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The perceived tasks of public elementary schools in Brighton, Colorado

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Title:
The perceived tasks of public elementary schools in Brighton, Colorado
Creator:
Frazee, Linda N
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
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University of Colorado Denver
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English
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xv, 171 leaves : ill., forms ; 29 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Education, Elementary -- Aims and objectives -- Colorado -- Brighton ( lcsh )
Education, Elementary -- Public opinion -- Colorado -- Brighton ( lcsh )
Education, Elementary -- Aims and objectives ( fast )
Education, Elementary -- Public opinion ( fast )
Colorado -- Brighton ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Colorado at Denver, 1992.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Thesis:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Doctor of Philosophy, School of Education and Human Development, Administration, Curriculum, and Supervision
Statement of Responsibility:
by Linda N. Frazee.

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University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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26706638 ( OCLC )
ocm26706638

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THE PERCEIVED TASKS OF PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN BRIGHTON, COLORADO by Linda N. Frazee B.S., Sam Houston State University, 1968 M.Ed., Sam Houston State University, 1973 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Administration, Curriculum, and Supervision 1992

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c 1992 by Linda N. Frazee All rights reserved.

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This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy Degree by Linda N. Frazee has been approved for the School of Education by Sharon Ford Maurice Holt Normpvo nate .............. ...................................................... ..

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Frazee, Linda N. (Ph.D., Administration, curriculum and Supervision) Perceived Tasks of the Public Elementary Schools in Brighton, Colorado Thesis directed by Professor Glenn McGlathery ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the importapce placed on tasks of public-elementary schools in Colorado, as perceived by. parents, and board members. The research identified differences in task rankings when compared between and within groups. The results of this study were compared with those from Lawrence Downey's 19?9 doctoral dissertation, The Task of Public School as Perceived by Region Sub-Publics, to identify changes in rankings of tasks over time. The study f9und that each of the groups ranked the Intellecteai Category as most important followed by ") the Social, :Personal and Productive Categories. I There were differences within groups of parents, educators, and school board members in their

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perceptions of the rankings of tasks with less than half of any of the respondents from any one group agreeing on.the ranking of any single task. The opinions of parents in this study differed when compared by number of years in Brighton, educational level, income level, and age. In comparison with Downey, the group with the largest change in task ranking was the Brighton non-educator group. Data were collected using Downey's Task of Public Education Opinionnaire. The responses were analyzed using means, percentages, Pearson's an ANOVA, and the Scheffe procedure. Statistical.differences were identified (R < .05). The study concluded that the most important task of the public school is intellectual. However, the responses in favor of non-intellectual tasks found in the Brighton and Downey studies suggest that the puplic believes that the tasks do not belong solely in this area. Through an awareness of differences in task ranking, the schools can work toward narrowing this gap; especially, by monitoring changes in the demographics to best meet the needs

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of the community. Along with this monitoring also comes the need for the district to let the public know why tasks are included, why they are important, and how the decisions were made to include selected tasks. This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I recommend its publication:. vi

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I To Jack

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The writer wishes to thank all of those who have helped to make this study possible. First, I would like to thank Professor Glenn McGlathery, my major advisor, and my committee members, Professor Norma Live, Professor Maurice Holt, Professor Sharon Ford, and Professor Brad Bowles. I would also like to acknowledge the late Professor Russell Meyers for his years as my advisor; Dean William Grady for his confidence my work; and Alan Davis and Adele Platter for their statistical expertise. A special thanks goes to my fellow students and friends, Christy Moore Knopf and Ann Heim. Finally, I would like to thank my family--my parents, Sam and Ida Sowers, for giving me a love for education; my husband Jack, for his continued support, love, and encouragement; and our son, Steven, for helping us keep our lives in perspective. viii

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CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . 1 II. Demographics Statement of the Problem Study Sample Significance of the study Organization of the Study REVIEW OF RESEARCH AND LITERATURE Introduction . . . . . . 4 7 8 8 9 10 10 Downey's Task of Public Schools (TPE) 10 Downey's Categorization of Tasks Found in the Literature 12 Instrumentation 14 Population of Research 17 Data Collection 17 Scoring and Analysis 19 Major Findings 20 Related Literature: Pre-Downey 21 Early Reports Commissioned by the ;N. E. A. . . . . 22 Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education . 22

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Committee of Social and Economic Goals . 26 Educational Policies Commission 27 1944 National Opinion Research Center. 29 The Harvard Committee American Federation of Teachers Elmer Roper Survey Arthur Bestor Mortimer Smith Warner, Havighurst1 and Loeb's Essential Functions of the 30 . . 30 32 33 33 School System . 3 4 Dorothy Thompson . . . . 35 The White House Conference on Education 36 Rockefeller Report 38 Related Literature: Post Downey 38 Related Literature: Post Henderson 42 Related Research 51 Russell Henderson 51 Other Research . . . 52 Chapter Summary 55 III. THE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 57 Introduction 57 Problem statement 58 X

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Research Questions Hypotheses . . . . . . I Population and Sample I . . . . Instrumentation . . . . . . Data.Gathering Methods . . Data;Analysis . . . . . I IV. PRESENtATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA . of the Sample . . I Demographics . . . . I Questions Posed by the Study I . 1: What are the differences in the perception of greater .importance of tasks within groups qf parents, educators (principals and teachers), and board members 59 60 62 64 67 72 75 76 77 81 (past and present) in Brighton? 84 Question 2: What are the differences the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks between groups of parents, educators .. (principals and teachers), and board members (past and present) in Brighton? 103 Question 3: What are the differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks between parent sub-groups when compared by gender,, marital status, number of years in Brighton, educational level, income, age, and ethnicity? 104 Question 4: What the differences the perception of greater or less importance of xi

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!tasks between this study and .Downey? 117 sumniary . . . 126 i v. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 132 I sum:mary . . . 132 Con,clusions . . 140 Recommendations 8 . . 146 Recommendations for Further Study . 147 APPENDIX A. Questionnaire and Correspondence. . 150 B. Human Consent Information 163 BIBLIOGRAPHY! . . . . . . . . 167 xii

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Table 3.1 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4 .. 7 TABLES Return Rates Response Rate by Group . Number of Years in Brighton Educational Level of Respondents in the Parent Group Income Level of Respondents in the Parent Group . . Age of.the Respondents 0 Ethnicity of the Respondents from the Parent Group Mean Scores and Rankings of Task Within the Parent Group 4.8 Percentages of Task Ranked as Most 64 77 78 79 79 80 81 85 Important by the Parent Group 86 4.9 Tasks Chosen Most Frequently as One of the Top Three Tasks by the Parent Group . . . .. . . . 87 4.10 Frequencies and Percentages of Task Ranked as Least Important by the Parent Group 4.11 Tasks Chosen Most Frequently as One of the Three Least Important Tasks 89 by the Parent Group . 90 4.12 4.13 Mean Scores and Rankings of Tasks within the Educator Group Percentages of Task Ranked as Most Important by the Educator Group 91 93

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.14 Tasks' Chosen Most Frequently as One 4.15 of the Top Three Tasks by the Educator Group 94 Frequencies and Percentages of Task Ranked as Least Important by the Educator Group 95 4.16 Tasks Chosen Most Frequently as 4.17 Important by the Educator Group 96 Mean Scores and Rankinqs of Task within the School Board Group . 97 4.18 Percentages of Task as Most Important by the School Board Group 98 4.19 TasksChosen Most Frequently as one of the Three Most Important Tasks by the School Board Group 99 4.20 Frequencies and Percentages of Task 4.21 Ran):ced as Least Importantby the School Board Group 101 Tasks.Chosen Most Frequently as Important by the School Board Group o o 0 102 4.22 Analysis of Variance for Each Task by Group 104 4.23. status Demographics 0 . 105 4.24 Number of Years in Brighton . . . 106 -4.25 Pearson's Correlation Coefficients for 4.26 4.27 Years in Brighton 107 Demographics for the Education Variable . . . Statistical Differences for the Education Variable . . 108 110 4.28 Pearson's Correlation Coefficients for Education 111 xiv

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4.29 Demographics for Incomes of the Parent Group 112 4.30 Statistical Differences for the Income Variable . 4.31 Pearson's Correlation Coefficients for 113 Income o 114 4o32 Demographics for the Aqe Variable of the Group o e 115 4o33 Statistical Differences for the Age variable . o o o 4o34 Pearson's Correlation Coefficients for 116 Age . o o 117 4.35 Ethnicity Demographics for the Parent Group . . . . 4.36 Comparison of Task Rankinqs Between Brighton and Downey Study . . 4.37 Comparison of Task Rankinqs for the Educator Group Between the Brighton 0 117 119 and Downey study o o o 120 4.38 Comparison of Task Rankinqs for the Educator Group by Means Between Bri:ghton and Downey o o 121 4.39 Comparison of Task Rankings for the Non-Educator Group Between Brighton and Downey o 122 4.40 of Task Rankings for the Group by Means Between Brighton and Downey 123 4.41 Rankings of the Educator and Non-Educator Groups in the Brighton Downey study 124 XV

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Communities are often divided over basic values and goals. Education in these communities is influenced.by the general population and time; accordingly, there is a need to determine what people perceive the task of educating children should be. This is the purpose of this study. Throughout the history of American education, determining the basic tasks of education has been an ever present concern. "The task of public school is largely a philosophical matter--a question of what ought to be; and what should be; and what ought to be today, may differ considerably from what ought to be (Downey, 1959, p. 1). By the late nineteenth century, America changed from a society of rural, agricultural communities to an industrial society. With the twentieth century came a change from the classic thesis of developing "the mind through the study of academic subject matter" (Cohen, 1973, p. 61) in the schools to the assumption that schools, in particularly elementary

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schools, would have to "help solve the problems of health, hygiene, recreational, industrial education . and more" (Cohen, 64) while still developing intellectual skills. This change was evident in the progressive program of school reform which emerged. John Dewey, a major influence in the Progressive Movement, "repudiated,the traditional American education as undemocratic and medieval, suitable only for an aristocrat and professional elite" (Cohen, 1973, p. 67). His answer was an education built around occupations. Dewey believed that occupations should be introduced in the elementary school in order to develop both social cooperation and community spirit. Through this, he hoped that cooperation rather than:competition would evolve. The era of the depression resulted in the thinking schools should educate the whole child. During this time, the task of the elementary school incladed teaching children how to be good citizens and family members, as well as contributing to building,a sound economic future (Cohen, p.74). Later the White House Conference on Education in 1956 launching of Sputnik in 1957 focused 2

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on purposes.of public education. The White House Conference reported that The development of the intellectual powers of the.young, each to the limit of his capacity, is the first responsibility of the schools. Beyond this basic task, all kinds of instruction are not equally important for all children, and their importance varies from community to community. A primary responsibility of any local school authority is to establish priorities of significance among basic general education, specialized education of all kinds, and extra curricular activities. (The Committee for the White House Conference on Education, 1956, p. 11) In 1958 Downey, Seager, and Slagle developed an instrument for obtaining opinions regarding the task of public education. The development of the instrument resulted from a study of a considerable body of reporting various attempts to measure the extent of public acceptance of a specific school program or the public's opinion of what a scho91 ought to teach (Downey, 1960). The instrument included 16 specific tasks for public education, each assigned to one of four broad categories or dimensions: intellectual, personal, social, and productive. In addition to the significant research by Downey, Seager, and Slagle, a number of'research studies in a variety of 3

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geographic areas have used the Tasks of Public of Education Instrument. This research is reviewed in Chapter II. Next, in the 60s and 70s, a substantial number of educators advocated a loosely organized "open" and informal approach to education. Finally, with the 80s, drug education, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education, and the development of computer literacy are among additional tasks of public education. This researcher sought to undertake a study in the Brighton School District, Adams/Weld County 27J in Brighton, Colorado similar to Downey's work. Opinions about the task of elementary schools in Brighton were solicited from parents, educators (teachers and principals), and board members (past and present). For the purposes of this research, the word, "tasks", referred to what is expected of the public schools including goals, objectives, and other terms which reflect what the public schools' job should be. Demographics The Brighton School District includes students from Adams and Weld Counties and the towns or cities 4

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of Brighton, Henderson, Thornton, Commerce City, and Aurora. The majority of the students reside in Adams County and the city of Brighton, the county seat. Brighton is located about 20 miles northeast of Denver on u. s. Highway 85. In the 1980 census, the population of Brighton was 12,867. The district also includes vast amounts of farmland within its boundaries. In May of 1988, the district was decreased by 41.6 square miles when a parcel of land was de-annexed to the City and County of Denver and became a part of Denver Public School District 1 in compliance with the negotiations for the new international airport to completed in the 90s. In the past few years the economy of Brighton has changed from a predominately agricultural to a more diversified economic base with an increasing number of citizens commuting to Boulder and Denver to work. The district pupil enrollment has remained relatively stable, 5

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fluctuating:between a low of 4,048 and a high of 4,169 for the past few years: 1983-1984 1984-1985 1985-1986 1986-1987 1987-1988 1988-1989 4,127 4,169 4,089 4,113 4,048 4,062 The construction phase of the new airport is predicted to bring population fluctuations to the district and an increase in population is expected with its completion. As of the spring of 1990, the district five elementary schools with a total student population of 1831. This population was distributed;as follows: SchocH: Total % His)2anic Free or 0 POJ2Ulation Reduced Lunch southeast 395 22 25 South ; 440 43 48 Northeast 419 37 37 '' Henderson 336 13 32 North 241 79 79 ; During:this time, the district considered various related to boundary alternatives. Some of the 'options. included closing the smallest of the schools or turning that school into an early education center housing the preschool, kindergarten, first, and second grades 6 __ ..... ________________________

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for the district. Further, the district considered changing the boundaries to achieve a more equal distribution of students of different ethnicity and socio-economic backgrounds. During this time, 36% of the total district elementary student population were Hispanic students and 41% were provided free or reduced lunch students. As shown by the chart above there are CQnsiderable differences between schools on the percentage of Hispanic students and free and reduced lunch recipients. Some of the other future considerations include types of family dwellings, proximity to school, crossing major thoroughfares for student walkers, and pupil-teacher ratio. Statement of the Problem The research sought to determine the importance placed on selected tasks of public elementary schools as perceived by parents, educators (teachers and principals), and board members (past and present) in one Colorado school district. The research determined the extent to which these groups differed in their ranking of the importance of task dimension elements when compared with each other, and the extent to which members within the parent 7

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group differed with each other when compared by selected demographic characteristics. The results of the study were compared with those of Downey (1959) in an attempt to identify changes in rankings of task dimensions over time. Study Sample This study was limited to a sample of Brighton elementary school parents, principals, teachers, and board members. Specific demographic data collected from the parent group respondents was used in the analysis of differences regarding perceptions of tasks of education. Significance of the Study Since schools are a reflection of the society they represent, it is important that administrators are aware of the varying perceptions of what the tasks of the schools should be. The demographic information and task data gathered in the research survey may be useful to the district if major differences are found to exist. If they do it would be crucial for the district to be aware of these differences to seek the support of the community in 8

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dealing the impending changes in the district. Finally, incomparing the results of Downey with those in study a historical perspective on tasks expectations was achieved. Organization of the Study I includes an introduction, a statement of the problem to be studied, limitations and delimitations of the study, and a section on the significance of the study. Chapter II includes an overview of'the research conducted by Downey, selected literature related to the tasks of public education, and a review of selected related research. III presents the research Chapter IV presents the data and findings. Finally, Chapter V summarizes the study, present conclusions, and suggests implications for future research and application within the district. 9

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RESEARCH AND LITERATURE Introduction Statements of the tasks of schools are as old and controversial as the school itself, yet, each generation seems to view the present situation in education as the most complicated, controversial, and difficult of all time. The public has had and will continue to have many differences of opinions as to what the tasks of schools should be. This chapter begins with an extensive discussion of Downey's Task of Public Education (TPE) study. This is followed by selected literature related to the tasks of public education including views of individuals, committees, and commissions. Finally, the chapter ends with a review of related research. Downey's Task of Public Schools CTPE) Lawrence Downey (1959) conducted an extensive study of the tasks of public schools. His investigation was one of three companion studies conducted through the Midwest Administration Center

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at the University of Chicago. The other two studies were conducted by Rogert c. Seager (1959) and Allen Thayer Slagle (1959). Downey's 1959 dissertation was the basis for a book written by him in 1960 and much of the dissertation is word for word or the book. This review of the research and literature has relied on both of these publications. This accounts for the 1959 and 1960 ... dates in the following references to Downey. In his-study, Downey (1960) proposed several questions (1) What is the task of public education in American: Society? (2) "What are the dimensions of the task.of public education?" (3) "To what extent does:the public perceive these dimensions as important aspects of public schooling?" (p. 5). (4) How will differ in their perceptions of the relative importance of various dimensions? review of the literature spanned the ; time from Civilization when schools were established for religious purposes to the late fifties when schools were deemed the panacea for all of the woes of society. He explored work done by the National Education Association, the United States Office of Education, the American Federation of 11

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Teachers, state departments of education, The White House Conference on Education, and work of individuals such as Bestor, Woodring, Rockefeller, Smith, Havighurst, Mayer, Loeb, Thompson, Wheat, and Mann. Downey found that the task statements began to show a great deal of repetitiveness. Repetition made it clear to Downey that it would not be necessary or desirable to attempt to review all of the literature written on the task of schools. However, Downey (1959) did say that each of the statements he found in the literature does make a contribution: Mann singles out health and aesthetic pursuits: the Harvard Committee points up the need for both general and specialized training: theN. E. A., among other things, promotes citizenship: Arthur Bestor accentuates the importance of intellectual development: and so on. (p. 32) Downey's categorization of Tasks Found in the Literature As a result of the review and synthesis of tasks and statements found in the literature, Downey (1959) identified sixteen dimensions of the public school's tasks and placed these in four general categories: intellectual, social, personal, or pro-ductive. Tasks within each of these categories were checked for duplications, ambiguities, omissions, 12

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and sequence. The final results were four categories with four dimensions under each category as shown below. A. Intellectual Dimensions 1. POSSESSION OF KNOWLEDGE: A fund of information. Concepts. 2. COMMUNICATION OF KNOWLEDGE: Skill to acquire and transmit. 3. CREATION OF KNOWLEDGE: Discrimination and imagination, a habit. 4. DESIRE FOR KNOWLEDGE: A love for learning. 5. 6. 7. a. B. Social Dimensions MAN TO MAN: MAN TO STATE: MAN TO COUNTRY: MAN TO WORLD: Cooperation in day-to-day relations. Civic rights.and duties. Loyalty to one's own country. Inter-relationships of people. C. Personal Dimensions 9. PHYSICAL: Bodily health and development. 10. EMOTIONAL: Mental health and stability. 11. ETHICAL: Moral integrity. 12. AESTHETIC: Cultural and leisure pursuits. D. Productive Dimensions 13. VOCATION-SELECTIVE: Information and guidance. 14. VOCATION-PREPARATIVE: Training and placement. 15. HOME AND FAMILY: Housekeeping, do-ityourself, family. 16. CONSUMER: Personal buying, selling and investment. (Downey, 1960, p. 24) This .became the conceptual framework and base for developing the instrument, study design, and data analysis. According to Downey (1960), "each 13

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I category closely resembles the values and theories expressed by identifiable kinds of popular ' educational:philosophies" (p. 25). Instrumentation In Downey, Seager, and Slagle worked together in:the development of the Task of Public Education Opinionnaire and independently on the remainder of their research. During the development I I of the instrument, the categories and dimensions were stated.as specific items within the instrument. Extensive work was done "through interview, item construction, empirical check, item emendation, and I recheck" (Downey, 1959, p. 62) to ensure that the items on the instrument would be interpreted the same by eduators and non-educators. further screened using ten criteria: Each item was 1. The vocabulary should be easily understood by most adults. 2. The item should express precisely the same concept intended by the conceptual framework. 3. Each task dimension should be stated either in behavioral terms or as an educational product. i 4. Wording of the item should avoid any Opvious implications for social approval. 14

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5. Task dimensions should be described in functional or descriptive terms rather than by specific examples, so as to avoid any irrelevant individual aversion to specific examples. I 6. Each statement should be comprehensive enough to involve all of the factors of the task dimension it describes. i 7. There should be no ambiguity. 8. The individual sho-uld be required to nothing save his own preferences. 9. wording of items and directions should be free from possible implication that judgment will be passed. 10. The items should be concise and to the point. (Downey, 1959, pp. 62-63) Applyirtg these criteria to the proposed instrument items resulted in sixteen tasks which were placed:on cards to be used in the two generally I 1 1 1 I s1m1lar 1nstruments for gathering information on the tasks of high schools and of elementary schools. The task statements for the elementary school were: 1. A:fund of information-about many things. 2. The basic tools for acquiring and cqmmunicating knowledge--the 3 R's. 3. The habit of figuring things out for one's self. 4. A ,desire to learn more--the inquiring m1nd. 5. The ability to live and work with others. 15

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6. Understanding rights and duties of citizenship and acceptance of reasonable regulations. 7. Loyalty to America and the American way of life. 8. Knowledge of and appreciation for the peoples of other lands. 9. A'well cared for, well developed body. 10. An emotionally stable person, able to cope with new situations. 11. A sense of right and wrong--a moral standard of behavior. 12. Enjoyment of cultural activities--the finer things of life. 13. General awareness of occupational opportunities and how people prepare for them. 14. Classification and training for a specific kind of high school program--academic, technical, etc. 15. Understanding the role of various family members. 16. An introduction to budgeting and effective use of money and property. (Downey, 1959, p. 219) The preceding tasks represent the 16 dimensions in the order given on page 13 of this chapter. These and the 16 similar items for the secondary school became the instruments used in data gathering. 16

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Population of Research The research sample, which Downey stated was "purposive random," had to meet the following criteria: 1) represent a specific community type within a designated geographic region 2) sample a wide range of occupational and income levels, and 3) include professional educators and laymen with varying degrees of contact with the public school. (Downey, 1959, p. 81) The sample included respondents from four geographic areas within the United States and from one area in central Canada. Of the 3,830 respondents, 1286 were educators and 2,544 were non-educators. Data Collection Data were gathered by using small group meetings where the respondents made forced choices among the 16 items in each instrument. In determining the order of importance, a frame of reference was established for the respondents. Downey (1959) stated, First, each respondent was asked to accept the idea that other social institutions (i. church and home) have an educational function, and second, he was forced to make choices among 17

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task dimensions based upon the importance of each as a job of the school. This frame of reference was established hypothetically, yet realistically, by describing a school which finds it necessary for financial reasons to "cut-back" its educational program. Respondents were asked to implement this "cut back" by indicating which task dimensions are most important for the school to retain, and which are least important for the school to retain, and which are least important and could, if necessary, be eliminated. The importance thus assigned each dimension is not a measure of the social value accorded it, but rather, a measure of how important it is for the school to assume responsibility for teaching it. (pp. 64-65) The respondents used a card-sorting, forcedchoice Q-sort design which was incorporated into the instrument, The Task of Public Education Opinionnaire. This technique was chosen because the researcher believed it was crucial for the respondents to assign priorities to the tasks. Downey (1959) explained directions provided respondents in dealing with the two sets of 16 cards: The respondent then dealt with these statements as he would a deck of cards, sorting them into a force'd frequency distribution by throwing those he perceived as most important to the left, those least important to the right and the bulk of the statements in the intermediate range. With sixteen statements in each sort the following forced frequency distribution is effected. (p.67) 18

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This resulted in three piles of cards with the pile on the :left having those cards which were selected as :most important and those on the far right which :the respondent selected as least important. !Then respondents had to select the most important and the least important followed by the next two most important and the next two least important. :The remainder had to be assigned to the third, fourth, and fifth piles as shown below. Most Least Important 1st 7 2nd 6 3rd 5 :------:1 : I....__ ___, I ....------,, 'I'---. L....--....J' : L-------' : .._I ____, 4th 4 __ __.1 5th 3 6th 2 7th 1 Scoring and Analysis ": Responses to each of the items were totaled, ranked and in order of importance to determine As Downey (1959) explained: By weighting each category of the Q array, a value is assigned each task dimension dependent upon the category into which it is sorted. Thus, the rankings of different individhals and different groups can be composited and compared, or variance in the rankings of a single person originating from 19 ...................................................... ..

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the instructional variates can be compared by Spearman's rank-difference correlation technique. Weighting of each category is to the order of importance; i.e., category one (most important) is weighted seven, category two is weighted six, category three is weighted five, category four is weighted four, category five is weighted three, categ9ry six is weighted two and category seven is weighted one. (p.68) Major Through this study, Downey investigated the public's perceptions of the previously discussed elements. The results of the survey were reported by region, socio-economic status, educator versus non-educator, age, sex, religion, and race. overall, Downey found that the expectations for the public school varied from community to community. He found more agreement between the American regions when compared to one another than when these regions were compared to the Canadian region. Few significant differences were found when comparing responses by socio-economic level, sex, and community type. Interestingly, the "opinions regarding tasks of the high school did not differ appreciably from opinions regarding the task of the elementary 20

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school" (Downey, 1960, p. 35). Further, the respondents. (educators and non-educators when responding at the high school or elementary schools level) agreed that intellectual skills (the basic tools for acquiring and communicating knowledge) ranked as the most important task. Also, even though was a trend for schools to increase learning in consumer education and the roles of family members during the time of Downey's study, the formerwas ranked last for the elementary level and the latter last for the high school. Downey found that "without exception, the task elements which were to be more important by the lay public than by educators were nonintellectual items" (Downey, 1960, p. 48). Also, Downey found greater agreement between the responses of educators than between those of lay persons. Related Literature: Pre-Downey The twentieth century has brought many statements of tasks for public education. Tasks are often discussed in other terms which describe what the schools ought to do or what the function of schools should be. According to Knezevich (1975), 21

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"words change to fit the mood of the times, but the basic beliefs as to what the needs of education should be hfive not varied greatly over the years" (p. 8) Downey (1959) reviewed numerous studies and writings related to the task of the public schools during first half of the twentieth century and sorted task information under his four broad categories of intellectual development, social development, personal development, and productive development. This section of the review of the literature relies heavily on his review and summarization of the pre-1960 literature. Early Reports Commissioned by the N. E. A. The National Education Association established three influential commissions in the first half of the twentieth century. Each of these commissions was charged.with determining objectives, major goals, or purposes of schools. Downey incorporated some components found in the final products of these commissions in the development of his four categories .. Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education. This commission developed the Cardinal 22

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Principles bf Secondary Education (Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education, 1918) which identified health, command of fundamental processes, worthy home-membership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure time, and ethical character as the main objectives of education. 1. Health.- provide health instruction, inculcate health habits, organize an effective program of physical activities, regard health need ih planning work and play, and cooperate with home and community in safe-guarding and promot,ing health interests 2. Command of fundamental processes.--Much of the energy of the elementary school is properly devoted to teaching certain fundamental processes, such as reading, writing, arithmetical computations, and the elements of oral and written expression. The facility that a child of 12 to 14 may acquire in the use of these tools is not sufficient for the needs of moderp life. This is particularly true of mother' tongue. Proficiency in many of these processes may be increased more effectively by their: application to new material than by formal reviews . instruction and practice must go hand in hand .. 3. Worthy home-membership.--Worthy homemembership as an objective calls for the development of those qualities that make the a worthy member of a family, both contributing to and deriving benefit from that membership . The social studies should deal with the home as a fundamental social institution and clarify its relation to the wider interests outside. Literature should interpret idealize the human elements that go to make the home. Music and art should result in more beautiful homes and in greater joy therein. The coeducational school . should 23

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... exemplify wholesome relations between boys and girls and men and women 4. Vocation.-. Vocational education should aim to develop an appreciation of the significance of the vocation to the community, and a clear conception of right relations between the members of the chosen vocation, between different vocational groups, between employer and employee, and between producer and consumer. These aspects of vocational education, heretofore neglected, demand em phatic attention .... The extent to which the secondary school should offer training for a specific vocation depends upon the vocation, the facilities that the school can acquire, and the opportunity that the pupils may have to obtain. such training later . 5. Civic education should develop in the individual those qualities whereby he will act well his part as a member of neighborhood, town or State, and Nation, and give him a basis for understanding international problems .. 6. Worthy use of leisure.--Education should equip the individual to secure from his leisure the recreation of body, mind, and spirit, and the enrichment and enlargement of his personality .... 7. Ethical character.--In a democratic society ethical character becomes paramount among the objectives of the secondary school. Among the means for developing ethical character may be mentioned the wise selection of content and methods of instruction in all subjects of study, the social contacts of pupils with one another and with the teachers, the opportunities afforded by the organization and administration of the school for the development on the part of pupils of the sense of personal responsibility and initiative, and above all, the spirit of service and the principles of true democracy which should 24

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the entire school--principal, teacher, and pupils (pp. 11-16) Downey; placed these seven principles in his four categories as follows, Intellectual Social Personal Productive Command of fundamental processes. Civic efficiency. Good health. Worthy use of leisure. Ethical character. Worthy home-membership. Vocational efficiency. (Downey, 1959, p. 196) Almost 50 years after the publication of the Seven Cardinal Principals of Secondary Education Van Til (1976) commented, . Despite the lapse of more than a half century, the central idea that the overall objectlves of a secondary school must relate to the present and prospective lives of young people, rather than to traditional subject matter: categories, shines through .. (p. 182) For the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education, the elementary school was considered as first through the sixth grades and seventh twelfth grades a secondary school. The commission stated: that the development of the individual is in most respects a co"ntinuous process and that, I 25 I :

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therefore, any sudden or abrupt break between the elementary and the secondary school or between any two successive stages of education is undesirable. (1918, p. 9) This suggests that the Seven Cardinal Principles would be appropriate for elementary as well as secondary schools. Committee on Social and Economic Goals. This committee, established by the National Education Association in 1931, developed ten broad "social economic goals to be realized by education." Two of these included sub-goals. 1. Hereditary strength 2. Physical security 3. Participation in a growing civilization a. Development of skills and techniques b. Development of values, standards and meaningful philosophies 4. A. dynamic, flexible personality a. Personal initiative b. Discriminating viewpoints and choice c. Flexibility of thought and conduct d. Individual differences e. Need of cooperation 5. Suitable occupation 6. Economic security 7. Mental security 8. Equality of opportunity 26

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9 Freedom 10. play (cited in Downey, 1959, pp. 18-19) As the Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education,. Downey (1959) placed most of these goals within each:of his four categories. I I I Social' Personal r Product:.i ve Development of skills and techniques. Discriminating viewpoints and choices. Hereditary strength. Fair play. Physical security. Development of values, standards, and meaningful philosophies. Personal Mental security. Suitable occupation. Economic security. (p. 196) Educational Policies Conimission. Seven years later, the:' National Education Association established,The Purposes of Education in American Society through the Educational Policies Commission (1938). TJ;lis commission described the purposes of ' American Education in four broad groups of objectives:; 1. Objectives of Self-Realization i 2. Objectives of Human Relationship 27

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3. The Objectives of Economic Efficiency 4. The Objectives of Civic Responsibility (p.47) The objective of self-realization included a desire for learning, learning the basics, health awareness, recreation, and esthetics while the objective of human relationship included cooperation, courtesy, and the importance of the home. Further, economic efficiency included occupation and consumer objectives while civic responsibility encompassed an obligation toward citizenship and conservation resources. Many of these more specific objectives were placed into Downey's (1959) categories Intellectual Social Personal The inquiring mind. Command of fundamental processes. Respect for humanity, friendship, and cooperation. Need for social justice. Tolerance. Social application of science. Law observance. World citizenship. Principles of conservation of natural resources. Devotion to democracy. Sight and hearing. Health knowledge and habits. Recreation. Esthetic interests. Formation of character. 28

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Productive Efficiency in buying. Home Making. Occupational information, adjustment, choice, and appreciation. Good workmanship. Personal economics. (p. 197) 1944 National Opinion Research Center In the study, The Public Looks at Education, the 1944 National Opinion Research Center (cited in Downey, 1959) sought responses from each of the nine census divisions of the United States. A representative sample chosen by age, sex, race, and economic status resulted in 2560 interviews with Americans . Through the survey, It was disclosed, when asked to name the most things children should get from public school education, (Americans) gave first and equal ranking to mastery of academic subjects and the development of desirable character traits. Vocational training, citizenship education, and experience in making social adjustments followed in that order. (p. 35) Respondents with less education placed more emphasis on the 3 R's while those with some college training tended to place more emphasis on "character education" and "social adjustments." .There were no significant differences in the respondents with or 29

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without children in public schools. Downey this study as: Intellectual Mastery of academic subjects. Social Citizenship education. Social adjustment. Personal Character education. Productive The Harvard Committee Vocational training. (p. 197) Two years later, the first of the post World War II reports appeared. In General Education in Free Society (1946), the Committee on the Objectives of Education in a Free Society from Harvard said, The aim of education should be to prepare an individual to become an expert both in some particular vocation or art and in the general art of the free man and the citizen. Thus the two kinds of education once given separately to different social classes must be given together to all. alike. (cited in Downey, 1959, p. 21) Downey ( 1959) placed "the general art of Free Man and citizenship" under social development and "expertness in a vocation or art" under productive development. (p. 197) American Federation of Teachers A second report, Goals for American Education, was released in 1948 by the American Federation of 30

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Teachers. In the discussion of the responsibilities of the schools the report stated: 1. The schools should help close the gap between scientific advance and social retardation. 2. The schools must prepare individuals to create and live effectively in a coopera tive, interdependent society. 3. The schools must extend the interest and concern of people in international cooperation and of a just and durable peace. 4. The schools must help in securing acceptance of the ideals of democracy in social, economic, and political arrangement. 5. The schools must develop values that will to guide the.individual toward high standards of moral conduct and ethical living. 6. The schools must provide for the development of creative abilities and afford avenues for expression in cpnstructive activities. 7. The schools must insure the mastery of the common integrating knowledge and skills necessary to effective daily living. (cited in Downey, 1960, pp. 11-12) Downey (1959) placed these items in three of his I four categories. Intellectual Mastery of common integrating knowledge and skills. 31

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Social Personal Elmer Roper survey To close the gap between scientific advances and social retardation. Preparation to live effectively in a cooperative society. International cooperation and maintenance of peace. Acceptance of the ideals of democracy. High standards of moral conduct and ethical living. Development of creative abilities. (p. 198) In 195.0, Elmer Roper and associates interviewed 3000 men and women to find out people's perceptions of major responsibilities of the_school or what should be (cited in Downey, 1959). The respondents. in this survey did perceive a real difference between the tasks of the elementary and the high school. Also, there were differences in opinion associated with geographic region, extent of education, parenthood, size of city, etc. (p. 39) Downey categorized the various items included in the Roper study as follows: Intellectual Social Studies (math, English, reading, social studies). Good general education. Ability to think and apply selves. Learn to get along with other people. 32

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Personal Productive Arthur Bestor Honesty, fair play, consideration for others. Sense of what is right and what is wrong. Preparation for job or trade. Preparation for life (help pupils decide what they want to do). (p. 199) Arthur Bestor (1952 & 1955) argued that tasks of public schools should be directed toward intellectual development. In discussing intellectual development at the elementary level, in 1955 he wrote, Reading, writing, and arithmetic are indispensable studies in the elementary school because no intellectual life worthy of the name is possible or conceivable without these particular skills (cited in Downey, 1959, p. 4) Downey placed major items in Bestor's writing under the intellectual category. Intellectual Fundamental ways of thinking. Ability to apply and handle complex ideas. Command of means of effective expression. Reading, writing, math, science, history, English, and foreign languages. (p. 199) 33

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Mortimer Smith Mortimer Smith, The Diminished Mind (1954), agreed with: Bestor on the development of skills In his opinion, the schools needed to citizens with a sense of moral, spiritual, and ethical values who would individually contribute :to society. Downey (1959) classified much of Smith's.work within his categories. Intellectual Social Transmit intellectual heritage. Teach the young to think. Transmit cultural heritage. Knowledge of the race. Buttress moral values. (p. 200) Warner. Havighurst. and Loeb's Essential Functions of the School svstem In this same year, Warner, Havighurst, and Loeb (1954) the Essential Functions of the School System which included 1. provide a basis of communications and a c9mmon core of traditions and values. 2. To teach children to work and live together. 3. To help people find ways of realizing their social ideals. 4. To teach the skills for carrying on the economic life of society. 34

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5. To select and train children for social m.bbility. (cited in Downey, 1960, p.14) This study placed a greater emphasis on social I than on the other three categories. Downey categorized these "Essential Functions"' in following way: Social:. Personal Productive Dorothy Thompson Basis for communication. To work and live together. To help people find ways of realizing social ideas. To select and train children for social mobility. Common core of traditions and values. Skills for carrying on economic life of society. (p. 200) In 1956, Dorothy Thompson, in The Limits of I' Public School Education, wrote that schools should teach students the basic subjects so they can continue to' learn and develop both aesthetic appreciation and ethical consciousness through exposure to: literature, music, and art (cited in Downey, 1960). Downey (1959) placed Thompson's work in two of his categories. Intellectual r,., Basic subjects necessary to further learning. Facts about the external world. 35

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Personal Refinement of aesthetic and ethical sensibilities. (p. 200) The White House Conference on Education One of. the most influential statements on the tasks of public schools in the twentieth century was the Report of the White House Conference on Education in 1956. The conference produced a list of 14 tasks which the schools should continue to develop. 1. The fundamental skills of communication-reading, writing, spelling as well as other elements of effective oral and written expressions; the arithmetical and mathematical skills, including problem solving. 2. Appreciation for our democratic heritage. 3. Civic rights and responsibilities and knowledge of American institutions. 4. Respect and appreciation for human values and the beliefs of others. 5. Ability to think and evaluate constructively and creatively. 6. Effective work habits and self-discipline. 7. Social competency as a contributing member of his family and community. 8. Ethical behavior based on a sense of moral and spiritual values. 9. Intellectual curiosity and eagerness for life-long-learning. 36

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10. Esthetic appreciation and self-expression in the arts. 11. Physical and mental health. 12. W.ise use of time, including constructive l,eisure pursuits. 13. Understanding of the physical world and man's relation to it as represented through basic knowledge of the sciences. 14. An awareness of our relationships with the world community. (cited in Downey, 1960, p. 17) Downey {1959) classified this in the following way: Intellectual Social Personal Fundamental skills of communication. Ability to think and evaluate constructively and creatively. Intellectual curiosity and eagerness for life-long training. Understanding of the physical world and man's relation to it through basic knowledge of the sciences. Appreciation for our democratic heritage. Civic rights and responsibilities and knowledge of American institutions. Social competency as a contributing member of family and community. Awareness of our relationships with the world. Respect for human values and beliefs of others. Effective work habits and self-discipline. Ethical 37

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Rockefeller Report behavior based on a sense of moral and spiritual values. Esthetic appreciation and selfexpression in the arts. Physical and mental health. Wise use of time, including constructive leisure pursuits. (p. 202) In 1958, the Rockefeller Report warned that the task of schools should be flexible enough to ensure that the students are not placed too early in "an inflexible schedule of education, career preparation and job" (cited in Downey, 1960, pp. 18 & 19). Downey (1959) placed this report under only one of his categories, Personal Exposure to a context of values in which high performance is encouraged. Exposure to sufficient variety and challenge. (p. 202) Related Literature: Post Downey While the previous literature review relied heavily on Downey, this section relies heavily on Henderson's. 1978 dissertation which is discussed at length in the Related Research section which follows. The tasks identified in the literature will be placed by this researcher into Downey's 38

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categories as defined in his conceptional framework. These categorizations will immediately follow each literature discussion. Hender'son discussed two commissions which de-fined the tasks of schools in the 1960s: The Educational Policies Commission attempted to specify the central purpose of education in; the development of the ability to think. A commission created by the Americ:an Association of School Administrators in 1966 specified nine imperatives in educat'ion: to make urban life rewarding and to prepare people for the world of work, to discover and nurture creative talent, to strengthen the moral fabric of society, to deal constructively with the psychological tensions, to keep democracy working, to make intelligent use of natural resources, to make the best of leisure time, and to work with other people of the world for human betterment. (cited in Henderson, 1978, pp. 15-16) Intellectual Social Personal Productive The development of the ability to think. To make urban life rewarding and satisfying. To keep democracy working. To .make intelligent use of natural resources. To make the best of leisure time. To work with other people of the world for human betterment. To discover and nurture creative talent. To strengthen the moral fabric of society. To deal constructively with the psychological tensions. To prepare people for the world of work. 39

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In 1973, the membership of Phi Delta Kappa (cited. in Henderson, 1978) ranked "developing skills in reading, writing, speaking, and listening" as first in a list of eighteen, followed by "developing pride in work and a feeling of self worth." "Moral thinking and behavior" of students were listed as third. Intellectual Personal I Productive Developing skills in reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Developing a feeling of self worth. Moral thinking a behavior of students. Developing pride in work. In the following year, the 1974 California Commission for the Reform of Intermediate and Secondary Education (cited in Henderson, 1978) developed ten characteristics of an educated person First, the educated person should have a thirst for knowledge and motivation to keep on learning throughout a lifetime. Second, an educated person should have the skills to find work and to succeed in it. Third, an educated person should be able to respond to change without l.osing a sense of personal worth and purpose. Fourth, an educated person should care enough about the environment to work for its maintenance and improvement. 40

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Fifth, an educated person must try to understand and appreciate all peoples and cultures, without prejudice. sixth, an educated person must be able to read well, speak and write clearly, and handle comfortably both logical concepts and basic mathematical skills. Seventh, the educated person should understand how the economic system works and how to manage money as well as earn it. Eighth, the educated person should understand the American system of government, including citizens rights and responsibilities. Ninth, the educated person should know and understand human biology and psychology in order to maintain ones own well-being. And finally, an educated person should be sensitive to artistic, literary, and other aesthetic experiences. (p. 16-17) Intellectual Social Personal Thirst for knowledge and motivation to keep on learning throughout a lifetime. Must be able to read well, speak and write clearly, and handle comfortably both logical concepts and basic mathematical skills. Should care enough about the environment to work for its maintenance and improvement. Must try to understand and appreciate all peoples and cultures, without prejudice. Should understand the American system of government, including citizens rights and responsibilities. Should be able to respond to change without losing a sense of personal worth and purpose. Should know and understand human biology and psychology in order 41

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Productive to maintain one's own wellbeing. Should be sensitive to artistic, literary, and other aesthetic experiences. Skills to find work and succeed in it. Should understand how the economic system works and how to manage money as well as earn it. Ryan and Thompson's Phi Delta Kappan survey (1975) sought opinions of the members of Phi Delta Kappa on moral education in schools. The responses to the questionnaire indicated that the membership believed the schools played a more effective role in the moral thinking and behavior of children twentyfive years ago than they did at time of the survey, and suggested that the schools have a positive contribution to make in the moral development area. Also, it suggested that an active program of moral education in schools would be a helpful addition to the efforts of family and church to improving moral development in children. Personal Moral education in schools would be a helpful addition to the efforts of family and church to improving moral development in children. 42

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Related Literature: Post Henderson The immediately prior literature relied on Henderson, but the literature reviewed here has been identified by this researcher. Also, as in the previous section, this researcher will place the tasks found in the literature within the categories identified in Downey's conceptual framework. One of the most well-known studies of the 1980s was conducted by the National Commission on Excellence in Education. This commission, created by Secretary of Education T. H. Bell in August of 1981, completed the study, A Nation at Risk in 1983. Tasks of schools, as recommended by this study, have applications for what should be taught to students in the elementary school include: 1) To develop skills and an attitude of lifelong learning 2) To learn a foreign language starting in the elementary school since proficiency in a foreign language "introduces students to non-English-speaking cultures, heightens awareness and comprehension in one's native tongue, and serves the Nation's 43

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needs in commerce, diplomacy, defense, and education." 3) T'o provide a sound base of study for "English language development and writing, computational and problem solving skills, science, social studies, foreign language, and the arts." 4) To "foster an enthusiasm for learning and the development of the individual's gifts and talents." (The National Commission on Excellence in Education, p. 27) Intellectual Social Personal To develop skills and an attitude of life-long learning. To learn a foreign language starting in the elementary school. To provide a sound base of study for English language development and writing, computational and problem solving skills, science, and foreign language. To foster an enthusiasm for learning. To provide a sound base in social studies. To provide a sound base in the arts. The development of the individual's gifts and talents. Another study which has implications for the tasks of public schools was conducted py 13 state governors and 13 business executives who made up the 44

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Task Force on Education for Economic Growth (1983). The study recommended dropping non-essential courses and moving beyond the basics to mastery of skills in areas including problem solving, analysis, interpretation, and persuasive writing. Intellectual Mastery of skills in areas including problem solving, analysis, interpretation, and persuasive writing. Also in the same year, Adler (1983) stated the objectives of basic schooling, in ascending order: 1) Preparation for earning a living; 2) Preparation for duties of citizenship in a democracy, in which the citizens are the class and holders of public office; 3) for self-development, which cannot occur without continued learning and personal growth during maturity after all schooling, basic or advanced, has been (p. 8) Intellectual Social Productive Preparation for continued learning and personal growth. Preparation for duties of citizenship in a democracy. Preparation for earning a living. John (1984) outlined a myriad of goals or tasks for schools, including mastery and 45

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application of basic skills in reading, writing, and arithmetic along with an accumulation of a general fund of knowledge. Also, he stated that career and vocational should include developing a positive work attitude and selecting appropriate occupations for one's interests and skills through knowledge of a variety of jobs. Moreover, schools should help students develop interpersonal understandings between family members and group members and in a broader sense should encompass international relations which would bring "an understanding and appreciation of cultures different from one's own" (p. 53). The importance of citizenship participation, moral/ethical character development:, emotional and physical well-being, creativity and aesthetic expression, and selfrealization were also incorporated in Goodlad's tasks of schools. Intellectual Social Mastery and application of basic skills in reading, writing, and arithmetic along with an accumulation of general fund of knowledge. Develop interpersonal understandings between family, group, and international relations. Citizenship participation. 46

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Personal I I Produc:ti ve Moral/ethical character development. Emotional and physical well-being. Creativity and aesthetic expression. Selfrealization. Development of a positive work attitude. Selection of appropriate occupations for one's interests and skills through knowledge of a variety of jobs. Questions for the 1986 Gallup poll were determined by asking opinions of fifty chief state school offi'cers, summarizing their suggestions, and then these suggestions reviewed by a panel of experts. When asked why people want their children to attend public schools, the number one response was "job opportunities/better job" with about onethird (34%): mentioning this. The second most mentioned r:esponse was "preparation for life/better life" with :23% (Gallup, 1986) Productive Job opportunities/better jobs. Preparation for life/better life. The 1987 Phi Delta Kappan Gallup Poll focused on educatiopal policies undertaken by the Reagan Administration. One question concerning the task of public schobls within this survey concerned 47

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character education. Secretary of Education William Bennett placed much importance on character education dUring the time of this survey. When asked whethier they believed courses on personal ; values and ethical behavior should taught in public schools or left to parents and churches, 43% of the respondents: indicated that these courses should be taught in pUblic schools while 36% believed these should be left to the parents and churches (Gallup & Clark, 1987') Person'al Personal values and ethical behavior. One task of public schools that was virtually unheard of pefore the eighties is AIDS education. When asked :if this should be included in the education programs in public schools, 90% of the respondents in the Twentieth Gallup Poll favored doing so. Forty percent of those surveyed believed that AIDS education should begin with 5 to 9-year-old children while another 40% believed it should begin with children from ages 10 to 12. Respondents were also asked about their opinions of before-school and after-school programs for latch key children. A large number (70%) of the respondents 48

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favored offering before and after schools programs while only 1 in 4 (23%) opposed this. When asked about day long programs for latch-key children in the summer, responses were divided with 46% favoring these programs and 45% opposing. Another important question posed in the 1988 survey concerned bilingual instruction. Respondents were asked whether or not they favored or opposed the local schools providing instruction in a student's native language in order to help him or her become a more successful :learner. Forty-two percent favored and 49% opposed (Gallup and Elam, 1988). Intellectual Bilingual education. Personal Aids Education For the fourth year in a row, the 1989 Annual Gallup Poll listed use of drugs as the number one problem facing public schools (Elam and Gallup, 1989). This national concern over drugs may indicate a need for including drug awareness and drug education in the list of responsibilities of public schools. Personal Drug awareness and drug education. 49

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Finally, according to Melendez (1989), schools need to prepare students for a multilingual world. In a world where more than 2,700 different languages are spoken, it is of national interest for the people of the United States to learn foreign languages instead of staying in their present position as the most monolingual nation of all of the developed c'ountries. Melend.ez explained that, ''children who begin learning early, before the age of about 11, can los'e all trace of an accent; that's much more after puberty" (pp. 73-74). She also predicted that the United States will become impoverished culturally, socially, politically, and economically if it continues as a monolingual nation. Intellectual Learning foreign languages. In studying the post Downey literature, it is clear that the categories outlined by Downey and his fellow researchers in the 50s are still relevant and important today. Further, tasks found in the post Downey literature can readily be classified into Downey's categories. 50

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Related Research In this section of the chapter four studies which used the Task of Public Education Opinionnaire are discuss.ed. The work of Henderson (1978) is discussed first and the other three studies follow in chronolo,gical order. Russell Henderson The pu,rpose of Henderson' s study (1978) was "to '' determine the tasks of .schools most desired by parents, te.achers, principals, and board members of the Aurora,: Colorado, Public Schools" (p. iii). The research was conducted with the support and assistance ,of the Aurora Public Schools Accountability Committee. From the study, the I: accountability committee "anticipated greater efficiency in fully implementing the accountability legislation:" (p. 28). A total of 1567 surveys were sent to 1430 parents, 80 teachers, 27 principals, five school board members, and 25 members of the Accountability Committee and the Citizens' Advisory Council. Of the surveys. sent, 661 usable surveys were returned which resulted in a 42 percent response rate. 51

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' ; Some findings of Henderson's study were: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. clearly ranked the basic skills--the Three R's--as the most highly d.esired school priority. The tasks of Family Role Understanding and A,esthetic Development were least desired school priorities. I D'ifferences in rankings assigned the task elements were evident among the four major groups: the school board and c'itizens committees, parents, teachers, and principals. signifi6ant differences in mean scores were found in ten of the s,ixteeri task elements when the major respondent groups were analyzed. I there was cons1derable d:isagreement between educators and noneducators. Parents differed from other major respondent groups more frequently than did any other group. Of the two educator groups surveyed, principals indicated considerably less agreement with parents and the bo.ard than did teachers. I differences were found between of parent sub-groups. The educational level and sex variables accounted for the greatest number of differences among parent sub-groups. The greatest number of differences by task element was found in the Three R's and Family Role Understanding tasks. l The Intellectual Dimension was consistently identified as being of importance. I Results of this study were generally consistent with the earlier findings of the Downey and Hawaii studies. (p. iv) 52

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Other Research This section relies heavily on Henderson (1978) for the discussion of three studies which used the Task of Education Opinionnaire. No studies undertaken since the 1978 were identified in the literature search. In 1959 Andrews (cited in Henderson, 1978) explained the findings of a replication of Downey's work in Alberta, Canada in which the Task of Public Education Opinionnaire was used as follows 1) The public generally indicated a rather strong desire to see both elementary and high schools increase their emphasis upon the practical, vocational elements rather than the cultural, civic, and intellectual; 2) Superintendents and professors of education agreed almost completely with the task elements as presently emphasized in the schools; 3) Other university professors desired an increase the cultural and academic aspects of schooling. (p. 22) In 1970, the Hawaii State Board of Education used the Task of Public Education Opinionnaire in a study. The parents surveyed in the this study ranked the social dimension as most important followed by the intellectual, personal, and productive dimensions. This pattern of response was 53

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reported throughout the islands with the exception of Oahu where the residents ranked the intellectual dimensions as most impqrtant. Interesting comparisons can be noted in examining the studies .conducted by Lawrence Downey (1959), the Hawaii State Board' of Education (1970), and Russell Henderson in Aurora, Colorado (1978). First, the respondents from both the Downey and Henderson studies placed "The Three R's" as the most important task while the Hawaii respondents ranked "Patriotism" as most important and "The Three R's" as second. Both Henderson and Downey respondents placed the "Desire for Knowledge" in second place. Finally, each of these groups of respondents differed in what they believed the third important element should be with Aurora choosing "Living with Others," Downey respondents choosing "Independent Thinking," and Hawaii respondents choosing "Ethical Development." Lastly, although not a replication study, Baham (1974) did use Downey's classifications of the Task of Public Education in his analysis of goal statements of public school 54

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districts in Colorado. His research yielded the following major conclusions: (1) (2) (3) (4) "Low" to "moderate" relationships existed b.etween Downey's findings and Colorado a:ccountability committee goal statements; Accountability groups ranked the learning o.f skills highest; The four personal dimension elements were ranked an overall first in Colorado; and '' N.o regional differences appeared regarding the tasks of the schools. (Cited in H,enderson, 1978, pp. 24-25) Baham:s study agreed with both the Downey and Henderson studies in placing "The Three R's" as the most import:ant task. However, his study differed from both of these studies in the second and third place tasks:. Baham's study found "Emotional Development:" in the second place and "Physical Development" in third place. Chapter Summary This chapter included an extensive discussion of Downey's: Task of Education (TPE) study; a review of literature related to the tasks of public education including views of individuals, committees, and commissions discussed and placed '' into Downey's categories; and a review of four 55

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related res'earch studies. The following chapter presents the research methodology. 56

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CHAPTER III THE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY Introduction Despite the lapse of twenty years between the two studies, both Downey (1958) and Henderson (1978), found the "Three R's" to be the task that the public iranked most highly. Both Downey and Henderson used the Task of Public Educ.ation Opinionnaire (T.P.E.) in their research. Downey's extensive study included four geographic :areas within the United States and one area in central Canada. He had a total of 3,830 respondents. Of these, 1286 were educators and i 2,544 were In his study, he investigated what the tasks of public education in American So'ciety should be; the perceived importance of the dimensions to the public schools; and how the sub-publics; differed in their perceptions of the relative importance of the various dimensions. The results of the survey were reported by geographic region, socio-economic status, educator versus noneducator, age, sex, religion, and race. Overall,

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Downey found that educators and non-educators agreed that intellectual skills (the basic tools for acquiring communicating knowledge) ranked as the most important task; however, for the most part non -educators tended to rank non-intellectual items as more importapt while the educator group tended to rank items as-more important . Educators also tended to agree with other educators but there tended to be less agreement among lay persons. Finally, it was found that the Canadian region differed more when compared with the American regions than the American regions differed from each other. Henderson studied the educational priorities of .a total of 661 parents, teachers, -principals, and board members in the Aurora Public Schools in Colorado. For the most part, findings in I Henderson's study were consistent with those found by Downey. Problem Statement This study uses Downey's Task of Public Education Opinionnaire to explore how parents, educators and principals) and board 58

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members (past and present) in Brighton perceive the tasks of education at the elementary level and how these perceptions compare with Downey's research. The four parts of this research include: 1) analysis of differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks within groups of parents, educators, and school board members in Brighton; 2) analysis of differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks between groups of I parents, educators, and school board members in Brighton; 3) analysis of differences in the perception 'of greater importance or less importance of tasks parent sub-groups when comparing by gender, ma-rital status, number of years in Brighton, educational level, income, age, and ethnicity; and I 4) analysis of differences in the perception of importance 10r less importance of tasks between the present study and Downey. Research Questions The research questions addressed by this study are: 1. What are the differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance 59

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of tasks within groups of parents, (principals and teachers), and board members (past and present) in Brighton? 2. What are the differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks between groups of parents, educators (principals and teachers), and board members (past and present) in B.righton? 3. What are the differences in the perception i of greater importance or less importance of tasks between parent when compared by gender, marital status,.number of years in Brighton, educational level, i'ncome, age, and ethnicity? 4. What are the differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance Of tasks between this study and Downey? Hypotheses Four hypotheses included. 1. There are no differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks within groups of parents, 60

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educators (principals and teachers), and board members (past and present) in Brighton. 2. There are no differences in the perception o;f greater importance or less importance of tasks between groups of parerits,educators (principals and teachers), and board-members (past and present) in Brighton. 3. T;here are no differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks among parent sub-groups-when c,ompared by gender, marital status, number of years in Brighton, educational level, income, age, and ethnicity. 4. There are no differences in the perception o:f greater importance or less importanceo-f tasks between this study and Downey. This r_esearcher met twice with the Brighton superintendent during August of 1989 to discuss the I possibility: of conducting a study on the tasks of public schools in the Brighton Schools. During this time, benefits to the district, the importance of the study to the district, and a rough draft of the 61

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instrument were presented. The superintendent and his cabinet met during the first weeks of the 1989 I school to discuss the possibility of having the proposed conducted in the Brighton Schools. On 13, 1989, the district granted approval for this study pending receipt and acceptance of the final copy. :of the prospectus and survey instrument. Population and Sample The population includes parents of all elementary jschool students, all elementary teachers and principals, and all present and past school board members in the Brighton School District. The sa:mple includes 286 subjects. Of these, 170 were parents or guardians, 102 were elementary teachers and principals, and 12 were pree;ent andjor I past board i A sample of parents was selected by choosing parents from each of the five elementary schools. It should be noted that the term when used in this writing also includes gu:ardians. Further, parents with more than one child in the school received only one survey if I they were s'elected to participate. All elementary 62

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teachers, principals, and present school board members received surveys. The sample of past school board members was limited to those who had served on the board in the past ten years and whose addresses could be obtained through the scho.ol board secretary. With the exception of the parent sample, procedures for obtaining samples from these groups are discussed in the data gathering section of this chapter. The parent group ihformation is presented both in thi's and the data gathering sections. A representative sample of the target population of all parents with children in the Brighton Public Schools was chosen through systematically choosing parents from each of the five elementary schools. To do this, the five elementary schools, were arranged by name in alphabetical order: Henderson Elementary, North Elementary, Northeast Elementary, South Elementary, and Southea.st Elementary. The first school, Henderson Elementary, had the first set of parents chosen as its beginning point for the sample; the second school North Elementary will have the second set of families chosen; and so forth. From there, 63

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parents were chosen by choosing every seventh parent followed by choosing every third parent. The exact number between intervals was decided after the researcher received a list students from each elementary :school. Table:3.1 presents the return rates for the study. Table 3.1 Return Rates Group Number Mailed Returned Total Percent Educator 102 School Boaid 12 Parent 172 Total 286 First Second Returns Mailings 49 8 35 92 11 1 18 30 Instrumentation 60 9 53 122 The necessary data for this descriptive 59% 75% 31% 43% research study were gathered through use of the Task of Public Schools Opinionnaire, T.P.E., (Downey, 1960, p. 8.0') which was discussed in detail in Chapter II. No changes were made in the instrument'' s i terns used to measure the importance of tasks. How.ever, some demographic variables were substituted to meet the needs of the Brighton 64

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community, to simplify the instrument, and to update the survey. For example, the length of time living in Brighton was included so the population trends can be studied in future replications and the salary categories 'were changed to more appropriate levels for incomes in the 1990s. Downey's conceptual framework, which was used as the base of the T.P.E. instrument,. remains the same. The tasks used by Downey for :the elementary school instrument (See Appendix) and which were used in this study were: 1. A fund of information about manythings. 2. The basic tools for acquiring and communicating knowledge--the 3 R's. 3. The habit of figuring things out for one's self. 4. A desire to learn more--the inquiring mind. s. ability to live and work with others. 6. Understanding rights and duties of citizenship and acceptance of reasonable regulations. 7. Loyalty to America and the American way of life. 8. Knowledge of and appreciation for the peoples of other lands. 9. A well cared for, well developed body. 10. An emotionally stable person, able to cope with new situations. 65

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11. A sense of right and wrong--a moral standard of behavior. 12. Enjoyment of cultural activities--the finer things of life. 13. General awareness of occupational opportunities and how people prepare for them. 14. Classification and training for a specific kind of high school program--academic, t.echnical, etc. 15. Understanding the role of various family members. 16. An introduction to budgeting and effective use of money and property. (Downey, 1959, p. 219) A Q-sort was chosen by Downey (1958), Henderson (1978), and this researcher for ranking tasks in order to force respondents to make a choice in determining the order of importance. The directions for achieving the Q-sort were somewhat changed from the original T. P. E. for two reasons. First, the original was read orally to large groups, but in this study the respondents received written directions with the survey. Secondly, changes were made in the way respondents were asked to record their rankipgs. In the original survey, respondents were asked to place cards in slots, while in this survey the respondents were asked to write the 66

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number of a particular task in the appropriate box on a response sheet. This avoided problems with cards possibly falling out of slots. Details concerning the Q-sort are discussed in the next section. Data Gathering Methods Data were collected through a survey_ distributed to parents, teachers, principals, and school board members. The distribution, collection, and record .keeping of the surveys packets varied slightly according to groups, however, a packet containing the following was distributed to each individual in the study sample population: 1. The survey instrument which included a brief overview of information in the cover letter, directions, a packet of 16 tasks cards, and a response sheet 2. A cover letter, which included necessary information about the instrument 3. A self-addressed, stamped envelope for returning the response form 4. Two copies of the Human Consent Form The survey instrument and postcard were coded 67

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by color to avoid unnecessary questions on the instrument :and for ease in handling responses. The educator group received green surveys, the parent group pink, and the school board members blue. The mailing lists and surveys were coded for record keeping. The code had three sections, ______ The first section indicated the alphabetical placement of the school except in the case of the school board where the first section had a zero. The second section included a numerical ranking from one to 286 for each respondent, and the third section ind;icated whether the respondent was in the educator group (one), school board group (two), or parent group (three). For example, the first educator chosen from school number one, Henderson Elementary, would have the number, 1-001-1, placed on the instrument, the second respondent would have the number, 1-002-1, placed on the instrument, and so forth. As in Downey's 1958 study, the 16 task cards were used for gathering the data for the Q-sort. Respondents.were asked to place task cards into three piles. The cards in the pile to the left contained task statements they regarded as most 68

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important while the cards to the right contained task statements they perceived as less important. The bulk of cards were left in the middle. The directions then asked respondents to.select the most important task from the left pile andthe least important task from the right pile followed by the next two most important and the next two least important. The remainder were assigned in a similar manner to the third, fourth, and fifth piles as demonstrated by the following. From there, the respondents' were asked to write the number of a particuiar task in the appropriate box on a response sheet. Most Important 1st 2nd Jrd 7 6 5 4th 4 Least Important 5th 6th 7th 3 2 1 The parent and school board member groups received survey packets by mail with instructions return the response sheet in a sealed, stamped, self-addressed envelope and the human consent form 69

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in a separate envelope. In a. meeting with the superintendent on August 17, 1991, the researcher received permission to deliver the survey packets to the educator group through school mail on the condition that permission from the individual elementary school principals was received. iAll of elementary principals granted this permission. The researcher placed the survey instruments in the educator school mail boxes with envelopes addressed to the researcher's school address for return through the school mail. The cover letter explained: 1,) That the survey was being conducted with the district's approval 2) That the survey was not at the expense of the district, but at the researcher's own expense 3) Why the responses are important 4) Where to call to ask questions about the survey A list of potential respondents and their code numbers were generated on the computer for keeping records of returned surveys and follow-up letters. The lists were obtained in the following way. A 70

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list of ali elementary school parents on address labels were obtained from four out of five elementary schools. The fifth school sent a copy of all the elementary parents. The final parent list was generated by the procedures outlined in the sampling section of this A mailing list for educators was obtained from the faculty directory and the board member addresses were obtained from the board secretary. Upon the return of the survey, the respondent's name was removed from the master list. The code numbers were left on the computer and the date returned was noted. Labels for envelopes were addressed according to the way the list was kept in the individual school data bank. Reasons for not specifying which parent should respond to the survey included an attempt to simplify the directions and the potential for a higher response rate. The task Q-Sort was completed by all of the groups. The demographic section which included questions about gender, marital status, number of years in Brighton, educational level, income, age, and ethnicity was completed by the parent group only. 71

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Approximately two weeks after mailing the surveys, the researcher had planned on calling a percentage of the non-respondents. In trying to obtain phone numbers from the school with lowest response rate, it was found that many of the potential respondents did not have phone numbers listed in the Brighton telephone directory. At that time, the researcher and the researcher's advisor decided to do a follow-up letter. Follow-up letters were sent to all three groups. The followup letter for the parent group was written in both English and: Spanish. If a minimum of ten potential respondents requested the survey in Spanish, it was the intent of the researcher to have the survey translated into Spanish. Only one person out of the 137 follow-up letters sent to parents requested this service. One additional Spanish speaking person returned the first mailing survey with a request to have a Spanish translation. Data Analysis The computer was programmed to weight the responses. The items chosen as most important were weighted seven, the second most important were 72

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weighted six, the third most important were weighted five, and so forth. The means were determined according to weights. This was the basis for the analysis. Procedures which were used to analyze the data included: 1) A= frequency distribution of categories and dimensions was produced. All responses were ranked on a scale from one to seven, with the most important school task given a score of one, the second two most important tasks given a score of two, etc. 2) Pearson's Product Movement Correlation was used to compare the responses between and within the groups of this research. 3) An ANOVA was used to.determine the dif-ferences between each of the groups and the parent sub-groups. A t-Test was used for the dichotomous variable. In those groups where differences were found, the Scheffe Method of Multiple Comparison, a conservative multiple test for identifying pairwise I comparisons of means, was used to determine between which of the groups statistical 73

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differences (R < .05) existed (SPSS/PC, p. 108) ; 4) raw data were reported by respondent groups. (parents, educators, and school board I member.s) and the parent sub-groups (gender, marita!l status, number of years in Brighton, educational level, income, age, and ethnicity). 74

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CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA The problem of this study is to investigate the importance placed on selected tasks of public elementary schools as perceived by parents, educators (teachers and principals), and board members (past and present) in one Colorado district. The research identifies the extent to which these groups differ in their ranking of the importance of tasks when compared with each other, and the extent to which members within the parent group differ with each other when compared by selected demographic characteristics. The results of the study are compared with Downey {1959) in an attempt to identify changes in rankings of tasks and categories over time. The study attempts to answer the following questions: 1. What are the differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks within groups of parents, educators {principals and teachers), and board members {past and present) in Brighton?

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2. What are the differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks between groups of parents, educators (principals and teachers), and board members (past and present) in Brighton? 3. What are the differences in the perception I of greater importance or less importance of tasks among parent sub-groups when compared by gender, marital status, number of years in Brighton, educational level, income, age, and ethnicity? 4. What are the differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks between this study and Downey's 1959 study? Description of the Sample Surveys were mailed to 102 educators, 12 school board members, and 172 parents. Of these 286 surveys, 122 were returned, resulting in an overall response rate of 43% These response rates for each group are shown in Table 4.1. 76

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Table 4.1 Response Rate by Group Group Number Mailed Educator 102 School Board 12 Parent 172 Number Returned 60 9 53 Demographics Response Rate 59% 75% 31% This study explores seven demographic variables in the parent group including gender, marital status, numDer years in Brighton, educational level, income, and ethnicity. A very.large majority of the respondents are female (79%) while only a few (13%) were male. An additional 8% did not specify a gender on the survey instrument. A vast majority of the respondents are married '. (84%) while only a few (16%) are not married. Of the 16% whoare not married{ 10% are divorced. The other 6% are either separated, marked the category of "other," 'or chose not to answer the question. Table ;4.2 shows how many years the respondents had lived Brighton. The table shows that more than half of the respondents (51%) had lived in 77

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' Brighton for less than ten years while a little less than a third (30%) had lived in Brighton for more than 16 years. A few of the respondents {19%) had lived in Brighton from 11 to 15 years. Table 4.2 Number of Years in Brighton Years n % 0-5 Years 15 28% 6-10 Years 12 23% 11-15 Years 10 19% 16 Years and Over 16 30% Total 53 100% Table 4.3 shows the educational level of the respondents. Nearly half of the respondents (48%) had some post high school work. An additional 14% had completed a bachelor's degree while a few did not complete high school (8%) or had some graduate work (8%). Three respondents (6%) did not respond to this section of the survey. Table 4.4 shows the income level of the respondents. Almost half (48%) of the respondents reported incomes between $30,001 and $45,000. A quarter (25%) of the respondents reported having an income between $15,001 and $30,000. A very few of the respondents had incomes of Less than $15,000 78

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(9%), $45,001 and $60,000 (9%), and Over $60,000 (9%). Six respondents (11%) of the total respondents chose not to answer this question. Table 4.3 Educational Level of Respondents in the Parent Group Educational n % Level Some High School 4 8% High School'Graduate 11 22% Post High School Work 24 48% Bachelor's Degree 7 14% Graduate Work 4 8% No Response 3 Missing Total 53 100% Table 4.4 Income Level of Respondents in the Parent Group Income n 0 of Responses Less than $t,5,0000 4 9% $15,001 to $30,000 12 25% $30,001 to $45,000 23 48% $45,001 to ,$60,000 4 9% over $60,000 4 9% No Response 6 Missing Total 53 100% Table 4.5 presents information on the ages of the respondents. Almost half of the respondents (47%) are in the 31 to 40 years age range while the other half are fairly evenly distributed between 79

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those below 30 years of age (25%) and those over 41 (28%). Both the median age and the average age is 34. Table 4.5 Age of the Respondents Age n 0 30 Years and Below 13 25% 31 to 40 Years 25 47% 41 Years and Over 15 28% Total 53 100% Table 4.6 presents the ethnicity of the respondents. The survey includes American Indian, Black American, Asian American, Hispanic American, White American, and Other. Asian American, Hispanic American, and White American are the only groups who responded to the survey. Three respondents or 6% of all the respondents chose not answer the question. The letter included in the second mailing was written in both English and Spanish stating if the respondent would prefer a survey in Spanish to call a number. Since only one person, requested this service on the second mailing and one on the first t mailing, the researcher decided not to have the survey translated. The majority of the respondents (86%) are White American while few {12%) were 80

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Hispanic American and a handful (2%) are Asian American. Table 4.6 Ethnicity of the Respondents from the Parent Group Ethnicity n 0 of Respondents Asian American 1 2% Hispanic 6 12% White American 43 86% No Response 3 Missing Total 53 100% Questions Posed by the Study This section of the study explores the questions posed by the study and the responses of the subjects. The tasks numbers within the tables refer to the following: 1. A fund of information about many things. 2. The basic tools for acquiring and communicating knowledge--the 3 R's. 3. The habit of figuring things out for one's self. 4. A desire to learn more--the inquiring mind. 5. The ability to live and work with others. 6. Understanding rights and duties of citizenship and acceptance of reasonable regulations. 7. Loyalty to America and the American way of life. 81

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8. Knowledge of and appreciation for the peoples of other lands. 9. A well cared for, well body. 10. An emotionally stable person, able to cope with new situations. 11. A sense of right and wrong--a moral standard of behavior. 12. Enjoyment of cultural activities--the finer things of life. 13. General awareness of occupational opportunities and how people prepare for them. 14. Classification and training for a specific kind of high school program--academic, technical, etc. 15. Understanding the role of various family members. 16. An introduction to budgeting and effective use of money and property. (Downey, 1959, p. 219) For reporting purposes, the preceding tasks will be shortened as follows: 1. A Fund of Information 2. The Three R's 3. Independent Thinking 4. Desire for Knowledge 5. Living with Others 6. Citizenship 7. Patriotism 82 ............. ........................................ ..

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8. World Citizenship 9. Physical Development 10. Emotional Development 11. Ethical Development 12. Aesthetic Development 13. Vocational Awareness 14. Preparation for Vocation 15. Family Role Understanding 16. consumer Preparation (Henderson, 1978, p.90) The respondents were asked to rank their responses by choosing: one most important task; two second important tasks; three next important; and so forth. Likewise, the respondents were asked to pick: one least important task; two next least important tasks, and so forth. The responses were recorded as in the following. Most Important Least Important 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th I 1 83 ............ m1 ..........................................

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The next section presents the questions addressed by the research. Question 1: What are the differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks within groups of parents, educators (principals and teachers) and board members Cpast and present) in Brighton? This section addresses question 1 by: (1) examining the overall mean scores and rankings of tasks of each of the groups; (2) examining the percentages and frequencies of the three tasks ranked as most important by each of the groups; and, (3) examining the percentages and frequencies of the three tasks ranked as least important by each of the groups. Parent Group. Table 4.7 presents data regarding the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks within the parent group through the means and the overall ranking of each of the task items in the parent group. Looking at Table 4.7, we see that Task number 4, "Desire for Knowledge" was ranked first and considered the most important task by the parent group with a mean score of 5.92 while task number 3, "Independent Thinking" was ranked second (M = 5.33) 84

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and task 11, "Ethical Development" was ranked third (M = 5.27). In studying the mean scores, it should be noted that Task 5, "Living with Others," was also important to parents (M = 5.15). Task 12, "Aesthetic Development," was ranked sixteenth or as the least important task by the parent group with a mean of 2.29 followed by Task 15, "Family Role Understanding," which was ranked as fifteenth (M = 2.69) and Task 14, "Preparation for Vocation," which was ranked as fourteenth, as the next two least important M = 2.96. Table 4.7 Mean Scores and Rankings of Task within the Parent Group Task Number Means Ranking 1 3.58 9 2 5.18 5 3 5.33 2 4 5.92 1 5 5.15 4 6 3.92 7 7 3.39 11 8 3.16 12 9 3.90 8 10 4.67 6 11 5.27 3 12 2.29 16 13 3.40 10 14 2.96 14 15 2.69 15 16 3.14 13 85

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Table 4.8 shows how often each of the 16 task elements were ranked number one, two, or three in importance by a respondent in the parent group along with the corresponding percentages. For the second and third choice the respondents were told to pick the next two tasks of second importance. These two tasks were given an equal value of importance. Table 4.8 Percentages of Task Ranked as Most Important by the Parent Group Task 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Total n 1 8 2 21 4 1 1 0 0 2 10 0 0 0 1 1 52 Rank 1 2% 15% 4% 40% 8% 2% 2% 0% 0% 4% 19% 0% 0% 0% 2% 2% 100% Rank 2 n 2 10 11 6 6 1 2 0 1 4 6 0 1 1 1 0 52 % 4% 19% 21% 12% 12% 2% 4% 0% 2% 8% 12% 0% 2% 2% 2% 0% 100% Rank 3 n 3 5 10 6 11 4 0 0 1 3 7 1 1 0 1 0 52 6% 10% 19% 12% 21% 8% 0% 0% 2% 5% 13% 2% 2% 0% 2% 0% 100% Looking at Table 4.8, we see that 40% of the parents (n = 21) considered Task 4, "Desire for Knowledge," as the most important task for schools. 86

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In addition, about 12% (n = 6) considered it second in importance and another 12% reported that it was third most important. About 21% (n = 33) of the parents ranked task 4 as 1 of the 3 most important tasks of public schools. Task 3, "Independent Thinking," was ranked second most often by the respondents (21%) while Task 5, "Living with Others," was ranked third most often, 21%. Table 4.9 presents the tasks chosen most frequently as one of the top three tasks by the Parent Group. Table 4.9 Tasks Chosen Most Frequently as One of the Top Three Tasks by the Parent Group Task Number Name n 0 Task 4 Desire for Knowledge 33 21% Task 2 The Three R's 23 15% Task 3 Independent Thinking 23 15% Task 11 Ethical Development 23 15% Task 5 Living with Others 21 13% Looking at Table 4.9, we can see that Task 4 was most important to the Parent Group with about one-fifth (21%) of the Parent Group choosing this as one of the three most important tasks. Tasks 2, 3, and 4 were chosen second most often as one of top 87 ............ ...................................... ..

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three tasks with each being chosen by 15% of the respondents. Task 3 was considered one of the three most important tasks by 13% of the respondents. The task ranked first most frequently by the Parent Group, "Desire for Knowledge," is in the Intellectual Category. Two of the three tasks ranked as second, "The Three R's" and "Independent Thinking," are also intellectual tasks. The additional task that ranked second, "Ethical is in the Personal Category, while the third ranked task, "Living with Others," is in the Social Category. Finally, by looking at the frequencies and percentages, we can see that there was not one task that was ranked as one of the top three tasks by a majority of the respondents. Table 4.10 presents the frequencies and percentages of the tasks ranked as least important by the respondents in the parent group. This table shows how often each of the 16 task elements were ranked number 14, 15, or 16 in importance by a respondent in the parent group along with the corresponding percentages. For the fourteenth and fifteenth choice the respondents were told to pick 88

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the next two tasks of less importance. These two tasks were given an equal value of importance. Table 4.10 Frequencies and Percentages of Task Ranked as Least Important bv the Parent Group Task Rank 14 Rank 15 Rank 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Total n 6 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 1 2 1 11 2 9 8 6 52 0 12% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 9% 2% 4% 2% 21% 4% 17% 15% 12% 100% n 6 1 0 1 0 0 8 4 2 0 1 8 4 4 8 5 52 12% 2% 0% 2% 0% 0% 15% 8% 4% 0% 2% 15% 8% 8% 15% 9% 100% n 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 5 2 1 0 14 1 6 11 6 52 % 6% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 6% 9% 4% 2% 0% 26% 2% 12% 21% 12% 100% Looking at Table 4.10, we see that 26% of the parents (n = 14) considered Task 12, "Aesthetic Development,11 as the least important task for public elementary schools. In addition, about 15% (n = 8) considered it second least important task and another 21% reported that it was third least important (n = 11). About 31% (n = 33) of the parents ranked Task 12 as 1 of the 3 least important 89

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tasks of pu,blic schools. Three tasks were most frequently chosen as Rank 15 or the next tasks of least importance. Those ranked fifteenth are Task 7, "Patriotism," Task 12, "Aesthetic Development," and Task 15, "Family Role Understanding." Table 4.11 presents the tasks chosen as least important most frequently by the Parent Group. Table 4.11 Tasks Chosen Most Frequently as One of the Three Least Important Tasks by the.Parent Group Task Number Task 12 Task 15 Task 14 Task Name Aesthetic Development Family Role Understanding Preparation for Vocation n 33 27 19 % 21% 17% 12% Looking at Table 4.11, we can see that Task 12 was chosen as least important most frequently by the parent group with about one-fifth (21%) of the parent group choosing this as one of the three least important tasks. This task is in the personal category, while the tasks ranked fifteenth and fourteenth are both in the productive category. Finally, by looking at the frequencies and percentages, we can see that there was not one task that was ranked as one of the top three tasks by a majority of the respondents. 90 ..... ..... ---------------------------------------------------

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Educator Group. Table 4.12 presents data regarding the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks within the educator group through the means and the overall ranking of each of the task items in the educator group. Table 4.12 Mean Scores and Rankings of Task within the Educator Group Task Number Means Ranking 1 3.90 7 2 6.03 1 3 5.07 3 4 5.58 2 5 5.58 2 6 4.22 6 7 3.25 11 8 3.31 10 9 3.53 8 10 4.60 5 11 4.83 4 12 2.67 13 13 3.37 9 14 2.62 14 15 2.50 15 16 2.85 12 Looking at Table 4.12, we see that Task 2, "The Three R's" was ranked first and considered the most important task by the educator group with a mean score of 6.03 while Task 4, "Desire for Knowledge" and Task 5, "Living with Others were both ranked second CM = 5.58) and Task 3, "Independent Thinking" 91 --------------mw-----------------------------------------------------

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was ranked third eM= 5.07). Task 15, "Family Role Understanding," was ranked least important task by the educator group with a mean of 2.50 followed by Task 14, "Preparation for Vocation" eM= 2.69) and Task 12, "Aesthetic Development" eM= 2.67). Table 4.13 shows how often each of the 16 task elements were ranked number one, two, or three in importance by a respondent in the educator group along with the corresponding percentages. For the second and third choice the respondents were told to pick the next two tasks of second importance. These two tasks were given an equal value of importance. Looking at Table 4.13, we see that 39% of the educators en= 24) considered Task 2, "The Three R's," as the most important task for schools. In addition, about 15% en = 9) considered it second in importance and another 17% en = 10) reported that it. was third most important. About 24% en = 43) of the educators ranked Task 2 as 1 of the 3 most important tasks of public schools. Task 4, "Desire for Knowledge" was ranked second most often by the respondents e26%), as well as in third place most often e19%). 92

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Table 4.13 Percentages' of Task Ranked as Most Important by the Educator Group Task 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Total Rank 1 n % 1 24 4 12 12 0 0 0 0 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 60 2% 39% 7% 20% 20% 0% 0% 0% 0% 4% 8% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 100% Rank 2 n % 1 9 10 16 12 2 0 0 1 5 3 0 1 0 0 0 60 2% 15% 17% 26% 20% 3% 0% 0% 2% 8% 5% 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 100% Rank 3 n % 4 10 9 12 8 1 0 0 0 4 9 0 2 0 0 1 60 7% 17% 15% 19% 13% 2% 0% 0% 0% 7% 15% 0% 3% 0% 0% 2% 100% Table 4.14 presents the tasks chosen most frequently as one of the top three tasks by the Educator Group. Looking at Table 4.14, we-can see that Task 2 was most frequently chosen as most important by the educator group with about one-fourth (24%) of the educator group choosing this as one of the three most important tasks. Task 2 was chosen second most often as one of top three tasks with 22% of the respondents. Task 3 was considered as one of the 93

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three most .important tasks by 13% of the respondents. The tasks ranked first and second in importance by the educator group are in the Intellectual category, while the third ranked task, "Living with Others," is in the Social Category. Finally, by looking at the frequencies and percentages, we can see that there was not one task that was ranked as one of the top three tasks by a majority of the respondents. Table 4.14 Tasks Chosen Most Frequently as One of the Top Three Tasks by the Educator Group Task Number Task 2 Task 4 Task 5 Task Name The Three R's Desire for Knowledge Living with Others n % 43 24% 40 22% 32 18% Table 4.15 presents the frequencies and percentages of the tasks ranked as least important by the respondents in the educator group. This table shows how often each of the 16 task elements were ranked number 14, 15, or 16 in importance by a respondent in the educator group along with the corresponding percentages. For the fourteenth and fifteenth choice the respondents were told to pick 94

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the next two tasks of less importance. These two tasks were given an equal value of importance. Looking at Table 4.15, we see that 22% of the educators (n = 13) considered Task 14, "Preparation for Vocation," as the least important task for public elementary schools. Task 15, "Family Role Understanding," was most frequently chosen as Rank 15 or the next task of least importance 20%, n = 12 . Task 13, "Vocational Awareness," was most often chosen as third in least importance 18%, n = 11. Table 4.15 Fregyencies.and Percentages of Task Ranked as Least Im;eortant the Educator Grou:e Task Rank 14 Rank 15 Rank 16 n % n Sl, 0 n % 1 5 8% 0 0% 4 7% 2 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 3 0 0% 1 2% 1 2% 4 i 0% 1 2% 0 0% 5 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 6 0 0% 0 0% 1 2% 7 9 15% 5 8% 2 3% 8 6 10% 5 8% 1 2% 9 1 2% 5 8% 4 7% 10 0 0% 3 5% 0 0% 11 1 2% 1 2% 1 2% 12 7 12% 8 13% 12 20% 13 11 18% 2 4% 1 2% 14 6 10% 8 13% 13 21% 15 7 12% 12 20% 12 20% 16 6 10% 9 15% 7 12% No Response 1 Missing Total 60 100% 60 100% 60 100% 95 ............. Gh, ______________________________________________ __

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I j Table '4.16 presents the tasks chosen most frequently as one of the three least important tasks by the educator group. Looking at Table 4.16, we can see that Task 15 was chosen most frequently as one of the three least important task by the educator group with about one-fifth (17%) of the educator group choosing this as one of the three least important tasks. All of the tasks ranked as least important by the educator group are in the productive category. Finally, by looking at the frequencies and percentages, we can see that there was not one task that was ranked as one of the three least important tasks by a majority of the respondents. Table 4.16 Tasks Chosen Most Frequently as Least Important by the Educator Group Task Number Task Name n '-' 0 Task 15 Family Role Understanding 31 17% Task 12 Aesthetic Development 27 15% Task 14 Preparation for Vocation 27 15% Task 16 Consumer Preparation 22 12% School Board Group. Table 4.17 presents data regarding the perception of greater importance or 96

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followed by Task 12, "Aesthetic Development" (M = 2.67), and Task 16, "Consumer Preparation," M = 2.78. Table 4.18 shows how often each of the 16 task elements were ranked number one, two, or three in importance by a respondent in the school board group along with the corresponding percentages. For the second and third choice the respondents were told to pick the next two tasks of second importance. These two tasks were given an equal value of importance. Table 4.18 Percentages of Task Ranked As Most Important by the School Board Group Task 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 NR Total Rank 1 n 1 14% 3 44% 1 14% 1 14% 1 14% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 2 Missing 9 100% 9 Rank 2 n 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 98 0% 22% 22% 22% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 12% 22% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 100% Rank 3 n 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 9 0% 0% 22% 0% 11% 11% 0% 0% 0% 34% 22% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 100%

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tasks. Tasks 10 and 11 were chosen second most often as one of top three tasks by 16% of the school board respondents. Task 3 was considered as one of the three most important tasks by 13% of the respondents. The Tasks 2 and 3 are in the Intellectual Category, while task 10 and 11 are in the Personal Category. Finally, by looking at the frequencies and percentages, we can see that there was not one task that was ranked as one of the top three tasks by a majority of the respondents. Table 4.20 presents the frequencies and percentages of the tasks ranked as least important by the respondents in the School Board Group. This table shows how often each of.the 16 task elements were ranked number 14, 15, or 16 in importance by a respondent in the School Board Group along with the corresponding percentages. For the fourteenth and fifteenth choice the respondents were told to pick the next two tasks of less importance. These two tasks were given an equal value of importance. Looking at Table 4.20, we see that 24% of the School Board Group (n = 2) considered either Task 9, "Physical Development," or Task 15, "Family Role Understanding," as the least important task for 100

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public elementary schools. Either Task 12, "Aesthetic ,Development," or Task 16, "Consumer Preparation," were most frequently chosen as Rank 15 or the next tasks of least importance 24%, n = 2. Task 7, "Patriotism," was most often chosen as third in least importance, 44%, n = 4. Table 4.20 Fregyencies and Percentages of Task Ranked as Least Im}2ortant by the School Board Grou12 Task Rank 14 Rank 15 Rank 16 n 0 n % n % 1 0 0% 1 13% 1 13% 2 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 3 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 4 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 5 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 6 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 7 4 45% 0 0% 0 0% 8 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 9 1 11% 1 13% 2 24% 10 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 11 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 12 2 22% 2 24% 1 13% 13 0 0% 1 13% 0 0% 14 1 11% 1 13% 1 .13% 15 0 0% 0 0% 2 24% 16 1 11% 2 24% 1 13% NR 1 Missing 1 Missing Total 9 100% 9 100% 9 100% Note. The abbreviation NR stands for no response. Table 4.21 presents the tasks chosen most frequently as one of the three least important tasks by the School Board Group. 101

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at Table 4.21, we can see that Task 12 was chosen most often as one of the three least important by the School Board Group with about onefifth (19%) of the school board group choosing this as one of the three least important tasks. Tasks 7, 9 and 15 were ranked fifteenth by 15% of the school board members, n = 4. Tasks 9 and 12 are in the Personal Category; Task 6 is in the Social Category; and Tasks 14 and 16 are in the Productive Category. There were no tasks in the Intellectual Category chosen as least important by this group. Finally, by looking at the frequencies and percentages, we can see that there was not one task that was ranked as one of the three least important tasks by a majority of the respondents in the school board group. Table 4.21 Tasks Chosen Most Frequently as Least Important by the School Board Group Task Number Task Name n 0 Task 12 Aesthetic Development 5 19% Task 7 Patriotism 4 15% Task 9 Physical Development 4 15% Task 16 Consumer Preparation 4 15% Task 14 Preparation for Vocation 3 11% 102 ''

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Question 2: What are the differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks between groups of parents, educators
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(R = .012) from the mean score of the school board (H = 2. 67) This indicates that the parents value this task as more important than the school board. Table 4.22 Analysis of Variance for Each Task by GrOUJ2 Tasks n Teacher n School Board n Parents R Means Means Means 1 60 3.90 7 3.71 52 3.58 .504 2 60 6.03* 9 5.78 51 5.18* .0005* 3 60 :5.07 9 5.67 48 5.33 .168 4 60 5.58 8 5.13 51 5.92 .109 5 60 5.58 9 5.11 52 5.15 .066 6 59 4.22 9 4.11 51 3.92 .248 7 59 3.25 9 3.11 51 3.39 .697 8 59 3.31 9 3.56 50 3.16 .516 9 58 3.53 9 2.67* 49 3.90* .012* 10 60 4.60 9 4.78 51 4.67 .891 11 60 4.83 8 5.25 52 5.27 .165 12 60 2.67 8 2.75 52 2.29 .190 13 60 3.37 9 3.67 50 3.40 .703 14 60 2.62 9 3.00 50 2.96 .279 15 58 2.50 8 2.88 51 2.69 .618 16 59 2.84 9 2.78 51 3.14 .407 *R<.05 Question 3: What are the differences in the QerceQtion of greater imQortance or less imQortance of tasks between Qarent sub-grouQs when com}2ared by gender, marital status, number of years in Brighton, educational level, income, age, and ethnicity? In this section, each variable in the Parent Group will be studied individually. For each variable, a one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed. For the two dichotomous variables, 104

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gender and marital status, a t-test was performed. For the remaining five variables, the Scheffe method was used where differences were found. Correlations coefficients are presented where a significant relationship is found between item selection and characteristic. Gender. Of the 49 responses to this question, seven were male (14%) and 42 (86%) were female. There were no statistical differences in their perceptions, of importance of the 16 tasks of Brighton public elementary schools by gender. Marital Status. Table 4.23 shows the demographics for the marital status variable. Table 4.23 Marital Status Demographics Marital status n .!!,0 Never Married 1 2% Married 42 84% Widowed 0 0% Separated 1 2% Divorced 5 10% Other 1 2% Total 50 100% For the purpose of analyzing the statistical differences of the responses by the marital status variable, the information in table was collapsed 105 --------n,;,;,, ___________________________

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into married and not married. The t-test found no statistical differences. Number of Years in Brighton. Table 4.24 presents the demographics for the number of years in Brighton. Table 4.24 Number of Years in Brighton Years n. 9., 0 0-5 Years 15 28% 6-10 Years 12 23% 11-16 Years 10 19% over 16 Years 16 30% Total 53 100% In the survey, respondents were asked to write the number of years they had lived in Brighton. This information was collapsed into the year breaks found in Table 4.24. From this table, we can see that the respondents were almost evenly divided between those that had lived in Brighton for less than ten years {51%) and those that had lived in Brighton for more than ten years (49%). There were no statistical differences found with the ANOVA. Table 4.25 presents the correlation coefficients of task andjor categories which are 106

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significantly related to the number of years in Brighton. Table 4.25 Pearson Correlation Coefficients for Years in Brighton Task/Category I: R Task 5 .29 .03* Intellectual Category -.36 .01* Personal .42 .003* *,P.<.05 Looking at Table 4.25, we can see that Task 5, "Living with Others, II is significantly related to the number of years in Brighton (_p_=.03). Since the correlation is positive (J::=.29), it would indicate that the longer people live in Brighton the more likely they are to consider Task 5 as important. On the other hand, the Intellectual Category had a negative correlation (J::=-.36). This would indicate that those who had lived in Brighton for a greater number of years would be less likely to consider the Intellectual Category important, while those that lived in for fewer number of years would find it more important. Finally, those who lived in Brighton for a greater number of years considered the Personal Category more important than those who 107 ............. .................................................

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lived in Brighton for fewer number of years, r=.42, R=.OOJ. Education. Table 4.26 presents the demographics for the education variable for the parent group. Table 4.26 Demographics for the Education Variable Years of Education n % Some High School 4 8% High School Graduate 11 21% Some Techni.cal Training 10 19% Some College 14 26% Bachelor Degree 7 13% Graduate Work 4 8% Missing 3 5% Total 53 100% For the statistical procedures, the variables in Table 4.26 were collapsed into three groups: Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 High School or Less (30%) Some Post High School (48%) College Degree (22%). Table 4.26 shows the statistical differences were found between tasks or categories and the education level of the respondents in collapsed groups using ANOVA and the Scheffe procedure. Looking at Table 4.27, we can see that two tasks and two categories had statistical differences 108

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when compared with the three groups. Looking at task 2, "The Three R's," statistical differences were found in the responses between those in Group 1, the "High School or Less" group and Group 2, the "Some Post High School" group, as well as, between Group 1, the "High School or Less" group, and Group 3, the "College Degree" group. In this case, both those with some post high school (M = 5.60) and those with a college degree (H = 5.80) considered Task 2, "The Three R's," as more important than those with a high school or less education H = 4.33, R = .002. With Task 3, "Independent Thinking," we can see that both those with a college degree (H = 5.50) and those with some post high school (H = 5.67) considered this task more important than those from the high school or less group, H = 4.64, R_= .001. In addition, both those with some post high school (H = 5.20) and those with a college degree (H = 5.35) considered the Intellectual Category more important than those from the high school or less group, M = 4.59, R = .01. On the other hand, the high school or less group (M = 3.46) found the Productive Category more 109

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R = .002), and the Productive Category, r = -.48, R = .001. In other words, all of significantly related tasks or categories were intellectual for the respondents with a higher education level and none were intellectual for those with a lower education level. Table 4.28 Pearson's Correlation Coefficients for Education Task/Category Task 2 Task 3 Task 11 Task 15 Intellectual Productive R < .05 !: R .51 .000 .37 .008 -.36 .009 -.44 .002 .43 .002 -.48 .001 Income. Table 4.29 presents the demographic information for the incomes of the parent group. Looking at Table 4.29, we can see the nearly half of respondents (42%) had an income range of $30,001-$45,000, while a about a quarter of respondents (23%) had an income range of $15,001 $30,000. A handful of respondents (8%) reported incomes in each of the remaining levels. About one-tenth (11%) of the respondents chose not to answer this question on the survey. 111 .............. .................................................... ...

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Table 4.29 Demographics for Incomes of the Parent Group Levels Less than $15,000 $15,001 $30,000 $30,001 $45,000 $45,001 $60,000 over $60,000 Missing Total n 4 12 23 4 4 6 53 % 8% 23% 42% 8% 8% 11% 100% Table 4.30 shows the statistical differences were found between tasks and income level of the respondents using an ANOVA and the Scheffe procedure. For the statistical procedures the income groups were collapsed as follows: Group 1 Less than $30,000 Group 2 $30,000 $45,000 Group ;3 Over $45,000 Looking at Table 4.30, we can see that those from the middle income group of $30.001 $45,000 considered Task 1 ("A Fund of Information"), Task 2 ("The Three R's"), and Task 8 ("World citizenship") more important than those from the lowest income group of under $30,000. Task 1 and 2 are both from the Intelleetual Category while Task 8 is from the Social Category. Those from the lowest income group 112

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considered "Family Role Understanding" more important than those from the highest income group. Table 4.30 Statistical Differences for the Income Variable Tasks/ Means by Group Groups Where R Category 1 2 3 R<.05 Task 1 2.73 4.04 4.00 2,1* .02 Task 2 4.53 5.63 5.50 2,1* .03 Task 8 2.43 3.45 3.38 2,1* .03 Task 15 3.40 2.45 1. 75 1,3* .02 Table 4.31 shows Pearson's Correlation Coefficients where either the task or the category was significantly related to the income variable. Lookin,g at Table 4.31, we can see that the respondents with higher income levels considered the intellectua.l i terns more important than those with lower income levels. This is reflected in the positive correlations for Task 1, "A Fund of Information," (I: =.34, R = .02), Task 2, "The Three R's," (r =.51, R = .00), and the Intellectual Category, I: = .43, R = .003; while the responses of those with lower levels of income were reflected in the negative correlations, such as Task 9, "Physical Development" (I:= -.31, R = .03), Task 15, "Family 113 'I ---------------=,---------------------------------------------------------

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Role Understanding" (r = -.46, R = .002), and the Productive Category, r = -.29, R = .04. In other words, all of significantly related tasks or categories were intellectual for the respondents with a higher income level and none were intellectual for those with a lower income level. Table 4.31 Pearson's Correlation Coefficients for Income Task/Category 1: R Task 1 .34 .020 Task 2 .43 .003 Task 9 -.31 .030 Task 11 -.36 .009 Task 15 -.46 .002 Intellectual .43 .003 Productive -.29 .040 R < .05 Age. Table 4.32 presents the demographic information for the age variable of the parent group. Looking at Table 4.32, we can see the nearly half of respondents (47%) are in the "31 40" age bracket while the remaining respondents are fairly evenly divided with 25% in the "Under 30" age category and 28% in the "Over 41" age category. The median age of respondents is 34 years. 114 .............. ....................................................

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Table 4.32 Demographics for the Age Variable of the Parent Group Age n Under 30 Years 13 31 40 Years 25 Over 41 Years 15 9.< 0 25% 47% 28% Total 53 100% Table 4.33 shows the statistical differences are found between tasks and the age brackets of the respondents using an ANOVA and the Scheffe procedure. Table 4.33 Statistical Differences for the Age Variable Tasks/ Means by Group Groups Where R Category 1 2 3 R<.OS Task 3 4.75 5.74 5.15 2,1* .002 Task 5 5.15 4.79 5.73 3,2* .020 Task 6 3.46 3.75 4.64 3,1* 3,2* .004 Social 3.71 3.72 4.40 3,1* 3,2* .003 *R<.05 Looking at Table 4.33, we can see that those from the middle age bracket of 31 40 Years consider Task 3 (Independent Thinking) more important than those from the lowest age level of under 30. Respondents who were over 40 considered 115 I ............ IDW1._ .......................................... ...

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citizenship and the Social Category more important than the two younger age brackets. Table 4.34 shows Pearson's Correlation Coefficients where either the task or the category was significantly related to the age variable. Table 4.34 Pearson's Correlation Coefficients for Age Task/Category .I: R Task 6 .43 .002 Task 7 .37 .009 Task 11 -.27 .040 Social .44 .002 :e < .05 Looking at Table 4.34, we can see that the respondents who were older considered the social items more important than those from the younger age bracket. This is reflected in the positive correlations for Task 6, "Citizenship," (.I: =.43, :e = .002), Task 7, "Patriotism," (.I:= .37, :e = .009), and the Social Category, r = .44, :e = .002. Both Tasks 2 and 7 are in the Social Category. Younger respondents considered Task 11, "Ethical Development" as more important, .I:= -.27, :e = .04. Ethnicity. Table 4.35 shows the demographics for the ethnicity variable. For the purpose of 116

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analyzing the statistical differences of the responses by the ethnicity variable, the information in table was collapsed into White American and Non-white American. The t-test found no statistical differences. Table 4.35 Ethnicity Demographics for the Parent Group Ethnicity n 0 Asian American 1 2% Hispanic American 6 11% White American 43 82% Missing 3 5% Total 53 100% Question 4: What are the differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks be'tween this study and Downey? The differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks between this study and Downey will be looked at in these ways: 1) the overall rankings of task dimensions in this study will be compared with those in Downey's study, 2) Second, the rankings of task dimensions of educators in this study will be compared with those in Downey's study, 3) Third, the rankings of task dimensions of non-educators in this study will be compared with 117 :I .............. .................................................... ...

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those in Downey's study, and 4) Finally, the ranking of task dimension of the educator and noneducator groups in the Downey and Brighton study will be compared. It should be noted that there are differences between the Downey and the Brighton samples. First, Downey's sample included respondents from four regions of the United States and the prairie provinces of Canada, while the Brighton study was limited to a single school district Colorado. The Brighton educator group included all elementary certified classroom teachers, special teachers, and principals in the Brighton Public Schools. In the Downey study, the respondents from the educator group were chosen by occupation. An educator was described as anyone who had ever been a teacher in the public schools. Further, the decision was made in Downey's study to have an educator group and non-educator group when 35% of the respondents fell into the educator group, when typically at the time of the study only 1% of the population would been classified as educators. Overall Rankings of Task Dimensions. Table 4.36 presents a comparison of the rankings of task dimensions between this study and Downey. 118 ---------lmlr-1----------------------------

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Table 4.36 Comparison of Task Rankings Between Brighton and Downey Study Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Brighton Desire for Knowledge The Three R's Living with Others Independent Thinking Ethical Development Emotional Development Citizenship Fund of Information Physical Development ' Vocat1onal Awareness Patriotism World 'citizenship Consumer Preparation Preparation for Vocation Family Role Aesthetic Development Downey The Three R's Desire for Knowledge Independent Thinking Living with Others Ethical Development Citizenship Patriotism Emotional Development Vocational Awareness Preparation Vocation World citizenship Physical Development Fund of Information Aesthetic Development Consumer Preparation Family Role Note. The task titles A Fund of Information and Family Role Understanding were shortened where needed. Looking at Table 4.36, we can see that the four hignest ran.ked tasks were the same for both this study and Downey's study, however each of the tasks changed in order. Also, "A Fund of Information" moved up five ranks from Rank 13 in Downey's study to Rank 8 in this study. Two tasks moved down four ranks. "Patriotism" moved from Rank 7 to Rank 11, and "Preparation for a Vocation" moved from Rank 10 in Downey's: study to Rank 14 in this study. 119

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Educator Task Dimensions. Table 4.37 presents a comparison of the rankings of tasks dimensions for the educator group between this study and Downey. Table 4.37 Comparison,of Task Rankings for the Educator Group Between the Brighton and Downey Study Rank Brighton 1 The Three R's 2 Desire for Knowledge Living with Others 3 Thinking 4 Ethical Development 5 Emotiqnal Development 6 Ci tizemship 7 Fund .of Information 8 Physical Development 9 Vocational Awareness 10 World 'citizenship 11 Patriqtism 12 Consumer Preparation 13 Development 14 Vocation Preparation 15 Family Role 16 None Due to Tie for Rank 2 Downey The Three R's Desire for Knowledge Living with Others Independent Thinking Ethical Development Citizenship Emotional Development Patriotism Physical Development World citizenship Fund of Information Aesthetic Development Family Role Vocation Preparation Vocation Awareness Consumer Preparation Note. The task titles A Fund of Information, Family Role Unders;tanding, and Preparation for Vocation were shortened where needed. Table 4.38 presents a comparison of the ranking of tasks dimensions for the educator group by means between this study and Downey. 120 'I .......... ...................................... ..

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Table 4.38 Comparison'of Task Rankings for the Educator Group by Means Between the Brighton and Downey Study Rank Brighton Downey Task Mean Task Mean 1 2 6.03 2 6.27 2 4 5.58 4 5.29 5 5.58 3 3 5.07 5 5.17 4 11 4.83 3 4.98 5 10 4.60 11 4.62 6 6 4.22 6 4.38 7 1 3.90 10 4.37 8 9 3.53 7 4.05 9 13 3.37 9 3.65 10 8 3.31 8 3.65 11 7 3.25 1 3.32 12 16 2.85 12 3.32 13 12 2.67 15 2.79 14 14 2.62 14 2.92 15 15 2.50 13 2.79 16 None bue to Rank 2 Tie 16 2.29 Looking at Tables 4.37 and 4.38, we can see that the five highest ranked tasks for the educator group were the same for both this study and Downeyss study. "Vocational Preparation" had the largest ranking difference moving seven ranks from Rank 14 in the Downey study to Rank 7 in this study. Additionally, a "Fund of Information" moved up four ranks from Rank 11 in Downey's study to Rank 7 in this study. Finally, "Patriotism" moved down 121

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three rank from Rank 8 in Downey's study to Rank 11 in this study. Non-Educator Task Dimensions. Table 4.39 presents a comparison of the rankings of tasks dimensions for the non-educator group between this study and Downey. Table 4.39 Comparison of Task Rankings for the Non-Educator Group Between the Brighton and Downey Study Rank Brighton 1 Desire for Knowledge 2 Independent Thinking 3 Ethical Development 4 Living with Others 5 The Three R's 6 Emotional Development 7 Citizenship 8 Physical Development 9 Fund of Information 10 Vocational Awareness 11 Patriotism 12 World citizenship 13 Preparation 14 Vocation Preparation 15 Family Role 16 Aesthetic Development Downey The Three R's Desire for Knowledge Living with Others Independent Thinking Ethical Development Citizenship Patriotism Emotional Development Vocation Preparation Physical Development World Citizenship Vocation Awareness Fund of Information Aesthetic Development Family Role Consumer Preparation Note. The task titles A Fund of Information, Family Role Understanding, and Preparation for Vocation were shortened where needed. Table 4.40 presents a comparison of the ranking of tasks dimensions for the non-educator group by means between this study and Downey. 122

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Table 4.40 of Task Rankings for the Non-Educator by Means Between Brighton and Downey Rank Brighton Downey Task Mean Task Mean 1 4 5.92 2 6.01 2 3 5.67 4 5.12 3 11 5.27 5 5.00 4 5 5.15 3 5.00 5 2 5.18 11 4.70 6 10 4.67 6 4.24 7 6 3.92 7 4.07 8 9 3.90 10 3.93 9 1 3.58 14 3.75 10 13 3.40 9 11 7 3.39 8 3.34 12 8 3.16 13 3.33 13 16 3.14 1 3.32 14 14 2.96 12 2.99 15 15 2.69 15 2.81 16 12 2.29 16 2.80 Looking at Tables 4.39 and 4.40, we can see that five qighest ranked tasks for the non-educator group were the same for both this study and Downeys's study, however none of these tasks maintained the same order. The greatest difference in the rankings within the top tasks was "The Three R's" which ,was ranked first in importance by Downey's study and fifth in importance by this study. "Ve>cational Preparation" had the largest overall ranking difference moving down five ranks 123

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from rank nine in the Downey study to Rank 14 in this study. Additionally, a "Fund of Information" moved up four ranks from Rank 13 in Downey's study to Rank 9 in this study; and, "Patriotism" moved down four ranks from Rank 7 in Downey's study to Rank 11 in this study. Table 4.41 presents the rankings of the educator arid non-educator groups in this study and Downey's study. Table 4.41 Rankings of the Educator and Non-Educator in the Brighton and Downey study Rank Educator Non-Educator Task Rankings Task Rankings Brighton Downey Brighton Downey 1 2 2 4 2 2 4 4 3 4 Tie with 2 5 3 3 5 11 5 4 11 3 5 3 5 10 11 2 11 6 6 6 10 6 7 1 10 6 7 8 9 7 9 10 9 13 9 1 14 10 8 8 13 9 11 7 1 7 8 12 16 12 8 13 13 12 15 16 1 14 14 14 14 12 15 15 13 15 15 16 None 14 12 16 124

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Looking at Table 4.41, we can see that the five highest raRked tasks for the educator group and the non-educator were the same for both this study and Downey's study. However, the order of importance did differ. The Brighton non-educator group differed more than theother three groups in these top especially with Task 2, "The Three R1s." The other three groups ranked this task first while the Brighton non-educators ranked this task fifth. Task 1, "A Fund of Information," had the largest ranking difference moving six ranks from Rank 13 in the Downey non-educator group to Rank 7 in the Brighton educator group. Furthermore, Task 7, "Patriotism," moved down four ranks for both the educators and the non-educators from Downey's study to this study. Task 12, "Aesthetic Development," moved down four ranks from Rank 12 in Downey's educator group to Rank 16 in the Brighton noneducator group. Finally, Task 16, "Consumer "Preparation," moved up four ranks from Rank 16 in Downey's non-educator group to Rank 12 in the Brighton educator group. 125

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Summary This chapter presented and analyzed the data from the research. The findings were: 1. The parent group ranked Task 4, "The Desire for Knowledge," as most important and Task 12, "Aesthetic Development," as least important. 2. The educator group ranked Task 2, "The Three R's," as most important, and Task 15, "Family Role Understanding," as least important. 3. The school board group ranked Task 2, "The Three R's," as most important and Task 9, "Physical Development" as least important. 4. There are statistical differences between the educator group and the parent group. Task 2, "The Three R's," is significantly more important to the educator than the parent group. 5. There are statistical differences between the parent group and the school board group. Task 9, "Physical Development," is significantly more important to the parent group than to the school board group. 126

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6. There are no statistical differences in the responses of the parent group by gender, age, marital status, years in Brighton, or ethnicity. 7. Those in the parent group who had lived in Brighton for a greater number of years are less likely to find the Intellectual Category important, while those who lived in Brighton a fewer number of years would find it more important. 8. Those from the parent group who have lived in Brighton for a greater number of years consider the Personal Category more important than those who have lived in Brighton for a fewer number of years. 9. There are statistical differences among from the three brackets of education in the parent group. Respondents from the parent group with some post high school work or with a college degree consider "The Three R's," "Independent Thinking," and the Intellectual category significantly more important than the high school or less 127

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group. Respondents from the parent group in the high school or less group consider the Productive Category significantly more important than those with some post high or a college degree. 10. All of the significantly related tasks or categories are intellectual for the respondents with a higher education level and none are intellectual for those with a lower education level. 11. Statistical differences are found between tasks and income brackets in the parent group. Respondents from the parent group with a middle income of between $30,000 and $45,000 consider "A Fund of Information," "The Three R's,"-and "World Citizenship" significantly more important than those from the lowest income group of under $30,000. Respondents from the parent group in the lowest income group consider "Family Role Understanding" significantly more important than those from the highest ircome group of over 45,001. 128

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12. The significantly related tasks of the ''Three R' s" and "A Fund of Information" for the parent group with higher income I levels are both in the Intellectual Category. 13. The significantly related tasks of iphysical Development" and "Family Role Understanding" for the parent group from the lower income group are both in the Productive Category. 14. All of the significantly related tasks or categories are intellectual for the respondents with a higher income level and none are intellectual for those with a lower income level. 15. There are statistical differences between tasks and the age brackets in the parent group. Those from the middle age bracket of 31 40 years consider "Independent Thinking" significantly more important than those from the lowest age bracket of under 30 years. Respondents who are over 41, the highest age bracket, consider "Citizenship" and the Social Category 129

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significantly more important than those in the other two younger age brackets. 16. The statistically related tasks of "Citizenship" and "Patriotism" for the parents in the older age bracket are both in the Social Category. Younger respondents consider "Ethical Development" more important than did the older respondents. 17. The four highest ranked tasks are the same for both this study and Downey, however each of the task changed in order. 18. "Vocational Preparation" and "A Fund of Information" are more important to the Brighton respondents than to Downey's respondents. 19. "The Three R's" are more important to the Downey non-educators while a "Fund of Information" is more important to Brighton non-educators. 20. "Vocational Preparation" is less important to Brighton non-educators than to Downey non-educators. 130

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21. Both Downey non-educators and educators consider "The Three R's" more important than the Brighton non-educators. 22. A "Fund of Information" is more important the Brighton educator group than to the Downey non-educator group. 23. "Patriotism" is less important to both the non-educators and the educators in the study than to those groups in the Downey study. 24. "Aesthetic Development" is less important to the Brighton non-educator group than to the Downey educator group. 25. "Consumer Preparation" is more important to the Brighton educator group than to the Downey non-educator group. 131 ; I

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CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The problem of this study is to investigate the importance placed on selected tasks of public elementary schools as perceived by parents, educators (teachers and principals), and board members (past and present) in one Colorado district. The research identified the extent to which these groups differed in their ranking of the importance of task dimension elements when compared with each other, and the extent to which members within the parent group differed with each other when compared by selected demographic characteristics. The results of the study were compared with Downey (1959) in an attempt to identify changes in rankings of task dimensions over time. The study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What are the differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks within groups of parents, educators (principals and teachers), and

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board members (past and present) in Brighton? 2. What are the differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks between groups of parents, educators (principals and teachers), and board members (past and present) in Brighton? 3. What are the differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks between parent sub-groups when compared by gender, marital status, number of years in Brighton, educational level, income, and ethnicity? 4. What are the differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks between this study and Downey's 1959 study? The sample for this study consisted of 286 subjects. Downey's Task of Public Education Opinionnaire was sent to 172 parents, 102 educators, and 12 board members. The response rates were 31% for the parent group, 59% for the educator group, and 75% for the school board group, resulting in an 133 I,

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overall response rate of 43%. After the data collection, frequency counts, means, and percentages were tabulated. Pearson's Product Movement Correlation was used to compare the responses between and within the groups of this research. A t-Test for the dichotomous groups and an Analysis of Variance for all other groups were used to determine the differences between each of the groups and the parent sub-groups. In those groups where differences were found, the Scheffe Method of Multiple Comparison, a conservative multiple comparison test for identifying pairwise comparisons of means, was used to identify between which of the groups statistical differences (R < .05) existed (SPSS/PC, p. 108). Through the analysis of the data from this study answers were produced for the following questions. Questi:on 1 asked if there were differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks within groups of parents, educators (principals and teachers), and board members (past and present). To answer this question frequencies, means, and percentages of task rankings 134

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for each of these groups were analyzed. It was found that although the three most important and three less important tasks could be ranked by means, it was important to also study the frequencies and percentages. Through studying the latter, it was found that no single task was ranked as one of the top three tasks or bottom three tasks by more than half of the respondents from any of the three groups. It was also found that there was more agreement within the educator group than within the parent group or within the school board group. Question 2 asked if there were differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks between groups of parents, educators (principals and teacher), and school board members and present) in Brighton. Statistical differences were found in the opinions of the importance 'of two of the sixteen tasks. For Task 2, "The Three R's," the teachers (M = 6.03) valued this task significantly more important (R = .0005) than the parents, M = 5.18. Further, Task 9, "Physical Development," was significantly more important (R = .012) to the parents (M = 3.90) than to the school board, M = 2.67. 135

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Question 3 asked if there were differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks between parent sub-groups when compared by gender, marital status, number of years in Brighton, educational level, income, age, and ethnicity. There were no statistical differences in the responses of the parent group by gender, marital status, number of years in Brighton, or ethnicity. However, either statistical differences andjor significant relationships were found in the following: 1. The number of years in Brighton was significantly related to the Intellectual Category. Those in the parent group who had lived in Brighton for a greater number of years were less likely to find the Intellectual Category important, while those who lived in Brighton a fewer number 0f years found it more important. Further, those who lived in Brighton for a greater number of years consider the Personal category more important than those who had lived in Brighton for a fewer number of years. 136

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2. There were statistical differences among respondents from the three brackets of education in the parent group. Respondents from this group with some post high school work or with a college degree considered "The Three R's," "Independent Thinking," and the Intellectual Category significantly more important than did the high school or less group. Respondents in high school or less group considered the Productive Category significantly more important than those with some post high school or a college degree. All of the significantly related tasks or categories were intellectual for the respondents with a higher education level and none were intellectual for those with a lower education level. 3. Statistical differences were found between tasks and income brackets. Respondents from the Parent Group with a middle income of between $30,000 and $45,000 considered "A Fund of Information," "The Three R's," and "World Citizenship" significantly more 137

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important than those from the lowest income group of under $30,000. Respondents from the parent group in the lowest income group consider "Family Role Understanding" significantly more important than those from the highest income group of over 45,001. All of the significantly related tasks or categories were intellectual for the respondents with a higher income level and none were intellectual for those with a lower income level. The lower income group placed greater value on the Productive Category. 4. There were statistical differences between tasks and age brackets in the Parent Group. Those from the middle age bracket of 31 40 years considered "Independent Thinking" significantly more important than those from the lowest age bracket of under 30 years. Respondents who were over 41, the highest age bracket, considered "Citizenship" and the Social category significantly more important than those in the other two younger age brackets. The 138

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statistically related tasks of "Citizenship" and "Patriotism" for the parents in the older age bracket are both in the Social Category. Younger respondents considered "Ethical Development" more important than did the older respondents. Question 4 asked if there were differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks between this study and Downey's 1959 study. Overall, it was found the Brighton respondents found one task, a "Fund of Information," as more important and two tasks, "Patriotism" and "Preparation for a Vocation," as less important than the Downey respondents. In addition, the Brighton educators found "Vocational Awareness" and Consumer Preparation" more important, while the Brighton non-educators found 11 Aesthetic Development 11 more important than those in Downey's study. Finally, the Brighton non-educators ranked the "The Three's R's" and "Preparation for Vocation" as less important when compared to the other groups. 139

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Conclusions Based on the review of the literature and the findings of this study, the conclusions are as follows. 1. There is agreement in the ranking of the categories in order of importance by the three groups with the Intellectual Category ranked first followed by the Social, Personal, and Productive Categories. This suggests that the public believes that the most important task of the public school is in the intellectual domain. However the strong response in favor of "Ethical Development" from the Personal Category and "Living with Others" from the Social category found in both the Brighton and the Downey studies suggests that the public believes that the tasks of the public schools does not belong solely in the intellectual domain. Teaching a child right from wrong goes hand-in-hand with getting along with others. Both of these tasks are essential in the group learning that takes place in the public 140

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schools, as well as in family, personal, and professional life. 2. There are differences within groups of parents, educators, and school board members as to what the tasks of public schools should be with less than half of any of the respondents from any one group agreeing on which tasks should be ranked as one of the three most important or one of the three least important tasks. This became evident as the researcher examined the frequencies and percentages of the task rankings for each of these groups. The varying opinions within these groups contribute to the difficulty of public schools to satisfy the desires of all of those involved with public schools. Opinions as to what the tasks of public schools should be have differed in the past and continue to differ. Through an awareness of these differences, the schools can better meet the needs of the public they serve by working toward narrowing the gap in task perceptions. 141

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3. The opinions of parents in this study differ when compared by number of years in Brighton, educational level, income level, and age. Those living in Brighton less time, those with higher educational levels, those with higher incomes levels, and those who are younger place greater value on the intellectual skills than counterparts. Those living in Brighton for a longer period of time place greater emphasis on the Personal Category. Those with lower incomes place more importance on the Productive Category, as well as, on "Ethical Development" and "Family Role Understanding." Finally, older respondents placed a higher value on qitizenship and patriotism. These findings suggests that decisions makers in school districts with large populations from any of these demographic groups need to consider the views of these groups in order to garner their support. For example, perhaps the lower income group could not see how intellectual skills 142

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would be instrumental in getting a job, but could see how productive skills, "Ethical Development, .. and "Family Role Understanding11 could help them in their everyday life. By monitoring changes in the demographics, the Brighton District can better meet the needs of the various demographic groups. Along with this monitoring also comes the need for the district to let the public know why selected tasks are included, why they are important, and how the decisions were made to include selected tasks. 4. In comparing this study with Downey, it was found overall that a 11Fund of Information11 was more important to the Brighton respondents than to the Downey respondents. Assuming that the respondents interpreted this as a fund of information about how to organize and find information and not an accumulation of fact this would support the current movement toward the information age prompted by computer technology. on the 143

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other hand, the Brighton group ranked "Preparation for a Vocation" lower than those in the Downey study. This lack of interest in "Preparation for a Vocation" reflects the predictions of the future that the children of the nineties will face several career changes in adulthood. Also, "Vocational Awareness" was ranked higher by the Brighton educator group, perhaps this too goes along with this need for future citizens to have the knowledge of a variety of job opportunities along with an understanding of how all citizens contribute to society. In comparison with Downey, the group with the largest change in task ranking was the Brighton noneducator group. This group differs considerably from the Downey and Brighton educator groups and the Downey noneducator groups. The latter groups were relatively close in their rankings over time. However, the Brighton non-educator group differed with each of these groups on each of the top five rankings, while 144

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the other groups had few differences each other in their rankings. The most obvious change was in "The Three R's" which was ranked first by the other three groups and fifth by the Brighton noneducator group. The Brighton non-educators also placed a higher value on "Independent Thinking" and "Ethical Development" than did the other groups. Perhaps these changes are in part due to the increased concern both locally and nationally over drug abuse, Acquired I.mmune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and the breakdown of the traditional family structure. Many of the anti-drug campaigns stress the importance of children not giving in to the pressure of peers and to thinking for themselves. "Ethical Development" is stated as "A Sense of Right and Wrong--A Moral Standard of Behavior" on the task cards. This could have been read by some parents as sexual morals. In any event, the families of the nineties often look to the public 145 i -------r11fl __________________________

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schools to help them with a job that was once left entirely to the home and the church. Deciding whether this is due to changes in the family structure such as more two income families or the ever rising divorce rate, changes in societal morals, or other types of changes would require more research in this area. Recommendations Considering the findings and conclusions of the study the recommendations are as follows. 1. Educators, parents, and school board members need to be actively involved in determining what the task of public Schools should be in their community. 2. The tasks of public elementary schools should be written and followed so that those involved in the schooling process will be working toward common goals, and the progress toward these common goals can be monitored and assessed. 3. The evaluation and assessment of tasks need to be continual. When new tasks are implemented, decisions need to be made as 146 II .............. ........................................................

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to which tasks should be eliminated. 4. The sub-publics need to be aware of the varying opinions of importance of tasks. 5. To improve the response rate on replications of this study, the researcher recommends that the survey be administered parents during "Back to School Open House," to educators during a faculty meeting or in-service, and to school board members during a regularly scheduled meeting. Recommendations for Further-study 1. It would be of value to replicate this study in other districts to see how the opinions of tasks compare with this study and with Downey's study. 2. It would be of value to ask respondents if there are any tasks on the instrument which they believe should not be tasks of the public schools, as well as, if there are any tasks which they believe should be added to the instrument. For example, some of the schools in Brighton have 147

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implemented before and after school programs, breakfast programs, parent training classes, and so forth. These tasks could be included on future instruments. 3. It would be of value to conduct a follow-up study in Brighton to see if changes in rankings occur with the population changes which are predicted to happen with the building of the new airport. 148

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APPENDIX

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APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE AND CORRESPONDENCE ............. rlh ....................................................

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TASK OF PUBLIC EDUCATION SURVEY IN BRIGHTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS The following survey is completely voluntary and not at the expense of the Brighton School District. Although this survey is being conducted as part of.a doctoral dissertation, the information found from this study should be useful to the school district. Your responses to the survey will be kept both anonymous and confidential. The code number of the survey will be used to determine who has or has not returned the survey, and there will be no attempt to identify responses with names. Your op1n1ons are important a:nd crucial to the success of this study. 151

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BRIGHTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS TASK OF PUBLIC EDUCATION SURVEY DIRECTIONS: 1. First, remove the 16 cards from the small envelope. One possible important task of public elementary schools is presented on each card. It is important to look at these tasks as of public elementary schools. Many of the tasks may also be stressed in the home, church, etc. 2. Rather quickly divide these into three pilesthoseyou think are very important, those important, and those not very important. 3. Now, arrange the cards in the order shown on the opposite side of this Start with your 11very important pile,11 then go to your 11somewhat important pile,11 and finally to your 11not important pile.11 5. When y:ou are satisfied with the arrangement of your dards in order of 11Most Important11 to 11Least Important,11 write the number on that card i:n the corresponding box. 6. After doing that, place the survey in the self addressed env:elope and send it. It is not necessary to return the task cards. 7. Finally, THANK YOU! NOTE: Plea'se keep one copy of the Human consent Form for your records and return the other in the envelope prpvided. Thanks aqain for your help! 152 I -------mnm711. ----------------------------

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one Most Important BRIGHTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS TASK OF PUBLIC EDUCATION SURVEY Two Next Important Three Next Impor-tant Four Next Important Three Next Impor-tant Two One Next Least Impor-Important tant DDDDDDD ouoDD DUD D 153 '' _____________ rnm,,------------------------------------------------------

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TASKS OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS CARDS A fund of information about many things. (1) The basic tools for acquiring and communicating knowledge-The Three R's. (2) The habit qf figuring things out for one's self. (3) The desire to learn more--the inquiring mind. (4) The ability to live and work with others. (5) 154

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Understanding rights and duties of citizenship and acceptance of reasonable regulations. (6) Loyalty to America and the American way of life. '(7) Knowledge of and appreciation for the peoples of other lands. (8) A well cared for, well developed body. (9) An emotionally stable person, able to cope with new situations. (10) A sense of right and wrong-a moral standard of behavior. (11) 155

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Enjoyment of cultural finer things of life. (12) General awareness of occupation,opportunities and how people prepare for them. (13) Classification and training for a specific kind of high school program--academic, technical, etc. (14) Understanding the role of various family members. (15) An introduction to budgeting and effective use of money and property. (16) 156

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17. Gender: ____ Male Female 18. Marital Status: Never Married Married __ Widowed ____ separated ===:oivorced Other --(Please Specify) 19. I have lived in Brighton -------years. 20. Mark your highest level of education. ____ some High School ____ Bachelor's Degree ____ High School Graduate ____ Graduate Work __ some type of technical, vocational, etc. training __ some College 21. The annual income of our family is: ____ less than $15,000 ____ $15,001 $30,000 _____ $30,001 $45,000 _____ $45,001 $60,000 ----Over $60,001 22. I am _____ years old. 23. Ethnicity of person filling out form: ____ American Indian Hispanic American -----White American ----__ Black American __ Asian American Other (Please -----specify) 157 I '

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2240 West 118th Avenue Westminster, co 80234 November 26, 1991 Dear Brighton -------------------Your assistance in completing a study of the primary tasks of public schools is requested. This doctoral dissertation research study has been reviewed by the district and is being conducted with the approval of the district but NOT at district expense. I am responsible for all costs. The enclosed survey is designed to find out what Brighton School District parents, educators (teachers and administrators), and school board members feel are the most important tasks of the public elementary schools. I believe you will find this survey interesting and well worth the time necessary to complete it. Please return the survey and the task cards in the enclosed envelope. Your answers will be kept confidential. Please feel free to call (469-6448) if you have any questions. If I am unavailable, and you leave your name and phone number on the recording, I will return your call as soon as possible. Your cooperation in completing the survey is greatly appreciated. Sincerely, Linda Frazee Second Grade Teacher South Elementary Note: The jsame letter was used for letters to the parent, educator and school board groups. Only the salutation was changed. 158

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2240 West 118th Avenue Westminster, CO 80234 December 19, 1991 Dear Brighton Present or Past School Board Member, Approximately two weeks ago, I sent you a survey concerning the tasks of Brighton elementary schools. If you have already returned your survey, thank you! If you still you have your survey, please complete it and mail it to me as soon as possible. ,If you have misplaced your survey, call me at home, 469-6448, and I will send you a new survey right away. If no one answers at my home number, please leave a message. It is my hope to have all surveys returned by December 30. Your opinions are crucial to the success of the survey and your help is greatly appreciated--especially during this busy time of the year. Sincerely, Linda Frazee Teacher, South Elementary 159

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TO: All Elementary Educators FROM: Linda Frazee South Elementary RE: Task of the Brighton Elementary Schools survey Approximately two weeks ago, I sent you a survey concerning the tasks of Brighton elementary schools. If you have already returned your survey, thank you! If you still you have your survey, please complete it and mail it to me as soon as possible. If you have misplaced your survey, call me at home, 469-6448, and I will send you a new survey right away. If no one answers at my home number, please leave a message. It is my hope to have all surveys returned by December 30. Your opinions crucial to the success of'the survey and your help is greatly appreciated--especially during this busy time of the year. THANKS FOR YOUR HELP AND HAVE A HAPPY HOLIDAY! 160

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2240 West 118th Avenue Westminster, co 80234 December 19, 1991 Dear Brighton Elementary School Parent, Approximately two weeks ago I sent you a survey concerning the tasks of Brighton elementary schools. If you have: already returned your survey, thank you. If you still have your survey, please complete it and mail it to me as soon as possible. If you have misplaced your survey, call me at home, 469-6448, and I will send you a new survey right.away. If no one answers at my home number, please leave a message. It is my hope to have all surveys returned by December 30. Your opinions are crucial to the success of the survey and your help is greatly appreciated-especially during this busy time of the year. Sincerely, Linda Frazee Teacher, South Elementary Hace dos semanas que mande un estudio sobre los mas importantes .objectivos de la escuela primaria. Si no, por favor ll'ene la forma y mande pronto, si la perdio, llame a mi casa, 469-6448. Si nadie est4 en la casa cuando-llame, por favor deje un mensaje en la gravadora. Mandare una forma muy pronto. Es muy importante que ustedes manden la informaci6n antes del 30 de diciemQre. sus opiniones son muy importantes. Sinceramente, Linda _Frazlde Maestra South Elementary 161 ' --------..-tri-,---------------------------

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Date: September 13, 1989 To: Linda Frazee, South Elementary From: John Meyer, Superintendent RE: PROPOSED RESEARCH PROJECT The cabinet and I have reviewed your survey proposal. Although your ideas are still in tentative form, it is our opinion that a well done study could have benefit 'to the district. On this basis, I am giving conditional approval to the project. Final approval will be contingent on researched prospectus that is very specific, review with input on the components of the study, the right to eliminate any element that may have a negative impact on the district, and access to the results, findings and recommendations. The district can be supportive in providing a location for your research. We are not in a position to assist with financing such a project. Good luck in your study. Please contact me when your plan has been completely developed or if I can be of other assistance. cc Dr Russ .Meyers, UCD Becky McClure, Executive Director of Student Services 162

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APPENDIX B HUMAN CONSENT INFORMATION

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TO: Gary S. Stern, Chair Human Research Committee FROM: linda N. Frazee Ph.D. Student (Curriculum, and .Supervision) SUBJECT: Human Research Committee Review for Dissertation The proposed study will use Downey's Task of PubHc Education Opinionnaire to explore how parents, educators (teachers and principals), and school board members (past and present) in Brighton, Colorado perceive the tasks of education at the elementary level and hew these perceptions compare with Downey's research. The sample.wtll include approximately-300 subjects. This includes approximately 170 parents or guardians and the entire population of approximately 90 elementary teachers and principals. The remaining subjects will include present and past board members. The sample of past school board members will be .1 imited to who have served on the board in the past ten years and addresses can be obtained through the school board secretary. A representative sample of parents will be selected by systematically choosing parents from each of the five elementary schools. The four parts of this research are: 1) analysis of differences in the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks within groups ofparents, educators, and school board members 1n Brighton; 2) analysis of differences in the perception of greater importance of less importance of tasks between groups of parents, educators,and school-board members in Brighton; 3) of differences 1n the perception of greater importance or less importance of tasks between parent sub-groups when compared by gender, number of years in Brighton, educational level, income, age, and ethnicity; and 4) analysis of differences in tt.!:! perception of importance or less importance of tasks between the present study and Downey. Attached ypu will find a copy of the survey instrument and the consent form.. If you should have -any questions, please call me at ho_me 469-6448 or work 659-4934. Thank you! 164

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CONSEHT FOM : You are frte to withdrtv frc. this study at anytime wtthout pena1ty1or prtjudtcee You be assured that your responses will remain both and conftdent1al; and thert will no attempt to tdent1fy responses If you should have any questions concerning thts survty, both durtng and after the research is ca.pleted, please can at 419. If there is not an answer and you leave a Hssage, I w1 11 return YOU1" call as soon If you should have questions concerning your rights as a subject, you 111 dtrect your questions to the Office of Adatn1stratton, CUDanvtr, Box 123, 80204, telephone 55&Q. This consent fora w111 be kept conftdenttal. Please sitn below. Thank youl signature of Survey Respondent 165

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"' ... COPtf)IJTIEE REVIEW (1'(0TE: II crtP'io 01 rC'Iicw il reqDCUcd. plftll tDCial& r.11.t= m;ia oliJiil Cara. lCCull rc'Wicw ollk re il plcw clldoM aizOQI!ia oi!Jiiafola Fanu *aid bu:auo: C117S. $11111, Depurmcu DC Ps,CO." 017 CtJDc.altr, Boa 1'71) 1. PRQ1ECfDIREcrOR Linda N rrazee 'Ert.: --Depanmeac """'""Ed..,u .. e-.a t:.-io"-------Home phoac: 6 a 4, 1 a (ill srudeat projea. thesis, or clislcnatioa) Facull'f Advisor Ngna Li vp En.: 4385 2. Pgjcc: ac jr "clare:: tg human !!cina Please describe lise projee: briefly, iaclud inl iubjcct popwatioo. ao.d rcc:nU1me41. aad procedures EO be. used; acadl questioDAaire or wervicw queslioas if appropriaie. 3. Conscnr ram,. please artach a copy of tbc comcm form you will be usiq. The followias poWSIZlust be mcludcd ill a COIDCa& fonD: a) a c!c:.r uplaaadoa of tbe proceclures EO be foUawed aDd tbeir puQOSCS. iac!udin& ideD tiBc:aGoD of arrt apcrimcalal b) a dc:.r dcscripcioD of uq discolllfart or risks reasoaably to be upcctcd. e) ao. oJer to IIIS'Mer aay qu.esUoas reptdiaa lbe resarcb. both dWi ud alter the re seardl is completed. d) a.a io.sauaioa that &be pctSOEl is free EO widldrlw hWber coas.em a:id discoa&ilmc par ticipalioaat lilY mae without predjudice. c) a.a iD.sauaioa that qaeslioas coaccmb1 ripm as a subject may be directed to me Of &c:e of Rc:scarch Ada:liDisa'acio CUDenvcr, &1123, 80204, telepboce 556-%710. f) siprure ohubjtct. {For subjecU.below dle-ap of 18. or for ill or rc:arded. persoas. siparure of pareacs or IUI'diaa is required. For dlilcireu bccweea ll.md 18, bolb ebild ud plreDIS should sip tbe COIISUI form.) You :ve reminded Ulat COIDCDt fonm are prMlqecl records aad must be protected !or coa 6de1Uial.i f)' --/' ../1 __, 4. Sipa:e or principal Urvestiaaror /. Resardl Colll.lllllltt. CVDnwr: L apprv."ed _as mmpt or apeclircd raearcb _approved as rv.Dy reviewed research approved with coaclilioas; see appended lcner r . .).-C'.-___ 7 '.r Ct:-Dc:1ver H11tn2n Rese:m!l Commiuee Date 166 ::I

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Adler, M. (1983). possibilities. Company. BIBLIOGRAPHY Paideia problems and New York: Macmillan Publishing American Association of School Administrators. (1966). Imperatives in education. Washington: American Association of School Administrators. Andrews, J. (1959). The task of the Alberta schools. Public and professional opinion, (pp. 134-37). Edmonton, Alberta: University of Alberta. Baham, c. A. (1974). An analysis of accountability goal statements of the public school districts in the state of colorado using Downey's classification of the task of public education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder. Bennett, W. (1986). First lessons: A report on American education. The Education Digest, 11, 7-11. Bester, A. (1952). Resolutions concerning public education. Paper submitted to the Council of the American Historical Association. Reprinted in School and Society, 77 (1953), 68-70. Bester, A. E. (1955). The restoration of learning. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Cohen, s. :(1973). The elementary school in the twentieth century: A social context. In J. L. Goodlad & H. Shane (Eds.), The elementary school in the United States (pp. 60-89). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education. (1918). cardinal principles of secondary education. Washington: Government Printing Office. 167

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