Citation
Water quality and nutrient loading in the Klamath river from Keno, or to Seiad Valley, CA during 1996-1997

Material Information

Title:
Water quality and nutrient loading in the Klamath river from Keno, or to Seiad Valley, CA during 1996-1997
Creator:
Campbell, Sharon G
Place of Publication:
Denver, Colo.
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
ix, 109 leaves : illustrations ; 28 cm

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of Basic Science)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Basic Science
Committee Chair:
Ramaswami, Anuradha
Committee Members:
Johnson, Lynn E.
Sievering, Herman C.
Hartvigson, Zenas

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Water quality -- Klamath River (Or. and Calif.) ( lcsh )
Anadromous fishes -- Management ( lcsh )
Water quality biological assessment -- Klamath River (Or. and Calif.) ( lcsh )
Nutrient pollution of water -- Klamath River (Or. and Calif.) ( lcsh )
Klamath River (Or. and Calif.) -- Management ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 104-109).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Sharon G. Campbell.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
44075239 ( OCLC )
ocm44075239
Classification:
LD1190.L44 1999m .C36 ( lcc )

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Full Text
WATER QUALITY AND NUTRIENT LOADING
IN THE KLAMATH RIVER FROM
SEIAD VALLEY, CA
1996-1997
by
G. Campbell
of Puget Sound, 1975
KENO, OR TO
DURING
Sharor
B.S., University
A thesis Submitted to the
University of bolorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master ot Basic Science
1999


This thesis for the Master of Basic Science
degree by
Sharor G. Campbell
has been approved
by
Anuradha Ramaswami
Herman C. Sievering
(V Zenas R. Hartvigson
Date


Campbell, Sharon G. (Master of Basic Science)
Water Quality and Nutrient Loading
Oregon to Seiad Valley, California
Thesis directed by Professor Anuradha Ramaswami
in the Klamath River from Keno,
in 1996 and 1997
ABSTRACT
A water quality study was performed in the mainstem Klamath River
from Keno, Oregon to Seiad Valley, California during 1996 and 1997. Four
sites within the study area were continuously monitored using
multiparameter recorders. Water quality sampling was also performed at
monthly intervals at these four locations.
Temperature ranged from rear zero C to >25 C with cooler
temperatures in early spring and fall, and maximum temperatures occurring
in July and August of each year. Dissolved oxygen concentration ranged
from near zero mg/L to >13 mg/L with highest DO occurring in early spring
and fall and lowest DO occurring in mid-summer. Air temperature was
generally highly correlated with wster temperature with r values ranging
from 0.8 to 0.9 in both 1996 and 1997.
Nonpoint source pollution i
industrial, or sewage effluent entefi
higher ammonia and total organic
locations in the Klamath River stu
Powerplant). Nitrification of ammcj
in higher concentrations of nitrate
Gate Dam). Ortho-phosphorus
from upstream to downstream in
longitudinal increase in ortho-phos(
cycling occurring in the reservoirs
Total phosphorus loading g
to downstream (Iron Gate Dam).
irji the form of agricultural return flows,
ing the stream may have resulted in
nitrogen concentrations at the upstream
nia and organic nitrogen seemed to result
in the downstream Klamath River (Iron
oncentrations increased longitudinally
the Klamath River study area. The
phoms concentration can indicate internal
as well as photosynthesis,
enerally increased from upstream (Keno)
The two sites were significantly different,
iii


p= 0.003, indicating that the Iron 0ate Dam site had overall greater total P
loading than the Keno site.
Implementing management
improve water quality and reduce
Klamath River study area to beneff
and expensive. However, improvh!
YOY salmonids may be possible a
over-summering species. Decreain
accomplished through best manag
allow general protection of water n
needs.
strategies for reservoir operations to
nutrient concentration or loading in the
it anadromous fisheries may be difficult
g the thermal regime in spring to benefit
s is short-term relief in late summer for
es in nutrient concentration or loading
ement practices in the water shed may
'^sources in the Klamath Basin for future
This abstract accurately represent
recommend its publication.
5 the content of the candidate's thesis. I
Signed
Anuradha Ramaswami
iv


DEDICATION
I dedicate this thesis to my daught
assistance in memorizing various
and animals that I have had to co
3 years.
er for her continuing support and frequent
erms and genera/character lists for plants
nmit to short-term memory during the past


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Many individuals and several Fed
and/or funding for the collection of
include:
f ral and State Agencies contributed staff
the data used in these studies. Those
U.S. Geological Survey, Biol
Ecological Sciences Center,
Colleagues: Clair Stalnaker
Henriksen, 0lsiiHsmns, 3n
ogical Resources Division, Midcontinent
Ft. Collins, Colorado.
John Bartholow, Marshall Flug, Jim
d Sam Williamson
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation
Research and Investigations
Colleagues: Jim Sartoris, Ji
Montano
Technical Service Center, Ecological
Denver, Colorado,
m LaBounty, Kathleen Groves, Andrew
U.S. Bureau of Reclamatioi|i
Oregon.
Colleagues: William Wood,
McBain
,Klamath Area Office, Klamath Falls,
Larry Dugan, Mark Buettner, Paula
PacifiCorp, Portland, Oregon.
Colleagues: Frank Shrier, to
North Coast Regional Wat^r
California.
dd Olson, Jennifer Kelly
Quality Control Board, Santa Rosa,
Colleagues: William Winch^ste im Mahan, John Renwick
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv ce, Klamath River Basin Fish and Wildlife
Office, Yreka, California.
Colleagues: John Hamilton, Darla, Pat, and others


CONTENTS
\/es.
Figures.............
Tables..............
CHAPTER
1.INTRODUCTION.
Purpose and Objecti
Background......
Water Quality and F
2. METHODS............
Continuous Monitoriiji
Water Quality Samp
Loading Estimates.
Statistical Analysis
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Temperature...
Dissolved Oxygen
Phosphorus and
Nutrient Concentrati Nutrient Loading...
4. CONCLUSIONS.......
Temperature...
Dissolved Oxygen
Nutrient Concentration..
Nutrient Loading.
APPENDIX.................
REFERENCES...............
sh Relationships.
g Instrumentation,
ing...............
gen Nutrients,
ns.............
viii
ix
1
1
2
8
11
13
15
16
17
18
18
24
28
31
35
46
46
46
47
48
51
104
vii


FIGURES
Figure
1.1 Klamath Basin Watershed anc
2.1 Example of discontinuity in dis
1998 at Iron Gate Dam, California
phenomenon......................
solved oxygen record for August,
illustrating the aging sensor
3.1 Water temperature records for
and 1997......................
3.2 Temperature records for Iron C^ate Dam, California during
1996 and 1997...............
3.3 Dissolved Oxygen record for l^eno, OR, during 1996 and
1997..........................
3.4 Dissolved Oxygen record at Irtpn Gate Dam, CA, during
1996 and 1997.................
3.6 Total phosphorus loading for 3
River during 1996 and 1997.
Study Area................. 3
Keno, Oregon during 1996
15
19
21
27
28
3.5 Total phosphorus concentration in the Klamath River at
three locations during 1996 and 15197............................. 35
locations on the Klamath
3.7 Total nitrogen loading at 3 locations in the Klamath River
during 1996 and 1997.............
3.8 Seasonal nitrogen to phosphorus ratios calculated for
5 locations on the Klamath River c
3.9 Phosphorus loading comparisons using flow normalized
estimates for selected rivers in the
3.10 Nitrogen loading comparisonii
estimates for selected rivers in the
36
40
uring 1996 and 1997............. 41
north western United States..42
using flow normalized
north western United States..43
viii


TABLES
Table
2.1 Typical range of and criteria fdr
measured in the Klamath River stu
3.1 Duration of and degree days foi
and acute thresholds in the Klama
and 1997.....................
3.2 Duration of and DO days for d
below chronic and acute threshold
locations in 1996 and 1997......
3.3 Phosphorus and nitrogen nutri
three locations in the Klamath Riv
1997.....................
snt concentration summary for
3.4 Nutrient loading comparison fci
and selected rivers in geographies
water quality constituents
dy........................
12
r temperature exceeding chronic
th River at two locations in 1996
ssolved oxygen concentrations
s in the Klamath River at two
22
29
31
r the Klamath River study sites
I proximity..................... 39
ix


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Purpose and Objectives
California in response to requests
Task Force and U.S. Fish and Wil
member commission chartered by
USGS-BRD (U. S. Geological Sur/ey Biological Resources Division)
began studies in the Klamath River from Keno, Oregon to Seiad Valley,
from the Klamath River Basin Fisheries
dlife Service. The Task Force is a 16
Congress to restore and maintain
anadromous fish stocks in the Klamath River basin (Public aw 99-552
October 1,1986). USFWS is the Department of Interior Agency that
manages the $1,000,000 annual T ask Force budget for restoration
activities. During it's 13 year history, the Task Force repeatedly attempted
to initiate flow studies that would relate flow volume in the Klamath River to
suspected habitat limitations that were root causes for declining
anadromous fish populations. Tho anadromous fish species of concern in
the Klamath Basin are Chinook salmon {Onchorhynchus tshawtscha), coho
salmon (O. kisutch), and steelhea water quality, and in particular, water
believed to be too warm during summer in
Ceir Associates, 1991)
Among the habitat limitations was
temperature, which was generally
some portions of the river (W.M.
USGS-BRD was charged by the T
of water quality to begin an asses
conditions throughout the Klamath
ask Force, to examine historical records
^ment of water quantity and quality
River Basin. The USEPA STORET
1


data base was queried and resultin
summarized for water temperature
concentration (NBS, 1995). The
water temperature was very spars^
were mostly collected at monthly i
made to record temperature and
continuously over a broad geograd)
g water quality related information was
,dissolved oxygen, pH, and ammonia
Overall data record for everything except
and even water temperature records
iihtervals. No systematic effort had been
qther water quality parameters
hie area or over a long period of time.
Beginning in 1996 and continuing
temperature and dissolved oxyger
USGS at 4 locations in the study
a
n 1997, continuous monitoring of water
concentrations were performed by
rea (Figure 1.1). The daily average
temperature and dissolved oxygerj data have already been used by USGS
to calibrate and validate a water qjjality model application developed for this
Klamath River reach.
The objective of this thesis was to
anadromous fish production, particbi
reproductive success. From Kenc
it is now possible to determine whi 3;
temperature and dissolved oxygen
anadromous fish health. In additipi
collected as part of this study, it is
magnitude of nutrient loading whic
growth and reproduction.
characterize water quality as it affects
ularly as a limiting factor for growth or
,Oregon downstream to Iron Gate Dam,
re, when, and the duration of
concentrations that are unfavorable for
n, because nutrient samples were also
also possible to identify the source and
h can indirectly affect anadromous fish
Biickaround
The overall studies being performed in the Klamath River are intended to
provide strategies for integrating physical, biological, and social
2


Figure 1.1 The Klamath Basin Watershed and Study Area
3


considerations in managing riverir
e ecosystems. The Klamath Basin has
Lake downstream to Iron Gate Da
Klamath River mouth. Each segm
been artificially divided in three se jments, the Upper (from Upper Klamath
n), Middle (Iron Gate Dam to Weitchpec)
and Lower Basin (Weitchpec and :he Trinity River tributary on down to the
ent is managed/affected by different
Federal, State, or private sector entities and until recently, little
consideration was given by each segment to upstream or downstream
needs for the water resources in the entire Basin. However, competing
needs for water resources has become a driving force for initial efforts to
develop some type of basin-wide Approach to managing the Klamath Basin
water supply.
species of endangered suckers has
In the Upper Basin, listing of two
resulted in a biological opinion tha:
specific time points in Upper Klam
adjudication for the Upper Basin in
completion. Four Federally recogipi
are currently quantifying Tribal wa
the adjudication process. In the Lb
operated to improve anadromous 1
River. Storage, diversion, hydrop
water supply have reached a stagi
almost mandatory in the Klamath Basin
specifies water surface elevations at
ath Lake. Additionally, water rights
the state of Oregon is nearing
zed Indian Tribes in the Klamath Basin
:er rights throughout the Basin as part of
wer Basin, the Trinity River will be re-
sh runs in that tributary to the Klamath
ower, and in-stream needs for available
3 where landscape scale management is
USGS-BRD has been developing
an integrated set of model components tat
represent flow, water quality, habitat, sport fishing economic values, and
fish production as a set of tools to
allocation or operational decisions
aid managers in making resource
.The Systems Impact Assessment
4


Model is currently in a prototype slate with model simulation for the Klamath
River limited to the water quantity and quality components. Details of SIAM
can be found in Bartholow, 1998. The model is available for download and
use including its documentation at:
http://www.mesc.nbs.g0v/rsm/rsmd0wnl0ad.html#SIAM.
Although the need for managing n;
landscape scale is widely recogni^
1985; Briassoulis, 1986; Caldwell,
Hansson and Angelstam, 1991; SI
and methodology to achieve this g
need for ecosystem scale manage
such as the Klamath River basin,
influences (Ambroggi,1980) charsi
action, and they exhibit a naturally
(Pantulu, 1981). River basins are
their catchments and, along their l^)i
mouth, have been subjected to in
1988). River corridors generally s
diversity of plants and animals
particularly in the arid West (Natioh
cumulative impacts of use for pow
irrigation diversion, industry, and
ptural resources at an ecosystem or
ed (Petak, 1980; Odum, 1983; Risser,
1988; Edwards and Regier, 1990;
Ibcombe,1991),a well defined process
oal is lacking (Slocombe, 1993). The
ment arises because major river basins
are the focus for anthropogenic
cterized by direct feedback from human
evolving complex of energy flows
integrators of everything happening in
ngitudinal gradient from headwater to
riumerable influences (Dovers and Day,
jpport the greatest abundance and
are the focus of human habitation
al Research Council, 1992). The
br, water supply, waste assimilation,
ruining along a river leads to conflicting
needs for both water quantity and
Klamath Basin where endangered
lower basin share a limited water
impairment that can adversely imp
quality. This is particularly relevant in the
fish species needs in both the upper and
supply with well-documented water quality
act those species.
5


Ecosystem management emphasi::
resource sustainability. Managing
biological diversity and stresses &
and Moote, 1994). In this manner,
resources for the future rather tha
resource or use, whether it is timbpi
supplies, rafting, hydropower or ai
whose decisions are based on ma:
make the transition to sustainable,
provide stewardship for the future,
resource managers to maintain bi
and be aware of and address cum
resources (Kessler et ai, 1992).
users, and managers must work
process (Ambroggi, 1980).
:es resource conditions and long-term
ecosystems requires the maintenance of
logical function and balance (Cortner
objectives are related to sustaining
n obtaining maximum production of one
r harvest, agriculture, municipal water
rly of several others. Resource managers,
| multi-purpose management strategies to
The public is also applying pressure on
diversity, prevent habitat fragmentation,
ulative impacts in management of
^dentists, public interest groups, resource
gether in a collaborative decision making
Land use has changed in the Klamath Basin, Oregon and California over
the past 135 years. Mining and lodging were the first two major land use
changes that affected streams and rivers throughout the Basin (W.M. Keir
Associates,1991).Hydraulic mini ig caused serious disturbance in both
channel and floodplain areas throi
timber harvest are well documents
activity for natural resource manag
ghout the Lower Basin. The effects of
d and erosion control is an important
ement agencies. Pulp mills and effluent
discharge from pulp processing, well as storage of logs in holding areas,
created their own set of water qua ity impacts. Irrigated agriculture and
livestock grazing came a little later but the major development of irrigation
and hydropower in the Basin occu red over 50 years ago.
6


and use conversion in a river bas,i
surface and groundwater quality ( Nonpoint source pollution, genera
a large area, is the most difficult tc
nutrient loading are most responsi
nationwide (USEPA, 1992). Susp
quality by increasing turbidity, danr
reservoirs. Fine sediments indirectl
pollutants can be gradually releases
released when some physico-chen
facilitates certain chemical reaction
(Wetzel, 1983).
overgrazing is another contributor
rangeland experiencing more eras
n can have significant impacts on both
harbonneau and Kondolf, 1993).
iljed from multiple and diffuse origins over
isolate and control. Sedimentation and
ole for water quality degradation
^nded sediment directly affects water
aging hydraulic structures and filling in
ly affect water quality because adsorbed
d into overlying waters or instantaneously
ical event such as anaerobic conditions
s at the sediment-water interface
Nutrients, i.e., phosphorus and nitrogen, may be derived from agricultural
soils in adsorbed or soluble form (Charbonneau and Kondolf, 1993). Fine
sediments have a higher per unit cf mass capacity to adsorb nutrients and
may have a greater proportion of organic material. Nutrients affect water
quality because, when transported by sediment, they can cause nuisance
algal growths, increase turbidity, aid taste and odor problems. Chronic
to soil erosion and sedimentation, with
on than pastureland (Myers, et. al.,
1985). Timber harvest can lead tc increased erosion, generally from
construction of access roads, but also when steep slopes or naturally
occurring erosive soils are expose
d by logging operations.
Water quality is important becaus^
various uses and its impact on pu
it is linked to the availability of water for
blic health (Maidment, 1992). Water
provides the aquatic habitat of plants, microorganisms, insects, fish, birds,
7


and mammals through a complex,
both quality and quantity. Consid^i
habitat, without equal consideratio i
advisable. Increasing use of aquap
purposes, irrigation, hydropower,
attributes of those resources. The
the organisms who live in or use a
cycle requirements.
dynamic set of interactions that include
ration of water quantity for an aquatic
of the relative quality is no longer
ic resources for municipal and industrial
^ind others may change abiotic and biotic
se changes may in turn, adversely affect
quatic habitats for all or part of their life-
Water Quality and Fish Relationships
Water quality effects that may affect various life stages of anadromous fish
include both direct and indirect effects. Direct effects, such as point and
nonpoint source effluents from sev/age treatment facilities, industrial
discharge outlets, irrigation return flows, sedimentation following timber
harvest or other land disturbance, and mine tailing drainage may be
important causal factors for impaired water quality conditions. Indirect
effects, such as nutrient loading, cause changes in the physical
environment that, in turn, can adversely affect salmonid life stages. The
most obvious result is luxuriant growth of aquatic plants and algae in the
river channel. The growth of aquatic plants and algae fosters sediment
accumulation that decreases span ning and rearing habitat and can lead to
decreased dissolved oxygen concentration and high pH values on a diel
cycle. When these plants and algae die in the fall, dissolved oxygen can
also decrease because of sedimerjit and/or biological oxygen demand for the
decomposition process.
8


Another factor of concern when e
nearly all the Klamath Basin waterls
weakly buffered (NBS, 1995). Tho
the relative rate of chemical reactioi
resist change in solute state. This
induced changes in dissolved oxy
induced in weakly buffered systenns
Klamath Basin, where aquatic plan
experience a wide range of dissolv
conditions that are lethal to eggs, la
organisms during the "growing" se
ev aluating water quality conditions is that
ason (June through September).
Water quality must meet certain rei
maintenance, particularly during tti
occupy the riverine habitat through
between impaired water quality cofi
are both acute and lethal, and subjtl
when temperature exceeds 22 C
below 5.5 mg//L (USEPA, 1986).
exceeds 16 C and dissolved oxy|g
(USEPA,1986).
Implications of impaired water qua
efforts lie in what options are avai
life stage needs of salmonids. Th(|)
augmenting flow volume to dilute
significant land use changes to rec
restore riparian habitat along river
,except the Shasta River sub-basin, are
buffering capacity of water determines
ns in solution and refers to an ability to
is important because photosynthetically
en concentration and pH may be easily
.It is possible that many locations in the
its and algae are abundant, may
ed oxygen concentrations and pH
rvae, and other life stages for aquatic
quirements for salmonid life cycle
e temporal periods when those fish
out the Klamath River basin. Interactions
ditions and anadromous fish life stages
e and chronic. Lethal effects occur
and dissolved oxygen concentration falls
phronic effects occur when temperature
en concentration falls below 7 mg/L
ity for anadromous fisheries restoration
l^ble to improve water quality to meet the
>se options can be as easy as
(Concentration or as difficult as instituting
uce nutrient loading, sedimentation, or
and stream corridors throughout the
9


watershed. The important distincti
question : are current water quality
adversely impact anadromous fish li
study area does water quality impsii
conditions occur, and how long do
instance of nutrient loading, is ther
upstream to downstream that increi
Does nutrient loading have a temp
events or to in-reservoir processe
nutrients, how does it compare to
on in the Klamath Basin, is answering the
conditions impaired enough to
ife cycle needs? If so, where within the
lirment occur, when do adverse
adverse conditions persist? In the
e a longitudinal gradient for loading from
!ases, stays the same, or decreases,
oral component relating to higher flow
s ? Finally, if the Klamath River is rich in
other rivers in geographic proximity to the
study area?
10


CHAPTER 2
METHODS
Water quality is regulated by the d
(Maidment,1992). A criteria is th^
measure, that if achieved or maint;
Criteria do not have a regulatory r pollution rather than the cause. A
enforceable ambient concentration
expressed as a definite rule, meas
parameter. Standards may be vei
local quality conditions such as naJ
Isvelopment of criteria and standards
anthropogenic impairment of watei
t concentration, quality, or intensive
^ined, will allow a specific water use.
le because they relate to the effects of
water quality standard is a legally
,mass discharge or effluent limitation
jre, or limit for a particular water quality
ry different from criteria because some
ural impairment, rather than
quality exists.
USEPA, 1986 has published "Qua
establishes criteria recommendatidi
and pollutants. Each state also h^s
developed for waters within their d
1994).
ity Criteria for Water 1986" which
ns for many water quality parameters
water quality criteria and/or standards
Dmains(ODEQ, 1995; NCRWQCB,
Table 2.1 summarizes the water quality constituents measured (continuous
monitoring instrumentation) or ana
the Klamath Basin during 1996 and
salmonid health, whenever possibl
yzed for (nutrients) as part of the study in
1997. The criteria listed are relevant to
s, rather than human health.
11


Water quality includes physicochemical parameters, as well as substances
and organisms that may be dissolved (solutes) or suspended (particulates)
Table 2.1-Typical range of and criteria for water quality constituents
measured in the Klamath River study.
Criteria
Constituent
Typical Range Unit Chronic Acute Reference
(Maidment, 1992) Threshold Threshold
Temperature 0-30 _C >16 >22 USEPA,1986
Dissolved Oxygen 3-10 i ng/L <7 <5.5 USEPA, 1986
Total Phosphorus 0.2-6 i ng/L 0.1 none Maidment, 1992
Ortho-phosphorus 0.1-0.5 i ng/L none none
Ammonia 0.1-0.5 i ng/L 0.0351 0,1841 USEPA, 1986
Nitrate 0.1-3 i ng/L 0.5-3 >3 Maidment, 1992
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 0.1-9 i ng/L none none
Total Nitrogen 0.1-10 i ng/L none none
1 at pH 8 and 15C for 4 days (chronic), 4 hours (acute)
in the water at a given location, or spatial/temporal point. The growth and
respiration cycles of aquatic plants affect dissolved oxygen concentration,
primarily during that same summer season. These naturally occurring
events interact synergistically and san have much greater impact than either
temperature or dissolved oxygen concentration alone.
Flow volume is also an integral part of the overall water quality in surface
waters. Often low flow conditions may cause an increase in absolute
12


concentrations of many water quality parameters, while high flows may
generally result in lower concentra ti
flow volume to dilute concentratior
water quality conditions. Flow volu
loading and assimilative capacity estimates in surface waters
ions or a dilution of solutes. Increasing
is a standard treatment for impaired
me is also a part of calculations for
Continuous Monitorina Instrumentation
Water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration were measured
using continuous monitoring instru nents that measured these parameters
hourly and stored readings in intenal memory. Instrumentation was
deployed at 4 locations within the study area, Keno, OR, the Klamath River
below J.C.Boyle Powerplant, the K lamath River near the Oregon/California
State line, and below Iron Gate Dam, CA (Fig. 1.1). Site identifications were
Keno, Powerplant, Stateline, and Iron Gate, respectively.
Two instruments were used at eac
be deployed for 1-2 weeks, depenp
replaced by the alternate instrumei
personal computer in ASCII forma
temperature and DO measuremen
f\ site in alternation. An instrument would
ling on water temperature, and then
iht for an equivalent period. Each
instrument was calibrated according to manufacturers guidelines prior to
deployment and post-calibrated following removal from the site.
Data stored in the internal memory of each instrument was downloaded to a
ASCII files containing 1-2 weeks of
its for a site were imported to spreadsheet
software such as Lotus 123 or Excel. Daily average values were calculated
and, along with daily maximum an

graphical and statistical analyses.
13


The continuous monitoring record
called "aging sensors". The instru
provided by the Bureau of Reclam
Falls, OR or by the Denver Office
the same vintage and had been us|i
several years. DO sensors have
that they were reaching the end of
calibrated and post-calibrated, the
inaccurate was not discovered un
record showing a discontinuity in tffi
instrument exchange illustrates the!
instruments were exchanged on 8/]
exchange boundaries on 8/5, 8/21
record is apparent. In most cases
much lower than the previous reco
have been replaced, but failure ra
initially >50%. Confidence in the
temperature record. Temperature
0.1 degrees C. DO values have a
The instrumentation software calculates percent saturation of DO at
temperature and barometric pressure. Using the measured water
temperature and elevation of the s
upward and values exceeding 105
Df DO was affected by a phenomenon
mentation used during the study was
?ition's Klamath Area Office in Klamath
Many of the instruments were of about
ed in other studies and locations for
performance life and we failed to realize
that period. Since each instrument
discovery that DO values were
11 the end of 1997. A sample of a DO
e record that is coincident with
problem (Fig. 2.1). In August,1998,
5, 8/13, 8/21,and 8/27/98. At the
and 8/27, a marked discontinuity in the
the DO record will be much higher or
rding period record. All DO sensors
itb for the newly installed sensors was
P record is considerably less than in the
values have a confidence interval of
confidence interval of 0.5 mg/
ite above sea level, the DO record for
each site was adjusted. DO values less than 75% saturation were adjusted
V were adjusted downward. Some
subjectivity was used to screen the data and determine which and how
much of the record was adjusted,
there were many instances of DO
For example, at 4 p.m. in mid-summer,
/alues exceeding 105% saturation.
14


Figure 2.1-Example of discontinuities in dissolved oxygen
record for August, 1997 at Iron Gate Dam,
California, illustrating the aging sensor
phenomenon.
preceding or following days. At the Keno site, the instrumentation site was
in a deep-water pool just downstream from a highway bridge. Because this
site did not have turbulent flow conditions, DO values of much less than
75% saturation were not adjusted, particularly if preceding or following
weeks exhibited similar daily patterns and DO value ranges.
Water Quality Sampling
Water quality sampling was performed using USEPA, 1983 protocols for
collection and preservation. Samples were collected as grabs from
turbulent flowing areas adjacent to the stream bank using a polypropelene
bucket, that had been rinsed with distilled water followed by a rinse with
sample water. A 500 mL sample was preserved with 2 mL of 20% H2S04.
A 100 mL sample was filtered through a 0.45 micron cellulose-acetate
syringe filter. Both samples were immediately iced and shipped to the
Sts
9SS
6628
SS9
ss
§s
scs
SZZ9
s-8
i
S6S
sm
8ss,e
is ^
is
8en
sm
szs
s-0
is
96609
SI
SK00
si
96S08
88SB
SC08
63s
s§
9 8 7 6 5 4 3
-/elu) uaBAXO pa-oss3
15


laboratory on ice by overnight express to comply with USEPA, 1983
protocols for holding times prior to analysis of ortho-phosphorus and
ammonia.
Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient samples were processed by
Reclamation's Pacific Northwest Region Laboratory in Boise, ID according
to procedures outlined in their "Quality Assurance Plan Soil and Water
Quality Laboratory," July, 1987. Analytical procedures generally follow
APHA Standard Methods,1998 for the following parameters: total
phosphorus, ortho-phosphorus, ammonia, nitrite plus nitrate, and total
Kjeldahl nitrogen.
Approximately 20% of samples we
samples. At least twice each year,
concentrations of total phosphorus
*e field duplicates submitted with routine
samples were submitted with known
and nitrate. Results from field duplicates
indicate that laboratory analysis ac|curacy was within a range of 2-4.7%
and precision ranged from 77-101 Si during the study period.
to Chapra, 1997. Total nitrogen
estimated by summing total Kjeldafi
concentrations. Inorganic nitrogen
nitrite, and nitrate concentrations.
subtracting ammonia from total Kjel
oadina Estimates
Total phosphorus and nitrogen loading estimates were calculated according
ras not analyzed directly and was
il nitrogen, nitrite, and nitrate
was estimated by summing ammonia,
Organic nitrogen was estimated by
Idahl nitrogen concentration.
16


Loading was calculated in kg/day Using the following convention
Load = concentration disch
where concentration is mg/L of cor
second, and (28.32 1_/1^)(86,400 s
aggregated conversion factor of 2.446848.
arge*2.446848
stituent and discharge is in cubic feet per
4conds/day)(1 kg/1,000,000 mg) yields an
Loading was estimated for each water quality sampling collection date.
Loading estimates in each year we
to estimate an total annual load. Tp
other rivers located in geographica
were converted to the same annua
re averaged and multiplied by 365 days
compare results from this study to
proximity, reporting units for each study
load in kg/yr as calculated for this study.
Statistical Analysis
Box plots to determine normality o
SAS version 6.3 statistical softwar^
were non-normally distributed, non-|
Spearman correlations and Wilcoxij)i
averages of temperature and DO
internal functions. Simple linear co
water temperature comparisons in
available in the software.
if|data distributions were generated using
(SAS Institute, 1997). Because data
parametric analyses were used, i.e.
n Rank Sum tests. Arithmatic daily
ere calculated in spreadsheets using
relation was used for air temperature to
3 spreadsheet using data analysis tools
17


CHAPTER 3
RESULTS fi
Because continuous monitoring insji
sites, results and discussion of tern
concentration will focus on Keno, 0
(Fig. 1.1). In general, comparison^
conditions will include Keno, Orego
Powerplant; and Iron Gate Dam, C^il
ND DISCUSSION
rumentation was limited to a few sample
perature and dissolved oxygen
regon, and Iron Gate Dam, California
of nutrient concentrations and loading
i;the Klamath River below J.C. Boyle
ifornia.
Water temperatures recorded at Ke
displayed as colored bands across
Tenperature
no are displayed in Figure 3.1. In each
of these figures the acute and chronic thresholds for salmonid health are
the graph at 22 C and 16 C,
respectively. Gaps in these colored bands indicate missing data resulting
from instrument failure. The period of record for each year was
approximately April through Novemaer. Instrumentation is removed during
the winter to prevent damage or loss during high winter and early spring
flows. Average, minimum and maximum daily temperatures have been
plotted to show the diel range for temperature. At Keno, in 1996 and 1997,
water temperature generally exceeded the chronic threshold from May
through September. The acute throshold was generally exceeded in July
and August. Comparing the 2 years of data visually is hampered by the
section of missing data from July 1996. However, in 1997, it is
apparent that the average, minimun, and maximum daily temperatures
18


30
ii HinnimiMiiiniiiiBi ii mtiininiiD ii unn it idhiikbhi1111111911111111111111111nnmmiiiiiiiBBiBiRlnDKiiH ii i
70296 60196 63196 93096 103096 112996
DATE

60297 70297
uiiniBinniiiiDiBiMiHiiTigiiiiDiiiiiiBiniiiiviiiiiiHIDiiiiiiBsiiiyDiingBinHH
60197 83197 93097 103097 112997
DATE
Figure 3.1-Water temperature records for Keno, Oregon during
1996 and 1997.
exceed the acute threshold temperature criterion for approximately 4 weeks
(7/20-8/20/97).
Figure 3.2 displays the water temperature records for the Klamath River
below Iron Gate Dam in 1996 and 1997. The absolute magnitude for
temperature is about 2 C less during the warm summer months at Iron

{ ej^ejadil
19


Energy Commission) permit. Keno
reservoir, but rather than regulating
Keno is held at full or near-full pool
Gate Dam than at the Keno site. Iron Gate Dam is a re-regulation reservoir
that impounds peaking hydropower discharge from Copco powerplants just
upstream. Discharge from Iron Galp Dam is a sustained flow release that
follows minimum discharge requirements from a FERC (Federal Regulatory
Reservoir is also a re-regulation
releases, water surface elevation in
in the summer months to allow for
efficient agricultural diversions (provides head to irrigation ditches and
siphons). At Keno, water simply spills from the surface, while at Iron Gate
Dam, water is discharged through hydropower turbines in the Powerplant.
The intake for the Powerplant is located at an average depth of about 11
feet below the water surface of the reservoir. The difference in discharge
depth between the two reservoirs ppbably explains part of the difference in
temperature.
Temperature below Iron Gate Dam
thresholds in 1996 and 1997 (Fig.
was exceeded from May through S^i
of exceeding the acute temperature
than in 1996.
Meteorological conditions recorded
that the average summer air tempe
cooler than in 1996. Air temperatur
correlated in the Klamath River stuqi
temperature correlation coefficient
For the Iron Gate location, r = 0.84
interesting to note that meteorologi
also exceeded chronic and acute
3j.2). The chronic temperature threshold
ptember of each year, but the duration
threshold was much shorter in 1997
at Montague, California airport indicate
ature in 1997 was about 1.3 C
e and water temperature are closely
y reach. At Keno, the air to water
0.89 in 1996 and r = 0.90 in 1997.
In 1996 and r = 0.81 in 1997. It is
oal conditions at the Klamath Falls
20


inaUDWininbtiib nwinvni wnniBiHiiiFnipBiwnum[|hi
50496 60496 70596
Fniiwiiirairni
100696
DATE
a>
1
s.
I
DATE
Figure 3.2 Temperature records for Iron Gate Dam, California
during 1996 and 1997.
airport, which is geographically closest to Keno do not show the same trend
as the Montague airport between 1996 and 1997. The difference in
average summer air temperature between 1996 and 1997 is just 0.5 C.
The elevation change between Keno and Iron Gate Dam is also significant.
Keno elevation is 3437' while Iron Gate dam elevation is 2162'. The
difference in elevation and an intervening mountain range (the Siskiyou),
create differences in climate between the two sites.
() 0J320dEei
21


Fishery biologists often use a calcu
determining egg incubation periods
is a 24 hour period when the tempeh
In the Klamath River, degree days h
conditions for fish with the criteria b
thresholds. Since temperature wai
duration or number of hours at or ap
also summed from the continuous
actual duration and degree days abb
thresholds at Keno and Iron Gate D
chronic and acute thresholds in
1996 and 1997.
ated value called a "degree day" in
and growth rates for fish. A degree day
ature exceeds some value of interest,
ere are used as an estimate of stressful
sing the chronic and acute temperature
measured at hourly intervals, an actual
ove these temperature criteria were
n(ionitoring record. Table 3.1 presents the
ve chronic and acute temperature
am locations.
Table 3.1.-Duration of and degree days for temperature exceeding
he Klamath River at two locations in
Location
1996
Chronic1 Acute2
1997
Chronic Acute
Duration
Keno 95 19 124 34
Iron Gate 127 15 144 10
Dearee Davs
Keno 390 19 535 38
Iron Gate 500 4 541 3
'Chronic threshold >16C
JAcute threshold >22C
Summing the number of hourly m
the chronic or acute thresholds gives
fish might have had to endure unfavi
for 1996 at the Keno site actually re
of data in the warmest summer peri
it can be seen from Table 3.1 that
fa|surements when temperature exceeded
some indication of the length of time
orable meso-habitat conditions. Values
present low estimates because 2 weeks
bd (7/12-31/96) are missing. However,
lish might experience extended periods
22


of time when temperatures are unfa
fish more susceptible to disease an j
documented in August that probably
(Williamson and Foote, 1998). Ele\r.
dissolved oxygen concentrations pr
identified as stressors that reduced
Comparing the 1997 values, both K
approximately the same number of
temperature as well as degree days. However, the number of days of
actual duration and degree days for
threshold is much greater at Keno t
vorable for growth. Stress also makes
parasites. In 1997, a fish kill was
resulted from bacterial infection
ated water temperature and low
^ceding and during the fish kill were
resistance to the bacteria.
sno and Iron Gate seem to share
jays of actual duration for chronic
exceeding the acute temperature
lan at Iron Gate Dam. The differences
in elevation, meteorological conditicns for any given period, and the
operational patterns between the tvi/o locations are the determining factors
for temperature variability. However, the temperature regime below Iron
Gate Dam is marginally better for s^lmonids than at Keno. Iron Gate Dam
spawning migration in the Klamath
erature regime, if possible, is a
is the terminus for anadromous fish
River, therefore improving the temp
management goal for fisheries restoration.
Temperature can affect anadromou
the spring (May-June), the out-migr.
exit the Klamath River corridor to thle
13 C for optimal growth to occur (L
record in Fig. 3.2, below Iron Gate I)
almost all of that spring period. YC
the Klamath near Weitchpec, which
Trinity River, often die as soon as tHi
13 fish during two periods of the year. In
^ting YOY (young of year) fish need to
ocean before the temperature exceeds
SEPA, 1986). From the temperature
am the temperature exceeds 13 C for
U fish counted at a screw-trap site in
is just above the confluence of the
ey are handled (T. Shaw, pers. comm.).
23


The temperatures are very warm ai
handled to remove them from the sc
mortality for most of the fish. As a
exceeds 15 C, screw trap operatioh
r|d any additional stress such as being
rew trap holding cages, results in
general practice, once water temperature
is discontinued.
There are two species of anadromous fish that over-summer in the Klamath
River, steelhead and coho. Both species are currently listed as endangered
species in this drainage. Very low i icidence of both fish species have been
observed in spawning, thermal refuijia, and population sampling over the
past 10 years (CDFG, 1997). For both species the maximum temperature
at which growth can occur is about 22 C (USEPA, 1986). Temperature in
the Klamath River generally exceeds this value for at least a month or more
at the height of summer. Fish can move into the mouths of tributaries and
other areas where temperatures rricy be cooler than in the mainstem
Klamath River. However, the useahle habitat area in these areas is not
large (Belchik, 1997) and may cons:itute a limit on carrying capacity for
over-summering salmonids in the Kamath.
Dissolved Oxygen
DO (Dissolved oxygen concentratio
proportional relationship. In the sunp
greatest, DO is less soluble in wate
is less than periods when temperatii
affected by altitude/barometric pres>i
study area have slightly lower DO th
and Iron Gate Dam, that difference
i)and temperature have an inversely
mer months when temperature is
and therefore, even at 100% saturation
re is lower. The solubility of DO is also
ure. Higher elevation locations in the
an those at lower elevations. For Keno
s about 0.4 0.5 mg/L at any
24


temperature and 100% saturation (H
Keno DO is always lower than Iron
they are at different elevations. Th
monitoring instrumentation was depl
the main flow channel. Because turl
more subject to lacustrine processes
reservoirs are dominated by a blue-g
during the summer months. This al
appearance of grass clippings on th
in waters influenced by algal growth
photosynthesis releases oxygen as
any given sunny day, the DO may r
several hours. At night, the algae
water and DO values may be very 16'
The Keno DO record displays some
3.3). As with temperature, two crite
colored bands representing the Cali
ydrolab Corp., 1989). This means that
Sate Dam DO values simply because
e Keno location where the continuous
oyed is also in a slack water site out of
bulent mixing did not occur, this site was
governing DO. The Klamath River
reen alga, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae,
gae forms a surface scum that has the
e water. DO exhibits wide diel variability
and respiration. During the day,
a by product and during the afternoon of
se above 100% saturation values for
respire and deplete oxygen from the
iw just before sunrise for a few hours,
of that diel variability.
As previously discussed, the DO record for all locations has been adjusted
in both 1996 and 1997 due to the 'aging sensor phenomenon". However,
there is still sufficient reliable data remaining to discern some trends (Fig
ria are displayed on the figure as
fornia State standard for DO
(NCRWQCB, 1994) and a general standard for salmonid health (USEPA,
1986) of 7 mg/L and 5.5 mg/respectively. In this case, thresholds are
exceeded by being below the criterion rather than above as in the
temperature figures. At Keno, in bo
th 1996 and 1997, DO generally is
below the chronic threshold beginni ig in late June and below the acute
threshold for most of the summer. However, the diel variation in DO can
clearly be seen in the 1996 record (-ig. 3.3) when maximum DO and
25


minimum DO on a given day may r#i
Missing data in 1997 obscures this
A fish kill in Keno Reservoir in 1998
temperature exceeded 25 C and D
nge from 2-3 mg/L to 10-11 mg/L.
phenomenon, but it is still present.
resulted when daily average
O was below 3 mg/L for about 10 days
(L. Dugan, pers. comm.). It is unlikely that salmonids could survive at this
location even if they were able to pass the downstream dams by fish
ladders or other mechanisms. At Iron Gate Dam, DO is generally better
than at Keno (Fig. 3.4). Again, DO is always higher at Iron Gate Dam
simply as a function of lower elevat on. However the chronic threshold
(California Standard) is exceeded beginning in June of both 1996 and 1997
and the acute threshold (general standard) is exceeded in September of
both years. The fall period is one that is important for spawning runs of fall
Chinook salmon. Although the spav/ning run is terminated at Iron Gate
Dam, salmon arrive at the Dam at just about this time each year. They
utilize what habitat is available for g near the dam and many are
removed and both eggs and milt stripped to use at the fish hatchery near
Iron Gate Dam. The combination of high temperature and low DO can
adversely impact the number of via 5le eggs and sperm. The optimum
incubation temperature for salmonicls is 10 C and the maximum incubation
temperature is 13 C. Above this teimperature, fertilized eggs are not viable.
For the embryo and larval states salmonids, DO values of 7-9 mg/L may
still result in severe to moderate impairment (USEPA, 1986). Any DO
values below 6 mg/L may result in cute mortality. From the DO record at
Iron Gate Dam both temperature and DO are unfavorable for viable
fertilized salmonid eggs. It would soem likely that many of the early
spawners at Iron Gate Dam do not pontribute to the gene pool as their
fertilized eggs will not develop.
26


32797 42697 52697 62597 72597 82497 92397 102397 112297
DATE
Figure 3.3 Dissolved Oxygen record for Keno, OR, during 1996
and 1997.
As with temperature, the actual duration of time and an index similarly
calculated for degree days where 1 mg/L DO below a threshold value is
tabulated as a DO day is summarized in Table 3.2. These values are based
on the available data in each year and at Keno there were many sections of
missing data in 1997. However, it is still apparent that DO conditions are
extremely unfavorable for salmonids at Keno for extended periods of time in
summer. Even Iron Gate Dam experiences up to 2 weeks duration where
the acute threshold for DO is exceeded. That period coincides with the
0 8 6 4 2 0
3/6E) UOQSUe9uo0u86AXO paAIOSS!0
27


11
111 il HM II U Hill M II M 1:IU B I E
70297 80197
DATE
11 in i h n
112997
91 d n uimh n n n mi i ii a ini h ii i i in
50397 60297
Figure 3.4 Dissolved Oxygen record at Iron Gate Dam, CA,
during 1996 and 1997.
early part of the fall Chinook salmon run and must be a factor in limiting fish
production in years such as 1996 and 1997. Other factors are also involved
such as limited spawning habitat, but the management implication for fish
restoration is to improve temperature and DO to benefit the early spawning
fish eggs and larvae by increasing viability.
Caltonta Standard Avenge DO ModnunDO Mtrtrru'nDO
I
10
9
8
IIIHMIBI[IIINI[l![EI![ll
DATE
CaHorrM Standard Avenge 00 MartrrunDO
Gennl Standard
k i
0 9 8 7 6 5 4
uolleJlusouoouaBAXO pdAIOSSI0
28


Phosphorus and Nitrogen Nutrients
Why are both nutrient concentrations and loading a consideration in
anadromous fish restoration in the Klamath River? Nutrients, particularly
Table 3.2.- Duration of and DO dsfys for dissolved oxygen
concentrations below chronic a
River at two locations in 1996 and
i|id acute thresholds in the Klamath
1997.
Location 1996 Chronic1 A cute2 1997 Chronic Acute
Duration
Keno 119 89 147 135
Iron Gate 108 12 98 18
DO Davs
Keno 369 2 !06 274 162
Iron Gate 71 0 94 4
'Chronic threshold -<7 mg/L
2Acute threshold -<5.5 mg/L
phosphorus, stimulate plant growth (I
the Klamath River watershed includ
and cattle grazing. These land u&
waters (National Research Council,
desirable for fish, too much product
DO, which adversely affect growth
River is naturally enriched because
and peat soils that are relatively high
lakes and reservoirs, phosphorus is
(Wetzel, 1983). In the Klamath Rivis
limiting nutrient, particularly in the s
Maidment, 1992). Land use patterns in
e timber harvest and both agriculture
4s tend to increase nutrients in receiving
1992). Although plant production is
on leads to warmer temperatures, lower
_nd reproduction of fish. The Klamath
the upper watershed drains volcanic
in phosphorus (USGS, 1999). In many
the limiting nutrient for plant growth
r reservoirs, nitrogen tends to be the
jmmer months (Campbell, et al., 1992).
29


With an abundance of nutrients in t
during day light hours, free oxygen
oxygen concentration increases, so
where little bubbles of 02 can be se
ie water, aquatic plants thrive in the
Klamath River and the reservoirs. When aquatic plants photosynthesize
s produced as by-product. Dissolved
metimes reaching super-saturation
sn on underwater leaf surfaces or even
bubbling from the water surface in s lack waters. During the night, plants
respire and consume dissolved oxygen from the water. Just before sunrise,
dissolved oxygen concentrations can be considerably reduced. This diel
ntration can limit use of lower velocity
that would otherwise be energetically
use. Although aquatic plants can also
tion, larval and juvenile fish cannot
variation in dissolved oxygen conce
water along the margins of streams
favorable for larval and juvenile fish
provide cover to escape from preda
utilize that cover continuously. When they move to a location with better
water quality, they might have to ex
jend more energy actively swimming
against a stronger current or spend less time feeding and more time
swimming. All of these factors can adversely affect growth rates as well
survival. Excess nitrogen in the forms of ammonia and nitrite can also
reduce dissolved oxygen concentra ions through nitrification, the oxidation
of these constituents to nitrate (Maiament, 1992).
The amount of nutrients in the Klam
fish health. There are two main tec
conditions; concentration and loadir
to be more critical in non-flowing wi
ath River, then is indirectly important to
iniques for assessing nutrient
g. The concentration of nutrients tends
sjters such as ground waters, ponds,
s, nutrient loading as a function of
lakes or reservoirs. In flowing water!
discharge, may be more relevant. concentration and loading will be
addressed in this section.
30


Nutrient Concentrations
Table 3.3 presents results of nutrient analysis for samples collected in the
Klamath River study area during 19
measure, the various nutrient const
P = Total Phosphorus; Ortho-P = O
increase more markedly from up- to
36 and 1997. As a space saving
tuents are abbreviated as follows: Total
rtho-phosphorus; TKN = Total Kjeldahl
Nitrogen; Total N = Total Nitrogen; land TON = Total Organic Nitrogen.
Examination of values in Table 3.3 indicate that total phosphorus
concentration had a slight tendency to increase from upstream (Keno) to
downstream (Iron Gate). Ortho-phcsphorus concentration seemed to
downstream. Ammonia concentrations
showed a strong tendency to decrease longitudinally from Keno
downstream to Iron Gate. Nitrate concentrations tended to increase from
up- to downstream, perhaps because the values at J.C. Boyle Powerplant
were much greater and that influence persisted downstream to Iron Gate.
Table 3.3 Phosphorus and Nitrogen nutrient concentration summary
for three locations in the Klamatti River study area during 1996 and
1997.
Station Statistic Total P Ortho-P Ammonia Nitrate TKN Total N TON
(mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L)
Keno Average 0.184 0.109 0.452 0.135 1.576 1.711 1.124
Std. Dev. 0.065 0.055 0.360 0.084 0.550 0.570 0.288
Median 0.177 0.104 0.420 0.120 1.690 1.860 1.110
Powerplant Average 0.226 0.114 0.151 0.466 0.884 1.350 0.733
Std. Dev. 0.247 0.054 0.124 0.325 0.430 0.711 0.351
Median 0.161 0.113 0.160 0.390 0.990 1,380 0.890
Iron Gate Average 0.219 0.146 0.095 0.247 0.818 1.065 0.723
Std. Dev. 0.117 0.083 0.043 0.151 0.269 0.364 0.269
Median 0.220 0.162 0.100 0.215 0.745 1.040 0.651
31


Total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogejn
concentration shared a tendency to
There is a sequence of changes in
oxidized (Maidment, 1992). Total o
converted to nitrate usually in an u
beginning where point or nonpoint
stream. Nitrate then decreases londi
ranges from 0.5 3.0 mg/L, howeve
can cause significant toxicity to fish
1992). Ammonia concentration exc
at the Keno site and both the mean
,and total organic nitrogen
decrease in the downstream direction.
:he form of nitrogen that occur as it is
pganic nitrogen and ammonia are
pstream to downstream direction
sources of these constituents enter a
itudinally as plant uptake begins.
In the absence of sewage wastewa er, ammonia concentration in streams
sr, concentrations in excess of 0.5 mg/L
and other aquatic organisms (Maidment,
jseded 0.5 mg/ on 35/ of sample dates
and median values for this location
approach the 0.5 mg/L toxicity level (Table 3.3).
TON (Total organic nitrogen), as with ammonia, decreases from upstream
to downstream in the Klamath study area. Combined sewer outflows
typically contain 1-2 mg/L TON, whi e most stream are in the range of 0.2 -
0.8 mg/L (Maidment, 1992). At Keno, both the average and median were in
the range for combined sewer outflo ws (Table 3.3). TON concentration
exceeded 1.0 mg/ for 59% of sample dates at the Keno location.
Nitrate concentration in streams in tie absence of sewage wastewater
usually ranges from 0.1-0.5 mg/L (W
0.5 mg/L may indicate the presence
fertilizers or animal waste deposition
oxidized to nitrate in the soil. Since
aidment, 1992). Values in excess of
of agricultural return flows containing
in the watershed. Organic wastes are
nitrate is nearly always found in
32


dissolved form, it is then easily carrf
concentration at J.C. Boyle Powerp
sampling dates during 1996 and 190
concentration approaches the 0.5
source pollution in the watershed fdr
ed to streams with runoff. Nitrate
ant exceeded 0.5 mg/L on 35% of
7 (Table 3.3). The average
n|ig/L value that may indicate nonpoint
that location.
Ammonia concentration at the Keno
Iron Gate (p = 0.02) while nitrate co
greater than at Keno (p= 0.01). Hi Boyle Powerplant seem to persist dy
iron Gate Dam. There may be unkn
from sewage effluent, agricultural ri)
Klamath River between Keno and J
cycling processes that were unquarj
process may be apparent in this shi
between the upstream (Keno) and
although it is equally likely that othdr
Most of the known agricultural return
Keno, Oregon. The longitudinal tre
reflect the effect of agriculture on
shift in nutrient speciation from amrhi
nitrification occurring below point sc i
Maidment [1992]. Further support foi
found in correlations among total n
concentrations. At the Keno locatio(
with ammonia (r=0.91) during 1996
strongly correlated with nitrate (r=0
site was significantly greater than at
ncentration at Iron Gate was significantly
her concentrations of nitrate at J.C.
wnstream to influence concentration at
own point or nonpoint sources of nitrate
noff, or animal wastes that enter the
C. Boyle Powerplant, or reservoir
tified in this study. The nitrification
ft from ammonia to nitrate trends seen
cjlownstream (Iron Gate) locations,
process are involved.
flows enter the Klamath River above
id in both ammonia and TON seem to
pter quality in the Klamath River. The
onia and TON to nitrate is typical of
urces of nitrogen described by
r the trend in nutrient speciation was
Imogen, ammonia, and nitrate
n, total nitrogen was strongly correlated
97. At Iron Gate, total nitrogen was
.86) during the study period.
33


Ortho-phosphorus concentration ca
reaches of rivers, unless photosynthesis is occurring or until point or
nonpoint loading enters the stream
n tend to remain constant over long
Maidment, 1992). In the Klamath River
study, ortho-P tended to increase Icngitudinally from up- to downstream
(Table 3.3). Ortho-phosphorus data for the Iron Gate location was not
available for all sampling dates. Total phosphorus, on the average, is about
95% particulate and 5% dissolved (Vlaidment, 1992). For sites other than
Iron Gate, an ortho-P was approxinr ately 88-90% of total P. A conservative
ratio of 0.67 was used to estimate crtho-P for sampling dates at Iron Gate
where data were not available. Thi$ ratio was derived from those dates
Perhaps because this conservative
tion of ortho-P was not significantly
where ortho-P data were available
estimate was utilized, the concentrs
different between the two locations (p= 0.12).
n
Some seasonality is usually appare
is often apparent that spring runoff
influences water borne constituents
concentration were examined using
samples for each season was <10 i
the non-parametric procedures is w
negatively correlated with all nutrie
Correlation r values ranged from -0.
discharge and nutrient constituents
values ranging from -0.002 to 0.44.
seem to dilute nutrient concentratioh
strongest correlation with discharge
concentrations measured in 1996 a
years, spring concentrations Keno,
occurring, are usually the lowest va
it in determining water quality trends. It
With it's concomitant increase in flow
Seasonal trends in nutrient
Spearman correlations. The number of
all cases, therefore the power of even
eakened. However, discharge was
rjt constituents at Keno except nitrate.
54 to -0.79 at this location. At Iron Gate
were not strongly correlated with r
At the Keno site, spring runoff does
s. Total phosphorus exhibited the
at r =- 0.79. Figure 3.5 displays total P
id 1997 in the study area. In both
tvhen maximum discharge is also
ues measured at this site.
34


Keno
7/09 8/13
Date-1996
Powerptant
Iron Gate
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
4/16 5/19 6/24 7/15 8/18 9/17 10/14 11/12
Date -1997
Keno Powerplant Iron Gate
Figure 3.5 Total phosphorus concentrations in the Klamath
River at three locations during 1996 and 1997.
Nutrient Loading
Figure 3.6 displays total phosphorus loading at 3 locations within the study
area. The J.C. Boyle Powerplant location is included here as a mid-
reservoir in the series to determine whether a longitudinal gradient for
nutrient loading exists. The null hypothesis being tested is that there is no
difference between upstream and downstream nutrient loading value. The
{-l/D,ui} snjolldsoqd lMoi
n/6E} snJoqdsoMdl201
35


DATE
Figure 3.6 Total phosphorus loading for 3 locations on the
Klamath River during 1996 and 1997.
alternative hypotheses are that there is a difference and that nutrient
loading either increases or decreases from upstream to downstream in the
study area. When reservoirs are in series, typically nutrient loading tends to
decrease longitudinally. Since total phosphorus is usually particulate, then
impounding water would trap particles and the reservoir would act as a
nutrient sink, at least seasonally. Reservoirs often stratify in summer. One
DATE
Klamath River
1997
Klamath River
1996
1 1
spuesnoul-
{p/s- snsruoqdsoLIrtte}01
11
spuesnoq1-
(p/o^^snsnloudsoMd
36


of the basic properties of water is th e density/temperature relationship.
Water is densest at 4 C and less dense both above and below that
temperature. In the summer, reservoirs are compartmentalized into a freely
mixing layer or epilimnion and a cooler layer below that called the
hypolimnion. Because the two compartments or layers don't intermix to a
significant degree, the hypolimnion becomes oxygen depleted (Wetzel,
1983). The reduction portion of cheimical equilibrium reactions is favored
during anoxic conditions. Phosphorus tends to be bound to iron
compounds and when reduced, P is released from the complex. P then
accumulates in the hypolimnion anc
"compartments" of a lake or reservciir to mix freely, P concentrations
increase. In the spring, P concentrations may be greater simply because
there is a larger volume of water wi|
entrained in flows entering the resei
fall turnover allows both
h spring run-off or more sediment
rvoir.
In Figure 3.6, both of those phenorT ena may be apparent. In both 1996 and
1997, there is a peak in total P loading in spring throughout the reservoir
series and a tendency for a fall pea ^ below both J.C. Boyle Powerplant and
Iron Gate Dam. The spring peak may be associated with high spring inflows
and the fall peak with turnover in th 3 reservoirs above the sampling
locations. It also seems apparent that total P loading tends to increase from
upstream to downstream. Because loading includes flow volume, it is
possible that an increase in flow frorn upstream to downstream is solely
responsible for the increasing trend
However, the average difference in
seeming displayed in Fig. 3.5.
flow discharge between Keno and Iron
Gate Dam is about 35% and the average difference in total P loading is
about 195%. Total P loading below Iron Gate Dam is nearly 2 times the P
loading at Keno, while flow increases by 1/3 (Table 3.4). To test the null
37


hypothesis, a Wilcoxon rank sum te
test was used because the data we
probability of the null hypothesis be
the alpha 0.5 level, the null hypothe
P loading values below Iron Gate Dpi
the total P loading values at Keno.
st was performed. The non-parametric
Fe non-normally distributed. The
ng accepted was p= .003, therefore at
sis is rejected. The distribution of total
m is shifted to the right (greater) than
Trends for total N loading are not re adily apparent (Fig. 3.7). Its possible
that some spring and fall increases may occur, but the nitrogen-fixing algal
species in the reservoir and the irrigation return flow run-off mask overall
trends. N to P ratios were calculate d for each sampling date and compared
using the ratio of 10 N:1 P to determine nitrogen limitation (N/P ratio
<10:1) or phosphorus limitation (N^P ratio >10:1) (Horne and Goldman,
1994). Trends are displayed in Figure 3.8. In 1996, there was a tendency
for the TN/TP ratio to increase from upstream to downstream in the spring
indicating N limitation in the upper study area (Keno) and P limitation in the
lower study area (Iron Gate Dam). In summer N limitation was pervasive,
but was more severe in the lower si udy area at Iron Gate Dam. In the fall of
1996, the upper study are was P limited, while the lower study area was N
limited, which was a reversal of conditions in the spring. In 1997, conditions
were N limited in spring and summer through the study area. In fall, 1997
N/P ratios exhibited the same patte
m as 1996 with P limitation in the upper
study area and N limitation in the lower study area.
Seasonal changes in N/P ratios are
water column mixing events in rese
plant growth. P limitation changes
plants that can fix nitrogen from the
summertime conditions to be more
commonly seen when spring runoff or
rvoirs provide ample phosphorus for
: N limitation and allows species of
atmosphere under usually warmer
competitive and dominate the algal
38


Snake River, ID
Wood River, OR
Klamath River at Keno
Klamath River at Iron Gate
512 Clarke and Ott, 1996
250 Campbell, e^. a/., 1992
240 Campbell, et ait 1993
255 Campbell, unpub. data
1659
1200
2186
1800
Table 3.4 Nutrient loading comparison for the Klamath River study sites and selected
rivers in geographical proximity.

Location Year Total P Load kg/y x105 Total N Load kg/y xIO6 Discharge cfs Reference
Carson River, NV 1980 1.63 0.74 658 Garcia and Carman, 1985
Truckee River, NV 1973-87 0.96 1.04 735 Galatt 1990
1982 2.97 1.57 1615 ibid
Long Tom River, OR 1982 2.36 2.54 1200 Bonn, et a/., 1995
South Yamhill River, OR 1982 1.18 0.74 2348 ibid
0656 0231
5 0 0 0 4 9 2 5
0000 z 1 2 1
2865 7058
3 2 2 3 3 2 0 1
0000 z 2 4 4
4123 6767
8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
1111 111-1


Klamath River
1997
3/2S 4/16 6/19 6/19 7/15 8/18 9/17 10/14
DATE
Klamath River
1996
Keno Powerplant Iron Gate
5/20 6/12 7/9 S/13 8/23 10/22 11/13
DATE
Figure 3.7 Total nitrogen loading at 3 locations in the
Klamath River during 1996 and 1997.
assemblage. Since the reservoirs throughout the study area do exhibit
blue-green algal dominance in summer, the change from P limitation to N
limitation may be explained by the succession of algal communities within
the reservoirs and immediately below the reservoirs in the mainstem
Klamath River.
s30025020015010050^
wpuesnoql
(p/eM)1 u60s i
-0^0000
*fl,s,fl,5 o 6
3 3 2 2 11
spcesnoqi
{p/e^PBOlueeo^Nil
40


1996
Keno J.C. Boyw Canyon Powerplant Iron Gate
Klamath River Location
1997
20
"Spring Surnnar Fall limiting Boundary
Kno J.C. Boyle Canyon Powerplant Iron Gate
Klamath River Location
Figure 3.8 Seasonal nitrogen to phosphorus ratios
calculated for 5 locations on the Klamath
River during 1996 and 1997.
The Klamath River is highly productive. Upper Klamath Lake is classified
as hypereutrophic (USGS, 1998). One of the hypothesis evaluated here
was that the reservoirs in series would act as nutrient sinks and that nutrient
loading would therefore decrease from upstream to downstream as the
intervening reservoirs sequestered a portion of the nutrients. The statistical
onsdlyNi
41


Phosphorus oading Comparison
Loading (kg/y x 105)
Figure 3.9 Phosphorus loading comparisons using flow
normalized estimates for selected rivers in the
northwestern United States.
analysis rejected that hypothesis and generally indicated that although each
reservoir may in fact act as a nutrient sink when inflow to outflow loadings
are compared, in this study we could only compare loading coming into the
uppermost reservoir to discharge coming from the lowermost reservoir.
There are two main possibilities for nutrient loading, external and internal.
No measure of internal nutrient loading dynamics in the reservoirs were
performed for this study. Therefore, the internal cycling of nutrients in each
or any of the reservoirs was not quantified. Because the relative size of the
42


Nitrogen Loading Comparison
Loading (Kg/y x 10e)
Figure 3.10 Nitrogen loading comparisons using flow
normalized estimates for selected rivers in
the northwestern United States.
watersheds for each reservoir is relatively small and nonpoint sources for
nutrient loading including land use can be readily identified, it is just as likely
that internal cycling may account for the generally increasing trend from
upstream to downstream as external loading. Table 3.4 compares the
uppermost site at Keno, OR and the lowermost site at Iron Gate Dam, CA to
rivers in Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada to gain some idea of how the Klamath
43


River compares to others in terms
that are most directly comparable ir
Truckee River, NV, the Long Tom
they also have loading values base^i
case for the Klamath River in both 1
the Long Tom River, OR, and the T
similar to the Klamath River at Iron
River is most directly comparable tc
but P loading is only about 25% of tn
c)f both N and P loading. The three rivers
size to the Klamath River are the
Fj^iver and South Yamhill River, OR, but
on "wet" hydrologic years, as is the
996 and 1997. The total P load from
ruckee River, NV. during 1982, is very
3ate Dam. However, the South Yamhill
the Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam,
e Iron Gate value.
The difficulty in doing direct comparisons of values from Table 3.4 led to
performing a flow-normalized comparison. To normalize the flow, the
discharge value for each river listed
Iron Gate Dam discharge in 1998 and 1997 and the loading values were
divided by that ratio. The Keno site
discharge for each year rather than
resulting loading comparison is di
previously discussed, total P
in Table 3.4 was divided by the mean of
is display!
loading al
discharge was divided by the Iron Gate
by the average of the two years. The
ed in Figures 3.9 and 3.10. As
at Keno is still significantly less than at
Iron Gate Dam (Fig. 3.9). When flow is normalized, total N loading is much
greater at Keno than at Iron Gate Dam (Fig. 3.10). When total P loading
among rivers is compared, it becomes obvious that the Carson River, NV
was also another phosphorus enriched river (Fig. 3.9). Comparing total N
loading among rivers indicates that the ong Tom River, OR and the
Truckee River, NV on the average from 1973-87 are not as N depauperate
as the lower portion of the Klamath River study area (Fig. 3.10).
Using the N/P ratio criterion (Horne
indicates nitrogen limitation and >1C
and Goldman, 1994) where N/P < 10
indicates phosphorus limitation, the
44


Truckee over a 15 year period (73-U7), Long Tom, Snake and the Klamath
River at Keno, OR in 1996 were all phosphorus limited systems (Fig 3.9).
The Carson, Truckee during 1982, South Yamhill, the Wood and the
Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam were all nitrogen limited systems (Fig.
3.10).
45


CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSIONS
Temperature
Water temperature conditions were
species of concern (Chinook, coho and steelhead) during the summer
months of both 1996 and 1996. Ch
for 3-4 months during 1996 and 4-5
within the study area from Keno, Oiegon to Seiad Valley, California.
Conditions were a little cooler (1-2
but other studies have confirmed th
conditions (>22 C) were exceeded
unfavorable for the anadromous fish
ronic conditions (>16 C) were exceeded
months in 1997 depending on location
C) immediately below Iron Gate Dam,
at cooling below the chronic threshold
does not persist downstream past the confluence of the Scott River. Acute
for 15-20 days in 1996 and 10-34 days
in 1997, again depending on location in the study area. There were
generally fewer days when acute temperature was exceeded below Iron
Gate Dam and other studies confirn that some cooling below the acute
threshold does persist downstream
at Seiad Valley, CA.
DissQlved Oxvaen
Dissolved oxygen concentrations w
during summer months. Chronic cc|
2.5-3 months in 1996 and 3-5 mon
the study area. Because the Keno
to the lower boundary of the study area
ere unfavorable for anadromous fish
nditions (<7 mg/L) were exceeded for
iths in 1997 depending on location within
location is not within turbulent flow in the
46


exceeded for 12 days 3 months in
Anadromous fish cannot pass Iron (Bate Dam, therefore the relevant
channel, DO was generally lower and there were wider diel differences in
DO concentrations at this site. Acute conditions (<5.5 mg/L) were
1996 and 18 days 4.5 months in 1997.
temperature and DO criteria are on
values reported for the Keno site ar
w truly relevant for this location. The
re relevant only because poor water
quality conditions may persist further downstream and in some cases may
even deteriorate further. A manage ment consideration in the Klamath is the
potential for water quality to deterio ate as flow is increased through the
system. Since no clean, cold water inflow of any appreciable size enter the
Klamath River between Keno and lion Gate Dam, increasing flow may
actually cause further warming and
adversely impact anadromous fish.
DO impairment that would further
For example, if temperature decreases
by 1-2 0C between Keno andiron C^ate, wHI that same temperature
decrease occur if flows are increasod by 50% or more? If DO is generally
1-2 mg/L greater below Iron Gate Dam, will that remain the case if flow is
augmented? Characterization of water quality in the Klamath River will not
answer these questions, but the mo deling application being developed using
the data collected during this study can do just that. The modeling
application does not yield the duration of time for chronic or acute conditions
because it generates daily average
common data set are complimentar/.
Nutrient
Concentration
Both total and ortho-phosphorus coi
from up- to downstream (Keno to lr compared were not significantly diffe
information. These two uses for a
pcentration had a tendency to increase
n Gate), however, the two locations
rent from one another. Ammonia total
47


Kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen and
nitrate concentrations. At the Keno
correlated with ammonia, while at th
strongly correlated with nitrate. At t
total organic nitrogen concentrations
exhibited a strong tendency to decrease in the downstream direction.
Nitrate concentration tended to incnjase from up- to downstream.
Nitrification processes were apparent in a shift from ammonia and total
organic nitrogen species to nitrate downstream through the four reservoirs-
in-series within the study area. Th supported statistically by correlations among total nitrogen, ammonia and
location total nitrogen was strongly
ie Iron Gate location, total nitrogen was
the Keno location, ammonia exceeded
the value for toxicity to fish and othesr aquatic organisms on 35% of sample
dates and total organic nitrogen was in the range of 1-2 mg/l which is
characteristic of combined sewer outflows on 59% of sample dates. Nutrient
concentrations were negatively correlated with discharge at the Keno
location, but were not significantly correlated with flow at the Iron Gate
location.
Nutrient Loading
There was a tendency toward spring and fall peaks in both phosphorus and
nitrogen loading. The spring peak was apparently associated with higher
flows during runoff. The fall peak may be associated with reservoir turnover
that mixes hypolimnetic water enriched with phosphorus and/or nitrogen
throughout the water column and increases concentrations for a period of
time. There was a general increase in phosphorus loading longitudinally
from the upstream location at Keno
below Iron Gate Dam. This increas
explained by increase in flow betwe
OR as compared to the Klamath River
e in loading was not completely
en the two sites and may indicate
additional external loading sources sntering between Keno and Iron Gate
48


Dam or may be caused by internal
nutrient cycling was not quantified,
explained. However, the reservoirs
as a significant nutrient sink betwee
locations which are the upstream a
ijiutrient cycling. Because internal
his phenomenon cannot be readily
fin-series do not seem to be functioning
n the Keno, OR and Iron Gate Dam, CA
rlid downstream sites, respectively.
Nitrogen to phosphorus ratios indicate that although the study area was
generally nitrogen limited, there may be a seasonal change from P limitation
in spring to N limitation in summer,
limitation in the upper portion of the
limitation persists in the lower portio|n
comparing the Klamath River to oth
Carson and Truckee Rivers, NV, ai
nutrient rich systems. The Truckee
the Snake River, ID, appear to be
River, NV, South Yamhill River and
River appear to be N limited.
difficult. The reservoirs are shallow
time. The reservoir outlet is at or ne
There may also be a tendency for P
study area (Keno) in the fall, while N
of the study area (Iron Gate). In
sr rivers in the northwestern U.S., the
r|d the Long Tom River, OR appear to be
River, NV, Long Tom River, OR, and
fp limited systems, while the Carson
Wood Rivers OR, and the Klamath
The management implications of this study indicate that improving the
thermal regime or the DO concentration to benefit anadromous fish will be
and have a relatively short detention
ar the surface in the epilimnion where
warming and algal growth are at maximum levels. Changing the reservoir
outlet depth would be very expensive and may adversely impact water
quality if hypolimnetic waters depauperate in DO, further nutrient enriched,
or containing high concentrations ol trace metals are discharged from low-
level outlets. Focusing management of the reservoirs and stream flow on
certain limited time periods to beneljit some species or life stages of
49


cool water stores in Iron Gate Rese
fall to improve the thermal regime ir
anadromous fish may have some utility if performed consistently year after
year. For example, if flows are incruased in late May/early June of each
year to foster rapid downstream movement of out-migrating salmonids, then
thermal stress might be minimized e nough to allow better survival rates. If
voir are depleted in late summer/early
the Klamath River immediately below
the Dam, that could provide some relief to over-summering species and life
stages of salmonids. However, cool water stores in Iron Gate Dam currently
provide water to the fish hatchery noar Iron Gate operated by California
Department of Fish and Game to m tigate loss of access to spawning habitat
above the Dam. Some other mechanism for providing water of a suitable
temperature to the hatchery would have to be developed and associated
costs for installation, maintenance, land operation provided.
Decreases in nutrient loading may
practices in the watershed to reduc^
corridors along the river and tributaii
agriculture or pasturing in the Basin
implementing on a gradual or long
resources in the Klamath Basin. H
component for plant growth in these
already be enough nutrients stored
for many years even if nutrient load
decreased.
k e possible through best management
sediment loading, re-establish riparian
es, or change land use to reduce
These are probably worth
rknge basis to generally protect water
q>wever, the internal nutrient cycling
reservoirs is unknown. There may
n the sediment to continue algal growth
ng from the watershed is significantly
Anadromous fish stocks in the Klamath River may best be preserved by
eliminating sport fishing in both the narine and fresh-water environments for
an extended period, as well as implement the various operational and
watershed management strategies qiscussed above.
50


APPENDIX
Temperature, Dissolved O:
Data from 2 or 5 Iocs:
| tions in the Klamath River
Study Area during 1996 and 1997
51


Klamath River at Kenor Oregon
Temperature (C) Temperature (0C)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
40396 40397 8.15 8.73 7.50
40496 40497
40596 40597 8.41 9.15 7.71
40697 40697 8.37 8.70 7.86
40796 40797 0.66 9.04 6.28
40896 40897 8.73 8.87 8.51
40996 40997 0.40 8.69 6.01
41096 41097 8.20 8.54 7.95
41196 41197 8.31 9.07 7.84
41296 41297 8.64 9.30 8.00
41396 41397 9.19 9.45 8.94
41496 41497 9.30 9.94 8.91
41596 41597 10.07 11.08 9.37
41696 41697 10.95 11.70 10.31
41796 41797
41896 41897
41996 41997 11.53 12.19 11.17
42096 42097 11.56 11.98 11.22
42196 42197 11.63 12.23 11.43
42296 42297 11.62 1192 11.28
42396 42397 11.24 11.69 10.91
42496 42497 10.91 11.59 10.30
42596 42597 11.66 12.68 10.97


Klamath Rivef at Keno, Oregon
Temperature fC)
Date Average Maximum Minimum
Date
Average
Temperature ((
Maximum
42696 42697 12.64 13.53
42796 42797 12.99 13.56
42896 42897 12.65 12.95
42996 42997 12.41 12.71
43096 43097 12.11 12.33
50196 50197 11.72 12.11
50296 50297 12.29 12.85
50396 50397 12.85 13.27
50496 50497 13.14 13.70
50596 50597 13.70 14.32
50696 50697 14.10 14.59
50796 50797 14.30 15.52
50896 50897 14.90 16.73
50996 50997 15.46 16.36
51096 51097 16.33 18.12
51196 51197 18.23 20.92
51296 51297 18.47 19.84
51396 51397 18.36 19.65
51496 51497 18.61 19.08
51596 16.81 17.09 16.58 51597
51696 16.21 16.55 15.86 51697
51796 15.02 15.81 14.46 51797
51896 13.96 14.34 13.76 51897
Minimum
11.89
12.59
12.39
12.18
11.91
11.31
11.79
1251
12.72
13.23
13.73
13.71
13.66
14.94
15.27
17.15
17.61
17.62
18.29


Klamath R(ver at Keno, Oregon

Date Average Temperature (C) Maximum Minimum Date Average Temoerature lQC) Maximum Minimum
51996 13.49 13.71 13.26 51997
52096 13.53 14.01 13.08 52097
52196 13.00 13.94 13.69 52197
52296 13.28 13.73 12.98 52297
52396 12.43 12.95 12.11 52397
52496 12.53 13.00 11.92 52497 17.96 18.38 17.39
52596 13.19 13.96 12.54 52597 16. 17.51 16.52
52696 14.21 14.83 13.54 52697 16.70 17.29 16.48
52796 14.58 14.96 14.06 52797 17.04 17.90 16,67
52896 14.85 15.48 14.29 52897 17.17 17.64 16.83
52996 14.92 16.15 14.22 52997 17.69 19.94 16.97
53096 15.27 16.03 14.57 53097 10.94 20.87 17.68
53196 15.63 16.79 14.85 53197 19.27 20.00 18.56
60196 16.55 18.16 15.52 60197 16.37 19.52 17.86
60296 17.55 19.17 16.40 60297 18.76 19.91 17.99
60396 18.42 19.03 17.91 60397 18.69 19.11 18.45
60496 18.52 19.75 17.89 60497 18.14 18.55 17.81
60596 15.66 21.33 18.4 60597 17.79 18.77 17.36
60696 20.34 21.91 19.36 60697 17.88 19.69 16.99
60796 21.00 22.48 19.88 60797 17.97 18.84 17.31
60896 21.41 22.37 20,47 60897 18.41 20.72 17.54
60996 20.96 21.63 20.47 60997 18.29 18.80 17.78
61096 20.42 21.31 19.81 61097 18.74 19.64 18.49


Klamath River at Keno, Oregon

Temperature (C) Temoerature (C)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
61196 20.57 21.38 20.12 61197 18.27 18.83 17.96
61296 20.07 20.91 19.78 61297
61396 61397 17.64 18.66 17.07
61496 21.06 21.56 20.60 61497 17.48 16.99 16.93
61596 20.47 21.10 20.12 61597 17.56 18.95 16.75
61696 20.53 21.53 20.19 61697 18.51 20.57 17.78
61796 19.75 20.07 19.39 61797 19.74 20.52 18.93
61896 19.15 20.23 18.69 61697 19.59 20.68 16.94
61996 18.44 19.01 18.22 61997 19.04 20.96 19.25
62096 19.35 19.73 19.04 62097 19.94 20.68 19.49
62196 19.04 19.67 18.66 62197 19.58 20.19 19.06
62296 18.61 19.09 10.09 62297 18.98 20.10 18.42
62396 18.39 18.75 18.18 62397 18.72 19.86 18.13
62496 17.99 18.20 17.78 62497 19.13 21.90 17.90
62596 17.48 18.03 17.18 62597 19.57 21.19 18.46
62696 17.24 17.63 16.90 62697 19.42 20.38 18.96
62796 17.22 17.58 16.95 62797 19.35 20.96 18.69
62896 17.21 17.92 16.68 62097 19.36 19.88 18.84
62996 17.63 19.53 16.97 62997 19.03 19.53 18.74
63096 18.41 20.87 17.25 63097 18.33 18.90 18.03
70196 19.48 21.42 18.12 70197 18.03 18.88 17.47
70296 20.84 22.64 19.46 70297 18.70 20.76 17.14
70396 21.53 22.30 20.58 70397 19.61 21.47 17.65


Klamath River at Keno, Oregon

Date Average TemDerature (C) Maximum Minimum Date Average Temoerature rc) Maximum Minimum
70496 20.83 21.54 20.04 70497 21.06 22.96 19.60
70596 20.79 22.50 19,92 70597 20.68 21.44 19.81
70696 21,51 23.13 20.18 70697 19.09 21.71 18.28
70796 22.B4 24.41 21.31 70797 20.86 23.33 19.51
70896 23.17 25.09 21.75 70897 20.84 21.56 19.74
70996 22.86 23.65 21.84 70997 20.46 20.91 20.11
71096 23.18 24.76 22.11 71097 20.91 22.61 19.27
71196 23.75 24.47 22.04 71197 20.48 22.06 19.29
71296 71297 2103 23.14 19.65
71396 71397 22.11 23.20 21.00
71496 71497 22.16 24.03 21.19
71596 71597 22.23 24.30 21.40
71696 71697 22.28 23.11 21.62
71796 71797 21.45 22.19 20.47
71896 71897 21.51 23.91 20.18
71996 71997 22.67 24.07 20.06
72096 72097 23.61 25.00 21.98
72196 72197 23.92 24.94 22.70
72296 72297 23.33 25.13 22.28
72396 72397 23.28 25.04 22.09
72496 72497 23.38 25.10 22.29
72596 72597 23.22 24.29 22.18
72696 72697 23.37 24.82 22.22


Klamath River at Keno, Oregon

Date Average Temoerature fC) Maximum Minimum Date Average Temoerature fC) Maximum Minimum
72796 7279 23.68 25.23 22.60
72096 72897 23.70 25.19 23.12
72996 72997 22.94 23.90 22.38
73096 73097 22.77 24.99 22.01
73196 73197 22.75 24.58 21.92
80196 24.45 24.97 23.70 80197 22.40 24.03 21.65
80296 22.88 23.54 22.41 80297 22.56 23.70 21.41
80396 22.00 22.68 21.56 80397 23.09 24.48 22.28
80496 21.58 22.34 20.91 80497 22.85 25.02 21.68
80596 21.05 21.38 20.72 80597 23.28 25.53 21.84
60696 21.08 22.73 20.21 00697 23.08 24.80 21.74
80796 21.50 23.25 20.18 80797 23,08 24.65 22.02
60896 22.05 24.63 20.30 80897 23.42 24.36 22.41
80996 22.58 25.26 20.65 80997 23.82 25.88 22.68
81096 22.90 24.76 21.47 81097 23.71 25.01 22.54
81196 23.44 24.64 22.70 81197 23.71 25.34 22.70
81296 23.13 24.50 22.25 81297 23.80 25.44 22.40
81396 23.35 24.65 22.49 81397 23.32 24.31 22.46
81496 23.55 24.99 22.68 81497 22.94 23.50 22.24
01596 23.18 24.19 22.32 81597 22.69 23.28 21.96
81696 22.40 22.93 21.91 81697 22.93 24.60 21.98
81796 21.75 22.41 21.15 81797 22.72 23.65 21,85
81096 21.57 22.80 20.72 81897 22.51 23.94 21.62


Klamath River at Kenof Oregon
oo
Temperature (C) Temperature (C)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
81996 21.39 22.00 20.84 81997 22.58 25.06 2140
62096 21.13 22.11 20.66 82097 22.00 22.76 21.75
82196 21.26 22.84 20.54 82197 2191 23.59 21.20
62296 21.25 22.47 20.32 82297 22.02 22.85 21.33
02396 21.60 23.57 20.58 02397 21.70 22.93 21.27
82496 22.30 23.73 21.24 82497 21.19 21.71 20.78
82596 22.58 23.65 21.77 82597 2075 21.50 20.26
82696 22.21 22.99 21.55 82697 20.46 20.67 20.20
82796 2145 21.06 21.08 82797 20.16 21.04 19.74
82896 20.86 21.03 20.30 02897 20.01 20.77 19.51
82996 20.82 22.21 19.98 82997 20.07 21.37 19.50
83096 20.81 21.42 20.12 83097 20.03 21.36 19.20
83196 21.02 22.29 20.40 83197 20.30 21.47 19.56
90196 21.03 21.89 20.09 90197 20.52 21.23 19.89
90296 21.12 22.11 20.23 90297 20.88 21.61 20.32
90396 20.85 21.33 20.32 90397 20.37 21.01 20.12
90496 20,18 20,77 19.67 90497 20.26 21.40 19.53
90596 19.21 19.97 18.48 90597 20.07 20.82 19.45
90696 18.53 19.27 10.00 90697 20.27 2138 19.47
90796 18.27 19.13 17,85 90797 20.59 21.91 19.75
90896 18.27 19.31 17.55 90897 20.51 22.03 19.86
90996 18.53 19.67 17.93 90997 20.03 21.10 19.48
91096 19.07 20.12 18.24 91097 19.69 20.68 19.16


Klamath River at Keno, Oregon

Date Average Temoerature (C) Maximum Minimum Date Average Temoerature TO) Maximum Minimum
91196 19.45 20.49 18.41 91197 19.12 19.65 18.87
91296 18.84 19.55 10.00 91297 18.92 19.72 16.50
91396 17.68 18.00 17.46 91397 18.94 20.07 18.42
91496 17.20 17.85 16.94 91497 17.98 10.33 17.74
91596 1679 16.99 16.52 91597 17.24 17.69 16.95
91696 15.97 16.48 15.56 91697 16.97 18.23 16.19
91796 15,50 1677 14.94 91797 16.35 17.20 15.92
91896 15.67 16.70 15.21 91897 15.68 16.51 15.34
91996 15.60 16.22 15.24 91997 15.42 16.26 14.76
92096 15.36 15.94 14.96 92097 15.49 17.69 14.57
92196 15.38 15.99 15.04 92197 15.73 16.88 14.84
92296 15.32 16.01 14.84 92297 15.87 17.10 14.91
92396 14.96 15.62 14.57 92397 15.94 17.01 15.15
92496 14.90 15.72 14.45 92497 16.10 16.82 15.64
92596 15.01 15.69 14.62 92597 16.21 16.70 15.42
92696 15.24 16.00 14.62 92697 16.45 16.82 16.13
92796 15.34 16.25 14.91 92797 15.83 16.46 15.43
92896 15.32 15.91 14.85 92897 15.09 17.00 14.96
92996 15.52 16.26 14.85 92997 15.67 16.85 15.48
93096 15.74 16.40 15.23 93097 16.21 17.12 15.84
100196 15.02 16.45 15.28 100197 15.07 16.21 15.34
100296 15.93 16.65 15.44 100297 14.75 15.22 14.51
100396 16.21 17.02 15.91 100397 1441 14.92 14.09


Klamath River at Kenof Oregon
s
Temoerature (DC) Temperature (0)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minfmum
100496 16.22 16.56 16.02 100497 14.27 14.57 14.09
100596 16.51 17.30 16.14 100597 13.01 14.16 13.45
100696 16.65 17.43 16.26 100697 13.35 13.84 12.85
100796 16.73 17.61 16.34 100797 12.42 12.79 12.16
100896 16.80 17.57 16.24 100897 11.80 12.09 11.47
100996 16.95 17.76 16.43 100997 11.04 11.46 10.65
101096 16.95 17.24 16.73 101097 10.28 *10.56 9.94
101196 16.60 17.02 16.19 101197 9.55 9.88 9.28
101296 16.29 16.71 16.02 101297 9.33 9.67 9.03
101396 15.81 16.09 15.45 101397 9.42 10.17 9.00
101496 14.97 15.39 14.65 101497 9.65 10.25 9.30
101596 14.56 14.92 14.04 101597 9.90 10.83 9.47
101696 13.40 13.97 13.10 101697 9.92 10.05 9.55
101796 12,76 13.12 12,56 101797 10.19 10.61 9.91
101896 12.28 12.52 11.91 101897 10.56 11.75 10.14
101996 11.29 11.84 10.61 101997 10.74 11.06 10.53
102096 10.31 10.61 9.98 102097 10.90 1134 10.57
102196 9.68 10.12 9.44 102197 10.00 11.04 10.54
102296 9.12 9.40 8.98 102297
102396 8.98 9.04 8.86 102397
102496 9.02 9.34 8.63 102497 10.22 10.51 10.00
102598 0.34 8.03 8.05 102597 9.65 10.12 9.61
102696 7.37 7.97 7.06 102697 9.55 9.91 9.33


Os
Klamath River at Keno, Oregon
Date Average Temperature (C) Maximum Minimum Date Average Temoerature Maximum Minimum
102796 6.78 7.05 6.47 102797 9.51 9.94 9.24
102896 6.51 6,02 6.14 102897 9.57 9.91 9.38
102996 6.48 6.57 6.39 102997 9.71 10.02 9.48
103096 6.35 6.44 6.22 103097 9.78 10.28 3.46
103196 6.51 6.96 6.22 103197 10.04 10.28 9.86
110196 6.35 6.73 6.04 110197 9.90 10.16 9.64
110296 6.21 6.63 5.86 110297 9.77 9.99 9.56
110396 6.16 6.37 5.97 110397 9.66 9.99 9.42
110496 6.10 6.32 5.89 110497 9.71 9.79 9.51
110596 5.86 6.19 5.62 110597
110696 5.66 5.95 5.44 110697
110796 5.86 6.53 5.49 110797 9.64 9.87 9.50
110896 6.01 6.50 5.62 110897 9.18 9.50 8.92
110996 6.12 6.57 5.81 110997 8.73 8.98 8.54
111096 6.15 6.57 5.87 111097 8.49 8.55 8.34
111196 6.29 6.76 6.05 111197 8.32 8.42 8.24
111296 6.38 6.65 6.15 111297 8.23 8.39 8.08
111396 6.42 6.55 6.25 111397 7.83 8.16 7.58
111496 6.50 6.68 6.38 111497 7.46 7.58 7.29
111596 6.43 6.62 6.29 111597 6.85 7.28 6.37
111696 6.13 6.31 5.98 111697 6.19 6.36 6.06
111796 5.81 5.99 5.67 111797 5.86 6.05 5.64
111896 5.86 6.12 5.65 111897 5.57 5.64 5.45


Klamath River at Keno, Oregon
Temperature TC)
Date Average Maximum Minimum
Temperature tC)
Date Average Maximum Minimum
111996 6.38 6.52 6.17 111997
112096 6.54 6.90 6,31 112097
112196 6.62 6.75 6.45 112197
112296 6.72 6.93 6.62 112297
112396 6.50 6.62 8.42 112397
112496 6,52 6.72 6,40 112497
112596 6.46 6.54 6.31 112597
112696 6.19 6.44 5.95 112697
112796 6.10 6.23 5,97 112797
112896 5.69 6.00 5.32 112897
112996 5.01 5.36 4.79 112997
113096 4.73 4.94 4.65 113097


Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam, California
Temperature
Date Average Maximum Minimum
Temperature (C)
Date Average Maximum
s
40396 40397 10.62 10.82
40496 40497 10.37 10.82
40596 40597 10.35 10.53
40696 40697 10.08 10.23
40796 40797 10.23 10.75
40896 40897 10.41 10.64
40996 40997 10.23 10,71
41096 41097 10.25 10.79
41196 41197 10.35 10.82
41296 41297 10.18 10.36
41396 41397 9.93 10.15
41496 41497 10.06 10.54
41596 41597 10.23 10.48
41696 41697 10.32 10.77
41796 41797 10.57 10.91
41696 41897 10.55 11.27
41996 41997 10.47 10.91
42096 42097 10.52 11.07
42196 42197 11.02 11.41
42296 42297 11.05 11.43
42396 42397 11.21 11.98
42496 42497 11.75 12.33
42596 42597 11.79 12.39
Minimum
10.44
10.13
10.19
9.98
9.90
10.28
9.97
9.88
10.09
9.96
9.81
9.80
9.76
9.92
10.18
9.64
9.91
9.66
10.72
10.58
10.48
11.36
11.47


Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam, California
TemDerature (eC) Temperature (C)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
42696 42697 11.88 12.52 11.59
42796 42797 12.74 13.12 12.44
42896 42897 12.27 12.57 12.03
42996 42997 12.23 12.49 12.08
43096 43097 12.52 13.00 12.31
50196 50197 12.53 12.84 12.31
50296 50297 12.37 12.62 12.04
50396 50397 12.85 13.76 12.21
50496 50497 13.17 13.63 12.90
50696 50597~ 50697 13.21 13.81 13.78 14.61 12.97 13.35
50796 50797 13.64 13.92 13.34
50896 50097 13.91 15.03 13.40
50996 50997 14.44 15.61 13.90
51096 51097 14.62 16.22 14.13
51196 51197 14.96 15.56 14.53
51296 51297 15.66 16.80 15.21
51396 51397 15.47 15.81 15.13
51496 14.21 14.41 13.93 51497 15.65 16.24 14.54
51596 13.80 14.36 13.22 51597 16.11 17.01 14.94
51696 14.65 14.99 13.92 51697 16.02 17.95 16.16
51796 14.41 14.94 13.88 51797 17.11 18.56 16.53
51896 14.50 14.69 14.23 51897 17.44 18.46 16.92


Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam, California
TemDerature (C) Temperature (C)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
51996 14.60 14.96 14.41 51997 17.82 19.06 17.15
52096 14.55 14.88 14.40 52097 18.02 19.07 17.54
52196 14.23 14.61 13.88 52197 17.94 18.53 17.54
52296 14.17 14.20 14.16 52297 18.09 18.32 17.81
52396 14.62 15.07 14.53 52397 17.88 18.17 17.59
52496 14.60 15.18 14.30 52497 18.23 18.87 17.66
52596 14.75 15.26 14.45 52597 17.90 18.55 17.54
52696 14.80 15.48 14.46 52697 17.85 17.98 17.68
52796 14.87 15.27 14.63 52797 17.67 17.90 17.53
52896 14.91 15.54 14.45 52897 17.82 18.00 17.51
52996 15.06 15.91 14.67 52997 17.93 18.49 17.59
53096 15.00 15.16 14.86 53097 17.87 18.20 17.10
53196 53197 17.82 10.34 17.29
60196 60197 18.62 19.56 17.95
60296 60297 18.59 18.97 18.27
60396 60397 18.25 18.67 17.98
60496 60497 18.27 18.85 17.84
60596 60597 18.50 19.09 18.15
60696 17.66 18.29 17.05 60697 18.47 19.18 18.10
60796 17.56 19.18 16.88 60797 18.82 19.71 18.22
60696 17.84 19.28 17.37 60897 18.58 19.47 18.10
60996 16.34 19.69 17.49 60997 18.71 19.26 16.32
61096 18.34 19.68 17.79 61097 18.75 19.33 18.42



Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam, California
Temj>erature (C) TeniDerature (C)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
61196 18.46 19.23 17.86
61296 18.49 19.42 10.18
61396 19.25 20.63 18.27
61496 19.20 20.22 18.68
61596 19.53 20.59 18.74
61696 19.46 20.73 18.97
61796 19.36 20.07 18.79
61896 19.19 19.70 18.82
61996 19.14 19.31 18.96
62096 19.26 20.07 18.42
62196 19.30 20.17 18.03
62296 19.20 19.90 10.81
62396 1876 19.39 18.23
62496 1871 19.13 18.40
62596 18.72 19.03 18.51
62696 18.74 19.03 18.53
62796 18.34 18.72 18.05
62896 18.60 19.59 18,05
62996 18.03 19.45 18.61
63096 19.16 20.02 18.78
70196 19.38 19.95 19.14
70296 19.45 19.94 18.78
70396 19.89 21.54 19.25
61197 19.22 20.27 18.54
61297 19.18 19.63 18.65
61397 18.96 19.45 18.46
61497 10.92 19.63 18.30
61597 19.07 19.77 18.68
61697 19.19 19.80 18.34
61797 19.40 20.65 10.84
61697 19.41 20.01 18.03
61997 19.64 21.23 19.01
62097 19.53 20.15 19.09
62197 19.81 20.62 10.09
62297 19.45 20.32 19.01
62397 19.35 19.05 19.01
62497 19.36 19.94 19.19
62597 19.79 21.00 19.26
62697 19.93 20.86 19.39
62797 19.98 20.84 19.44
62897 19.84 20.32 19.45
62997 19.55 20.01 19.11
63097 19.02 19.30 18.80
70197 19.20 19.77 18.89
70297 19.10 19.40 10.83
70397 19.07 19.21 18.82


Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam, California

Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum
70496 20.48 22.08 19.74 70497 19.27 19.50
70596 20.39 21.08 19.90 70597 19.81 20.74
70696 20.44 20.69 19.79 70697 19.69 20.48
70796 20.64 21.31 20.30 70797 19.90 20.90
70896 21.06 22.32 20.45 70897 20.01 20.76
70996 21.20 22.27 20.27 70997 20.60 22.02
71096 21.09 22.00 20.59 71097 20.37 21.33
71196 21.44 22.36 21.01 71197 20.41 21.35
71296 21.48 22.23 21.01 71297 20.14 20.49
71396 21.37 21.75 20.35 71397 20.21 20.51
71496 21.15 22.68 19.70 71497 20.44 20.98
71596 21.87 23.11 21.10 71597 20.51 21.23
71696 22.14 23.20 2137 71697 20.46 20.93
71796 21.95 22.69 21.41 71797 20.99 22.15
71896 21.57 22.04 21.11 71897 20.51 21.09
71996 2129 21.60 21.07 71997 20.60 20.86
72096 21.39 21.99 21.09 72097 20.83 21.18
72196 2130 21.72 21.04 72197 20.98 21.99
72296 21.50 21.85 21.23 72297 21.11 21.92
72396 21.60 22.13 21.30 72397 21.38 22.15
72496 21.89 22.86 21.48 72497 21.66 22.34
72596 22.05 22.40 21.74 72597 21.79 22.52
72696 22.37 22.62 22.02 72697 21.66 22.16
Minimum
18.87
19.13
19.23
19.14
19.45
19.59
19.72
19.79
19.76
19.95
20.12
20.02
20.21
20.18
20.02
20.37
20.51
20.55
20.63
20.84
21.26
21.31
21.28


Date
Average
Temperature (C)
Maximum

72796 22.21
72896 22.41
72996 22.31
73096 22.31
73196 22.08
80196 22.44
80296 22.21
80396 22.03
60496 21.66
80596 21.70
60696 21.41
80796 21.39
80896 21.44
80996 21.40
81096 21.28
01196 21.38
81296 21.53
61396 21.79
81496 22.28
81596 22.34
61696 22.36
81796 22.50
81896 22.20
22.47
22.85
22.58
22.79
22.70
23.45
22.98
22.53
21.97
22.64
21.65
21.70
22.01
21.63
21.74
21.66
21.75
22.17
22.93
22.99
23.03
23.38
22.60
Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam, California
Temperature (C>
Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
21.84 72797 21.68 22.55 21.12
21.94 72897 21.86 22.41 21.49
21.67 72997 21.77 22.02 21.45
21.80 73097 21.39 21.79 21.02
21.76 73197 21.13 2139 20.93
21.66 00197 21.32 21.62 21.00
21.58 80297 21.30 21.63 20.97
21.54 80397 21.42 21.67 21.18
21.45 80497 21.69 22.24 21.32
21.32 80597 2172 22.24 21.44
21.18 80697 22.22 23.09 21.58
21.20 80797 22.29 22.96 21.79
21.10 80897 22.45 23.00 22.00
2109 80997 22.39 22.87 22.16
20.61 81097 22.29 22.84 21.87
20.86 81197 22.28 22.76 21.98
21.36 81297 22.23 22.46 22.09
21.42 81397 22.34 23.85 22.03
21.98 81497 22.35 22.97 22.01
21.97 81597 22.30 23.10 21.88
21.87 81697 22.07 22.45 21.86
21.86 81797 21.91 22.20 21.65
21.86 81897 21,78 22.01 21.60


Klamath River at Jron Gate Dam, California
s
Temoerature (C) Temgerature (C)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
61996 21.88 22.50 21.60 81997 21.63 21.97 21.00
82096 21.76 22.27 2144 82097 21.03 21.39 20.56
82196 21.60 21.96 21.41 82197 20.99 21.55 20.58
82296 21.40 21.51 21.29 82297 20.96 21.49 20.62
82396 21.32 21.44 21.10 82397 20.97 21.36 20.58
62496 21.32 21.52 21.14 02497 20.89 21.21 20.56
82596 21.18 21.65 20.45 82597 21.10 21.20 20.76
62696 21.02 21.49 20.61 82697 20.75 21.04 20.46
62796 21.15 21,47 20.89 82797 20.93 21.42 20.58
82696 21.30 21.65 21.12 82897 21.10 21.42 20.93
62996 21.31 21.56 21.15 82997 21.07 2137 20.91
83096 21.46 22.32 21.07 83097 20.99 21.26 20.04
83196 21.56 22.37 21.08 83197 20.79 20.97 20.53
90196 21.47 21.98 21.20 90197 20.81 21.07 20.56
90296 21.43 22.06 21.09 90297 20.60 21.14 20.04
90396 21.35 21.80 21.02 90397 20.46 20.95 19.99
90496 21.10 21.61 20.72 90497 20.57 20.86 20.42
90596 20.62 20.87 20.45 90597 20.80 21.83 20.41
90696 20.17 20.33 20.00 90697 20.48 20.83 20.18
90796 19.97 20.33 19.79 90797 20.29 20.53 20.02
90896 19.85 20.28 19.72 90897 20.17 20.39 19.97
90996 19.85 20.16 19.76 90997 20.09 20.23 19.87
91096 19.72 19.91 19.39 91097 20.15 20.44 19.89


Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam, California

Date Average TemDerature fC) Maximum Minimum Date Average Temoerature Maximum Minimum
91196 19.37 19.64 18.72 91197 20.22 20.51 20.04
91296 19.10 19.39 18.69 91297 20.29 20.63 20.04
91396 19.13 19.31 19.00 91397 19.91 20.25 19.22
91496 18.79 19.02 18.45 91497 19.47 19.65 19.24
91596 18.61 18.90 18.41 91597 19.33 19.48 19.12
91696 18.47 18.63 18.37 91697 19.06 19.21 18.95
91796 18.22 18.36 18.13 91797 18.86 19.05 10.56
91896 17.98 18.11 17.84 91897 18.64 19.13 18.41
91996 18.17 18.69 17.80 91997 18.60 18.89 18.39
92096 16.05 18,40 17.85 92097 18.42 18.54 18.27
92196 18.07 18.50 17.78 92197 18.31 10.44 18.18
92296 17.74 17.97 17.50 92297 18.22 18.35 18.10
92396 17.29 17.53 17.02 92397 18.18 18.29 18.03
92496 17.17 17.44 17.01 92497 18.44 18.74 18.07
92596 17.06 17.22 16.98 92597 18.32 18.71 17.78
92696 16.90 17.15 16.80 92697 10.20 18.67 17.80
92796 16.94 17.34 16.66 92797 18.12 18.33 17.04
92896 16.84 17.03 16.68 92897 18.00 18.24 17.67
92996 16.78 16.93 16.68 92997 17.86 17.99 17.68
93096 16.79 16.90 16.63 93097 17.69 17.97 17.27
100196 16.79 17.17 16.63 100197 16.80 18.20 16.22
100296 16.77 16.92 16.59 100297 16.59 16.83 16.44
100396 16.70 16.87 16.39 100397 16.68 16.81 16.64



Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam, California
Temperatufe (C) Temperature (C)
Date Average Maximum Mfinimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
100496 16.65 16.78 16.42 100497 16.52 16.64 16.43
100596 16.54 16.80 16.33 100597 16.53 16.85 16.34
100696 16.60 16.70 16.45 100697 16.29 16.56 16.11
100796 16.40 16.49 16.31 100797 16.09 16.34 15.96
100896 16.41 16.55 16.29 100897 15.67 16.02 15.24
100996 16.42 16.57 16.28 100997 15.36 15.47 15.23
101096 16.49 16.77 16.38 101097 15.23 15.37 15.15
101196 16.37 16.62 16.02 101197 15.05 15.17 14.89
101296 16.13 16.47 15.86 101297 14.97 15.20 14.78
101396 16.07 16.27 15.93 101397 14.68 14.94 14.56
101496 16.00 16.11 15.90 101497 14.49 14.57 14.41
101596 15.07 15.99 15.77 101597 14.61 15.47 14.00
101696 15.73 15.89 15.62 101697 14.20 14.86 13.58
101796 15.39 15.60 15.22 101797 13.99 14.76 13.57
101896 15.06 15.22 14.87 101897
101996 14.84 14,97 14.73 101997
102096 14.63 14.75 14.60 102097
102196 14.35 14.50 14.23 102197
102296 14.18 14.23 14.10 102297
102396 14.01 14.09 13.95 102397
102496 13.81 13.97 13.49 102497
102596 13.52 13.69 13.44 102597
102696 13.33 13.57 13.16 102697


ro
Klamath River at Iron Gate Damf California
TemTOrature (C) Temperature (C)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
102796 13.14 13.27 13.03 102797
102896 12.86 13.03 12.71 102897
102996 12.65 12.71 12.60 102997 12.38 13.01 12.12
103096 12.45 12.56 12.38 103097 12.08 12.37 11.71
103196 12.49 12.77 12.20 103197 12.21 12.62 11.70
110196 12.32 12.51 12.17 110197 12.22 12.39 12.11
110296 12.06 12.15 11.90 110297 11.99 12.07 11.91
110396 11.97 12.10 1189 110397 11.91 12.06 11.84
110496 11.84 11.9S 11.72 110497 M.83 11.93 11.71
110596 11.55 11.74 11.41 110597 11.63 11.79 11.53
110696 11.28 11.41 11.18 110697 11.69 11.74 11.60
110796 11.00 11.18 10.98 110797 11.68 11.91 11.53
110896 10.94 11.04 10.87 110897 11.49 11.66 11.32
110996 10.76 10.86 10.68 110997 11.21 11.30 11.14
111096 10.59 10.69 10.52 111097 11.09 11.14 11.06
111196 10.51 10.62 10.42 111197 11.03 11.07 10.99
111296 10.48 10.58 10.42 111297 11.00 11.02 10.96
111396 10.43 10,43 10.36 111397
111496 10.07 10.37 9.06 111497
111596 9.73 9.84 9.56 111597
111696 9.48 9.56 9.38 111697
111796 9.31 9.34 9.28 111797
111896 9.16 9.33 8.82 111097


Klamath River at Iron Gate Damf California

Temoerature (C) Temperature (C)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
111996 8.63 8.82 8.51 111997
112096 9.01 9.16 6.77 112097
112196 9.11 9,18 9.03 112197
112296 9.10 9.20 9.00 112297
112396 9.07 9.15 9.02 112397
112496 9.02 9.07 8.96 112497
112596 8.93 9.00 8.84 112597
112696 6.70 8,87 8.62 112697
112796 8.53 8.59 6.49 112797
112696 8.46 8.52 8.42 112897
112996 8.32 8.42 8.28 112997
113096 8.25 8.31 8,18 113097


Klamath River at Keno, Oregon
Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L) Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
40396 40397 9.35 10.18 6.91
40496 40497
40596 40597 971 10.13 4.97
40697 40697 9.79 10.04 9.65
40796 40797 9.69 9.86 9.51
40896 40097 9.57 9.72 9.42
40996 40997 9.49 9.65 9.35
41096 41097 9.49 9.69 8.76
41196 41197 9.94 12.55 9.05
41296 41297 10.06 10.40 9.72
41396 41397 10.21 10.44 9.92
41496 41497 10.06 10.37 9.79
41596 41597 9.92 10.84 9.37
41696 41697 9.96 10.21 9.71
41796 41797
41896 41697
41996 41997 9.38 9.79 6.99
42096 42097 9.00 9.25 8.81
42196 42197 0.74 8.98 8.59
42296 42297 6.47 8.58 8,38
42396 42397 8.52 8.76 8.36
42496 42497 9.17 9.56 8.79
42596 42597 9.52 9.74 9.35


Klamath River at Keno, Oregon

Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L) Dissolved Oxypen Concentration (mg/L)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
42696
42796
42896
42996
43096
50196
50296
50396
50496
50596
50696
50796
50896
50996
51096
51196
51296
51396
51496
51596 5.69 6.17 5.26
51696 5.19 5.67 4.88
51796 5.91 6.74 5.03
51896 6.30 6.91 5.46
42697 9.71 10.13 9.40
42797 9.63 9.60 9.48
42897 9.34 9.45 9.23
42997 8.94 9.15 8.73
43097 9.14 9.40 e.99
50197 9.32 12.41 8.33
50297 9.18 9.33 8.97
50397 9.21 9.40 8.97
50497 9.15 9.35 8.05
50597 9.06 9.18 8.93
50697 8.75 8.86 8.59
50797 8.67 8.92 8.16
50897 8.48 8.88 8.15
50997 7.60 8.19 7.12
51097 7.26 8.06 6.30
51197 7.12 7.99 6.13
51297 7.00 7.82 6.01
51397 6.74 7.35 6.11
51497 6.99 7.82 6.12
51597
51697
51797
51897


Klamath River at Keno, Oregon

Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L) Dissolved Oxvqen Concentration (mg/L)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
51996 6.97 7.33 6.72 51997
52096 6.56 7.07 6.03 52097
52196 6.90 7.62 6.40 52197
52296 8.37 9.05 7.48 52297
52396 9.05 9.36 8.88 52397
52496 52497 7.55 8.08 7.01
52596 9.27 9.54 8.92 52597 7.86 8.56 7.54
52696 9.06 9.41 8.84 52697 8.43 9.54 7.95
52796 8.68 8.95 8.36 52797 9.23 10.30 8.65
52896 8.47 8.75 8.14 52897 8.89 10.13 7.94
52996 7.93 8.71 7.29 52997 9.47 10.25 8.80
53096 7.73 8.42 6.98 53097 9.60 1120 8.47
53196 7.20 8.09 6.48 53197 9.13 10.25 8.11
60196 6.95 7.98 6.23 60197 8.25 9.97 7.68
60296 6.79 7.71 6.06 60297 8.48 9.90 7.08
60396 6.44 7.30 5.76 60397 8.55 9.62 7.80
60496 5.92 7.42 5.03 60497 7.83 8.72 7.38
60596 5.11 14.28 4.13 60597 7.44 8.90 6.83
60696 10.40 12.86 8.39 60697 7.89 9.20 7.05
60796 9.77 12.62 7.51 60797 8.11 8.53 7.67
60896 9.69 11.49 7.71 60897 7.99 8.82 6.92
60996 8.59 9.72 7.65 60997 7.97 8.94 6.60
61096 7.90 9.96 6.51 61097 8.87 9.87 8.41


Klamath River at Keno, Oregon
^0
Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L) Dissolved Oxvpen Concentration (mg/L)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
61196 7.27 9.23 6.22 61197 7.07 7.97 6.42
61296 6.84 7.77 6.26 61297
61396 61397 6.55 7.21 6.01
61496 8.18 9.13 7.51 61497 5.91 6.78 5.40
61596 7.82 9.00 7.12 61597 5.69 6.99 4.98
61696 7.76 8.56 7.02 61697 5.63 7.49 4.93
61796 7.30 7.79 6.96 61797 4.78 5.80 3.67
61896 7.54 8,66 6.86 61897 3.61 5.50 2.39
61996 7.16 7.65 6.94 61997 3.01 5.04 1.97
62096 9.13 9.66 8.62 62097 2.45 3.38 1.22
62196 8.94 9.95 8.41 62197 2.44 4.28 1.24
62296 8.78 9.64 8.15 62297 2.56 4.02 1.08
62396 8.93 9.35 8.49 62397 2.85 4.02 2,06
62496 8.78 9.68 8.10 62497 3.03 6.98 1.68
62596 8.73 10.13 8.05 62597 3.77 7.14 2.27
62696 8.86 10.18 7.97 62697 3.92 6.31 2.42
62796 8.69 9.96 8.14 62797 3.05 6.87 1.38
62896 6.56 10.24 7.58 62897 3.48 5.21 2.02
62996 8.94 11,75 7.73 62997 2.97 4.53 2.12
63096 9.06 13,63 7.02 63097 2.03 2.88 1.28
70196 10.03 15.23 7.34 70197 1.33 1.86 0.95
70296 10.03 13.17 7.40 70297 4.02 0.08
70396 10.42 12.65 8.07 70397


Klamath River at Kenov Oregon

Dissolved Ox^en Concentration (mg/L) Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
70496 9.35
70596 8.60
70696 8.12
70796 8.32
70896 6.74
70996 4.06
71096 2.53
71196 2.06
71296
71396
71496
71596
71696
71796
71896
71996
72096
72196
72296
72396
72496
72596
72696
11.41 7.34
12.55 6.55
10.33 6.29
9.83 6.84
8.84 4.83
5.59 2,60
3.71 1.32
3.29 1.15
70497
70597
70697
70797
70897
70997 3.78
71097
71197 2.84
71297 2.40
71397 2.80
71497 3.35
71597 4.78
71697
71797
71897
71997
72097
72197
72297
72397 3.53
72497 1.78
72597 0.91
72697 0.92
5.03 2.40
3.99 1.62
3.30 1.50
3.88 2.19
5.73 2.03
7.54 1.98
5.75 1.24
3.17 0.51
1.48 0.14
2.11
0.00


Klamath River at Keno, Oregon
v
Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L) Dissolved Oxvpen Concentration (mg/L)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximunri Minimum
72796 72797 2.45 5.98 0.78
72696 72897 4.47 6.30 3.10
72996 72997 3.30 5.56 0.53
73096 73097
73196 73197
80196 5.36 6.02 2.68 80197
60296 1.06 2.62 0.11 80297
80396 1.40 4.08 0.13 80397
80496 1.20 3.01 0.19 80497
80596 1.54 2.90 0.31 80597 3,54 5.02 174
80696 2.57 4.12 1.67 80697 2.38 5.63 0.00
80796 2.06 3.33 0.40 60797 1.81 5.41 0.00
80896 4.71 11.77 0.14 00097 2.23 4.63 0.00
80996 7.35 14.31 1.38 80997 2.59 6.38 0.00
81096 8.64 12.28 5.21 81097 2.00 4.14 0.00
01196 8.39 10.25 6.04 81197 1.16 2.68 0.00
81296 6.63 10.33 4.65 81297 0.80 3.00 0.00
81396 5.39 7.62 3.20 01397
81496 3.99 5.80 2.55 81497
81596 3.67 7.93 1.62 81597
81696 4.14 5.48 1.51 81697
81796 2.12 3.83 1.13 81797
61896 2.58 4.07 1.57 81897


Klamath River at Keno, Oregon

Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mgA.) Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
81996 3.19
82096 2.04
82196 2.10
82296 4.02
82396 5.77
82496 5.64
82596 4,66
82696 2,67
02796 2.25
62896 1.42
82996 2.71
83096 3.70
83196 4.04
90196 3.95
90296 4.26
90396 4.97
90496 5.27
90596 5.85
90696 5.39
90796 5.89
90896 5.62
90996 5.57
91096 6.58
3.81 2.66
2.71 1.36
3.73 1.48
6.81 1.92
10.25 3.38
8.19 3.57
6.47 3.79
3.85 1.46
3.45 1.38
2.61 0.86
5.19 1.09
5.21 2.31
4.80 3.33
4.97 3.24
5.04 3.24
6.15 3.97
5,88 4.74
7.62 4.57
6.33 4.84
7.20 4.87
7.06 4.77
6.75 4.66
9.83 4.14
81997
82097 1.67
82197 1.19
82297 1.55
82397 1.33
92497 1.61
82597 1.55
82697 1.39
02797
82897
82997
83097
83197
90197
90297
90397
90497
90597
90697
90797
90897
90997
91097
3.49 1.00
2.12 0.63
Z17 0.91
2.30 0.88
2.67 1.25
2.66 1.06
1.70 1.17


Klamath River at Kenot Oregon
Dissolved Oxvgen Concentration (mg/L) Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
91196 5.76 8.28 4.82 91197
91296 5.96 10.58 4.57 91297
91396 5.75 6.30 5.23 91397
91496 5.10 6.75 4.21 91497
91596 4.87 5.53 4.02 91597
91696 5.06 5.36 4.78 91697
91796 4.47 5.59 4.09 91797 4.98 6.38 3.92
91696 4.50 5.24 3.95 91897 3.97 4.29 2.70
91996 4.37 5.45 3.93 91997 4.03 4.83 3.27
92096 3.69 4.06 3.18 92097 3.45 4.69 2.93
92196 3.32 3.70 2.73 92197 4.47 6.89 2.61
92296 3.80 4.73 3.30 92297 5.22 7.68 3.25
92396 3.64 4.00 3.32 92397 3.83 4.13 3.44
92496 3.46 3.79 3.13 92497
92596 2.87 3.51 2.56 92597
92696 3.18 4.40 1.94 92697
92796 3.38 4.07 2.70 92797
92696 3.02 4.16 2.25 92897
92996 3.09 4.40 2.27 92997
93096 2.85 3.66 2.14 93097 5.39 7.80 3.95
10019$ 2.88 373 2.24 100197 5.39 6.04 4.90
100296 2.71 3.76 1.88 100297 4.83 5.37 4.53
100396 2.23 3.02 1.68 100397 4.50 5.37 4.05


Klamath River at Keno, Oregon

Date Dissolved Oxvaen Concentration (ma/U Average Maximum Minimum Date Dissolved Oxvaen Concentration fma/L) Average Maximum Minimum
100496 2.07 2.28 1.68 100497 4.75 5.49 4.45
100596 1.41 2.07 0.67 100597 4.38 5.06 3.88
100696 0.36 0.80 0.00 100697 3.60 4.40 3.18
100796 0.01 0.09 0.00 100797 3.19 3.42 2.99
100096 0.02 0.21 0.00 100897
100996 0.01 0.32 0.00 100997
101096 0.01 0.24 0.00 101097
101196 0.03 0.30 0.00 101197
101296 0.00 0.05 0.00 101297
101396 0.03 0.31 0.00 101397
101496 0.00 0.00 0.00 101497
101596 0.30 0.89 0.00 101597
101696 1.01 1.68 0.62 101697
101796 1.32 1.64 1.14 101797
101896 2.66 3.02 2.12 101897
101996 3.56 4.39 2.94 101997
102096 4.36 4.56 4.16 102097
102196 4.29 4.47 4.08 102197 4.21 4.29 4*12
102296 4.07 4.25 3.96 102297
102396 3.42 3.93 3.13 102397
102496 3.82 4.69 3.26 102497 3.99 4.14 3.77
102596 5.12 5.74 4.54 102597 3.94 4.08 3.83
102696 6.38 6.69 5.78 102697 3.32 3.74 3.06


Klamath River at Keno, Oregon

Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L) Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
102796 6.96 7.29 673 102797 3.15 3.27 3.03
102896 7.19 7.33 7.04 102897 3.01 3.24 2,87
102996 6.62 7.01 6.44 102997 3.22 3.89 2.78
103096 6.33 6.60 6.08 103097 4.24 5.15 3.82
103196 5.70 6.66 5.44 103197 5.67 6.09 5.27
110196 5.64 5.77 5.52 110197 5.59 5.84 5.45
110296 5.54 5.68 5.32 110297 5.30 5.53 4.98
110396 4.97 5.28 4.81 110397 4.60 4.88 4.34
110496 4.00 5.19 4.58 110497 4.24 4.31 4.19
110596 5.27 5.44 5.11 110597
110696 5.38 5.47 5.24 110697
110796 5.27 5.43 5.16 110797
110896 4.89 5.15 4.51 110897
110996 4.24 4.46 4.04 110997
111096 4.01 4.16 3.90 111097
111196 3.84 3.96 3.77 111197
111296 3.79 3.89 3,69 111297
111396 3.87 4.14 3.69 111397
111496 4.79 6.18 4.04 111497
111596 5.60 5.93 5.44 111597
111696 6.07 6.29 5.84 111697
111796 6.38 6.57 6.23 111797
111096 6.83 7.31 6.47 111897


Klamath River at Keno, Oregon
Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L) Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
111996 8.22 8.64 7.39 111997
112096 8.77 8.91 8.65 112097
112196 8.64 8.76 8.52 112197
112296 8.43 8.53 6.35 112297
112396 8.00 8.35 7.67 112397
112496 7.40 7.64 7.17 112497
112596 6.96 7.10 6.84 112597
112696 6.54 6.82 6.32 112697
112796 5.87 6.83 5.53 112797
00 112896 6.37 7.30 5.55 112897
112996 7.55 7.79 7.33 112997
113096 7.47 7.53 7.37 113097


Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam, California

Dissolved Oxvaen Concentration (ma/U Dissolved Oxvgen Concentration (mq/L)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
40396 40397 10.34 10.64 10.10
40496 40497 10.05 10.36 9.78
40596 40597 9.95 10.13 9.66
40697 40697 9.62 9.88 9*38
40796 40797 9.67 10.02 9.35
40896 40 7* 975 10.01 9.46
40996 40997 9.59 9.90 9.31
41096 41097 9.57 9.94 9.23
41196 41197 9.49 9.73 9.17
41290 41297 9.35 9.73 9.03
41396 41397 9.09 9.38 0.87
41496 41497 9.10 9.41 8.82
41596 41597 9.10 9.52 8.73
41696 41697 9.06 9.74 8.59
41796 41797 9.21 9.77 8.59
41896 41897 8.93 9.38 8.06
41996 41997 8.81 9,64 8.21
42096 42097 6.68 9.39 7.95
42196 42197 8.91 9.60 8.44
42296 42297 9.16 9.58 8.75
42396 42397 9.61 10.23 8.92
42496 42497 9.98 10.27 9.62
42596 42597 10.03 10.31 9.54


Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam, California
Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L) Dissolved Oxen Concentration (mgA.)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
42696 42697 9.69 10.15 9.42
42796 42797 9.96 10.23 9.74
42896 42897 9.74 9.94 9.42
42996 42997 10.02 10.49 9.57
43096 43097 10.13 10.47 9.81
50196 50197 10.08 10.29 9.66
50296 50297 9.65 10.13 9.41
50396 50397 9.80 10.27 9.42
50496 50497 9.79 10.02 9.52
50596 50597 9.56 9.89 9.12
50696 50697 9.46 10.02 9.07
50796 50797 9.38 9.72 9.08
50896 50897 9.60 10.51 8.78
50996 50997 9.73 10.17 9.40
51096 51097 9.67 10.35 9.31
51196 51197 9.25 9.81 8.89
51296 51297 9.33 9.87 8.92
51396 51397 6.79 9.17 6.39
51496 51497 8.46 9.10 7.52
51596 a.78 9.27 8.35 51597 8.20 8.66 7.44
51696 9.06 9.47 0.43 51697 8.14 8.94 7.69
51796 9.04 9.48 8.62 51797 7.64 8.42 7.03
51896 9.38 9.71 9.07 51897 7.43 8.33 6.96


00
Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam, California
Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L) Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
51996 9,65
52096 9.43
52196 9.19
52296 9.69
52396
52496 10.02
52596 10.14
52696 10.10
52796 10.07
52896 9.21
52996 9.02
53096 8.51
53196
60196
60296
60396
60496
60596
60696 9.15
60796 8.51
60696 8.12
60996 7.95
61096 7.47
10.00 9.26
9.77 9.06
9.37 8.82
10.05 9.33
10.35 9.76
10.38 9.95
10.33 9.91
10.36 9.57
9.91 8.67
10.21 0.43
8.92 8.02
9.95 8.78
9.05 8.22
0.55 7.78
8.61 7.58
7.99 7.22
51997 7.37
52097 7.29
52197 7.20
52297 7.81
52397 7.92
52497 0.23
52597 7.51
52697 7.22
52797 6.86
52897 6.88
52997 6.95
53097 6.93
53197 6.81
60197 7.80
60297 7.82
60397 7.77
60497 7.91
60597 8.09
60697 7.71
60797 7.73
60897 7.25
60997 7.18
61097 6.96
8.05 6.69
7.75 6.75
7.91 6.52
8.42 7.31
8.42 7.25
8.70 7.74
7.99 7.06
7.50 6.96
7.08 6.66
7.10 6.55
7.27 6.61
7.33 6.18
7.36 6.22
9.09 6.03
8.25 7.43
8.01 7.52
8.41 7.56
0.30 7.72
8.15 7.36
8.38 7.25
7.61 7.04
7.65 6.80
8.15 6.61


Klamath River at Iron Gate Damf California

Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L) Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L>
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
61196 7.23 7.53 6.94 61197 7.19 8.00 6.67
61296 7.13 7.74 6.71 61297 7.28 7.98 6.54
61396 7.83 9.15 6.90 61397 7.24 7.78 6.79
61496 7.75 8.33 7.16 61497 6.88 7.20 6.54
61596 7,85 8.72 7.19 61597 6.81 7.24 6.38
61696 7.50 8.54 6.96 61697 6.79 7.25 6.32
61796 7.35 8.49 6.55 61797 7,27 7.81 6.39
61696 7.14 7.54 6.50 61897 7.63 6.39 6.66
61996 7.10 7.61 6.72 61997 0.00 0.50 7.24
62096 7.04 7.74 6.24 62097 7.80 8.16 7.54
62196 7.12 7.62 6.61 62197 7.97 0.74 7.22
62296 6.88 7.36 6.22 62297 7.81 8.45 7.23
62396 6.57 7.20 5.96 62397 7.62 7.87 7.29
62496 6.63 7.16 5.93 62497 7.59 7.99 7.19
62596 6.55 7.04 6.10 62597 7.86 8.62 7.09
62696 6.52 6.92 6.00 62697 7.42 8.01 7.04
62796 6.41 7,38 5.74 62797 7.26 7.95 6.86
62896 6.72 7.24 6.12 62897 7.24 7.56 6.89
62996 6.75 7.23 6.44 62997 7.28 8.10 6.
63096 6.48 6.80 6.24 63097 7.37 7.79 6.89
70196 6.78 7.22 5.87 70197 8.19 8.73 7,31
70296 6.94 7.41 6.46 70297 7.94 8.38 7.41
70396 7.13 7.82 6.49 70397 7.70 8.19 6.86


Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam, California

Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L) Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
70496 7.02 7.61 6.56 70497 7.75 8.53 7.18
70596 672 7.13 6.38 70597 7.43 7.97 7.10
70696 6.46 7.02 6.17 70697 7,56 8.05 7.08
70796 6.40 6.64 6.14 70797 7.49 8.16 6.71
70896 6.29 6.63 6.01 70897 7.03 7.57 6.57
70996 6.29 6.59 5.95 70997 7.32 0.02 6.69
71096 6.01 6.29 577 71097 7.53 7.96 7.15
71196 6.36 7.23 5.62 71197 7.34 7.81 6.97
71296 7.05 7.37 6.52 71297 7.26 7.71 6.78
71396 6.74 7.12 6.36 71397 7.15 7.77 6.77
71496 6.55 7.21 5.90 71497 7.12 7.64 6.68
71596 6.34 6.87 5.98 71597 6.86 7.16 6.40
71696 6.46 7.15 5.96 71697 6.69 7.03 6.35
71796 6,07 6.57 5.73 71797 7.01 7.52 6.56
71896 6.68 7.58 5.58 71897 6.81 7.09 6.37
71996 7.08 7.37 6.79 71997 6.42 6.72 6.06
72096 7.37 7.86 6.96 72097 6.59 6.95 6.18
72196 7.04 7.36 6.62 72197 6.41 6.75 6.03
72296 6,96 7.37 6.61 72297 6.31 6.64 6.04
72396 6.78 7.07 6.47 72397 6.64 7,54 5.06
72496 6.62 6.99 6.28 72497 6.14 6.85 5.76
72596 7.06 7.58 6.20 72597 6.44 7.49 6.05
72696 7.26 7.65 6.94 72697 6.75 7.52 5.87


Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam, California

Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L) Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
72796 7.12 7.57 6.91 72797 6.90 8.15 6.09
72696 7.30 7.89 6.58 72897 6.71 7.25 6.23
72996 7.17 7.57 6.40 72997 6.45 6.95 6.03
73096 7.18 7.68 6.83 73097 6.19 6.62 5.91
73196 6.95 7.31 6.69 73197 5.97 6.31 5.65
80196 6.65 7.39 6.05 80197 5.82 6,13 5.64
80296 678 7.65 6.10 80297 5.63 6.05 5.04
60396 7.32 8.34 6.60 80397 5.71 6.25 5.23
80496 7,16 7.47 6.90 80497 5.75 5.92 5.52
60596 7.51 9.00 6.55 80597 5.49 5.72 5.21
80696 7.20 7.93 6.60 80697 5.81 6.59 5.25
80796 7.08 7.45 6.43 80797 6.00 6.33 5.73
80896 7.01 7.64 6.40 80897 6.06 6.33 5.83
80996 6.98 7.49 6.15 80997 6.05 6.41 5.89
81096 6.88 7.67 5.82 81097 6.02 6.34 5.77
81196 7.18 7.86 6.26 61197 5.95 6.55 5.70
01296 7.11 7.57 6.34 81297 5.83 5.99 5.51
81396 6.27 6.73 5.79 81397 5.89 6.33 5.54
81496 6.09 6,49 5.73 81497 6.27 6.83 5.S5
01596 6.35 7.37 5.44 81597 5.80 6.39 5.16
81696 6.55 7.22 5.97 81697 5.93 6.28 5.3B
81796 7.22 8.33 6.48 81797 6.01 6.40 5.51
81896 7.89 8.60 7.36 81897 5.03 6,17 5.31


Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam, California
so
Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (rng/L) Dissolved Oxygen Concentration (mg/L)
Date Average Maximum Minimum Date Average Maximum Minimum
81996 7.68 8.39 6.95 81997 5.95 6.90 4.48
02096 7.19 7.96 6.40 82097 5.28 6.23 4.46
82196 7.15 7.76 6.84 02197 6.26 7.08 4.86
82296 6.45 7.38 5.81 82297 6.39 7.38 5.28
82396 6.37 7.05 5.61 82397 6.43 7.33 5.28
82496 6.53 7.33 5.76 82497 6.17 7.11 5.25
82596 6.28 7.78 4.35 82597 6.07 6.92 5.11
62696 5.58 6.72 4.51 82697 5.91 7.53 5.02
82796 6.00 6.47 5.58 82797 6.11 7.13 5.05
82896 6.15 6.56 5.54 82897 6.28 6.95 5.20
82996 6.79 7.72 5.43 82997 6.29 7.01 5,72
63096 7.84 9.07 6.67 83097 6.20 7.04 5.15
83196 7.60 8.37 7.04 83197 5.92 6.70 5.01
90196 7.29 7.77 6.85 90197 6.89 7.95 5.77
90296 7.25 7.63 6.82 90297 6.95 8.30 5.53
90396 7.50 8.32 7.06 90397 6.67 7.31 5.52
90496 7.33 8.42 6.22 90497 6.62 6.99 6.36
90596 6.97 7.39 6.72 90597 6.92 8.55 6.20
90696 6.44 7.30 5.96 90697 6.35 7,10 5.62
90796 6.23 6.83 5.68 90797 6.18 6.97 5.35
90896 6.07 6.96 5.71 90897 6.19 6.80 5.66
90996 6.02 6.49 5.57 90997 5.74 6.43 5.01
91096 5.78 6.22 5.20 91097 6.51 7.46 5.78


Full Text

PAGE 3

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Yo

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J

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70'197

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0.5

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7/09 9/23 11/13

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4125 5/20 8112 8113 8123 10/22 11113 3/25 4118 8/19 7/15 8/18 10/14 11112

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1992

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8/12 719 5113 5123 4116 5119 8/19 7/15 5118 9/17 10/14

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9.03

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8.05 52097 7.20 8.70 7.08 10.21

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5.06 5.60 5.90 6.01 5.09 6.07 5.90 100296

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1.150 0.990 0.530

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2.205

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