REFLECTIVE TEACHING IN THE ADULT ESL CLASSROOM by Bonnie J. Fulton B.S., University of Minnesota, 1968 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Education 1993 ........ .. J 'f.
This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Bonnie J. Fulton has been approved for the School of Education Mark A. Clarke Commins Rene Gi!lindo ,/ r; /9 /13 Date
Fulton, Bonnie J. (M.A., Education) Reflective Teaching in the Adult ESL Classroom Thesis directed by Associate Professor Mark A. Clarke ABSTRACT Good teachers have always reflected on their teaching. Recent discussions regarding theory and practice have raised questions about what some consider to be the prescriptive nature of theory and have encouraged teachers to do their own classroom research. This paper demonstrates one way reflective practice can be used as a research tool for classroom teachers. First, I developed my philosophy of teaching based on learning theory, research, and intuition. Next, I videotaped my teaching and identified decision points in the lesson. Using my teaching philosophy as a base, I reviewed the positive and negative implications of the decision points. I generated additional, optional activities and considered the potential implication of their implementation. I used a personal journal to examine inconsistencies between my philosophy and my practice and to consider changes in either or both. This process helps me generate research' questions about my
teaching and leads to the development of alternatives in philosophy or practice or both. New classroom behavior which better reflects my philosophy of teaching has resulted as have refinements in my philosophy. In fact, this process led to a major change in my philosophy regarding the need for students to practice new language. In this instance, my philosophy changed to accommodate my behavior. Not surprisingly, change, as a result of this procedure, is continuous. Even after the successful oral defense of this paper, I have rethought the manner in which I try to provide all students with equal chances to practice new language. I have come to see that I was confusing "voice" in the classroom with equal chances to practice. As a result, my behavior has changed to reflect a refinement in my philosophy. I expect to continue revising my theory, practice, or both as long as I teach. I believe the format outlined in this paper can be beneficial for any teacher who is interested in reflecting on her or his own teaching. This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis. I its Signed Mark A. Clarke
CONTENTS CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . . . 5 The Need for a Philosophical Basis ..... 13 3. METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . 16 Background Procedures Recommendations . . 16 17 20 4. PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS 24 The Decision Point/Option Model . 24 My Teaching Philosophy . . 28 Analysis . Discussion 31 40 5. IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION . . . 50 APPENDIX A. Transcript . . . . . . . 53 B. Room Sketch . . . . . . . 60 c. Textbook Pages ............ 61 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . 63
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Good practitioners in any field have always reflected on their practice. Good teachers are no exception. They discuss lesson failures and successes with colleagues, think about classes on the drive home, jot notes for future lesson plans, ask colleagues to observe their classes in order to receive feedback, scrutinize their students test results, and so on. All of the items in this litany fall into the broad category of 11reflective practice ... This paper is my attempt to describe reflective practice as I see it. It views the teacher as learner and is based on a model developed by Stevick (1986, 1992) and Clarke (1991a) in which decision points within lessons are identified, options considered, arid all are weighed against ones teaching philosophy. Video taping is used to collect data. My interest in examining my teaching through video tapes originates in the growing awareness of multi-culturalism in the United States. A number of anthropologists, teachers, sociologists and linguists have described dissonance between students home and school environments and have shown that teachers who
2 are aware of these differences are in a better position to help students (Au, 1980; Delpit, 1988; Ellsworth, 1989; Heath, 1982; Lewis, 1990; Lewis & Simon, 1986; Mcintosh, 1988; Michaels, 1981; Philips, 1972). The questions these researchers have raised are the impetus for this project. Using predominately qualitative approaches, they identified different learning styles that were tied to cultural, gender and personal differences. Their work led me to question my teaching philosophy and practice and initiated a desire to examine these more closely. Do I call on male students more than female students, for example? Do I assume that all students are comfortable speaking in classroom situations? These issues were the original impetus for this project; however, the process took me in a very different direction. The research question became much broadei and more philosophical: Can teachers, using their classrooms for personal research, adapt innumerable language learning theories and vast research to their own teaching philosophy and develop practice that is consistent? How might this process affect ones teaching? What modifications might be made in ones teaching practice and/or philosophy?
3 Through an examination of my philosophy, I have come to believe that knowledge is a highly individual commodity. Consequently, it is up to me as an individual and as a teacher-as-learner to do my own investigations, to discover my own truths and to act on them. This is not to say that the work of others is to be ignored. Rather, it must be examined critically, from my reference point, and incorporated or ignored based on my personal philosophy. The research to be discussed in this paper is personal and is based on this perspective. It is not intended to suggest that one way of teaching is better than another, nor even that one way of proceeding with reflective teaching is superior. This paper will show how I reflect on my teaching, some of the questions that I have addressed, and some of the problems I have encountered. Although I am doing this work to produce an M. A. thesis, and my audience is university professors, the real purpose is to begin to answer some of the questions that generated my interest in the project in the first place and to raise and answer new questions about my teaching philosophy and practice. In Chapter Two I present an overview of
4 literature relevant to the topics to be discussed in this paper. In Chapter Three I outline data collection techniques in the form of video tapes, transcriptions, and journals, and provide procedural recommendations. A personal philosophy of teaching and analysis of data follow in Chapter Four. Chapter Five concludes the paper.
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter provides a background of literature relating to reflective practice. Some of the writers whose work I have selected for inclusion explicitly use the term 'reflective practice.' Other writers, typically those writing prior to 1980, do not specifically use the term, but their work should be considered a part of the reflective practice library. A common thread in this literature is the argument that learning of any consequence is personal and requires individual commitment. In the case of reflective practice in teaching, it is the teacher who is learning about his or her own teaching. Differences of opinion about the value or usefulness of reflective reveal philosophical differences about the nature of truth and knowledge. One view, often called "Positivist" "Cartesian," or ''Technical Rationality" (Schon, 1983) argues that Truth is unconditional and exists separate and apart from individuals. The goal of research is to uncover Truth through measurable, observable, empirical experiments. Because Truth can be known apart from the individual, experts can pass on the Truths they
6 discover to teachers. They can prescribe teaching behavior based on what they have discovered to be the best way of teaching (or of producing widgits or curing cancer). This way of thinlcing is characterized by Madaline Hunter's !TIP (Instructional Theory Into Practice) teaching program (1969) and B.F. Skinner's behaviorist psychological principles (1968). Others argue that the knower is not separate from the known (Kincheloe, 1991). Truth is conditional: it exists only as the individual sees it and is informed by the individual's personal experience. Because Truth can only be known individually, it must be sought,individually. From this no one can prescribe teaching behavior to another since what is true for one person may not be true for another. Existential thinkers (Frankl, 1959; Greene, 1967; Harper) hold this world view, as do critical pedagogues such as Giroux (1990). Kincheloe (1991) argues that feminists have contributed to this view insofar as they emphasize the value and importance of interpersonal, highly contextualized experiences in the search for individual truth. A great deal, if not all, of the reflective practice literature is informed by the latter
7 perspective. Houston and Clift (1990) state that teaching (and reflection) can't be taught using prepackaged experiences. They challenge the idea that Truth is just waiting to be discovered or that right' answers exist somewhere. They say that freedom is essential to reflective thought: no mandate can force us to think. Kagen (1992), in making the case for reflective practice among preservice and beginning teachers, found that studies of experienced teachers suggest that "each teacher represents a unique ecological system of ... beliefs and practices" (p. 159). She believes that teaching style is personal and is based on life experiences. She compares classroom teaching with art and suggests that in teaching, the artist, the medium, and the subject are the same. Novice teachers, she believes, should be encouraged to reflect, but on procedural rather than theoretical knowledge. Grossman (1992) challenges Kagen and suggests that novice teachers are capable of reflecting on themselves and larger aspects of theory as well as on classroom management issues. Indeed, she argues that having a personal understanding of one's teaching
8 philosophy is a necessary base for establishing classroom procedures, because these are not neutral, but a consequence of theory. Fanselow (1988) suggests that when observing other teachers, the aim should be one of self-exploration --seeing one's own teaching differently. Observing others or ourselves to see teaching differently is not the same as being told what to do by others. Observing to explore is a process; observing to help or to evaluate is providing a product. (p. 115) Although the term reflective practice' is relatively new, the call for teachers to set their own goals or aims and to monitor or 'reflect' upon them individually has been part of education literature for many years. Doll (1972) argues that "intelligent creation of purpose" occurs only when the process is individually determined. He states that predetermined goals or targets lead us to forget about examining the consequences and allow us to work towards goals which we have not formulated for ourselves or by ourselves. To truly create something, one must have "the opportunity to formulate his [sic] own purposes, act
9 upon that formulation, and receive the consequences thereof" (p. 318). Action based on predetermined goals, either those imposed upon us externally or inflexible goals we impose upon ourselves, does not, according to Doll, emphasize creation but the efficiency with which we are able to produce the prodrict. Teachers who teach according to pre-packaged mandates may be efficient, but may not be teaching from a position that is personally valuable. This kind of teaching, Dewey (1916) states, renders "the work of both teacher and pupil mechanical and slavish" (p. 110). Broader philosophical might be traced back to ancient Greece. In Plato's dialogue between Meno and Socrates, Meno argues that if he doesn't know what virtue is, if Socrates can't teach him, it will be impossible for him to find it because he doesn't know what he's looking for (Plato, 1956). Socrates concludes that virtue cannot be taught although it is surely learned. How? On the one hand he suggests "divine dispensation" (p. 156) and on the other on the ability and willingness to "look for what we don't know" (p. 138). Carl Rogers (1969) also suggests that learning
10 of any consequence is by necessity individual. In 1969, he told a group of teachers at Harvard that he did not believe that anything of consequence or anything that would have a "significant influence on behavior" could be taught to another person. Such learning, he said, is "truth that has been personally appropriated and assimilated in experience" and naturally cannot be taught to another person. Freeman (1991) states that learning to teach is developmental. How one teaches at each stage in learning, what one does, and how one thinks is ''internally coherent." compares Interlanguage, a second language acquisition theory which deals with individual learning differences, with individual differences in learning to teach. He calls it "InterTeaching." Implicit in Freeman's work is the idea that significant learning is an individual process, one that cannot be taught, and one that individual teachers must seek even though they don't know what they are looking for. Reflective practice can provide guidance. Schon (1983) named the individual search for aims or significant learning "reflective practice." He attempts to explain how reflection takes place within
11 a practitioner and he demonstrates how skilled practitioners function as researchers. Hedescribes ivhat he calls "knowing-in-action," analogous to a tightrope walker's performance, in which an action, recognition, or a judgement is carried out spontaneously, without being thought about (pp. 50-51). Sometimes there is awareness of the understanding internalized in order to do these things, sometimes there is no awareness of having learned them: one simply finds oneself doing that thing. But in both cases, we are usually unable to describe the knowledge which is based in our action (p. 54). Schon makes a distinction between "knowing-in-action" and "reflection-in-action." "Reflection-in-action" according to Schon, involves the aspect of surprise --in the midst of doing something automatically, something unexpected arises to which one needs to make some adjustment from the way one normally does that thing. Schon further claims that "when someone reflects-in action, she [sic] becomes a researcher in the practice context. She is not dependent on the categories of established theory and technique, but constructs a new theory of the unique case" (p. 68).
12 In his 1991 work, Schon suggests that "refection-in action" is artistry -"the competence by which practitioners actually handle indeterminate zones of practice" (p. 13) and suggests that instead of continuing to focus so extensively on traditional research, we should try to understand the artistry of "uncommonly competent practitioners (p. 13). Schon takes this process one more step. By reflecting on our reflection-in-action, he says, we can become even more skillful practitioners (p. 31). Furthermore, we will "assume neither that existing professional knowledge fits every case nor that every problem has a right answer11 (p. 39). Clarke (1982) argues that 110rthodoxies ... serve, not as the be-all and end-all of a teacher's professional life, but rather, as a beginning, a foundation on which to build" (p. 447). From a psychological point of view, Morgan, King, Weisz, and Schopler (1986) state that reflection is the process of evaluating or testing [ones] own reasoning. Reflective thinking allows the formal-operational person to be his or her own critic, to evaluate a process, idea, or solution from the perspective of an outsider and to find errors or weak spots in it (p. 470}.
13 Tarvin and Al-Aiishi (1991) state that "the value of reflection is personal; it brings an inner satisfaction that one has done one's best to confront an extraordinary situation" (p. 17). They suggest that our students will benefit from time for reflection as well. Posner (1989) argues that we learn more from reflecting on an experience than we do from the experience itself. He states that it allows teachers to "act in deliberate and intentional ways, to devise new ways of teaching rather than being a slave to tradition ." (p. 22). According to Posner, most teachers are more likely to "adapt" a new curricula than "adopt'' it. He says that "teachers neither blindly adopt the materials and methods developed by 'experts' nor insist on reinventing the wheel" (p. 26). Rather, he says, teachers attempt to find a balance between the two. The Need for a Philosophical Basis Because of the individualistic nature of reflective practice, the purposes and intentions vary widely from one practitioner to another. Many arguing for the value of independent appropriation of beliefs also argue for reflection based on broader philosophic
14 considerations. Dewey (1916) stressed the importance of the community. Pennycook (1989) states that the ultimate answer of how to teach lies within each of us but he assumes that we search for that answer from principled positions and suggests that we make decisions about how we teach according to the "ethical and political projects that inform our daily lives" (p. 753). Brown (1991) urges teachers to teach students to be aware of issues that affect their lives --such as peace and the environment --issues that require teachers and students to make some examination of their philosophical and political positions. All of these writers, whether proclaimed reflective practitioners or not, share the basic tenet that learning of any value or long-term consequence is that which is personally significant, individually appropriated, and for which one is solely responsible. This is fundamental to reflective practice because reflective practice is learning, whether one is reflecting through the use of personal journals, video tapes, observations by colleagues, or in some other way. Clarke (1984) argues that although classroom teachers are indebted to theory, the ultimate success or failure of a lesson is due to the teachers
15 decision making, timing, training, planning, professional preparation, work and energy during the lesson, ability to understand student needs, and "ability to select, from a limitless number of options, that specific action (or absence of action)'' which the teacher believed would work in that particular lesson (p. 590). If a teacher is teaching from a prescribed set of rules, the options open would not be 'limitless.' There would be no need to reflect upon a decision because the prescribed option would, presumably, have been provided to the teacher. Chapter Three explores one method of reflective practice using decision points and options.
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY After providing background about my teaching situation, this chapter will discuss videotaping, record keeping, and personal journal procedures. Then, recommendations regarding equipment problems, student reactions, and the importance of a support system in doing reflective teaching will be provided. Where appropriate, I will present some possible solutions. Background I teach six hours per day five days a week at ELS (English Language Services) at Regis University. I have taught in this program since May 1989. Prior to that, I taught English as a Foreign Language at a high school in Japan for one year. The class that I thought could provide me the most information about my teaching practices was one called "SSP -Speaking and Structure Practice" --the core class of the program. I chose that class because it includes reading, writing, speaking, listening, and structure. At the time the tapes under discussion were recorded, I was teaching a beginning level 2 class and an intermediate level 4 --there are 9 levels altogether. The class sessions last four weeks
17 and consist of 17 teaching days. Classes range from 2 to 15 students. Most students are young adults, literate in their first languages, and financially secure. Procedures 1. Frequertcy. I tried to tape regularly so that students would get used to having the camera in the room. I taped one or two hours each week. Actually, sometimes I had shorter tapes, or less room on the tapes, so that some segments are only 20 minutes long, but I left the camera up for the entire hour and I found that I was able to gather more than enough information on these shorter tapes. I taped approximately 20 hours of lessons over the course of one year. The segment to be analyized in this paper was selected because it is representative of many of those taped and because it raises a number of issues that I wanted to examine more closely. 2. Camera position. I set the camera up on a tripod in one corner of the room so it would be out of the way. I focused it on where I was and in some cases some students cannot be seen. This is a disadvantage of taping oneself that could be overcome with someone to act as camera person.
18 3. Record keeping. Each tape was labeled with the date, time and class name. In a notebook, I jotted down general activities or memorable things about each taping so that I could easily identify the tape later. Fanselow's article, "'Let's See: Contrasting Conversations About Teaching" (1988), in which he discusses strategies for observing other teachers, was helpful. Among the strategies he advocates is "grouping," in which the collected data is sorted or categorized. I applied this strategy to my self-observation. I originally chose seven categories and kept notes with each of them listed followed by hash marks each time I observed myself doing something in one of the categories. The categories I observed were the following: a. gestures b. standing/sitting c. use of silence d. smiles e. turn head, left or right f. teacher talk (amount) g. shake head, affirmatively or negatively The amount of information was almost overwhelming and the categories were far too broad. However, Fanselow's
19 strategy helped me distance myself from my teaching behavior. That is, rather than focusing on my bad hair cut or my nasal voice, I was able to focus on my teaching and it was a good way to start collecting information. By recording the number of times I stood up, for instance, I realized that I stand when I want to resume my "teacherly" position in the classroom but sit to indicate a more democratic time in which we all practice something. I also became aware of how often I shake my head affirmatively; how I use my hand cupped to my ear to indicate that an error needs to be corrected; how I smile throughout almost the entire class (!),and so on. However, I think that this is just a starting point. As Nunan (1989) suggests, isolating and counting instances of particular classroom practices is unlikely to result in a list of behaviours which aggregate to the 'effective' teacher" (p. 98). In the end, I discontinued the categories and hash marks and started writing more detailed questions and thoughts to myself --asking why I did the things I did and what other choices I might have. 4. Journals. These questions led me to a deeper exploration. My journals tend to be much more personal
20 and emotional than professional, although educational theory does play a role. Some questions are answered in the writing of them, others generate deeper thought. While discussions of one's lack of security in the classroom can quickly become tiresome to others, it can be very helpful to acknowledge them personally. Internal as well as external judges can be a deterrent to reflective teaching. A personal journal can serve as a friendly sounding board for individual angst, particularly that generated by watching oneself on video tape. Often, my journal entries lead to more reflection, discussion with colleagues and mentors, and decisions to change. My journals are also deeply philosophical. I believe they are extremely valuable because I do not make a distinction between who I am as a person and who I am as a teacher. Reflective practice has become another tool for self exploration. The learning taking place through my journal entries is thus of great personal significance to me. Recommendations Some difficulties are to be expected in a project of this nature. This section outlines them and suggests some solutions.
21 1. Equipment frustrations. Not having a camera person and thus missing some of the student reactions, as mentioned earlier, is only one of many frustrations to be expected. First, most cameras have the microphone permanently attached to the top of the camera. As one walks away from the camera, the sound quality diminishes. Furthermore, it is frequently difficult to hear students. This means that it is important to watch the tape soon after it is made, and make accurate notes about the classroom proceedings. Another option is to get one or more remote microphones and situate them around the room. The danger with them is that there are connections, switches, and batteries which must be carefully attended to or the end result will be video with no sound. Yet another concern is with the camera itself. At ELS it can be difficult to reserve and sometimes even with a reservation, the camera is not delivered. When an A-V department is not responsible for the delivery and pick-up of the equipment, as is the case if you are using your own or borrowed equipment, security can be a real worry. Cameras sometimes malfunction and batteries run down. (These things
22 always seem to happen on the day you've worked hard to plan a wonderful lesson. The video equipment always works on the days your lessons feel like a disaster. Or so it seems.) Although I had no problems with security, the other problems I listed were frustrations for me. 2. Student reactions to having the video tape camera in the classroom were very positive. Each group asked what I was doing, and when I explained that I was trying to improve my teaching, they were extremely supportive. Some asked to watch the videos after class and I was happy to accommodate them because I think it is another way to enhance their learning. Although I did not pursue this, student reactions upon viewing the tapes could reveal their teaching preferences or explanations for their behavior during class. Their comments could yield valuable feedback to the teacher and could lead to further reflection on one's teaching. 3. The need for a support system. Reflecting on teaching often reveals vulnerability and suggests change. Kagen (1992) states that "learning to teach requires a journey into the deepest recesses of one's self-awareness, where failures, fears and hopes are
23 hidden." Houston and Clift (1990) acknowledge these difficulties and state that community can help individuals reflect. They cite examples from medicine and law, where professionals discuss and reflect on the direction they are taking. Wildman, Niles, Magliaro and McLaughlin (1990), in their experiment of pairing experienced teachers with inexperienced teachers for the purpose of reflection, stated that it was helpful if the pairs shared philosophic or social bonds. Whether support comes institutionally, from professional organizations, or from friends or family, I believe it can be invaluable. In Chapter One, I referred to a number of ethnographic researchers who were part of the impetus for this project. In addition to the role they played in causing me to question my teaching behavior, they perhaps have also played a role in manner in which I have chosen to proceed methodologically: They used the case studies as the basis of their investigations and in like manner, the lesson to be analyzed in the next chapter might be seen as a case study.
CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS This chapter presents an analysis of the research done in my classroom with videotape. After an examination of the f6rmat to be used, I provide an overview of my teacqing philosophy. Finally, a lesson segment is analyzed and discussed. A transcription of the lesson segment can be found in Appendix A. The Decision Point/Option Model The format used to analyze data in this paper is based on a "decision point/option" scheme devised by Clarke (1991) and based on Stevick (1986). Stevick suggests that teachers examine the value of images, or reactions, students have to an experience, and explore the relationship between them and the vast number of options open to teachers. He describes ways teachers can expand upon the choices presented to them in textbooks through the use of verbal and nonverbal images. -He states that using a variety of options will help the teacher respond to the class and will allow students "to get more practice on each point without feeling that they are stuck too long on one thing" (p. 53).
25 From my perspective, the format is also informed by theory/practice issues. An overview of these issues reveals a rationale for the decision point/option format. For over 100 years in the United States, theory educational, medical, legal --has been developed in colleges and universities and has been passed 'down' to practitioners in the field (Schon, 1983). This hierarchy renders the researcher's role "distinct from, and usually considered superior to, the role of the practitioner" (p. 26). Pennycook (1989) suggests that traditional ways of viewing what he terms "method,'' but which I understand to mean theory, have maintained the socio-political status quo consisting of "a gendered division of the workforce" (p. 611) in which males are the researchers and females the practitioners. Clarke (1992), in his argument that teachers should have more visibility and influence, states that "the discourse tends to be authoritarian, prescriptive, and sexist" (p. 1). Furthermore, he says, it tends to be general and to ignore the realities of the classroom the constraints of time, school testing procedures, record-keeping requirements, and so forth, within which teachers must work (Clarke, 1991c).
26 By examining the options available within the practical constraints of classroom reality while bearing in mind the theoretical bases that inform practice, classroom teachers become researchers. The format to be used in the analysis of the videotape transcript I selected includes four major teaching philosophy, selection of dedision points from the transcript, discussion of options, and comparison/reconciliation of philosophy and practice. 1. Teaching philosophy. Ideally, this might be described as a synthesis of second language acquisition theory, applied linguistics research, and personal ideas and intuitions as they apply to language teaching practice (Krashen, 1982). In reality, as Krashen points out, this often is not the case because there is often little interaction among individuals involved these fields. In this paper, I view my ideas and hunches from the perspective of theory and research in order to blend the three areas. This is the basis on which the decisions made in lessons are evaluated, as well as the basis upon which options are considered. This baseline makes it possible to measure the advantages and disadvantages of various decision points and options.
27 2. Decision points. These are the choices which I were actually made during the course 1f the lesson. Of the innumerable decision points du,ing any one lesson, I selected those which caused re to question the consistency of the decision I made with my I teaching philosophy. An attempt to rJ1concile the practice (as exemplified by the decisipn) and teaching I philosophy, begins with an of the I advantages and disadvantages of the decision ] 3. Options. are actions that taken. These I could have replaced the decision made the lesson. I I Rationale to support these potential aaternatives is I suggested as are potential negative effects. The I accumulation of these speculative resuits is then compared with teaching philosophy. I I 4. Discussion. In this section, attempt is I made to examine the ways in which teaching philosophy I is reflected in teaching practice. Patterns I I throughou.t the lessons are sought. D1screpanc1es result in.a re-examination of teachinglpractices and I philosophy and may result in revisionslin either practice, philosophy or both. For section, I relied on my personal journal. It serJed as the I sounding board upon which dilemmas were resolved or at I least articulated. I I I I I
28 My Teaching Philosophy A classroom atmosphere that is friendly and warm is conducive to learning. I believe that students should feel free to make mistakes, ask questions, and state their opinions without fear of teacher displeasure. This is based on ideas such as Krashen's (1982) Affective Filter Hypothesis which states that input is more likely to be effective in a situation in which there is low anxiety. A sense of security is also conducive to learnjng. Knowing the lesson plan for the day, the amount of material to be covered during a session, the teacher's expectations for student tasks, time limits on and so on, can reduce students insecurity and help them learn. Stevick (1980) describes.security as "the learner's most basic need" and suggests t.hat the student should be at "the center of a space which the teacher has structured, with room left for him [sic] to grow into" (p. 33). Furthermore, if lessons are "transparent," (Clarke, 199lb) i.e., if students know why they are being asked to do a particular activity, there is likely to be more student involvement, security, and confidence in the teacher --all of which I believe are helpful in the classroom.
29 Exposure to material assigned for the levels at which students have been placed will help provide students with a reasonable chance of success as they progress through a program. (There are nine levels of proficiency where I teach. Students .are expected to demonstrate control of skills in listening, speaking, structure, reading, writing, and vocabulary before they progress to the next level.) I believe teachers should also be able to give students accurate and fair evaluations of their performance. This point, I believe, addresses the notion of instrumental versus integrative motivation (Gardner & Lambert, 1972). My students are interested in passing tests, furthering their careers, and continuing their study in English, all goals that are instrumental in nature. Research now indicates that both types can facilitate learning, whereas previously it was thought that integrative was superior (Larson-Freeman & Long, 1991). Learning of any consequence is an individual matter. Just as this is true for teachers as learners, it is true for students. As a result, opportunities for students to take responsibility for their own learning will help them develop their own
30 learning strategies. Examples might include asking students to lead small group discussions, having students compare and negotiate homework answers with peers, providing opportunities for student interactions in pairs or small groups, encouraging them to state their opinions. Teachers should try to find ways to use "authentic" language --language that is of personal interest and importance to students. Learning is a process. Students should be given several opportunities to review new material. Although there is controversy regarding whether or not teaching strategies should be taught, the fact of their existence and the need for teacher response is acknowledged (Larson-Freeman & Long, 1991). Therefore, it is the role of the teacher to provide as man-y different kinds of opportunities of learning new material_as possible so as to accommodate the variety of learning strategies that may exist in the classroom. Learning is also partly based on habit and students should be given several opportunities to practice new language. This is a theory most closely associated with behaviorist psychology and one which "dominated discussion of both first and second
31 language acquisition up to the 1960s" (Ellis, 1985, p. 21). Behaviorist theory "emphasize[s] the need to regulate the stimuli by grading the input into a series of steps" (Ellis, p. 128) so that the student is properly challenged for her or his level. Given the current existence of formal learning situations, habit formation is, to me, an important component of successful language iearning. I believe in correcting some student errors. The selection of errors to be corrected should not be capricious, but informed by an understanding of linguistic universal theories such as the Natural Order Hypothesis (Gass & Ard, 1980; Krashen, 1982) which suggests that grammatical forms are acquired in a predictable order. An understanding of the theories of individual variation in learning such as "Interlanguage" (Selinker, 1979) is also instructive. Finally, teachers have a responsibility to be aware of their own cultural biases to be aware of the rules of power (Delpit, 1988), to give students explicit information about them, and thereby, to empower all students equally. Analysis Background. The lesson segment under discussion
32 was made on January 29, 1992. It is a portion (30 minutes approximately) of the second half of a 100-minute "SSP -Structure and Speaking Practice" class. This was a beginning level class consisting of seven young adults in their late teens or early twenties. There were four women, three from Brazil and one from Paraguay, and three men, from Brazil, Argentina, and Venezuela. This was the last regular day of class before the end of the four-week session. Of the 20 hours of taping done, this tape, and more specifically this segment of the tape, was selected because it represented a number of issues addressed in my teaching philosophy. The decision points were selected because they provoked strong questions for me about the consistency between my practice and my philosophy. For every action or behavior described in the transcript, there there were several options available to me. The choices I actually made are labeled "decision points," and I have selected four for closer scrutiny because they provoked questions regarding the consistency of my teaching philosophy with that of my practice, and led me to believe that I needed to make a change in either philosophy or practice. For each
33 of the four decision points, I also include options -choices I could have made or could make in the future. Advantages and disadvantages for both decision points and options are listed based upon my teaching philosophy. In the case of 11options,11 the advantages and disadvantages listed actually represent speculation as to the imagined potential consequences they might have had. Decision Point #1 (Lines 5-40 in the transcript) I asked students to tell me something about the pictures relating to the dialogue in the book. Advantages: ( +) + students have some idea of what the dialogue is going to cover + students have a chance to practice some vocabulary which they may already know before hearing it on the tape + students can use their imagination to describe what they see --they may take some risks in guessing what they think is happening in the pictures + all of the students have a chance to respond Disadvantages: (-) -a few students dominate the discussion -some students may feel overwhelmed and choose not to participate in the discussion
34 -language is not authentic, somewhat contrived Option #1: The teacher could pair students, ask them to imagine their own story about the pictures and tell it to the rest of the group + could increase student talk time + students might feel inclined to take personal risks in the form of fanciful stories about the people in the pictures + students might produce related vocabulary -could be time consuming -some students might get off task -some might feel uncomfortable if they were chosen to tell their story in front of the class -in pairs, there is increased danger of using native languages, especially in homogeneous classes Option #2: As a variation of Option #1, put students in groups according to the number of characters in the pictures and have the students act out what they think is happening. +could be "light," and fun + some students feel more comfortable taking risks, especially making mistakes in a second language, when they are playing a role + students could write their own dialogue and later compare it with that in the book
35 -the same disadvantages listed in Option #1 above Decision Point #2 (Lines 10-15) Juan, in responding to my question about where the people were, showed a great deal of interest in barbecues by mentioning the word three times. I, however, continued the discussion with the predetermined picture sequence. + we discussed the pictures in the same order in which they were presented on the taped dialogue + by starting with the first picture in the series, potential confusion was probably avoided Disadvantages: -Juan missed a chance to talk about something he evidently likes very much we may have missed a chance to have an "authentic" discussion Option #1: When Juan exhibited interest in barbecues, I could have pursued it and asked the stud.ents .to describe the pictures in reverse order. + student "rewarded" for stating an opinion in class + discussing Juan's statements about his and Alberto's attitudes about barbecues might have been
36 more authentic and genuine than discussing the pictures in the book + other students might have been able to describe barbecues in their countries and could have compared them with the American barbecue pictured -time consuming we may not have had time to cover material assigned to this level (especially since this was the last regular class day) Option #2. Upon about their interest in barbecues, I could have asked Juan and Alberto to leave the group temporarily to prepare a short presentation on barbecues while the rest of the class discussed the pictures. + student's risk would have been honored + .everyone would have a chance to hear something new about barbecues + might .increase chances for student interaction time consuming .some students might not have been interested -they may have felt that I put them on the spot and may not have like to have been removed from the rest of the class
37 Decision Point #3 (Lines 20 and 21) In response to my question, Luciana used present continuous incorrectly and I repeated her answer using the correct grammar. + did not disrupt the flow of the discussion + students heard (at some level) the grammar correctly modeled -not all students may have noticed my correction since others were talking at the same time Option #1: I could have stopped the conversation and asked Luciana to correct herself. + she might have self corrected + other students might have been more likely to hear the correction since more emphasis would have been put on it + if she had trouble, other students might have negotiated the correction among themselves and helped her -I might have embarrassed her -too much emphasis might have been placed on structure -time consuming Option #2: I could have noted the error and discussed it with Luciana after class. + no embarrassment in front of the class
38 + more time to explain the grammar if necessary + wouldn't have taken class time -other students might not receive the feedback -the statement would be out of context and might have been forgotten -she might be busy after class and not want to wait around for an explanation Decision Point #4 (Lines 115-160) After discussing the pictures and listening to the tape once, the students were asked to open their books, listen to the conversation, and repeat it line by line. + gives students who might not have understood the first time another chance + students can read and try to figure out words or phrases they may not have understood by listening only + students practice pronunciation, intonation in the safety of a group + students hear other native speakers model new language + increases time to ask questions about new words/phrases + everyone gets to speak -takes time
39 -could be boring for some students -some students unable to keep up with the speed of the tape -teacher is unable to monitor individual pronunciation and intonation problems in the group Option #1. Ask students to practice the dialogue in pairs. + increases student interaction + easier for teacher to help individuals + chance to practice pronunciation individually + students could negotiate meaning of new words and phrases with each other + students could go at their own pace -students would miss a chance to hear a native speaker model again -higher risk for student -students might get off task time consuming Option #2: Discontinue repetition of the main dialogue and find other ways to practice pronunciation and intonation. + Other materials might be more fun (songs, poems, chants, etc.) than spoken dialogue + Other materials might be more transparent (for example, specific pronunciation drill material)
40 -students lose chance to review presentation of important new structures and vocabulary embedded within the dialogue -less time to ask questions about new material -less preparation for functions to be studied later in that lesson -less exposure to vocabulary they might be expected to know in future lessons Discussion The analysis of this lesson segment provoked a number of questions and dilemmas for me. In this section, I will address those of major significance. Although the focus of this discussion will be on the data presented above, no one lesson can touch on everything. Consequently, I will also address data not included for reasons of space in this paper. Philosophical conflicts. One of the major questions that arose for me in doing this work involves two of my philosophical tenets. On the one hand, I want to encourage students to take personal risks, to appropriate learning for themselves. On the other hand, I state that it is important to expose students to the material upon which they will be tested later in the ELS program. What results for me
41 is the internal conflict evident in "Decision Point #2". There is a battle for time between allowing students to discuss things of interest to them (in this case barbecues) and presenting new material. This dilemma is a theme that winds through every lesson I taped and analyzed. This is one point with which I am currently struggling within my own "InterTeaching." Finding the balance between these conflicting demands on classroom time is a challenge. Perhaps covering all the material (quantity) is not as valuable as letting students take "self-committing choices" (Stevick, 1980); however, at this point in my teaching, I am more likely to try to cover the structures students will need for the exam. Perhaps there is some common ground upon which both goals can be met. Perhaps I can become more efficient in my presentations of required material? Perhaps I can adapt the structures in the book to the daily lives of my students by developing more of my own activities. rt is this. area to which many of my journal entries are addressed. Practice results in a change of philosophy. Another reason this lesson segment is important to me is that it raises the question of repetition and habit
42 formation in language learning as illustrated by "Decision Point #4" in which I ask students to repeat a new dialogue line by line. When I watched this tape for the first time, I strongly questioned my procedure. I stopped the tape. I asked myself why I was doing this. Wasn't this simply audio-lingualism (A-L) lurking in what I thought was my fashionable, communicative classroom? (My language training in French and in teaching modern foreign languages at Minnesota was strongly audio-lingual.) In my journal, I wrote all the reasons why asking students to repeat a dialogue might be helpful to them (those reasons are enumerated under "advantages" above). I decided that whether the activity is behaviorist, or A-L influenced or whatever, I believe that it is important for students learning a second language to practice and to form new habits. This decision caused me to re-evaluate my teaching philosophy and to include a concept, habit formation, which heretofore had not been included, even though it had been a part of my teaching practice. Why had it been part of my practice and not part of my philosophy? I believe that it is because I had come to think of methods that stress habit formation, such as the
43 audio-lingual method, as old-fashioned and ineffective. Yet, when I thought back to my experience learning Japanese just four years ago, I remembered that I practiced slot and substitution drills regularly. In fact, I asked for additional taped drills! It became clear to me that fashion notwithstanding, I believe that part of learning a new language is habit and I will continue to provide opportunities for my students to develop necessary habits. Confirmation of my teaching philosophy. Some of the data confirms my philosophy, for example the section. on error correction (Decision Point #3). I restated Luciana's incorrect use of present continuous, but I didn't provide a full-fledged grammatical explanation. I am conscious of theories regarding the order of structural acquisition, and present continuous had just been covered in that class; however, Luciana may not have been ready to internalize that structure, or she may have been backsliding temporarily. That is, her error may have been an example of individual variability (Ellis, 1985). I think that my handling of the error was reasonable under the circumstances and confirms that
44 part of my philosophy which states that individual variation in learning suggests different rates at which students internalize structures. Luciana may not have been ready to produce this structure correctly regardless of what I did. Philosophical ambivalence. One of the reasons for asking students to discuss pictures in the book before hearing a tape relating to the pictures was to provide equal chances for all students to speak. I did this by asking general questions of the whole class. I want students who normally don't speak as much as others to feel comfortable in a discussion such as this, and yet I think there may be some unspoken rules of power that inhibit some students from speaking. Questions about the gender roles in the classroom (Lewis & Simon, 1986) and race (Delpit, 1988) are of great interest to me and are another area of personal ambivalence. Perhaps I need to change my practice so that these rules are addressed. Perhaps I need to re-examine the importance of equal chance to speak in Perhaps asking for open-ended discussion is not the best way to ensure that everyone gets a chance to speak. In the lesson segment analyzed, men took 15 turns and women took 22. I think this may represent
45 an unusually high proportion of participation on the part of women. It must be remembered that all of the students in this class were South Americans. A class with a different mix of students might provide quite different results in terms of turn-taking. Also, even though the men's voices are louder on the tape than the women's voices, I may have paid more attention to the women because I was conscious of the camera, and because the issue of providing equal chances for students to practice, regardless of gender or culture, is of interest to me. The issue of cultural and gender inclusion came up in other lessons as well. For example, I had a student who was painfully shy about speaking in class. After trying everything I could think of, I decided to try speaking with her one-on-one outside of the classroom. In this situation, she was not only able, but eager to converse with me. Because we had developed a friendly relationship, I hoped to transfer her speaking ability into the classroom. Again, I failed. It is beyond the scope of this paper to provide an in-depth examination of personal or cultural reasons that may have been at play; however, I can speculate. Yumi may have problems with her self-
46 esteem. She is overweight-and has acne. Although she was born in Japan and Japanese is her first language, she is Chinese. (Being born in Japan does not confer Japanese citizenship --she is considered to be a foreigner there.) Perhaps she had had a bad experience with school in Japan. Perhaps she does not want to learn English. Perhaps her parents are coercing her to learn English. I can take this speculation only so far, but the experience has caused me to begin to re-examine the structure I provide for speaking opportunities in class. Perhaps I cannot expect students like Yumi to speak individually in front of the class. Maybe it's better to ask her to practice as a part of a pair. The analysis of another lesson also raised questions along these lines. In an attempt to provide students with more speaking opportunities, I divided the class into small groups. I explained my rationale to the students, and yet it seems that some students do not speak even in groups of three. In this situation, some students can easily dominate the discussion and the teacher can't monitor and intervene. It is possible, of course, to nominate quiet students as discussion leaders, but even that has not necessarily encouraged more speech.
47 Reflective practice provides an interesting backdrop for an examination of theory and practice. In my teaching philosophy, I state that it is important to provide students with chances to learn new language habits. I believe that all students, of gender or cultural background, should have equal chances to practice speaking and thereby learn new habits. Before I began this project, I thought that the best way to provide students with practice was to develop "authentic" situations in which they would choose to speak because the situation was in some way relevant to them. I thought that audio-lingual type drills, choral repetition, and other similar forms of speech, were inferior to that which was more spontaneous and/or authentic. But what I found was that giving students chances to speak freely, spontaneously, and independently in class does not necessarily mean that they will take those chances. I think I had confused "voice" or "power" with the simpler matter of practicing new language. In fact., when Iask students to repeat dialogue or to practice in pairs, I am providing them with equal chances to speak. This is an area in which I have much more control than in encouraging students to
48 speak up freely in small groups or in class discussions. This is not to say that free speaking and class discussions should be eliminated, nor that the issue of "voice is unimportant; however, clarity regarding the difference between chances to practice and "voice" will, I believe, help me to provide students with more opportunities to practice both. In this way, the tension between theory and practice has led me to greater clarity about the course of action I will take in my lessons. Some people question the importance of identifying and reconciling differences in theory and practice. Who cares whether there is agreement or not? Perhaps the answer is a personal one. For me, living my day-to-day life in accordance with principles in which I state a belief, reflects my family background, my religious beliefs, my economic situation, and my personal preferences. For me, the differences between theory and practice are the research that I, in my reflective practice, amtr_ying to answer. Without an acknowledgment of inconsistencies, questions and concerns may not be apparent, and solutions much longer in coming. Selfreflection may not be the only way to resolve these
49 issues, but I believe it can be a shortcut and can provide teacher/researchers with a great deal of confidence about the way in which they proceed with their daily practice. No lesson segment, not even 50 lesson segments, can touch on all aspects of teaching; nonetheless, this discussion illustrates my teaching and my reflection on my teaching.
CHAPTER 5 IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION Although 'reflective practice' undoubtedly means something different to every practitioner, for me, truth is conditional, informed by individual experience, and must be sought individually. This perspective can be traced back at least 100 years. It is one which rejects prescriptive, "top-down," authoritarian approaches to teaching. For me, reflective practice is the process of comparing my teaching philosophy with my teaching practice and adjusting them until they are congruent. This is a method by which I attempt to find personal truth as it relates to teaching. The format of decision points, options, advantages and disadvantages developed by Clarke and Stevick has several advantages: 1. By asking a practitioner to focus on discrete items, the process does not become One can reflect on small bits rather than attempting to take on one's entire teaching practice and philosophy. 2. It is not judgemental. Teaching practices are viewed in terms of consequences. Procedures are not labeled "good" or "bad," but are merely described so that the teacher can make choices.
51 3. It assumes that teaching is dynamic, that teachers will change practice and philosophy as they reflect. The format not only allows for change, but encourages it. On the other hand, reflective practice using the decision point, option, advantage, disadvantage format, is very demanding in terms of time and energy. This may be a problem for many teachers. Videotaping is something with which many people are uncomfortable. (An alternative, to have a colleague observe, may be even more uncomfortable.) Emotionally, this process can be difficult. It requires a great deal of patience. For example, I have been trying to find ways to provide students with equal to speak in class for a year and a half. Only recently, through my journal (and as noted in Chapter Four), have I made some small progress. As for the question of covering material students need for test-taking versus providing them with chances to take "self-committing choices" (Stevick, 1980), I am still ambivalent. It is a "research question" which needs much more study. As a busy teacher, I see this task as daunting. A danger in doing reflective practice is that I
52 will take myself too seriously and feel that I need to have an explanation for everything I do in the classroom. Tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty is necessary in learning, teaching, and life. No doubt inconsistencies between my philosophy and practice will continue to arise. I may not be able to deal with all of them immediately; some may take years to resolve, others may be relatively minor. Viewing the development of my teaching as a life-long process puts reflective practice in a realistic perspective: one which is neither daunting and overwhelming nor one which is unrealistic. Conclusion Reflective practice, as I have practiced it, is one way teachers can utilize the rich resources available to them in a way that matches their beliefs about language learning. It challenges the status quo Pennycook (1989) described and the "authoritarian, prescriptive, and sexist" discourse Clarke (1992) outlines. It takes into account the daily realities of teaching life and acknowledges the role they play in the decisions teachers make. In the end, it is a way of giving teachers more voice and more power in the educational hierarchy.
APPENDIX A TRANSCRIPT The seven students were seated around an oval. My place was at one end of it. There was a small white board on an easel behind me. The women sat to my left: Cristina (C), Maria (M), Rosa (R), and Luciana (L). The men were to my right: Kino (K), Alberto (A), and Juan (J). (A room sketch can be found in Appendix B.) Transcript dialogue is from Spectrum 2 (Costinett, Byrd, Veltfort, & Vaughn, 1987). 1 T: OK, we're done with homework, we finished the 2 homework. Now let's do listening. OK, this is 3 the last one, you guys. (Opens textbook to page 4 114 and holds it up.) Page 114. Where are 5 they? Page 114. Luciana, where are they? 6 A: What the page? 7 T: Yeah. 114. (Holds up open book again.) 8 (SILENCE.) 9 T: Where are they? 10 J: Barbecue. 11 T: Are they at a barbecue? 12 J: I like barbecue. 13 L: No. In a building. 14 T: They're in a building? 15 J: And Alberto like (unintelligible) barbecues. 16 M: Working.
54 17 T: They're working, aren't they? What are they 18 doing? 19 M: They are working. 20 T: They're working. What kind of work? 21 L: They clean the windows. 22 T: They're cleaning the windows, right? 23 M: (Unintelligible) glass. 24 T: They're cleaning the glass. Well, the 25 windows. Well, maybe the glass. What about 26 the next one. In "B". What are they doing? 27 A: and L: (almost simultaneously) Eating lunch, 28 having lunch. 29 T: Having lunch. They're eating lunch. 30 J: Their job is very dangerous. 31 T: Yeah, no kidding. It's very dangerous. How 32 about "C"? What are they doing? 33 A: C? 34 T: Umhumm. The next picture, c. 35 L: Eating. 36 A: The next one, huh? 37 L: Barbecue. 38 T: They're at the barbecue. And how about D? 39 L: They are going. 40 T: Yeah. They are going home. 41 (BREAK IN THE RECORDING)
55 42 T: Turn your books over. 43 (STUDENTS TURN BOOKS OVER, LISTEN TO TAPED 44 AUDIO DIALOGUE. THIS WAS A FAMILIAR ROUTINE.) 45 Tape announcer: "Matt Rubino and Tom Hanvood 46 work for Atlas Window Cleaners in Chicago. 47 They're talking about their plans for the 48 weekend. 49 Tom: What are you doing this lveelcend, Matt? 50 Matt: I'm not sure yet. What about you? 51 Tom: Well, my parents are having a barbecue. 52 Would you like to come? 53 Matt: I'd like to, but are you sure it's OK? 54 Your parents don't know me. 55 Tom: Of course. They always like to meet my 56 friends. Some of my sister's friends will be 57 there, too. I think it'll be a lot of fun. 58 (AT THE END OF THE DIALOGUE FOR PICTURE "A", 59 THE AUDIO TAPE WAS PAUSED.) 60 M: She is invitation to barbecue. 61 A: Barbecue. 62 T: And he said, are you sure? 63 (VIDEO TAPE BREAK. WHEN IT RESUMES, STUDENTS 64 AND TEACHER ARE LISTENING TO THE AUDIO TAPE
56 65 DIALOGUE FOR PICTURE ''C." SUSAN AND MATT ARE 66 TALKING.) 67 Susan: Atlas Window Cleaners? 68 Matt: Yes 69 Susan: Do you like the work? It really seems 70 dangerous. 71 Matt: It's O.K., but it's just a temporary job. 72 I'd really like to be a computer programmer. 73 In fact, I just registered for a training 74 course at Elmhurst College. 75 Susan: Really? So did I. Are you taking the 76 intensive program? 77 Matt: No. I work all day, so I don't have the 78 time. 79 Susan: Neither do I. I'm taking an evening 80 class. 81 Matt: No kidding! I am too. Maybe we'll be in 82 the same class. 83 (DURING THIS AUDIO TAPED SEQUENCE, KINO, WHO 84 HAD BEEN RUNNING THE CAMERA, PUT IT IN THE 85 TRIPOD, CAME OVER TO HIS PLACE AND SAT DOWN. HE 86 LOOKED INTO THE CAMERA AND PREENED HIMSELF, 87 LAUGHING.) 88 T: Did you hear anything? (Laughs.) Did you 89 hear anything?
90 K: I understand all. 91 T: Everything? 57 92 R: I didn't find (unintelligible). 93 K: (To the camera) You are the best teacher! 94 T: Corne on! Please, Rosa .. 95 R: Two work. Two works 96 J: Together 97 (HUBBUB UNINTELLIGIBLE) 98 M: They works together. 99 R: And this work is very dangerous. 100 A: Temporary. This work is temporary. 101 T: Uh-huh. And what are they going to do at 102 night? 103 J: Programs. Computer. 104 T: Uh-huh. They're going to take a class at 105 night. Last one. (Plays audio tape for "D": 106 Matt: I'm going to have to leave But I 107 want to thank you for everything. 108 Torn's mother: Well, we're glad you cofild come. 109 Matt: So am I I really enjoyed myself. 110 T: o. K. Let's open the books. 111 M: I don't understand the expression 'so am r. 112 Me too? 113 So am r. Me too. So am I. Same thing. I
58 114 Will you pass Kino's book over for him so .. (T TURNS AUDIO TAPE ON.AGAIN. STUDENTS ARE 116 TO LISTEN AGAIN AND REPEAT EACH LINE. 117 THE DIALOGUE IS REPEATED AT NORMAL SPEECH 118 RATES, BUT TIME IS LEFT BETWEEN SPEAKERS TO 119 GIVE THE STUDENTS A CHANCE TO REPEAT. T 120 REPEATED THE DIALOGUE ALONG WITH THE STUDENTS 121 COPY OF THE DIALOGUE CAN BE FOUND IN APPENDIX C.) 122 T: (TURNS OFF AUDIO TAPE AT THE END OF 123 DIALOGUE FOR PICTURE A) Questions? 124 (SILENCE) 125 K: Shakes head negatively. 126 T: O.K. (Starts audio tape for pictures B and 127 c.) 128 T: Questions? 129 C: In fact. 130 T: In fact. 131 K: In fact ... ummm. 132 (SILENCE.) 133 T: It's kind of an expression. 134 (HUBBUB: ONE OF THE STUDENTS SAID SOMETHING IN 135 SPANISH OR PORTUGUESE, PRESUMABLY A 136 TRANSLATION.)
137 L: No kidding. 138 T: No kidding. 59 139 K: No kidding ... don't worry, no problem. 140 A: Don't worry? 141 C: Oh, really? 142 T: Oh, really? 143 C: Are you kidding. 144 T: (Nods head affirmatively.) 145 HUBBUB. 146 K: Really? I think ... sound like 'no problem'. 147 R: Neither do I. 148 T: Neither do I. 149 M: Me too. 150 T: Me too (Shakes head affirmatively) but 151 neither do I (Shakes head negatively and 152 crosses hands above chest). 153 A: No kidding. 154 T: (Looking left.) Me too (Shakes head 155 affirmatively) Neither do I (negatively). 156 M: Me too in the positive. Neither do I 157 T: Negative. 158 THE CLASS FINISHED REPEATING THE LAST SECTION 159 OF THE AUDIO TAPE, AND WENT ON TO OTHER 160 ACTIVITIES.
...-"'BLLl j., (__ ('r\, .. .d-1-; rne.&icz. l(.\1 usc:..... P..?-/ Do or I APPENDIX B ROOM SKETCH L I (/; K \ I 0 CL/oSe.+ I -: --I i :---vt lf"C<...( Ct:.k_ Li :-----:.._) l:sr.ts, Ce.li(L)) I ECL!e_, wh, Lew( 3 'A\sh) Book-She r ve h
-::..APPENDIX C TEXTBOOK PAGES what are you doing this weekend, Matt? l'mnot sure ver; What about vou? Well, my parents are having a barbecue. Would you like to come? I'd like to, but are vou sure it's O.K.? Your parents don't know me . e. Of course; Thev alwavs like to meet my friends. Some of my sister's friends will be there, too, I t.hink it'll be a lot of fun. .. Can I bring anything? e. Oh, no. We already have eV.erything we need. : 0 .l could bring something ." /-:, to drink. Well, if you want to, but you _really don't have to. 114 Page 114 from Unit 15 in Spectrum 2 textbook by Costinett, et a!. (1985). Prentice Hall Regents.
62 Hi. I'm sister. o Nice to rtieet v6u.Tm Matt Rubino. A So, how do vou know Tom? 0 We work together. : A You mean at Atlas Window Cleaners? 0 Yes. . A Do vou like the work? it reallv seems dangerous. o It's O.K., but it'sjust a temporary job. I'd really like to be a computer programmer. In fact, I just registered for a training course at Elmhurst College. A Really? So did I. Are you taking the intensive program? 0 No. I work all dav, so I don't have the time. A Neither do I. I'm.taking an evening class. -:::> No kidding! I am too. Mavbe we'll be in the sameclass. Figure it out 1. Say Right, Wrong, or I don't know. 1. Tom's familv is havine: a barbecue this weekend. Right. -.2. Tom's parents know Matt. 3. Matt wants to bring something to drink. 4. Susan is Tom's older sister. 5. Susan and Matt are going to take a computer training course at the same school. 6. Matt had a good time at the party. 3. Find another way to say it. I. I don't know vet. /'muot sure ,-er. 2. Sure. 3. I had a good time. 0 I'm going to have to leave now. But I want to thank you for everything. b. Well, we're glad you could come. 0 So am I. I really enjoyed myself. 2.Match. I. Are you sure it's O.K.?---a. So did I. 2. I could bring b. Of course. something to drink. c. Neither do I. 3. How do vou know Tom? d. If vou want to, but 4. I just registered you really don't for a training course. have to. 5. I don't have the time. e. We work toe:ethcr. 6. We're glad vou f. So am I. could come. 4. I did too. 5. I don't either. liS Page 115 from Unit 15 in Spectrum 2 textbook by Costinett, et al. (1985). Prentice Hall Regents.
REFERENCES Au, K. (1980). Participant structures in a reading lesson with Hawaiian children: Analysis of a culturally appropriate instructional event. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 11(2), 91-115. Brown, H. D. (1991). TESOL at twenty-five: What are the issues? TESOL Quarterly, 25, 245-260. Clarke, M.A. (1982). On bandwagons, tyranny, and common sense. TESOL Quarterly, 1Q, 437-448. Clarke, M.A. (1984). On the nature of technique: What do we owe the gurus? TESOL Quarterly, 577-594. Clarke, M. A. (1991a, January). Observation report. Unpublished manuscript. Clarke, M.A. (199lb, February). Literacy instruction and "Authenticity". Unpublished manuscript. Clarke, M. A. (1991c, November). Putting teachers in their place. Paper presented at the Colorado Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Conference. Northglenn, co. Clarke, M.A. (1992). The dysfunctions of the theory/ practice discourse. Unpublished manuscript. Costinett, s., Byrd, R. H., Veltfort, A., & M. (1987). Spectrum 2: A communicative course in English. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall Regents. Delpit, L. (1988). The silenced dialogue: Power and pedagogy in educating other people's children. Harvard Educational Review, .2...., 280-298. pewey, (1916). Democracy and education. New York: Collier-Macmillan.
64 Doll, w. E. (1972). A methodology of experience: An alternative to behavioral objectives. Educational Theory, Summer, 309-323. Ellis, R. (1985) Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ellsworth, E. (1989). Why doesn't this feel empowering? Working through the repressive myths of critical pedagogy. Harvard Educational Review, 59, 297-324. Fans elm.;, J. F. ( 1988). 11Let s see 11: Contrasting conversations about teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 113-130. Frankl, V. E. (1959). Mans search for meaning. New York: Washington Square Press. Freeman, D. (1991, October). Learning teaching: 11InterTeaching11 and other views of the development of teachers knowledge. Paper presented at the Washington Area TESOL Conference. Washington, DC. Gardner, R., & Lambert, w. (1972). Attitudes and m6tivation in second language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Gass, s., & Ard., J. (1980). L2 data: Their relevance for language universals. TESOL Quarterly, 1, 443-52. Giroux, H. A. (1990). Perspectives and imperatives: Curriculum theory, textual authority, and the role of teachers as public intellectuals. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 1, 361-383. Greene, M. (1967). Existential encounters for teachers. New York: Random House. Grossman, P. L. (1992). Why models matter: An alternate view on professional growth in teaching. Revie'tv of Educational Research, g, 171-179.
65 Harper, R. (1955). Significance of existence and recognition for education. InN. B. Henry (Ed.), Modern philosophies and education (pp. 215-257). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Heath, s. B. (1982). Questioning at horne and at school: A comparative study. In G. Spindler, (Ed.), Doing the ethnography of schooling: Educational anthropology in action (pp. 103-127). New York: Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston. Houston, w. R., & Clift, R. T., (1990). The potential for research contributions to reflective practice. In R. T. Clift, R. w. Houston, & M. c. Pugach (Ed.), Encouraging reflective practice in education: An analysis of issues and programs. (pp. 208-222). New York: Teachers College Press. Hunter, M. (1969). Teach more--faster!. El Segundo, CA: TIP Publications. Kagan, D. M. (1992). Professional growth among preservice and beginning teachers. Review of Educational Research, 129-169. Kincheloe, J. (1991). Teachers as researchers: Qualitative inguiry as a path to empowerment. London: The Falrner Press. Krashen, s. D., (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. New York: Pergamon Press. Larson-Freeman, D., & Long, M. (1991). An introduction to second language acquisition research. London: Longman. Lewis, M. (1990). Interrupting patriarchy: Politics, resistance, and transformation in the feminist classroom. Harvard Educational Review, 60, 469-488. Lewis, M., & Simon, R. I. (1986). A discourse not intended for her: Learning and teaching within patriarchy. Harvard Educational Review, 56, 459-472.
66 Mcintosh, P. (1988). White privilege and male privilege: A personal account of corning to see correspondences through work in women's studies. Working paper no. 189, Wellesley College, Center for Research on Women, Wellesley, MA. Michaels, s. (1981). Narrative presentations: An oral preparation for literacy with first graders. In J. Hook (Ed.), The social construction of literacy (pp. 94-116). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Morgan, c. T., King, R. A., Weisz, J. R., & Schopler, J. (1986). Introduction to psychology (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Nunan, D. (1989). Understanding language classrooms: A guide for teacher-initiated action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Pennycook, A. (1989). The concept of method, interested knowledge, and the politics of language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, l, 589-618. Philips, s. (1972). Participant structures and communicative competence: Warm Springs children in community and classroom. In c. Cazden, v. John, & D. Hymes (Eds.), Functions of language in the classroom (pp. 370-394). New York: Teachers College Press. Reprinted by Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, IL. Plato. (1956). The rneno. (W. K. c. Guthrie, Trans.). London: Penguin. Posner,_ G. J. (1989). Field experience: Methods of reflective teaching (2nd ed.). New York: Longman. Rogers, c. R. (1969). Personal thoughts on teaching and learning. In c. R. Rogers, Freedom to learn: A view :of 1vhat education might be. Columbus, OH: Merrill. n. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner. New York: Basic Books. Schon, D. A. (1991). Educating the reflective practitioner. (1st ed.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
67 Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics, lQ, 209-231. Skinner, B. F. (1968). The technology of teaching. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Stevick, E. w. (1980). Teaching languages: A way and ways. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Stevick, E. w. (1986). Images and options in the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Stevick1 E. w., (1992, March). Strategies, aims, -techniques, options, whatever ... How do they fit? Paper presented at the TESOL 26th Annual Convention & Exposition, Vancouver, BC. Tarvin, w. L., & Al-Arishi, A. Y. (1991). Rethinking communicative language teaching: Reflection and the EFL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 9-27. Wildman, T., Niles, J. A., Magliaro, s. G., & McLaughlin, R. A. (1990). Promoting reflective practice among beginning and experienced teachers. In R. T. Clift, w. R. Houston, & M. c. Pugach, (Eds.), Encouraging reflective practice in education: An analysis of issues and programs. New York: Teachers College Press.