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A study on influence of virtual reality in architecture

Material Information

Title:
A study on influence of virtual reality in architecture
Creator:
Cho, Byungwoo
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
55 leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 29 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Architecture -- Computer simulation ( lcsh )
Virtual reality ( lcsh )
Architecture -- Computer simulation ( fast )
Virtual reality ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of Colorado at Denver, 1994. Architecture
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 55).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture.
General Note:
College of Architecture and Planning
Statement of Responsibility:
by Byungwoo Cho.

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Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
31159775 ( OCLC )
ocm31159775

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COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING A STUDY ON INFLUENCE OF VIRTUAL REALITY IN ARCHITECTURE BY BYUNGWOO CHO UNNERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER

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A STUDY ON INFLUENCE OF VIRTUAL REALITY IN ARCHITECTURE BY BYUNGWOO CHO A THESIS SUBMITTED IN FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMI;NTS FOR ARCHITECTURE THESIS DEGRE.E OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE THE NEW COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER SPRING, 1994

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THESIS TITLE BY ADVISER ACADEMIC YEAR A Study on Influence of Virtual Reality in Architecture Byungwoo Cho Prof. Robert Flanagan Prof. Peter A. Schneider Prof. Hans R. Morgenthaler Spring, 1994 Accepted by The' New College of Architecture & Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in fulfillment of the requirements for Architecture Thesis. Committee Members

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CONTENTS Abstract 1 I. Introduction 2 II. Virtual Reality in Architecture II-1. Definitions & Significance of Virtual Reality 5 II -2. Necessity of Virtual Reality 6 III. Influence of Virtual Reality in Architecture II-1. Change of Design Method 111-1-1. Design Process 111-l-2.Application of Virtual Realiy 8 14 III -2. Necessity of Virtual Reality room m Planning 23 111-2-1. Virtual Reality Room for House 25 111-2-2. Virtual Reality Room for Office 28 111-2-3. Virtual Reality Room for School 29 111-2-4. Virtual Reality Room for Hospital 34 III-3. Change in Construction 111-3-1. Importance of Construction 111-3-2. Existing Construction Method 111-3-3. Construction Method by Virtual Reality IV. Regulation of Virtual Reality IV -. Necessity of Regulation IV-2. Regulation V. Conclusion Appendix Reference List 39 40 42 46. 50 52 55

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Abstract Architecture that creates a human's living space is dependent on existing expression methods like two dimensional shapes and perspective drawings and so on. In modern times, in architectural design, even though the use of computers through the whole world .is increasing, the existing methods cannot express, exhibit or show completely all of the important factors and harmonization that architects try to express. To use the existing design methods is sometimes difficult for clients to understand. Moreover, architects have had inconveniences and difficulties in understanding newly created architecture, and in raising the degree of perfection of projects, because they do not know the feeling of space from actual experience. In this viewpoint, architects have to grasp other programs so that they can approach practically, effectually and phenomenally, the architecture, and provide a practical feeling of space and a realistic visualization effect to other architects and clients. This is not only an essential condition to seek faultless architecture, but also a very important branch of architecture in the future. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis considers the influence of Virtual Reality that can solve efficiently the above matters, take a leading role in architecture, and present a new architectural direction. Virtual Reality will exercise its influence over almost all of fields, but, especially, that over epoch-making change and development in areas of architecture can be realized, due to the three dimensional shape. As mentioned above, Virtual Reality will exert influence upon the existing design methods because architects can see and feel three

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dimensional shapes by using it. Furthermore, it will create new architecture from a new design method and will need a new space like a Virtual Reality room in planning, and change the direction of construction by using Virtual Reality systems and elements composing system. 2

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I. Introduction Today, the position of computers is pretty important for the world as well as for humans. Computers, which have unlimited potentials, are used in all fields. It is no exaggeration to say that if there are no computers now, this world would stop. In the future, the role of computers will increase more and more. So, computers will change human civilization and the situations of all fields. And, more importantly, computers will help to develop civilization and human life. There is a new computer technology that is called Virtual Reality. Virtual Reality will soon dominate all fields as well as the computer field. The effect of Virtual Reality will be bigger than the effect of the Industrial Revolution was had in England in the 18th and early 19th centuries. As matter of fact, the Industrial Revolution helped civilization development, and helped architectural development, too. So, human1S living style, living quality and living quantity will be better due to Virtual Reality. The development and changes after the Industrial Revolution were much bigger than that of the development and changes from prehistoric times, to before the Industrial Revolution. Probably, Virtual Reality will be same case as the Industrial Revolution or will be much bigger. So, Virtual Reality will be able to make a country become a powerful country. Now, many people are interested in and expect to use Virtual Reality. But, the focus of using Virtual Reality, until now, has been not for human life or for civilization but for only electronic games. If Virtual Reality is going to be used for only electric games, it will be big disadvantage for humans. This is very frustrating. So, if Virtual Reality is going to be used 3

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for all kinds of fields, Virtual Reality will be able to help to create a new world. In this viewpoint, humans have to explore good ways of using Virtual Reality for themselves, nature, civilization and peace of all mankind. Virtual Reality will soon have the potential to help develop architecture as well as many other fields. Especially, Virtual Reality in architectural field will have unpredictable and unlimited potentials. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to consider the influence of Virtual Reality in architecture of the future. First, this thesis will find problems of existing design methods, and consider how Virtual Reality will help to correct the design problems. Second, Virtual reality will affect architectural planning. In the future, a new necessary space that includes and controls a lot of function will be required. That is Virtual Reality room. So, this thesis will study the necessity of Virtual Reality room in architectural planning and especially consider Virtual Reality rooms of houses, offices, schools and hospitals. Third, the aim of this thesis will find other construction methods by using Virtual Reality. Finally, using of Virtual Reality, this thesis will suggest plans in order to prevent the abuse of it. 4

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II. Virtual Reality in Architecture II -1. Definitions & Significance of Virtual Reality What is Virtual Reality? These words, Virtual Reality, are quite difficult to explain. The word "virtual" and the word "reality" have pretty opposite meanings. In the dictionary, the meaning of virtual is "being in fact, acting as, what is described, but not accepted openly or in name as such" and the meaning of reality is "1. the quality of being real ; real existence, 2. someone or something that is real, 3. truth ; lifelike resemblance to the original". Virtual reality is a new computer technology. These two contrasted meaning words made a new word "Virtual Reality," after humans began to use computers. This meaning of words could not have been before humans used computers. Virtual Reality possible. Because, only computers can make If so, what will Virtual Reality be able to do in architecture? With one word, Virtual reality lets people feel something like dreaming. When people dream, they can see everything, even it is not real life. And, they cannot distinguish whether their dream is real or not. Only after waking up, they can recognize that their dream is not real. Virtual Reality is the same as a humans dream. In the Virtual Reality world, people can do whatever they want to do, like dreaming. Imagine being able to wander through your new house before it was even built you could get a feel for the space, experiment with different lighting schemes, furnishings, or even the layout of the house itself, all without committing a single cent to production costsP 1 R.A. Earnshaw, M.A. Gigante, H. Jones, Virtual Reality Systems, Academic Press, 1993, P.10. 5

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People cannot tell whether virtual objects are real or not. After finish using Virtual Reality systems, people will be able to recognize that Virtual Reality is not real. Therefore, humans can pursue to make their imagination into a virtual object by using Virtual Reality system. II 2. Necessity of Virtual Reality Many people have become interested in Virtual Reality. Many universities and laboratories are studying to make it a practical system. However, many people think that Virtual Reality is good to use for electric games because this Virtual Reality will be better than the existing electric games to enjoy, if people use Virtual Reality for electric games. If people use Virtual Reality to pursue enjoyment, this will be a very bad situation. Humans have to develop their civilization by using their inventories. If not so, and humans seek only enjoyment they will destroy themselves and their brilliant civilization. Therefore, humans should seek to help humans, and nature, with the use of Virtual Reality. Espec.ially, Virtual Reality can help in architectural fields as well as in all fields. Most architects have been using computer graphics for design for a number of years, however the majority of the system they use fall far short of being able to provide any degree of realism and could not adequately simulate the furnishings and subtle lighting effects that really make an environment comfortable.2 Even if your architect can provide high quality 2 Ibid., P.10. 6

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renderings of your proposed building, it still doesn't provide you with a sense of space.3 But if they use Virtual Reality systems for design, you can get feeling of space and architects will be able to receive many advantages architects can design more functional, convenient and agreeable because they can see and feel actually the three-dimensional shapes. So, humans should concentrate on studying Virtual Reality for the future and for the peace of all mankind, from the Virtual Reality development of architecture. 3 Ibid., P.10. 7

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III. Influence of Virtual Reality in Architecture III -1. Change of Design Method Humans have designed their shelters and homes since prehistoric time. Probably, this was the first step of human design; when humans lived in caves, they would lay out a fireplace, a food storage and a sleeping place. In addition, humans built their houses after they acquired skills to handle materials such as wood, clay, stone and so on. They had to think about weather conditions and the architectural materials of buildings. This is the beginning of practical design. People began to draw what they designed and gave dimensions. Until now, this method was still used except the design is minimized by scaling. For a long time, this design methods have not changed. However, Virtual Reality will totally change this kind of process. So, in this chapter, Virtual Reality will be considered, and how it affects the existing design method from various angles. II-1-1. Design Process From the beginning of designing to today's designing, design processing has been almost the -same, but there were a few changes that made drafting method faster than before, this is because of computers. A good architectural designer always tries to make his design complete to show functions, structure, beauty and all of the purposes of a building. Probably, making a complete building in which the designer, and being satisfied, is the most important duty of designing and making the users of the building is 8

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satisfied about the building that he designed is also another important task. In order to make good architecture, an architect should prepare a design to prevent any mistakes. Probably, all architects have tried to solve the problem of getting the building which they perfectly imagine, but they have never solved this problem from the time humans began to design. However, recently, humanls design processing has not changed for a long time. There was a change in drafting methods because of computer. Computers can draw architectural drawings instead of by a human1s hand. Except this kind of work, there has been no change. How have architects designed for architecture? The figure 3-1 shows how architects have designed. In order to prevent mistakes, an architect has to do research; First, he thinks about the purpose of the building, the environment of the building and the required conditions of users, as well as weather conditions. The next step is for the architect is to think in his mind, sketching and modifying again and again until he is satisfied with his design. Then, he can draw the shape of the building and modify whatever he does not like or something wrong, repeatedly. The next step is making a model to check for three dimensional shapes and to compare surrounding environments. After finishing the models, modifying is also necessary until the architect is satisfied with his design. After all, an architect can make a decision about the final design of the building, but, during the making of the decision, he has to modify it for his design completion. This is the design process that humans have used for a long time. After making a final decision, an architect can design the practical final blueprint and construct the building. 9

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< Figure 3 -1 > The existing design process 10

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Although architects spend a lot of time in modification, can an architect ever be satisfied with his building? Maybe, he can not be satisfied totally with his building because he is ,not a God, but only a human. Even if architects have excellent talents in designing and imagining three dimensional shapes very well, they cannot follow their architectural intentions completely because imagination, drawings and models are different from real buildings. If there is a real good architect who can design very well, who can imagine three dimensional models and shapes and who is admired by public and other architects, maybe his building will be close to his imagined building. If so, there is no way to build a building in which the architect can have everything he wants, is there? The answer is 11Yes. II There is one way to make the building which the architect intends; he can build a real building and then he is able to modify it after living in it and using it as a real building. So, the architect is able to find problems and modify his design after finding these problems by destroying the whole building or some parts that have problems, and then, build a new building with a new design. Probably, If he will do this processing again and again, ultimately he will be satisfied with his building. However, this method is not practical so any architect is not willing to use this method. Until now, there is no way to make a complete building that makes the architect be satisfied with his building. In the future, there will be a way of making a complete building which architect will be satisfied with. If so, what can be done? It is with Virtual Reality. Virtual Reality will make objects and geometry from imaginations into real things. Of course, these objects and geometry are not real things but virtual objects. Virtual Reality can make a human feel that he sees a 11

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real objects when he looks at virtual objects. In the architectural field of Virtual Reality, people can use areas such as kitchen, bed, furniture, etc. when they are using Virtual Reality. For instance, people who use Virtual Reality can open a door, turn on the lights and water, go downstairs or upstairs look at the outside views, etc. People can even touch and feel textures because of electrical power. No matter what people do in their houses, this can be simulated with Virtual Reality. So, Virtual Reality will change the existing design process. The figure 3-2 shows a flow chart of new design process methods by using Virtual Reality systems. This system is already being used for electric games. An example of this system is shown in Figure 3-3. But resolution is so low, people are quickly becoming bored because of lack of software and hardware. This is the problem of current Virtual Reality glasses. But within a few decades, software and hardware will be further developed so humans cannot tell real scenes from virtual scenes. An architect and his clients will be able to detect easily and quickly whatever they do not like. So, architects will be able to create better architecture for humans. 12

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VIRTUAL REALITY CHECKING ROOM < Figure 3 -2 > The new design process by Virtual Reality 13

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< Figure 3 -3 > CS unit in use. III-1-2. Application of Virtual Reality How will a designer use Virtual Reality for architecture? Will it be possible? The answer is positive. Virtual Reality will change the conception of the design process and the design methods in the architectural field because architecture is always composed of three dimensional spaces. Among all the fields, architecture will be best 14

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benefited from using Virtual Reality. If so, how will an architect use Virtual Reality? The people who are using Virtual Reality will have the illusion that they are looking at real things, This is because Virtual Reality will use photo realism that looks like photographs despite of computer graphics. People will use Virtual Reality view systems, such as Virtual Reality glasses, Virtual Reality gloves and, Virtual Reality show rooms. Virtual Reality glasses will be like figure 3-4 and Virtual Reality show rooms will be similar to figure 3-5. The equipment that will be used for the architectural field will be useful to easily check design problems. So, this equipment will help to make a complete building, which architects will be satisfied with. < Figure 3-4 > The vivid system, designed and built in 1984 by Dr. Mike McGreevy and Jim Humphries at the NASA Ames Research Center 15

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< Figure 3 -5 > Virtual Reality show room The part shown in dotted line is virtual objects. 1. Virtual Reality Glasses Virtual Reality glasses are now being tested now at universities and also at NASA. But there are a few problems so Virtual Reality glasses can not be used for all practical purposes. Scientists say that the glasses will be. practical sooner or later. If people use Virtual Reality glasses, they can see whenever computers .send information that will show a picture or motion pictures. And, then they will have a illusion which looks like a real scene. In the future, due to development of high technology in computers and 16

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software, computers will soon be able to make good Virtual Reality scenes like a complete photo-realism. So, people will not be able to distinguish whether it is real or not when they look at an object shown with Virtual Reality glasses. If an architect uses this system, will this system make design processing change? The answer is that Virtual Reality glasses will change the architectural design process. Figure 3-1 shows that an architect does have to modify a lot of times, before constructing a building. Sometimes an architect changes his final design, because no one can have complete in a design. However, Virtual Reality can give conviction the architects who want to have confidence in their designs. An architect can easily modify his designing by using Virtual Reality. Without making models, an architect will be able to check his design by using Virtual Reality glasses so he will be able to see and check the three dimensional shapes of his design. If architects and their clients wear Virtual Reality glasses, they are better able to see the three dimensional shapes of proposed buildings. If they rotate their heads while wearing Virtual Reality glasses, they can frequently and better see such different scenes, similar to a three dimensional movies. An architect can check his design and pick problems and change, whatever he does not like. So, an architect will be able to modify his sketches, drawings, etc. while wearing Virtual Reality glasses. Therefore, this system will help the architect easily modify his work and the architect will be able to feel the three dimensional shapes without making models. 17

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2. Virtual Reality Gloves < Figure 3 -6 > The system of Virtual Reality gloves As a matter of fact, people can not feel complete realism by only using Virtual Reality, glasses, even if scenes being shown by Virtual Reality have high resolution and high quality rendering close to photo-realism. The reason people cannot feel perfect realism is that there are no textures in Virtual Reality glasses. When people watch a movie in a .theater, they cannot feel the realism. Although people will be able to watch the three dimensional movie, they cannot feel it, also. Because there is no feeling of texture, too. Probably,. the feeling of texture is very important; as important as seeing. 18

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Virtual Reality gloves will be able to solve this problem, which is people cannot feel the realism while wearing Virtual Reality glasses. If people wear the Virtual Reality gloves and the Virtual Reality glasses, they can touch whatever they are looking, system. For example : being shown on Virtual Reality 1, When people who are using this virtual Reality gloves and glasses are looking at electric light, if they try to turn on a light switch, they can turn on the lights and the scenes become brighter than before by turning on the light. 2, When people try to grasp something which is being shown by Virtual Reality, they can move it as well as grasp it. 3. If people touch ice in the Virtual Reality, their gloves will feel a cold temperature. The Virtual Reality can help people even feel all type of temperature. 4, If people touch such materials as wood, stone, iron, etc., they can feel the texture of that material. So, this equipment will make architecture better. Figure 3-7 shows the principal of the Virtual Reality gloves. The Virtual Reality gloves will have power-operating reaction cables. The power-operating reaction cables will be operated when people are about to grasp or touch virtual objects, shown by Virtual Reality. In order to simulate the reactions of objects, computers have to have a Jot of data information about objects and about the human hand's nerves. 19

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< Figure 3 -7 > The principal of Virtual Reality gloves 3. Virtual Reality Checking Room This Virtual Reality checking room is more advanced than the Virtual Reality glasses or the Virtual Reality gloves. This room contains all the complete equipment for Virtual Reality. People can live in this room like in a real building. Nobody will be able to distinguish between a real space and a virtual space. This Virtual Reality checking room does not need Virtual Reality glasses or Virtual reality gloves, it only needs a somewhat big space to show Virtual 20

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Reality because architects will experiment in a variety spaces, which are sometimes big or small. In this checking room, people can sit on the virtual chair arid lay on the virtual bed and so on. The reason that Virtual Reality can make people use virtual objects and live in virtual space is that this Virtual Reality checking room has special equipment. This includes an invisible electronic power line cable which moves over the space and connects by itself when it is needed. So, there would be a lot of invisible power cables or a few invisible power cables, depending on the size of virtual objects and the virtual spaces in a Virtual Reality checking room. If a computer sends scenes, the invisible electronic power line cable will work at the same time. The examples of using Virtual Reality checking room are as followed : 1. If a computer sends the shape of a chair, people can see a virtual chair without wearing any other equipment. They can walk to the chair and they can sit down on the chair, as if sitting on a real chair. 2. If people who are using Virtual Reality rooms are looking at stairs, they can go upstairs or go downstairs and then they are able to look around at another floor plan. They are able to walk and move around wherever they want to go. 3. If an architect wants to compare harmony between his proposed building and an existing building, he is able to even look at those buildings and enter those buildings. An architect can compare his proposed building to natural landscape scenes. So, he can more easily check harmonies of space. 4. If an architect wants to feel a rainy mood in his proposed building, he is also able to feel it, he can feel any kind of weather condition. 21

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As mentioned above, if an architecture is using this system, he will be able to design more perfectly the building that he wants, without using the existing complex design process. Therefore, Virtual Reality systems will exert an important effect upon future architecture design processes. 22

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III -2. Necessity of Virtual Reality Room 1n Planning In design planning for a house, the basic functional spaces are the rooms: living room, bedroom, kitchen or dinning room and rest room. Long ago, all of these kinds of spaces were not necessary. In ancient times, only rooms for protection from weather, beasts, enemies and so on were necessary. After the beginning of civilization, rooms and kitchens were needed inside the building for human living styles. The reason that people could build rooms and kitchens was that people acquired the building technologies to build fireplaces inside their buildings. Later, people who were rich wanted to have a living room space, too. After the Industrial Revolution, a restroom was necessary and possible indoors because people could build a restroom space inside their buildings. Similarly, planning has recently been changing due to living styles. The living style has been effected by surrounding factors. In this viewpoint, first of all, civilization is one of the most important factors of living style. As civilization and technology develop, living styles are changing, so planning is also changing In prehistoric times, people cooked out side of buildings because they did not know how to use fire inside their shelter when they live in cave. After they acquired the technology to build a chimney, they could have a fireplace inside their buildings. Eventually, they could have a cooking place and a heating place in their buildings. Later, as the technology of making water pipe lines developed, people could supply water to the building so that they were able to have a kitchen and a restroom. It is not an exaggeration to say that today, humans can not live without a kitchen and a restroom inside their houses. All houses must have these functional 23

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spaces. In the future, civilizations and technologies will be developed and should be developed by humans. If so, how will architectural planning be changed? Probably, among all intellectual fields of this earth, the most developed field will be the computer field in the future. Among all computer fields the most developed field will be Virtual Reality. Virtual Reality will be a practical use in everyday human life. So, living styles will be changed by Virtual Reality the same as living styles were changed by civilization and technologies. Hence, architectural planning will be changed, too. Therefore, a Virtual Reality room, which is a space for a Virtual Reality .system or Virtual Reality software, is a necessary space for more convenient human's life. As well, this Virtual Reality room will be a necessary space in houses, offices, schools, hospitals, museums, etc. Like the function of a kitchen or a restroom are important in modern times, the function of a Virtual Reality room will be a necessary functional space in the future. .. --, .. .. --: ...... :,;> >?:;. < Figure 3 -8 > Cliff PalaceMesa Verde's largest cliff dwelling 24

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If so, what is Virtual Reality room? Today, a television set, telephone, and so on, are necessary equipment for human life. But televisions and telephones will soon disappear because of the Virtual Reality room includes these kinds of functions. Due to developing technologies and civilizations, the culture of communication and visual TV will be changed, too. Therefore, in this section, especially, house, office, school, hospital among the buildings that Virtual Reality room is essential will be considered. ill-2-1. Virtual Reality Room for House The figure 3-9 shows the history of changed communication. As civilizations changed, the history of telephone sets had also changed. First, a telephone depended on electric wires, and later people used telephones over seas by using satellites. Now, people can use portable hand telephones that do not have electric wires. People can use them anywhere and anyplace such as in the car, in the air plane, on the top of a mountain and so on. Soon, people will be able to talk over a telephone with pictures that show people's faces, so people will be able to talk with each other on: the television set. But in the future, these kinds of telephones will disappear because of a Virtual Reality room is for more function of telephone. If so, what will the Virtual Reality room be composed of? The Virtual Reality room will be a room that is vacant, except for one comfortable chair and Virtual Reality equipment. If a person enters the Virtual Reality room and calls another person, he can see the other person who should be sitting 25

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on the Virtual Reality chair in front of him. Although this would be an illusion, people could feel each other and even touch each other. This will be one great advantage of Virtual Reality. MEET & TALK < Figure 3 -9 > The developmental step of communication Imaging that there is a couple who love each other very much. But, if they are in different places, one is in Seoul, Korea, the other is in the United States, how can they see each other? There is currently no way this 26

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can be done without flying by airplane. This way is not possible to see each, other everyday. At the most, they can talk over the telephone without seeing each other on the television set. However, Virtual Reality will make it so people can talk, see, feel and touch each other. Humans cannot detect that this is a illusion. Therefore, the Virtual Reality room will shift existing conversation methods. In addition, Virtual Reality will make new generation television sets that have three dimensional motion pictures in the future current television sets are two dimensional motion pictures. In this Virtual Reality room, people can see movies, sports, drama and so on as three dimensional motion pictures. Today, many developed countries are concentrating on research to invent HDTV that shows better quality and resolution for next generation televisions. After HDTV, the next generation television sets will be the Virtual Reality Room. In this Virtual Reality room, people will be able to do everything that they want. Accordingly, if it is the assumption that a television set is a passive tool, a Virtual Reality room will be assumed as an active tool. Because people will not only see, but also do, whatever they want in this room. For example : 1. If people want to look at the North Pole or South Pole, they will be able to see and feel it as a three-dimensional movie. 2. If people want to play sports, they will be able to play sports with virtual people. 3. If people want to play a musical instrument, they will be able to play with a virtual orchestra or electric band. 27

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4. If people want to enjoy a movie, they will be able to act and enjoy it as a protagonist in the movie. This Virtual Reality room will be generally operated by two methods. One is that a broadcasting center will send programs, the other is that there will be many software programs such as sports, music, travel, movie, etc, available for sale or rent. In this viewpoint, the Virtual Reality room is an essential space in house planning for the future. ill-2-2. Virtual Reality Room for Office Another place where the Virtual Reality room is needed will be in an office. Today, the world is busy with international trade. This situation looks like a war. It is not a exaggeration to say that this world can not exist without trading, and the success of trading is dependent on time. For business men, time is the most important thing. But many business men are spending a lot of time flying to international business conference overseas. Just imagine! There is a conference or a meeting for international trade in the United States of America. Many people have to come to join the conference from other countries. If someone want to join the meeting from Korea, it will take at least eleven hours by airplane, without counting the time it takes to get from the office to the airport and from the airport to the conference room. Even the fastest airplane, soon to be produced, which flies over the atmosphere, will take more than two or three hours without counting time to commute from the office to the airport. In addition, people who are traveling by airplane for business get easily tired. 28

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Now imagine! There are two people who live in different countries and they want to join a conference or a meeting for their business. If they try to join in one place, one of them will have to go the other person1s country. If more than three people want to join, at least two of them will have to move. So, they will spend a lot of time and money traveling and paying for accommodations. As well, the progress of their work will be slow. However, if they use a Virtual Reality room for the meeting office, they do not need to care about time and money for travel. When people want to join a conference sit on a chair in the Virtual Reality room, they will be able to see other people who are in each different county and they can talk about their business with the other people. There is no limitation of number of people who attend the conference. They are able to present merchandise or goods to export it in this Virtual Reality room. So, they will see merchandises, and even touch, by using a Virtual Reality gloves, which is mentioned above. Therefore, Virtual Reality room in office planning for the future will be a important and essential space. III-2-3. Virtual Reality Room for School In the pursuit of learning, there are generally two different kinds of methods. One is to get experience directly, the other is to get another experience indirectly. Almost all schools as well as universities, have depended upon indirect experience studying methods, except for art schools and music schools, and so on. It must be that direct experience studying methods are the best way to acquire knowledge. As an example, when people study through direct experience, people drop objects to show 29

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gravity. They can remember to keep the knowledge longer than if they learned an indirect experience like just reading a book. However, there have been limitations of acquiring knowledge by direct experience as long as they try a direct experience. For example : 1. In a case of study of dinosaur or prehistoric time. 2. In a case of the History class. 3. In a case of study of universe. 4. In a case of study of ocean. 5. In a case of Geography. Among them, #1 and #2 cannot be used by studying a direct experience because these kinds of fields do not exist in current time. Students should depend on books, drawings, talking, etc. In cases of #3, #4 and #5, students can study by a direct experience method, if they decide to do so. But they have to spend a lot of money and time to prepare and explore things, and this is almost impossible to do as a poor student. However, Virtual Reality will help students study by a direct experience studying method. Especially, a Virtual Reality room will be very useful for any kind of study. Probably, Virtual Reality rooms used in school will be bigger and larger than other Virtual Reality rooms houses, offices and hospitals. This is because Virtual Reality rooms will sometimes seat a great number of students showing spectacle scenes. In addition, students can see and touch whatever they are looking at. The advantages of this Virtual Reality room can be summarized as follows : 30

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1. If students are studying about dinosaurs, they can see virtual dinosaurs like real ones with good sound effects. 2. In the history class, students can visit past events like using a-time machine. If they' want to study about the Civil War, they can vividly see the backgrounds of that time and motion scenes of war. 3. In the Geography class, students can tour other planets, as well as any other countries without paying any money. 4. In the class of the Oceanography, students are be able to wander in the sea. 5. In hot countries, people can never see snow. But with this Virtual Reality room that will be able to see the scenes. Furthermore, the students of architecture schools will benefit greatly with this Virtual Reality room. If they use this Virtual Reality room, they can see many kinds of architectures, whenever they want to look at. Students are able to feel the three-dimensional spaces of buildings and they are able to even measure buildings that are shown by Virtual Reality. Especially, this method will be a revolutionary method in studying the history of architecture. Systems which are similar to this Virtual Reality room have been already used for flight schools and entertainment equipment. (The Korean Air line company has used this system for flight to acquire flying skill in Jeju island flight school, Korea.} First of all, the students practice flying without real flying. They use simulation programs, which make them feel like they are flying in a real airplane. Figure 3-10 and Figure 3-11 show the current 31

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flight simulator systems. But a simulation program with Virtual Reality will be more developed than before. The advantages of simulation programs are as follow?. 1. The airplane is expensive, so students do not get many opportunities to practice flying. But the simulation programs give no limitation to the number of practices flights. 2. The practice of real flying is very dangerous and difficult. But the simulation program is never dangerous. There is another system which is similar to the Virtual Reality room. The Universal studio, which is an entertainment center in Los Angeles, has a II Back to The Future II program. People who join in this program feel like they are flying, and go to the future and the past. They even watch a real dinosaur move. These are the first steps in making the Virtual Reality room. This suggests a direction of the Virtual Reality room. < Figure 3 10 > A v1ew inside a flight simulator showing the illuminated flight deck & dusk/night scene incorporating calligraphic light points. ( Reproduced with permission from Hughes R. S. Ltd.) 32

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< Figure 3 -11 > A Concept 90 Boeing 747-400 flight simulator manufactured by Rediffusion Simulation Ltd. ( Reproduced with permission from Hughes Rediffusion Simulation Ltd.) 33

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ill-2-4. Virtual Reality Room for Hospital People think that medical science is one of the most important studies because it has something to do with human's life, directly. Therefore, a Virtual Reality room for medical systems will be the most useful and powerful for human life in the future. The Virtual' Reality room of a hospital is somewhat different from the Virtual Reality room for a house, an office or a school. Because this Virtual Reality room is to do something, as well as watch something. 1. Practice Surgery in Virtual Reality Room A medical school system is different from other schools. This is because their studying is related to human's life. There is no valuable thing more important than human life in the world. In an future hospitals, the function of this Virtual Reality room will be an important one and help medical students and patients. In all fields of studies, students study, practice and experiment at their school. But medical students cannot do this as much as other field. Medical practice and experiment is very dangerous for a medical student. This is because their practice and experiment is connected with human's life directly. In order to get medical surgery skills, medical students watch professional doctors practice surgery by using a corpse. This method is not perfect to acquire skill for surgery. First of all, watching and doing are totally different. Although a student watches other's performing surgery a lot of times, if he or she is about to do real surgery, They are not able to have a successful conviction of operating. Second, the practice of using a 34

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corpse is not good for humanity. Who wants to be an experiment work of practice surgery? Probably, nobody does. Anyway, students need to practice surgery someday. Virtual Reality will help medical students practice surgery. If a student enters the Virtual Reality room, he can see a virtua.l patient. Then he can practice surgery on that Virtual patient. He can see bleeding, internal organs, bones, etc. like a real human when he is operating on a virtual patient. There is no limitation to practice. VIRTUAL INFORMATION WINDOWS SHARED VIRTUAL WORKSPACE (COMPUTER GENERATED) < Figure 3 -12 > Virtual interface environment -Surgical simulation & planning. Although a doctor has excellent surgery skills, he can not have a conviction of the success of operation. The operation will be success or fail sometimes. If he has practiced surgery on a virtual patient who has the 35

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same body and a same disease as a real patience, the potential for success will be higher than before. In this viewpoint, Virtual Reality rooms in medical schools and hospitals will be a very important and indispensable space. 2. Satellite Surgery TACTILE WINDOWS HEAD-COUPLED STEREO < Figure 3 -13 > Virtual interface environment Satellite Surgery Although medical skill is developed, if a patient has no doctor, the patient cannot be treated or operated on. Imagine! There is an isolated 36

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place such as small island or rural place. This place does not have a good general hospital. If there is an patient with an emergency, when will help him? He may have to be moved to another place where there is a. better general hospital. Moving the patient takes time and also depends on weather conditions. In addition, he could be seriously ill and he could die while moving. If so, can people build a general hospital wherever people live? Probably, it will be impossible. This is a vulnerable point for the small town. However, Virtual Reality will solve this vulnerable problem of a small town. If people who live in an isolated place have a Virtual Reality satellite surgery system, it is the same effect as having a general hospital and patients that can be treated. So, they do not need the same 11big townn general hospital. If a patient will be moved in this room, a computer will check his body and send his body1S information to the doctor, who is in general hospital in big town. Then, the doctor will be able to see a virtual patient. If the doctor will operate on the virtual patient who is same as the real patient who is laying in the Virtual Reality satellite surgery room, a robot will operate on real patient. Because the robot will do the same as whatever the doctor does, simultaneously. The Figure 3-14 shows a principal of satellite surgery room system. 37

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I I I I I INFORrfiATION I I I I I I _____ ____ CONTROL BY I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I < Figure 3 -14 > The principal of satellite surgery by Virtual Reality 38

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III-3. Change in Construction 111-3-1 Importance of Construction Architecture is a three-dimensional art that be built actually a building that an architect design. But, because architectural design and drawings are the two-dimensional, in order to make a three-dimensional art form from the two-dimensional art form to complete an architecture from a design construction is needed. Construction needs a good design, good drawings and high quality construction technologies and so on. Because, if there is no any one of them, a building cannot exist as a great building. Suppose that a designed project was very agreeable, convenient, stable and fulfilled the requirement of users, the condition of beauty in expression, environmental condition and so on. But, without construction, can the building exist in the world? Never. Architecture exists for the sake of existence. Nonexistent architectures are not architecture. For that reason, construction is a very important and indispensable process. Therefore, in order to build great architectures, architects should not only understand but also perform the construction technologies very well. If not, architects can not design and build a real architectures. Architects sometimes have to change their design when construction cannot be accomplished, due to the lack of construction technology. Construction is the basic industry of all industries so without high technologies, construction cannot develop, because the construction industry is composed of all technologies and all studies. 39

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Construction relates to economic strength very much. Without financial power, construction cannot work. Powerful countries have tried to show their economical power through good architecture and had actually many great architectures. In addition, many dictators have wanted to show their power and nation's power through great architectures. For example; 1 Pyramid in Egypt. 2. Parthenon in Greece. 3. Coliseum in Rome. 4. Great Wall In China. 5. West Minster palace in England. And construction technologies that can be existed these architectures have been a symbol of the country's power. The architectures have been a landmark of the country also. In this viewpoint, high construction technology make great architectures possible and an architecture existent as a symbolic landmark. Moreover, because poor construction relates to human's life, construction is very important part of architectural process. 111-3-2. Existing Construction Method Construction is really complex technology. To construct a building, many different construction methods are needed: a temporary construction, a site construction, a foundation construction, a structure construction, a brick construction, a steel-frame construction, a wood construction and so 40

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on. When all construction methods are composed, a great architectural structure will be born. The following figure 3-15 shows the process of existing construction method. MASONRY WORK ROOF WORK MULLION WORK SITE INVESTIGATION TEMPORARY WORK SITE WORK FOUNDATION WORK STRUCTURE WORK STEEL FRAME WORK PLASTER WORK PAINT WORK DRAINAGE WORK WOOD WORK DECORATION GLASS WORK < Figure 3 15 > Process of existing construction method 41

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In order to construct a building, there are a lot of construction methods. If one of them is missing, then people cannot make a complete building. Referring figure 3-15, construction methods are very difficult process to work. So, if this complex and difficult methods change to ease methods, the cost and period of construction will down. Therefore, architects will be able to design more progressive architectures and people will be able to own easily their building. In addition, in an underdeveloped country, people can expel the corruption of construction. ill-3-3. Construction Method by Virtual Reality If so, will it be possible to totally change a construction method in the future? No one thinks that construction methods will change. This is because the construction methods have never really changed. Without human labor, architectural materials, construction equipment, the construction cannot even begin. If the construction methods will change; how will it happen and what will change? The answer is Virtual Reality. Once the elements composing system is invented, Virtual Reality will totally change the construction method. 1 Elements Composing System All objects are composed of elements. For instance, water is composed of one oxygen and two hydrogen and the chemical symbol is H20. Like water, the architectural materials are also composed of different elements. Today, people are able to combine oxygen and hydrogen so they can make 42

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artificial water. With methods like this, people will be able to combine elements for architectural materials and building structure. However, the real problem is how to make elements composing systems. For inventing elements of composing system, all field scientists as well as architects must cooperate. To develop the elements composing system, one needs science, physics, chemistry, computer science, Virtual Reality, architecture, structure and so on. All scientists must concentrate on studying this system so, if this elements composing system can be invented, the construction methods will be totally changed. After all, all humans will be able to have good benefits of owning a house or all kinds of buildings by Virtual Reality and elements composing system. 2. The Use of Virtual Reality and Elements Composing System For a building, design, drawings and construction technology are needed. Among them, Virtual Reality will play a role for drawings and as some of construction parts. The elements composing systems will be the other part of construction. After an architect designs a project, if he will send his design to the computer, a computer will be able to make a virtual three dimensional shape by using Virtual Reality. And, a computer will find and match architectural materials to the virtual building. Then, a computer will send the data of elements of architectural materials in order to work the elements composing system. An elements composing system will send elements to the right place where the architectural materials are needed and combine the elements. After combining the elements, a real building will be born from a virtual building. This process will be revolutionary for 43

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the existing construction method. However, site analysis and site construction will be necessary after designing. Because, people should prepare the place which an elements composing system can work. If so, the elements composing system will make a complete building. The process of Virtual Reality construction system can be summarized as follows : 1. Design. 2. Site work. 3. Send the design to the Virtual Reality system. 4. Find data of materials by Virtual Reality system. 5. Operated by Virtual Reality system. 6. Supply elements. 7. Combine elements in elements composing system. 8. Complete a building. This revolutionary method will help to develop countries. In an underdeveloped country, it will help to expel construction corruption by using Virtual Reality. Anyway, due to Virtual Reality, construction will be also effected. Figure 3 -16 shows a method of new construction by Virtual Reality and elements composing system. 44

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CONTROL '-- ELEMENTS SUPPLY ELEMENTS SUPPLY SYSTEM ELEMENTS COMPOSING SYSTEM A COMPLETE BUILDING CONTROL ELEMENTS SUPPLY ELEMENTS SUPPLY < Figure 3 16 > New construction method by Virtual Reality & elements composing system 45

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IV. Regulation of Virtual Reality IV -1. Necessity of Regulation Among all living creatures on this earth, humans are maybe the most stupid. Humans have always thought of themselves as being the best creature on this earth and they have always tried to show their excellencies. Of course, humans are better than other living creatures because they have excellent talents of civilization. Humans have always tried to pursue their civilization development. So, they have worked hard and have studied hard. After all, they have succeeded in to creating a great civilization through all fields. Nowadays, humans try to even challenge nature so that they can overcome nature. In order to create great civilizations, humans have invented a lot of machines and equipment throughout history. Then, humans have been usually happy after making their inventories. Anyway, humans are great but stupid in an other aspect. The reason that humans are stupid is that civilizations and inventories, which are made by humans, do damage to the humans, themselves. There are a lot of examples and some examples are as follows : 1. Humans have made many kinds of weapons for protection, but these weapons have only killed and wounded humans. 2. To make a comfortable temperature inside of their buildings, humans made air conditioning systems. Now, this system is destroying the ozone, so all living creatures are threatened by the dangerous conditions. 3. The nuclear technology for energy source has changed to the nuclear bomb ; all humans are afraid of that. 4. The human's sewage and garbage have polluted nature. 46

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5. The automobiles make many traffic accidents and air pollution. 6. Some medicines made to treat illness can be used as drugs which ruin the human's spirit. As mentioned above, there are a lot of examples of the of harmful things that humans have made for the convenience and a peaceful human's life. Although, many civilizations and technologies are damaging to humans, and humans cannot stop developing their civilizations. This is a vulnerable point of human development Imagine! There is a good knife. What do you think about this knife? Is this a convenient tool for humans? Or is this a harmful tool for humans? This answer always depends upon the human's mind and the decision it makes. According to human's mind and decision, this knife will be able to be a good tool or a bad tool. If a good housewife uses this knife to cook for her family, this knife must be a good tool. However, if a bad burglar uses this knife to steal other people's money and does damage to others, this knife must be a bad tool. Although this knife is used for bad purposes, people cannot throw away this knife because people can use this knife as a good tool for human's life. Anyway, the knife is a product of humans civilization. Weather the knife is used for good purposes or bad purposes, the knife does not have the responsibility. Only humans have the responsibility in using a knife. Therefore, all civilizations can be good tools or bad tools, according to human's mind and decision. Like a knife, this Virtual Reality will be a good tool or a bad tool for humans life. This will depend on the human's mind. If humans use Virtual Reality for good purposes, then Virtual Reality will give many benefits for their own life. However, if humans use it for bad purposes, it will be worse than weapons, drugs or wars. That is, Virtual Reality can be used 47

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for a bad purpose like civilizations and equipment by humans. Therefore, the regulation of Virtual Reality is required. Next there are the potential examples of the abuse of Virtual Reality. First, it will be similar to the abuse of religion. Humans have worried and one concerned about their life after death. And, they have thought about how religion can take care of them after death. So, there have been many different kinds of religions since prehistoric times. Sometimes, people who believe fanatical devotion have devoted their wealth, time and money and so on. They have just followed their religions leader's addresses and directions without any doubt and without thinking about anything. In addition, some religious leaders have actually wanted things like these. This has been the bad part of religion. Virtual Reality will be able to. make a virtual God. So, if some bad religious leaders will use a virtual God for their purposes, what will be happen to this world? Probably, some people will able to believe and recognized a virtual God as a real God. So, some bad religious leaders will be able to control people's spirits easily, whatever and whenever they want. If so, this world will be chaotic and eventually end. Second, it will be similar to the abuse of war. Humans have a lot of history of war. It is not an exaggeration to say that human's history is related with wars. Even now, many counties are going to war. If one country is in a war, they try to do their best to win. And they use all methods, whatever they can do, even though the methods are good or bad. Their concerns are not about humanism or a peace but only winning. Until a few decades ago, the purposes of powerful countries were to conquer and make colonies. Today, some countries go to war 48

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for peace. However, it must be that the purpose of the counterpart of a country is not for peace. There were a lot of dictators and conquers throughout history such as King Alexandra, Parao, Emperor Caeser, Khan, Hitler, Hirohito and so on. In their wars, they made many powerful weapons to win. During war, they never cared about humanism or peace. After winning the wars, they controlled and defeated countries and also defeated people. But strangely, they controlled not only their spirits and internal forms, but also bodies and external forms. In this viewpoint, there was no winner. However, Virtual Reality will be able to make some dictators be forever winners. Because Virtual Reality can control people's minds and spirits and spoil people's spirits, too. Imagine! If some countries will invent a Virtual Reality weapon that shows horrible scenes by satellite and uses it to show to other country. In other country, people will be seized with fear and people's spirits will be ruined. That is, they will destroy by themselves without battling. And countries which have Virtual Reality weapons, will be able to easily control people's spirits and internal forms. Finally, it will be similar to the abuse of indulgence. In the future, people will be able to easily approach the Virtual Reality room mentioned above, Section 3 2. This Virtual Reality room is operated by software that is made by humans. People will be able to choose software programs that they want and then they will use it. The real problems are with the software, because people can make software programs for bad purposes. If people make bad software programs only to seek enjoyment, how will Virtual Reality effect human's life? 49

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Today, many counties have a big problem with drugs such as cocaine, marihuana and so on. Many people are addicted to drugs and they cannot control their addiction. They only pursuit their indulgences. In addition, in order to get drugs, they cause a lot of crime. As a matter of fact, it is a real problem which is destroying human spirits. Like this, in the future, if people will use Virtual Reality for their indulgence, the effect of Virtual Reality will be worse than current drugs. Therefore, in using Virtual Reality, some legal regulations have to preceded. IV-2. Regulation In the future, Virtual Reality can provide more usefulness for humans. When they use Virtual Reality, people will have to prevent the abuse of Virtual Reality. If all humans are good and they will use Virtual Reality for good and useful purposes, they will not need to worry about the use of it for bad purposes. However many times, humans cannot control themselves, as history was shown. Probably, humans may have the potential of using Virtual Reality for bad purposes. So, regulations and restrictions for using Virtual Reality will be needed to prevent the abuse of Virtual Reality. Additionally, it will be too late to control the abuse after Virtual Reality is practically used. Therefore, people have to begin to prepare establishing a powerful association -for example, the Virtual Reality Regulation Center like the UN. This Virtual Reality Regulation Center will have to work to control and improve the practical uses of Virtual Reality. This center must work to prevent the making of a virtual God, Virtual Reality weapons, bad Virtual Reality software programs and so on. 50

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In the future, When using a Virtual Reality room, Virtual Reality must not damage human's lives and spirits. Instead of damage, Virtual Reality will have to help humans. In addition, the Virtual Reality software programs will have to be graded like current movies. So, humans will have to make a good world by using the Virtual Reality. 51

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V. Conclusion Today, humans and all employment fields benefit from computers. In the future, the benefits of new computer technology, like Virtual Reality, will expend. And, Virtual Reality will dominate all fields, including the computer field. Virtual Reality is like human dreaming because it will show all three-dimensional shapes. In particular, architecture will benefit by using Virtual Reality because a real architectural structure is composed of three dimensional shapes. If humans use this Virtual Reality for architectural projects, they will be able to have a good influence on architecture and on the world. As mentioned above Chapter 3 -, the influence of Virtual Reality in architecture are followings. First,. in design methods, Virtual Reality will change the existing design methods. Especially,. in the existing design process, drawings, making models and modifications will be actually omitted. Architects seek to create a complete building, which lets the architect on clients be better satisfied with the work. In order to create a complete building, architects spend a lot of effort and time in looking for the problems in their proposed buildings. But, in the existing methods, architects do not perfectly understand their buildings because they cannot completely feel the feeling of space from their buildings. Therefore, until now, ways for looking for the problems of buildings have been inefficient. They must have been sketched, drawn, or made by models and so on to find problems and to design great architecture. Then, they have to be modified. Despite the many numbers of modifications, architects still have not been able to pursue the benefits of looking at a complete building, 52

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which is their intention. However, Virtual Reality will be able to help architects find faults and problems with their proposed building. This is because, architects can examine the building interiors as actual and feel the feeling of space through the threedimensional shapes of Virtual Reality. Therefore, architects will be able to pursue and create good architecture for humans. Second, in design planning, architects should consider a new necessary space, the Virtual Reality room. In the future, architects will have to think about how to design Virtual Reality rooms and how to design circulation between Virtual Reality rooms and other spaces. Because, Virtual Reality will change human living styles, this change in human living styles will alter design planning, too. After all, a Virtual Reality room will be a necessary space for the house, office, school, hospital and so on. Therefore, in planning, Virtual reality will work as a function to improve some of today's necessary spaces. Third Virtual Reality will change the existing construction methods. Existing construction methods are very complex and difficult. In order to construct a building, people have to spend a lot of money and time. But, Virtual Reality and the elements composing system will help to make construction methods become more simplified and easier. Therefore, in the future, the existing economical, political and technological construction problems will be solved, causing the architectural world of the future to become better advanced. Finally, humans should also consider that people will be able to use Virtual Reality for bad purposes. Due to the abuse of using Virtual Reality like the abuse of religion, wars and indulgence and so on, the human spirit and civilization may be destroyed. Humans should use Virtual Reality for 53

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the development of humans, the environment, and peace. If not so, Virtual Reality can be a bad tool. Therefore, people themselves should not only inspect and superintend the use of Virtual Reality for the human life in the future, but also prescribe some of the legal regulations. 54

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BIBLIOGRAPHY : Wexelblat, Alan, Virtual Reality: Applications and Exolorations, Cambridge, Academic Press Professional, 1993 Woolley, Benjamin, Virtual Worlds, Oxford UK & Cambridge USA, Blackwell, 1992 Rheingold, Howard, Virtual Reality, New York, Summit Books, 1991 Thompson, Jeremy, Virtual Reality, Westprot, Meckler, 1993 Heim, Michael, The Metaphysics of Virtual Reality, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993 Fulton, Nancy, 3D Studio Aoolied, Cleveland, Advanstar, 1993 Bedler, Norman 1., Phillips, Cary B., Webber, Bonnie Lynn, Simulating Humans : Computer Graphics Animation and Control, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993 Earnshaw, R.A., Gigante, M.A., Jones, H., Virtual Reality Systems, London, San Diego, Academic Press, 1993 Carande, Robert J., Information Sources for Virtual Reality, Westport, Greenwood Press, 1993 Middleton, Teresa, Virtual Worlds: Real Challenges, Westport, Meckler, 1991 Gibson, William, Neuromancer, New York, ACE Books, 1993 55