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Exploring architecture in Arapahoe County, Colorado 1860-1995

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Title:
Exploring architecture in Arapahoe County, Colorado 1860-1995
Creator:
Keller, Carolyn K
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Language:
English
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ix, 164 leaves : ; 29 cm

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Subjects / Keywords:
Architecture -- Colorado -- Arapahoe County ( lcsh )
Buildings -- Colorado -- Arapahoe County ( lcsh )
Architecture ( fast )
Buildings ( fast )
Colorado -- Arapahoe County ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Arts, History.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Carolyn K. Keller.

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Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
29046719 ( OCLC )
ocm29046719
Classification:
LD1190.L57 1993m .K45 ( lcc )

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EXPLORING ARCHITECTURE IN ARAPAHOE COUNTY, COLORADO 1860-1995 by Carolyn K. Keller B.E., Washburn University, 1966 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of .colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the. requirements for the degree of Master of Arts History 1993

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This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Carolyn Kay Keller has been approved for the Department of History

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Keller, Carolyn K. (M.A., History) Exploring Architecture in Arapahoe County, Colorado 1860-1995 Thesis directed by Professor Thomas J. Noel ABSTRACT The focus of this investigation is the identification and interpretation of the most significant buildings in Arapahoe County, Colorado, with a time frame from 1860 to 1995. The study is confined to the following cities located within Arapahoe County: Bow Mar, Byers, Cherry Hills Village, Columbine Valley, Deer Trail, Englewood, Village, Littleton, Sheridan, and Strasburg. Aurora is not included in this paper due to the extensive number of buildings in that city and the restrictions placed on the length of this paper. The thesis begins: with an overview of the development of architecture in the Arapahoe County. The architectural history of each city is then explored, narrowing to a selection of buildings in each town based on historical significance and architectural merit. In iii

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which enables the reader to identify and place each building in its historical and architectural context. Buildings are identified by the town, or in the case of rural buildings, the nearest town in Arapahoe County to which they are located. Where possible, the year the construction was completed or an estimate of the nearest date, and the architect or builder if available, are presented. With this study, I seek to explore the economic, aesthetic, social, and technological factors that influenced the planning and building of each new structure. Concepts and methods of social history-aided in understanding patterns of building and the dynamics of the community. Many of these buildings are destined to vanish from the landscape and therefore it was urgent to collect as much information as possible about the buildings and to record the facts accurately. This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I recommend its publication. Signed Thomalj1J. Noel iv

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CHAPTER I. II. III. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION-AN OVERVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHITECTURE IN ARAPAHOE COUNTY, COLORADO ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF BOW MAR Buildings in Bow Mar Mr. Blandings Dream House ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN. OF BYERS Buildings in Byers George Snow House Snow Ranch Barn Byers Cemetery First Presbyterian Church of 1 12 16 16 17 20 20 21 22 Byers 22 IV. ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF CHERRY HILLS VILLAGE 25 Buildings in Cherry Hills Village 29 Foster/Buell Mansion 29 Gano/Bradley Mansion 30 Cherry Hills Country Club 32 Broomfield House 34 Shingle style Residence 36 v

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v. ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF COLUMBINE VALLEY . Buildings in Columbine Valley Joseph Wesley Bowles House 38 42 42 VI. ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF DEER VII. VIII. TRAIL . . . 46 Buildings in Deer Trail 52 Deer Trail Pioneer Museum 52 Deer Trail/Evergreen Cemetery 52 Price Ranch ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF ENGLEWOOD . . Buildings in Englewood Tom Skerritt House The City Ditch David W. Brown House Swedish National Sanitorium/ Swedish Medical Center Englewood Railroad Station Gothic Theater Englewood Savings and Loan/ 53 55 68 68 69 70 72 74 76 Colonial National Bank 77 Cinderella City 78 Arapahoe Greenway Trail 79 Englewood Recreation Center 80 ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF GREENWOOD VILLAGE 82 Buildings in Greenwood Village 85 vi

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IX. Cherry Creek School . . 85 Curtis School/Curtis School Arts and Humanities Center . 86 Beau Mende Shopping Center; Happy Church . . 88 Koebel Public Library Architectural History of Denver Technological Center . Buildings in the Denver Technological Center One DTC . Architectural History of 89 91 98 98 Greenwood Plaza . . 99 Greenwood Plaza 99 Buildings in Greenwood Plaza 101 Harlequin Plaza 101 Carrara Place 101 Museum of Outdoor Arts 102 MCI Plaza 103 Architectural History of Inverness Business Park . . 104 ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF LITTLETON . 106 Buildings in Littleton 114 Littleton Cemetery 114 Edward Montgomery House 115 J. D. Hill General Store 116 Denver and Rio Grande Depot 117 vii

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x. Highline Water Canal 118 Richard s. Little House 119 Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Depot/Depot Art Center 120 H. s. Leach House/ Treece House 120 Jules Jacques Benois Benedict Home/ Carmelite Monastery 121 Carnegie Foundation Public Library Littleton High School/ Littleton Public Schools Administration Building Littleton Town Hall First Presbyterian Church of Littleton . 122 123 124 125 Littleton Historical Museum 126 McBroom Cabin 126 Ice House .. 127 Log Schoolhouse 127 Bemis House 127 Main Museum Building 128 south Platte Park Arapahoe Community College Littleton City Center 129 130 131 Littleton RTD Transit Center 132 Centennial Golf and Tennis Club 133 Porter South Medical Center 134 Hudson Gardens 135 ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF OF THE TOWN OF SHERIDAN 137 Buildings in Sheridan 145 viii

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Monaghan's Tavern ..... 145 Sheridan Municipal Center 146 XI. ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF STRASBURG . . . 148 Buildings in Strasburg 153 .Comanche Crossing Historical Ma:rker . . 153 Comanche Crossing Museum Complex 154 Living Springs School 154 Strasburg Depot 155 Caboose . 156 Dyer Homestead 156 Wolf Creek School 157 Other Museum Buildings 158 Weaver Store 158 BIBLIOGRAPHY 160 Books 160 Interviews . . . 162 Newspapers and Periodicals 163 Other Sources 164 ix

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AN OVERVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHITECTURE IN ARAPAHOE COUNTY, COLORADO Even before the excitement of the gold strike in the Rockies gave birth to Colorado Territory, Arapahoe County was in the making. Early in 1860 the Platte River Improvement and Lumber Company had thirty men employed near Platte Canyon cutting timber. Forty-eight yoke of oxen were at work in the pinery and the foreman promised three million board feet of timber for Denver and surrounding areas .1 "Migratory Yankees" who built homes in the county were primarily concerned with the right to own property. These early homes were built by men and women pioneers not only to establish ownership of land but to provide shelter from storms as well as sun. Settlers such as John McBroom and his brother Issac homesteaded in 1859 and 1860, close to the mountains on the western edge of Arapahoe County. Using hand-hewn logs, the McBroom brothers were the first to build log dwellings in Arapahoe County, Colorado. The popularity of the vernacular wood frame dwelling 1 Robert J. McQuarie and c.w. Buchholtz, Littleton Colorado: Settlement to Centennial (Littleton: Littleton Historical Museum, 1990) 13. 1

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caused this style to be built all over the county after 1860. Adopting the more simplified method of balloon frame construction, these dwellings eliminated the tedious hewn joints and massive timbers of brace-framed and post-and-girt construction. During the 1870's the railroads brought a measure of uniformity and standardization by making more kinds of structural and building materials available. Various sizes of milled lumber could be used, resulting in a dwelling that resisted high winds and heavy snows. Most of these buildings had simple lines and an absence of ornamentation. These homes and commercial buildings appeared' throughout the county in the form of homestead houses, ranch homes, and stores on the streets of the first cities to be platted and organized in the county. The establishment of Littleton in. 1872 and Deer Trail and Englewood in 1875, brought further construction of cottages, business buildings, school houses and railroad depots to these towns. By the 1880's, wood construction continued to be favored throughout the county as well as the less common vernacular masonry. Construction and design of these early buildings were influenced from the beginning by climate and available materials, tastes of the people living in the community, and the economic means at hand. The tiny Edward' Montgomery house built in 2

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1883 in Littleton, the white frame farmhouse of George Snow built in 1890 in Byers, and the Fred Bemis house built c. 1889, now located on the grounds of the Littleton Historical Museum, are splendid examples of the vernacular cottage. Resisting the very ornate influences of such styles as English Gothic, French, and Second Empire, early Arapahoe County builders were more likely to fancy the Victorian style embellishments of jigsaw and ornamental scrollwork. The Joseph w. Bowles house (c. 1885) located in what is now Columbine Valley, was perhaps the finest structure and most enduring example of Victorian architecture built in Arapahoe County. According to the words of the Littleton Independent, J. w. Bowles was "the most successful of Colorado's farmers." He built a remarkable rose-colored stone villa with a steeply pitched and gabled roof and fine Victorian millwork. By 1880, farming and ranching also began to shape the landscape in Arapahoe County. At the center of the farmstead was a nucleus of structures which became a unique physical expression of its owners or builders. The farm or ranch house and the barn served as key structures. Their architectural arrangement was determined by the farmer's ingenuity, building function, cost, available building materials, and environmental 3

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factors such as topography, drainage, access, and sources of water. outbuildings varied in number and in form and were built according to additional shelter and storage, needs. The adobe ranch building, most commonly built in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, was also found in eastern Arapahoe County, Colorado. The c.J. Elliot barn near Strasburg, shows the Anglo influence in its pitched gambrel roof, while the walls are made of adobe. Most barns built in the county after 1920 used the lightweight balloon frame and nail system. They also abandoned the single-sloped gabled roof for the double sloped gambrel roof, which were wood shingled before 1940. For many of Arapahoe County's early towns, the railroad provided a vital link to the outside world. During the rail era the train station became a major community commercial and social center. The railroad's architectural and engineering departments were responsible for the design of the railroad depots and station houses. Stations followed the fashionable residenti-al architectural styles of the times. Most of these buildings were simple standardized frame structures, typically one-story. Yet, they had an unmistakable architectural ingredient, a wide overhanging 4

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roof at first floor level, suitable for sheltering waiting passengers and railroad workers and supported by impressive brackets in the eave line. Deer Trail's Depot on the Kansas and Pacific Railroad was built in 187-o and survives today as a historical museum. The Romanesque style Littleton Depot, built in 1875, of locally quarried rhyolite and the board-andbatten frame Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Depot built in 1888, have been rehabilitated by the Littleton community. The 1915 Englewood Depot on the Union Pacific Line, with its Mission Revival architecture, has barely survived the encroachment of Englewood, while the 1917 hipped' roof Strasburg Depot, has become part of the Comanche Crossing Museum Complex. An impressive number of early school buildings have survived in Arapahoe County, most notable an 1864 handhewn log school house built in the county that rests on the grounds of the Littleton Historical Museum. Also restored and in use today are the vernacular Cherry Creek School built in 1874, and the 1886 Living Springs School, and 1904 Wolf Creek School located in Strasburg. The more substantial Curtis School (1914), is the oldest public building still in use in Greenwood Village, and has been rehabilitated as the Curtis School Arts and Humanities center. All of these early school buildings 5

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had the common characteristics of expansive windows and high ceilings as well as separate desks for each pupil and adjacent playgrounds.2 Robert Fuller, a Denver architect, designed the 1920's Littleton High School with its Art Deco detailing. This school has found adaptive use as a school administration building. One of Colorado's few intact 19th-century commercial Main Streets is located in the city of Littleton in Arapahoe County. This Main street includes a number of original turn of the century flat-roofed Italinate style buildings, mostly two-story, including single and double storefronts, and corner buildings with detailing on two facades. Many of the buildings exhibit :bracketed cornices and the ori9inal second story windows with molded surrounds and radiating voussoirs. Because of modern imprOVementS OVer the yearS 1 most Of the bUildingS have lost their central recessed entrances with transoms to flush doorways. At the center of Main street is "the finest town hall built for a small American town," 2 The publication of a brief treatise on school architecture by William A. Alcott in 1832 established the characteristic form of early school buildings. For the next 13 0 years, both urban and one-room county schools adapted the basic classroom size o.f 25'x 35' and the prescription of fresh air, light, and space through the design of spacious windows, an open setting: with adjacent play and athletic grounds. "Schoolhouses," Built In The u.s.A. (Washington, D.C.: The Preservation Press, 1985) 150. 6

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designed by architect Jacques B. Benedict in 1920. Turn of the century elegance in residential design is exemplified by the David w. Brown mansion built around 1900. This prairie-style rambler was designed by Denver arch-itect, George H. Williamson, and shows an unusual articulation o-f wood on the exterior walls along with its wide overhanging eaves. During the "roaring twenties" Arapahoe County's wealthy began to appreciate the gentlemen architects who designed in the grand European style. Three fine examples of the European period house were built in Cherry Hills Village during this time. The Georgian FosterjBuell Mansion (c. 1916), the elegant Gano/Bradley Mansion built in the English hunt county style (1920), and the Cherry Hills Country Club clubhouse in the Tudor Revival style (1923). Around 1925 a new wave of modernism appeared in reaction to the earlier traditional architecture. The "Modern" styles included Art Deco, Streamline, and the International styles. A fine example o.f the rather rare International style can be found in the Broomfield House built in 1936 in Cherry Hills Village. Between 1910-1930, the middle class in Arapahoe County and in America at large became enthralled with the Craftsman style of architecture. By 1910 in Englewood and Littleton, the two-story, hipped roof Foursquare, one 7

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of the most common styles found in Colorado and the onestory version of the Foursquare, the Classic Cottage, were being built by the hundreds. These styles are easily recognized in the older residential sections of these two cities today. Before the 1950's, Arapahoe County consisted of small town and farms,. ranches and weekend retreats. After World War II, as stability was reestablished in the markets, and the need for new buildings started a resurgence of construction. Denver's Arapahoe county suburbs grew into cities themselves. It was the era of suburban subdivisions and speculation houses. The typical-suburban house became a one-story ranch house. It faced the street and opened to a private yard in the back. The automobile took over the space in the front yard' with a single or double driveway leading to a wide garage door, which often became the largest part of the front elevation of the house. Citieslike Cherry Hills Village (1945), Greenwood Village (1950), and Bow Mar (1958) incorporated. Designers struggled for more architectural freedom in the 1960's. Unusual use of materials and modern d'esign could be seen in the elliptical stucco Englewood Savings and Loan building on South Broadway in Englewood. The modernistic sixty-five acre shopping mall by the name of 8

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Cinderella City had its grand opening in 1968. In the early 1970's, cheap land began to vanish. The typical suburban house, which had two bedrooms and a bath after World War II, had grown to twice that size with three bedrooms, two baths and a family room. Houses became 11eclectic11 displaying a medley of modern and traditional architectural elements. A renewed historical consciousness aided the establishment of the Littleton Historical Museum in 1970. Responding to the environmental crusade, Littleton built a 65,000 square foot City center complete with solar panels. Eugene Sternberg, an Evergreen architect, raised community eyebrows with his "brutal and honest" concrete Arapahoe Community College building in 1973. The 1980-'s saw perhaps Arapahoe County's finest achievement in business architecture built at the Denver Technological Center in Greenwood Village. Architects for_ the DTC set out to prove that an office-building can be useful and beautiful at the same time. The buildings of Greenwood Plaza, also in Greenwood Village, by John Madden, created the Museum of outdoor Arts in 1970 which is one of the most unique galleries in Colorado. Impressive buildings such as the glass-curtained walled Harlequin Plaza with its unusual plaza of life sized Harlequin statues (1981), and the sweeping profile of 9

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Cararra Place (1982) leave a lasting profile on the landscape. The population of Arapahoe County has exploded since World War II. From a population of 52,125 in 1950, Arapahoe County had grown to 391,511 inhabitants by 1990, a more than sevenold increase. Residential subdivisions, shopping centers, and office parks had displaced agrarian pursuits in most of western Arapahoe County. With increasing consciousness of the built and natural environment, Arapahoe County communities in the 1980's continued to take an interest in the beauty and recreational aspects of the county. In.1985, Englewood citizens fundeid the 55,600 square foot Englewood Recreation Center in an industrial section of the city. It provided an important social and focal point for Englewood. Work continues on the Arapahoe County Greenway Trail. Begun in 1983 and supported by the cities of Englewood, Sheridan, and Littleton, this eightfoot-wide foot and bike path will connect with the Colorado Trail located in the South-Platte Canyon area. Work is progressing on the completion of Hudson Gardens located on the South Platte River in Littleton. Winter weary suburbanites will be able to visit Hudson Gardens by 1995, to observe a ecosystem of 10

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residential plantings in the 27 acre paradise. Residents of Arapahoe County today face the decline of familiar farm and ranch buildings. Big agribusinesses and absentee landlords coupled with poor rural economy have d-ecreased the number of farms and ranches. Roadside strips of highway architecture hide what is left of the countryside and Interstate highways are erasing visible reminders of an agrarian heritage. Arapahoe County farmers have found the cost of maintaining the huge wooden farm structures prohibitive and they are either taken down or left to fall down. They have been replaced with prefabricated buildings utilizing metal sheathing and wood truss frames. Today, Arapahoe county is Denver's wealthiest county and exemplifies efforts to perpetuate mobility, individual freedom and property rights in its new subdivisions. Constantly looking for alternatives to acknowledged suburban problems such as overcrowding, traffic, and pollution, architects and developers continue to try and attract new buyers with designs that provide the ideals of the "Old Westn and modern conveniences. 11

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CHAPTER II ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF BOW MAR Town (Incorporation 1958, 5,500 feet) Bow Mar is located between Bowles and Marston Lakes southwest of Denver, within the populated Denver Metropolitan Area. This town is located in both Arapahoe and Jefferson Counties. Lloyd J. King, resident of Bow Mar and founder of King Soopers grocery, purchased four parcels of land totalling 575 acres in 1947 making up the entire town of Bow. Mar. The 250 one-acre homesites were centered around Marston and Bowles lakes (the community is named for the two lakes, BOWles and MARston), and were laid out by the firm of Harmon O'Donnel and Henninger, landscape architects and city planners. Ambrose Realty was the agent for the new community.1 A seven-and-one-half acre 1 As early as 1888, The Littleton Independent, 21 July 1888: 2, commented on the irrigation system in the vicinity of Bow Mar and surro:unding area. "The great system of irrigation that is now being carried on is causing this valley to become one of the fertile spots in the country. Everything the farmer could wish to produce is raised in great abundance, and crops never failing." Joseph w. Bowles, was an early miner, farmer, cattleman, politician, financier, and landholder of Arapahoe County from 1865 to 1906. For over 40 years he acquired over 2 000 acres of land on which Bow Mar, and parts of Littleton are today. Satisfied that with irrigation, the "up land" he had acquired, could be equally 12

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parcel of land on the west end of Bowles Lake was designated as a bird and wildlife sanctuary, while the east end was designed to have a sand beach and boat dock area.2 Ambrose Realty agents were responsible for the distinctive street signs still found in the area today. On Prospect, the sign is a painted figure of a miner and a donkey, on Lake Shore, a sail boat, and Sheridan Avenue depicts General Sheridan on his horse.3 The first home in Bow Mar was built on speculation in 1948 on the north shore of Bowles Lake by the developers as productive as the bottom land. He associated himself with George w. Harriman and commenced the survey of a ditch heading in Bear Creek near Morrison, to furnish direct water f'low <;luring the crop season to water cattle and to store waters at other times in a system of reservoirs, the lands being served lying south of Bear Creek and West of the Platte River. The first basin to be utilized being "Harriman Lake." Mr. Bowles closely followed by constructing three lakes on his own property west of Littleton and south of Marston Lake. (The Bowles and Marston Lakes still provide water to some of the farm lands and provide a scenic backdrop for the many suburban homes in the Bow Mar area) The ditch they constructed is now one of the feeders of Marston Lake, a part of the present Denver Water Department System. This was one of the first irrigation reservoirs in the area. Carolyn Keller, Joseph W. Bowles. 1835-1906 (unpublished paper, Littleton Historical Museum Library, December 1989) 4. 2 Lloyd J. King Interview, Bow Mar, Colorado, 13 January 1993. At one time, Mr. and Mrs. King hauled in as much as 100,000 pounds of grain and corn a year to feed as many as 2,000 Canadian geese and 1,500 ducks in the lakes until nearby golf clubs complained about the abundance of water fowl in the area. 3 "How Bow Mar Was Born," The Littleton Independent Bemis Public Library clipping file, 8 July 1976: n.p. 13

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of the community. They received permission from the RKO Radio Pictures to recreate the home from the popular 1948 comedy starring Myrna Loy and Cary Grant, Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream Home. "From that time it took four or five years for the development to take off," according to Mr. King. Early architecture in Bow Mar consisted of one-story building styles popular in the 1950's. The post war ranch style was also built in large numbers. These onestory houses with low pitched roof lines and broad rambling facades nestled snugly on the large tracts of land purchased by the home owners. The large expanses of glass afforded scenic views of the surrounding countryside. Another popular style was the modern fifties flat or gabled roof contemporary ranch, featuring contrasting combinations of wood, brick, and stone with wide window overhangs and a minimal amount of decorative detail. These gabled forms frequently featured overhanging eves and exposed roof beams. Unusual window combinations and placement was common to this style. Fearful of encroachment on the territory by undesirable housing developments, businesses, utilities, governmental units, and other agencies, the 289 residents of the exclusive subdivision petitioned Arapahoe County 14

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courts for incorporation in 1958.4 Bow Mar is a community of fine homes, restricted to one-story and minimum size of house and site, style, and price range. All owners are members of Bow Mar Property Association, non-profit organization of homeowners dedicated to the preservation of the beauty and benefits of living in Bow Mar. When asked, What are you most proud of in Bow Mar? Mr. King responded, 11 the people are so unique that live here, and so very loyal. Without exception, they move here and they just don't ever want to leave. 115 4 5 Denver Post, 23 July 1958: 19. King, 13 January 1993. 15

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Buildings in Bow Mar Mr Blandings' Dream Home (1948, Harmon, O'Donnel andHenninger, Landscape Architects and Planners) 5200 Lakeshore Drive In 1948 Denverites could take a sunday drive to the new suburb of Bow Mar, travel on gravel roads (to evoke that country feeling), view the many one-acre lots for sale, as well as view the show home of the development. It was a one-story side gabled Colonial Revival with a symmetrical facade. The home was more correctly called a Cape Cod Cottage, and was a common style built all over the United States in the 1930's and 1940's. Movie owners for RKO pictures gave approval to Bow Mar developers to use the title of the popular movie Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream Home, however, the home was only similar in feeling to the one that wa$ built in the movie. Today from nearby Lakeshore Drive, passers-by can gaze at "Mr. Btandings' Home" and on the spectacular view of Bowles Lake and the distant mountains that the owners of this property have enjoyed for over forty-five years. 16

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CHAPTER III ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF BYERS Town (1868, 5202 feet) Byers is located thirty-two miles east of Denver on Interstate 70. This eastern plains town was founded by Oliver P. Wiggins, a scout and frontiersman who built the first general store on railroad property. Upon completion of the Kansas Pacific railroad in 1870, the town was renamed for William N. Byers, founder of the Rocky Mountain News. and former postmaster of Denver. By 1880, the local post office was in operation as well as a general merchandise store, blacksmith shop, and the local saloon. To stimulate interest in the growing town, city fathers established the Byers Town and began marketing real estate. On May 16, 1888, the Denver Republican proclaimed free rail excursion rides out of Denver to the new town of Byers. "This is the longest ride and biggest lunch yet offered by real estate men in Denver."1 The distance was forty-two miles, and the Byers town Company proposed to make Byers the county seat of a new county named Teller. l. The Denver Republican, 16 May 1888: n.p. 17

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By 1906 with some one hundred residents, another attempt at land speculation was made. This time it was the Colorado Bijou Land and Irrigation Company, a Chicago syndicate, with headquarters in Denver. The company purchased 30,000 acres of Union Pacific Land adjacent to Byers for colonizing. This effort was less than successful. The u.s. Census shows that Byers continued to be primarily a farming and ranching community well into the 1950's with slow population growth-. By 1956, the population was 400. In the 1970's, the placid, rolling farmland that was once the site of hundreds of wind;mills became dotted with oil drilling rigs. The discovery of the Peoria Oil Field and a $2 million natural gas-production _plant caused property prices to go sky high. "You couldn't find a place to sleep in town, the Longhorn Cafe is a beehive, business is great.112 Even the new 264 acre steel and glass Interstate Dog Track, constructed in 1970, had three oil producing wells pumping 1,500 barrels a day. The $2.5 million facility brought numbers of hard hats to the area. Byers residents called the gigantic commodious trailers behind the track that housed both man 2 Rocky Mountain News, 24 November 1970: 35. 18

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and dog, "Kennel City. 113 In the 199'0's, thousands of travelers pass Byers every day on Interstate 70. It has become primarily a bedroom community for Aurora and Denver and is surrounded by wheat fields, land, and housing that people can still afford. 3 Ibid. 19

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Buildings in Byers George Snow House (c. 1910, George A. Snow, Builder) The George Snow house is located off Interstate 70. Go to Front Street, turn right, go two blocks, and turn left on McDonrtel Street. The house is one and a half blocks south on the left hand side of the road. The George A. Snow house was the house of one of Byers' most prominent residents who came to Byers in 1879 from New York to homestead and raise cattle and sheep. The Snow Ranch, located four miles south of Byers, became one of Eastern Arapahoe County's largest ranches. 4 The ranch remained in the family until 1957, upon the death of his daughter Eva, it was sold to Tom Bradbury. The George Snow farmhouse shows clarity and crispness of design. The house is a one-and-one-half story clapboard sided, gabled rectangle with a projecting hipped dormer. A large front porch spans the principal living room facade. The original porch was supported by machine post turns which have been replaced by modern 4 George Snow was also active in local affairs. He served as postmaster from 1897-1912, built the ranch in 1910, owned the former Wiggins store from 1890-1906, organized the Byers Presbyterian Church, and assisted with the development of the local schools. Colorado Cultural Resource Survey 5AH 230, Colorado Historical Society, Office of Historic Preservation. 20

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made wrought iron. Alterations have also been made to the position of the front entry and the plate glass bay window which originally sported a triple bay. An interesting feature on the property is the original iron fence in the twist and flame pattern that goes across the front yard. snow Ranch Barn ( c. 1890) From Byers, take Highway 36 west about one mile to Highway 173. Follow the dirt road south three and a half The ranch is located on the left (east) side of the road and is currently ownedby Bradbury Land and Cattle Company. The barn is a .fine example of rural architecture which dominated this area in the 1880's and is all that remains of-the original ranch complex which once covered thousands of acres. The barn building features a gambrel roof and an overhang on the north side to cover the pulley used to haul hay to the upper level hay loft. Centered on the roof top is a cupola, while vertical clapboard siding covers the exterior and five small four-pane windows are placed on the east and west sides 21

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of the barn. 5 Byers Cemetery (c. 1909) Off Interstate 70, head south into Byers, turn left on Front Street and take the next road right, about one block east. Follow this road to the cemetery, about one half mile on the east side of the street. This-is public cemetery is still in use. Local history shows no evidence where the first people in Byers were buried, possibly in the southeast section as early as the 1860's. Set among cedars on the windswept prairies, Byers' first families are buried here, with the oldest visible grave dating to 1909. First Presbyterian Church of Byers (c. 1911) Sherman and Front Streets. Take I-70 exit to Byers, turn right onto Front Street, the church is on the southwest corner. On March 13, 1910, Dr. Beavis of the Home Mission Committee organized the Presbyterian Church in Byers. 5 Colorado Cultural Resource Survey SAH-218, Colorado Historical Society, Office of Historic Preservation, 15 July 1982. 22

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Plans were made to build the church which stands today. Building costs were in excess of $3,000.00 but the church was debt free on dedication day, July 23, 1911.6 Money was borrowed to finance the 132 opera chairs at $1.75 a piece, song books., furnace, lighting system, and organ. At the dedication, the faithful were each handed the following message: "Knowing that it is a hard year to raise money, or corn, or beans, or wheat, but having enough faith in the country to stay with it and believing enough in the church to help it, I will try to give $ and try to have it in your hands by (Signed) ________ Services for the dedication of the church began at 11:00 a.m. followed by lunch at 2:30 p.m. in the old hall and the adjoining grove of trees. Music was furnished by the Leisure Band. Following lunch, the celebration of the Lord's Supper and baptism of infants and adults occurred followed by a reception of new members. At 8:00p.m., an Evangelistic service with special music began. The Reverend Luther Eddleblute was the first minister of the parish. 7 6 First Presbyterian Church of Byers Dedication Day Directory, Byers, Colorado, 23 July 1911: n.p. 7 Ibid. 23

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Fashioned in the style of vernacular gothic revival, this small town church boasts of interior bricks that were baked at the local Robert Burton brick yard. The exterior is of imported brick, with a steep gabled roof, and gothic arched windows with brick banding. On the southeast corner, a square belfry of brick and clapboard siding is fashioned with battlement corners; which extend above the flat roof. Near the top of the belfry, in the center of each side, is a hexagonal window. The church foyer has a low gable roof and is brick to the eave line where the clapboard siding begins. 24

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CHAPTER IV ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF CHERRY HILLS VILLAGE Town (Incorporation 1945, 5,381 feet) A 6.5 square mile residential community bordered by Denver on the north, Englewood on the west and Greenwood Village on the south. Cherry Hills Village was originally named for the cherry orchards planted there in the 1870's by early pioneer farmers. In 1940, interested residents took immediate steps to make this semi-agricultural community safe from the encroachment of urban businesses. Early plans for the Village which never materialized, provided for a quaint business section patterned after Henry Ford's Greenfield Village. Beginning in 1940, early planners rejected all forms of proposals that included commercial development and ruled in favor of single family homes to be built on one half to one and one half acres of land. In 1945, Hampden Avenue was a two lane gravel road when the city finally did incorporate primarily to fight the construction of a proposed airport within the village boundaries. Today the city is unusual in that it does not provide its own water, sewer, or fire departments contracting for these services from 25

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other districts, and relies solely on residential property tax authorized by voters for all its budget requirements. Cherry Hills Village is home to two private schools, Kent-Denver (4000 East Quincy Avenue) a co-educational middle and high school, and St. Mary's Academy (4545 South University Boulevard) a co-ed preschool through eighth grade school and a high school program designed for women. for college pre.paration.1 A $435,000 addition in 1963-64 designed by architect, John Milan of Denver, provided the necessary room to boost the all girls school population to 300.2 In 1961, Kansas City builder A. E. McCroskie planned one of the early developments in Cherry Hills Village. McCroskie had been a prominent builder in Kansas City's exclusive country club area. Devonshire Heights would be "like the famed area in the south of England from which its name is taken. It will offer in addition the beauty of rural living in an established community," according to McCroskie. The $4 million community was bounded by 1 st. Mary's Academy was established in 1864 in Denver and was the first high school of any kind in Colorado to award a diploma. In 1951, st. Mary's moved from 1370 Pennsylvania in Denver to the present Cherry Hills Village site. Denver Post, 17 July 1963: 17. 2 Ibid. 26

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Hampden Avenue on the north, with the architecture of the single family home to be built limited to Colonial, Neo-French, and Ranch styles. Building sites were sold at prices beginning at $16,000 for one and one third acres. 3 By the 1960's, Cherry Hills Village was one of the wealthiest suburbs in America. The 1987 Roosevelt University survey listed it as the third wealthiest suburb in America just behind Kenilworth, Illinois, and Hunter's Creek near Houston, Texas. The suburb continued to grow until the oil crash of the mid 1980's when many of the many million dollar homes were left vacant and unsalable. Even though the median household income of the residences of Cherry Hills was more than $125,000, and was the states richest census tract, on a national scale, Cherry Hills dropped to the 14th wealthiest town by 1992.4 Cherry Hills Village real estate values rebounded by the late 1980's. Scarce land within the boundaries of this much desired village caused a ltlajor transformation of the character of the village from cottage to mansion. Many couples shopped for a tract of land with a small 3 4 Denver Post, 23 August 1961: 42. Denver Post, 3 January 1993: lA, SA. 27

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house, bought it, then demolished the existing house and constructed a new larger house worth half a million dollars or more. The result is a patchwork of country estates to small bungalows surrounded by tennis courts, pools, and back yard horse stables, just a stone's throw from Cherry Hills and Glenmora Country Clubs. Exclusive housing developments such as Cherry Hills Farms (corner of Belleview Avenue and University Boulevard), a 142 acre development of homes valued at $600,000 and up, and Glenmoor of Cherry Hills (east of Cherry Hills Farms on Belleview), a subdivision wrapped around a manicured golf course and low slung prairie style clubhouse, became enclaves of the upper class. These newer homes appealed primarily to "middle aged suburban achievers," the MASA'S, who built or bought their dream homes on these lots, hoping to stay for many years. The Denver Post calls these achievers "the new wave of stability to replace the old.115 5 "Old Cherry Hills Village takes on a glitzy new look,"Denver Post. Denver Public Library, Western History Collection. Clipping File on Cherry Hills Village, 31 July 1988: n.p. 28

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Buildings in Cher:r:y Hills Village Foster/Buell Mansion (1916, William E. Fisher and Arthur A. Fisher, Architects, Denver, S.R. DeBoer, Landscape Architect, Denver) 2700 East Hampden The 1924 edition of Country Life Magazine featured "A Garden Plan for the Country House" of Mr. A.C. Foster of Denver, Colorado by Landscape Architect S.R. DeBoer. The plan consisted of an entrance forecourt enclosed by a garden wall which masked the four car garage. The center of the forecourt featured a sunken pool with brick coping. Surrounding the the Neoclassical residence was a paradise of gardens: formal, enclosed, rose, colonial flower and vegetable. The landscape design also featured a tennis court, lily pool, and an octagonal summer garden house with fireplace, all overlooking a spectacular view of the Rocky Mountains. The symmetrical facade of the main house features a central Georgian doorway with balanced windows. Side and wing porches are on the north and south sides of the mansion. The two-and-one-half story house is red brick laid in English bond with alternating courses of stretchers and headers. The gabled roof is covered in Pennsylvania slate and features paired double end 29

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chimneys. An interesting feature of the residence is the full-height back porch with roof supported by eight slender, simplified square columns. The architects of the mansion Fisher and Fisher, were prominent architects in Denver and surrounding areas. They designed the mansion for Alexis c. Foster, prominent banker and businessman in early twentieth century Denver. In 1935, the mansion passed into the hands of Temple Hoyne Buell, one of the leading architects and developers in Colorado. Gano/Bradley Mansion "Valleau Manor" (1920, William E. Fisher and Arthur A. Fisher, Architects) 4100 south University Blvd. The Gano mansion: was built for the merchant prince George Gano and his wife Ethel and was fashioned after an English-hunt country manor house. Gano died in 1929 and the financially pressed Ethel was forced tosell the house to Hubert Work,' a political power in the Harding and Coolidge administrations, whom she later married. As a wedding gift to his bride, Work returned the house to I her where upon she would never leave it. Subsequent owners believe that Ethel Gano Work's benevolent presence 30

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remains in the house.6 Passing motorists on University Blvd. cannot see the thirty-two room eclectic home set one half mile back in a grove of cottonwoods. The two-story home in the Tudor style has a steeply pitched roof with multiple intersecting cross gables. The round arched entrance is complemented by a heavy board and batten door with hand wrought iron fixtures. Exterior walls are of hand mold-ed bricks that have a decorative diamond pattern. The sets of vertically proportioned casement windows feature small multipaned leaded and stained glass. The interior is adorned with oak beamed ceilings hand-wrought iron fixtures, and five fireplaces. Dr. Robert Bradley who calls himself 11an English nut" purchased the house in 1962 after the death of its former owner. Dr. Bradley subsequently restored the house, and reports that the mansion has been the center for "good and cooperative" spiritual happenings for many years. Bradley reports poltergeists in the parlor, footsteps in the foyer, spirits in the study and bats in the attic, not to mention other strange occurrences, in what is now a well publicized "haunted house.11 7 6 Sandra Dallas. Colorado Homes (Norman University of Oklahoma Press, 1986) 188. 7 Denver Post, 30 October 1976: 15, 19. 31

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Cherry Hills Country Club (1923, M.H. Hoyt, architect, Denver) 4125 South University Boulevard Cherry Hills country Club had its humble beginnings on the land which contained the farm of early pioneer James Steck. Annie Steck Alaimo, daughter of James Steck fondly recalls memories of the homestead where she was born and raised, "My father bought eighty acres at South University Blvd. and Sheridan (now called Hampden Ave.) on June 3, 1883, and lived there until he sold it to Cherry Hills Country Club in l922 on the rolling acres where Cherry Hills Country Clubers now play golf, I used to ride my horse, and help Dad with his farm work. 118 She also recalls that across south University Blvd. was the ranch, La Vista Hermosa, which several families leased for farming. Their nearest neighbors were a half a mile away and Petersburg was the nearest post office.9 The newest playground of the bluest of Denver blue bloods opened its doors quietly in September of 1923. Early members purposely designed a club that was "in the 8 James Steck, son of Denver mayor (1863-1865), and state senator (1889-1892) Judge Amos Steck was the first organizer of School District 36 (Jan.l, 1889), and first secretary of this early school board. Englewood Herald, February 1969: 10. 9 Ibid. 32

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country" as the prestigious Denver Country was already filled to overflowing and engulfed in urban growth. The club was seven miles from Colfax Avenue, a mile beyond the nearest streetcar line and members were urged to give their own caddies a lift to and from the club. 1.o The clubhouse was built in the Tudor Revival style and was located on a prominent hill to give spectacular views of the surrounding countryside. The steeply pitched roof was dominated by multiple cross gables. The random brick first-story walls were contrasted with stucco cladding and decorative half-timbering on the upper stories. Large elaborate chimneys of brick with multiple shafts are located in prominent positions on the front and sides of the clubhouse. The golf course, designed by William s. Flynn, a famous golf course architect of his day, was located on the rolling hillsides and in the valley surrounding the clubhouse. Only the north wing was constructed in 1923 consisting of a large lounge, buffet and grill, kitchen, locker rooms, and caretaker's and professional's quarters 1.1. 1.0 l.l. Denver Post, 14 April 1972: 34. Denver Post, 7 September 1923: 23. 33

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Onlookers oh'd and ah'd at the $880,000 facelift to the Cherry Hills Country Club clubhouse in 1961. CannellChaffin Interiors of Los Angeles, along with architect Edwin Francis who masterminded structural changes, planned the design and installation of provencal furnishings in tones of gold, turquoise, green and cocoa. A new dining room seating 180 was added along with ladies' locker rooms, card rooms, and lounges. A private terrace with patio furnishings of salmon and pink overlooked the new swimming pool. Sixteen years later the club received a $500,000 facelift. Alan Peterson, a Denver architect, provided the design for the clubhouse, dining terrace and lanai rooms, Eisenhower library, card rooms, and rotunda bar. John Colouis Interiors of Wichita, Kansas, provided the eclectic interiors a 19th century Chinoiserie armoire, Portuguese rugs, and luci te chairs .12 Broomfield House (1936, Burnham Hoyt, Architect) 4975 South University Boulevard This dramatic International Style house is a combination of bold cubes and a cylinder element. Daring 1.2 Denver Post, 7 April 1977: 37. 34

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for its time, it took advantage of spectacular views of the mountains on a sloping site. A circular dining terrace atop the dining room was shielded from the north by a curved chimney wall, with an outdoor fireplace, that continued east in a curved glass brick wall pierced by double doors. A balcony parapet extended all along the west at the second level and end-ed in a terrace off the living room. Metal framed french doors and windows oriented-living spaces toward the views, while hallways on the east shielded the living space from-noise. Air conditioning was part of the original system. The original brick walls were painted light grey, the wood a dark grey-blue, metal door and window frames, grey-green: and the entrance door in the manner of Le Corbus_ier, a sharp yellow.13 Landscaping was designed by And-rew s. Larsen, working closely with Hoyt to anchor the house to its setting. Naturalistic plantings screened the road, which is now a multi-lane highway. The house is difficult to view from a passing automobile due to the entry position o-f the driveway. Many unsympathetic to this house include the addition of pitched roofs above the original flat 13 Don Etter, Denver Going Modern (Denver: Graphic Impressions, 1977) 62, 63. 35

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ones and the enclosure of the dining terrace. However, the basic design of the house is still discernable. Shingle Style Residence (1990, Jim Bershof, Architect, Denver) 1000 Quincy Avenue Architect Jim Bershof of oz Architecture designed this.updated Shingle Style residence located in Cherry Hills Village. Drawing on the traditional characteristics of the Shingle Style such as rounded contours, ribbon and eyebrow windows, broad overhanging roof lines and white cedar shingles, the 5,000 square foot home integrates the grandeur and presence of its East coast forbearers. Instead of catching a whiff of salt air from their back porch, the owners catch a gorgeous glimpse of the Rockies. The sometimes dark and dreary interiors of the early style are replaced with open, sunny spaces capturing the bright southern and eastern light that embellishes every view. In the floorplan, the private family areas are neatly separated from the more formal public areas. A large gatehouse serves as a detached garage and privacy shield for the main house beyond, while creating. an impressive entrance to the property. The updated design garnered w.o.o.o. Inc., the 36

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prestigious 1990 Architectural Award for Excellence for Denver's oz Architecture.1 14 Colorado Homes and Lifestyles, July/August 1991: 54-57. 37

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CHAPTER V ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE. TOWN OF COLUMBINE VALLEY Town (Incorporation 1959, 5,280 ft.) Columbine Valley is a 616 acre township located along the South Platte River southeast of Denver. The town's perimeters are Platte Canyon Road on the west, Bowles on the north, the south Platte River on the east, and Earl Mar Lane on the south. In the 1860's, English born John Lilly and his wife Louisa purchased 260 acres on which most of Columbine Valley is built today. Tax assessment records for 1868 show that Lilly was primarily a wheat and livestock farmer. Lilly's land passed on to George s. Newman. Colonel Newman's estate was known as the MacRose Stock Farm. He built a breathtaking thirty room mission style mansion complete with typical Spanish Colonial design elements such as shaped parapets, arched doorways, tiled roof and extensive porches around 1925 on the land where Columbine Country Club is today. Subsequent owners were Robert Russell, who owned the farm until 1933, naming it Middlefield Farm after the nearby winding lane, and J.T. Allen, who owned the farm from 1933-35. The final property owner was J.M. Heckendorf who sold the property 38

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to the founding members of the Columbine Country Club. The mansion was destroyed sometime after this purchase. Call it the town that golf built. It was big news in 1955 when a group of high rollers announced plans to develop a golf course and homes southwest of Littleton. They called it Columbine Country Club 1 The seventeen founding members of the suburban project patterned it after the developments of the Thunderbird Country Clubs in Palm Springs and Phoenix. Construction began on the Columbine Country Club club house in June of 1955.2 Using c. Francis Pillsbury, a Denver architect, the original plan included incorporating a large barn-like structure as a clubhouse into the design for a "country feeling." This plan was rejected in favor of the popular California ranch style featuring large expanses of glass, patios, and the use of brick and stone capped by a cedar shake roof. Founders of the country club were happy to point out that resident memberships would be limited to 500 residents with initiation fees set at $1,000, with monthly dues set at $25.00. Another 500 memberships would 1 Rocky Mountain News, 26 March 1989: 16. 2 The country club was extensively remodeled in 1988 using Jim Henderson and Associates, a Denver architectural firm. 39

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be offered to non-residents.3 The Middlefield Development Company designed some 200 half acre home sites on the former 295 acre Heckendorf farm to surround the championship golf course. 4 Early plans for the community stipulated that homes could not be built with less than 1400 to 1600 square feet. The original development plans called for the onestory and two-story homes to be built in separate areas. The streets were named using golf vocabulary such as Eagle Way and Driver Lane. Fences also were against the rules. Early houses in Columbine Country Club were primarily contractor built with the California Ranch being the most popular style in the early days. The California Ranch home featured large patios and attached garages which became an integral part of the house.5 Another popular 3 Rocky Mountain News, 9 January 1955: 26. 4 The Littleton Independent, Bemis Public Library clipping file, 11 July 1978, n.p. s. "The ranch house, as we know it today, was developed in California by Cliff May and other architects working in the San Francisco Bay region. They used vernacular building methods found in barns, sheds, and other farm buildings such as split shake roofs, board and batten siding, and concrete slab floors to shape their designs. "The California Ranch style evolved into what Lester Walker in his book American Shelter (Woodstock: The Overlook Press, 1981) 88 and 251, calls Contractor Modern. These simple, compact houses were commonly built in thousands of suburbs all over America. Both the house and the garage featured 40

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choice, with its distinctive style of the Cape Cod with its decorative shutters, wrought iron entry railing, and large chimney, can still be found throughout the community's winding streets. Recently, new owners have remodeled the ranches and capes to the tune of thousands of dollars to expand the square footage and command some of the highest prices per square footin the metro area. Today Columbine Country Club continues to be a peaceful enclave of upper class homes surrounding a championship 18 hole golf course. Columbine Valley allows no shopping centers, fast food chains,.or super markets within its boundaries. Newer luxury home developments by the names of Burning Tree and Columbine Valley have been added to the township. long, low profiles and a gently sloped gabled roof. Bands of ribbon windows were common as well as the use of several different exterior materials. These house plans were found in the thousands of contractor and developer books readily available on themass market. Contractors also picked up on the simple shape of the cape Cod. The original Cape Cod had no projections or extraneous decoration, so they could resist the ocean gale forces. Contractors replaced early shingles with mass market siding, dormers were added to let in the light on the second floor, the doorbell, porch light, and wrought iron railing were always in the proper place and the original large central chimney was replaced by a smaller chimney located on one of the exterior walls. 41

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Buildings in Columbine Valley Joseph Wesley Bowles House (c.l884, Robert s. Roeshlaub, Architect, Denver) 3600 West Bowles Avenue is now known as "Willowcroft" and has been owned by the Paul Wolf family since 1935. This substantial gabled ell house was built for the prosperous rancher, politician, and local civic leader, Joseph w. Bowles. The Bowles ranch once contained 2,000 acres west of the Platte River, including the Bow Mar Lakes that exist today. An early description of the house has been found in the September 27, 1884, edition of the Colorado Live Stock Record. Mr. Bowles has just completed a residence constructed of Castle Rock Rose colored lava in Queen Ann style, from designs by R.S. architect of Denver.6 The plans combined beauty of design with solidity of construction; the exterior is a pleasing feature in the landscape and the interior is furnished in the most manner. It is furnished with hot and cold.running water on every floor, heated by furnaces and lighted by gas found on the premises. Nothing has been omitted that could add to the comfort and convenience of the household. It is one of the most elegant residences in the state, 6 For the complete story on the castle Rock Quarries, see Josephine Lowell Marr, Douglas County: A Historical Journey (Gunnison: Band B Printers, 1983) 150-253, 178-179. The quarries surrounded Castle Rock on every side during the 1880's. This beautiful pink and grey variegated stone was shipped throughout the Rocky Mountain Region as the rapidly growing area demanded more stone. Many buildings in the Rocky Mountain area were built of this stone: The Antlers Hotel, Windsor Hotel, Tabor Grande Opera House, Douglas County Court House and St. Elizabeth catholic Church in Denver. 42

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and surrounded by shrubbery and trees wh.ich have attained mature growth, possesses most attractive features, and is a fitting home for pioneers who have built up the country and their own fortunes and a charming family. Water for domestic use, which is supplied by an artisan well, the first sunk, [sic] near Denver beyond the city limits. The barn,carriage house, and stables are solidly built of.grout, to which will be added several other buildings of the same material.117 7 Colorado Live stock Record, 27 September 1884. Xerox copy from the Littleton Historical File: J.W. Bowles. This is the only known source that describes the house and names the archi teet as R. S Roeschlaub. The latest book on Roeschlaub is Francine Haber, Kenne.th R. Fuller, and David Wetzel's, R.S. Roeschlaub: Architect of the Emerging West 1843'-1923 (Denver: Colorado Historical Society, 1988). Roeschlaub earned his reputation as Denver's Institutional Architect and his list of plans showed that he designed over 200 residences for private individuals who were leaders in government, education and business.. Haber's book has a chronological list of buildings that Roeschlaub built in the back of the book. The Bowles house is not on this list nor is it mentioned in the text of the book. The R. s. Little residence (1884) is mentioned as the first stone house in the community of Littleton. Haber's book calls the Little House a vernacular masonry constructed of several gables, a hipped roof, and at least one gabled 'L.' "The J. W. Bowles house may predate the Little house or they could have been built at approximately the same time. We find further information concerning architectural trends of the late 19th century and the term "vernacular" in Common Places, by Dell Upton and John F. Vlack, eds. (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1987). The second half of the nineteenth century saw one of America's largest building booms. During this period, the midwestern farm home came into. being as a result of very complex cultural, environmental, and economic factors. Farmers of those days cherished the qualities of a home that was sound, stable, and picturesque. Farm homes of this period (even of wealthy land owners) tend to be relatively simple compared. to their city counterparts. Andrew Jackson image of the American farmer was that of a man of nature. His dwelling should suggest simplicity, honesty of purpose, frankness, and a hearty 43

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This gabled ell house is substantial and well built. The distinctive feature of this two-story home is the massing of large elements -a wing projected at right angles to the main block of the house. This style, popular from 1870-1920, has been referred to as "upright and wing." The original roof is hipped and gapled. The small front porch has since been removed and a large screened porch added to the north and east sides. The current central dormer on the facade, which contains a bathroom, probably dates to the early 1900's. The use of stucco, not the original stone, clearly differentiates this addition from the rest of the house. Two similar dormers appear on the east side of the house. A stucco and wood addition has been added to the rear (south) of the house. The house has a large wooden cornice and heavy wooden ornamentation. This house retains some very restrained genuine spirit of good will. He suggests a design that has a large porch of simple design which conveys sincere hOSpitality 1 a high r00f tO Shelter a large family and cover natures harvest and many chimneys that suggest a warm hearted reception. The J. w. Bowles house reflects many of Jackson's design beliefs for it stands firmly, appearing practical. Upon further observation, one seesan elegant design of chimneys, the elaborate wooden cornices and fine hand stone work and one realizes this is no ordinary farm house, but one of a more worldly man, hardworking, yet concerned with the finer elements of architectural design of his This house reinforces the belief that among Victorians, it was common knowledge that a fine man builds a fine house. 44

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characteristics of Queen Ann style such as projecting gables, gabled and hipped roofs, asymmetrical massing and the use of contrasting materials, particularly of stone and wood. In addition to the main house, there is a large twostory building to the east of the house known as the 11Big Building11 which is stucco with wood trim. There are four windows on the second level on both the north and south sides of the building with a large wooden lean-to on the south side. Although currently not part of the main house, its present residents believe it was attached to the house at one time. Remnants of a foundation to the east of the house bear witness to this belief. During the 1920's, the house servedas a 11speakeasy,11 and this addition was to have housed the dance floor. Some of the original decorative wallpaper border can still be seen on the inside walls of this large building. It was probably moved to its current location in the 1930's, and it was used as a mechanics shop before Mrs. Wolf, who now resides in the house and raises horses and other livestock on the property, converted it to a barn. 45

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CHAPTER VI ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF DEER TRAIL Town (1870, Incorporation 1920, 5,183 feet) A small town, bisected by Interstate 70 in Eastern Arapahoe County. Deer Trail was named .for the location where deer and other wild game came to drink at the Bijou creek. Several early stage lines came near or through Deer Trail, and wagon trains followed. The Kansas Pacific Railroad granted and platted land for the town of Deer Trail and opened its lines to the town on August 15, 1870. Deer Trail residents could now travel in comfort to Denver or Kansas City. New buildings appeared after the arrival of the railroad. Deer Trail's first buildings were a train station and a few section houses, a water tank, and stockyards. By 1877, this small agricultural town soon became the center of a large sheep and cattle grazing industry. It was a principal shipping point for livestock, and by the turn of the century, a great rendezvous for cattle kings. Ninety-five year old Philip Deter, rancher, rodeo rider and wrangler, and Deer Trail's most senior citizen, moved to the community in 1883, following a trail drive from Texas. "When I first 46

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came here there were only about twelve people (in Deer Trail) and it used to take six days to drive cattle to Denver There weren't (sic) no fences around when I came, the only thing around was the railroad and it was built in 1864. II 1 Several businesses and residences were flourishing by the turn of the century. The colorado Business Directory for 1900 lists the town-'s at fifty. Businesswomen such as Mrs. Janey Adams welcomed boarders; G.L. Burton and R. E. Burton were the postmaster and provider of general merchandise. G. D. Chute advertised as a gardener, and J. M. Crandall did double duty as a carpenter and justice of the peace.2 Lon Sniff built the first all brick building iri Deer Trail. The lower half of the building served as a saloon, and the upstairs tended to the town's social needs at night as a dance hall, theater, club room and later a respectable high school classroom during the day. Fire was always a problem for the small town on the prairie. A Deer Trail citizen by the last name of Burton built the first hotel and general store on Deer Trail's Main Street which burned to the 1 A three part series on Deer Trail called "The Missile Moves to Deer Trail," Rocky Mountain News .. 20; 21, 22 May 1961, Denver Public Library. western History Collection clipping file: n.p. 2 Ibid. 47

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ground in 1910. Soon after Allen cummins, another Deer resident, built the hotel again. This time Deer Trail had a hotel of cement block. In the 1930's, eastern Colorado became a dust bowl along with many areas of the great plains states. Farm wives in Deer Trail fought the sand and dust in the water supply and the food that was cooking on the stove. Many of Deer Trail's finest farmers were driven out during this period, and the community dwindled. By 1956, the population of De.er Trail was 387, while the number of business grew to 24. Townspeople could now rely on Deer Trail to supply goods and services, such as Hilling Electric Service, Foster Lumber, and the Deer Trail Cabinet Shop, rather than driving to Denver. Then virtually overnight, the Titan missiles arrived and were installed in underground concrete silos outside of town. The U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, Martin Marietta, and dozens of subcontractors rolled into Deer Trail in the 1960's. With the arrival of over three hundred missile men and their families, a housing shortage developed overnight. They lived wherever they could find places, in rented houses and in ultra modern trailers that the missile men moved from construction site to construction site. John Arness, soft spoken editor of the Tri-County Tribune, recalls the tight 48

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housing shortage. 11It got so bad one guy who was building a chicken coop in 1954, finally finished it as bachelor apartments and wound up making $240 a month profit.11 It did not last long after the missiles were installed, everybody associated with the construction moved on to the next location. Rocky Mountain News writer, William Hazlett describes the town of Deer Trail in 1959. 11During this era the town's main drag fronted the main highway with the usual hotel, drugstore, post office, general store, and hardware store. A bar, two liquor stores, a laundromat, and two cafes completed the half mile strip. Across the highway to the south are a grain elevator, two iron-gray houses built by the railroad, and a matching train depot. Behind the business district andaway from the highway, the real town of Deer Trail sprawls in a mile square section of unpaved but shaded streets. The houses, although many need paint, are neat, the lawns are dark green and trim, the school is modern, and the people are friendly. A huge black water tower stands like a steellegged sentinel in the center of town. 113 Facing unemployment was not the only difficulty that the Deer Trail population faced. A serious flood on the 3 Ibid. 49

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Bijou Creek enveloped the town on June 6, 1965. The Bijou Creek which was one and one half miles south of Deer Trail had been dry for the past three years and had never flooded. Townspeople negated repeated warnings and watched in amazement as a torrent of water rushed down Main Street. Three to five feet of water brought tons of debris everywhere. Large cottonwoods washed down from upstream and settled on the front porches on the once tidy houses. Most homes and businesses were leaning on their foundations when the flooding waters receded and a few washed away altogether.4 Deer Trail folks are glad to tell you that their town is the site of the World's first Rodeo held on July 4, 1869.5 They are also justly proud that the 4 Philip Madonna; Report to the Denver Department of Welfare on the Deer Trail Flood, Colorado Historical Society clipping file on Deer Trail, August 1965: n.p. 5 Rodeo has been with Deer Trail a long time. This account was taken from Field and Farm magazine on July 8, 1889. "One of the classic chronicles of an intercamp cowboy competition is the bronco busting contest, held on July 4, 1969 ,. at Deer Trail, Colorado. The best horsemen in the territory entered 11 From the 1869 rodeo, there are no written records of any Fair or rodeo held until In July of-1920, the businessmen of Deer Trail formed a Fair Association and purchased land for a fair grounds and race track. By selling stock in the Deer Trail Fair Association, they were able to build a regulation half mile track, a large grandstand, and a pavilion 100 x 60 feet. This association was a forerunner to the present day Arapahoe County Fair held annually in Deer Trail. Deer Trail Rodeo Centennial 1869-1969: The Colorful Past Lives on (Deer Trail: Deer Trail 50

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Arapahoe County Fair is held each and every year in Deer Trail, after a five year stint at the Denver Coliseum. Historical Society, 1969) n.p. 51

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Buildings in Deer Trail Deer Trail Pioneer Museum (1870) Second Avenue and Fir Streets, in the Deer Trail City Park. The museum is open by request. This Kansas and Pacific Railroad Depot was originally located on the east side of the tracks off of First Avenue. One hundred years later in 1970, the depot was moved to nearby City Park, restored, and turned into a historical museum. The depot is a simple
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This public cemetery, still in use today was surveyed and platted the same time as the city of Deer Trail, November, 1875. The oldest gravestone is that of Deer Trail Pioneer Leonard Stanley who died in February of 1876. The oldest.part of the cemetery is. rumored to be in the northeast corner behind a small hill set aside to protect the unmarked graves of early settlers. Price Ranch (1910) North out of Deer Trail approximately five and one half miles on Road 217. The ranch is on a long road on the west side, and is marked with a sign over the access road. This agricultural complex consists of several buildings. The original house, simple in character, was built by Richard B. Price around 1915, and features a hipped roof with uncommon ridge dormers.6 Several projecting additions are evident, also with hipped and shed roof lines. The plain, unadorned walls are expanses 6 An expressive element used primarily in the vernacular buildings of the Chimayo, New Mexico area. Beverly Spears, American Adobe Houses of Rural New Mexico (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1986) 74. 53

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of whitewashed stucco with double hung windows.7 The vernacular barn (c. 1920) features a metal corrugated steel gambrel roof, cement block lower walls, and clapboard siding on the upper walls A number of small windows dot the facade along with a dutch door and opening to the hay loft.8 Outbuildings consist of a bunk house, a long narrow stucco residence, corrals, and a number of sheds.9 7 Colorado Cultural Resource Survey 5AH 264, Colorado Historical Society. Office of Historic Preservation, 28 July 1982. 8 Ibid. 9 "C. E. Pooler established a ranch located. on East Bijou which came to be known as the Price Ranch. Mr. Pooler was killed while repairing his wagon which was broken as he attempted to cross the railroad tracks. His widow remained to operate this ranch for several years. The Pooler Ranch was sold to Richard Price in 1890. Mr. and Mrs. Price with their eldest son John, had come to the United States from Wales in 1884. Mr. Price worked on ranches around Kiowa shearing sheep -before he took up a homestead northwest of Deer Trail where they had lived two years. They purchased the Pooler Ranch and remained here all of their lives. A son, Arthur (Dutch) made this his home in later years. 11 Emma Mitchell,our Side of the Mountain (Eastern Colorado News Printer, 1968) n.p. Members of the Price family immigrated to Deer Trail between 1884-85. The original homestead was ten miles north of the present complex. Richard B. Price, built the present ranch house around 1914-15, and the barn between 1915-20. The current owner, Richard, son of Richard B. and grandson of the founding member of the family continues to live on the ranch in the modernized bunk house. Colorado Cultural Resource survey 5AH 264, Colorado Historical Society. Office of Historic Preservation, 28 July 1982. 54

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CHAPTER VII ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF ENGLEWOOD Town (Incorporated 1903, 5,306 feet) This populated city lies adjacent to the southern city limits of Denver. It adjoins Sheridan to the west, Greenwood Village on the east, and Littleton to the south. Discovery of gold was made in Englewood on Dry creek in July of 1858 by a party of twelve Georgia gold seekers. Led by William Green Russell, and a party of 104 men, they came from the south up the Smokey Hill Route and f6und the first significant gold, in small quantities. However, most of these men became discouraged after working long hours with little or no success and left for home, while the rest stayed, determined to strike it rich. The remaining travelers found gold in paying quantities in the Little Dry Creek, at a point now located at West Dartmouth where the water flows from this stream into the South Platte River. This gold find turned out to be the most important and valuable gold discovery in all of the region made during 1858 and precipitated the Colorado Gold Rush of 1859. The location of this find in 1858 was known as the Russell Placer Camp and is 55

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called Englewood today. In 1859, Tom Skerritt, an Irish farmer settled on a section of land beside the Little Dry Creek that was given him by President Ulysses s. Grant.1 Using milled lumber and trim, Skerritt and his wife Mary, built a sturdy vernacular gable front, two-story home at 3560 South Bannock and called it "Shadyside". The farmhouse originally measured approximately 24 x 30 feet and featured shiplap wooden siding with a six inch exposure lap.2 The windows were rectangular, double-hung and had semicircular head trim. The American frontier came right up to Skerri tt' s back door. The "'father of Englewood" told of shooting antelope from his house.3 By the 1880's, the Englewood area was notorious for claim jumpers and a lawless element. Saloons and shanties lined Broadway near the Little Dry Creek and east along Hampden.. These establishments were frequented by gamblers, sharpies, and off duty soldiers from nearby Ft. Logan. Englewood, for the most part, was still 1 "Rip Roaring West? That's Englewood, 1900, First Mayor's Daughter says," Englewood Public Library clipping files, 4 November 1954: n.p. 2 John Copley Jr. Early Domestic Architecture of Englewood. Colorado 1864-1925 (Englewood: .Western Interstate commission on Higher Education, 1975) a. 3 Dave Hicks, Englewood from the Beginning (Denver: Egan Printing, 1975) a, 54-55. 56

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unbroken prairie. Some folks used their two cylinder cars to hunt down rabbits and prairie dogs. In those days the land in Englewood was mostly unoccupied, and neighbors would use it until the property was sold or wanted by whoever might own it. Even though early Englewood held this wild reputation, respectable cattlemen and farmers such as Jacob Calvin Jones settled and established residences in the area, just northwest of the present intersection of Hampden Avenue and south Broadway. He built his first home in 1883 and a one-story frame cottage with a pyramidal roof at this location, a large impressive two-story board and batten barn, complete with cupola, a structure which dominated the eighty acres.4 The property had a fine artisan well which watered a veritable paradise of broad lawns, blooming rose bushes, and thriving young trees. The entrance to the grounds was complete with an ornate millwork arch and a drive lined with Lombardy poplars. A trim white picket fence surrounded the house and the barn. 5 Much of the Jones 4 110ld Jones barn torn down, 11 Englewood Herald. Englewood Public Library clipping files, 28 october 1968: n.p. Mrs. Valencia Jones Raup, only daughter of Mr. and Mrs. J. c. Jones talks about the recent demolition of the Jones barn which was constructed in 1883. 5 Ibid 57

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land encompassed a large apple orchard and thus earned the name of Orchard Place. Both the house and the barn were torn down by the late 1960's. J.C. Jones and his family made a good living from the orchards and tillable soil. These advantages and the pastoral beauty of the mountain scenery attracted many others to Englewood. As early as 1880, land investors and developers purchased large parcels from homesteaders and subdivided the acreage into neat city blocks and plots. Early Arapahoe County land records and plot filings had names like Jackson's Broadway Heights (1890), Shadyside (1891), the Bank Addition (1895), and Premier Addition to Englewood (1908).6 one of these land development companies in the 1880's was called, Joseph E. Bates and Company. Mr. Bates, a former Denver mayor, used lavish words to describe the young Englewood and Logandale areas, former subdivisions of the old Orchard community. He touted it to be "the most desirable suburban location to be found in Colorado directly located on five freight railroad lines," as an inducement for easy access to the urban environment, along "with soothing quiet and undisturbed 6 Copley, a. 58

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repose from care and toil.117 Mr. Bate's advertising poster called Broadway, one of the finest driveways in the world, lined on either side by stately cottonwoods. "The Electric Road out Broadway to Sheridan Avenue is the most complete motor line in the country, being without corner or turn and almost level. 118 The price of these lots ran from $125-$200 per lot, and J.C. Bates and Company offered easy terms. In 1903 the town was incorporated, and the name changed from Orchard Place to Englewood.9 This stabilization brought more families into the area. Among the residents were Everette Willingham and his family. Mrs. Willingham recalls. "My husband, Everette Willingham, and I made our first trip to Englewood in 7 Colorado Exchange Journal, October 1889: 66. The D and.RG had suburban train service running six trains daily each way from Denver to the suburbs of Burnham, overland Park, Englewood and Military Post. "Englewood of 1889 sketched in lavish terms l::>y promoters," Englewood Public Library clipping file, 23 August 1951: n.p. 8 Ibid. 9 As Englewood grew it was obvious that by 1903, something had to be done about the town's reputation. Mrs. Raups' mother, Mary Ann Jones, formed the first women's club, ostensibly for sipping tea and exchanging light gossip, but basically to create interest in cleaning up the city, incorporate the town, and change its name. Running on a platform of making Englewood a better place to live, Jacob Jones received 151 votes for mayor, 149 for Joseph Skerritt. "Women Clean Up Drive Led to city of Englewood," Englewood Herald. Englewood Public Library clipping file, 28 October 1968: n.p. 59

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November, 1909, to a Thanksgiving dinner at the home of our friends, Mr. and Mrs. Jarboe." (Mr. Jarboe and Mr. Willingham both worked for the Denver Tramway). "How well I remember how this area looked then, almost entirely truck gardens and orchards. Most families kept one or more cows. Everyone had horses and buggies for transportation. Dairy cattle grazed on the hill east of Broadway where we bought our new home, now numbered 3376 Grant Street.1110 Lillian McMahon describes how her family came to live in Englewood in 1919. "My brother, Axel, had been wounded and captured by the Germans at Chateau Thierry Almost starved to death and if the Armistice hadn't been signed, he wouldn't have lived and they sent him to Fitzsimmons. And my mother immediately wanted to come up here. Then we looked for a home and decided Englewood was the best so many houses had outside plumbing and we had an indoor bathroom on the farm, and she said she wasn't about to buy a house that didn't have an indoor bathroom, so we bought a house at 4300 South Cherokee. It had thirteen lots, and she thought she 10 Arapahoe Gadabout, 13 March 1969: 16. 60

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ought to have a cow .. and we also had chickens."11 After the saloons were cleaned out, The Tulieries Park or Englewood's "White City" was begun on the old Fiske's Gardens location and was considered the finest amusement park in the area. It opened on July 29, 1906. An architectural marvel for its time, the park featured a steel framed one acre dancing pavilion, an aerdome or open air theater, a race track, and a genuine oriental tea-garden. It attracted large crowds until competition from larger amusement parks in Denver took away its trade. The Tuleries Park Dance Pavilion, a handsome building of mission revival style was rehabilitated to house The National Film company and later Alexander Aircraft Industries, finally becoming Englewood City Hall (330 South Bannock Street) around 1930, and again to the C.A. Norgren plant. After Broadway was paved in the early 1920's, industrial and commercial establishments sprawled out southward into Englewood. Dorothy Medsker described "What Englewood was Like 25 Years Ago" to the Englewood 11 Englewood, A History in the Oral Tradition: An Oral History Project 1990 (Englewood: Englewood Public Library, 1990) McMahon-1. 61

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Enterprise in January of 1950.12 The 1990 block of Broadway was the hub of business activity. The Ford Agency operated by Gene Walsh was advertising Model T Fords at $260 and up, and Ed Crysler had a drug store at 3498 South Broadway. These establishments along with 11Your Englewood Theater" were the community centers. The Mackin Mortuary was located at 3535 South Broadway along with the Englewood Hotel. A dry goods store operated by a N. s. Neilsen and an old time hardware store, A. c. Armitage proprietor, were all locateci in the 3500 block of Broadway. The high school football team played their games in the mud at Skerritt Field as spectators stood on the sidelines. There were no seats. The telephone office had seven switchboards with a female day and night chief operators. The Cherrelyn street car, a trolley car pulled on a track by a horse, was known as the 11galloping goose,11 and was in operation while carnivals played Skerritt Field. The residential communities were sparsely developed In the 1920's. Huge numbers of lots went to the tax sale every year as agricultural times were tough during the 12 "What Englewood was Like 25 Years Ago," Englewood Colorado Historical Society clipping file on Englewood, 12 January 1950: n.p. 62

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1920's and even worse in the l930's.13 Houses had graduated from the one-story framed vernacular and gabled farmhouse to the bungalow. Thanks to extensive coverage in popular magazines such as Ladys' Home Journal and Sears and Roebuck catalog, pre-cut home packages to be assembled by local labor were offered at "reasonable prices." The bungalow became very popular in Englewood from 1900 to 1930 as well as all over Colorado. These cozy one-story wood or masonry cottages could be seen by the hundreds in all parts of Englewood. They were commonly recognized by low overhanging roofs, broad porches, and battered or elephantine porch supports. Englewood could visit with passersby from the large front porches that faced the streets. Typically, kitchens and service porches were located at the rear of the house along with narrow backyards and detached one car garages with access to the alley. Interspersed among the bungalows were the larger two-story brick Foursquare, popular in Denver and surrounding areas particularly in the first decade of the twentieth century. The typical Foursquare had a hipped roof highlighted by a central dormer window, bay windows, and large double hung windows. The Classic Cottage was also built in large 13 Ibid. 63

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numbers during this time period. The cottage was basically a one-story version of the Foursquare featuring an elongated hipped roof and central dormer. 14 A readily available transit system along with good water facilities continued the great building boom until the beginning of World War I. Following the war, rapid building techniques and automation brought more development to the area. By 1948, building had skyrocketed, with 1377 building permits issued, an all time record for Englewood to this date. By 1960, Englewood was the fourth largest city in the state and had the proud reputation of being one of Colorado's fastest growing communities. Its 20,000 person labor force supported fifty-three major manufacturing establishments such as C.A. Norgren Co-., The Rogers Publishing Co. and the General Iron Works. The official 1960 census set Englewood's population at 33,250, double the population of 1950. It claimed the honor of being the largest city in Arapahoe county. Cinderella city, claimed to. be the world's largest shopping center under 14 Architectural terminology in this section came from the classic architectural guide for Colorado architecture by Sarah J. Pearce, A Guide to Colorado Architecture (Denver: Colorado Historical Society, 1983). The Foursquare and Classic Cottage are easily recognizable today in Englewood, particularly along Broadway where examples are squeezed in among commercial buildings, or have been turned into businesses or apartment houses. 64

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one roof, when it opened in 1968. In that same year, a ten story office building opened in downtown Englewood and became the tallest building in Arapahoe County. As it became surrounded by booming developments, Englewood's population dipped by nearly 4000 people in the 1970's, making it one of the only suburbs in the Denver area without growth. Following the 1970's, buildings and neighborhoods crumbled with age. By the 1980's a sagging economy plummeted Englewood retailers and city fathers to look toward the redevelopment of the downtown area. The required relocation of elderly residents in Englewood was overshadowed by a call for rejuvenation of Englewood's downtown. Bill Forrington of Denver, who owned commercial property at 3422 South Bannock Street in Englewood, got behind the project. "Despite our efforts, we're a blighted one horse town and need to get off our duffs to make things better for all Englewood. 1115 The downtown area underwent vast changes in the 1980's including a face lift of the old South Broadway downtown area. Construction was intended to take eight years at a cost of $234 million dollars. "Downtown was dressed up with antique street lamps, trees and trendy furniture to keep up with improvements in 15 Rocky Mountain News, 13 September 1982: 6. 65

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Littleton and Denver. 1116 Cascading water, spurting fountains, a water wall, and a heroic Indian sculpture transformed the once seedy and neglected Little Dry creek into a people pleasing park. But architectural criticism came from a rapidly aging population in nearby retirement homes. On the revitalization of Broadway and Hampden "Of course I thought the dumbest thing they ever did is tear down all those buildings and put in those awful buildings across from the post office. There are all those steps but there are two high rise old folks buildings within walking distance. Those people are not going to go up all of those steps. 1117 Despite criticism, city.council members seemed pleased with the results. 200,000 square feet of empty retail along Broadway in 1982, was reduced to only 30,000 square feet. By 1991, More than half of the population was 50 or older, and a majority of the residents were renters. Nearly all of the city's 10,000 houses were built between 1920 and 1950. The 1,000 bungalows are considered too small by today's couples and city officials are now focused on revitalizing the neighborhoods to replace the 16 Stephen J. Leonard and Thomas J. Noel Denver: m1n1ng camp to metropolis (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1990) 287. 17 Englewood: A History In the Oral Tradition, McMahon-14. 66

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city's smaller, older homes. cracked streets are being repaired and a law to outlaw junked cars that litter street and lawns is in effect. 67

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Buildings in Englewood Tom Skerritt House (c. 1860) 3560 South Bannock A number of insensitive additions have made the Skerritt house ineligible for landmark status, however, the vernacular farm house minus its outbuildings, still stands on a crowded city lot on what was originally a 640 acre claim called "Shadyside Ranch." It is two blocks from Broadway, the street that Tom Skerritt supposedly built from Denver to Englewood by locking the wheels of his wagon while driving back and forth.19 The white farmhouse features shiplap siding and double hung windows with distinctive semi-circular head trim. Fish scale shingles appear in the gabled facade. The "father of Englewood" told of shooting antelope from his house. Today, the prairie sounds have been replaced by the roar of thousands of automobiles on nearby Hampden, and the sight of Skerritt's landscaped lawns and flower beds is now a view of neighboring 19 One account goes that ThomasSkerrit hitched four oxen to a plow and made two furrows one hundred feet apart from Dry creek straight north to Cherry creek. His son, George acted-as a flag boy, going ahead to help his father make straight furrows. Skerrit then hitched the oxen to a wagon and rough locked the wheels. Englewood Herald, Englewood Public Library clipping file, 28 october 1968: n.p. 68

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bungalows and the Ponderosa steak House. The City Ditch (1867, Capitol Hydraulic Company) City Ditch begins at a point south of Littleton and runs through Littleton, Englewood, and Denver. It was one of the first artificial waterways and was constructed to carry water to Denver, which it did for about 100 years, It is closely related to that city's history. It was completed in 1867, following the Capitol Hydraulic Company's name change to the Platte Water Company. Natural vegetation grows along the open part of the ditch that runs through Littleton.20 20 Richard F. Little, founder of Littleton, surveyor and engineer for the project owned the farmland at the headwaters of the ditch. He was hired to replace the first engineer for the Capitol. Hydraulic company in 1860. The first aborted project resulted in a three mile ditch which was used to provide power for the Rough and Ready Flour Mill, founded by R.S. Little and Associated in 1867. Neither the mill nor the "Rough and Ready" ditch survive today. The first ditch's water was also used in the beginning of the gold mining in sluice operations in the Big Dry Creek Area. Colorado Cultural Resource survey 5AH 254, Colorado Historical Society. Office of Historic Preservation, 26 July 1982. Built to serve agricultural complexes, the early acquisition of water, while uncertain, was not very technical. In Englewood, residents and farmers tried to 'live down hill from the City Ditch. When water flowed one could collect it whenever. People often shared ditches and were careful not to miss certain "watering days" and could gather as much water as they liked. As municipalities were formed in the area people began to require pumps for their water supply. The very existence of a town, would be 69

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David W. Brown House 2303 East Dartmouth (c. 1900, George H. Wiliamson, Architect) Illinois born David w. Brown was instrumental in founding the Rocky Mountain Fuel Company, a successful producer of lignite in the state of Colorado. While living in Denver, Brown became a prominent member of society and contracted George H. Williamson, a local architect to build a pra-irie style mansion on a hill southeast of Denver. The views from the house were known to be spectacular; one could enjoy the rolling prairies and a view of the mountains from north to south as far as the eye could see. The general horizontal feeling of the house is accentua-ted by a long veranda, low pitched roof line, and extended overhangs and suggest the efforts of the architect to mirror the prairies on which the house was built.21 determined by its ability to secure an adequate and reliable source of water for its people. Dan McLoughlin, The Acquisition of an Adeguate Water Supply for the City of Englewood (Englewood: Englewood Public Library, 1975) 4. 21 National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, David W. Brown House, Colorado Historical Society, Office of Historic Preservation, 10 April 1980. "The architect for the Brown House was George H .. Williamson. Born in Brighton, Colorado, in 1872, he earned his architectural credentials as a student-apprentice first for one Fred A. Hale and later for the renowned firm of Philip 70

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The three-and-one-half story house is irregular in plan. The exterior walls have a brick substructure covered with a blue grey stucco. The central element of the house is a semi-octagonal turret which serves as the focal point and intercepts the horizontal line created by the low, multiple hipped roofs. Major horizontal elements are enhanced by porte-cochere along the east side of the structure as well as a closed veranda on the east and a balcony to the south. The house is surrounded by long, bracketed eaves on all three stories with varied fenestration. Multiple windows are double-hung or of three sash windows with a transom, but the turret and third story have large numbers of casement windows. The interior is one of period elegance with wood of oak, walnu-t, and cherry. Dark wood paneling seven feet high covers most of the front rooms, along with wooden arches accenting the doorways. The spiral staircase, elaborate pocket doors and period chandeliers of are Varian and Frederick J. sterner. When they dissolved their partnership in 1905, the business was continued by the firm of Sterner and Williamson, which over the next nine years designed many important buildings in Denver, notably, the Daniels and Fisher Tower, now listed in the National Register. After Sterner moved to New York City, Williamson continued on in the business by himself. He was particularly known for his public buildings, among them East High School, which Harvard University chose as a model of architectural design. Shortly before his death in 1936, he was voted an honorary fellowship in the American Institute of Architects." 71

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alabaster and brass. The house has six fireplaces, each different and a work of art in themselves. There are a total of eighteen rooms including a thirty by thirty-six foot ball room in the third story. In 1979, the Brown House was moved approximately a 100 yards from its original lot to preserve it from demolition for a church parking lot. The house was entered on The National Register of Historic Places on April 10, 1980. swedish National Sanitorium/SWedish Medical center (1905) 3451 South Clarkson The Swedish National Sanitorium was established in 1905 by Charles A. Budson, on a five acre tract, out of a need to care for consumptive Scandinavians, especially the immigrants 22 The earliest shelters were tubercular tents that sprouted around the Sanitorium's five acres constructed for the use of patients who had come to Colorado for the high and dry climate cure. 22 Much of the credit due to the success of the Sanitorium was due to the support and promotion by The swedish Ladies' Consumptive Aid Society organized on June 2, 1905. These ladies were responsible for raising funds for payment of the land and erection of the initial buildings. Englewood Tribune, 14 December 1907: n.p. 72

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Vera Sinclair Patterson, early Englewood resident, describes her remembrances of swedish Sanitorium as a child. the streets slope down to Hampden, and there were trees all over there, and there were little tent houses that, you know, they were a solid wall up this high and then canvas above that, and then a solid roof that the patients lived in. all over th.e property would be hammocks swung between two trees, and the patient would be lying there with his bottle of milk beside him, because they were big on drinking milk. 1123 The tents were replaced with clusters of frame cottages and then a sixteen room pavilion with open sleeping porches. In 1930, The Mayflower Building was built. It contained the most sophisticated diagnostic and treatment center of its kind-and served as the site for the Swedish Medical Center. In 1956, when the need for tubercular facilities declined due to advancements in medicine the idle facilities were converted to a 90 bed surgical and general medicine hospital. In 1959, a 2.2 million dollar expansion added a 300 bed hospital and a school of nursing. 23 Englewood: A History in the Oral Tradition, corbin 5. 73

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Englewood Railroad Station (1915, Atchison, Topeka, and santa Fe Railroad Architects) Located on the southwest corner of Hampden and santa Fe Drive, adjacent to the railroad tracks. "It was the proposed new airport of 1915: an Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe railroad depot was to be built in Englewood. Residents celebrated the opening." The local newspaper proclaimed, "Santa Fe puts Englewood on the map. 1124 It was a hub of activity for over 56 years. By 1979, deteriorating railroad f-inances due to passenger decline, and mechanization and centralization of railroad functions caused the last shipping agent to retire and the depot slipped into disrepair.25 The 1987 attempt to put it on the National Register failed although Barbara Norgren of the Colorado Historical Society had_this to say in a 1987 interview. "What might set this apart is it's in the Santa Fe Mission style of architecture and there's not another one in the area like 24 Denver Post. 4 July 1987: 1. 25 More about railroad depots can be found in The National Trust for Historic Preservations book, Built in the U.S.A. (Washington, D.C.: The Preservation Press, 1982) in the article by Herbert H. Harwood Jr., "Railroad stations,w 129-133. 74

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that. 1126 The Mission style had swept the southwest and west and was the fashionable architectural style of its time. Railroad depots were no exception.27 Typical of smaller railroad depots, the one-story, flat roofed Englewood station has a rectangular symmetrical facade and is sheathed in an expense of whitewashed stucco.-Wide overhanging eaves have impressive corbeled brackets. It has the traditional mission shaped roof parapet, often the most common feature of this style. Double and triple sets of double hung windows with upper-sashes of wooden-muntin over one large glass-pane enhance the four sides 26 Denver Post, 4 July 1987: 1 27 The mission-style was not influenced by the eastern styles that had dominated the West sirice theGold Rush. It was popularized by its use in the California Building at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. The architect for that building was A._ Page Brown, who, along with the architect Lester_s. Moore, was largely responsible for the advancement of the mission style. This style gained further influence when the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific Railroad adopted the style for stations and resort hotels throughout the West. The style was easily adaptable to many different types of buildings, both residential and public. Cities remodeled their downtowns in the Mission Style and whole new cities such as Planada, California, and Naples, California, were planned in this style. The style quickly faded after World War I as architectural fashion shifted. Two of the most comprehensive and informative guides to American homes, -especially the Mission style are: Virginia McAlester and Lee McAlester, A Field Guide to American Houses (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984) 409-4-10, and Lester Walker's, American Shelter (Woodstock: The overlook Press, 1981) 174. 75

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of the depot. Gothic Theater (c. 1929, Burt Rosche, builder) 3263 South Broadway Combining elements of both periods, the Gothic Theater attempted to give the newly urbanized public the style and elegance that their functional homes did not provide.28 The theater design features an asymmetrical facade with broken cornice line which gives horizontal emphasis to the flat roof. The influenc$ of the Modernistic style can be found in the Gothics streamlined design, smooth wall surface and the name "Gothic" itself which was a popular style of design during this period of time. The wrap around marquee and large square polychromatic tiles are intact from the original facade. A sculptured ceiling of artistic plaster work and the theater's 766 "roomy" seats could easily accoJillllodate the.crowds of anxious moviegoers. According to Ethel Altenback, Englewood historian, "The ceiling was so high that watching the curtain go up was an event in 28 The Modernistic styles were built from about 1920 to 1930. The earliest form was Art Deco and was common in public buildings all over Colorado followed by the Art Moderne style beginning about 1930. 76

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itself. 1129 In August of 1935, Englewood residents watched a grand reopening parade while giant spotlights from atop the theater roof beamed brightly over the skies of downtown Englewood. Today the Gothic is badly in need of repairs, the present owner presents live concerts such as the recent. group called "PigFace" to overly excited teens and others. Englewood Savings and Loan/Colonial National Bank (C. 1965, Charles Deaton, Architect) 3501 South Broadway Passing motorists on Broadway have always been fascinated by the large white elliptical shaped bank. To create the original design of the building, architect Charles Deaton first molded a model of the building in clay. He then created the model in plastic and finally made an architectural drawing of the plan. These led to structural studies that determined the amount, position, size, and strength of the steel bars that support the eight-inch thick reinforced concrete shell. Architect Deaton called the design a "strictly non-representational 29 Ethel Altenbach Interview, 11 January 1993. 77

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form. 1130 Thirty-two feet in height, with 10,000 square feet of floor space, the building's owners boast five private offices, five teller windows in a 44x44 foot lobby, and a large conference room. cinderella city (1968, Von Frellick Associates, Developers, James E. Johnson Assoc. Architects) 701 West Hampden Cinderella City property in the 1920's was all farmland and garden plots used primarily for raising Pascal celery and strawberries. 31 The Little Dry Creek of gold rush fame ran right through the property. Later the property became Englewood's City Park and was sold to developer Gery Von Frellick for $1 million. He touted the new sixty-five acre shopping complex "as the world's largest shopping complex under one roof. 1132 The opening 30 Greeley Tribune, 15 June 1968: 11. Architect Charles Deaton also designed the more familiar residence in Genesee known as the "clamshell house" or the "flying saucer" house 1966. He called these designs "sculptural architecture." Dallas, 245. 31 Englewood A History In the oral Tradition, Johnson-14. 32 Gery Von Frellick was known as a driven business executive who worked 20 hours days and drove up phone bills of $2, 000 a month even back in 1968. He was also known for 78

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celebration on March 7, 1968, lasted three days and instead of cutting a ribbon, the audience joined in counting down from ten to zero. At zero, a switch turned on the giant thirty-foot fountain in the center court of the mall. Eight thousand cars jammed the upper and garden level parking lots, and Englewood experienced the greatest traffic flow in its history. Arapaboe Greenway Trail (1983, Robert M. Searns, A.I.C.P, DMlf Landscape Architects, Denver) The Arapahoe county Greenway Trail connects with the Platte River Greenway, a trail that begins at Denver's city litttits and winds along the south Platte River, running south through Englewood, Sheridan, and.Littleton all the way to C-470 at County Line Road. Funded by public, private and voiunteer funds, the trail is an 8 foot wide concrete foot and bike path for his strong religious and political beliefs. The Oklahoma born developer had degrees in both architecture and engineering. He was nationally recognized for his role in developing shopping centers. He built Lakeside Shopping center, Crossroads Mall in Boulder, and Villa Italia in Lakewood as well as many others both in Colorado and out of state. "But his proudest moment," his daughter said, "may have been when he completed Lakeside shortly after moving to Denver with only a $2 dollar bill to his name and debts of $643,000.11 A convincing salesman, he. was able to secure land and obtain financing for the mall with no personal equity. Denver Post, 1 January 1993: 1C, 8C. 79

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wheelchairs. Passing through Englewood and the Columbine golf course, the trail becomes more scenic as it passes through South Platte Park. A mass community campaign beginning in 1986, using over three thousand five hundred volunteers, planted over 10,000 trees to beautify the trail. The trail and landscape work are funded by the South Suburban Park Foundation. Other communities in Arapahoe county also contribute to the trail's budget even though they do not border on the trail. Plans to extend the current trail call for the trail to extend south from C-470 to connect with the Colorado Trail located in the South Platte-Waterton Canyon area. Englewood Recreation center (1985, Barker Rinker seacat and Partners, Architects) 1155 South Oxford The Englewood Recreation Center provides an important social and focal point for the city. The site is a 3.26 acre parcel located in an industrial section of the city of Englewood. The running track serves as the focal point of this 55,600 square foot community recreation center and is elevated above the gymnasium and pool. suspended from the cantilevered glued laminated wood beams, the track gives the building its strong, simple, oval form. From 80

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the second story perspective, the user can see into all major activity areas, as well as view the exterior surroundings. A handsome canopy of wood beams, trusses, cross purlins, and decking covers the competition size gym, 25 meter pool, and lobby of the $3.3 million facility.33 33 Information provided by Barker, Rinker, and Partners, Architects, 1 January 1993. 81

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CHAPTER VIII ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF GREENWOOD VILLAGE Town (Incorporation 1950, 5,422 ft.) Located southeast of Denver, south of Cherry Hills Village, adjoining southeastern Englewood and northeastern Littleton. Named for its once wooded terrain, this community became apprehensive of the encroachment of undesirable housing and business developments. Greenwood Village residents decided to incorporate in 1963 when the area was less than half its present size. Through annexations, it has reached its full eight square mile plus size. The intention of its residents was well demonstrated by the development and character of its residential housing. Neighborhoods of upper class homes were developed with unobstructed views of the mountains. Greenwood Village was one of the first suburban cities in Colorado to employ "cluster housing" in its planning process. This design separated clusters of houses with areas of landscaped "commons" that acted as small parks throughout the subdivision. In 1967, four years after Greenwood's incorporation, developer Robert B. Boggs planned just such a subdivision at the northeast corner 82

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of South Clarkson Street and East orchard Road. The one hundred acre development called for three-quarter acre lots with 139 homes costing $35,000 and up. The area also featured a clubhouse, swimming pool, small lake, and gully where the Big Dry creek ran through a portion of the subdivision. The plan was so successful that hundreds of subdivisions around the state followed this cluster plan 1 Other neighborhoods were developed in Greenwood Village such as Sundance Hills with three hundred homes. It had everything a suburbanite needed, wide streets, mature plantings, and a "goodwill ambassador" who greeted newcomers. Greenwood Hills, one of the older neighborhoods in Greenwood Village prides itself on large lots, handsome landscaping and rural flavor, even though it lies within a few hundred yards of Interstate 25 and the nearby Denver Tech Center. When Happy Church wanted to build a huge office, school, and 500 seat sanctuary in 1969, the six hundred families in Greenwood Hills complained loudly. Many hours of public hearings resulted in the Planning and Zoning commission of Greenwood Village to unanimously turn down the Happy Church project. 1 Denver Post, 27 January 1967: 6. 83

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Just off South Holly between Belleview and Orchard is the newest of the Greenwood Village communities. The Preserve at Greenwood Village begun in 1990 is a 550 acre high end residential subdivision of custom homes costing $350,000 and up. Featuring three-quarter to one-acre lots, the area is surrounded by landscaped buffeted areas, trails, and open-space arranged around a mile and a half long loop of the Highline Canal. Even before the first house was being built, enraged animal activists campaigned to save a large colony of prairie dogs, proposing to transport them off the property. Efforts failed when exterminators working for Koebel, the developers of The Preserve, went ahead and killed 300-500 of the animals. Hoping to appease the animal activists and the public, the developers reminded new buyers that 45 acres of The Preserve would be used as a wildlife habitat and natural preserve.2 2 Denver Post, 5 May 1990: 1A, 15 A. 84

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Buildings in Greenwood Village Creek School (1874) 9300 East Union Avenue. The school is located on the Cherry Creek High School campus. The one-room Cherry Creek School, built on Parker Road one-half mile north of Arapahoe Road, served as an integral part of the small community of Melvin as its only school until 1922 when the two-room Melvin School was built on the west side of Cherry Creek. The Cherry Creek Schoolhouse building was sold to a rancher when the school district was consolidated in 1953. The Cherry Creek High School Key Club located the schoolhouse, purchased it and moved it to the grounds of the high school in 1969. The Cherry Creek Women's Club joined forces with the Key Club to restore the building in 1971 and furnish the schoolhouse with nineteenth century collectibles in order to create a "living classroom." The unpretentious schoolhouse is a front gabled vernacular one-story structure, whose design was commonly used in Colorado for churches, schools, and other public buildings in rural settings. With an absence of architectural detail, it is simply designed using clapboard siding. The slender double-hung windows are typical of frontier schoolhouses of this type. 85

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curtis School (1914)/ curtis School Arts and Humanities Center (1989) 2'349 East Orchard Road The 1914 Curtis School is a one-story brick schoolhouse with a hipped roof, symmetrical gabled entrance bay, and a central bell tower. It is designed in the vernacular style, incorporating elements popular at the time of its construction. The building's simple design and small size is typical of early twentieth century rural schoolhouses in Colorado. The red bricks are laid in stretcher bond. The wood shingled, hipped roof has widely overhanging eaves which offer some protection from the elements. The gable features decorative wood shingles in bands of diamond, plain, and fishscale patterns. The center entrance is covered with a shed roofed hood supported by large shaped triangular braces with stone tabs. Flanking the entrance are two rectangular windows with multiple panes and rusticated sandstone sills. Similar windows are located on the side elevations of the entrance bay. East and west walls have one-over-one, double-hung windows with sandstone sills. On the ridge of the bay roof is a shingled bell tower with pyramidal hipped roof, overhanging eaves, and louvered openings. The plan of the building is composed of three sections: a gabled entrance bay, a central 86

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rectangular section which includes a small stage, and a rear rectangular wing which was added in 1932. In 1987 the school bUilding was moved 300 feet west of the original site to the southeast corner of nearby Curtis Park to escape demolition. Interior renovation occurred in 1991, including handicap access. A mission statement for the renovation of the school was provided by Greenwood Village. Their goals were to provide a multi-disciplinary public institution where the community can experience cultural, social, and educational programs related to the arts and humanities. Historical programs will focus on the exhibition, study, and interpretation of Greenwood Village and the surrounding Arapahoe county to reveal time-honored traditions and heritage.3 Curtis School is the oldest public building associated with City of Greenwood Village and the only building designated a historic landmark by Greenwood Village. It reflects the story of rural education and testifies to the complex role both educational and social, that the small rural schoolhouses played during the twentieth century in Colorado. 3 National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, Curtis School, Colorado Historical Society. Office of Historic Preservation, November 1991. 87

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Beau Monde Shopping Center I HaRRY Church (1985, Tatman Associates, Architects, Denver) 8081 East Orchard Road, Interstate 25 and Orchard Road in the old Beau Monde Shopping Center. "Several thousand worshipers gathered at their new spiritual home, the former Beau Monde shopping center which used to house the likes of Karl Lagerfeld, Guy Laroche and Ceruti.114 Beau Monde's interior was designed to be a European style shopping village with sunny interiors, rust colored brick floors and walls, marble fountains, and Tuscan styled wrought-iron lamps to accent the colorful flower boxes and towering trees.5 However, the poor economy in the mid 1980's caused the shopping center to flounder. The Happy Church congregation purchased the mall in 1989 for $7.8 million. on the first day of worship (Nov. 4, 1990), the spartan sanctuary housed plastic chairs instead of pews and 4 The 200,000 square foot Beau Monde shopping mall in southeast Denver opened August 22 of 1985 without a major anchor tenant and only 32% of the space occupied. The developer F. R. orr Construction Co. Inc. of Denver felt a gradual opening would be more appropriate to a high-fashion center and would continue to generate curiosity among shoppers. "But nobody ever plans to open with a 65 percent vacancy, said one Denver developer who asked not to be named." Even so developers of the $19 million dollar mall were optimistic that Denver could support high end, specialty retailing. Denver Post, 22 August 1985: lB. 5 Ibid. 88

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churchgoers gazed at overhead monitors to see hymns scrolling by. Pastor Wallace Hickey conceded the setting was "kind of a warehouse sort of a worship center, but we've turned it really into a house of the Lord. 116 The move to Beau Monde is part of a three-stage expansion that will include the construction of a new sanctuary. Koebel Public (1992; Barker Rinker Seacat and Partners, Architects, Denver) 5955 South Holly Street and East Orchard Ave. This new library was named for a major donor, who helped offset the $5.1 million cost of the 45,500 square foot structure. Set on a sloping site, 11 the design challenge was to create a transition from a one-story building on the south to two stories on the north. This was achieved by creating a rusticated base using inset brick courses and Colorado Rose sandstone capped by a precast concrete sill in the walls of the lower level. The upper level is a simple brick face. The many curved and facetted surfaces combined with overhanging precast concrete and recessed brick courses create shadows and 6 "Happy Church Users in a New Era, 11 Denver Post, Denver Public Library. Western History Collection clipping file, Greenwood Village, 5 Novenlber 1990: n.p. 89

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patterns in the masonry which change with the time of day. The building entry facing south creates a quiet pedestrian environment at the entry plaza, the arms of the building creating an inviting, sheltered area to welcome patrons. The interior features a large elegant open stair case and abundant use of red oak detailing in the trim, built-in shelving, and furniture. Murals are used in the rotunda, children's area and the grand staircase which give a sense of timelessness and quality. 117 7 Information provided by Barker Rinker Seacat and Partners, Architects, 13 February 1993. 90

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Architectural History of Denver Technological Center The 947 acre Denver Technological Center is located between Belleview and Orchard Avenues on the East side of Interstate 25. 425 acres lie within the City of Greenwood Village. In the same year that Greenwood Village incorporated, a new pioneer with a new vision purchased forty acres a few miles south of the City of Denver to build a park and office building for his company, then called G.M. Wallace and company. That man was George McKenzie Wallace, P.E. Trained as an engineer at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York, Wallace moved to Denver in 1954. He has been described as outspoken, opinionated and arrogant. He is also fiercely proud of his success.8 It was in the late 1950's, and my engineering company had offices in downtown Denver. I had just bought a new car ... a black Lincoln sedan with a V-12 engine. The first day I parked it in the office lot, somebody put a horrible scratch on the car door. 8 For recent information about the DTC, I relied heavily on the staff of the DTC, Tech National Bank .Building, 7887 East Belleview Avenue, #1100, Englewood, co 80111, especially the marketing manager Debbie Minshall. Their publication, The DTC Magazine, a supplement to The Office Guide to Denver (no year) is now out of print. This office also has slides for viewing or photocopying (may purchase) of the DTC. Hundreds of professional siides of the DTC have been taken by Ken Laman and may also be purchased from him directly. 91

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I was so mad I became the first American in orbit that day and decided to find some land to build my own office building on with 14 foot spaces in the parking lot for cars. I headed out to find a location, and a year later I purchased 40 acres of farm land near Belleview Avenue. I decided to develop an office park and call it Denver Technological Center. One day, my friend Dave Packard (Hewlett Packard co.) asked me what an office park was. I told him I was building a place for technology, and a new place for technologically oriented buildings that the most important asset you have is not on your books. it's your people. I said that I was building a place for people to improve their productivity. Dave was impressed with the idea and bought the site for the first office building. That's how DTC began.9 To serve his office park, he pushed expansion of the once tiny Arapahoe county Airport. It was renamed centennial Airport and it became Colorado's busiest center for private aviation. "I could have picked any place in the whole front range to build a business park," he says, "but I picked this spot because I knew this growth was going to happen." Wallace believed that Denver's geographical location, climate, well educated work force and the magical "name" of "Colorado" itself would lead it to become the business center of the Rocky Mountain West.10 9 Janet Day, "DTC's Chief finds Boom in Theories," Rocky Mountain News, 7 October 1984: 28. 10 "George Wallace recalls the Tech. Center's founding on the DTC's 25th Anniversary," DTC Magazine, n.d.: 3. 92

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"God created the world, but he planned Colorado.1111 Lack of planning makes losers of us all. Environments must be planned that are supportive of our natural needs. This was the philosophy of the early Denver Tech staff. Precise planning called for experts from other fields to develop the "campus for the creative worker.1112 (See 1963 map of the original plan for the development of the Denver Tech Center and its campus style office buildings.) Planning of the center was assisted by Harmon O'Donell and Henninger Associates with site engineering by Meurer, Serafine and Meurer and Williams and Woodward. The Denver Tech Center was ahead of its time with sites that would have all services in place. All utilities were underground and channeled into individual sites. Advanced and automated power and telephone systems were installed, paved boulevard streets, parkways and landscaped areas, controlled drainage, imaginative architecture and strict building design criteria were put into place. DTC was complete within itself; a self-contained, self-sustaining 11 For a history of the DTC up to 1970 see "God Created the World But He Planned Colorado, 11 Colorado Business survey: The DTC Center, November-December 1970: 1-3. 12 "DTC, Campus for the Creative Worker," Western Engineer, June 1964: 6-7. 93

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professional community offering to the growing company the same range of services that only a large corporation with vast resources can normally provide for itself. In 1970, 5 percent of the park had been completed. Strict architectural control and protective covenants provided development guidelines and ensured protection of land values. Today the DTC has emerged into the most notable urban center in the Rocky Mountain area. The DTC contains 766 acres and is located within Arapahoe County at the intersection.of two important thoroughfares, Interstate 25 and Interstate 225. DTC lies within two governmental jurisdictions, Denver and Greenwood Village in a B-8 zoning. A mixture of building heights is allowed and DTC is master planned with 30 million square feet of development. Office buildings, hotels, restaurants and shopping employ more than 20,000 people. 1,100 companies reflect a cross section of national and international corporations as well as local firms. DTC planning offers parking, hidden from view, and efficient internal mobility. Tree lined "superblocks" are connected by commercially oriented pedestrian corridors. Each superblock contains 30 acres, equivalent to 16-20 downtown blocks. Efficient electrical service including underground 94

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power, telephone, water, gas, and sewer systems are in place. The area is served by three separate power substations making it a good location for companies which depend on an uninterrupted power supply, such as computer corporations. The sixty-eight buildings at DTC represent fine examples of contemporary architecture and interior design. 13 Individual buildings at DTC that express a strong architectural statement are: One DTC, The Quadrant, MetroPoint, Regency Plaza I, Stanford Place I, Prentice Point and the Centrum. 14 Employees can enjoy noon-day concerts and art shows. An example of the DTC's environmental planning is the privately funded 35 acre G.M. Wallace Urban Park that was created from a neglected drainage area and presented by the Goldsmith Metropolitan District and given to the city of Denver. Basic covenants at DTC require that 30% of all land be reserved for open space and complemented by extensive landscaping. More than 10,000 trees have been 13 For information on Southeast Denver's top five properties see "The Price Goes Up Tomorrow," Colorado Business Magazine, April 1989: 57. 14 outstanding architecture was determined by the DTC Magazine, p. 8, a DTC walk and drive through on March 10, 1988, and interviews with DTC staff members. 95

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planted on this once barren prairie.15 According to the October 12, 1988, Rocky Mountain News Business Section, the Tech Center vacancy rate is below 10%. Because "the Tech CentE!r's newest buildings are virtually full, some companies are searching for land to build on The absorption rate is the difference between the amount of space leased and the amount of space In 1986 Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Ltd., a british company headed by one of the wealthiest men in england, Sir Jeffery sterling, paid $50 million to two Denver businessmen for the controlling interest in the group that owns the DTC. Sterling is well known in London business circles. His holdings include Sterling Guarantee and Town and Country Properties, England's largest developer of shopping centers.17 George Wallace commenting on the future of the DT.C 15 For more information on DTC's fight to rid the area of unsightly billboards, see "DTC Wins Salute on Billboard Ban," Denver Post, 6 April 1972: 29. "DTC's Wallace: Man of Action," Denver Post, 20 December 1973: 29. 16 The vacancies in the class A buildings in the DTC and Greenwood Plaza, with the possible exception of the Chevron Building, are below 10% said Bob Ambrosius, a broker with Iliff Thorn and company. John Rebchook "Tech Center Vacancy Rate Below 10% report says," Rocky Mountain News, 12 October 1988: 54. 17 "British Company Buys Control of DTC, Mountain News, 23 January 1988: 79-81. 96 Rocky

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has said, 12. I want the Denver Technological Center to be a mixed-use environment, he observes, a place where you can live, work, shop, play a quality way of life. We've.made a lot of progress, but there are still things that need fixing We have to continue to work on issues such as traffic, mass transportation and the environment. There will always be something to do. 18 18 "Find a need and satisfy it," DTC Magazine, n.d.: For further reading on Denver's "growth problems" and a chart of 60 Suburban Office Developments see the Special R,eport by Andrea Truppin, "Denver's Boom or Bust," Interiors Magazine, November 1982: 94-95, 98-100. 97

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Buildings in the Denver Technological Center One DTC (1985, c. w. Fentress and Associates, Architects, Denver) 5251 DTC Parkway David o. Hughes, vice president of Murray Properties and project manager for ONE DTC, describes this building as an "oasis." This thirteen story office building has a total of 226,609 square feet. It presents a striking view against the Colorado sky with its burgundy and grey Dakota mahogany granite and stainless steel band with reflective bronze glass. The building complex includes a three-story glass enclosed lobby, parking for 730 cars, and a landscaped outdoor plaza. The building garnered the 1988 Architectural Award given by the City of Greenwood Village and the 1986 Gold Nugget Award for Best Commercial Building by the Pacific Coast Builders Conference sponsored by Sun Coast Architect and Builders Magazine. One DTC was named southeast Denver's five top properties in 1989, by Dresco Diversified Real Estate Services Co., part of the Roddy Report, a publication that monitors real estate trends.19 19 Buildings were chosen on location, visibility, architectural design, access, broker appeal, image, character, and charm, "The Price Goes Up Tomorrow," Colorado Business, April 1989: 54. 98

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Architectural History of Greenwood Plaza Greenwood Plaza (1970, The John Madden company, Developers) Located in southeast metropolitan Denver, on the west side of Interstate 25 between Belleview and Arapahoe Road. 11We like to talk about the pure quality of our environment. 1120 John Madden Another business community development located in southeast Denver was started in 1970 by the John Madden Company. This privately owned real estate development company has gained a reputation for their integrated development services and a commitment to excellence in architecture and the arts. Nearly one hundred major corporations have either national or regional headquarters within the towering campus-like setting. The companies founder, John Madden explained, 11Actually, I'm just taking a fresh approacn towards some fairly traditional to create office environments of unsurpassed beauty and efficiency to offer distinctive 20 You cannot separate Greenwood Plaza and The John Madden Company. For more information about Greenwood Plaza, contact the Publicity and Marketing Department of the John Madden Company, 6312 South Fiddler's Green Circle, Englewood, co 80111. 11Greenwood Plaza Tech Center Top Business Park List," Denver Business, May 1985: RE 4. 99

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design that captures the eye and imagination, and to make a lasting contribution to Denver's business economy." 21 In 1982, Greenwood Plaza became the site for the Museum of Outdoor Arts, an expanding collection that now boasts more than fifty major paintings, collages, tapestries, and works of famous sculptors such as Henry Moore. The office park also features Fiddler's Green Amphitheater with seating capacity for 20,000 and three outstanding examples of fine architecture, Carrara Place, Harlequin Plaza and MCI Plaza. 21 Jerry Richmond, Colorado: Living and working in the Rockies, "Profile: John Madden Company, Making Fine Art of Development" (Denver: General Communications, Inc., 1986) 218. 100

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Buildings in Greenwood Plaza Harlequin Plaza (1981, Gensler and Associates, Architects, Denver) 7600 East orchard Road Harlequin Plaza is based on the visual theme of Picasso's _portraits of clowns "Les Harlequins." The building site contains a total of eighteen acres, and consists of two office buildings interspaced with a 50,000 square foot plaza. The design of the plaza features black and white terrazzo diamonds and seven life size sculptures of harlequins by the American sculptor Harry Marinsky. The three story south building as well as the four story north building is cover.ed with a glass curtainwall with spandrel glazing and a ceramic tile base. Carrara Place (1982, Murata Outland Associates, Architects, Denver) 6200 South Syracuse Street The 241,692 square foot office building offers a unique, sweeping profile of six levels with the upper four levels offering office space and the lower levels below grade level to provide parking. The exterior is a combination of white Cararra marble from the quarries of Putrasanta, Italy, and one inch solar-plane glazing. A 101

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large atrium and interior court lie at the center of each floor allowing light to filter into all spaces. 22 Museum of Outdoor Arts (1982, John Madden, Founder, Cynthia Madden Leitner, President) 6312 south Fidders Green It's one of our most innovative arts concepts of our time, yet it's a small museum in a small corner of the world It's a jewel of an idea, and right here in Arapahoe County. Gail Howard, Arapahoe County Cultural Council, 1992 n The Museum of outdoor Arts is an innovative arts concept with an eclectic collection of fifty works scattered over the entire 400 acres in Greenwood Plaza. The collection includes works from regional, national, and international artists from Red Grooms to Giovanni Antonazzi. Thousands of school children visit the site yearly responding to the art and boosting the museum's educational goals. The Fiddler's Green Amphitheater (1988) located on 22 Jerry Richmond, Denver: America's Mile High Center of Enterprise (Woodland Hills: Windsor Pub. Inc., 1983) 15. 23 Rocky Mountain News. 1 June 1992: 30. 102

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the grounds of the Museum of Outdoor Arts offers summer performances of nationally known performing artists. MCI Plaza (1984, Kirkham, Michael and Associates, Architects, Denver) 6312 South Fiddlers Green Circle The MCI Plaza contains two six story office towers placed at right angles to each other and adjoining a 100'x 100' glass domed atrium. The Tuscany building has a copper roof with terraced bridges connecting the two wings in the atrium. Travertine stone quarried in the Tuscan region of Italy cases the precast spandrel beams, steel studs and structural steel framing. 103

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iri:;torv of In-verness Business Park Inverness Business Park is located in southeast Arapahoe County at Interstate 25 and County Line Road. The park contains a total of 980 acres of gently rolling terrain and employed 8,000 people in 1990. It features multi-tenant buildings that overlook the 18 hole Inverness Golf Course. Many Fortune 500 firms have chosen Inverness for their corporate headquarters or regional offices. A sampling of resident companies include American Express, Citicorp, Diners Club Inc., Data General, Hewlett Packard, Motorola, John Deere Company, Martin Marietta, Honeywell, Merrill Lynch, Pentax Corp., Conoco and Eastman Kodak Company. The Denver area has a long history of high technology and aerospace industries and continued growth is expected in electronics, computer equipment, defense, space components and medical equipment. Many of these high tech companies are settling in this low density, high style business park. One of the newest properties at Inverness is the Scanticon Denver Hotel. A sleek, contemporary design, the Scanticon Hotel is owned by Jorgan Roed (20%), and Inter-Continental Hotels Inc. (80%), a subsidiary of Grand Metropolitan PLC, one of Great Britain's largest companies. This $53 million dollar hotel was designed in 104

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1989 py Danish architect Knud Frus. The 353,000 square foot hotel caters to Fortune 500 companies needing high tech conference space. The building contains a 60,000 square foot conference facility that includes an auditorium, conference rooms, audio visual control rooms and a design production studio. 105

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CHAPTER IX ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF LITTLETON Town (Incorporation March 8, 1890, 5,362 feet) Incorporated town and county seat since 1904, located ten miles south of Denver along the picturesque South Platte River. Littleton was first settled in 1861 when surveyor Richard s. Little settled there. Instead of mining, the Littleton region, rich in farm land, was established by homesteaders as an agricultural community with water available from the nearby South Platte River. This settlement became important to the area supplying grain and farm products to the growing metropolis of Denver. Until Little and several others established the successful Rough and Ready Flour Mill in 1867, most flour and corn meal had been brought long distances. Rail accessibility brought a multitude of new marketing opportunities to the small town. In 1871, the tracks of the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad were completed from Denver to Littleton and on south to Colorado Springs, linking Littleton to statewide markets. The Littleton Gazette noted in 1888 that "thirty passenger trains passed through town daily." By this 106

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time, Littleton's agricultural prosperity was well established with the rest of Colorado looking to Littleton for advice and example in growing and harvesting crops. In 1880, the historian, W.B. Vickers, forecast Littleton's future when he wrote: "Although Denver stands in no immediate need of a suburb to live in, the time will come no doubt when Littleton's wealth and population will be swelled by the overflow of Denver, and no more charming country village can be found in Colorado than cozy Littleton, nestled in its grove of trees like an old New England village." The city's structure grew out of the Victorian age. From enterprises like the R. w. English Lumber Company, founded in 1888, came the materials to build their homes. Hardware could be purchased from Jull Hardware on Main Street and tin roofing from William Rogers Pioneer Tinshop.1 Numerous builders, contractors, and painters were listed in the 1892 Architects'. Contractors' and Materials' Builders Directory of Colorado for the City of Littleton. Architectural styles came from pattern books, widely available during this era, with prefabricated components shipped on nearby railways. Substantial 1 1892 Architects', Contractors', and Materials' Directory (Denver: Commercial Publishing Co., 1892) 137. 107

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members of the community called on Denver's leading architects such as Robert S. Roeschlaub and J. J. B. Benedict to design their civic buildings and private residences. The pink and grey rhyolite stone, quarried in nearby Castle Rock, Colorado, was one of the primary building materials used in these upscale residences. However, most houses of early Littleton were functional vernacular wood frame dwellings and built by honest, hard working people. Littleton's commercial structures are still housed in the original turn of the century buildings along historic Main Street. The town itself was planned and laid out on the grid system with the more important buildings concentrated along or quite near Main Street. Banks, hotels, public buildings such as the post office and civic government have been located there. Fraternal organizations, theaters and churches were situated toward the periphery of this core. And as was common, prominent institutions were located at each end of the main street. Securing the county seat in 1904 meant the $51,845 contract for the construction of the Arapahoe County Court House on the prominent hillside at the east end of Main Street. Symbolic of economic aspirations, local pride and civic ideals, the building once housed the administrative, judicial and local legislative functions 108

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for the entire county. An unsympathetic attempt in the 1950's to modernize the structure greatly reduced its stately charm leaving a hole in.the Littleton skyline. In 1916, Architect J. B. Benedict designed the building at the west end of Main Street (2700 West Main) which became a great source of civic pride and architectural elegance, the Carnegie Foundation Public Library. Main Street was also the center for informal socializing and special events. According to Houston Waring, local historian, Main Street in the 1920's was the center of attraction. "Everyone between Belleview Avenue on the north and Castle Rock on the south came to Main Street on Saturday nights. The stores were open, Page's pool hall beckoned men went to lodges, and women enjoyed ice cream sodas or a Mary Pickford movie at the new Palm Theater."2 The drugstore soda fountain was an after school destination for students, as well as the Centennial Race Track crowd who studied the latest racing forms over a cup of coffee.3 2 "Historic Downtown Littleton," Littleton Independent, Bemis Public Library clipping file, 12 July 1979: n.p. 3 "Littleton is the only community in the metro area that has a true small downtown area left to do something with It's what sets Littleton apart The heart of Littleton is downtown. Economics will dictate how it will change. What we'd like to see isn't necessarily how it will turn out." Frank Taylor, president of Affiliated 109

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For more than three quarters of a century, Littleton remained a small village. But in the 1950's population growth, new businesses, and a more automobile oriented society transformed the once rolling farm and ranch lands into sprawling residential subdivisions that tried to capture an identity amidst continued urban growth. The 1950's saw the construction of the Centennial Racetrack (now demolished) built between Santa Fe Drive, the Platte River and Bowles and Belleview Avenues. The race track drew large crowds and supported restaurants, bars, and shops in the area. The Glen L. Martin Company (Martin Marietta) and Ohio Oil (Marathon) located in Littleton in 1955, increasing the population greatly, creating a demand for housing, National Bank, Littleton. Quotations are from a three-part series by Rebecca Kast on "Littleton's Vanishing History," a story on the lack of preservation in Littleton. Littleton Independent, 19 December 1991: 1. The form and scale of Littleton's Main Street are relatively homogeneous today with mostly two-story buildings adjoining one another. Their Victorian detailing remains intact on the second level, while lower level facades show attempts to modernize or provide maintenance free exteriors. A determined group of local citizens is working to make sure the buildings on Main Street endure. Called the Second Century Fund, the non-profit corporation has been granted $10,000 through the Urban Counties community development block grant program to rehabilitate a suitable building facade on Main Street. In return for financing the restoration, Littleton will own an easement on the facade that will prohibit the owner from changing it. 110

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schools and expanded services. Arapahoe Community College opened its doors in 1965, the same year the South Platte River flooded, destroying millions of dollars in property. It was also in the 1960's that concerned city council members launched a vigorous plan for urban renewal, "to provide a much needed identity for the area." Urban landscaping, new traffic circulation and an improved appearance of Main Street was on the agenda. Main Street received eighty two parabolic cement structures and fifty three huge planters with trees at a cost to taxpayers of $72,000. City fathers were convinced that this landscape venture would be the rebirth of the Main Street and put Littleton was "on the move." Business optimism saw the establishment of Riverfront Development anchored by the Riverfront Festival Center (1984, Barker, Rinker, Seacat, and Partners). Designed to resemble an old waterfront terminal, the building featured a cruciform skylighted roof and vaulted ceilings. Built in the post-modernist style, the center prospered initially but felt the economic letdown of the 1980's oil bust and fell into financial failure. Spurred by the 1972 building of nearby Chatfield Dam to control flooding in Littleton, the 600 acre South Platte Park received national notice for creative use of 111

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flood plain land, an alternative to channeling the river bed. The city's twelve square miles are dotted with pocket farms scattered throughout its neighborhoods. Old farmhouses, pastures, and horses show that this community was here long before the subdivisions. One such farmer, sixty-five year old James Dariower still resides on a two-and-a-half acre tract on Windermere Street which is now surrounded by homes and townhouses. "We moved in when there wasn't no city as the city moves in on us, we like it less and less." His wife May adds, "I don't like it now, as far as I'm concerned, this is where I'm going to pack it.114 Littleton's older structures are sheltered by the City of Littleton's Historic and Architectural Preservation Ordinance (1971). Under this ordinance, a owner must request that their building be designated as a local landmark. After a review by the Littleton Museum Board and the Little City Council, if the building qualifies as a landmark, it may be suitable for local property taxes to be waived. There are no real controls over demolition or defacement, and the Preservation Ordinance is rarely used, according to Bob 4 11100 years later, farms still part of city," Littleton Times Weekly, 5-11 April 1990: 1, 5. 112

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McQuarie, Director of the Littleton Historical Museum.5 The city's Littleton Historic Museum boasts one of the state's finest living history museums and the community continues to take pride in maintaining and collecting notable public art. Positive change and growth have led to a population of 33,403 in 1989 with a projected population of 45,000 by the year 2010 (DROG Demographics). 5 Robert McQuarie Interview, 17 July 1990. 113

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Buildings in Littleton Littleton Cemetery (1870) 6155 South Prince Street Situated overlooking the South Platte River near the center of Littleton, Colorado, bounded by Prince Street on the east and the train tracks on the west, this serene spot was once a portion of Judge Lewis B. Ames' farm. Although the first burial was in 1864, the cemetery was not organized until 1871, when the Littleton Cemetery Association was organized. historic cemetery contains the graves of many important Littleton pioneers including Richard s. Little, Judge Lewis B. Ames, Edwin A. Bemis, Joseph W. Bowles, and John G. Lilly. The notorious "Colorado Cannibal," Alfred Packer, who died on April 24, 1907, is also buried here. His grave is marked by a government stone denoting his days in the u.s. Infantry. The cemetery record book lists "stomach trouble" as the cause of his death. The largest monument in the cemetery is on a prominent hill that overlooks the Platte Valley. Here, pioneer, Joseph Bowles (1835-1906) is buried beside his wife, cynthia. The seven foot marble monument, topped by a stone angel, was built by Bowles in memory of his daughter, Josephine (Josie), who died at age eleven, and his son, Harry, who died in infancy. In 1944, the Littleton Independent was quoted, 114

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11Littleton now has one of the loveliest cemeteries of small towns in the State.11 Edward Montgomery House (c. 1872) 5878 South Rapp Street Like so many before him, the lure of gold attracted the young Edward Montgomery to Colorado in 1860. Montgomery tried his hand at placer mining in California Gulch near Leadville and later became a freight hauler. After his arrival in Littleton he engaged in farming with R.S. Little, and in 1867, with Little, Lilly and Company he built the Rough and Ready Flour Mill and continued as a member of the firm. Leo Curtis who wasa child in early Littleton remembers, 11The familiar sight of Deacon (a name he acquired when helping to build the local Episcopal Church on Rapp Street) Montgomery trudging back and forth between his home and the mill, dusted white by flour, his eyes twinkling, chewing tobacco, hat cocked slightly over one ear and scorning a coat except for extreme cold. 116 The Montgomery house earns its distinction as one of 6 Much about the early pioneers of Littleton can be found in the bibliographic files of the Littleton Historical Museum Library. A brief history of Edward Montgomery was found in the article entitled, 11Leo Curtis Says Ed Montgomery Saved Kids Who Ate Dried Apples, 11 January 1951: n.p. in the Montgomery file. 115

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the earliest surviving residences in Littleton.27 The sturdy brick vernacular house was located just down the street from the Rough and Ready Mill in 1872. It is an unpretentious one-story rectangular masonry, featuring the common or American bond pattern in the bricks. Four-over-four rectangular double-hung windows are capped by radiating voussoirs.8 The original house featured a small shed porch supported by plain square posts, and a wood shingle roof. The side gables of the roof line are still quite evident in the house today, while the brick exterior hides behind layers of paint, neglect, and a metal shed porch. J.D. Hill General Store (1872) 5728-5738 Rapp Street This two-story wood frame building with clapboard siding is reminiscent of the early New England colonial style, but early show it to be a simple 7 Vernacular masonry is a common form of architecture found all over Colorado after 1860. It is not as common as wood vernacular, but is simple in design and lacks ornamentation. The vernacular masonry should not be co11fused with the Classic Cottage or Bungalow, both of which have more ornamentation and architectural details. Pearce, 5. 8 Ibid. 116

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rectangular frame building void of detail. Built by Julius D. Hill, early founder of the Rough and Ready Mill and later prosperous owner of The Littleton Creamery, the store was Littleton's first mercantile operation. As years passed, the building served as the Masonic Lodge Hall, Old Fellows Hall, church meeting house, post office, private dwelling and today as a commercial space. Denver and Rio Grand Depot (1875, Denver and Rio Grande Railroad Architects) South Rio Grande Avenue and West Crestline Avenue This rectangular stone building is an extraordinary example of one of.the oldest stone depots remaining in Colorado. It was constructed in 1875 of rock-faced ashlar rhyolite which was quarried at nearby Castle Rock, Colorado, located to the south of Littleton. The gable roof is covered with corrugated metal and overhangs the trusses made of large timbers. Along the eaves are large triangular supporting brackets, with an acorn motif at the end. The double-hung windows have stone pediment lintels and stone sills. In 1981, the City Council of Littleton and the Littleton Historical Museum supported the relocation of the stone depot to a site about one-half mile north of its present location and just to the west of the D and RG tracks. It has been 117

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restored to its 1910 appearance and serves as a community center for the City of Littleton. On December 13, 1979, the Colorado State Historic Preservation Officer and Keeper of the National Register declared both the D and RG and Santa Fe Depots in Littleton to be eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Highline Water Canal (1883) The Highline Canal runs approximately eighty miles from its beginning in the South Platte Canyon above Littleton near Kassler (sometimes called Waterton), through a 600 foot tunnel, ending at a farm east of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. This colossal engineering project called the Highline Canal Irrigation Ditch was built at a cost of $650,000 by a company of scot.ch and English capitalists in 1882 and is a marvel of Victorian engineering. Today the National Recreation Trail which parallels the canal for 18 miles is owned by the Denver Water Board and managed by the South Suburban Parks and Recreation District. Rising real estate prices along the canal make this a desirable place to own residential property. Meandering through much of Arapahoe County, the hard packed surface is popular with fitness seekers and nature 118

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lovers. Along the trail, one finds groves of prairie cottonwood and willow, squirrels, raccoons and a variety of visiting waterfowl. 9 Richard s. Little House (1884, Robert s. Roeschlaub, Architect, Denver) 5777 South Rapp Street The Richard Sullivan Little House once sat on a wooded and tranquil Rapp Street. Today it is backed by the industrious movement of South Santa Fe Drive and is now located within a commercial zone. The house is named for its owner, the 11founding father of Littleton, Colorado. 11 R. s. Roeschlaub, prominent Denver archi teet, designed the rhyolite stone house which features multiple gables, 1511 thick walls, a hipped roof, and a projecting gable 11L.11 In the 1930's, it was extensively remodeled by the late Harleigh R. Holmes Sr., who was noted for his role in developing the front-wheel drive axle system for trucks of the Coleman Manufacturing Company. 9 Highline Canal, Winding Through History (Denver: Denver Water Department, 1983) n.p. 119

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Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Depot/Depot Art Center (1888, Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad Architects) 2107 West Powers Avenue Historically important as an agricultural shipping link, this rectangular, one-story wooden building was Littleton's first railroad depot. The board and batten siding is above a low wainscot and the gable roof has overhanging eaves supported by heavy brackets. This building is typical of the railroad depot architecture of the day. The building has been transplanted from its original location near Main street and has been restored to its 1910 appearance for adaptive use as a gallery. H.S. Leach House/Treece House (1888) 2596 W. Alamo Avenue Mr. Leach, a miller at the Rough and Ready Flour Mill in Littleton, built this picturesque house in the Victorian style for his family in 1889. The one-story front gabled home is simple in design except for the half a dozen different colors that complement the Victorian details found in the turned porch supports, the sunburst crest above the porch and fish scale siding in the main gables. The facade is dominated by a large arched one120

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over-one double-hung window. The first meeting of the Littleton Women's Club was held in this home in 1897. In 1977, the home was restored by James L. Treece and is currently used as an office space. Jules Jacgpes Benois Benedict Home/Carmelite Monastery (1912, J.J.B. Benedict, Architect, Littleton, Colorado) 6138 South Gallup Street Just to the south of the Littleton Historic Museum is the picturesque home of J.J.B. Benedict, noted architect {1872-1948), who trained at the Beaux-Arts School of Architecture in Paris. After Benedict married June Brown of Denver in a fashionable wedding in 1914, they began homemaking in an old Dutch farmhouse on a large parcel of land on the outskirts of Littleton. The house became a showplace after Benedict designed and supervised the construction of a luxurious Italinate addition to the house along with ambitious landscaping efforts. Fostered by public spirit, Mr. Benedict designed many fine buildings in Denver and in Littleton (See Littleton Presbyterian Church, Town Hall and Carnegie Library 121

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Building).10 Benedict later gave the house and property to the Catholic Church. It is now occupied by a cloistered order of Carmelite nuns. A public chapel (not a Benedict building) is open daily. Carnegie Foundation Public (1916, J.J.B. Benedict, Architect, Littleton, Colorado) 2700 West Main Street Positioned with importance at the end of Main Street is the Carnegie Foundation Public Library. The construction of this public library was made possible through a $8,000 grant from the Carnegie Foundation. Designed by J.J.B. Benedict, prominent artist-architect, the library typifies the Classical Revival style popular for civic buildings in the first part of the twentieth century. The hipped roof former library building is distinguished by the fact that despite its small size, the double story facade carries the grand arched stone entry of the central doorway and double side Palladian windows with much delicacy and balance. The hood-mold 10 "Wyldemere Farm, Artistic Gallup Avenue Home of June Brown Benedict," Littleton Independent, 22 July 1938: n.p. Robert McPhee, Jacgues Benois Benedict A Leading Denver Archi teet of the Twenties (unpublished paper, Littleton Historical Museum Library, 1984) 1-2. 122

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that surrounds the arched openings are complimented by decorative printer seals in polychrome showing Italian influence. This building served as the public library until 1965 and the Littleton Police Department for the following twelve years. Nothing is left of the original interior, or the back and side walls of the building. Only the facade remains as a reminder of the bygone days of great civic pride and architectural elegance. Littleton High School/Littleton Public Schools Administration Building (1920, Robert K. Fuller, Architect, Denver) 5776 South Crocker Street Littleton was still basking in the-glow of an allied victory in WW I when construction of the new high school began in 1920 at a cost of $100,000. Breaking with the Beaux-Arts and period styles, this building was in the Moderne or Art Deco tradition. The blond, three-story brick building consists of parallel patterns of brick complimented by areas of zig-zags and. chevron designs. The ornamentation is suggested by low relief, geometrical designs highlighted by stylized floral motifs. This structure served the community as Littleton High School until 1956 and later became Grant Jr. High School. Today, the school building has undergone adaptive use and 123

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is the Littleton Public School's Administration Building. Littleton Town Hall (1920, J.J.B. Benedict, Architect, Littleton, Colorado) 2450 West.Main Street This "finest town hall for a small American town," is the way one magazine reported the Italinate style building when it was finished in 1920. Jules Jacques Benois Benedict, prominent Denver Architect and local resident, designed the building. The tile roof, balcony grillwork, second-story pointed arched windows and double bracketing of the cornices all suggest that Benedict was influenced by his interest in the Plazzo della Regione in Vincenza, Italy. The facade reflects an ambiance of fine craftsmanship because of the faultless execution of the decorative stonework. The building units of terra cotta were machine extruded with a decorative rather than a structural function. The thinner sections of stone are held in place by adhesion to the mortar placed between the terra cotta and the backing, and the thicker sections by grout and wire anchors connected to the backing. Although influenced by northern Italian examples, the building is characteristic of local expression in its detailing. The facade features a terra cotta design with 124

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the state flower of Colorado, the Columbine, incised as ornament in the second story as well as the Rocky Mountain eagle introduced in the lunettes over the second story windows. The building features triple pointed arched openings with a double bracketing cornice on the ground level. The ornate cast iron lamps were designed and made by Benedict himself and donated to the City of Littleton. For fifty years it was used as city offices and council chambers. Today this historic building has been readapted for use as the Town Hall Arts Center. First Presbyterian Church of Littleton (1929, Architect, J.J.B. Benedict, Littleton, Colorado) (Addition 1955, Architect, Ralph Peterson, Denver, Colorado) 1609 West Littleton Boulevard Sitting on a corner site at Littleton Boulevard and Windermere, the First Presbyterian Church of Littleton was built in 1929 at a cost of $45,057. J.J.B. Benedict, a leading architect of the day, chose the English Gothic style popular for churches of that day. The red brick of the church is formalized by pointed arched windows combined with leaded glass and a steep gabled roof. The gothic tower holds, the "Bride's Bell," a gift from early congregation members, which rings at weekly worship 125

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services and for every wedding. Littleton Historical Museum (1970) 6028 South Gallup Street The Littleton Historical Museum is in the city's largest park complex. Gallup Gardens, Gallup Park, and Ketring Park and Lake join the museum grounds. The museum complex is situated on fourteen acres adjoining Ketring Park and features the 1860's Homestead and the 1890's Turn of the Century Farm. The complex is composed of a number of reconstructed and restored buildings including a 1903 operating blacksmith shop. Livestock, gardens, fields and a restored windmill complete the complex. As a department of the City of Li.ttleton, the museum oversees the collection, preservation and interpretation of the history of Littleton. MCBROOM CABIN (c. 1860) One room pioneer structures such as this were built when areas of Colorado were first being settled. This one-and-one-half story, side gabled hand-hewn log cabin was built by Issac McBroom to house his wife and three children in 1861, and was once located near Bear Creek and South Federal Blvd. (see Architectural History of the Town of Sheridan) The pine 126

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logs were probably cut in the forest above Waterton Canyon, and floated down the Platte River to his homestead near Bear Creek. ICE HOUSE (c. 1910) This wood frame ice house was originally located on the Beers sister's dairy farm west of Littleton and was and relocated and restored at the edge of Ketring Lake. The ice house contains hand tools, a horse-drawn ice plow, motorized ice cutter and ice-boat that were in common usage as part of the ice cutting industry in Littleton and much of the United States during the past one hundred and fifty years. It is home to the annual ice harvest each winter. LOG SCHOOLHOUSE (1864) This is one of the oldest schools in Colorado. Built by John Bell in 1865 for $65.00, the log school building served school district No. 6 until 1868 when a frame schoolhouse was built on the John Lilly ranch. BEMIS HOUSE (c. 1889) The Fred A. Bemis house is a vernacular wood frame house belonging to an early Littleton judge and his family. The Bemis house was originally located at 2100 West Littleton, on the hill overlooking Main Street and was surrounded by 127

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outbuildings and expanses of land. The tiny rectangular hipped and gabled roof home measures 40'x 20' and is covered by clapboard siding with decorative shingles and a small square decorative window in the front gable. It has been restored and is used as a living history house by museum staff and volunteers. MAIN MUSEUM BUILDING (1950) Three galleries, offices, work spaces and research library are housed in the main museum building which was the former residence of the D.K. Lord family. The contemporary style home was designed in 1950 by Joseph P. Marlow, a Denver architect, and purchased by the Littleton Historical Society from Vernon Ketring in 1968. The flat roofed horizontal onestory home was built with little ornamentation, and unusual expanses of window shapes which were set flush with the exterior walls primarily mad(:} of rhyolite stone executed in a random pattern. Cantilevered projections of the original house jutted to form patios which dramatized the non-supporting nature of the walls. Spectacular views of Ketring Lake and integration of the house to the surrounding landscape, align it closely to the earlier International Style which favored this tie with nature. 128

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South Platte Park (1974) 7401 South Santa Fe Drive Created by a public and private partnership, Littleton's 625 acre South Platte Park is nearly as large as New York's Central Park. The park contains seven iakes and lies adjacent to the South Platte River. "Using responsible mining and a reclamation plan that went beyond state requirements, the public-minded firm of Cooley Gravel company replaced topsoil creating islands, swells and rolling contours to accommodate habitats for wildlife that never existed along the rivers flood plain before," said Pat Gubbins past supervisor for the South Suburban Park and Recreation District. "They also saved nearly every tree on the old plant site and gave Littleton a showplace." Nature trails and the Arapahoe Greenway Trail wind through the park. The Thee L. Carson Nature Center located within the park boundaries, was once the home of Thee and Olivia Carson. Recently moved to the site, this hand built from Colorado spruce, twostory log home features a massive stone fireplace of sandstone quarried in Lyons, Colorado. In 1991, it opened to the puplic to provide educational programs for groups of all ages. 1992 brought the final planting of ,000 trees and shrubs by 1,000 volunteers to restore the 129

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banks of the Platte River to its natural state. Also, that same year brought the installation of solar powered (photovoltaic) pumps (the first used in the Denver area) to activate the park's irrigation system. Arapahoe Community College (1974, Eugene o. Sternberg and Associates, Architects, Evergreen, Colorado) 2500 West College Drive The grounds of this college have an educational heritage of over 100 years. This site was originally the Rapp Street School (1873-1953). It has moved steadily toward higher education to the present day Arapahoe Community College complex. The idea for the college was formed over "bacon and eggs11 at Abe's Cafe at the Downtown Merchant's Breakfast in early 1964. Locals felt a county junior college will bring youth to the community and also help the youth who lived there. Eugene o. Sternberg, Architect, former teacher at the Denver University School of Architecture, and architect of over fifty schools and hospitals had this to say about the design and function of the 350,000 square foot Arapahoe Community College building: 11The business of learning is a serious undertaking. I wanted to create a strong, dependable, brutal and honest form with a look towards 130

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the future. Architecturally speaking, this megastructure represents a community center with a vision to involve one and all in the advancement of learning and growing.1111 Avoiding all sentimentality, Sternberg envisioned the focus of the school, a "family room" consisting of all learning resource centers under one roof, which are visually accessible, where totally flexible interior walls would welcome growth and change. This community college was the first to feature a student run day-care center incorporated within the main building as an integral part of this multi-level, open space environment. Student enrollment has now surpassed all projected numbers, and this building design which fosters exchange of human interaction in an urban environment continues to make the college one of the most successful Community Colleges in Colorado. Littleton City Center (1976, Michael Barber, Architect, Denver) 2255 West Berry Avenue The 65,000 square foot building sits among the lavish landscape of Littleton's Geneva Park. Fitted with solar panels, this two-story brick and concrete structure 11 Eugene Sternberg Interview, 23 June 1990. 131

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boasts thermo-pane aluminum framed windows and solar hot water and heating systems. Providing city offices, including fire service and police departments, the City Center features a number of public works of art. Twentynine locust trees fill the atrium interior and surround William Joseph's, 11Fountain Sculpture." The all brick interior lobby displays the Littleton Centennial Quilt titled "David's Home Town," by Marie Conway. The quilt features intricate embroidered and appliqued scenes of Littleton from 1890 to 1990, a memorial to the artist's son. Littleton RTD Transit Center (1984, Hoover Berg Desmond, Architects) Rio Grande and Powers Avenue This is a modest Transit Center for users of the Regional Bus System and replaces the former railroad station, a communi.ty landmark. George Hoover developed the prototypical plan for the Transit center. Buses and passenger vehicles stop on opposite sides of a double loaded island, and are sheltered beneath a lightweight steel framed structure, formally reminiscent of the old railroad station. Glass block screens provide protection from the wind and unobstructed sightlines. A red tile roof and white painted steel frame fit with the 132

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neighborhood's red brick, clay tile, and white clapboard residences. Uplights on the exposed wood ducting create a soft, warm lantern-like glow at night. This project received the 1984 Design Award from the American Institute of Architects in Colorado.12 Centennial Golf and Tennis Club (1985, H. William Woodcock, A.S.A.L., South suburban Park and Recreation District) 5800 South Federal Avenue It has been called ugly and a blimp and has been the target of complaints from nearby neighbors, but Bill Woodcock, project manager and landscape architect for South Suburban Park and Recreation District is very proud of the tennis facility and how budget constraints were handled. "If we had gone with a regular clubhouse, tennis facility, and parking lot, it would have come out to about $65 a square foot. We brought it in at $15 a square foot. 1113 A haven for tennis players all year round, the "soft architecture" air supported structure is made of teflon coated plastic held down by cables. Pressure insulates 12 Information provided by Hoover Berg Desmond Architects, 8 January 1993. 13 Bill Woodcock Interview, 12 January 1993. 133

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the interior while being protected by high wind and bad weather. The teflon coating causes the winter snow to slide right off. At night it produces a luminous glow with criss-crossed lines where the seams are located.14 Porter South surgical center (1986, Davis Partnership, Architects, Denver) 7730 South Broadway This detached, one-story brick surgical center serves as phase I of a 38 acre master plan for Littleton Hospital/Porter. This 7,300 square foot ambulatory surgery center was built at a cost of $1.46 million in 1986. It received the prestigious National American Institute of Architects award for its innovative health care design. The interior spaces have a strong individual identity and functional circulation plan. The high ceilings and many skylights reflect openness and natural light. This indigenous architectural style .has set the tone for many other buildings in the area and u Ibid. Architects such as William H. Tuntke supported the idea of air-supported structures in 1946 due to their savings in construction time and their economy in spanning. large areas, but it did not come into concrete form U:ntil Expo '70, The World's Fair in Osaka, Japan. The U.S. pavilion had the largest and lightest clean air-supported roof ever built and enthusiasts called it the most important advancement in building technology in the 1970's. Walker, 154. 134

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brings a peaceful presence to the community. Hudson Gardens (1995, Douglas G. Rockne, landscape architect, Littleton) 6115 South Santa Fe Drive, behind the Northwoods Inn on Santa Fe Drive The Hudson foundation is a private non-profit foundation that directs the $5 million estateof Evelyn and King Hudson, owners and founders of The Country Kitchen (presently The Northwoods Inn) and surrounding property. It was the Husdon's wish to "promote the cause of beautification and attendant ecological benefits. 1115 Because the 27 acres of land varies from high, dry prairie to wet areas near the South Platte River, a variety of small ecosystems will be developed throughout the 27 acres to demonstrate a wide variety of plantings from structured to residential. The setting will also include a rose garden, a waist-high fragrance garden with braille signs, a cutting garden, a specimen shade tree, background shrubs, and seasonal flower beds. Expected to draw approximately 300,000 visitors a year, the Hudson Gardens will be larger than the 22 acre 15 Denver Post, 13 September 1992: 6c. 135

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Denver Botanic Gardens. Early plans include a path connecting the gardens to the popular Arapahoe Greenway, which runs along the South Platte River from Denver to c-470. The garden will receive $300,000. a year from the Hudson Foundation to spur its growth and memberships to support the gardens will be offered. 136

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CHAPTER X ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF SHERIDAN Town (1887, incorporation 1890, 5,307 feet) Sheridan is a residential community adjacent to the southwestern city limits of Denver between Ft. Logan and Englewood and is located along the Platte River. Among the first to search for good farm land and settle there was John McBroom and his brother, Issac. John, known as the founder of Sheridan, first came to the area as a wagonmaster to survey the Platte River south of Cherry Creek. Attracted to the area, he returned in August of 1858 and filed two homestead claims. John built a utilitarian log cabin close to where the streets of Hampden and Clay (3700 s. Clay Avenue) are today, a little south of Bear Creek. He spent the fall of 1858 in the sparsely populated area, returning with supplies to build yet another economic log cabin.1 Three years after his marriage to Emma Burnett, a neighboring pioneer woman, John built a larger, more substantial dwelling, a 1 In later years George Turner, owner of Tiny Town is said to have bought this cabin, taken it apart piece by piece, labeled and hauled it to TinyTown to be used as a tourist attraction. It ended up as corral fencing and fire wood and never was reconstructed. Sheridan Centennial Celebration 1880-1990 (Sheridan: Sheridan Historical Society, 15 September 1990) 9. 137

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vernacular farm hoUse, located on a hill north of the cabin. According to local legend, the McBrooms and their only child, J. w., narrowly escaped a raging fire and recovered only one china plate. Friends and neighbors donated money and goods to rebuild again. Seeking even more permanent roots, John McBroom dug an artisan well and built a comfortable, if not safer, brick house in the same area. Issac McBroom and his Iowa born wife, Emma Brower, and daughter, Eva Josephine, arrived in the early summer of 1860, shortly after John. Settling into brother John's first cabin, Issac and John erected another side gabled hand-hewn log cabin. The logs were laid in alternating tiers, notched at the ends to fit together. The shingled roofed structure provided heat as well as cooking fire to the single room with a sizable stick and mud chimney at one of the gabled ends. 2 By 1889, the Issac McBroom family built their more permanent domestic environment, a brick home just south of his original cabin. 2 This cabin was deeded to the Arapahoe County Fairgrounds in 1959 by Kenneth Goff, long time Sheridan resident and Chronicler of the first history of this pioneer town. The cabin was later moved to the 1860's farm of the Littleton Historical Museum where it has been reconstructed. Ibid. 138

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In 1859, McBroom acquired a neighbor, Peter Magnus, an industrious pioneer known throughout the area as the "King of Swedes." Magnus purchased 160 acres on the east bank of the Platte, six miles out from Denver. He erected and ran the Harvest Queen Flour Mill, and became adept at raising sugar beets, wheat, barley, and fruit trees changing the prairie into a cash-crop operation. Furthermore, he was instrumental in acquiring land for the local school and county poor farm and hospital. By 1873, he became a participant in the process that made the pioneer settlement into a stable town and laid out the plans for Petersburg, then located along south Santa Fe Drive from Yale on the north to Belleview on the south. Petersburg would be later incorporated into the town of Sheridan. According to one Denver newspaper reporter in 1867, farmers and their lands along Petersburg and to the south were "finely cultivated and so many enterprising farmers who are improving the soil, building fences, and irrigating ditches, erecting comfortable houses, and making homes in Colorado 113 In contrast, the town of Petersburg in the 1870's consisted of a two-story log cabin and "a notorious roadhouse that thrived for nearly 60 years under one name 3 Rocky Mountain News, 30 September 1867. 139

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or another. Up the road lay a ramshackle of saloons, blacksmith shops, and livery stables, the forerunners to today's bars, motels, and gas stations.114 A large two-story log cabin was called the Wayside Inn of Petersburg and stood at the southwest corner of Santa Fe and Hampden. It was believed to be built around 1880 and erected by a one armed miner named Jensen. "This was one of the gayest spots of interest south of Denver. Whoever built the cabin knew every trick of the cabin building trade, for the structure was erected without nails and the dovetail joints of the native logs fit in perfect v's with the precision of modern carpentry.115 The Inn boasted a drop wall where gambling equipment and wealthy patrons could hide and find access to a pair of tunnels which led to the South Platte River. For ten years this was the stopping off place for Indian fighters, miners, and bull-whackers on the Santa Fe Trail. The tallest building in Petersburg, The Petersburg Hotel, was four buildings north of the Wayside Inn. Famous for its whiskey, women, and gambling, it was erected in 1889 by Pap Wyman, formerly of Cripple Creek. This three-story brick tavern had a second story wrap 4 Leonard and Noel, 284. 5 "The Wayside Inn, 11 Englewood Public Library clipping files, 1 December 1955: n.p. 140

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around veranda and towering cupola that could be seen for miles around by thirsty travelers on their way to Denver. In 1929, Colorado pioneer George R. Lechner bought the hotel and added a filling station. He owned the property until more modern buildings made their mark. Mr. Lechner comments, 11I can remember back in 1884, my uncle and I -at the time I was only nine, --were driving three prize bulls from Denver up into Park County. We herded them out south and when we came to the old log inn, my uncle decided he was thirsty, so we put the bulls in the corral, and he went inside. He did not come out for a long time, and when he finally got home, I told my grandmother about it and she bawled him out. He got into a poker game and forgot me and the bulls.116 Peter Magnes, Peter McCort, and Jacob Puff petitioned for incorporation of the Town of Sheridan on January 14, 1890, and absorbed the nearby settlements of Petersburg, Sheridan Park, Military Park, and Logantown. Both the town and its principal thoroughfare, Sheridan Boulevard are named for General Philip H. Sheridan. During its early years, Sheridan was closely associated with activities centered around Ft. Logan, a significant 6 Ibid. 141

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military post, established in 1877.7 Citizens clamoring for public transportation saw Oxford and Hampden, formerly Sheridan Avenue paved with concrete, an unheard of concept, by the military in 1931. After WW II, the city's residential areas blossomed. The population was listed at 442 in 1900 and had risen to 5,700 in 1990 (DROG figures). The South Platte River flood of 1965 devastated much of the city of Sheridan and also destroyed most of the records. The bridge over the South Platte at Hampden was washed out and also the bridge over the river at Oxford. After a period of recovery, the city began to grow again. Sheridan's police force moved from the old building at 4400 South Federal to the new Sheridan Municipal Center at 7 "The ci ti.zens of Denver and surrounding communi ties made several requests of the Army to establish a military post in the area for their protection during the early years of Denver small posts along wagon and stage routes of travel had been rendered unnecessary by the advent of the railroad In May, 1886, Senator Teller introduced a bill to authorize a post and appropriated $250,000.00 to -build it. the bill was signed by President Grover Cleveland February 17, 1887. General Sheridan arrived in the Denver area on March 20, 1887 and reviewed eleven sites in four days. He chose the area known as the Johnson Tract, about eight miles south of the city of Denver because of its water supply, the proximity of the Morrison branch of the Denver, South Park and Pacific Railroad, available space for a parade ground, artisan well possibilities, the beautiful view, and the distance from Denver and its saloons Construction of the military post was begun in July 1888 and completed in 1894. Sheridan Celebrates a Taste of the Past (Sheridan: Sheridan Historical Society, 14 September 1991) n.p. 142

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4101 South Federal in 1987. City fathers proudly showed off this new city building that housed the live-in fire department, council chambers, and offices for police and city staff. Sheridan could be called the "two square mile" city but is small-fry in comparison to its larger neighboring communi ties. 8 Its impact lies in the fact that today the city is crisscrossed by three major traffic corridors: Federal Boulevard, Hampden, and Santa Fe Drive, providing an important juncture for travel and commerce. Sheridan has one of the few remaining drive-in theaters in the Denver region, the Cinderella Twin DriveIn Theater (3400 South Platte River Drive). The major portion of Sheridan consists of residential housing, commercial stores, and industrial businesses. The oldest residential section of the city can be found along South Lowell Boulevard and South King, north of Ft. Logan. These streets still have a few early vernacular wood and brick cottage$ with hipped roofs along with Monaghan's Tavern (3889 South King) which has been in operation for over one hundred years. Industry in Sheridan ranges from the heavily industrial business such as Kaibar Industry to light 8 South Metro Denver Business Magazine, 1990: 26. 143

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business parks such as Oxford and Santa Fe Business Park, and the Hampden Business Center. Sheridan Recreation Center and Park is located next to Sheridan High School on land that was once a part of Ft. Logan. 144

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Monaghan's Tavern (c. 1893) Buildings in Sheridan 3889 South King Street During the hey-days of Ft. Logan, thirsty soldiers made their way to this corner drinking establishment, only a few yards away from the gates of the heavily populated Ft. Logan. A satellite dish now hovers over the one-story stucco covered walls of Monaghan's Tavern, one of Colorado's oldest neighborhood bars. "Its former owners, Joe and Shirley Minter of Parker, claim the bar at 3889 South King holds the oldest continuous liquor license in the state ... 119 In the early days, the tavern had a special window for "Ft. Logan take-out," and local patrons can still point out a number of bullet holes visible on the interior walls. Nothing is left of the building's original exterior except for some exposed brick on the back side of this bar/eatery. on Saturday nights country and western music drift from the make shift addition to the original building. A severe fire in 1987 caused over $50,000 in damage but did not prevent the establishment from reopening. "This has been a 9 Rocky Mountain News, 11 February 1989: 10. 145

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fixture in Sheridan forever, it seems," said Fire Chief, Mark Wallace. 10 Sheridan Municipal Center (1987, Michael Barber Architecture) 4101 South Federal Boulevard "When City officials of Sheridan, Colorado commissioned Michael Barber Architecture to design a new city hall, they hoped it would signal 'a. new spit polish era' for the small suburb. They desired a visible symbol of the economic improvements that the city had been experiencing. "11 The 27,500 square foot building houses various community services including council chambers, traffic court, administrative services, police department and the fire station. The $2.1 million structure is dissected by a diagonal link which the architect calls a pedestrian spine and lies between a park shared with the adjacent Middle School and the building's main entrance. There are two-story twin towers with pyramidal roofs. The tower facing busy Federal Boulevard contains a large clock surrounded by decorative iron work. Exterior materials of Ibid. 11 Information provided by Michael Barber Architecture, 13 January 1993. 146

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brick are matched to the nearby school and are accented by bands of lighter colored brick on the lower half of the building. Split face, smooth, and glazed concrete block are also used and rectangular stone lintels top the fixed glass windows and main entries of the building. "The image we need to project is enhanced by this building. It shows we have confidence in the community." said city administrator, Jim Curnes.12 12 Rocky Mountain News, 7 May 1987: 8. 147

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CHAPTER XI ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF STRASBURG Town (Platted 1910, 5,576 ft.) Strasburg is 35 miles east of Denver on I-70, exit 310, drive north to highway 36 (Colfax Avenue). Colfax is the dividing line between Adams and Arapahoe counties with Strasburg lying on both sides. Strasburg, originally called Comanche, was renamed in 1875 to honor John Strasburg, the section foreman in charge of building the Kansas Pacific Railroad. As early as 1870, one and two-story homestead houses and small vernacular style business buildings were built in the town, which relied heavily on the available milled lumber of the time. A sh.ortage of housing at the turn of the century caused many newcomers to Strasburg to stay in tents or shacks while activity in the town centered around the building of new homes and businesses. Historically and economically, Strasburg has always been dependent on the railroad. By 1911, a box car was set up on side rails and served as the first train depot. Freight trains stopped daily in 1914, as well as four passenger trains. Strasburg completed a new hipped roof train depot in 1917 while numerous corrals were built 148

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nearby the train station to accommodate ranchers and farmers from around Strasburg. By the late teens and early nineteen twenties there was a flurry of building activity in Strasburg. It was during this time period that the first grain elevator (c. 1916) was built in the town. It was powered by a small gasoline engine which pulled a conveyor belt that carried grain from the hopper to the railroad car where the grain was shoveled by hand into the far corners of the waiting freight car. Buildings often did "double duty" in these small towns as was the case of the Town Hall. This building was erected (c.1920) on the site of the present Teapot Cafe on the North side of Colfax and because of its design was nicknamed the 11sheepshed11 by locals. It was used as a school, a church, a shoe shop, a creamery and a residence besides its intended use as a community center. Strasburg's first drug store was named Lewark Drug and erected in 1917. Dr. Taylor the friendly druggist, dispensed prescriptions, patent medicine, veterinary supplies and made a first class soda. Dr. and Mrs. Taylor, lived in rooms at the back of the drug store, making the building both a home and a commercial enterprise under one roof. Mrs. Taylor concocted real fruit syrup for the soda fountain while 149

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giving vocal and piano lessons to the local youth of Strasburg. Native Colorado grasses by the name of Gramma, Buffalo artd Bunch provided fine grazing lands for cattle on the large ranches that developed around Strasburg as early as the 1870's. One such ranch that favored the inexpensive but labor intensive style of adobe, was the c. J. Elliott Ranch located ten miles southwest of Strasburg. This once thriving agricultural complex included a residence, barn, silo, outbuildings and a number of small cabins for boarders, particularly tuberculosis patients.1 Although the main ranch house burned in the 1970's and the remaining buildings are in non-use, one can observe the building technology used by northern New Mexican rural ranchers and farmers, in the adobe and frame barn found on the Elliott Ranch.2 The 1 "The cabins no longer exist, but a local resident remembers them as small, one room structures not more than 12 x 14 feet. The.cabins were set in a line not far from the ranch house." Cultural .Resources Survey, C.J. Elliott Ranch, colorado Historical Society Preservation Office, 5AH 22a, a July 19a2. "Tuberculosis was a prevalent disease in many eastern cities and states, so Colorado's crisp, clean, dry air was prescribed for many suffering from this ailment. Many of the people who helped develop this country had come here, expecting to die, but inst.ead found renewed health and lived good long lives." Mitchell, n. p. 2 The farm and ranch buildings of adobe found in eastern Colorado are more closely related to those distinctly American farm buildings found in the villages of northern New Mexico after 1850. These dwellings were 150

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first story of the gambrel roofed barn is of stucco covered adobe blocks, made on the site, topped by a second story of stuccoed wood frame. There is also a shed which exposes interior walls of adobe plastered with stucco. Today, Strasburg is an active community which has continued to grow and prosper to become a thriving and enterprising town. Many of the buildingserected prior to 1920 are still in use today. In 1983, there were approximately one hundred and fifty businesses and services listed in the town's directory to serve the needs of the citizens of the community. Strasburg is centered in fertile farm lands and is also supported by livestock, dry land, and irrigated farming. Many new residents are moving to Strasburg and taking advantage of usually owner built, with adobe bricks made on the site from available dirt. Modifications were made to the Colorado adobes, including the pitched roofs, the use of cement plaster or stucco on exterior walls, the removal of the corner fireplace in residences, replaced by wqod burning, electric or propane fueled heat. The primary beauty of these buildings was their simple and harmonious nature. Adobe was an excellent building material, warm in winter, copl in summer, solid and reliable. For a complete discussion of the evolution and true indigenous style of northern New Mexico adobe see Beverly Spears', American Adobe Houses of Bural New Mexico (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press 1986), and for a study of regional domestic architecture from trading posts, to bungalows in northe.astern New Mexico see Agnes a Lufkin Reeve's, From Hacienda to Bungalow: Northern New Mexico Houses. 1850-1912 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1988). 151

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Strasburg's wholesome image where there is no such thing as a stranger. 152

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Buildings in Strasburg Comanche Crossing Historical Marker (1970) This commemorative sign is located at Strasburg Park. The actual site where the spike was driven was 3,812 feet east of the depot in the town of Strasburg. This marker was erected by the Union Pacific Company in cooperation with the Comanche Crossing Historical Society. This unpretentious site on the prairie, gives little hint of the significance of the railroad history that was made there. This is where the Kansas Pacific Railroad finished laying the first continuous chain of rails from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean on August 15, 1870.3 This site was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on August 10, 1970. 3 "On August 15, 1870, the last ten and one quarter miles of track were laid by two crews, one. working from the east and one fro:in the west in a record breaking nine hours. A u.s. flag and a keg of whiskey were placed at half way point and the crew that reached it first would reap its reward. Fifteen months earlier, the golden spike ceremony had been held in Utah, to note the joining by rail of the east and the west. But the tracks joined at Promontory summit connected only Omaha and sacramento in a continuous chain. With the completion of the rails at Strasburg, it became possible, at last to board a train in New York and travel all the way to San Francisco by rail." Comanche Crossing. Centennial 1870-1970 (Strasburg: Tri-County Tribune Publishing, 1970) 10-11. 153

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Comanche Crossing Museum Complex 56060 East Colfax Ave. I-70, exit 310, drive north to highway 36 (Colfax Avenue) and drive 3 blocks north to the museum. Open June 1-August 31. This two acre tract was given to the historical society by the Anchutz Company, and is landscaped with blue spruce, cedar and native buffalo grasses. The museum complex houses six buildings on prairie acreage in addition to a wooden windmill (c. 1890) whose adjustable wooden slats resemble a basket, as well as a Union Pacific caboose. LIVING SPRINGS SCHOOL (c. 1890) The Living Springs Schoolhouse is the oldest building still standing in the area. The settlement of Living Springs was located on the Fort Morgan Cut-Off of the Smoky Hill Trail, and was a well known stage station during the 1860's. Once located near the old stage station of the same name, this vernacular one-room school was built for $750.00 by E.J. Smith a local homesteader and cabinetmaker. The white frame structure once faced west and was surrounded on three sides by a barbed wire fence. A wooden fence protected the frontage of the school while the traditional outbuildings consisted of two outhouses, a coal shed and a barn. 154

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Today you can visit the school which is wood horizontal frame, characterized by one-over-one rectangular windows and a simple gable roof. The Queen Anne style porcn shows a touch of Victorian optimism with machine turned posts and ornate curvilinear brackets. The gabled facade of the school is-decorated with wooden shingles in the fish scale pattern, popularly mass produced in the l880's.4 When the school was cloSed permanently in 1954, the building was presented to the Comanche Historical Society by the school district for restoration and moved to the Comanche Crossing Museum grounds. STRASBURG DEPOT (1917) The railroad played a significant role in the economic development of Strasburg and surrounding areas and was a boon to the cattle industry. 4 Through the years from 1891 to 1954, the 125 pupils in grades one through eight were taught by a total of forty-four teachers. The schoolhouse was given toComanche Crossing. by John and Ival Ferguson, who purchased it from a school district auction. The Living Springs School celebrated its One Hundredth Anniversary on May 26, 1991, with a program that appreciated those who attended, taught and contributed financially to the one hundred year old school It is typical of hundreds of -schoolhouses in rural America of that era. It contained twelve foot ceilings, a platform at one end and ante-rooms at the other, which contained boys' and girls' cloak rooms for lunch pails and clothing. A pot bellied stove stood in the center of the schoolr9om, along with slate blackboards and a foot pumped organ to accompany the morning exercises. Colorado Plains (Strasburg: Comanche Crossing Historical 1984) 63. 155

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Museum supporters moved the Union Pacific Railroad Depot amile and a half west of its original location. The restored one-story, wood sided rectangular depot features a hipped roof with intersecting hipped roof gable, supported by heavy open brackets in the wide overhanging eave. The slim rectangular windows are topped by a glass pattern-of multiple window panes. The only detailing on this simple country railroad depot is the decorative cresting that enhances the ridge line of the flared eaves._ CABOOSE (c. 1980) The 41 foot, 54,000 pound caboose was given to the Comanche Crossing Museum by the Union Pacific Railroad on May 23, 19.86. Upon its arrival from Oakley, Kansas it had to be hoisted by a 50 ton crane from its rails and moved to a flatbed truck. The caboose truck .was then lifted by a smaller crane and carried in a parade of railroad enthusiasts and vehicles through the town of Strasburg to the museum grounds. DYER HOMESTEAD (1910) This vernacular homestead house was once located three and one half miles southwest of Strasburg on a 160 acre tract of homestead land belonging to Leslie Dyer, who worked for the railroad. The tiny frame house was moved to the Comanche Historical Museum 156

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grounds in 1971. It is a simple rectangular, side gabled, two room space with central chimney and rectangular two-over-two double-hung windows.5 WOLF CREEK SCHOOL (1904) This is another vernacular frame schoolhouse built near Strasburg and moved to the museum grounds. The rectangular school is simple in design. The entrance features a shed roof supported with slender square supporting posts. Each side of the schoolhouse has double-hung windows in wooden casements, manufactured items widely available at the turn of the century. Wolf Creek School has been restored and is used as a classroom by the museum. OTHER MUSEUM BUILDINGS Two newer steel buildings house 5 The building of a frame homestead house was often more satisfactory to the homesteader and provided more space than .the sod house which usually had only one room. Homesteaders were often employed in a city job to make ends meet, and like many other homesteaders spent all of their available free time to make the required improvements to the land in order to receive their Fred w. Peterson describes ten different types of farm houses in his book Homes in the Heartland (Lawrence: University of Kansas Press 1992) 62-64. He describes a farmhouse similar to the Oyer Homestead as the simplest of farm residential structures. A step up from the claim shack or soddy, these one to one.;..and-one-half story gabled rectangular farmhouses were the kind of affordable structures built when circumstances permitted. Even though small, they involved the organization of spaces from one room to a. two room or more situation. They were usually centered around a central cooking or heating stove. 157

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Strasburg's finest historic collections. One building contains the first Strasburg post office with original postal patron boxes, the back bar from Doc Taylor's first drug store, a 1916 soda fountain and a 1920's beauty shop. In the second building, one will find agricultural equipment and Strasburg's first fire truck and ambulance and a host of other exhibits. WEAVER STORE ( 1907) Northwest corner of Main Street and Railroad Avenue. The Weaver store, oldest building in Strasburg, was built in 1907 by Mr. and Mrs. D. H. Weaver who established a grocery store and residence which later housed the post office.6 "If he didn't have what was wanted, he would get it Mrs. Weaver would gladly serve meals, since there was no restaurant for a time.117 The building also housed the town's first telephone switchboard, a series of switches which enabled Weaver to connect a variety of barb wire telephone lines which were nailed to fence posts. The upstairs was used as a meeting hall where elections were held, as well as dances and social occasions. 6 7 Mitchell, n.p. Ibid. 158

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At one time the false front of the building was removed and then replaced again in 1979, along with the yellow vinyl siding that now covers the exterior and resembles the original clapboard. The rectangular, twostory commercial structure now has plate glass windows that have replaced the large two-over-two windows that once flanked the centrally located doorway.8 8 The false front building was a significant commercial architectural form of small frontier buildings from 1860 and spread country wide. They were fast, easy and inexpensive to build. Town merchants built simple shed and gable roof buildings to seem important and most of all wanted the shopper to see his sign clearly. These buildings often had a semicircular cornice featuring the name of the owner or the owner of the business and the date of construction. As a town's wealth increased, the use of false fronts was no longer necessary. Walker, 142. 159

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Architects'. Contractors' and Material Dealers' Directory for the State of Colorado. Denver: Commercial Publishing Company, 1892. Built in the U.S.A.: American Buildings from Airports to Zoos. Washingon, D.C.: The Preservation Press, 1982. Colorado Business Survey: The DTC Center. Denver: Colorado National Bank, November-December 1970. Colorado Plains. Strasburg: Comanche Crossing Historical Society, 1984. The Colorful Past Lives On: Deer Trail Rodeo Centennial 1869-1969. Deer Trail: Deer Trail Historical Society, 1969. Comanche Crossing Centennial 1870-1970. Strasburg: TriCounty Tribune Publishing, 1970. Copley, John, Jr. Early Domestic Architecture of Englewood. Colorado 1864-1925. Englewood: Englewood Public Library, 1975. Dallas, Sandra. Colorado Homes. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986. Englewood; A History in the Oral Tradition: An Oral History Project 1990. Englewood: Englewood Public Library, 1990. Etter, Don D. Denver Going Modern. Denver: Graphic Impressions, 1977. First Presbyterian Church of Byers Dedication Day Directory. N.p.: n.p., 23 July 1911. 160

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Haber, Francine, Kenneth R. Fuller, and David N. Wetzel. Robert S. Roeschlaub: Architect of the Emerging West 1843-1923. Denver: Colorado Historical Society, 1988. Hicks, Dave. Englewood from the Beginning. Denver: Egan Printing, 1975. Highline Canal. Winding Through History. Denver: Denver Water Department, 1983. Keller, Carolyn. Joseph w. Bowles. 1835-1906. Unpublished paper, Littleton Historical Museum Library, 1989. Leonard, Stephen J., and Thomas J. Noel. Denver: mining camp to metropolis. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1990. Marr-, Josephine Lowell. Douglas County: A Historical Journey. Gunnison: Band B Printers, 1983. McAlester, Virginia s., and Lee McAlester. A Field Guide to American Houses. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984. McLoughlin, Dan. The Acguisition of an Adeguate Water Supply for the City of Englewood. Englewood: Englewood Public Library, 1975. McPhee, Robert. Jacgues Benois Benedict. A Leading Denver Architect of the Twenties. Unpublished paper, Littleton Historical Museum Library, 1984. McQuarie, Robert J. and c.w! Buchholtz. Littleton. Colorado: Settlement to Centennial. Littleton: Littleton Historical Museum, 1990. Mitchell, Emma. Our Side of the Mountain. N.p.: Eastern Colorado News Printer, 1968. One Hundredth Anniversary 1891-1991. Living Springs School. N.p.: n.p., May 1991. Pearce, Sarah J. A Guide to Colorado Architecture. Denver: Colorado Historical Society, 1983. Peterson, Fred W. Homes in the Heartland. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1992. 161

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Reeve, Agnesa Lufkin. From Hacienda to Bungalow: Northern New Mexico Houses 1850-1912. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1988. Richmond, Jerry. Colorado: Living and Working in the Rockies. Denver: General Communications Inc., 1986. Richmond, Jerry. Denver: America's Mile High Center of Enterprise. Woodland Hills: Windsor Publishing Inc., 1983. Sheridan Celebrates a Taste of the Past. Sheridan: Sheridan Historical Society, Sheridan Centennial Celebration 1880-1990. Sheridan: Sheridan Historical Society, 1990. Spears, Beverly. American Adobe Houses of Rural New Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1986. Upton, Dell, and John F. Vlack, eds. Common-Places. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1987. Walker_, Lester. American Shelter. Woodstock: The Overlook Press, 1981. Interviews Altenbach, Ethel. Englewood historian and resident. 11 January 1993. King,-Lloyd J. Bow Mar founder and resident. 13 January 1993. McQuarie, Robert. Director of the Littleton Historical Museum. 17 July 1990. Sternberg, Eugene o. Architect, Evergreen, Colorado. 17 October 1990. Woodcock, H. William. Landscape Architect, South Suburban Recreation District. 12 January 1993. 162

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Newspapers and Periodicals Arapahoe Gadabout 13 March 1969: 16. Colorado Exchange Journal October 1889. Colorado Livestock Record 27 September 1884. "Colorado Shingle Style." Colorado Homes and Lifestyles July/August 1991: 54-57. Denver Business Denver Post Denver Republican 16 May 1888. "Denver's Boom or Bust." Interiors November 1982: 94-95, 98-100. DTC Magazine n.d., n.p. Englewood Enterprise 11 January 1950. Englewood Herald Englewood Tribune 14 December 1907. Field and Farm 8 July 1889. Greeley Tribune 15 June 1968. Littleton Independent Littleton Times Weekly 5-11 April 1990. "The Price Goes Up Tomorrow." Colorado Business April 1989: 56-57. Rocky Mountain News South Metro Denver Business Magazine Fall 1990: 26. Western Engineer June 1964: 6-7. 163

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Other Sources Bibliographical Files. Photograph Files. Littleton Historical Museum Library. Colorado Cultural Resource Survey. Colorado Historical Society. Office of Historic Preservation. Clipping Files. Photograph Files. Bemis Public Library, Littleton, Colorado. Clipping Files. Photograph Files. Colorado Historical Society. Clipping Files. Photograph Files. Denver Public Library. Western History Collection. Clipping Files. Photograph Files. Englewood Public Library. National Register of Historic Places Files. Colorado Historical Society. Office of Historic Preservation. Publicity Department. Barker, Rinker, Seacat and Partners Architects, Denver. Publicity Department. Hoover, Berg, Desmond Architects, Denver. Publicity Department. Michael Barber Architecture, Denver. 164