Citation
Tea

Material Information

Title:
Tea a touchstone for understanding Findikli transformations in agricultural landscapes : a cultural landscape study for Findikli-Rize, Turkey
Creator:
Alisan, Aylin ( author )
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (113 pages). : ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Tea trade -- Turkey -- Rize region ( lcsh )
Findikli (Rize : Turkey) ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Review:
Current land use issues in Findikli reflect a 60-year trend towards a monoculture agricultural pattern of tea production, which is damaging the landscape and undermining the continuity of cultural traditions. A case study reveals the value of traditional autochthonous practices before tea production that supported the community and which are still evident in certain area of the landscape and buildings. This thesis explores policies for reintroducing some of the traditional agricultural practices which were more sustainable, and which can recalibrate and advance the local economy and support environmental balance for future.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of Colorado Denver. Landscape architecture
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references.
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe reader.
General Note:
Department of Landscape Architecture
Statement of Responsibility:
by Aylin Alisan.

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Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
906811329 ( OCLC )
ocn906811329

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TEA: A TOUCHSTONE FOR UNDERSTANDING FINDIKLI TRANSFORMATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES: A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE CASE STUDY FOR FINDIKLI-RIZE, TURKEY by Aylin Alisan B.L.A., Ankara University, 2006 A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Landscape Architecture 2013

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The thesis for the Master of Landscape Architecture degree by Aylin Alisan has been approved by > Ann Komara Korkut Onaran M. Emin Baris I Date

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Ali san, Ay lin (Master of Landscape Architecture) Tea: A Touchstone for Understanding Findikli, Transformations in Agricultural Landscapes: A Cultural Landscape Case Study for Findikli-Rize, Turkey Thesis directed by Associate Professor Ann Komara ABSTRACT Current land use issues in Findikli reflect a 60-year trend towards a monoculture agricultural pattern of tea production, which is damaging the landscape and undermining the continuity of cultural traditions. A case study reveals the value of traditional autochthonous practices before tea production that supported the community and which are still evident in certain area of the landscape and buildings. This thesis explores policies for reintroducing some of the traditional agricultural practices which were more sustainable, and which can recalibrate and advance the local economy and support environmental balance for future. Key Words: cultural landscape, agricultural landscape, traditional landscape, landscape transformation, Findikli Rize/Turkey This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I recommend its publication. Signed ____________ Ann E. Komara iv

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DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis to my mother, Servisel, who always believed that I would succeed; to my brothers, Niyazi and Erkan, who always supported me when I felt alone; and to my father, Yuksel, who always saves me from the sky. v

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank to my chair and committee. Ann Komara, thanks for your patience .nd help whenever I need. Korkut and Emin, thanks for your academic professionalism and ncouragement. In addition, I would like to thank to my best friends, Umut Boran, Seda Demir and \ilgehan Kadioglu, who were by my side everyday of fieldwork. Thanks to Kate Devor, for ncouragement and assistance throughout my education at UCD. Thanks to Harun Y etkin, my boyfriend, for your moral support and love. Lastly, thanks to my family, and second family in the United States, Ayhan, Hulya, and \.rtun Yilmaz, for always believing in me. vi

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page FIGURES ..................................................................................................................................................................... ix TABLES ...................................................................................................................................................................... xii CHAPTERS: 1: INTRODUCTION, INCLUDING A HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE CASE STUDY AREA ........................................................................................................................................................... 1 The Research Questions ........................................................................................................................................... 1 Methodology .............................................................................................................................................................. 11 2: UNDERSTANDING AND IDENTIFYING LANDSCAPE SIGNIFICANCE ............................ 19 Landscape Types (Understanding the Landscapes) ..................................................................................... 20 Significance of Landscape (Identifying Landscape Significance ) ........................................................... 3 3 3: LANDSCAPE TRANSFORMATION AND LANDSCAPE ALTERATION .............................. 38 4: LANDSCAPE CONSERVATION AND LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT ................................ .44 Land-use ...................................................................................................................................................................... 44 Landscape Conservation ........................................................................................................................................ 4 7 Landscape Management and Sustainability .................................................................................................... 49 Future Demands and Needs .................................................................................................................................. 51 5: THE CASE STUDY AREA: FINDIKLI-RIZE/TURKEY ................................................................... 52 Landscape Types in Findikli ...................................................................................................... ,. ........................ 52 Significance of Landscapes in Findikli ............................................................................................................. 55 Landscape Transformation and Alteration in Findikli ................................................................................ 63 Land-use in Findikli ................................................................................................................................................ 78 6: CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................................... 85 vii

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APPENDIX A ........................................................................................................................................................... 95 APPENDIX 8 ............................................................................................................................................................ 98 APPENDIX C ............................................................................................................................................................ 99 BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................................................. lOO viii

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LIST OF FIGURES 1.1 Location of the case study area ...................................................................................................................... 2 1.2 Neighborhoods and Villages .................. .......................... ..................................................... .......................... 3 1.3 Lazuri and Hemshin Settlements .................................................................................................................. 3 1.4 Hazelnut gardens in Findikli .......................................................................................................................... 3 1.5 Tea gardens in Findikli ..................................................................................................................................... 4 1.6 Tea gardens on steep slopes in Findikli ....................................................................................................... 4 1. 7 Kiwi garden and kiwi ........................................................................................................................................ 5 1.8 Clear-cut for kiwi and tea gardens ................................................................................................................ 5 1.9 Apiculture and Aquaculture ............................................................................................................................ 5 1.10 Traditional Settlement ..................................................................................................................................... 6 1.11 Corn in tea gardens ......................................................................................................................................... 7 1.12 Traditional Storage ........................................................................................................................................... 9 1.13 Molasses ceremony ........................................................................................................................................ 10 1.14 Diagram of the methodology ............................................................................................................ .......... 11 1 .15 Rice terraces at Batad, Banaue district, Philippines ... ......................................................................... 12 1.16 Oral Interviewees ............................................................................................................................................ 14 2.17 Agricultural Landscape Types ............................................................................................................ 31,32 3.18 Photographs of cultivated fields of Harchu and Luskum .................................................................. 42 3.19 Interpretations of Photographs of the same landscape .................................................. .................... 4 2 5.20 Vernacular architecture ......................................... ...................................................................................... 53 5.21 Mountain landscapes .................................................................................................................................... 54 5.22 Key Biodiversity Areas ................................................................................................................................ 57 ix

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5.23 Water Sources in Turkey ..................................................................... ., ...................................................... 57 5.24 World Heritage Sites ..................................................................................................... ., .............................. 58 5.25 World Heritage Tentative Sites .................................................................................................................. 58 5.26 Wildlife Protection Zones ............................................................................................................................ 59 5.27 National Parks .................................................................................................................................................. 59 5.28 Special Protected Zones ............................................................................................................................... 60 5.29 Alteration of traditional way of life in time ........................................................................................... 61 5.30 Traditional way of life .................................................................................................................................. 61 5.31 Concrete houses instead oftraditional ones ........................................................................................... 61 5.32 Serender ............................................................................................................................................................. 62 5.33 Fountain ............................................................................................................................................................. 62 5.34 Stone Bridge ..................................................................................................................................................... 62 5.35 A Lazuri man ................................................................................................................................................... 63 5.36 Tea factory ........................................................................................................................................................ 66 5.37 Tea delivery point. .......................................................................................................................................... 67 5.38 Butterflies .......................................................................................................................................................... 68 5.39 Arili River ......................................................................................................................................................... 70 5.40 Sumer River ...................................................................................................................................................... 70 5.41 Swimming in the river .................................................................................................................................. 71 5.42 Concrete eyesore ............................................................................................................................................. 71 5.43 Black Sea Coastal Highway ........................................................................................................................ 72 5.44 Rope railway .................................................................................................................................................... 73 5.45 Tradition of hulling hazelnuts .................................................................................................................... 7 4 X

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5.46 Patoz ................................................................................................................................................................... 74 5.47 Land cover in Findikli in 1974 ................................................................................................................... 76 5.48 Land cover in Findikli in 1988 ................................................................................................................... 77 5.49 Landscape transformation, from 1974 to 1988 ..................................................................................... 78 5.50 The classification images of land-use\land cover in Rize ................................................................. 80 5.51 Agricultural landscape transformation in thirty-four years in Findikli ........................................ 81 5 52 Deteriorated landscapes in Findikli .......................................................................................................... 82 5.53 Smaller area to be tested in Findikli ......................................................................................................... 84 6.54 Cognitive map for potential restoration landscapes ............................................................................ 88 6.55 Cognitive map for current conditions ...................................................................................................... 90 6.56 Cognitive map for proposed traditional settlement ............................................................................. 92 6.57 Traditional landscapes and traditional practices .................................................................................. 93 xi

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LIST OFT ABLES 2.1 Categories of World Heritage Cultural Landscapes .............................................................................. 22 2.2 Cultural Landscapes Categories ................................................................................................................... 24 2.3 Types of Cultural Landscapes ...................................................................................................................... 25 2.4 Agricultural Landscape Typology Factors ............................................................................................... 30 4.5 Description of the Agricultural Land-use Types Considered in the Study ................................... .46 5.6 Agricultural Landscape Typology Factors Modified for Findikli .................................................... 55 5.7 The Negative Impacts of Tea Production on Landscape Transformation in Findikli ................ 65 5.8 The Negative Impacts of Chernobyl Disaster on Landscape Transformation in Findikli ........ 6 7 5.9 The Negative Impacts of Hydroelectric Power Plants on Landscape Transformation in Findikli ......................................................................................................................................................................... 69 5.10 The Negative Impacts of the Black Sea Coastal Highway on Landscape Transformation in Findikli ......................................................................................................................................................................... 72 5.11 The Impacts of Agricultural Machinery, Television and Internet on Landscape Transformation in Findikli .................................................................................................................................... 73 5.12 The Impacts of Brainpower Migration on Landscape Transformation in Findikli .................. 75 5.13 Land Cover Classification Scheme ........................................................................................................... 79 xii

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION "The realm of green gold and silver sea "1 This case study of a traditional agricultural landscape offers opportunities to understand conditions and make evaluations and decisions for managing. The rapid recent alteration this landscape due to governmental policies, economic issues, and lack of land-use management policies highlights the need to address this imminent loss of significant cultural landscapes; citizens need to identify their evolving landscapes in order to create appropriate decisions about managing the future of these important cultural heritage areas. In order to do this, we need to understand the history of the case study area. Findikli is a town and district of Rize Province on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, east of the city of Rize. (Figure 1) Current land-use issues in Findikli reflect a 60-year trend towards a monoculture agricultural pattern of tea production, which is damaging the landscape and undermining the continuity of cultural traditions. This study highlights the value of traditional autochthonous practices before tea production that supported the community and which are still evident in certain area of the landscape and buildings. This thesis explores policies for addressing this cultural landscape and reintroducing some of the traditional agricultural practices which were more sustainable, and which can recalibrate and advance the local economy and support environmental balance for future. Before introducing the themes and research goals, it is valuable to know more about the case study area. Findikli has a total area of 158 square miles ( 409 km2), of which 13 square miles 1 Anonymous folk saying. Green gold refers tea and silver sea means Black Sea. 1

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(33 km2 ) is occupied by urban settlement and 145 square miles (376 km2 ) is rural area. The altitude of Findikli is 985 feet (300 m) above sea level. Both urban and rural landscape dynamics are representing identity of Findikli. Findikli is divided into thirty boundaries of which twenty-two boundaries are villages and eight boundaries are neighborhoods. (Figure 2) According to the 2008 census, the population of 16,03 7 places at village population is 5,971, and the neighborhood population at 10,066. There are two ethnic cultures in Findikli, Lazuri and Hemshin. (Figure 3) The main difference between Lazuri and Hemshin is language. Lazuri people speak their native language, Lazuri, which is totally different than Turkish. While Hemshin people generally prefer to settle down close to the mountains, Lazuri people live near the coast. Therefore, these two groups have different life styles associated with their geographic settlements. For example, Hemshin people are good at forestry, whilst Lazuri people are good at aquaculture. Since Hemshin people live close to the mountains, they lead a nomadic life in summer season. On the other hand, Lazuri people spend just one or two weeks in the mountains to graze their animals. International Scale: Turkey National Scale: Rize Regional Scale: Findikli Local Scale: Villages and Neighborhoods Figure I: Location of the case study area (Maps by Aylin Alisan 2012) 2

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R!Vf..R o ... .VlJI
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economic income in town. Findikli' s climate is typical of the Black Sea coast with six months of dark cloud, four months overcast, six weeks of light cloud and nineteen days of sunshine, with light rain at some point during every one of the three hundred sixty five days of the year. With this climate, Findikli is an appropriate place to grow tea. (Figure 5) ..;.,#', --...... "" >ol Figure 5: Tea gardens in Findikli (Photographs by Aylin Alisan 2012) Findikli is very mountainous area in Turkey. The terrain has played a central role in the subsistence agricultural ecosystems; it provides vast biological resources for humans and their livestock. Because of the steep slopes, arable lands are limited. However, tea is a compatible farm plant on steep slopes. (Figure 6) Figure 6: Tea gardens on steep slopes in Findikli (Photographs by Aylin Alisan 2012) 4

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Current agricultural practices are depending on mostly tea and relatively on hazelnut and kiwi. (Figure 7) People clear-cut for tea and kiwi recently. (Figure 8) Other agricultural activities are apiculture, aquaculture, and animal husbandry, which are highly decreased. (Figure 9) Figure 8: Clear-cut for kiwi and tea gardens (Photographs by Erkan Alisan 2010) Figure 9: Apiculture (on left), Aquaculture (on right) (Photographs by Erkan Ali san 20 I 0) The agricultural base in Findikli began to change dramatically in the middle of the twentieth century. When farmers started to grow tea in Findikli in mid 1950's, they realized that it was very easy to plant and harvest. It did not take as much labor, compared to other farm products. In time, tea production became ubiquitous, thus the government did some regulations 5

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particularly for tea production. The government established a government agency, called CA YKUR, to provide oversight of tea production in the region. By the early 1980's farmers were making good money from tea production. Because of this success thus farmers tended to clear-cut to open new lands to plant tea, and they transformed cornfields to tea gardens. They built new tea gardens everywhere they could. They also planted tea in front of their houses ignoring the traditional settlement pattern of had been organized houses with their front and back yards in flat areas. (Figure 1 0) ''J"! I Figure I 0: Traditional Settlement on the left, Tea occupation m settlement on the right (Photographs by Aylin Alisan 2012) Tea meant money. Tea meant less labor. Tea brought economic business initiative to the region. Tea factories opened and tea created employment for local people. In the 1990's the government response to take the big explosion in tea production was to limit the creation of new tea gardens. Political decisions and governmental regulations caused tea production to be decreased in the late 1990's. It caused private companies to be established in the region, as purchasing power of the government for tea had been reduced. This economic shift brought foreign people to work and unemployment rose for the local people. From the 1960's to 1980's landowners were fanning in their lands. However, children of landowners migrated to big cities for higher education. Some of them returned, but did not work 6

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on fanns. Many did not return to Findikli. Consequently, 'brain power migration' has occurred in Findikli. As the masters of farming became old, they employed foreign people to work the soil. Unfortunatel y, the hired people did not take care of the land as w ell as landowners had taken care of it. When local farmers were cultivating the soil they were trying to enhance it. They protected and increased the number of the plants by growing to diversify agricultural products or other native plants. Agricultural patterns and traditions also shifted. Even though hazelnut is a native plant tea became the dominant agricultural product in the region. Hazelnut gardens declined. Cornfields disappeared, and people left a small piece of area to grow corn in the middle of tea gardens. (Figure 11) Vegetable and fruit production decreased. People preferred to purchase everything from grocery stores. Even though some families grow their own vegetables, they tell taste is not same and not as good as it was The area lost native species and most of the existing native plants are endangered. Figure 11 : As corn production highly decreased people grow com in tea gardens for family needs (Photographs by Bilgehan Kadioglu 2012) The changes in agricultural practices and crops also caused additional problems. There happened an unexpected event in 1999 Nine houses in Karali Village collapsed down as soil slumped. Fortunately nobody neither died nor injured, but it was a big scar in landscape. Ayhan 7

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Balci, former head of Karali Village explained this story, "That day rained a lot, but it was ordinary situation in Findikli. Did it happen due to rain? We did not understand why it happened. Therefore we called geologists to investigate the site. They told us that Findikli was located in an over rainy region. People cut the big trees; they cause to lose forest soil that was for keeping rain on the ground. However, tea plant as its physiology is not eligible to keep water on the ground, thus rain water seeped into the underground and made a big lake in time". He also added that people destroyed natural landscape in Findikli. Instead of big forest trees, people planted tea as a shrub as much as they could. Therefore, tea caused an ecological problem in Findikli and adversely altered the landscape. Thus tea has both negative and positive influences on the landscapes of Findikli. Tea has a negative influence on agricultural product diversity as tea causes monoculture agricultural practice. Even though tea brought industry development to the region, unemployment has increased. Tea caused the traditional settlement patterns to be lost. Grazing lands turned to tea gardens, and front and back yards of houses were replaced with tea gardens.2 People stopped :vegetable and com farming. This eliminated the need for the traditional storages around the dwelling area; such traces ofFindikli's agricultural past are now disappearing. (Figure 12) '" Figure 12: Traditional Storage for com, hazelnut and winter vegetables. It is called 'Serender' or 'Nayla', and was used to as a 'natural refrigerator'. (Photographs by Umut Boran 2012) 2 When grazing lands were extensive, farmers from neighboring regions used to bring their cattle Findikli for grazing. Local farmers used the cattle dung as a natural fertilizer under hazelnut trees and cornfields. 8

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Contemporary society is often dissociated from the traditional ways of life that brought about a particular landscape, though the traces and patterns of this lifestyle are also sometimes still visually evident and culturally significant. This can be particularly true for areas that were once heavily agricultural such as Findikli. One assumption is to move forward without looking back to these practices, yet there are current preservation ideas which suggest that in fact looking back to traditional practices and land-use patterns can help recalibrate a more sustainable way of living in these landscapes. In the case of Findikli coming to understand this the landscape's heritage can lead to several outcome that hold positive affects for the economic and cultural goals for the citizens and the local government. The agricultural overview of Findikli shows that there have been rapid changes in the landscapes. This alteration affected not only agriculture but also the unique tangible and intangible culture in Findikli, and their important role as a touchstone to the landscape's past traditions change in traditional landscapes of Findikli associated with the concept of cultural landscape is the primary concern ofthis thesis study. (Figure 13) 9

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Figure 13: Pears are native fruits and people make molasses from pears. Molasses ceremony is an intangible culture in Findikli. (Photographs by Umit Emre Erdogan 201 0) Eventually, it is estimated that these landscapes, which are no designated as a historic or :significant landscape type face the risk of loosing their relevance due to lack of management plans or proper conservation frameworks. Producing appropriate regulations for landscape management enables important cultural heritage areas to be identified, sustained and conserved, addressed these evolving cultural landscapes need to be understood and negative alterations and lack of land-use policies. 1. The Research Questions This research originated with following question: How can a traditional landscape be preserved if people are unable to identify that landscape as a part of their own history and culture? Additionally, the following questions needed to be addressed to answer: 10

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How can a traditional local landscape be preserved if it is threatened by contemporary agricultural practices? What conservation strategies are appropriate for a traditional landscape, which has transformed in response to shifts in economic and political forces? Considering these questions related to the case study area of Findikli will enable study to develop a system of policies and management plans aimed at reintroducing some of the traditional agricultural practices which were more self-sufficient and sustainable to recalibrate and advance the local economy and support environmental balance for local people and future. Therefore this study is seeking to find what exists in the landscapes of Findikli to be understood and emulated to restore more self-sufficient and sustainable landscapes. 2. Methodology This case study explores how this conservation and preservation be applied as a step forward to achieve a stronger local economy, a cleaner environment, and an enhanced tourism program. (Figure 14) The goal is to make the landscape more visible and foreground it as the touchstone of tangible and intangible cultural heritage to prevent permanent negative alterations. t:XISTI:W; AGRICl'L TliRAL I.ANilSCAPt: PROTECT/ENHA'ICE CULTURAL LA:\DSCAPE, HERITAGE, TRADITIOJ"iS SUPPORT LOCAL FOOD PRODLJCTIO" AND ECONOMY Figure 14: Diagram ofthe methodology (By Aylin Alisan) 11 l::'iCOI'RAf;J:: TRAUITIO!\AL AGRICl'L HIRE PRACTICES STRONG LOCAL ECONOMY CLEAN ENVIRONMENT ENHANCED TOURISM

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Additionally, parallel case study examples help to understand cultural landscape concept. One example is the rice terraces at Batad, Banaue district, Philippines. Designated as a cultural landscape by United Nations of Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras are outstanding example of an evolved, living cultural landscape that can be traced as far back as two millennia ago in the pre-colonial Philippines. Three criteria stated by UNESCO make the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras a cultural landscape. (Figure 15) Figure 15: Rice terraces at Batad, Banaue district, Philippines (Images from http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/722/gallery/ accessed April 16,2013) These criteria as stated on UNESCO website include: Criterion (iii): The rice terraces are a dramatic testimony to a community's sustainable and primarily communal system of rice production, based on harvesting water from the forest clad mountain tops and creating stone terraces and ponds, a system that has survived for two millennia. Criterion (iv): The rice terraces are a memorial to the history and labor of more than a thousand generations of small-scale farmers who, working together as a community, have created a landscape based on a delicate and sustainable use of natural resources. 12

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Criterion (v): The rice terraces are an outstanding example of land-use that resulted from a harmonious interaction between people and its environment, which has produced a steep terraced landscape of great aesthetic beauty, now vulnerable to social and economic changes. 3 This case study of a viable agricultural landscape indicates what kinds of landscape components can be considered to designate a landscape as a cultural landscape according to UNESCO. The case study in Findikli focuses on not only cultural landscape definitions of UNESCO, but also other international organizations that are working on cultural landscapes as this study aims to find an appropriate landscape conservation and management regulations and to produce the best fit for Turkish policy. The methods for the case study could be scientific inventory, oral history, survey and analysis, experimental observation, photo documentary, mapping and comparisons; literature reviews of other current practices and theory for landscapes and change will also be valuable. (Figure 16) 3 UNESCO, "Rice terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras ", UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org / en/list/722 (accessed April 16,2013) 13

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.. Figure 16: Oral Interviewees (Photographs by Bilgehan Kadioglu) To address the research questions, this thesis is organized in three phases. The first phase included literature review, which is established in Chapter 2, Chapter 3 and Chapter 4. The second phase, which is stated in Chapter 5, is research and findings of the case study area. The third phase, which is stated in Chapter 6 as a conclusion part of the study, presents suggestions for the case study area. Chapter 2 covers a review of literature on landscape types and significance, which enables us to understand and identify landscapes according to landscape components. To identify a landscape accurately, it is necessary to know first how to read the landscape. Landscapes vary by their features, history, and culture. The first section of Chapter 2 addresses defining and understanding types of landscapes: cultural landscapes, traditional landscapes, agricultural landscapes, rural landscapes, historical landscapes and natural landscapes. As the study is about an assessment of cultural landscape, cultural landscape is more detailed relatively other types of 14

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landscapes. Farina, a professor of ecology at the University of Urbino, defines a cultural landscape as "a region in which human disturbance has occurred for thousands of years, creating a unique assemblage of patterns, species and processes. Cultural landscapes thus reflect the longterm interactions between people and their natural environment".4 The effect of culture on landscapes has drawn me to seek how to identify landscapes. The second section of Chapter 2 addresses how to identify landscapes and understand their patterns and meaning. Identification of landscapes enables governmental officials, landscape historians and landscape architects to analyze features that are forming specific types of landscapes, including its natural components and its history and cultural amenities. Once identified, the cultural significance of landscape would provide opportunities for landscape designers and planners to produce short or long-term management plans. Moreover, an identified landscape would enable landscape designers and planners to create a proper protection policy for the landscape to be sustained. Landscapes whose significance and cultural value have not been identified are vulnerable to the threat of destruction or disappearance; in large measure this is due to lack of information about these places and corollary failure of the population to acknowledge or address its value or meaning. To prevent any culturally significant landscapes from destruction, we need to be aware of their values and significance. People often are not aware of their landscape and its changing heritage. In other words, alteration of landscapes might affect the identity to be lost due to lack of awareness. Chapter 3 covers distinctions between landscape transformation and landscape alteration. Landscape transformation might cause not only negative effects but also positive effects. Impacts 4 A. Farina, "Principles and Methods in Landscape Ecology," Chapman and Hall ( 1998), quoted in Moreira Francisco, C. Rego Francisco, and Paulo G. Ferreira, "Temporal (1958-1995) pattern of change in a cultural landscape of northwestern Portugal: implications for fire occurrence," Landscape Ecology I 0 (200 I): 557. 15

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of landscape transfonnation are considered at different scales, from local to regional. Why landscapes are transformed is heavily dependent on land-use and landscape management. For example, "at the overall farm level, the detennining factor of the range of land-use is the starting choice of a production system and strategies of functioning. These criteria depend on the diversity of social and economic conditions locally. At the regional level, the general conditions of physical environment have a role in the choice of a production system. Finally, the physical environment plays a role within farms: farmers adapt the different types of land-use and technical activities (silage, etc.), to the characteristics of their territory".5 In order to avoid negative affects of landscape transfonnation as well as to optimize landscape management and land-use strategies, landscapes that are identified, as having significance and value should be managed under a landscape protection plan. Chapter 4 covers landscape preservation and landscape management with the goal to provide landscape sustainability. As Gobster, a research social scientist with the USDA Forest Service's North Central Research Station in Chicago, states, "Sustainability values relate to preferences for maintaining and restoring the ecological structure and function of ecosystems and for preserving and enhancing the health and diversity of native species and ecological communities," landscape management and conservation plans should enhance the sustainability of landscapes.6 This study assumes that how landscapes evolve to meet future demands and needs is a main determinant for the creation of a landscape protection and management plan. Relevant aspects of the case study area are presented in Chapter 5. Findikli is a town and district of Rize Province on the Black Sea Coast of Turkey. Findikli was selected as a case study area because of my familiarity with it as well because it is one of Turkey's unique landscapes 5 Deffontaines, J.P., C. Thenail, and J. Baudry. "Agricultural Systems and Landscape Patterns: How Can We Build A Relationship?" Landscape and Urban Planning 31 ( 1995): 7. 6 Gobster, Paul H "An Ecological Aesthetic for Forest Landscape Management" Landscape Journa/18 (1999) : 55 16

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and presently lacks protective designations or management plans for its cultural and environmental heritage. As an assessment of potential cultural landscapes, Findikli has significant landscape components to be identified. According to Meeus, Wijermans, and Vroom, the scholars of landscape architecture department in Netherlands, "Landscapes are in a process of transformation owing to current changes in farming practice" which "... will bring about a considerable amount of instability to the countryside".7 The case study area has been changed abruptly by internal and external factors. For example, agricultural landscapes of Findikli have been deteriorated due to inaccurate agricultural policies of Turkey. Land-use management and maintenance regulations do not exist at either the local and national scale; thus, landscapes have been altered without any control mechanisms and no protections are in place. Additionally, there is not a governmental policy about cultural landscapes in Turkey even though there are plenty of areas that can be designated as cultural landscapes. Zube, a scholar of renewable natural resources, and Pitt, a scholar of horticulture, state, "The concept of heritage landscapes encompasses landscapes of scenic and cultural as well as scientific value. The international, national or even regional application of this broad heritage landscape concept raises the issue of cross cultural differences in the perception and definition of heritage landscape values".8 Therefore, designated landscape areas of local, national or international significance will enable landscape management opportunities to fill gaps in governmental policy and will enable cultural heritage to pass down to the future generations. This study's goal is to provide an appropriate framework of a landscape management plan by considering Findikli's landscape components and testing their significance for the case study area. The results and findings of the 7 Meeus, J.H.A, M P Wijermans and M.J., Vroom." Agricultural Landscapes in Europe and Their Transformation Landscape and Urban Planning 18 ( 1990): 289. 8 Zube, E. H. and D.G. Pitt. "Cross-Cultural Perceptions of Scenic and Heritage Landscapes," Landscape Planning 8 (1981): 70. 17

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study would be a model of assessment of potential cultural landscapes, which can be applied else where in Turkey. Chapter 6 offers a framework for a landscape management and protection plan for enhancing and maintaining cultural heritage and traditions and a model for supporting a local sustainable model food production and economy. By encouraging traditional agriculture practices I hope to prevent additional and permanent negative changes as Findikli moves into the future and faces additional pressures for development and alteration of its native cultural landscapes 18

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CHAPTER2 UNDERSTANDING AND IDENTIFYING LANDSCAPE SIGNIFICANCE ... the poweJ:fitlff.lcl that life must be liwd amidst that which was made befhre. Every landscape is an accumulation. 1 How to determine the significance of a landscape is relevant to how to read and identify the landscape. Every landscape has significance as they have come with a lot of values, such as nature, culture, history, etc. To comprehend a landscape, a first step is to study landscape's features and patterns. The first section of this chapter states landscape types to help us how to understand landscapes. For example, it is stated what kinds of landscape features make a landscape as a particular type of landscape. There are six landscape types that are defined by their own distinctive features. However, one landscape type, which is called 'cultural landscape', has the characteristics of the other five types Besides understanding landscape significance, how to identify landscape significance is stated in the second section of this chapter The case study area has the characteristics of cultural landscape. Findikli is primarily an agricultural area that has experienced rapid changes over the last 60 years. It is important to i understand and define a framework for interpreting the traditions and patterns of this landscape. I Grounded in the scholarship and theory of cultural landscapes, this term refers to tangible and intangible cultures. In case study, Findikli' s landscape is understood as a "continuing cultural landscape." A cultural landscape is a tangible manifestation of intangible values in a whole phase of integration of all past, present, and prospective relations. This definition rests on a review of multiple sources, and has been supported by its local expression by oral history, site visits with 1 Meinig, Donald W The Beholding Eye: Ten Versions of the Same Scene. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979:7. 19

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photo documentation, and current evidence of traditional land-use patterns still visible or once evident but now slightly hidden. 1. Landscape Types (Understanding the Landscapes) According to the Council of Europe, an international organization in Europe, "Landscape means an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors". 2 We can infer from this broad definition of landscape that there is a set of variables, which affect any particular landscape at a given time. Donald Meinig explains 'landscape' integrally, stating "The landscape is an enormously rich store of data about the peoples and societies which have created it, but such data must be placed in its appropriate historic context if it is to be interpreted correctly. So, too, the landscape is a great exhibit of consequences, although the links between specific attitudes, decisions, actions, and specific results may be difficult to trace with assurance. In any case, whether historical view is meant to serve curiosity, reflection, or instruction, the landscape provides infinite possibilities".3 According to Meinig's, a cultural geographer, definition, landscape reflects what happens on the earth. Landscape is representative of human being, animals, plants, ecosystems and a ;whole phase of integration of all past, present, and prospective relations. William J. T. Mitchell, an architect and an urban designer, emphasizes 'culture' as a power of landscape by saying, ... what landscape 'is' or 'means' but what it does, how it works as a cultural practice. Landscape, we suggest, does not merely signify or symbolize power relations; it is an instrument of cultural power, ... ".4 To understand landscapes, we need to know the landscape's components and the natural and cultural influences. Each component adds or implies new value to landscape. 2 Antrop, M. "Why Landscapes of the Past are Important for the Future?" Landscape and Urban Planning 70 (2005): 23. 3 Meinig, "The Beholding Eye," 7. 4 Mitchell, W.J.T., (ed.), Landscape and Power, Chicago Press, 1994: I. 20

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For example, Mitchell explains, "Landscape as a cultural medium thus has a double role with respect to something like ideology: it naturalizes a cultural and social construction, representing an artificial world as if it were simply given and inevitable, and it also makes that representation operational by interpellating its beholder in some more or less determinate relation to its givenness as sight and site".5 Since cultural landscapes cover all interactions between nature and human, cultural landscape, as a landscape type, leads this study to state working definition for the case study area, Findikli. Cultural Landscape Landscape is a medium found in all cultures. 6 'Cultural Landscape', as a term, has been defined by many sources, such as cultural geographers, landscape architects, and various cultural organizations. 'Cultural Landscape' adoption as a professional term in the 1990's owes homage to Professor Carl Sauer's, a geographer, image of the term in the 1920's. Sauer defined cultural landscape: "The cultural landscape is fashioned from a natural landscape by a culture group. Culture is the agent, the natural area the medium, the cultural landscape the result". 7 Eventually, UNESCO, the United States National Park Service (NPS), and the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) developed working definitions of cultural landscape and cultural landscape studies which overlap on numerous points, yet each group's definition offers some specific factors or criteria particular to their scope and roles. 5 Mitchell, W.J.T., "Landscape and Power," 2. 6 Ibid, 5. 7 Fowler, P.J. "World Heritage Papers: World Heritage Cultural Landscapes 1992-2002" (Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Center, 2003): 19. 21

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I For UNESCO, "Cultural landscapes represent the 'combined works of nature and man,' as designated in Article 1 of the World Heritage Convention. 8 They are 'illustrative of the evolution of human society and settlement over time, under the influence of the physical constraints and/or opportunities presented by their natural environment and of successive social, economic and cultural forces, both external and internal". Since cultural landscape has become a professional term, it has become a concept of world heritage. The World Heritage Convention considered cultural landscape in three categories. These categories are shown in Table 1 referencing Paragraph 39 ofthe Operational Guidelines by UNESCO. Table 1: Categories of World Heritage Cultural Landscapes 9 Cultural Landscape Category (i) (ii) (iii) Definition A clearly defined landscape is one designed and created intentionally by man. This embraces garden and parkland landscapes characteristically constructed for aesthetic, social and recreational reasons which are often (but not always) associated with religious or other monumental buildings and ensembles An organically evolved landscape results from an initial social, economic, administrative, and/or religious imperative and has developed its present form by association with and in response to its natural environment. Such landscapes reflect that process of evolution in their form and component features. They fall into two sub-categories (labeled a and b respectively for the purposes of this review): a relict (or fossil) landscape is one in which an evolutionary process came to an end at some time in the past, either abruptly or over a period. Its significant distinguishing features are, however, still visible in material form. b continuing landscape IS one, which retains an active social role m contemporary society closely associated with a traditional way of life. It is continuing to evolve while, at the same time, it exhibits significant material evidence of its historic evolution An associative cultural landscape is a landscape with definable powerful, religious, artistic or cultural associations with the natural element rather than material cultural evidence, which may be insignificant or even absent. 8 Fowler, "World Heritage Papers," 18. 9lbid, 19. 22

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For the NPS, "Cultural landscapes are complex resources that range from large rural tracts covering several thousand acres to formal gardens of less than an acre. Natural features such as landforms, soils, and vegetation are not only part of the cultural landscape, they provide the framework within which it evolves".10 The NPS has assigned cultural landscapes into four categories slightly different than categorization of UNESCO. Table 2 shows the categories that are recognized by NPS. 10 National Park Service, NPS-28 Cultural Resource Management Guideline, (National Park Service), under "Management of Cultural Landscapes," http: // www nps gov / history / history / online books / nps28/28chap7 .htm (accessed April 16, 20 13). 23

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Table 2: Cultural Landscapes Categories11 Category 1. Ethnographic landscape 2. Historic designed landscape 3. Historic vernacular landscape Definition A landscape containing a variety of natural and cultural resources that associated people define as heritage resources. Examples are contemporary settlements, sacred religious sites, and massive geological structures. Small plant communities, animals, subsistence and ceremonial grounds are often com_gonents. A landscape that was consciously designed or laid out by a landscape architect, engineer, or horticulturist according to design principles, or an amateur gardener working m a recognized style or tradition. The landscape may be associated with a significant person, trend, or event in landscape architecture; or illustrate an important development in the theory and practice of landscape architecture. Aesthetic values play a significant role m designed landscapes. Examples include parks, campuses, and estates. A landscape that evolved through uses by the people whose activities or occupancy shaped it. Through social or cultural attitudes of an individual, a family, or a community, the landscape reflects the physical, biological, and cultural character of everyday lives. Function plays a significant role m vernacular landscapes. This can be a farm complex or a district of historic farmsteads along a river valley. Examples include rural historic districts and agricultural I landsca"'es. 4. Historic site A landscape significant for its association with a historic event, activity or person. Examples include battlefields and presidential homes and properties. ICOMOS identifies cultural landscapes as "... particular landscapes that reflect interaction over time between people and their surroundings".12 ICOMOS is considering types of cultural landscapes as well as what types of cultural landscape UNESCO developed, but 11 National Park Service, NPS-28 Cultural Resource Management Guideline, (National Park Service), under "Management of Cultural Landscapes," http://www .nps.gov/history/history/online books/nps28/28chap7 .htm (accessed April 16, 2013). 12 ICOMOS,Definition of Cultural Heritage,(lnternational Council on Monuments and Sites),under "2004, ICOMOS UK(Cultural Landscapes)" http://cif.icomos.org/pdf_docs/Documents%20on%20line/Heritage%20definitions.pdf (accessed April 16, 2013). 24

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ICOMOS' types of cultural landscapes are not as detailed as UNESCO's. The types of cultural landscapes by ICOMOS are stated in Table 3. Table 3: Types of Cultural Landscapes13 Type Definition 1. Designed Landscapes Gardens, parks, or natural landscapes improved for aesthetic reasons 2. Evolved Landscapes Landscapes which reflect strong association with human processes; they may be relict or still evolving 3. Associative Landscapes Landscapes associated with important historic people or events, irrespective of other cultural qualities, and where they may be little material evidence of this association Apart from UNESCO, NPS, and ICOMOS, other organizations that are defining and working on cultural landscapes include: International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN); Parks Canada; European Union (EU); The Cultural Landscape Foundation (TCLF); The Arnold ,Arboretum of Harvard University; and the International Federation of Landscape Architects Cultural Landscapes Committee (IFLA). Besides organizations, landscape architects, planners, and geographers examined definitions of cultural landscape, as well. According to Wagner and Mikesell, cultural geographers; "cultural landscape a concrete and characteristic product of integrity between a given human community, embodying certain cultural preferences and potentials, and a particular set of natural circumstances. It is a heritage of many eras of natural evolution and of many generations of human effort".14 Robert Melnick, a scholar of landscape architecture, stated his definition of cultural landscape in 1984; the 13 ICOMOS,Definition of Cultural Heritage,(International Council on Monuments and Sites),under "2004, ICOMOS UK( Cultural Landscapes)" http :/lei f. icomos.org/pdf docs/Documents%20on%20 I ine/H eritage%20defin itions. pdf (accessed Aprill6, 2013). 14 Wagner and Mikesell, quoted in Fowler, "World Heritage Papers," 22. 25

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cultural landscape is a tangible manifestation of human actions and beliefs set against and within the natural landscape". 15 By merging multiple definitions of cultural landscape this study aims to create one definition of cultural landscape for use in Turkey with Findikli as the test case. Findikli has had its own traditional way of life, which shaped Findikli's vernacular landscapes. It is a cultural landscape that has been threatened by the contemporary society because it has become disassociated with its traditional way of life. However, Findikli has still hidden significant material culture and evidence of its historic evolution, which might make Findikli's landscapes significant as cultural landscapes; these patterns might become more apparent in Findikli turns back its traditional way of life. For this study my working definition, which has been supported by methods and literature review, is that a cultural landscape is a tangible manifestation of intangible values in a whole phase of integration of all past, present, and prospective relations. As stated before, cultural landscapes gather other landscape types under a single roof since cultural landscape is a combination of other landscape types. However, in order to identify it as a cultural landscape, we should know each landscape types. [ Natural Landscapes ''Only nature knows neither memory nor history,. 16 A natural landscape is defined as a landscape that is not affected or is affected slightly by humankind and which sustains its own natural systems and protection by itself. According to Kaplan and Kaplan, environmental psychologists "In general natural landscapes are preferred to 15 Robert Melnick, quoted in Fowler, "World Heritage Papers ," 22. 16Cronon, William, "A Place for Stories : Nature History and Narrative" The Journal of American History 78 (2008): 134 7. 26

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urban ones".17 This preference shows the significance of natural landscapes, as people need nature inherently. Zev Naveh, a landscape ecologist, points out significance of cultural landscapes, as they save natural landscapes without any disturb, "Because of the overwhelming human dominance of the globe, there are now few if any truly natural, undisturbed landscapes left on earth. Therefore, cultural landscapes embrace today a broad global range of open and built-up landscapes with different degrees of modification, conversion, and replacement of their natural elements and processes".18 Naveh adds that interaction between natural and cultural landscapes should be understood as the tangible meeting point between nature and culture. A possible cultural landscape policy might enable us to save the undisturbed landscapes in the case study area. In other words, Findikli has slightly disturbed landspaces, which are very close to peak of mountains, and these landscapes need to be protected to sustain naturally. Findikli is eligible to be designated as a cultural landscape due to its own natural features, such as mountains, rivers, and forests with wild life habitats. Rural Landscapes A rural landscape represents both natural and cultural features as a compound landscape. Gobster emphasizes the importance of this landscape, noting the "Rural landscape is an important object of aesthetic interest and enjoyment; aesthetic reasons are among the reasons people have for valuing rurallandscape".19 17 Kaplan and Kaplan, quoted in Tempesta, Tiziano." The Perception of Agrarian Historical Landscapes: A Study of the Veneto Plain in Italy" Landscape and Urban Planning 97 (201 0): 258. 18 Naveh, Zev. "Ecological and Cultural Landscape Restoration and the Cultural Evolution towards a Post-Industrial I symbiosis between Human Society and Nature" Restoration Ecology 6 (1998): 138. 19 Gobster, "An Ecological Aesthetic," 52. 27

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Landscapes provide not only tangible but also intangible elements, as landscapes engage social and cultural elements?0 Take an Amish farming as an example. Amish farmlands are reflecting Amish people's life styles. Amish farming methods, agricultural units, and even Amish people's outfitters shape the landscape demurely, like their humble life. As a result of agricultural machinery, fragmentation of agricultural landscapes in Amish farmlands is less than in modern farmlands. Agricultural practices are dependent form of traditions, thus these traditions identify the landscapes. Studies are showing that rural landscape dynamics are about land-use and land cover change. In other words rural landscape dynamics point out land-use on behalf of landscape transformation. 21 For example, a natural landscape has transformed into rural landscape first, and then urban landscape during human occupation. As a result of this transformation process, it can be inferred that rural landscape is a medium between natural landscape and urban landscape. For the case study area, approximately sixty percent of landscapes are rural landscape, thirty percent of landscapes are natural landscape, and ten percent of landscapes are urban landscape in Findikli, with the rural landscape a mix of agricultural and traditional landscapes. Agricultural Landscapes Agricultural landscapes are primary results of interaction between human and nature. Humans started to shape their environment via agricultural activities. People cultivate soil, harvest crops, store products, and do margins for each plant. By doing so, landscapes have been lshaped and some way natural landscapes have been transformed to agricultural landscapes. 20 Alumae, Helen, Marc Antrop, Staffan Helmfrid, and Hannes Palang. "Rural Landscapes: Past Processes and Future Strategies" Landscape and Urban Planning 70 (2005): 4. 21 Poudevigne, Isabelle and Dider Alard. Landscape and Agricultural Patterns in Rural Area: A Case Study in the Brionne Basin, Normandy, France" Journal of Environmental Management 50 ( 1997): 335. 28

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Meeus et a!. define agricultural landscapes as "landscapes used for agricultural purposes, that are managed to provide adequate and long term production capacity". 22 Agricultural landscapes represent a mosaic of farmlands, as they have natural habitats, semi-natural habitats, and human infrastructure, such as roads and ditches. Each component of the mosaic has boundaries thus each of them has field margins. Agricultural landscapes are divided into six main categories and thirteen subcategories in accordance with agricultural landscape typology factors described by Meeus et al. First, these typology factors are listed in Table 4 as modified by relying on the article; "Agricultural Landscapes in Europe and Their Transformation".23 Based on the information stated in Table 4, topography is a big determinant for agricultural method. For example, while flat areas are eligible for agricultural mechanization, rough terrains are not. In this case, flat areas should have roads that are enough size for agricultural vehicles. Therefore, these agricultural landscapes have different pattern than non-machinery farmlands. 22 Meeus et al., "Agricultural Landscapes," 293 2 3 Ibid. 29

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Table 4: Agricultural Landscape Typology Factors24 Typology Factor Example The size and shape of parcels of land Feasibility of mechanization The layout of farm yards Distance from the land The type of crops Variables Soil and topography Fertility and workability Climatic factors Growth seasons The existence of semi-cultivated crops and Shadow, shelter and timber production woodland Altitude and gradient Workability, danger of erosion Land ownership or lease Control over changes The degree of enclosure Visual and ecological aspects The historical origins Cultural factors This table is stated in Chapter 5 as modified the case study area. Meeus et a!. categorize agricultural landscapes according to typology factors as shown above in Table 4. Although these categories were generated to indicate European agricultural landscapes, the case study area could be categorized by similar typology factors. Figure 16 shows visual signatures for these European agricultural landscape types as categorized by Meeus et a!. The case study area, Findikli has characteristics of mountain landscapes, both highlands and montages as described in Figure 17. 24 Meeus et at., "Agricultural Landscapes," 293. 30

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.OPEN MARINE LANDSCAPES Open Field Former Open Field Polder -. -. ;QIJ5!l4 . OPEN MEDITERRANEAN HILLS AND VALLEYS Mediterranean Open Land Huerta -' -. ENCLOSED MEDITERRANEAN HILL COUNTRY Coltura Promiscua .... -. Montado :. .. f.. .,,v' \ '. .J: ' t \ .. . ' -...... ,:.. r . ... . / j .. ENCLOSED MARINE LANDSCAPES WITH HILLS AND VALLEYS Bocage Semi-Bocage Kampen I Figure 17: Agricultural Landscape Types as described by Meeus et al. 31 ,;.

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MOUNTAIN LANDSCAPES Highlands Montages DELTA LANDSCAPES Deltas Figure 17: Agricultural Landscape Types as described by Meeus et al. Besides physical landscape components, culture is a landscape shaper in agricultural landscapes. Marshall an environmentalist and an agro ecologist, points out, "As man-made habitats field margins ma y also have important cultural roles as part of landscape heritage . "2 5 From this view besides as a place for agricultural activities, agricultural landscapes are part of cultural landscapes As cultural landscapes are results of ways of lives, agricultural landscapes have strong indicators for designation of cultural landscapes In the case study area hazelnut is a native crop thus many intangible traditions are particular relevance to hazelnut harvesting ceremonies such 25 Marshall, E. J. P Agricultural Landscapes: Field Margin Habitats and Their Interaction with Crop Production" Journal of Crop Impr o v e m e nt 12 (2004): 365. 32

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as songs. Traditional Landscapes Mottet et al. describe traditional landscapes as "those landscapes have a distinct and recognizable structure which reflects clear relationships between the composing elements and having a significance for natural, cultural and aesthetical values".26 According to this definition, a traditional landscape is showing similar characteristics with a cultural landscape. However, there is a slight difference between traditional and cultural landscapes. A traditional landscape has to have 'universal value' to be designated as a cultural landscape. 27 "Yet, whatever the local value, a potential world heritage site must satisfy the criteria of being of 'universal value' ".28 In this connection, the case study area can be formally designated as a cultural landscape if it is proven a 'universal value'. This study considers of a universal value in Findikli may enable the case study area to be preserved with a proposed cultural landscape management plan that has not been established yet. The criterion, a continuing cultural landscape, which is recognized by UNESCO, could be preliminary guideline for the authorities to develop a cultural landscapes conservation and management plan. 2. Significance of Landscape (Identifying Landscape Significance) ,;(laplace is a .\peci(ic location, a .\pace is a "practiced place". a site activated by movements, actions narratives, and signs, and a landscape is that site encountered as image or 'sight' ''. 29 Identifying landscape significance enables this study to realize the values of Findikli. 26 Mottet, Anne, Sylvie, Ladet Nathalie, Coque and Gibbon Anncik. Agricultural Land-Use change and Its Drivers in Mountain Landscapes: a Case Study in the Pyrenees" Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 114 (2006): 297. 27 Fowler, "World Heritage Papers," 18. 28Ibid. 29 Mitchell, "Landscape and Power ," x. 33

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ese values can be universal, national, or local. ICOMOS states, "Significance: Significance lects the assessment of total value we ascribe to cultural and natural qualities in cultural dscapes, and thus how we evaluate their overall worth to society, to a nation or to local nmunities. Significance may relate to one particular quality or to a collection of several ticular qualities".30 It follows that significance of landscape that is worthy because of local ues may not be significant as for the nation. People are not necessarily aware of their landscape and its changing heritage. Therefore, question in this case is how a traditional landscape can be preserved if people are unable to ntify that landscape as a part of their own history and culture. First, this study is driven by :rception' as residents' awareness of their environment to help them recognize value and nificance of their landscape. Second, what factors are affecting people's perception is driving study to indicate value and significance of landscapes. These two steps enable support ntification of significance of cultural landscapes. Coeterier, a researcher, finds, "the cultural tors that affect cultural perception can be grouped into the following eight categories: unity, physical or abiotic components, naturalness, development of landscape in time, special landscape management, and sensory qualities".31In case of a survey of cultural enities of Findikli, these categories might be beneficial guideline to determine and realize tural values of Findikli. rception Perception is an influential determinant to realize the values of landscapes. Perception ght vary from person to person under any circumstances. Tuan et al. states, "Most people :::OMOS,Definition of Cultural Heritage,(lnternational Council on Monuments and Sites),under "2004, ICOMOS (Cultural Landscapes)" http:/ /cif. icomos.org/pdf docs/Documents%20on%20 line/Heritage%20definitions.pdf ;essed April16, 2013). :oeterier, quoted in Tempesta, "The Perception of Agrarian," 259. 34

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experience landscapes also in a holistic way and integrate what they perceive immediately with what they know and remember. They interpret or 'read' the landscape within their own cultural context",32 and Soovali et al. states, "The perceived landscapes contribute to local or national identity and at the same time landscapes are shaped by ideology and politics".33 By depending on various perspectives for perception, Antrop evaluates perception as an "expression of a dynamic interaction between natural and cultural forces in the environment".34 Landscape perception and landscape preferences are interrelated subjects to identify the landscapes. Kaplan and Kaplan, psychologists, point out that landscape preferences depend on three main themes: Familiarity, or experience, related to geographical circumstances of residence and the effect of direct exposure to an environment; Cultural and ethnic variation, including the question of age and other bases for belonging to a 'subculture'; The effects of formal knowledge and expertise. 35 Deffontaines, Thenail, and Baudry, agro researchers, state how perception depends on knowledge and experience by giving an example: "landscape mosaics and farms are not congruent in space, a single farm may participate with other farms to several landscape units. Ecologists see landscapes through patch mosaic, connectedness, and heterogeneity; agronomists see them as places where activities take place in an ordered manner, from the farmer's point of view".36 As it is stated before, perception varies from person to person, and variables come from 32 Tuan et al., quoted in Antrop, "Why Landscapes," 27. 33 Soovali et al., quoted in Antrop, "Why Landscapes," 27 34 Antrop, quoted in Tempesta, "The Perception of Agrarian," 259. 35 Kaplan and Kaplan, stated in Strumse, Einar. "Demographic Differences in the Visual Preferences for Agrarian Landscapes in Western Norway" Journal of Environmental Psychology 16 ( 1996): 18. 36 Deffontaines et al., "Agricultural Systems and Landscape Patterns," 9. 35

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different backgrounds and professions. Quality of Landscape Qualities of landscape are tools that make people to realize the significance of landscapes, and to identify the landscapes. In other words, the landscape qualities enable people to perceive their landscapes easily. We can divide the quality of landscape into categories such as cultural qualities and environmental qualities. ICOMOS remarks, "Cultural qualities that people attribute to cultural landscapes may change or be re-evaluated in the light of new knowledge or changing value systems. Cultural qualities may be discovered, such as archaeological, associational, scenic or natural qualities, or be created, that is planned or designed. In the latter case, people have sought to introduce new qualities that add value to the landscape. Several qualities may be appreciated in the same landscape."37Professional experts should define the qualities with a multidisciplinary approach to ensure all potential qualities are considered and evaluated. ICOMOS states cultural qualities, such as testimony to a distinctive culture, exemplification of design of landscape elements, expression of aesthetic ideas, ideals, design skills, and association with works of art, literary, pictorial or musical enhance appreciation and understanding of the landscape. 38 These qualities increase the landscape significance. In connection with this, cultural qualities create valuable and authentic landscapes. Identification the Significance of Landscape 37 ICOMOS,Definition of Cultural Heritage,(International Council on Monuments and Sites),under "2004, ICOMOS UK( Cultural Landscapes)" http:/ /cif. icomos.org/pdf_ docs/Documents%20on%20 line/Heritage%20defin itions. pdf (accessed Aprill6, 2013). 38 Ibid. 36

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Identifying the significance of landscape renders them more authentic and distinguished. Otherwise, every landscape might be perceived as identical even if each has unique characteristics. Identification gives variety in landscapes, and makes each landscape special. For example, historic events characterize landscapes, and every landscape has different historical identities. NPS states, "IdentifYing the significant characteristics and features in a landscape and understanding them in relation to each other and to significant historic events, trends, and persons allows us to read the landscape as a cultural resource. In many cases these features are dynamic and change over time. In many cases, too, historical significance may be ascribed to more than one period in a landscape's physical and cultural evolution".39 Not only inherent landscape components but also adventitious events define the significance of landscape. Therefore, the landscape significance should be identified thoroughly. J9National Park Service, NPS-28 Cultural Resource Management Guideline, (National Park Service), under "Management of Cultural Landscapes," http :// www .nps.gov / history / history / online books / nps28 / 28chap7 htm (accessed April 16, 20 13). 37

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CHAPTER3 LANDSCAPE TRANSFORMATION AND LANDSCAPE ALTERATION ''Do we make places, or do they make us?"' "The process olchange is common to all landscapes: day changes to night, autumn to '.Finter andflowers tofruit: there is plant succession, bird migration. wind, rain, .fire andflood; usually there is movement and occasionally there is wildlife. 2 Landscapes are dynamic systems that are reflectors and repository of historical events. Landscapes are both altered by natural impacts and by cultural impacts. For example, while natural disasters are natural landscape shapers, human settlements and their agricultural activities are cultural landscape shapers. The case study area has been changed over time. For example, land-use types have been transformed from one to another due to various reasons, such as culture assimilation, technological developments, new habits and customs, and unexpected events all affect landscapes and form new determinants. Pilbearn, a social scientist, claims, "Humans do not passively adapt to their environments. Evidence dating from prehistoric times suggests that people have been altering the landscape for tens of thousands of years". 3 Besides Pilbearn's statement, Balling and Falk, research psychologists, state, "Although there are many reasons for these changes, usually related to some type of agricultural, industrial, commercial, residential, or recreational development, the rate of alteration has been accelerating dramatically". 4 In the case study area, the reason for the landscape alteration is way of life via agricultural and technological developments. Traditional 1 Mitchell," Landscape and Power," xii. 2 Hull, R. Bruce and Michael M. McCarthy. "Change in the Landscape" Landscape and Urban Planning IS (1988): 265. Alteration is an inevitable circumstance as it occurs inherently in nature. 3 Pilbearn, quoted in Balling, John D. and John H. Falk. "Development of Visual Preference for Natural Environments." Environment and Behavior 14 (1982): 5. 4 Balling and Falk, "Development of Visual Preference," 5. 38

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life style depends on agricultural activities m Findikli. Any change in agriculture, such as method, product, influences way of life directly. For example, before agricultural machinery in hazelnut harvesting, people used to have traditional harvesting ceremonies took one week However, as it saves time, people prefer to use special machines to harvest hazelnut in one day. Humans alter or shape landscapes around them to be adapted to their environment. Human needs are determinants for creating land-use areas. For example, to settle in a place they build dwellings, to meet food they build farmlands. Over time, as human needs might change the landuse areas and patterns of habitation transform. For instance, driving cars entail parking lots, and this causes open areas to be transformed to parking lots. Antrop, a geographer, says that people needs shape landscapes, and this is interaction between nature and culture. He points out, "New elements and structures are introduced which look alike everywhere. Landscapes always change because they are the expression of the dynamic interaction between natural and cultural forces in the environment".5 Tempesta, a professor in the department of land and agro-forestry, claims, "Transformation of the environment is one of the processes through which a social group tries to proclaim its identity". 6 From this point of view both environmental transformation and landscape transformation is meeting up at one point that includes integration of natural and cultural components that reflect landscape identity. For Findikli, a blend of nature and culture resulted as an agricultural landscape in terms of their historic landscape identity. Even though a landscape has been changed, there is something that remams which reminds people about what was there before the alterations. If there is a land-use change, it might mean there is a new regulation that is more appropriate than the previous one. Why new 5 Antrop, "Why landscapes," 22. 6 Tempesta, "The Perception of Agrarian Historical Landscapes," 259. 39

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regulation is needed and who decides this transformation is drawing this study to point out how to analyze landscapes under any alteration. As Anne Spirn, a professor of landscape architecture and planning, notes, "Landscapes were the first human texts, read before the invention of other signs and symbols".7 For example, tree rings and Earth layers are witness of alteration as they have marks of all history. Antrop, a geographer, states, "During a lifetime one's physical appearance changes a lot. However, it is still easy to recognize the identity and character of a person one once knew, even after a long time and many physical changes. This illustrates the holistic coherence of a person and the continuity of his personality. Sometimes changes, physical or mental, can be so great that recognition becomes difficult, or even that one's personality is lost". 8 Therefore, even though everything is constantly changing in landscape, there is something reminds its origin. This is what makes it resonate with a person over time. One of the interviewees in Findikli told me that one thing was remained was the mountains. The scenery of mountains has been same, even if landscape patterns have been changed and the appearance somewhat altered. While some landscapes are very prone to be altered or transformed to new usage, other landscapes are very sensitive and they tend to be fragile. Based on this idea, Meeus et al. stresses the importance of setting up a typology of landscape, in case study area, Europe arguing that "Some landscapes are capable of assimilating changes without becoming unstable in an ecological or an economical sense, but others are so fragile that the slightest change in use or management would threaten their very existence. It is essential, therefore, to set up a typology of the wide variety of landscapes in Europe".9 For instance Findikli's topography has been a dominant determinant for land-use planning. As Findikli is located in very mountainous area, flat 7Spirn, Anne, The Language of Landscape. Yale University Press, 1998: 15. 8 Antrop, "Why landscapes," 27. 9 Meeus, et al. Agricultural Landscapes," 293. 40

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areas are very limited. In order to build houses, people prefer to use the flat areas for dwelling units. When there is lack of flat areas, people intend to adjust their buildings rather than to grade lands. When Hull and Mcharty, environmental psychologists, define landscape change, they point out a correlation basis of change; "A change in scenic beauty can occur due to a change in the landscape and/or due to a change in the observer of the landscape".10 The authors also categorize change based on time and predictability. According to their perspective, "There are changes which occur slowly and are often difficult to perceive ... There are sudden changes ... There are regular changes in the landscape, which occur at predictable intervals ... Similarly there are changes, which occur frequently such as the presence of wildlife ... Similarly there are changes, which occur infrequently such as fire, flood and housing developments ... ". 11 Hull and Mcharty also point out how long change exits in landscapes. Therefore, they investigate change duration in three categories; ... long duration whose scenic impacts may persist for several years or several generations, such as buildings, roads, certain vegetative growth and landscape modifications due to "natural disasters" such as volcanoes, large fires and floods .. medium duration such as the seasons, small tires, small floods and the harvesting of trees .. ephemeral changes in landscapes. These changes may be irregular, occasional or periodic: they usually last only briefly but nonetheless may alter scenic quality (e.g. wildlife. weather, or if hiking, evidence of other hikers)".12 When viewed from this aspect, there have occurred frequently changes in long duration in the case study area, Findikli. To analyze the transformation/change in the landscape Marcus Nusser, a geographer, 10 Hull, R. Bruce and Michael M. McCarthy. "Change in the Landscape" Landscape and Urban Planning 15 ( 1988): 266. II Ibid. 12 Ibid. 41

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compare photographs of the same landscape taken in different periods. By doing so, he discerns variations in land cover and land-use change.13 For example, he contextualized the photographs as interpretations, and made clear to show the transformation in fifty-eight years. Two photographs and their interpretations below show how much landscape changed from 193 7 to 1995 (Figure 18 and Figure 19). Figure 18: Photographs of cultivated fields of Harchu and Luskum, Astor Valley (the left taken by C. Troll in 31 May 1937; the right taken by M. Nusser in 6 September 1995) .. .-. .. .. . . . : . .. . . .... .: o ', o ; t f I ,.,..,. : .. . ... ;, .. ., .. . .... ,.. ... .cl.. lr; .,_ . : . .... .. ' .. . -.(. ....... .. t .k Figure 19: Interpretations of Photographs of the same landscape pol As a conclusion Nusser articulates, "The matched pairs of photographs presented reveal that 13 Nusser, Marcus." Change and Persistence: Contemporary Landscape Transformation in the Nanga Parbat Region, Northern Pakistan" Mountain Research and Development 20 (2000): 352. 42

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the extent of land-use and land cover change in the valleys of Nanga Parbat varies greatly. This calls for a research perspective that takes into account environmental resources as well as historical processes and socioeconomic aspects of land-use systems".14 Further, he emphasizes that change reflects on general population growth and the expansion of settlements. Meeus et al. stress that change in technology, industry or other components can cause change in landscapes, stating, "Dynamic agricultural landscapes are a result of rapid technological change, high production increases and shrinking commodity markets; standstill means decline". 15 Moreira et al. indicate landscape change, particularly on agricultural landscapes, has variables that are related to each other.16 The rapid changes m the Findikli's landscapes are results of agricultural and technological developments. To eliminate negative impacts of the landscape change, Findikli should have a land-use management and conservation plan. 14 Nusser," Change and Persistence," 353. 15 Meeus, et al.," Agricultural Landscapes," 293. 16 Moreira, Fracisco, Francisco C. Rego and Paulo G. Ferreira. "Temporal (1958-1995) Pattern of Change in A 1 Cultural Landscape of Northwestern Portugal: Implications for Fire Occurrence" Landscape Ecology 10 (2001): 559. 43

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CHAPTER4 LANDSCAPE CONSERVATION AND LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT 1. Land-use Landscape transformation IS an inevitable result m continuing landscapes. Transformations have both positive and negative impacts in landscapes. Therefore, appropriate landscape management plans might repair the negative consequences in landscapes. Moreover, to be cautious about any unexpected negative changes, proper landscape conservation plans should be developed. Antrop states, "Landscapes of the past can not be brought back, but ways how valuable elements and areas can be preserved and become embedded functionally in the modem urbanized and globalized society must be studied".1 As Antrop emphasizes the necessity of landscape conservation studies, landscapes of the past guide us to promote current landscapes for future, ... past cultural landscapes can teach us are examined, as guidelines for the building of future landscapes". 2 Referencing the European Landscape Convention's goal regarding landscape protection, management and planning Antrop notes, "The European Landscape Convention essentially aims to bridge the past with future landscapes, but it is not very specific how to proceed".3 This lack of specificity for how to proceed reflects the different backgrounds of each landscape. As each landscape has own characteristics ranging from cultural to ecological there would not be one sample landscape conservation and management plan that serves all kinds 1 of landscapes. To develop an optimum landscape conservation plan for a particular landscape, first it should be known how that landscape is organized for different uses. Based on current 1 Antrop, "Why landscapes," 32. 2 Ibid, 22. Ibid, 23. 44

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scholarship there is variety of frameworks to approach this and to tend the appropriate measures. Balling and Falk, research psychologists, state, "Land-use management strategies must begin with the vegetation that naturally occurs".4 They claim that existing vegetation should guide people to establish new uses in the landscapes. For example, according to this point of view clear-cutting is not an appropriate way to determine land-use areas. However, people, who earn money through agriculture in rural areas tend to clear-cut to gain spaces for agricultural activities, such as has occurred in the case study area of Findikli. Baudry and Thenail, agro researchers, define land-use types by entirely considering a riparian case study area,"(!) riparian/non-riparian, (2) hydromorphic, (3) distance to farm, (4) field size, (5) farm type, and (6) site".5 On the other hand, Mottet et al. describe land-use types for agricultural areas specifically as shown in Table 5. 6 Meeus et al. point out not only agriculture but also geomorphological elements forms landscapes. They state, "We have seen that agricultural land-use helps in forming the landscape, but it is not the sole factor; geomorphological elements such as rivers, lakes and mountains dominate m many places. Moreover, agriculture is no longer the only factor that determines land-use".7 From this point, even if agriculture is the big landscape shaper in the case study area, it is not the sole factor to determine land-use. Natural components, such as rivers, mountains, are indicative landscape elements for landscape management plans. and Falk. '"Development of Visual Preference,"' 7. 5 Baudry, Jacques and Claudine Thenail. "Interaction Between Farming Systems, Riparian Zones, and Landscape Patterns: A Case Study in Western France" Landscape and Urban Planning 67 (2004): 123. 6 Mottet et al., ""Aericultural Land-use chanee."' 299. 7 Meeus, et al.. .. t\gricultural Landscapes,"' 45

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ble 5: Description of the agricultural land-use types considered in the study (Mottet et al.) Land-use Types Description 1. Cropland Cultivated land for cereals or fodder crops 2. Meadows Grassland for hay making, may be grazed as well 3. Pasture Grassland for grazing but no hay making 4. Abandoned Land previously used for agriculture without any agricultural function today 5. Woodland Woodland-used for firewood and/or timber Marshall supports Meeus et al., "The landscape is never given over totally to agriculture any single land-use. Depending on climate, terrain and population, there are usually areas of Ltercourse, woodland, road verge or other semi-natural habitats that are less exploited. The ctaposition of land-uses, particularly farmed areas and natural habitat, form mosaics in the tdscape". 8 To understand the relationship between landscape patterns and agriculture practices, a )per way is to characterize production systems and land-use types and consider factors of tere fields are located.9 The role of agriculture in land-use versus landscape patterns shows the Lgmentation of rural settlement. larshall, "Agricultural Landscapes: Field Margin,'' 370. 'effontaines, Thenail, and Baudry, "How can we build," 7. 46

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2) Landscape Conservation Technological development and changing socio-cultural aspects affect landscapes both negatively and positively. UNESCO states, "... landscapes are increasingly threatened by changing technologies, an understanding of their perception by the various people associated with them will aid in the development of programs for their conservation and integration into broad patterns of use".10 The necessity of landscape conservation takes place due to negative influence of technology and socio-cultural assimilation upon landscapes. Landscape conservation aims to cover whole approaches regarding the landscape such as ecology, culture, and economy. Naveh, an ecologist, suggests that, "The conservation and restoration of biological and cultural diversity, the richness of our natural and cultural landscapes, and their ecological integrity and health will be among the most relevant expressions of this symbiotic partnership. They could therefore play a vital role in this cultural evolutionary process".11 Naveh claims that protection of traditional landscapes and land-use enables biological diversity to be maintained (Naveh 1998). Landscape conservation in Findikli' s rural areas is particularly related to agricultural landscape conservation as people earn their livings via agriculture. Regarding why agricultural landscape is valuable and should be conserved John Benson, a philosopher, explains, "Agricultural land is valued for both instrumental and non-instrumental reasons. It is land that is cultivated to serve essential human needs. It is also valued for its beauty and for its scientific and historical interest. Changes in the use of land brought about for reasons of utility may threaten 1 10 UNESCO, quoted in Zube and Pitt, "Cross-Cultural Perceptions," 71. 11 Naveh, "Ecological and Cultural Landscape," 135. 47

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other values, aesthetic, ecological or historical". 12 As stated by Benson, if an agricultural landscape is under a protection plan, this plan should have regulations for not only agricultural value but also cultural, historical, and ecological values. Meeus et al. discuss how landscape preservation can be optimized in their article, Agricultural Landscapes in Europe and Their Transformation". To promote landscape preservation they arranged four main objectives in the following order: nature and landscape preservation, the promotion of regions, the sustainable use of natural resources, and agricultural production. They claim, "The landscape is a public property which must not be allowed to fall into neglect as a result of agricultural production and other damaging forms of land-use".13 Measurements and instruments of Meeus et al. 's optimized landscape preservation include the implementation of statutory laws, the setting up of regulations and budgets at an adequate level, financial support of farmers, and creating buffer zones between natural landscape and cultivated landscape by planting. Antrop, a geographer, states in his article six strategies for agriculture to maintain cultural landscape values formulated by Austad, a landscape ecologist. "First, in the best-maintained and most 'authentic' cultural landscapes, semi-natural vegetation types should be protected and preserved, as traditional agricultural systems are valuable because they had been sustainable for centuries and can be models for the future. Second, revitalization and intensification of the outfields and low-intensity farming systems should be stimulated. Third, more incentives and substantial financial support are needed for farming that maintains biological-historical values. Fourth, organic farming and agro-forestry should be encouraged. Fifth, local knowledge and traditions should be combined with concepts of landscape ecology to develop 'new' cultural landscapes and agro-systems. Sixth, more research is needed on traditional sustainable Benson, "Aesthetic and Other Values in the Rural Landscape," 233. "Meeus et al., "Agricultural Landscapes," 344. 48

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agriculture as well as more applications of its results" .14 3) Landscape Management and Sustainability "Look back to look forward" Paul H. Gobster, a social scientist, argues that sustainability is a link between maintaining ecological structure and preserving ecological communities.15 However, landscape sustainability covers not only ecology but also social and cultural components in landscape. Meeus et al. discuss how landscape sustainability can be optimized particularly for agricultural landscapes by arranging four main objectives in the following order; the sustainable use of natural resources, agricultural production, nature and landscape preservation, the promotion of regions.16 They propose measures and instruments to promote landscape sustainability in following order: a) The application of the latest innovations in technological know-how in order to achieve a high level of efficiency and production, combined with the sustained use of natural resources. b) The replacement of the use of pesticides by biological pest control. c) The re-cycling of waste products, manure, polluted water. d) Integrated quantitative and qualitative water control. e) An effective implementation of legislation banning the use of certain chemicals, forbidding the disposal of untreated waste, etc. f) The subsidizing of antipollution devices and measures. 14 Antrop, "Why Landscapes," 32. 15 Ibid. 16 Ibid. 49

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g) The setting up of monitoring systems that gives an early warning of pollution, erosion and other threats. h) The stimulation of scientific research in such areas as new and "clean" sources of energy, in bioecology, in bioengineering. i) The application of instruments enabling supranational and national governments and regional authorities to actively engage in reconstruction and reconsolidation programs. j) The implementation of landscape plans establishing new frameworks that connect elements and zones of high stability and envelop the more dynamically d 17 pro uct1ve areas. Landscape alteration is inevitable however it is manageable. An appropriate landscape management plan might provide landscape sustainability even if there is landscape alteration. If landscape management plan strategies fall into two timelines as a short-term and a long-term, then these management plans would be more effective. Controlling landscape changes is a part of landscape management. To apply lessons from past help to build the future landscapes, Antrop states three objectives for better landscape management: 1) Materiality: landscapes are perceived with all our senses, which makes them tangible 2) Landscape is used as container for a large variety of artifacts and gives them a 117 Meeus et al., "Agricultural Landscapes," 346. so

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broader context and hence enhances their singular values. 3) Stability: landscape is the most fixed, immovable phenomenon in our environment. This quality makes landscape feeling like secure and reliable.18 4) Future Demands and Needs ... any landscape is composed not only of what lies before our eyes but what lies within our heads ".19 As landscape change will continue, future demands and needs should be anticipated while landscape management strategies are being constituted. Some particular values might loose their significance in future, even though they are valuable for current circumstances. Antrop asks how these values can become integrated with the future demands and needs of society. He seeks the answer in his study of agrarian landscapes of continental Europe. The growth of infrastructures and functional urbanization, urban sprawl, specific tourist and recreational forms, and the extensification of land-use and land abandonment are consequences of people demands and needs.20 Looking at current and past affiliations and their differentiation over time would help anticipate future demands and needs. Future demands and needs might be anticipated existing spatial relationships. Antrop states that these relationships are based on where people present. For example, home-work relationships, central place relationships, relationships between metropolitan areas and urban centers, and relationships between rural and urban enterprises define people's needs and demands. 18 Antrop, "Why Landscapes," 32. 1 19 Meinig, "The Beholding Eye," 7. 20 Antrop, ''Why landscapes.'' 30. 51

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CHAPTERS THE CASE STUDY AREA: FINDIKLI-RIZEffURKEY 1. Landscape Types in Findikli Based on UNESCO criteria, Findikli could be a sample of a continuing landscape, "which retains an active social role in contemporary society closely associated with a traditional way of life. It is continuing to evolve while, at the same time, it exhibits significant material evidence of its historic evolution".1 However, even though Findikli is rich with its traditions and unique culture, Findikli could loose its heritage in future because of inaccurate agriculture practices and management policies. Furthermore, sustainability of landscapes and local economy could be threatened. Therefore, it is very important to designate landscapes in Findikli and to take appropriate measures to insure Findikli's cultural heritage. According to the NPS cultural landscape definition Findikli could be considered as a historic vernacular landscape, "that evolved through uses by the people whose activities or occupancy shaped it. Through social or cultural attitudes of an individual, a family, or a community, the landscape reflects the physical, biological, and cultural character of everyday lives. Function plays a significant role in vernacular landscapes. This can be a farm complex or a district of historic farmsteads along a river valley. Examples include rural historic districts and agriculturallandscapes".2 As it has been stated in Chapter 2, Findikli has had its own traditional way of life, which might have been shaping Findikli's landscapes as cultural landscapes that has been threatened by the contemporary society not associated with its traditional way of life. Therefore, Findikli cannot provide the requirements to be designated as a cultural landscape for 1 Fowler, "World Heritage Papers," 19 2 National Park Service, NPS-28 Cultural Resource Management Guideline, (National Park Service), under "Management of Cultural Landscapes," http:/ /www.nps.gov/history/history/online books/nps28/28chap7 .htm (accessed April 16, 2013). 52

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both UNESCO and NPS. However, Findikli has still hidden significant material evidence of its historic evolution, which might make Findikli's landscapes as cultural landscapes, and it might become apparent when Findikli turns back its traditional way of life. As supported by oral history and site visits, Findikli might be considered as a cultural landscape, likely described by UNESCO and NPS, when traditional way of life is reintroduced to local people to regain autochthonous sustainable landscapes. What kinds of features could make Findikli as a cultural landscape are strong cultural and natural features, such as ethnicity, local traditions, and water resources. Furthermore, mountains are habitats for a plenty of endemic plant species and wild life. As historical features, Findikli bore witness to an age and had a strategic place for its nation. There are plenty of houses that were built in vernacular architecture style, which is unique, under protection of Cultural Ministry (Figure 20). Figure 20: A sample of vernacular architecture. Traditional House, called 'Dolmatas Ev' (Photograph on the left taken by Niyazi Alisan 2004; Photograph on the right taken by Seda Demir 2012) "Landscapes are the product of the interaction between human management and nature. We speak of cultural landscapes when management is manifest and the interaction of such factors as soil conditions, elevation, use, management and history are visible in the landscape 53

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and are expressed in its form and layout".3 Landscapes in Findikli show various features of natural landscape, rural landscape, agricultural landscape and traditional landscape. However, as cultural landscape is a combination of all these landscape types, this study is seeking for whether Findikli has cultural landscape components to identify Findikli as a cultural landscape. Agricultural landscapes are dominant in Findikli (Figure 21 ). According to Meeus et al. categorization, Findikli is a good example for mountain landscapes. Figure 21: Findikli has characteristics of mountain landscapes (Photograph on the left taken by Niyazi Alisan 2006; Photograph on the right taken by Aylin Alisan 2012) To determine the case study area as a what kind of agricultural landscape, there are typology factors stated by Meeus et al. as stated in Chapter 2. In this chapter, Table 6 shows as modified for Findikli. This table gives the initial information about the case study area land-use determinants. 3 Meeus et al., ''Agricultural Landscapes," 293. 54

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Table 6: Agricultural Landscape Typology Factors4 modified for Findikli Typology Factor Findikli The size and shape of parcels of land Agricultural products, tea, hazelnut, kiwi and corn shape farmlands. The layout of farm yards Dwelling units are close to vineyards and orchards. Most of farmlands are located on mountain slopes. The type of crops Farmlands, tea, hazelnut, kiwi, corn. Vineyards and orchards, vegetable, fruit. Soil and topography Fertile soil for all products. Topography is workable for tea. Climatic factors Rainy and cloudy Altitude and gradient Workable for tea. Danger of erosion Land ownership or lease Owners are local people; workers are foreign people. The degree of enclosure Visual and ecological aspects. Mountains, rivers are borders. The historical origins Cultural factors, ethnicity, Dominance of Lazuri people . 2. Sagmficance of Landscapes m Fmdakla "Cultural landscapes are the result of consecutive reorganizations of the land in order to adapt its use and spatial structure better to changing societal demands "5 Kaplan and Kaplan point out that landscape preferences depend on three main themes in the following order: 4 Meeus et al., "Agricultural Landscapes," 293. 5 Antrop, "Why landscapes," 21. 55

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Familiarity, or experience, related to geographical circumstances of residence and the effect of direct exposure to an environment; Cultural and ethnic variation, including the question of age and other bases for belonging to a 'subculture'; The effects of formal knowledge and expertise. 6 These main themes explain why a landscape is very important for people who live in the particular landscape. People's rationality, their experience and memories are tying them with their realm. Oral history interviews are approving how much important is being loyal to Findikli for people living there. To determine the significance of landscapes in Findikli, it would be more understanding to approach different scales in the following; international scale, national scale, regional scale and local scale. From small scale to big scale, it is very obvious that Findikli is very important for people in local scale as they are belong to it, thus there has not to find a reason to say Findikli is significant. On the other hand, in regional scale to indicate the significance there should be tangible features. Findikli is the one town in where hazelnut is growing in its region. Fish (trout) farms enable Findikli to be recognized by people living in out of Findikli (See Appendix A,B and C for current regulations and policies in Turkey). The significance of Findikli in international scale is that Findikli is one of locations of natural protected area, endemic species and sensitive ecosystems on behalf of Turkey (Figures 22 and 23). 6 Kaplan and Kaplan, quoted in Strumse, "Demographic Differences in the Visual Preferences," 18. 56

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Figure 22: Key Biodiversity Areas designated by IUCN (Image created by Aylin Alisan 2012) r FINDIKLI r WETl.ANDSOFRAMSAR e WETl...ANDS OF WORLD WILDLIFE FUNO BASIN //'"'RIVERS Figure 23: Water Sources in Turkey. Wetlands designated by RAMSAR and WILDLIFE FUND (Image created by Aylin Alisan 2012) Turkey not only has designated natural heritage sites but also has designated cultural heritage sites in World Heritage List in international scale (Figure 24). Further, there are plenty of sites as suggested tentative world heritage (Figure 25). 57

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Figure 24: World Heritage Sites designated by UNESCO (Image created by Aylin Alisan 2012) Figure 25: World Heritage Tentative Sites designated by UNESCO (Image created by Aylin Ali san 20 12) The significance of Findikli in national scale IS that Findikli is very close the protected zones designated by The Turkish Government (Figures 26, 27, and 28). 58

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.... 0 WILDLIFE PROTECTION ZONES Figure 26: Wildlife Protection Zones designated by The Turkish Government (Image created by Aylin Alisan 2012) NATIONALPARKS Figure 27: National Parks designated by The Turkish Government (Image created by Aylin Ali san 20 12) 59

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SPECIAL PROTECTION ZONES Figure 28: Special Protected Zones designated by The Turkish Government (Image created by Aylin Alisan 2012) In addition to tangible heritage as mentioned above, there are plenty of intangible heritage that make Findikli significant first in local and regional scales, yet it might get more attention as much as recognized by national and international authorities To analyze the cultural qualities of Findikli, a list as stated in Chapter 2 created by Jokilehto is used as a guideline for this study. The following list shows both the general statements and examples of Findikli. Cultural Qualities7 1 Testimony to a distinctive culture, its way of life or its artifact's, which may be archaic or modem-through evidence that may be visible or invisible. Example: Distinctive culture between Lazuri people and Turkish people. Different languages. Alteration of way of life (Figures 29 and 30). Alteration of architecture style (Figure 31 ) 7ICOMOS,Definition of Cultural Heritage,(lnternational Council on Monuments and Sites),under "2004, ICOMOS UK( Cultural Landscapes)" http://cif.icomos.org/pdf_ docs / Documents%20on%20line / Heritage%20definitions.pdf (accessed April 16, 2013). 60

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t"i C I!HHC[ NililiY t e l N i tJiff A(. !9/.i L _AZURI TYRANS BYZANTINE HEM SIN OTTOMAN RUSSIAN END OF TURKISH PROVINCE O F PROVINCE O F l HAZELNUT PfK>DUC TI O N EMPIRE INVASION WWl REBUPLIC CITY OF ARTVIN CITY OF RIZE j A.C 16T H CENTLRY i 773 CORN PRODUCTION HAZELNU T lRADE A .G I TEA Pf
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2. Exemplification of skill and scale in the design and construction of landscape elements, through for instance a reflection of technologies or particular social organization. Example: 'Serender' is a vernacular storage. It was invented by native builders for com, hazelnut and winter food protection (Figure 32) . -!It .. Figure 32: S e r e nder (Photograph on the left taken by Niyazi Alisan 2004; Photograph on the right taken by Ay lin Ali san 201 0) 3. Expression of aesthetic ideas/ideals/design skills Example: As water sources ubiquitous in Findikli, people aesthetically built fountains on the edge of roads (Figure 33); to cross the rivers they built unique bridges (Figure 34). Figure 33: Fountain and Figure 34: Stone Bridge (Photographs by Umut Boran 2012) 62

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Association with works of art, literary, pictorial or musical, that enhance appreciation and understanding of the landscape There is a local instrument made of native trees in Findikli. Who heard its sound knows it is coming from East Black Sea Region (Figure 35). gure 35: A Lazuri man (Cengiz Cengiz) is playing 'Kemence ', which is created by Cengiz mgiz (Photograph by Seda Demir 20 12) 3. Landscape Transformation and Alteration in Findikli As every landscape is changed over time, landscapes in Findikli have been changed. The lestion should be asked here what kind of change has occurred in Findikli. Based on terviewees' memories and experience, Findikli is an agricultural town. Throughout history ndikli's people have produced innumerable traditions. These traditions are regarding to both 11gible culture, such as agriculture practices, way of life, architecture, transportation networks, .d intangible culture, such as folk dance, music, literature. However, development of 63

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technology and contemporary life style caused these traditions be endangered. Rising generation prefers easy ways to get more money and to get benefit from technology. I interviewed with old people in Findikli to realize difference between past and present in a bigger time period. All interviewees told me that they missed old times. All of them would prefer to live like old times. They were not pleased to witness the alteration in Findikli. Niyazi Dede, one of the interviewees, told, We used to have self-sufficient life. We used to produce what we need by ourselves. We were not destitute people. We did not care money, because we had what we need. What could we have purchased? Money was nonentity. Human was jewel! Good neighbor relations, social cooperation, and sincerity were jewel! Now it is vice versa". With reference to oral history, Findikli has been transformed from traditional life to contemporary life entirely. In other words, landscapes have been transformed based on land uses; social life has been transformed based on impacts of technology and economy. Hull and Mcharty define change types; as time rate; slow change or sudden change, as predictability regular change, frequent change, or infrequent change, as period; long duration change, medium duration change or ephemeral change. This study is focused on 'time rate change' according to witnesses' memories and experience. Memories and experience show that there are six relatively big events that lead to change in Findikli. The most influential is 'tea production'. Respectively Chernobyl Disaster, hydroelectric power plants, Black Sea Coastal Highway, agricultural machinery and brainpower migration follow tea production. 64

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The Impacts o[Tea Production on Landscape Transformation in Findikli Table 7 shows in what areas tea production is influential negatively. Table 7: The Negative Impacts of Tea Production on Landscape Transformation in Findikli TEA NEGATIVE IMPACTS 1) ECOLOGICAL A. USAGE OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZER a) SOIL POLLUTION b) DECREASE OF SOIL PRODUCTIVITY c) UNDERGROUND WATER POLLUTION B. TEA FACTORIES a) AIR POLLUTION b) WATER POLLUTION C. TEA PLANT a) DAMAGE OF GEOMORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE-NOT ELIGIBLE TO KEEP WATER ON THE SURF ACE b) LOSS OF DIVERSITY OF PLANTSDOMINANT PLANT c) LOSS OF HABITAT OF FAUNACLEAR CUT I 2) SOCIAL & CULTURAL A. LOSS OF TRADITIONAL SETTLEMENT LAYOUTVERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE SHIFTTANGIBLE CULTURE B. LOSS OF TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURAL PRACTICESHARVESTING CEREMONIES INTANGIBLE CULTURE 3) ECONOMICAL A. UNEMPLOYMENTEFFORTLESS B. MONOPOLIZATION IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIONLOSS OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, APICULTURE, FORESTRY With respect to evaluations, the negative results are: As negative impacts in ecology, soil quality deprived because of chemical fertilizer. In past, turd was used as fertilizer. Findikli had sufficient amount grazing lands available, thus animal husbandry was well developed. Farmers used to use animals' droppings. Because of chemical fertilizer underground water is polluted. To create tea from raw material, tea factories established. However, they are unfiltered, thus air is polluted. To build much more tea gardens, farmers did clear-cut, habitats of wild life and endemic 65

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species are damaged. Tea plant as its physiology is not eligible to keep water on the ground, thus rain water seeped into the underground and made a big lake in time. Geomorphological structure is deteriorated. As tea is a foreign farm plant, traditional agriculture practices did not work for its method. Harvesting ceremonies and socio-cultural traditions do not exist any more. Each family is taking care of their own farmlands individually (Figure 36). Figure 36: After tealeaves picked, they are taken to tea factory on same day, thus for tea production storage is not necessary (Photogrpah taken by Aylin Alisan 2012) Tea production is effortless, thus labor power is reduced. Unemployment has appeared for last two decades. Tea gardens have occupied other agricultural products' land. Traditional settlement lost its unique pattern in time. 'Natural refrigerator' as called 'serender' was using for storage of corn and hazelnut. Serender is a unique sample of vernacular architecture, however people do not need it anymore (Figure 37). 66

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Figure 37: Serender has been replaced with temporary concrete storage as a tea delivery point (Photograph taken by Bilgehan Kadioglu 20 12) Tea production has become the primary agriculture as mono agriculture; hence diversity of agricultural products decreased a certain amount. Unplanned land-use has caused excessive tea gardens, thus animal husbandry is just for family needs as grazing lands were reduced. The Negative Impacts o(Chernobyl Disaster on Landscape Transformation in Findikli Table 8 shows in what areas Chernobyl Disaster is influential negatively. Table 8: The Negative Impacts of Chernobyl Disaster on Landscape Transformation in Findikli CHERNOBYL DISASTER NEGATIVE IMPACTS 1) ECOLOGICAL A. SOIL RADIATED B. WATERRADIATED C. PLANTS RADIATED 2) ECONOMICAL A. FAILURE OF TEA PRODUCTION MARKETRADIATED TEA B. LOSS OF RELIABILITY OF TEA COMPANIES 3) AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION A. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY B. APICULTURE C. AQUACULTURE 4) PUBLIC HEALTH A. INCREASE CANCER CASES IN THE REGION With respect to evaluations, the negative results are: 67

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The Chernobyl disaster was a catastrophic nuclear accident that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chemobyl Nuclear Power Plant in current Ukrainian territory A big explosion and fire released large quantities of radioactive particles into the atmosphere, which spread over much of Western Russia Europe and Black Sea coasts. Therefore Findikli was affected negatively by this disaster. The worst damage was on ecosystem in Findikli. Soil water plants was radiated. Although it happened twenty-seven years ago there are still negative ecological effects (Figure 38) Figure 38: Farmers are struggling butterflies that are unknown from where they come. Interviewees think that these are results of Chemobyl disaster (Photographs by A y lin Alisan 2012) At time of the explosion, tea production was interrupted as teal eaves were radiated. Since the explosion, cancer cases have been increased particularly in Black Sea Region. 68

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The Negative Impacts o[hydroelectric power plants on Landscape Transformation in Findikli Table 9 shows in what areas hydroelectric power plants are influential negatively. Table 9: The Negative Impacts of hydroelectric power plants on Landscape Transformation in Findikli HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT NEGATIVE IMP ACTS 1) ECOLOGICAL A. CONSTRUCTION a) SOIL POLLUTION b) DAMAGE GEOMORPHOLOGYSOIL STABILIZATION ISSUES c) WATER POLLUTION d) CHANNELIZING RIVER-ENDANGERED FISH SPECIESCLOG NESTS e) LIMITED WATER FLOWIRRIGATION ISSUES t) LACK OF WATER-DAMAGE HABITATS OF ANIMALS g) LOSS OF HABITAT OF FAUNACLEAR CUT 2) SOCIAL & CULTURAL A. CHANNELIZING RIVER-OBSTACLE FOR PEOPLE TO REACH TO RIVERSIDE B. RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIESAFTER WORK NO SWIMMING PARTIESINTANGIBLE CULTURE With respect to evaluations, the negative results are: Hydroelectric power plants have more disadvantages than advantages. This study is mostly based on oral history source, thus the results of the negative effects are regarding to social life, economic life and natural sources. Hydroelectric power plant is the major threat for social landscapes in Findikli (Figures 39, 40). 69

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Figure 39: Arili River is not under construction of hydroelectric power plant (Photographs by Erkan Ali san 20 1 1) Figure 40 : Sumer River is under construction of hydroelectric power plant (Photographs by A y lin Alisan 2012) People of Findikli learn swimming on the rivers (Figure 41 ). Rivers are not only primary water source but also recreation source. People used to socialize by swimming together after work. However, hydroelectric power plants are building walls between people and rivers 70

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Figure 41: Swimming in the river (Photographs by Mehmet Gurkan 1970) These walls are barriers not only for people but also for fish, livestock. For example, as walls prevent endemic fish species to leave eggs to the fish nests, fish species are endangered. Hydroelectric power plants create a concrete eyesore by channelizing rivers in rural landscapes of Findikli (Figure 42). Figure 42: Concrete eyesore due to hydroelectric power plant channels (Photographs by Aylin Ali san 20 12) 71

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The Negative Impacts o(Black Sea Coastal Highway on Landscape Transformation in Findikli Table 10 shows in what areas Black Sea Coastal Highway is influential negatively. Table 10: The Negative Impacts of Black Sea Coastal Highway on Landscape Transformation in Findikli BLACK SEA COASTAL HIGHWAY NEGATIVE IMP ACTS 1) ECOLOGICAL A. CONSTRUCTION a) DAMAGE GEOMORPHOLOGYSOIL STABILIZATION ISSUES b) WATER POLLUTION c) AS A BARRIER BETWEEN RIVERS AND SEA-ENDANGERED FISH SPECIESCLOG NESTS 2) SOCIAL & CULTURAL A. AS A BARRIER BETWEEN PEOPLE AND SEA-ACCESSIBILITY ISSUES 3) LIMITED AQUACULTURE With respect to evaluations, the negative results are: Coastal problems such as erosion, beach access, pollution, removal of sand from beaches, and decreasing seafood harvests have taken place in Findikli. Highway was built by filling the seacoast, thus when rains it has been collapsed into the sea (Figure 43). Figure 43: Black Sea Coastal Highway was collapsed into the sea due to heavy rainfall (Photograph (left) from http://www .farklihaber8.com/haber/ guncel/kadareniz-sahil yolucoktu/15298.aspx. Photo (right) from http://www.haberler.com/hopa-sarp-karadeniz-sahil yolu-coktu-3318504-haberi/. Accessed April15, 2013). 72

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The Impacts o(Agricultural Machinery, Television and Internet on Landscape Transformation in Findikli Table 11 shows m what areas agricultural machinery, television and Internet are influential negatively. Table 11: The impacts of Agricultural Machinery, Television and Internet on Landscape Transformation in Findikli TV -INTERNET-AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY NEGATIVE IMP ACTS 1) SOCIAL & CULTURAL A. LOSS OF TRADITIONAL SETTLEMENT LAYOUT-VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE SHIFTTANGIBLE CULTURE B. LOSS OF TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURAL PRACTICESHARVESTING CEREMONIES INTANGIBLE CULTURE 2) ECONOMICAL A. UNEMPLOYMENTEFFORTLESS With respect to evaluations, the negative results are: Agricultural machinery caused unemployment as human labor replaced with machine power (Figure 44 ). -' Figure 44: Before technology there was not a transportation network in Findikli. People used to carry not only their crops but also their construction materials with a primitive rope railway to build their houses (Photographs by Aylin Alisan 20 12) 73

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Agricultural machinery, television and Internet negatively affected social life in Findikli. For instance after hazelnut harvest everybody in the village used to come together to hull hazelnuts in one house (Figure 45). Therefore they used to help each other and used to socialize. However, after agriculture mechanization this activity replaced with 'Patoz' (Figure 46). -, Figure 45: Tradition of hulling hazelnuts (Photo from http://www.eynesil28.com/haber/291 /imeceler.html. Accessed April 15,2013) Figure 46: Patoz (Photo from http://www.unyetb.org.tr/post/show/112-aflatoksine-karsi patozlara-standart.html. Accessed April 15,2013) 74

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The Impacts o[Brainpower Migration on Landscape Transformation in Findikli Table 12 shows in what areas brainpower migration is influential negatively. As Findikli is a small town, people prefer to migrate to big cities for education. Therefore, demography has been changing for three decades. Since educated people are qualified labor, they do not prefer to work on farmlands. Although there is a job opportunity as a farmer, they are looking for high status. Table 12: The impacts of Brainpower Migration on Landscape Transformation in Findikli BRAINPOWER MIGRATION NEGATIVE IMP ACTS I. CULTURAL A. SOCIAL LIFELOCAL PEOPLE POPULATION DECREASEFOREIGN WORKERS COME TO THE REGIONLOSS OF GOOD NEIGHBORHOOD RELATIONS 2. ECONOMICAL A. LABORINSTEAD OF LANDOWNERS, FOREIGN WORKERS 3. VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE A. TRADITIONAL BUILDINGS REPLACED WITH CONCRETE BUILDINGSAS LOCAL PEOPLE TEND TO BUILD WHAT THEY SEE IN URBAN AREAS All these impacts caused landscapes ofFindikli to be transformed and changed. However, these findings are based on oral history. In order to prevent negative alterations, these findings should been supported by scientific data. By doing so, an appropriate landscape management plan could be produced particular to Findikli. The site research shows that Findikli does not have geographical studies especially for rural and natural landscapes in Findikli. The Findikli Municipality is working on urban landscape of Findikli. Findikli District of Governorship is working on Findikli entirely, however there is not a proper study for rural, natural and agricultural landscapes in Findikli. This study also aims to present the necessity of geographical, ecological, cultural, social, historical studies as the inventory step of this study had troubles to receive sources. 75

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Figures 47, 48 and 49 show how all impacts stated in tables above are reflected on landscapes in Findikli. Figure 47 shows land cover conditions in 1974, and Figure 48 shows land cover conditions in 1988. Figure 49 shows landscape transformation in fourteen years, from 1974 to 1988. BLACK SEA 197 4-FIND IKLI AGRICULTURE FOREST GRAZING LAND OTHER Figure 47: Land cover in Findikli in 1974 (Mapping by Aylin Alisan 2012) 76

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BLACK SEA 1988FINDIKLI AGRICliLTlJRE FOREST GRAZING LAND OTHER Figure 48: Land cover in Findikl i in 1988 (Mapping by Ay lin Ali san 20 12) 77

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BLACK SEA LANDSCAPE TRANSFORMATION FROM 1974 TO 1988 FOREST TRANSFORMED TO AGRJCUL TURE FOREST TRANSFORMED TO LAND GRAZING LAND TRANSFORMED TO FOREST GRAZING LAND TRANSFORMED TO AGRIClJL TURE RIVER Figure 49: Landscape transformation, from 1974 to 1988 (Mapping by Aylin Alisan 2012) 4. Land-use in Findikli Past and present land-use was investigated by interviews. In Findikli, gardens of crops, tch as tea, com, hazelnut and kiwi; roads, water canals are creating the mosaic form in the ndscape. In order to understand land-use of Findikli, land cover classification of Rize produced by Reis would partly provided information of land-use in Findikli because of the regional 78

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scale. Table 13 states 'land cover classification scheme' that shows land covers in regional scale, Rize produced by Sel9uk Reis. Table 13: Land Cover Classification Scheme8 by Selcuk Reis. Land Cover Classes Description Pasture Areas consisting of arid lands with short vegetation Bare soil Areas with no vegetation cover, stock quarry, stony areas, uncultivated agricultural lands Water Sea, river, lake Urban Residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and facilities Agriculture Almost all are green tea gardens, small size corn and fruit gardens that are generally located in tea gardens Coniferous Coniferous forest, trees that don't patch off (spruce scotch pine etc) Deciduous Deciduous forests, mixed forests with higher density of trees (alnus tree, linden tree, chestnut tree etc.) According to this classification, Selcuk Reis interpreted a land-use/land cover map of Rize, which includes Findikli boundary, as well (Figure 50). Reis divides land-use/ land cover into seven categories. I used this map to show approximately how much agricultural land-use has been increased since 1976. In other words, I tried to interpret the landscape transformation particularly agricultural landscape transformation in thirty-four years in Findikli (Figure 51). 8 Reis, Sel9uk. "Analyzing Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing and GIS in Rize, North-East Turkey." Sensors 8 (2008): 6192. 79

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B D Bare soil u Agriculture Deciduous Coniferous Urban \Nater Figure 50: "The classification images of land-use\land cover in Rize (A: 1976, 8:2000)". 9 9 Reis, Selc;uk. "Analyzing Land-use/Land Cover Changes," 6193. 80

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D Bare soil ] Agriculture B Deciduous Coniferous 2000 I Pasture c=J Urb8n D '.Nater 20 hrn Figure 51: Agricultural landscape transformation in thirty-four years in Findikli (Modified by Aylin Alisan 2013) Reasons of alteration and existing land-use should be known and analyzed accurately. Findikli has neither a landscape management plan nor related studies. This study might be initial step for producing a detailed landscape management plan and landscape conservation guideline. To produce an optimum landscape management plan timeline; past-present-future, 81

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tangible and intangible values; economy social life, memories and expectations should be considered entirely. Based on findings of landscape transformation and impacts, Figure 52 shows approximately deteriorated landscapes in Findikli by today BLACK SEA PRIMARY DETERIORATED LANDSCAPES SECONDARY DETERIORATED LANDSCAPES TERTIARY DETERIORATED LANDSCAPES Figure 52: Deteriorated landscapes in Findikli (Mapping by Aylin Alisan 2013) 82

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Landscape deterioration IS divided into three categories by depending on land-use alteration, hydroelectric power plants implementation, traditional agricultural practices and native farm plant production, existing of vernacular buildings, and density of concrete buildings According to these evaluation criteria, categorization of landscape deterioration enables to be determined initial protection zones to prevent more landscape deterioration and to save continuing traditional landscapes. Primary Deteriorated Landscapes: Seven settlements, four of which are rural boundaries, are most affected by six relatively big events that lead to change in Findikli. In these areas the most influential event is the implementation of hydroelectric power plants. As creeks are channelized fish species are endangered. Creeks are forwarded to underground several places, thus vegetation and wild life habitats are damaged. The coastal side of these landscapes Black Sea Coastal Highway is one of the most influential negative event for aquaculture and coastal management. Concrete eyesore is relatively the highest level and vernacular buildings are not protected. Secondary Deteriorated Landscapes: Nineteen settlements, all of which are rural boundaries are relatively less affected than primary deteriorated ones. Hydroelectric power plants have not established yet, as local people are still protesting the government decisions. Creeks are channelized in a few areas, and all flows, as they are usual. The amount of vernacular buildings is more than the primary deteriorated landscapes. Residents are more aware of their environment and cultural heritage, thus they have protected old buildings and restored some of them. Tertiary Deteriorated Landscapes: Four boundaries, most of which are wilderness areas, are the least affected landscapes. Creeks flow in their natural beds, agricultural activities 83

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are very few, and endemic plant species exist more than the other areas. These landscapes still have continuing traditional way of life and inherent nature. By looking at this categorization, the highest protection should be for tertiary deteriorated landscapes to keep them as usual. Secondary deteriorated landscapes should be in the moderate protection, and primary deteriorated landscapes should be in the minimal protection. Primary deteriorated landscapes can reflect the contemporary life styles while tertiary deteriorated landscapes and some of secondary deteriorated landscapes can show traditional way of life. I picked a smaller area to show how works the suggested landscape conservation and management idea (Figure 53). RL .. A.CK SEA Figure 53: Smaller area to be tested in Findikli (Mapping by Aylin Alisan 2013) 84

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CHAPTER6 CONCLUSION The information provided in the preceding chapters demonstrates that Findikli should have a landscape management plan that includes land-use and landscape conservation guidelines. The rapid landscape transformation in Findikli shows an indication of urgency. To prevent negative alterations in the case study area, local and national authorities should put appropriate landscape management regulations on their agenda as soon as possible. The findings state that Turkey does not have a cultural landscape policy and management plans for these particular landscapes. Lack working definition of landscapes does not allow designating any potential cultural landscapes. Moreover, lack of protection policy for landscapes and rural management policy make difficult the maintenance of landscapes. As governing authorities in conflict, it is not clear which agency or authority is in charge of a particular site or resource. Given these current issues and constraints, this study might be an initiative not only for Findikli but also other areas that have similar issues in Turkey. Proposed landscape management plan for Findikli, has field reconnaissance to identify areas of potential significance. Documentation, including maps enables prospective studies to be developed accurately. Determination survey and details of significance provide appropriate treatment for the case study area. The Findikli Landscape Management Plan is prepared with a protective approach based on the research study. As has been shown, the approach could include but are not limited to scientific inventory, oral history, site survey and analysis, experimental observation, and 85

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>mparison; literature reviews of other current practices and theory for landscapes and change ill also be valuable. To analyze the existing conditions ofthe case study area, the following data is needed a) Location b) History c) Natural Assessments d) Cultural Assessments e) Demographic Information f) Economy and Social Life g) Authorities (Governmental, Local, Non-governmental) and decision making structure for affected area Demonstrate the significance of the case study area a) International Scale b) National Scale c) Regional Scale d) Local Scale Determine the opportunities and threats in the case study area a) Opportunities that provide landscape sustainability b) Threats that cause landscape transformation and negative landscape alterations Establish land-use criteria a) State or re-state sustainable practices b) Enhance traditional landscape and culture c) Prediction of future demands and needs 86

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d) Indicate carrying capacity of the case study area 5. Produce a landscape conservation plan a) Designation criteria of natural and cultural assessments b) Restore historical buildings c) Rehabilitation of traditional settlement d) Produce design guidelines for new land-use and dwelling units e) Support local economy This outline demonstrates the steps for preparing the master plan. Further, as a model this framework might be testable for many different landscape types. The Outline of Preliminary Proposed Findikli Landscape Management Plan' 1. Hierarchy of Conservation a. Strict b. Absolute c. Moderate 2. Zoning (Zoning is shown on cognitive map for potential restoration landscapes) (Figure 54) a. Core Area Core Protection Zone Property Preservation Zone b. Buffer Area Environment Buffer Zone Landscape Coordination Zone 1 Produced by using Protection and Management Plan on Kaiping Diadou and Villages, and Conservation and Management Plan Historic Villages of Korea as guidelines. 87

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CORE: ZONE: STUDY AR;= A c Figure 54: Cognitive map for potential restoration landscapes (Map by Aylin Alisan 2013) 88

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3. Aspects a. Land-use Control b. Control of Traditional Landscape c. Protection of Vernacular Architecture For land-use control, first step is current conditions and use. Woodlands-farmlands wetlands as well as natural places factories, settlements circulation patterns are land covers in Findikli. Control of traditional landscape is about consideration of current conditions and use in case limitation for use or enforce assessments. Protection of vernacular architecture is about traditional houses, storage buildings, historical bridges restoration or rehabilitation and about encouraging residents to restore old houses and therefore instead of building new ones (Figure 55). 89

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TEAGARDEN 0 FRONT & 5ACK YARD Gl N HAZELNUT GARDEN TEA DELIVERY CONCRETE HOUSE POINT Figure 55: Cognitive map for current conditions (Map by Aylin Alisan 2013) 90

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Recognizing the current level of tea production that has arisen, this thesis suggests the value of a policy that limits additional tea gardens, and which in fact supports transition when reasonable back to traditional plants, to support greater biodiversity. Local vegetables and fruits will enhance the tea based economy. No more tea gardens. The future will hold not only the historical tea gardens, which thrive in the area, but also a reflection of the further past, and the landscapes that produced a diverse and balanced food economy, which supported local traditions and cultural practices. To support local economy encourage people to do family farming, thus they will have self-sufficient sustainable landscapes as they used to have in past. Each dwelling settlements should have their own bam, chicken houses, cornfield, vineyard, apiculture units, and vernacular storages to sustain their traditional way of life (Figures 56, 57). 91

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APICULTURE: (BUDKUCI) "NATURAL RE:FRIGIRA (.E>AGU) BARN (AHGIRI) {Kg) IWJINlo IQ>ACK YARDS MARGINS VINE:YARD-GRAPE:S (UDZ.E:NI) NE:W "SE:RE:NDE:Rn CHICKEN HOUSE: (NAYLA) (OHOMMAMULI) Figure 56: Cognitive map for proposed traditional settlement (Maps by Aylin Alisan 2013) 92

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Figure 57: Traditional landscapes and traditional practices (Sketches by Cengiz Cengiz 2013) 4. Specific Protection Plans a. Forestation Plan b. Agricultural Plan c. Water Area Treatment Plan d. Environment Management Plan Rehabilitation of current regulations and adjust to the case study area. Propose new regulations by looking ofthe missing points. Forestation Plan Agricultural Plan Water Area Treatment Plan Environment Management Plan Who can be audience for the proposed management plan is stated as a list below. These audiences are stated by considering their interests and authorities. 93

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A. International Scale 1. UNESCO 2. ICOMOS B. National Scale 1. Ministry of Forestry And Water Affairs 2. Ministry of Culture And Tourism 3. Food Ministry of Agriculture And Livestock C. Regional and Local Scale 1. Governorship of Rize 2. Municipality of Findikli 3. District Governorship ofFindikli 4. Non-Governmental Organizations Findikli Rivers Protection Platform Findikli Social Assistance and Solidarity Foundation Workshop Organizations for Future Findikli 94

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APPENDIX A POLICIES AND REGULATIONS CURRENTLY AFFECTING LANDSCAPES IN TURKEY International Agreements2 1971 Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially As Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar) 1972-Convention Concerning The Protection of The World Cultural and Natural Heritage 1974-Turkey National Committee of The International Council on Monuments and Sites Regulation 1976-Convention on The Protection of The Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution 1983 Convention on Long-Range Trans Boundary Air Pollution 1984 European Wildlife and Natural Habitats Protection Agreement (Bern Convention) 1985 Convention for The Protection of The Architectural Heritage of Europe 1992 The European Convention for The Protection of The Archaeological Heritage 1993 Convention on The Protection of The Black Sea Against Pollution 1994-Basel Convention on The Control ofTrans Boundary Movements and Hazardous Wastes 1996-The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (Cites) 1998 United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification 2000 Biosafety Protocol and The Incentives Convention on Biological Diversity 2003 The European Landscape Convention Turkish Laws for Cultural and Natural Properties3 1 Turkish Web site, agreements listed on the web site, TEMA, "Uiuslararasi Cevre Sozlesmeleri", TEMA Vakfi Web site, PDF file http://www3.tema.org.tr/Sayfalar/CevreKutuphanesi/Pdf/CesitliKonular/Sozlesmeler.pdf accessed April 16,2013 3 Turkish Web site, laws listed on the web site, Kultur Bakanligi, "Kanunlar", Kultur ve Turizm Bakanligi Web site, http://teftis.kulturturizm.gov.tr/TR, 14191 /kanunlar.html, accessed April 16,2013 95

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1924-Village Law 1926 Water Law 1941 Law on The Protection of Farmers of Goods 1943 Protection Against The Law Floodwaters and Flood 1956-Forest Law 1960Underground Water on The Law 1983 Environmental Law 1983 National Parks Act 1983 Law on The Conservation of Cultural and Natural Property 1983Hazelnut Production Planning and Planting Areas on The Law 1984Law ofTea 1 990Coastal Law 1998Mera Law 2003Law on Land Hunting 2004Law on The Encouragement of Cultural Investments and Initiatives 2004Animal Protection Law 2005Law on Conservation by Renovation and Use by Revitalization of The Deteriorated Historical and Cultural Immovable Property Turkish Regulations for Protection of Cultural and Natural Properties 1984-Regulation on Survey, Sounding and Excavation to Be Performed in Relation to Cultural and Natural Property 1987-Regulation on The Identification and Registration of Immovable Cultural and Natural Property to Be Protected 2005 Regulation on Aid for The Repair of Immovable Cultural Property 96

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2005 Regulation on The Principles of Building and Control of Immovable Cultural Property to Be Protected Turkish Law on The Conservation of Cultural and Natural Property4 1. Archaeological Sites First Degree In Archaeological Site Second Degree In Archaeological Site Third Degree In Archaeological Sites 2. Urban Archaeological Sites 3. Natural Sites First Degree In Natural Sites Second Degree In Natural Sites Third Degree In Natural Sites Urban Sites Historical Sites 4 Turkish Web site, laws listed on the web site, Kultur Bakanligi, "Sit Alanlari", Kultur ve Turizm Bakanligi Web site, http://www.kulturvarliklari.gov.tr/TR,44972/sit-alanlari.html, accessed April 16,2013 97

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APPENDIX B IMMOVABLE CULTURAL HERITAGE IN TURKEY5 TYPE OF IMMOVABLE CULTURAL HERITAGE NUMBER The Case of Civil Architecture 60823 Religious Structures 8503 Cultural Structures 9518 Administrative Structures 2458 Military Buildings 1023 Industrial and Commercial Buildings 3312 Cemeteries 3210 Cemeteries for Martyrs 227 Memorial and Monuments 313 Natural Assets 6808 Remains 1973 Received Protection Streets 60 TOTAL 98228 5 Turkish Web site, properties listed on the web site, Kultur Bakanligi, "Turkiye Geneli Korunmasi Gerekli Tasinmaz Kultur Varliklari", Kultur ve Turizm Bakanligi Web site, http://www. k u ltu rvarl iklari .gov. tr/TR,44 79 8/tu rk iye-gene I i -korunm as i -gerek I i -tas inm az-ku lturvarl ig-. htm I, accessed Apri I 16,20 13 98

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APPENDIX C IMMOVABLE CULTURAL HERITAGE IN RIZE6 TYPE OF IMMOVABLE CULTURAL HERITAGE NUMBER The Case of Civil Architecture 196 (0.32%) Religious Structures 36 (0.42%) Cultural Structures 119 (1.25%) Administrative Structures 3 (0.12%) Military Buildings 7 (0.68%) Industrial and Commercial Buildings (0.00%) Cemeteries 26 (0.80%) Cemeteries for Martyrs (0.00%) Memorial and Monuments (0.00%) Natural Assets 12 (0.17%) Remains 5 (0.25%) Received Protection Streets (0.00%) TOTAL 404 (0.41%) 6 Turkish Web site, properties listed on the web site Kultur Bakanligi, "Illere Gore Korunmasi Gerekli Tasinmaz Kultur Varliklari", Kultur ve Turizm Bakanligi Web site, http://www.kulturvarliklari.gov.tr/TR,44799/illere-gore korunmasi-gerekli-tasinmaz-kultur-varligi-i-.html, accessed April 16,2013 99

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Alumae, Helen, Marc Antrop, Staffan Helmfrid, and Hannes Palang. "Rural Landscapes: Past Processes and Future Strategies" Landscape and Urban Planning 70 (2005): 3-8. Antrop, M. "Why Landscapes of the Past are Important for the Future?" Landscape and Urban Planning 70 (2005): 21-34. Balling, John D. and John H. Falk. "Development of Visual Preference for Natural Environments." Environment and Behavior 14 (1982): 5-28. Baudry, Jacques and Claudine Thenail. "Interaction Between Farming Systems, Riparian Zones, and Landscape Patterns: A Case Study in Western France" Landscape and Urban Planning 67 (2004): 121-129. Benson, John "Aesthetic and Other Values in the Rural Landscape, Environmental Values" The White Horse Press 17 (2008): 221-238. Cronon, William, "A Place for Stories: Nature, History, and Narrative" The Journal of American History 78 (2008): 1347-1376. Deffontaines, J.P., C. Thenail, and J. Baudry. Agricultural Systems and Landscape Patterns: How Can We Build A Relationship?" Landscape and Urban Planning 31 (1995): 3-10. Fowler, P.J. "World Heritage Papers: World Heritage Cultural Landscapes 1992-2002" (Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Center, 2003). Gobster, Paul H. "An Ecological Aesthetic for Forest Landscape Management" Landscape Journal 18 (1999): 54-64. Hahoe, and Yangdong,"Conservation and Management Plan Historic Villages of Korea" UNESCO, 2010. Hull, R. Bruce and Michael M. McCarthy. "Change in the Landscape" Landscape and Urban Planning 15 ( 1988): 265-278 ICOMOS, Definition of Cultural Heritage, (International Council on Monuments and Sites), under "2004, ICOMOS UK (Cultural Landscapes)" http:/ I cif. icomos.org/pdf docs/Documents%20on%20 line/Heritage%20definitions. pdf (Accessed April 16, 2013). Marshall, E. J. P. "Agricultural Landscapes: Field Margin Habitats and Their Interaction with Crop Production" Journal ofCrop Improvement, 12 (2004): 365-404. Meeus, J.H.A, M.P. Wijermans and M.J., Vroom." Agricultural Landscapes in Europe and Their Transformation." Landscape and Urban Planning 18 (1990): 289-352. 100

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