Citation
From discovery to recovery

Material Information

Title:
From discovery to recovery the electronic transfer of the J.L. Walker Native American cylinder record collection
Creator:
Christensen, Lance Eugene
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
x, 49 leaves : illustrations ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sound recordings -- Conservation and restoration ( lcsh )
Cylinder recordings ( lcsh )
Oglala dance ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 48-49).
Thesis:
Recording arts
General Note:
College of Arts and Media
Statement of Responsibility:
by Lance Eugene Christensen.

Record Information

Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
166255315 ( OCLC )
ocn166255315
Classification:
LD1193.A70 2007m C47 ( lcc )

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FROM DISCOVERY TO RECOVERY: THE ELECTRONIC TRANSFER OF THE J. L. WALKER NATIVE AMERICAN CYLINDER RECORD COLLECTION by Lance Eugene Christensen B.S., University of Colorado at Denver, 1996 M.H., University of Colorado at Denver, 2000 A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Recording Arts 2007

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Lance Eugene Christensen All rights reserved.

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This thesis for the Master of Science degree by Lance Eugene Christensen has been approved by Roy A. Pritts

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Christensen, Lance Eugene (M.S., Recording Arts) From Discovery to Recovery: the Electronic Transfer of the J. L. Walker Native American Cylinder Record Collection Thesis directed by Professor Richard W. Sanders ABSTRACT Dr. James R. Walker (1849-1926) was a medical doctor and amateur ethnologist when he began studying the Oglala Lakota on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota sometime after 1896. There he cultivated a relationship many of the Native Americans on the reservation, most especially George Sword. Later, he associated with noted anthropologist Clark Wissler who commissioned Walker to record the songs and dances of the Oglala. Using a cylinder phonograph, Walker made several wax cylinder recordings of George Sword and others in 1906, 23 of which survive to the present. The history of the phonograph from its in invention in 1877 is important to understand in order to properly operate and evaluate both equipment and recordings. Also, an understanding of issues regarding their manufacture, use and other technical matters are necessary to properly transfer the recordings without damaging them.

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While transfers of these recordings have been made in thepast, all were accomplished using acoustical means on original equipment. It was decided to utilize electronic pickups to gain the best transfer of the recordings while limiting ambient noise and other difficulties associated with acoustical playback. A digital transfer of the recordings allowed for the preservation of the original material as well as providing the ability to edit and apply modem sound restoration techniques to the recordings for use by modern scholars. Richard W. Sanders

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DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis to Roy Pritts, who guided me in various phases of my recording education for over 20 years. His devotion to the educating of recording engineers and his commitment to furthering the creation of quality educational programs in audio will always be an inspiration to me. I also dedicate this to my wife, Kirsten, who originally motivated me to study recording arts and who continues to support me in all my archival and recording endeavors.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank the Colorado Historical Society and Keith Schrum, Curator of Books and Manuscripts, for giving me access to the Walker Collection and the cylinders used in this thesis. I would also like to thank Loretta Afraid-of-Bear who provided the literal translations of the phonetic Lakota written on the cylinder containers. Finally, I wish to thank Terry Ketelsen, Colorado State Archivist, for giving me the time away from work to pursue this degree and work on this project.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Figures ................................................................................... ix Tables .................................................................................... x CHAPTER 1. EDISON'S FAVORITE INVENTION .......................................... 1 2. THE WALKER CYLINDERS ................................................... 9 3. TECHNICAL CONSIDERSATIONS ......................................... 15 4. REPRODUCTION AND RECOVERY METHODOLOGY ............... 22 5. RECORDING THE CYLINDERS DIGITALLY ............................ 29 6. THE WALKER CYLINDERS-SPECIFICS ............................... 37 APPENDIX A. LITERAL TRANSLATION OF CYLINDER LABELS .................... 40 B. CONDITION AND DESCRIPTION OF CYLINDERS .................. 44 BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................................................. 48 VIII

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 Dr. James R. Walker ................................................................ 1 0 2.2 George Sword ........................................................................ 12 3.1 Edison recorder ...................................................................... 16 3.2 Edison Model C reproducer. ...................................................... 18 3.3 Two period brown wax records .................................................. 21 4.1 Edisonia reproducer with brown wax stylus attached ...................... 27 5.1 Edison Standard Phonograph in place for reproducing the cylinders during first session of transfers .................................................. 30 5.2 The author transferring one of the Walker cylinders February 23, 2007 ................................................................... 32 5.3 Detail showing the Edisonia in place while transferring Cylinder 9 on Edison Home PhonographMarch 31, 2007 ................................ 35 6.1 Cylinder 17 case with George Sword's handwritten description. Cylinder 17 is alongside ........................................................... 38 6.2 Close-up of Walker cylinder on phonograph .................................. 39 IX

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LIST OF TABLES Table 8.1 Condition and description of cylinders ......................................... 45 X

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CHAPTER 1 EDISON'S FAVORITE INVENTION "This little instrument records the utterance of the human voice, and like a faithless confidante repeats every secret confided to it whenever requested to do so. It will talk, sing, whistle, cough, sneeze, or perform any other acoustic feat. With charming impartiality it will express itself in the divine strains of a lyric goddess, or use the startling vernacular of a street Arab." -Harpers Weekly, March 30, 1978-Speaking about Edison's Phonograph.1 With the utterance of a children's nursery rhyme in a laboratory on December 4, 1877, the preservation of the human voice went from the realm of fancy to the world of fact. Thomas Alva Edison, wrapping a piece of tinfoil about a cylinder incised with grooves and setting an embossing point to the surface, created a series of indentations that at first seemed to have little meaning. But, when the embossing point was replaced with a slightly different stylus, and the cylinder was in motion, the human voice was reproduced. The phonograph was born. 1 Quoted in Read Oliver and Walter L. Welch. From Tinfoil to Stereo, 2"d ed (Indianapolis: Howard E. Sams & Co, Inc. 1976), 21. 1

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Edison's invention, while admittedly miraculous, was limited in application. Its brilliance lay in its simplicity. A steel embossing point, held in place by a spring, rested on diaphragm of thin metal, itself held in place by an India-rubber gasket. A cone focused the energy of the sound waves onto the diaphragm, causing it to vibrate sympathetically. The oscillations of the diaphragm caused the needle to incise depressions into the tinfoil.2 Then, the reproducing stylus was used in the same manner, but in reverse, causing the indentations to create vibrations in the diaphragm, which then created oscillations in the air and reproduced the original sounds. After some early marketing attempts, Edison let his talking machine languish for several years. It was not surprising that other parties became interested in Edison's invention, even as he temporarily abandoned it for his other major invention of the period, the light bulb. Rivals Chichester Bell (cousin of Alexander Graham Bell) and Charles Sumner Tainter, intrigued by the phonograph, improved Edison's invention, forcing him again to become interested in his talking machine. 2 The tinfoil used on the early phonograph was not aluminum foil, but was actually a tin-clad lead foil, much heavier and thicker than modem aluminum foil. 2

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Bell and Tainter, working through the Volta Laboratory in Washington,3 made improvements by creating a reusable wax cylinder and a floating stylus that would incise, rather than emboss the wax. The patent for the 'Graphophone' was awarded to Bell and Tainter in 1886 after several years of experimentation. This spurred Edison to make his own improvements and introduce those improvements in 1888. These improvements not only improved the reproduction of the recorded material, but also allowed the sound to be transferred to a more permanent surface.4 Now while this may seem elementary to the modern scholar, contemporary listeners considered the ability to reproduce the human voice almost magical. The recordings of the men and women who stepped forward to record for Edison's phonograph in later years reflect this magical quality. Their words reflect the idea that first captured the imagination of historians and anthropologists, the notion that the phonograph could not only preserve a sound, but could create a document for posterity. 3 The Volta Laboratory was established after Alexander Graham Bell won the Volta award from the French Academy of Science. Bell established the laboratory with the $20,000 prize for the purposes of electrical and acoustic research. Read & Welch, Ibid, 27. 4 Mary Bellis. The History of the Edison Cylinder Phonograph. Available at http://memory.loc.gov/ammern/edhtml/edcyldr.html. 3

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"I hope that my voice ... and my great show ... will reach future generations. And be heard centuries after I have joined the great. .. and as I believe ... happy majority." P.T. Barnum, 1890. "When I am no longer, even a memory, just a name. I hope my voice, brings to history, the great work, of my life." Florence Nightingale, 1890. ... For myself, I can only say that I am astonished and somewhat terrified at the results of this evening's experiment astonished at the wonderful power you have developed, and terrified at the thought that so much hideous and bad music may be put on record forever. But all the same, I think it is the most wonderful thing that I have ever experienced, and I congratulate you with all my heart on this wonderful discovery." Sir Arthur Sullivan, 1888.5 By 1889, Thomas Edison had formed the North American Phonograph Company and began issuing both commercial and recorded cylinder records. This arrangement, in cooperation with the patents of Bell and Tainter, utilized both the solid cylinders of his own invention, which were 4 % inches long, 2 Y.. inches on the outside with a slight taper to slide onto the mandrel,6 as well as the Beii/Tainter 'Graphophone' records, which were 6 inches long, 1 5116 5 Transcripts by Author. 1998. 6 John C. Fessler. "Electrical Reproduction of Acoustically Recorded Cylinders and Disks, Part 2." Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, Volume 31, No. 9. September 1983. 676. 4

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inches on the outside with wax over a solid cardboard core. 7 Within a few years, the original Graphophone design had been abandoned and all records issued from the various companies followed the Edison standard, including his 100 thread-per-square-inch format. These records were vertical reproduction much like the tinfoil phonographs, but recorded using a sapphire stylus connected to a mica or similar material diaphragm and cut, rather than incised the material below. A larger horn focused the sound into the recorder. Playback was accomplished with a glass ball (later sapphire) stylus mounted on a pivoting bar, connected to the diaphragm of the reproducer by means of a wire linkage. Most of the records after 1892 are referred to by archivists as 'brown wax' cylinders. These records are typically recorded at speeds varying from 90-144 rpm and are fragile compared to later records. In reality, they are not wax at all, but are an insoluble metallic soap composed of metal salts and fatty acids, sometimes with a small amount of paraffin or ceresin wax added. It is this sort of record that persisted into the first decade of the 201 h Century as the main media for home-recorded records.8 7 Interestingly, a 6 inch cylinder was introduced at this time which fit on some Edison machines. This became the standard for dictating cylinders, which remained in use through the 1940s. Read & Welch, 49. 8 John C. Fessler, 678. 5

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These records were manufactured both as commercial releases and blanks by the North American Phonograph Company and its affiliates through 1894, and then by the companies that survived the breakup of that corporation. These included the Columbia Phonograph Company, New Jersey Phonograph Company, Kansas Phonograph Company, Chicago Talking Machine Company, and later Edison's reformed National Phonograph Company.9 The sale of these records was further enhanced by the first reliable spring motor phonographs introduced by Columbia and then Edison in the mid-1890s. By 1902, the cylinder manufacturers had abandoned the softer wax format of the 1890s and had begun mass-producing records using a hard carbon compound (based on a metallic wax formula, called 'Gold-Moulded' by Edison). At this time the speed of the records were standardized to 160 rpm. These records were much harder than the brown wax format, which allowed for a heavier reproducer and louder playback. Additionally, these records could be produced from molds that allowed for mass reproduction much on 9 Other companies that had been part of the North American Phonograph Company included the Eastern Pennsylvania Phonograph Company, Georgia Phonograph Company, Iowa Phonograph Company, Kentucky Phonograph Company, Louisiana Phonograph Company, Michigan Phonograph Company, Missouri Phonograph Company, Montana Phonograph Company, Nebraska Phonograph Company, New England Phonograph Company, New Jersey Phonograph Company, New York Phonograph Company, Ohio Phonograph Company, Old Dominion Phonograph Company, and Texas Phonograph Company. Read and Welch, 493. 6

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the same scale as the laterally recorded disk records they competed against. Soft 'wax' records were still available for the home recording market. The development of reliable spring motors had created a home-recording industry that eventually evolved into the Ediphone/Dictaphone business dictating market. Further variations occurred in record sizing. Columbia introduced the Grand record format in 1898, featuring a 5-inch diameter record. Edison responded with its own Concert record not long after in 1899. Additionally, Columbia experimented in 1905 with the '201 h Century' format, which was a standard diameter cylinder increased to 6 inches in length and using a larger than-normal diaphragm for playback. Other sizes existed as well, particularly in the European market. The introduction of the Lambert celluloid cylinders in 1900 and the records of the Indestructible Phonograph Company of Albany in 1902 spelled the end of the wax cylinder. Edison continued issuing wax records until 1912, including the introduction of the 4-minute 'Amberol' series of records in 1908. Beginning in 1912, Edison discontinued the production of wax records and began producing the celluloid 'Blue Amberol' 4-minute record. By this time, most other companies had abandoned the vertical reproduction cylinder for 7

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the lateral and more-easily produced disk record invented by Emile Berliner in 1887. Edison discontinued all record production, including cylinders, in 1929. Cylinder records continued to be used by the Ediphone and Dictaphone companies for many years, only disappearing with the rise of recordable disk records and dictating 'belts.' The last Dictaphone cylinder machines were sold in 1947. 8

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CHAPTER2 THE WALKER CYLINDERS "When I hear the cylinders, they lead to thoughts about what songs were still alive and what songs we had lost ... They managed to survive this long and to go back to the people ... It was like a supernatural gift that had been given back to the people again." -Dennis Hastings, 1985.10 Dr. James R. Walker was born March 4, 1849 in Richview, Illinois. He served in the Union Army during the American Civil War, and then earned his M.D. at the Northwestern University School of Medicine. He began practicing medicine in 1874 and married in 1877. He was assigned to the Leech Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota in 1878 and there began his career as an Indian Service Physician. He treated a smallpox epidemic there among the Ojibway before being transferred to the Colville Indian Reservation in eastern Washington in 1893. He later moved to 10 Quoted in Erika Brady, A Spiral Way: How the Phonograph Changed Ethnography (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1999), 121. 9

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the U.S. Indian School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania and then relocated to the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota in 1896.11 Figure 2.1. Dr. James R. Walker. Image, Courtesy Colorado Historical Society, (Collection 653), All Rights Reserved. Once at Pine Ridge, Walker developed an interest in the culture and life of the Native Americans he was treating. He befriended Clark Wissler, curator of anthropology at the American Museum of Natural History, who 11 William P. Philpott, "A Guide to the Dr. James R. Walker Collection," p.6, Collection 653, Colorado Historical Society, Denver. 10

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guided him in his ethnographic pursuits. Walker also befriended many of the prominent Oglala, including Red Cloud, Thunder Bear, Little Wound, Left Heron and George Sword. It was the later who provided many of the drawings and stories that make up the Walker collection today.12 It was George Sword who encouraged Walker's work and later made it possible for Walker to be inducted into the Buffalo Society, making him a fullfledged holy man (or shaman). Sword was literate in Lakota, and between 1896 and 1910 wrote out for Walker a variety of texts. Although he could neither speak nor write in English, he wrote pages and pages in old Lakota using the phonetic forms. Walker later wrote of him, "He was a man of marked ability with a philosophical trend far beyond the average Oglala."13 Clark Wissler approached Walker in 1906 and commissioned him to make cylinder recordings of Oglala ceremonial songs. Wissler had been studying the Blackfoot and other tribes of Montana and the Dakotas, resulting in many monographs and articles.14 Indeed, the American Museum, with Wissler's urging, had sponsored many field studies examining the culture of 12 Ibid., 7. 13 "Early Study of the Dakota Nakota Lakota Language," Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Center. Available at http://www .sicc .sk.calheritage/sils/ourlanguages/lakotalhistory/early_ study .html. 14 George Peter Murdock. "Clark Wissler 18701947, "American Anthropologist, No. 50. 1948. 292-304. Available online at http://www.aaanet.org/gad!history/081 WISSLERobit.pdf. 11

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the northern plains natives. It was this sort of sponsorship that likely motivated Walker further in his research. Figure 2.2. George Sword. Image, Courtesy Colorado Historical Society, (Collection 653), All Rights Reserved. Walker made the recordings on the reservation sometime in 1906, resulting in a collection of 25 cylinders. Most of the cylinder containers contain hand-written notes by George Sword, who also announced on most of the recordings. These recordings not only contain ceremonial songs, but many relate specifically to the Sun Dance. At this point, it is not known if the 12

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records are all in the original containers, which are commercial containers with Sword's written titles affixed.15 Some of those original labels have been lost. Of the original 25 cylinders, 23 have survived to the present day. Many of the records are standard Edison blanks, varying in color from light to medium brown, while several very dark records may possibly be commercial records shaved to serve as blanks. One record is broken while another two are cracked. Also, two records exhibit signs that they were either overplayed or damaged, as there are places where the original recording is no longer intelligible and the grooves are indistinct. Overall, the quality is quite good. The voices and instruments are clear throughout and although there is some distortion in places, the balance is excellent. It seems likely that Walker was given some instruction on the production of these recordings, or else was very lucky in what he achieved. Except for what is noted above, the recordings are in excellent condition and have not been overplayed. There is no indication of mold on the records. Walker worked at the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation until his retirement in 1913. He moved to Fort Lupton, Colorado and published many papers and works, some of which are still considered the best sources of the 15 Cylinders 3, 4, 5, 18 and 20 are in Columbia boxes. All other boxes are Edison containers from 19041908. 13

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Sun Dance and the culture of the Oglala Lakota. He later moved to Wheat Ridge, Colorado, where he passed away in 1926. A collection of his papers, including the texts of George Sword and the cylinder recordings were presented to the Colorado Historic Society by his granddaughter, Emeline Hensley Hughes in 1958. She made four more deposits afterwards, comprising the bulk of the collection as it is today. This collection caught the attention of Maurice Frink, Executive Director of the Colorado Historical Society since 1954. Beginning with his retirement in 1962, he made an extensive study of these materials with the intent of publishing a book on Walker. While the book was never published, all of Frink's notes and data were donated to the Society upon his death in 1973, giving added depth to the collection. 14

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CHAPTER 3 TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS "He had procured some phonograph records from the lips of an aged Blackfoot, and by way of making conversation, enlarged on the wonderful ability of the man who had invented this marvelous apparatus. The old man would have none of this; the inventor was not a whit abler than anyone else he contended, he merely had the good fortune of having the machine, with all its details, revealed to him by a supernatural being." Robert H. Lowie, recounting a story told to him by Clark Wissler.16 While we have the recordings of Dr. Walker, we cannot be completely sure which machine he actually used. There is no documentation to indicate which machine he borrowed, what sort of horn it had or even if he used the same machine for all of the recordings. Predictably, the methodology used to make these recordings was less important than the recordings themselves, notes collection curator Keith Schrum. "I would imagine a sense of opportunity, urgency and excitement over capturing the culture would have overshadowed any thoughts of the technical aspects of the project. Those of us in the humanities are likely to focus on the human connection and all connected implications. We would 16 Quoted in Brady, 31. 15

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deal with technical merits only at such a time when required to do so, and even then, it would seem foreign to us. Perhaps it is a sort of we'll cross that bridge when we come to it mentality."17 As noted before, many of the records themselves are likely Edison blanks, based on other collector's samples, with characteristic raised spiral ridges that are less gradual than those found in brown wax Columbia records. It is likely that an Edison machine was used for the recording process, as they were more common, although it is impossible to determine which specific model may have been employed. Assuming the machine was an Edison, then the recorder was likely an Edison New Recorder, introduced in 1901 and configured for the standard 'two-minute' density of 100 grooves per inch. 18 Figure 3.1. Edison Recorder. 17 Keith Schrum, Denver, to Lance Christensen, Denver. January 25, 2007, email. Author's collection. Italics in original text. 18 The recorder designed for 4-minute (200 grooves per inch) was not introduced until after these records were made. 16

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The New Recorder has a sapphire cutter angled directly onto the mica diaphragm, with a sliding sleeve inside the tube that connected it to the recording horn. This allowed not only a greater concentration of sound, but allowed for the recorder to make even cuts on uneven or out-of-round records.19 The reproduction of these records (or any cylinder recording) requires specific equipment for accurate reproduction, even with the utilization of original equipment. A steady progression of patents and innovations dating from the formation of the North American Phonograph Company has generated an entire family of period reproducers, each designed for a specific type of record or recording. The use of the wrong reproducer could produce poor playback and irreparably damage the original recording. Early recordings, which include the early North American records, brown wax records and standard-sized blanks manufactured by Edison and Columbia can only be played on Edison Automatic, Type A or Type B reproducers or Columbia 'floating' reproducers, all of which are fairly rare. These represent the types of records available commercially from 1889 through the introduction of moulded and celluloid cylinders in 1900 and 1902. 19 Fessler, 680. 17

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Later hard wax cylinders can be played using the heavier more common Edison Model C reproducer. However, the earlier soft records and all home-recorded records can be damaged by this heavy reproducer, which was not introduced until 1904. While the use of the Model C reproducer on earlier recordings is not recommended, it will produce louder results. However, the heavier stylus will cause the record to wear faster and will ultimately damage the recording. Figure 3.2. Edison Model C Reproducer. The heavier reproducer was introduced to increase the volume on the playback of cylinders, which suffered in this regard when compared to the early lateral-cut records that used non-permanent styli. The harder records of the 'moulded' period can also be safely played with the Edison Model K or M reproducers, which had a mechanism that switched from the larger stylus utilized on two-minute recordings and the smaller stylus used on four-minute recordings. 18

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Later Wax Amberols (and other 4-minute records) require a smaller stylus to track in the grooves, which are twice as dense as the earlier twominute records. An Edison Model H or K reproducer can be used on these records, but not the later heavier reproducers designed for the later celluloid records. Much like the earlier records, the heavier reproducers will permanently damage the wax Amberols, which can be very fragile compared to the two-minute records. The hard celluloid records of Edison, Columbia and others can be played utilizing the heavier diamond stylus of the Model 020 or Diamond A, B or C reproducers. They can also be played with the earlier reproducers with no damage.21 The best reproduction is achieved with the later reproducers, however, as there is some distortion from the increased volume on the celluloid records when played on the earlier Model H or K reproducers. As might be expected, all of these reproducers generate wear on records, although not nearly as much wear as if found on lateral disks (played with replaceable steel needles). This is especially pronounced on homerecorded records, as the cutters available to the consumer were neither as heavy nor cut as deeply as those in the studios. Also, the recording 20 The Model 0 is a changeable reproducer with both a two-minute and a four-minute stylus, usable on celluloid records only. 21 Rob Lomas. "Reproducer Guide." Available at http://www.edisonshop.com/en-us/pg_l5.html. 19

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techniques used in the major studios produced louder records, which allowed also for deeper cuts in the wax. Early wax records were considered reliable for 1 00 plays before serious degradation and a need for replacement. Many wax records suffer from mold or physical deterioration caused by breakage, overplay or the use of the wrong reproducer. Specifically, many early brown wax records available on the internet or found in stores are either overplayed or have been played with the wrong reproducer, making them noisy and difficult to reproduce. Also, many celluloid records suffer from overplaying or have warped playing surfaces created by heat or breakage or the loss of the plaster or cardboard inner support. Splitting is also common on many celluloid records, both on the more fragile edges and along the full length. Many of these records shrink over time, both causing splitting and making playback more difficult. Mold is perhaps the most difficult item to deal with on early wax recordings. Molds typically grow at temperatures between 75 and 85F, while the oils from fingers and hands provide an ideal breeding ground in addition to the materials of the record itself. Additionally, the cotton batting that cushioned most cylinders in their commercial boxes is itself a breeding ground, particularly in areas that are regularly experience more than 60% 20

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humidity. Finally, the dark conditions under which most cylinders are stored is itself an aid to mold growth. The mold on cylinders, particularly brown wax records, damages the surface and the undulations of the recorded material directly. It replaces the original sound vibrations with damaged areas, which are literally etched in the groove and can greatly reduce or eliminate the intelligibility of the material. While experiments are ongoing to develop methods for mold removal, there is no cure at this time for mold-damaged records. 22 Figure 3.3. Two period brown wax records. The cylinder on the right has fairly heavy mold growth which makes it nearly unintelligible. 22 Fesler, 678. He further notes that the ideal range for storage is 50-60F, 40-50% humidity. 21

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CHAPTER4 REPRODUCTION AND RECOVERY METHODOLOGY "This is a time of increasing awareness of the importance and fragility of our recorded sound collections. It is also the era of the Internet where the public is demanding online access to more and more archival collections, including sound recordings." -Nancy J. Seeger, Library of Congress and Sara Velez, Rodgers & Hammerstein Archives of Recorded Sound-200123 The recovery of the Walker cylinders has been an ongoing project since the first deposit of the materials in the late 1950s. The collection itself does not have a cylinder phonograph for playback,24 which is understandable considering that Walker borrowed the equipment in the first place and so likely had to borrow equipment from other sources in order for him to listen (unless he had a machine himself, which is not known). This has likely helped preserve the majority of the records, as most have not been overplayed. However, it might serve to explain the two records in the 23 Nancy Seeger & Sara Velez. "ARSC Initiative Supports Sound Archivists." ARSC Journal, Volume 32, No. 2. Fall, 2001. 258. ARSC is the Association for Recorded Sound Collections. 24 Maurice Frink noted that the Society had a machine that he used for playback when he did his recordings (now on tape) in the 1960s. 22

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collection that have damage to the recorded material that is consistent with improper playback. The earliest example of an attempt to reproduce and preserve the recordings can be found in a recording made by Maurice Frink that resides in the collection.25 The 5-inch open reel tape is a duplicate, and the material on it indicates that the original recordings were likely on recordable disk records, or transcription disks.26 He offers some commentary on the recordings before the playing of each one and cites the number of each cylinder on the recording. The cylinders were played back on a phonograph likely using a small horn,27 as the start and stop of the recordings is obvious. Also, the speed on them is a little higher than normal, as the voices seem high-pitched. The quality is not very good, which is why this recording has not been used by the Society for study and has been kept mostly for the comments by Frink. Also, 25 Notes made concerning this recording in 1970 date the original recording to the period between 1962 and 1970. 26 This is based on the surface noise from the original recording source as well as the breaks in the recording consistent with multiple sides of a recording disk. Frink himself states that the recording is being made on an 'autograph,' which was likely his name for the disk recorder he was using. 27 Most Edison and Columbia machines were supplied with a standard 10 or 14-inch hom. The 14 inch hom, which has a flare at the end, is referred to by collectors as a 'Witch's Hat' hom. 23

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the tape does not have cylinders 9 through 12 recorded, which may or may not be due to the fact that the tape itself is a duplicate. The only other major recovery of the cylinders took place in the 1980s when the records were sent to the University of Indiana/Bloomington for transfer to open-reel tape. Again, a mechanical machine is heard, likely using a small horn. The speed is more regular, but there is no announcing of the cylinder numbers and the signal-to-noise ratio on the tape is not optimal. Also, the two cylinders with damaged areas are not played through, as the engineer chose to stop the machine and move the stylus to bypass these areas. This makes it difficult in some cases to tell where one record has stopped and another has been started. This tape was transferred to cassette, then later transferred to compact disk, so it is likely that some of the noise is generational loss, although the original open-reel tape has much of the same noise. One of the main reasons for deciding to undertake an electronic transfer was to try to eliminate the inherent noise of both the machine and the ambient space around the reproducing horn. Since these recordings contain drums and multiple voices, the intelligibility of the speech is often hidden by the much louder percussive sounds on the acoustic recordings. It was 24

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thought that the electronic reproduction might diminish this difference, which is often heightened by the acoustic reproduction from diaphragm to horn.28 Many processes exist for transferring these wax recordings electronically, many of which use mechanical playback through a modern phonograph cartridge. These processes can vary from cartridges mounted in tone arms to those mounted on the original machines. All utilize variations that allow for the free lateral movement needed for cylinders, which are often either warped or have uneven surfaces. Most of these processes too use a much lighter tracking weight than the original acoustic reproducers, which makes them ideal for a project like this were the original materials are very fragile. There are many variations being used by archivists to recover material from cylinder records. While there are undoubtedly more than cited here, a few notable examples helped guide this project. One of the more unique of these was developed by Glenn Sage, who operates both a sales and recovery business in Portland, Oregon, accessible on the Internet at www.tinfoil.com. He uses a modern cartridge shell mounted on an extremely long tone arm that eliminates the need to linearly track the 28 This is why many commercial recordings in the acoustic era prior to 1925 use little or no percussion as it tends to overwhelm the other instruments or voices in the recording. 25

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grooves, eliminating the need for a tracking mechanism. His machine is an Edison Gem phonograph, powered by an external electrical motor, which is controlled further by a program on his computer. His process has allowed him to do very good transfers of rare and delicate recordings from all over the world. Additionally, he offers a service where he will transfer any collector's brown wax records for free, providing a compact disk once they are transferred. 29 Another method is the use of the modern machine with the cartridge installed. While a number of custom-built machines likely exist, none is more elaborate than the Archeophone. This machine is built overseas and carries a fairly large price tagover $16,000 per unit. It is fully electronic and electrically driven and can reproduce any cylinder made; including the more unusual-sized European records, reproducing them with a Shure stylus. The most visible group using this machine is the University of California at Santa Barbara, which has created an online digital archive of over six thousand cylinders on their webpage.30 The Archeophone is also being used by the 29 Information and photographs of this setup can be found at http://www.tinfoil.com/xferpics.htm. 30 This page is located at http://www.cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/ and allows for not only cleaned up mp3 downloads but also unaltered 24bit/44.lkHz files of these recordings. 26

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Canadian Museum of Civilization and has been adapted for laser use by the Belfer Archive in Syracuse, New York.31 The method finally utilized for this project involves the use of the Edisonia reproducer, also known as the ACT or ACT/2 32 and marketed by Peter S. Liebert, Jr. and Robert T. Lomas. It contains a Stanton 500 cartridge, mounted in a brass frame that fits onto the any of the standard eye Edison machines. It uses a variety of stylus in sizes from 1 mil to 6 mil, optimized for the groove width of various records. The tracking weight of this unit is approximately 5 grams. 33 Figure 4.1. Edisonia Reproducer with brown wax stylus attached. 11 More information on the Archeophone (in English) may be found at www.archeophone.com/windex.php. n Advanced Cylinder Technology. This unit was purchase by the Author in 2005. It is not known if this unit is still available for purchase. 11 The Stanton 500 is one of the more preferred cartridges for reproducing 78rpm records. 27

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This reproducer uses standard stereo connectors to route it through a stereo preamp. The signal is then summed to reproduce the vertical aspects instead of the lateral vibrations. This signal can then be brought through a mixing board into a recorder or computer for recording and editing. There are several specialty styli that can be mounted in this unit. They vary in both size and design and are made by Expert Stylus in England and available in the United States through Nauck's Vintage Records.34 The styli that are most commonly used include: 1. Brown Wax: 6 mil doorknob sapphire 2. 'Wax' 2-Minute: 6 mil sapphire 3. 'Wax' 4-minute: 4 mil sapphire 4. Celluloid: 3.7 mil truncated diamond, conical shape.35 Other styli are available with varying thicknesses and shapes. It is often necessary with both cylinders and 78rpm records to try several styli to determine which works best for that particular project. 34 Available at www.78rpm.com. 35 Most 78rpm styli are 2.7 conical diamonds, with variations up to 3.5 for older records. Microgroove LPs use a 1 mil stylus by comparison. 28

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CHAPTER 5 RECORDING THE CYLINDERS DIGITALLY "This Invention consists in means for recording in permanent characters the sounds made by the human voice in speaking and singing, those made by musical instruments, birds, animals, or any sound whatever, and in means for reproducing those sounds at any desired time." -Thomas A. Edison's British Patent No. 1644 for "Improvements in Means for Recording Sounds, and in Reproducing such Sounds from such Record," 1878.36 The transferring of the Walker cylinders was accomplished on-site, using equipment brought in specifically for this purpose. This not only eliminated the possibility of damaging the records during travel, but also provided immediate access to the curator and resources within the Society itself. The actual transfers were done February 23 and March 31, 2007, using an Edison Standard 'B' phonograph for the first series and a slightly stronger Edison Home 'B' phonograph for the second. Both machines were freshly adjusted and lubricated, both opened during the process to allow easy 36 Quoted in Read & Welch, 280. 29

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access to the speed-adjusting mechanism. Both machines are fitted with later 2 & 4-minute conversion mechanisms which have no affect on this process. The Edisonia can be seen in place on the Edison Standard in Figure 5. 1, fitted with the 6 mil ball stylus for use on brown wax records. Experiments conducted on site confirmed that this was the best stylus for use on these records, providing the best audio reproduction. Figure 5. 1 : Edison Standard Phonograph in place for reproducing the cylinders during first session of transfers. 30

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This signal was taken through stereo RCA cables through a specially ordered preamplifier that has no RIAA equalization curve. The RIAA curve was introduced in the 1950s to compensate for the high noise and low bass response on long-play records. On LPs, the curve is used to lower bass and is on playback. Cylinder and lateral records made before 1950 will end up with increased bass and high end with other preamps. This unit bypasses that problem by utilizing a flat signal response. The flat response is also idea for archival recovery, which prefers as natural and unaltered a transfer as possible. The resulting signal was then mixed through a mixing board, boosting the signal to line level, while also allowing the twin cables to be summed to mono. This caused the lateral signals to reject and the resulting sound to be taken from the vertical vibration of the stylus. Remember, all cylinders (and Edison and Pathe disk records) are vertical reproduction, while all other 78s and modern vinyl are lateral reproduction. The Stanton cartridge is actually a stereo reproducer, even when loaded with 78rpm or other styli. Summing the signal through a simple 'Y' connection causes the opposing signals from the groove walls (which are out of phase with each other) to cancel and gives us 31

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the vertical signal we want. 37 In theory, a better signal could be derived from mixing the signal out of phase on a mixing board to better balance the signal, but the operating instructions with the Edisonia recommends a 'Y' connection for summing these signals. Figure 5.2. The author transferring one of the Walker CylindersFebruary 23, 2007. Photograph by Keith Schrum. After being sent through the mixing board, the signal was then routed to a OAT (Digital Audio Tape) recorder for storage. This encoded the audio to digital tape for later transfer to the computer using a 24 bit/44. 1 kHz profile. While some archives insist on higher rates, it was not available for this 37 Interestingly, although Edison stopped production in 1929 and Pathe did not produce vertical records after about 1920, vertical records were still produced into the 1940s as radio transcription records due to the lower noise and higher signal compared to lateral recordings. 32

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project. Indeed, while there is a good argument for the 24 bit/96kHz sample rate, there often is not enough dynamic range in these early records to either justify the cost or time for conversion.38 Once back in the studio, the DAT tape was transferred through an MAudio card into the computer (a PC platform), keeping the audio in the digital domain. The program used for all recording and final editing for this project was Sony Sound Forge 8.1, a two-track recorder/editor used by many archivists and forensic engineers.39 This is a 24bit/44.1 kHz recorder that is often used for classical recordings and allows for easy archiving and retrieval of recordings. Once the archival copy was created, the files could be examined and edited for better clarity. Diamond Cut Productions' DC6 program was a logical choice, as it has many sound reduction and forensic audio tools to 38 24 bit/96kHz recordings require more specialized recording equipment and more importantly require special playback equipment, while 24 bit/44.1 kHz recordings can be down sampled to 16 bit and played back on any standard CD player. For purposes of access, this was the best option for the Colorado Historical Society, which cannot play back specialized formats and must provide recordings to the general public which can be easily reproduced. An organization with a permanent audio archival staff might justify the added time for working with specialized sampling rates. 39 Available at http://www .sonymediasoftware.cornlproducts/soundforgefamily .asp. 33

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work with the recordings. It is also a two-track editor, and is non destructive.40 Forensic editing may prove to be unnecessary, as the recordings are actually fairly clear with only the repetitive percussive sound of the drums interrupting the intelligibility of the voices. However, the creative use of software along with editing to create a less dynamic listening environment could keep the drum sounds from having as dramatic an effect in disguising the verbal material. While forensic or restorative editing may not be necessary and the properly recovered audio may be clear enough for immediate use, it is hoped that there may be different tools to help future scholars examine these audio samples. With that in mind, the audio files from all of the materials in this project will be saved as follows: 1. Frink audio recording, taken from audiotape, edited with track breaks between the cylinders. 2. Indiana/Bloomington University recording, taken from audiotape, edited with track breaks between the cylinders. 40 Available at www.diamondcut.com. 34

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3. Archival recording, unedited, from cylinders edited with track breaks between the cylinders. A fourth restorative/forensic recording will be created later, applying both editing and forensic tools. The original cylinders will be kept in their cases until modern archival containers can be obtained. Then, the original containers will be kept separately, maintaining all of the materials in the collection. Figure 5.3. Detail showing Edisonia in place while transferring Cylinder 9 on Edison Home Phonograph March 31 2007. 35

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Not surprisingly, there is much to be done once the preservation of the records is insured. Ongoing study by scholars, comparison of the various recordings and forensic examination can now continue with the very best copies now available. In the end, the Walker cylinders will serve the purpose of historical preservation, ethnographic interpretation and provide the cultural heritage that both Walker and Sword tried to save for future generations. Perhaps Florence Nightingale said it best, when she hoped her voice would bring to history the work of her life. And perhaps the voices of those Lakota so long ago on a reservation far from Colorado can make the richness of their heritage survive far beyond their names. 36

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CHAPTERS THE WALKER CYLINDERS-SPECIFICS "Sound archives have reached a critical point in their history marked by the simultaneous rapid deterioration of unique or rare original materials, the development of expensive and powerful new digital technologies, and the consequent decline of analog formats and media." Excerpt from abstract for "A Workshop on the Preservation of Audio in the Digital Domain"-May 2, 2007.41 Transferring the Walker cylinders is just one portion of the eventual archival process. While some work has been done to study the recordings themselves, much still remains for both the recordings and the attendant written material. This future work needs to include the translation of the written material, translation of the spoken material, and the eventual interpretation of all. Preliminary work on the cylinders has yielded enough information to allow for at least a rudimentary titling of the records. Prior to this, the records 41 Presented by the Association for Sound Recording Collections (ARSC). Advertisement. 37

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have only been identified by number. As stated previously, is not possible to determine if the records are still in their original boxes. The order of the cylinders at the present time does not, interestingly, correspond with the order on the Maurice Frink recording.42 A direct comparison of this recording with the current set of recordings may aid in determining the actual order of the cylinders. Also, examination of these recordings by Lakota scholars and modem students of the Sun Dance will help determine if the recordings match the descriptions attributed to them. Figure 6.1. Cylinder 17 case with George Sword's handwritten description. Cylinder 17 is alongside. 42 In fact, Frink notes a recording he entitles "Ox Dance," which title is not repeated in the collection. 38

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The cylinders in Appendix A are listed by number with a phonetic description in the hand of George Sword. A literal translation is given parenthetically, courtesy of Loretta Afraid-of-Bear. It is important to remember that George Sword did not use a written version of Lakota but rather his writing was a phonetic approximation of the actual words. The songs are also, as indicated earlier, announced on the recordings themselves. Perhaps a better translation will be gained once scholars fluent in the language examine the recordings. This will also aid in determining if the correct records are in the correct boxes. Figure 6.2. Close-up of Walker Cylinder on Phonograph. 39

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APPENDIX A Literal Translation of Cylinder Labels43 The boxes with the cylinders contain the writings of George Sword, explaining what each song or dance meant. The Lakota language was not a written language until fairly recently. What follows is a literal word-for-word translation, with the translation indicated in parenthesis. Cylinder 1. Olowan (song) tokaheya (first) kon or qon (this always is or always was) le (this one) hanke part of) yelo (it is so).44 Cylinder 2. Wana (now) can or chan (tree) wakan (holy or sacred) atonwiya (to seek) ayinkta (to head in the direction of) canna (to do thisJ olowan (song) kin (this) le (one) ahiyaya (singing) pelo (many perform this).4 Cylinder 3. No writing except for note that indicates the cylinder in this box may not be correct. 43 Loretta Afraid-of-Bear, Chadron Nebraska. 2007. Loretta is related to Afraid-of-Bear, who was George Sword's older brother. 44 Box is marked No. 1/No. 2. 45 In the Frink recording, this box was empty and this record (unlabeled 'A') was thought to perhaps go in it. 40

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Cylinder 4. Wana (can) can or chan (tree) waken (sacred/holy) wan (he is) kaksapi (cutting down) wan (he is) el (at this time) Lowan (sings) yelo (this is so) Olowan (song) ki (this) le (one).46 Cylinder 5. Wana (can) can or chan (tree) waken (sacred/holy) kaksapi (cutting down) kta (will) Canna (to do this) wicasa (red man/male) waken (sacred or holy) wan (he is) Iowan (sings) yelo (like this) ca (so) olowan (song) kin (this one) ake (again/or for the second time) le (this) on (put on or to use again) mayelo (is making me do this). Cylinder 6. Wana (now) can or chan (tree) waken (sacred or holy) kaksapi (cut down) ekta (at the site selected) olowan (song) kin (is) le (this) on (use) wacipi (dance to) ska (white or pure) yuha (to carry or to own) Ska Yuha47 olowan (song) yelo (it is so).48 Cylinder 7. Owanka (site selected for the ceremony) onastopi (to flatten area of grasses and/or plants and to clear the space needed) wacipi (dance) olowan (song specific for this activity). Cylinder 8. Owanka (place or area selected) onasto (to flatten area grasses/plants) asni (retire or rest) piyapi (they do this) na (and) toqueyas (perform this first) wicasa (red man/male) qe ki (they are) yusyus (gathered together by the people) iwica onpe (they depend on them) lo (it is so). Cylinder 9. Owanka (place or area selected) onastopi (flattened area) kin (this) wana (now) Enakiyapi (finished/completed task) canna (they do this next) olowan (song) Kin (this) le (one2 wacipiya (pray) tankata (outside) ihinipa (coming out) polo (it is done). 9 Cylinder 10. Olowan (song) kin (this) le (one) winyan (female) na (and) wicasa (red male) ka (that one) Ya (going) ataya (meet) qon or kon (here) na (and) wacipe (are dancing) le (this one) tona (many of you) timakel (inside) yankapi (sitting) ataya (meeting). 46 Note on box states, "Imperfect, to (sic) low in parts." 47 Ska Yuha are select beloved children of the Nation/Tribe gathered together by their relatives who have only done good things in their lives. These children are sent out to seek the sacred tree to be used at Sundance. 48 Frink notes in his recording that this record is entitled the "White House Dance." 49 Note on box states, "First part weak." 41

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Cylinder 11. Olowan (song) kin (this) le (one) wiwanyank (looking at the sun) waci (dancing) kin (they are) owicawape (to paint) kte (to perform) kin (this). Otokab (in front of/to do this act first) ake (again) wicasa (red man/male) waken (sacred holy) wan (will) Olowan (sing) yelo (it is so). Cylinder 12. Olowan (song) kin (this) le (one) wicasa (red man/male) wan (he is) Iowan (singing). Ca (so) olowan (song) kin (this) le (is) on (because of) rna (me) yelo (it is so).50 Cylinder 13. Record may be mislabled.51 Wiwanyank (looking at the sun) wacipi (dance) kin (like this) tohanyan (for a short time) Enakiyapi (quitting) sni (never/not). Heyan (speaker talk) on (because of) wacipi (dance). Cylinder 14. lllegible.52 Cylinder 15. Wiwanyank (looking at the sun) wacipi (dancing) on (because) lila (many were ?????) wacipi (dancing). 53 Cylinder 16. No label on box. Cylinder 17. Wiwanyank (looking at the sun) wicipi (dance) kin (this) hunka (part of) sin (not) ayapi (an activity being performed in the same manner over and over) ca (so) olowan (song) kin (this) le (one) ahiyaya (singing) pelo (it is so).54 Cylinder 18. Wiwanyank (looking at the sun) wacipi (dance) tokahikapi (first one used) olowan (song) yelo (it is so). 50 Note inside box states "#12 is a solo." 51 The writing on the on cylinder 14 is described in these notes as the writing on what is now cylinder 13. A further note on the box itself states, "This record was in box 14 with lid 13. I changed it to match the lid. 1970." 52 Note on box states, "Imperfect." In the Frink notes, this record is described as illegible. The notes indicate that different handwriting on record states this is an 'Indian Love Song by W.B.S.,' which has is written in pen on the original Edison label. 53 Last word appears to be 'wacipi,' as viewed on the label. The translator was unsure if this was correct. Correction added by author. 54 Frink recites on his recording the words to Cylinder 17, which match those in the translation above. 42

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Cylinder 19. Wiwanyank (looking at the sun) wicipi (dance) olowan (song) winyan (women) wanji (one) nawhizi (jealous) kesh (in spite of) wicasa onyan (lost) iyaya (left) canna (so then this happens) lowanpi (people sing).5 Cylinder 20. Wiwanyank (looking at the sun) wacipi (dance) olowan (song) kahnge (crow) wicasa (man) tawa (belongs to) yelo (it is so). Cylinder 21. No label on box. Cylinder 22. Missing. Cylinder 23. No label on box, although a title was added or partially added later in pencil. "Kansu ... (plum seed game). The rest of the title is illegible. Cylinder 24. Missing. Cylinder 25. No label on box. 55 The following is hand-written in pencil on the bottom of the record: "Toke sah nahemi keksuyin kte." 43

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APPENDIX 8 Condition and Description of Cylinders All of the records are in fairly good condition, considering their age and method of storage. A few are cracked, one is fully broken and several have material damaged by removal or have damaged grooves from improper playback. None of the records have any indication of mold or other natural deterioration. Table 81 indicates each record's condition and visual appearance. 5 6 While many have the deep and sharp spiral ridges on the inside that is indicative of Edison blanks, others have very shallow or almost indistinct ridges. These are different in color and hardness, indicating that they may have been commercial records shaved for the purpose of the recordings. In much the same way as a modern oral historian might tape over a commercial cassette to capture an interview, it is possible that Walker needed to obtain further cylinders after learning the full scope of the project. 56 As of March 2007. 44

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Table 8.1. Condition and description of cylinders Cylinder Color Condition Other Number 1 Dark brown Clean, no damage Label states "No 1/No 2" Cracked full length, deep Almost no 2 Dark brown groove damage in 7-8 places. internal spiral Still playable ridge Grooves damaged for almost No label on 3 Lighter brown 151 halfrest of recording box. 57 clean Grooved in several places, Almost no 4 Almost black internal spiral plays with skips ridge No damage, low playback Almost no 5 Almost black internal spiral volume ridge 6 Lighter brown Clean, no damage 7 Lighter brown Clean, no damage 8 Lighter brown Clean, no damage Note on box 9 Lighter brown Clean, no damage states "First part weak" Almost no 10 Almost black Clean, no damage internal spiral ridge n There is no Cylinder 3 actually labeled in the collection. This record may or may not be number 3. 45

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Table 8.1 (Cont.) Cylinder Color Condition Other Number Almost no 11 Almost black Clean, no damage internal spiral ridge Almost no internal spiral 12 Almost black Clean, no damage ridge. Note inside states "#12 is a solo" Note: "This record was in 13 Lighter brown Clean, no damage box 14 with lid 13. I switched it to match the lid -1970" 14 Lighter brown Clean, no damage Note on box: "Imperfect" 15 Lighter brown Clean, no damage Broken into several pieces. 16 Lighter brown Repaired but largely No label on box unplayable58 17 Lighter brown Clean, no damage 18 Lighter brown Clean, no damage 58 Record 16 was intact when Frink made his recordings. That surviving recording has been incorporated into the present set of archival recordings. 46

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Table 8.1 (Cont.) Cylinder Color Condition Other Number Almost no internal spiral 19 Almost black Clean, no damage ridge. Has Lakota words on bottom in pencil59 Clean, no damage, but Almost no 20 Almost black played extensivelyhas internal spiral heavy wear and is soft in ridge volume 21 Lighter brown 1/3 of grooves are damaged, No label on box rest of record excellent No label on box. Penciled 23 Lighter brown Clean, no damage notation on box has Lakota word "Kansu" 25 Lighter brown Clean, no damage No label on box 59 "Toke sah nahemi keksuyin kte." 47

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Dr. James R. Walker Collection, Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO. Afraid-of-Bear, Loretta. "Literal Translation," 2007. Dr. James R. Walker Collection, Collection 653, Colorado Historical Society, Denver. Bellis, Mary. The History of the Edison Cylinder Phonograph. Available at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/edhtml/edcyldr.html. Internet. Accessed November 23, 2006. Brady, Erika. A Spiral Way: How the Phonograph Changed Ethnography. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1999. Fesler, John C. "Electrical Reproduction of Acoustically Recorded Cylinders and Disks, Part 2." Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 31, no. 9 (1983) Lomas, Robert. "Reproducer Guide." Available at http://www.edisonshop.com/en-us/pg_15.html. Internet. Accessed November 15, 2006. Murdock, George, Peter. "Clark Wissler 1870-1947, "American Anthropologist, No. 50. 1948. 292 304. Available online at http://www.aaanet.org/gad/history/081WISSLERobit.pdf. Internet. Accessed March 20, 2007. Oliver, Reed and Welch, Walter L. From Tinfoil to Stereo. 2"d ed. Indianapolis: Howard E. Sams & Co, Inc., 1976. Philpott, William P. "A Guide to the Dr. James R. Walker Collection." Collection 653, Colorado Historical Society, Denver. Seeger, Nancy, and Valez, Sara. "ARSC Initiative Supports Sound Archivists." ARSC Journal, Volume 32, No.2. Fall, 2001. 48

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Schrum, Keith, Denver, to Lance Christensen, Denver. January 25, 2007. Email. Author's collection. Unknown. "Early Study of the Dakota Nakota Lakota Language," Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Center. Available at http://www.sicc.sk.ca/heritage/sils/ourlanguages/lakota/history/early_st udy.html. 49