Citation
Analysis of various CAD/CAM systems for the design and manufacture of a three-dimensional part

Material Information

Title:
Analysis of various CAD/CAM systems for the design and manufacture of a three-dimensional part
Creator:
Chang, Shih-Hao
Place of Publication:
Denver, Colo.
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
ix, 97 leaves : illustrations ; 29 cm

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of Science)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Mechanical Engineering
Committee Chair:
Sanchez, Luis R.
Committee Members:
Gerdeen, James C.
Welch, Samuel W. J.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
CAD/CAM systems -- Evaluation ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 97).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Science, Mechanical Engineering.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Shih-Hao Chang.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
38371942 ( OCLC )
ocm38371942
Classification:
LD1190.E55 1997m .C43 ( lcc )

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Full Text
ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS CAD/CAM SYSTEMS FOR THE
DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL
PART
by
Shih-Hao Chang
B.Eng.Cheng-Keng University, 1991
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science
Mechanical Engineering
1997


This thesis for the Master of Science
degree by
Shih-Hao Chang
has been approved
by

Date


Shih-Hao Chang (M S., Mechanical Engineering)
Analysis of Various CAD/CAM Systems for the Design and Manufacture of a Three-
Dimensional Part
Thesis directed by Assistant Professor Luis R. Sanchez
ABSTRACT
Mechanical Engineering is a discipline that is becoming more and more
dependent on computer software. Two major computer applications are: Computer
Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM). The Mechanical
Engineer is now expected to be fluent in the use of CAD/CAM systems for his/her
routine work. As a result of this growing trend, the market has been inundated with
dozens of CAD/CAM software with varying capabilities, system requirements and
price. The choice of the working system is often not rationalized to the mechanical
engineer needs. Routinely, engineers use what is adopted or available to their
workplace, or may recommend high level packages they may have some experience
with^withoutregardtofUnctionalityorpayback.
On the other hand, there is not a common criterion or rule that may help a
CAD/CAM engineer to compare and choose between various software. To help in
this process, the capabilities of three CAD and three CAM software were analyzed.
The CAD software used were: EZ-MillV9 0, SURFCAMV7 0 and Pro-
EngineerV17.0 orV18.0. The CAM software used were: EZ-MillV9.0,
SURFCAMV7.0 and MastercamV6.0. Pro-Engineer may be considered a high level
package (cost around $ 100 000 depending on options), SURFCAM and Mastercam
may be considered low or medium level packages (cost between $10 000 and $ 20
000) and EZ-Mill,a low level package (less than $ 10 000).
in


To test the CAD/CAM capabilities of these software, a part was conceived to
be designed and manufactured using each of these packages. The part is an
approximated scaled model of the CU-Denver, North Classroom building, with added
features, such as mountains in the background and a small candy bowl in the
foreground. The part consisted of planes and 3-Dimensional curves and surfaces,
complex enough to test the 3-D capabilities of the software used.
The results of this work showed that in general, the higher level software were
superior. However, aside of some technicalities, the part could be made satisfactorily
even with the low level software. Based only on CAD/CAM considerations, it was
difficult to justify economically the choice of a high level software for 3-D parts. This
study showed that a company must scrutinize its needs before embarking on the
expense of a high level software.
iv


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to express my sincere thanks to Assistant Professor L* Rafael
Sanchez for the guidance and help he gave me throughout this work. I would also like to
thank Jeffrey E. Testerman and all my friends for their support and encouragement.


CONTENTS
Acknowledgments................................................. v
List of Figures.............................................. viii
Chapter
1.Introduction...................................................1
1.1 Background................................................1
1.2 Problem Statement........................................ 2
1.3 Scope of Work............................................ 2
1.4 Characteristics of the CNC Milling Machine............... 3
1.5 Benchmark Part........................................... 4
2. CAD/CAM Design and Manufacturing of the Part.................16
2.1 The Design And Manufacture With EZ-Mill V9.0 Software...16
2.2 The Design And Manufacture With SURFCAM V7.0 Software... 27
2.3 The Design With Pro/ENGINEER VI 8.0 Software............ 41
2.4 Manufacturing With MASTERCAM V6.0 Software.............. 56
3. Benchmark CAD/CAM Results................................... 61
3.1 Comparison of Software Capability....................... 61
3.2 Execution Time.......................................... 62
3.3 Overall Evaluation of EZ-Mill, SURFCAM, Pro-E7 and
MASTERCAM................................................ 62
4. Conclusions / Recommendations............................... 66
APPENDIX
A. The Screen Menu of Customizable Button Bars in EZ-Mill V9.0. 67
B. The List of General Commands in EZ-Mill......................68
C. The Windows Menu of Segment Data in EZ-Mill.................71
D. The Windows Menu of Cycle Data.............................. 72
vi


E. The Windows Menu of 3D Cycle Data............................... 73
F. The List of Tool paths in EZ-Mill................................74
G. General Commands in SurfCam Software.............................75
H. The Tool Information Dialog Box in SurfCam...................... 80
I. NC Information Dialog Box in SurfCam............................ 83
J. Datum Menu Structure in Pro-E.................................... 84
K. Create Menu Structure in Pro-E................................... 85
Different Methods of Selecting Round Reference and Round Menu
Structure..................................................... 86
M. The Toolpath Menu Structure in MasterCam........................ 88
N. All Parameters of Multisurf Finish or Rough ....................89
O. Part of EZ-TRAK SX NC Code Example..............................91
Bibliography........................................................ 97
vii


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
1.1 Isometric View of the Part in Pro-E 4
1.2 Dimension of the Part in Pra-E (Top View) 5
1.3 Dimension of the Part in Pro-E G^efl Side View) 6
1.4 Dimension of the Part in Pro-E (Front View) 7
1.5 Isometric View of the Part in SurfCam 8
1.6 Dimension of the Part in SurfCam (Top View) 9
1.7 Dimension of the Part in SurfCam (Front View) 10
1.8 Dimension of the Part in SurfCam (Right Side View) 11
1.9 Isometric View of the Part in EZ-Mill 12
1.10 Dimension of the Part in EZ-Mill (Top View) 13
1.11 Dimension of the Part in EZ-Mill (Left Side View) 14
1.12 Dimension of the Part in EZ-Mill (Fronl View) 15
2 .1.1 The Geometry of The Part in EZ-Mill 16
2.1.2 Wireframe in EZ-Mill
2.1.3 Arc/Circle of the Part in EZ-Mill 18
2.1.4 Application of the Spline in EZ-Mill 20
2.1.5 Application of the Surface in EZ-Mill 21
2.1.6 Example of Coons Surface in EZ-Mill 22
2.1.7 Application of the Revolution in EZ-Mill 23
2.1.8 The Toolpaths of the Part in EZ-Mill 25
2 .1.9 The Result of the Part in EZ-Mill 26
2.2.1 The Geometry of The Part in SurfCam 27
2.2.2 Wireframe of the Part in SurfCam 28
2.2.3 Application of Arc in SurfCam 29
2.2.4 Application of Arc-OfiFset in SurfCam 30
2.2.5 Application of Fillet in SurfCam 31
2.2.6 Application of Spline in SurfCam 32
2.2.7 Application of Surface commands in SurfCam 35
2.2.8 Application of Cross-Section in SurfCam 36
2.2.9 Application of Driving Curve of Surface in SurfCam 37
2.210 Application of Composite in SurfCam 38
2.2.11 Application of Extrude in SuifCam 39
2.2.12 Application of Trim Plane in SurfCam 40
viii


2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
2.3.5
2.3.6
2.3.7
2.3.8
2.3.9
2.3.10
2.3.11
2.3.12
2.3.13
2.3.14
2.4.1
2.4.2
3.3.1
Wireframe of the Part in Pro-E
Shading the Part in Pro-E
The Modeling Process in Pro-E
The Design Process in Pro-E
E)efault Datum Plane in Pro-E
Default Datum Plane in Pro~E
Building Diagram in Pro-E
Front Pocket Diagram in Pro-E
Application of Extrude in Pro-E
Application of Cut Command for the Building in Pro-E
Application of Cut Co for the Front Pocket in Pro-E
Application of Round nd in Pro-E
Application of Spline Command in Pro-E
Shading the Mountain in Pro-E
The IGS File of The Part from Pro-E
The Result of the Part in MasterCam
Comparison of 3D surface Between EZ-Mill and SurfCam


CHAPTER 1
Introduction
1.1 Background
There are dozens or more generations of CAM systems in the world that apply to
manufacturing[6,7t8]. Of these, we can classify several, such as CATIA, PRO-E, and CAMAX, into the
high-end (high-cost) category. Others such as SurfCam, MasterCam, SmartCam, EZ-Mill, Cad-Key,
etc. may be labeled as low-end (low-cost) packages.
In general, the high-end packages range in cost from $100,000 to $150,000. These packages
have the capability to run on two to five axis machinery, and most have the ability to provide code for
manufacture. The low-end software prices range from $8,000 to $15,OCX) of which some of the newer
generation versions have four and five axis capability; some, however, are restricted to design only
without the ability of providing machine code for manufacturing purposes.
In choosing a software package for design and/or manufacturing, it is useful to compare and
contrast the alternatives by first deducing the abilities and limitations of the available packages, and by
relating these to the needs of ihe user, decide on the best feasible alternative.
The above is the purpose of this thesis. One high-end package Pro-EngineerV17.0 or
V18.0[3,4]is chosen for this study. However its use will be limited to CAD design only, due to local
availability. On the low-end side, SurfCamV7.0[2] and EZ-MillV9.0[I] will be used for both
manufacturing and design application, and MasterCamV6.0[5] will be utilized to manufacture the part
designed by Pro-Engineer[3,4].
As a final conclusion, I hope to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each software
package, and provide a source for future reference as well as need based recommendations.
1


1.2 Problem Statement
CAD/CAM based manufacturing systems vary widely in price, performance, and reliability.
The constraints within the software and the type of machining equipment used greatly affect the
ability of the manufacturing system. CAM packages such as EZ-Mill and SurfCam may have many
differences in ability that should be considered when the engineeror machinist puts together a
manufacturing package.
The economic and performance requirements which must be met are two major
considerations that will be addressed in this study. Understanding the differences between popular
software packages in use will allow the manufacturing firm to make the best choice between them.
This is an important issue when choosing between feasible alternatives, especially within
small to medium sized machine shops that must compete with larger companies with less resources.
L3 Scope of Work
Many low-cost as well as a few high-cost software packages are available today, and the
choices are expanding as the need for reliable, cost-eCTective manufacturing tools grows. Two aspects
of production are studied in this wodc, designing and manufacturing. For an economical analysis
three low-end (EZ-Mill, SurfCam, MaslerCam) and one high-end (Pro-E) CAD/CAM software
packages were used For the study of the design side, EZ_Mill. SurfCam and Pro-E were used for
comparison^ and on the manufacturing side EZ-MillSurfCam. and MasterCam were used
The primary purpose was to first determine the working characteristics for each of the
packages, study their strengths and weaknesses, then evaluate each to determine which may be more
useful when capability and cost are used as limiting faaors. It is the goal of this work to provide a
2


preliminary criterion to be used by future CAM users when choosing between available CAD/CAM
packages.
1.4 Characteristics of the CNC Milling Machine
For easy comparison between the software packages, the same milling machine was used for
all cutting. The machine used was the Bridgeport Series I EZ-TRAK SX retrofitted with a third axis.
This is a high quality machine used for milling, drilling and baring. £)ue to its size and ease of use, it
is appropriate for such a study as this one. Typically, similar size and quality machines can be found
in medium sized shops.
The Bridgeport EZ-TRAK SX is a computer-controlled machine with an ACU-RITE glass
scale linear encoder with accuracy to within plus or minus ten micrometers per meter. Such high
accuracy allows comparisons of high quality to be performed without the need to account for operator
inconsistency as would be necessary with low-end machines.
3


1.5 Benchmark part
Description : The 2-D shaped building in the center can be seen
as UCD building and there is a 3-D shaped mountain in
the back. The half round pocket in the front which has
2-D and 3-D (round edge) shaped can be used to place
small gifts, candies.etc.
Pro-E section : The Part shown in Figure 1.1.
Fl^urel.l Iaometric View of the Part in Pro-E
Dimensions : Shown in Figure 1.2. Figure 1.3. Figure 14
4


Figure 1.2 Dimension of the Part in ProE
Top View
5


Figure 1.3 Dimension of the Part in ProE
Left Side View
6


Figure 1.4 Dimension of the Part in Pro-E
Front View
7


SurfCun section : The Part shown in Figure 1.5
Figure 1.5 Isometric View of The Part in SurfCam
Shown inFigurel.6. Figurcl.7. Figurcl.8.
Dimensions
8


Figure1.6 Dimension of The Part in SurfCam
Top View
9


Figurei./ Dimension of The Part in SurfCam
Front View
10


Figure1.8 Dimension of The Part in SurfCam
Right Side View
11


EZrMill section : The Pan shown in Figurel.9.
Figure 1.9 Isometric View of The Part in EZMill
Dimensions : Shown in Figurel.10. Figurel.il. Figure 1.12
12


Figure1.10 Dimension of The Part in EZMill
Top View
13


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Figurel.12 Dimension of The Part in EZ-M
Front View
15


CHAPTER 2
CAD/CAM Design And Manufacturing of The Part
This chapter describes some commands of various software that assist to design and
manufacture the part. It is assumed that Windows have already been started and that we are familiar
with commands used in Windows.
2.1 Designing and Manufacturing With EZ MILLV9.0 Software
Characteristics;
EZ-MH1V9.0 can program user inlerfece which has been completely redesigned to take
advantage to the latest advancements in software technology. The most striking thing is the inclusion
of customizable button bars with more than 170 button commands to choose from. EZ-Mill
provides what the user need the most: Flexibility. Users can make their own screen with EZ-Mill.
APPENDIX A will present the color example of EZ-Mill screen which is a nice windows
environment.
Description of the part:
Please review the illustration as below.
The 3D shaped mountain in the back is for testing 3D-capability. The 2D shaped building in
the center can be seen as UCD building. The front 3D and 2D shaped pocket can be used to place
gifts, candies....etc.
16


Geometry (Wireframe)
The following commands which have been used to create the wireframe.
Lines: When the lines command is selected from the Geometry menu, a
submenu of five options appears on the right side of the screen. Lines
that appear to be infinitely long are extended 1000 inches (or millimeters) in both
directions. The way the lines are defined determines whether or not they are
extended ofiT the screen
Connected: (Geometry, Lines)
This Command allows you to define many lines in successionthere
the endpoint of one line becomes the start point of the next.
When used with the (cursor position) Snap Mode Icon, the lines are
drawn wherever the mouse button is clicked; however, the lines are
restricted to the XY plane When other Snap Mode Icons are
used lines may be created in any lane, by selecting points such as
endpoints which are not in the XY plane. All Snap Mode Icons are
available for use with this command
Two Points: (Geometry, Lines)
This command is used to define a line by its endpoints.
17


The two endpoints of the line are defined using one or more Snap
Mode Icons. The Snap Mode Icons are activated after the Two Points
option s selected. By using different icon combinations, there are
many ways of defining a line.
Parallel: (Geometry, Lines)
Using this commanct you can create a line parallel to another existing
lineor and axis, by selecting one of the options in the submenu
displayed
Selected Line: (Geometry Lines, Parallel)
The Selected Line option is used to define a line parallel to any
existing line.
The system prompts you to select the existing line with the mouse.
:the cursor position determines the side on which the new line
Note that i
appears.
Arc / Circle:
Figure2.1.3 Arc/Circle of the Part in EZ-Mill
Comer Fillet: (Geometry, Arcs)
This option is used to create a fillet in a comer originally defined by a
combination of lines or arcs.
The system prompts you to enter the radius of the fillet and to select
the comer intersection that is replaced by the fillet. The position of the
mouse in relation to the lines is important here. The mouse should by
clicked on the side of he elements on which the fillet center should be
placed. The existing elements are automatically trimmed t tangent
points of the new fillet.
Fillet Two: (geometry, Arcs)
This command is used to connect two elements (lines or arcs) which do
not intersect, with a fillet of a specified radius.
18


Two lines or an arc and a line can be connected by a fillet when using
this command. Prompts appear asking you to enter the radius and to
individually select the two elements to be connected by the fillel. The
position of the mouse in relation to the elements is important here.
The mouse should be clicked on the side of the elements on which the
fillet center should be placed. The system then creates the fillel and
redraws the viewport.
Radius: (Geometry, Arcs, Start End)
This option is used to define the radius of the arc munericallyand the
start and end points with the mouse.
The System places the center point to the left in the direction in which
you define the endpoints.
Center: (Geometry, Arcs, Start End)
The center, start and end points of the arc are defined using the mouse
and Snap Mode Icon when using this option.
Specifying the start point also defines the arc's radius. IF the defined
endpoint does not fall on the arc, the system places the endpoint on the
arc at a perpendicular drop from the cursor position.
Curves: The Curves menu contains commands that re needed to create two or three
dimensional curves. Curves are used in several ways in EZ-Mill. They can
define machining boundaries for pockets and islands, or tool paths for
contouring, or they can be used to create surfaces. Curves can be either planar
(two dimensional) or non-planar (three-dimensional), and they can be closed
(coincident start and end points) or they can be open (separate start and end
points). Different rules may apply to a curve depending on its intended use.
Curve ID:
When accessing the Curves item for the firsllimethe Curve ID siring
is shown as a question mark. This must be replaced with a valid Curve ID
before any of the Curves Menu command can be used.
Define:
After the necessary geomcliy has been created the curve(s) for a
surface may be defined. One or more curves can be defined using the
options in the Define mode.
Snap Mode Icon are activated when any of the following commands
are selected.
Rapid: (Define Curves)
The Rapid command is used to place a rapid move in a curve. This
can be used in three ways. Since curves can be used to define a tool
path for contouring^ a rapid move may be used in this kind of part If
may also e used for creating "islands" (areas of material which the tool
avoids) in the interior of a pocket which will be cut using the Zig-Zag
19


Linear:
Arc:
Spline:
Close:
cycle. The third use of the rapid move is in a drilling cycle. Raid
moves are used in drilling tool path curves between hole locations to
cause the tool to withdraw to the Zrapid height (defined in the Zdata
menu).
(Define Curves)
The Linear command is used to define a curve element using linear
interpolation between points. This command does not have to trace a
geometry element, the end points of the linear interpolation may be
chosen using any of the Snap Mode Icons. The linear link may also be
used in a drilling tool path curve between hole locations to cause the
tool to withdraw to the ZClear height (defined in the ZData menu).
(Define Curves)
The Arc command is used to trace along an arc defined in the part
geometry. The system selects the closest arc that fits through the
points selected and traces that arc to define the curve. This command
is used for defining arcs in both clcx:kwise and counter-clockwise
directions. Note that Ihe arc or circle that is being traced to create the
curve must lie in the XY plane, or parallel to the XY plane of the
active UCS. Il may be necessary to switch UCSs lo create three
dimensional curves which use arcs.
(Define Curves)
The Spline link type allows for defining one, or more curve elements
as splines. Splines are approximated which small linear tool
movements when the part is post processed.
(define Curves)
The Close command creates a link that connects the end points of the
current cun^e. EZ-Mill attempts to create a link that is the same as the
last move created. For example, if a curve has been defined as an open
arc, EZ-Mill will tr>T lo find an arc to close the curve when Close is
chosen. If this fails, a linear link is used.
20


Chain :
(Curves)
The Chain command will "chain" a group of finite elements together to
create a single curve. This eliminates the need to select individual
geometry pints to create a curve.
Copy / Append: (Curves)
This command allows for the creation of a curve by copying a
previously defined curve. Once the curve is copied il can be modified
without altering the onginal curve.
Surface:


^

Figure2.1.5 Application of Surface in EZ-Mill
The following commands which have been used for creating surface in EZ-Mill
Coons Surface:
This is the most complex surface available in EZ-Mill. This
EZ-Mill Level 3 only surface type can be created with as few as four
curves or as many as system memory will allows. There are several
21


different ways of defining this surface type dqxnding on the number of
curves used but they are all created with the Coons Surface command.
The difference is in how you select the curves to be used.
Figure2.1.6 Example of Coons Surface in EZ-Mill
Longitudinal and Transverse curves. In the case of a surface of
revolution, transverse curves are the circular arcs that are created when
the surface is created (transverse curves points are located on an axis of
rotation). Longitudinal curves are created by rotating the original
curve by the same incremental angle, until the full angel is reached.
Revolution:
A surface of revolution can be created by rotation a selected a
curve about any of the three axes. Three options are displayed when
you select the Revolution surface command.
X Revolution (Surface, Revolution)
Y Revolution
Z Revolution
This selections prompt you to select a curve to create the surface. The
curve is rotated about the axis (Either X, Y, or Z) via the specified
angle of revolution. Each curve point follows an arc of the specified
number of degrees.
When any of these options is selected from the Surface submenu. Ihe
full Angel, then #Longitudinal Curves (number oflongitudinal curves
musl be entered via the numeric entry box.
22


Figure2.1.7 Application of Revolution in EZ-Mill
Meshed: (EZ-Mill level 3 only)
The Meshed surface command has two options, both of which
create a mesh of points connected by splines.
Points: (SurfaceMeshed)
This option prompts you to enter the number of longitudinal curves
and the number of transverse curves to be defined. You are then
prompted to select points either by coordinates, or by using the mouse
to create new points or to select existing curve or surface points to crate
the entered number of longitudinal and transverse curves. Verification
is required after selecting each point After the entered number of
points have been selected, the surface geometry is automatically drawn.
XY-Mesh:
(Surface Meshed)
This option is used to create a mesh surface in the XY plane. You are
prompted for the number of longitudinal and transverse splines, and
the X and Y increment values for the spacing of the splines. The
surface geometry is automatically drawn after the Y increment value is
entered.
General Commands :
There are some general commands in the screen menu such as
Transform/Copy, Blank, Zoom, Pan, Redraw and several View function etc. It
is very important to be familiar with those commands above. Which help the
user save time in designing. So attach those commands on APPENDIX B for
reference.
23


Manufacturing
After finishing the Part design.1 begin to consider how to manufacture what I design. The
block which is 8" X 4" X 2" has been ready for the part. The material was chosen to be wax.
Because it did not take much time to be milled Therefor, the tools list were prepared as follows.
Dia 1/2 End Mill, flat, flute length 1/2' HSS
Dia 3/8 End Mill, flat, flute length 1/2" C
Dia 3/8 Ball nose end mill, ball, flute length 1/2". C
Dia 1/4 End Mil, flat, flute length 1/2"C
Dia 1/4 Ball nose end mill, flute length 1/2", C
Dia 1/8 Ball nose end mill. flute length 1/2", C
Ball nose end mill for mountain and pocket.
Flat end mill for the building and flat plane
The machining command is as follows.
Procedure as following:
Segment Data :
Attatch to APPENDIX C as an illustrative windows environment.
Segment ID
Cycle
Path ID
Tool info
Tool change
MCSID
Feeds, Speeds
Z Data
Named a toolpath .
Determine a toolpath cycle.
Pick a curve depends which cycle delermined
Choose tool type from the tool lib or make your own
Pick a position to change tool
Determine a coordinate system to set up origin point of ihe
part.
Input feeds and speeds depending on material.
This is a important factor to determine whether the toolpath is
right or not.
Cycle Data:
Attach to APPENDIX D as an illustrative windows environment.
Stock Allow General value is arround 0.01 lo 0.03.
Step Over Pick up a step of tool plunge in Z-axis.
Options Such as Macro, 2D Gouge Check, Multi Regions and so on.
3D Cycle Data :
Attach to APPENDIX E as an illustrative windows environment.
24


Segment Surfaces: Choose one or several existing surfaces which are preparing
to be milled.
Projection: There are choice of Facet. 3D. Top. Bottom.
Check Planes: Upper and lower check planes are used to limit the area of
surface machining by specifying upper or/and lower Z level
which the tool can not penetrate.
Figure2.1.8 The Toolpaths of The Part in EZ-Mill
25


Figure2.1.9 The Result of The Part in EZ-Mill CAM
Toolpath Table:
Attach lo APPENDIX F as an illustrative table.
26


2.2 Designing and Manufacturing With SURFCAM V7.0 Software
Characteristics
SurfCam is a very good CAD/CAM software. It is speedy and smooth Creating the 3D
surface of this Part is easier and faster than EZ-Mill software. There is a slep-by-slcp editing
animation allow the user to detect error on the CAM process. Il is very impressive.
Description of the Part :
Please review the illustration below.
The 3D shaped moimlain in the back is for testing 3D-capability. The 2D shaped building in
the center can be seen as UCD building. The front 3D and 2D shaped pocket can be used lo place
gifts, candiesetc.
27


Geometry of The Part (Wireframe):
Figure2.2.2 Wireframe of The Part in SurfCam
The following commands which have been used to create the wireframe.
LINE COMMANDS:
Tangent Create a line tangent lo elements or locations.
Endpoints SURFCAM will display the Location menu and prompt
you to select the starling point and the ending point.
The firet location will be marked with a small square.
SURFCAM will display the line after the second
endpoint is selected
String: Create a sel of line segments connected end to end.
These segments can be created as separate entities or as
a single entity called a polyline.
28


Horizontal Create lines that are oriented horizontally in Ihc
current cview.
Vertical Create lines that are oriented vertically in the current
cview.
Both Create both a horizontal line and a vertical line b>'
indicating a single location.
Angle The way the created line will be positioned is
determined by which type of element you choose:
location or point, arc, or line and location.
Cross prod Create a cross produa line.
Offset Create a Line offset from another line.
Create a rectangle by selecting two points that will be
diagonally opposite comers of the rectangle. The
location menu will be displayed so you can select each
point.
Undo This command is available after an element is created.
Click Undo lo delete the last element created.
ARC AND FILLET COMMANDS :
These commands apply to creating arcs and fillets.
ARC
Figure2.2.3 Application of Arc in SurfCam
29


3 Points Create an arc using three points.
The Location menu will be displayed for you to choose a
location command to selea each of three points.
The first two locations will be marked with small
squares. SURFCAM will display the arc when the last
location is indicated.
Center/Rad SURFCAM will display the Arc Information dialog box
for you to enter the radius, Start angle, End angle and
Direction of ihe arc. Then ihe Location menu will be
displayed for you to select the arc cenler location.
Center/Dia This command works the same as the Center/Rad
command just described except that SURFCAM will
prompt you for the diameter instead of the radius.
2 pnts dia Create an arc of 180 by specifying the two end points of
the diameter. SURFCAM will display the Location menu
so you can select the two points. SURFCAM will create
the 180 arc from the first point to the second point in the
counterclockwise direction.
Offset Offsel an arc by a specified distance from a location of
your choice, or tangent to another entity.
Figure2.2.4 Application of Arc-Offset in SurfCam
30


FILLET
Figure2.2.5 Application of nilet in SurfCam
Change rad Change the arc/fillet radius. A dialog box will be
displayed for you to enter the radius value.
Trim Indicate the number of elements neighboring the new
arc/fillet that are to be trimmed You can select 0,1.or 2
by repeatedly clicking this button.
0 Create the arc/fillet without trimming
any of the elements.
1 The first element selected is trimmed to
he arc/fillet. The other element is not
trimmed.
2 Both elements are trimmed to the
arc/fillet.
Location Use if you want to create an arc/fillet tangent to an
element and passing through a given point. The Location
menu will be displayed for you to select arc/fillet
locations
31


CREATE/SPLINE MENU
Figure2.2.6 Application of Spline in SurfCam
SURFCAM creates splines as following commands
Points Create a natural cubic spline by indicating the locations
of the node points. When SURFCAM is used to create a
spline in this manner the resulting spline is called a
natural spline which means that the curvature is zero at
the ends of the spline.
Elements Create a spline from a series of chained lines, arcs, and
even other splines.
Optimize Create an optimized spline by duplicating an existing
spline, then removing the "unneeded" nodes from it.
X-section The X-section (cross-section) spline is created by slicing
surfaces (single, multiple, or composite) at defined
intervals relative to the Cview. The plane of the sections
is perpendicular to Ihe Cview. When the Cvicw is
set to zero, the current view is used.
Project Project a spline onto a surface. The spline must be
located in space relative to the location of the surface.
The projection will be accomplished either normal to the
surface or through the construction view.
32


EDIT MENU
Edit Menu helps the user to trace or fix the improper geometry and assure the Part
continuously and smoothly.
Color SURFCAM will display a 16-color selection bar. Click a
color to change the color of one of more elements using
the standard Select menu commands.
MultSelOn/OfiF
To choose a different color for more changes, click
backup.
Flip Element Create the complement of an existing arc or vector. For
an arc, the portion of the circle that is not currently
displayed will be displayed. For vector, the vector arrow
is fli)ed so that it points in the opposite direction.
Trim/Break Trim or break elements.
Trim By speciiying Tnm 1,you can select one
element to trim and then another element or
a location to which the element will be
trimmed.
Break Break a single elemenl into two parts. The
resulting two elements will occupy the same
exact space as the original single elemenl.
By speciiying Break 1,you can select one
element to break and then select another
element to a location at which the break
Tnm multiple elements to one or more
elements continuously. The difference
between this command the TRIM 1
command is that multiple elements can be
Uiiiuned continuously without having to
select the Tnm to elemenl repeatedly.
33


Increment
Splines
Surfaces
Poly lines
Tangency
Join
Extend
Text/Dim
Cntljts
Multiple elements can be trimmed away
from within other elements
Specify locations at even increments along an element.
Change the attributes of splines including the locations of
the nodes, the tangent vector directions and magnitudes.
Node/Tvect Modify the node and langenl vector
infomiation for parametric splines.
Change the attributes of a surface.
Add, delete^ or move nodes within a polyline, or create
individual line elements that resemble a chosen polyline.
Connect two separate splines of surfaces by re-drawing
and extending the spline(s) of one entity so that the
spline end points coincide with the corresponding spline
end points of the other entity. The two splines or two
surfaces become connected but remam as two separate
entities.
Join two surfaces of splines. The two selected elements
are deleted and the joined element is created.
Extend or trim the length of a surface or spline. A
surface can be extended or trimmed in multiple
directions. Either end of a spline can be extended of
trimmed
Make changes in the texl and dimensions contained in
your drawing.
Modify surfaces of splines by changing the location of
their control points.
34


SURFACE COMMANDS :
/ / !
/..,.-(t /

,


Figure2.z.7 Application of dunace commands m durfLam
Points Create a surface through either a set of points
of a line mesh.
Cross sect Create a smooth surface through a series of cross sections
that are oriented in 3D space. The cross sections can be
created in opposite directions. A cross section surface
must consist of at least two cross sections.
Sections Select cross sections that are parallel to
each other. This command cannot be
used u any of the sections intersect one
another.
Grid This is used when the cross sections
travel in both direclions, or when the
sections form a four-sided patch, or
number of patches. It is not necessary
35


Auto
Manual
Options
to break each section that
intersects another.
Use for automatic selection of the cross
sections used to develop the surface.
SURFCAM will display the Select
menu to identify the sections.
Individually select each cross section to
be used to develop the surface.
SURFCAM will display the
single/Chain menu so you can identify
of the cross sections.
SURFCAM will display the Cross
Sections options dialog box.
Figure2.2.8 Application of Cross Section in SurTCam
36


Driving Curve Create a surface by driving (sweeping) one or more cross
sections along a 2D or 3D curve.
Figure2.2.9 Application of Driving Curve of Surface in
SurfCam
Offset Create a surface that is offset from an existing surface.
Fillet A surface that is a constant or variable radius fillet
between two existing surfaces.
Composite Trim and link together existing surfaces into a single
composite surface.
The Composite command does not create any new geometry. With
this command you can trim and link surfaces forming a single
composite surface.
The surfaces used to create a composite surface are trimmed, one
at a time, to fillet edge splines, surface intersection splines,
projected splines, and/or cutter intersection splines.
Undo The backup menu command can be
used at any time during the creation of
a composite surface as an Undo
command. Each time backup is clicked
the previously trimmed surface will be
returned to its untrimmed state.
37


Splines Splines that have been used to create a
composite surface cannot be trimmed
broken, or optimized. This limitation
preserves the integrity of the composite
surface. Prior to creating a composite,
splines can be trimmed or broken to
establish the correct trim boundary.
Single Entity Once a composite surface has been
created, it is a single entity. When you
delete any element that belongs to the
composite, the entire composite will be
deleted This preserves the integrity of
the composite surface area.
Add/Remove It is possible to add or remove
additional surfaces. This can be
accomplished by clicking Composite
on the Creatc/Surface menu and
picking the existing composite
surface. You can either add more
surfaces or remove the last surface by
clicking Untrim on the Edit/Surfaces
menu.
Figure2.2.10 Application of Composite in SurTCam
38


Primitives Create a cylinder, a cone, a sphere, a torus, a wedge, a
cuboid or a plane.
Revolution Create a surface of revolution by causing a cross section
to rotate around an axis by a certain number of degrees.
Extrude Create an extruded surface from a profile of connected
elements.
Figure2.2.11 Application of Extrude in SurfCam
Depending on your current operation, either Tool Path or
Keyboard will be on the menu.
Tool path Create a vector by chaining a profile.
You must select a beginning element
and an ending element lo identify a
profile. The vector will always point lo
Ihe left of the chained direction.
Keyboard SURFCAM will display a dialog box so
you can select the X. Y. or Z axis as Ihe
vector or define your own axis
2 Points Create a vector by defining two
coordinates. The Location menu will be
displayed for you to select Ihe starting
and ending location. The second
location defines the direction il points
towards.
39


Trim plane
Element Create a vector at the endpoint of an
element. The direction is defined along
the tangent at the endpoint.
Point/Ang Create a vector starting from a point
you select. The direction is set by
entering a value for an angle in the
dialog box displayed after the starting
point is selected.
PerpElem Create a vector at the endpoint of an
elemenl. The direction is defined by
seiectingasidewhenprompted.
Create a composite planar surface at the edge of another
surface or within a closed curve.
Figure2.2.12 Application of Trim Plane in SurfCam
Access this menu be selecting Creatc/SurfaccyTrim Plane.
The Trim Plane command creates a composite planar surface at
the edge of another surface or within a dosed curv e.
Cap
The Cap command will create a planar surface at the
of another surface or along a curve. When you select
Cap, you will be prompted to select a curve or a surface
edge to cap. Select a curve such as a circle, an arc, or a
spline, or select Ihe edge of a surface. SURFCAM will
create a plane surface along the edge of the surface or
along the curve.
40


Chain
When you select the Chain command SURFCAM will
display another menu with two commands: Chain and
Single. (Notice that this is a separate Chain command.)
With the Single command you can create a trim plane
along a single curve similar to the Cap command.
With the Chain command you can chain a series of
separate curves, creating a single curve, and
automatically create a trim plane along its edge.
Auto When you select Auto, SURFCAM displays the Select
menu and you are prompted to elect contour(s) to be
chained then one.
Options A dialog box containing surface creation tolerances and
options.
General Commands:
There are some general commands in SurfCam Software such as
Move. Copy, Transform, Layer....and basic Select, Chain menus. It
is very important to be familiar with those commands above. Which help the
user save time in designing. So attach those commands on APPENDIX G for
reference.
2.3 Designing With Pro/ENGINEER V18.0 Software
Pro/ENGINEER software is powerful CAM software. CAM software creates a part without
making a wireframe first. Cam software combines surface and geometry and directly applies it to the
structure. It is a smart way lo figure out how to design a part and makes il more interesting for the
user.
41


GEOMETRY of The PART :
Figure2,3.1 Wireframe of The Part in Pro-E
42


SHADING THE PART:
Figure2.3.2 Shading The Part in Pro-E
43


The Modeling Process :
f Feature-Based Modeling ^
Model solid parts by
combining inturtive
^engineerinq features.__J
Build parts by combining
features relative to cacti
other and in m logical order
paflem features within
part create famrty tabts of
related parts.
Create new parts
based on assembly
dimenstons and
clearances.
(Capturing Design Intent
Incorporate engineering
knowledge into the solid
model witti implied and
explicit relationships
\ patterns, and family tables.
Assemble parts relative
to acti other and in
logicai order pafteoi
parts within an assmbt)r;
aeate lemrty tables of
ralaled tssembb^s.
Creating Assemblies
Combine parts into
assemblies.
Drawings
Analysis
Machining
Applications
Figure2.3.3 The Modeling Process in Pro-E
Putting it All Together
The modeling task is to incorporate the features and parts of a complex design into
subassemblies and, ultimately, into a final assembly. At the same time, you must properly
capture the design intent to provide flexibility in modification. Each Pro/ENGINEER
parametric model is a careliil synthesis of physical and intellectual design
This process can also go into a top-down direction, breaking down a final assembly into
subassemblies, parts, and features.
For Instance :
44


BASE FEATURE
Delault datum planes
Provides assembly
and construction
references

SKETCHED FEATURE
Revolved protrusion
Symmetry captured in
sketch
Dimensioned for easy
modification
FINISHED PART
Composed of several
features
Patterned spoke holes
Relation maintains
spacing of spoke holes
FINAL ASSEMBLY
SUBASSEMBLY
Composed of several
parts
Tire created from rim
Spokes reference hub
hole patterns
Family tables of hub
and rim parts lor rear
wheels
Figure2.3.4 The Design Process in Pro-E
Entering Part Mode.
To create a part, you must first enter Part mode. To do this, choose Part from the
MODE menu. Pro/ENGINEER then displays the ENTERPART menu. You can
then create or retrieve a party by selecting the appropriate menu option.
The ENTERPART menu options are as follows:
Create reate a new part.
Retrieve etrieve a previously created part.
List ist all the parts in the currenl directory.
Import mport a date file (1GES, SET, VDA, and so on) into an empty part in
the current directory. See the Interface Guide for information on importing
files.
Search/Retr earch for and retrieve objects from the currenl directory, or from
directories at different levels in the directory tree.
45


Creating the Base Feature.
The base feature is the first feature created in ihe definition of a part. Ii is the
orking block of material that is refined and modified until the final design. The
displayed part axes are oriented such that the X-axis extends from left to right on
the screen, the Y-axis extends from the bottom to the top of the screen, and the Z-
axis points out of the screen towards you. Base feature extrusions are always
extruded in the positive direction (out of the screen towards you)
i Creating a Base Feature
To create a base feature, do the following:
1. Choose Feature from the PART menu.
2. Choose Create from the FEAT menu., Solid Datum and User Defined are the
only options available for creating a base feature.
3. Choose the desire option. If you choose Solid, choose Protrusioa. The system
then displays the SOLID OPTS menu, which has the options Extrude,
Revolve, Sweep, Blend.
Restrictions
Creating a base feature protrusion differs slightly from adding a protrusion to a part.
For a base feature protnision, there is no existing part geometry to which to relate
the new feature. Therefore, some of the elements will not be available. The
possible choices are as follows:
Extrusions he only available depth element is Blind.
Revolved prolrusions ou can specify angle attributes only.
Sweeps he only available choice is to create a sweep with a closed trajectory.
Blends he possible blend type options are Parallel, Rotational, and General.
Blends can use only the depth option Blind, and the only available attributes
are Straight or Smooth and, for rotational blends, Open or Closed.
b. Creating Datums as the Base Feature
The following sections describe how to create datum planes, coordinate systems,
and graphs as the base feature.
Datum Plane
You can create three orthogonal datum planes as the base feature before you add a
solid feature. This is helpful when the first solid feature is going to be a sphere,
toroid, or sculptured surface because it usually does not have the planar surfaces
needed to reorient the model or speciiy sketching planes.
46


To create a datum plan base feature, do the following:
1. Choose Feature from Ihe PART menu.
2. Choose Create from the FEAT menu, then Datum. Next, choose Plane.
3. The system displays the menu MENUDTM OPT, which has the following
options:
Default reate three orthogonal datum planes that intersect at Offset-
-the default origin. If you choose this option, three datum planes with
the names DTM1, DTM2, and DTM3 appear in the center of the
screen at right angles to each other.
Figure 2.3.5 Default Datum Plane in Pro-E
Offset reate three orthogonal datum planes with specified o£fsets
along the X-, Y-, and Z-axis. If you choose this option, the system
prompts you for the offset value for the X direction, then repeats the
prompt for the Y and Z directions. The system assumes that the X-
axis is horizontal and pointing to the right, the Y-axis is vertical and
pointing up, and the Z-axis is normal to the screen and pointing
towards you. You can specify ofiFset=0. As soon as you have entered
all three values, the system displays three datum planes with the
names DTM1, DTM2, and DTM3. The system also displays a
coordinate system named DEFAULT, which is located in the center of
the screen.
Coordinate System.
You can create the default coordinate system of the part as the first feature of the
To create a coordinate system as the base feature, do the following:
47


1. Choose Create from the FEAT menu, then Datum.
2. Choose Coord Sys from the DATUM menu. Pro/ENGINEER creates the
coordinate system names CSO.
Creating the Initial Solid Feature.
You add and locate the initial solid feature with respea to the base feature (one plan
is used as a sketching plane and the other two are used for locating the cross-
section). This follows the same methodology as when you add a sketched feature.
To create the initial feature after adding a datum base feature, do the following:
1. Choose Create from the FEAT menu, then Solid. The system displays the
SOLID menu.
2. Choose Protrusion from the SOLID menu. Choose the desired form option,
and Solid or Thin (available only with the Pro/FEATURE module), then
choose Done.
3. Create the sectionsas appropriatelocating them with respect lo the base
feature datums.
Dimensioning the Part
You dimension part features as you create them. There are two ways to dimension
features:
Create dimension in Sketcher mode.
Enter values for feature parameters as prompted For example, when you create
a hrough hole, you must enter values for diameter and placement
dimensions.
Once the feature is created, you can display its dimensions at any time by choosing
Modify and picking on a feature.
It is gocxl practice to add relations immediately after feature creation. This allows
you to capture the design intent of your feature right away. For example, perhaps a
slot should always be centered on a particular protrusion. If you write the relation
to do this immediately after you create a slot, when a parameter affecting the
protmsion is updated, you will retain the design intent of centering the slot.
Modifying the Part
There are several ways to modify existing part geometry.
Modiiy the dimension values.
Redefine existing features to change their attributes, section, or definition
of feature creation.
Reorder features.
Insert new features.
48


Regenerating The Part
Suppress or delete features.
After you have modified a part^ it must be regenerated to recalculate all the
geometry affected by the changes and to update the display.
The system regenerates the part feature by feature, in order of creation or, if you
used the Reorder command, in order of the current feature list. In most cases,
regeneration starts with the earliest feature affected by the changes.
If the modification you performed make it impossible for Pro/ENGINEER to
recreate the part, you can choose between options that do the following:
Allow you to perform several powerful recovery operations on the model.
Request the system to try to recover the part.
Allow you to investigate the cause of regeneration failure.
Redefine feature elements that caused the failure.
DESIGNATED PART DESIGNING.
1. Creating a datum plane:
Datums are used as references for constructing the model. They are not
geometry features, but they aid in geometry construction by acting as references for
when the user sketch a feature, orient the model, assemble components, and so on.
APPENDIX J will show the Datun Menu Structure*
Figure2.3.6 Default Datum Plane in Pro-E
2. Drawing the building and front pocket diagram.
49


Using Mouse Bottoms
The user sketch simple lines, circles, and arcs by using the mouse
buttons.
To set up the mouse for sketching, do the following:
Choose Sketch from the SKETCHER menu. The system displays the
GEOMETRY menu.
Choose the Mouse Sketch option. As described in the following
sections, the three mouse buttons can be used to create lines (left button)
and circles (middle button) anywhere in the sketchy as well as arcs (right
button) that begin on an endpoint of existing geometry.
Line
To sketch a line, do the following:
1. Click the left mouse button at the location where you want to
start the line. A red mbberband line appears, attached to the
cursor.
2. Click the left mouse button at the lcx^tion where you want the
line to end. Pro/ENGINEER creates a line between the two
points and starts another mbberband line.
3. Repeat Step 2 until all the lines have been created.
4. Click the middle mouse button to end line creation. The
rubberband line disappears.
Circle
To sketch a circle, do the following:
1. Click the middle mouse bunon at the desired location for the
center point. A red mbberband circle appears, centered on this
point and attached to the cursor.
2. To size the circle, move the mouse away from the center-point.
3. To complete the circle, use the middle mouse button; otherwise,
use the left mouse button to abort the circle.
Arc
To sketch an arcdo the following:
1. Click the right mouse button on the endpoint of an existing
entity. A red mbberband arc appears, attached to the cursor at
its other end. The arc will be tangent to the existing entity.
2. To size the arc. move the mouse away from the first pick.
3. To complete the arc, use the right mouse button; otherwise, use
the middle mouse button to abort the arc.
50


BUILDING DIAGRAM
Figure2.3_7 Building Diagram in Pro-E
FRONT POCKET DIAGRAM
Figure2.3.8 Front Pocket Diagram in Pro-E
51


Extrude
The Extrude command is used to create a three dimensional building.
The Extrude option creates a feature that is formed by projecting the section straight
away from the sketching plane. It is the most basic and frequently-used form
option.
Extrusion Attributes
The depth of an extruded feature (except of the base solid feature, which is Blind b>r
default) must be specified by choosing a direction attributethen the desired depth
options.
The direction attributes specily the location of the extruded feature with respect to
the sketching plane. The possible values are as follows:
One Side pecify the depth of the feature to one side of the sketching plane.
Both Sides peciiy dq)th for both sides of the sketching plane separately.
APPENDIX K will show The Create Menu Structure
Figure2.3.9 Application of Extrude in Pro-E
4. Top View of the Building and Pocket in front of the Building :
APPENDIX K will Show The Commands of Create Menu in Pro-E
52


Cut Command:
Cut -> Sketch -> Geometry Tools Use Edge -> Given a value of Depth .
Figure2.3.10 Application of Cut Command for Building in Pro-E
53


5. Create a round edge around the pocket
There are many different methods of Selecting Round References
which will show in APPENDIX L.
APPENDIX L aJso show The Round Menu Structure.
Round > Constant ^ Edge Chain > Given a value of Radius.
'c- \
1
Figure2.3.12 Application of
Round Command in Pro-E
54


6. Create Mountain.
Surface Commands are applied to the Mountain creation.
The First Ball is creating 3 curve (spline) as following:
Splines
Splines are curves that smoothly pass through any number of intermediate points.
The endpoints of a spline curve can be defined with tangenc>r and curvature lo
further control the shape of the spline.
Create -> Datum -> Curve Advanced Spline
Figure2.3.13 Application of Spline in Pro-E
Create -> Surface -> Advanced -> Boundaries ->Pick up 3 splines
Blended Surf Done
55


Figure2.3.14 Shading The Mountain in Pro-E
2.4 Manufacturing With MASTERCAM V6,0 Software(CAM only)
MasterCam is powerful and versatile CAD/CAM software designed to help the user produce
high quality parts faster and with few errors.
There are four different levels of MasterCam mill products: Entry and mill level 1.2.and 3
The software level controls what functions the user can access, there is level 3 presented including 5
axis, multiple surface roughing and finishing, 3D swept, loft, trim, and coons path (multiple palches)
toolpaths and so on.
Part Creation
Transform the IGS file of the Designing Part from ihe Pro-E Software
56


Too paths
Select Toolpaths from the MasterCam Main Menu to access MasterCam toolpath
operation menus. Click mlsc. to view the other toolpath options. From the Toolpaths/mlsc menu,
click Old tlpths to use a selection of MasterCam older toolpath methods. The table on the
following pages describes the various toolpath functions that MasterCam uses.
APPENDIX M will show the toolpath menu structure.
Toolpath Function
Contour
Drill
Pocket
Flowline
Multisurf
misc
full
and
Create 2 or 3D contour toolpath.
Creates drilling toolpath by selecting a series of points or entities
Creates a pocket toolpath that cleans out non-rectangular and non-
circular shapes.
Creates a toolpath for a single surface entity.
Creates a multiple-surface machining toolpath without trimming or
filleting intersecting surfaces.
Manual ent inserts comments or special codes into the NC
program.
Circmill Creates a toolpath for automatically machining
circles with an entry arc, two 180 -degree arcs,
an exit arc.
Point Generates a toolpath by selecting points or enuues
using point selection options.
Project Projects an NCI file onto a plane, cylinder, horizonlal
or vertical cone, sphere, cross section, or surface
57


Trim
Ruled
Revolution
Old tlpths
combination of
End program
Multi Axis Curv5ax
Drill5ax
End program
entity.
Trims an existing NCI file into the current
construction plane.
Create a toolpath by blending two to 100 contours to
make a linear 3D surface.
Creates a loolpath with a surface of revolution, based
on a given crosscd-section.
le Tters
Creates a toolpath automatically chaining
contours for engraved letters.
Swept
Generates 3 D toolpath given one along-contour and
one across-contour for a 2D swept surface, and one
or two along- contours and one or two across-
contours for a 3D swept surface.
Coons
Creates a toolpath created from two- three-, or four -
sided patches using points, arcs, lines, or splines.
Loft
Creates a toolpath by blending contours consisting of
points lines, arcs and splines, or any
entity types.
End program
Ends and closes the toolpath programming operation.
Ends and closes the toolpath programming operation
Creates a curved 5-axis machining 1001path.
Creates a drilled 5-axis machining loolpath.
Ends and closes the tcx)lpath programming operation
NCI Files
when the user select Contour .Drill. Pocket....Loft, Coons, etc, for the first time.
the system will prompt the user for an *.NCI file. NCI files define toolpaths in
an intermediate form. The system then directs the NCI data to the post
processors, which produce an NC file.
Accept Prompt
The system displays this prompt after it calculates and shows each
toolpath segment (Con tour. Pcx:ket. Loft, Coons, etc.) The user accept
the toolf)ath as is by selecting Yes or redefine the toolpath segment by
selecting No.
End Program
The last step before sending the programmed toolpath to a post
processor is to end the toolpath programming operation. The user
accomplish this by selecting End Program from the Toolpath menu. By
doing this, the user instruct the system that the user have completed
toolpath development and to proceed the post processor.
58


Running the Post
Once the user is satisfied with the toolpath? and the user selected Yes
from ihe accept loolpath prompt, the system may display the Run Post
Processor window. The system may not display the prompt, however, if
the user changed the Run Post Processor on END PROGRAM setting
under the Screen/Configure/NC Settings feature.
Special Command :
Multisurf
The MasterCam Multiple-Surface Machining function (Multisurf) is a powerful
surface toolpath generation tool. Multisurf allows the user to generate a
multiple- surface toolpath without trimming or filleting intersecting
surfaces. Multisurf offers the following features :
1. Drive/Check surface feature :
Designate surfaces as check surfaces, allowing the system to protect them
from a tool cutting on a designated drive surface.
2. Finish feature :
User-defined tool-center containment boundary.
Check surface feature with offset separate from the Stock Remaining NC
parameter.
User-defined tool action between cut paths: select direct, broken, or retract.
3. Rough feature:
Rough-cut pockets and contours from complex multiple surface structures.
Assignmaximumandminimumoperationdepths.
4. Recut feature, multiple-surface recutting capability :
Generate initial NCI file, select Recut feature, modify certain Multisurf
parameters, and create new NCI fileall without reprocessing the
selected surfaces.
5. Batch processing feature :
The Batch mode feature allows the user to process Multisurf Finish
operations as a group. This can be very useful for complex toolpath
operations and overnight processing.
59


MuKisurf Finish and Rough
Multisurf finish and Multisurf Rough share many of the same settings and
parameters. This section combines the description of Rough and Finish for each
elers. This section c
type of toolpath.
Parallel
Use this selection to machine surfaces that are mostly convex.
Radial Use this selection to rotate a toolpath around a point.
Project Use this selection to project an already existing toolpath onto
geometry.
Contour Use this selection to cut paths that are taller than they are wide.
Pocket Use this selection to remove material from a part and to machine
cavity or boss parts.
APPENDIX N will show all parameters of Multisurf Finish or
Rough.
The Result of Milling The Part :
Figure2.4.2 The Result of The Part in MasterCam
60


CHAPTER 3
BenchMark CAD/CAM Results
3.1 Comparison of Software Capability
Designing EZ-MLL SURFCAM PRO/ENOINEERINO MASTERCAM
3-D WIREFRAME YES YES Inoneed N/A
SOLID MODELING YES BUT NOT GOOO YES YES N/A
FIL£ IMPORT CAPABILITIES YES BUT NOT GOOD YES YES N/A
FILE EXPORT CAPABILITIES YES BUT NOT GOOD YES YES(VERY GOOO) N/A
DRAW SPEED SLOW FAST FAST N/A
SURFACE COMMAND USAGE YES BUT NOT EASY YES(EASY) YES(EASY) N/A
1 i
1
MANUFACTURING N/A j
ONE PATH ROUGH ON Z AXIS NO YES(GREAT) 1 N/A YES(GREAT)
3-D PREVIEW(VERIFY) NO YES(GREAT) N/A YES(GREAT)
STEPS OF TOOLPATH CHECK NO YHS(GREAT) N/A YES(GOOD)
POST PROCESSOR FOR EZ-TRAK DX IyES (GCX5D) YES(BLTT NEED FIX) N/A YES(GREA*n
! 1
3.2 Execution Time
Designing Time
EZ-Mill took 15-16 days. I spent lots of time to create the surface because e\rery surface
needed some curves. The geometry was quite complicated and took me some lime to figure
it out.
SurfCam took one week. After building the wire frame. I began to create surface. There is a
trim surface command that helped me a lot. but in two instances problems arised which took
me more time to figure out. One instance was to check every wireframe for the existence of
61


geometry only. The second instance was to break Ihe long wireframe to pieces in order to
chain boundaries of surface.
Pro-E took 2 weeks. I have never used Pro-E before, so it took me one week to study and
practice using it to become comfortable. But when I got into it, I spent one day to create the
building and front pocket and 5 days to figure out the mountain.
Manufacturing Time
EZ-mill
SurfCam
MaslerCam
1. software: one week to create the tool paths
2. operation: 2 days to manufacture processes
To create the toolpalh on EZ-mill is difficult. In order to make the
tool paths on EZ-mill software run right, I need to make more
toolpaths to complete. That caused manufacturing procedure to be
more complicated and I spent about 2 days time to this part in shop.
1. software: 4 days to create the tool paths
2. operation: 12-14 hours to manufacture processes
Use Z-rough command to make the rough paths of the whole part at once. Then
complete the rest of the finish paths. SurfCam has a preview function which allow
the user to realize if the whole loolpath just created is correct. Operation process
ran smoothly in the machine shop. It took me 12-14 hours to finish.
1. software: 5 days to create the tool paths
2. operation:12 hours to manufacture processes
MasterCam has multiple surf command which is almost the same as Z-rough
command in SurfCam and the same preview function. It is easy to figure out
whether the whole toolpalh is correct or not. I spent 5 days to test and finish the
toolpaths and the operation process also ran smoothly. It took me about 12 hours to
finish.
3.3 Overall Evaluation of EZ-Mill, SurfCam, Pro-E, and MasterCam
CAD section
EZ-Mill CAM software:
62


The toolbars for this software was easier to follow than the other software. Their user-friendly
window command environment is well designed. A user-defined screen command window may be
easily created. This feature allows ihe user to select his/her own, special purpose commands
directly from the screen. This feature is very convenient for the user and increases the friendliness
of the software.
In EZ-Mill CAM the surface comman coo/jj can create almost any desired surface
whether 2_D planes or 3-D planes are required Howeverin making coons surfaces, 4-curves must
be defined which makes the geometry more complicated^ and puts a burden on the computer
system memory slowing down the speed of processing. This lack of speed can have unwanted
effects on the ability to manufacture 3-D parts, let alone the user patience. Also, the coons
surface cannot be created for U-shaped surfaces or any surface requinng more than 90 path
change. As a result, this command has a gcxxl performance, but it can be improved. For instance,
boundary curves for adjacent surfaces must be defined two or more times making the screen
coniiising. If the command oons surface had an option to cancel the boundary curves and
had no limit on the path change, it would be much easier to use as a surfacing tool.
.SURCAM software
The Surfcam has a fast-key option that allows the user to use the keyboard and the
mouse at the same time during the designing stage of the pan. This allows for
speedy design and easy reproducibility. EZ-mill and Pro-E do not include this
function.
Running Surfcam is very speedy and smooth; it also has better shading functions than EZ-mill.
The shading function keeps track of the integrity of the surface after its creation, such as detection
of gaps between surfaces. Surfcam has an extensive built-in error detection system that ensures Ihe
user on the quality of the design
For the same tools and feed rates, Surfcam produced a more continuous and smooth 3-D surface.
The 3-D surfaces are more user friendly and more intuitive than EZ-mill. SurflCam is able lo
blend 3-D sections into one continuous feature using a arallel command. EZ-mill has a similar
arallel command, but it is limited to 2-D features, only.

l l

A f
EZ-Mill SurfCam
Figure3.3.1 Comparison of 3D surfaces
63


SurfCam has a very strict limit on geometry denmtion. Every line, arc, curve or surface must be
defined only once. Geometiy sometimes overlap due to the construction of adjacent features.
When this happens, it interferes with the CAM process. It is necessary to delete any double
geometiy. In order to find the overlapping geometrythe delete command and the redraw
command will help.
Pro-Engineer software
Learning Pro-E was not as intuitive as learning the other languages, but once its usage is
understood^ designing becomes easier and faster Pro-E creates solid models, thereby eliminating
any need for wireframes or surface creation. This results in a more efficient development of 3-D
geometry The assembly feature in Pro-E is particularly valuable. It allows the user to put
together several distinct parts to create one solid model. However, the Pro-E solid model approach
turned out to be more cumbersome for manufacturing. Pro-E was difficult to learn, because the
solid models require more slqis to set up the CAM environment. The references were hard lo
define and the menu options are not intuitive. They were hard to follow without specialized
training and practice Therefore, another CAM program, MasterCanu was chosen as a
compliment to the Pro-E CAD design software.
CAM Section
EZ-Mill software:
EZ-Mill is the most difficult software to use for manufacturing. The reason is primarily due to its
non-intuitive milling procedure. For instance, if the user has to correct the toolpath, he must reset
the parameters and nm the program. If more correction is required this must be repealed Ihe
toolpath cannot be traced to see the errors in the path as can be done with some of the other
software. This reduces debugging time and requires advanced knowledge of the software.
Likewise, EZ-mill is also lagging behind other software in its ability to cut features. Unlike other
programs, in order to do a rough cut the user must choose each individual feature separately and
run the procedure several times. Other packages, such as SurfCam and MaslerCam. can do the
entire surface with one run.
SurfCam software:
In manufacturing the partSurfCam has a unique tool that allows the operator to preview toolpath
with animation after the code is processed and before the actual part is machined. This feature
may be used as a full, nonstop animation of the cutting procedure, or a step-by-slq) editing
animation may be chosen. This provides an easy to follow self-check that saves time when
debugging the program. The user can follow the tcwlpalh to find improper conditions and correct
them.
64


SurfCam has the tool library dialog box to select the desired tool. This selection librar\r is a nice
feature because it allows the user to see a picture of the tool that is selected along with its size
specifications. This is a very nice charaaeristic to have when the proper tool must be selected.
As mentioned above, SurfCam has a -rough command that is capable of milling a rough cut of
the entire part with one run. This function saves much time to mill parts, and it is much faster to
run the finish cut because of a similar -finish command, whereas, EZ-mill was much more
difficult to do the same job.
MaslerCam software:
MastcrCam had many similarities to SurfCam and was just as easy to use. Like SurfCam,
MasterCam has a built in preview function that allows the operator to view his/her cutting path.
It also has the stq>by-step option that allows for easy error detection and correction.
Rough cuts and finish cuts with MasterCam are easily accomplished with the ultiple surface11
command Like SurfCam^ the cuts are done in less time and with less effort than with EZ-mill.
The only deficiency that MasterCam has when compared to SurfCam is its lack of a tool dialogue
box which shows the tool being used.
65


CHAPTER 4
Conclusions / Recommendations
The friendliness and possibilities for expansion on the technical capabilities of the software,
typically increased with price. For CAD, Pro-E would be the first choice, followed by SurfCam and
EZ-Mill. SurfCam and MaslerCam would rank at a same level, with EZ-Mill definitely requiring
more sophistication.
It is important to note that each of the software used was able to design and manufacture the
part. Therefore, the expense of the software must be carefully weighed against the eventual technical
inconveniences of less developed packages. Furthermore, low level packages are continuously
improved, to the point on which they can challenge the fnendliness and many of the technical
capabilities of more expensive systems.
In addition to the expense of the software package, the operating costs must be examined as
well. Included in these expenses is the hire of a CAM operator in which case the lower-end packages
would be more economical due the lower popularity of higher end packages. In retrospect, the lower
cost of MasterCam and SurfCam coupled with their capabilities can provide an economical yet
feasible solution to smaller manufacturing shops.
66


APPENDIX A :
The screen menu of customizable button bars in EZ-Mill V9 0

roiF
CISJO 7
LSJU'h
l.ijuX
l r-. J
VI 0
-i'w I clr
X
>/
^9

52f
*1
Eli
^1
*
303
a -0
ll5ji.-H. I_!;i~~!^:IT1 i:n-;Ta'ls laiEImilain.-
67


APPENDIX B :
The list of general commands in EZ-Mill:
Transform/ Copy This command displays a submenu of six items, each
of which performs a different transformation n
selected curves and surfaces.
X Rotate (Edit, Transform)
Y Rotate
Z Rotate
These commands rotate selected geometry elements, curves
and surfaces about a selected center location to a specified
incremental angle, referenced from the positive axis.
When one of these three commands is selected, the Numeric
Entry Box is displayed for keypad entry of the coordinates of
the axis of rotation. It is only necessary to enter two
coordinates for these commands. For example, for the X
Rotate command only Y and Z coordinates are required. You
are also prompted to enter the angle of rotation about the
selected axis. The angle is referenced from the positive axis.
Blank
The Blank command is used to remove the selected elements
from the screen. This command does not delete anything
permanently, it only hides the selected elements until th^ are
Unblanked. This command is discussed in greater detail in
the section named Edit Selection Icons.
KEY SEQUENCE: Press the B key to select the Blank
command.
Unblk
The Unblk command "unblanks" the selected group of
elements, and causes the screen to be redrawn, so the selected
elements are visible. This command is discussed in greater
detail in the section named Edit Selection Icons.
Zoom
This command enlarges the display of the geometry and the
palh(s) within a selected area to the full display of the
viewport.
Select the Zoom command and when prompted press the
mouse button down at the location that should be displayed in
a comer of the new window. Drag the mouse diagonally away
from that point while holding down the mouse button. Then
68


the geometry to be "zoomed" is surrounded by the highlight
box, release the mouse button to commence zooming.
The Zjoom command can also be used as a HZoom All"
command. Instead of dragging the cursor to select the
dements to view, click the moues button once in the viewport
window. The window is automatically zoomed in or out and
panned as needed to show all geometry, curvesand surfaces
which are currently drawn on he screen.
Fade
The Fade command zooms the window out by a factor of 2.
The Pan moves the window around the part without changing
the window size.
Select Pan, then move the cursor to the location to e displayed
at the window center position and click the mouse. The
w is redrawn with the selected position at its center
Draw
Draw first erases the screen, the displays ail previously
visible date.
X-Y
The X-Y command changes the screen display lo a two
dimensional view of the part on the X-Y plane.
X-Z
The X-Z command changes the screen display lo a two
dimensional view of the part on the X-Z plane.
Y-Z
The Y-Z command display a two dimensional view of Ihe pan
in Ihe Y-Z plane.
Isom
This command changes the screen display to a three
dimensional isometric view of the part. The view angle and
orientation can be changed and saved suing the a Set Isom
command in the 3D View menu under Setup. The Isom
concuxrenl Command will always restore this view until the
Set Isom command is used to saved a new view orientation.
DEFINING The Points command is used to define individual points as
POINTS. geometric elements. Points are seleaed using the Snap Mode Icons at
the lower left of the viewport. These icons provide options to create
any point that might be needed. Points appear on the screen as
69


Cursor Pos. This icon is used to create a point at the location of the cursor. Points are restricted lo the XY plane of the active UCS Points appear on the screen as
Endpoint This icon is used to define a point at the end of an existing line or arc.
Snap All This point is at all existing geometry.
Existing Point This icon is used to define point existing in geometry.
Center This point at the center of an arc or circle can be defined by using this icon.
Midpoint This midpoint of a line or arc can be defined as a point using this icon.
Point on an Arc This icon is used to define a point at an angular location on an
Intersection arc or circle This icon is used to define a point at the intersection of two geometric elements. This includes circles, arcsand shapes as well as lines.
Inter, of Two This icon is used to create a point at an intersection that is not shown because the two elements selected do not interest.
70


APPENDIX C :
The windows menu of Segment Data :

I SefmentBata | Cyde Data 13D Cycle Data | Veiifiataon |
^Se^nent JD
Mpw [ f mouBtaiii
Cycle
|"ZU
Pith ID
"3 [mountain z\
Tool Info-
Select Tool
Tool D (UU0250-1.6
Type
Ball
3
N nber 13
Dumeter 10.25
Corner
R.vdius
,r
F
Material
Ptch (Tp
FlvtBS
Comp #
TLO/
HSS
-Feeds Speeds-
8
2
SpadleRPM |800
FsedOC-Y)
Feed(Z)
Feed
Material Data Base
Comment

C?l.:hte
0p6ZL..
-ZDiti-
C'tti C:mp
-Tool QaAge-----------------------
X |-5
Ghat [Off 2j
YF
Z 0
UsarVaiabk,"MCS IDCS-NC 1
Suhce
Rapid
Sl^>
St£p2
r!a;s?
0
1.5169
0.15
jaose |
71


APPENDIX D :
The windows menu of Cycle Data :

msm
Segment Data Cyde ^ 13) Cycle Data | Verification |
Se^nentD
I Mpw I [mountain
1
Cyde
puzl
Path D
2] [MOUNTAIN J
vffse;. Du M:
Sbxk Allow |
ui Step
Tcti Si; :k
Step Over 0.15
cpiire
-Options-------------
Macro
Reverse Dir
F A\jk>
r 2D Oouft-Check
R Multi Reeioas
Finish Falk
(7 Face Milling
-Commeni (Upto255characters)-
-RampPaiaioeters^
:InRdiu^ F
KrA
| ; I
-Lead Pmmeters
| in Lei.?t}
! ^ !tLe.ith
Close
72


APPENDIX E :
The windows menu of 3D Cycle Data :
Segment Data
Segment Data | Cycle Data 3D Cycle Data | Veiification |
Segment D
New | | mountain
Cycle
Ptlli ID
Zag
rGieck Curves
U
|MOUNTAIN
Check Sulaces -
i]
Add Saif I Remove |
Ful Allow 10.001



Check Plane
U^er
Low
[Off

Z Level
ZLevel

1 Gu2?
QordalTol 10.001
Projection | Facet CiirveStep P
flose 1
73


APPENDIX F :
The List of ToolPathes in EZ-MiU CAMV9.0
Sea ID CvdcTvM PsthK) T1 pu RPM Coolant FdZ FdXY ZSurf 1 t EDcoth 1
P-SURF9-2 iPocMina con surfD-2 1 0.625 1.000 Off 5.0 15.0' 0.0; 1.5169
P-SURf9-1 Cortounno CON-SURF9-1 2 0.625 1.000 Off 5.0 15.0! 0.0! 0.0
P^URF9-1-2 Cortouring P-SURF9-1-2 3 0.625 1.000 Off 5.0 15.0 0.0i 0.0
MldincKop Pockoting bulkMop 4 0.375 1.200 Off 8.0 16.0 0.01 0.0
SuvfB-fint Pockating sub-surfB 5 0.375 600 Off 8.0 18.0 001 1.5169
surf2 Podratino c-surf2 6 0.375 800 Off 5.0 10.0 0.0 0.6668
SURF5&4 Surface none 7 0.375 600 Off 5.0 15.0 0.0 0.0
F-P-FIRST Poefcating POCKET 8 0.375 1.000 Off 10.0 20.0 0.0 0.325
sur18 jPocfcating c-surf8 9 0.125 800 Off 5.0 10.0 r 0.01 1.5169
F-SURF9-1 Contourina F-SURF&-2 10 0.125 1.000 Off 5.0 15.0 0.01 1.5169
surfIS Pocketing pockat17 11 0.125 600 Off 5.0 100 0.0 1.5169
surf7 Pocketing C-9Urf7 12 0.125 800 Off 5.0 10.0 0.0 1.5169
mountain ZigZag MOUNTAIN 13 0.25 800 Off 80 10.0 0.0: 1.5169
f-mountein ZiaZaa MOUNTAIN 14 0^5 800 Off 8.0 100 0.0 0.0
FRONT*POCKET Podrating CON-POCKET 15 0.375 1.000 Off 10.0 20.0 0.01 0.325,
F-F-POCKET PodMting CON^POCKET 16 0.375 1.000 Off 10.0 20.0 0.0 0.01
Half-round Cortourina 3-cortouring 17 0.75 800 Off _5,01 15.0 0.01 0.481
Total ! i : i !
ZStCD Rapid Clear Steo Allow | Tol S Allow MCSID 1 Tirm
0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.01 0.25 * UCS-NC 3:47
0^5 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0; 0.1 UCS-NC 14:42
0.25 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 i UCS-NC |4:10
0.1 0.0 ^ 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 UCS-NC 6:27
0.25 0.01 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 UCS44C B34
0.25 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 .* UCS-NC |4:46
0_25 0.01 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.01 0 UCS-NC '3:14
0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 UCS-NC (3:51
0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 . UCS-NC 121:44
0.1 0.0 00 0.1 0.0 0.1 UCS-NC l:47
0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 UCS-NC |2:34
0.1 0.0 0.0 r57 0.0 0.1 |UCS-NC 22A
0.15 0.0 0.0 0.15 0.0 0.02 *.IUCS-NC 17:32
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.06 0.0! 0.02 .UCS-NC 13:09
0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.05 i|pCKET-C!655
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.02 0.0 0.1 UCS-NC i13:13
0.5 0.0 i 0.0 0.1 o.o i o.i POCKET-C 0.-57
} 2:8:26
74


APPENDIX G :
General Commands in SURFCAM Software
TRANSFORM MENU
You can move elements to other locations or make copies in other locations.
Click Copy or Move before clicking one of the other Transform commands. The Cop\f or
Move command that is active will be highlighted. Prompts on the prompt line till contain the
word copy or move to remind you which one is active.
Distance Copy or move one or more elements by specifying the X.
Y, and Z distances to move the elements from their current position.
Location Copy or move one or more elements from one location to another so that the two locations have the same relative position to each other as do two points which you are prompted to select.
Rotation Copy or move elements by rotating them about a specific location. The Enter rotation angle dialog box will be displayed for you to enter the counterclockwise rotation angle. (Negative values rotate clockwise.)
Scale Copy or move elements by applying a scale factor that affects both the size and location of the dements being copied or moved.
Scale XYZ Scale all geometry independently along the three axis. When the elements to scale are selected the World dialog box will be displayed You can enter difiFerent scaling factors for each axis. Negative scale factors can also be used. Copy or move eleraent(s) in a miiTor image fashion.
To View Copy or move and rotate one or more elements from one view to another.
Offset Create offsets of existing lines, arcs, and circles. The offset can be offset a fixed distance from the original entity, tangent to another line, arc, or circle, or intersecting a selected point. An offset line segment is parallel to and the same length as the original. An offset
75


arc or circle has the same center as the
original but a different radius from the original.
Copy This function sets SURFCAM into the copy mode. Transformations performed while in this mode will cause copiestobecreatedoftheelement(s)beingtransformed
Move This function sets SURFCAM into the move mode. Transformations performed while in this mode will NOT create copies of the element(s) being transformed, the elements selected will moved to the new location.
LOCATION MENU
When this menu is displayed the last selection method used is active.
You must place the crosshairs close enough to the location for SURFCAM to recognize the location.
When the crosshairs are not close enough, or the desired element is masked, the error message
eligible element not found is displayed.
Sketch Locate a position in the drawing window you select by
Point using the current position of the cursor and the current woridng Depth. Locate a position at the XYZ-coordinate of a point that already exists.
Endpoint Locate a position at the XYZ-coordinate of an enc^oint on the element you selea. SURFCAM will select the endpoinl nearest the position you clicked
Center Locate a position at the XYZ-coordinate at the midpoint of a line or the center of an arc element selected.
Intersect Locate a position at the XYZ-coordinate of the element selected and its intersection with another element.
Relative Locate a position that is a relative distance from a known location which you select.
Keyboard The World dialog box will be displayed Enter any X, Y, and Z coordinates in 3D space. This location is based on World or View coordinates as set in the Status window.
Quadrant Select one of four points on a circle. These points are 90 apart starting at the 3 o'clock position. To select one of these four points, click on any point of the circle that is within 45 degrees of the point you wanl. You can also
76


select any of the same four points associated with an arc
if they are within 45 degrees of an end point of the arc.
Undo This command becomes available after an element is created. Clicking Undo deletes the last element created.
Done Choose this command after you have finished selection locations.
SELECT MENU
In many situations SURFCAM will prompt you to select one or more elements and will display the
Select menu to provide commands with which to do the selecting.
When this menu is displayed, the last selection method used is active. The selection method is
highlighted in white.
Single Select a single element.
Within A surface can be selected either by clicking any of its curves or by clicking the attached arrow. Move the cursor to the element to process and press the left mouse button. SURFCAM will select Ihe element closet to the point indicated by the cursor and process the element accordingly. Select one more elements enclosed completely within a rubber-band box.
Intersect Select one or more elements that are inside or touching a rubber-band box.
Visible When additional infonnation is required to complete the operation, the appropriate dialog boxes will be displayed for your entries. Otherwise, SURFCAM will select everything that appears in the cunerU work space.
MultSclOn Click this command to toggle between MultSelOn and MultSclOff. If MullSclOff is displayed, SURFCAM will move to the next menu after you select geometry. If set to MuItSelOiu the Select menu remains available and Done also appears as a command on the menu.
77


SelMode/DeselMode
If MultSclOn is displayed on the menu, the SelMode will
also be displayed so you can select elements. With
DeseiMode you can un-select elements that you
previously selected
Done Return to the SURFCAM feature menu that is using the
Chaining menu.
CHAIN MENU
The Chain Menu is displayed at various times.
The following parameters may or may not aj^ear on you menu depending on the operation in which
you are currently engaged.
Single Select a single element or a series of single elements.
Using this command avoids extra steps in the selection
process. If a series of elements are selected, they are not
chained together After you make your selections and
click Done, each separate element you have selected is
acted upon Ity Ihe SURFCAM feature that is using the
chaining menu.
Chain Chain several connected elements together. To use
Chain, select a point near the beginning of the first
element followed by a point near the end of the last of
the connected elements you wish to chain. After
selecting the begiiming point, the Single and Chain
buttons are de-activated and the Done button is changed
to the Close button.
Another chaining method is to use Close to chain all of a
set of connected elements together after first selecting a
point near the beginning of the first element. An
alternate way to chain all the connected elements
together is to click the beginning point a second time.
In some situations, when chaining, SURFCAM
encounters ranch points or works in the road and cannot
determine the next element to chain. When this occurs,
the Chain Next menu will be displayed and you will be
prompted with ranch point found, select next element or
end to finish. Select the next element to chain or click
End
78


Vector
Auto
Plunge
Chain Opt.
Done
The vector chaining method identifies profiles that have
a vector attached to them. The vector defines the
direction to o£fset the tool path.
To create a tool path using vectors, click Vector from the
chaining menu. SURFCAM will then display the
Selection menu to select the veaors. Use any one of the
selection commands to select the vector representing the
profiles to machine. SURFCAM will highlight the
profiles. Click Done when all of the desired profiles have
been highlighted Click Done again and SURFCAM will
prompt for an INC filename.
When you click Auto, SURFCAM will display the Select
menu and you will be prompted to select contour(s) to be
chained then Done.
Use this command to specify plunge locations.
SURFCAM will automatically move the tool to the
closet user-defined plunge point and feed to the cutting
dqTttu then to the beginning point of the cycle's pass. If
plunge points are not specified, plunge positions will be
automatically calculated.
Any Z axis coordinate will be disregarded since the cycle
determines the depth to which to plunge.
Click Plunge to define a plunge point. The Location
menu will be displayed for you to define the plunge point
coordinate. Select the appropriate locations and click
Done. Click Done again and the system will prompt for
an INC filename.
NOTE: This may be done before or after a cycle
has been defined.
Display a dialog box containing the Planar, Tangent, and
Angle Tolerance parameter.
Click Done to complete the chaining session and signal
SURFCAM to proceed to the next step in its current
processing.
79


APPENDIX H :
The Tool Information Dialog Box :
Tool information
Program Information
SURFCAM Select Mill Tool
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ov
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0 oaoudj 0 wunoMCV
1-
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edA*,UT,,*,i,l
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ssha
OSUOHO^ ccdo
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Ja^u93 s m
UTP^hTV^OWTOO*-
hcEOO hooh
0-XJVJqTT Tool
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St
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t
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ons-0
i
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i
s
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s
0^h 400^
ds CTImTdsI
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ftDv;plnsl
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t£ OTV
TP Tool
nan^t^n
TSS--as
M
**!£ ochhch
Ma'-rT
4
j
Ml &C9HA I
"0£ 9-s pa£ \
wi SLl psos CXPUTds
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0
-
as-l WSTOOV j
WSTTO Hhon I
p
0: uUT ssaz
TWSKO .VTP Tool
1_&0 UST T J
T M04BC HeoH
9hoqunu iJAOJtg
1 AJVJqvr^R
80


SURF CAM Select Mill Tool
m||fU|g|6ld^ll iBlxl
Avaiafele Tods:
n #2 1fl6lnchHSS0ainose 1 ^8 Inch HSS Bafloose
#3 #4 3/16 Inch HSS Ballnose 1 /4 loch HSS Boftnose MM
#5 3/8 hch HSS Ballnose
f 6 1 f2 Inch HSS BaOnose
f:7 SfQ Inch HSS BaBnose
#e 3/4 Inch HSS Boftnose
no 1 Inch HSS Ballnose
#15 #16 1 /16 tnch CARBIDE BaHnose 1 fd Inch CARBOE Bottnose
#17 3/16 Inch CAR0OE Baflnose
ns 1 /4 tnch CARBOE BHnose
#19 3^0 Inch CARBIDE B^Rnose
#20 1 f2 Inch CARBDE BaHnose
#21 5/8 Inch CARBIDE Ballnose 3/4 Inch CARBIDE Bollnose
f:22
:23 IfB Inch CARBIDE Bollnose
#:24 4 -IT 1 loch CARBIDE Baflnose
HI !
Total Height:
3.0625
Diameter:
r r
0.075
FMeHeHjM:
12 625
Number Of FWes:

!


The toolbar across the top of the dialog box displays buttons for the
following commands:
JlJ

JLJ
J
J
d
i
uj
Q|

Go to first record in the tool list.
Go to previous record in the tool list.
Go to next record in the tool list
Go to last record in the tool list.
Choose a Ball nose Mill Tool.
Choose a End Mill Tool.
Choose a Bull nose Mill Tool.
Choose aTeardrop Mill Tool.
Choose a Key Mill Tool.
Choose a Face Mill Tool.
Choose aTapGred Mill Tool.
Add a Mill Tool to the library.
Edit and save Tool information in the library.
Delete thG currently selected tool.
82


.'.'URFCAM N'l L'perittioii! M^i?
taluUlelmloLal|||||
IrJ NC Project
Rl i}|! main
3axls Z Rough -1/7* dia. ftat whole-
gjn 2axis Pocket -1 fln dia. flat pocket inside
^ 2axls Contour2d-1 W" dia surfl-
3axis Z Finish -1 /4" dia. ban mountain -
3oxls Z Finish -1 /4" dia. ball pccket -
^ 2^x\s Pocket -1 /4" d)o. pocket bottom -
2axls Contour2d >1 Qm do. flat front arc -
00
u>
C Large Icortt
BRDOEPORT EZ-T
Haas MS-Series
Fanuc 6M-B
Bridgeport BOSS 8
Lebtond>Moklno
EZ-TRA^ l*
Dynopoth 20
Hddenhcln 415
Clndnnatl ACRA B Hurco 40
Est Dono m> |

APPENDIX I:
NC Information DialoEWOX:


APPENDIX J :
Datum Menu Structure:
:^n:
Feature
Modify
Regenerate
Sheet Metal
Composite
Cosmetic
User Defined
Mold
Done/Return

3ffnNS
3 Planes
Pnt + 2Axes
2 Axes
Offset
Offs By View
Pin + 2Axes
Orig + 2Axis
From File
Default
Plane
Curve ----
Point ----
Coord Sys
Graph
Evaluate
Add New
Change
Remove
Thru Edge
Normal Pin
Pnt Norm Pin
Thru Cyl
Two Planes
Two Pnt/Vtx
Pnt on Surf
Tan Curve
Done/uit
Done
Quit
KTOSTRiWT^'
On Surface
Offset Surf
Curve X Srf
On Vertex
Offset Csys
Three Srf
At Center
On Curve
Crv X Crv
Offset Point
Done
uit
Done
Quit
Create
Delete
Redo
Info
Show
Done
Quit
Sketch
Intr.Surfs
Thru Points
From File
Composite
Use Xsec
Projected
Formed
Split
Of fsetFromSrf
Offset In Srf
2 Projections
From Equation
Xhatch
No Xhatch
Done
Quit
Through
Normal
Parallel
Offset
Angle
Tangent
BlendSection
AxisEdgeCurv
Point/Vertex
Plane ------
Cylinder ---
Coord Sye
Done
Restart
Quit
Pick
uery Sel
Sel By Menu
Done Sel
Quit Sel

Axis
Point
Edge
3D Curve
Datum
Surface
84


APPENDIX K :
Create Menu Structure :

^ Blind
Thru Kext
Thru All
Thru Until
UpTo Pnt/Vtx
Jp Curve
UpTo Surface
Done

Quit
One S:ae
Both Sides
Done
Quit
Foluv______
Qh Qvfll

85


APPENDIX L :
Different Methods of Selecting Round Reference
Round Menu Structure :
Different Methods of Selecting Round References
Referenct* IN pc Original Geometry Rounded Geometry
(a) Edge Chain/ One By One f Select these edges. Resulting round
(b) Edge Chain/ Tangnt Chain / Sele from / (c) Surf-Surf Select these
(dj Edge-Surf Select tt is edge. Select this
86


87


APPENDIX M:
The Toolpath Menu Structure :
Main Menu: -
Analyz '
Create '
FU
Oalete ^
[Screen
Toolpaths
NC utils
hxtt -*.
Toolpath*: r
Mtscellanous toolpth^
Old toolpattirv
^w#pt:-'
88


APPENDIX N :
All Parameters of Multisurf Finish or Rough :
89




-FÂ¥o(ctc*J( CultDlerenee 10 00100 jMr.rnoj.NCi 1:AMI1I rilM | -OrK/chcl( turfac* 1
p Use check surfaces | Stock to leave on check | 0 iouoo i
Qj(tolffe
Hedroumz
I'fl 00100
top I 4 10000
Cutting netted------------ . - -
-Cuttingilrectlqnfor deeedeontoin .
rCknb
-Cutting direction tor

cpnconlotn
2igrag
Radhn
J o rwnoo
J-ooonoo
for boundary ,
msssemi
90


APPENDIX O:
NC code for this part at EZ-TRAK SX is huge. It is not convenient to list all,
so listing a example as following :
(Next Page)
91


Full Text

PAGE 7

Datum Create

PAGE 33

112 3/8 3/8 1/2", 112", 112", 112",

PAGE 41

v

PAGE 46

... -....i

PAGE 49

' ............ :J:!;: .... V ,.. ...

PAGE 72

coons surface,

PAGE 74

A5

PAGE 80

T".,

PAGE 82

Li:

PAGE 83

5.0 0.125 01VIfT 0.125 0.25 0.0' 0.375 0.325, 0.375 0.5 0.0 0.25 0.1

PAGE 89

v-_ ott.et!l

PAGE 90

119

PAGE 92

12" c:

PAGE 99

____

PAGE 101

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PAGE 102

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PAGE 103

''''11' ''''11 '",11. ,m". n. 72911 Z,,,,n. "lO '991n. "19L n. T-' .... HL n l''''11' .",n. n.

PAGE 104

,U9%.-'''' TI" no ,,,,m n"z., z.,.,,,, 1"90 n mo TI" z.,.,m

PAGE 105

'-1.0' Z2 ... n. ''''12' ,,,,,n. ,."z.. H".z.-,,,., ,,,,,n' ,,,,n. 1Hz.."", n. m. n. '-J 1.. ''''''1 n. l.-,'" '2'Z '''l.-lm l.-'''' ...... OJL L'"., wuz,. ,,,.,n.