

planners all over the world an opportumty to inn>he children and youth in the protection of the environment. Scholars agree that there is a need to embrace the creative ideas of children and youth 1n the deYelopment and management of the environment and human settlements (Driskell, Bannerjee and Cha\vla, 2001). The Global Partnership Initiative (GPI) and similar projects such as the Child Friendly Cities (CFC) initiative are evidence that there is growing interest in child and youth matters globally. Examples from least developed countries suggest that \vhen young people are invoked, there is great potential to improve the standard of living and \veil-being of children and youth in developing countries. Why is participation critical Demographic realities suggest that young people are the majority affected by urban problems in poor countries. They are subjected to poverty and lack of access to social opportunities such as employment and are exposed to disease and risky behavior (Clert, La Cava and Lytle, 2003; UN Habitat, 20
PAGE 37

As Finn and Chcckoway (1998) discovered, young people can actively participate in solving problems, planning programs and providing services at the community level, and by listening to the voices of young people, adults can appreciate their capacities. If given opportunities, young people can be active participants in personal, organizational and community change (Checkoway, Finn, and Pothukuchi, 1995). Furthermore, introducing young people to decision making can educate them early about responsibilities as citizens. Participation of young people in planning will result in a citizenry that is knowledgeable about the planning process. KnowlesYanez (2005) argues that active residents who embrace their civic duties make the planning process more transparent. Transparency in planning results in ownership and conunitment from communities which, in turn, result in successful and less controversial plans. She argues that if planners engage young people, the image of planning as a profession can be 0 improved. Successfully engaging young people may also increase the number of young people interested in planning and in future, it may produce planners who understand the challenges and the importance of involving communities (KnowlesYanez, 2005). Ignoring this important constituency can be lethal. The inclusion of young people's needs in the planning process is a pragmatic requirement. Frustrated youth can be found to be invoked in racist and ethnic violence (Cunningham and Correia, 2003). In many cases, the survival tactics of such young people may result in violence and crime. Recent events in Kenya where poor youth han been engaged in violence and destruction after an election dispute are a reminder that a younger generation without 28

PAGE 38

economic opportunities, increased poYerty, and social and legal constraints represents a high social risk for any society. The social, economic and financial costs associated with failure to listen to young people often exceed the cost of preYentiYe and remedial internntions (La Can and Lytle, 2003). If youth lack access to secure economic, social and political opportunities, their exclusion may lead to conflict. Child and Youth Participation: A Brief History Child and youth participation emerged in the L'K and out of the participatory planning movement of the 1960 and the 1970s. Bishop, ,\dams and Keen (1992) credit Lynch (1960), Goodman (1960), Jacobs (1965), Hall (1966), Sommer (1969), Proshansky et al. (1970), Canter (197-t-), .r\ppleyard (1976), \\'ard (1978) and Hart (1979) for creating the vision, ideas and initiatiYCs that promoted international interest in urban etwironmental education. The participatory moYement fought for the recognition and promotion of human aspects in environmental education. They were influenced by Ke,in Lynch's belief that it was necessary to understand how children and adolescents usc and perceiYe their local etwironment in order to make a better quality of life a reality for all (Lynch, 1977; \\'ilhjclm, 2002). The interest on children and the etwironment is rooted on merging knowledge about the history of children and education, people and environment and community and participation (Bishop, ,\dams and Keen, 1992). 29

PAGE 39

In 1977, Ke,in Lynch, a planner at MIT, directed the 11p in Citie.r (G L'IC) project sponsored by L:NESCO in four countries. The project focused on the children's experience of li,ing in low-income settlements in Argentina, Australia, Mexico and Poland. Later on, however, the social, economic and political climate in the 1980s became less conducive for promoting the ideas that helped develop urban emironmental education (Bishop, Adams and Keen (1992). Almost three decades later after the initial work of Lynch (1977), the GL'IC was expanded involving a team of experts from a variety of disciplines and targeting a total of eight countries, including some from the denloping world .. -\ report on this phase of the project, 11p in an [ rrorld (Chawla, 2002), is a collection of case studies in \vhich interdisciplinary teams that included academic researchers, child adn>eates, and community practitioners documented the experiences of children and youth, especially in low-income neighborhoods, in cities across the world. The project, directed by Louise Chawla, adopted Lynch's original aims and recorded some success in terms of local adoption and implementation of responsin and child-friendly urban policies. The project focused on how children view and use their environment, how the environment affects their lives and how local authorities can tackle some of the existing problems. The teams of researchers also evaluated local resources and restrictions. The growing trend in the acceptance of child and youth participation, 111 the 1990's can be attributed to a number of important international agreements. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), .\genda 21 of the Earth Summit, and the 30

PAGE 40

Habitat Agenda all recogmze that young people have the right to grow up in an environment that protects them in order to increase their chances of up healthy, confident and self-respecting. The CRC has become an important tool in efforts to ad,ance the well being of young people throughout the world. Scholars agree that there is urgency in the need to embrace the creatiYe ideas of children and youth in the development and management of the environment and human settlements, especially in poor countries where they are most affected by urban problems. They are the future and ultimately should have a say in determining it (Driskell, Bannerjee and Chawla, 2001). By signing the CRC, countries have an obligation to mobilize necessary resources in order to ensure that the needs and interests of children and youth are addressed. The Convention affirms the right of young people to protection, provision of basic needs and to participation in their societies and decisions that affect their Lives (Auriat, Miljeteig and Chawla, 2001). Planners have an opportunity to embrace the creatiYC ideas of children and youth in imprming conditions of their Lives. Local planners must take advantage of the growing acceptance that children and youth are a unique group \\ith needs and ideas that need tapping through participation (Driskell, 2002). They may find support in Gr01ving Up in an l'd)(llti.ring World (Chawla, 2000) and the studies associated the initiative. These studies and others show that that young people can articulate their concerns and also recommend solutions to problems facing them and their communltles. 31

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Global initiatives such as the Child Friendly Cities (CFC), GL'IC and many others such as the Global Partnership Initiative (GPI) have been responsible for the attention given to the plight of urban children and youth and their environment across the world. CFC initiative was launched in 1996 after the Istanbul \'\'odd Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) where it was declared that the well being of children is the ultimate indicator of a healthy society and of a healthy city (Riggio and Kilbane, 2000). The L'N-Habitat sponsored GPI initiative assesses the impact of rapid urbanization and social exclusion of vulnerable urban youth in Africa. Other projects such as the International "foung People Participation Project (I'YPPP) conceptualized by ECPAT have attempted to increase the level of young people's participation (ECP AT International, 1999). Even with the recognition of the importance of youth and children, there is still evidence that most gonmments only pay lip senice to the idea of consultation with young people. Even though the right of children to participate is secured in the CRC, governments rarely allow youth to be directly involved in creating healthier, secure and enabling environments. Bartlett (2002) observes that even though it may seem that the attention given to children by local governments is widespread, the truth is that such projects are an exception. She finds that very few countries have altered their laws to comply with the provisions of the CRC. In her review of the CFC database, she could not find municipal ordinances and regulatory codes that were modified to give attention to children's requirements in cities. 32

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Today, child and youth participation has become an important component of many strategies to address problems facing young people. Moore (1990), Hart (1997), Checkoway (1998), Chawla (2002) and Driskell (2002). and others have been instrumental in promoting and encouraging youth participation worldwide by documenting and developing tools to evaluate the benefits of this approach to planning and design. The launch and expansion of the GUIC and CFC initiatins are a testimony that cities across the world recognize the need to accommodate young people's ideas. These developments must encourage local planners to acknowledge the need to consult children and youth in making development decisions because in the poorest of countries, their sun'ival may be at stake. The inclusion of children and youth in planning should be based on the assumption that all young people have unique knowledge and ideas that must be heard. Moving to Action Children and youth, wherever they may live, have specitic needs and interests which often differ from those of adults. Due to the challenges they face, there is need to include them in planning. Planners from poor countries can learn from the participatory planning movement of the 1970s championed by Lynch and others. They knew that it was necessary to understand how children and youth use and perceive their local environment in order to make a better quality of life a reality. 33

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There are a number of texts concerned with approaches to involving young people in decision-making. Driskell's manual (2002), Creating Better Gtie.r JVith Children and Youth, has been tested in some Southern as well as Northern industrialized cities through the \vork of CNESCO's Gl1JC project. The manual is a practical guide on how to conceptuali7.C, structure and facilitate the participation of young people in processes of community denlopment. It is a useful tool for planners, municipal officials, community development staff, youth-sening agencies, and youth advocates to help ensure successful projects and highlight the universal applicability and value of young people's participation. Driskell's manual and other literature provide the basis for meaningful or authentic child participation. Such studies should prompt wide acknowledgment of the need to consult children and youth in making development decisions, especially in the poorest of countries. Young people must have the opportunity to form their optmons and recetn adequate information beforehand to enable them to make informed decisions. Information provided must include the possible consequences of their decision on themselves and others. Young people must have the opportunity to express their viewpoints and have a choice to directly express themselves or through an adult. Their opinions must be taken seriously and be included in the final decisions. Young people must be informed after a decision has been made and how the result had been reached. There must be an opportunity to ask questions and appeal the decision (Skivenesa and Srandbu, 2006).

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Once their diverse voices are heard, there may be hope that their needs 'Will be met 'Within their communities. Children and youth should be allowed to interact 'With adults around issues that may affect their lives. Chawla adnnces this argument by saying that "respectful and dignified interaction enhances confidence and trust in children ... [and] ... formal processes of participation deliberately create structures for children's engagement in constructing meaning and sharing decision making" (Chawla, 2001 ). True participation should not be about inviting children and youth to fit together what Ardon refers to as piet"eJ ql t1 pre-determined pu::;_:::Je. They must also be involved in determining the composition and nature of the puzzle itself (Ardon, 2002). True participation is not only about improving the lives of all young people but the quality of communities in which they live. Examples of Participatory Projects that Contribute to Child and Youth Participation One good example of a participatory project with children and youth is a case study of conditions in South Africa, where researchers collaborating 'With children and youth found that many children in Johannesburg are exposed to numerous risks in their everyday environments (Swart Kruger 'With Chawla, 2002). They also discovered that when given a chance, young people were able to identify problems in their neighborhoods. They specifically found that girls and boys had different priorities. The young residents made specific recommendations including improving and protecting existing areas where they played, removing litter, slowing traffic with speed bumps, 35

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policing public areas and installing street lights rather than creating special separate facilities for play and recreation (Swart Kruger with Chawla, 2002). In Sathyanagar, Bangalore (India), local researchers worked with young people between the ages of 10 and 14 to map their communities and to share stories of their everyday lives in a NORAD funded project (Driskell, Bannerjee, and Chawla, 2001). The GL!IC study found that the children in Sathyanagar were confident, self-aware and resilient. The study also found that, in many cases, funding agencies did not fully support participation efforts. In another study of children's clubs in Nepal, Hart, Khatiwada and Rajbhandary (1999) found that the clubs offer opportunities for children's personal development. From ages 8-16, both male and females attend club meetings and pass decisions regarding their community projects. Through informal activities such as singing and dancing, they are also able to make friends. These activities raise awareness about issues in the community and result in participants gaining new skills and knowledge. However, the study also found that independent identification of projects by the young participants was still low. Merkle (2003) describes conditions where young people, mostly children of indigenous migrants from rural areas, are marginalized in El Alto, Bolivia. The stigmas they face because of poverty and cultural factors ha,e lowered their self-esteem. Young people ha,e formed autonomous informal youth groups that undertake cultural activities such as music, theatre and poetry. These artistic performances provide young people \\i.th an opportunity to express their ,-iews and tell stories about their e\eryday lives. The 36

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activities prmide an outlet for young people to articulate their discontent and protest against the political system in Bolivia (Merkle, 2003). According to Merkle (2003), participation in these youth activities has led to an increase in young people's pride in their identity and that of their town of El Alto. The youth identify with their migrant roots and embrace their culture, as shown by the increase of the local music and dance groups. In examining the development of a children's participatory budget council in the city of Barra Mansa, Brazil, Guerra (2002) finds that boys and girls elected by their peers to the local municipal council learn how to represent their peers and prioritize and develop projects which address their needs. In a case study in Kwitang, Central Jakarta, Hamid (2004) carried out a study of children's perception of their environment. He discovered that even though city authorities assumed that children's needs had been met by developing infrastructure in Kelurahan Kwitang, the children felt uncomfortable with piles of garbage, poor drainage and lack of sidewalks and pedestrian paths. They were also uncomfortable \\-ith the population density and limited access to playgrounds and transportation services. Another study in Cali. Colombia provided young people with an opportunity to explore their own communities as participant observers and document community beliefs, priorities and survival strategies (ASOARTE et al., 2002). Through this research, young people openly expressed how adults stigmatized and viewed all of them as trouble makers and drug takers. These negative adult perceptions eroded the self-esteem of young people. 37

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Evidence from the examples discussed aboYe suggests that there is great value in accepting young people's ideas and opinions. By following accepted standards for authentic participation while inYolving young people in community projects, young people become confident and self-aware. In Bolh-ia's case, participation by youth has led young people to feel proud of their identity and that of their town of El Alto. In many cases once they are allowed to participate, young people freely express their opinions, plan, implement and manage projects. In Barra Brazil, young people's participation in the budget council has helped them acquire new skills and enabled them to give their input at the council meetings, organize project activities and gain a clear understanding of local issues. Involvement in community projects gives young people self-assurance, enabling many of them to achieve their own goals. Participation in poor countries is not only about survival but also about helping young people engage in cultural activities such as music, dance, drawing or painting their em-ironments. In self-help youth organizations such as MYSA, young people get a chance to make friends and feel good about themselves and their communities. Participation helps them develop their personality, talents and mental and physical abilities (UNICEF, 2005). 38

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Impact of Participation In this section, I discuss some of the claims made about the benefits of child and youth participation. Examples from the previous section suggest that there are several 1mpacts of child and youth participation. Given the possibility of negative as well posmve outcomes, it is important to evaluate projects. This section revtews a helpful structure for doing this. The potential benefits of participation generally apply to individual participants and their communities (folman & Pittman, 2001). As the examples from Bolivia and other countries show, participation enhances young people's civic capacity while also advancing their standing in society. Researchers recogruze that participating 1n organized activities ls a cotrunon developmental experience for young people (Cappizzano, Tout, & Adams, 2000). By participating in IVIYSA activities, members are persuaded to make wise choices with regard to crime, violence, drugs, alcohol and sexual activities. 1\s Mahoney, Harris, and Eccles, (2006) recommend, MYSA activities prmide opportunities for members to connect with peers and other adults in their communities while they make meaningful contributions to their families and communities. l\lYSA programs encourage young people to make positive choices in their lives, contributing to positive youth development. Checkoway and Finn (1995) find that participation results in positi,e psychosocial results, including a sense of efficacy, civic education and skill development. Young people gain skills and knowledge, confidence, and in some cases 39

PAGE 49

attain resources for themselves and their communities. Their responsible input 1n projects changes attitudes and they develop better relationships with adults. Checkoway et al. (2003) find that participation can strengthen youth social development, contribute to their organizational development and result in community changes. Chawla, (2002) suggests that giving priority to young people in human settlement decision making results in improved protection of the environment, public health and conditions for human development for all. She argues that it is beneficial to include young people in development because young people learn formal skills of democratic citizenship and also acquire a foundation for lifelong habits of environmental interest, concern and care. Young people are also the best experts on local environmental conditions related to their own needs (Chawla, 2002). Hart (1997) argues that participation fosters young people's resilience, enhances their social competence, problem-solving skills, autonomy and a sense of purpose. They become more creative and are open to learning new skills. The involvement of young people and recognition of their potential gins them confidence and improves their standing in their communities. There is a need for further research in order to understand the impacts and process of young people's engagement in planning. The challenge is to find methods that can measure impacts in diverse settings and cultural environments. A PLAN UK report authored by Ackermann, et al. (2004) provides a broad structure for looking at the effects of participation. In a study of children's participation in three countries, they identified and categorized impacts into four realms. The report, based on field work in 40

PAGE 50

Kenya, India and Ecuador, deYised a holistic approach to measuring overall qualitative achievements. The authors identified four realms that include personal, familial, communal and institutional. The Penonal realm focuses on self contidence, acquisition of life skills, personal development, social development and positive channels for energy and creativity. The familia/level looks at greater parental support, less abuse, enhanced status within the family and greater social freedom, particularly for girls. The connmmal level refers to solidarity, building strong support networks, and confidence, which result in greater community awareness and concern for children's issues, an improved status of children within the community and therefore enhanced community development. The inslil11tional realm includes improvements in schooling and the improved functioning of agencies (Ackermann, et al. 2004). The importance of the measurement structures developed in the PLAN report stems from the fact that they transcend cultural and environmental differences and may be universally acceptable. This is not to say that these measures alone are sufficient in measuring the impacts in different parts of the world. The invoh-ement of young people offers them new skills, ability to build their self esteem and say what is on their minds. Young people strategizing for their neighborhood improvement directly change their communities and in the process also benefit personally through the experience. Adults may not necessarily han all the answers and young people contributing to decisions that affect their lives may be a logical start to solving problems. In Bolivia, for example, migrant young people have forn1ed autonomous informal youth groups to help them tight against discrimination. Such bold 41

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steps by young people and other participatory activities raise awareness about issues in the community (1\lerkle, 2003). Participation brings peers together, helps young people set priorities and challenges them to make decisions that affect their communities. Child and youth participation by far has many potential positive impacts. However, it ts important to recognize that there can be some negative effects. Ackermann et al. disconred that occupying children and taking them away from their domestic chores resulted in conflict with parents. There is also a risk that young people may be compromised or may be disenchanted with the participation process, especially when their recommendations are not taken seriously. One such example is the case of El Alto, Bolivia, where Merkle (2003) found that participation in some cases resulted in frustration and apathy towards politicians and the Bolivian political system. In the participatory budget council in Barra Mansa, Brazil, Guerra (2002) found that participation slowed the implementation of projects and made them difficult to coordinate. These negative impacts bring out concerns about the impacts of participation on youth. In cases where adults use children and youth participation opportunities as cover to achieve adult ends, young people may be exposed to harm and cntlctsm. 42

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Challenges to Participation Despite the well documented benefits of young people's participation and despite signing and ratifying the CRC, many governments rarely allow children and youth to be directly involved in creating healthier, secure and enabling environments. In this section, I discuss some of the barriers that prevent the involvement of young people in planning. The developments and initiatives I have discussed in previous sections suggest that the field of planning has begun to acknowledge the importance of involving young people. However, Frank (2006) finds that structural barriers such as adult-domination of relevant imtitutions, coupled with a lack of understanding and knowledge of child and youth abilities and interests, deny young people a chance to participation in planning. In many cases the views of society towards young people is limited to developmental, vulnerable, legal, and romantic views (Frank, 2006). The detJdopmmtal view emphasizes young people's lack of knowledge, skills, attitudes, behaviors, and social connections of adults and therefore their inability to participate in the demanding task of planning. The twlnerabili(r view is about young people being less powerful than adults and therefore exposed to abuse by adults and in need of protection. The view assigns youth to what Frank (2006) calls pa11ia/ Jlai!IJ. According to her, the legal ,iew implies that youth do not legally hold the full rights and responsibilities of adults. Questions arise about the appropriate level of influence that young people should have in society. Lastly, the romantic view treats youth as having distinct values and talents which can be seen through their creativity, enthusiasm and curiositY. This view suggests that these 43

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characteristics are in some cases even supcnor to those of adults (Frank, 2006). 1l1is ,ie\V is not realistic because in many cases young people don't have the technical skills and resources needed to so!Ye problems. ,\ll these societal views have been responsible for the slow integration of child and youth participation in planning. Even where there is recognition of the importance of children and youth, there is still evidence that most local goHrnments, planners and those in authority only pay lip service to the idea of consultation with young people. Checkoway ( 1998) argues that limited financial resources, staff size and time still constrain young people's participation in local authorities and development organizations. Bartlett (2002) also observes that even when it may seem that the attention given to children by local governments is 'Widespread, the truth is that such projects arc an exception. She argues that in most cases, it is "far more likely that children, if they are considered at all, are seen only as the recipients of particular targeted seniccs". These traditional senices for children and youth include education, health and social protection. Another major obstacle, especially in the South, is the culture that dictates that adults know what is best for the young. Young citizens, especially in cities, are often viewed by adults 'With suspicion and sometimes hostility. They arc still deemed as inherently non-producti,e. Checkoway (1998) refers to the prevalent belief that adults arc better than young people. and therefore entitled to act upon young people in many ways without their agreement, as .-ldulli.1m. Participation is deemed contrmersial,

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especially by parents who believe that their children already enjoy too much freedom, and more leeway in decision making might be giving up control of their children. Participation of the young is not a new phenomenon in many cultures. Their imolvement was traditionally crucial for their sunival and that of whole communities. Most child and youth activities were integrated in day-to-day activities of communities. Hamid (1997) obsenes that isolation of young people is a new phenomenon, especially in Southern cultures which have recently been intluenced by \\'estern ideas that place great emphasis on class identities and survival of the fittest. Dependents, especially children and youth, have suddenly become a burden rather than a resource. Modern life and rapid mmement of young adults to urban areas has led to a breakdown of the traditional extended families that long ensured the security of children and youth. Hart's (1992) eight-level ladder of participation and other articles on participation have been widely embraced worldwide. However, they have a \\'estern bias and attempts to embrace and implement the models in Southern cultures without understanding of local cultures, political systems and languages spoken may deter participation. Rigid interpretation of the ladder and other related texts will prevent identification of local and unique alternative participatory models. If we ignore aspects in other cultures that are not included or given prominence in \\'estern literature, we may ignore important and new participatory methods. It is important to take into consideration local conditions and needs while interpreting and implementing ideas (Bartlett, 1999). 45

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Reflections on Participation The CRC, GUIC, CFC, GPI and other initiatives around the world by governments, non-protit organizations and community groups give planners, especially in poor countries, an opportunity to engage children and youth in planning, managing and assessing their local environments. \'\'hen given a chance, young people are capable of identifying problems in their neighborhoods. They know best the problems confronting them and their communities and how to solve them Checkoway and Finn (1995), Hart (1997), Chawla, (2002) and Checkoway et al. (2003). The examples I have discussed illustrate that participation is crucial not only for the basic survival of young people, but also show that embracing participation can help meet other developmental needs of young people. Scholars agree that there is a need to embrace the creative ideas of children and youth in the development and management of the em-ironment and human settlements, and the literature reviewed in the preceding sections shows that the impacts of young people's involvement in planning are overwhelmingly positive. The potential benetits apply to individual participants and their communities. Planners must seize this opportunity and publicly declare their commitment to consultation and improving young people's access to opportunities and choices, particularly about issues that directly affect them (Checkoway and Finn, 1995, Hart, 1997, Chawla, 2002, Checkoway et al. 2003, Mahoney, Harris, and Eccles, 2006). There are basic principles that are important to consider at any le,-el of the process, irregardless of the culture. True participation is about "choice" voluntary involvement in 46

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activities that affect young people's liYes. In order to encourage child and youth participation, the process must be voluntary. Young people must choose to participate and can have the ability to quit at any time. Projects must also be relevant to their needs and make localized decision making a priority. Informing young people about the aims, processes and their own roles in projects helps them effectively partake in the process and influence decisions and activities. Despite the well documented benefits of young people's participation, many governments and local authorities rarely give young people's participation the kind of attention needed to make real changes in communities. Young citizens are often viewed by adults with suspicion and sometimes hostility. Adults are deemed better and more responsible than young people. This belief is interpreted to mean that adults can act upon young people \\ithout their agreement. Parents who think their children already have too much freedom consider participation a threat to their authority. In my view, young people must organize, protest and lobby for change and demand their inclusion in decision making. The massive protests in France show that young people should not despair, as they can bring their grievances to the foreground and force changes on their societies. Tolman and Pittman (2001) argue that even young children can demand change and make a difference. In a study of a working children's union in Karnataka, India, they found that young children were willing to protect a nearby forest for their future. The children's answer to the deforestation was to grow their own forest. They proposed to plant all the trees they needed, including medicinal herbs. They stated 47

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that they would let loose all the birds and animals that their parents had told them once lived there. They promised never to cut any trees. \\'hen asked where they would get the land, one nine year old answered, "\\'e will ask the Commissioner ... and if not given the land ... we will sit in the Commissioner's chambers" ... until he meets their demands. Their confidence was based on the belief that they were also part of the Bhima Sangha community. This example suggests that once young people organize, are aware of their needs and that of their communities, they can demand change. The young residents of Bhima Sangha were awarded 100 acres of land. The forest they call Namma Kadu or 'Our Forest' has begun to grow. Participation allows an opportunity to collaborate with young people towards improving the situation and meeting local level needs. TI1e development of autonomous youth groups and actiYities that support their agendas are a good start. Most recently, the disputed elections brought out thousand of young people who reside in the slums of Nairobi to the streets. They spoke of their frustrations '\Vith authorities and a society that continues to ignore them. Participation alone cannot solve all the complex urban problems including traffic, hazardous surroundings, unemployment, social fears, violence, inadequate transportation, absence of public space and facilities and a host of other common problems facing young residents. The complexities of urban problems also require time, financial resources and technical expertise. Involving young people require planners and young people to set up schedules that provide time for interaction and exchange of ideas -4-8

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and needs Young people mmt be encouraged and involved in trymg to address problems in their communities so they don't feel left out and helpless. ,\11 children and youth should be treated with egual respect regardless of their age, situation, ethnicity, abilities or other factors. Young people are competent, as evidenced by their success in conununity-bascd initiatins in which they took control. Discussions in this paper suggest that there is a chance for young people to develop for themselves viable solutions and contribute to managing their living emironments. 49

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CHAPTER3 RESEARCH METHOD This section describes the methods used to collect data for my study on the l\1YS1\ Environmental Clean-l'p program in Nairobi, Kenya. .:\lso included 1n the section arc brief background descriptions of the relevant l\1YS1\ zones where the study was conducted and profiles of the sampled population. I also describe the process of selecting informants, the research instruments, and the process of data analysis. In conclusion. I discuss the advantages and limitations of my study methodology. The research incorporated qualitative and quantitative techniques of research. Quantitative techniques provided most of the background information for my study. Ethnographic research tools gave me direct access to the daily lives and behaviors of the l\1\'S,\ vouth. I used participant observations, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to find out how youth participate in the environmental clean-up activities and the impacts of their participation on their personal lives, their local environment and their communities. I conducted inten'iews and carried out two focus group discussions \\ith participating youth. I further engaged scHral community members, family members and others in infom1al discussions to find out what their thoughts were regarding the clean-up acti,itics, and obsen,ed and participated in clean-up acti,,ities myself in several l\f'{S/\ zones. 50

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The Study Sites: MYSA Zones l\fYSA programs are spread over 16 zones in the east side of Nairobi. I focused on four zones which consist of Mathare, Eastleigh, Huruma and Korogocho slums. The sites are all conveniently located near Nairobi city center and therefore easy to access. Prior to my research, I had been to the locations several times before and therefore had a general knowledge of the environment. In December of 2004, I was fortunate to work \\ith l\fYSA members and slum residents during a pilot study. I interacted easily with the youth, respectfully engaging them and giving them encouragement to talk to me without fear. I put them at ease because I spoke the local slang SHENG, which is a mixture of Swahili, English and local dialects. Due to their population densities, these four sites account for the largest nwnber of MYSA members. They have many soccer teams and represent the Yariations in neighborhoods where most members liYC. Mathare and Korogocho represent some of the worst slum conditions, while neighborhoods such as Eastleigh and Huruma are composed of a mixture of mid to low leYel neighborhoods. These locations were also chosen because they are all within walking distance from the MYSA Eastleigh office, and many of the residents have access to l\fYSA officials, offices and facilities. Mathare is located northeast of Nairobi in the Central diYision and is estimated to ha,e a population of more than 100,000 people who currently live in shacks made of old plastic, cardboard and rusted corrugated iron sheets WN-Habitat, 2003). Eastleigh is a residential estate also located in northeastern Nairobi. It comprises mostly apartments 51

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and uncoordinated housing extensions which result in slum-type dwellings. Many refugees from Somalia have settled in Eastleigh, as evidenced by the Hijaab clad women in the streets and the many madrassa schools in the area. Eastleigh is part of the Pumwani division of Nairobi. Huruma informal settlements are also situated in the Central division of Nairobi City. The area consists of run down houses, poorly constructed apartments and many infonnal houses. The informal housing consists of six villages, Kambi ya Moto, Mahira, Redeemed, Ghetto, Gitathuru and Madoya. Korogocho, which is the fourth site, is located in Kasarani division and is Kenya's third largest slum, housing 120,000 residents crammed into scnn villages all located within one single square kilometer (Slum Dwellers International, 2001). They all face neglect by the Nairobi City Council, which is unable to effectively deliver waste management sen'ices to the residents. Conditions have deteriorated, resulting in neighborhoods surrounded by uncollected garbage, contaminated water and waste that exposes the inhabitants to diseases. The areas are horribly muddy during the wet season and agonizingly dusty during the dry season. Amidst the mud, dirt, noise, pollution, wrecked infrastructure and lawlessness, there is diversity and complexity. In many cases there is a vibrant informal economy driven mainly by second hand clothes nndors and fruit and vegetable sellers (Schilderman, 2004). 52

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Oogoretti LEGEND e Town Attoclrornt' CJ Ptowinci.ll lound.w)' NAIROBI DMSIONS c o.,o..n, C Embll11oi C r IObft'i [_. Maudlrl m::; .... obi(fflllil L Parfll.tndVWfttllnd!. m: Ziw1ni Figure 3 KIBERA MAP PARAMETRfS U.id Dolum _ol htlgiO ProfeIO< Mttrto -o.n. ,.., -Map of the Eight .\dministratiYe Divisions in Nairobi N A 1 no.ooo 53

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Figure 3.1 ;\lap of the Sixteen l\fYS \ Selection of Informants and their Profiles The inteniewed included 20 l\IYS.\ youth, five 1\fYS,\ program fin parents or guardians, and two local citY council I ::ach zone was represented fin: youth infom1ants, \Vho ranged bcl"-'-cen I (J and 20 years old. I selected 40 initially ith eight infonnants from each zone. This number was dltennined br my resources and time, but once in the field. I noticed that b\ the 18th and 19th 54

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inteniews, the new data was no longer bringing additional insights to my research guesnons. MYSA Youth In order to find out how youth make a difference in their communities, J focused on a male segment of the l\fYSA members. In Nairobi, this age range of 1620 in mid to late adolescence represents a big part of the population, especially in slum areas (CN Habitat, 2003). The choice of male members was not because the female members arc less important, but because I recognized that as a man, dealing with female members would provide significant challenges, especially in regards to interaction and access. Furthermore, due to cultural biases, the probability of this male segment's inclusion in decision making is higher than that of younger adolescents and their female counterparts. This age range was also a choice because most youth join the 1\ffSA programs at age eight to ten, so that by the age of 16, they have typically participated for five years and have probably been able to absorb any effects the programs may have had. Another consideration was that they have specific needs that are not similar to other age groups, thus providing unigue experiences and opinions. Eccles and Appleton (2002) argue that young people at this stage attempt to discover who they are, forming their identity and making sense of their world while reacting to social forces that in some cases seek to exploit them. In Mathare and other research sites some young people have dropped out of school, others have just completed high school and are in need of guidance and opportunities for further education or jobs. 55

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I met most of the informants at various !\f\"SA events and playgrounds during evening and weekend soccer training sessions. They were easy to access and interact 'With since I had earlier experiences playing soccer with some of them. Some came to my attention because I was told about them by informants with whom I had already made contact. By attending several soccer practice sessions and NfYSA events, I was able to quickly develop rapport with many members. Table 3 Summary of Youth Segment of Participants by Age and Zone Zone by Name Categories of youth (16-20 year old males) Mathare 1-16 yr old 1-17yr old 118 yr old 1-19 yr old 1-20 vr old Eastleigh Huruma Korogocho 20 Youth MYSA Program Leaders To complement my interviews with the young members, I also inteniewed five managers and program directors in charge of NfYSA community sen-ice programs. The leaders are responsible for the day-to-day operations of the organization. Intenrie'Wing them provided detailed information describing the zones, number of members, soccer teams and the scholarships awarded. Some of them made important policy documents available to me. I visited the MYSA offices located in Komarock and Eastleigh, where I 56

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introduced myself and my research. After a few Yisits to the Komarock offices and to ,arious MYSA and activities, I was able to build rapport with program leaders, especially those in charge of community service programs. \'('hile attending MYSA events, I was able to observe how they interacted with other members. At such events, I was able to han informal discussions with indhidual managers or with several of them at a time. Local County Council Officials Several visits to the local citv council offices in the area were necessary. I introduced myself and my study and reguested any interested officials to participate in my research The MYSA Environmental Program leader had mentioned that MYSA has a working relationship \Vith the city authorities In my interviews with the city officials, I tried to find out about existing arrangements between the city and MYSA and how they worked together to proYide services to the residents Only two city council officials from Pumwani division were willing to talk to me. The officials were in charge of clean-up in Eastleigh, Huruma and Mathare. Most of the other ofticials were worried about losing their jobs even after I assured them that I would not identify or guote them in my documents. I suspect that they may have withheld some information especially related to the reasons why the council has been unable to provide services to local communities. I got some insights into the difficulties facing the officials from the informal discussions I had with individuals while visiting the offices 57

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Parents or Guardians Some of my informants \Vere willing to introduce me to their parents or guardians, whom I interviewed in order to find out their views regarding 1\IYS.\. The parents and guardians explained the reasons whv thev allowed their sons to participate in MYSi\ activities. They also told me about some of the benefits the families and communities were gaining from 1\IYS.:\ programs. They narrated the changes they had seen through the years of living in these neighborhoods. I had planned to interview at least ten parents or guardians but I ended up with only five inteniews. It was difficult to locate and schedule inteniews with most of the parents. They were always busy at work trying to prmide for their families. On several occasions, I visited them at their small business kiosks and had infonnal conversations with them. I also engaged parents or guardians during the soccer matches or other M\'SA events, where our discussions focused on the MYSA organization and conditions in their neighborhoods. 58

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Table 3.1 Summary of Informants Subjects Number Data Collection Recruiting Subjects of Methods Subjects Interviews A trend soccer training Youth 20 Observations sessions and other .MYS.:\ Focus Groups events at proposed locations Informal Discussions and introduce mvself Photos &Video recordings Interviews Parents/ 5 Focus Groups Youth introduce me to Guardians Informal Discussions parents Snowball Interviews \X' rite letter of intro and visit MYSA 10 Focus Groups 1\1\'SAHQ Program Informal Discussions Leaders Local 2 Interviews \X' rite letter of intro and visit Council Informal Discussions local municipal offices Officials Research Ethics Before I set out to the field, I submitted my study proposal to the L:niversity of Colorado Denver Human Research Committee for review. They approved my proposal based on assurance that the welfare of my informants would be protected and that I would obtain informed consent before conducting my research. Once in Nairobi, I submitted my proposal to the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology where I also got local approval. Once data collection began, personal data and identifiers such as names were reduced to a minimum by use of nicknames and aliases in the field notes and 59

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intetTiew transcripts in order to protect the identity of subjects. Almost all my young informants could read and write and my assent forms were sufficient to obtain their permission to be part of the research (See fom1s in Appendix). All participants ,oluntarily participatt:d without manipulation or bribes. I notified them that they were free to withdra\v from the study at any time. I also told them that feedback and the eventual publications will be submitted to the youth and the MYSA organization. I finnly bclieYe that the youth have a role to contribute in the promotion of real change in cities. It is my hope that findings about the participation experiences of the in Nairobi can lead to fresh sensiti,ity and acceptance of youth by Nairobi's administrators and planners. Data Collection Primary Data Semi-structured Interviews Interviews are narrations and interpretations of people's expenences. The process provides depth, complexity and roundness to data (Bruyn, 1966). InterYiews prmide an opportunity to access and collect data that in some cases is only anilable through personal accounts. Face-to-face interactive experiences where informants and researchers share conversations enable informants to feel comfortable and tell their stories (Corbin and Morse, 2003). These conYersations lead to increased insights into the thoughts and behaYiors of the groups being studied. 60

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In order to collect detailed information about the clean-up program, I used semi structured interviews. I planned and determined topics of interest and developed general questions that guided me through the interview process (See lntetTiew structure 1n Appendix). The use of open-ended questions gave m\ informants the opportunity to respond in their own words, providing explanatory, meaningful and 10 many cases unanticipated answers (Patton, 2000). Semi-structured inteniews enabled me to maintain a subtle structure to avoid situations where infonnants would talk widely offering ideas and opinions on topics that were of little interest to my research (\\'einberg, 2002). My list of questions was arranged into three main themes. The first set of questions was aimed at collecting background information about my informants. Questions asked about their age, name of neighborhood and zone, family background and their length of stay in their neighborhoods. The second theme targeted youth participation in MYSA activities. Specific questions asked how they participate, and whether they liked or enjoyed their involvement in clean-up activities. They were asked what they though o the clean-up activities and if they had witnessed any problems -w-ith the program. Lastly, other questions looked at some of the gains experienced because of the MYSA clean-up program. As a requirement, I began by explaining to the informants the purpose of the research and their roles. I orally stated the consent requirements before the inten'iews began. I made it clear to all participants that their involvement in the study was absolutely voluntary and that they were free to withdraw from the study at any time. The 61

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wording of questions was not the same for all respondents. I was able to adjust by engaging informants according to their individual personalities and styles. The informants were in many cases spontaneous with their answers and highlighted information that was important to them (Marshall and Rossman, 1995). One such example is the discovery of the importance of the Norway soccer cup in Europe. Many youth spoke passionately about the team selection process and the difficulties they faced in their attempts to go to Norway. Once I built rapport \\ith the informants, through patience, commitment and gradually gaining experience in conducting inten'iews, I became confident. I found that genuinely smiling and keeping constant eye contact with informants was reassuring and comforting for many informants. The interviews were informal conversations that allowed flexibility to probe initial responses by asking respondents to elaborate in cases where their responses were Yague. Sometimes informants were intentionally general, especially when discussing sensitive issues such as nepotism and favoritism in the soccer teams. In order to get them to open up, I followed up my questions with probes. A tactic that worked well for me was asking them to give examples of such occurrences. Once they began recalling an event, they would elaborate and provide in-depth answers. The intenie\\ing process enntually helped me develop trust and intimacy with many of the youth. These relationships were crucial for further data collection (Marvasti, 2004). Some of the youth were later comfortable inviting me to their homes to meet their parents. In 62

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many cases the parents were single mothers working long hours to provide for their families. Each inten'ie\V sesston took at least an hour, bur follow-up sesstons were scheduled v.i.th four youth to provide clarity and opportunity to ask further questions. I got permission to record our conversations and used the recordings to help review my inteniews. The interviews were scheduled at the convenience of my informants, and due to time constraints and other factors, the informants and I could not meet as frequently as I had wished. As Bernard (2002) suggests, inteniews work well in conditions where researchers haYe only one chance to talk to respondents. This was particularly also true of the parents and guardians of :MYSA members who were hard to locate. They were out all day working and hardly had time for inten'iews. There was no training that could have prepared me for the daily experiences in the field. I had to keenly pay attention and ask follow-up questions for clarity. Colin (1993) warns researchers that the quality of the data collected is determined by the information provided by participants, and it is possible that participants may not disclose important information because the relevant question was not asked, or if asked at all, no clarity was given. Through thorough planning and preparation, researchers may initially control the direction of the interview but participants ultimately haYe a choice about what to say and how to respond. In order to be effective and to maximize output, I found that prompting and using cues encouraged inforn1ants to respond (Roulston et al., 2003). I discovered that my ability to listen and detect both verbal cues and moods of 63

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those involved is important, as this enabled me to remember what subjects were saying and how they said it (Silverman, 2005). After each inten'iew, I wrote down any obsenations that I had about the respondents. These included reminders about informant reactions to topics that made them uncomfortable or emotional. I would then further explore these topics in order to gain background information and varied opinions from other infonnants. I chose to interview my informants because it provided a sense of purpose, increased their self-awareness, sense of empowerment and gave informants a voice (Hyle, 2001). Many of my infom1ants were excited to share their stories with me. Tiuough the interviews and further interactions, I was also able to understand their feelings and to build relationships \\
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adequate preparations to obsern groups in natural settings (Bernard, 2002). Directly observing a setting gives researchers the opportunity to understand and capture the context within which people interact (Patton, 2002). Over six months, I attended seven clean-up activities and several MYSA events including soccer tournaments and community interactive outreach events. Having direct personal contact with the youth gave me the chance to -witness how they interacted with each other and how they carried out the actual clean-ups. Guided by my questions and research themes, I was able to identify recurring patterns of behaviors and relationships between the MYSA members (Marshall and Rossman, 1994). Use of observations in conjunction with inten'iewing strengthened my data collection. I was able to take note of behaviors that confirmed or contradicted information gathered through inteniews. I obsened how trucks carrying clean-up equipment arrived early at the venues and how members organized themsehes in teams to sign up and collect equipment in an orderly manner. In many cases information and behaviors obsen'ed corresponded with informant accounts. However, I also noticed behaviors that were never mentioned by the informants. I imagine that informants took some of these behaviors for granted and never thought to mention them during the interviews. One such behavior was the high activity level of the younger members while the older boys stood around supenrising them. I also noticed that in many occasions the girls were as active as the boys in the clean-up activities. I video recorded the clean-up activities and other .MYSA events such as soccer tournaments. 65

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Participant Observation Participant obsen'ation requires researchers to immerse themselves in the day-today activities of the groups that are of interest (Patton, 2002). Cohen (2000) and Emerson er a!. (2001) state that it is a tedious and time consurrung process where researchers strive to develop and maintain relationships with people, take notes on evelJday happenings, and later spend months analyzing field-notes and diaries. The reward is getting insights into people's complex social lives and relationships. Cohen (2000) suggests that participant observation helps us experience "daily life firsthand, clears a path to understanding, and acts as a point of reference for local practices that might othenvise remain obscure or strange to the passive observer" (p. 316). Becker and Geer (1957) argue that these obsenations make it possible to check descriptions against facts. The assumption is that data is revealed. Emerson eta!. (2001) say that this technique is about researchers establishing themseh-es in an environment 'With a goal of representing their experiences and the social conditions of the setting as they see them. Results are less likely to lead researchers to impose their own views as they convey what they obsene. Participant obsen'ations provided me with a chance to understand, compare and measure the totality of data gathered. I was able to take note of specific activities such as what the youth did, their body language and what they said to each other. This way it was possible to identify which types of infom1ation escaped me during inteniews. I made no assumptions about what was important and explored the day-to-day activities 66

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of the youth and the community members. The process required me to spend lots of time with groups of l\IYSA members. I observed how things were done before I tried to participate. I asked many questions during my im-olvement in the activities to make sure that I was interpreting things the right way. Becker and Geer (1970) argue that participant observation does not mean just "'hanging around". Nothing should be taken for granted, because in order for researchers to be successful, they must become part of the social scene and be accepted by participants. This is what they refer to as negotiating access into a social setting. Initial reactions to a researcher's presence can cause a sense of personal discomfort, and tlus is why Bernard (2002) argues that success depends on the researcher's experience, observation and selection abilities. I chose to be directly and openly involved in the clean-up actiYities and obsen'ed the youth as they participated in the actiYities. On several occasions, I took turns with participating youth to put the trash onto wheelbarrows and later load the trucks with the collected garbage. My participation helped me recognize how tasking the work was. The time spent getting to know many of the participants was vital because my face became familiar to many of the members. I was conscious and careful because I recognized that even though participation proYided first hand information, my level of invoh-ement would possibly contaminate the setting and impair my judgment and capaciry to be critical. I could not be too absorbed in the activities because I needed room to notice and record the behaYiors and events around me. 67

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Becker and Geer (1957) contend that participant observation is as important as intetTiews, focus groups and text analysis. Observers participate actively for a lengthy rime and may lin or work in areas that might not necessarily be familiar to them, as they attempt to become accepted members of the group. I made initial notes minutes after the activities and expanded them \vith detailed accounts later every en:ning after each activity l\fy notes constructed the roles rules and relationships between the members. In my final notes, I also described the locations, physical settings, and the social interactions. I later listened to selected inten'iews to compare what the youth said with my obsenarions. I denloped a consistent war of recording and managing notes from my obsenations. The use of a combination of intenie\\"S and obsen' ations ga,e a certain measure of reliability to the data that I collected during the months in Nairobi Focus Group Discussion I conducted two focus group discussions with 14 youth aged between 16 and 20 years I asked the group gucstions addressing my themes of interest. Ther were free to give their opinions and in some cases discussed contradictory comments amongst themselves. Each session had seven informants and took one hour. The focus group discussions were both held at the convenient MYS : \ Eastleigh location. The seven participating informants represented the four study sites of Mathare, Eastleigh, Huruma and Korogocho. "l"hev shareJ their experiences and thoughts, which I tape-recorded and later transcribed. 68

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Infonnal Discussions indicated on Table 2, I had discussions with youth, parents and guardians, and city officials and planners. The infom1al discussions were useful especially with city officials who \vould not go on record for fear of losing their jobs. The officials spoke about the challenges they faced working in a highly politicized envtronment. These discussions involved short informal conversations which included topics of interest to my study These encounters were particularly important in situations where informants did nor want to be on record. I was able to build rapport and gain knowledge about sensitive issues such as the fear of gangs in the neighborhood s The information gathered through these discussions gan me more information about the conditions of the \"ouths lives Photos and Video Recording \\'hile obscning the events, I took photographs and Video recordings. The recordings helped me document young peoples' participation in 1\fYS.-\ acti,itics. I was able to review the images and activities on the recordings and asked (]Uestions in cases \Vhcre clarification was ncccssan 69

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Table 3.2 Summary of Data Collection Methods Data Collection Methods Data fonn Intenriews Digital Audio Recording Notes Obsenrations Photos and Video Recording Field Notes Focus Groups Digital \udio Recording Notes Informal discussions Notes Population Census Report, Poverty Index, Secondary Data Dimensions of\'Cell Being KenyaReport GIS t\laps UN Habitat Annual Reports .MYSA Gonrnance 2006 Report .MYSA History and Background MYSA 2006 Budget allocation Report Quantitative Data Collection Secondary Data To add value to my research, I also gathered quantitative data. I visited the Kenya Bureau of Statistics where I collected several reports. These reports include the National Population and Housing Census Report. I purchased the government reports from the bureau offices in Nairobi while the L'N Habitat reports are available online. These reports are reliable because the government, \'\'orld Bank and other agencies collaborate to collect and review the data. These documents provide maps and background information about the sites for my research. 70

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Table 3.3 Summary of General Information and Sources Data Source Stats on Youth population National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)Nairobi ProYince in Mathare Population Data Kenya (1999) Population and Housing Census report Number of youth by NBS-Nairobi Province Population Data Zone Kenya (1999) Population and Housing Census report 0 o of Youth in slum NBSNairobi Province Population Data involved in MYSA www.mysakenya.org activities Nairobi City council Environmental Changes LTN Habitat-State of the World's Cities 2006/07 by Zone UNEP (2005) Selection and Design of Kenya Solid waste Management Sector PoYertv and Income levels The Challenge of SlumsUN-Habitat, Global Report on in Slums Human Settlements 2003 Crime in Nairobi, Safer Cities Series. UN Habitat (2002) Geographical Dimensions of \X' ell-Being in Kenva (2003) Data Analysis Data analysis is the process of arranging, providing structure and making sense of large quantities of information collected during research (Mashall and Rossman, 1995). Qualitative analysis usually inYolves the technique of coding and creating categories or classifications from data. This transformation of data into findings requires identification of relevant data through patterns and themes (Patton, 2002). 71

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It is difficult to define when data analysis, begins, especially when carrying out qualitariYe studies. Patton (2002) argues that qualitative analysis begins in the field as it is important to record and begin tracking insights while in the field. Developing analysis begins as researchers address gaps in the data while still in the field. Throughout the data collection process in the field, I reviewed the information that was gathered, including ethnographic field notes, interview transcripts, maps, photographs and video recording to gain a general sense of the data (Creswell, 1998). I used the triangulation approach to compare the participatory experiences of lYfYSA members in the neighborhood clean-up activities with the information gathered through photos and other documents such as lYfYS"\ annual scholarship reports, lYfYSA team schedules etc. Data Management Collected data consisted of interviews, maps, photographs and Yideo recordings and ethnographic field notes from obserntions. I flied all the documents in folders according to the type and dates received. I saved all images and labeled them according to the name of zone and date that the photos were taken. All audio recordings were saved in a separate folder labeled interviews and named after the zone and the age of the informants. My tl.eld notes had names of zones and dates to keep track of the timeline. I also collected secondary data such as annual reports and plans from l\I'r."SA headquarters and the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. 72

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Coding coded my data ustng NVi,-o, a content analysis software program. Coding required a close reading of the text imported from transcripts, field notes and reports. I initially developed four major nodes (also themes) that include neighborhoods and wnes, MYS.A. organi7.ation, participation and impacts of participation. The first node about neighborhood proYided background descriptions about the conditions in which l'vfYSA members live. The second theme proYided infonnation on how infonnants understood and undertook participation. Questions regarding the challenges of participation were also addressed. Data describing l'vfYSA organizational structure and participatory methods were crucial in answering my first research question about how youth participate. The last theme tackled the gains made by members through participation in clean-up actiYities. This last theme addressed my second research question about the impacts of participation on the personal lives, families, communities, enYironment and institutions. The descriptiYe comments from youth, MYSA managers, parents and city council officials revealed the expenences of youth participating in the environmental clean-up activities and the impacts of their participation. The credibility of the data was checked against the consistency of information provided from the inten-iews, observations and the documents and reports proYided by l'viYSA. This comparison of different sources of information to test the consistency of the emerging themes gave credibility to the data. 73

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I borrowed from the research which identifies the impacts of parncipation and categonzes the effects into four realms. They are: personal, familial, communal and institutional (.\ckem1ann et a!. 2004). I used these realms to tind a wide ,iew of the impacts of children's participation. I categorized my data according to these realms Personal level Focuses on young people's increased self-confidence, increased knowledge and awareness about issues challenging their communities, enhanced personal and social de,elopment which refers to interpersonal and communication skills. Expanded social networks can be determined by the social networks for friendships and improved social rdations. Familial Refers to improYed family relations including parental support, less abuse, enhanced status within the family and greater social freedom There is increas e d adult a\nreness of rights for the youth and appreciation of their nlue to the family Re spect and trust is built among family members. Communal Refers to strong support networks, contidence of youth and their families which results in greater community awareness and concern for children's issues, and impron: d status of children and youth within community. 7-l

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Institutional Potential to impact upon local, national or international institutions and structures of the institutional realm includes improvements in access to urban services and improved function of agencies (Ackermann et al. 2004). In addition to the four PLAN CK realms, I included Environment as the fifth realm. This fifth realm looks at how youth participation has improved the quality of the local environment. Informants state how garbage collection and other environmental activities carried out by 1\fYSA have resulted in changes in the local em;ronment. I used emerging themes as Nodes to select related data from the interview transcripts, observations and field notes. According to Charmaz (1983), codes serve to swrunarize, synthesize, and sort observations which make up raw data. Coding helps us develop the analysis and link and categorize series of otherwise discrete events, statements, and observations which we identify in the data. From different source documents such as transcripts, whole paragraphs, sentences or phrases were linked to the identified themes. N\'J\'0 7 software helped me matntatn and orgamze the coding structure. I imported every relevant document into the system and coded line by line. References 'Within the data were assigned to the relevant themes, topics, categories or concepts. By going through entire texts, I was able to make sense of the data, find patterns and relationships both 'W-ithin a collection, and also across collections, and finally make discoveries about my research interests. By comparing and contrasting my data, some 75

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similarities and differences emerged. I was also able to tind sequences and patterns. A good indicator that my data was credible was the consistency of information found in the different texts, transcripts and photo and video images collected during the tieldwork. NVIVO allowed me to link themes not only with texts but also with relevant photos. For example, I discovered that the younger members were more enthusiastic about participation. l\ly photos captured younger members working while the older members stood by giving instructions. Through interviews, I found out that older members \Vere nnical and critical of 1\ll"Si\ programs because there were fewer incentives as they had passed the age groups with most opportunities in MYSA. This information was re-enforced by observations during the clean-up activities where I noticed that the majority of the participating members were younger, aged between 12 and 16 years old. 76

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Table 3.4 Coding Summary Node Sub node Notes Neighborhood Name of Neighborhood Description of neighborhood Location of Neighborhood and zone provides oYen'iew of Name of Zone settings, context and Description of Neighborhood conditions of everyday Years as resident expenences Participation Defining Participation How informants understand How do vouth participate and undertake participation \X'hy do youth participate Where do youth participate Challenges to youth Difficulties while participating participation MYSA What is MYSA Informants were asked about Organization How did you join MYSA MYSA and what the Why did vou join MYSA organization represented to How does lVIYSA help you their lives and their participate communities in relation to participation. MYSA program leaders and MYSA documents provided infonnation about the organizational structure and opportunities for participation. Impacts How do youth gain from Isolate themes and expressions participation regarding impacts -both \\'hat do you see as negatiYe negative and positive impacts of activities 77

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Table 3.5 Surrunary of Impacts Node Impacts Indicators Personal Self-confidence, self-esteem, awareness about problems facing their communities Familial Parental support, status within the family, social freedom Communal Support networks, solidarity, conununity awareness and concern for children's issues, improved status of children within the community Environmental Physical and environmental changes within conunuruty, such as Landscaping and garbage collection Institutional Impacts on Local NGOs and other agencies such as the city council and schools Advantages and Limitations of Research Methods The research method used for my study provided a great level of depth and detail and gaYe participating infonnants the opportunity to discuss issues that were important to them. They had the chance to clarify issues wherever ambiguities or confusion existed. This study method created openness that helped generate new ideas. I traveled to Nairobi and worked in the real world to observe and record data in natural settings. I collected detailed descriptive information revealing patterns in activities, behaviors and relationships between l\1YSA members. The qualitati,e method proYided flexibility that enabled me to gain knowledge about thoughts, feelings and experiences from my informants (Patton, 2002). 78

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Miles and Huberman argue that organized words from qualitative results are more convincing and full of meaning; however, the process is labor intensive and time consuming. These limitations require engagement of a smaller manageable number of research subjects. The smaller the number of research subjects involved, the harder it is to generali7.e the findings. There is also the possibility that researchers may be biased and contaminate the data. I tried to avoid personal bias by contacting informants who were unknown to me prior to my study. The flexibility offered by qualitative methods avoids standardization, resulting in difficulty in replication and systematic comparisons of similar studies. The difficulties of reproducing identical qualitative research processes may compromise the credibility and quality of the conclusions. In my study, 1 han detailed my research design and data collection methods in a manner that addresses the above concerns. My study description provides a template for future study of other youth organizations. The process allowed me to use multiple data collection methods. Triangulating data from interviews, observations, photos, video recordings and documents from l\fYSA helped validate and strengthen my data. 79

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CHAPTER4 FINDINGS In this chapter, I present study findings derived from data analysis in Chapter Three. The analyzed data consist of intetTiews, ethnographic notes and photos from tl.eld observations and secondary data from sources such as the :WOO Kenya Census Report. I also include descriptions from informal discussions with informants and notes from my observations to prmide contextual information about the sites, the l\fl'SA organization and youth participation. l\fy analysis resulted in themes linked to my two research questions: namely, how youth participate in the MYSA environmental program and the impact of their participation on their personal lives, their families, communities, their local environment and local institutions such as the city council. I use direct quotations from the interviews \Vith infomunts to reveal details and include photographs taken during the study as supporting evidence. \X'hile documenting the impacts of participation on young people's personal lives, families, conununities, emironment and local institutions, I find that despite existing limitations, participation in 1\fl'SA motivates youth to clean and improve their neighborhoods. \'\rithout necessary equipment, l\fl'SA members clear heaps of garbage, unclog drains, plant trees and cut grass and weeds. They also pick rocks and broken bottles from the playgrounds. Both parents and MYSA members gain personal 80

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knowledge about environmental cleaning, toxic waste and recycling. By joining MYSA, young people enhance their social networks, learn new skills and gain confidence about the future. During my field work in Nairobi, I spent most days walking through the slums and noticed that pockets of communities are separated by invisible boundaries. I discovered that neighborhoods that are also known as "villages" are dominated by one tribe, leading to tribal segregation within slum areas. During my infonnal discussions, some young people confessed that tribal separation was often reinforced by their own parents at home. However, despite the tribal tensions particularly during election years, young people share soccer teams, speak Sheng and Swahili with their peers and build trust and camaraderie. Many expressed disapproval of tribal related stereotypes and the tribal violence in the slums. In fact, most soccer teams consist of a m1x of members from different backgrounds where young people view themselves as team members regardless of their tribal backgrounds. MYSA activities provide them with opportunity to develop personal relationships with members of different tribal groups. l11ese interactions help challenge negative stereotypes and avoid hostile behavior toward each other. Some young people even admitted that they did not speak their own tribal language, meaning that they had no urge to be identified with a tribe. In fact, they preferred to be Kenyans and wished all citizens would put nation before tribal pride. 81

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Unfortunately, even with the friendly atmosphere between MYSA members, whenever there is violence, young people are forced to take sides because ethnic gangs such as the and the Taliban indiscriminatelY seek out and kill rinls, burning their homes, businesses, and property. Neighbors tight each other and thousands are displaced MYSA Organization In order to find out hmv youth participate in i\ISYA's Environmental Clean-L:p Program, it is important to tlrst describe the .1\ffS.\ structure of governance. The structure illustrates how members make decisions l11e description of this structure is compiled from information that I rcceiYed from a 2006 MYS.r\ report, inteniews with MYSA managers and participating youth. The bottom-up structure consisting of zonal league committees and four councils helps detl.ne how decisions are made in the orgamza non. The entry point to MYS \ for many youth is the local soccer team for the zone in \vhich they choose to participate in Each team in the zone has one vote (represented by the team coach or the captain) .r\ll teams in the zones represented by one Yote elect a zone league committee Once the 11 member zonal committee is constituted, they Yote and elect officials who include a Chairperson, \'ice Chair, Community Service representatne, a Sccretan and I lead Referee The zone committees make decisions regarding league schedules, organizing clean-up events and all other issues that need 82

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attention at this level. Zonal committee decisions are forwarded to the next level by two representatives, one to the Sports Council and the other to the Community Services Council. The two councils are responsible for running the sports activities and all MYSA community service programs, respectively. The tina) critical decisions are made by a nine-member Executi,e Council (EC) which is MYSA's decision making organ. The nine members consist of tive representatives from the Community Service Council and four representatives from the Sports Council. The chairpersons of the Community Service Council and the Sports Council automatically become co-vice chairs of the EC. The EC members elect ofticials including the chairman of Ml'SA organization. Two other members, mostly, previous members of the EC who have experience in the council rules are also co-opted into the council. The EC makes human resource decisions and approves budgetary allocations and development and expansion of new or existing programs \Vith advice from the Board of Trustees. The board is represented in the Executive Council by the trustee's chair. Elections are held enry year and members of varying ages are elected to the various committees. Coaches and team captains from each zone vote giving members the prerogative to re-elect committee representatives for as long as they want. 83

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Figure 4.1 EXECUTIVE COUNCIL Chair 2-Vice Chairs Secretary 4 other members MYSA Director SPORTS COUNCIL Each zonal committee sends one representative to the Sports Council BOARD OF TRUSTEES Community Service Council sends five representatives to the EC Chair md Founder 6 other Members Members MYSA EC Chair MYSA Director Legs) Adviser Auditors Chair Vice Chair Secretary Head Referee/Adviser ... Dmdora Ea.stliegh Githurai Huruma K.ahawa Bmacks K.iriobmgi South Km.rani Mwiki K2.yole Kimbo Korogocho Maili Saba Mithare Mithare North Mbotela RuarW. Pumwani Each of the 16 zones above has uonal committee with 11 eled:ed members Each zonal committee sends one representative to the Community Service Council ZONELEAGUECQ)DCTTEES Chair, Community Service Rep, Secrewy, Head Referee, Team Coaches MYS.i\ Governance 2006 (MYSA 2006 Report) 84

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Participation in MYSA Youth views regarding participation in MYSA Child and youth participation is about providing opportunities for young people to seek information, form their views and express their ideas freely with respect and dignity. The views of youth regarding how youth generally participate in l\fYSA activities provide background information about motiYations for inYolvement and how youth participation occurs. In MYSA, all community serv1ce activities such as the clean-up program are linked to soccer. Team points are earned by volunteering and participating m the community serv1ce acnvmes. Accumulating points offers individuals a chance to win study scholarships. Seventeen out of the 20 youth that participated in my interviews recognized the importance of soccer in MYSA and stated that they had joined MYSA because they wanted to participate in the soccer leagues. \\'hen I asked a 17 year old named Bernard from Eastleigh why he wanted to play soccer at MYSA, he stated that it was because he loves soccer and wanted to gain points for scholarships. Another 16 year old stated, J_joinrd because I JVanted to pit!)' socar. I used to like Jvatcbing them pit?)' and one dq)' I got a cbance to plt(Y ... I liked MYSA beca11se I
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Based on direct feedback and observations, I concluded that many young people loYe soccer and participation in JvfYSA is motivated by the possibility of improving individual soccer skills, participating in the annual Nonvay Cup tournament and the allowances and scholarships that could be earned through involvement in JvfYSA. Young people viewed participation in JvfYSA as a path to opportunity and a better future. \'\ben asked how youth participate in JvfYSA activities, Paul-an 18 year old from Huruma stated, I participate in dean-11p and I attend MYSA teams training and also 1vash training kits and get pointsfor that and sometimes get paidfor that. I like football most beca11se I e'!ff!>' I spend 111)' momi1w at MYSA libral)', readi1zg or piC!J'ilzg comp11ter,games. In the ajiernoom, I go to the A1YSA team training Ibm go own training al-l pm. (18 year old, Huruma) For most parents, participation 1n JvfYSA means playing soccer and possible opportunities for their sons and daughters. \\'hen asked how her son participated in MYSA a parent replied, I real!r don't know, all I know is tbatnry son spends his titrJ' at the MYSA building and piC!J'ingfootball. That is good, howet,er I wish would git'e him a pf!yingjob, be bas been tJOIIInteerin,g with themforfollryars now (Parent of 18 yr old, H uruma) 86

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Figure 4 .1 Youth at a Soccer Tournament at Technical High School Grounds, Nairobi During two focus group discussions with 14 MYSA members, there was consensus among the youth; they stated that priority needs to be given to adding other activities such as music and performing arts in addition to sports. All my informants told me that they knew friends or neighbors who had no interest in soccer and hence had limited access to MYS1\. Their friends could participate in MYSA but had very few opportunities unless they belonged to a soccer team where they could earn points and meet and be recognized by other youth. In addition, MYSA has only three libraries and offices that support all the 16 zones. Zones such as Kariobangi and others are located 87

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further away from the three l'viYSA offices where members have access to books and musical instruments This means that in most cases, young people from such zones participate less just because of the distance and the difficulties in accessing 1\f'r:.SA locations Infonnal Discussions During informal discussions, some older youth, particularl y aged 18-20, expressed their dissatisfaction with the programs that only target youth below 18 years old. My findings show that MYSA provides opportunities for youth below 18 years who have a chance to play in the zonal teams and for the l\f'{SA youth team Once they are oYer 18, the lure of travel to Norway is diminished because they are disqualified by age L'nless they are part of the coaching staff, only those aged 16 and below can travel for the Norway cup. ,\r 18 some of the youth have completed high school and are looking for employment opportunities Members stated that despite their changing needs, it was difficult to effect change in MYSA. For instance, some informants recall situations where zone representatives to the Community Sen ice Council and Sports Council ignore member views particularly if the views challenge ideas from l'vf'r:.SA headquarters or counter zone representative's personal views One young man told me that anyone challenging ideas in MYSA could be labeled a trouble maker. Some young people stated that the expansion of MYSA has resulted in fewer opportunities because there are many more members competing for the same 88

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opportunities. They also say that MYSA wasn't infonning and educating all the members about the opportunities available and how they can access them. Many informants were frustrated that, because they attended boarding schools during the school years, they could only volunteer occasionally. As a result, they could not accumulate enough points to compete with others who attend day schools or have dropped out of school. However, these concerns are not only reserved for youth attending boarding school; in circumstances where many more youth from one zone seem to benefit from the incentives, members from other zones tend to believe that opportunities are reserved for only a few from some zones or members of certain tribal groups. l\1y findings suggest that generally young people in the slums are seen as potentially dangerous gang members. Poverty, inequality and inadequate support from the government haYe limited young people's access to opportunities and power to make choices in their lives. What is particularly intriguing is the disconnect between the interdependence and social connections that young people have formed and the tension and potential conflicts that are evident between adults from different tribes. The culturally diverse slwns where many tribes live as neighbors have resulted in suspicion and distrust of the "other." Youth bear the brunt of this suspicion as they are occasionally stoned by locals or shot to death by the police. if suspected to be part of violent crimes in a neighborhood. In such a setting it seems to me that adults hold all the power and suffocate the youth. 89

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Observations MYSA rules require teams to participate in at least two clean-ups a year. Member participation ensured additional points to their team in the soccer leagues. My analysis of the data collected from inteniews with informants suggests that those between ages 16 and 17, regardless of their zone, were much more involved in soccer teams as players and therefore had to attend clean-up activities regularly. Furthermore, the younger informants were still in high school and had a chance of winning education scholarships or a chance to "make the trip" to Norway. The 18 and 20 year old infonnants hardly participated in clean-up events and whenever they did, they were obseners, supervising as coaches of zonal teams. Their participation in l'viYSA was limited to coaching or officiating the league games and tournaments. Informants' responses were confirmed while obsenring the clean-up activities; I noticed that younger l'viYSA members were more interested and active in the clean-up. \'\bile the younger team members did most of the work, the older and much stronger members looked on. It seems that the older members were less motivated and less active. It may appear that older members use the younger ones to gain points for their respective teams. At some l'viYSA events sponsored by outside funders, a few chosen members are bussed to events to "perform" for visitors. In such cases, while a few prominent members are involved, the majorities of members have very little information about the events. Many others in the zones are unable to attend or participate in such events. 90

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Participating in the Environmental Clean-Up Program The Environmental Clean-Up Program is run by the Community Service Council through a lVIYSA staff member known as the Environment Program Manager. The program was established in 1988 to enable members to clean their neighborhoods by unblocking sewage, clearing trenches, collecting garbage and, most importantly, clearing fields which provide space for playing grounds for the children and youth in the community. According to the program manager, M'fSA started with an aim of improving the liYing conditions of Mathare residents and many other neighboring communities. The simple organizational principle to motiYate the youth is, "You do something, MYSA does something; you do nothing, .MYSA does nothing". lf/e fl/o/Jili::::_e_ )'Oiftb gr01tps to take responsibili!J to clean Olfr mvironmmt /Je({I/ISe the ci('y does no/ clean ... (!VIYSA Program Manager) observations during the clean-up, interviews with youth and !VIYSA leaders suggest that youth initiate, manage and direct the environmental clean-up program activities in individual zones. Adults are inYolved only in supportive roles. Organized in soccer teams, members from each zone participate in clean-up activities and earn points. Each time a member participates, his or her name is recorded on a sign-up sheet and team and individual points are awarded. For each clean-up, a team is awarded six points that are automatically retlected on the zonal league table standings. Each soccer team is required to participate in at least two clean-up sessions in a year. 91

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Individuals are awarded two points for each clean-up and at the end of the year all indiYidual points are tallied to detennine those who have the most points. Even though it was a requirement, two 16 year aids stated that they did not enjoy the clean-up activities because it required their time and labor. They stated that they only participated because they wanted to improve their team positions and increase their chances of \\inning scholarships, as they were still in school. Accwnulated points give individual members a chance to win leadership awards, which consist of educational bursaries or scholarships which are paid directly to their schools or colleges. These awards and "making the trip" are a major motivation for most youth. Youth voluntarily participate in large numbers because they all hope to gain from MYSA. There is competition between thousands of young people for a few opportunities anilable through 1\JYSA programs. Twenty members from four zones interviewed during my study believed that they have a chance to fulfill their dreams . . i\ !Y pmticipation i.r based 011 the de.rirr to the .rcho/ar.rhip .ro that I can go back to .fini.rh high .rchooL I know )'Oifth wbo do not even like the work but know that tbq bat1e to parlitipate to ill!)' .rcbo/ar.rbip.r .... (18 year old, Korogocho) 92

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Figure -L2 Signing Up .\t I Iuruma for a Clean-Up Due to a lack of solid waste management infrastructure, the Nairobi City Council Is unable to effectiYcly dcliYer solid waste management senices to the majority of the city residents. l\Iathare and other slums do not recein vital basic senices such as \Vater, samtation, electricity and garbage collection. Study tindings suggest that 1\fYS.\ recogmzes the need to do something about the deteriorating emironmental conditions. :\IYSA and community members recogmzc that without regular clearing of footpaths, drains and latrines, all residents arc exposed to serious health risks. 93

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Posters arc pasted on .MYSA notice boards in each zone four weeks before each clean-up activity. The notice boards arc also used to circulate information and news about alll\TYSA c\ents. The city council and local community leaders arc also notified in . advance about a clean-up activity in their location. The zonal league committees decide the dates and locations where clean-up actiYities will occur. L:ndcr supervision from the local zone committee members, groups of members are assigned different locations for their work. On the day of the scheduled clean-up, about 100 to 300 youth participate in the clean-up event. They gather early, teams and indiYidual members arc signed up and given equipment (See Fig 4.1 ). I\1YSA provides equipment, including wheelbarrows, shovels, hoes, rakes, spades and machetes. MYS:\ purchases most of the clean-up equipment and also accepts equipment donations from local companies. Currendy, l\:fYSA has more than 70 wheelbarrows and 200 rakes which arc all stored in MYSA locations in the Komarock and Eastleigh offices. 94

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Figure 4.3 1\IYS. \ Eyuipmcnt to 1\kmbcr:; at lluruma
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I :igurc -+ .-+ Clcan-L'p in lluruma

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Figure 4.5 Loading Trash onto a Truck in I furuma In some zones, community groups have organized to distribute garbage bags to each household and collect them e\ery weekend for a fee. In such cases, l\fYS.-\ cleanups may only consist of leYeling open spaces and planting trees. The open spaces arc then anilablc for soccer teams within the zone. l'vlYS.\ is specifically authorized to dump food rcmaim and plastic bags .. \ccording to the MYS i \ emironmental program director, in cases \Vhcrc other materials such as needles hospital \Vaste or chemicals are found, l\IYS_\ notifies the local city council depot to clean up. If the CitY council is 97

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unable to come clean up, MYSA gets authority to clean up and dump materials under different trash categories. Impacts In preceding pages, I have addressed the first question of my research about youth participation in the MYSA clean-up program. However, it is not enough to only know how youth participate, it is also important to further find out what effects there may be, both positive and negative, because of youth participation. 1\fy second research question addresses the impacts of youth participation in the environmental clean-up program. In this section I document qualitative gains made in the daily lives of youth. The documented impacts are based on interviews with youth, parents, l\fYSA managers, city officials and infom1al discussions with community members. I borrow from the PL\N-UK research which identifies possible impacts of children's participation in development and categorizes the effects into four realms: individual, familial, communal and institutional (Ackermann et a!. 2004). Environmental impact is an additional realm that I include in my study. I have added this fifth realm because the MYSA program is about improving the environmental cleanliness of neighborhoods and it is important to know to what extent participation is achieving this goal. I categorize my data to match these realms in order to provide a wide view of the impacts of children's participation. 98

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Personal Realm The realm focuses on individual impacts such as self confidence, acquisition of life skills, personal de,elopment, social development and positive channels for energy and creativity. ,\11 my informants, both youth and adults, reside in Mathare and the other three zones in focus in this study. These locations are some of the most densely populated neighborhoods and they claim some of the highest poverty levels in Nairobi (GoK, 2000). I\Iany youth I spoke v.ith stated that they come from large families headed by single Fourteen out of 20 youth I spoke with had more than 4 siblings. My infom1ants agreed during the intervie\\'s that the daily lives of youth arc difficult and many young people who have completed school cannot find meaningful employment. \'\"hile walking through the neighborhoods, one may notice idle young people sitting in groups. Most of the young men and women have dropped out of school or completed school but cannot find meaningful employment. Parents and youth stated that families struggle to find enough food and money to take children to school and to pay for high health care costs. Some youth ha\'e dropped out of high school because they cannot pay the school fees. 99

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1-'op.JIJ!101r l>t-lo., pmt:'rt\ lrr-< :'(J t,(L:-i) 10-b{l CJH_l.)(l D I0--4U 2 fl () '" 5Fwt ... 'd! n.:ul..s rl""Sorn '-u Jdt.! r::::lW.rllr htrrlll" 7'\l Drs.trll I l)ound
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Reduce Fear and Distrust In addition to the poverty and unemployment, levels of crime are high and youth are exposed to drugs, gangs and crime. Many young people avoided public places where they could easily be seen and harassed by the police. There have long been notorious gangs In Nairobi's slums. These gangs are products of years of cycles of violence triggered by previous elections. The gangs have names such as the Taliban, Baghdad Boys, and Mungiki. Occasionally 'iolence between rival gangs and the police break out in the slums and according to my informants, seVeral young people had been caught and jailed while others had even been shot dead by the police. During my time in Nairobi, ,iolence erupted several times and some sections of the slums were out of bounds particularly for strangers like me. My infonnants were hesitant to talk about the gang violence and warned me about the dangers of walking around and asking questions. There was a chance and danger that I would be mistaken for a police informant. To deal with the gangs, the local police resorted to intimidation and violence against young people. Suspected gang members are ordered to leave the city for the village or risk arrest. All the young people inteniewed stated that fear of crime and the police had led to distrust between the youth. During informal discussions, one 17 year old from Eastleigh warned that there were some young people who participated in crime secretly at night and put the lives of their friends in danger. The police do not distinguish between the gang members and the 101

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non-gang members. In order to be safe, many young men avoid hanging around their neighborhoods in groups. Likl' IIOJll !/)'Oil ,go 110111 to thr 11e{ghborhood. )'Oil mm1otji11d tJI!}'. )'OIIth, jt1.rl tNidrm and 111omen and girls. Youth stqy au't!J" bemus" it is dangl'rous untii1Phm to bed. At nzght _yo11 ca11 hear,gu11.rhot.r ... it i.r .rem)" ... (18 year old, Mathare) \\'hen asked if being part of helped reduce the distrust, all informants agreed that being seen in MYSA uniforms and spending time playing soccer or involved in l\,fYSA activities reduces fear and distrust because community members know that in case of trouble they can contact MYSz\ staff regarding members who may be causing trouble in the community. In neighborhoods where all young male residents are suspected to be gang members, provides attractive alternatives for many youth who want to be part of a group with a positive image. In the view of many parents and young members, 1\fYS,\ has a reputation as an organization that is concerned with the welfare of young people and their communities. 1\f\'SA gins youth direction and opens opportunities when they take the initiative. Many young people stated that high poverty and crime levels in their neighborhoods made their everyday lins diHicult. U7e_youth hm'i' no life in Matharr ... thm iJ po,,rr()' ... the houm are inadequatr and dir(J, it is not l"Oil'(/ortable to liiJl' hrrl'. Youth are e."\po.red to bad behmrior .ruch a.r bemmin.g thie1e.r a11d ,grt killed .... (16 year old) 102

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Knowledge about the Environment A casual walk and observations through the four neighborhoods provided me \Vith a picture of the local environmental conditions. Without garbage bins and collection services, residents often throw trash on the streets. l\JYSA clean-up activities and those of other groups such as women's groups provide some relief from the trash problem. Eleven of the 20 inteniewed youth stated that through participation in the clean-up activities, they gained personal knowledge about environmental cleaning and toxic waste. They learned about recycling materials such as bottles, plastic bags and scrap metals. During my study, I noticed that many children and some adults walked barefoot and the safe remonl of broken bottles and needles was important to avoiding lethal lnJUnes. Confidence and Pride l\1athare and other similarlv poor neighborhoods have negative reputations as undesirable criminal dens. These assumptions result in despair among many young people who are afraid to venture outside the slums. Those who go outside the slums are hesitant to say where they come from. Seventeen youth interviewed stated that by participating in the clean-up, they felt proud because they were improving cleanliness in their neighborhoods. They also felt confident because the community sees them as responsible and hardworking. By participating in the clean-up activities, they openly claim membership in MYSA and avoid suspicion about gang membership. 103

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T\VO of the youth intenie\ved belong to the cultural and acrobatic teams. They stated that they liked performing and educating their peers and community members about the need to keep their neighborhoods clean and the importance of refraining from dangerous activities such as drugs, unprotected sex and crime. \\'hen community members are gathered to listen to them after clean-up activities, they feel admired, important and Yaluable. Conununity members give credit to l\fYSA fur cleaner neighborhoods and for sending a message to youth to stay in school and aYoid bchaYiors such as unprotected sex and drugs. 1\JYS.\ C\'ents keep young people engaged, especially during the holiday season when schools are closed. One 18 year old stated that, lfeel,good and import@/ espedalb 1vhm we hfl/!1' tisilor.rfrom o11tside the sl11m.r ... n!)' skiiLr in soccer /Jm,e aLro impro!Jed dras/i((JI(r .rina ]joined AJYSA I slqy lm!J' and awq)' from the .rtmt.r. I mme to the libral)' to read book.r... (l I wast1 't in M) 'SA, I 1Vo11/d be a m.mal laborer a/the lo((JI market. I learn llllfch more a/ An T--1 than I woNid be !l I was .. (18 year old, Eastleigh) 104

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Figure: -1-.7 .-\crobats-Community .\warcncss and Entertainment Social Networks Young people meet most of their friends while attending school or in playgrounds in their neighborhoods. Participation in clean-up activities in other zones as well as in zones at home prmidcs 1\:fYS. \ members \Vith opportunities to meet their peers in other zones. Because of the fear of gangs, certain neighborhoods arc dangerous, especially if one docs not have friends in those neighborhoods. The majority of young people say participation in ;\fYSA helps them make new friends and visit other lOS

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neighborhoods where they would not feel safe othei'\vise. These encounters enhance their social network s Participation in MYSA activities afford young people the opportunity to interact 'Wi.th youth from diverse ethnic backgrounds These encounters mean that ethnicity is less likely a factor when they choose whom to be friends with. Youth also conununicate in the local slang which is a mixture of Swahili, English and other local languages. This helps give youth a common identity regardless of their ethnic backgrounds Developing camaraderie and a sense of unity is important for avoiding involvement in ethnic violence that periodically occurs in poor neighborhoods, e specially during election seasons Empowennent Participation in MYSA has fostered resilience and a sense of purpose. Young people have become open to learning new skills, which in turn has given many of them confidence that life in future may be better. Through their networks in MYSA, some have formed smaller groups and set up their own small scale businesses They make and sell beads and jewelry; some distribute trash bags and collect trash and weekly fees from conununity members IF'e mlled !ht' in pla.rlit' and leal'l' il I!)' tbe roadside where tbr ti(y mumillorries collect tbe111. lf'e aboNI S 10 a week from commtmi(y memlm:r for tbe and the work 1/Jf do /o dean tbe neighborhood ... ( 20 year old, Mathare) 106

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l\fYSA members accumulate individual points by parnc1pating m many environmental clean-ups and other l\fYSA activities such as coaching, officiating MYSA league matches or playing league games. At the end of the year the points are tallied and members have a chance to -win scholarships, also knmvn as leadership awards. The awards of about$ 110 are paid directly to schools and colleges for tuition. Even though there are 3000 applications, l\IYSA can only award 400 scholarships every year. For those lucky few, the awards reduce the burden of parents who in many cases cannot afford the education fees. These scholarships also enable many to complete their high school and tertiary education. Team coaches help youth develop their soccer talents. As a result many young people have confidence in their future as professional soccer players both locally and abroad. Because of the motivation to "make the trip" or Wln a scholarship, many continue to participate and learn new things at l\IYSA. There are those who get an opportunity to represent l\IYSA in Europe for the annual Norway youth cup. They get exposed to new cultures and a new world beyond the slums. These trips are a motivation for many to get out of the slums. The trips abroad are also a major motivation for many to participate in l\IYSA membership and activities. At/east I hat'e been able to .fh on a plane ]/!hen I 1ventto NonV'!_)'. Gelling on a plane is an ad;ie11emenljor ma'!)' here in the .rl11m.r ... otheryo11th admire me (17 year old, Korogocho) 107

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Familial Realm The second realm deals with parental support, enhanced status within the family and greater social freedoms. Interviews with youth and their parents provided findings concerned with familial impacts of participation. Increased Awareness Two 16 year old respondents from Mathare and Eastleigh stated that they were frustrated by residents who threw rubbish everywhere because they were the ones who had to clean it up In turn they had decided to talk to their own family members and were helping them change their attitudes so they could buy garbage bags or attempt to throw trash in one designated area One parent from Korogocho spoke of the need not to burn trash, especially plastics or throw garbage everywhere She stated that her son had informed her that burning trash caused pollution in the neighborhood. However, she did not agree \Vith the notion that plastic bags should be banned because she used them to carry groceries Knowledge acquired from MYSA was instrumental in respectful exchanges between youth, parents and other siblings. Privacy and Autonomy Accommodation in the slums often means that families share one room shacks. For many young people, moving out is important because of their concern with privacy Moving out to lin with other youth is necessary for privacy and respect for parents. It is also a sign of independence and responsibiliry One 18 year old stated that having a 108

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separate accommodation can allow siblings to find extra space away from the parent's house and minimize conflicts with parents and female siblings. For a few lucky youth, making the trip to Norway may result in a stipend of about $500. This amount awarded by MYSA enabled one 17 year old from Huruma to move out of his parent's house and to find independent accommodation within walking distance from his parents. The stipend enabled him to pay the $15 rent. Financial Support Furthennore, while on trips to Norway, some youth find Norwegian families willing to financially support them. Young people as well as their families welcome sponsors from Norway. The sponsors commit to sending members education fees and paying for rent. The amount sent by sponsors varies; many of the young people are hesitant to disclose the dollar amount sent by sponsors. In cases where parents are unemployed, financial support obtained by the youth improve relationships between parents and their children. Parents and young people with financial support consult on the best way to spend the money. Most of the benefits are directed at indiYidual youth but they end up sharing them with family members, which changes relationships within families. As one member indicates, j,J'/''e/1. ,\1) T1 to sqy the tmth has reai!J' helped me; I got some because I went to j\'onvqy in 2004 ... the is kept I?)' mJ' mother who spends it wisejy (18 year old, Huruma) 109

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Changes in the family dynamics may not always be posmve. One 19 year old from Eastleigh submitted that the money gained from trips abroad sometimes resulted in rebellion of the youth against parents and others in the community. Those who had money felt that they were better and could do whatever they wanted without consulting their parents. In some cases, parents depended on their children and the result is that some youth felt burdened and pressured to take care of their parents and other family members. Participation in 1\-IYSA and expectations for financial rewards is a source of fear and anxiety for some youth and families because their ability to complete high school depends on the scholarships awarded by MYSA. Peace of Mind In an environment where cnme and gang activity 1s common, parents are understandably concerned for their children. They encourage their children to participate in 1\-IYSA because they have a fa,orable view of the organization and its activities. They believe that participation in 1\fYSA shields their children from the harsh realities of the slums. The parents I spoke to think that MYSA provides a sanctuary for many youth. Parents stated that their children stay out of trouble when they are busy with 1\fl'SA activities. One parent I spoke with stated that, "since my son joined 1\-IYSA he has been a good boy" Her son's improved behavior and self-discipline can be seen by improved relationships with his siblings because there are less fights. 110

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'"!J' son has ,-banged sincejoining MYSA, He is resolute and he is a good bqy. He is bii!J')or so long that he has no time to be intJOft,ed in bad behatJior. I think M1T1 ha.r been responsible for the good hehmior ''?Y childrm ... (Parent, Eastleigh) The exposure to drugs, gangs and prostitution in the slums requires parents to be ,igilant. In any case, they are out all day trying to find food for their families and knowing that their children are attending MYSA activities gives them peace of mind. Some parents believe that active participation may result in scholarships, a trip to Norway or a job as l'vfYSA staff. opporrunities may impron the financial condition of the families. Communal Reabn The communal realm refers to solidarity, building strong support networks, and confidence in the community's youth, which result in greater community awareness and concern for youth issues. Participation in l'vfYSA clean-up actiYities is good public relations for youth in communities where many are suspected of being gang members. \"<' hen youth clean neighborhoods and improve emironmental conditions, community members view youth positively because they are seen to be hard-working 111

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Community Pride The 1\fYS.\ director stated that in his interactions \\ith commumtT members, most neighborhoods had become conscious about environmental health and kept communities relatively cleaner since the program began. The clean-up program managtr confirmed that there had been an increase in interest in the clean-up activities. \'\"omen's groups and other community organizations had more frec1uently requested l\fl"SA equipment to help them clean their neighborhoods in recent ,cars. "l"hc clean-up program has support from communitY members because the clean-up activities have attracted attention within the city and internationally, giving young people and community members a sense of pride. \'\"hen young people win scholarships or travel to Europe, parents and other community members are proud of their sons and daughters. l'vl.YSA members give a favorable view of the neighborhoods mostly known for poverty, crime and illegal activity. 1\IYS.\ teams are represented in the national soccer leagues and ;\JYSA is known for talented soccer players. They have "put MYS.\ on the map" as one parent proudly stated to me. Community members support MYS.\ activities because the activities give the community a positive image. 112

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Environmental Realm Rapid urbanization and the population explosion 111 slums have led to ctwironmcntal degradation and pollution in Nairobi. L'NEP (2005) reports that only about 25 per cent of the estimated I ,500 tons of solid waste generated daily is collected. There are no formal garbage collection seniccs offered by city authorities in Nairobi. In wealthy wburbs, private contractors supply plastic bags to residents and collect the garbage a few days a week for a fcc. During my I obscncd that in many slums, neglect has led to piles of garbage. Piles of garbage attract flies and insects which may result in the spread of fly borne diseases such as typhoid, dysentery and cholera. Garbage also blocks paths and clog drains. Drains arc important because there is no plumbing in the slums and when they arc blocked, stagnant waste water becomes a breeding ground for \arious kinds of pests and insects, particularly mosquitoes, which transmit diseases such as malaria. During the rains the clogged drains result in flooding and the spread of \Vatcrbornc disease. 113

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hgurc Digging New Il-l-

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figure 4.9 Heaps of Garbage before Clean-Cp The poor emironmental conditions motivate the youth and other residents to clean their neighborhoods. I observed as young people \Vith little or sometimes no proper tools collected garbage, unclogged drains, removed weeds and cut tall grass, thus helping improve the living conditions of many communities. During interviews the MYSA program manager and fiye members between 16 and 18 years old stated that during clean-up eYents youth also plant trees and repair fences that protect playgrounds. The trees provide shade for those on the sidelines watching the games or on the team bench. 11 s

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Figure 4.10 l nclogging Existing Drains All the parents interviewed acknowledged that participation in \Veekend clean-up activities results in improYcment of aesthetic appearance and general cleanliness of the neighborhoods. One parent who had lind in the Korogocho area for 30 years stated that she had noticed impro\'ed cleanliness since the l\fYS"-\ clean-up actiYities began In particular, the 17 and 18 year old youths stated that they had learned about not burning trash and minimizing their usc of plastic bags. According to the program manager, had helped young people learn to identify dangerous garbage such as toxins and needles. 116

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Figure 4.11 Cleared Paths after Clean-Up Institutional Realm The institutional realm refers to the improved functioning of agenCies collaborating with 1\1\'SA. The clean-up program works in collaboration with local schools and the city council. 1\fl.S : \ and local schools have a partnership where schools open their playgrounds to MYS ; \ teams and in return, MYS ; \ is responsible for upkeep of the playgrounds. Due to the partnership between 1\fl.SA and local schools, !\1YS.\ 117

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members are involved in regular landscaping of school playgrounds and the schools haYe benefited through the upkeep of their playgrounds. To maximize participation and the success of the clean-up activities, :Ml'SA collaborates with community members and the Nairobi City Council. The city council, which has the responsibility to provide garbage collection services, has been unable to provide any senices to the slums. MYSA 's clean-up activities have taken over most of the work of the city authorities. The director of the MYSA clean-up program remembers that once the clean-up program expanded, there was a need to collaborate ""-ith the city council. l\ffSA had to get permits to dump garbage at the local city dump. They regularly invited city council officials to help them identify toxic waste and trash that required specialized treatment. One city council official admits that the council has neither the required man-power nor the equipment necessary to collect the garbage in the slums. "\'X'e actually rely on MYSA equipment to clean up most parts of the slums," he admits. "\"\' e have to hire trucks whenever we carry out our own clean up because the council does not have garbage trucks." He further complains that even if the council had trucks, they would be unable to go to the interiors of the slums because of the lack of paved roads. Visitors who do not know about the 1\-IYSA clean-up actiYities may unknowingly credit the city council for the improYed cleanliness in the slums. The clean up program does work that the city council is mandated to do. According to the clean-up program manager, :Ml'SA has engaged several other important institutions, including the National Environment Management Authority 118

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(NEl\L\). Through help and information from the NE!v1A, each MYSA zone has members who are trained and can identify, categorize and differentiate garbage. The program has enabled NEM\ to engage members and youth in the importance of environmental protection. According to the l\1YSA environmental program manager, in cases where other materials such as needles, hospital waste or chemicals are found, .MYSA notifies the local city council depot to clean up. If the city council is unable to come clean up, l\IYSA gets authority to clean up and dump materials under different trash categories. Table 4.1 Summary of Findings on Participation Age range How Youth Participate Number of youth respondinl! 16 -17 year old Clearing heaps of garbage 10 youth Unclogging drains 10 Digging new drains or expanding existing ones 5 Planting trees 5 Cutting grass and weeds in the play grounds 5 Picking rocks and broken bottles 10 Increasing community awareness 10 Entertaining the community after the clean-up 10 18 20 yr old Serving as coaches responsible to stgn up members youth before clean-up 2 Distributing equipment 2 Supervising clean-up 2 Gearing heaps of garbage 5 C nclogging drains 5 Digging new drains or expanding existing ones 2 Planting trees 2 119

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Table -J..l (Coot) Cutting grass and weeds in playgrounds 2 Mending fences for playgrounds 2 Picking rocks and broken bottles from the playgrounds Entertaining community after the clean-up -J. Table 4.2 Summary of Findings on Impacts Realm Individual Familial Impacts Personal knowledge about emironmental cleaning, toxtc waste and recycling Enhanced social networks and opportunities to meet peers. Information about dangers of drugs, unprotected sex and cnme Reduced possibility of !Ojunes from broken bottles and needles A ,oiding suspicion about gang membership and improved image that reduces fear and distrust A sense of pride because of MYSA's positive image Autonomy and a sense of purpose Learning new skills and gaining confidence about the future Financial rewards through scholarships or a trip to Europe (Norwegian families willing to financially support them) DeY eloping camaraderie and a sense of unity Autonomy enables some youth to move out on their own and pay rent giving parents pri,acy and minimizing conflicts 'W-ith parents and sisters Other family members have a favorable view of youth, the 1\fYS"-\ organintion and its actiYities 120

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Table -L2(Cont) Communal Parents and young people with financial support consult on the best way to spend the money Some youth who had money felt that they could do whatever they wanted without consulting their parents. Some youth felt burdened and pressured to take care of their parents and other family members A sense of pride among young people and community members because youth activities "put l'viYSA on the map" Community members ,ic\v youth positively because they are seen to be hard-working Good public relations for youth Improve image of communities Knowledge about enYironmental education Is shared \\ith communitv members Environmental Cleared paths that arc normally blocked by heaps of garbage Institutional Cncloggcd drains to reduce mosquitoes Newly planted trees and landscaping \\'eeds and rocks removed from playgrounds Improved cleanliness of neighborhoods Better maintained school playgrounds Collaboration \vith Citv Council Dissemination of information from NEl\L\ (National Environment Management .:\uthority) 121

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l\h that many young people and their communities an: benefiting from the MYS \ etn-ironmental clean up program. 1\-lmt from the four stud\' enjo\' participating in the clean-up acti,ities because they not only impron: the cleanliness of their neighborhoods bur because they han: a chance tn win scholarships and to "make the trip to Furopc. 122

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Introduction CHAPTERS IMPLICATIONS In recognition of the gap in the availability of literature and research on child and youth participation in Africa, this research set out to investigate and document how MYSA youth from four zones participate in the Environmental Clean-up Program and the impacts of their participation. My tindings affirm that young people want opportunities to lead better lives by being inYolved in improving their neighborhood and communities. Having spent seven months in Nairobi gathering data through observations and interviews 'With l'viYSA youth and managers, parents, and community members, I witnessed the benetits of the clean-up activities and some of the challenges facing the program. In the course of my research, I have developed great respect for the :M\'SA organintion and its members. The clean-up program motivates youth to clean and i..mpnwc their neighborhoods. In the process, parents and :rviYSA members gain personal knmvledge about environmental cleaning, toxic waste and recycling. By joining l'viYS.\, young people enhance their social networks, learn new skills and gain confidence in the future. In the preceding chapter, I haYe documented how youth participate and how participation impacts their personal lives, their families, communities, institutions and their local environments. This dissertation provides new information and awareness 123

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about the work of 1\f'l'SA .. The resulting information may be insightful and useful to many other youth groups and city authorities. In this concluding chapter, I discuss the implications of my findings in detail. The contribution from this study provides an opportunity for further research \\ith youth in Nairobi, including MYSA girls, and comparisons with youth who are not l\fYSA members. Implications for Youth Organizations In recent years, many governments and organizations have began to recognize young people's participation as an important component in improYing lives of young people (l1N Habitat, 2003; Sherrod, Flanagan, and Youniss, 2002). Youth have been identified as assets capable of making meaningful contributions to organizations and their communities (Eccles & Gootman, 2002 and Lansdown, 2001). This is a welcomed development because as witnessed in organi7.ations such as l\f't'SA, when ginn a chance, young people arc resourceful and want more opportunities to take charge of their lives. They are demanding change by asking questions and challenging existing structures of authority which restrict their lives and deny them the freedom to express themselves (Driskell, Bannerjee and Chawla, 2001). Youth organizations could take adnntage of the f:worably changing environments and the continued hunger by young people to be invoh-ed in day to day lives of their communities. In Kenya, young people have become increasingly Yocal in asking for economic, social, cultural and political opportunities. They feel that in a 124

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country where they are the majority, their agendas must be a priority for the government. As my findings suggest, young people are organizing themselves in public, private and civil society areas of Kenyan society. The Mungiki and other gangs are examples of organized forces. These groups fill voids and gain youth follo\\;ng as theY are seen to focus on young people's interests. Participation and Decision Making Young people need opportunities for physical activity, creative expression, positive social interaction with peers and adults and a sense of structure and clear limits \\;th meaningful participation (Roth and Rrooks-Gunn, 2003). Youth organizations such as MYSA provide a forum for youth to contribute to the welfare of others through community service activities (Hart and Atkins, 2002). Taking part in collective decision making, particularly in cases where the decisions affect their lives and the communities in which they live, is paramount in true participation (Hart, 1992; Checkoway, 1998). Participation is not only based on a desire to be part of the decision making process but is also about the desire to gain rewards and be identified with a youth organization. Research shows that young people want to be involved in issues that affect them and their communities regardless of constraints, geographical locations or ethnicities. Involvement in development offers them new skills and opportunities to build their self esteem and say what is on their minds. \X'hen youth are allowed to strategiu for neighborhood improvements, they can change their communities and in the process also benefit personally through the experience. Youth involvement and the recognition of 125

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their potential gives them confidence and improves their standing in their communities (Swart Kruger with Chawla, 2002). In chapter two, I reviewed in detail literature on child and youth participation. The available literature mostly consists of western based texts that identify types of participation, how participation occurs and the benetits of participation (Hart, 1992; Shier, 2002; Chawla, 2002; Francis and Lorenzo, 2002). Hart's ladder of participation lists the different fonns of participation and suggests that the levels of young people's power and influence reflect degrees of participation. My review found that there is less emphasis on examining the impacts of participation on young people and their communities; therefore, my findings related to the impacts of participation add new perspectiYes to the existing gap in the literature. In recognition of the role that local politics and culture play in everyday lives of children and youth, I have echoed Hart (2002) in downplaying the ladder as a perfect measure of participation across different cultures. Still, my enluation using Hart's 1992 ladder puts youth participation in l\1YSA on several levels. Active 1\ffSA members initiate and direct programs while adults are involved only in supportive roles. n1ese members probably fall in the seventh level of Hart's ladder because they have opportunities to initiate and make decisions regarding certain programs, projects or events and adults only play supportive roles. However, \Vith almost 20,000 members, it is unrealistic to imagine that all youth in MYS,\ han similar access and participatory expenences. 126

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In view of the disparities mentioned aboYe, I believe the existing organizational structure is inadequate because eYen as some members achieve high levels of participation, a majority of the members experience what Hart refers to as tokl'nism or manipulation. This is particularly evident at events where, while a few members are imolved at the highest levels, the majority of members have very little information about the events and why they are inYolYed. In reality, members are participating at different levels even at the same events. I must, however, admit that I recogmze l'viYSA 's dilemma, because 'With the ex1snng organizational structure and a large membership, it 1s almost impossible to ensure that individuals have equal opportunity to make decisions and direct programs. Furthermore, most young people believe that their participation should lead to access to incentives which help improve their lives. Maximum participation is equated \\ith a chance to travel and/ or to 'Win scholarships. \\'ithout the hope of accessing these incentives, some young people stated that they would be involnd in other activities with some returns such as such as low paying construction jobs called "mjengo" in Swahili. Despite the frustration and insufficiencies of the system, my findings suggest that participation in l'viYSA is critical for young people's sunival in the slums of Nairobi. Participation provides opportunities for young people to seek information and express their ideas freely \Vith respect and dignity. Participation in l'viYS.\ is regarded by many as a path out of the slums and access to opportunities and independence. More critically, regardless of the levels of participation, 1\fYSA provides hope for a better future. \X'hile 127

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many young people who participate in l'viYSA are frustrated that they cannot have more access to incentives such as a chance to travel and/ or to \\in scholarships, they put on a good show and take part in M\'SA events, especially when visitors from abroad are imolved. In any case, many youth state that they have no alternative avenues of pursuing their dreams, and involvement in 1\fYS.t\ at any len! gives them a chance to follow their dreams in sports and/ or in education. According to members, access to incentives such as scholarships, trips abroad and allowances arc proof of successful participation. These few incentins help improve their lives, but many youth who spend hours volunteering 'With 1\fYSA are disappointed when they don't get any rewards. In view of the dire conditions in which young people find themselves In Nairobi's slums, .MYSA and other similar organizations play a pronunent role tn improving the lives of many families in the slum. Tne most compelling insight emerging from my study suggests that even 'With a lack of resources, 1\fYSA is still able to provide thousands of youth 'With opportunities for personal growth, skill enhancement, and leadership development, just as researchers ha,e obsened in other similar \'Outh organizations (Mahoney, Cairns, and Farmer, 2003; Eccles and Barber, 1999; Zeldin, 2004). \'\'hatever the level of participation, young people in Mathare arc inspired by l'viYSA and the success of peers who have found opportunities through l'viYSA. 1\fl'SA 's influence cannot be underestimated because many young people arc very hopeful that by participating in l'vfl'S.\, a better future is possible for them and their communities. The lesson here may be that in conditions where there is intense competition for scarce 128

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resources, the lenl of participation may not be as important as having a sense of belonging to a positive group or organizanon such as MYSA. Evidence from my research suggests that given the poverty and the neglect of young people in the slums, even tokenism or manip11lation may provide young people with some inspiration and hope that drin them to succeed Shortages in resources in families and their conununities deny youth the support and experiences they need to s urvive in difficult conditions In most cases, families in the slums cannot provide young people with safe places and a clean environment full of caring people on a daily basis MYSA activities provide youth with opportunity to interact and develop personal relationships \\>ith members of different tribal groups TI1ese contacts help them challenge negative stereotypes and avoid hostile behavior toward each other. Some young people even admitted that they did not speak their own tribal language, meaning that they had no urge to be identified with a tribe MYSA provides opportunities for young people to grow and become responsible citizens Members who are disappointed by the )e,el of access still insist that they are happy to be part of MYSA in an environment where there is little hope and few opportunities. Maximizing participation for all youth should be the ideal goal of all organizations imolved in working \\ith young people. Howenr, in recognition of some of the realities facing young people, any form of participation and access must be encouraged to give youth a chance at life 129

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Growth and Expansion l\f'l'SA initially started in two zones but has smce expanded because of the demand. The result is that an estimated 20,000 actin members from 16 zones in Nairobi are currently part of the organization. The expansion of MYSA provides advantages and major challenges. \\'hen MYS,-\ \Vas formed in the 1980s, the founder Bob Munro and local community members recognized that young people had needs that were not being met by the government or their local communities. The neighborhoods were neglected by city authorities and youth were subject to crime, poverty, lack of access to social opportunities such as education and employment, and exposure to risky behavior and disease. Munro, in collaboration with the community, saw the need to mobilize young people through soccer to participate in imprming their lives. l\fYSA has given many youth hope that their lives will change for the better and thousands of youth seek opportunities in the organization. The incentives prmided by MYSA, including education scholarships, are critical, because in many cases parents cannot support young people. Organizations should work on spreading the opportunities to as many members as possible. This is an important lesson not only for lVfYSA but fur other youth organizations operating in conditions where communities are poor. Successful youth organizations such as l\f'r'SA attract many young people, and hence the rapid growth in membership. There is a need to consider a change in the structure without compromising the goals of the organization. The example of MYSA 130

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shows that with large numbers of young people competing for very few opportunities, decentralization may give them a chance to feel involved. In my view, l\fYSA and fast growing organizations should consider further resource allocation and decision making processes at the local le,els. For MYSA, future considerations should include formation of executive councils at zonal levels. In addition, programs such as the clean-up actiYities could independently be scheduled at zonalle,els and the equipment stored at all 16 zones to enable easy access. Currently the equipment is stored at only two l'viYSA locations and has to be trucked to the different zones. Many informants state that limitations in incentives offered by MYSA reqwre that l\-IYSA should consider future expansion of programs to include job creation and seek financial independence at zonal levels. Many believe that having access at the zonal level may also give more youth opportunities for leadership. They may be able to take charge of events and activities that are run by l'viYS"-\ staff at the zone. The expansion of the organization may also require goals to evolve and the injection of new ideas based on new realities experienced by the members. One such change could be related to the trips to Norway which only enable a few young people to travel every year. In informal discussions, most youth stated that the amounts spent on trips to Europe should be channeled to education scholarships so that many more young people can complete high school. Young people, particularly over 18 years old, stated that they would also like to see l'viYS.\ set up small businesses that employ members and facilitate career 131

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development. They believe that lVIYSA members' talent and drive 'Will ensure success of any such ventures Recruitment The question of how youth become engaged is one that applies across various types of youth programs. Research about membership in youth organizations suggests that in some cases, many young people join youth programs for reasons that are extrinsic to the program activities (Fredricks et al., 2002), In the case of l\f'I:'SA, some youth reported that their friends influenced them to join the group and that they initially had no interest or knowledge about l\'IYSA acti,ities. They only joined in order to spend time with friends or meet new friends from different neighborhoods. Others say that they joined lVIYSA because they were encouraged by their parents and guardians or family members and gradually began to play soccer because their friends were doing so. This revelation suggests that there are thousands of young people who are not imohed because existing programs are not attractive to them or they don't have enough information about the programs. Decentralization of youth organizations may encourage youth to design and organize fun acti,ities that are relevant in their zones. Success and achievements should be redefined not only in tem1s of preventing negative behaviors but particularly in terms of young people's healthy development. Youth organizations should set realistic expectations and focus on gains such as social networks, personal skills and community senices. Their goals should concentrate on enabling healthy development of young people to help them make the transition to adulthood. As adults they will be able 132

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to support themseh-es financially and contribute to their communities. In the case of l\TYS"\, young people need to be convinced that there is value in being part of the organization beyond the financial incentives. Keeping neighborhoods clean and disease free should be a priority for all in the community. It should be in young people's interest to stay out of the streets and away from dangerous gangs and strive to become productiYe citizens. Retainment l\1y findings support research in England showing that young people highly regard sports as an important activity to be pursued not only during leisure but competitively as a way to get opportunities (MacPhail, Kirk, and Eley, 2003). In Mathare and other poor neighborhoods in Nairobi, playing soccer provides a real chance to a better future for many young people. However, because of the intense competition, individuals with minimal talents \vho want to play but are perhaps excluded because they do not excel as well, feel less motivated. As a result, as MacPhail, Kirk, and Eley, (2003) find, concentrating on excessive competition will decrease participation because of the exclusion of those who are less talented. There is a temptation to focus on high profile expenstve events that attract attention. I Iowever, only a few members can participate in such events and those who are left out are envious and suspicious of the process used to select the few who participate. Emphasis should be on the nun-financial gains and opportunities. The high 133

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profLle events may be good for funding opportunities and marketing the organization but they also raise the stakes for those who want to be involved but don't get opportunities. Sports oriented organizations such as 1\fYS.\ should find flexibility in responding to the multi-needs of members. There should be recognition that those \Vho are left out because they are not good enough quickly get disillusioned. As indicated most young people enjoy participating in 1\tl:"SA because they love soccer, are encouraged by their parents, coaches or their friends However, as observed in a study of youth in England, they could also easily quickly drop out because of pressure, lack of time especially during school days, no friends attending the sport and realizing that few opportunities are beyond their meam because of their limited talents (English Sports Council 1997) Youth organizations can increase conununity interest in their programs by imolving parents and by encouraging them to support their children in accomplishing personal and organizational goals. In the case of .MYSA, some of the informants interviewed stated that their parents did not know how they spent their time at l\1l"SA and had ne,-er been to any meetings or MYSA events. Members should be informed about the available opportunities enry year Three members disappointingly told me that they had never heard of the scholarship program at 1\fYS:\. "l11ey said they would ask their team captains about the scholarship forms necessary to document participation There are less than 500 scholarships offered every year at MYSA and there is no way demand can be mel. Less than 100 youth make the trip to Europe out of the thous ands who aspire to make the trip. Furthermore, even after making the trip to Europe, only a 13-t

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few find Norwegian families willing to sponsor them. The lesson here for youth organizations is that \Vith high expectation there are disgruntled members who feel that they have done all that is reguired of them but they han been unable to get returns. An open process and dissemination of information egually to all members reduce distrust and the chances of favoritism. The uninformed members would imagine that that those who get assistance were favored. The challenge is retaining membership and interest while increasing the high value attractions and incentives. However, organizations must also show young people that monetary gains are important but there is nlue in learning important life skills, hard work and honesty. In cases \vhere there is violence and conflict, youth organizations have an opportunity to set an example and fight against violence and members could play a major role 1n conflict resolution within their communities. In Nairobi's poor neighborhoods, violence and ethnic clashes were responsible for the destruction of lives and property during past elections. \'{.'ith an ethnically diverse membership, MYSA has the obligation to show by example that ethic differences can be the strength by which communny members work together and demand accountability from their representatives. 135

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Implications for City Councils Communities are looking for ways to solve their problems through self-help initiatives. In Nairobi, community activities such as the clean-up activities have become more frequent and involve many more community groups. These efforts should not, however, absoh-e city authorities from their duties. Cities have a duty to figure out how to support these community initiatives. City authorities should consider professional support for youth organizations through effective technical skill training of young people in order to build their capacity to improve their communities. \\'hen youth take responsibility to clean their environments, without necessary equipment and knowledge, the process may expose them to disease and other hazards. Collaboration In agreement \V:ith research by Checkoway and Finn (1995), Hart (1997), Chawla (2002) and Checkoway et al. (2003), my experience in the slums and study findings suggest that when given a chance, young people in l\lathare are proving to be ready and capable of identifying problems in their neighborhoods and finding out how to solve them. There is need for greater collaboration between the city councils and youth organizations in order for them to work together in capacity building and sharing resources. The city should be responsive to youth by making regulatory changes to give youth agenda a priority. By embracing participation, cities enable full incorporation of participatory acti,ities into the daily work of the city authorities. Long (1999) suggests 136

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that adopting institutional reforms can lead to necessary stakeholder parnctpanon tn project and policy development, implementation and evaluation. Crime is a major concern for both youth and adults in Nairobi. My findings suggest that young people are often mistakenly suspected to be criminals or gang members. MYSA and other youth organizations should collaborate to organize and help youth to participate in credible neighborhood policing. This can be successful by working with the local police force. 1be success of a program funded by the State of Connecticut through the Office of Policy and Management shows that police interaction with youth outside of the traditional enforcement roles can help prevent crime and reduce distrust and tension between conununities and the police ("-\nderson, Sabatelli and Trachtenberg, 2007). Youth organizations such as l\TYSA also haH a role to play in local politics by pushing for representation of youth in the city council. MYSA alone has more than 20,000 members and 'With support from other youth organizations, an organized voting block can ensure that eligible youth vote and contest seats in local elections. Insrituriona/Changes In the case of Nairobi, MYSA members and other young residents in the slums can become true stakeholders. It is unfortunate that while slum residents and youth are employed and poorly paid by private companies and the city council to clean-up the city's Central Business District (CBD) and other wealthy areas, the city has not bothered to provide the slums with the same senices. Since Nairobi has no fonnal system of 137

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house-to-house garbage collection. and as already mentioned, slum residents do not receiYe city garbage collection setTices, the council should consider outsourcing the clean-up in certain areas to youth groups. Institutional changes mainstrearning participation could provide opportunities to youth groups. This would not only provide much needed employment but also give communities an opportunity to effectively be part of environmental management in the city. Encouraging and recognizing youth councils could help link organizations setTing youth in the local area. Youth councils could help cities take into account issues that may ha'T an impact on the success of youth. In Barra l'vlansa, Brazil, boys and girls have been elected to the local municipal council to represent their peers and prioritize and de,elop projects which address their needs (Guerra, 2002). Nairobi's city authorities could learn from such youth councils where finances are allocated for youth representatives to manage. The council could also prmide financial support to youth groups imolved in providing council services. In the case of the council should consider proYiding storage for l\IYSA equipment. \'\'hile clean-up actiYities occur in the 16 zones, the equipment is stored at two l\IYSA locations. There is a need to find secure storage spaces in several zones in order to make the equipment accessible to communities. This \\-ill help take the equipment to the local lenl and reduce costs. Even beyond the reduction of costs, the availability of equipment will enable communttles to conduct frequent clean-up activities without waiting for .MYS,\ scheduks. 138

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Implications for Youth 1\ lot has been said about young people being a crucial segment of society and being the future. In fact, they han been touted not only as the leaders of tomorrow, but as partners of today (Sherrod, 2005). In view of their importance, young people should be linked to planning and policy efforts. In communities such as those studied in this research, rising poYerty, rapid urbanization and globalization have influenced family and community life and changed the expectations of young people. Families have been \Veakened by poverty and diseases such as :\IDS. Many more young people haYC become orphans and han to fend for themsehes and their siblings. In Mathare's case, many of my informants have been raised by single mothers. Some fathers walked out on their families or died of disease. The daily struggles 111 the slums have weakened informal communitY support systems which may still exist in villages. This new reality has placed new and challenging demands on young people in tenns of education, training, and the social and emotional skills needed in a highly competitive emironment. In Nairobi and Kenya in general, education and employment opportunities are rare and many youth are entering the labor market with inadeguate knowledge and skills to succeed. 139

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Take Initiative If well organized, large numbers of young people constitute a crucial political voting block. \'\'ith representation in cities, they could have access to the decision making process. They can then help re-examine existing policies and determine policy alternatives to secure a future 'N-ith opportunities for young people. Young people cannot continue to complain about lack of access. Participation in groups such as l\fYSA gives youth a chance to be part of the community development process. In the L'nited States, Kirshner, Strobel, and Fernandez, (2003) give examples of organized youth who han achieved school reform goals, perfom1ed action research to expose em-ironmental polluters, and conducted program evaluation to improve city services for youth. In addition, other studies focusing on resiliency suggest that opportunities for problem sohing, goal setting and planning help youth withstand the negative impacts of neglect, poverty, and other problems (Benson, 1997; Werner, 1990). Checkoway et al (2003) describe a national project designed to increase the participation of 15 to 21-years-old in organizational development and creating community change. The Lifting New \' oices (LNV) project takes a view that young people are competent citizens and should be inn>lved in organizations and communities, \\<-ith a right to participate and a responsibility to serYe their communities. \'\'ith funding from the Kellogg Foundation and Ford Foundation, young people and adults from across the United States work together to build the capacity of community-based organizations to enable young people HO

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to orgamze themselves, contribute to commumty changes through invohement tn planning and decision-making (Checkoway and Richards-Schuster, 2001 ). Another example is described by Merkle (2003); the story of young people in El Alto, Bolivia shows that faced \\-ith stigmas, young people can organize and confront challenges facing their communities. Just as I encountered in Mathare and other MYSA sites, young people in Bolivia have formed autonomous informal youth groups where they express their views and tell stories about their everyday lives through cultural activities such as music, theatre and poetry. These artistic performances are a source of pride in their communities. Young people should aggressively be active and demand to be fully engaged in community issues. Their involnment should be seen as positin because they identify themselves as community development agents capable of transforming their environments. Furthermore, increased involvement of youth gives youth opportunities to gain skills and develop leadership qualities. The acquired skills will allow youth to work in collaboration with adults with confidence towards local community development. In spite of eYerything, young people are already making changes in their communities and there is a greater need to acknowledge and reward them for their efforts. Youth should avoid taking a passive approach by waiting until they reach adulthood before they become involved in change. Adults who run cities must allow youth to engage in the planning process and give young people a voice in decisions that 141

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transform policies and most importantly build youth-adult partnerships. Tapping the energy and intelligence of youth can help poor countries prosper and prepare them to face harsh realities in life. Participation in youth organizations help young people learn how to think for themselves and to take action. Youth acquire confidence and belief in a better future 'With lots of hope and optimism. 1\IYSA and other youth organi7.ations motivate thousands of young people leading them to believe in a better future. The motivation helps them achieYe their goals and protect their lives from reckless behaviors. Implications for Future Research l\ly study has provided many valuable insights; however, many other questions emerge. Further research may be required to answer some of the arising questions. I have briefly mentioned the role that identity politics play in the larger Kenyan society. Identity is an important aspect in the daily lives of youth in the country. After the deadly tribal violence in December of 2007, future research may be necessary to explore the effects of tribal identity oi1 l\lYSA youth and how the violence affected life in the slwns and their participation in l\IYSA programs. A more general question could be how youth navigate tribal tensions in the slums to form relationships with others from different tribal backgrounds. Such research may face major challenges because there are so many tribes living in the slum and researchers would have to be viewed as trustworthy and neutral. Secondly, identifying alternative organizational structures that could meaningfully help 1\fl'SA and similar larger youth organizations to expand participatory l..t-2

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opportunities could be an important step. Imprond structures could gin young people a chance to take charge of their lives and prove to be resourceful members of the COnln1Ut1ltY. Having extensively documented information about 1\fYSA, many youth organizations and people working with young people in similar conditions may appreciate the abilities of young people to contribute in solving many of the social problems they face in neighborhoods such as Mathare. \X'hile answering my second research guestion on impacts, I categorized my findings based on five themes. I believe that future studies have an opening to consider many other themes such as the rconomir impadJ of youth organizations and member participation. In the case of Nairobi, it would be useful to know what MYS.\ and its members contribute to the economy of the slum areas. Some of m\' informants have sisters and in addition, during MYSA events, I encountered many young female members of 1\fYSA. Some of them were curious about my study and wondered why I had not inten'iewed the girls too. I'm curious to find out how gender differences could affect participation in youth organizations. For MYSA's case, a relevant guestion for future research could be to find out the impacts that girls participation in the MYSA activities have on their communities and the girls themselves. I posit that female 1\IYS:\ members have unigue challenges and targeted research that would reveal valuable information necessary in imprming the lives of girls living in the slums. 1-B

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Conclusion This dissertation provides some understanding of how youth engagement can determine successful practices and positive outcomes. l\fy study has provided evidence that many young people \Vant opportunities to lead better lives by participating in improving their neighborhoods and communities. Participation is not only based on their desire to be part of the decision making process but is also about their ability to gain rewards and be identified with a positin youth organization. l\Iy study shows that at MYS:\ young people are gaining from their involvement in various programs. In fact, most members view participation in MYSA as a chance to improve individual soccer skills, attend the annual Norway Cup tournament and in some cases, earn allowances and scholarships. Additionally, these findings reiterate research done elsewhere that indicates that when youth are allowed to strategize for neighborhood improvements, they can change their communities and in the process also benefit personally through the experience. My research has not only addressed how youth participate, but has further identified the effects of youth participation and the qualitative gains made in the daily lives of youth despite existing limitations. \'\'hen given a chance, young people are proving to be resourceful, asking for more opportunities and taking charge of their lives. My findings may persuade planners and local authorities to take advantage of the interest that young people have in improving their communities. \'\'ith scarce resources, many

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local authorities in poor countries should tap the youth energy so that young people can be involved in the management of their environments and communities. As MYSA members have proven, young people can challenge the neganve stereotypes and change the perception that they are the problem. Youth must organize and demand to be part of the solution Their competence and worth as members of their communities are determined by their choices and actions Young people should continue to show that they can help take care of other family members and collaborate with adults in decision making. A better future depends mostly on how successful young people are in getting involved in decision making and the development process. As MYS.-\'s experience shows, youth should collaborate \\<;th peers, form other youth groups and take leadership roles because they can and are creative and imaginatiYe. MYSA youth come from different ethnic backgrounds and they can effectively show that difference in ethnicity should be a source of strength in fighting for social justice for all. They can be an example to young people all over the country by being in the forefront in the fight against tribalism 145

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APPENDIX

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APPENDIX A: INTERVIEW PROTOCOLS Interview Questions for the Youth l.How old are you? 2. \'\"here were you born and raised? 3.ln which part rviYSA zone do you live? 4.How long have you lived in this zone? 5.How would you describe living here? 6. \'\'hat things do you like about the area, and what don't you like? 7. \'\"hat recent changes have you noticed in recent years? 8.\X'hat is rviYSA? 9.How long have you been a member ofl'viYSA? 10. How did you join MYSA? 11. \'\'hat were your reasons for joining rviYSA? 12. Do you ha\'e friends who are l\f.YSA members? 13. Did you know them before or after joining MYSA? 14. \X'hat do other family members think of your membership in MYSA? 15. \X'hich M'r"SA community programs do you currently participate in? 16. How do you participate in the programs and \vhy do you participate in the activities? 17. \\'hat do you like about participating and what don't you like? 18. Is there anything you don't like about the activities? 19. \X'hat would you change about the activities? 20. Do you participate in other non-rviYSA related community activities? 21. \\'hat benefits do you think MYSA programs provide to you, to the communit\ and to the environment? 22. Do your views reach MYSA program leaders? 23. How do your views reach MYSA program leaders? 24. Are venues where rviYSA programs are held accessible to you at all times? 25. \X'hat are your dreams and visions for the future? 26. Do you have anything you would like to add? 1-1-7

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Questions for MYSA leaders l.How old are you? 2.\\"hen did you join MYSA? 3. \\'hat do you do at MYSA? -l.Can you describe the program you are in charge of? 5. \\'here are program activities carried out? 6. \\'hen are program activities carried out? 7. How did the young people learn about this actiYity? 8. \\'hat are their expectations from participating? 9. How and who decides the schedules and locations? 10. \\'hat kinds of equipment, resources are necessary for the program activities? 11. How do vou make sure that the venues where activities are held are accessible to youth at all times? 12. Do you have access to information and input from youth? 13. Do you haYe access to information and input from community members? 14. How do you get their input? 15. How do their views reach l\ffSA establishment? 16. \\'hat action is taken to include views of youth in decision making? 17. How much time do you spend on activities in the community? 18. In your opinion what benefits do the activities provide for youth and communi tv? 19. What do you think is the impact of the program activities? 20. Do you think that these programs provide fair opportunities to all youth? 21. Is action taken to include needs and Yiews of MYSA by local authorities? 22. How do your views reach the city Council? 23. Do you or any other 1\fYSA members participate in city council programs? 24. Is MYSA represented in City council meetings and plans? 25. Are local NGOs interested and supportive of l'viYSA activities? 26. Are you sponsored by local or international institutions? 27. Does l\fYSA collaborate with other youth organizations? 28. \\'hat would you like to see change in MYSA? 29. \\'hy not also or instead organize the community to put pressure on the govt to do its job? 30. \\"hat is your vision for the future of the program? 148

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Interview and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Questions for Adults Parents/Guardians/Local Council Members and MYSA program leaders 1. \'\'here do vou live? 2. Are you involved in any of MYSA programs? 3. Do you haH any children? 4. Are any of your children or family members involved in 1\fl'SA? 5. Do you know any other MYSA members? 6. Have you noticed any changes since they joined 1\fl'SA? 7. Are your children actively involved in activities at home? 8. How has their invoh-ement in MYSA helped the family I community? 9. What do you think of the MYSA programs and how do they affect your family I community? 10. How do MYSA member views reach the city council? 11. Is action taken to include needs and views of MYSA by local authorities? 12. Do 1\fl'SA members participate in city council programs? 13. Is 1\fl'SA represented in City council meetings and plans? 14. Are local NGOs interested and supportive of MYSA activities? 15. Does 1\fl'SA collaborate with other youth organizations? 149

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APPENDIX B: CONSENT FORMS Written Assent fonn for Youth Evaluating the Impact of Youth Participation in Mathare Youth Sports Association (1\TYSA) Programs in Nairobi's Slums You are invited to participate in a research study conducted by George A wuor, a graduate student at the lJniYersity of Colorado's PhD program in Design and Planning, Environmental Design Building, Room 171, Campus Box 314, Boulder, CO 80309-0314 USA. This project is being done under the direction of Professor \'x/illem \'an Vliet and Louise Chawla both, from the Department of Planning and Design. They can be reached at work number (1) 303492-5015. This study examines the impact of your parttctpation in the MYSA programs that influence the development of the community and improve the physical environment of your neighborhood. You were selected as a possible participant in this study because you are an active member of l'vfYSA. If you choose to participate, I will personally conduct inteniews, attend l'vfYSA e\ents and observe relennt program acti,;ties in order to gather information. You will be asked questions regarding your views and experiences as a MYSA member. Through the questions, the study intends to find out how you participate in the programs and if there are any changes that are linked to your participation in the programs. Your participation is voluntary and if you decide to participate, this inteniew will take an hour. It may be necessary to ha,e follow-up sessions and further participation in a focus group discussion (FDG) with your peers. Participation in the follow-up session and the FOG is also purely on voluntary basis. Some questions may possibly embarrass or cause discomfort and upset you. You are free to \Vithdraw your consent and discontinue participation at any time without penalty. If you also change your mind about what you have said in an interview you can request that your inteniew be excluded from the study. Research results will help in the recognition of the capacity and abilities of youth to meaningfully participate in improving their lives in Mathare and may also influence public policy formulation in Kenya. However, there is no guarantee that you will personally receive any benefits from this research. Your confidentiality "ill be protected and published results of the study \\ill not include any identifiable references to you. If you have questions regarding your rights as a research participant, contact the Research Administration / Graduate School, University 150

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of Colorado at DenYer and Health Sciences Center, 1380 Lawrence St., Suite 300, Campus Box 120, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, CO 80217-3364 L:SA.. You mav also contact the office by calling ( 1) 3!B492-Your signature indicates that you haYe read and understand the infom1ation proYided abme, that you \Villingly agree to participate, that you may \\ithdraw your consent at any time and discontinue participation \Vithout penalty and that you have received a copy of this form. PrintNan1e ______________________________________________________ __ Signature ________________________________________________________ Date ______________________ __ 151

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Written Consent fonn for MYSA Youth Leaders Evaluating the Impact of Youth Participation in Mathare Youth Sports Association (TVIYSA) Programs in Nairobi's Slums You are invited to participate in a research study conducted by George A wuor, a graduate student at the Cniversity of Colorado's PhD program in Design and Planning, Environmental Design Building, Room 171, Campus Box 314, Boulder, CO 80309-0314 CSA. This project is being done under the direction of Professor \X"illem \'an Vliet and Louise Chawla both, from the Department of Planning and Design. They can be reached at work number (1) 303492-5015. This study examines the impact of youth partiCipation in the TVIYSA programs that influence the development of the community and improve the physical environment of your neighborhood. You were selected as a possible participant in this study because you are actively involved in IVIYSA. If you choose to participate, I \\-ill personally conduct inteniews, attend events and observe relennt program activities in order to gather information. You will be asked questions regarding your views and experiences as a IVIYSA program leader. Through the questions, the study intends to find out how youth participate in the programs and if there are any changes resulting from their participation in the programs. Your participation is voluntary and if you decide to participate, this interview will take an hour. It may be necessary to han follow-up sessions and further participation in a focus group discussion with city council officials and parents/ guardians of l\fYSA members. Participation in the follow-up session and the FDG is also purely on voluntary basis. Some questions may possibly embarrass or cause discomfort and upset you. You are free to withdraw your consent and discontinue participation at any time \Vithout penalty. If you also change your mind about what you haYe said in an inteniew you can request that your inten'iew be excluded from the study. Research results will help in the recognition of the capacity and abilities of youth to meaningfully participate in improving their lives in l\1athare and may also influence public policy formulation in Kenya. However, there is no guarantee that you will personally receive any benefits from this research. Your confidentiality \\ill be protected and published results of the study will not include any identifiable references to you. If you have questions regarding your rights as a research participant, contact the Research Administration / Graduate School, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, 1380 Lawrence St., Suite 30, Campus 152

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Box 120, P.O. Box 173.16-t, Dennr, CO H0217-336-t-You may contact the ofticc b, calling ( 1) .)( l3--l-92-Your signature imhcates that han' read and understand the information proYided aboYe, that you willingly agree to participate, that \ou may withdraw your cometH at am time and discontinue participation without penalty and that nm haYe receiYed a copy of this form. Print Name -----------------------------------------------------Signature __________________________________________________________ Da tc ______________________ 153

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Written Consent fonn for City Council Officials Evaluating the Impact of Youth Participation in Mathare Youth Sports Association (lYIYSA) Programs in Nairobi's Slums You are invited to participate in a research study conducted by George Awuor, a graduate student at the Cniversity of Colorado's PhD program in Design and Planning, Environmental Design Building, Room 171, Campus Box 314, Boulder, CO 80309-0314 USA. This project is being done under the direction of Professor \X'illem Van Vliet and Louise Chawla both, from the Department of Planning and Design. They can be reached at work nwnber (1) 303492-5015. This study examines the impact of youth partiCipation in the MYSA programs that influence the development of the community and improve the physical environment of your neighborhood. You were selected as a possible participant in this study because you represent the city authorities in the relennt 1\fYSA zone. If you choose to participate, I 'Will personally conduct inteniews and obsen-e relevant program activities in order to gather information. You will be asked questions regarding 1\fYSA and any existing collaborations between lYIYSA and the city council. Through the questions, the study intends to find out if the youth activities result in any changes. Your participation is entirely voluntary and if you decide to participate, the inteniew will take an hour. It may be necessary to have follow-up sessions and further participation in a focus group discussion (FDG) with city council officials and parents/ guardians of lYIYSA members. Participation in the follow-up session and the FDG is also purely on voluntary basis. Some questions may possibly embarrass or cause discomfort and upset you. You are free to withdraw your consent and discontinue participation at any time 'Without penalty. If you also change your mind about what you have said in an inten-iew you can request that your inteniew be excluded from the study. Research results will help in the recognition of the capacity and abilities of youth to meaningfully participate in improving their lives in l\lathare and may also influence public policy formulation in Kenya. However, there is no guarantee that you will personally receive any benefits from this research. Your confidentiality will be protected and published results of the study 'Will not include any identifiable references to you. If you have questions regarding your rights as a research participant, contact the Research Administration / Graduate School, l'niversity of Colorado at DenYer and Health Sciences Center, 1380 Lawrence St., Suite 300, Campus Box 120, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, CO 80217-3364l'SA. You may also contact the office by calling (1) 303492154

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Your signature indicates that you ha,c read and understand the information provided aboYe, that you \\illingly agree to participate, that you may \\ithdraw your consent at any time and discontinue participation without penalty and that you have receiHd a copy of this form. Print Name ____________________________ Signature _____________________________ Date ____________ !55

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Written Consent fonn for Parents/Guardians Evaluating the Impact of Youth Participation in Mathare Youth Sports Association (MYSA) Programs in Nairobi's Slums You are invited to participate in a research study conducted by George Awuor, a graduate student at the University of Colorado's PhD program in Design and Planning, Environmental Design Building, Room 171, Campus Box 314, Boulder, CO 80309-0314 USA. This project is being done under the direction of Professor \X'illem Van Vliet and Louise Chawla both, from the Department of Planning and Design. They can be reached at work number (1) 303492-5015. This study examines the impact of youth parne1pation in the MYSA programs that influence the development of the community and improve the physical environment of your neighborhood. You were selected as a possible participant in this study because you are a parent/ guardian to a 1\JYSA member. If you decide to participate, I \\ill personally conduct interviews to gather data. You will be asked questions regarding MYSA and your views and opinions regarding l\fYSA actiYities. Through the questions, the study intends to find how the youth activities result in any changes. Your participation is entirely voluntary and if you decide to participate, the interview will take an hour. It may be necessary to have follow-up sessions and further participation in a focus group discussion (FDG) with city council officials and parents/ guardians of MYSA members. Participation in the follow-up session and the FDG is also purely on voluntary basis. Some questions may possibly embarrass or cause discomfort and upset you. You are free to withdraw your consent and discontinue participation at any time without penalty. If you also change your mind about what you have said in an interview you can request that your interview be excluded from the study. Research results will help in the recognition of the capacity and abilities of youth to meaningfully participate in improving their lives in Mathare and may also influence public policy formulation in Kenya. However, there is no guarantee that you will personally receive any benefits from this research. Your confidentiality will be protected and published results of the study will not include any identifiable references to you. If you have questions regarding your rights as a research participant, contact the Research Administration / Graduate School, University of Colorado at DenYer and Health Sciences Center, 1380 Lawrence St., Suite 300, Campus Box 120, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, CO 80217-336-J. CSA. You may also contact the office by calling (1) 303492156

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Your signature indicates that you have read and understand the infonnation pnwided above, that you willingly agree to participate, that you may \Vithdraw your consent at any time and discontinue participation without penalty and that you have received a copy of this form. Print Name ____________________________ Signature _____________________________ __ Date ___________ 157

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Written Consent fonn for Focus Group Discussions Evaluating the Impact of Youth Participation in Mathare Youth Sports Association (l'viYSA) Programs in Nairobi's Slums You are invited to participate in a research study conducted by George Awuor, a graduate student at the University of Colorado's PhD program in Design and Planning, Environmental Design Building, Room 171, Campus Box 314, Boulder, CO 80309-0314 CSA. This project is being done under the direction of Professor \'\'illem Van Vliet and Louise Chawla both, from the Department of Planning and Design. They can be reached at work number (1) 303--t-92-5015. This study examines the impact of youth parnctpation in the l'viYSA programs that influence the development of the community and improve the physical environment of your neighborhood. You were selected as a possible participant in this study because you have to a l'viYSA member. If you decide to participate, you will be asked to sit in a group discussion with other members of the community. You will be asked questions regarding l'viYSA and your views and opinions regarding l'viYSA activities. Through the questions, the study intends to find how the youth activities result in any changes. Your participation is entirely voluntary and if you decide to participate, the inten'iew will take an hour. Some questions may possibly embarrass or cause discomfort and upset you. You are free to withdraw your consent and discontinue participation at any time \\"ithout penalty. If you also change your mind about what you have said in an inteniew you can request that your inten'iew be excluded from the study. Research results will help in the recognition of the capacity and abilities of youth to meaningfully participate in improving their lives in Mathare and may also influence public policy formulation in Kenya. However, there is no guarantee that you will personally receive any benefits from this research. I will not be able to guarantee your confidentiality during the focus groups discussions but published results of the study will not include any identifiable references to you. If you have questions regarding your rights as a research participant, contact the Research Administration / Graduate School, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, 1380 Lawrence St., Suite 300, Campus Box 120, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, CO 80217-3364USA. You may also contact the office by calling (1) 303492Your signature indicates that you have read and understand the information provided above, that you willingly agree to participate, that you may \\"ithdraw your consent at any 158

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time and participation without penalty and that you haY<.: rcccind a copy of this form. ______________________________________________________ __ Signature __________________________________________________________ Date ______________________ __ 159

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SCRIPT for Oral Consent for illiterate Parents/Guardians (Script is in SHENGlocal slang) Jina langu ni George Awuor na mie ni mwanafunzi kule L1niversity of Colorado USA. Nakukaribisha kuparticipate J...\venye hii research inayofanywa iii kuchunguza vile vijana wa MYSA wanavyo participate kwenye acti,ities na vile hivi activities zinasaidia mtaa. l1mechaguliwa kuparticipate kwenye hii research kwa sababu wewe ni mzazi au guardian wa l\fYSA member. Ckikubali kuparticipate, utaombwa ujibu maswali na useme maoni yako kuhusu l\fYSA na activities zao mtaani. Hii interview utachukua saa moja na at any time ukiwa unataka kujiondia kwenye interview usijali kuomba ruhusa kwani ni haki yako kujiondoa J...""\Nenye research. l1chunguzi huu utasaidia kueleza ni vipi vijana wa MYSA na activities zao wanasaidia communitY. l'naweza kujiondoa kwenye research wakati wowote bila kuuliza ruhusa. Vile vile nakufahamisha kwamba jina lako na identity yako haitatumika kwenye report itayoandikwa uchunguzi itakapokamilika. Nitkupa consent fom1 iliyo na contacts za waalimu wangu and shule yangu kule Colorado. TRANSL\TION My name is George Awuor and I'm student at the University of Colorado USA. I welcome your participation in this research which attempts to study MYSA members' participation and the impact of the programs on the community. You have been chosen to participate in this research because you are a parent/ guardian of l\fYSA member. If you choose to participate, you will be asked to share your opinions regarding MYSA and their program activities. This interview will take an hour but you are welcome to stop me at any time. Do not hesitate to also withdraw from the study if you wish to do so at anytime. I will require no explanations if it is your wish to withdraw from the study. Note that your names or identity will not be disclosed in the final report that will be compiled when the study is completed. I will also give you the written consent fonns 'With contact information for professors and my school. 160

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BIBILIOGRAPHY Ackermann, L., Hart, and Newman, J. (2003). Et,aluatin,_g Cnildren :r Partitipation: S11mn1a1J' ofa Draft Discmsio11 Domfllent Ba.red 011 rle/d Research i11lndia, Kn!ya a11d Ecuador. Plan UK Anderson, S., Sabatelli and Trachtenberg, J. (2007) Corrununity Police and Youth Programs as a Context for Positive Youth Denlopment. Police _Q11artn!r f /oL 10(1), 23-40 Appleyard, D. (1976). Planning a Pluralist G(J. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Ardon, P. (2002). Participation for \\'hom? Pu1 Notes, 43:29-30 Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A Ladder of Citizen Participation. Journal of the American ln.rtitutr q( Plannm. 35, 216-224. Ashford, L (2007) Africa'.r_youtl!fiil pop11lation: Risk or opport1111ity? Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB] ASOARTE et. a! (2002). Exploring Youth and Community Relations in Cali, Colombia. Emlironmmt i-Urbanization, 14(2). Atkinson, P., Coffey, A., Delamont, S. et a!. (Eds ) (2001). Handbook of Etlmograpi!J' London: Sage Publications. Auriat N., Miljeteig, P. and Chawla, L. (2001) Identifying best practices in children's Participation. PLA Notes. 42 Bartlett, S. (2002). Children s Rights and the Em,ironment. Save the Children Sweden, Stockholm Bartlett, S. with Hart, Satterthwaite, De La Barra, M. (1999). Cities.for Childrm: Childrms Rights, Pot'ei!J' and Urban Management. London: Earthscan. Bartlett, S. (2003). \'\'ater, Sanitation and Urban Children : The Need to Go Beyond "Improved" Provision Environment and Urbanization, 10(15), 179 -190 Becker, H., and Geer, B. (1 957). Participant Observation and Interviewing: A Comparison. Huma11 Orga11izatio11, 16, 28-32. 161

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Cunningham, \X'. and Correia, M. (2003). Caribbean Yo11th Det,elopmmt Issms and Poliq Diredions. \'\' orld Bank Publications Dingwall, E. (2001). The Ethics of Ethnography in Paul Atkinson (Ed.) Handbook of London: Sage Publications Driskell, D. (Ed.). (2002). Creating Brttrr Cities JVith Children and Youth: A ,\1anualfor Participation. London: UNESCO Publishing / Earthscan. Driskell, D., Bannerjee, K., and Chawla, L., (2001). Rhetoric, Reality and Resilience: 0Yercoming Obstacles To Young People's Participation In Development. EntJironment and L'rbanization, 13 (1). Eccles,]. S., & Barber, B. (1999). Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching band: What kind of extracurricular involYement matters? Journal Researd1, 14, Eccles,]. And Appleton,]. (2002).(Eds). Comm11ni("y Programs to Promote Yo11th Drt,rfopmenl. National Academy Press, Washington, De ECPAT International, (1999). Standing Up For Ourselves: A SttiC/J' on the Concrpts and Practices People'.r Rights to Participation. Manila, Philippines. Emerson et al. (2001). The Prevalence of Challenging Behaviors: A Total Population Study. Research in DetJelopmmta/ Disabilities 22,77-93. English Sports Council (1997) the Sporting Nation: A London: English Sports Council. EnYironment and l1rbanization, (1992). A New Approach to Youth Activities and Environmental Clean-Up: The Mathare Youth Sports Association (M'fSA) in Kenya. Environment and Urfwri::;_ation, 10(4), 207-209. Finn, L. & Checkoway, B. (1998). Young People as Competent Community Builders: A Challenge to Social Work. Soda/ Work, 43, 335-345. Francis, M., & Lorenzo, R., (2002). Seven Realms of Children's Participation. Jo11mal Emironmenta/ P!whologJ'. 22, 157-169. Frank, K. (2006). The Potential of Youth Participation in Planning. Journal of Planning Lteraturr, 20(4), 351-371. 164

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EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF YOUTH PARTICIPATION IN MATHARE YOUTH SPORTS ASSOCIATION (MYSA ) ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN-UP PROGRAM IN NAIROBI'S SLUMS By George Otieno Awuor B.A., K.arnataka State University, India-1994 Mlisc University of Mysore, India 199 7 MAIS, Arizona State University, 2003 A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philo sophy in Design and Planning 2009 ;-+

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This Thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy degree by George Otieno Awuor has been approved by Will em Van Vliet Pamela Wridt -Ben Kirshner Date

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Awuor, George Otieno (PhD, Des ign and Planning) Evaluating the Imp act o f Youth Participation in Mathare Youth Sports Assoc iati o n (MYSA) Environmental Clean-Up Program in Nair o bi 's S lum s Thesi s directed b y Professor L o uise Chawla and P rofessor \X! ill em Van Vliet ABSTRACT This research is about Mathare Youth Sports Association (MYSA), a unique urban self help youth program in one of Nairobi's largest slums. This is a qualit ative assessment of youth participation in the Environmental Clean-Up Program base d o n a premise that children and youth are an important group who need to be invol ve d in planning and de veloping their communities. I examine how youth participate and th e impacts of their participation on their personal li ves, their families, communities, the l o cal environment and institutions. I rel y on Hart's (1992) definition w hich regards participation as sharing decisions that affect one's life and the life of community in w hich one lives Given th e s h ortage of comparati ve evaluations in youth participati o n a c o mbination o f intervie ws and observations provide the depth and richness need e d to b ette r understand what youth are gaining from this program. I categorize the imp ac t eva luation data into personal, familial, communal, institutional and environmental realms as identified b y a PLAN International study in Ecuador, India and Kenya. My finding s suggest that participation in MYSA motivates youth to clean and improve their neighborhoods. They clear heaps of garbage, unclog drains, plant trees and cut grass and weeds. They also pick rocks and broken bottles from grounds where children and youth from the local community pla y Both parents and MYSA members gain perso nal knowledge about environmental cleaning, toxic waste and recycling B y joinin g MYSA, young people also enhance their social networks, learn new skills and gain c o nfidence about the future This dissertation contributes to the understanding of how youth participate in programs designed to increa se their community involvem ent. MYSA provide s uniqu e experiences and lesson s that may help in the recognition of th e capacity and abilities o f young people to meaningfull y participate in improving their li ves in Kenya and world wide. This abstract accurately represent s the content of the candidate's thesis. I recommend its publica .-!I! Signed --------------d L o uise Chawla \Xfillem Va n Vlie t

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DEDICATIO This dissertation is dedicated to all the mothers, grandmothers and community leaders taking care of orphans and children in di tress without expecting any attention, recognition or rewards.

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ACKNO\\!LEDGMENTS I wish to express my deepest gratitude to MYSA, the youth and their families for taking time and trouble to share their thoughts and experiences with me. Special thank you is owed to George "Joshe" \X!ambugu, a youth leader at MYSA who I have worked with since 2004. Joshe introduced me to many youth leaders and community members in Eastlands, airobi. I owe a lot to m y advisors, Willem van Vliet, Louise Chawla, Pamela Wridt, Ben Kirshner and David Driskell who have been supportive and involved in guiding me through this whole process Willem and Louise particularl y challenged me to improve my writing, encouraging and helping me stay focu ed. I have great respect for David who I had the opportunity to briefly work with in airobi. \\' atching and talking to him in the field helped me improve and sharpen my data collection skills. Special thanks to the PhD program support staff Kim Kelly who guided me through the administratin maze for so man y years. Thank yo u all for facilitating the process of completing m y di sse rtation

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TA BL E OF CONTE TS Fig ures-Vll Ta bl e i x CHAPTE R 1 INTRODUCTIO / BACKGRO UND-. . . . . . 1 Researc h Objective -. .-.-. . . -. --1 Researc h Questions 8 B ackgrou nd _ _. _. _. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10 Mat h are Yo uth Sport s Organizatio n l 0 Mat har e Valley Slum. .-.-. . . . . . . . . .-.-. 13 Structure of the Di ssertation---15 2. LITERATURE REVIEW_ . _ . . . _1 7 D efini n g P articipation-21 Why i s P articipation Cr itical.. . . . .-. . -.27 C hild a nd Youth P ar ticip atio n : A Brief Hi storyMovi n g to Action 33 Examp les of P articipatory lrojects that Contr ibut e to C hild a nd Youth P ar ticipati on--------35 Impact of P articipation -.. 39 Challenges to Participation_ -._ _ . _ -.-_43 R eflectio n s o n Participa cion _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. _ .46 3. RESEARCH METHOD --50 T h e Study S ites: MYSA Zones51 Selectio n of Informants a nd their Proftles -54 R esearcl1 59 Data Collectio n Primary Data.. 60 Int erviews 60 O bservations-64 V l

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Foc u s 68 Info rmal Disc u ssions69 Photos an d Video R ecor din g --69 Quantitative D ata Collection-Secondary D ata 70 D ata A n a lysis... . . . . . . . -.-.7 1 Co din g ------7 3 Advantages and Limitations of R esearch Me th ods 78 4 FI D I G S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Participation in MYSA .. . . 85 Youth View R egarding Participation in MYSA85 Participating in the E n v ir onmenta l Clean-Up Program ......... 91 Impacts_. _ _ . _._ _ . _ . _ 98 P erso n a l R ealm.-.-.-. . . 99 Fa mili a l Realm08 Commun a l Realm Environmental 113 Institutional R ealm 117 5. IMPLIC TIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 APPENDIX Implications for Yo uth Organizations _ _ _ _ . _ _ 124 Impli cations for City Councils _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 136 Implications for Youth . ... .139 Conclusion ---144 146 A. Interview Protocoh. _ _ _ . . _ . . _ 147 B. Con ent Forms.. . .-. . . . . . . 150 BIBLIOGRAPHY 161 Vll

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LIST OF FIGURES F i g ur e C ity wide fear of crime s urveys b y age --14 1 Ladder of participa cion-23 2 1 Harry Sl'lier cl1ildren's consultancy sc h e m e 25 3 Map of the eight administrative division s in airo bi 53 3.1 Map of the sixt ee n MYSA zones -54 4 MYSA goyeroa n ce structure 84 4 1 Photo of you th at a soccer tournament at Technicall'ligh school grounds, airo bi-87 4.2 Photo of yo uth s i gning up at Huruma for a clean up-93 4.3 Photo di s tributing 1v1YSA equip m ent to members at Huruma -95 4.4 Photo of yout h clean-up in HlllUITla96 4.5 Loading trash onto a truck in 4 6 P ercentage of population living b e l ow poverty line in Nairo bi -100 4.7 Photo of acrobats-community awareness and entertainment -105 4 8 Youth digging new drain s -1. 14 4.9 Photo of heap s of garbage before clean-up115 4.10 Photo of yo uth unclogging existing drain s ---11 6 4.11 Photo cleared paths after clean up -11 7 VU1

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LIST OF TABLES TABLE 3 Summary of youth segment of participants b y age and zo ne_ _ _56 3.1 Summary of informant!> . . . . . . . . . .59 3.2 Summary of data collection methods_ 70 3.3 Summary of genera l information and so urceii -.:71 3.4 Coding summary _ . -._._._.-._. _ _ . _ . _ _77 3.5 Summary of impact s node. -.-.-.. ..-. . . J8 4.1 Summary of finding s on participation-_119 4.2 Summary of finding s o n impactS-.12 0

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CHAPTER! INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND Research Objectives This dissertation 1s a qualitative a e sment of the impact of youth part1e1pation 1n the Environmental Clean-Up Program of the Mathare Youth Sports Association 1Y A ) MYSA, a unique urban self-help youth program, was established in 1987 in one of airobi's largest slums. Thousands of youth who have no real opportunities after completing school or dropping out early join MYS and participate in community service acti,-ities. There is agreement that MYSA programs are successful bur there i hardly any empirical evidence to support this notion. \X'hen I began thinking about a research project with youth in airobi, fYS was the preferred choice because of my familiarity with their soccer leagues I grew up in Nairobi and had the opportunity to interact with some MYSA members in the local soccer scene. \'\ hile in high school, I played for a local soccer club; some of my teammates were young men from MYSA. The presence of MYSA members, in local soccer teams is common becau s e the two MYS teams that participate in the local leagues are very competitive and can only accommodate a few out of the thousands of members who are actively invoh-ed in the Yast MYSA zonal l eagues. Thus, many talented MYSA members, particularl y over the age of 18, join other local clubs and pla y in 1

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va n o u s div i s i o n a l l eag ues w h e r e so m e o f th e club s fin a nciall y compe nsat e th e yo un g m e n Initial info rm atio n s u gges t e d th a t MYS A m embe r s and th e ir c o mmunitie s gai n f r o m th e ir invol ve m e nt in c ommunity a cti v iti e s uch as e nvi ronmenta l clea n up s and oth e r pro g ram s t h a t help impr ove th e lives o f m a n y in the s lums. M a n y youn g p eople living in despair h a n g o n t o h o p e th a t th e ir lives will chan ge f o r th e b e tt e r b e cau se of MYS A. A m a j ority o f th e yo un g p eo pl e wi s h t o h ave a so ur c e o f in co m e th a t will g i ve th e m ind e p e nd e n ce a nd the ability t o assi s t th e ir families financially. M a n y o th e r s h o p e t o be so cc e r s t a r s abroa d o r t o b e c o m e g r ea t so cc e r c o ach es l o call y It i s with thi s knowle d ge th at I set o ut t o find o ut how MYS o p e r a t e d and how m embe r s g ain e d fro m e n v ir onme ntal cl ea n up a cti v iti es. I b elieve th a t m y rese a rch with MYS A will prov id e n ew ins i g ht s f o r th ose e n g a ge d in c o mmunity d eve l opment proj ect s with yo un g p eo ple, p a rti c ularl y youn g p eo ple in c hall e n ging c ircum s t a n ces. G i ve n th e h o rt age o f c ompa r ative eva lu atio n s i n youth participati o n a c o mbinati o n o f int e r v iews and o b se rv atio n s in m y s tud y provid e d t h e d epth and richn ess n ee d e d t o b e tt e r und e r s t a nd wha t youth a re g ainin g b y p a rtic i p a tin g in th e clea n up acti v ities. T h e c u rrent lit e ratur e o n c hild a nd youth p a rticipati o n i s d o min a t e d b y w es t e rn lit e r a tur e, a nd th e r e f o r e m y s tud y i s crucial a nd timel y b e cau se it a dd s a Kenyan p e r s p e cti ve t o di sc u ss i o n s a b o u t c hild a nd yo uth p a rti cipati o n The dif f e r ent l a n g u ages and cultu ral int e r actio n s m a k e th e K e nyan socie t y dive r se and unigue. H oweve r th e 2

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cultural diversity which should be celebrated results in conflict and t y ing of individual identities to tribe s and ethnic groups. It i s in this context that I attempt to identify new forms of participation that ma y exist in this unique environment. My assessment of the impact s of yo uth participation 1n the MYSA Environmental Clean-up Program relied on Hart's ( 1992 ) definition which regards participation as s haring decision s that affect one's life and the life of the community in which one liYes. The evaluation assessed the impacts of participation on young people's personal lives their communities, their local environment, and in stitutio ns such as the Nairobi City Council. The literature on child and yo uth participation also identifies different components of participation, how participation occurs, and various interpretations of child and youth participation. One of the most widely used concepts is Hart's (1992) ladder of participation, which identifie s eight levels representing different forms of participation. Hart's ladder s uggest s that the levels of young people 's power and influence reflect degrees of participation Driskell (2002) provide s practical guidelines on how to structure and facilitate young people 's participation in processes of community development. These authors identify tensions and conflicts between adults and young people, and how notions of participation ma y be resisted, depending on how adults view young people. However, Hart (2002) argues that most of the text s on participation have a \'\1este rn bia s and that there i s a need for further research in Africa and other Southern Hemis phere countries in order to unders tand child and youth participation in these 3

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regtons. In recognition of the gap in the availability of literature and research on child and youth participation in Africa, I set out to learn more about MYS \. My inguiry was ba ed on the premise that children and youth are an important group who need to be involved in planning and developing their communities. My study focused on the MY'SA Environmental Clean -Up Program which has attracted attention both locally and internationally, and which was recognized by Prize. EP and nominated for the obel Peace P l anners have an obligation to improve the guality of life of the communities and cities for which they work. Increasingly, p l anners recognize that local residents best define their problems and in many cases offer practical and innovative olutions. Children and youth have proven that when given opportunities, they are both good critics of their environments and produce fresh ideas ( Chawla, 2002 ) Research on child and youth participation suggests that young people want to be involved in issues that affect them and their communities. Their involvement offers them new kills and opportunities to build their self-esteem and say what is on their minds. \X11en young people are allowed to strategize for neighborhood improvements, they can change their communities and in the process also benefit personally through the experience. Imolvement of young people and the recognition of their potential gi es them confidence and improves their standing in their communities ( Swart Kruger with Chawla, 2002 ) Research also indicates that participation foster young people s 4

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r es ili e nce enha nc es th e ir s ocial c ompe tenc e, proble m -so l v ing s kill s, a ut o n o m y and s ense o f purpo se. They b e c o m e more cr e ati ve a nd are o p e n t o le arnin g n e w s kill s (Hart, 1997). I spent seve n months (Janu a r y -July, 2 007) in Nairobi c o nductin g re s e a rch o n MYS A a cti v ities and gettin g t o know p eo pl e liv in g in th e s lums. I was se n s iti ve a nd awa r e o f th e influ e nc e o f p o litic s in all asp e ct s o f K e nyan sociery. E thniciry i s a s en s iti ve and p o w e rful tool f o r p o litic s in K e nya. S ome c o nununities feel marg inali ze d l e adin g t o a sse rti o n s o f dif f e r e nc es, c ompe tin g int e re s t s a nd di s tru s t b e tw ee n tribal g roups. R eso urce s allocatio n 1 s a m ;l)o r so urc e o f disputes and di s c ontent at all level s o f th e soc iery. At th e tim e o f m y r esea rch in Nair o bi I was a w a r e o f t h e e thnic t e n s i o ns, p a rticularl y in the slums. The c o aliti o n th a t form e d th e 2 0 02 National Rainbow Co alition (NA RC) government h ad falle n a p a rt. S o me tribes particularl y fro m th e Rift Valley, Wes t ern Kenya and th e Coas t provinces f e lt b e trayed a nd marg inali zed. As a s tud e nt in th e U nited St a t es, I f e lt that m y informa nt s saw m e as a neutral fig ur e that would not t a k e s id es eve n th o u g h I m K e nyan and thu s id e ntify wi th a trib e Amid th e p o litic a l f allout and th e ten s i o n in th e c o un try, pr e p a r a tion s we r e und e rway for el ectio n s la ter in D e c embe r o f 2 007. The char ge d atmosphe r e ex pl o d e d w h e n di sputes and cla im s o f s t o le n e l ections r es ult e d in maj o r v i o l e nc e that t o r e th e c ountry ap a rt. Images o f youth fr o m th e s lums throwin g s t o ne s at th e rio t p olice we r e see n all ov er th e world Tho usands o f di ssatisfie d a nd unempl oye d yo uth w ent o n a r ampage, d e m a ndin g th e ch a n ge th at they h a d h o p e d th e ir votin g would bring. 5

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The involvement of yo uth in the violence following the botched elections in Kenya is evidence that countries can no longer ignore the millions of yo ung people who are exposed to un safe environments and in many cases face di sc rimination and exclusion. Young people are i so lated and frustrated because they have few opportunities available to help them to do well in life \X1ith no jobs or source of incom e, many cannot make ends meet and are driven t o crime and drugs. However, there are indicati o ns that governments, in collaboration with Habitat and other organization haYe recognized the need to involve youth in development s trategies. According to Ashford ( 2007 ), Africa is estimated to be the youngest region in the world, with 44 percent of it s population under the age of 15 years. With high rate s of urbanization cities, especially in poor countries have become home to an increasing number of the world's children and youth (UNICEF, 2002) Consequently, children and youth under the age of 25 are the majority affected b y the variou problems emanating from urban poverty ( Habitat, 2003 ) Living in conditions similar to those in Mathare, millions of children and youth worldwide have inadequate food safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, s helter, health and education. They are vulnerable to disea e accidents and die young as a re s ult of their poor living environments (Bartlett, 2002 ; ICEF, 2005). In 2007 UN Habitat and member nations agreed to set aside a youth fund targeting yo uth-led initiatives. For the flrs t time in Kenya's history, there i a Ministry for Youth Affairs, s pecifically mandated to attend to the needs of young citizens. The 6

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mini stry r ece ntl y set u p a Yo u t h Ente rpri se D eve l opme nt F und (YE D F) w ith allocatio n s of a b o ut 14 milli o n for youth ente rpri ses It ma y b e a s i gn th a t a f te r yea r s o f n eg lect, th e gove rnm e n t i s r ea d y t o empo w e r youth Sch o la r s h ave b e en u gges tin g f o r yea r s th a t th e r e i s ur ge nc y in t h e n ee d t o embrace th e cr eative id eas o f childr e n and youth in th e d eve l opment and m a n age m ent o f th e e n v ir onment and huma n settle m ents, es p e ci ally in poor c o untries w h ere y o un g p eo pl e a r e m os t a ff ec t e d b y urb a n p ro bl e m (D risk ell, B a nn erjee a nd C h awla, 200 1 ) T hi s g rowth in th e acce ptan ce o f child a nd yo uth particip atio n ca n esp ecially b e a ttribut e d t o a number o f imp o rt ant inte rn atio n a l ag r ee m ents. T h e Co nYen t i o n o n th e Ri ghts o f t h e C hild ( C R C), Age nd a 2 1 of th e Ear t h Summit a nd t h e H a bit at Age nd a all r e c o gni ze th a t yo un g p eo pl e h ave th e right t o g row up in a n e n v ir onment th a t prote ct s th e m in o rd e r t o incr e ase th e ir c h a nc es o f g r o win g up h ea lthy, co nfid e n t and s elf resp e ctin g T h e C R C has b e c o m e an imp o rtant tool in e ff orts t o a d va n ce th e wellb e in g of yo un g p eo pl e th ro u g h o ut th e wo rld I m o f t h e o pini o n t h at oth e r s lum s w ithin t h e co un try and th e regio n m a y l earn so m e tlun g fro m t h e p a rti cip atio n o f youn g p eo pl e in th e MYSA selfh el p yo u t h gro ups. B y ge ttin g t o know p eo pl e in th e s lums, I was a bl e t o ga in knowle d ge a b o ut th e every day lives of poor residents o f 1 airo bi I h o p e th a t th e result s f ro m m y s tud y will s h o w th a t it i s p oss ibl e f o r y o uth o r ga ni zatio n s a nd l ocal governments to work t oget h e r t o c han ge p olicy T h e s tud y may also p rov id e l esso n s a nd ins i ghts f o r diffe r e nt p a rt s of th e wo rld B y co ntributin g t o t h e di s cu ss i o n a b o ut yo uth and th e ir e m i ronme nt s, m y 7

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research results will help in the recognition of the capacity and abilities of yo ung people to meaningfull y participate in improving their lives in Mathare and elsewhere. Resear c h Questio n s 1 Hou; do )'Outb partidpate in tbe Matbare Yo11tb Sports Assodatio11 (MYSA) Enviro11mental Clean-Up Program? In thi s study I use United Nations definition of 'youth' as per so ns between the age of 15 and 24 yea rs. Child and youth participation is critica l for young people's survival, especially in poor countries . t\s indicated in the section above, many governments and organizations have recognized young people's participation as an important component in improving live s of young people However, in many poor countries, participation is just becoming acceptable and there i s still evidence that most governments and organizations only pa y lip service to the idea of con s ultation with young people (Bartlett, 2002). Even though the right of children to participate is secured in the CRC, youth are rarely allowed to be directl y invoked in creating healthier, se cure and enabling environments. Furthermore, KnowlesYanez (200 2 ) flnds that youth concerns are hardl y addressed in planning She claims that planners have little or no knowledge about youth experiences and their needs MYS.A i s a relativel y successful youth-led self-help orgaruzanon with world wide recognition However, there is very limited research that has been independently carried out to flnd out how the organization operates. \\l ith an increase in membership, J\tfYSA ha s become a large organization and it was therefore important to flnd out how 8

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p a ruCip a o o n I s und e rstood a n d e n ac t e d in t h e NIYSA E n v ir onme ntal C l eanp P rog r a m As a yo uth-l e d o r g ani zatio n initiate d b y t h e help o f a dult s, it was m y goal to find out if young peopl e r eally h ave a say in th e d ec i i o n m a kin g p rocesses. Ins i ght f ro m a n swe r s r egar din g thi s qu estio n will provid e so m e contributi o n s t owa rd s th e ga p in lit e r a tur e and unde r s t anding a b u t h o w yo un g peopl e p a rti c ip a t e in K e nya. K e nya's p e r p e cti ve i s uniqu e b e c a u se y oung peopl e in K e n y a co n s titut e a m ajority o f t h e p o pulati o n es p ec i ally in urb a n a r eas, a nd have in c r eas in g l y b eco m e agg r ess ive in voi c in g th e ir inte r es t t o b e includ e d in d e ci s i o n m a kin g 2. IY/bat impad does par ticipation bm; e 011 )'Otmg people's person al !iJJes, local etmirommnt, their c o m t m mities, a11d i11s t it11ti o11J respousibl e for plauni11g a ud t'O tnmt mi!J' developme11t ? I t i s n o t e n o u g h t o know a nd und e r s t a nd how yo uth a r e p a rticip a ting. Furthe r und e r s t a ndin g of th e impac t s o f young peopl e's e n gage m ent in pl anning i s impo rt ant, as potential b e n e fit s of p a rti c ip atio n t o b o th indi vidua l p a rticip ants and th e ir communiti es h ave b ee n id e ntifi e d (folma n & Pittma n 2 00 1 ) H art ( 1997) a r g u es th a t p a rticip atio n f os t e r s yo un g peopl e's r esilie nc e, enha nc es th e ir soc i a l compete nc e, p ro bl e m -so l v in g s kill s, auto n o m y and a se n se of purpose. They b eco m e m o r e creative and a r e o p e n t o l ea rnin g n ew skills As c hild a nd yo uth p a rticip atio n becom es wid e l y ac c epta bl e, i t is imp ortant to eYalu ate th e impac t of p a rticip atio n o n t h e every day lives of yo un g peopl e, th e ir l o c a l e n vironment and th e i r communiti e Youn g peopl e mus t b e allowe d t o a rticul a t e w h a t they think they may b e g ainin g thr o u g h p a rticip a ti o n A PLA UK 9

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r e p o rt a uth o r e d b y A ck e rmann e t al. (200 1 ) provides a bro ad s tructur e f o r lo o king a t th e effect s o f particip atio n It s u gges t s that impact s ma y b e p os iti ve o r n eg ati v e A n s werin g thi s s ec ond que stio n will h e lp m o ve th e di s c ourse o n child a nd yo uth participati o n b eyo nd advoc acy t o assess in g th e result s a nd impact s o f particip ation. B ac kground M a th a r e Y o uth Sports Associa tion (M"Y SA) MYS A i s a uniqu e urban s elf-help yo uth p rog r a m that link s t h e l o cal youths' l ove f o r sp o rt s with servic e t o th e ir co mmuniti es. l'vfY A sta rt e d with a n aun of impro ving th e liv in g c o nditi o n s o f M a th a r e residents a nd m a n y o th e r n e i g hb o rin g c o mmunities. Atmed with a s impl e o r g ani z ati o nal principl e t o m o tiv ate the youth, 'Y o u d o so m e thin g, MYS A d o e s so m e thing; yo u d o n o thing, Jv1YSA d oes n o thin g", th e E n v ironm enta l C l ea n -U p Prog r a m was es t a bli h e d in 19 88. The p rogram r e quires all o cc er t ea m m embe r s t o s p e nd tim e particip a tin g in n e i ghbo rhood clea n up s in o rd e r t o e arn indi v idual a nd t ea m p o int s in th e so cc e r leag ues. T h e E n v ir onmenta l C lean -U p Prog r a m e n a bles m embers t o cl ea n th e ir n e i ghbo rhood s b y unbl o ckin g th e sew e r dr a in s, clea rin g t r e nch es, c olle ctin g ga rbage a nd m os t imp o rt a ntly, clearin g fie ld s w hi c h p rov id e playin g gro und s for th e childre n and youth in th e co mmunity (Bru ce, 2005). T h e E n v ironm enta l C l ea n -U p Prog r a m has a ttract ed a tt e nti o n w idely. The p rog r a m was r ecog niz e d b y 1 E P and award e d th e E P 5 00 G l o b a l Awa rd f o r E m-ir onme nt a l InnO\ atio n a nd AchieYe m ent in 1992 In 2 003, MYS A was n o minat ed f o r th e o b e l P eace Prize. 1 0

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M Y S A was es t a bli s h e d in a tin y buildin g in E a s tlei g h Nair o bi in 1987 b y a Ca n a dian d eve l opment agent a nd resid ent o f a ir obi named B o b Munro. Thro u g h p a rtn e r s hip a nd support fr o m th e l o cal c ommunity, Munro help e d creat e a n o r ga ni zatio n th a t link s s p o rt s w ith community se rvi ce a ctivities (Mitch ell, 20 0 3). MY S A id eas a nd a cti v ities h ave s in ce sprea d and g ain e d r e cogniti o n b otl1 l ocally a nd r eg i o n ally. A cc o rdin g t o th e curr e nt l'vfYS A dir e ct o r th e yo uth o r ga nizatio n has s inc e grown in influ ence and s i ze. M embe r volunt ee r numbe r s a r e e ti.ma t e d a t a lm os t 2 0,0 0 0 b oys a nd g irl s fro m 9 2 0 years old. MYS A ide a s a nd a ctiv ities h ave sprea d r eg i o nall y t o T a nzania, Sud a n a nd 15 l o c atio n s within th e poor e r e a s t e rn part s o f th e city. The ex p a n s i o n a nd g rowth of MYS A has b ee n b e n e fici a l t o th e p a rti cip a tin g yo uth a nd th e ir communities. MYS A progr a m s h ave evo l ve d a nd e xp a nd ed a nd c urr e ntl y includ e th e J ailed Kid s' Pro j e ct c o nc e rn e d w ith f ee din g and r e p a tri a tin g yo uth fro m th e ju ve nil e co urt syst e m a nd linkin g th e m with th e ir f a mili es, a nd th e ShootBack pro j e ct th a t help s yo uth acguir e pho t og r aphy a nd videog r aphy skills T h e knowled ge a nd skills g ain e d fro m thi s p ro j e ct help youth tell s t ories a b out th e ir lives in th e s lum MY S also tr a in s c oa ches and r e f e r ees in th e ir Sp o rt a nd L ea d e r s hip A c ad e my. A n o th er p o pular pr o j e ct i s th e Le a d e r s hip A w a rd Project w hich pro vides s ch o la r s hip s f o r t o p MY SA volunt ee r s The 1 0,000 K e nya s hillings ( 1 47 ) aw ard s e n able w inn e r s t o pay school f ee Approx imatel y 500 sc h o lar s hip s ar e awa rd e d a nnually. T h e r e i s also a yo u t h exc h a nge prog r a m whi c h p rovides oppo rtunities f o r yo uth in th e E urop ea n U ni o n N o rth A m e ric a a nd M a th a r e t o tr ave l a nd e xp erie nc e a n e w lif e w ith f a milies in th ese 11

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diff e r ent l ocatio n s f o r s h o rt p erio d s o f time. Rec e ntly, th e Anti Child L a b o r Pro ject has be e n activel y c arry in g o ut aw a r e n ess c a mpaign s a gain s t child lab o r a nd a b o ut rights o f children. It t s es tim a t e d th a t a b out 7 0 0 Keny an s die of HIV a nd A IDS rel a t ed c o mplicati o n s eve r y day. The s lum s a r e th e h a rd es t hit b y th e di sease, and in resp o n se, MYS A set up a n HIV a nd AID Preve nti o n a nd Awareness P ro j e ct that pro m o tes b e h av i o r ch a n ge a m o n g th e yo uth F inally, th e rt a nd C ultur e upp o rt G roup s w hi c h help youth g ain skills in art drama, mu s ic and puppe t ry, ar e es p e ciall y p o pular with member s wh o a r e n o t nec essa ril y intere s ted in s occ e r l'vfYSA c ommunity libr aries a l so pro v ide m embe r s wi t h a c cess t o books a nd safe, qui e t s pac es t o s tudy. Mathare Valle y slums Even as MYS A a tt empts t o c han ge conditi o n s and fight depri vatio n in th e s lum th e yo uth still c onte nd w ith t e rribl e c o nditi o n s in M a th a r e Valley. L o c a t e d n o rtheast o f I air o bi M a th a r e i s es tim a t e d t o h a v e a p o pulati o n o f m o r e th a n 1 00,000 p eo pl e w h o curr e ntl y live in s h a ck s m a d e o f o ld pla s tic cardb oa rd a nd ru s t e d c o rru gate d ir o n s h ee t s (U Habitat, 2 003). H o mes are o ften s urround e d b y unc o llect e d garb age, c o ntaminat e d wat e r in blo ck e d dra ina ge, and was te, w hich e xp os e s th e inhabit a nt s t o disea ses. T h e v alle y i s n o isy a nd dir ty, c ramm e d full o f p eo pl e liYing in crowd e d h o u ses built in rows o f s in gle room s th a t a r e poorly lit a nd h a rdl y v e ntilat e d In m a n y c ases th e tin y s h a ck s prov id e cookin g s pac es, resultin g in indoor a ir p o lluti o n Howe v er, th e v alle y also has a 12

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v ibr ant info rm a l eco n o m y driYe n m a inl y b y sec o nd h a nd clo thes ve nd o r s and fruit a nd vege t a bl e selle r s ( c hild erma n 2004 ). Man y reside n ts, eve n fro m middl e class n e i ghborhood s, v i s it th e s lums to purc h ase food a nd clo thin g b e c a u se th e prices a r e a b a r ga in I r e m embe r th a t w h e n I was in hi g h school I would purc h ase so m e o f m y clo thes from t h e s lums. In f a ct m y socce r boot s and trainin g kit s we r e eas i e r t o find a nd m o r e afforda bl e in t h e s lums. Back t h e n th e s lums we r e r e latively saf e a nd v i o le nt c rimes we r e r a re. H owe Y e r ove r th e past two d eca d es, crimin a l yo uth g angs h ave b eco m e a growi n g se curity p ro bl e m f o r th e city o f N a ir o bi A c co rdin g t o a U Habit a t ( 2 007 ) r e p o rt 5 0 p e r cent of con v i cte d pri so n ers in th e co un t r y a r e age d b e t\ vee n 16 a nd 25 years. Acco rdin g to Mul a m a ( 2 007 ) ga n g activ ities in Ma th a r e h a v e m ad e lif e difficult for m a n y residents. T h e s lum i s h o m e t o d a n ge r o u s gangs s u c h as th e Mun g iki se ct th a t has b ee n a c c used of ex t o rti o n and t e rr o ri z in g residents T h e Mung iki ec t d e m ands paym ent fro m every h o use for sec urity a nd e le ctricity. T h e gan g co n s i s t s m a inl y o f dr eacllo ck e d yo uth w h o c h a mpi o n o ld Kiku y u tr aditi o n s s u c h as f e m ale ge nital mutil atio n a nd oa th taking. I t i s b elieve d t h a t t h e ga n g has t a k e n c ontro l o f t h e publi c t oile t s in th e s lum s a nd d e m ands th at eve r y h o use pay a u se r f ee. Vari o u s f ees d e m a nd e d b y th e g an g ar e ofte n un a ff o rd a bl e t o m a n y residents, resultin g in frictio n b etwee n r es id ents a nd th e Mungiki ga ng. Aft er d ea dl y s lum v i o l e n ce in 2002, th e ga n g was b a nn e d In May 2007, two p olice office r s we r e s hot d ea d in th e s lum and in resp o n se, i t i s cla im e d th a t t h e p olice kille d 22 s u sp e ct s a nd ar r este d 1 00 durin g ove rni ght g un b a ttles as they s t orme d M a th a r e in 13

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search of members of the oudawed sect. Youth in Math are are constandy harassed b y the police, who in man y cases erroneously s u s pect them to be gang members Some of the yo uth in the s lum s have joined MYSA, but ther e are others who have joined gangs s uch as Mungiki or th e Taliban, mainly becau se of the high unemploym ent r ates in th e city. This ha s led to a blanket condemnation and di s trust of yo ung people b y many resident s who cannot di sti ngui s h bet\ vee n gang members and non -members. To make matter s worse, opportunities for formal education for mos t yo uth are be yo nd their reach and drug abuse a nd alcoholism fuelled b y the local brews, s uch as the illicit chang'aa, are rife al ttetirre < 25 )BS 0 25 to ::E )BS 40 to 53 )BS > 6J )BS Figure 1 1 City Wide Fear of Crime Surveys B y Age (UN Habitat 2002) 52% of Nairobi's 3 million re s id ents worry about crime all the tim e 14

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S truc tur e of Disser ta ti o n This dissertation is organized into five chapters. Chapter Two reYlews the literature on child and youth participation I begin by examining the definition s of child and youth participation with a focu s on community service. I document a brief histor y of child and youth participation and identify some examples of participatory projects for yo ung people particularly in poor countries with conditions s imilar to Mathare s lums. I reYiew the impact s of participation and conclude the chapter by looking at different challenges of child and yo uth participation in community ervice projects These per pectives help me understand the experiences of young people in poor countries who are involved in improving their local environments and communities. Chapter Three outlines m y re sea rch design and methodology. It describe s the context of m y re sea rch and the location s of the NIYSA zones where the s tud y was conducted. I include the proflle s of participating informants, the process of selecting informant s, the rese a rch instruments, a nd the proces s of data analysis. I conclude the chapter with a di scuss ion of the advantages and limitation s of m y tudy methodology. Chapter Four presents m y findings regarding the impact s of you ng people participation in the l\fYSA Environmental Cleanp Program T identif y and describe how the youth understand and view participation I relate their involvement in the clean up activities t o change in their per so nal live s, their neighborhood s and their communities in ge neral. I also di cuss the role of adults and the roles of the l\1YSA youth in relation to the clean-up activities and community se rvice in general. 15

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Chapter Five concludes m y di sse rtation and di scusses implication s of the study finding s for further research. I also look at the implications of the MYSA clean-up activities in re l ation to the obligations of the Nairobi City Council and local municipal authorities. Lessons from m y s tud y contribute to the literature on child and youth participation and provid e an opportunity for l'vrYSA and other youth groups to reflect and make changes to their programs. 16

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Introduction CHAPTER2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapt e r renews literature about child and youth p art1c1patio n In planning, esp ecially in poor countries where million s of yo un g peopl e face di s crimination ex clu s ion and un safe e nvir onments. A brief hi sto r y of child and youth participation a nd examples of particip a t o r y proj ec t s with children and youth in poor countries are included in this review. Disc ussi ons about impact s of particip atio n and conclusions review so m e of the diff e r ent perspectives of child and yo uth participati o n in community service proj ec t s These p e r s p ec tive s help m e under s tand the expenence of youn g pe o pl e in poor countrie w h o are inv o l ve d in lmpro vt n g their l ocal env1ronm.ents a nd commuruoes. C itie s are h o m e t o an incre asing numb e r o f th e world's children and yo uth 1 ICEF, 2002 ) T h e average age of s lum dweller s is d ecreas ing; conseguently children and youth und e r th e age of 25 are the majority exposed and affected b y th e various pro bl e m s emanating from urb a n p ove rt y (U H a bit at, 2003 ) Millions of children in cities wo rldwid e h ave inad e gu ate food, afe drinkin g water, sanit ation facilities, s helt er, h ea l th and e duc atio n It i s estim a t e d that a b out 1.6 milli o n children under five yea r s o ld di e from diarrh ea from b ad water eac h yea r ( U ICEF, 2005 ) 17

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Mak ori ( 1999 ) ar g u es that whil e youth c ompns e 60; o o f K e n y a 's p o pulati o n th e d e clin e in th e ec o n o m y ha s n o t produce d e n o u g h j o b s to acc ommo dat e youn g j o b see ker s The d e clinin g eco n o m y has resulted in a ri s e in p ov ert y l e els a nd un employ m e nt. A atio n a l Y o uth R e p o rt s t a tes th a t th e r e i s a ge n e r a l l ack o f oppo rtunities f o r th e yo uth in K e nya, w hich lead s t o a l oss in p o t e ntial t a l ent ( Mini stry o f H o m e A ffair s, H e ritage a nd Sp o rts, Decembe r 2 007 e l e c t i o n vio le n ce in K e nya witn esse d youn g pe o pl e, e p ecially f ro m th e s lums, t a k e up crud e w ea p o n s t o fight aga in s t w hat they s a w as governme nt inju s tices. Man y di s illu s i o n e d youth se n se that th e government f avors a f e w ove r th e othe r s In a n essay in a l o c a l n ews p a p e r C hri s H a rt ( 2 00 8 ) obser ve d th a t l a r ge numb e r s o f unempl oye d youn g m e n in eve r y t o wn a nd vill age in K e nya h ave n o h o p e f o r th e future They ar e \villin g t o tak e ris ks, es peciall y if th e alt e rn ative i s a lif e with o ut oppo rtunity a nd h o pe. They ha ve n o m e an s t o e arn m o ney and s t a tu s and c o n se qu e ntl y n o chan ce t o a ff o rd a wif e a nd a family. They h ave b e c o m e a n gry a nd v i o lent. The r e c e nt e le cti o n s kirmi s h e result e d in hundre d s o f d e ath s a nd prmid e d so m e yo un g p eo pl e witl1 a ch a nc e t o loot p ro p erty, intimid a te, set up p ro t e cti o n rack e t s and e r e c t roa dbl o ck s ( H a rt 20 0 8). Thes e unfo rtun a t e d eve l opments ha ve s h o wn that th e re i s ur gent n e ed f o r yo uth frie ndl y p o licies th a t will pro v id e th e m with oppo rtunities and h o p e f o r th e futur e T h e r e i s littl e d o ubt th a t yo un g p eo pl e a r e c r e ati ve, willin g t o particip a t e a nd a r e ca pabl e o f impr ov in g th e ir lives in diff e r e nt p a rt s o f th e world. H o w e v e r they ofte n l ack acc ess t o 1 8

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shelter, health, education, food, safe drinking water and sanitation facilities Some die from disease or violence on the streets or in garbage dumps where the y find refuge Planners are responsible for improving the welfare of people in cities. They control the use of land transportation, communication networks and protect the natural environment. Planners must engage children and youth in finding suitable so luti ons to their challenges. In cities in the lea t developed countries, even though children and youth are a majority of the population they are in man y cases excluded from decision making and ci,-il and social programs. Young people and their families are ignor d and neglected because they are poor. Children and youth are also ignored because they are not adu lts, and evidence from African cou ntri es suggests that they are most vulnerable and affected b y the neglect (Bardett, 2003; Swart Kruger with Chawla 2002 ) Yet even when armed with this knowledge, most governments and local authorities are y et to take steps to address children s needs and a s sess their priorities (Riggio, 2002 ) Input from young people is viewed as an unnecessary component of planning processes ( Knowles Yanez 2005). The result of thi s neglect is that cities are still l argel y unfriendly to children and youth airobi provides an example of major neglect of the poor, r esulting in one of the worst gaps b etween the rich and the poor. W illi e slwns take up only 5 % of the cit y' s l and area, 60 % of airobi s population resides in the slums ( U -Habitat, 2003). airobi s eastern "Easdand area, which i s a marginalized, low income, densely populated area, i s estimated to ha, e 1000 people per hectare. Mathare 19

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Valley slum d e n s iti es a r e even hi g h e r e timat e d a t a s t agge rin g 1,25 0 peopl e per h ecta r e ( K e n y a Natio nal Bure au o f Stati s tic s, 200 1). The lack o f infrastructure t o support the hig h p o pul atio n has l e d to m a n y p ro bl e m In the slums, e n v ir onme ntal p ro bl e m s h ave b ee n exace rb a t e d b y th e in a bilit y o f th e a i ro bi C it y Council t o effe cti ve l y d eliv er so lid waste m a n age m ent se rvic es t o th e maj ority o f th e r es id ents, due t o a lack o f solid wast e m a n agement infrastructur e a nd chaotic o r unreg ul a t e d pri va t e sec t o r p a rticip a ti o n E P 2 00 5). \\' ith littl e help f r o m th e city autho riti es, condition s h ave d e t erio rat e d r es ultin g in defe c atio n in open s pa ces, and with out r eg ul a r cle arin g o f fo o tp a ths, drain s and l a trine s, all r es id ents a r e e xp os ed to serio u s h ea lth ris k s (Lamba, 1994). These ch alle n ges and more require that plann e r s in poo r c o untri es d ev i se n e w m e th o d s o f ta cklin g p ro bl e m s th a t f a c e young peopl e, who o ft e n m a k e up the m a j o rity o f t h e city r es id ents. Sch o l a r s ag r ee th a t wh e n g i ve n th e oppo rtunity, c hildr e n a nd youth h ave pro v e n th a t they a r e cap a bl e o f id entify in g tl1e ir pro bl e m s a nd giYing fr es h id eas (Ch aw la, 2 00 2). T n o rd e r f o r yo un g peopl e t o h a n a n influ e nc e o n d e ci s ion s m a d e a b o ut th e ir citi es a nd th e ir futur e, the y mus t b e allo w e d a nd e nc o ur age d t o p a rticip a t e in th e community a nd so cial life b e c a u se in many ca ses, th e ir s ur v i val lit e rall y depends o n th e ir t a king a bi gge r ro l e in d e finin g the ir !ins a nd future. 20

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D e finin g P artic ip a ti o n M y f o cu s o n p a rticip atio n i s in refe r e n ce t o yo un g p eo pl e t a kin g p art in colle cti ve de ci s i o n making. The t e rm p a rti c ipati o n ," e v e n th o u g h wid e l y u se d h as n o s in g le a g r eea bl e in te rpr e t atio n and a cc epta bl e m ea ning. A rn s t e in ( 1969 ) d efines p a rticip atio n as th e p o w e r o f th e h aven o t g r o up s t o influ e nc e e nd products o f d ecis i o n s". H a rt ( 1 992 ) a nd C heck oway ( 1 998) r ega rd p a rti c ip atio n as s h a rin g d eci i o n s th at a ff ec t o n e's lif e a nd th e lif e of t h e co mmunity in w hi c h o n e lives, while Dris k ell a nd o th e r s d efine i t a "a f orm o f indi, idu a l a nd colle cti ve self-r ea liz atio n th a t e n gages p eo pl e in s i gn ific a n t d eci s i o n-making th a t ultim a tely, c hallen ges exi s tin g s tru c tures o f a uth o rit y and invol ves ge nuin e tr a n s f e r s o f p owe r (Dri s k ell, B a nn erjee a nd C h aw l a, 2 00 1 ). P a rticip atio n may t a k e diff e r ent f orms, s uch as o r ga ni z in g a gro up f o r socia l a cti o n l eg i s lative a dvocacy o r educatio n a l a nd awa r e n ess c r eatio n t o e n a bl e a group t o discove r a nd devel o p se r v i ces o f th e ir own (Ch e ck oway, 1998 ) All th e d e finiti o n s s u gges t t h a t p ar ticip atio n provides oppo rtuniti e f o r youn g p eo pl e t o see k informatio n f o rm th e ir v iews and express t h e ir id eas f r ee l y w ith r e p e ct a nd di gn ity. R oge r H a rt 's ( 1 9 92 ) ad a p tatio n o f rn s t e in 's ( 196 9 ) /odder rif citizen po dicipotion as a tool f o r thinkin g a b o ut childre n a nd yo un g p eo pl e's p a rticip atio n ha s b eco m e a wid e l y u se d m o d el. H a r t's ( 1 992) e i ghtl eve l ladd e r o f p a rticip atio n s u gges t s th at th e leve l s of youn g peopl e's p owe r a nd influ e n ce r efle ct th e d eg r ees of parti c ip ation. H a rt ide ntifi e d e i g ht l eve ls, r epre e ntin g diff e r e nt f om1s o f p a rticip atio n One typ e of p a rticip atio n i s w h e r e youn g p eople initi a t e and dir e ct progr a ms. I\dults a r e invol ve d only in suppo rtiv e 2 1

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r o les. A n o th e r l e vel i s adult-initi a ted with s hared d ecis i o n m a kin g with children and youth in which yo un g p eo pl e g i ve ad v i ce o n pro j e ct s desi g n e d a nd run b y adults. The o th e r l e v e l s invol ve yo un g p eo pl e w ith s p e cific rol es a nd inform them a b o ut h o w and w h y they a r e invol ve d H a rt 's last thr ee a r e cat ego ri ze d as th e w o r s t f o rm s o f p a rticip atio n They includ e lokmism and d u oral ion, which m e an youn g p eople appea r t o b e g i ve n a voice but in r eality ar e with o ut ch o i ce a b o ut what they d o o r how they p a rticip a t e Lastly, lllrJ11ip1flatio11 r e f e r s t o a dult s u s in g youn g peopl e t o s upp o rt cau ses, pre t e ndin g th a t t h e ca u ses ar e in s pir e d b y young p eo ple. Thi s l a dd e r has d o min a t e d di s cussi o n s and thinkin g a b out childr e n 's participation esp ecially a m o n g practiti o n e rs. With th e wid e circul atio n H a rt 's ideas h a v e provok e d so m e critici s m H a rt (200 2 ) a dmit s that th e embra c e a nd interpre t atio n o f th e la dd e r has go n e be yo nd hi s orig in a l int e nti o ns. H e r e mind s u s that hi s ladd e r o f p a rticip atio n a nd o th e r articles o n participati o n ha ve a \ \!es tero bias a nd r e c ommends that we hesitat e t o m a k e c ompariso n s w ith l o c a l p a rticip a t ory proc esses, th e c o nditi o n s a nd e n v ir onment in o uth e rn co untri es. H art a d v i ses th a t an y a tt empts t o impl e m e n t th e m o d e l s h o uld b e w ith a l o t o f ca uti o n esp eciaUy in S o uth e rn cultur e H e a r g ues tha t th e unde r s t a ndin g o f l o c a l cultur es, p o litic a l syst e m s a nd la n g u ag e s g i ves acc ess t o th e info rmati o n a nd e xp erie nc es ge n e r a t e d b y g r o ups. H a rt ackn owle d ges a nd r e cogni zes that particip atio n may s u c c ess full y occ ur in diffe r ent f orms o th e r than t h ose id e ntifi e d in hi s la dd e r 2 2

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Roger H art's Ladder o f Young Peopl e s P artic ipati o n Rung 8 : Young people & adults share decision-making Rung 7 :Young people lead & initiate action Rung 6 : Adult.tnniated, shared decisions w ith young people Rung 5 : Young peop e consulted and informed Rung 4 : Young people assigned and informed Rung 3 : Yot.Jng people tokenized'* Rung 2: Young people are deooratlon'* Rung 1 : Young people are manlpulated'* Note: Hart explains that last three rungs are non-partJdpatlon Adapted from Hatt, R. (1992). Chifdren's Participation rrom Tokenism to Citizenship. florence: ct:F Innocenti Research Cenlre. Figure 2 Ladder of Participation There have been attempts to "improve" the ladder to accommodate alternative ideas Treseder ( 1997 ) removes three 'non-participation' level s of Hart's ladder and turn the ladder so that it i horizontal to aYoid hierarchical interpretations. Depiction of the ladder as horizontal s uggest that participatory activities can and should change with 23

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different setungs and circumstances and those us111g the ladder as a guide, are not obligated to aim at a certain ideal level of participation. Most recently, Shier ( 200 l ) developed a five l eve l alternative to Hart's l adder of participation He improved his model and named it a Sclmm ( Shier, 2002). It replaces the bottom three l evels that Hart considers deceptive participation, i.e. manipulation decoration and tokenism. Shier's s cheme identifies five levels which require that children are listened to, supported to express their \--:iews, have their views taken into account, are inv o l ved in the decision making proces s, and share power and responsibility for decision making. At each l evel, individuals and organizations have different l evels of commitment in three general stage id entified as openings, opportuniti es and obligatio n s ( Shier, 2002). 24

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Le e l s of f (/nidpmimt u 5 C h ildren hare p \\er a n d re n sibilil ic fo r decisi n making 3. hildr Oppor l u niti<' bligation v i ew int acC'ount'! Ar e yo u r-"3dy t li t ent c hildr n ? I therea pr cedure tlmt en .,bl chil dren t D o you h :ne a rang of idea s Harry Shier Children s Con s ult a nc y Scheme and adult s h .. 1re power and re pons ibilit y fi decis i ns? I s it a p olicy r quirem nt tha t hildnm 111US t be lis t ened t "! 25

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F r a nci s a nd L o r e n zo ( 2 00 2 ) h ave go n e furth e r a nd id e ntifi e d seve ral r ea lm s o f p a rticip atio n T h e firs t r ealm c o n s id e r s childr e n as desi g n e rs, m ea nin g th a t c hildren ha ve a f r ee h and t o s h a p e th e ir o wn f uture. This i s a ro m a ntic v iew th a t sees c hildr e n pl a nnin g \ V ith out a dult imo l ve m e nt. AdiJOCal)' i s th e seco nd recog ni ze d realm w h e r e n ee d s o f c hildr e n are advoc ate d b y a dul t pl anne rs. T hird i s th e eeds approac h w hi c h i s b ase d o n a ddr ess in g childr e n 's n ee d s a nd i nc o rp o r a tin g th e m int o desi g ns. T h e o th e r approac h imol ves r c hi tec t s t ea chin g c hild re n a b out a rchit ectu r e, b as ically, givin g a tt e nti o n t o E n v ir onmental E du catio n a nd l ea rnin g (F r a n c i s a nd Lo r e n zo, 2002 ) A l o t m o r e f oc u s has b e en o n t h e Righl s approach w h e r e c hildr e n as cit y resid ents h ave rights t h a t n ee d t o b e pro t e ct e d ju s t lik e a n y o th er citi ze ns. T hi s rea lm r e quires childr e n 's parti cip atio n in plannin g a nd d ecis i o n m a king. The last r e alm i s Proaclit;e w hich r e f e r s t o p a rti c ip atio n w ith c hildr e n Thi s approa ch co mbin es r esea rch p a rticipati o n a nd actio n t o e n gage c hildr e n a nd a dult s in pl a nnin g a nd d es i g n Even t h o u g h c hildr e n acti vely p a rticip a t e du r in g th e d e i gni n g proc ess, pl anne r s still play a n imp o rt ant ro le as they a r e left t o inc o rp o r ate th e id eas a nd n ee d s o f c hildr e n Pl a n s a r e th e r e f o r e focu se d o n a v i s i o n o f b o th empo werin g childr e n a nd m a kin g s ub s t a nti ve c h a n ges t o th e city e n v ironment (F r a n ci s and L o r e n zo, 2 00 2). T h e Rigbts approac h ha s b ee n c ru c i a l in th e pus h f o r th e U ConYe nti o n o n th e Rights of th e C hild ( C RC). T h e C R C a nd Age nd a 2 1 h ave ide ntifi e d c hildr e n a nd youth as m a j o r gro up s th a t n ee d t o b e invol ve d in th e p ro t ectio n o f th e e n v i ronment and th e creatio n of s u s t a in a bl e se ttl e m ents. T h e C R C, Age nd a 2 1 and o th e r initiatives h ave g i ve n 26

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pl anne r s all ove r th e world a n oppo rtumty t o imo l ve c hildr e n a n d yo uth in th e p ro t ectio n of th e e n v tr onme nt. S c h ola r s ag r ee th a t th e r e i s a n ee d t o embrace th e c r eative id eas o f c hildr e n a nd yo uth 1n t h e d eve l opme n t a nd m a n age m ent o f th e e n v ir onment a nd h u m a n settle m e nts (D r i s k ell, B a nn e r jee a nd C h aw l a 200 1 ) T h e G l o b a l P a rt ners hip Ini tiative ( GPI) a nd s imil ar proj ects s u c h as t h e C hild Frie ndl y C iti es ( CFC) initi ative a r e ev id e n ce t h a t th e r e i s grow in g interest i n c hild a nd yo u t h m atte r s g l o bally. Exa mples f r o m leas t d eve l o p e d countr ies s u gges t t h at w h e n youn g p eo ple a r e invoh-ed, t h e r e i s g r eat p o t e nti a l to imp rove th e s t a nd a rd of livin g a nd wellb e in g o f c hildr e n a nd youth in d evelo pin g co untri es. Wh y i s p a rticip a tion critical D e mogr a phi c r ea lities u ggest t h a t yo un g p eo pl e a r e t h e m a j ority a ff ec t e d b y urb a n pro bl e m in poor co un tr ies. T h e y a r e su b jecte d to p ove rty and la ck of access to soc ial oppo rtu nities s uch as e mpl oy m ent and a r e ex p o e d t o di sease a nd risky b e h avio r ( Cle rt L a Cava and Lytle, 2003; H a bit a t 2003 ) Pl anners h ave a n o bli gatio n to work w i t h c hild re n a nd you t h b eca use t hey not o nl y h ave sp ec ifi c n ee d s a nd c hall e n ges th a t r e guir e varie d and sp e cifi c approac hes bu t also h ave id eas a nd o pini o n s a b o ut w h at th eir co mmuni ties s h o uld look lik e ( H owa rd e t al. 2002; C h aw l a 2000 ) Y o un g p eo pl e are compete n t res id e nts ca p a bl e of m ea nin gful p a r ticipatio n in society, yet a dul t s ofte n v iew th e m as v i cti m s or di s mi s th e m as a proble m 27

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As Finn and Checkoway (1998) discovered, young people can actively participate in so l v in g problems, planning programs and providin g services at the community level, and by listening to the voices of young people, adults can appreciate their capacities. If given opportunities, young people can be active participants in personal, organizational and community change (Checkoway, Finn, and Pothukuchi, 1995). Furthermore, introducing young people to decision making can educate them early about responsibilities as citizens. Participation of young people in planning will result in a citizenry that is knowledgeable about the planning process. Knowles-Yanez (2005 ) arg ues that active residents who embrace their civic duties make the planning process more transparent. Transparency in planning results in own ership and commitment from communities which, in turn, result in successful and less controversial plans. She argues that if planners engage young people, the image ,of planning as a profession can be improved. Successfully engaging young people may also incr ease the number of young people interested in planning and in future, it may produce planners who understand the challenges and the importance of involving communities ( KnowlesYanez, 2005). Ign oring this important constituency can be l erhal. The inclusion of young people's needs in the planning process i s a pragmatic requirement. Frustrated youth can be found to be involved in racist and ethnic vio lence ( Cunningham and Corre ia, 2003). In many cases, the survival tactics of such young people may result in vio l ence and crime. R ecent events in Kenya where poor youth have been engaged in vio l ence and destruction after an electio n dispute are a reminder that a younger generation without 28

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economic opportunities, increased poverty, an d social and lega l constraints represents a high soc ial risk for an y society. The social, economic and financial cost s associated with failure to lis ten to young people often exceed the cost of preYentive and remedial interventions ( La Cava and Lytle, 2003). If yout h l ack access to secure economic, social and political opportunities, their exclusion may l ead to conflict. Child and Youth Participation: A Brief History Child and youth participation emerged in the l K and l A out of the participatory planning movement of the 1960 and the 1970s Bishop, Adams and Keen ( 1992 ) credit L y nch ( 1960 ) Goodman ( 1960 ) Jacobs ( 1965 ) Hall ( 1966 ) Sommer ( 1969 ) Proshansky et al. ( 1970 ) Canter ( 197 Apple y ard ( 197 6 ) \X! ard ( 1978 ) and Hart ( 1979 ) for creating the vis i on, ideas and initiatives that promoted international interest in urban environmental education. The participatory moYement fought for the recognition and promotion of human aspects in environmental education They were influenced by Kevin Lynch's belief that it was necessary to understand how children and adolescents use and perceive their local environment in order to make a better quality of life a reality for all (Lync h. 1977 ; \Xlilhjelm 2002). The interest on children and the environment is rooted on merging knowledge about the history of children and education, people and environment and community and participation (Bis hop, Adams and Keen, 1992 ) 29

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In 1977, KeYin Lynch, a planner at MIT, directed the Growing 1tp in Cities (GUIC) project sponsored by UNESCO in four countries. The project focused on the children's experience of living in l ow-income settlements in Arge ntina, Australia, Mexico and Poland. Later on, however, the socia l economic and political climate in the 1980s became l ess conducive for promoting the ideas that helped develop urban env i ronmental education (Bishop, Adams and Keen (19n) A lmost three decades later after the initial work of Lynch ( 1977 ) the GUIC was expanded in volving a team of experts from a variety of disciplines and targeting a total of eight countries, including some from the developing world. A report on this phase of the project, Growing up in an Urba11ising IVorld ( Chaw l a, 2002 ) is a collection of case studies in which interdisciplinary teams that included academic researchers c hild ad, ocates and community practitioners documented the experiences of children and youth, especially in low-income neighborhoods in cities across the world. The project, directed by Louise Chawla, adopted Lynch s original aims and recorded so m e success in terms of local adoption and implementation of r esponsive and child-friendly urban policies. The project focused on how c hildr en view a nd u se their e n vironment, how the environment affects their lives and how l oca l authorities can tackle some of the existing problems. The teams of researchers a l so evaluated local resources and restrictions. The grow in g trend in the acceptance of child and youth participation, in the 1990 s can be attributed to a number of important international agreements. The Convention on the Right s of the Child ( CRC), Agenda 21 of the Earth Summit, and the 30

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Habitat Agenda all recogruze that young people have the right to grow up in an environment that protects them in order to increase their chances of growing up healthy, confident and selfre s pecting. The CRC has become an important tool in efforts to advance the well b e ing of young p ople throughout the world. Scholar s agree that there i s urgency in the need to embrace the creative idea s of children and youth in the development and management of the environment and human settlements, especially in poor countries where the y are mos t affected b y urban problems. They are the future and ultimately hould have a say in determining it (Dri s kell, Bannerjee and Chawla, 2001). By signing the CRC, countries have an obligation to mobilize necessar y re so urce s in order to ensure that the needs and interests of children and youth are addressed. The Convention affirms the right of yo ung people to protection, provision of basic needs and to participation in their societies and deci s ions that affect their live s ( Auriat, Miljeteig and Chawla, 2001 ) Planner s have an opportunity t o embrace the creative ideas of children and youth in improving conditions of their lives. Local planners mus t take advantage of the growing acceptance that children and youth are a unique group with needs and idea s that need tapping through participation (Driskell, 2002 ). They may find support in Gr01vi11g Up i11 a11 Urba11isi11g lf 7orld ( Chawla, 2000 ) and the s tudies associated with the initiative. These studies and others show that that young people can articulate their concerns and also recommend so lutions to problems facing them and their commumues. 31

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Global initiatives such as the Child Friendly Cities ( CFC), GUIC and many others such as the Global Partnership Initiative (GPI) have been responsible for the attention given to the plight of urban children and youth and their environment across the world. CFC initiative was l aunche d in 1996 after the Istanbul World Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II ) where it was declared that the well being of children is the ultimate indicator of a healthy society and of a health y city (Riggio and Kilbane, 2000 ) The U -Habitat sponsored GPI initiatiYe assesses the impact of rapid urbanization and ocial exclusion of vulnerable urban youth in frica Other projects such as the International Young People Participation Project ( IYPPP) conceptualized by ECPAT have attempted to increase the l evel of young people's participation (ECPA T International, 1999 ) Even with the recognition of the importance of youth and children, there is still evidence that most gmernments only pay lip senice to the idea of consultation with young people. Even tl1ough the right of children to participate i secured in the CRC, governments rarely allow youth to be directly involved in creating healthier, secure and enabling environments. Bartlett ( 2002 ) observes that even though it may seem that the attention given to children by local govermnents is widespread, the truth is that such projects are an exception. She finds that Ye1y few countries have altered their laws to comply with the provisions of the CRC. In her review of the CFC database, she could not fLnd municipal ordinances and regulatory codes that were modified to give attention to children's requirements in cities. 32

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T o day, child and youth p a rticipati o n has b eco m e a n imp o rt ant compo n e nt o f m a n y s tr a t eg ies t o a ddr ess pro bl e m s f ac in g youn g p eo ple. Moor e ( 199 0 ) H a rt ( 199 7), C h ec k o way ( 1998 ), C h a wl a ( 2002 ) and Dris k ell (200 2 ), a nd o th e r s h ave b ee n in s trum ental in pro m o tin g a nd e n couragi n g youth p a rti c ip atio n world w id e b y d o cume ntin g a nd d eve l o pin g too l s to eva lu a t e th e b e n e fit s o f thi s approa ch to pl a nnin g a nd d es i g n T h e l a un c h a nd ex p a n s i o n o f th e GUI C a nd C F initiati, es a r e a t es tim o n y th a t cities ac ross th e world r ecognize t h e n ee d t o a c commo d a t e yo un g p eo pl e's idea T h e e d eve l opments mus t e n co ur age l oca l pl anne r s t o ac knowl e d ge th e n ee d t o co n s ult childre n and yo uth in m a kin g d eve l opment d ecis i o n s b e c a u se in th e poorest o f co untri es, th e ir s urvi val may b e a t s t a ke. The inclu s i o n o f c hildr e n and youth in pl a nnin g s h o uld b e b ase d o n th e ass umpti o n th a t all youn g p eo pl e h ave uniqu e knowle d ge and id e a s th at mus t b e heard Moving to Action C hildr e n and youth wh e r eve r t hey may live, h ave sp e cific n ee d s and int e rest w hich o ft e n diff e r f ro m th ose o f a dults. Due t o th e chall e n ges they f ace, th e r e i s n ee d to includ e th e m in pl a nning. Pl anne r s from poor c o untri es c an learn from th e p a rticip a t o r y pl a nnin g m ove m ent o f th e 19 70s c h a mpi o n e d b y L y n c h a nd o th e rs. T hey kn ew th a t it was n ecessary to und e r s t a nd how childre n a nd youth u se a nd p e r ce i ve th e ir l oca l e n v ir onment in o rd e r t o mak e a b e tt e r qu a lity o f lif e a reality. 33

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The r e ar e a numbe r o f t exts c o n ce rn e d with approaches t o inYo l v in g yo un g p eo pl e in d e ci s ion m a king. Dris k ell's manual ( 2 00 2 ), C reatin g B e tt e r Ci ties 1vith b ildrm at1d Yo11th has b e en t es t e d in so m e S outhe rn as w ell a s N orthe rn indus triali ze d citi es throug h th e work o f U E SCO's GUJ C pro j ect. The m a nu a l i s a pra ctic a l g uid e o n how t o c o n ceptuali7.e, s tru ctu r e and f acilita t e the p a rticip atio n o f young peopl e in processes o f community deYel opment. It i s a u seful tool f o r pl anne rs, municip a l offic ials, community d eve l opme n t s t aff, yo uth -serv in g age n c i es, a nd youth a dvocates t o h e lp e n s ur e s u ccess ful p ro j ects a nd hi g hli ght th e unive r sa l appli c abilit y and v alu e of yo un g peopl e s p a rticipati o n Driskell' s m a nual a nd o th e r lit e r a tur e provid e th e basi s f o r m e anin gful o r authe ntic c hild p a rti c ip atio n u c h s tudies s hould prompt wid e a cknowl edgment of th e n ee d t o c o n s ult childr e n and yo uth in m a kin g d e vel opment d e ci s i o n s, es p e ci ally in t h e poor es t o f countri es. Youn g peopl e mus t h ave th e oppo rturut y to f orm th e ir opuuo n s a nd r ecelYe a d egua t e informatio n b efo r e h a nd t o e n a bl e t h e m t o m a k e informe d d e ci s i o ns. Informa ti o n provi d e d mus t includ e th e p o s ibl e con segue nc es of th e ir d e ci s i o n o n th e m s elv es a nd o th e rs. Y o un g peop l e mus t h ave th e oppo rtunit y to express th eir '-i ewpoints a nd h ave a ch o ic e t o dir e ctl y express th e m se l ves o r th ro u g h a n a dult. The ir o pini o n s must b e t a k e n se ri o u s l y a nd b e includ e d in the fin a l d ecis i o n s Youn g peopl e mus t be informe d afte r a d e ci s i o n has b ee n m a d e and h o w th e r es ult h a d b ee n r eache d T h e r e mus t b e a n opportunity to ask guestio n s a nd appeal th e d ec i s i o n ( Skive n esa a nd S r andbu, 200 6). 3 4

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O nc e th e ir dive rse voices a r e heard th e r e may b e h o p e that th e ir n ee d s will b e m e t w ithin th e ir c o mmunities. C hildr e n and yo uth s h o uld b e allo w e d t o int e ra c t with adult s aro und issues th a t may a ff e ct t h e ir li ves. C h a wl a adv a n ces thi s a r gument b y s a y in g th a t resp ec tful and dignifie d int e r a c tio n e nh a nces co nfid e n ce and tru s t in childr e n . l a nd] .. f orma l p rocesses o f p a rti cip atio n d e lib e r a tel y c r ea t e s tru c tures for c hild re n 's e n gage m ent in co n str uctin g meanin g a nd s harin g d ec i s i o n m a kin g ( C h a wla 2 001) True p articip atio n s h o uld n o t b e a b o ut in v itin g c hildr e n a nd youth t o fit t oge th e r w h a t A rd o n r e f e r s t o a s piem of a pre-determi11fd puz:(je. They mu s t also b e invol ve d in d e t e rminin g th e c ompos iti o n and n a tur e o f th e puzz l e itself ( A rd o n 2 00 2). T ru e p a rticip atio n i s n o t only a b o ut impro v in g th e lives o f all youn g p eo p l e but th e quality o f co mmunities in w hich they live. Examples of Participatory Projects that Contribute to Child and Youth Participation One goo d exa mpl e o f a p a rticipat o r y pro j ec t w ith childre n a nd youth i s a c ase s tud y o f c o nditi o n s in S o uth Africa, wh e r e r esea r c h e r s colla b o r a tin g with c hildr e n a nd youth f o und th a t m a n y c hildr e n in J o h annesbur g a r e exp ose d t o numero u s ris ks in th e ir every day e n v ironments ( S wa rt Kruge r w ith C h aw l a, 2002 ) They a l so discove r e d th a t w h e n g i ve n a c h a nc e, youn g p eople w e r e a bl e to id pro bl e m s in th e ir n e i ghbo rhoods. They s p e cific ally f ound that g irl s and b oys h a d diff e r e nt pri o rities. T h e youn g re s id e nt s m a d e sp ecific r e c omme nd atio n s includin g improvin g a nd protectin g exis tin g areas w h e r e they pl aye d r e m o vin g litt e r s l o win g tr affic with s p ee d bumps, 35

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policing public areas and installing s treet light s rather than creating s pecial separate facilitie s for play and recreation ( wart Kruger with Chaw la 2002) In Sathyanagar, Bangalore ( India ) local re sea rcher s worked wit h young people between the ages of 10 and 14 to map their communitie and to s hare s torie s of th e ir everyday live s in a ORAD funded project (Dri s kell Bannerjee, and Chawla, 2001 ) The G I C stu d y found that the children in Sathyanagar were confident, self-aware and re s ilient The s tud y also found that in many cases, funding agencies did not fully support participation efforts. In another s tud y o f children 's club s in Nepal, Hart, Khatiwada and Rajbhandar y ( 1999 ) found that the clubs offer opportunities for children 's per so nal development. From ages 8-16, both male and female s attend club meeting s and pass decision s regarding their conununity projects. Through informal activities s uch as s inging a nd dancing, the y are also able to make friends. These activities raise awareness about i ssues in the community and re s ult in participants gaining new s kill and knowledge Howe ve r the s tud y a l o found that indep endent identification of project b y the) o un g participant was still l ow. Merkle ( 2003 ) describe s conditions where yo ung people mostly children of indigenou s mi grants from rural a rea s, are marginalized in El Alto, Bolivia The s tigma s they face becau se of poverty and cultural factors haYe l owere d their self-esteem. Young people ha ve formed autonomous informal youth groups that undertake cultural activities s uch as mus ic theatre and p oetry. These artistic perfo rmance s pro vi de yo ung peopl e with an opportunity to express their views and tell tories about their everyday lives. The 36

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activities proYide an o utlet for young people to articulate their discontent and protest against the political system in Bolivia ( Merkle, 2003). Accor din g t o Merkle ( 2003 ), participation in these yout h activities has led to an increase in young people 's pride in their identity and that of their town of E l Alto. The yout h identify with their migrant roots and embrace their culture, as s hown b y the increase of the local music and dance groups. In examining the development of a childr en's participatory budget council in the city of Barra Mansa, Brazil, Guerra ( 2002 ) finds that boys and gi rl s e l ected by their peers to the local municipal council l earn how to represent their peers and prioritize and develop projects which address their needs. In a case study in Kwitang, Centra l Jakarta, Hamid (2004) carried out a study of children's perception of their environment. He discovered that even though city authorities assumed that children's needs had been met by developing infrastructure in Kelurahan Kwitang, tl1e children felt uncomfortable with piles of garbage, poor drainage and l ack of sidewalks and pedestrian paths. They were also uncomfortable with the population den ity and limited acces to pla yg rounds and transportation services. Anoth er study in Cali, Co l ombia provided young people with an opportunity to exp l ore their own communities as participant observers and document community beliefs, priorities and surviva l strategies (ASOARTE et al., 2002). Through this research, young people openly expressed how adults stigmatized and viewed all of them as trouble maker s and drug taker These negative adult perceptions eroded the self-esteem of yo ung people 37

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Evidence fro m th e e xampl es di scusse d ab o Y e s u gges t s that th e r e i s g r ea t va lu e in accepnng yo un g peopl e s id e a s and o pini o n s B y foll o win g accept e d s tandard s f o r authe ntic p a rti c ip atio n while inv o l v in g young p eo ple in c ommunity p ro j ec t s, young peopl e b e c o m e confid ent a nd se lfawa re. In B o livi a's c ase, p a rticip atio n b y youth h as l e d yo un g peopl e to f eel p ro ud o f th e i r id e ntity a nd th a t o f the ir town o f E l It o. In m a n y c ases o n ce they a r e all owe d t o p a rticip a t e, young peopl e free l y express th e ir o pini o ns, pl a n impl e m ent and m a n age p rojec t s In Barr a Ma nsa, Bra zil, yo un g peopl e's p a rticipati o n in th e budge t coun cil has help e d the m a cquir e new s kill s a nd e n a bl e d th e m t o g i ve th e ir input at th e coun cil m ee tin gs, o r ga ni ze pro j ect a cti v iti es a nd g ain a clea r unde r s t a ndin g o f local issu es Invol ve m ent in c ommunity proj ects gi ves yo un g p e ople s elf-assurance, ena blin g m a n y o f th e m to achi eve th e ir own goals. Participati o n in poor c o untri es i s n o t o nl y a b o ut surv i va l but also a b o ut h e lpin g yo un g peopl e e n gage in cultur a l activ iti es s u c h as mus i c, d a n ce, dra win g o r p a intin g t h e ir e nvir onments. In selfh e lp youth o r ga ni za ti o n s s uch as MY A, yo un g peopl e ge t a c h a n ce t o m a k e frie nd s a nd fee l good a b o u t th e m elve a nd th e ir c o mmuniti es. P a rti c ip atio n help s th e m d ev el o p th e ir p e r so nality, ta l e nts and m enta l a nd physical abiliti es (UN ICEF 2 005 ) 38

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I m p ac t o f P artici p a tion In this section, I discuss some of the claims made about the benefits of child and youth participation. Examples from the previous se ction suggest that there are several impacts of child and youth participation. Given the possibility of negative as well posltlve outcomes, it i s important to evaluate projects. This section reviews a helpful st ructure for doing this. The potential benefits of participation generally apply to individual participants and their communities (Tolman & Pittman, 2001 ) As the examples from Bolivia and other countries s how participation enhances young people 's civic capacity while also advancing their s tanding in society. Re sea rchers recogruze that participating 1n organized activities 1s a common developmental experience for young people (Cappizzano, Tout, & Adams, 2000). By participating in MYSA activities, members are per uaded to make wise choices with regard to crime, violence, drug s, alcohol and sexual activities. As Mahoney, Harris and Eccles, (200 6 ) recommend, MY A activities proYide opportunities for members to connect with peer s and other adults in their communities while they make meaningful contributions to their familie s and communities. MYSA programs encourage young people to make pos iti ve choices in their live contributing to positive yo uth development. heckowa y and Finn ( 1995 ) find that participation results in positive psychosocial results including a se nse of efficacy, civic education and skill development Young people gain skills and knowledge confidence and in some ca es 39

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attain resources for themselves and their commurunes. Their responsible input 1n projects changes attitudes and they develop better relationships with adults. Checkoway et al. ( 2003 ) find that participation can strengthen youth social development, contribute to their organizational development and re s ult in community changes. Chawla, ( 2002 ) suggests that giving priority to young people in human ettlement deci ion making re s ult s in improved protection of the environment, public health and conditions for human de, elopment for all. She argue that it i s beneficial to include young people in development becau e yo ung people learn formal skills of democratic citi ze nship and also acquire a foundation for lifelong habits of environmental intere s t concern and care Young peop l e are also the best experts on local environmental conditions related to their own needs ( Chawla, 2002). Hart ( 1997 ) argues that participation fosters young people' resilience, enhances their social competence, problem-solving skills, autonomy and a sense of purpose. They become more creative and are open t o learning new s kills. The involvement of young people and recognition of their potential gi,es them confidence and improves their tanding in their communities. There i s a need for further research in order to understand the impacts and process of young people 's engagement in planning The challenge is to find methods that can measure impacts in diverse settings and cultural enviromnents A PLA UK report authored by Ackermann, et al. ( 2004 ) provides a broad structure for looking at the effects of participation. In a s tud y of children s participation in three countrie they identified and categorized impacts into four realms. The report based on field work in 40

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Ke nya, Indi a a nd Ecu a d o r devi se d a h olis tic approac h t o m eas urin g ove r all qualitative achi eve m ents. T h e a uth o r s id e ntifi e d f o ur r e alm s th a t includ e p e r so n a l familial communa l a nd in s tituti o n al. The P erJonal realm f o cu es o n self co nfid e n ce, a cqui s iti o n of lif e skills, p erso nal d evelopme nt soc ial d eve l opme n t a nd p os itive c h a nnel s f o r e n e rgy a nd c r eativ ity. T h e familia/ l eve l looks a t g r ea t er p are ntal s upp o rt less abuse, enha n ce d s tatu s w ithin th e f a mil y and g r ea t e r socia l free d o m p a rticul arly f o r g i r l s T h e C OI111l1!fl/(/l l eve l r e f e r s to so lid a rity, buildin g s tron g support n etwo rk s, and c o nfid e n ce, which result in g r ea t e r community awa r e n es a nd con ce rn f o r c hildr e n 's issu es, a n improve d sta tu s of childr e n wi thin th e community a nd th erefo r e enha n ce d c ommunity d evelopme nt. The inst it11tional r ealm includ es imp rove m ents in schoolin g a nd th e imp rove d fun ctio nin g of age n ci es ( A ck etmann, e t a!. 2004). The imp o rt a nc e o f t h e m easure m ent s tructures d eve l o p e d in th e P LAN re p o rt s t e m s fr o m th e fact th a t they tr a n sce nd c ultur a l a nd e n v i ronmental di f f eren ces a nd may b e uni ve r sally acce ptabl e T hi s i s not t o say th a t th ese m eas ures alo n e a r e s u fficie nt in m ea urin g th e impact in dif f e r e nt p a rt s of th e wo rld T h e invol ve m ent o f youn g p eople o ff e r s th e m n ew skills, a bility t o build th e ir se lfest ee m and say w h a t i s o n th e ir mind s Y o un g people stra t eg i z in g f o r th e ir n e i g hb o rhood improve m e nt dir ectly c h a n ge th e ir co mmunities and in th e process also b e n efit p e r so n ally th roug h th e ex p erie n ce A dult s may not n ecessarily h ave all th e a n swe r s a nd youn g p eo pl e con tri butin g t o d ec i s i o n s th a t a ffect th e ir lives may b e a logi ca l s t a r t to o l v in g p ro bl e ms. In B olivia, f o r exa mple, mi g r an t yo un g peo pl e h ave forme d a u to n o m o u s informa l youth g r o up s to h e lp th e m fight agai n s t di crimin atio n S u c h b o ld 41

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s tep s b y youn g p eople and other participator y activities raise aware ness about issue s in the community (Merkle, 2003 ) Participation bring s pe e r s together, help s yo ung pe o ple set pri o riti es a nd challenges them t o m a k e deci s i o n s that affect their communitie C hild and youth p ar ticip atio n b y far has m a n y p o t e nti a l pos iti ve impacts. However, it 1 s imp o rt ant to recognize that th e r e can b e so m e n egative e ff ects Ack er m ann e t al. ( 2004) di scm e r e d th at occ up y in g children a nd taking them away from their d omestic chores resulted in co nflict with p a r ents T h e r e i s also a risk that you n g peopl e ma y b e compromised o r m a y b e dise nchant e d w ith the p a rticip atio n process, esp ec iall y when th e ir r ecomme ndati o n s are n o t taken serio u s l y One s uch exa mple i s the case o f E l A l to, B oliv i a, where Merkle ( 2003 ) f ound that p a rticipati o n in so m e cases result e d in frustration a nd a p at h y towards p o litici a n s and th e B oliv ia n p o litic a l syste m. In the participat 0 1 1' bud get council in B a rra Mansa, Brazil, G u e rr a ( 2 002 ) f o und th at participation s l owe d the impl e m entatio n of projects a nd mad e them difficult to coordinate. T h ese n ega tive impact s brin g o ut concerns a b o ut the tmp acts of p a rticipati o n o n youth. In ca ses w h e r e adults u e childre n a nd yo uth p a rticipati o n oppo rtuniti es as cover t o achi eve a dult e nd s, youn g peopl e may b e ex p ose d to h ar m and cnt1c1s m 4 2

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Ch a ll enges to P artici p a ti o n D es pit e th e well d ocumente d b e n e fit s o f yo un g peopl e's p a rticipati o n and d es pit e s i g nin g a nd r a tif y in g the C R C, m a n y governments rar e l y allo w children a nd yo uth t o b e dir e ctl y invol ve d in c r ea tin g h e althi e r se cur e a nd e n a blin g e n v ir onments In thi s sectio n I di s cuss so m e o f th e b a rri e r s th a t prevent th e invol ve m ent o f young peopl e in pla nning. The d eve l opments a nd initi ati Y e I h ave di scusse d in previ o u s se cti o n s s u gge t tl1at th e field o f pl anning ha s b egun t o a c kn owle d g e the importance o f invol v in g yo un g people. H oweve r F r a nk ( 2 00 6 ) find s th a t s tru c tural b a rri e r s s uch as a dult d o min atio n o f r e l evant in s tituti o n s, c o upled with a l a ck ofunde r sta ndin g a nd knowl e d ge o f c hild a nd yo uth a biliti es a nd inte r es ts, d e n y young p e opl e a cha n ce t o p a rticip atio n in pl anning. In m a n y ca ses th e v i e w s o f so ci e t y to w ard s young p e opl e i s limit e d t o d ev el opme ntal n.lln e r a bl e, l egal, and rom a ntic v i ews (F rank, 2 00 6). The detll'lo p m e1!tal v i ew emphasi zes yo un g peopl e's l ac k o f knowl e d ge, skills, attitud es, b e h av i o r s, and o ci a l c onnectio n s o f a dult a nd th e r e f o r e th e ir in a bility to p a rti c ip a t e in th e d e m a ndin g t as k o f pl a nning. T h e t m l n erabili!J v i ew i s about young p eo pl e b e in g l ess p o w e rful th a n adult s a nd th e r e f o r e ex p ose d t o abuse b y a dult s and in n ee d o f pro t ectio n The legal v i ew ass i g n s yo uili t o w h a t F r a nk ( 200 6 ) call s pa ttial citi::;pt stat11s. A cc o rdin g t o h e r th e l egal v i e w impli es that yo uth d o not legall y h o ld th e full rights a nd r es p o n s ibiliti es o f a dults. Questio n s arise a b o ut th e app ro pri a t e l eve l o f influ e n ce that yo un g pe o pl e s h o uld h a v e in so ci ety. Lastly, th e r omanti c v iew t rea t s youth as h av in g di tinct val u es a nd t a l ents w hich ca n b e see n thro u g h th e ir c r eativ ity, enthus i a m a nd curi os ity. T hi v i ew s u gges t s th a t th ese 4 3

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ch a r ac t eris tic s a r e in so m e c ases eve n up erio r to th ose o f a dult s (F r a nk 2 00 6). T hi s v iew i s n o t r ealis tic b e cau s e in m a n y cases yo un g p eo pl e d o n t h ave th e t e chnical skills a nd r e o urces n ee d e d t o so lv e pro bl e ms. A ll th ese ocie tal v ie w s h a v e be e n r e p o n s ibl e f o r th e s low int eg r atio n o f c hild a nd yo uth p a rticip atio n in pla nning. Even w h ere th e r e i s r e c og niti o n o f th e imp orta nc e o f children and yo uth th e r e i s still evide n ce th a t m os t l o cal governments, pl a nn e r s a nd th ose in a uth ority o nl y pay lip serv i ce t o th e id ea o f con s ult atio n w ith yo un g p eo ple. C h e ckowa y ( 1 998 ) a r g u es th a t limit e d fina n cial r eso urc es, s t a ff s i ze a nd tim e still co n s tr a in yo un g p eo pl e's p a rticip atio n in l o c a l a uth o rities a nd dev el opment o r g ani z ati o ns. B a rtl e tt ( 2 002 ) also o bserves th at eve n w h e n it ma y see m th a t th e a t te nti o n g i ve n t o c hildr e n b y l o c a l governments i s widespr e ad th e truth i s th a t s uch proj ects ar e a n ex c e pti o n Sh e ar g ues that in m os t c ases, it i s f a r m o r e lik e l y that childr e n if they a r e con side r e d a t a ll a r e see n o nl y as th e r e cipi ents of p a rticul a r t a r ge t e d ser v i ces". T h ese tr a diti o n a l se rvi ces f o r childr e n a nd yo uth includ e e du catio n health a nd so cial pro t e cti o n A n o th e r m a j o r o b s tacl e, esp ecially in th e S o uth i s th e c ultur e th a t dictat es th a t a dult s know w h at i s b e t f o r t h e yo ung. Y o un g c i tize ns, esp ec i ally in citi es, a r e ofte n v i ewe d b y a dults w ith s u s pici o n a nd so m e tim es h ostility. They a r e s till d eeme d as inh e r e ntl y n o n p ro ducti ve C h eckowa y ( 1998) r e f ers t o th e prevalent b elief that a dult s a r e b et t e r th a n yo un g p eo pl e and th e r e f o r e e ntitl e d t o act up o n yo un g p eo pl e in m a n y ways with out th e ir a g r eement, a s Adu lt ism. Particip atio n i s d ee m e d controve r s ial

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es peciall y b y parents who b elieve th a t th e ir childr e n alr e ad y enjoy too much freedom and m o re leewa y in d e ci s i o n makin g mi ght be g ivin g up c ontro l of their childr e n P a rticip atio n o f th e young i s n o t a new phe n o m e n o n in many cultures. The ir inv o l ve m ent wa tr a diti o n ally cruci a l f o r th e ir surv i va l a nd that o f who l e c ommunities. M os t child and y o uth activ iti es we r e integ rat e d in d ayt oday a cti v iti es o f communities. H amid ( 1 9 9 7 ) o b se n r es that i so lati o n o f yo un g people i s a n e w phe n o m e n o n es p e ciall y .in S outhern c ultur es whi c h ha ve r ece ntl y b ee n influ e n ce d b y \"\!est e rn id eas th a t pl a c e g r eat emphas i s o n cl ass id e ntiti es a nd s urvi va l o f th e fitt est. D ependents, es p ecially children and youth, h ave suddenly b e c o m e a burde n rath e r than a r eso urce. Mode rn life a nd r a pid m o Y e m ent o f young a dult s t o urb a n a r eas ha s led t o a bre akdown o f th e tr a diti o nal extende d f a mili es th a t lon g e n s ur e d th e se curity o f c hildr e n and youth. H art's ( 1992 ) e i ghtl eve l l a dd e r o f participati o n and o ther a rticl es o n p a rticipati o n h ave b ee n wid e l y embrace d w o rld w ide. H o w eve r they h ave a \"\!est e rn bias and attempts t o embra c e a nd impl e m ent th e m o d els in S o uth e rn c ultur es with o u t unde r s tandin g o f l o cal cultur es, p o litic a l sys t e m s and l a n g u ages s p o k e n may d e t e r p a rticip atio n Rigid .interpre tati o n o f th e l adde r a nd o th e r r e lat e d t e xt s w ill prevent .ide ntific atio n o f l o cal and uniqu e a lt e rn a ti ve participat o ry m o del s If w e .ig n o r e a s p ects .in o ther cultur es that a r e n o t includ e d o r g iven prominence .in \ Ves tern lit e r a tur e, w e may i g n o r e imp o rt ant a nd n e w p a rticip a t o r y m e th o ds. It i s important t o t a k e into c o n s id e r atio n local conditi o n a nd n ee d s w hil e interpre tin g and impl e m e ntin g id eas (Ba rtlett 1999). 4 5

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Reflection s on Particip a tion The CRC, GUIC, CFC, GPI and other initiatives around the world by governments, non-profit organizations and community groups give planners, especially in poor countries, an opportunity to engage children and youth in planning, managing and assessing their local enviromnents. \X'hen given a chance, young people are capable of identifying problems in their neighborhoods. They know best the problems confronting them and their communities and how to solve them Checkoway and Finn ( 1995 ) Hart ( 1997), C h aw la (2002 ) and C h eckoway et al. (2003 ) The examples I have discussed illustrate that participation is crucial not only for the basic surviva l of young people, but a lso show that embracing participation can help meet other developmental needs of youn g people. Scholars agree that there is a need to embrace the creative ideas of children and youth in the development and management of the em-ironment and human ettlements, and the literature reviewed in the preceding sections shows that the impacts of young people' s involvement in planning are overwhelmingly positive. The potential benefits apply to individual participants and their communities. Planners mu t seize this opportunity and publicly declare their commitment to consultation and improving young people's access to opportunities and choices, particularly about issues that directly affect them ( Checkoway and Finn, 199 5, Hart, 1997, Chawla, 2002, Checkoway et al. 2003, Mahoney, Harris, and Eccles, 2006 ) There are ba ic principle that are important to consider at any leYel of the process, irregardless of the culture. True participation is about "choice" Yoluntary involvement in 46

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activities that affect young peopl e's lives In order t o encourage child and yo uth participation, the proces s mus t be voluntary. Young people must choose to participate and can have the ability to guit at any time. Project s must also be relevant to their need s and make localized decision makin g a priority Informin g young people about th e aim processes and their own role s in project s help s them effectively partak e in the proces s and influence deci s i o n s and activities Des pite the well documented benefits of yo un g people 's parne1pauon many governments and local authorities rarel y give young people 's participati o n the kind of attention needed to make real changes in communities. Young citizen s are often viewed b y adults with s u s picion and so metime s hostility Adults are deemed better and more re s ponsible than yo ung people Thi s belief i s interpreted to mean that adults can act upon yo ung pe o ple without their agreement. Parent s who think their children already have too much freedom consider participation a thr eat t o their authority. In my view, young people mus t o rg a nize, prote s t and lobb y f o r change a nd demand their inclu s ion in decision making The mas sive protests in France show that yo ung people should not d es pair, as the y can bring their grievances to the foreground and force change s on their soc ieties. Tolman and Pittman ( 2001) argue that even young children can demand change a nd make a difference In a tudy of a working children's union in K.aroataka, India they found that youn g children were willing to protect a nearb y forest for their future The children's a n swe r to the defore s tation was to grow their own forest. They propose d to plant all th e trees the y needed, includin g medicinal h er bs. They sta t e d 47

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that they would let l oose all the birds and animals that their parent s had told them once lived there. They promi se d never to cut any trees \Vhen asked where they would get the land, one nine yea r old answered, "\Xf e will ask the Commissioner. .. and if not given the land ... we will s it in the Commissioner's chambers" ... until he meets their demands. Their confidence was ba se d on the belief that they were also part of the Bhima Sangha commurut:y. This example s ugge sts that once yOLmg people organize, are aware of their need s and that of their communities, the y can demand change. The young residents of Bhima Sangha were awarded 100 acres of land. The forest they call amma Kadu or 'Our Forest' has begun to grow. Participation allows an opportunity to collaborate with young people towards improving the situation and meeting local level needs The development of autonomous yo uth groups and that support their agendas are a good start. Most recently, the di sputed elections brought out thousand of yo ung people who reside in the slums of airobi to the s treets. They s poke of their fru s tration with authoritie and a society that continues to ignore them Participation alone cannot solve all the complex urban problem s including traffic, hazardous surroundings, unemployment, social fears, v iolence inadequate transportation, absence of public s pace and facilities and a host of other common problems facing young re s ident s The complexities of urban problems also require time, financial re so urces and technical expertise. Involving yo ung people require planners and young people to set up sc hedule s that provide time for interaction and exchange of ideas -+8

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and n ee d s Y oung peopl e mus t b e e nc o ura ge d a nd invol ve d in trying t o address pro bl e m s in th e ir communities so t hey d o n t f e el left out and h e lpl ess All c hildr e n and youth s h o uld b e tr ea t e d with e qual r e p e ct r ega rdl ess o f th e ir age, s itu atio n e thni c i ty, a biliti es o r o th e r f acto rs. Y oung peopl e a r e c ompe t ent, as ev id e nc e d b y th e ir s u c c ess in communityb a e d initi atives in which they took c ontrol. Dis cu ss i o n s in thi p a p e r s u gges t th a t there i s a c h a n ce f o r young peopl e t o d eve l o p f o r th e m se l ves v i a bl e so luti o n s and contribute t o m a n ag ing their liv ing e n vironments. 4 9

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CHAPTER3 RESEARCH METHOD Thi s secno n describes th e m e th o d s used t o colle ct d a t a f o r m y s tud y o n th e MYS A E n vironmenta l C l ea n -U p pro g ram in N aito bi K e nya. A l so included in th e secti o n a r e brief back g r o und d es cripti o n s o f th e relevant MYS A zo n es w h e r e th e s tud y was c onducte d and proftles o f th e sampl e d p o pul atio n I a l so d esc rib e th e proc ess o f sel e ctin g info rm ants, th e r ese ar c h instrum ents, and th e proc ess o f d ata a nalysis. In c o nclu s i o n, I di s cuss th e ad vantages and limitati o n s o f m y s tud y m e th o d o l ogy The r esea r c h inc o rp o rat e d a nd guantit ative t e chnigues o f re sea rch Qua ntitati ve t e chnigu es provi d e d m os t o f th e ba c k g r o und informatio n f o r m y s tud y E thn og raphi c r esea r c h tool s gave m e dir ec t a c cess t o th e dail y lives and b e h av i o r s o f th e MYS A yo uth I u se d p a rticip ant o b se rv atio ns, in d epth int e rvi ews and f o cu s g roup di s cussion s to find out h o w youth p a rticip a t e in th e e n v ir onmenta l clea n up acti v ities and th e imp a ct s o f th e ir p a rticip atio n o n th e ir p e r so nal lives, th e ir l o cal e n v ir onment a nd th e ir co mmunities. I c o nduct e d inte r v ie w s and carri e d o ut tw o f o cu s gro up dis cussi o n s wi th p a rti c ip a tin g yo uth I furth e r e n gage d seve r a l c ommunity m embe r s, f a mil y m embe r s a nd o th e r s in informal di s cu ss i o n s t o find o ut wh a t their th o u ghts we r e r ega rdin g t h e clea n up acti v iti es, a nd o b serve d a nd p ar ticip a t e d in clea n up activities m yself in seve r a l MYS A z o nes. 50

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The Stud y Sit es: MYSA Z o n es MYS A prog r a m s are sprea d ov er 16 zo n es in th e e a s t side o f airo bi I f o cused o n f our z o n es which co n s i t o f M a th a r e, Ea tle i g h Huruma and K.orogo ch o s lum s The it e a r e all co n ve ni e ntl y l o c a t e d n ea r a ir o bi city cente r and th e r e f o r e easy t o acc ess P rior t o m y r esearch, I h a d b ee n to th e l ocatio n s severa l times b e f o r e a nd th ere f o r e h ad a ge n e r a l knowl e d ge o f th e e n v ir nment. In D e c embe r o f 2 00 4 I was f o rtun a t e t o wo rk w ith MYS m embe r s a nd s lum r es ident s durin g a pil o t tudy. I int e r acte d ea ily with th e yo uth re s p ec tfull y e n gagi n g th e m a nd g i vi n g th e m e nc o ur age m ent t o talk to m e with o ut f ear I put th e m a t ease b e c a u se I s p o k e th e l o c a l s l a n g SH E G, w hi c h i s a mi x tur e of wa hili E n glis h a nd l o c a l dial ec ts. Due t o th e ir p o pul atio n d e n s ities, th ese f o ur s ites a cc o unt f o r th e l a r ges t numb e r o f fYSA m embe r s T hey ha ve m a n y so cc e r team s a nd r epresent t h e variatio n s in n e i ghbo rhood s wh e r e m os t m embe r s live. M a th are and K.orogo ch o r epresent so m e of t h e wo r s t s lum c o nditi o n s, w hil e n e i ghborhood s u c h as Eastle i g h a nd Huruma a r e c ompose d o f a mi x tur e o f mid t o l o w leve l n e i g hb o rhoods. The e l o c atio n s w e r e also ch ose n b e c a u se they a r e all within wa lkin g di s t a n ce f ro m the MYS Eastle i g h o ffice, and m a n y o f th e r es id e nts h ave a c cess t o fYS.r\ o fficials, o ffices a nd f ac iliti es. M a th a r e i s l oca t e d n o rth eas t o f a ir o bi in th e Centra l di vis i o n a nd i s estimat e d t o h ave a p o pul atio n o f m o r e t han 1 00,000 p eo pl e wh o curr e ntl y live in s h ac ks m a d e o f o ld pla s tic cardb oa rd a nd ru s t e d co rrugat e d ir o n s h ee t s (l -H a bit a t 200 3 ) Eastle i g h i s a r e id e nti a l est ate a l so l oca t e d in n o rth eas t e rn airo bi It c o mpri ses m ostly a p ar tm e nts 5 1

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a nd uncoordinat e d h o u s in g ex t e n s i o n s w hich result in s lum t y p e d we llings. Man y r efugees from S o malia h ave se ttl e d in E a stle i g h a s ev id e nced b y th e Hij a ab clad w o m e n in th e s tr ee t s a nd th e m a n y m adra a sc hool s in th e a rea. Eastle i g h i s p a rt o f th e Pumwa ni di v i s i o n of airobi Huruma informa l settl e m ents a r e a l so s itu a t e d in th e Centra l div i s i o n o f a u o bi C ity. T h e a r ea co n s i s t s o f run down h o u ses, poorly c o nstruct ed ap a r t m ents a nd m a n y informa l h o u ses. T h e info rmal h o u s in g c o n s i s t s o f s i x v ill ages, Ka mbi ya M o t o, M a hira, R e d ee m e d G h e t to, Gita t huru a nd M a doya K orogo ch o, which i s th e f o urth s i te, i s l o cat ed in K asa r a ni div i s i o n and i s K e nya' s third la r ges t s lum h o u s in g 1 20, 0 00 resid ents cramm e d int o seve n villa ges all l o c a t e d w ithin o n e s in g l e s qu a r e kilo m e t e r ( Slwn D welle r s Inte rn atio n a l 2 0 0 1). They all f ace n eg lec t b y th e N a ir o bi C ity Co uncil w hi c h i s unabl e t o e ff ectively d elive r wast e m a n age m ent se r v i ces t o th e reside nt s Co nditi o n s h ave d e t erio rat ed resultin g in n e i g hb o rhood s s urr o und e d b y unc ollec t e d ga rb age, co n ta min a t e d wa t e r a nd was t e that e xp o es th e inh a bit ants t o di seases The a r eas a r e h o rribl y muddy durin g th e w e t easo n a nd ago ni z in g l y du s t y durin g th e dry seaso n A mid s t th e mud, dirt n o i se, p o lluti o n w r e ck e d infrastructu re and la wl ess n ess, th e r e i s di ve r s ity a nd compl exity. In many ca ses th e r e i s a vibrant info rmal econo m y dri ve n mainl y b y se c ond h a nd clotl1es Y endo r s and fruit and vege tabl e selle r s ( S c hild erma n 2 00 4 ) 5 2

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LEGEND e Town Atfoclfome D PYOin-111 liwanl Figure 3 KIBERA MAP PARAMETRES Gfldo Dltum ol height: PYojtlt t 210,000 53

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Figure 3.1 Map of the Sixteen MYSA Zones Sel e ction of Informants and their Profiles The interviewed informants included 20 MYSA youth, five MYSA program l eaders, five parents or guardians, and two l oca l city council officials. Each zone wa represented by five youth informants, who ranged between 16 and 20 years old. I selected 40 initiall y with eight infonnants from each zone. This nwnber was determined b y m y resources and time but once in the field I noticed that by the 18th and 19th 54

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1nterv1ews, the new data was no longer bringing additional insights to my research quesnons. MYSA Youtl1 In order to find out how youth make a difference in their communities, I focused on a male segment of the MYSA members. In Nairobi, this age range of 1620 in mid to late adolescence represents a big part of the population, especially in slum areas (U Habitat, 2003 ) The choice of male members was not because the female members are less important, but because I recognized that as a man, dealing with female member wou ld provide s i gnifica nt challenges, especially in regards to interaction and access. Furthermore, due to cultural biases, the probability of this male segment's inclusion in decision making is higher than that of younger adolescents and their female counterparts. This age range was also a choice because most youth join the MYSA programs at age eight to ten, so that b y the age of 16 they have t y picall y participated for five years and h ave probably been ab l e to absorb any effects the programs may h ave had. Another consideration was that they have specific need that are not similar to other age groups, thu providirlg unique experiences and opinions. Eccles and Appleton ( 2002) argue that young people at this stage attempt to discover who they are, fonning their identity and making sense of their world while reacting to social forces that in some cases seek to exploit them. In Mathare and oth er research sites some young people have dropped out of chool, others have just completed high school and are in need of guidance and opportunities for further education or jobs. 55

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I m et most of the informants at va ri o u s MYSA events and pl ayg r o und s durin g eve nin g and weeke nd so ccer training sessio ns. They were easy to access a nd int e ract with since I had ear li er exp er ie nces playin g socce r with so m e of th em. Some came t o m y attention bec a use I was told about them b y informant s with whom I h ad already m a d e contact. B y atte ndin g seve r a l socce r practice sess i o n s and MYSA events, I was a bl e t o quickl y develop rapport with many m embe rs. Table 3 Summat)' of Youth Segment o f Participant s b y Age and Zone Zone b y Name Categories of yo uth (16-20 year old males) Math are 1-16 y r o ld 1-1 7yr o ld 118 y r old 119 y r old 1-20 yr o ld Eastle i g h Huruma Korog_ocho 20 Youth MYSA Program Leaders To co mpl e m ent m y int erv i ews with th e young m embe rs, I a l so inter viewe d five man age r s a nd program dir ec t o r s in charge o f MYSA c ommunity erv ic e pro g rams. T h e leaders are respon s ibl e for th e d ay-today o p eratio n s of th e organization Interv iewing them prov id e d d etaile d inform atio n d escr ibin g the zo n es, numbe r of m embers, soccer teams a nd the sc h o la r s hip s awar d e d Some of them mad e important p o lic y documents availa bl e to me. I vis it e d the fYSA offices l ocate d in K.omarock an d Eastle i g h w her e I 56

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introduced myself and my research. After a few \-i.sits to the Komarock offices and to various MYSA events and activities, I was able to build rapport with program leaders, especially those in charge of community service programs. Willie attending I\1YSA events, I was able to observe how they interacted with other members t such events, I was able to have infotmal discu sions with individual managers or with several of them at a time Local C o unty C o un cil Official s Several visits to the local ciry council offices in the area were necessary. I introduced m yself and my tudy and requested any interested officials to participate in my research. The MYSA Environmental Program leader had mentioned that MYSA has a working relationship with the cit y authorities. In my interviews with the city officials, I tried to ftnd out about existing arrangements between the city and I\1YSA and how they worked together to provide services to the residents. Only two city council offi cials from Pumwani division were willing to talk to me The officials were in charge of clean-up in Ea tleigh Huruma and Mathare. Most of the other officials were worried about losing their jobs even after I assured them that I would not identify or guote them in my docwnents. I sus pect that the y may have withheld some information especially related to the reasons why the council has been unable to provide services to l ocal communities. I got some insights into the difficulties facing the officials from the informal discussions I had with individual s willie visiting the offices. 57

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P a r ents or Gu ardia n s S o m e o f m y informants wer e willin g t o intr o du ce m e t o th e ir p a r ents o r g uardians, wh o m I int e r v i ewe d in o rder t o find out th e ir v ie w s r eg ardin g MYS A. The parent s and g u a rdi a n s e xpl aine d th e r easo n s why they allowe d t h e ir so n s t o p a rticip a t e in MYS a cti v ities. T hey a l so t old m e a b o ut so m e o f th e b e n efits th e f a milies and c ommunities we r e g ainin g fro m fYSA p rog r a m s T h e y n a rr a t e d th e ch a n ges th e y h a d see n thr o u g h th e year s o f liv in g in th ese n e i ghbo rhoods. I h a d pl anne d t o intetTi ew at l e a s t t e n par e nt s o r g u a rdi a n s but I ende d up with o nl y five interv iews. It was di f ficult to l oca t e a nd s chedule int e rvi ews w ith mos t of th e p a r ents. They we r e a lway busy a t w ork tryin g t o pro v id e f o r th e ir f a milies. On several oc casion s, I i s it e d th e m a t th e ir s mall bus in ess kios ks and h a d informa l conver s ati o n s with th e m I a l so e n g a ge d p a rent s or g uardian s durin g th e so c ce r m a tches o r o th e r :tvfYS A events, wh e r e o ur di s cussi o n s f o cused o n th e MYS A o r ga ni zatio n and c o nditi o n s in th e ir n e i ghbo rhood s 5 8

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Table 3.1 Summary of Informants Subjects Number Data Collection Recruiting Subjects of Methods Subjects Interviews Attend soccer training Youth 20 Observations sess i ons and other MYSA Focus Groups events at proposed locations Informal Discussions and introduce myself Photos &Video recordings Interviews Parents/ 5 Focus Groups Youth introduce me to Guardians Informal Discussions parents Snowball Interv iews Write letter of intra and vis it MYSA 10 Focus Groups 1\1\'S -HQ Program Informal Discussions Leaders Local 2 Interviews Write l etter of intra and visit Council Informal Discussions local municipal offices Officials Research Ethics Before I set out to the field, I submitted m y study proposal to the niversit:y of Colorado Denver Human R esearch Committee for review. They approved m y proposal ba se d on assurance that the welfare of my informants would be protected and that I would obtain informed consent before conducting m y re sea rch. Once i.n airobi I submitte d m y proposal to the Ministry of Education, Science and Technolog y where 1 also got l ocal approval Once data collection began personal data and identifiers such as name s were reduced to a minimum b y u se of nickname s and aliase s in the field note s and 59

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int erview tr anscripts in order to protect the id e ntit y of subjects. Almost all my you n g informants could read and write and m y assent forms were suffic ient to obtain their pennt ion to be part of the research ( See forms in Appendix). All p articipa nt s voluntarily participated without manipulation or bribes. I notified them that they were free to withdraw from the study at a n y time. I also told them that feedback and the eventual publications will be submitted to the youth and the :t"vfYSA organization. I finnl y believe that the yo uth have a role to contribute in the promotion of real change in cities. It is m y hope that findings about the participation experiences of the youth in Nairobi can l ead to fresh sen s itivit y and acce ptanc e of yout h by Nairobi 's admini s trator s and planners. Data Collection Primary Data Semi-structured Interviews Intervi ews a r e n arrat i o n s and int erp r etations of people's expenences. The process provides depth complexity and roundne s to data (Bruyn 1966). Interviews provide an opportunity to access and collect data that in some cases is only available through personal accounts. Face to-face int eractive experiences where informants and researchers share conversations enable infonnants to feel comfortable and tell their stories (Co rbin and Morse, 2003). These conversations lead to increased insights into the thoughts and behavior s of the groups being s tudied 60

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In order to collect detailed infonnation about the clean-up program, I used semi structured interviews I planned and detennined topic s of interest and developed general questions that guided me through the inteniew proce s ( See Inten iew s tructure tn Appendix). The u se of open-ended ques tions gave my inf01mants the opportunity to re spond in their own words, providing explanatory, meaningful and in m a n y cases unanticipated answers (Patton, 2000 ). Semi-structured interviews enabled me to maintain a subtle structure to avoid situations where informants would talk widely offering idea s and opinions on topics that were of little interes t to m y research (Weinberg, 2002). My li t of questions was arranged into three main themes. The first set of que tions was aimed at collecting background information about m y informant Questions asked about their age, name of neighborhood and zone, family background and their length of stay in their neighborhoods. The second theme targeted youth participation in MYSA activities. Specific questions asked how they participate and whether the y liked or enjoyed their involvement in clean-up activities. They were asked what they though o the clean-up activities and if the y had witnessed any problems with the program. Lastly, other questions looked at some of the gains experienced because of tl1e MYSA clean-up program. As a requirement, I began by explaining to the infonnants the purpose of the research and their roles. I orally stated the consent requirements before the intenriews began. T made it clear to all participants that their involvement in the study was absolutely voluntary and that they were free to withdraw from the study at any time. The 61

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wording of question s was not the same for ill respondents. I was ab le to adjust by engaging infotmant s according to their individual personalitie s and s t y les. The infom1ants were in man y cases spontaneou with their answers and highlighted infotmation that was imp orta nt to them ( Marshall and Rossman 1995). One such example is the di scovery of the importance of the orwa) soc cer cup in Europe. : Man y yo uth spoke passionatel y about the team selection process and the difficultie s the y faced in their attempts to go to Norway. Once I built rapport with the informants, through patience commitment and gradually gaini n g experience in conducting int erviews, I became confident. I found that genuinely smiling and keeping constant eye contact with informant s was rea ss uring and comforting for many informant s The interviews were informal conversations that allowed flexibilit y to probe initial responses b y asking respondents to e l aborate in cases where their response s were vague. Sometime informant s were intentionall y general, especially when discuss ing sensitive issues such as nepotism and favoritism in the soccer teams In order to get them to open up, I followed up my questions with probe A tactic that worked well for me was asking them to give examp les of such occurrences. Once they began recalling an event, they would elaborate and provide in-depth answers. The inteniewing process eventually helped me develop trust and intimacy with man y of the yo uth. These relationships were crucial for further data collectio n (Marvasti, 2004). Some of the youth were l ater comfortable inviting me to their homes to meet their parents. In 62

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many cases the parents were single mothers working long hours to provide for their familie Each interview sessiOn took at lea s t an hour, but follow-up sessw n s were sc heduled with four yo uth to prov ide clarity and opportunity to ask further que s tions. I got permis sion to record our conversations and used the recording s to help review my interviews. The interviews were sc heduled at the convenie nce of m y informants, and due to time constraints and other factor s, the infonnants and I could not meet as frequently as I had wished. As Bernard ( 2002 ) s ugge s t s, interview s work well in conditions where re sea rchers have only one chance to talk to respondents. This was particularl y also true of the parents and guardians of MYSA members who were hard to locate. They were out all da y working and hardly had time for interviews There was no training that could have prepared me for the daily experiences in the field. I had to keenly pay attention and ask follow-up question s for clarity Colin ( 1993 ) warns researchers that the quality of the d a t a collected i s detemlined b y the information provided b y participants, and it is possible that participant s may not disclose important information becau se the relevant que stio n wa not asked, or if asked at all, no clarity was given. Through thorough planning and preparation, researchers may initially control the direction o f the interview but participants ultimatel y have a choice about what to say and how to respond. In order to be effective and to maximize output, I found that prompting and using cues encouraged info rn1ant s to respond ( Roul sto n et al., 2003). I discovered that my ability to liste n and detect both verbal cues and moods of 63

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those involved is important, as this enabled me to remember what subjects were saying and how the y s aid it ( Silverman 2005). After each interview, I wrote down any ob ervation s that I had about the respondents. These included reminders about informant reactions to topics that made them uncomfortable or emotional. I would then further explore the s e topics in order to gain background information and varied opinion s from other informants I cho e to interview my infotmants because it provided a sense of purpose, increased their self awareness, sense of empowerment and gave informants a voice ( H y le, 2001 ) Many of my informants were excited to share their storie s with me. Through the interviews and further interaction s, I was also able to understand their feelings and to build relationships with many of my informants. \X' e addressed complex questions and is ues which led me to learn about matters that were of great urgency and importance to them. It was exciting to gain new information about events, activities and behaviors of which I had no prior knowledge Observa tion s Direc t Observa tion s Bernard ( 2002) defines direct obsetTations as the process where researchers watch people and record their behavior on the spot. Observations involve watching and li tening carefull y to informants in their ever y da y activities The process requires establishing relations of trust and familiarity with informant Researcher s must make 64

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adequate preparatlon s to obsetTe groups in natural semngs (Bernard, 2002). Directl y obsenr ing a se tting gives re searc her s the opporturuty to understand and capture the context within which people interact (Patton, 2002). Over six months, I attended seven clean up activities and seve ral MYSA events including soccer tournament s and community interacti ve outreach event Having direct personal contact with the yo uth gave me the chance to witness how the y interacted with each other and how the y carried out the actual clean-ups Guided b y m y question s and research theme s I was able t o identif y recurring pattern s of behaviors and relation s hip s between the A members (Marshall and Rossman 1994). Use of obsenr ations in conjunction with intervie\ving stre ngthened m y data collection. I was able to take note of behaviors that confirmed or contradicted information gathered through interviews. I obsen ed how truck s carrying clean up equipment arrived early at the venues and how membe r s organized themseh es in teams to s ign up and collect equipment in an orderly manner In man y case s information and behavior s obsenr ed corresponded with informant accounts. However, J also noticed behaviors that were never mentioned b y the inf01mants. I imagine that informant s took some of these behavior s for granted and never thought to mention them during the interviews One such behavior was the high activity level of the yo unger members while the older boys stood around s upervising them. I also noticed that in man y occasions the girls were as active as the boys in the clean up activities. I video recorded the clean -u p activitie and other MYSA events such as socce r tournaments. 65

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P a rticip ant Observatio n Participant o bsen r ation requires r ese arch e r s t o imme r s e th e m se l ves in the da y -t oda y acti v ities o f th e g r o up s that ar e o f inte rest (Pa tt o n 200 2 ) Coh e n ( 2000 ) and E m e r so n e r a!. ( 2001 ) s t a t e th a t it i s a t e di o u s and tim e con s umin g proc ess w h e r e r esea rch e r s s trive t o d eve l o p and m aintain r e l atio n s hip s with p eople, t a k e n o tes o n every day h appe nin gs, a nd late r sp e nd m o nth s a n a lyzin g field n o t es a nd di a ries. T h e r ewa rd i s ge ttin g in s i ghts into p eo p le's co mplex socia l live and rel atio n s hip s Coh e n ( 2 000 ) s u gges t s th a t p a rti c ipant o b servatio n help s u s exp erie n ce dail y lif e fir s th and, clea r s a p a th t o unde r s t a ndin g, and acts as a p oint o f r efe r e n ce f o r l ocal prac tices th at mi ght o th e rwi se r e m a in o b scure o r s t r an ge t o th e p ass i ve o bserv e r (p. 316 ). B e ck e r a nd G ee r ( 195 7 ) a r g u e that th ese o b servatio n s m a k e it p oss ib l e t o c h ec k descripti o n s agains t f acts. The ass umpti o n i s th a t d a t a i s r evea le d E m e r so n eta!. ( 2 00 1 ) say th a t thi s t e chniqu e i s ab out r esea r c h e r s est a bli s hin g th e msel ves in a n e nvir onment with a goal of r eprese ntin g th e ir exp erie nces and t h e soc i a l co nditi o n s o f th e s ettin g as they see th e m Result s are less likel y t o lead r esea r c h e r s to in1pose t h e ir own v iews as they co n vey w h at they o b serve. P a rticip a n t o b serv ati o n s prov id e d m e with a cha nc e t o und e r s t and, c ompa r e a nd m eas ur e th e t o t ality o f d ata g ath e r e d I was a bl e t o t a k e n ote o f s p ec ifi c a cti v iti es s uch a s w hat th e you t h did th e ir b o d y la n g u age a nd wh a t they sa id t o eac h o th e r This wa y it was p oss ibl e t o id e ntify which t y pes o f informatio n esc a p e d m e durin g int e n r iews. I m a d e n o ass umpti o n s a b o u t w h a t was imp o rt a nt a nd expl o r e d th e d a y t oday a cti v ities 66

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of the youth and the community members. The process reguired me to s pend lots of time with groups of MYSA m embers. I o b serve d h 'ow things were d o ne befo re I tried to participate. I asked man y que stio n durin g m y inYolvement in the activities to make s ure th a t I was interpreting things th e right way. Beck er a nd Geer (1970) argue th at p artic ip an t o b servatio n d oes not mean just '"hanging around" Nothing s h o uld be taken f o r granted, becau se in order for r esea rcher s to b e s uccessful, they mu st be co me part of the social sce ne and b e accepted by p a rticip ants. This i s what they refer to as ne gotiating access into a ocia1 setti ng. Initial reaction s to a re sea rcher 's pre se nce can cause a sen se of perso nal di comfort, and this i s why B ernar d ( 2002) a r gues that s ucc ess dep en d s o n the r esearc h er's ex p er ie nce, observation and sele ction abilities. I chose t o be directl y a nd o penl y invol ve d in the clean-up acti,-ities and observed th e yo uth as the y p artic ipated in the actiYities. On several occasio n s, I took turns with participatin g yo uth to put the trash o nt o wheelbarrows and later l oa d th e trucks with the collected ga rb age. My particip ation helped me r e co g nize how t a kin g the work was. The time spent getting to know m a n y of the participant s was vital b eca u se m y face b eca m e familiar t o many o f the m embers. I was c o n s ciou s and careful b eca u se I rec o gnized that eve n though participatio n proYide d fir st hand infonnation, m y leve l of invol ve ment would p oss ibl y contaminate the setti n g and impair m y judgment and capacity to b e critical. I could not b e too a b so rb e d in the ac tiviti es b eca u se I n ee ded room t o n otice a nd record the b e haYior a nd events around me. 6 7

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Becker and Geer ( 1957) contend that participant observation i s as important as interviews, focu s groups and text analysis. Observers participate actively for a l engthy time and ma y live o r work in areas that mi g ht not nece ssarily be familiar to them as they attempt to b eco m e accepted members of th e gro up. I made initi a l note minute s after the activities a nd exp a nd e d them with detail ed accounts lat e r every eve rtin g after each activity. M y note s constructed the ro l es, rule s and relationships between the members. In m y final note s, I also described the l ocations, physical settings, and the social interactions. I later lis tened to selecte d interview s to compare what the yout h sa id with m y observations. I developed a consistent way of recording and mana g in g note s from m y observations. The u se of a combination of interview s and observations gave a certain mea s ure of reliability to the data that I collected during the months in airobi. Focus Group Discussion I conducted tw o focus grou p di sc u s ion with 14 yo uth aged betwe e n 16 and 20 ) ears. I asked the gro up gue s tion s addressing m y theme s of interest. They were free t o g ive their opinions and in so me case disc u sse d contradictory comments amongst them s elves Each sess ion had seve n informant and took one hour. The focus group di sc u ss ions were b o th held at the convenient MYSA Eas tleigh loc a tion The seven participating info rmant s represented the four stu d y s ite s of Mathar e, Eas tleigh, Huruma and Korogocho. They s hared their experiences and thoughts, which I tap erecorded and later transcribed 68

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Informal Discussions As indicated on Tabl e 2, I had discussions with youth, parents and guardians, MYS managers and city officials and planners. The informal discussions were useful especially with city officia l s who would not go on record for fear of losing their jobs The officials spoke about the challenges they faced working in a highly politicized environment. These discussions involved s h ort informal conversations which includ ed topics of interest to my stu dy. These encounters were particularly important in situations where informants did not want to be on record. I was ab le to build rapport and gain knowledge about sensi tiv e i ssues suc h as the fear of gangs in the neighborhoods. The information gathered through these discussions gave me more information about the conditions of the youths' lives. Photo s and Video R e cording While observing the events, I took photographs and Video recordings. The recordings helped me document young peop l e participation in MYSA activities I was able to review the images and activities on the recordings and asked questions in cases where clarification was n ecessary 69

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T a bl e 3 2 Summ a r y o f D ata Colle ction M e th o d s Data Collection Methods Data form Inte rvi ews Dig ital A udio R e c o rdin g N o tes 0 bser va tio n s Pho t os and Video R eco rdin g Field N o tes Focu s Groups Dig ital A udi o R e c o rdin g Notes Informa l di s cussi o n s N o tes P o pul atio n Ce n s u s R e p o rt P ove rty Index, S econda r y Data Dime n s i o n s o f Well B e in g K e n yaR e p o rt GIS M a p s U N H a bit a t A nnual R e p o rt s MYS A Governa nc e 2 00 6 R e p o rt MYS A His t ory a nd B a ck ground MYS A 2 00 6 Budg e t allo c atio n R e p o rt Quantitative D a t a Collection Secondary D a ta T o a dd va lu e t o m y r esea rch I a l so ga th e r e d quantit ative d a ta. I v i s it e d th e K e nya Bur ea u o f S t atis tic s w h e r e I collec t e d seve ral r e p o rts. These r e p o r ts includ e th e Natio n a l P o pul atio n a nd H o u s in g Ce n s u s R e p o rt. I purch ase d th e government r e p o rt s fr o m th e burea u offices in Nair o bi w hil e th e l N H a bit a t r e p o rt s a r e availa bl e o nlin e These r e p o rt s a r e r eliable b eca u se th e government, \Xl o rld B a nk and oth e r age n c ies colla b o r ate to collec t and r ev iew th e d a ta. T h ese d ocuments p rovi d e m a p s a nd b ac k ground informatio n a b o ut t h e s ites f o r m y r esea rch 70

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Table 3.3 Summary of General Information and Sources Data Source Stats on Youth population National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)Nairobi Province in Mathare Population Data Kenya ( 1999) Population and Hous ing Census report Number of yo uth by NBS-airobi Province Population Data Zone Kenya ( 1999 ) Population and Housing Census report % of Youth in s lum BSairobi Province Population Data involved in MYS activities Nairobi City council Environmental Changes u Habitat-State of the World's Cities 2006/07 b y Zone u EP ( 2005 ) Selection and Des ign of I enya Solid waste Management Sector PoYerty and Income level s The Challenge of Slum s U -Habitat, Globa l Report o n in Slums Human Settlement s 2003 Crime in Nairobi Safer Cities Series. U Habitat ( 2002 ) Geographical Dimens ions of Well-Being in Kenya ( 2003 ) D ata Analysis Data ana lysi s is the process of arranging, providing s tructure and making sense of large quantitie s of information collected during resea rch (Mashall and Rossman, 1995). Qualitative analysis u s uall y inYolves the technique of coding and creating categories o r classification s from d ata. This tran s formation of data into finding s requires identification of relevant data through pattern s and themes (Patton, 2002 ). 71

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It is difficult to define when data ana l ysis, begins, especially when carrying out qualitatin studies. Patton ( 2002 ) argues that qualitative anal ysis begins in the field as it is important to record and begin tracking insights while in the field. Developing anal ysis begins as researchers ad dr ess gaps in the data willie still in the field. Throughout th e data collection process in the field I reviewed the information that was gathered, including ethnographic field notes, interview transcripts, maps, photographs and video recording to gain a general sense of the data ( Creswell, 1998). I used the triangulation approach to compare the participatory experiences of IYSA members in the neighborhood clean-up activities with the information gathered through photos and other documents such as MYSA annual scholarship reports, 'NIYSA team schedules etc. Data Management Collected data consisted of interview maps, photographs and ''"ideo recordings and et hn ographic field notes from obsen ations. I flied all the documents in folders according to the type and dates received. I saved all images and labeled them according to the name of zone and date that the photos were taken. ll audio recordings were save d in a separate folder l a b e led interviews and named afte r the zone and the age of the informants M y field notes had names of zones and dates to keep track of the timeline. I al o collected secondat1' data such as annual reports and plans from MYSA headquarters and the Kenya Nationa l Bureau of Statistics. 72

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C o din g coded my data using NVho, a content analysis software program. Coding required a close reading of the text imported from transcripts, field notes and reports. I initially developed four major nodes ( also themes ) that include neighborhoods and ?.Ones, MYSA organization, participation and impacts of participation. The first node about neighborhood provided background descriptions about the conditions in which MYSA members live. The second theme provided information on how informants understood and undertook participation. Questions regarding the challenges of participation were also addressed. Data describing MYSA organizational structure and participatory methods were crucial in answering my first research question about how youth participate. The l ast theme tackled the gains made by members through participation in clean-up actiYities This l ast theme addressed my second research question about the impacts of participation on the personal lives, families, communities, environment and institutions. The descriptive comments from youth, MYSA managers, parents and city council officials revealed the expenences of youth participating 1n the environmental clean-up activities and the impacts of their participation. The credibility of the data was checked against the consistency of information provided from the interviews, observations and the documents and reports provided by MYSA This comparison of different sources of information to test the consistency of the emerging themes gave credibilit y to the data. 73

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I borrowed from the PLA -UK research which identifies the impacts of participation and categorizes the effects into four realms. They are: per so nal, familial, communal and institutional (Ackem1ann et al. 2004). I used these realms to find a wide view of the impacts of children's participation I categorized m) data according to these realms Persona/level Focuses on young people's increased self-confidence, increased knowledge and awareness about i ss ues challenging their communities, enhanced personal and social development which refers to interpersonal and communication kills Expanded social networks can be determined by the so cial networks for friend s hips and improved social relations. Familial R efer to improved family relations including parental s upport, less abuse, enhanced status within the family and greater social freedom. There is increased adult awareness of right for the youth and appreciation of their value to the family Respect and trust is built among famil y members Communal Refers to strong support networks, confidence of yo uth and their families which results in greater community awareness and concern for children's issues, and improved status of children and yout h within community. 74

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Institutiona l Potential to impact upon local, national or international in stitu tions and structures of the institutional realm includes improvement in access ro urban se n r ices and improved function of agencies (Ackermann et al. 2004). In addition ro the four PLAN UK realm s, I included Envi ronment as the fifth realm. This fifth realm look s at how youth participation has improved the quality of the l oca l environment. Informants state how garbage collection and other environmental activities carried out by MYSA have re ulted in changes in the local environment. I used emerging t h emes as odes to select related data from the interview transcripts, obsen, ations and field notes. According to Charmaz ( 1983 ), codes serve to summarize synthesize, and sort observations which make up raw data Coding help s us deve lop the analysis and link and categorize serie s of otherwise di sc rete events, s tatements, and obsenr ations which we identify in the data. From different source documents s uch as tran cript whole paragraphs, se ntences or phrase s were linked to the identified themes. NVIVO 7 so ftware helped me maintain and orgaruze the coding str ucture. I imported every rele vant docwnent into the system and coded line b y line References within the data were assigned t o the relevant themes, topics, categories or concepts. B y going through entire texts, I was able to make se n se of the data find patterns and relationship s both within a collection, and also across collections, and finall y make di scove ries about m y resea rch interests. By comparing and contrasting m y data some 75

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sim ilaritie s and differences e mer ged. I was also ab l e to find seq u e nc es and patterns. A good indicator that my data was credible was the consistency of information found in the different texts, transcripts and photo and video in1ages collected during the fieldwork. NVIVO allowed m e to link themes not only wit h texts but a l so wit h relevant photos. For example, I discovered that the younger members were more enthusiastic about particip ation. My photos captured you n ger members working w hil e the older members stood by gi,-ing instructions. Through intenriews I found out that o ld er members were C) nical and critical of MYSA programs because there were fewer incentives as they had passed the age grou p s with m ost opp ortunities in :MYS Tlus information wa re-enforced b y observations during the clean-up activities where I noticed that the majority of the participating members were youn ger, aged between 12 and 16 y ears old. 76

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Tab l e 3.4 Coding Summary Node Sub n ode Notes Neighborhood Name of Neighborhood Description of neighborhood Location of Neig hborh ood and zone provides ovetview of Name of Zone settings, context and Description of Neighborhood conditions of everyday Years as resident expe n ences Participation Defining Participation How informants understand How do youth participate and undertake participation Why do youth participate W h ere do yo uth participate Challenges to youth Difficulties while participating participation MYSA What is MYSA Informants were asked about Organization How djd you join MYSA MYSA and what the W h y did you join MYSA organization represented to How d oes MYSA h e lp you their lives and their . communities in relation to parnctpate participation. MYSA program leaders and MYSA documents provided information about the organizational s tructure and opportunjties for participation. Impacts How do y outh gain from I so l ate themes and exp r essions participation regarding impacts -both \'\hat do y ou see as negati, e negative and po itive impacts of fYSA activities 77

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1 able 3.5 Summary of Impacts ode Impacts Indicators Personal Self-confidence, self-esteem, awareness abo u t problems facing their .. commun1t1es Familial Parental support, status within the family, social freedom Commun a l Support netw orks, so lid ar ity, community awareness and concern for children's i ssues, improved status of children within the community E nvir onmenta l Physical and environme nt a l changes within conunuruty, s uch as Landscaping and garbage collection Institutiona l Impacts on Local NGOs an d other agencies such as the city council and schoo l s Advantages and Limitations of Research Methods The r esearch method used for my study provided a great level of depth and detail and gave participating informants the opportunity to discuss issues that were important to them. They had the chance to clarify issues wherever ambiguities or confusion existed. This study method created openness that helped generate new ideas. I traveled to 1 airobi and worked in the real world to observe and record data in natural settings. I collected detailed descriptive information revealing patterns in activities, behaviors and relationships between MYSA members The qualitative method prm ided flexibility that enabled me to gain knowledge about thoughts, feelings and experiences from my informants (Patton, 2002 ) 78

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1\1iles a nd Huberma n ( 1 99 4 ) a r g u e that o r ga nized word s f ro m qua lit ative result s a r e m ore c o n v incin g a nd full o f m ea ning; h o w eve r th e pro c ess i s l a b o r int e n s i ve and tim e co n s uming. T h ese limit atio n s r equir e e n gage m ent o f a s mall e r m a n agea bl e numbe r o f r esea rch s ubj e cts. The s m alle r th e numbe r o f r ese arch s ubj e ct s invol ve d th e h a rd e r it i s to ge n e r a liz e th e findings. The r e i s a l so th e p oss ibility th a t resea rch e r s may b e bi ase d a nd c o nt a min a t e th e dat a I tri e d t o aYoid p e r so nal bia s b y c onta ctin g infonnants w h o we r e unknown t o m e pri o r t o m y s tudy. The fle xibility o ff e r e d b y qualitatiYe m e th o d s avo id s s tand a rdi zatio n resultin g in diffi culty in r e plic atio n a nd syst e m atic compa ri so n s o f s inlli a r s tudies. T h e difficulties o f r e p ro ducin g id e ntic a l qu a lit ative r esea r c h p ro c esses may compro mise t h e cr e dibility and quality o f th e c o nclu s i o ns. In m y s tudy, I h ave d e tail e d m y r esea rch d es i g n and d ata c olle cti o n m e thod s in a m anne r th a t addr esses th e ab ove c o nc erns M y s tud y d es cripti o n provides a t e mplat e f o r futur e s tud y of o th e r y o uth o r ga ni zatio ns. The p rocess all owe d m e t o u se multipl e d ata c olle cti o n m e th o d Tri a n gula tin g d a t a f ro m int e r v iews, o b se rvatio n s, pho t os, v id eo r e c o rdings and d ocuments from MYS A help e d v alid a t e and s tr e n g th e n m y d a ta. 7 9

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CHAPTER4 FINDINGS In t hi s c h apte r I prese n t tud y findings d e ri ve d fro m d a t a a n a lysi s in C hapt e r Three The a n alyze d d a t a c o n s i s t o f inte r v iew s, ethnog r a phic n o tes a nd pho t os from field o b se r vatio n s a nd sec o nd a r y d a t a from so urces s uch as th e 2 000 K e nya Ce n s u s R e p o rt. I also includ e descripti o n s fr o m info rmal di s cu ss i o n s with info rmant s a nd n o tes f r o m m y o b se rv atio n s t o p rov id e c ontex tual informatio n a b o ut the s it es, th e MYS A o r ganiz ati o n a nd yo uth p a rticip ation. M y a n a lysi s result e d in th e mes link e d t o m y N;o r esea rch gu estio ns: namely, how you t h p a rticip a t e in th e MYS.r\ e n v ir omnenta l p rog r a m a nd th e imp act o f th e ir p a rticip atio n o n th e ir p e r so nal lives, th e ir f a mili es, co mmuniti es, th e ir l ocal e n v ironm ent a nd l o cal in s titu tio n s s u c h as th e c ity c o uncil. I use dir e ct gu o t atio n s fro m t h e int erviews with informants t o r eve al d e t ails a nd includ e pho togr aphs t a k e n durin g th e tud y as s upp o rtin g e vid e nce. \' ('hi.le d o cum e ntin g th e imp a ct s o f p a rticip atio n o n yo un g p eo pl e's p e r so nal lives, f a mili es, c o mmunitie s, e n v ir omnent a nd l o cal in s tituti o ns, I find th a t despit e exis tin g limit atio ns, p a rticip atio n in 1YSA m otiva tes yo uth to clean a nd impr ove th e ir n e i ghbo rhoods. W ith o ut n e c essary e guipment MYS.r\ m embe r s cle ar h ea p s o f g arb age, uncl og drain s, plant tr ees a nd cut g r ass a nd wee ds. They also pi c k roc ks a nd br o k e n bottles fro m th e pl aygrounds B o th p a r ents a nd MY S A m embe r s gai n p e r so n a l 80

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knowledge about environmental cleaning, toxic waste and recycling By joining MYSA, young people enhance their social networks, learn new skills and gain confidence about the future During m y field work in Nairobi, I spent most days walking through the slum and noticed that pockets of communities are eparated b y invisible boundaries. I discovered that neighborhoods that are also known as "vill ages are dominated by one tribe, leading to tribal segregation within slum areas. During my infonnal discussions, ome young people confessed that tribal separation was often reinforced b y their own parents at home. However, despite the tribal tensions particularly during election years, young people s hare so ccer teams, s peak Sheng and Swahili w ith their peers and build trust and camaraderie Many expressed disapproval of tribal related ste r eotypes and the tribal vio lenc e in the slums. In fact, mo t soccer team consi t of a mLx of members from different backgrounds where young people view themselve s as team members regardle ss of their tribal backgrounds. MYSA activities provide them with opportunity to develop perso nal relationships with members of different tribal groups. These interactions help challenge negative ster eotypes and avoid hostile b ehavio r toward eac h other Some young peopl e even admitted that they did not speak their own tribal language, meaning that the y had no urge to be identified with a tribe. In fact, the y preferred to be Kenyans and wished all citizens would put nation before tribal pride 81

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Unfortunately, even with the friendly atmosphere between MY A members, wheneve r there is violence, young people are forced to take sid es because ethnic gangs such as the Mungiki and the Taliban indiscriminately seek out and kill rivals, burning their homes, businesses, and property. Neighbors fight eac h other and thousands are displaced. MYSA -Organiza tion In order to find out how y oud1 participate in MSYA s Environmental C l ean-Up Program, it is in1portant to first describe the MYSA structure of governance The structure illustrates how members make decisions. The description of this structure is compiled from information that I received from a 2006 MYSA report, interviews with MYSA managers and participating youth. The bottom-up structure consisting of zona l league committees and four councils helps define how decisions are made in the orgaruzauo n The entry point to MY A for many youth is the loca l soccer ream for the zone in which they choose to participate in. Each team in the zone has one vote ( represented by the team coach or the captain). All teams in the zones represented by one vote elect a zone league committee. Once the 11 member zonal committee is constituted, they vote and elect officials who include a Chairperson, Vice C h air, Community Service representative, a Secretary and Head R eferee. The zone committees make decisions regarding league schedu l es, organizing clean-up events and all other Issue that need 82

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attention at this level. Zonal committee decision s are forwarded to the next level b y two repre se ntatives, one to the Sports Council and the other to the Community Services Council. The two councils are r esponsi ble for running the s ports activities and all MYS community senr ice programs re s pecti vely. The tina! critical deci s i o n s are made b y a nine-member Executive Council (EC) which is l\1YSA' s decision making organ. The nine members consist of five repre se ntatiYe s from the Community Ser v ice Council and four representatives from the Sports Council. The chairper so n s of the Community Service Council and the Sports Council automatically become co-vice chair s of the EC. The EC members elect officials including the chairman of l\1YSA organization. Two other members, mostly, previous members of the EC who have experience in the council rules are also co-opted into the council. The EC make s human re so urce decisions a nd approves budgetary allocations and deYelopment and expansion of new or existing programs with advice from the Board of Trus tees. The board i s repre se nted in the Executive Council b y the tru s tee 's chair. Elections a r e held every year and member of varying ages are elected to the various committees. Coaches and t ea m captains from each zone vote giving members the prerogative to re-elect committee repre se ntati ves for as long as the y want. 83

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Figure 4.1 EXECUTIVE COUNCIL Chair 2 -Vice Chairs Secretary 4 other members MYSA Director SPORTS COUNCIL Each zonal oommittee sends one representative to the Sports Council BOARD OF TRUSTEES Community Service Council sends five representatives to the EC Chair and Founder 6 other Members Members MYSA EC Chair MYSA Director Legal Adviser Auditors COMMUNITY SERVICE COUNCIL Chair Vice Chair Secretary Head Referee/Adviser ... Dan dora Githurai Huruma K.ahawa Barracks K.ariobangi South K.mrani Mwiki K.:lyole K.imbo K.orogocho Maili Saba Math are Math are North Mbotela Ruara.ka Pumwani of the 16 zones above has a zonal oommittee with 11 elected members Etch zonal oommittee sends one representative to the Community Service Council Chair, Community Service Rep, Secretary, Head Referee, Team Coaches MY A Governance 2006 (MYS 2006 Report ) 84

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Participation in MYSA Y o uth views regarding participation in MYSA Child and youth participati o n i s about providing opportunities for yo ung people to see k information, form their views and express their ideas freel y with respect and dignity The views of yout h regarding how yo uth generally participate in 1YSA activities provide back g round information about motivatio ns for invol vement and how youth participation occurs. In MY A, all community se rvice activities suc h as the clean-up program are linked to soccer. Team point s are earned b y volunteering and participating 1n the community servtce activities. Acc umulating points offers individual s a chance to win s tud y s cholar s hips. Seventeen out of the 20 yo uth that participated in m y interview s recognized the importance of so ccer in MYSA and s tated that the y had joined MYSA becau se they wanted to participate in the soccer leagues. \\Then I asked a 17 year old named Bernard from Ea tleigh why he wanted to pla y socce r at MYSA, he s tated that it was because h e love s occer and wanted to gain points for s cholarships. Another 16 year old state d, I j oil1('d bmum I wanted lo plcry socm: I usf'd /o like 1vatching them plf!Y and one df.!J' I got a chance to plcry ... I liked MYSA bf'ca!fse I get to pit!)' 1vitb 11!) frimds... ( 16 year old, Eastleigh ) I dea11 11/J as part of the games becatlsf' tbry ram liS poiuls. I bavf' not gone to mry clean up sine' I comple t e d school. .. I b ad JVOII three scholar ships and i t h elped me complete "!J' education ... ( 20 yea r o ld, Mathare ) 85

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Ba se d o n direct f ee dback and o bservati o ns, I c o ncluded that man y yo ung pe o ple l ove soc cer and p a rticipation in IvfYSA i s m otiva ted b y the p os ibility of impr ovi n g individual soccer skills, particip ati ng in the annual Norway Cup tournament a nd the allowances and s chol a r s hip s that could be earned through involvem ent in IvfYSA. Young peopl e viewe d p ar ticipati o n in iviYSA as a path to opportunity and a bett er future. When a k e d h ow yo uth participate in lVIYSA activities, Paul an 18 y ear o ld from Huruma stated, I parti cipate in clran -11p a nd I attmd MYSA teams training and also 1vasb lrai11in g kits and gf t points for tbat a11d sometimrs grt paid for tiJal I lik e football most brcausr I "!lf!J' I sprnd 11!) momings a t MYSA library, reading or plqying cotttputrr games. In tbr aflernoolls, I g o to thr MYSA team trainin g !ben go for 11!] o1vn training at 4 pm. ( 18 yea r old, Huruma ) For mos t parents, paruClp a uon 1n IvfYSA mean s pla y ing soc cer a nd possible opportunitie s for th e ir so n s and dau g hters. When asked how her so n participated 1n IvfYSA a parent r e pli e d I reai!J don't knotv, all I know is tbat 11!] so11 spends bis dt!Y at the A1YSA buildin g and p!C!J' in gfoo tba/1. Tbat is good, b01vevrr I J//isb tbry JlloHid give bim a PC?J'ingjob, be bas bren volunteering witb tbrm for four _years ITOJV (Parent o f 18 y r old, Huruma ) 86

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Figure 4 1 Youth at a Soccer Tournament at Technical High chool Grounds, airobi During two focus group discussions with 14 MYSA members, there was consensus among the youth; they stated that priority needs to be given to adding other activities such as music and performing arts in addition to sports. All my infmmants told me that the y knew friends or neighbors who h ad no interest in soccer and hence had limited access to MYSA. Their friends could participate in MYS but had very few opportunities unless they belonged to a soc cer team where they could earn points and meet and be recognized b y other yo uth. In addition, MYSA has only three libraries and offices that support all the 16 zone Zones such as Kariobangi and others are l ocated 87

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further away from the three MYSA offices where members have access to books and musical instruments. Thi s means that in most cases, young people from such zones participate less just because of the distance and the difficulties in accessing MYSA locations. lnfonnal Discussions During informal discussions, some older yo uth, particularly aged 18-20, expressed their di ssatis faction with the programs that only target yo uth below 18 years old. My findings show that MYSA provides opportunities for youth below 18 years who have a chance to play in the zonal teams and for the l\.fYSA yo uth team Once they are over 18, the lure of traYel to Norway is diminished because they are di s qualified b y age. Unless the y are part of the coaching staff, only those aged 16 and below can travel for the orway cup At 18 some of the youth have completed high school and are looking for employment opportunities. Members stated that despite their changing needs, it was difficult to effect change in MYSA For in stance, some informants recall situations where zone representatives to the Community Service Council and Sports Council ignore member views particularl y if the views challenge ideas from MYSA headquarters or counter zone repre se ntative' s perso nal views. One young man told me that anyone challenging ideas in MYSA could be labeled a trouble maker. Some yo ung people stated that the expansion of MYSA has resulted in fewer opportunities because there are many more members competing for the same 88

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oppo rtuniti es. T hey also say th a t MYS A was n t info rmin g and e duc a tin g all th e membe r s a b o ut th e oppo rtunities a vaila bl e and how the y c a n a cc ess t h e m M a n y informants we r e fru s tr a t e d th a t b e c a use they a ttend e d b o ardin g s chool s durin g th e s chool years, they co uld o nl y volunt ee r oc casi o n ally. As a r es ult they co uld n o t a ccumul a t e e n o u g h p o ints to c ompe t e w ith othe r s w h o a tt e nd da y s chool s or h ave dropped out o f s chool. H oweve r th ese co nc erns a r e n o t o nl y r ese rv e d f o r yo uth a tt e ndin g b oa rdin g s chool ; in cir cums tances w h e r e m a n y m o r e yo uth fr o m o n e zo n e see m t o b e n e fit fr o m th e inc e nti ves, m embe r s from o th e r zo nes t e nd t o b elieve th a t oppo rtuniti es a r e r ese rv e d f o r o nl y a f ew fro m so m e zo nes o r m embe r s of c e rtain tribal g r o up s M y findings s u gges t th a t ge n erally young p eo pl e in t h e s lums a r e see n as p o t e nti ally d a n ge rou s ga n g m embe rs. P ove r ty, in e guality and inad egua t e s upp o rt fr o m th e government h ave limit e d yo un g p eo pl e's ac c ess t o oppo rtunities a nd p owe r t o m a k e ch o i c e s in th e ir lives. \Xlhat i s p a rticularl y intri g uin g i s th e di s c onne ct b e twe e n t h e int e rd e p e nd e n ce and social c onne cti o n s th a t yo un g peopl e ha ve f orme d a nd th e t e n s i o n and p o t e nti a l co nflict s that a r e ev id ent b e tw ee n a dult s from diff e r ent trib es. T h e c ultu rally di verse s lum s w h e r e m a n y tribes live as n e i ghbo r s h ave resulte d in s u spici o n and dis tru s t o f th e "oth er." Y o uth b ea r th e brunt o f thi s s u spici o n as t hey a r e occ a s i o n ally sto n e d b y l o cal s o r s h o t t o death b y th e p o lice. if s u sp e ct e d t o b e p a rt o f v i o lent c rim es in a n e i ghbo rhood In s uch a se ttin g it see m s t o m e th a t a dult s h o ld all th e p owe r a nd suffoca t e th e yo uth 89

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Observation s MYSA rules require teams to participate in at least two clean-ups a year. Member participation ensured additional points to their team in the soccer leagues My analysis of the data collected from interviews with informants suggests that those between ages 16 and 17, regardless of their zone, were much more involved in soccer teams as players and therefore had to attend clean-up activities regularly. Furthermore, the younger infmmants were still in high school and had a chance of winning education scholarships or a chance to "make the trip to orway. The 18 and 20 yea r old informants hardl y participated in clean-up events and whenever the y did, the y were observers, supervising as coaches of zonal teams. Their participation in MYSA was limited to coaching or officiating the league games and tournaments. Informant s' responses were confirmed while observing the clean-up activities; I noticed that younger MYSA members were more interested and active in the clean-up. \Vhile the yo unger team members did most of the work, the older and much stronger members looked on. It seems that the older members were less motivated and less active It ma y appear that older members use the yo unger ones to gain points for their respective teams At some MYSA events sponsored by outside funders, a few chosen members are busse d to events to perform" for visitors. In s uch ca ses, while a few prominent members are involved, the majorities of members have very little information about the events Many others in the zones are unable to attend or participate in such events. 90

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Particip a ting in the Env ironment a l CleanU p Program The Environmental Clean-Up Program i s run b y the Community Service Council through a MYSA staff member known as t h e Environment Program Manager The program was established in 1988 to enab l e members to clean their neighborhoods b y unblocking sewage, cle ar ing trenches collecting garbage and, most importantly, clearing field s which pro v ide space for pla y ing grounds for the children and you th in the community. According to t he program manager, MYSA s tarted with an a 1 m of improving the living conditions of Mathare residents and man y o ther neighb o ring communities The s imp l e organizationa l pri n ciple to motivate the youth is, ''You do so mething MYSA does so mething ; yo u do nothing MYSA does nothing ". LP'e mobilize yotftb gro11ps to take responsibiliry to c/ea11 o11r et11Jirommnl because tbe ci!)1 does no! clean ... (MYSA Program Manager) M y observations during the clean up interviews with youth and MYS A leaders suggest that youtl1 initiate manage and direct tl1e environmental clean-up program activities in individual zones. Adults are invo l ved only in supportive roles. Organized in so ccer teams, members from each zone participate in clean up activities and earn points. Each time a member participates, his or her name i s recorde d on a s ign-up s h eet and team and individua l point s are awarded. For each clean-up a team i s awarded six point s lliat are automatically reflected on the zonal league table s tan di ngs Each socce r team is required t o participate in at l east two clean up sess ion s in a year 91

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Indi v idual s are awa rd e d tw o p o int s f o r each clean up and at the e nd o f th e year all indiYidual p o int s are tallied t o d e t e rmin e th ose who ha ve the m ost p oints. Even though it was a requirement, tw o 16 year o ld s s tat e d that they did not enjoy th e clea n-up activ iti es b eca u se it r equire d th e ir tim e and l abor. They sta t e d that they o nl y p ar ticip a t ed b eca u se they wanted to impro ve their team p os iti o n s an d increase their chances of winning sc h o l ars hip s, as they were s till in sc hool. Acc umulated p o int s give indi v idu a l m em b e r s a chance to win lead e r s hip awards, which consist of e du catio nal bursar ie s or sc h o la r s hip s which are paid dir ectly to their school s o r colleges. These awa rd s and makin g the trip are a m a jor m otiva tion for most yo uth Youth voluntaril y participate in l arge numbers b ecause they all h o p e to ga in fro m MYSA. T h ere i s competition b etwee n thousands o f yo un g people for a f ew oppo rtunitie s available through MYSA progra ms. Twenty membe r s from four zones int e rvi ewe d during m y st ud y believe d th a t they h ave a chance t o fulfill their drea m s . . i\1J' pcnticipation is based 011 thf dfsirf to gft the .rc!Jolars!Jip so that I can go bac-k to finish bigb school. I kno]/) yotllb wbo do not even like tbe work but tbry knoJv tbat tbc)l have to parti cipate to get CII!J .rcbolars!Jip.r ... ( 18 yea r o ld Korogocho) 92

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F i g ur e 4.2 i g nin g U p A t Huruma f o r a C l ea n -U p Due t o a lack o f so lid w as t e manag ement infrastructure th e Nairo bi C ity Council i s unabl e t o e f fectively d elive r so lid wast e m a n age m ent serv i ces t o th e m a j ority o f th e city re s id ents. M a th a r e and o th e r s lum s d o n o t r ec e i ve v ital ba s ic se rvices s uch a s w a t e r sanitati o n ele ctricity and ga rb age c ollectio n Stud y findin g s u gges t th a t MYS A recog ni zes th e n ee d to d o so m e thin g a b o ut th e d e t er i o r a tin g e n v ir onmenta l c o nditi o n s MYS A and c ommunity m embe r s r e c o gniz e th a t with o ut r eg ul a r cle arin g o f footpath s, dra in s a nd l a trin es, all resid ents a r e ex p ose d t o serio u s h ea lth ri s ks. 9 3

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Posters are pasted on MYSA notice boards in each zone four weeks before each clean-up activity. The notice boards are al o used to circulate information and news about all MYSA events. The city council and local community leaders are also notified in advance about a clean-up activity in their l ocation. The zonal l eague committees decide the dates and locations where clean-up activitie will occur Under supervision from the local zone committee members, groups of members are assigned different locations for their work. On the day of the scheduled clean-up, about 100 to 300 youth participate in the clean-up event. They gather earl y teams and individual members are s igned up and given equipment ( See Fig 4.1) MYSA provides equipment, including wheelbarrows, hovels hoe rakes, spades and machetes. MYSA purchases most of the clean-up equipment and also accepts equipment donations from local companies. Currentl y MYSA has more than 70 wheelbarrows and 200 rakes which are all stored in MYSA locations in the Komarock and Eastleigh offices. 94

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Figure 4.3 Dis tributing l'vfYSA E quipment to Members at Huruma 95

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Figure 4.4 Clean-Up in Huruma 96

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Figure 4.5 Loading Trash onto a Truck in Huruma In some zones, community groups have organized to distribute garbage bags to each household and collect them every weekend for a fee. In such cases, MYSA cleanup may onl y con ist of leveling open spaces and planting trees. The open spaces are then available for soccer teams within the zone. MYSA is specifically authorized to dump food remains and pl astic bags. According to the MYSA environmental program director, in ca es where other materials such as needles, hospital waste or chemicals are found, MYSA notifies the local city council depot to clean up. If the city council is 97

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unable to come clean up, MYS gets authority to clean up and dump materials under different trash categories. Impa cts In preceding pages, I have addressed the fust que s tion of m y re sea rch about youth participation in the MYS clean-up program. However, it i s not enough to only know how youth participate, it is also important to furt h er find out what effects there may be both positive and negative because of yo uth participation M y seco nd research question addresses the impacts of youth participation in d1e environmental clean-up program. In this section I document qualitative gains made in the dail y lives of youili The documented impacts are based on interview s with yo uth, parents MY A managers, city officials and informal di s cussions wid1 community members I borrow from the PLAN-UK re sea rch which identifie s possible impact s of children's participation in development and categorizes the effects into four realms : individual, familial, communal and institutiona l (Ackermann et al. 2004). Environmental impact is an additional realm that I include in my study. I have added thi fifili realm because the MYS program is about improving the environmental cleanliness of neighborhood s and it is in1portant to know to what extent participation i achieving thi s goal. I categorize m y data to match these realm s in order to provide a wide view of the impacts of children s participation. 98

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P erso n a l R ealm The fir s t r ea lm f o cu ses o n indi v idual impact s s uch as s elf co nfid e n ce, ac gui s iti o n of lif e skills, p e r so n a l d eve l opment, so cial d ev el opment a nd p os iti ve ch a nnel s f o r e n e rgy a nd cr eativ ity. All m y informants, b o th youth and adult s, resid e in M a th a r e a nd th e o th e r t h ree zo n es in focu s in thi s s tudy. T h ese l ocatio n s a r e so m e of th e m os t d e n sely p o pul a t e d n e i g hb o rhood s and they claim so m e o f th e hi g hest p ove rty leve l s in N a ir o bi (Go K 2000) M a n y you t h I sp o k e with s t a t e d th a t they co m e fr o m la r ge f a milies h e ad e d b y s in g l e m o th e rs. Fourt ee n o u t of 20 yo uth I s p o k e w ith h a d m o r e th a n 4 s iblings. M y info rm a nt s ag r ee d durin g th e interv i ews th a t th e dail y lives o f youth a r e difficult a nd m a n y yo un g p eo pl e w h o h ave co mpl e t e d s chool c anno t find m ea nin gful e mpl oy m e nt. \'Olli e wa lkin g thro u g h th e n e i ghborhood s, o n e may n otice idl e yo un g p eo pl e s ittin g in g r o ups. M os t o f th e yo un g m e n a nd w o m e n ha ve d roppe d o ut o f s chool o r c o mpl e t e d c hool but ca nn o t find m ea ningful e mpl oy m ent. P a r e nts and yo uth s t a t e d t h a t families s tru gg le t o find e n o u g h food a nd m o ney t o t a k e children t o s chool a nd t o pay f o r hi g h health c a r e c osts. So m e youth h ave droppe d out of hi g h s chool b e c a u se t hey c a nn o t pa y th e sc hool f ees. 9 9

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% Populahon beltM poveny lone > 70 60-70 50-60 CJ 40-50 CJ 30-40 20-30 <20 ForeslS --; L:) Water lxxhes 7\l Otstrtct boundary NOt\'tsiOn boundar\' LOC.ltion boundary Sub-locitiOn boundary Ma,or roads Figure : 4.6 Sub-Location Level I Percentage of Population Living Below Povert y Line in Nairobi ( Central Bureau of Stati stics, 2003 ) 100

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R educe F ea r and Dis tru s t In additi o n t o th e p o v e rty and un e mpl oy m ent, leve l s o f crim e ar e hi g h a nd yo uth a r e e xp ose d t o dru g ga ngs and c rime. M a n y youn g p eo pl e avo id e d public pl a ces w h e r e they c o uld easily b e ee n a nd h a r asse d b y th e p o lice. The r e h ave l o n g b ee n n o t o ri o u s gangs in N airo b i's s lums. These ga n gs a r e pro duct s o f year s o f c ycles o f v i o le nc e trigge r e d b y prev i o u s e le cti o n s T h e g an gs h ave n a mes s uch as th e T alib a n B aghda d B oys, and Mungiki. O c casi o n ally v i o l e nc e b e tw ee n rival ga ngs a nd th e p olice brea k o ut in th e s lums a nd acco rdin g t o m y infonnants, se V e ral youn g p eo pl e h a d b ee n ca u ght a nd jaile d willi e o th e r s h a d eve n b ee n s h o t d e ad b y th e p o lice. During m y tim e in N a ir o bi v i o l e nc e erupte d several times a nd so m e se cti o n s o f th e slwns we r e o ut o f b o und s p a rticul a rl y f o r s tr a n ge r s lik e me. M y info rmant s w e r e hesit ant t o talk a b out t h e gan g v i o l e nc e a nd w a rned m e a b o u t th e d a n ge r o f w alkin g aro und and askin g questio ns. T h e r e was a c h a n ce and d a n ge r th a t I w o uld b e mi s tak e n f o r a p o lic e informa nt. T o d ea l with th e ga n gs, th e l ocal p o lic e r esorte d t o intimid atio n a nd v i o l e nc e ag ain s t yo un g p eo ple. Su s p ect e d ga n g m embe r s a r e o rd e r e d t o leave th e city f o r th e village o r ris k a rr est. All th e yo un g p eo pl e int e rvi e wed s t a t e d that f ea r o f crim e and th e p o lic e h a d led to di s tru s t b e tw ee n th e youth During info rmal di sc ussi o ns, o n e 1 7 yea r o ld fro m astle i g h warn ed th a t th e r e we r e so m e yo un g p eo pl e wh o p a rticip a t e d in crim e se cr etly a t ni g h t and put th e lives of th e ir friends in d a n ger. The p o li ce d o n o t di s tin guis h b etwee n th e gan g m embe r s a nd th e 1 0 1

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non-gang members In order to b e safe, many young men avoid hanging around their neighborhood s in groups. Like 1/0JJJ ij)ott g o 1/0JJJ to the neighborhood, )lOll ca111101 ji11d at!)' )'Ottlb, jH.rt cbildrm and JVO!lte11 and girls. Youth stqy a//JqJ' betouse i l is dangerous until when t/Jry go to bed A t night )lOll ca11 bear gu11shots .. it is scatY .. (18 yea r old, Mathare ) When asked if being part of MYSA helped reduce the distrust, all informants agreed that being seen in MYSA uniforms and spe ndin g time playing soccer or involved in MYSA activities reduces fear and distrust because community members know that in case of trouble they can contact MYSA staff regarding members who ma y be causing trouble in the community. In neighborhoods where all young male residents are u s pected to be gang members, MYSA provides attractive alternative s for many youth who want to be part of a group with a pos itive image In the view of many parents and young members, 't\.f.YSA has a reputation as an organization t h at i s concerned with the welfare of yo ung people and their communities MYSA gives youth direction and opens opportunities when they take the initiative Many young people stated that high poverty and crime levels in their neighborhoods made their eYeryday lives difficult I Ve )'Otllb /Jm;e no lift in Matbare ... there iJ /JOIJelty .. the /Jot1ses are inadequate and dirry, it is not ,o111jortable to Iitle !Je r e Youth are exposed to bad behm,ior such as dmgs, beco111ing thietJCS a11d get killed. . (16 year old ) 102

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Knowledge about the Environment A ca sual walk and o b servations through the four neighborhood s provided me with a picture of the local environmenta l conditions. Wit hout garbage bins and collection services, residents often throw trash on the streets. MYSA clean-up activities and those of other group such as women's groups provide some relief from the trash problem. E leven of the 20 interviewed yo uth stated that through participation in the clean-up activities they gai n ed personal knowledge about environmental cleaning and toxic waste. They learned about rec y cling material s such as bottles, plastic bags and sc r ap metal During my study, I noticed tl1at many children an d orne adults walked barefoot and the safe removal of broken bottles and needles was important to avoiding let h a l lnJUnes. Confidence and Pride l\1athare and other simi l ar l y poor neighborhoods have negative reputations as undesirable criminal dens. These assum pti ons result in despair among many young people who are afraid to venture outside the s lums. Those who go outside the s lums are hesitant to say where they come from. Seventeen youth interviewed s tated that b y participating in the clean-up, they felt proud because they were improving cleanliness in their neighborhoods. They also felt confident because the community sees them as responsible and hardworking. By participating in the clean-up activities, they openly claim membership in MYSA and avo id susp icion about gang membership 103

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Two o f th e yo uth int erviewe d belong to the cultural and acrobatic teams They s tated that they liked p erfo rmin g a nd educating th ei r peer s and community member s about the need t o k ee p their nei g hb o rhood s clean and the importance of refrainin g from dan ge rou s activities s uch as dru gs, unprotecte d se x and crime \\! h e n community members are gat h ere d to liste n to them after cle a n-up ac tiviti es, they feel a dmir e d imp o rtant and va luable Community members g i ve credit t o l'vfYSA f o r clea ner nei ghborhoo d s and f o r se ndin g a m essage to yo uth t o s tay in sc hool a nd aYoid behaYi ors uch as unprotecte d sex and drugs. MYSA events keep ) o un g p eo pl e e n gage d especiall y durin g the holida y eason when sc hool s are closed One 18 yea r old s tat e d that After participating. I feel good a nd importa11l especiafb, 1vben we ba1Je visitors from 011/side tbe sl11ms ... 171)' skills in s o m r bm;e also improved draslical(y si11a I j o i ned MYS A. I slq)' bH!J' and mvqy from tut' .rtreet.r. I come to the libt'(ll)l to r e ad book.r... If I wa.rn 't in MYSA, I woNid be a cas11allaborer at the local market. I learn 11mc b more at MYSA tba11 I wo111d be if I was working ... ( 18 yea r o ld Eastlei g h ) 1 04

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Figure: 4.7 crobats-Community Awareness and Entertainment So cia l Networks Young people meet most of their friends while attending school or in playgrounds in their neighborhoods. Participation in clean-up activities in other zones as well as in zone at home provides MYSA members with opportunities to meet their peers in other zones. Because of the fear of gangs, certain neighborhoods are dangerou especially if one does not have friends in those neighborhoods. The majority of young people say participation in fY A help them make new friends and visit other 105

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neighborhoods where the y would not feel safe otherwise. These encounters enhance their socia l networks Participation in MYSA activities afford young people the opportunity to interact with yo uth from diverse ethnic backgrounds These encounters mean that ethnicity i s less likely a factor when they choose whom to be friends with. Youth also communicate in the local slang which is a mixture of Swahili, English and other local languages This helps give youth a common identity regardless of their ethnic backgrounds. Developing camaraderie and a se nse of unity is important for avoiding involvement in ethnic 'iolence that periodically occurs in poor neighborhoods, especially during election season Empowenne n t Participation in MYSA has fostered resilience and a sense of purpose Young people have become open to learning new skills, which in turn has given many of them confidence that life in future ma y be better. Through their networks in MYSA, some have formed smaller groups and set up their own small scale businesses. They make and sell beads and jewelry; some distribute trash bags and collect trash and weekly fees from community members W e coiled the garbage in plasti c bags and /em;e it ry the roadside JVhere the ci(J1 council lorries collect tbetll. We get abo11t $ 10 a JVeek from cotmnHIIi(J' t11m1bers for tbe garbage bags and tbe JIJork we do to dean tbe neigbborbood ... (20 year old, Mathare ) 106

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11YS members accumulate indiYidual pmnts by parne1panng 111 many environmental clean-ups and other MYSA activities such as coaching, officiating 11YSA league matches or playing league games At the end of the year the points are tallied and m em b ers h ave a chance to win scho l arships, a l so known as le aders hip awar ds. The awards of about 110 are paid directly to sc hool s and colleges for tuition. Even though there are 3000 applications, 11YSA can only award 400 sc h o l arships every year. For tho e lucky few, the awar d s reduce the burden of parent w h o in many cases cannot afford the education fees. These scholars hip s also enable man y to complete their high schoo l and tertiar y education. Team coaches help youth develop their soccer talents. As a re ult many young people have confidence in their future as professional soccer players both locally and abroa d Bec ause of the motivation to "make the trip" or w1n a scho lar ship, many continue to participate and learn new things at 11YSA. There are those who get an opportunity to represent 11YSA in Europe for the annual otway youth cup. They get exposed to new cultures a nd a new world beyond the slums. These trips are a motivation for many to get out of the slums. The trips abroad are also a major motivation for many to partic ip ate in MYSA membership and activities. AI leas/ I hatJe been able to f!J 011 a plane whm I 1ven/ to 1o17llt!J. Getting on a plane is a11 achielleiJlentfor ma11)' here in the slums .. other yo11tb admire m e ( 17 year old, Korogocho) 107

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Familial Realm The second realm deal s with parental support, enhanced status within the family and greater so cial freedoms. Interviews with youth and their parent provided findings concerned with familial impacts of participation. Increased Awareness Two 16 yea r old respondents from Mathare and Eastleigh stated that they were fmstrated b y residents who threw mbbish everywhere becau se the y were the ones who had to clean it up In turn the y had decided to talk to their own famil y members and were helping them change their attitudes so they could buy garbage bags or attempt to throw trash in one designated area. One parent from Korogocho spoke of the need not to burn trash, especially plastics or throw garbage everywhere. She s tated rhat her so n had informed her that burnin g tra s h caused pollution in the neighborhood. However, she did not agree with the notion that plastic bags should be banned because she used them to carry groceries. Knowledge acquired from IviYSA was in strumental in re s pectful exchanges between yo uth, parents and other siblings. Privacy and Autonomy Accommodation in the s lums often means that families share one room s hacks. For man y you n g people, moving out is important becau se of their concern with privacy. Moving out to live wirh other youth i s nece ssary for privac y an d respect for parents. It i s also a s ign of independence and responsibility. One 18 year old s tated that having a 108

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separate accommodation can allow siblings to find extra space away from the parent's house and minimize conflicts with parents and female siblings. For a few lucky youth, making the trip to orway may result in a stipend of about $500. This amount awarded by M';{SA enabled one 17 year old from Huruma to move out of his parent's house and to find independent accommodation within walking distance from his parent The stipend enab led him to pay the $15 rent. Fin a n cia l Support Furthermore, while on trips to Norway, some youth find Norwegian families willing to financially support them. Young people as well as their families welcome sponsors from orway. The sponsors commit to sending members education fees and paying for rent. The amount sent by sponsors varies; many of the young people are hesitant to disclo se the dollar amount sent b y sponsor In cases where parent s are unemployed, financial support obtained by the youth improve relationships between parents and their children. Parents and young people with financial support consult on the best way to spend the money. Most of the benefits are directed at individual youth but they end up sharing them with family members, which changes relationships within families. As one member indicates, Well, MYSA to sqy t!Je tmt!J has rcal!y helped me; I got some monry beca11se I went to Nonvqy in 2004 .. the moury is kept fry my mother who spends it wise!J (18 year old, Huruma ) 109

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Changes in the family dynamics may not always be posltlve. One 19 year old from Eastleigh submitted that the money gained from trips abroad sometimes resulted in rebellion of the yo uth against parents and others in the communiq. Those w h o had money felt that the y were better and could d o whatever they wanted without consulting their parents. In some cases, parents depended on their children and the result is that some youth felt burdened and pressured to take care of their parents and other family members. Participation in MYSA and expectations for financial rewards is a ource of fear and anxiety for so me youth and families because their ability to complete high school depends on the scho l arships awarded b y MYSA. Peace of Mind In an environme nt where cnme and gang activity I s common, parents are understandably concerned for their children. They encourage their children to participate in MYSA because the y have a faYorable v iew of the organization and its activities. They believe tl1at participation in MYSA hields their children from the harsh realitie of the slums. The parents I spoke to think that MYSA provides a san ctuary for many youth. Parents stated that their children stay out of trouble when they are busy with MYSA activities. One parent I spoke with s tated that, "since my son joined MYSA he has been a good boy" Her son's improved behavior and self-discipline can be een by improved relationships with hi s siblings because there are l ess fights. 110

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My son has d;anged sinfe joini11g i\IJYSA, F-Ie is resolute and he is a good bqy. l -Ie is bii!J' for so long that hf has no time to be im1o/t1ed in bad behat;ior. I think MYSA has been responsible for tbe good bdJavior of my d;i/drm ... (Parent, Eastleigh) The exposure to drugs, gangs and prostitution in the slwns requires parents to be vigilant. In any ca e, they are out all da y trying to find food for their families and knowing that their children are attending MYSA activities gives them peace of mind. Some parent believe that active participation may result in cholarships a trip to orway or a job as MYS staff. These opportunities may improYe the financial condition of the families. Communa l Realm The communal realm refers to solidarity, building strong support networks and confidence in the community's yo uth, which result in greater community awareness and concern for ) outh issues Participation in MY A clean-up activities i s good public relations for youth in communitie where many are suspected of being gang members. When youth clean neighborhoods and improve em-ironmental conditions, community members view youth positively because the y are seen to be hard -wo rking. 111

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Community Pride The MYS director stated that in his interactions \vith community members, most neighborhoods had become con c1ous about environmental health and kept communities relatively cleaner since the program began. The clean-up program manager confirmed that there had been an increase in interest in the clean-up activities. Women's groups and other community organizations had more frequently requested 1\fYSA equipment to help them clean their neighborhoods in recent years. The clean-up program has support from community members because the clean-up activities have attracted attention within the city and internationally, giving young people and community member a sense of pride. When young people win scholarship or travel to Europe, parents and other community members are proud of their sons and daughters. MYSA members give a favorab l e \-iew of the n eighborhoods mostly known for poverty, crime and illegal activity. [Y A teams are represented in the national soccer leagues and MYSA is known for talented soccer players. They have "put MYS on the map" as one parent proudly stated to me. Community members support MY A acti, r ities because the activities give the community a positive i.tnage. 112

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E nvir onmenta l Realm Rapid urbanization and the population explosion m slums have led to environmental degradation and pollution in airobi. UNEP (2005) reports that only about 25 per cent of the estimated 1,500 tons of solid waste generated daily is collected. There are no formal garbage collection services offered b y city authorities in airobi. In wealthy suburbs, private contractor uppl y plastic bags to resident s and collect the garbage a few days a week for a fee During m y tudy, I observed that in many slums, neglect ha s led to piles of garbage. Pile s of garbage attract flies and insect s which ma y result in the spread of fly borne di seases such as typhoid, dysenter y and cholera. Garbage also blocks paths and clog drains Drains are important because there is no plumbing in the slums and when they are blocked stagnant waste water becomes a breeding ground for various kinds of pests and insects particularl y mosquitoes, which transmit diseases such as malaria. During the rains the clogged drain s result in flooding and the spread of waterborne disease. 113

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Figure 4 8 Digging New Drain s 114

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Figure 4.9 Heaps of Garbage before Cleanp The poor environmental conditions motivate the yo uth and other residents to clean their neighborhoods. I observed as young people with little or so metimes no proper tools collected garbage, uncl ogge d drains, removed weeds and cut tall grass, thus helping improve the living conditions of many communities. During interviews the MYSA program manager and five members between 16 and 18 years old stated that during clean-up event yo uth also plant trees and repair fences that protect playgrounds The trees provide shade for th ose on the sideline watching the game or on the team bench. 115

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Figure 4.10 nclogging Existing Drains All the parents interviewed acknowledged that participation in weekend clean-up activities result s in improvement of aesthetic appearance and general cleanliness of the neighborhoods One parent who had liYed in the Korogocho area for 30 years s tated that she had noticed improved cleanliness since the l\fYS r \ clean up activities began. In particular, the 1 7 and 18 year old youths stated that they had learned about not burning trash and minimizing their use of plastic bags. According to the program manager, MYSA had helped yo ung people learn to identify dangerous garbage such as toxins and needle 116

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Figure 4 .11 Cleared Path s after C leanU p In s titution a l R ealm The institutional realm r efe r s t o th e impr ove d functioning of agencies collaborating with MYSA. The clean up pro g ram works in collaboration with local c hool s and th e city council MY and loc a l sc hool s hav e a p a rtn ers hip where s chool s open their pl ayg rounds to MYSA teams and in r e turn NIYS i s r es p o n s ibl e for upkeep of the pla ygro unds. Due to th e partner s hip between MYS A and local sc hool s, MYSA 117

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members are involved in regular landscaping of schoo l playgrounds and the schools benefited through the upkeep of their pla ygrou nds. To maximize participation and the success of the clean up activities, MYSA collaborates with community members and the airo bi City Council. The city council, which has the responsibility to provide gar b age collection services, ha been unable to provide a n y services to the slmns. MYSA 's clean-up activities have taken over most of the work of the city aut h orities. The director of the MYSA clean-up program remembers that once the clean-up program expan d ed, there was a need to co ll aborate with the cit y council. MYSA had to get permits to dump garbage at the l ocal cit y dump. They regular l y invited city cou ncil officials to help them identify toxic waste and tra s h that required specialized treatment. One cit y council officia l admits that the council has neither the required man-power nor the equipment necessary to collect the gar ba ge in the slums. \Y./e actually rely on MYSA equipment to clean up mos t parts of the s lum s,' he admits. "We have to hire trucks whenever we carry out our own clean up because the council d oes not have garbage trucks." He further complains that even if the council had trucks, they would be unable to go to the interior s of d1e s lum s because of the lack of paved roads. Visitors who do not know a bout the MYSA clean-up actiYities may unknowingl y credit the city council for the improYed cleanliness in the slums. The clean up program does work that the cit y council is mandated to do. According to the clean-up program manager, MYSA has engaged everal oth er important in stitutions, including the ational Environment Management Authority 118

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El\1A). Through help a n d infonnation from the EMA, each MYSA zone ha s members who are trained and can identify categorize and differentiate garbage. The prog ram ha s enabled EMA to engage community members and youth in the importance of environmental protection. According to t h e MYS A environmenta l program manager, in ca ses where other material s such as needle s, hos pita l wa s t e or chemical s are found, MYSA notifie the loca l city council depot to clean up. If the city council is unable to come clean up, MY A gets authority t o clean up and dump material und r different tra s h categories. Table 4 1 Summary of Findings on Participation Age r ange How Youth Participate Number of youth 16 -17 year old Clearing heap s of garbage 10 youth U nclogging drain s 10 Digging new drain s o r expanding existing ones 5 Planting trees 5 C utting grass and weeds in the pla y g r o unds 5 Picking rock s and broken bottles 10 Increasing community awareness 10 Entertaining the community after the clean-up 10 18 20 y r old Serving as coach es responsible to s1gn up member yo uth befo re clean-up 2 Distributing equipment 2 Supervising clean-up 2 C l ea ring heap s of garbage 5 nclogging drain s 5 Digging new drain s or expanding existing ones 2 Planting tree s 2 119

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Table 4 1 (Coot) Table 4.2 C utting grass and weed s in playgr o und s 2 Mendin g fence s for playground s 2 Picking rock s and broken bottle s from the playground s 1 Entertaining community after the clean-up 4 Summary of Findings on Impacts Realm Individual Familial Impacts Perso nal knowledg e about environmental cleaning, t oxi c waste and recycling Enhanced social net\vorks and opportunities to meet peers. Information about danger s of drug s, unprotected sex and crune Reduced pos si bilit y o f lnJune s from broken b o ttle s and n ee dle s .Avoiding suspicion about gang membership and improved image that reduce s fear and di s tru s t A se n se of pride bec a u se of MYSA' s pos itive imag e A utooomy and a sense of purpose Learning new s kill s and gaining confidence about the future Financia l reward s through scholarships or a trip to Europe (Norweg ian families willing to financiall y support them ) D eve loping camaraderie and a sen se of unity Autonomy enables some yo uth to move out on their own and pa y rent giv ing p a rent s privac y and minimizin g conflicts with parent s and sisters Other family members hav e a favorable view of yout h the MYSA organi:>:ation and it s activities 120

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Table -I-.2(Co nt ) Communal Parents and young people with financial support consult on the best way to spend the money Some yo uth who had money felt that they could do whatever they wanted without consulting their parents Some yo uth felt burdened and pressured to take care of their parents and other family members .A se nse of pride among yo ung people and commuruty members because ) outh activities "put MYSA on the map" Commmlity members view yo uth positivel y because they are see n to be hard -wo rking Good public relation s for youth Improve image of communities Knowl edge about environmental education 1 s s hared with community members Env ironm enta l Cleared paths that are notmall y blocked b y heaps of garbage Instituti o n a l U nclogged drain s to reduce mos quitoe s ewly planted tree s and l andscaping Weeds and rocks removed from playground s Improved cleanliness of neighborhood s Better maintained sc hool pla yground Collaboration with City Co uncil Di sse mination of information from N MA (National Environment Management Authority) 121

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M y findings s u gges t th a t m a n y youn g peopl e a nd th e ir co mmunities a r e b e n e fitin g from th e MYS A e n v ir onme ntal cle an up prog ram M os t informants fr o m th e f our s tud y s it es enjoy p a rticip a tin g in th e clean up activ iti es b e c a u se they n o t o nl y improve th e clea nlin ess o f th e ir n e i g hb o rhood s but b e c a u e they a l so h ave a chanc e t o w in s ch o l a r s hip s and t o m a k e th e trip t o E urop e 122

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Introduct i o n CHAPTERS IMPLICATIONS In recognition of the gap in the availability of literature and research on child and yo uth participation in Africa, thi s research set out to investigate and document how MY A youth from four zones participate in the Environmental Clean-up Program and the impact s of their participation My finding s affirm that yo ung peopl e want opportunities to lead better live s b y being inYolved in impr ving their neighborhood and communities. Having spent seYen months in airobi gathering data through observations and intenriew s wit h MYSA yo uth and managers, parents and community members, I witnessed the benefit s of the clean-up actiYities and so me of the challenges facing the pro g ram In the course of m y research, I have developed great respect for the MYS organization and its members. The clean-up program motivate s youth to clean and improve their neighborhoods. In the process, parents and .MYSr \ members gain personal knowledg e about environmenta l cleaning toxic waste and rec y cling. B y joining MYS yo ung pe o ple enhance their ocial network s, learn new skills and gain confidence in the future In the preceding c h apter, I have documente d how youth participate and how participation unpacts their personal lives, their familie s, communities, in titution s and their local e n v ironments. This di sse rtation pro v ide s new information and awareness 123

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about the work of MYSA. The resulting information ma y be insightful and useful to many other youth groups and city authorities. In this concluding chapter, I discuss the implication s of m y finding s in detail. The contribution from this s tud y provides an opportunity for further research with youth in Nairobi, including MYSA girls, and comparisons with youth who are not 1\fYSA members. Implication s f o r Y o uth O r ganizati ons In recent yea r s, many governments and organizations have began to recogruze young people 's participation as an important component in improving lives of young people (UN Habitat, 2003; Sherrod, Flanagan, and Youniss, 2002 ) Youth have been identified as assets capable of making meaningful contributions to organizations and their communities ( Eccles & Gootman, 2002 and Lansdown, 2001 ). This is a welcomed development because as witnessed in organizations such as MYSA when given a chance, young people are resourceful and want more opportunities to take charge of their lives. They are demanding change b y asking questions and challenging existing s tructures of authority which restrict their lives and deny them the freedom to express themselves (Driskell, Bannerjee and Chawla, 2001 ) Youth organizations could take advantage of the favorably changing environments and the continued hunger by young people to be involved in day to da y live s of their communities. In Kenya, young people have become increa s ingl y vocal in asking for economic, social, cultural and political opportunities. They feel that in a 124

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country where the y are the majority, their agendas must be a priorit y for the government. As my findings s ugge st, yow1g people are organizing themselve s in public, private and civil soc iety areas of Kenyan society. The Mungiki and other gangs are example of organized forces. These groups fill void and gain youth following as the y are seen to focus on young people 's intere s ts. P a rticip a tion and Decis i o n M aking Young people need opportunities for physical activity, creative express10n, positive social interaction with peers and adults and a sense of structure and clear limits with meaningful participation (Roth and Brooks-Gunn, 2003 ) Youth organizations such as MYSA provide a forum for yo uth to contribute to the welfare of others through community service activities (Hart and Atkins, 2002 ) Taking part in collective decision making particularl y in cases where the decision s affect their lives and the communitie in which the y live, is paramount in true participation ( Hart, 1992; Checkoway, 1998 ) Participation is not only based on a desire to be part of the decision making process but is also about the desire to gain rewards and be identified with a youth organization. Research shows that yo ung people want to be involved in issues that affect them and their communities regardless of constraints, geographical locations or ethnicities. Involvement in development offers them new skills and opportunities to build their s elf esteem and say what is on their minds When youth are allowed to strategize for neighborhood improvements, the y can change their communities and in the process also benefit personall y through the experience. Youth involvement and the recognition of 125

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their potential gives them confidence and improves their standing in their communities ( Swart Kruger with Chawla, 2002). In chapter two, I reviewed in detail literature on child and yo uth participation. The availab l e literature mostly consists of western based texts that identify types of participation, how participation occurs and the benefits of participation ( Hart, 1992 ; Shier, 2002; Chawla, 2002; Francis and Lorenzo, 2002 ). Hart's ladder of participation lists the different forms of participation and s u ggests that the leYels of yo ung people 's power and influence reflect degrees of participation My review found that there is less emphasis on examining the impacts of particip ation on young people and their commurunes; therefore, my findings related to the impacts of participation add new perspectives to the existing gap in tl1e literature. In recognition of the role that l oca l politics and culture play in everyday lives of children and youth I have echoed Hart ( 2002) in downplaying the l adder as a perfect measure of participation across different cultures. Still, my evaluation using Hart's 1992 ladder puts youth participation in fYSA on several levels. Active MYSA members initiate and direct programs while adults are involved onl y in supportive roles. These members probably fall in the sevent h l eve l of Hart's ladd er because they h ave opportuniti es to initiate and make decisions regarding certain programs, projects or events and adults only pla y s upportive roles. However, with almost 20,000 member s, it i s unreali tic to imagine that all yo uth in MYSA have imilar access and participatory expene nc es. 126

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In view of the disparities mentioned above, I believe the existing organizational structure is inadequate because e, en as some members achieve high levels of participation, a majority of the members experience what Hart refers to as tok e nism or manipulation. This is particularly evident at events where, while a few member are involved at the highest l eve l s, the majority of members have very little information about the events and why the y are involved In reality, members are participating at different levels even at the same events I must, however, admit that I recogmze MYSA 's dilemma, because with the exi ring organizationa l structure and a lar ge membership it 1s almost impos ible to ensure that individuals have equal opportunity to make decision s and direct programs Purthermore, most young people believe that their participation should lead to access to incentives which help improve their lives. Maximum participation is equated with a chance to travel and / or to win scho larships. Without the hope of accessing these incentives, some yo ung people stated that they would be involved in other activities with some return s s uch as such as low paying construction job called "mjengo" in Swahili. Despite the frustration and insufficiencie s of the system, my findings suggest that participation in MYSA i s critical for young people 's surviva l in the slums of Nairobi Participation provides opportunities for young people to seek information and express their ideas freely with respect and dignity Participation in MYSA i s regarded by many as a path out of the s lum s and access to opportunities and independence. More critically, regardless of the leve l s of participation, M'r'SA provides hope for a better future. \Xlhile 127

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m a n y young p eo pl e w h o particip a t e in MYS A a r e fru s tr a t e d that they c ann o t ha ve m o r e access t o ince n rives s uch a s a ch a n ce to tr avel a nd / o r t o win s ch o l a r s hips, t hey put o n a goo d s how a nd tak e p a rt in MYS events, esp ec iall y w hen vi s it o r s fro m a b roa d a r e involv e d In a n y c ase, m a n y youth s t a t e that they h ave n o a lt e rnati ve avenues o f purs uin g th e i r dr ea ms, and invol ve m ent in MYSA a t an y l eve l gives th e m a c h a n ce t o f ollow th e ir dre am s in sp o rt s a nd / o r in e duc ation. A cc o rdin g to m embe rs, a c cess t o inc e nti ves s uch as sc h o la r s hips, trip s abroa d a nd allowa n ces are p roo f o f s uc cess ful p a rti cip atio n T h ese f ew in ce nti ves help impr o v e th e ir lives, but man y youth w h o sp e nd h o ur s volunteerin g with MYS A a r e disapp o int e d w h e n they d o n t ge t a n y r ewa rds. In v i ew o f th e dir e c o nditi o n s in w hi c h y o un g people find t h e m se l ves 1n 1 air o bi 's s lum s, :N1YSA and o th e r s imil a r o r ga nizatio n s pla y a pro min ent r o le 1n impro v in g th e lives o f many families in th e s lum. 111e m os t c ompe llin g in s i ght e m e rgin g fr o m m y s tud y s u gges t s th a t eve n wi th a l a ck o f r eso urc es, MYS A i s s till a bl e t o p rovi d e th o u a nd s o f yo uth vi th oppo rtuniti es f o r p erso nal grow th s kill enha nc e m e nt a nd l ea d e r s hip d eve l opment, ju s t as r esea rch e r s h ave o b se r ve d in o th e r s imil a r yo uth o r ga ni zatio n s ( M a h o ney, Ca irns, a nd Fa rm e r 2003; Eccles and Barb e r 1999 ; Z eldin 2 00 4). W h a t eve r th e l evel o f p a rticip atio n youn g p e opl e in M a th a r e a r e in s pir e d b y MYS A a nd th e s uc cess o f p ee r s w h o h ave f o und oppo rtunities thro u g h MY SA. MY S A's influ e n ce ca nn o t b e und e r es tim ate d b e c a u se man y yo un g p eo pl e a r e ve r y h o p e ful t h at b y p a rticip a tin g in MYSA, a b e tt e r futur e i s p oss ibl e f o r th e m a nd th e ir c o mmunities. T h e lesso n h ere may b e th a t in co nditi o n s w h e r e th e r e i s int e n se c ompe titi o n f o r s car ce 12 8

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resources, the level of participation may not be as important as ha, ing a sense of belonging to a positive group or organization such as MYSA. Evidence from my research suggests that given the poverty and the neglect of young people in the s lums, even tokenism or manip11lation may provide young people with some inspiration and hope that driYe them to succeed. Shortages in re ources in families and their communities deny youth the support and experiences they need to survive in difficult conditions. In most cases, families in the slmns cannot provide young people with safe places and a clean environment full of caring people on a daily basis. MYSA activities provide youth with opportunity to interact and develop personal relationships with members of different tribal groups. These contacts help them challenge negative stereotypes and avoid hostile behavior toward each other. orne young people even admitted that they did not speak their own tribal language, meaning that they had no urge to be identified with a tribe. MYSA provides opportunities for young people to grow and become responsible citizens. Members who are disappointed by the level of access still insist that they are happy to be part of MYSA in an environment where there is little hope and few opportunities. Maximizing participation for all youtl1 should be the ideal goal of all organizations inYolved in working with young people. However, in recognition of some of the realities facing young people, any form of participation and access must be encouraged to give youth a chance at life. 129

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Growth and E x p a n s i o n MYSA initially started in two zones but has stnce expanded because of the demand. The result is that an estimated 20,000 active members from 16 zones in Nairobi are currently part of the organization. The expansion of MYSA provides advantages and major challenges When MYSA was formed in the 1980s, the founder Bob Munro and local community members recognized that young people had needs that were not being met by the government or their local communities. The neighborhoods were neglected b y city authorities and youth were subject to crime poverty lack of access to social opportunities such as education and employment, and exposure to risky behavior and disease. Munro, in collaboration with the community, saw the need to mobilize young people through soccer to participate in improvi ng their lives. l\1YSA has given many yo uth hope that their lives will change for the better and thousands of youth seek opportunities in the organization. The incentives provided by MYSA, including education scholarships, are critical, because in many cases parents cannot support young people. Organizations should work on spreading the opportunities to as many members as possib le. This is an important lesson not only for MYSA but for other youth organizations operating in conditions where communities are poor. Successful yo uth organizations such as MYSA attract man y young people, and hence the rapid growth in membership. There is a need to consider a change in the structure without compromising the goals of the organization. The example of MYSA 130

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shows that with large numbers of young people competing for very few opportunities, decentralization may give them a chance to feel involved. In my view, MYSA and fast growing organizations should consider further resource allocation and decision making processes at the local levels. For MYSA, future considerations should include formation of executive councils at ;wnal levels. In addition, programs such as the clean-up activities could independentl y be scheduled at zonal levels and the equipment stored at all 16 zones to enable easy access. Currently the equipment is stored at only two MYSA locations and has to be trucked to the different zones. Many informants state that limitations in incentives offered by MYSA reqwre that I\.fYSA should consider future expansion of programs to include job creation and seek financial independence at zonal levels. Many belieYe that having access at the zonal level may also give more youth opportunities for leadership. They ma y be able to take charge of events and activitie that are run by MYSA staff at the zone. The expansion of the organization may also require goals to evolve and the injection of new idea based on new realities experienced by the members One such change could be related to the trips to orway which only enable a few yo ung people to travel every year. In informal discussions most youth stated that the amounts spent on trips to Europe should be channeled to education scho lar ship so that many more young people can complete high school. Young people particularly over 18 years old, stated that the y would also like to see MYSA set up small businesses that employ members and facilitate career 131

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d evelopme nt. They b elieve that MYS A m embe r s' tal ent a nd driv e will e n sure s ucc ess o f a n y s uch ventures Recruitment The questio n o f h o w yo uth b eco m e e n g a ge d i s o n e that a pplies a cr oss vario u s t y p es o f yo uth p rog r a ms. R esea rch a b o ut m embe r s hip in youth o r ga ni zatio n s s u gges t s th a t in so m e cases, m a n y yo un g p eo pl e jo in yo uth prog r a m for r easo n s th a t a r e ex trin s ic to th e progr a m a cti v ities ( Fre dri c k s e t al., 2 002), In t h e case o f l\1YSA, so m e yo u t h r e p o rt e d th a t th e ir frie nd s influ e nc e d th e m t o j o in th e gro up and th a t they initi ally h a d n o int e r est o r knowl e d ge a b o ut MY S A activ iti es. T hey o nl y j o in e d in o rd e r to s p end tim e w i t h friends o r m eet n e w friends fr o m diff e r ent n e i ghbo rhoods. Othe r s say th a t t hey j o in e d MYSA b eca u se they we r e e n courage d b y th e ir p arents and g u a rdi a n s o r f a mil y m embe r s and gradually b egan to play socce r b e c a u se th e ir f r iends were d o ing so. This r evelatio n s u gges t s t h at th e r e a r e th o usand s o f youn g p eo pl e w h o a r e n o t inYol ve d b e c a u se ex i s tin g prog ram s a r e not a ttr a cti ve t o th e m o r t hey d o n t h ave e n o u g h infonnatio n a b o ut th e progra ms. D ece n tra lizatio n o f yo uth o r ga nizatio n s may e n co urage yo uth t o d es i gn a nd o r ga ni ze fun activ iti es th at a r e re le vant in th e ir zo n es. Su c c ess and achieve m ents s h o uld b e r e d e ftn e d n o t o nl y in t erms o f preve ntin g n egative b e h av i ors but p artic ul arly in ter m s of youn g p eo pl e's h ea l th y d evelopment. Y o u t h o r ga ni zatio n s s h o uld set realistic e xp ec t atio n s and f oc u s o n ga in s s u c h as so ci a l n etwo rk s, p erso n a l skills and community se r v i ces. T h e ir goa l s s h o uld co nc entra t e o n e n a blin g h e alth y d eve l opme nt of youn g p eo pl e t o h e lp t h e m m a k e th e tr a n s iti o n to a dulthood As a dults they will b e a bl e 132

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t o s upp o rt th e m se l ves financiall y and c o ntribut e t o th e ir c o mmunities. In th e c ase o f MYS A, yo un g p eo pl e n ee d t o b e c o n v inced th a t th e r e i s v a lue in b e in g part o f th e o r g ani zatio n b eyond th e financi a l inc e nti ves. K ee pin g n e i g hb orhood s clea n and dise ase free s h o uld b e a pri o rit y f o r all in th e c ommunity. It s h o uld b e in yo un g peopl e's int e rest t o s tay out o f th e s tr ee t s and a way fro m d a n gero u s ga ngs and s tri ve t o b e c o m e producti ve citi ze ns. Retainment M y findings support r esea rch in E ngland s h o win g that youn g p eo pl e hi g hl y r ega rd s p o rt s as a n imp o rt a nt a ctiY it y t o b e purs u e d n o t o nl y durin g leis ure but c ompe titi ve l y as a way t o ge t oppo rtunities ( MacPhail Kirk a nd E l e y 2 003 ) In Math a r e a nd o th e r poor n e i g hb o rhood s in air o bi playin g so cc e r provides a real ch a nc e t o a b e tt e r futur e for m a n y yo un g p eople H o w eve r b e c a use o f the int e n se c ompe titi o n indi v idual s w ith minim a l t a lents w h o wa n t t o pla y but a r e p e rh a p s ex clud e d b e c a u se they d o n o t e xc e l as well, f eel less m otiva t e d As a re s ult as M acPha il Kirk and E ley, ( 2 003) find c o nc entra tin g o n e xcessi ve c ompe titi o n will de c r ease particip atio n b e c a use o f th e e xclu s ion o f th ose w h o ar e less talent e d The r e i s a t emptatio n t o f o cu s o n hig h profile exp e n s t ve events th a t attrac t a tt e nti o n H oweve r o nl y a f ew m embe r s c a n p a rticip a t e in s u c h events and those w h o a r e left out a r e e n v i o u s a nd s u s pici o u s o f the process u se d t o sele ct the f e w who p a rticip ate. Emphasi s s h o uld b e o n th e n o n financi a l g ain s and oppo rtuniti es. The hi g h 133

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profile events ma y be good for funding opportunities and m a rketing the o rg aniza tion but they also raise the stakes for those who want to be involved but don' t get opportunities. Sports oriented organizations s uch as MY A s hould find flexibility in responding to the multi-n ee d s of members. There s hould be recognition that those who are left our becau se the y a re not good enough quickl y get dis illu s ioned As indicate d mos t yo ung people enjoy participating in l\fYSA becau se the y lo ve soccer, are encouraged by their parent s, coache s or their friends However, as observed in a study of yo uth in England, the y could also easily quickl y drop o ut because of pressure, lack of time especially during school days n o friends attending the sport and realizing that few opportunities are be yo nd their mean s b eca use of their limited talents ( English Sports Council, 1997). Youth organizations can increase community interest in their programs b y in, olving parent s and b y encouraging them to support their children in accomplishing perso nal and organizational goals. In the case of MYSA, some of the informant s inten iewed sta ted that their parent s did not know how they spent their time at MYSA and had never been to any meeting s or MYSA events. Member s s hould be informed about the available opportunities every yea r Three members disappointingly told me that they had ne ve r heard of the scholarship program at MYSA. They said the y would ask their team captains about the scholarship forms nece ssa r y to docwnent participation There are le ss than 500 sc holar s hip s offered every year at MYS and there i s n o way demand can b e met. Less than 100 yo uth make th e trip to Europe out of the thousands who aspire to mak e the trip. Furthermore, even after making the trip to Europe, only a 134

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f ew find Norw egia n f a milies willin g t o s p o n so r th em. T h e l esso n h e r e f o r yo uth o r ganizatio n s i s th a t wi th hi g h exp e ct atio n th e r e a r e di sgr untl e d m embe r s w h o f eel th a t they h ave d o n e all th a t i s r e guir e d of th e m but they h ave b ee n un a bl e t o ge t r e turns. A n o p e n pro c ess a nd di sse min atio n o f info rmati o n egually t o all m embe r s r e duc e di s tru s t and th e ch a n ces o f f avo riti s m The uninforme d m embe r s w o uld im ag in e th a t that th ose w h o ge t ass i s t a n ce we r e f avo r e d The c h a ll e n ge i s r e t a inin g m embe r s hip and inte r est while incr eas in g t h e hi g h va lu e attra ctio n s a nd inc entiYes. H o we ve r o r ga nizatio n s mus t also s h o w yo un g p eo pl e tl1at m o n e t a r y ga in s a r e imp o rtant but t h e r e i s va lu e in learnin g in1port ant lif e skills, h a rd wo rk and h o n esty In cases w h e r e th e r e i s v i o l e n ce and c o nfli c t youth o r ga nizatio n s h ave a n oppo rtunity t o set a n example and fight aga in s t v i o le nc e and m embe r s could play a m a j o r ro le 111 c o nflict r eso luti o n w ithin th e ir co mmurunes. In airo bi 's poor n e i ghbo rhoods, vio le nc e and e thnic clashes we r e resp o n s ibl e f o r th e d es tr u cti o n o f lives a nd p ro p e rty durin g past e l e cti o ns. W ith a n e thni cally di verse m embe r s hip MYS A has th e o bligatio n t o s how b y ex ampl e th a t e thic diffe r e nces ca n b e th e s tr e n g th b y w hich community m embe r s w o rk t oge th e r and d e m and acc ounta bility fro m th e ir rep res e n t a rives. 135

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Impli cat i o n s fo r C ity C o un c il s Co mmuniti es a r e lookin g for ways t o so l ve th e ir p ro bl e m s thro u g h selfh e lp ini tiatives. In airo bi community activ iti es s u c h as t h e clean up activities h ave b eco m e m ore frequ e n t a nd invol ve m a n y m o r e community g r o ups. These eff o rt s s h o uld n o t h oweve r a b so l ve city aud1or ities fro m t h e ir duties. Cities h ave a duty to fig ur e out how to s upp o rt th ese community ini tiatives C ity a uth o riti es s h o uld co n side r pro f ess i o n a l s upp o rt for yo uth o r ga nizatio n s t h ro u g h e ff ectin t ec hni ca l skill tr a inin g o f you n g p eo pl e in o rd e r to build t h e ir c a p acity t o impro ve th e ir c o mmunities. W h e n y o uth t a k e resp o n s ibility t o clean t h e ir e n v ir onments, w ith out nec e ssary equipm ent a nd k nowl e d ge, th e p rocess may exp ose t h e m t o di sease and o th e r h azar ds. C olla b o r a tion In agree m ent wit h resea r c h b y C h ec k oway a nd F inn ( 1 995 ) H a r t ( 1 997 ) C h aw la ( 2002 ) a nd C h ec k oway et al. ( 2003 ) m y ex p erie n ce i n t h e slums and s tud y fin di ngs suggest th a t w h e n giYen a c h a nce, y o un g p eo pl e in Ma th are a r e p rov in g t o b e read y a nd ca p a bl e of id e n tify in g pro bl e m s i n th e i r n e i ghbo rhood s a nd findin g o ut how t o so l ve t h e m T h e r e i s n ee d f o r g r ea t e r colla b o r atio n b etwee n th e c it y co uncil s a nd yo uth orga nizatio n s in orde r f o r th e m t o wo rk toge th er in ca p ac ity buildin g and s h a rin g reso u rce s The cit y s h o uld b e res p o n s ive to yo uth b y m a kin g r eg ul ato r y c h a n ges t o g i ve youth age nd a a pri ority. B y embrac in g p a rti cip atio n citi es e n able full in cor p o r atio n of p a rticip a t ory activ ities int o th e d aily wo rk o f t h e cit y a uth o rities. L o n g ( 1 999 ) s u gges t s 1 36

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that adopting institutional reforms can lead to nece ssa r y sta keholder participation 111 project and polic y development, implementation and evaluation. Crime i s a maj o r concern for both youth and adults in Nairobi. M y finding s s uggest that yo ung people are often mi s takenl y s uspected to be criminals or gang members. MYSA and other youth organi?.ations s hould collaborate to organize and help yo uth to participat e in credible neighborhood policing This can be s ucces sful b y working with the local police force. The s uccess of a program funded b y the State of Connecticut through the Office of Polic y and Management shows that police interaction with youth outside of the traditional enforcement roles can help prevent crime and reduce dis tru st and tension between communities and the police (An derson, Sabatelli and Trachtenberg, 2007). Youth organizations such as MYSA also have a role to pla y in local politics b y pus hing for representation of yo uth in the city council. MYSA alone ha s more than 20,000 members and with support from other yo uth organization an organized voting block can ensure that eligible youth vote a nd contest sea t s in local elections. Institutio n a l Ch a nges In the case of Nairobi, MYSA member and other young resident s in the s lum s can become true sta keholders. It i s unfortunate that while slwn residents and youth are employed and poorl y paid b y private companies and the city council to clean up the city's Central Bu s iness District (CB D ) and other wealthy areas, the city ha s not bothered to provide the s lum s with the same se nrices. Since airobi ha no formal system of 137

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h o u set oh o use ga rb age c olle cti o n a nd as alr e ad y m e nti o n e d s lum residents d o n o t r e c e i ve city g arba ge c olle cti o n servi ces, th e c o uncil s h o uld c o n side r o ut so urcin g th e clea n up in ce rtain a r eas t o yo uth g r o ups. In s tituti o n a l c h a n ges m a in s tr e amin g p a rticip atio n could p rov id e o pp o rtunities t o yo uth group s T hi s would n o t only provide much n ee d e d e mpl oy m ent but a l so g i ve c o mmunities a n o pp o rtunity t o e ff ectively b e p a rt o f e n v ir onme nt a l m a n age m ent in th e city. E nc o ura gi n g a nd r e cogni z in g yo uth co un cils co uld h e lp link o rganizatio n s se rvin g yo uth in th e l oca l a r ea Y o uth c o uncil s c o uld h e lp c ities t a k e int o a cc ount issu es th a t may h av e a n impact o n th e s u c c ess o f yo uth In Barra Mans a, Brazil, b oys a nd g irl s h av e b ee n electe d t o t h e l o cal municip a l co uncil to r epresent t h e ir p ee r s a nd pri o riti ze a nd d evelo p p ro j e ct s whi c h address th e ir n ee d s (G u e rr a, 2 00 2 ) air o bi 's city a uth o rities co uld l ea rn fro m s uch yo uth co uncil s w h e r e fina nc es a r e allo c a t e d f o r youth r eprese nt atives t o m a n age. T h e co un cil co uld also provid e fin a nci a l s upp o rt t o youth g r o up s invol ve d in prov idin g c o uncil servic es. In th e case o f MYS A, th e c o uncil s h o uld co n side r prov idin g s t o r age f o r MYSA equipm e nt. \ '( fhile clea n up activ iti es o ccur in th e 1 6 zo n es, th e equipm ent i s s t o r e d a t two MYS l ocatio n s T h e r e i s a n ee d t o find secur e s t o r age s p a c es in seve ral zo nes in o rd e r t o m a k e th e e quipm ent a ccessibl e t o c o mmunities. Thi s will help t a k e th e e quipm ent t o th e l o c a l l evel a nd r e duc e c os ts. Eve n b eyo nd th e r eductio n o f c os ts, th e availa bility o f e quipm e n t w ill e n a bl e c o mmunities t o co nduct fre qu ent clean up activ ities w ith out wa itin g f o r MYS A s ch e dules. 13 8

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I m plicati o n s f o r Youth A l o t ha s b ee n s aid ab out young peop l e b e ing a crucia l seg m ent o f society and b e in g the future. In f act, they h ave b ee n t o uted n o t o nl y as the l ea d e r s o f t o m o rr o w but as p artne r s of t o day ( Sh e rr o d 2 00 5 ). In v i ew o f th e ir importa n ce, yo un g peopl e s h o uld b e linked t o pl a nnin g a nd p o lic y e ff orts In communities such as th ose s tudi e d in thi s r esea rch ris in g p ove rty, r a pid urb a ni zatio n and g l o b a li za tion hav e influ e nc e d famil y and c ommunity lif e and c han ge d th e ex p ec t atio n s o f young people. Fa mili es h ave b ee n wea k e n e d b y p ove rty a nd di seases s uch as AIDS. M a n y m o r e young peopl e h ave b e c o m e orpha n s a nd h ave t o fe nd f o r th e m se l ves a nd t h e ir s iblin gs. In M a thar e's c ase, m a n y o f m y informants ha ve be e n r a i se d b y s in g l e m o th e rs. S o m e fath e r s w alk e d out o n th e ir f a mili es o r di e d o f di sease The d aily st ru gg l es 1n th e slwns h ave wea k e n e d informa l c ommunity support sys t e m s which may s till exis t in v ill ages. T hi s n ew r e ality has pl a c e d n e w a nd ch alle n gin g d emands o n young peopl e in term s o f e ducati o n tr a inin g, and th e so ci a l a nd e m otio nal s kill s n ee d e d in a hi g hl y compe titi ve e n v ir onme nt. In air o bi a nd K e nya in ge n e ral educ ati o n a nd e mpl oy m ent oppo rtuniti es ar e rar e a nd m a n y youth a r e ente rin g th e l a b o r m a rk e t with inad egua t e knowl e d ge a nd s kill s t o s u c c ee d 13 9

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Take Initiative If well o r ga ni ze d large numbers o f young peopl e constitute a crucial political voting block. \'\ ith representation in cities, they could have access t o the deci s ion making process. They can then help re-examin e existing policie s and determin e polic y alternative s to sec ur e a future with opportunities for young people. Young people cannot continue to complain about lack of access. Participation in groups s uch as MYSA gives yo uth a chance to be part of the community development process. In the U nited States, Kirshner, Str o bel and Fernandez ( 2003 ) give example s of organized youth who have achieved sc hool reform goals, perform e d action re sea rch to expose environmental polluters, and conducted program eva lu ation to improv e city serv ices for yo uth In addition, other s tudie s focusing on re s ilienc y s uggest that opportunities for problem so lving, goa l se tting a nd planning help yo uth with s tand the negative impact s of neglect, poverty, and other problem s (Benson, 1997; Werner, 1990 ) Checkoway et a l ( 2003 ) describe a national projec t de s i gned to increa se the participation of 15 t o 21-years-old in organizational development and creating community change. The Liftin g ew Voices (LNV) project t a ke s a v i ew that young people are competent citizen s and should be involved in organizations and communities with a right to participate and a re s ponsibility to serve their communities. With funding from the Kell ogg Foundation and Ford Foundation, young pe o ple and adult s from across the United States work to get her to build th e capacity of community-based organizations t o enab le young peopl 140

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to orgamze themselves, contribute to commumty changes through invoh-ement 1n planning and decision-making (Checkoway and Richards-Schuster, 2001 ) Another example is described by Merkle (2003); the story of young people in El Alto, Bolivia shows that faced with stigmas, young people can organize and confront challenges facing their communities. Just as I encountered in Mathare and other MYSA sites, young people in Bolivia have formed autonomous informal youth groups where they express their views and tell stories about their everyday lives through cultural activities such as music, theatre and poetry. These artistic performances are a source of pride in their communities. Young people shou ld aggressively be active and demand to be fully engaged in community issues Their involvement should be seen as positive because they identify themselves as commumty development agents capable of transforming their environments. Furthermore, increased involvement of youth gives youth opportunities to gain skills and develop leader hip qualities. The acquired skills will allow youth to work in collaboration with adults with confidence towards local community development. In spite of everything, young people are already making changes in their communities and there is a greater need to acknowledge and reward them for their efforts. Youth should avoid taking a passive approach by waiting until they reach adulthood before they become involved in change. Adults who run cities must allow youth to engage in the planning process and give young people a voice in deci ions that 141

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transform policies and most importantly build youth-adult partnerships Tapping the energy and intelligence of youth can help poor countries prosper and prepare them to face harsh realities in life. Participation in yo uth organizations help young people learn how to think for themse l ves and to take action Youth acquire confidence and belief in a better future \vtth lot s of hope and optimism. MYSA and other youth organizations motivate thousands of yo ung people leading them to believe in a better future. The motivation help s them achieYe their goals and protect their lives from reckle s behaviors. Implications for Future Resea rch My s tud y has provided many valuable insights; however many other questions emerge. Further research ma y be required to answer some of the arising questions. I have briefly mentioned the role that identity politics play in the larger Kenyan society. Identit y i s an important aspect in the daily lives of youth in the country. After the deadl y tribal violence in December of 2007, future research ma y be necessar y to explore the effects of tribal identity oh MYSA youth and how the violence affected life in the slwns and their participation in MY programs more general question could b how youth navigate tribal tensions in the slums to form relationships with others from different tribal backgrounds. Such re earch may face major challenge because there are so many tribes living in th e s lum and re sea rcher s would have to be viewed as trust\vorthy and neutral. Secondly, identif y ing alternative organizational structures that could meaningfull y help 1\rfYSA and similar larger youth organizations to expand participator y 142

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oppo rtunities c o uld b e a n imp o rt ant s tep Improve d s tructure s c o uld g i ve young p eo pl e a c h a nce t o t a k e c h a r ge o f th e ir liv es and prove t o b e r esourceful m embe r s o f th e c ommumty. H av in g exte n s i vely docwnente d inform a tion about MYS A, m a n y yo uth o r ga ni zatio n s and p eo ple w o rkin g with young p eo pl e in s imil ar conditi o n s may appr ecia t e th e a bilities o f yo un g p eo pl e t o c o ntribut e in so l vi n g m a n y o f th e so cial p ro bl e m s they f ace in n e i ghbo rhood s s uch a s M a th a re. Whil e a n swe rin g m y se c o nd r ese arch guestio n o n impact s, I c at egorize d m y findings ba se d o n five th e mes. I b e lie ve th a t futur e s tudies h ave a n ope nin g t o c o n s id e r m a n y o th e r th e mes s uch a s th e economic impact s o f yo uth o r ga ni z ati o n s a nd m embe r participation In th e c ase o f airo bi it wo uld b e u seful t o know w hat MYS A a nd it s m embe r s c o ntribut e t o th e e c o n o m y o f th e s lum ar e as. S o m e o f m y informants ha ve s i s t e r s a nd in a dditi o n durin g MYS A events, I e nc o unter e d man y youn g f e m a l e m embe r s o f MYS A. S o m e o f th e m we r e curi o u s ab o u t m y s tud y a nd w o nd e r e d w h y I h a d n o t int e r v ie w e d th e g irl s roo. I'm curi o u s t o find o ut h o w ge nd e r diffe r e nces c o uld a ff e ct p a rticip atio n in you t h o r ga nizatio n s For MYSA' c ase, a r e levant guestio n f o r futur e r ese arch co uld be t o find o ut th e imp a ct s th a t g irl s p a rticipation in th e MY S A acti, ities h ave o n th e ir co mmuniti es a nd th e g irl s th e m selves. I p os it that f e m a le MYSA m embers ha ve unigu e ch alle n ges and t a r ge t e d r esea rch th a t wo uld r evea l va luabl e info rm atio n n e c ess ary in imp rov in g th e lives o f g irl s living in th e s lums. 14 3

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C o n cl u s ion Thi s di sse rtation prov id es so m e und e r s t a ndin g o f h o w youth e n gage m e nt c a n d e t e rmin e s uc cess ful pra cti ces a nd achi e v e p os iti ve outco mes. M y s tud y has prov id e d ev id e nce th a t m a n y yo un g p eople want oppo rtunities t o lea d b e tt e r li ves b y p a rticip a tin g in improv in g th eir n e i ghbo rhood s and co mmuniti es. P articip atio n i s not only b ase d on th e ir desir e t o b e p a rt o f th e d ecis i o n m a kin g proc ess but i s a l so a b o ut th e ir a bility t o gain r e w a rd s and b e identifi e d wit h a p ositiYe yo uth o r g ani zatio n M y stud y s h ows th a t at 1IY A youn g peopl e a r e gainin g f r o m th e ir invol ve m e nt in va ri o u s p rog r a ms. In f act m ost m embe r s v i ew p a rti c ip atio n in MYS A as a ch a nc e t o imp rove indi' idual so cc e r skills, a t te nd th e annua l 1 o r way C up t o urn a m e n t a nd in so m e c ases, e arn allowa nces and sc h o la r s hips. A dditi o n ally, th ese findings r e it e r a t e r esea rch d o n e elsew h e r e th a t indic a tes th a t w h e n youth a r e allo w e d t o s tr a t eg i ze f o r n e i ghbo rhood imp rove m ents, they c a n c h a n ge th e ir co mmuniti es a nd i n t h e p rocess also b e n e fit p e r o nall y thr o u g h th e exp e ri e n ce. M y r esea rch has n o t only addresse d how yo uth p a rticip a te, but has furth e r id e ntifie d t h e eff ects o f yo uth p a rti c ip atio n and th e quali tative gains m a d e in th e d aily lives o f yo uth despit e exis tin g limit atio ns. W h e n g i ve n a c han ce, yo un g p eo pl e a r e p rov in g t o b e reso urc e ful as kin g f o r m o r e oppo rtuniti es a nd t a kin g c h a r ge o f th e ir lives. My findings may p e r s u a d e pl anne r s a nd l oca l a uth o riti es t o tak e ad vantage o f th e int e r est th a t young p eo pl e h ave in imp rovi n g th e ir c o mmunities. With sca rc e r eso ur ces, m a n y 144

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local authorities in poor countries should tap the youth energy so that yo ung people can be involved in the management of their environments and communities. As MYSA members have proven, young people can challenge the negative stereotypes and change the perception that they are the problem Youth must organize and demand to be part of the solution. Their competence and worth as members of their communities are determined b y their choices and actions. Young people should continue to show that they can help take care of other family members and collaborate with adults in decision making. better future depend s mostly on how successful yo ung people are in getting involved in decision making and the development process. As MYS 's experience shows, youth s hould collaborate u rith peers, form other youth groups and take leadership roles because they can and are creative and imaginatin. MYSA youth come from different ethnic backgrounds and they can effectively show that difference in ethnicity s hould be a source of strength in fighting for social justice for all. They can be an example to young people all over the country by being in the forefront in the fight against tribalism. 145

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APPENDIX 146

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APPENDIX A: INTERVIEW PROTOCOLS Interview Questions for the Youth l.How old are you? 2. \ Xlhere were you b orn and raised? 3.In which part MYSA zone do you live? 4. How l ong have you lived in this zone? 5.How would you describe living here? 6. What things do you like about the area, and what don't you like? 7.\Xlhat recent changes have you noticed in recent years? 8. What is MYSA? 9.How l ong have you been a member ofMYSA? 10. How did you join MYSA? 11. What were your rea ons for joining l'viYSA? 12 Do you have friends who are MYSA members? 13. Did you know them before or after joining MYS ? 14 What do other family members think of your membership in l'viYSA? 15. Which MYSA community programs do you currently participate in? 16 How do you participate in the programs and why do you participate in the acti, ities? 17. What do you like about participating and what don't you like? 18. Is there anyth in g you don't like a bout the activities? 19. What would you change about the activities? 20. Do you participate in other non-MY A related communit y activities? 21. What benefits do you think MYSA programs provide to you, to the community and to the environment? 22. Do your views reach MYSA program l eaders? 23. How do your views reach 11YSA program leaders? 24. Are venues where MYSA programs are held accessible to you at all times? 25. \Xlhat are your dreams and visions for the future? 26 Do you have anything you would like to add? 14 7

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Ques tion s for MYSA leader s 1.How old are you? 2. When did you join MY A? 3. What d o yo u do at MY A? 4 Can yo u describe the program you are in charge of? 5. Where are program activities carried out? 6. When are program activities carried out? 7.How did the young people learn about thi s activity? 8. What are their expectations from participating ? 9. How and who decides the schedules and location ? 10 What kinds of equipment, reso urces are necessary for the program activities? 11. How do yo u make s ure that the venues where activities are held are accessible to yo uth at all times? 12. Do you have access to information and input from yo uth? 13. Do you have access to information and input from community members? 14. How do you get their input? 15. Ho\\ do their views reach MYSA establishment? 16. What action i s taken to include views of yo uth in decision making? 1 7 How much time do yo u spend on activities in the community? 18. In your opinion what benefits do the activities provide for yo uth and community? 19. What do you think is the impact of the program activities? 20. Do yo u think that these programs provide fair opportunities to all youth? 21. Is action taken to include needs and views of MYSA b y local authorities? 22. How do yo ur views reach the city Council? 23 Do you or any other MYSA members participate in city council programs? 24 Is MYSA represented in City council meeting s and plans? 25. Are local NGOs interested and supportive of MYSA activities? 26 Are yo u sponsored b y local or international institutions? 27. Does MYS collaborate with other youth organizations? 28. What would yo u like to see change in MYSA? 29. \X!hy not also or instead organize the community to put pressure on the govt to do it s job? 30. What i yo ur vision for the future of the program? 148

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Interview and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Questions for Adults Parents/Guardians/Local Council Members and MYSA program leaders 1 Where do you live? 2. Are you involved in any of MYSA programs? 3. D o you haYe any children? 4. Are any of your children or family members involved in MYSA? 5. Do you know any other MYS member ? 6. Have you noticed any change ince they joined MYS ? 7. Are your children activel y involved in activities at home? 8 How has their involvement in MYSA helped the family/ community? 9. What do you think of the MYSA programs and how do they affect your family / community? 10 How do fYS member views reach the city council? 11. Is action taken to include needs and views of MYSA b y local authoritie ? 12. Do MY A members participate in city council programs? 13. I s MY A represented in City council meetings and plans? 14. Are l ocal NGOs interested and supportive ofMYSA activities? 15. Does l\1YS collaborate with other youth organizations? 149

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APPENDIX B: CONSENT FORMS Written Assent form for Youth Evaluating the Impact of Youth P articipation in Mathare Youth Sport s Association (MYSA ) Programs in airobi's Slums You are invited to participate in a research study conducted b y George Awuor, a graduate student at the University of Colorado's PhD program in Design and Planning, Environmenta l Design Building, Room 171, Campus Box 314, Boulder, CO 80309-0314 USA. This project is being done under the direction of Professor Willem Van Vliet and Louise Chawla both, from the Department of Planning and Design. They can be reached at work number ( 1 ) 303492-5015. This study examines the in1pact of your part1c1pation in the MYS program s that influence the development of the community and improve the physical environment of yo ur neighborhood You were s elected as a possible participant in this study because you are an active member of MYSA. If you choose to participate I will personall y conduct interviews attend MYSA events and observe relevant program activities in ord er to gather information. You will be asked question s regarding your views and experie n ces as a MYSA member. Through the questions, the study intends to find out how you participate in the program and if there are any change s that are linked to yo ur participation in the programs Your participation i s voluntary and if you decide to participate, this interview will take an hour. It may be necessary to have follow up sessions and further participation in a focus group discussion (FDG) w ith your p eers. Participation in the follow-up session and the FDG is a l so purely on voluntary basis. Some questions ma y possibly embarrass or cause di scomfort and upset you. You are free to withdraw your consent and discontinue participation at any time without penalty If you also change your mind about what you have said in an interview you can request that your interview be excluded from the study. Research results will help in the recognition of the capacity and abilities of youth to meaningfull y participate in improving their live s in Mathare and ma y also influence public polic y formulation in Kenya. However, there is no guarantee that yo u will personally receive any benefits from this research. Your confidentiality will be protected and publi s hed results of tne study will not include any identifiable references to you. If yo u h ave question s regarding your right s as a re sea rch participant contact the Research Administration / Graduate School, University 150

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of Col orado at Dennr and Health Sciences Center, 1380 Lawrence St Suite 300, Campus Box 120, P.O. Box 173364 D enver, CO 80217-3364 USA. You ma y a l so contact the office b y calling ( 1 ) 303492Your s i g nature indic a tes that you have read and unders tan d the information provided above, that yo u willingly agree to participate t h at you ma y withdraw yo ur con sent at any time an d di s continu e partic ip ation with o u t pe n a lty a nd t h at yo u h ave received a cop y of thi s fonn. Print an1e ____________________________________________________ __ Signarure ______________________________________________________ Date ______________________ 151

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Writt e n Consent f o rm f o r MYSA Y o uth Le a der s Evaluating the Impact ofYouth Participation in Mathare Youth Sports ssoc1at10n (MYSA) Programs in Nairobi's Slums You are invited to participate in a research s tud y conducted b y George A wuor, a graduate student at the University of Colorado's PhD program in Design and Planning, Environmental D es ign Building, Room 171, Campus Box 314, Boulder CO 80309-0314 -USA. This project is being done under the direction of Professor Willem Van Vliet and Louise Chawla both from the Department of Plannin g and Design They can be reached at work number ( 1 ) 303492-5015 Thi s s tudy examines the impact of youth partiCipation in the MYSA programs that influence the development of th e community and improve the physical environment of your neighborhood You were s elected as a possible participant in thi s s tud y becau se you are actively invol ve d in MYSA. If yo u choose to participate I will perso nall y conduct interviews attend MYSA events and o b serve rele vant program activities in order to gather information. You will be asked que s tion s regarding your views and experiences as a MYSA program leader Through the questions, the study intends to flnd o ut how yo uth participate in the program s and if t h ere are any change s resulting from their participation in the programs. Your participation is voluntary and if yo u decide to participate, thi s intervi ew will take an hour. It ma y be nece ssary to have follow-up sess ion s and further participati o n in a focus group discussion with city council officials and parents / guardians of MYSA members Partic i pation in th e follow-up sess ion and the FDG i s also purely on vol untary ba s is. Some questi o n s ma y possi bl y embarrass or cause disc omfort and up se t you. You are free to withdraw your consent and disco ntinue participation at any time without penalty. If yo u a l so change your mind about what yo u ha ve sa id in an inten iew yo u can reque st that your intervi ew be excluded from the study. Re sea rch results will help in the recognition of the capacity and abilities of yo uth to meaningfull y participate in improv in g their live s in Mathare and ma y also influence public polic y formulati o n in Kenya. H oweve r th e re is n o guarantee that yo u will personally receive any benefits from thi s re sea rch Your confidentiality will be protected and published res ult s of the s tud y will not include any identifiable references to yo u If yo u have question s regarding your rights as a research participant contact the Re searc h Administration / Graduate School University of Colorado at D e nv e r and Health Sci e nce s Center, 1380 Lawrence St., Suite 30, Campus 152

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Box 120 P.O. Box Denver, CO 80217-3364-USA. You ma y also contact the office b) calling ( 1 ) 303492-Your s i gnature indicates that yo u have rea d and understand the information p rovided above, that yo u wi llin g l y ag r ee to participate, t h at you may withdraw yo ur consent at any time and disco ntinue participation without penalt y and that you ha ve recei ve d a copy of tlu s for m Print Name ____________________________________________________ __ Signature ____________________________________________________ ___ D ate ______________________ 153

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Written Consent form for City Council Offici a ls Evaluating the Impact of Youth Participation in Mathare Youth Sports Association (MYSA) Programs in Nairobi's S l ums You are invited to participate in a research study conducted by George Awuor, a graduate student at the University of Col orado's PhD program in Design and Planning, Environmental Design Building, Room 171, Campus Box 314, Boulder, CO 80309-0314 USA. This project is being done under the direction of Professor Will em Van Vliet and Louise Chawla both, from the Department of Planning and Design They can be reached at work nwnber ( 1 ) 303492 5015. This study examines the impact of youth participation in the MYSA programs that influence the development of the community and improve the physical environment of your neighborhood You were selected as a possible participant in this study because you represent the city authorities in t h e re levant MYSA zone If you choose to participate, I will personally conduct interview s and ob erve relevant program activities in order to gather information. You will be asked questions regarding MYSA and any existing collaborations between MYSA and the city council. Through the questions the study intends to find out if the yo uth activities result in any changes. Your participation is entirel y voluntary and if you decide to participate, the interview will take an hour. It may be necessary to have follow-up sessions and further participation in a focus group discussion (FDG) with city council officials and parents / guardians of MYSA members. Participation in the follow-up session and the FDG is also purel y on voluntary basis. Some questions may possib l y embarrass or cause discomfort and upset you. You are free to withdraw your consent and discontinue participation at any tin1e without penalty If yo u also change your mind about what yo u have said in an interview yo u can request that your interview be excluded from the study. Research results will he l p in the recognition of the capacity and abilities of youth to meaningfully participate in improving their lives in Mathare and may a l so influence public policy formulation in Kenya. However, there i s no guarantee that you will personally receive any benefits from this research. Your confidentiality will be protected and published results of the study will not include any identifiable references to you. If you have questions regarding your rights as a research participant, contact the Research Admini tration / Graduate School, University of Co l orado at Denver and Health Sc i ences Center, 1380 Lawrence St., Suite 300, Campus Box 120, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, CO 80217-3364USA. You ma y also contact the office b y calling ( 1 ) 303492154

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Your signature indicates that you have read and unders tand the information provided above, that you willingly agree to participate, that yo u ma y withdraw your consent at any tim e and di sco ntinue p articipation without p ena lty and that you have rece i ve d a copy of this form. Print Name ___________________________ Signarure ____________________________________________________ ___ Date. _____________________ 155

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Written Consent form for Parents/Guardian s Evaluating the Impact ofYouth Participation in Mathare Youth Sports Association (MY A) Programs in airobi's Slums You are invited to participate in a research rudy conducted by George A wuor, a graduate student at the University of Color ado's PhD program in Design and Planning, Environmental Design Building, Room 171, Campus Box 314, Boulder, CO 80309-0314 USA. This project is being done under the direction of Professor Will em Van Vliet and Louise Chawla both, from the Department of Planning and Design They can be reached at work number (1) 303-492-5015. 1 his study examine the impact of youth participation in the MYSA programs that influence the development of the community and improve the physical environment of your neighborhood. You were elected as a possible participant in this study because you are a parent/ guardian to a MYSA member. If you decide to participate, I will personally conduct interviews to gather data. You will be asked que tions regarding MYSA and your views and opinions regarding : MYSA acti,-ities. Through the questions, the study intends to find how the youth activities result in any changes. Your participation is entirely voluntary and if you decide to participate, the interview will take an h our. It may be neces ary to have follow-up sess i ons and further participation in a focus group discussion (FDG) with city council officia l s and parents/ guar di ans of MYS member Participation i.n the follow-up session and the FDG i al o purely on voluntary basis. ome questions may possibly embarrass or cause discomfort and upset you You are free to withdraw your consent and discontinue participation at any time without penalty. If you also change your mind about what you have aid in an interview you can request that your interview be excluded from the sn1dy Re earch results will help in the recognition of the capacity and abilities of youth to meaningfully participate i.n improving their lives in Mathare and may also influence public policy formulation in Kenya. However, there is no guarantee that you will personally receive any benefits from this research. Your confidentiality will be protected and published results of the study \\-ill not include any identifiable references to you. If you have questions regarding your rights as a research particip ant, contact the Research A dmini stration / Graduate School, University of Colorado at Dennr and Health Sciences Center, 1380 Lawrence t., Suite 300, Campus Box 120, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, CO 80217-3364SA. You ma y also contact the office by calling ( 1 ) 303492156

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Your signature indicates that you have read and understand the information provided above, that you willing l y agree to participate, that yo u may withdraw your consent at any time and discontinue participation wit hout penalty and that you have received a copy of this form. ______________________________________________________ __ Signarure ______________________________________________________ Date ______________________ __ 157

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Writt e n Consent f o rm for Focus Group Discussions Evaluating the Impact of Youth Participation in Mad1are Youth Sports ssociation (MYSA ) Programs in airobi's Slwns You are invited to participate in a research study conducted b y George Awuor, a graduate student at the Univer ity of Colorado's PhD program in Design and Planning Environmental Design Building, Room 171, Campus Box 314, Boulder CO 80309-0314 USA. This project is being done under the direction of Professor \X illem Van Vliet and Louise Chawla bod1, from ilie Department of Planning and Design. They can be reached at work nwnber ( 1 ) 303492 5015 This study examines the impact of youth part1c1pation in the MYS programs that influence the development of ilie community and improve the physical environment of your neighborhood You were selected as a possible participant in iliis study because you have to a MYS i \ member. If you decide to participate, yo u will be asked to sit in a group discussion with other members of the conununity. You will be asked questions regarding MYSA and your views and opinions regarding MYSA activities. Through the questions, the study intends to find how the youth activities result in any changes Your participation is entirely voluntary and if you decide to participate, the interview will take an hour. Some questions ma y possibly embarrass or cause discomfort and upset you. You are free to withdraw your consent and discontinue participation at any time without penalty. If you also change your mind about what yo u have aid in an interview yo u can request that your interview be excluded from the study. Research results will help in the recognition of the capacity and abilities of youth to meaningfully participate in improving their lives in Mathare and may also influence public policy formulation in Kenya. However, there i s no guarantee that yo u will personall y receive any benefits from this research I will not be able to guarantee your confidentiality during the focu s groups discussions but published results of the study will not include any identifiable reference to you. If you have questions regarding yo ur rights as a research participant, contact the Research dministration / Graduate chool, University of Colorado at Denver and Health ciences Center, 1380 Lawr nee St., Suite 300, Campus Box 120, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, CO 80217-3364-U A. You may also contact the office by calling (1) 303-492Your signature indicates that you have read and understand the information provided above, that you -.villingly agree to participate, that yo u may withdraw your consent at any 158

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time a n d disco ntinu e participation wit hout p enalty and that yo u ha ve received a cop y of this form. PrilltName ____________________________________________________ __ Sig n ature ____________________________________________________ Date. ______________________ 159

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SCRIPT for Ora l Consent for illit e r a t e P a rent s /Guardi a ns (Script is in SHENG lo ca l s l a n g ) Jina langu ni George Awuor na mie ni mwanafunzi kule niversit y of Colorado -US akukaribisha kuparticipate hven) e hii resea rch inayofanywa ili kuchunguza vile vijana wa MYSA wanavyo participate kwen ye activities na vile hivi activities zinasaidia mtaa Umechaguliwa kuparticipate hvenye hii research kwa sababu wewe ni mzazi au guardian wa MY member. Ukikubali kuparticipate, utaombwa ujibu ma swali na useme maoni yako kuhu s u MY A na activities zao mtaani. Hii interview utachukua saa moja na at any time ukiwa unataka kujiondia kwenye interview usijali kuomba ruhusa hvani ni haki y ako kujiondoa J.-"Wenye research. l chunguzi huu uta saiclia kueleza ni vipi vijana wa MYSA na activities zao wanasaiclia community l naweza kujiondoa kwenye research wakati wowote bila kuuliza ruhusa. Vile vile nakufahami s ha hvamba jina lako na identit y yako haitatumika kwenye report ita yoa nclikwa uchunguzi itakapokamilika Nitkupa consent fom1 iliyo na contacts za waalimu wangu and shule yangu kule Colorado. TRANSLATl01 My name i s George Awuor and I'm student at the Univer ity of Colorado USA. I welcome your participation in thi s researc h which attempts to study MYS members' participation and the impact of the programs on the community You have been chosen to participate in this re sea rch because yo u are a parent/ guardian of MYSA member. If you choose to participate, yo u will be asked to share your opinions regarding MY and their program activities. Thi interview will take an hour but you are welcome to stop me at any time. Do not hesitate to also withdraw from the study if you wish ro do so at anytime. I will reguire no explanations if it is your wish to withdraw from the study. ote that your name s or identity will not be di s closed in the final report that will be compiled when the study is completed I will also give yo u the written consent fonns with contact information for profe sors and m y sc hool. 160

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BIBILIOGRAPHY Ackermann, L., Hart, and Newman, ]. ( 2003 ) E1'a/uating Partitipation: 5flnttJJary of a Draft Dis c11ssio11 Dommmt Base d 011 Field &search i11 India, Kn!Ja a11d Emador Plan UK Anderson, S., Sabatelli and Trachtenberg, J. ( 2007 ) Community Police and Youth Programs as a Context for Positive Youth Development. Policl' Quart e r!J VoL 10(1) 2340 Appleyard, D. ( 1976 ) Planning a Pl11ralist Ci!J' Cambridge, MA: MIT Pre s s Ardon P. ( 2002 ) Participation for Whom? PLA otes, 43: 29-30 rnstein, S. R. ( 1969). A Ladder of Citizen Participation Joumal of tbe A m erican Institute of Planne r s 35 216-224 Ashford, L ( 2007). A fri ca's youthful population: Risk or opp0111miry? Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB] ASOARTE et. al ( 2002). Exploring Youth and Communit y R elations in Cali, Co l omb i a Environme nt & Urbanization, 14( 2). tkinson, P Coffe y A. Delamont, S et al. (Eds.) (2001 ). Handbook of Ethnograpi!J. London : Sage Publications. Auriat, N., Miljeteig P. and Chawla, L. ( 2001) Identifying best practices in children's Participation. PLA Notes, 42 Bartlett, S. ( 2002 ) Cbildrm 's Rights and tbe Em,ironme nt Save the Children Sweden Stockholm Bartlett, S. with Hart, Satterthwaite, De La Barra, M. ( 1999). Cities for Cbildren: Cbildre11's Ri gbts, Po?;er!J' and Urban Management. London: Earthscan Bartlett S. ( 2003 ) Water, Sanitation and Ur b an Children: The Need to Go Beyond "Impro ved" Provision Environme nt and Urbanization, 1 0(15), 179 -190 Becker, H., and Geer, B. ( 1957). Participant Obsenr ation and Interviewing : A Comparis o n Human Or galliz at ion, 16 28-32. 161

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Benson, P L. ( 1997). Ail Kids Are 011r Kids: What Conm11mities Mmt Do To Raise Carin g a11d Responsibl e Children and Adolescents. San Francisco, Ca: JosseyBa ss. Bernard R ( 2002). Research Methods in Antbropolo!J' (3'd Ed). Walnut C reek CA: Altamira Pres Bi shop, J. Adams, E. and Kee n J. ( 1992 ) Children, Environment and Education: Perso nal Views of U rban Environmental E ducati o n in Brit a in .Childrm's Et11!ironments, 9 ( 1 ) Bruce, Nichola s (200 5). Mathare Yo 11th Sports Assotiatio11. Retrie ved] uly 6, 200 7, fro m Sports a nd d eve lopment Site: Http://W" vw. Sportanddev.Org/En/Articles/Mathare Y o uth-Sp o rt s Association/Index.Htm Bubba N and Lamba, D. ( 1991). U rb a n M a n agement in Kenya. E nvironmmt a11d UdJanization 4 ( 3), 37 59 Bruyn S. T. ( 1966). Tbe Human Perspective in S o tiology: The Methodology of PCIIticipant Obsen;ation. E n g l ewood Cliffs, NJ: Pre ntice Hall. Bru y n S T. ( 19 70). The Metho dol ogy o f P a rticipant Obse rvation in Filstead W.]., ( Ed. ) ( 1970). Q11alitati1Je Methodology. Chicago: Markham Publi s hing. Bur gess, R. G. ( 1988 ) Conv e r satio n s with a Purpose: The Ethnographic Interview In Educational R esea rch in R G. Burgess (E d.) Studies in Q11ali tative Methodology, Vol. 1. Greenwich: Jai Press. Ca pizzano,J., Tout, K., Adams, G ( 2000). Child Care Patt e m s of S chool-Age Children With Employed Mothers. Occasiona l Paper Number 4 : The U rban Ins titute C hatterjee A., ( 1992 ) Forgotten Children of the Cities. Innol .-ent i St11dies Florem-e. 4 India : UNICEF Chawl a, L. (E d.) ( 2002a). Growing Up In A n Urba11ising If /or/d. UNESCO Publi s hing I Earth sca n Pari s I L ondo n C hawla, L. (2002 b). Inv o lving C hildr e n in Plans: "Ins ight, C reativity and Thoughts on th e E n v ir onment": Integrating Children and Youth int o Huma n Settlement Devel opme nt. Environ111mt & Urban izatio11, 14( 2), 11-21. 162

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Cunningham, W. and Co rreia, M ( 2003). Caribbean Yo11th Development Iss11es a11d Poliry Diredions. \ Vo rld Bank Publication s Dingwall, E. ( 2001). The E thic s of Ethnography in P a ul A tkin so n (Ed.) Handbook of Ethnograpi?J' L o ndon: Sage Publication s Dri skell, D (E d.). ( 2002). Creating Better C ities 111itb Child r e n and Youth: A Manual jo1 Participation. L o ndon: UNESCO Publi s hing / Earthscan. Driskell D. Bannerj ee, K., and Chawla, L., (2001). Rhetoric, Reality and Re s ilience : O ve rcomin g Obstacles To Young People' s Particip a tion In Deve l o pment. Environment and Urbanization, 1 3 ( 1). Eccles,]. S., & B a rber B ( 1999 ) Stud e nt council vo lunteering, basketb all, o r marching band : What kind o f extracurricular inv o l vement matters? jottmal of Adolescent Research 14, 10-43. E ccl es,]. And A ppl e t o n ,]. ( 2002).(E ds). Community Programs to Promote Yo11tb Development. National A c a dem y Press, Washington, De ECP A T International ( 1999). Standing Up For Oumlves: A Stucfy 011 !be Con up s and Practices q[Yomzg P eople s Ri g ht s to Partitipation. Manila, Philippines. E mer so n e t al. (200 1). The Prevalenc e o f C hallen g in g Behaviors: A Total P o pul atio n Study. Research i n Devdopmmtal Disabilities 22, 77-93. English Spo rt s Co uncil ( 1997 ) E 1zgland, the Spm1ing Nat ion: A Strate!!J. L o ndon : English Sports Co uncil. Environment and U rbanization ( 1992). A New A pproach to Youth Activ ities and Environmental CleanU p : The Mathare Youth Sp o rts Assoc iation (MYSA) in Kenya. E nvironment and Urbani:::_ation, 10(4), 207-209. Finn, L. & C h e ck oway, B ( 1998). Young People as Co mpetent Co mmunit y Builders: A C halleng e to Social Work. Social Work, 43, 335-345 Francis, M., & Lorenzo, R., ( 2002). Seven Re alms o f C hildren 's Participati on. ]o11rnal of Em;imnmental P.rycholo!!J, 22, 157169 Frank, K. ( 2006). The Potenti a l of Youth Participation in Planning Journal of Planning Literattm, 20 ( 4 ), 351-371. 164

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Johnson L., et al. (2007). Youth Civic Engagement in China: Results from a Program Promotin g Environmental A ctivism ]ouma l of Adolescent Research, 22(4), 355 386 Kenya National Bureau of Stati s tic s ( 2001 ). 1999 Pop11lation and Housing Census: Co11nti n g 011r People for Developmmt l!oL 1: .Ministr y of Finance and Planning GoK Kirshner B., Strobel K., Mclaughlin M., & O'donoghue,]. (2004). Yo11th Perspectives on the Value of After-S chool Settings. Baltimore Md Kirshner, B., O'Donoghue,J., and McLaughlin M. (E d s), (200 2 ). Youth Participation : Improving In s titution s and Communities. eu; Directions for Yo11th De11elopment. Vol. 96 Knowles Yanez K ( 2005 ). Children's Participation in Planning Pro ces ses ]o11mal Planning Litf'rat!lre, 2 0(1 ), 3-14. La Cava, G. and L y tle P ( 2003 ), Youth: Stralf'gic Directiom for tbe World Ba11k. www.Worldbank.Org/ Childrenandyouth Lamba Davind e r (1994). The Forgotten Half; E nvironm e ntal Healtl1 in air o bi' s Poverty A reas. Et111ironmenl and Urbani ifitio n 4(6), 64173 Lan s down G ( 2001 ) Promoting C h ildren :r Participatio11 in Demo craticDecision-Maki ng. Florence, Italy: U nicef Innocenti Re sea rch Center Long, C. ( 1999 ). Participatio11 itt Dn;elopment: Tb e W cry f'rmvard. Bo s ton: In s titute for Development Re se arch L y nch, K ( 19 77). Gr01ving Up In Cities. MIT Press, Cambridge, M ass. L y nch, K ( 1960). T!Je Image of tbf' City. Ca mbridge MA: MIT Press. Mahoney,]. Angel, Harris, Land Eccles,]. ( 2006 ). Organized Activity Participation Pos itiv e Youth Development a nd the Over-Scheduling H ypothesis. Society for Re sea rch o n C hild Development. Soria/ Report, 2 0 (4):3-30. Mah o ney, J., Cairns, B., Fa rmer, T. ( 2003 ) Promo tin g Interpersonal Competence and E ducational Success thr o ugh Extracurricular Activity Participation Journal of Educational P sycbology, 9 5, 409 -4 18 166

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