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The University Club of Denver

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Title:
The University Club of Denver its first one hundred years, 1891-1990
Creator:
Ekstrand, Margaret E ( Margaret Elizabeth )
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xi, 164 leaves : ; 29 cm

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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 157-164).
Thesis:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Arts, Department of History
Statement of Responsibility:
by Margaret E. Ekstrand.

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Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
22700930 ( OCLC )
ocm22700930
Classification:
LD1190.L57 1990m .E37 ( lcc )

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THE UNIVERSITY CLUB OF DENVER ITS FIRST ONE HUNDRED YEARS, 1891 TO 1990 by Margaret E. Ekstrand B. A., University of Minn.esota, 1 97 3 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of History 1990

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This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by has been approved for the Department of Historv by MarkS. Foster De::te

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Ekstrand, Margaret E. (M. A., History) The University Club of Denver: Its First One Hundred Years, 1891-1990 Thesis directed by Professor MarkS. Foster The University Club of Denver, one of the last all-male bastions in Denver, has survived the past century through the efforts of its dedicated staff and loyal volunteer leadership. This study documents the history of the club from its inception ln 1891 to its battle on admitting women in 1990. The history is wriiten topically, using primary source material from the club--including the minutes of the board meetings and oral interviews with past presidents and club members--as well as the Colorado Historical Society archives and materials from the Western History Department of the Denver Public Library. The study begins with a brief discussion on the development of the national club movement, narrows to a treatment of private clubs in Denver, and ultimately focuses on the University Club--the only private, all-male club to require a college degree for, its members. It traces the club's progression from a business executive's lunchtime-haven to a leading social club, complete with festive theme parties and dances and elaborate banquets featuring outstanding cuisine. This history closely parallels the fluctuating pattern of Denver's development by examining the leisure-time pursuits of the city's educated elite.

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iv The club's most enduring attribute, the intense bond felt by its members to preserve its traditions, is examined at great length. The dramatic debate on admitting women ranges from a fear of diminishing the club's entire character to the financial reality of lost bookings and enduring protest resignations from those wno can not support the club's male-only membership policy. Having twice voted against including women, the club faces an uncertain future as it approaches its second century. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its f publication. !viark S. Foster

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CONTENTS Acknowledgments ........................................... ix CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . ................................ 1 Endnotes ............................................... 4 II. TO THE CLUB, TO THE CLUB, TO THE CLUB WE GO ................ 5 The Clubbable Men of the West ............................. 7 The Denver Club ....................................... 7 The Lotus Club ....................................... 1 0 The Gentlemen's. Riding and Driving Club ............... 11 The Denver Athletic Club ............................. 12 The Denver Wheel Club ............................... 13 The Candlelight Club . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 The Cactus Club . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 The Town Club ....................................... 15 The Petroleum Club ................................... 16 Endnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 III. THE UNIVERSITY CLUB: A CLUB OP A DIPPBRBNT SORT ........ 20 The Beginnings of the University Club of Denver ............. 21 Early Members of the Club ............................. 24 The Club's Quarters ................................... 27 The Move Up the Hill .................................. 28

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ii Endnotes ................................................ 3 3 IV. THE CLUBHOUSE .......................................... 36 World War I ............................................. 37 Roaring into the Twenties: The 1923 Building E1pansion ...... 39 The Depression Blues .......... : .......................... 43 The Challenge of Another World War ....................... 46 Flying into the Fifties: Another Building E1pansion . . . . . 48 A Modern Clubhouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 The Changes of the Seventies ............................ .. 54 Remodeling for Revenues' Sake . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Another Redecoration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Design by Fire .. ........................................ 58 Attracting Members in the Eighties ..................... 62 Endnotes ................................................ 66 V. WHAT ABOUT WOMEN? .................................... 73 The Early University Club Women .......................... 73 The First Attempts to Admit Women ....................... 75 The Impact of the Woman's Movement ..................... 77 The Pressure of the 1980s ................................. 80 The Battle of 1989 .................................... 81 Endnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 8 5 VI. ACTIVITIES OF THE UNIVERSITY CLUB: CLUBBING AT ITS BEST.88 Prohibition ............................................... 8 9 The Bar Reopens ...................................... 90 Lectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

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ill Bridge ............................................... 92 Pool ................................................. 93 Food, Glorious Food ....................................... 9 5 june Reception ........................................... 97 Other Social Activities of the Qub ....................... 98 Annual Meeting ......................................... 1 00 The University Qub Orchestra ......................... 1 02 A Taste of Twelfth Night . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 4 The Play and Its Productions ......................... .1 05 Milord, Milord, the Players Are Assembled ............. 1 08 Endnotes ............................................... 11 0 VII. TO BUILD OR NOT TO BUILD A SQUASH COURT ............. .115 The Early Attempts ..................................... 116 The Fight of Fighties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Success in the Si1ties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 A Single on Top of a Double ........................... 122 Rebuilding from the Ashes ............................... 124 Endnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 VIII. CLUB SPIRIT: LET MIRm BE UNCONFINED ................ .12 That Special Spirit ....................................... 129 Symbols of That Special Club Spirit .................... 130 Reciprocity with Other Clubs ............................. 133 Club Boarders ....................................... 134 Library .................................. ............. 136 Other Gifts .......................................... 138

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iv Carrying the Spirit from Father to Son ................. 139 Some Moments with the Board ............................ 142 Employees and Their Loyalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Endnotes ............................................... 148 IX. CONCLUSION ............................................ 152 Endnotes ............................................... 156 BIBLIOORAPHY ................................................ 157

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ACICNOWLEDGMENTS This study was undertaken at the recommendation of Thomas J. Noel, director of Colorado Studies at the University of Colorado at Denver, and developed into my master's thesis under his watchful eye and that of Professor Mark Foster's. Professor Noel's areat knowledge of local Denver history. helped to fill in some of the gaps and his in-depth editorial comments were crucial to the readability of this paper. Professor Foster, chair of the history department at the University of Colorado at Denver, became the director.of my thesis committee. His concern for accuracy made the final product a more credible work. I want to recognize the centennial committee of the University Club who approved the project and generously funded my research. The manuscript, in a revised form, will be published by the club in early 1991 to commemorate its centennial year. Members of the centennial committee who have been particularly helpful are Mitchell Benedict Ill, Robert B. Bryan, jr ., and Gerald D. Fader. President Cal Cleworth has provided wonderful insight into the club and its tradtions. Alan Black, general manaaer of the club has been most helpful and accommodating. Maryann Schiavonne, the club's sales and marketing manager, and Terry France, the club's bookkeeper, have been more than helpful in. many ways--their assistance proved invaluable.

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james Lavender-Teliha, a crackerjack librarian and an understanding friend, came up with rare source materials and an abundance of moral support. X My coworkers at the Colorado Historical Society deserve a mention for their collective patience and good-naturedapproach in tolerating a crazed graduate student: David Wetzel, whose computer knowledge knows no bounds; Mary Winnell, whose sincerity never ends; Stan Oliner, whose empathy I could not do without; Chris Young, whose sympathy always strilces the right note; Nina Kelly, whose love of the club and its members brings many smiles; Peter Tom, whose concern is genuine; Ben Duke, whose sense of humor can carry the day; and Dudley Smith, whose flexibity allowed me time to finish this project. Sharon Elfinbein's research approach and Susan Burch's quick referencing are truly appreciated. Ben Negrette's insistence on the social side of academic life, involving me in Phi Alpha Theta, has been a welcome diversion. State Senator Dennis Gallagher's Latin translations solved several mysteries for me. For Sharon Hawley's unerring thoughtfulness and jeff Kronberg's unselfish consideration of my priorities, I am thankful. My family receives the most kudos; they are the people whose lives have been impacted the most by my schedule. My sister Tinker has not complained that I have missed an entire ski season. Thankfully, there is always next year. My niece Melissa has written religiously, asking how work is going on my thesis--this from aneleven-year-old student in Minnesota, how thoughtful. My brother Steve's respect of my

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xi computer time and his jerry-rigging capabilities with the computer are sincerely appreciated. Dan Barnett, my husband, has brilliantly saved me from numerous computer diasaters and mastered the five-minute meal, so I could focus on my thesis. He has bolstered my spirits and given me the confidence to complete this project. I am forever grateful to all of you.

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This history e:zamines the past 100 years of the University Club of Denver. As one of the last bastions of an aU-male club left in the Queen City, the University. Club is preparing for its centennial in january 1991 and this master's thesis documents some facets of its life. From its humble beginning. in a rented bouse at Fourteenth and Curtis Streets in. downtown Denver to its permanent mansion on Capitol Hill, the University Club bas stood the test of time. Hundreds of clubs have come and gone in tbe past one hundred years. This club's survival stems from its skilled management staff and its staunch volunteer leadership and an intense bond among its members to preserve its traditions. The leisure-time pursuits of Denver's educated elite are symbolized in the club's 1895 Neoclassical-style building at 1673 Sherman Street. This fine Capitol Hill clubhouse, now surrounded by high-rise office towers, is one of the few remaining 1890s structures to escape the wrecking ball. Behind its shiny brass University Club plaque at the Sherman .Street entrance, additions and remodelings reflect the changing membership needs of the club's first century.

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2 Patterned after the University Club of New York, Denver's University Oub bas distinguished itself from the Queen City's other private clubs by requiring a college degr.ee. In 1891, john L. jerome, Henry Treat Rogers, Edwin N. Hawkins, and Allan Culver incorporated the University Club "to promote social intercourse among ourselves and .. the encouragement of literature." Within four years the club had a three story, S23,000 clubhouse in Denver's most prestigious residential neighborhood; This 1895 brick building stands today as the core of the University Club. I While the club is still small with a resident membership limit of 550 (i.e., those who live or work within eleven and one-half miles of the clubhouse and have voting privileges), it has evolved at a varying pace from its initial cap or 200. Bven though maintaining its stronghold as a "downtown businessman's operation," the club, in recent decades, has emerged as a leading social club with festive holiday parties, a spring gala, dinner dances, superb cuisine, and, of course the annual theatrical comedy--the Twelfth Night review. The club's history mirrors the fluctuating nature of Denver and its appeal to an enthusuastic and educated elite.2 Of the club's remodeling changes over the past century, none caused more controversy than the addition of the squash courts in the 1960s. This decades-long debate qhlights the University Club's dedicated members who strove to foster another form of group participation and attract younger squash-playing members.

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3 While a controversy over squash is one thing; admitting women to these hallowed halls is quite another. Since the club's move up the hill, wives of members and female guests have been invited to use the ladies' department--the ladies' bar and the ladies' diningtoom--but have not been allowed to venture any further. In the late 1980s the club voted twice not to admit women, though such a policy has forced some members to resign and has impacted the club's revenue through lost bookings. Some members fear that if females are admitted to the club, it will change its entire character, indeed its true spirit. This spirit is steeped in the club's all-male traditions and in its warm, comfortable surroundings. An unspoken sense of belonging exists within the membership; a special bond that conveys harmony and good fellowship. The presence of women would certainly change the complexion of the club's membership, but it remains to be seen what impact they would have on the club's raison d'etre.

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--------------. Endnotes university Club. Club Book(Denver: Univeuity 1891). 18-19. 2Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of the University Club. 25 September 1973.

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CHAPTER II TO THE CLUB, TO THE CLUB, TO THBCLUB WB GO In the last two decades of the nineteenth century the men of Denver's power elite were moving out their spacious homes on Fourteenth Street and up to the bluff called "Capitol Hill." They measured their riches by the size of their mansions and "they built ostentatious socializing clubs which were as replete with imported furniture and interior-design materials as their houses." They viewed these newlyformed clubs as places "where a gentleman. of elevated social background, whiling away his leisure hours, might find. congenial companionship." Denver's elite were following the national trend in establishing private clubs that would not only certify "the socially fit"' but would also serve as "an important center of the (city's) financial and business network." I Since most western cities were striving to resemble their eastern counterparts, the spawning of these private clubs is just one demonstration of how the urban West tried "to emulate the Bast." The founders of these clubs were, almost to a man, newcomers to the West. Their lives bad been disrupted by movement, and they arrived anxious to recreate the familiar institutions they had left behind. Out of this

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impulse grew the towns they built and the social institutions they_ nurtured.2 6 One such institution, the metropolitan private club, is one in which men have been meeting for centuries. The tradition, which is AngloSaxon rather than Latin, has been traced to the introduction of coffee drinking into seventeenth-century Hogland. In an age without daily newspapapers,radio. or the telephone. "the coffee house provided a convenient means of communicating the latest news. Gradua11y, the various London coffee houses attracted men with common or simillar interests." The oldest of the well-known American metropolitan men's clubs is the Philadelphia Club. Like its British counterparts, it began in 1830 as an informal coffee house where men gathered to enjoy conversation and congenial friendships. In New York City, other private clubs appeared on the scene--the Union Club ( 1836 }, the Century ( 1847). the Union League (1863), theKnickerbocker (1871), the Metropolitan Club (1891). and the Brook (1903); On the opposite coast. San Franciscans established the Pacific Union Club in 1857.3 Henry Stein. the advisory editor of the 1975 reprint of Francis Gerry Fairfield's 1873 book Tbe Clubs of New York, describes the club phenomenon in this way: "with the home stripped by wealth of its working and creative functions ... men were off to their clubs to seek relief from boredom. Such clubs ... created male centers of friendship \ and in-group feeling." By 1873 this burgeoning movement had created close to one hundred private clubs in New York City. making it second only to London. Most of these clubs were exclusively male.-4

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7 Nelson W. Aldrich contends that for most of the upper classes, club life began with college associations such as Harvard's undergraduate Porcellian, AD, and Spee Clubs and "culminates in any one or more of the men's clubs of the cities." This thesis echoes that of C. Wright Mills, who wrote in 1957 that the metropolitan upper class "belong(s] to the same associations at the same set of Ivy League colleges, and they remain in social and business touch by means of the big-city network of metropolitan clubs."5 The Clubbable Men of the West The private club quickly became the business man's castle, where it "seemed convenient and somehow fitting to come to important decisions." To gentlemen newly arrived in the American West it must have been a particular comfort to mingle with those of similiar status and to be able to draw upon them to try "to understand through the experience of trusted others those contexts of power and decision in Which they (the new arrivals) ha(d) not previously moved." The private club became the vehicle that cemented the unspoken understanding and trust or those who blossomed into the power elite.' The Denver Oub One of the first such places in the Queen City, the "Denver Club," was organized in 1868 to cultivate "friendly and social relations among its

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8 members." While this group did not survive the bust years of the mid1870s, an entirely new Denver Club was incorporated in julyl880 "to promote social intercourse among ourselves and associates." This club, known for many years as Denver's oldest gentleman's club, has proved much more durable. For 70 years the Denver Club's huge brownstone building on the corner of Seventeenth Street and Glenarm Place served as a downtown anchor. In 1953. this Denver landmark was torn down to build the new twenty-story Denver Club Building on the same spot.? According to a Denver Club membership brochure, men were first "attracted to the Club because 'its prime object is to foster and cultivate a social intercourse that bas never e1isted in the West."' Many of Denver's businessmen felt the time had come to form a club that would "give new comers the advantage at initio of the thesociety of gentlemen, in return for the courtesies" eastern gentlemen have always e1tended to "our prominent citizens in their clubs."8 Colorado, and particularly Denver, its largest city, boomed in both wealth and population between 1870 and 1893, attracting a large number of young men raised and educated in the East. According to Charles tingry, author of the University Club's first history, Chronicle of 75 Years: The University Club of Denver, the professional e1pertise of these young men brought them west seeking fame and fortune. However, the motives of most of them were probably more comple1. Some may have thought they would have a better chance of success in less competitive, if not certainly a less sophisticated, business environment. A fair share of these new arrivals were, more than likely,

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9 younger siblings who wantedto escape the domination by older brothers, or who had been -cut out of inheritances. Not to mention those who had failed the East and desired to start over with a new opportunity in the West. And finally, some of these young men who ended up in Denver were simply in love with the robust image of the West.9 Whatever reasons brought them to the Centennial State, it is not surprising that this group wanted to transplant parts of their eastern lifesytle to this strange new town at the edge of the Great American Desert. The eastern club tradition they carried with them had been patterned after London's private gentlemen's clubs, where "one could keep to one's own," conducting business and socializing with those they trusted and understood. o A prime motivating force in the Denver Club's development was james Duff, an influential Scot, who actively promoted British investments in the West. Duff related to Denver's city builders "that in the British Isles gentlemen of power had clubs where they socialized and discussed business ... (and) Surely Denver needed such an institution." Two of the six charter members of the Denver Club--Henry R. Wolcott (first president of the Denver Club and ultimately one of the city's most "clubbable" men) and Moses Hallet were also among the first to join the University Club, establishing a relationship between the two clubs that still exists today .I J Throughout the United States, men frequently joined several private clubs "not simply out of habit or because they wished to use their facilities, but 'by way of reference or passport to high social circles.' To

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10 be sure of their social credentials, wealthy New Yorkers often joined three, four or as many as 15 clubs." If membership in the right clubs "clearly defined exclusiveness; then Denver's elite made sure that they belonged to the city's most prominent clubs. Some of the other early members of the Denver Club who also held membership in University Club were Governor james B. Grant, Charles H. Toll, C. S. Thomas, Clayton C. Dorsey, Gerald Hughes, Lafayette D. Hughes, john Evans II, William G. Evans, and George Cranmer. The Denver Country Club, founded in 1901, attracted a good number of members from the city's highest social circles. In addition to their memberships in the University Club and the Denver Club, Thomas B. Stearns, Henry T. Rogers (charter president of the University Club), and Crawford Hill, all maintained memberships in the new country club.l2 Early on, the Denver Club initiated its famous "round table group," where Denver's power brokers frequently met to plan the Queen City's future. Like their counterparts in "most major American cities" who characterized themselves by belonging to "one or two distinguished metropolitan men's clubs," many members of Denver's power elite belonged to both the Denver Club and the University Club, and they dominated "the social and economic life of the community."l3 The Lotus Club The club spirit evidently caught on after the opening of the Denver Club. In 1883 the Lotus Club was formed by such prominent Denverites as joseph A. Thatcher and Henry M. Porter, the founders of Denver

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11 National Bank; and Charles B. Kountze, one of the brothers who organized the Colorado National Bank. The Lotus Club converted a mansion at 1544 California Street into their clubhouse and had the unique idea of inviting wives and families to use it. The Lotus Club, known for its fine food and engaging programs, prospered for ten years before "being swept out of existence by the panic of 1893."1-4 The Gentleman's Riding and Driving Club In the days before the onslaught of the automobile "when a family's wealth. and standing were indicated by the fine horses. in the stable and the beauty of vehicle," Denver's social elite formed the Gentleman's Riding and Driving Club. Harness racing was sweeping the country in the early 1880s and Denver's club was founded purely "'for the pleasures its members would derive from horse competitions and e1bibitions."' Major jacob Downing maintained the group's clubhouse and stable on his property at Fourth Avenue and Downing Street. They raced their horses at nearby Arlington Park .. For a time the group ran their sulkies on East Seventeenth Avenue until "the mayor ordered them off the street because of the traffic hazard." To make amends, the mayor offered this e1clusive group of businessmen and socialites including judge E. A. Colburn, William Cooke Daniels, julius A. Myers, and George H. Estabrook, the northeast corner of City Park, which was then largely underdeveloped, for their races. In 1898, near Twenty-Third Avenue and Colorado Boulevard, a S 15.000 grandstand was built by public

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12 subscription alongside the half -mile dirt track. By 191 the track had established three world records. For fifty-two years the Gentlemen's Driving and Riding Club held Saturday afternoon matinees every sum mer at their racetrack. The grandstand was demolished in 1950 and replaced by the playing fields that e1ist today. And harness racing was no more.l5 The Denver Athletic Clyb A men's club of a different sort was incorporated for those early Denverites who wanted a variety of physical activity. (The Denver Club, which became known for its squash program that features a top-notch pro, had limited space to devote to other athletic activities.) In january 1884 the Denver Athletic Club (DACl was founded "so that those 'engaged in indoor pursuits might gain healthful diversion."' Over a century later, the DAC has "emerged as a leading social club, notable for its prominent membership, theme party galas, dinner dances and fine cuisine." This club, which was established as an outgrowth of the 'athletic movement' that caught on with Americans during the last.half of the nineteenth century, was directly impacted by the arrival of the "'one lunged army."' Colorado's high, dry climate was a recommended cure for those with tuberculosis or those who had been exposed to it. These health seekers, who fought this disease by becoming physically fit, rented the abandoned First Baptist Church building on Eighteenth Street and converted it to their first clubhouse and gymnasium.l6

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13 Within five years the DAC built its own five-story clubhouse on Glenarm and boasted a membership of 1,000. Among its large membership were many or Denver's elite. including Henry R. Wolcott. charter president of the Denver Club; Senator.Nathaniel P. Hill, founder of the Boston and Colorado Smelting Company, and his son Crawford; and attorney Charles J. Hughes. jr. These four gentlemen. reinforcing the elite's "multiple-club" rule. would also become members of the University Club after it was established in 18 91.17 The Denver Wheel Cub The last club listed by jerome C. Smiley in his eihaustive book History of Denver ( 1901) as one that filled "the need for . social organization(s) among the business and professional men of the city" was The Denver Wheel Club. Founded in 1892 "'to promote cycling; to use its influence in securing good roads; to encourage all manly and athletic sports and social intercourse among its members,"' the club's membership was restricted "to a 'white male person over eighteen years of age, not engaged as a bartender or professional gambler.'" Its headquarters were located in "a large and well-appointed building . on the north side or California street between Fourteenth and Fifteenth streets." In 1901 the club was absorbed by the Centennial Club.l8

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14 The Candle Light Club Another early. prominent Denver group. established ca. 1886. was the Candlelight Club. Its 200 members would meet monthly to dine at the Windsor Hotel and enjoy a discussion program on local issues and current affairs. Bach member's place was marked with a lighted candle and each printed program carried the following "sentiment from Charles Lamb: 'Hail candle lightl Without disparagement to sun or moon. the kindliest luminary of the three."' The lights of the Candle Light Club were unfortunately snuffed out before the turn of the century.J9 The Cactus Club The Cactus Club. a club of a truly social sort, had had its name used by two other groups in Denver's early days. In the 1860s a bachelor's club used the name which was later adopted by an 1880s commercial gambling outfit. The current Cactus Club was formed in 1911. Forbes Parkhill states its purpose as "'Bxisting for socialibllity--enjoying pleasures arising from things--following pursuits which benefit the person, not the the purse--knowing no social rank, no wealth of thought and feeling, no luxury save that of comradeship, and no desire for personal gain except the gain of honest friendship '."20 On its thirtieth birthday founding President Maurice Biscoe. a well-known architect (many of his clients were Cactus Club members). described the club's enduring quality in this way:

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Men coming, men going, men gone forever, men yetto come-so the Cub goes on ... Youthful desire for affection and friendship, for the quick companionship of alert minds. brought it into being. It had no-high ideals. no mission. no lofty purpose. It began. and continued because we liked one another and were pleased to work and play together as friends. There were no early struggles to keep the Cub alive. It just lived. We were immensely satisfied with ourselves and looked with a severely critical eye at possible new members ... We didn't like pretense or snobs, high brows or dunces; we loved simplicity, forthrightness, kindness, with jests and laughter ... So the Cub bas gone on its way for thirty years; ... Wby is it? What is the secret? Does some.good genius guide us? If so, may be stay on the job I This eclectic group built a new clubhouse, designed by member Peter Dominick, jr., which opened at 1635 Blake Street in 1990.21 The Town Club 15 Denver jews, according to Lyle Dorsett in The (Jueen City: A History of Denver, were not readily welcomed into the city's elite social circles. They founded the Town Cub "primarily but not eiclusively as a club for jewish men." This group initially met over lunch at the Daniels and Fisher tearoom. In 1947, they bought the Crawford Hill Mansion at Tenth Avenue and Sherman Street for a clubhouse (indirectly lin.k.ing Crawford Hill with yet another private aU-male dub in Denver). The Town Qub thrived for years as a social club, providing lively card games and elegant meals for its members. Interest in the club declined so significantly in recent years-that it was forced to close its doorsin May 1989. jack Well. the club's last president "speculated that part of the decline is because jewish members are now accepted in some Denver clubs that previously excluded them."22

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16 The Petroleum Club The Petroleum Club, organized in 1948, dramatizes Denver's crucial link with the vast mineral resources of the Rocky Mountain West The abundance of raw materials in this region. heavily exploited during World War II. stimulated further economic development after the war's end. Oil production in the western U.S. overtook that of the east and coal mining grew to huge proportions. Petroleum Club members joined forces with the Chamber of Commerce in 1954 to sponsor an "Oil Progress Luncheon," I that attracted over 700 businessmen in oil and related industries. Their efforts encouraged oil exploration in eastern Colorado and publicized the rich resources of the entire region.23 In 1957, after several temporary downtown locations--including the Albany Hotel, the Edelweiss Restaurant. and the Mile Hi Center (now the United Bank Building)--the club moved into its new home in the Petroleum Club Building at Sixteenth and Broadway Streets. Appropriately enough, tbis new skyscraper was built by the Murchi$on brothers, two millionaire Texans, who coincidenially, also built the Denver. Club Building in 1-954 just down the street.24 The club moved again in 1978 to the sleek Anaconda Tower, occupying two floors. In Denver's energy boomdays, the club boasted 2,300 members;today its membership has-leveled off at 1,200;-The Club, hosting no publicized social functions, is considered a fine place in which to dine. Members and-their guests can eat lunch, or dinner and enjoy the panoramic view from the 37th and 38th floors of the tower. While others may prefer to play cards or shoot a game of poo1.25

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Endnotes ILyle W. Dorsett, The (Jueen City of' the Plains: A History of' Oenver(Boulder: Pruett Publisbing;l977), 88; Ibid; Cervis journJ. 24 September1953; and C. Wright Mills. The Power Blite(New York: Olford University Press. 1957), 62. 17 2Bradford Luckingham, "The Urban Dimension of Western History," in Historians and the .American West. ed. Michael P. Malone (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press,1984), 329, 325; Richard C. Wade, The Urban Frontier(Chicago: The .University of Chicago Press, 1972), 321. 3E. Digby Baltzell, The Philadelphia Gentleman: The Making of' a National Upper Class. (Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press, 1959 ), 336; Ibid., 337; Daon Wector, The Saga of' American Society: A Record of Social .Aspiration, 1607-19.17 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1937), 288: David C. Hammack, Power and Society: Greater New York at the Turn of the Century. ColumbiaHistory of Urban Life, Kenneth T. jackson, ed., (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982), 72-73; Cleveland Armory, Who K'illed Society? (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1960), 203: and Philadelphia Gentlemen, 337. "iFrancis Gerry Fairfield, The Clubs of' New York. and jane C. Croly, Sorosis: Its Origin and History (New York: Arno Press; 1975), i. (The former is a reprint ofan 1873 edition published in New York by Henry L. Hinton]; Ibid., 7. 5Nelson W. Aldrich, Old Money: The Mythology of Americas Upper Class (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988), 49; and Mills, The Power Blite. 68. 61bid., 62; Ibid . 282; Ibid., 281. 7 Rocky Mountain News: 30 May1868 and 1 june1868; jerome C. Smiley, History of Oenver(Denver: TheTimes, 1901; reprint, Denver: Western Americana Publishing Company, 1978), 911; and Rocky .Mountain News, 22 November 1959.

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8Denver Public Library, Western History Department, Denver Club clipping file; and Cervi's journal, 24 September1953. 9Charles Bowdon Kingry, Chronicle of 75 years: Tbe University Club of Denver(Denver: University Club of-Denver. 1966). 1. 18 tOGunther Barth, lostant Cities: Urbanization and the Rise of San Francisco and Denver. Urban Life in America Series (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975), 158; Mills, The Power Blite, 281-282; Baltzell, Pbiladelphill Gentlemen, 336; and Armory. Who Killed Society?, 205. II Dorsett, The (Jueen City, 68. 12fairfield; The Clubs of Nerv York, 15. In Who Killed Society?, Amory states that the men of"of the(NewYork) 'Four Hundred' belonged to not one but many clubs and wore them like ribbons," 20 1; and Dorsett, The (Jueen City, 68-71. 13Rocky Mountain News, 22 November1959; and Baltzell, Philadelphia Gentlemen, 336. 14Edward Ring. "Denver Clubs of the Past," Colorado Magazine XIX (july 1942):140; Rocky Mountain Nervs,january 27, 1891. 15 Rocky Mountain News. 2 February 1941; The club was not formally organized unti11898, guided by the constant activity of judge A. E. Colburn. Denver Muncipal Facts. Denver: City and County of Denver, 7 May1910, 7; Rocky Mountain Nervs. 20 September 1981; Ibid.; Rocky Mountain News, 2 February1941; and Phil Goodstein, Denver's Capitol Hi//(Denver: Life Publications, 1988 ), 26 16Susan Costas, "Members Only," Denver Business (june 1988): 32-37; and Thomas j. Noel, The Denver.AtbleticCiu/J, 1884-1984(Denver: The Denver Athletic Club, 1983), 4-S. 17Noel, Tbe Denver .A tbletic Club, 11.

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t8Smiley, 911; .Rocky Mountain News. 30 December 1901; Smiley, 912; and Rocky Mountain News. 30 Decemberl901. 19Bdward Ring, "Denver Clubs of the Past,"141; Cervi's journal, 24 September 19 53: and Edward Ring, "Denver Clubs of the Past," 141. 20 Cervi's .Journal, 24 September 1953. 19 21Thomas J. Noel and Barbara S. Norgren, Deoyer: The City Beautiful 11nd Its Architects, 189.1-19-11. (Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1987), 190. Letter to the Cactus Club, from Maurice B. Biscoe, 13 February 1941, Stephen H. Hart Library, Colorado Historical Society Archives, james Grafton Rogers Collection. 22Tbe Oenver Post, 16 May 1989. 23William L. Lang, "Using and Abusing Abundance: The Western Re$ource Economy and the Environment," in Historians and tbe American West, ed., Michael P. Malone, (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), 271; Ibid., 278; Gerald D. Nash, The .American West Transformed: The Impact of the Second World War (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985), 17; and Dorsett, The (Jueen City, 260. 24Jnterview with George Lalanne, General Manager of the Petroleum Club, 12 December 1989: and Dorsett, The (Jueen City, 263-265. 25Interview with George Lalanne; Susan Costas, "Members Only," Oenver Busioess, (June 1988), 34-35.

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CHAPTER III THB UNIVERSITY CLUB: A CLUB OF A DIFFBRBNT SORT Another aspect of the private club movement also originated in England. In the early nineteenth century, just as the whole movement was getting underway in the United States, British college-educated males started "to associate themselves together in clubs, in London, to the exclusion of the non-educated." The Athenaeum Club in London, setting itself apart from other social clubs by requiring that its members had to be qualified through higher education, is "considered the precursor of the purely university club." just as Americans adopted the British private club tradition, they also embraced the university club tradition with the founding of the University Club of New York City.l Formally organized in 1879, the University Club of New York City was established to accommodate the growing number of college men. james W. Alexander in his voluminous study of that club's early history states that "the need of an institution which would unite them in both usefulness and comradeship was at length beyond question." This need was only heightened by "the proclivity of birds of a feather to flock together," Alexander hastens to add: Over the next 30 years, 35 university clubs were established across the United States. Most of these clubs were heavily influenced by the University Club of New York City,

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21 which by e1ample, offered "a conspicuous and stimulating proclamation to the young men of America of the value of a college training." University clubs were also a logical successor to the private fraternities that wealthy students joined in co11ege.2 The Beginnings of the University Club of Denver The silver bonanza of the 1880s brought a real economic boom to Denver. New factories were established to manufacture mining equipment; the cattle boom created a livestock market; and the city became a regional railroad hub. Along with all this activity came a population explosion. Denver gained 70,000 people during the 1880s, its total inhabitants numbering 106,713 in 1890. A few of these recent transplants were young graduates from eastern colleges. They not only had money and education, but they also knew influential contacts in the East who willing to invest in the West.3 Since the continuing operation of Colorado's silver mines was ensured for a time with the passage of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act in 18_90, the future seemed particularly bright for many of Denver's eager entrepreneurs. A group of 50 or so met in November of that year to discuss forming a university club in Denver, similiar to the University Clubs of New York and Chicago. Three stalwart men were appointed to select the core membership, prepare the articles of incorporation,

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including a constitution and by-laws, and subsequently serve as the organization's first board of directors.4 22 As Charles Kingry noted in the now rare and out-of -print Chronicle of 75 Years: The University Club of Denver. Henry T. Rogers and Charles R. Dudley actively recruited the most new members and were the most devoted to the project. While no official record states such, it is likely that they comprised two of the three people on tl)e charter committee.5 Rogers and Dudley were duly rewarded for their efforts on january 31, 1891, at 10:45 a.m., as B. J. Baton, Colorado's secretary of state, affixed the state seal on the club's articles of incorporation. The University Club of Denver-was incorporated by nine attorneys-john L. jerome, William R. Barbour, George Z. Dimmitt, Henry F. May, Henry T. Rogers, R. Heber Smith, Lambert Sternbergh, Allan M. Culver, Charles H. Toll; Charles R. Dudley, a librarian; and a chemist, Edwin N. Hawkins.6 The first officers of the club were Henry-T. Rogers, president; john L. jerome, vice president; Edwin N. Hawkins, secretary; and Allan M. Culver, 'The University Club," as it is officially named in the certificate of incorporation, had been formed "to promote social intercourse among ourselves and associates in said Club, the encouragement of literature and art, and the establishment and maintenance of a library, reading room and club house for the use of ourselves and associates, with all the appurtenances, belongings, matters and things usual or desirable in connection therewith."?

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23 Within two months, the club had adopted its constitution and bylaws. And it is no surprise that the fledgling club's organization closely resembled that of the University Club of New York City. Henry T. Rogers, charter president of the University Club of Denver, was a member of the former, as was Edward B. Morgan (University Clubof Denver president, 1985-1896) and Thomas B. Stearns (University Club of Denver president, 1906-1907). Membership in the University Club has always been distinguished from membership in Denver's other private clubs, however exclusive, by the constitutional provision that requires a college degree. The constitution also created the committee on admissions, to be elected by the members and to be completely independent from the board of directors, to screen applicants. The name of each applicant and his sponsor is still posted for two weeks in the clubhouse and subsequently voted on by the committee. Two negative votes are sufficient to reject the application.8 At its inception, the club's resident membership was limited to 200: no limit was placed on the number of nonresident members, who could not reside or work within ten miles of the clubhouse and were not "entitled to vote at any meeting of the Club or to hold any office." In 1891 the club's 94 resident members paid a $50 admission fee; annual dues were also $50. The 24 nonresident members paid exactly half of what members paid.9

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24 Early Members of the Club Included among these first members were some of the state's more prominent elected officials including former Colorado Governor job A. Cooper, whose term in office had ended in january 1891; james B. Grant, founder of the Omaha & Grant Smelter and governor of Colorado from 1883-85; Edward 0. Wolcott, U.S. Senator, 1889-1901; and Nathaniel P. Hill who founded the Boston and Colorado Smelter. served as a United States Senator from 1879-1885, and published Tbe OeDver .llepu/Jlicaa.l o The club's membership also attracted the city's social elite, including George B. Berger. president of the Colorado National Bank; Thomas B. Stearns, president of Stearns-Roger, an engineering and manufacturing company specializing in the design of mining equipment; Moses Hallet, United States District judge; and American National Bank's First Vice President Frank Church. II About half of the club's membership came from Ivy League schools, and was "dominated by Yale alumni" in the early years. (Yale alumni also predominated the early membership of the University Club of New York City.) Harvard, Michigan, Columbia, Princeton, and Dartmouth were also well represented. "The preponderance being in the order named." The membership rosters from 1891-1902 contain two University of Colorado graduates and one from the University of Denver. Which is not so surprising, since one hundred years ago, both of these schools were quite small compared to their eastern counterparts.f2

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25 During its fledgling days, the club was blessed with influential, competent, and-dedicated members such as Charles R. Dudley, one of the club founders and a charter member. Dudley was an attorney who had graduated from Yale Law School and moved to Denver in 1882. It was mainly through his efforts that Andrew Carnegie donated the funds to build Denver's first library. Dudley served as city librarian from 1885 to 1910. Appropriately, he served on the Committee on Literature and Art for the club which has "charge of the reading room, and of all books and works of art belonging to the Club, and shall have power to solicit donations and select and purchase-books, periodicals and works of art for the Club."l3 As early as 1915, the University Club had considered publishing an official club history, but nothing was done until january 1918, when Charles Dudley was selected to begin the research. He was paid a modest $190 retainer that was credited to his club account and promised quarterly payments of $18 as the work progressed. Dudley's devotion to the club had never wavered, and he set to work on the history immediately. In November 1920, he was appointed club historian by Club PresidentTheron R. Field. Unfortunately, complications from infl\Jenza killed Charles R. Dudley in February 1921 before he completed the book. His unfinished manuscript has never been found.14 The club's founding president was Henry Treat Rogers. This Yale graduate came to Colorado from his native Connecticut in the early 1880s. In 1883 he formed a law partnership with Daniel B. Ellis and-Lucius Montrose Cuthbert. The Atchison, Topeka, & Santa Fe Railroad, the

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26 Pullman Company, the American Railway E1press, and the United States National Bank were among his clients. From t-902-1904 Rogers served as chair of the Denver Park Board. He, along with Charles R. Dudley, had been instrumental in recruiting the club's charter members, and his guidance and unfailing support in the club's early years has never been forgotten. After his term, Rogers continued to serve the club on the board and through various committees. When Henry T. Rogers died in 1922, the board memorialized him in the minutes as follows: "but we think of him as more nearly than any other man the chief builder and steadfast pilot of this institution." Rogers, Charles Kingry notes, was held in high regard by a good many others as well, "The roster of pallbearers at his funeral was a veritable 'Who's Who' of prominent business and professional men of the city and region."l5 john L. jerome, the club's charter first vice president, was one of the founders of the Colorado Fuel & Iron the largest firm in the state; owner of the Overland Cotton Mills; a respected member of the legal community; and teacher at Westminster Law School. After he was elected to a one-year term as Denver's city attorney in 1879, jerome established a law office with Charles H. Toll, another founding member of the University Club. jerome, a Hamilton College graduate, died November 22, 1903, leaving behind three daughters--one of whom married Richard H. Hart, Stephen H. Hart's father.l6 A Pennsylvania University graduate named Edwin N. Hawkins was chosen as the club's first He had come to Colorado as an associate with Crawford working as a chemist at the Globe Smelter.l7

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27 The club's first treasurer, Allan M .. Culver, served in that capacity for three Culver, an Amherst was the legal counsel for the International Trust Company, created by the merger of the Security Safety Deposit and Trust Company and-the National Trust Company in january 1892. David Moffat, WalterS. Cheesman, and Alva Adams were a few of Denver's well-known citizens who sat on the board of the International Trust Company. Well-versed in banking techniques and perfectly willingto use his business contacts, Treasurer Culver was instrumental in obtaining a loan for the club (under Thomas B. Stearns's presidency, 189)-96) to construct its own permanent clubhouse.t8 The Club's Quarters Fourteenth Street, Denver's first elite neighborhood, hosted the first quarters rented by the University Club, conveniently located at 1422 Curtis Street. William B. Daniels, the owner of the ten-year-old, two story brick house had recently died. Daniels had built the large ltalianate-style home in this fasionable residential district to be close to his department store, Daniels & Fisher, a few blocks away on Sixteenth Street. His son, William C. Daniels, "an avid world traveler, (who) had little use for the house," leased it to the club for $2,300 a year."l9 This first clubhouse was occupied on April18, 1891, and with minor remodeling, featured a reading room, a library, a billiard room, a restaurant, and a "'Wine Room."' This last room, a tiny subterranean saloon, built out of brick in 1893, was constucted-under the clubhouse for $50. A few rooms were also set aside as bedrooms for members, who

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were pampered by a steward and several servants. This pioneer staff was paid a total of $2,600 a year. Members particularly enjoyed the graciously landscaped grounds of the Daniels's property, passing many warm summer evenings under the shade trees.2o 28 According to club records, members began to feel the urge to build their own clubhouse in the fall of 1892. In fact, they were following the pattern of other university clubs around the country. The process, with few variations. began with the newly formed club occupying small quarters in a downtown section of a city. As membership grew, the club sought to lease or buy property on which to build a modern club, usually for a considerable sum of money. Although less than two years old, the University Club somehow managed to subscribe a $20,550 members' loan for a building fund. Since this club's first location had been in a fashionable residential area, members suggested that the club follow the move of Denver's elite up the hill to Brown's Bluff. Once work had begun on the Colorado State Capitol building, prominently situated at Sherman Street and East Colfu Avenue, this high, wind-swept prairie bad taken on a certain amount of prestige, becoming an enclave for the city's wealthy.21 The Move Up the Hill Denver oozed with optimism. Buildings were constructed thoughout downtown at an almost frenzied pace in the late 1880s and early 1890s. The stately Oxford Hotel, the artful Equitable Building, and

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29 the grandiose Brown Palace Hotel still stand as landmarks of this era. The "great era of wonderful activity in Denver real estate" (1887-1892) had arrived. Trolley car lines criss-crossed the city. creating instant streetcar suburbs: Barnum. University Park. Capitol Hill. and Montclair. The University Club. riding this wave of of prosperity. bought a prime piece of Capitol Hill land just prior to the panic of 1893. paying two land speculators from Nebraska. F .0. and j. H. Bell. a hefty $20.000 for their three lots on the corner of Seventeenth Avenue and Sherman Street.22 The next year brought everything to a grinding halt. In repealing the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. the United States government had dealt Colorado. "The Silver State." a real blow. In Denver new construction dropped off sharply. factories shutdown. and scores of railroads that had carried Colorado's once-valuable silver ore slid into bankruptcy. Although dismayed at this turn of events. University Club leaders continued to gather in the old clubhouse to pore over plans and patiently waited for a favorable time to build.23 The members of the club had. in fact. purchased an excellent site. While the panic had sent tremors through Denver. leaving the city badly shaken. it had forced the city to slow down long enough to evaluate the condition of its public services. The depression years that followed the panic actually gave the city of Denver a chance to catch its breath. The boom years had caused Denver's population to explode. soaring to well over 100.000 by 1890. All this rapid expansion and activity placed immense pressure on the supply of buildings and land. Now; with an opportunity to regroup. the city developed many improved services.2-4

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30 The Denver Tramway used the tough times to buy up rivals and to consolidate various horseand mule-drawn streetcar lines and convert to overhead electric trolley power. New water pumping stations were constructed by the Denver Union Water Company, and the Denver Consolidated Electric Company replaced the seven giant arc-light towers illuminating Denver's neighborhoods with electric street lights. Indeed, by the early 1890s, Denver's streetcars moved quickly "over muchimproved, well-lighted streets whose sides were lined with excellent private and public buildings."25 The University Club decided in May 1895 to construct a building in harmony with the elegant structures of the Capitol Hill neighborhood. Their $25,000 loan (at 6 percent), which had been secured by a mortgage on the three lots at Seventeenth Avenue and Sherman Street, covered the contract for a three-story brick building measuring 60-by-74 _feet. The house committee, headed by Samuel F. Rathvon, selected the Denver architectural firm of Varian and Sterner. which had also designed the Denver Club and the Denver Athletic Club.26 The commi,ttee chose well. The club's Neoclassical style "conveyed a flavor of domesticity" that reflected, though on a much smaller scale, the style and grace ofthe acclaimed Athenaeum Club in London. The building's original contract was let for S 19,900, specifying a completion date of December 20. Actually costs ran close to $23,000.27 The new clubhouse was completed in time for New Year's revelry. Following a December 31, 1895, housewarming, The Denver Times hailed the "handsome new home of the University Club ... which is

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31 admirably constructed for cozy club life." According to the same article "a delegation from the Denver Club, headed by Henry Wolcott, called shortly after midnight to wish the members a Happy New Year and extended to them the hospitality of their aub for the day, which many of the University aub members accepted."28 Sited on the crest of the Capitol Hill upslope, the lots on which the clubhouse stood were approximately four feet higher than the street level, making it necessary to build two flights of five steps each to reach the main entrance on Sherman Street. Off of the front entrance hall sat the "little strangers room and then the cafe," along with the billiard and pool rooms. The first-floor lounge w.as lit by "if1:1mense plate glass windows which open(ed) upon a broad piazza." The large, (25-by-30 feet) main dining room was located on the second floor with tbe kitchen, serving room, and cold storage facility in the rear. This floor also housed an octagonal private dining room, a card room, and a library.29 The .Rocky Mountain News declared the "club house unique in having a ladies' department with a separate entrance from Seventeenth avenue." The "dainty reception and waiting rooms (that were found) on either side of a cosy ball" led to a second-floor dining room featuring a private piazza.30 Tbe third floor contained ten bedrooms, baths, and dressing rooms, which were considered quite practical since university clubs bad been dubbed a "bachelor bouse of refuge." The same article in the News makes mention of a bowling alley in tbe basement as well as a bicycle room. The large space reserved for the former remained unused until

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32 1903, when it was converted into a recreation room complete "with a fireplace and appropriate furniture, provided by members' subscriptions." The laundry, servants' quarters, and the boiler room made up the rest of this floor. The University Club, crowed the .Rocky Mountl/in News, was "a complete example of the modern club."3l

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Endnotes I james W. Alexander, A History of the University Club of Nerv York, 1865-1915(NewYork: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1915), 6; Ibid. 2Jbid., 18.1bid., 3.1bid., 462-463; Ibid., 463; Ibid., 9. 3Carl Abbott, "Boom State and Boom City: Stages in Denver's Growth," Colorado Magazine(Summer 1973): 216-217; and Charles Bowdon Kingry, Chronicle of 75 Years: The University Club of Denver, (Denver: University Club of Denver, 1966), 5. 4Jbid . l. 5Ibid., 1. 33 'University Club, Club Book (Denver: University Club, 1891), 3. 23-24, 26; Denver City Directory, 1891, 157. 434, 977, 1351; Kingry, 7; The Denver Times. 10 August 1903: and The Denver Post, 15 November 1939. ?University Club, Club Book, 1891,18-19. 8fbid., 37-39. 9Jbid., 9-16, 40-41. I OJbid., 9-13. 11Ibid.,9-16; University Club, Club Book(Denver: University Club,1896), 60; University Club, Club Book (Denver: University Club,1902), 59-60. 12Kingry, Chronicle of 75 Years. 39; Alexander, History of University Club of NeJY York, 478. 13Press Syndicate of America, compiler, Press Biographies Representing Men of America, (Denver: The Press Syndicate of

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34 America, March, 1906), 24; Times, 21 February1921; Rocky Mountain News, 22 February1921; and Club Book, 189"1, 47-48. t4Minutes of the Meeting of Board. 8 May 1915: 11 january 1918: 10 November 1920: and Times. 21 February1921. 15Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 20 December 1922; Kingry, S-7; Wilbur Fiske Stone, ed., History of Colorado, 5 vols. (Chicago, 1880), vol 2, 36; Kingry, 1; Rocky Mountain News, 20 December 1922; Unidentified newspaper clipping, Denver Public Library, Western History Department, Henry T. Rogers clipping file: Club Books, 1891-1922; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 20 December 1922; and Kingry, 7. t6The Denver Times. 23 November1903: Club Book. 1891. 17: and Interview with-Stephen H. Hart, 1-2 januaryl989. 'Kingry, 7. 18Jbid., 7; Smiley, History of Denver, 843; and Kingry,l3. 19Smiley, 959; and Kingry, 4-5, 11. 20Letter to University Club Board of Directors, from General Contractor Denver, 15 julyl893, University Club and Kingry, 11. 21Jbid., 13; Aletander, 464-504. 22Smiley, 483. According to "Clason's Guide Map of Denver's Tramway System," car number 20 would drop you right in front of the University Club's new location, Stephen H. Hart Library, Colorado Historical Society; Abbott,"Boom State and Boom City," 218-220; and Denver Republican, 5 February 1893. 23Dorsett, 80-82; Smiley, 486-487; and Kingry, 13. 24Smiley, 483. 25Abbott, 215, 220; Smiley, 474-475; Clyde -Lyndon King, The History of the Government of Denver with special reference to its relations with Public Service Corporations(Denver: The Fisher

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35 Book Company, 1910 ), 63-65, 79-85; Robert G. Athearn, Westward the Briton(New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953), 46. 26Noel. The Oen ver Athletic Club, 14. 27Thomas J. Noel and Barbara 5. Norgren. Denver the City Beautiful and Its Architects, 219; and Kingry, 13-14. 28 The Oenver Times, 1 january 1896. 29Jbid., 14. Rocky Mountain News, 1 january1896; Ibid.; and Rocky Mountain News, 1 january1896. 30 Rocky Mountain News, 1 january 1896. 31A1exander, 138; Kingry, 20; and Rocky Mountain News. 1 january1896.

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CHAPTER IV THE CLUBHOUSE "To promote social intercourse ... the encouragement of literature and art, ... a library, reading room, and club house with all the appurtenances, belongings, matters and things usual or desirable in connection therewith," the University Club has, over the years, spent a good deal of time and money altering the clubhouse to suit its members' needs. I When the club's spanking new clubhouse opened in 1896, it attracted fifty-five new members, increasing the total to 198. By 1907, the resident members list had reached 200--the maximum allowed, prompting a vote to raise the limit to 250. Club records of changes in its membership for many of these years are sketchy at best. The minutes of the board meetings from 1891 to 1910 were lost in a 1980 fire. The next documented major fluctuation in membership occurs during the Great War.2

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37 World War I In 1917-1918, so many members were drafted to serve in World War I, that a special military membership category, whose annual dues were excused, was established for the duration of the war. To cover the lost income, a-special monthly-assessment of$2.50 on each member became effective October 1917. Despite grumbling, this assessment remained and was not reduced until three years later--two years after the armistice. The new charge was S 1 less.3 The University Club, taking the war effort to heart. formed a war committee. Its first action was to invest the club's S5,000 savings fund in Liberty Bonds. Club member Thomas B. Stearns, appointed by President Woodrow Wilson as the Food Administrator for f:olorado, also oversaw the club's observance of meatless and wheatless days:4 During the war, patronage at the club seriously waned. Down on Seventeenth Street, the Denver Club felt the same crunch. In August 1918 that club approached the University Club, a possible merger of the two clubs for the duration of the war. The proposal suggested closing the University Club and admitting its members to the Denver Club for as long as the war lasted. The invitation was promptly voted down by the University Club at the 1918 annual meeting.5 Even though members on the special military list returned to club once the war was over, other resignations kept the total membership below pre-war levels. In order to increase membership, the club voted to amend the constitution allowing a candidate who had "completed two

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38 years' resident study in a university or college and left such institution to enter the service in the Army, Navy, or Marine Corps, and actually served therein during the World War, to be approved for membership."6 Little did they know at the time that referring to the "World War," not specifying it as World War I, would cause some interpretation problems for the board in the future. To settle it once and for all, board member john S. Pfeiffer facetiously suggested in 1972: that his interpretation of the By-laws of the Club is that Vietnam, Korea and World War II were of no consequence, therefore, only those persons who were prevented from completing their educa by World War I could be considered, without the required degree, for membership in the University Cub. Another amendment also was adopted in 1919 to help increase membership. This one also took into account the disruption World War I may have had on potential members. It offered a lower admission fee ($50 instead of S 100) for "a resident member whose name was proposed within two years next, after he obtained such a degree within five years prior to july 1, 1919, and whose name is proposed prior to july 1, 1920."7 These amendments, coupled with the efforts of a special recruitment committee, worked so well that the club voted in 1922 to increase the membership limit by another fifty, up to 300.8

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39 Roaring into the Twenties: The 1923 Building Expansion Returning veterans and the active new member interest brought club usage to an all-time high. It quickly became apparent just how short the club was on space and how desparately it needed to attend to the many maintenance projects which had ""been deferred since the beginning of the war." In analyzing the situation further. the club was made aware that the country clubs in the area "which welcomed both sexes, were competing severely with Downtown Clubs for both time and money," not to mention the facilities they provided for the whole family. The club, up to this point, had confined members' families to one small dining room. The time had come to consider plans to enlarge the clubhouse.' Doubting Thomases of the proposedexpansion apparently were effectively quelled by a stirring speech of former Governor and U.S. Senator Charles S. Thomas. He asserted that the club's expansion involved no risk "unless, indeed, the spirit of the Club had become atrophic and decadent." In that case Thomas asserted, "It would be useless to consider any other plan, and that without that Spirit the Club was doomed I" At a special meeting of the membership on August 22, 1923. the club unanimously agreed to a S70,000 expansion. to The next month, the club arranged a S60,000 mortgage with the International Trust Company of Denver and combined it with what finally amounted to a S38,000 members loan, from a great many of the members. The latter, which consisted of a series of non-negotiable notes. were fondly remembered as the famous Series B. Dated October 1. 1923,

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40 and due on or before january 1, 1929, these notes were secured by a second mortgage. The notes, which bore no 'interest, obligated payment of at least 20 percent annually. II Club members Platt Rogers and his brother Edmund, representing the C. S. Lambie Company, were awarded the constuction contract. The project began in October using the designs of newly elected member Temple Buell, who claimed it was his "first Denver job."l2 The building committee agreed to add an extra story to the club and make full use of the basement by excavating the ground between the retaining wall and the clubhouse to average depth of approximately nine feel This allowed the basement to become the first floor of the enlarged structure. The new main entrance, built directly beneath the old one, was now reached by going down a flight of six steps, instead of going up two flights as before. This plan also altered the ladies' entrance and brought it to street level. The exposed rough masonry was faced with brick to match the building and windows were added. The original Pipe and Bowl room became the ladies' lounge and restroom.l3 The old first floor, in the process of becoming the second floor, was rearranged .. Two private dining rooms took the place of the strangers' room and the offices, which were moved downstairs. The card room cozied up to the pool and billiard room on the second floor, while the third floor was converted into bedrooms (some which featured a private bath) and a large common bathroom. The library moved into the old private dining room.14

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41 The building plan was developed to provide space for use by the families of members as well as increase the accomodations for traditional club entertainments. Buell's plan also created more boarding rooms. All of these features were contained in a large new wing, extending to the alley. Using the grounds' natural slope, Buell placed the ladies' dining room under the college room (the main mens' dining room). With this arrangement, the kitchen, which was located adjacent to the former, could easily serve both establishments.t5 In the best club spirit, architect Buell was recognized at the 1923 annual meeting. He received the traditional Order of the Gilded Clam and a roasting as an: Artist and artizan lsic], architect and builder of palaces and p. p. nooks. This eminent engineer ruthlessly jacks up the roof and three whole stories and builds a basement thereunder with a so-called ladies' entrance to a so..;called ladies' lounge. This fierce fighter frenzied by the fear of female flappers on the first floor fortuitiously furnished Clueless furnaces and food facilities that function famously and forthwith fares forth fearlessly to face the fond felicitations of his favorite fraternity.16 This florid praise overlooked the most oustanding feature of Buell's project--the college room, originally called the great hall. Its ceiling was sixteen feet high and fitted with heavy rough-hewn beams that extended the entire width of the new wing. Its walls, covered in red oak paneling, lent Blizabethean atmosphere to the club's oldest tradition--the annual Twelfth Night performance. A balcony, constructed for presidential viewing of the performance, was partially funded by the family of judge

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42 Carlton Bliss in his memory. On the opposite wall, huge windows were erected to hold the seals of the colleges represented by the membership. This idea may have been borrowed from the University Club of New York, which added carved seals of members' colleges to the exterior of their new facility in 1899.17 The dedication of the fireplace at the south end of the ball spurred a great debate. Yale alumni members, the club's single largest group, bad approached the board offering to pay for its construction, providing it be dedicated to Yale graduates. A long-running discussion ensued over the form and design of the fireplace. The board ultimately accepted the gift of Henry Treat Rogers's widow and established a memorial featuring an informal crest of the club. The crest was carefully designed (and highlighted with crayolas) by james Grafton Rogers and Richard H. Hart. To please their fellow-Yalies, Rogers and Hart created its superstructure to resemble a Yale memorial tower.f8 The third floor of the new wing was devoted to fifteen new bedrooms and several bathrooms. The vacant space on the top floor was used for storage until more bedrooms were needed. In all, the club spent close to S 14,000 to outfit its newly expanded quarters, including furniture, furnishings, and equipment.J9 The new facilities gave the club new life. Members, old and new alike, enjoyed the improved house on the hill. Over the next few years, the club's membership grew at a fast pace. In the process, the first mortgage bonds had been reduced to $45,000. But the growth was not fast enough to alleviate a running deficit of S3,000 to S5,000 a year.

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Once again, the club approached the .International Trust Company, borrowing another $10,000 at S.S percent interest in March 1929.20 43 Some members of the board, concerned by this new indebtedness, suggested that the clubhouse be sold and the club relocate. President LeRoy McWhinney even went so far as to open negotiations for the sale of the clubhouse with Central Presbyterian Church, the club's neighbor to the east. With the Great Depression just around the corner, the acceptance of this proposal might have left the club without a home for yearsl Fortunately, at the next board meeting the idea of selling the clubhouse "was abandoned for the present."21 As a way to increase membership and raise revenues, the club's executive committee even went so far as to suggest that the club's entrance qualifications be liberalized to include college men who had not obtained a degree, but had at least two years of study. The board, ever keen on preserving the club's "canon of exclusion," unanimously voted down this suggestion. The issue was not entirely dead, however. Some two and one-half decades later it would once again rear its head.22 The Depression Blues The Depression clobbered all of Denver's private clubs hard and the University Club was no exception. The club reeled from an unprecented number of resignations: almost two-thirds of the resident membership

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had resigned between fall 1929 and winter 1932. Reassessing its situation. the board determined in 1933: 1. For the time being no admission fees would be charged for membership in the club; 44 2. For new members under age 31 admission fees would be $2.50 a month; 3. For new members between age 31 and 35 admission fees would be $4.50 a month.23 To add to their concern, longtime secretary and past president Richard H. Hart tendered his resignation. His law firm was suffering financially and his meager teaching salary from Westminster Law School, now known as the University of Denver Law School, was not enough to support his family. He could no longer afford his monthly dues. The board refused to accept his resignation and voted that his name "remain upon the roll of the Club as a resident member and all dues and assessments charged against him ... be placed in a suspence account until further action or the Board." A short time later, Hart was selected by the board as the club historian, "there having been none for some years .. (which) carry(s) with it the privilege of membership without payment of any dues or assessments."24 Since the club was cutting corners wherever it could, the 1933 annual report was not mailed to members. Instead, copies were made available for members' inspection at the club office. A special finance committee was also formed to secure a six-month extension on the loan from the International Trust Company. In 1934, President Robert G.

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45 Bosworth appointed a committee to raise S 1,500 from the membership to cover the interest then due on the 1oan.25 At this time, another committee was also organized to conduct an intensive campaign for new members. They began their campaign by contacting Chancellor Frederick Maurice Hunter of the University of Denver for leads of prospective members. It appears that other university clubs around the country may have been just as concerned about club growth. In September 1936, the Nashville University Club wrote inquiring how to make their club bigger and better. The board referred the matter to Secretary Arthur Henry "with the understanding that, if he bad any really good ideas, they would be used for this club."26 The problems brought on by the depression were compounded when the club discovered that the bookkeeper, Clayton Simons had been bilking them. Needless to say, he was quickly discbarged.27 Despite its past problems, the club's treasurer reported "some betterment in the Club's financial condition" in May 1936. A year later, he proudly exclaimed that the record showed "the best month on the income side for a mighty long time," with beverages up substantially and "a rather neat profit being refected."28 In the fall of 1938, the subject of merging with the Denver Club came up once again. President Robert W. Steele met with representatives of Denver's oldest all-male private club to discuss the possibilities. The University Club's board stated "that the matter was impr-ctical," and unanimously rejected the proposal when it was brought before them.29

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46 The Challenge of Another World War As Denver's economy and that of the entire nation began to swing to the upside. the depression blues were replaced by the World War II woes. In 1942 the club had seventy-seven members in military service. eighty-eight in 1943. With close to one-third of the club's members granted suspended-dues status. club finances faltered. In delivering his report to the board, Treasurer Arthur Underwood quipped, "If ... the report is correct it indicates that we are inoving only at a slow rate toward bankruptcy." At the 1943 annual meeting Underwood announced, "The financial affairs of the Club could be in worse shape but (we are] holding some faint rays or hope for the Club s continued existence. "30 That faint hope became the Remington Arms Plant, which had transferred some 300 executives to Denver. It was targeted since the board was convinced that these executives "would be desirable members for the Club and ... would probably be interested in living at the Club." This was a particularly wise move in view of Denver's severe housing crunch during World War 11.31 The board also formed a special committee on membership "to concentrate particularly on Ordnance Plant and Army men as prospects." With all of the military activity in Denver. the campaign began at once. The committee's proposal that "men in military service residence at posts adjacent to Denver, even though not commissioned officers. should be elected as non-resident members ... provided they have the necessary other qualifications," was quickly approved by the board." A few months

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47 later. Lieutenant Aubrey 0. Cookman. an active military member of the club. informed the board that he was working up a contact list of officers at the various stations in the area. Thoughout the military membership campaign the club offered Sunday evening meals. buffet-style. "since Saturdays and Sundays are really the only 'leave days for officers stationed here."32 Bven with these new efforts. club usage was still very low. By mid-1943 the club had discontinued serving dinners on Monday evening and closed the college room to meal service. The club became painfully aware that it would have to attract members beyond the current scope of those in the military and government -related fields. The board rallied to the cause and implemented a program to recruit members from personal aquaintances and college alumni lists. Each board member was requested to propose at least one new member and work with other club members in helping them to find other new prospects.33 The club, though quiet. was not dead; it was merely trying to survive the social and economic dislocations of the war era. New members had. in fact. joined the club during these membership drives; not in the numbers hoped for, but enough to have a positive impact on the club's financial condition. By April 1944 the scene was definitely brighter. The board openly rejoiced when Treasurer Arthur Underwood's report showed "an actual cash profit. mirahi/e dictu." Underwood-'s audit was "embossed in gold on parchment and framed."34

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48 In 1945, military members returned in droves. As the club's membership roster gradually increased, the club slowly resumed full services and activities. By October 1946, the club boasted 372 resident members, seventy-two nonresident members, and eight military members. The board had to establish a waiting list for new members. A few of those who were wait-listed were swiftly accommodated when, in May 1946, the members voted to increase the resident membership list to 375. Six years later the number was again increased to 425. The club's overall membership had grown l5 percent.35 The club was basking in another Denver economic boom. Many of those in the military who had been based in Denver, or those working here on government manufacturing contracts or at the newly expanded federal center, stayed on to enjoy the cool, sunny, dry climate, and the mountain vistas. In just one decade, from 1940 to 1950, Denver's population rose 24 percent--from 322,412 to 415,786.36 Flying into the Fifties: Another Building Exoansion Rising patronage of the club's facilities created a severe space crunch, and exposed the pressing need for maintenance. The club prepared to embark on another building expansion. Since many issues demanded attention, the entire building program, under the watchful eye of member Paul Wolf, took over two years to formulate. Aside from building improvements and general maintenance needs, the house committee also considered an elevator (the older members no longer

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49 relished walking up the creaky old staircase), a new heating plant, new office space, and additional bedrooms.37 Fire protection, which had first been discussed by the board in 1947, also worked its way into the plan; some by design and some of compliance. At that time, a committee had been organized to provide a fire escape on the north side of the building. It also reinstalled a clock punching system for the club's night watchman as a protective measure in accordance with the city's fire department and building inspector. In the spring of 1949 the club had also installed an iron ladder as an exit from the third floor in case of fire.38 Helpful as these measures were, the club was still branded a fire trap following a grand jury inspection of the premises after the tragic Denver Athletic Club fire February 17, 1951, in which four lives were lost. The inspection report emphasized "the seriousness of the (fire) hazard at the Denver Club and the University Club, and recommend[ed] that steps be taken to correct them at once." Included in the inspection report's twelve recommendations were "the removal of 30-year-old pulley ropes and installation of fire escapes, installation of a sprinkling system, exit signs and fire extinguishers."39 The club reacted quickly to carry out each of the recommendations--adding an outside exit off of the college room, improving the existing fire escape and adding others, while having the entire clubhouse rewired. All agreed that the $14,000 it cost to make these improvements was money well spent.-40

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A Modern Clubhouse The question before the club was no longer whether or not to expand the club's facilities, but by how much. President Stephen Hart told the board in july 1952 that the club: should not take half measures, but go whole hog in bringing the 50 club up to date, as the Denver Club, and the Denver Athletic Club will be partly out of business for the next two years, which should assure the University Club good business:41 President Hart's letter to the members announcing this meeting made an eloquent case in support of the measure. He mentioned the competition the University Club would face shortly in the wake of the Denver Club's new $625,000 penthouse (plus $200,000 in furnishings). He referred to $1 million-plus reconstruction plan of the Denver Athletic Club and the Denver Country Club's recently completed $200,000 improvement plan, including a skating rink. The letter urged, "Unless we have done a little house-cleaning, our Club House will be out of their class and unquestionably second-grade."42 The board had also considered the possibility of leasing or buying the University Arms Apartments, the club's next-door neighbor at 1655 Sherman Street. According to Kingry, club members had peroidically lodged there when all the club's bedrooms were rented. In 1952 the entire apartment was available to rent for $500 a month. Since this offer did not include an option to buy, the board did not pursue it. Two years

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later the building was renamed the Sherman Apartments. It was torn down for parking lot space in 1970:43 51 At a special meeting of the membership, held February 9, 1953, the club approved a S 150,000 building program. The architectural firm of Smith and Hegner, consisting of members Dudley T .. Smith, Sr. and Casper Hegner, designed the project. As described in President Hart's letter, the ground floor would house "a new ladies' cocktail room of real distinction, more attractive, larger, and hence better revenue producing than the present one." And "the present entrance and crummy hallway [would be) made presentable." Hart made particular mention of "a men's bar where customers can either sit in comfort or place foot on rail, a masculine gesture impossible at any permanent bar in the Club now."-44 The club undertook this building program in the best of times. With over S 11,000 in profit from 19 52 as well as an operating profit for the first three months of the fiscal year (October, November, and December, 1952), which amounted to more than $4,500, and a waiting list of 67, the members took the mortgage plunge once again. The International Trust Company would loan the club S 125,000, payable in installments over twenty years. With a S3 a month dues increase in all categories, the club should be able to repay the new mortgage "as rapidly as possible during the present good times, so that if [the club) sees another period like the thirties the mortgage will be paid down to an amount [the club) can carry without difficulty:" Hart also stressed that even with this dues increase, the club's overall dues scale was less than the Denver Qub, the Denver Country Club, and the Denver Athletic Club.

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52 He also did not hesitate to add that the University Club had "better food, bigger drinks and lower prices."45 At the 1953 annual meeting retiring President Stephen Hart claimed "that the Club is e1cellent condition: never in its history ha[d) the mortgage been so large." The club retorted by awarding the Order of the Gilded Clam to Stephen Hart and james Grafton Rogers (Hart's father-in-: law) "for both having in their generation rescued the Club when it was on the brink of becoming debtless."46 The modernized and totally updated University Club celebrated its open house for members and their families on Saturday, AprillO, 1954. Some 350 of the club's 540 total members streamed in through the now presentable entrance and hallway. The ladies restroom and cloakroom were described as "a thing of beauty and utility" with adequate space and no one, it appears, would miss the old one, which was simply "disgracefully inadequate." The four new private dining rooms--two on the ground floor and two on the second floor--were decorated in soft pastel shades. 47 The club put on a fine fete for this occasion. Champagne was served at 4:00 P.M. with canapes and punch on the house. A buffet supper began at 7:00P.M., followed by dancing until midnight with a six piece orchestra:i8 The club encountered a slight deficit in 19 55 and voted to increase the resident membership limit by another fifty. Even with these new members, which created an additional SSOO a month in dues, the club experienced financial problems. As the situation came to light, the club

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53 removed john Devers as manager, citing among other things his poor control over fiscal matters. The club, which was delinquent in taxes and tax reports, had to borrow money from The First National Bank of Denver to make the current deposit of employment taxes.-49 Despite this setback the board maintained a positive outlook for the club. In response to Denver's continued growth and the board's view that the club had "a certain obligation to increase its membership within its own convenient limits so as to take care of men qualified and desirable for admission," the resident membership limit was raised to 500--an increase of twenty-five--in 1959.50 A much-debated amenity was finally added to some parts of the club in 1960. The first areas to be air conditioned were the ladies' lounge, the ladies' dining room, and the presidents' room. Rather than suffer the heat indoors, some members lobbied for a beer garden on the ground floor outside, claiming that at least there would be an occasional breeze. The club spent $700 for additional tables and chairs and promptly hooked up a draft beer outlet. It was a full thirteen years later before the club spent $4,750 to air condition the pool room.5t Of course all these extras cost money, not to mention the expense of "deferred maintenahce." In a "no-holds-barred" letter to the membership, President Dayton Denious made the following appeal: If we do not bring our kitchen fire protection and equipment into compliance with the ordinances, the City will close us up. If we do not paint the outside of the Club House this year we may not have anything left to paint. To the cuisine you expect (and deserve) Tish [the manager] needs to replace our antique plate warmers and he must have a walk-in refrigator. [sic) And so on.52

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54 The letter went on to state .that effective May 1, 1963, the initiation fee would increase by one-third to $400, and the raise in monthly dues would be an additional $3 for resident members, (other categories would increase ). The Changes of the Seventies In 1969 the club's committee on admissions took a serious look at the status of the club's membership. In analyzing the situation. it became evident that the halcyon days "when gentlemen cherished their clubs, land] spent a great deal of time searching out and sponsoring a candidate for membership were gone." Faced with competition from the Denver Club, the University Club was reminded that its downtown neighbor had been able: to lock up the leading members of the business and professional community between the ages of 30 and 40 years who are interested in clubs ... enabling them now to be more successful in attracting the next younger group of men, whose acquaintanceships are in Murchison Tower rather than with the more elderly membership on the hill.53 The "membi-care committee.'' as the board called it and poked fun at Medicare,was. specifically formed in November 1969 to examine a special membership category for older members and thus create space for more young members. After studying the issue, the committee

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55 determined that older members do not use the club's facilities as frequently as younger members. The club now had approximately twenty-five members over the age of sixty-five who had also been members for over thirty years. Removing such persons from the regular membership, the committee reasoned would open the membership to younger people thereby absorbing some of those on the current two-year wait list.54 Out of these discussions came the following amendments to the club's constitution: 1) Any resident member, reaching age 65 or older with 30 consecutive years of resident membership. will become a senior resident member: 2) Only resident members have the right to hold office, and only resident and senior resident members have the right to vote; 3) Three classifications of resident members-junior, those under 30 and paying one-third the regular admission; intermediate; those between 30 and 35 and paying two-thirds the regular admission fee; and resident, those 35 and over and paying the full admission fee.55 While changing and expanding membership categories, the club would not consider modifying the degree requirement. As 1928, when the suggestion had been made back to allow men who had at least two years of college to join the club, it was unanimo.usly voted down. Almost a quarter of a century later, the subject was broached again. Club member Robert Follansbee had written to university clubs around the country in 1952, requesting information on their degree requirements.

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56 While many of the clubs that responded had indeed "lowered their standards to include non-graduates," the University Club of Denver held fast to its original policy. The University Club of Cleveland, Ohio, wrote to congratulate its Denver counterpart for not abandoning a "fundamental rule ... There are plenty others for the mere college 'attenders. [We are not implying) snootiness, only distinctiveness in membership."56 Remodeling for Revenues' Sake The club was not the first to discover that sometimes it takes money to make money. Such was the case in remodeling the presidents' room in 1973. When the club invested $20,000 to refurbish this room, its usage as a private dining room increased three-fold. "With those interesting figures," the board mused, "this capital expenditure could be paid off in 30 years and not the expected 40 years." The club had had virtually the same experience three years earlier in redecorating the ladies' lounge, which had become a real"dog" in the eyes of the board. Even though some termed the $20,000 finished product "the mid Victorian peanut parlor," its success in increased revenues could not be denied. Member Charles Warren's efforts for this project were extolled at the 1976 annual meeting. He was recoginized "for personally supervising the conversion of the formerly dreary, dreary old room into the happy place which later became known as Charlie's Cat House," (i.e., member Charles W arren).57

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57 Another Redecoration By 1976 normal wear and tear on the club's ground floor had taken its toll. The board considered a plan sub mit ted by Robert Caudle Associates, Inc., an interior design firm, which included remodeling the main entrance, lobby, men's coat room, manager's office, and the ladies' area. It was approved, but not without: the precarious and precocious prattle of prejuiced percursors prepared to precipitate a presposterous predictament without precaution on pretext to preserve the precious premises by precept of precise premium.58 The "precise premium" referred to above totaled $148,556.59. Quite a sum for a project whose six phases were described as follows: 1. Enthusiasm 2. Disillusionment 3. Panic 4. Search for the guilty S. Punishment of the innocent 6. Praise and honors for the non-participants.59 The final renovation project of the 1970s kept the clubhouse supplied with jokes for months on end. The executive committee met in special session to authorize the "Ladies jane Project," which included the installation of five fast-flush toilets. The initial expenditure of $2,000 grew to ten times that amount, when it was discovered that the water pressure into the club was too small for a "five-flusher." The new water lines cost the club $6.500 in tap fees. plus an additional $3,800 for the

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installation of the line itself. Then, of course, the room had to be completely redecorated.60 58 In a parting gesture, the club spanked Mackintosh Brown, chair of the house committee, at the 1979 annual meeting: You have just enlarged the Ladies' Bathroom facilities at a cost and in a manner which causes to pale into insignificance the wildest dreams of avarice. In the days when we had only three sedate, quiet porcelain commodes with tanks, the house committee put a sign above. the mirrors which said: 'They also serve who only sit and wait. So, you, Mr. Brown, became the victim of what I can only describe as a particularly blatant example of potty politics. Not only did you cause a two-thirds increase in the number of Ladies' lavabos;--you also equipped them with such powerful space-age jet flushes, that we had to dig up the whole street to provide adequate pressure so that the girls could relieve themselves without draining all the water out of every building on Capitol Hill. Do you realize that we had to bring a two inch diameter pipe from the water main in the street into the building? That's as thick as Lyle Alzado's wrist. That's enough to operate a very respectable fire-hydrant for as long as you like. And the whole project only cost S20.000.00 That means that 500 Wives and girlfriends have to go potty 400 times each at a dime a piece before we break even, Mr. Brown. The only way to speed up the process is to make them drink as much as possible whenever we bring them here. For that reason, I say that you should be summarily dismissed from the House Committee and be installed forthwith as Chairman of the Non-Sectarian Interclub Committee to Promote Bibulousness Among Women--in these premises.6J Design by Fire On Wednesday morning, November 12, 1980, a member of the roof-tarring crew was busily repairing the roof of the University Qub

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59 with a propane torch. just past 8:30A.M., the torch ignited the roof and the fire "got away from" the crew. An amazed Walter Steele, former club president, saw the fire start while he was in his office on the sixteenth floor of the Lincoln Center Building across the alley from the club. According to an interview in the Rocky Mountain News, Steele said, "I saw the people on the roof attempt to put out the fire out with hand extinguishers, but once it caught the tar paper, it got away from them." The fire "spread to the penthouse, sending a huge column of gray smoke northward over the city."62 Fire damage was extensive to the roof and to the squash court which projects about two stories above the main building. The interior of the club also sustained heavy water damage in the blaze. It was brought under control in about a half-hour with eight fire trucks. One worker was treated at the scene for smoke inhalation and released.63 Three days later the board held a "'well you can't win them all"' special meeting at the offices of the law firm of Fairfield & Woods in the Colorado National Bank building. Special mention was given to club manager Lamond Williams and bookkeeper LeRoy Pinkney for the procedures immediately instituted following the fire. Since the board felt it was in the best interest of the me mber:ship to reopen the club house as soon as possible, it formed the "GjO (Get the joint Open) Committee." The committee, in turn, selected Monday, November 17, as the date on which to reopen the club.64 Several other committees were also organized at this meeting to_ aid in the reconstruction and rehabilitation of the clubhouse. A long-

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60 range planning committee met with the board at another special meeting on january, 24, 1981, to determine the nature of the club's rebuilding program in the context of the 1980s. A list of some of the motions that passed appear below: 1. All future building plans must take into consideration the expanded use of the clubhouse by females, and its expanded use by the membership in general; 2. The club should remain primarily a social and dining club; athletics should remain secondary; 3. Fire insurance proceeds should not be used to provide sleeping rooms at the clubhouse: and 4. Determine the economic feasibility of providing office space for members on the third and fourth floors of the clubhouse.65 The results of a questionnaire that had been submitted to the membership were .analyzed at the next board meeting in February. Most of the members favored repairing or replacing facilities which showed signs of wear or were no longer adequate, such as the kitchen which had become terribly outmoded in the past 17 years. The members also supported restoring the club to its condition prior to the fire and air conditioning the most used rooms with a modest assessment payable over a period of time. And the majority also expressed a desire to establish reciprocal arrangements with university clubs in other cities.66 In view of these considerations, the board approved an $800,000 renovation program to include a new deck and patio. Rodney Davis was chosen as the architect for the project. Lamond Williams, club manager, informed the board that by repairing only the damage caused by the fire, the club need not be closed. Considering that the club was already

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receiving booking requests for the current summer, Williams recommended postponing any major alterations until the summer of 1982. The board agreed.67 61 Amid these big plans the board received a signed petition from some of the members who requested a special membership meeting to discuss, among other things: the location and expense of constructing a new dining room, in light of the "paucity of members dining at the club in the evening." All was settled with dispatch and the building program stayed on track.68 Negotiations with the Chancery Investment Company, who owned the land to the south of the club once occupied by the University Arms Apartment building, were begun shortly after the fire. The club, in contemplating an expansion of the ladies' dining room ten feet to the south, would need this neighbor's consent, since the land contained a deed restriction precluding "construction of any structures." The necessary approval was granted in january 1982 and construction began almost immediately. The remodeled ladies' dining room, featuring seven booths, now seats 62 people, 14 more than the old one.69 The opening on May 2, 1983, of the new deck and patio, featuring the new beer garden, marked the completion of the club's rebuilding program. This renovation could now be enjoyed by both old and new members alike.70

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Attracting Members in the Eighties By the early 1980s, would-be members faced a 11 0-person waiting list and a four-and one-half-year wait. So the membership 62 voted to raise the number of resident members to 550. Within one year, the admissions committee, also referred to as the ''You Put 'Em Up; We Get 'Em In" committee, reported that the club had 531 resident members on its roster with "six, count them 6, applicants on the waiting list."? I The admissions committee, which had placed twenty applicants on "bold," each by his own request, as they were "not financially able to pay the initiation fee at (the) time," questioned whether or not the club should finance or spread out the payment of the initiation fee. This was particularly distressing, since the club had purposely been trying to attract ''qualified younger men to ensure the long-term strength of the Club." Rather than lose potential members, such as these, the board revised the initiation fee allowing new members to pay the $3,000 over a twelve-month period with an additional 15 percent assessment charge. Everyone, from the new initiate to the oldtimer, had to help pay for all the club's new-fangled remodeling. In 1987, this policy was revised. again. New members had the option to pay the entire initiation fee up front in cash; or, pay one-third when initiated, one-third six months later, and the last one-third one after Another option: make a minimum payment of S500 with monthly installments over the .next two years at a ten percent rate of interest. For a three-month period, from

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63 February to Apri11990, the initiation fee would be discounted to $1, 500 in hopes of attracting new members.72 Somehow the rebuilding program ran into a "construction shortfall," which forced the board into borrowing S130,000 from the United Bank of Denver in the fall of 1982. Posed with problem of repaying this loan, the board imposed a refundable assessment in the amount of $200 on each resident member to be paid in two installments of StOO each on March 1 and Apri11, 1983. The priority in repayment established by the board pledged 75 percent "of all initiation fees collected by the Club from and after March 1, 1983" to first cover the United Bank debt and then be applied to the refunding of all refundable assessments until cleared. In discussing this repayment plan with members of the club, the board developed a few "appropriate acronyms," such as: CRAPS, which stands for Compulsory Refundable Assessment Program. and REAM. [which is the one that stuck) which would stand for Refundable Estimated Assessment Measure. In an effort to encourage members to use the Club, another alternative might be ROT ATE, standing for Refunding Our Toad's Assessment Takes Emolument.73 "Toad" refers to past president Lynn E. Hornbrook, who was the current chair of the house committee. Ten days later at the annual meeting, in the best spirit of the club, Hornbrook received a shiny new hardhat for his sensational efforts .. .lin supervising) the construction of the new ladies' dining room and I

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64 kitchen. He was last seen [that evening] wearing the hardhat next to the windows in the new ladies' dining room and dodging falling missiles from the new United Bank Building. The club convinced United Bank to construct a "wooden walkway to protect pedestrians from the 'bolts from the blue ... hurled from their building." The construction of this fifty-two-story structure, down the street from the club, also damaged the club's skylight and roof.74 Although the clubhouse changed throughout the years and the membership fluctuated with the times, the club has always enjoyed the loyalty and dedication of certain members. Prank W. Kenney was made the club's first honorary lifetime member. In 1925 he had created the Kenney Trust Fund which was to provide "income for beautification" and for the "purchase of pictures" for the clubhouse. In recognizing his trust fund nine years later, the board declared him a lifetime member of the club and ordered that all"dues and assessments accruing against him be deducted from the Kenney Fund."75 That same year Frederick 0. Vaille tried to resign from the club. Instead of accepting his resignation, the board made him an honorary lifetime member, remitting his dues and assessments for the rest of his life "in recognition of his long and faithful service to the Club." The board bestowed the same privilege on George Norlin in 1939, james R. Arnell in 1942, Richard Peete in1947, and Robert J. Pitkin in1948, when each had attempted to resign. By special request, the board granted honorary lifetime membership status to past president james Grafton Rogers in 1965, including a remission and waiver of all dues and assessments.76

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65 In the 1950s, the board offered to any resident or nonresident member with forty-five years of continuous membership "the option of becoming honorary members at minimum dues with all privileges except voting." Two members who took advantage of this special category were Fred R. Lanagan and Luke Cavanaugh.'? In 1980 the board realized that the last of these honorary members "had passed on to the Big Reading Room in the Sky" in 1978 "and the classification [had) been vacant ever since." Upon making this discovery the board adopted the following resolution: Any member who has attained the age of 90 years, may, at his request, be granted the status of Honorary Member ... with all privileges of the Club, but shall pay no dues and shall not have the right to vote.78 In the late 1980s the three members who were admitted to the rank of honorary membership, exchanging voting privileges for dues-free membership, were SamuelS. Sherman, Paul Wolf, and Charles Nicola. In accepting this new status, each probably expressed, in his own way, the fond sentiment offered by the widow of long-standing member, George Filmer, who remembered "the Club members as 'a gallant group of rascally rogues [that) I will always cherish--individually and collectively. "'79 ----------..

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Endnotes 1 Club Book, 1891.18-19. 2K.ingry,15; lbid.,19. 3Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 13 September 1917; Ibid.; and Kingry, p. 19. 4Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of the University Club, 11 july 1917. Rocky Mountain News. 13 September 1917; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 12 December 1917. 66 5Minutes from the Annual Meeting of the University Club, 11 November 1918. 6University Club, Constitution, art. VI, sec. 1., 1974. ?Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 24 November 1953; Ibid., 28 March 1972; Kingry,19. 8Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the University Club, 25 October 1922. 9Letter to the Members of the University Club, from Richard H. Hart, Secretary, 17 August 1923; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 26 june 1923; and Kingry, 39. 10Minutes of the Special Meeting of the Membership, 22 August 1923. 11 Ibid., 12 September 1923; Annual Report of the University Club, 20 October 1925. 12Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 10 October 1923; Kingry, 45. 13Jbid., 46.

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14 Interview with Robert E. Bryan, jr ., Past President and Mitchell Benedict III, Member, 8 August 1988. 67 15Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 30 August 1923; and Kingry, 46. 16Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the University Club. 31 October 1923. The traditional clam dinner that precedes the annual meeting was introduced after World War I. In recalling the military ceremony of conferring awards for valor, the club in its best satrical style, instituted the Order of the Clam to recognize certain club members. Kingry, 28. 17 Annual Report of the University Club, 24 October1924. Interview with Bryan and Benedict, 8 August 1988; Kingry, 46-47; and Alexander, 138. 18Minutes of the Meeting. of the Board, 11 November 1923; Ibid., 11 january1924; and Kingry, 47. 19Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 30 August 1923: and Kingry, 47. 20 Annual Report of the University Club, 30 September 1928. Loan agreement signed by Clarence j. Daly, president, International Trust Company, (Capitol Life Insurance Company), and the officers of the University Club, 21 March1929, University Club Archives. 21Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Committee of the Board, 17 April 1929; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 18 April 1929; Ibid., 23 May 1929. 22Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Committee, 23 August 1928. Alexander, 44; and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 27 September 1928. 23 Annual Reports of the University Club, 1929 to 1932, and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 16 February 1933; and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 16 Febraury 1933. 24Interviewwith Stephen H, Hart, 12 january1989; Ibid., Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 26 july 1934.

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68 25Call to Annual Meeting, as posted at the University Club clubhouse, 11 October 1933, University Club Archives; and Minutes of the Meeting of Board, 19 October 19 3 3. 26Jbid., 22 October 1934; Ibid., 17 September 1936. 27Ibid., November 27, 1941. 28Ibid., 21 May 1936; Ibid., 15 Apri11937. 29Ibid., 22 September 1938. 30Ibid., 23 Apri11942; Minutes of the Annual Meeting, 27 October 1943. 3 t Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 21 August 1941. 321bid.; Ibid., 12 November 1941. Ibid., 21 january 1942. Ibid, 23 july 1942; Ibid., 22 October 1942. 331bid., 23 November 1943. 3-ilbid., 25 April 1944. 35Kingry, 6l-6S; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 23 Apri11946; Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Members, 15 May 1946; Ibid., 5 April 1952; Kingry, 63; and Club Book, 1952, 8. 36U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census of Population. 1950, vol. 2, quoted in Carl Abbott, "Boom State and Boom City," 225. 37Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 28 November 1950; Ibid., 16 january 1951. 38 Ibid., 21 October 1947; 3 November 1947; Ibid.; 27 April 1948; Ibid., 26 Apri11949.

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39.Hoc.ky .Mountain News, 8'Apri11951; Thomas j; Noel, The Oenver Athletic Club, 1864-196-1, 61-65; and .Hoc.ky Mountain News, 8 Apri11951. 40Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 6 March 1951: Ibid., 28 August 19.51: Ibid., 2.5 September19)1. 41Jbid., 29July19)2. 69 42Letter to the Members of the University Club, from President Stephen H. Hart, 9 February 1953, University Club Archives. 43Kingry, 20; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 24 October1952; Ibid., 30 Apri11970. 44Ibid; The board had also considered the possibility of leasing or buying the University Arms Apartments, where, according to Kingry, club members had lodged periodically when all the club's bedrooms were rented. Kingry, 20. In 1952 the entire University Arms Building was available to rent for $500 a month. Since the this offer did not include an option to buy the board did not pursue it. Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 30 September 1952 and 24 October 1952. Two years later the building was renamed the Sherman Apartments and then torn down in 1970. Oenver Household Directory, 1970, 603. 45Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 24 October 1952: Ibid. -i6Minutes of the Annual Meeting, October 16, 1953: Ibid. -i7 Hoc.ky Mountain News. 11 April1954: Letter to the Members of the. University Club, from President Stephen Hart, 9 February1953; .Hocky Mountain News, 11 Apri11954. 48.Hocky Mountain News. 11 Apri11954; and Kingry, 95. 49Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 27 September 1955: Minutes of the Annual Meeting 21 October 1955: Ibid., 15 October 1957: Ibid., 5 November 1957.

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I 70 sou.s. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census of Population: 1960, vol. 1, quoted in Abbott, Boom State and Boom City, 225. Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 20 September 19)9; and Minutes of the Annual meeting of the University Club, 23 October 1959. 5JMinutes of the Meeting of the Board. 26 julyl9SS: Ibid .. 25 Apri11960: Ibid., 27 February 1973. 52Letter to the Members of the University Club, from President Dayton Denious, 9 May 1963, Stephen H. Hart Library, Colorado Historical Society Archives, james Grafton Rogers Collection. 53 Ibid., 2) March 1969; Ibid. 54Ibid., 25 February 1969. 55Minutes of a Special Meeting or the Membership of the University Club, 27 May 1969. In 1974 the club's Coostitutionwas amended to read that any resident member 6) years old or older upon completion of 20 consecutive years of resident membership could become a senior member. Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Membership, 23 April 1974. 56Letters to university clubs from Robert Follansbee and their replies, 19)2, Archives of the University Club. Letter to Robert Follansbee, from the University Club of Ohio, no signature, 4 March 1952, University Club Archives. 57Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 27 November 1973; Ibid., 29 September 1970; Ibid., 28 November 1972; Ibid.; Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the University Club, 30 October 1976. 58Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 2) May 1976. 59Jbid., 29 March 1977; Ibid., 2) january 1977. 60Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Committee, 26 june 1979; and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 25 September 1979. 61Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the University Club, 26 October1979.

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71 62The Oe.nver Post, 12 November 1980; Rocky Mou.ntai.n News, 12 November 1980; Ibid. 631bid.; The Oe.nver Post, 12 November 1980. 64Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Board, 14 November 1980; Ibid. 651bid., 24 january 1981. "Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 21 February 1981. This last point represented quite a drastic change in the club's attitude. It had been steadfastly turning down reciprocity arrangements for the past ninety yearsl 671bid., 28 April 1981; Ibid., 21 February 1981. 68Letter to President Peter R. Breitenstein, from member H. Medill Sarkisian, 8 September 1981, attached to signed petition, University Club Archives. 69Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 25 january 1982; Ibid., 15 june 1982. 701bid., 26 Apri11983. 71Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Membership, 28 May 1981; Letter to the Executive Committee of the University Club, from the Admissions Committee, 21 May 1982, attached to the Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Committee, 24 May 1982. 72Ibid.; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 24 june 1980; Ibid., 28 july 1981; lbid.,1 October 1981; lbid.,24 February1987; Ibid., 20 December 1989. 73Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 19 October 1982; Ibid., 22 February 1983; Ibid., 19 October 1982.

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72 74Minutes of the Annual Meeti1:_1g of the University Club, 29 October 1982; and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 23 November 1982. 75Annua1 Report of the University Club, 20 October 1925; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 19 February 1925; and Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Board. 8 November 1934. 16Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 22 November 1934; Ibid., 19 November 1942; Ibid., 21 October 1947; Ibid., 6 july 1948; Ibid., 28 September 1965. 771bid., 19 August 1958; Ibid., 25 November 1963. 781bid., 24 june 1980; Ibid .. 791bid., 27 january 1987; Ibid., 31 October 1988; Ibid., 24 january 1989; Letter to the Board of Directors, from Mrs. George Fill mer. 15 january 1986, attached to the Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 29 january 1986.

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CHAPTER V WHAT ABOUT WOMEN? The presence of women will introduce into those restful precincts the most unsettling marketplace competition of all--competition with and for the sex. The University Club remains one of the last all-male bastions in Denver. Stephen H. Hart, the club's oldest living past.president proudly states that the club was built on "a brotherly affection with a spirit most clubs do not have." A man viewed his club as a retreat from the world; he "could do what he pleased when he pleased where pleased and with whom he pleased; and only here. did he find santuary and his freedoms: ... freedom from want from tipping. and above all. freedom from fear of women."2 The Early University Club Women In 1881, the one-year-old, all-male, private club, known as the Denver Club was deemed "selfish in not often throwing open their doors to their lady friends, but after all they [the members] take such solid comfort in their sacred solitude from feminity that one is loath to see them disturbed." The University Club, on the other hand. has provided some accommodations for the wives of members since the clubhouse on

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74 Capitol Hill opened in 1896. In its january 1, 1896, issue the Rocky Mountain News praised the University Club's new quarters as "unique in having a ladies' department with a separate entrance from Seventeenth Avenue." Prior to 191 ), women had been excluded from the club on Sundays. That year they were admitted between 6:00 and 8:00 P.M., if they belonged to a member's family or is they were accompanied by a member "to the ladies reception room, and ladies' dining room and to the private dining room."3 According to Charles B. tingry in his book Chronicle of 75 Years: The University Club of Denver, women in the 1920s were acquiring a much wider scope of interests and activites. Some of the members' wives "resented a monastic club, were jealous of the money their husbands spent on dues and drinks, and they complained about the late hours (their husbands] lingered inside those walls forbidden to (them]." After the club's expansion in 1923, women were invited to attend the june Reception, what became the club's annual summer dinner dance. It was the only time they were allowed beyond the "ladies' department" of this the '"Mens' Monastic Retreat."''i In early 1924, widows of former members, who died while members of the club, were accorded the same privileges of the wives of living members "in those parts of the Club open to women upon payment of S10 a year." Almost fifty years later, Helen T. McCunniff, widow of deceased member Dennis B. McCunniff, resigned from the club. This resignation puzzled the club's secretary "since he, had no concept that Helen McCunniff or anyone of her gender ever belonged."5

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75 The widows of club members still appreciate these special privileges. As Mrs. Pierpont Fuller recently said, "It's so nice what the club does for the widows of the inembers." She continued, "It's much nicer at the University Club than the other private clubs." To keep this provision available exclusively within the club, the board determined in 1947 that a widow of a member who remarries a non-club member is no longer eligible for a widow's membership.6 Unmarried daughters of deceased club members were issued the same privileges a.s widows in 1927. Apparently this little used option caught the board by surprise on at least one occasion. The board action in accepting the special membership in 1965 of "Miss Patricia McPhee (daughter of deceased member john McPhee) ... was taken by virtue of discovering precedent in the never-failing memory of past president Knowles."' The First Attempt to Admit Women The University Club first explored the possibility of admitting women in the early 1940s when its resident membership had plummeted from 300 to one hundred members. In considering additional measures to increase membership, the board appointed Pierpont Fuller as "a

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76 committee of one to look into the question of women's memberships for university women."8 The board remained divided on the issue and wrote to the committee on admissions in September 1942 asking its opinion on extending the use of the ladies' facilities of the Club to any women graduates of college on the same basis as privileges are extended to widows and unmarried daughters of deceased members .. .[at the same] charge of $10 per year. The nominal S 1 0 fee was suggested "until such time as more extensive facilities are available;" women being restricted to the ladies' lounge, dining room, and private dining rooms. Even with these limited facilities, the board stressed that the widows of deceased members had made frequent use of the club, thereby enhancing its "general restaurant business."9 The committee's response to the board's inquiry suggested the formation of a new committee, selected by the board, consisting of at least three ladies who are now frequent visitors at the Club. This committee should be as secret as possible under the circumstances. The Committee on Admissions would extend invitations to those ladies recommended by this secret committee.JO Despite these discussions, the club's policy on female members did not change. In 1943 in fact, Stephen H. Hart, secretary of the club, ''was duly reprimanded ... (for] permitting a member of the fairer sex above the second story." The club lumbered along through the World War II years, trying a variety of membership marketing techniques aimed at

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77 recruiting men in military and government-related fields, ultimately expanding its efforts to include personal recruitment of new members by the board. II The Impact of the Woman's Movement By 1970 the board was debating the merits of completely redoing the ladies' bar. During the discussion, one board member observed that the Women's Liberation Movement was getting completely out of hand and that we should not encourage it by speding $20,000 on the Ladies' Bar, an expenditure entirely inconsistent with the purposes of a Men's Club. However, once the board calculated the increase in revenues that could be generated from remodeling this area of the club. the motion passed.l2 At about this same time, the board noticed a significant drop off in the number of boarders. Recognizing that many of the dormitories on college campuses were going co-ed, board member Bruce Dines proposed the same for "'the roomers"' at the club. Nonetheless, the "executive committee was stiff to his suggestion that the club go co-ed."l3 President George A. Keely roused board members in March 197 4 by informing them "that a member has been asked to recommend a woman for membership." Secretary David C. Knowlton recorded this exchange:

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78 Some of our board members had been slumping in their chairs, nearly in their cups, but certainly did arise to the occasion to express themselves on this very worthy topic. Although most of them were noticably [sicl negative. having felt the sting of female dominance in their own humble dwelling, quickly expressed themselves that this was the only remaining refuge for the tormented and downtrodden male. However, there were a few of the Board members who enjoyed total control in their own home and are not fearful of dominance in their club surroundings and felt that George [Keely] was right and that more attention should be given to this subject. The question as to whether or not a committee will be appointed to evaluate this matter will have to wait until Mr. Keely talks to jane.l4 At the next board meeting President Keely appointed the "Feminine Mystique Committee", chaired by George Hopfenbeck. "everyone's favorite liberal." The other members were William Denious, "who considers himself a conservative in matters of feminine liberation. but in reality, a mouse like the rest of us;" and supporting the left wing was Field Benton, "who is known in many circles as a big man on bussing but a very small man on women's rights." Several months later when Benton had assumed the chair of the committee, a board member "muttered that 'Go Go' George (was] far too liberal for this responsibility."t5 The board continued to address the issue "of private club problems in not permitting lady membership." Since most of the commentary "seemed to be excruciatingly negative. The general consensus was that the best way to meet this problem head on is not to meet it at all." After all, the board concluded. "the By-Laws and Constitution seem to speak quite convincingly."16

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79 Three years later. when President H. Lee Ambrose was quoted in a Hoc.ky .Mountain News article defending the club's membership policy, he said, "'The University Club is for men because there is a dignity of men who have respect for their fellow men. I am no chauvinist, but I have no problem with seeing a male bastion here and there."' In the same article, Bonnie Andrikopoulos, an oil and gas lease broker and lobbyist for the state chapter of the National Organization for Women, bristled, "'I shouldn't have to be the appendage of a man to get into the club's main. dining room."'l7 In june 1978, the Denver Club voted to admit women to regular membership. Richard Cunningham, president of the Denver Club, noted that the action was '"just part of the times."' The Denver Athletic Club had done so ten years before. William Beattie, chair of the membership committee at the University Club, was asked by Patricia Collins, society editor of The Oeover Post, to comment on the club's all-male stronghold. He responded, '"We've never had a woman apply."'l8 Two years later the club made reference to the Denver Club's change in membership status during its 1980 annual meeting. Board member Peter F. Breitenstein was awarded the Guilded Clam when his University Club cohorts discovered on good authority that faced with the need to increase dues for the Denver Club. [he) voted in favor of the admission of women. We remind you here that while two wrongs won't make a right, three rights will make a left.I9

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80 The Pressure of the 1980s One of the first issues to come before Breitenstein when he became the University Club's next president a few days later concerned an amendment to the constitution "to permit women to become members." The matter was considered further in developing a long-range plan for the club following a November 1980 fire. The first motion to be passed by the board read: "Any future plans that are considered and drafted by the architects (will] take into consideration the expanded use of The Clubhouse by females."20 In late 1984, the board. in reaction to a recommendation from the committee on admissions that it "consider the economic implications to the University Club of admitting female members," appointed a committee to explore this possibility. Shortly thereafter. the club received a biting letter from a woman Informing the club: that she had written to the Dean of Harvard Business School. who is a female, and who was scheduled to address a meeting at the University Club, in order to inform her that the University Club does not have female members. As a result of the letter, the Dean of the Business School did not come to Denver. Club Secretary Mitchell Benedict III added this insight to the minutes: "It is not known if the reason that the Dean did not come to Denver was because she could not come to the University Club or if there were other reasons."21

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81 In appealing to the membership at large, President Robert Bryan mentioned changing the club's exclusion of women membership policy in his column in the May 1987 issue of "U Club News & World Report." To which member Henry Mulvihill facetiously wrote in response. "'What self -respecting woman would join the U Club ?"'22 In 1987 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in New York State Club Association, Inc. v. City of New York, et al that New York City clubs with 400 or more members could no longer bar women.23 With the handwriting becoming clearer on the wall, the members of the University Club held a special meeting in September 1988 to discuss "the possible admission of women to regular membership in the Club." One item in particular was stressed, the club currently had no waiting list and had sixty-nine vacancies. A straw vote showed more than 50 percent. but less than the required two-thirds of those voting, favored admitting women. The constitution was amended to allow an official vote by mail on the proposed change.24 The Battle of 1989 When the club voted on March 15, 1989, not to admit women to their ran.k.s, it ran.k.led .Hocky .Mountain News columnist Bill Husted. His retort said, in part: Hey guys, you are fighting a battle that has been waged and lost--in the Supreme Court, no less. Sure, no law is on the Colorado books saying you have to go co-ed, but you can bet there will be one .... You missed a chance to be gentlemen. Now you'll have to be dragged kicking and screaming into the real world.

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On April 10 the Rocky Mountain News printed a letter to the editor from University Club member Ted A. Boerstler. 82 Editor: I congratulate the asute members of the University Club of Denver for voting to deny an amendment to their bylaws that would have allowed women to be admitted to membership. I do not believe that members have an 'ax to grind, but instead sincerely feel that there is a place for female organizations and participation, and that place is not the 1 00-year-old, all-male University Club. The vast majority there have absolutely no desire to force themselves on the junior League, women's sororities, female organizations, etc. Somehow, this so-called 'liberalism' has to be halted. Perhaps this may be the Longtime member Stephen H. Hart confessed that his father, his father-in-law, and his grandfather (who was the club's first charter vice president), "who were used to men's clubs, might be a little upset at the admission of women." "But," he hastened to add, "we might find that relatively few women want to join the Club. The Denver Club is open to women, but they haven't yet built as large a membership as the men." In 1990, of the Denver Club's current 470 members, sixty are women.26 The Last Vote. In the March 1989 vote, the board took no formal position. Six months later the board reconsidered the woman'sissue and "unanimously decided to resubmit the proposal to the membership ... and to this time recommend its passage." The board's reasons for doing so were plainly stated in a letter to the membership. Fifteen members resigned in reaction to the March vote, and the board feared "that a significant number will do so in the future if the rule is not changed." The club's ability to attract new, younger members "will remain badly impaired unless the Club's policy regarding women changes." The figures

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83 speak for themselves: Fiscal year dues were down $36,000 and initiation fees were down $23,000. Part of this is "due to Denver's lousy economy, something we can't do anything about." However, the letter stressed "that much of this is also the result of our own policy on women members--something we can do something about." Another concern was lost revenue from bookings as a "number of organizations have advised us that they will not use the Club until the rule is changed." Among those refusing to use the club's facilities are the University of Colorado at Denver, Security Life Insurance Company, and several large law firms, including Sherman & Howard; Davis, Graham, & Stubbs; and Fairfield & Woods.27 Despite the rationale used in this appeal, the second ballot to admit women was narrowly defeated, missing by less than ten votes. In her December 24, 1989, column, Trisha Flynn of the .Hoc.ky Mountain News issued a public plea to the wives of members: The once so-called 'women's issues' haven't change much: Day care; reproductive choice; parental leave; old-boy's clubs--like Denver's University Club--that still refuse to admit qualified women because they're (gasp!) womeJJ. Under the influence, somebody solved that one. Simply refuse to sleep with your partner until he: a) Resigns; b) Refuses to join and states the reason; c) Writes a letter stating his firm will no longer book engagements there; d) All of the above.28 How did the members of the University Club respond to this challenge? They put their troubles to song in the 1990 Twelfth Night performance. To the tune of Stevie Wonder's song I just Called, the cast sang its own number called We Are a Club of .Men.

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We are a club or only men Our policy has stirred the pen of Trisha Flynn She said our wives Should sleep alone Until we changed our rules That made us groan We just called to say we're horny We just called to say we are a club of men We just called to say we're horny The same to you we wish ya, Trisha Flynn Oh what a way To change the rules Ms. Flynn must think we are a bunch of fools Celibate vows We all will take That journalistic ploy was a mistake More membership The Club might lose But what the hell, all will be well, We're older guys just let us be To enjoy a life of celibacy We just called to say we're horny We just called to say we are a club of men We just called to say we're horny The same to you we wish ya, Trisha Flynn29 84

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85 Endnotes t Aldrich, Old Money. 53. 2Interview with Stephen H. Hart, 12 january 1989; and Amory, Who f{i/Jed Society?, 205. 3 The Denver Post's Bmpire Magazine, 26 December 1954; Rocky Mountain News, 1 january 1896; and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 9 june 1915. 39; Ibid., 136, 39. 5Minutes of the Meeting of the Board. 3 February 1924; Ibid., 28 September 1971. 6Mrs. Pierpont Fuller, Interview by Gerald D. Fader, 27]anuary 1990, transcript, University Club Archives; and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 22 April 1947. 7Jbid., 19 May 1927; Ibid., 30 November 1965. 8Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Board, 25 October 1_922, and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 23 Apri11940; Ibid., 20 March 1941. 9Letter to Committee on Admissions. from Edward G. Knowles, Board Member, 15 September 1942, attached to the Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 24 September 1942; Ibid.; Ibid. I OLetter to the Board of Directors, from Dayton Denious, Secretary of the Committee Admissions, 5 October 1942, attached to the Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 22 October 1942. II Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 21 December 1943; and Minutes of the Meetings of Board, 1941 to 1943. t2Ibid., 29 September 1970.

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l3Kingry, 67; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 30 November 1971. l4Ibid., 26 March 1974; Ibid. 151bid., 30 Apri11974; Ibid.; Ibid., 24 September 1974. 161bid.,28 October 1974; Ibid. 17 Rocky Mountain News. 15 May 1977; Ibid. 18 The Oenver Post, 22 june 1978; Ibid. 86 19Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the University Club, 240ctober 1980. 20Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 25 November 1980; and Minutes of a Special Meetiri.g of the Board, 24 january 1981. 21Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Committee, 22 October 1984; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 27 November 1984; Ibid., 18 December 1984: Ibid. 22"U Club News & World Report," (Denver: University Club of Denver, 1987); and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 26 May 1987. 23New York State Club Association, lnc.v. City of New York, et al., 108 S.CT. 2225 ( 1987). 24Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Membership, 13 September 1988; Ibid; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 27 September 1988; Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Membership, 1 S November 1988. 25Hocky.Mountain News. 17 March 1989; Ibid .. lO Aori11989. 26Jnterview with Stephen H. Hart, 12 january 1989. 27Letter to the Membership, from the Board of Directors, 6 September 1989, attached to the Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 30 August 1989; Ibid.; Interview Maryann Schiavonne, Director of Sales and Marketing for the University Club, 9 April 1990.

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87 28J?ocky Mountain News, S February 1990; Ibid., 24 December 1989. 29"Ahead to the Past," University Club Twelfth Night Program, 13 january 1990, 25.

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CHAPTER VI THE ACTIVITIES OF THE UNIVERSITY CLUB: CLUBBING AT ITS BEST Although the University Club has usually been described as "a downtown businessman's operation," like its counterpart in New York City, the club bas always bad social gatherings where members "were thus brought together for better acquaintance." The "five o'clock hour" was an honored custom that began with the founding of the University Club. Those members living at the club as well as those heading home "would take a cocktail or two and enjoy the resulting sociability." On stormy days, or whenever the group was so inclined, they "'Declared a Blizzard"' and thus extended the conviviality. "Nobody was allowed to leave the Club until the blinard was declared "Over." For such emergencies, the club manager always kept the lounge adequately stocked with libation and foodstuffs, especially since no one knew how long the storm would last. However, these "blizzards" were officially interrupted by the U.S. government.l

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89 Prohibition The men's lounge at the University Club. and all other legal liquor establishments. died on New Year's Eve, 1916. when Colorado began the "noble experiment." A committee. consisting of William H. Ferguson. William W. Grant. Jr., and Ralph Hartzell--alllawyers. had been appointed in September 1915. "to study the statutes upon the subject and make suggestions as to the policy of the Club." One month later, the trio duly reported to the board that the club "make no effort after january 1, 1916, to serve or aid cogniZance to the service or storage of intoxicating liquors in the Club House; and recommended strict obedience to the law." President William V. Hodges, anticipating a financial deficit from the club's inablility "to dispense liquors," urged members at the 1915 annual meeting to increase their patronage of the restaurant.2 The club even moved up its annual Twelfth Night performance to December 18, 1915, so that members could imbibe before the onslaught of Prohibition and dispose of the club s entire stock of alcohol. Here is how member Pierpont Fuller, jr., described this particular occasion in the rare book Sirty Years of Twelfth Night. This was in the dark days of early state prohibition. The Wassail Bowl had gone, in its stead was a five gallon water cooler of gin, its tube of paper cups beside it. The show was raided by the police, and the President of the Club arrested. (All by prearrangement with the Police Dept.)3

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90 During the dry years the club did not officially handle any liquor. However, according to Kingry, the club reinterpreted its strict observance of the law to allow each member "to store or bring his own supply in a flask or container, kept under but not on the table at drinking or meal times."4 The Bar Reopens In preparing for the happy days to follow the repeal of the prohibition amendment in 1933. the house committee converted a portion of the main floor bathroom into a serving room and storage room for "such liquors as can be legally dispensed with in the Club." The club's liquor cabinet was stocked with the ingredients to concoct the favorite cocktails of the day--manhattans, martinis, and bronx.5 Five years later, member George C. Barrows was appointed, as a committee of one, to investigate a complaint by past president Hartzell "with respect to the exorbitant charge for Scotch and Soda at the Club." His report stated: the Denver Country Qub charges less than we charge for Scotch and Soda, that the D. A. C. charges more, that the Denver Club charges more and less, that averages, however, are about the same. The University Club is high on jack Roses and Singapore Slings but has never served one anyway. We are eight cents high on Tom Collins and are on average as to Martinis. We charge less for mint juleps but they are worth much less. [He] was of the opinion that the kind and quality of liquor was better than at other clubs.

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91 The board thanked Barrows "for his arduous researching in this respect, and it was ordered that the investigation be continued ... and that Mr. Hartzell be advised that everything was serene. "6 During World War II the University Club increased the price of martinis from 30 cents to 35 cents; manhattans rose from 35 cents to 40 .cents. It was not until 1972 that the club discontinued its policy of free wine with dinner. Instead the staff "would promote sales of a house wine in carafes, [which] would be sold at cost."7 Lectures Four months after moving into its new clubhouse on the hill, the University Club started a lecture series "on subjects both timely and interesting," in response to a sentiment among the members that the club should represent the more serious, as well as the lighter side of university life. The first one, offered by Charles F. Lacombe, described "the Roentgen ray, later known as the X-ray."8 Soon after the turn of the century, with the club's increased membership, an entertainment committee was formed to provide "enlightening and diverting exercises." Dinner speakers, often featuring a talented member, became popular at an event known as "Bier Pests." Mter dinner the group would adjourn to the Pipe and Bowl Room on the first floor to liberally partake of beer, as the name Bier Pests suggests, and listen to serious as well as humorous presentations. Sparked by the appearance of Halley's Comet in 1910, member Thomas B. Stearns addressed one these groups and "talked at length as to why the comet

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92 should have such a long taill" Lectures were held the first Saturday night of each month throughout the early 1920s and briefly appear again in 1930.9 Bridge When the club first opened down on Fourteenth and Curtis, whist was the card game most often played. Even though gambling was prevalent throughout Denver, the following house rule was adopted: Betting in the Club House will be restricted to twenty-five (25) cents per rubber point at whist, and ten ( 1 0) cents per heart in the game of hearts. No other game for a wager of more than twenty-five (25) cents per game will be allowed. Poker and other well-known gambling games are positively prohibited. Any violation of this rule will render the offending member liable to suspension.o When whist gave way to bridge shortly after the turn of the century, Saturday nights were set aside for bridge players who were served a small buffet in the card room. As the club's players improved their skill, they sought out others with whom to play the game. In 1914 a bridge tournament was established with the Denver Club. Three years later, the tournament was enlarged to include the Denver Country Club. The tournaments became a series of games played during the winter months. Each team had a captain who arranged the pairs from each club. They, in turn. matched the best players together and did the same with the average players. A trophy, provided at the players' expense, went to the club having the highest score at the end of the season. II

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93 By the 1960s these card games had developed into the Men's Interclub Bridge and Mixed Interclub Bridge dinners and partnership play. Presently bridge players at the University Club meet every other Tuesday afternoon between October and March to play with members from either the Cherry Hills Country Club or the Denver Country Club.12 Billiards and pool have always been a part of the University Club. Conveniently located off of the bar since the move to the Capitol Hill clubhouse, the pool room prides itself on comfortable chairs and fast service. This reputation has attracted a wide variety of players and spectators over the years, beginning with the first pool tournament in 1907. "The game then played was straight or 'call' pool." 13 There soon developed a game unique to Denver, which had come to the Mile High City from Butte, Montana, in the early 1900s. John Wellington Finch introduced to the Denver Club the game "200" in which the pockets are numbered instead of the balls. From his sketchy details the pool players at the Denver Club devised the game of "200" which then evolved into "300" (thus making a longer game) by 1921. The Denver Club, which engaged the University Club-in an interclub pool tournament that same year. is credited with spawning a seventy-year-long fascination with the The club has usually appointed its own "'Certified Umpires' or c. U.'s" for its in-house pool tournaments, who are "instructed and

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94 authorized to preserve order and enforce the rules according to the traditions of the Club." These umpires or referees can fine any onlooker whose remarks distracted the players. The fine--a round of drinks for all--can be an expensive penalty.t5 At least one incident of a "C. U." in action still remains on record. Carlton M. Bliss was the designated referee when member Edwin H. Van Courtland, a spectator, yelled out, '"Bliss, someone stole my drink!' To which, Bliss replied, 'Van, anyone could steal your clothes off you, but never your drink.' [Van Courtland] was fined."16 With the club's expansion in 1953 the pool room acquired "space for four (new] large tables (three pool and one billiard) instead of the two present sawed-off items of which the present players complain, also plenty of room for spectators, lunch tables, etc." During this remodel the pool room also received "dark wood paneling ... set off by illuminated 'shields of learning,' handpainted crests depicting various professions and arts."17 A pool tournament held in 1964 indicates competition could be prolonged: In nine hours, twelve minutes, and seven seconds of taut play, Spalding, R. [Robert S. Spalding) and Chafee, ]. [John B. Chafee). handily defeated all comers to the 1964 Annual Doubles Pool Tournament ... Beer (free) and a healthful buffet hincheon (not), were thoughtfully provided by the management during the play ... 'Out of fifteen teams,' said an observer. 'it's a shame only one won, because the number two twosome deserved to win one. too. See. if the third hadn't fouled the fourth out of the fifths while the eighth ate,' he explained, 'the sixth would have been in seventh heaven because they could have given the old one-two to number one.18

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95 In responding to a facetious comment by a board member, regarding the conduct of some of the club's pool players, the board passed the following resolution in 1973: "All pool players are creatures of habit in that they seldom sign in while playing, and frequently drink to excess." And to assure the membership that its pool-playing members were still held in the highest regard, the club offered up the example of RichardT. Lyford, jr., at the 1986 annual meeting as: A denizen of the Pool Room ... famous for your Lawrence Welk style-a one-and-a-two, (who] never realized the object of the game is to get to 300 as quickly as possible. Nevertheless you've been a champion in both singles and doubles--by outlasting your opponents.t9 Food. Glorious Food In 1950 the house committee reported to the board that, in its view: the primary objective of this Club could well be considered to be a retreat where a member, and guests if he chooses, can enjoy a good luncheon, well served, in relative quiet and peace, and in good and congenial company.2o And food as well as drink have long been the raison d'etre for most metropolitan clubs which strive "to provide a convenient place to.meet one's friends for meals and other social activities within the city." Indeed, in early nineteenth-century London, university men "craving for comradeship [while enjoying] the cakes and ale ... began to associate

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96 together in clubs ... to the exclusion of the non-educated." And as University Club board member johnS. Pfeiffer commented in 197 4, '"Fellowship and food is what it is all about. Make them pay more but don't dilute the quantity or quality."'21 The tradition of the club's 120 is in keeping with this tradition. In the club's early years it offered a daily meal special at a $1.20 a plate. Even though the board increased the price five cents in1927, the special was still referred to as the 120. In 1973, despite inflation and rising food prices over the past forty-six years, the board minutes from 1973 state that the "former 120 at $4 is still a steal." As recently as 1989, the board thanked chef Randy Wojno since, "for the first time in history, [he] permitted the price of the S 1.20 to be redueed to $4.25." One board member then "asked if it were possible that the 120 would ever get back to 120." "Of course, it is," the board replied, "but not in his, or anyone else's lifetime."22 tee ping the club's dining rooms profitable can be difficult, even in the best of times. The board minutes in 1966 record that membership usage of the club was at an all-time high, and "despite the fact that the members were feeding their gullets at a great rate, the club was still losing money on food." Four years earlier, the board had expressed concern over "various operating decifits--especially the loss arising from food service--the best food in this whole wide world.' Their solution? "Hang the cost1"23 Profitability from the club's dining facilities is not the main objective then. According to the house committee, maintaining or

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97 bettering food and service is; since they are "the most important commodities we have to offer." The result of this attention to the quality and quantity of the food is the club's "national reputation for culinary excellence."24 In the 1950s a committee of gourmets, with George Berger as chair, was formed "to make available to the Membership the finest in food and wines to be had in the City of Denver, or for that matter, in the Rocky Mountain Empire." In 1953 when Stephen H. Hart was appointed chair he promised that the committee.would work closely with the chef to provide "outstanding dinners, one special a month, ... to be offered at great expense with new gourmet menus--certainly gastronomic marvels of the age." Charles [(ingry described the "Gourmet Society" in 1966 as: this newest CLUB within the CLUB meets, to enjoy the conviviality of gentlemen in 'black tie' flocking together and partaking of the vintages and viands formerly reserved exclusively for the gods--to furnish the proper outlet for Tish's [Tish Kllanxhja, the club's manager] superb culinary art and ski11.25 June Reception In 1896, as a way to show off their new house on the hill, club members elected to host an elegant reception that summer. The month of june was selected, when the flowers and trees would be in bloom to delight those party goers using the outdoor wooden dance platform. This june Reception proved so successful that the annual event became, along

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98 "with Twelfth Night, the two high spots in the Club's activities and also in the social affairs of the city."26 A Denver.newspaper commented on one of the club's june Receptions by writing: that of all clubs in the city the University Club was the best adapted for entertainments. The Pipe and Bowl Room was a favorite spot for small groups having between-dance refreshments and tete-a-tete visits, in addition to the regular punch, and was well patroniZed.27 In the 1920s and 1930s the club hired big-name bands for the event, including Tony Lohmann's orchestra and Pete Smythe's orchestra. Members of the Denver Club and the Cactus Club were also invited to bring their wives "or some other lady guest to the reception" during these years. The party, which often lasted until dawn. was expanded by the1940s to include breakfast for an extra $1.28 The club's 75th anniversary was celebrated at the june Reception in 1966. The $1 0-event. which featured "a liveried footman Ito] park the cars. a free champagne hour." and a performance with highlights from the Broadway musical The Unsinkable Molly Brown,29 was jokingly described by chairperson Donald W. Roe as "cheap at half the price."30 Other Social Activities of the Club Dances of all types were held for almost every occasion at the club during the 1950s and 1960s. Gay Nineties parties to full-fledged costume parties to New Orleans jazz parties were all popular. In the late 1950s the club began to arrange excursions to the Central City Opera.

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99 Participants, who rode in chartered air-conditioned buses from the club, enjoyed "an attractive buffet dinner at the Glory Hole Tavern," which was prepared and served by the staff of the club, and then resorted to reserved seats at the opera. With the success of these outings came other excursions to the theater and the symphony.3l Holiday parties have kept the club buzzing for years. The club's Christmas party, held in mid-December, is a favorite of many members. The New Year's Eve parties in the early years were strictly stag affairs, "mind you--No ladies allowed on the premises!" But times do change as Charles Kingry noted in the club's 1966 history: Progress and the amenities of civilization have gradually exerted their strong influence (according to jim Rogers. however mournfully and ruefully)--[so that] Now, each year ... each household in our membership receives th[is] ... summons to fun and gaiety.32 One of the club's longest traditions. dating back to its inception. was the exchange of clubhouses with the Denver Club on New Year's Day. Originally members of one club would assemble at its clubhouse and journey en masse to the other. After enjoying eggnog and a buffet, members of both clubs would return to the club of the guests for more holiday cheer and treats. Years later the procedure was simplified with each club hosting an open house on a rotating basis. The attendance at these receptions dwindled with the advent of televising the New Year's Day Bowl games and they were discontinued by mutual consent.33 Now the club hosts a New Year's Day Open House for members and their sons. In 1970 the board dubbed this event the "gathering of Knights and their progeny." Past president L. Douglas Hoyt recently

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100 remarked that many fathers, sons, and grandsons gather in the pool room to learn the "finer points of the game from Delbert Martin, a club employee since 1955.34 Annual Meeting The club holds its annual meeting in October to elect members to its board and to the committee on admissions. Prior to 1920, the dinner fare for this meeting was left to the chef's own devising. President Theron R. Field suggested that year that the popular clam dinners, which had originated in 1903, with a group of members who came for New England, "become a feature of the Annual Meeting,. and his suggestion was followed thereafter ."35 Another feature was also introduced to the annual meeting after World War I. As Charles Kingry explains in the Chronicle of 75 Years: The University Club of Denver: The Order of the Clam ... originated in the fertile brains of a few members who recalled the military ceremony of conferring awards for valor. Unlike that ceremony, which was on a high plane, the awarding of the Order of the Clam was, in true University Club style, facetious or even satirical in character. President Cal Cleworth describes the clam as the club mascot--members are awarded one "for the daffy things they do."36 Several Order of the Clam recipients have already been mentioned in connection with the club. When Charles Kingry received one in 1965 for writing the club s first published history, the citation read. in part:

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101 For some time you have been compiling a history of this club, which, hopefully, will be published and distributed next year. Since you are naming names and reciting facts therein. we consider that your personal safety requires that we recognize your work now rather than after members have read it.37 Twenty years later the jabs still flow, here is the club roasting H. Bob Fawcett: In your few years at this Club, you have become a fixture, a hairy Fawcett ... A man whose best known musical instrument consists of a pair of spoons played against assorted half filled wine glasses; a man whose voice causes female frogs to ovulate prematurely; a living embodiment of the Old Fart's Polka .... For these reasons, and certainly not because of your musical contribution to this Club and its traditions, ... we award you this, the Golden Clam.38 Music, in one form or another, has always played an important role in the evening's festivities. james Grafton Rogers, one of the club's more creative lyricists, fashioned one of the earliest and best-known clam songs. The first line of this "Clam Anthem" was "Oh little clam of Provincetown," and was put to the music of "Oh Little Town of Bethlehem." When longtime accompianist Tony Lohmann did not know the tune, Rogers raced across the street to borrow a hymnal from Central Presbyterian Church. The request pleased the surprised minister who "was glad to hear that the University Club members were interested in singing church hymns."39

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102 The University Club Orchestra This unprofessional and completely unbridled musical group of University Club members first appeared in 1945 "because Tony Lohmann was not able to carry on for the Club." Led by Arthur K. Underwood on piano, the ensemble had two guitars, a mandolin, a banjo, two violins, and a trumpet. Although the musicians have changed over the years, the group's enthusiasm has not. They have played at every annual meeting, Twelfth Night performance and Rehash for the last 45 years.40 Through the years even the dedicated, hardworking members of the University Club Orchestra could not escape the barbs thrown out at the annual meeting. In 1965, Leslie R. Kendrick received the following: Mr. Kendrick, you graduated from Princeton in 1910. You majored in minstrelsy ... Whoever your teacher may have been, you, have, in the U. Club member's band, made more joyful noises than there are notes in the scale. There would be no din in dinner here without you in the band, and have never--well, hardly ever--failed to answer the of the lute and I George Clayton Keely was read this commendation in 1968: You have been a member of this Club since 1952. During that time you have assulted the eardrums of the membership with approximately 10,000 saxaphone versions of 'Margie,' and innumerable vocal renditions of the same, each sung in a key only slightly higher than your forehead.42 The minutes of the annual meeting also record the club's reaction to its own band of renown. In 1971, the minutes state "the orchestra once again demonstrated what lack of practice and leadership can do.

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103 Some members sang their alma mater songs." The comments five years later were not any more kind: During and after dinner, the Club orchestra again demonstrated their musical inablility and napkin-waving members sang songs--the words of which have long passed their memory. The minutes the following year said: A white coated ensemble of minstrels blew, beat, plucked, fingered and/or stroked their instruments. Taking leave of their senses ... some members assembled at the rostrum to prove how much of their college songs they had forgotten.43 By 1984, the minutes change their tune, describing the group assembled as "the University Club Band at its finest." Two years later the minutes make mention of the "University Club orchestra, formerly known as the University Club band," led by "Maestro Frederick Rogers, bass guitar; Dave Atkinson, vibes; Don Roe, guitar; Chuck Warren, drums; jack Reilly, trombone; and Dave Richardson, piano."44 President Arthur IC. Underwood, an original member of the first University Club Orchestra, summarized his feelings at the 1951 annual meeting when he said, "The Annual Meeting, with its traditional feast of the succulent clam, and its unbridled display of silver-tongued oratory, has been a high spot in our recreation."45

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104 A Taste of Twelfth Night Ralph Nevill. one of the historians of the London clubs. wrote: 'a certain number of people met on special evenings ... and incidentally consumed a good deal of liquid refreshment,' and at these meetings, many of the greatest men of Britain forgot more important things for a time, unbent, and disported themselves like boys:46 Alexander also states that the clubbers of London were "convinced that a little nonsense now and then is relished by the wisest men." The clubbers of Denver's University Club felt the same way when they started the club's most famous tradition-Twelfth Night:t7 Pierpont Fuller, Jr., a member of the club, wrote the club history on Twelfth Night in 1957. As he recounts in Sirty Years of Twelft.h Nig.ht, the event was unplanned, but a seed was sown at the grand opening of the new clubhouse on New Year's Eve, 1895-1896, which blossomed into Twelfth Night. Some members gathered around the crate of wet goods for the bar from which they selected several appropriate bottles. With a little mixing, they concocted a punch. "Thus the Wassail Bowl was reborn" in its new home. This significant event provided the inspiration the for first Twelfth Night celebration the following year.48 In 1897, about 12 nights after Christmas, members assembled in the club's lounge for the first Twelfth Night gathering. The performers entertained in front of the fireplace. They were mostly storytellers who tried valiantly not to be upstaged by the audience who frequently

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105 interrupted singing this refrain from a Wassail song: "The longer we stay here and drink/The drunker we shall be. "49 Since 1899 shows have been produced each year, except in 1918, 1919, and 1943 when world wars had called so many members of the club into the Armed Forces. A note regarding 1898: Fuller located "this cryptic notation in an old dinner program. 'Inspiration lacking--no performance."'50 The Play and Its Production The president of the club is the Lord of Misrule. He appoints the Twelfth Night committee chair, who then becomes the jester. A committee is formed and the planning begins. For all intents and purposes the planning and writing of the show occurs during a weekend retreat--another tradition. The first such retreat was held in early December in 1920 at the Turkey Creek cabin of member Dick Fillius. The mountains have continally provided the Twelfth Night committee with inspiration through the years. In the 1960s member Roy Humphrey's cabin at Glenelk as weJl as thai of member Phil Anschutz's ranch in South Park were used. During the 1970s the group met in Central City, while the 1980s took them to the Ouray Ranch near Grandby.51 The first seven shows consisted of a series of individual skits and songs-with no connecting theme. In 1904, a dialogue between numbers was introduced and the productions were divided into acts. By 1907 the club's membership had grown and to accommodate the larger cast and

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106 audience, the performances were moved to the pool room (the pool tables having been removed). The next year, the show was moved to the Pipe and Bowl Room, where it remained until the larger college room was completed in 1924.52 Those performances held in the Pipe and Bowl Room were described by Fuller: The atmosphere was so thick that the actors were barely visible through the haze of smoke. The audience was packed so tight that it was no trick at all for even the tightest of them to keep upright and face the stage. The early Twelfth Night shows were usually "performed in a slightly alcoholic haze, both to nerve the actors to face the audience and the strengthen the audience to take the shows."53 During these years in the Pipe and Bowl Room, the performances became more elaborate. Shows with plots were developed and sophisticated scenery was created. As james Grafton Rogers wrote in 1911: The Gridiron Club of W ashingtc;>n is known by millions of newspaper readers for its lampoons on public topics and characters. It is not so widely known, however, that for a number of years the University Club of Denver has produced an annual burlesque on much the same men and events, which is fully as daring as the Gridiron Club's satire, and is vastly more elaborate and pretentious. The cast each year includes nearly fifty men, and the wit of the players has reverence for nothing. The burlesque is known as Twelfth Night. The plot of the performance given january 7, 1911, the thirteenth of the burlesques, is a fair specimen of what these satires are. As tradition in the Club prescribes, the play proper was a musical lampoon, or sort of comic opera, in two acts, under the title, 'God Help the Peepu11'54

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107 Although the college room was not yet complete, the club was able to use it for the Twelfth Night performance in early january 1924. With the larger space this room offered, each member was allowed to invite one member from the Denver Club and the Cactus Club. The expanded stage had lighting, a curtain, and more design possiblities than ever before. The Twelfth Night committee, in expanding the dramatic form of the show, suggested "a uniform closing to be sung each year at the final curtain, designed to remind the audience and the players of the long traditions which the play preserves. "55 Once again james Grafton Rogers produced the required piece. In 1923, he composed the "Twelfth Night Closing Chorus." It is still used today, unchanged. "Almost every member knows the verse and stands to join the players in its swaying melody--the finale of the Show." The words are as follows: Twelfth Night still comes marching Down the dry and parching Corridors of time. Bearing ancient platters Filled with modern matters Roasted up in rhyme. Though the years bring laughter, Grief or joy hereafter, Twelfth Night faithfully Mirrors all our failings, And amid bewailing, Lends a melody.56 In the early days, most of the actors provided their own costumes. The larger and more elaborate the shows became, the more costuming was required. What costumes could not be improvised were rented from

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108 the Colorado Costume Company. In1940, the rentals for the Wizard of Oz cast (Franklin Delano Roosevelt was portrayed as the wonderful wizard and Winston Churchill as the lion) cost $76. The cast returned to the costume shop in 1948 with the show Malice in Blunder/and, of course a spin-off of Alice in Wonderland. Quigg Newton, Denver's new mayor and a club member, played Alice; Hugh Catherwood, the city's new personnel administrator and a club member, was the White Rabbit. When Colorado Costume Company went out out of business in 1981, the club purchased the jester costumes and the robes worn by presidents, as well as an additional S 1,000 worth of costumes for future Twelfth Night shows. 57 Milord. Milord. the Players Are Assembled! The Twelfth Night dinner, for club members only, precedes the performance. When the president arrives at the head table, he "stands with goblet in hand. All shout 'The King drinks!' and the party is officially opened." Mter dinner, the room is cleared and reset for the show. The festivities commence with a parade through the audience led by the musicians, then the chef, followed by the boar's head and the \ fancy dishes to be served at the midnight supper. Next comes the Lord of Misrule and the jester, who leads the actors. The Lord of Misrule immediately goes to the balcony and awaits the jester's words from the stage: "Milord, the players are assembled!"58 Since the mid-19SOs the Twelfth Night play has been repeated in a simpler form, a few weeks

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: after the main performance. This Rehash has become one of the most popular social events at the club. The cast and chorus, "perform just as brilliantly as in the original play."59 Members rarely pick a favorite Twelfth Night show. Although 109 some shows have caused more comment than others. john Fleming Kelly and Gerald Fader contended in their Twelfth Night report that: Twelfth Night 1968 was the greatest Twelfth Night in the Club's history except for Twelfth Night 1960, and that the musical direction of this year's show surpassed even that of the 1960 show. At the january 1969 board meeting, the whole issue of choosing between the 1968 and 1969 shows was "rendered moot by the general consensus that the1964 was the best show ever." To which new board member William E. Murane replied, "1969 was the best show ever." Twenty years later the board showered Twelfth Night Chair Wiley E. Mayne, Jr., "with accolades for producing the 'Best Show Ever."' Past president Stephen H. Hart comments, "Everyone has a favorite Twelfth Night Show and they all say the current year's show is the best ever."60 Fuller says the one rule of Twelfth Night has always been: 'Keep it fun;..-make them laugh.' (Club members] have never tried to prove anything or chastise malefactors. They have not refrained because of moral recitude but because such things don't meet that English writer Samuel johnson would have approved of the University Club's Twelfth Night tradition, for it was he who wrote "'the true, strong, and sound mind is the mind that can embrace equally great things and small. "'62

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Endnotes I Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 25 September 1973; Alexander. 314; Kingry. 37; Ibid . 37-38. 110 2Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 8 September 1915; Ibid., 13 October 1915. Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the University Club, 27 October 1915. 3Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 8 December 1915; and Pierpont Puller, Jr., Si.rty Years of Twelfth Night at the University C/u/J, (Denver: University Club, 1957), 24. 'iKingry. 38. 5Minutes of the Meetings of the Executive Committee, 5 and 15. December 1933; Kingry, 37. 6Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 21 April 1938; Ibid.; Ibid. 'Ibid., 20May 1943: Ibid., February 29, 1972. 8Kingry, 15, 36. 9Kingry, 35-36; Alexander, 319; Kingry, 36; Ibid.; Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Committee, 19 February 1930; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 20 March 1930. 10CJu/J Book, 1891,71. tlKingry, 34-35; Ibid., 35; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 23 February 1928. 12Kingry, 35: Interview with Marianne Schvionne, Sales and Marketing Manager for the University Club, 20 March 1990. 13Hocky Mountain News, 1 january 1986; and Kingry. 37. 33.

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l4Kingry,3334, Interview with Douglas L. Hoyi, former Chair of the University Club's Pool Committee, 27 january 1990. t5Letter to Umpires ... from james Grafton Rogers, Chair of the Entertaiment Committee, 1 February 1912, Colorado Historical Society Archives, james Grafton Roger Collection; and Kingry, 33. 111 t6Letter to Robert Follansbee, Historian of the University Club, from Thomas L. Wilkinson, longtime pool-playing member of the club, 8 May 1952, University Club Archives, Follansbee Letter File. 17Letter to the Membership of the University Club, from Stephen H. Hart, President, 9 February 1953, attached to the Minutes of the Meetirig of the Board. 22 February 1953: Tbe Denver Post. ll April1954. l8Kingry, 117. l9Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 27 November 1973; and Minutes of the Annual Meeting, 24 October 1986. 20Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 28 November 1950. 21Battzell, Philadelphia Gentlemen, 335; Alexander, 6; and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 24 September 197 4. 22Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 20 january1927; Ibid., 24 April 1973; Ibid., 24 january 1989. 23Jbid., 29 November 1966: and Kingry, 111. 2-iMinutes of the Meeting of the Board, 11 August 1953; and Eulogy delivered by Board Member Robert j. Kapelke, at the funeral of Frank Beck, chef of the University Club from 20 March 1961 to 6 August 1982, attached to the Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 24 August 1982. 25Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 4 December 1951; Ibid., 24 November 1953; 23 February 1954; 23 March 1954; and 23 August 1955; and Kingry, 125.

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112 26Kingry, 29. 27Kingry, 29. 28Letter to Harold Kountze, President of the University Club, from Edward G. Knowles, Chair of the june Reception Committee, 17 May 1927. attached to the Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 19 May 1927; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 17 june 1937 and 26 May 1938; Kingry, 29; and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 16 May 1940. 29Jbid., 29 March 1966. 30Jbid., 29 April 1966. 31 Ibid., 31 january. 1961; 28 February 1956; 24 February 1959; Ibid., 27 March 1962, and Kingry, 119-120; and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 25 january 1984. 32Ibid., 23 November 1976; and Kingry, 32. 33Kingry, 32-33; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 22 November 1934 and 21 November 1935; Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Committee, 8 December 1939; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 18 Dece.mber 1941 and 21 December 1943; and Letter to Fred Lake, President of the Denver Club, from Whitman Best, Secretary of the University Club, 12 November 1954, attached to the Minutes of the Meeting of the Board. 23 November 1954. 34Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 24 November 24, 1970; Interview with Douglas L. Hoyt, Past President of the University Club, 27 january 1990. 35Kingry, 26. 36Ibid., 28; and Rocky Mountain News, 12 Apri11990. 37Ibid., 22 October 1965. 38Ibid., 28 October 1985.

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39Kingry, 31. 401bid., 60. 41 Ibid., 22 October 1965. 421bid., 18 October 1968. 43Minutes of the Annual Meeting, 22 October 1971; Ibid., 30 October 1976; Ibid., 28 October1977. 44 Ibid., 26 October 1984; Ibid., 24 October 1986. 45Ibid., 31 October 1951. 46 Alexander, 311. 471bid., 310. 48Pierpont Fuller, jr ., 11. 491bid., 13. 501bid., 14. 113 51 Kingry, 24; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 24 November 1964; 28 january 1964; 25 November -1975; 28 December 1976; .17 November 1981; and 25 November 1986. 52Kingry, 23-24; Fuller, IS. 53Fuller, 15; and Kingry, 23. 54 james Grafton Rogers. written by james Grafton Rogers, n.d., Stephen H. Hart Library, Colorado Historical Society Archives, james Grafton Rogers Collection.

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114 55Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Board, 2 January1924; and Kingry, so. 56 Ibid. 57 Ibid., 23; Twelfth Night Reports attached to the following Minutes of the Meeting of the Board respectively, 25 january 1940; 22 january 1941; and 22 january 1942. Ibid., 25 january 1940; Fuller, 37-38; Ibid., 42; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 28 july 1981; and 14 December 1981. 58Fuller, 50. 59Ibid., 145. 6DMinutes of the Meeting of the Board, 30 january 1968. Ibid., 28 january 1969; Ibid., 24 january 1989; and Interview with Stephen H. Hart. 26 january 1990. 6 t Fuller, .47. 62Alexander, 337.

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CHAPTER VII TO BUILD OR NOT TO BUILD A SQUASH COURT just as the private club movement came to the United States from England, so too did one of the most popular features of club life. Apparently, squash originated in nineteenth-century England from the old game of raquets. Its name is derived from the sound the hollow rubber ball makes when it hits the wall. Squash quickly became popular in English and American prep schools, as well as leading colleges and universities. Since the University Club of Denver was founded in 1891 by a group of Ivy League university graduates, it is not surprising that many of these of members may have carried a fondness with them for the game of squash. That same year an offshoot of the University Club of New York. the University Athletic Club, was organized. Its object was to furnish "proper apparatus and facilities for athletic and social enjoyment and recreation to the members and encourage ... amateur sports: The examples set by University Club of New York. which were repeatedly emulated throughout the country, led many university clubs to consider athletic pursuits.2

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116 As early as 191 S the University Club of Denver discussed a squash court, according to the minutes "at some length, pro and con, but no formal action [was] taken." Little did anyone know that it would be subject of great debate over the next seventy years. These first discussions occured several years before the Denver Athletic Club even considered adding the sport to their facilities in the 1920s.3 The Early Attempts Shortly after the University Club's first expansion in 1923-1924, the matter of a squash court was raised again. Even though the board was sympathetic to the idea, they decided that "in view of present financing the entire matter be postponed." This was probably a wise decision since the club still owed $54,000 on the $60,000 expansion While the matter may have been postponed in 1925, the squash proponents would not let it die. In june 1929, board member Stanley H. johnson, a 1920 Harvard graduate, persuaded the executive committee to approve a proposal to build two squash courts for $1,800. This proposal was discussed at length at the next board and again, "no definite action was taken." Two months months later, club manager Harry C. Wagner filed a lengthy report with the board on the feasibility of building squash courts on the club's top floor. In it, he presented the results of a squash-

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court-questionnaire sent out to the membership. Of the 141 members who responded, seventy-eight definitely approved the construction, twenty-one did not approve, and the remainder offered no opinion. Wagner had also met with the Denver Club and determined that it was making a profit, albeit a small one, with its courts .5 117 Wagner's report concluded that even though the courts would have a difficult time paying for themselves, "the effect of this added activity on the membership and use of the Club can hardly be reckoned in terms of dollars and cents, and this may be what is needed to make the Club more attractive.'' After much deliberation the board voted to continue indefinitely the squash court issue stating "that it would be unwise for the Club to incur any obligation in this connection at this time."6 In February 1939 the younger members of the club asked the board to consider seriously constructing two squash courts in front of the club building. Expressing concern over the possible depreciation of the building if the courts were constructed in that location, the board nonetheless gave its "cautious approval ... pending a more definite presentation ... from this committee." The following year the committee advised the board of two propoals. In the first, squash courts could be erected in front of the building by excavating the site and building up to the present wall level. With installation of new showers the cost would be $4,800 for two courts of standard size. In the second proposal, a standard size court could be installed in the southwest upstairs wing for $3,800. Sound proofing, however, would be an additional expense.?

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118 The committee stressed that "there is considerable demand for ... a court," and that "the squashersbelieved that enough advance contributions could be secured to raise perhaps $3,000." The board decided "that the possibility of an upstairs court was impractical," and asked the committee to proceed with developing specific plans for squash courts in the front of the building. Nothing came of these plans.s The Fight of the Fifties A full thirteen years passed before the club records mention squash again. In assessing the present and future needs of the club, the following comments on squash appear in President Stephen H. Hart's notice of a special meeting of the membership to consider the 1953 building expansion: Another item of construction has been proposed and bandied about like a shuttlecock since time immemorial--a squash court. The architects have prepared an alternative plan including a squash court. Its construction, including lockers, showers and spectators balcony, would add approximately $30,000 to the cost of the program .... In November 1952 a questionnaire was sent to the membership asking whether or not they would favor a squash court. Approximately, one-third ( 150) of the members responded, and approximately one-third (50) Qf those responding indicated that they favored a squash court and would either play or donate to its construction .... The proponents argue that one strength of the University Club has always been its appeal to young men. Many of the younger elements (and a few of us old ducks too) would greatly appreciate a squash court and point to the fact that a number of their friends have recently joined the Denver Club in preference to

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the University Club only because of this feature. On the other hand, $30,000 is a lot of money, and only a small percentage of the Club's membership would use the court. It has been estimated that the revenues from the court might run approximately S 1,200 a year. This is certainly inadequate to pay for the court .... The advocates of a squash court argue that one of the overall obligations of the Club is to provide recreational facilities, whether cards, dominos, pool, billiards, squash, without making each activity pay for itself and the quarters it occupies.9 The membership had the choice of proceeding with the building program without the squash court which would cost them an additional $3 a month in dues, or include. a squash court for an additional $4 a month. The membership voted to include the squash court, if it could be financed. The money was not forthcoming and the squash court was left for consideration another day.IO Rising from defeat three years later, the squashers appointed a special committee to investigate once again the feasibility of constructing one or more squash courts. The board allotted S150 for an engineering study as well. During the early part of 1956, several plans for squash courts were tossed about by the board. joseph L. Yrisarri of the squash committee urged the board to give serious consideration to the construction of one squash court on the roof of the club building at an estimated cost $12,000 .... He placed his appeal on the high plane of keeping faith with recently admitted members of the club whom he characterized as 'wonder fellows' devoted to the game of squash ... He felt the club was morally obligated to provide facilities for their exercise and amusement during the winter months.

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120 Morally obligated or not, at its June meeting the board tabled the squash issue yet another time.tt Success in the Sixties The age-old problem of the squash courts was again adressed by the board in March 1961. As if the matter had not been analyzed and studied almost into insignificance in the past, the board once again authorized the house committee to spend up to $1 ,500: to investigate the feasibility and advisibility of proceeding with the squash court construction and to use said sum to get firm bids and information regarding the cost of squash courts and to report back to the board with specific recommendations at some future meeting. The board, considering a $55.000 proposal put before it in May, decided in October 1961 that the squash courts be "postponed for the moment" since the club could not "obtain adequate financing."i2 The squash court debate continued into early 1962. The possiblity of building it on top of the pool room "seemed to be a fresh approach to the ... problem, although many of the . old views on the squash court problem seemed to be raised again and aired at some length." At long last, on Apri124, 1962, the board approved a doubles squash court, not to exceed a cost of $25,000, for which the club could borrow up to $10,000.13

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121 According to an announcement in the May 1962 issue .of the club's newletter the "University Club News," construction on the courts would begin immediately. The announcement also reported that: It is currently thought that construction will be completed by fall. Location of the squash court was not announced, but normally well advised sources said it could be expected to be placed near the top of the building. Cost of the project is believed to be high. Courts for other vegetables are not now being planned.l-4 The construction update offered by Moses (Tony) Taylor II, chair of the squash committee, in the August issue, said that the doubles squash court will be finished in September, and is being built in the attic of the clubhouse with shower facilities located somewhere close by. Since "the expense of the squash court," ruled out the installation of an elevator," Taylor added, "a simple catapult, aimed generally at the fourth floor will be placed on East Seventeenth Avenue for those players who do not care to walk up to that leve1."15 The new double squash court was blasted at the club's annual meeting that year and Kennard P. Perry, chair of the house committee, received the brunt of it: You have taken money which we did not have and have turned it into an attic squash court. Visionaries say that as many as one member in ten may use it. Never have so many owned so much for so few. Mr. Perry, as the club's outstanding athletic supporter, it is only fitting that you should receive the Gilded Clam.t6 "When that big box (called by the public 'The University Club Penthouse'), [which] was anchored on [the) top center of [the club's) roof," opened for business, members were charged 75 cents a game, plus an

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122 annual locker fee. Referring to the expense of building the squash court the "University Club News," announce that "The walls of the court are platinum, and the light fixtures are hollowed-out diamonds." I? The club's first doubles squash tournament was held February 11 to 16, 1963, followed by an informal "cocktail-dinner-dance" for the contestants and guests. Prior to the tournament the newsletter issued this reminder: "Those playing the last two or three matches before the party are reminded of the sanitary facilities somewhere upstairs." IS A Single on Top of a Double With amazing quickness and little fanfare, the board approved constructing an additional squash court in November 1966. Since the present squash players had already pledged $5,300 for this new singles court; and 52 out of 63 of them were willing to put up money on an advance squash fee basis for it; the board moved that the club "proceed forthwith with the building of ... the singles squash court ... for a price not to exceed $16,511. This court was carved out of unused space on the third floor and was positioned just to the north of the doubles court.19 After the new singles squash court was finished, member Richard Downing, Jr. sent a report to the board in February 1967, which said, in part: Since .. .[the] rather inexpert first matches, [of Downing and jay Tracey] several other persons, more knowledgeable in the sport,

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. have tested the court and pronounced it to be excellent .... I am satisfied that we can now--with confidence--announce to the sporting world that our athletic facilities are the equal of any rundown, ancient, and rickety University Club in Denver.20 123 Richard Downing's thoughts were sought out one year later when the board considered air conditioning the locker room and both sets of squash courts: Everyone dutifully perspired when the subject of summer Squash was brought up, and, in an effort to determine whether any good would come to the Club of this additional generation of sweat either airconditioned or not, Mr. Downing suggested that the Club go into the business of selling deodorants, and also find out whether any of the Squash-Set would really play Squash in the summer anyway. The board decided not to go to the expense of airconditioning this part of the club, since it felt the University Club could not compete with the Denver Club's summer squash program. When the heat problem rose again in 1973, the board: suggested that a periodic accumulation of the shoes, rackets, supporters and other debris, be placed in a barrel between the shower room and the single squash court and with the help of a can of kerosene, we might correct that problem. In 1976, the club's "team of A players," led by squash chair Frederic B. Rodgers, won "an extraordinarily narrow victory in a C tournament." For his efforts, Rodgers received a gilded clam at the annual meeting.21

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124 Rebuilding from the Ashes A November 12, 1980 fire sent the University Club's doubles squash court up in smoke. Fortunately, the singles court survived. At a special meeting of the board two days after the fire. one of the first reconstruction committees to be established dealt with the destroyed squash court. 22 The squashers mounted a campaign to include an observers' gallery in the rebuilding plans. Their pledge of$ t 2,24S would be contributed toward the estimated $23,000 cost of the gallery, with the balance to be paid by the club. In addition, for each squash player's S26S contribution, no squash court fees would be assessed for four years. 23 In presenting the squashers' case to the board, jeff "Hashim Floyd" Welborn. (whose nickname refers to Hashim Khan, the Denver Athletic Club's world class squash pro), emphasized that.the gallery would be used monthly for tournaments, which in turn, would increase bar and food revenues. He stressed that building the gallery is in the true spirit of this Club's finest traditions in that it will foster group participation in squash functions ... [and) that it will also greatly increase the attractiveness of the squash program to new members. The plan was approved by the board along with the $107,902 contract offer from Connors Construction Company to rebuild the doubles squash court with an observers' gallery. The contract also included repairing the fire-damaged roof of the club.24

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125 Throughout the 1980s, squash tournaments grew in popularity. The interclub tournaments with the Denver Club have proved to be quite a mainstay for the University Club. According to the board minutes, the March 1986 tournament "was well received and the best ever held."25 When squash committee chair jeff Welborn retired in 1982 from his position, he was recognized by the board for providing "three glorious years of mirth and fun ... while directing the Squash program to its zenith." The two squash courts--one for singles, one for doubles--have not, as some may have feared, turned the University Club into an athletic club, but rather have enhanced the special bond of the club to some of its members, and attracted younger members to the club in the process.26

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126 Endnotes Noel, The Denver Altbletic Club, 55. 2A1exander, 96; Ibid., 504. 3Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 8 December 1915; and Noel, The Denver Athletic Clu/J, 55. 4Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 19 February 1925. 5Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Committee,) june 1929; and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 13 june 1929. 6Report to C. C Epperson, Chair of the House Committee, frQm H. C. Wagner, Club Manager, 22 August 1929, attached to the Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 28 August 1929; and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 28 August 1929. 71bid., 16 February 19 39; lbid.,18 April 1940. 8fbid., 21 March 1940; and 18 April 1940. 9Letter to the Membership, from Stephen H. Hart, President, 9 February 1953, attached to the Minutes of the Special Meeting of the Membership, 28 February 1953. IOMinutes of the Special Meeting of the Membership, 28 February 1953. Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 28 April 1953. II Ibid., 26 january 1956; Ibid., 28 February 1956; Ibid., 28 March 1956; Ibid., 22 May 1956; Ibid., 28 March 1956. 121bid., 28 March 1961; Ibid., 29 May 1961; and Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Board, 19 October 1961. 13fbid.; 30 january 1962; Ibid., 27 February 1962; Ibid., 24 Apri11962.

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t.rt:university Club News," May 1962. 15Ibid., August 1962. t6Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Membership, 19 October 1962. t7Kingry, )); and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 27 November 1962; and "University Oub News," December 1962. ISJbid., February 1963. 19Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 11 November 1966. 127 20Report to W. A Steele, President, from Richard Downing, jr ., Chair of the Squash Committee, 22 February 1967, attached to the Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 22 February 1967. 2t Ibid., 30 April 1968; Ibid., 28 May1968; Ibid., 23 january 1973; and Minutes of the Annual Meeting, 30 October 1976. 22Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Board, 14 November 1980. 23Report to the Board of Directors, from jeff Welborn, Chair of the Squash Committee, 28 April 1981, attached the Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 28 April 1981. 24Ibid; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 28 April 1981. 25Ibid., 26 Apri11982; 28 Apri11987; Minutes of the Annual Meeting, 28 October 1985: Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 28 April 1987; Ibid., 25 March 1986. 26Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Committee, 26 july 1982; Ibid., 18 April 1940; Letter to the Membership, from Stephen H. Hart, President, 9 February 1953, attached to the Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 28 February 1953; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 28 April 1953; Ibid., 27 February 1962; Ibid., 28 March 1956; Ibid., 28 April 1981; Ibid., 9 September 1987.

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CHAPTER VIII CLUB SPIRIT: LET MIRTH BE UNCONFINED What was it that made a private club so special to the men who joined it? According to E. Digby Baltzell, the author of Philadelphia Gentlemen, the primary function of an all-male private metropolitan club was "to provide a convenient place to meet one's friends for meals and other social activities within the city." In the 1930s a man from Philadelphia describing his feelings for his club said, '"Nothing has ever meant quite so much to me. It is a bond,"' after a long minute of hesistation he added, "'which can be felt but not analyzed.'" I "Even more important," according to Nelson Aldrich, author of Old Money: The Mythology of the America 's Upper Class, "is the warming recognition the club man receives from members and servants alike--a recognition of his essential. almost spiritual belongingness." He continues: Many Old Money gentlemen ... become attached to their clubs. The appurtenances of the place, its comfortable chairs, its silver, its 'good' pictures in the reading room ... these bind them to a common world of 'things that will endure' as much as anythlng they have at home. And in the early days when many private clubs catered to the elite upper class, it could be said that '"a man's club is his home. It is there that he

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129 sees his friends, writes his letters, dines, and spends the greater part of the day."'2 In Denver's early history the same could be said of its numerous taverns that catered to the city's blue-collar workers. "Saloons provided a bond based on regional origin, a place to find or hear of old friend_s or meet new ones from the same state." They also offered "the cultural and social life of the French salon, ... the elegance of the Spanish sa/a, or parlor, and the sedate, private man's world of the British pub." And saloonkeepers endeavored to meet as many of the needs and desires of their patrons as possible} University clubs, on the other hand, generally attracted young, college-educated professionals, who sought to continue the friendly and socially-stimulating environment of their school years. It was after the successful establishment of the University Club of New York in 1879 that the spirit of university enthusiasm swept the country. Clubs sprang up across the United States, 35 of them between 1879 and 1910. Those who joined one of these university clubs in this expanding network, thought it a "noble institution, which has been built up ... and will in the future, as in the past, add much lustre and glory to the character of [any] great metropolitan city."4 That Soecial Spirit Every visitor to the club is greeted by the carved wooden statue of The jester whose poised form beckons, "Let mirth be unconfined."

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130 Edmund P. Rogers, (a member of the club from 1915 until his death in 1964), presented this unique symbol to the club in 1963 in the hopes that the club's tradition of camaraderie and conviviality would always ring true.S And this tradition been carefully guarded: What we have always particularly sought is to be sure that no member shall leave because of any unpleasantness or anything else which would indicate any lack of harmony and good fellowhip which, we believe, has always characterized the University Club.6 Only two recorded incidences of discord exist. One, which occured in 189S, stemmed from one member charging another with "having used language unbecoming a gentleman in the Club House." The accused responded to the board, "If my language on that evening was objectionable I desire to apologize for the same." The second took place in 1942, when "the old question of complaints of members arising from unfortunate personal clashes" with another member forced the secretary to inform the accused member of "his right to a hearing before the Board [or] if he wanted to resign, it would be accepted." The member resigned.' Symbols of That Special Club Soirit To perptuate loyalty and pride in the various almae maters and foster social interaction among its members, the University Club of Denver specifically designed the windows of the college room to accommodate the seals of the colleges represented in the membership. For $30, each group of alumni was invited in 1923, at its own expense, to insert a painted glass medallion in the college room. The first to donate

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college shields were Michigan, Cornell, Illinois, Amherst, Bowdoin, University of Kentucky, and the University of Colorado.8 131 Sixty years later, past president Stephen H. Hart urged the board "to seek new lighting for seals in the College Room, as well as the the commissioning and installation of new seals by the club alumnea." According to the secretary some "forty odd colleges ... were not by a seal." The board organized a committee called '"OUCH,' an acronym for 'Outside U Club College Room Highlights.'" The OUCH campaign was a success by April 1984--four new seals, including the Universities of Oklahoma, Dubuque, Texas, and Tulsa, had been ordered and all of the windows had been lit from the outside with a simple light system.9 In the early 1950s, member Ira Dixon donated a window medallion entitled "The School of Hard Knocks," or according to Kingry's Cbroncile of 75 Years "Collegium Ictuum Durorum." Even though Robert Stearns, president of the University of Colorado, had dedicated it-in Latin no less--the window caused controversy "over the propriety of the levity implied in this work of art depicting the black eye and the bloody nose." J o Another symbol of club spirit was developed in 1984 when the University Club's very own club tie became available at Homer Reed's in downtown Denver for $18. But within the club, probably the most significant show of club spirit came from a special group of chairs. Back in 1963 board member Wilbur Denious advised the board "that the time had finally come when the glue and string brigade could not keep up with

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132 the increasing casualty rate for the chairs around the 'Big Table."' The new "admiral's" chairs created such a stir when they arrived that the club decided to replace a_ll one hundred chairs in the college room since "so many ha[d) entirely collasped."ll In january 1964, select members were sent a letter offering an opportunity to purchase one of these "very rugged" chairs, which were "guaranteed for the life of the Club," were promised a short, individualized biography, carved on the back of the purchased chair; including name, college, and year of graduation. These chairs, in effect creating a permanent and prominent roster of some of the club's members, were offered to: those who are most obviously entitled to this distinction, to-wit: those who are held in high regard by the Club and who have demonstrated high regard for the Club. [Which) By coincidence ... are also the very people who are most likely to go along and buy a chair. Those first considered were seventeen-plus-year members; past presidents; current members of the board, committee on admissions, or the Twelfth Night committee. Kingry describes the scene when these speciaJly-made chairs arrived several months later: "There was a mad scramble on the part of each subscriber to find the chair with his name carved thereon, and to sit in it first."l2

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133 Reciprocity with Other Clubs The University Club of Denver was invited to attend a convention in 1892 in Washington. D. C. to formulate plans for an "interchange of courtesies," to promote "a bond of union between University Clubs around the country." The Denver club decided not to attend the convention and declined establishing any reciprocity agreements with other university clubs. Eight years later, when the University Club of Buffalo, New .York, approached the club on exchanging courtesies with ten other clubs in their network. the University Club of Denver refused the offer. In the 1930s the board repeatedly turned down similiar opportunities, maintaining the club's forty-plus-year policy. When contacted in 1937 by the University Club of Dayton, Ohio. the club replied that it "followed General Washington's precept and avoided all entangling aUiances." The club may have had a concern in trying to accomodate an influx of mountain-seeking, university-club tourists from places like Dayton and refused reciprocity on that basis as we11.13 Those that contacted the club throughout the next four decades received the same response, although the board asked the secretary to phrase the rejection letter to the University Club of Pittsburg "more politely than usual, as this particular applicant is a pretty nice outfit." The first mention the club makes of considering reciprocal arrangements appears in 1981, when a special committee was appointed to study the possibility. No change in policy was suggested and the matter was tabled until addressed two years later. At that time. the board considered

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134 allowing a reciprocal membership only if the visitor were sponsored by a member of the University Club of Denver. However, this suggestion was not. acted upon.14 The board reconsidered its position in 1986 and created a reciprocity committee which was charged with exploring the idea further. Through the committee's efforts, reciprocity was first established with the University Club of Maryland, which had been turned down by the club in 1981. When the University Club of San Francisco was added soon after, the committee "was directed to pursue reciprocity arrangements with other 'desirable' private clubs throughout the country." Thus, the University Club of Denver embarked on a new era in club outreach.f5 Club Boarders james W. Alexander, author of The History of the University Club of New Yor.J:. dubbed university clubs a "bachelor house of refuge." The club in Denver was no exception. Its homeless souls, who called the "roomers," were an interesting and colorful feature of the club. Prior to the remodeling in the 1920s, they occupied all but one of the ten bedrooms on the upper floor of the clubhouse; the one room being reserved for nonresident members. When the clubhouse was filled to capacity, a number of members would lodge next door in the University Chambers Apartments--no connection with the club.16 When the clubhouse on the hill opened in 1896, the rooms were rented at $30 a month. These roomers provided the club with a new

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135 source of revenue: $1,428 in 1896; $1,852 in 1897; and $3,400 in 1923. Fifteen more bedrooms were added to the third floor of the new wing in1924 to help house more renters.l7 Some of those who lived at the club in the 1930s became quite vocal about the lack of ventilation and the excessive heat on the third floor as summer approached each year. The annual appeal given by roomers Scotty Henderson or Leonard W. Van Stone proposed insulating the attic or installing a system of fans. In 1939, the insulation proponents finally won out. The club discovered that the officers of the Denver Fire Clay Company would do the job for $350 and accept the proviso that they "join the club and accept payment for said insulating material on their Club accounts, as credits toward the same."l8 During the World War I I years, with Denver experiencing a severe housing crunch, the rooms at the club were in continual demand. By the 1960s, however the club was publicizing its "large, attractive, comfortable rooms" in the "University Club News" as being available for the business associates and guests of members for $3.50 a day and up or $50 a month. In 1964, the board found it necessary to restrict the use of the rooms to members only and to increase the monthly rent on each room by $15.19 Ten years later, the club's overnight lodging facilities were no longer considered attractive and comfortable. "The club kept losing money because it had to keep staff going all night and day and after hours." In recommending their closure, Treasurer Lee Ambrose said, "They are not producing any revenue and are seriously lacking in

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dignity."20 In March 197 4, the club discontinued this seventy-eight year-old tradition. Library 136 The Athenaeum Club in London--an association of scholarly men, authors, members of Parliament, and promoters of the fine arts--has an outstanding library. "It may well be considered," according the james W. Alexander, "the precursor of the purely university club." If a university club's claim to fame were to rest with its library, then the University Club of Denver began on a solid footing .. Its articles of incorporation state the "encouragement of literature and art, and the establishment and maintenance of a library, [and] reading room."21 The library's first books came as donations from members and also "from funds collected from a series of fines imposed for various reasons, such as unseemly language or conduct, disturbing a pool player or other game player by distracting calls or noises ... etc." Within a few short years the library contained about 350 books and forty bound volumes of magazines. The reading room was continually stocked with latest periodicals for members' perusa1.22 During the first decade of the twentieth century, the library grew from 400 volumes to 3.500. The major contributor was j. T. Eskridge, who donated 1,548 books. With this influx of inventory, the library expanded into the club's original card room in 1908. The selection included a wide variety of subjects: history, biography, literature, drama,

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137 fiction, mining, and metallurgy. To ensure proper cataloging of the books, the club hired an assistant librarian from the Dever Public Library. Each cataloged work received a "disinctive, engraved book plate ... designed by C. Valentine Kirby, a Denver school teacher."23 In 1925 the Committee on Literature and Art, under whose juisdiction the library fell, gladly accepted member Calvin H. Morse's donation of thirty-two volumes of the loeb 's Classics, a series of classical Greek and Latin texts with parallel English translations--some of which were translated by member George A. Norlin, president of the University of Colorado. With money from the Charles A. Powers Trust Fund, which had been established in 1925 for book purchases in Powers's will, the committee was ultimately able to purchase all of the remaining volumes. Past president Stephen H. Hart proudly claims that today "the I club's library has one of the few complete sets in the whole country."24 The club's library helped to reestablish the prison library in Canon City when it was destroyed by fire in 1929. The library shelves were crammed full with 4,500 books, some duplicates and some of limited value, so the committee on literature and art sent the warden of the Colorado Penitentiary a number of books that were "not of sufficient permanent value to be retained in the Library ... [and] are suitable for reading by prisoners.25 In the early 1960s, the committee on literature and art, stressing the club's cultural and educational background and trying to rekindle an interest in the library, instituted a book review column in the "University Club News." The first review featured the book T.be Oog Fiend or

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138 Snarleyyou by Frederick Marryat. A few months later the newsletter highlighted a charming book, written by F. Hopkinson Smith in 1892, entitled WellWorn Roads. The reviewer comments: As the author himself so well said, this book contains no interest of any value to anyone; it is void of statistics. [and] it is useless as a traveler's guide ... Nevertheless, it is a delightful book well deserving the honor of being on the shelf of the University Club Library.26 The book reviews, while adding some humor to the newsletter, did little to increase patronage of the club's library. When the library's space was renovated in 1975 with new paint, carpeting, and draperies, the area was dedicated as the "'Slide Kelly Memorial Recreation Center,"' after past president Charles]. Kelly. As a man who had always done his best for the club, he left the presidency "with songs in his heart--at the close of the 1965 Annual Meeting--amid cheers and calls for more." Now the books on the shelf serve primarily as the backdrop for the weekday-afternoon bridge games played by some of the club's older members.27 Other Gifts Throughout its history, the club has received gifts from its membership, all of which are handled by the Committee on Literature and Art. The gifts range from the unusual to the useful and the sentimental. In 1924, Mrs. Robert B. Honeyman gave the club a grand piano in memory of her brother, Albert Gallatin, a nineteen-year member. The year before Harold Kountze had given the club a pool table

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139 and some rugs. A buffalo head was presented by W. M. Bond in 1927. At one point, the club received an "antique punch to commemorate deceased members."28 One of the more practical gifts came in 1984 as a $1,000 donation for new faucets in the men's room. jeff Morganthaler and Bart Berger, two club members, made the contribution. Berger came to the club's rescue a year later, replacing the fool's costume for Twelfth Night when it was discovered that the original had disappeared.29 Artwork has also been given to the club. A portrait of founding President Henry Treat Rogers was given to the club in 1929 by Frank L. Woodward. julian Meyer gave the "a very fine lithograph by Liuga Kasimer" in 1976 and Bruce Dines donated an original watercolor of waterfowl in 1985. All of these are prominently displayed on the walls of the club.30 Carrying the Spirit from Father to Son Of the traditions that are cherished by this club none is more treasured than a father sponsoring his son. This has also been the tendency among America's most clubbable families who "send all their sons to the same schools that the father, or even the grandfather, attended" and have them join the same clubs. To prove the point the University Club of Denver has a long list of "Knights and their progeny."31 Stephen H. Hart probably has the strongest family background in the club. His grandfather, john L. jerome, was the club's first charter vice

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140 president. Grandfather jerome was a cousin to jenny jerome Churchill, mother of Winston Churchill and daughter of Leonard jerome, whose Madison Avenue home served as the clubhouse for the University Club of New York from 1884 to 1899. Richard H. Hart, Stephen Hart's father, was secretary of University Club of Denver from 1918 to 1927 and served as the club historian for many years. Stephen Hart's father-in-law was james Grafton Rogers who immortalized himself by composing the closing chorus for Twelfth Night and spending countless hours on the production of these shows. And Stephen Hart continued the tradition when his own son, Richard H. Hart joined the club.32 When Oliver W. Toll was proposed for membership in 1921, james Grafton Rogers wrote a letter of recommendation to the committee on admissions on his behalf. He wrote, in part: Toll ... is a brother of Roger W. Toll, who for many years has been a valued member, and a son of Charles H. Toll, whose picture [as a founding member of the club l hangs in the lounge room. He is a nephew of Henry R. Wolcott. who was another well loved member.33 Charles]. Kelly, known in college as Slide Kelly (to distinquish him from another Charles j. Kelly in the same fraternity), became "Mr. Kelledy" to members of the University Club for reasons never recorded. His son john Fleming Kelly, had been a member for several years when the minutes documented the arrival of another Kelly: Grandfather 'Kelledy' was congratulated by the board upon the perputation of the male line by son jack (it being acknowledged that daughter-in-law Nina was an indispensable aid to the accomplishment).

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141 Shortly before Thomas P. Owen was to become jack Kelly's brother-in-law in 1983, he was proposed as a member to the University Club. Attached to the nominating letter that Kelly had written was a handwritten note which said, '"jack, let's get this nerd in so he can start buying his own lunches.' Signed Slide."' Owen's father, j. Churchill Owen is a member of the club, along with brothers David T., james C., Jr., and Stephen L. Owen.34 With the committee on admissions voting in secret and holding all ballots confidential, it is not possible to ascertain how many, if any, of the male offspring of some of Denver's prominent families were blackballed by the club. But all members, regardless of their social standing, are considered prime subjects for a gilded clam award and all its notoriety. In other words, nerds and jerks beware! Other father-son connections are Mitchell Benedict and Mitchell Benedict III; Dudley T. Smith and Dudley T. Smith, jr.; Robert W. Steele and Walter A. Steele; H. Benjamin Duke, jr., H. Benjamin Duke III, Charles B. Duke, and james L. Duke; Dayton Denious and William P. Denious are also joined by Dayton's brother, Wilbur. And in true club spirit, member jean Breitenstein receives a gilded clam at the 1980 annual meeting with the following words: 'Your son, your son-in-law, and a grandson of yours are all members of the Club, but we forgive you."3.5

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142 Some Moments with the Board The minutes: No better record for displaying the special camaraderie and the unique chemistry of this club exists. For example, the minutes of S. Arthur Henry, club secretary from 1935 to 1942, "are gems of expression of the club in its finest tradition." S. Arthur Henry and one of his predecessors. Richard H. Hart, were tough acts to follow as Stephen H. Hart discovered in 1944. After young Secretary Hart had read the previous month's minutes. the board commented "as to the of that humor which typified the minutes of the Secretary's father." At the Apri11968 board meeting, "The Minutes were read, and they were received with such hilarious laughter that no one could hear them. (The Secretary will. in the future, try not to be so funny.)" Secretary ProTem George M. Wilfley, in 1971. fearing the wrath of the board: quickly denied authorship of the most sterile and dehydrating minutes in the history of 'U' Club minutes.Elected Secretary McLagen had lost the funny ones, so the Board was stuck with a straight and factual report of the previous meeting.36 Humor pervades the minutes of the 1960s and 1970s. For instance, in 1973 the secretary noted that The minutes ... [are] totally accurate and threads of spirited humor are woven throughout the manuscript. The Secretary overheard a comment to the effect that why is the distinguished Board required to sit through such claptrap. The obvious response to such comment is that your humble secretary would not bother to prepare any

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143 minutes unless there was someone to hear them, not to mention the importance of the tradition.37 Humor is one thing, long-windedness is something else again. When Jay W. Tracey, Jr., became secretary in 1962 he was warned by the board "to avoid Mr. Steele's pitfall of ponderous prolixity in preparing the minutes." However, early in his term, Secretary Steele's minutes had been praised by the board as being "factually correct if not a literary triumph."38 David C. Knowlton, secretary in 1972-1973. provides this rendition of his reading of the minutes: The minutes of the last regular monthly meeting held May 29, 1973, were read with great eloquence and dignity by the Secretary. It was obvious that those present were captured by the total accuracy of the report yet were exhilarated by the imagination and humor of the writer. After the meeting, certain members of the Board requested copies of the minutes for their permanent records. It is not often that a humble secreatary becomes a legend in his own time.39 Some secretaries put their minutes into verse. A partial account of a 1967 board meeting by Secretary Robert Bosworth, Jr., appears below: The minutes of 1-31-67, were witty. Mr. Barry uttered praise, to quote, 'very pretty'. Time elasped, minutes accepted as read, By God you'd thought t'were time for bed. No one liked us enough to write, So no correspondence was read that night.

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Next came Denious, House Committee Chair, With his usual requests for money e:x:tra-ordinaire. Nothing practical like goldplated Biffies, Only platewarmers, shelves. and other such nifties. 40 .. .......................................... 144 Another example was recorded by Secretary Peter F. Breitenstein in 1978. It reads. in part: More rapid than eagles The Board members came, As Tom whistled and shouted And called them by name: And when they had gathered A quorum of votes. I finally remembered I had to take notes. As I pulled in my chair, And said hello to the gang, Down came Tom's gavel With an earsplitting bang! The Club's profits and losses And state financially, Were reported by Priester Parenthetically. 41 In truly rare form is the only documentation of a 1979 board meeting, which begins: (No minutes were prepared for the meeting of the Board of Directors of the Unversity Club held Apri124, 1979 and the following letter, written by an unknown observer. is the only available record of what transpired.)

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145 Dear Ma: I got to meet again with those fellows who run that Club up on 17th and Sherman Streets here in Denver last Tueday night ... The neat guy I was telling you about who writes the real funny minutes, read the minutes of the previous meeting. I thought they were a howl but nobody else seemed to think so. In fact, the other guy with the funny naJne, Clough, kept tryin' to have the minutes corrected to show his name more often. However, he was shouted down and the minutes got approved .. .. The Treasurer guy, Falkenberg, started givin' a lot of numbers and figures but I didn't pay too much attention and I don't think anybody else did either.42 These recorded moments not only capture the spark of the club's spirit and conviviality, but they serve well in captivating those who have referenced them throughout the years. Employees and Their Loyalty In 1980, when Tish Kllanxhja, the club's manager, resigned after twenty years of faithful service to the University Club, the board noted that "he has been the embodiment of the spirit and style that has made the Club the very special organization that it is today." Throughout his tenure, Tish had done an "admirable and diligent job of the operating the Club economically and keeping the prices down certainly lower than other clubs." To show its appreciation, the board presented Tish with a bust of Flastaff, inscribed with the following lines from act 3, scene 2, of Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, '"I can-no other answer make, but thanks, and thanks, and ever thanks."' Tish and his wife subsequently operated

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an unusually long-lived restaurant, Cafe Promenade, in a sunken courtyard of Larimer Square.43 146 From managers, to bartenders, and to chefs the club has had many long-term employees. Several of these have been honored at various annual meetings in typical University Club fashion. joseph Martinez, a bartender, who is still with the club after forty-four years, received a gilded clam in1966 "for running the bar, running the office, and doing anything else around here that could or could not be done, and for helping us al1."44 Sous Chef Egon C. Peterson, a twenty-year veteran, was praised in198S as being "known best and admired most for your good works, for the culinary delights which you place before us to tickle our palates and fill our stomachs, some more amply than others." At the 1976 annual meeting those in attendance experienced "aU Club first," when the club honored "I shudder to say--of all things--a lady, Pauline Lyles," who as a member of the kitchen staff in charge of cold foods, is "hardly ever seen by the membership." The club thanked her "For 1 S years of chilled gazpacho and watermelon balls."45 When sixty-five-year-old Del, also known as Flaviano del Rosario, first announced his retirement in 1958, the board hurried to bestow the proper platitudes upon him. This twenty-year employee was "as highly thoughtof [sic] as anyone who ever graced our staff. ... [and was given] an expression of appreciation signed by the officers and directors." The board need not have rushed, for the "ever-retiring and ever-returning"

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147 Del would find his way back from his native Philippines repeatedly over the next eight years.46 So pleased was the board with Chef Frank Beck in 1965, that they adopted the following resolution: WHEREAS, Our chef is absolutely without equal and the delectableness of his cuisine is exceeded only by the majesty of his generosity; and WHEREAS, We are concerned that some of our ranks of the gourmets to become gourmands, if not downright gluttons; NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED: That the chef and his staff be complimented to the heights but that he be requested, for the sake our bulging waistlines, to reduce the portions because--wonderful as the food is--we just can't eat it a11!47 Frank Beck served the club for 20 years up until his death in 1982. President Douglas Hoyt, delivering Beck's eulogy, said: Our chef won our stomachs and our hearts was well as the respect and loyalty of the staff. His diligence was unexcelled .... [He was] our treasured and dedicated head chef for twenty years. Frank Beck's personal and professional accomplishments were remarkable and beyond value. We will always cherish with gratitude the memory of Frank Beck as a loyal master chef without peer, a leader of men and a true friend to all who were privileged to have known him.48 Without its dedicated employees, a private club like the University Club would lose its special ambience and that "warming recognition [of a member's) essential, almost spiritual belongingness."49

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148 Endnotes IE. Digby Baltzell, Pbiladepbia Genllemen, 335; and Dixon Wector, The Saga of American Society, 277. 2Nelson W. Aldrich, Jr., Old Money, 49-50: Francis Gerry Fairfield, The Clu/Js of New J'Ork, 27. 3Thomas J. Noel, The City and the Saloon: Oenver, 1858-1916 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982), 24, 12, and 11-20. 4E. Digby Baltzell, The Philadelphia Gentlemen, 339-340; Alexander, 472; Ibid., 462-463. 5Ib'd ... 1 ., 111. 6Letter to Robert L. Stearns, President, from Lawrence Lewis, Secretary Pro Tem., 3 August 1926, attached to the Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 19 August 1926. 7Letter to the Board of Directors of the University Club, from L. Howard Smith, Secretary, 8 january 1895, University Club Archives: Letter to the Board of Directors of the University Club, from William Buzzard Smith, 12 March 1895, Archives of the University Club; and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 22 january 1942. 8Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 14 November 1923. 9Ibid., 22 March 1983; Ibid., 24 january 1984; Ibid., 24 April 1984; Ibid., 25 june 1984: Ibid., 26 February 1985. IOKingry, 97; Ibid.; and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 26 March 1985. I I Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Committee, 27 August 1984; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 24 September 1963; and Kingry, 112.

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149 12Kingry, 112; Ibid., 113. 13Letter to Henry T. Rogers, President of the University Club of Denver, from Henry Billings Brown, President of the University Club of Washington. D. C., 29 Apri11892, University Qub Archives; Letter of the University Club of Denver, from the Council of the University Club of Buffalo, 18 Apri11900, University Club Archives; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 16 january 1930; Ibid., 22 june 1933; Ibid., 17 june 1937. 14Ibid., 16 May 1940; Ibid., 29 September 1948; Ibid., 23 November 1948; Ibid., 24 june 1952; Ibid., 6 june 1953; Ibid., 19 September 1967; Ibid., 28 December 1976; Ibid., 19 May 1981; Ibid., 20 February 1941; Ibid., 15 December 1981; Ibid., 20 December 1983. 151bid., 25 March 1986, 27 january 1987, 24 March 1987. 28 July 1987. l6Afexander, 138; Kingry, 67. 171bid., 1.5; Ibid., 20; Ibid., 47. 18Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 17 August 1939; and Kingry, 67. 19Letter to the University Club Board of Directors, from Edward G. Knowles, Chair of the House Committee, 27 March 1944, attached to the Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 28 March 1944; "University Club News," September 1960; and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 24 November 1964. 20Jnterview Stephen H. Hart, 12 january 1989: and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 26 February 197 4. 21Alexander, 6; and Club BooK, 1891, 18-19. 22Kingry, 9. 23Kingry, 20-21; Annual Report of the University Club, 20 October 1924, attached to the Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Membership, 30 October 1924.

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150 24Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 30 June 1925; Annual Report of the University Club 30 September1928, attached to the Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Membership, 27 October1928; Arinual Report of the University Club 20 October 1925; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 17 August 1939; and Interview with Stephen H. Hart, 12 january 1989. 25Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Membership, October 30, 1929. 26"University Club News," February 1961; Ibid., April 1961. 27Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 28 January 1975; Ibid., 27 May 1975; and Kingry, 133. 28Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 12 March 1925; Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Membership, 31 October 1923; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 25 August 1927; Ibid., 29 September 1971. 29Ibid., 18 December 1984; Ibid., 27 August 1985. 30Jbid., 23 january 1929; Ibid., 27 january1976; Ibid., 21 May 1985. 31Mills, The Power .Biite, 66; Ibid.; and Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 24 November 1970. 32Jnterview Stephen H. Hart, 12 january 1989; and Alexander, 48-51. 33Letter to the Committee on Admissions, from james Grafton Rogers, Member, 9 November 1921. Stephen H. Hart Library, Colorado Historical Society Archives, james Grafton Rogers Collection. 34Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 24 September 1963; and Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Membership, 28 October 1983. 35Ibid., 24 October 1980. 36Kingry, 69; Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 18 january 1944; Ibid., 30 April 1968; Ibid., 27 April 1971.

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151 371bid., 27 November 1973. 38Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 22 October 1962; Ibid., 5 October 1960. 391bid., 25 September 1973. 40ibid., 28 February 1967. 41Jbid., 26 September 1978. 421bid., 24 April 197 4. 431bid., 27 May 1980; Ibid., 26 March 1968; Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Membership, 24 October 1980. 441bid., 21 October 1966. 45Ibid., 28 October 1985; Ibid., 30 October 1976. 46Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 30 September 1958; Ibid., 28 September 1966. 47Ibid., 25 May 1985. 48Eulogy by Douglas Hoyt, President of the University Club, for Frank Beck, Chef, attached to the Minutes of the Meeting of the Board, 24 August 1982. 19 Aldrich, SO.

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CHAPTER IX CONCLUSION Alexis de Tocqueville, after his 1830s visit to America, observed that: '"If men are to remain civilized or become civilzed, the art of association must develop and improve among them at the same speed as equality of conditions spread."' As the University Club approaches its one-hundredth year in 1991, how promising does its "art of association" appear? The fast-paced growth years are gone. In fact, the club of 1990 has openings for seventy members to fill its )50-charter capacity. This represents a drastic change from ten years ago when the 11 0-person waiting list meant a four-and one-half-year wait for proposed members.l Of course, Denver was in the midst of the energy boom then and business flourished. More than a dozen skyscrapers sprouted during the 1970s, creating a new downtown skyline. The energy and construction booms of the 1970s swelled 1oca11aw firms and businesses and brought many new ones to Denver in record numbers. These halcyon days saw a long queue of men clamoring to join the University Club. As one of Denver's last all-male bastions, the University Club has been beseiged with negative publicity, financial uncertainty, and protest resignations. Women are making themselves heard. Not that they are beating at the door to get in, quite the contrary. To date, only one woman

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153 has inquired about membership--in 1974. At the Denver Club, which began admitting women in 1978, women by 1990 make up only about 12 percent of the membership. Because the University Club excludes women, many groups--ranging from the University of Colorado Board of Regents to the Denver Visiting Nurses Association--have taken their bookings elsewhere, saying they can not support a club that bars women. Members have had to resign under corporate pressure for the same reason and politians have feared the stigma of male-only membership. Hitting a private club in the pocketbook, by refusing to hold events at its facility, will have an effect that smarts. The University Club is not alone in its financial struggle, the women's issue only compounds the problem. For the past twenty-five years, private clubs throughout the country have had difficulty making ends meet. Operating costs continue to escalate at the rate of 2.5 percent a year. This is tough pill to swallow when revenues have consistently lagged behind this rate, growing at only 1. 9 percent. Most clubs feel the pinch as they trim amounts available for debt service and capital improvements.2 This news would not surprise Cleveland Amory, who contends in his 1960 work W.ho f{ifled Society? that the decline of private clubs began as far back as the prohibition era. The "noble experiment" was first a boon, then a bane to private clubs members' soon found "it easier to stop off at a speakeasy than risk arrest at their club and they thus went ... from the Right Club to the Night Club." Private club memberships dwindled significantly during the depression, when out of

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financial necessity, the luxury of a private club was dropped by many people} 154 A more recent problem, according to Amory, has been the difficuly of keeping good help, particularly since the "whole tenor of club life depend[s) upon service." Most private clubs, the University Club included, have a policy that precludes tipping employees. To offset this and to allow members an opportunity to show the staff their gratitude for services rendered, the University Club urges members to contribute to the employees' Christmas fund. Nonetheless, employees are expensive. Payrolls at private clubs continue to rise, comprising approximately 70 percent of a club's revenue .. How long can a club exist in a climate of rising costs and shrinking revenues ?4 If Tocqueville is right, then the University Club's "art of association" will have to focus on younger, more energetic members who are ready to address this organization's "equality of conditions." The club, in moving in that direction, may try something beyond temporarily discounting its initiation fee, like it did in eary 1990. Chances are, the University Club will survive. For as President Arthur K. Underwood said at the 1 9 S 1 annual meeting: But above all, the friendships we have formed, the congenial atmosphere created by our common bond of interest in the Club and its traditions; these have made the efforts to preserve the Club forever worthwhile. Long may our University Club continue to bring us, a'nd to those who follow us, this richness of human fellowship. Almost four decades later, while preparing for the club's centennial, President Cal Cleworth said: "We are a special group--a fun-loving bunch,

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155 who appreciate each other's company, laughing at the goofy things we do, and enjoy great food and good stories ... May we keep laughing."5

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156 Endnotes Gunther Barth, Instant Cities. 156. 2 The Denver Post, 18 September 1966; .Rocky Mountain journal, 12 April1978; and Susan Costas, "Members Only," Denver Business, (june 1988): 34-35. 3Amory, 206, 4Ibid., 209; Hocky Mountain journal, 12 April 1978. 5Minutes of the Annual Meeting, 31 October, 1951; and Interview with Cal Cleworth, President, 27 january 1990.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Aldrich, Nelson W. Jr. Old Aloney: The Al"ythology of Americas Upper Class. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988. Alexander, james W. A History of the University Club of New York, 1865-1915. New York: Charles Scribne(s Sons, 1915. Amory, Cleveland. Who /tilled Society? New York: Harper & Brothers, 1960. Arps, Louisa Ward. Denver in Slices. Athens, Ohio: Swallow Press Books,1983. Athearn, Robert G. The Mythic West in Twentieth Century America. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1986. ___ ,. Westward the Briton. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953. Baltzell, E. Digby. Philadelphia Gentlemen: T.he Ala.king of a National llpper Class. Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press, 1959. Barth, Gunther. Instant Cities: Urbanization and the Hise of San Francisco and Denver. Urban Life Series. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975. Cro1y, jane C. Sorosis: Its Origin and History. New York: Arno Press, 1975.

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Dallas, Sandra. Cherry Creek Gothic: Victorian Architecture in Denver. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1971. --Gaslights and Gingerbread. Denver: Sage Books. 196.5. Denver Blue Book. Denver City Directories. (Various publishers). 1891 to present, annual. Dorsett, Lyle W. The (Jueen City of the Plains: A History of Denver. Boulder: Pruett Publishing Company, 1977. 158 Fairfield, Francis Gerry. The Clubs of New York. New York: Henry L. Hinton, 1873; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1975. Fuller, Pierpont, Jr. Sixty Years of Twelfth Night Denver: University Club of Denver, 1957. University Club of Denver's library. Goodstein. Phil. Denver's Capitol Hill Denver: Life Publications, 1988. Hall, Frank. History of the State of Color ada Chicago: Blakely Printing Co., 1889. Hammack, David C. Power and Society: Greater New York at the Turn of the Century. Columbia History of Urban Life series, Kenneth T. jackson, ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982. King, Clyde Lyndon. The History of the Government of Denver with special reference to its Relations with Public Service Corporations. Denver: The Fisher Book Company, 1911. Kingry, Charles Bowdon. Chroncile of 75 Years: The University, Club of Denver. Denver: University Club of Denver. 1966. University Club of Denver's library. Lang, William L. "Using and Abusing Abundance: The Western Resource Economy and the Environment." in Historians and the American West. ed. Michael P. Malone. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 1984.

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159 Leslie, Anita. The Remarkable Mr. jerome. New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 19S4. Lethem, jno. Historical and J)escriptive Review of Penver. Her leading Business Houses and .Enterprising Jl;fen. Denver: By the Author, 1893. Luckingham, Bradford. "The Urban Dimension of Western History." in Historians and the American West. ed. Michael P. Malone. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984. Malone, Michael P. ed. Historians and the American West. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984. Mills, C. Wright. The Power .Blite. New York: Oxford University Press, 1957. Mowry, George E. The Urban Nation, 1920-1960. American Century Series. New York: Hill and Wang, 1960. Nash, Gerald D. The American West Trnsformed: The Impact of t.IJe Second World War. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 198S. Noel, Thomas J. The City and the Saloon: Oenver, 1858-1916. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982. ___ The iJenver Athletic Club, 1884-1984. Denver: The Denver Athletic Club, 1983. ___ "The Rush to Culture: Colorado's Other Gold Rush, 1858 tol893." Colorado Homes & Lifestyles, May/june 1984: 25-29. ____ and Leonard, Steven J. Oenver. Mining Camp to Metropolis. Boulder: University Press. to be published in 1990. ___ ,.and Norgren, Barbara S. J)enver: The City Beautiful and Its Architects, 1893-1941. Denver: HistoricDenver.Inc., 1987.

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160 Phelps, Edward Bunnell. Phelps' Universal Club Guide. New York: By the Author, 1901. Smiley, jerome C. History of Oenver. Denver: The Times; reprint, Denver: Western Americana Publishing Company,1978. The Social .Hegister of Oenver. Stone, Wilbur Fiske, ed. History of Colorado. S vols. Chicago, 1880. Thompson's .Elite Oirectory & Club lists of Oenver. University Club of Chicago. University Club of Cbicaga Chicago: By the University Club of Chicago, 1946. University Club of Denver's library. Vickers, W. B. History of the City of .Oenver, Arapahoe County and Colorada Chicago: 0. L. Baskin & Co., Historical Publishers, 1880. Wade, Richard C. The llrban Frontier: Pioneer life in Bar/y Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, lexington, louisville, and St. louis. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1972. Warner, W. Lloyd and Lunt, PaulS. The Social life of a Alodern Community. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1941. Wector, Dixon. The Saga of American Society: A .Hecord of Social Aspiration, 1607-1937. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1937. White, B.S. Representative Alen of the West in Caricature: ''And at Its Best, life's But a jest." Denver: Carson-Harper Company, 1904. Woodbury, F. S. Tourist :f Guide Book to .Oenver. Denver: Times Steam Printing House & Blank Book Manufactory, 1882.

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Newspapers. Articles. Manuscripts. and Miscellaneous Abbott, Carl. "Boom State and Boom City: Stages in Denver's Growth," Colorado .Jlt/agazine (Summer 1973): 207-230. Bancroft, Caroline. "Denver's Major Clubs," ed. john]. Lipsey. 1962 Brand Boo.k of the .Denver Possee of the Westerners. Boulder: johnson Publishing Co., 1963: 237-248. Birmingham. George. "The American at Home and in His Club," in America in Persceptive. ed. Henry Steele Commager. New York: The New American Library, 1947. Cervi's journal "Clason's Guide Map of Denver's Tramway System." Stephen H. Hart Library. Colorado Historical Society. Denver Public Library. Western History Department. Clipping files. Club Ties. Magazine distributed to members of private clubs in the Denver area, 1981-1985. 161 Costas, Susan. "Members Only." .Oenver Business (June 1988): 32-37 .Denver Alunicipal Facts. Denver: City and County of Denver, 7 May1910 .Denver .Hepuhllcan. New York State Club Association, Inc. v. City of New York, et al. 108 S.CT. 2225 ( 1987). Press Syndicate of America, compiler. Press Biographies .He presenting Men of America. Denver: The Press Syndicate of America, (March1906). Ring, Edward., "Denver Clubs of the Past," Colorado Alagazine XIX (July 1942): 140-141.

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Rocky Mountain journal. .Kocky Mountain News. Rogers, james Grafton. Twelfth Nights Notes. Stephen H. Hart Library. Colorado Historical Society Archives. james Grafton Rogers Collection. T.be Oeover Post. T.be Oenver Times. 162 T.be Trail. (A magazine for Colorado; official organ of the Society of the Sons of Colorado.) University Club Archives: Annual Reports of the University Club. Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of Directors, 25 October 1911 to present. University Club. "Ahead to the Past." University Club Twelfth Night Program. 13 january 1990. University Club, Club Book. Denver: University Club, 1891 to 1989. University Club. Constitution. Denver: University Club, 1974. University Club. "University Club News." Denver: University Club, published sporadically. Interviews: Bryan, Robert E., Jr., Past President, and Mitchell Benedict III, Member. 8 August 1988.

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163 Cleworth, Cal, President. 27 january 1990. Fuller, Mrs. Pierpont. Widow of Pierpont Fuller. Jr. Interviewed by Gerald Fader. 27 january 1990. Transcript. University Club Archives. Hart, Stephen H., Past President. 12 january 1989 and 26 january 1990. Hoyt, Douglas L, Past President. 27 january 1990. Lalanne, George, General Manager of the Petroleum Club. 12 December 1989. Schiavonne, Maryann, Director of Sales and Marketing for the University Club. 20 March and 9 April 1990. Letters: To Board of Directors, from L. Howard Smith, Secretary. 8 january 1895. University Club Archives. To Board of Directors, from William Buzzard Smith. 12 March 1895. University Club Archives. To President Peter R. Breitenstein, from Member H. Medill Sarkisian. 8 September 1989. University Club Archives. To the Cactus Club, from Maurice Biscoe. 13 February 1941. Stephen H. Hart Library. Colorado Historical Society Archives. james Grafton Rogers Collection. To "Certified Umpires," from james Grafton Rogers. Chair of the Entertainment Committee. 1 February 1912. Stephen H. Hart Library. Colorado Historical Society Archives. james Grafton Rogers Collection.

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164 To Committee on Admissions, from james Grafton Rogers. Member. 9 November 1921. Stephen H. Hart Library. Colorado Historical Society Archives. james Grafton Collection. To Robert Follansbee, from the University Club of Ohio. 4 March 1952. University Club Archives. Follansbee Letter File. To Robert Follansbee, Historian of the University Club, from Thomas L. Wilkinson. Member. 8 May 1952. University Club Archives. Follansbee Letter File. To the Members of the University Club, from President Dayton Denious. 9 May 1963. Stephen H. Hart Library. Colorado Historical Society Archives. james Grafton Rogers Collection. To Henry T. Rogers, President, from Henry Billings Brown. President of the University Club of Washington, D.C. 29 April 1892. University Club Archives. To University Club Board of Directors, from General Contractor. 15 july 1893. University Club Archives. To University Club of Denver, from Council of the University Club of Buffalo. 18 April 1900. University Club Archives.