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Gender and second language

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Title:
Gender and second language social and academic perspectives on second grade ESL students
Creator:
Donnell, Jennifer Lynn
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xi, 244 leaves : ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
English language -- Study and teaching -- Foreign speakers -- Sex differences ( lcsh )
Sex differences in education ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 239-244).
Thesis:
Social science
General Note:
Department of Humanities and Social Sciences
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jennifer Lynn Donnell.

Record Information

Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
47103432 ( OCLC )
ocm47103432
Classification:
LD1190.L65 2000m .D66 ( lcc )

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GENDER AND SECOND LANGUAGE: SOCIAL AND ACADE:MIC PERSPECTNES ON SECOND GRADE ESL STUDENTS by Jennifer Lynn Donnell B.A., University of Colorado at Denver, 1996 M.S.S., University of Colorado at Denver, 2000 A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Science 2000

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This thesis for the Master of Social Science degree by Jennifer Lynn Donnell has been approved by Nathenson-Mejia ?/ Carol Wilcox / #/.l9 1 a& Date

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Donnell, Jennifer Lynn (M.S.S., Master of Social Science) Gender and Second Language: Social and Academic Perspectives on Second Grade ESL Students Thesis directed by Associate Professor Sally Nathenson-Mejia ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of how gender influences the rate (and level of proficiency) at which English is acquired among second grade ESL (English as a Second Language) students. The study took place at an elementary school located in southwest Denver. The target student population consisted of boys and girls who were either Vietnamese or Hispanic and whose language status was determined to be a LAS I, 2, 3, or 4 by the school's (and school district) English Language Acquisition (ELA) department. Data were collected from observations, interviews, and academic portfolios (e.g. reading, writing) and were used to look for patterns related to gender and second language (L2) learning. All participants in this study attended one of two ELA second grade classrooms and were observed during a variety of social and academic contexts. There were several factors found to be associated with gender and learning and second language and learning at the elementary level. For the. purpose of this study, I examined the two major factors which directly applied to both gender and second language acquisition for elementary students. These factors are a) iii

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psychological and b) sociocultural. Psychological factors that emerged were: language shock, ethnic identity through language, and self-esteem. Sociocultural factors included socialized gender roles, gender and play, and classroom culture. Additionally, case studies were conducted on four second graders. A qualitative analysis conducted on the four students revealed the following factors influenced by gender and L2 attainment: personal and academic background, reading, writing, language and identity, and gender and identity. A case study approach was employed to allow for a more detailed examination as to what role gender plays in L2 acquisition and how it influences each student's level of linguistic, social, and academic competence. Future research should examine children/students at various ages, grade levels, and socioeconomic backgrounds in order to evaluate similarities and differences related to gender and L2 learning. Investigations should also evaluate the effectiveness of current elementary ESL programs in order to ensure the needs of second language learners are being met. This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I recommend its publication. iv

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DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis first and foremost to my parents for their unconditional love, support, and advice throughout my entire academic career. I am forever grateful to you both for instilling in me the importance of life-long learning. I would also like to dedicate this to all of the children who participated in this study. Your honesty, spirited curiosity, and willingness to share personal experiences has helped me to become a better learner and educator. Thank you.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank Sally, Candan, Carol, and Myra for their support and knowledgeable input during the writing of this thesis. Their guidance and understanding over the past 6 months has been greatly appreciated. It has been a privilege working with each of you. I would also like to thank my sister, Cynthia for her infinite patience and understanding throughout my entire graduate experience. My thanks to Pam, a true friend whose silent and vocal support helped get me through some long nights of writing. Finally, I would like to thank the two second grade teachers, principal, and school district for their involvement in this research study. Without their support and approval, this thesis could not have been written.

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CONTENTS Tables .......................................................................................................... xi CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................. 1 Statement of the Problem ................................................................. 2 Purpose of the Study ....................................................................... 3 2. LI'TERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................ 5 Gender and Education ...................................................................... 6 Gender and the Second Language Learner ...................................... 1 0 The Language Learner ..................................................................... 12 In the Classroom: Setting the Stage for ESL Students ................... 19 3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS ................................................................... 24 4. METHODOLOGY ............................................................................... 27 Focus of Study ............................................................................... 27 Method ........................................................................................... 29 Sample ....................................................................................... 29 Procedure ................................................................................... 32 Measures ........................................................................................ 33 Observations ............................................................................. 33 Interviews .................................................................................. 34 vii

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Case Studies ............................................................................... 35 5. RESULTS: GROUP FINDINGS ......................................................... 36 Psychological Factors on Gender and L2 Learning ....................... .36 Language Shock .......................................................................... 3 7 Ethnic Identity/Concept of Self through Language .................... 39 Self-Esteem ................................................................................. 43 Socio-Cultural Factors on Gender and L2 Learning ...................... .46 Socialized Gender Roles ............................................................. 47 Gender and Play ......................................................................... 53 Classroom Culture ...................................................................... 56 6. RESULTS: FOUR CASE STUDIES ................................................... 62 Duc ................................................................................................. 62 Background: Personal ................................................................ 63 Background: Acadenlic .............................................................. 64 Classroom Observations ............................................................ 65 Language and Identity ................................................................ 71 Gender and Identity ................................................................... 74 Discussion .................................................................................. 76 Jose ................................................................................................. 77 Background: Personal ............................................................... 77 Background: Acadenlic ............................................................. 78 Classroom Observation ............................................................. 79 viii

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Language and Identity ............................................................... 82 Gender and Identity .................................................................. 84 Discussion ................................................................................. 87 Lanl ................................................................................................. 88 Background: Personal. .............................................................. 88 Background: Academic ............................................................. 89 Classroom Observations ........................................................... 90 Language and Identity ............................................................... 95 Gender and Identity .................................................................. 98 Discussion ............................................................................... 1 01 Shelley .......................................................................................... 1 02 Background: Personal ............................................................ 1 02 Background: Academic .......................................................... 1 03 Classroom Observations ........................................................ 1 04 Language and Identity ............................................................ 1 07 Gender and Identity ............................................................... 11 0 Discussion .............................................................................. 113 7. CONCLUSION ................................................................................... 115 Question 1 .................................................................................... 116 Psychological Factors ............................................................. 116 Sociocultural Factors .............................................................. 120 Question 2 .................................................................................... 123 ix

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Question 3 .................................................................................... 127 Case Study Analysis: The Four Students ............................. .l27 Limitations to the Study .............................................................. 134 Suggestions for Future Study ....................................................... 137 APPENDIX A. INTERVIEW GUIDELINE ............................................................... 139 B. CONSENT/ASSENT FORMS .......................................................... 145 Parent Consent for Study ............................................................. 145 Child Assent for Study ................................................................ 155 Parent Consent for Interview ....................................................... 161 Child Assent for Interview ........................................................... 166 C. TRANSCRIBED INTERVIEWS ....................................................... 170 Duc ............................................................................................... 170 Jose ............................................................................................... 186 l...atn ................................................................................................. 198 Shelley .......................................................................................... 216 D. SCHOOL/ESL INFORMATION ...................................................... 229 Definition of LAS Scores ............................................................. 230 Overview of English Language Acquisition Program ................... 231 Teacher and Home Language Questionnaires ............................... 236 Teacher Observation Form for ESL Students .............................. 238 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................... 239 X

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TABLES 4.1 Breakdown ofESL Students by Ethnicity and ELP .......................... .31 5.1 Number ofNon-ESL and ESL Boys and Girls Participating During Group Discussion ................................................................... 50 7.1 ITBS and LAS Scores for 1999-2000 ............................................... 126 7.2 Student Perceptions About Reading, Writing, and Being a Good Student. .................................................................................. 129 xi

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The United has seen its immigrant population steadily climb since the 1960's with the passing of the Immigration Act of 1965 (Hao & Bonstead-Bruns, 1998). Currently, the majority of immigrant families entering into the U.S. are predominantly of Hispanic and Asian origin. As a result of this growth, the nation is also experiencing a rise in the number of Hispanic and Asian (especially Vietnamese) immigrant youth or children of immigrant parents attending its elementary and secondary schools (Rong & Grant, 1992; Hao & Bonstead-Bruns, 1998). The influx of immigrants or children of immigrant parents has required U.S. classrooms to adopt bilingual programs that provide these students with the materials and instruction they need in order to learn effectively. Despite efforts made to meet the needs of second language learners, educational progress between these two ethnic populations in comparison to White, English speaking students is low and varied (Brandon, 1991). Factors which may contribute to the poor and unequal academic achievement ofHispanic and Vietnamese students are: low socioeconomic status, culture (e.g. host culture of the social environment and of the classroom), the process of language acquisition, and gender. While several studies have shown the causal relationship of low socioeconomic status and culture to a student's measured academic achievement, 1

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little, if any, existing research explores how gender impacts second language learning. Therefore, the focus of this qualitative research study is to observe boys and girls who are acquiring English as their second language. This study looks for evidence that gender and second language learning impacts a second language learner's ability to succeed academically at the elementary level. Statement of the Problem How does gender influence a student's ability to acquire a second language? In turn, how does this impact his/her level of academic achievement? For students whose native language (and culture) is something other than English, school can be socially and academically challenging. In many U.S. classrooms non-English speaking children are required to learn English as quickly as possible. The educational system in America assesses academic proficiency through standardized tests, daily classroom assignments, and learned social skills (e.g. communicative competency)--most of which are conducted in English. However, for the L2leamer, this presents a rather daunting task. While these students may have the skills necessary to perform academically, their limited communicative competency in English prevents them from being able to successfully demonstrate their academic skills effectively. Complicating matters, several studies have shown that gender influences a student's level of academic proficiency--especially when the student is a second language learner (see Miller, 1993; McCracken & Appleby, 1992; Sadker, Sadker, & Long, 1989; Park, 1997). Generally, boys and girls tend to gather, sort, 2

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and process information differently. Boys process and report information in competitive and formulaic ways while girls need to make more personal connections to what they are learning. These cognitive and linguistic processes also apply for boys and girls who are L2 learners but it is their level of English proficiency that ultimately determines (and complicates) how able they are to process information both inside and outside the classroom. Therefore, the need to research how gender effects a second language Ieamer' s academic progress is important in order to develop stronger educational programs that support the L2 learner both linguistically and academically. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to better understand the degree to which gender influences L2 acquisition and academic performance. Observations initially looked at the larger target group of eleven ESL students in order to identify which psychological and sociocultural factors influenced gender and L2 learning the most. From this, four students were selected for case studies in order to investigate, qualitatively, how gender and second language learning are related within social and academic contexts. The study also looked for similarities and differences among the four students in order to gain insight into how gender situates the L2 learner socially, culturally, and academically. The present study observed students who were either Hispanic or 3

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Vietnamese and who attended the second grade at Johnson Elementary school."' All of the students included in this study were learning English as a second language, had been specifically assigned to an English Language Acquisition (ELA) classroom, and may or may not have attended a special ESL pull-out program on a daily basis. *Pseudonyms have been used for all students, teachers, school, and school district 4

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CHAPTER2 LITERATURE REVIEW Learning is not only a cognitive process but a social one as well. Several models for language learning such as Holdaway's (1979) Developmental Model for Language Learning (Routman, 1994) and Cochrane, Cochrane, Scalena, and Buchanan's (1984) six step model ofleaming suggest that children actively engage in learning (more specifically language learning) through demonstration, participation, and feedback (Freeman & Freeman, 1994). This is often a difficult process for second language (L2) learners because they receive the demonstrations and feedback in a language and culture that is foreign to them--in English. Complicating matters, academic performance and success in U.S. classrooms is oftentimes determined and measured by how quickly these students are able to learn English. However, when the host language is the only language being spoken (demonstrated) and all lessons are instructed in this dominant language, second language learners find meaningful (and useful) participation and feedback a rather difficult task. This is largely due to the fact that learning and academic performance come from socializing (communicating and interacting) with fainily members, teachers, and peers. Based on previous research conducted by Gee (1992), Freeman and Freeman (1994) agree that for learning to take place students must enter into Discourses (Gee emphasizes with a capital): 5

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Discourses in a society are 'owned and operated' by a particular group of people who are accepted as members and who play certain roles. Stu dents ... may be part of different discourse groups--the most important of which is probably their peers--and their behavior, speech, and values are determined by that group (p. 53). The one way students are permitted membership is through assimilation to the dominant or widely accepted peer group. This presents a great challenge to second language learners (or ESL) since they do not share a common language with the dominant group. Furthermore, without socialization and membership, robust reseru::-ch findings suggest that students are more likely to do poorly in their studies and are at greater risk of dropping out of school (Burleson & Samter, 1992; see also Baker & Siryk, 1980; Kohn, 1977). Several cultural discontinuity models support and expand on this by proposing how "language, cultural, and social interactional conflicts between home and school disadvantage immigrant youth, particularly recent immigrants (Carter and Segura, 1979; Gumperz, 1981; Perlmann, 1988; Trueba, 1987" (Rong & Grant, 1992, p. 626). Thus, students of various ethnic backgrounds will also have varied learning styles and varied levels of expected academic achievement most notably due to their differences in culture (Park, 1997). Gender and Education In order to understand how gender influences learning, it is first important to discuss how people, in general, process information that is situated within a social context. One theoretical perspective, social cognition, contends that an individual's thought processes or schema must be organized into categories in order 6

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to be able to store and retrieve the abundance of social information gathered. According to Howard and Hollander (1997), "social cognition describes the elements of thought and how those elements come into play as people process the rich array of social information they encounter daily" (p. 68). In most cases, these cognitive categories consist of social categories individuals define through their own values, beliefs, and attitudes about the world around them. One social schema is gender and through these organized categories, individuals prescribe certain traits (e.g. race, social status, intelligence) towards men and women from what they have experienced in their own lives. More specifically, in the classroom, students are continually bombarded with socially constructed categories (gender, race, "good student vs. bad student") of their peers, their teachers, and themselves. Consequently, through these daily demonstrations, children are cognitively socialized to construct and establish various behaviors, attitudes, and even abilities towards a particular gender role. Additionally, the issue over gender roles and the impact they have over student perceptions and performance has long been debated. Educators and researchers alike have taken issue with gender and learning in terms of how it situates the learner inside (and outside) the classroom. Gender is a socially constructed ideology that ties individuals to specific cultural, political, and economic histories. Britzman (1993) states, gender is one of the central ways individwUS are recognized, distinguished, categorized, and experienced. Teachers and students enter classrooms with gendered identities and with their own deep convictions about how gender 7

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should be understood, lived, and recognized (p. 28; see also Britzman, 1992, 1988). Clearly, the perceptions and definitions students have with regards to gender can influence how they behave socially and academically within an educational setting. Socially, children repeatedly encounter and express stereotypical notions about what boys and girls are like (e.g. appearance) and how they are supposed to act. The classroom further extends on these categoriesflabels by representing boys and girls in a newly gendered identity--that of the academic learner. Citing well-known research conducted by Sadker and Sadker (1982, 1985, 1986) and the Sadkers with Susan Klein (1991), Miller (1993) contends that elementary school teachers give more attention to boys during instruction and challenge boys more academically than girls (p. 49). Additionally, Miller argues that these biased gender pedagogies are "complicated by racial and ethnic backgrounds, where often both minority males and females interact less with teachers than do majority males and females (Brophy and Good, 1974)" (1993, p. 49). McCracken and Appleby (1992) support research conducted on and school performance by Sadker and Sadker ( 1986), Klein (1985), Gilligan, Lyons, and Hanmer (1989), and Stake (1994) as the studies suggest boys tend to graduate with higher self-esteem than do girls and when they receive low grades, boys attribute it to "forces beyond their control" while girls "take personal responsibility" for their low grades (p. 2). Sadker, Sadker, and Long (1989) also list how gender influences academic performance in school: Girls start out ahead ofboys in speaking, reading, and counting. In the early grades, their academic performance is equal to that of boys in math 8

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and science. However, as they progress through school, their achieve ment test scores show significant decline. The scores of boys ... continue to rise ... reach and surpass those of their female counterparts (p. 114). Sadker, Sadker, and Long also state that girls are the only group in our society that start out ahead of boys at school yet finish behind. Also, boys tend to stand out more in classrooms due to negative behavior and are identified more often as having learning disabilities than are girls. Girls appear to remain silent and participate less than boys which can create problems later on due to lack of self-reliance and independence (p. 115). For further descriptive data on gender differences and discussion of attribution errors, refer to E.T. Higgins and S.L. Bryant (1982), L. Ross (1977), and K.H. Small and J. Peterson (1981). A great deal of classroom research also suggests that boys and girls gather, sort, and process information differently. ht many U.S. classrooms, there is a certain well-established pedagogy that takes place. Oftentimes, instructional materials and teacher-student interactions cater to a right or wrong, short answer response which fails to allow students (namely girls) to make personal, learner-oriented connections to what is being taught to them. Cognitively and linguistically, girls have more of a need to make personal connections to what they are learning. ht contrast, boys have a tendency to report information/knowledge in a rather formulaic and competitive manner (McCracken and Appleby, 1992). Goal and task oriented learning (more closely associated with how boys learn) is well received and often promoted in most U.S. classrooms. However, this particular learning envirorunent is not productive for most young girls. Past research suggests that girls need to be able to make 9

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connections to learning through conversation, yet most schools are "organized to produce efficient, silent, separate knowers ... [causing students] to doubt their own worth of their participation in class" (McCracken and Appleby, 1992, p. 3; see also Gilligan, Lyons, and Hanmer, 1989; Tannen, 1990). When the findings of such studies mentioned above are applied towards those who are second language (L2) learners, then the notion of gender in relation to learning becomes much more complex. Gender and the Second Language Learner Current research (though limited) indicates that because gender is directly related to socially learned behavior, it may impact the level of educational achievement among second language students. Barrie Thorne (1993) concludes that race, ethnicity, age, and social class all greatly influence how gender roles are determined and defmed for the individual. Her observations show that in lunchrooms and on playgrounds, students were typically grouped (by choice) homogeneously by gender and sometimes by race and/or ethnicity (Thorne, 1993). Brayfield, Adler, and Zablotsky (1990) also contend that social class, race, and gender differences are all related to a student's level of educational achievement. More specifically, the various social characteristics (both ascribed and achieved) minority students display within a school environment may ultimately influence their academic performance. Brayfield, Adler, and Zablotsky suggest that: teacher expectations lead to differential treatment of students .... teachers 10

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in all levels of education are more likely to encourage boys to interrupt, analyze, and work independently than girls (Sadker and Sadker 1985) .... lower class students, minorities, and girls tend to be channeled into voca tional or general 'tracks,' which steer them away from the skills, know ledge, or cultural content. .. (p. 363). Clearly, gender roles are influenced greatly within the context of academic settings. Students, for instance, have experiences with perceived gender roles through their interactions with teachers and other students and also through their participation in daily literacy activities. A student's oral and written interaction with the social and textual world may contribute to how they are socialized into conventional gender roles as well as the limitations imposed by these roles (Solsken, 1993, p. 122). If the student is a second language learner, then the context in which these oral and written interactions are to take place is severely limited. Quite often, ESL students become silenced and withdrawn from classroom activities because they are unable to fluently participate in an English-dependent environment. These situations are worsened for ESL girls because they are unable to make meaningful, personal connections to classroom activities in order to understand what it is they need to be learning. Solsken explains further how it is not so much a student becoming socialized into a particular gender role (fulfilling role expectations), but rather a process of "individuals negotiating the tensions created by a set of contradictions inherent in existing social relations ... .in different ways" (p. 123). Thus, as a student's gendered identity is negotiated through the context of an academic setting, so too are a set of values and beliefs (a behavior) that will ultimately influence how they perform as a student. 11

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In applying gender and educational attainment more specifically towards second language learners, further studies suggest that there are gender differences in learning styles among Mexican and White elementary school children. Park (1997) refers to a study conducted by Dunn, Griggs, and Price (1993) who found, "Mexican American children were significantly more peer-oriented than were students in general and ... female Mexican American children were more peer-oriented than the boys" (p. 70). Beal's (1994) research of the development of gender roles suggests that boys are more assertive and independent than girls. These studies not only suggest that peer orientation and socialization are influenced by gender but they also indicate how gender-related issues can be attributed to cultural discontinuity. The Language Learner Language learning is a complex process that requires multiple cognitive and social operations to take place simultaneously. Learning a second language is heavily influenced by the speaker's native language and experiences (prior knowledge) that give meaning to the words being spoken. Language is also affected by the social context (for work, for school) within which acquiring the second language is desired and/or demanded. While there are several approaches towards language acquisition theory, the ones included in the following section appear to be most closely associated to gender and second language. In order to first understand how the learner (in general) learns, it is important to understand the variables that play directly into learning. In their studies conducted on learners, Gardner and Macintyre (1992, 1993) found several 12

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characteristics involved in the learning process. They suggest that there are two groups ofleamer traits that all individuals experience: 1) cognitive and 2) affective. These traits consist of a variety of factors that influence the individual during the learning process and ultimately second language learning achievement. Under the canopy of cognitive traits, Gardner and Macintyre (1992) report that there are three factors: a) intelligence, b) language aptitude, and c) language learning strategies (p. 211, 213-217). In examining how these factors impact learning, Mitchell and Myles (1998) apply second language (L2) learning to each one. First, intelligence plays a large role in learning because most learners with above average levels in academic performance and achievement tend to do better when acquiring a second language. A second factor, language aptitude, looks at various language skills (examined via tests such as the Modem Language Aptitude Test or :MLA T) such as phonetic coding \ ability, grammatical sensitivity, memory abilities, and inductive language learning ability (Mitchell and Myles, 1998). Examiners state that the score from language tests such as the MLAT, correlate to L2 achievement. Acquiring such skills will in tum, increase the likelihood of successful L2 acquisition. The third and final cognitive factor related to Gardner and Macintyre's (1992) theory on language and Mitchell and Myles' (1998) application of it towards L2 learning, is language learning strategies. Though there is little empirical evidence to support any connection between language learning strategies and successful acquisition, researchers are studying learners in academic settings in order to fmd certain learning patterns/ strategies that are associated with increased L2 achievement. 13

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Factors that are associated with Gardner and Macintyre's (1993) affective traits (similar to Krashen's Affective Filter, 1981) on learning include: a) language attitudes, b) motivation, and c) language anxiety (p. 2). First, language attitudes have the power to control a learner's access to language acquisition. The attitudes the learner may have about the host or dominant language and the social and academic context in which the language is learned (desired or forced) may impact the rate at which the L2 is learned. Second, motivation has a valuable role in learning and language acquisition. Students (i.e. L2) must have a want or need to achieve a second language and must be able to fmd the experience meaningful in order for language learning to be a success. The fmal affective factor is concerned with language anxiety and how an anxious or excited language learner is less likely to speak the second language, communicate with others, and if speaking the language is viewed negatively, the L2 learner may become withdrawn (Mitchell and Myles, 1998). Other researchers such as Burleson and Samter (1992) suggest that ''there is ... a clear link between oral communication behaviors [negative and positive] relevant in the classroom context and academic performance" (p. 156). A second theoretical perspective/language model that is applicable to second language learning is Schumann's Acculturation Model (1978). Although he does not explicitly discuss language learning as a cognitive process, his approach is related to culture and language learning. In his analysis, Schumann argues that second language acquisition is directly the result of the environment influencing the learner. In relation to Gardner and Macintyre's (1992, 1993) and Mitchell and Myles' (1998) 14

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association of the L2learner's language anxiety and attitudes towards the target language, Schumann (1978) suggests that many L2learners become socially and psychologically disassociated from the host speaker and language. He further extends on this philosophy by attributing several factors directly associated to social distance: social dominance, enclosure, cohesiveness, size, congruence, assimilation, attitudes, and intended length of residence (p.l 0, 77). The greater these factors weigh into a L2 learner's social distance, the greater the chance for limited language acquisition and proficiency. Many second language learners learn English not because they want to but because their environment promotes the need to become proficient in the host language in order to succeed. Therefore, if a learner knows they will need to use the new language on a daily basis, there is more motivation to learn English. On the other hand, if the learner is, for example, an exchange student visiting here for six months, then the motivation to learn a new language may not be as significant nor as valued. The second distancing Schumann discusses is psychological. Freeman and Freeman (1994}, in applying Schumann's theory towards the study of second language learners, explore the notion of psychological distance by stating: A person undergoing culture shock, for example, would experience psychological distance, whereas someone with high motivation to learn the target language would not be so likely to suffer from it .... [and] according to Schumann, determine the progress of a learner's second language acquisition (p. 83). Both social and psychological distancing are clearly interrelated. lfthe L2learner feels socially/culturally dominated, has a negative attitude towards the dominant 15

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culture and language, and feels isolated within the context oflearning the new language, then psychologically the student may become withdrawn and refuse to interact with anyone associated with the dominant language and culture. Schumann also cites research from Smith (1972) who states that language has three functions that are directly related to social and psychological distancing: 1. Communicative sending/receiving of messages. 2. Integrative when the language marks the speaker as a member of a particular social group. 3. Expressivethrough language, the speaker becomes a valued member of that social group (p. 76). These three functions will ultimately determine the speaker's ability to assimilate into the dominant culture. Moreover, in many academic and social experiences, these functions of language are not widely experienced among most L2 learners. While L2 learners may be able to communicate with their peers and teachers within a short period of time (at a certain level), becoming a valued member in the classroom (and not stigmatized as a "struggling ESL student") will take much longer. Outside of the academic setting, the L2 learner may fmd becoming a member of other social groups rather difficult. One final theory that is applicable to the students discussed in the following study is K.rashen's Monitor Model (1981). K.rashen states that when students undergo the initial stages of language learning, they need to be able to understand/make meaning from the messages being communicated to them. More importantly, K.rashen argues that students do not have to be able to communicate (orally) back what it is they have learned--to show they have learned it. While 16

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there are five hypotheses attached to Krashen' s model, there are two that are most directly related to the subject matter of thls particular study and will be the only ones discussed: 1) Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis and 2) Input Hypothesis (1981, p. 19-22, 125-30). Another hypothesis Krashen discusses, the Affective Filter Hypothesis, though applicable, is very similar to Gardner and Macintyre's (1992, 1993) social factor oflanguage anxiety and therefore will have no further discussion. Returning to the two hypotheses that need to be mentioned above, Krashen's first hypothesis, Acquisition-Learning, states that individuals acquire and use language for a variety of meaningful purposes. In contrast, Freeman and Freeman (1994) explain: [Krashen states] learning is a conscious process in whlch we focus on various aspects of the language itself. It is what generally occurs in classrooms when teachers divide language up into chunks, ... and provide students with feedback to indicate how well they have mastered the ... language (p. 87). Krashen debates the position that a chlld's level of acquired language be measured only through grammatical and/or phonetic contexts. The language learner needs to be able to apply the language they are learning to a variety of social contexts and get meaningful feedback in response to the new language being used. He also argues that most of an individual's language development is acquired, not learned, through meaningful interactions with the world. Freeman and Freeman (1994) extend on this position by stating, "second language classrooms can be places for acquisition, but more often they are arenas for learning" (p. 87). The second hypothesis under Krashen's Monitor Model is the Input 17

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Hypothesis. It is not only important that language learners receive messages they understand, but Krashen ( 1981) states that they must be slightly above the students level of ability. Krashen uses a scale in order to measure the level of input during language learning (p. 126-27). Ani+ 1 represents where ideally, the learner receives messages just beyond his/her ability. At this point on the scale, the student is able to input information via language that is new and meaningful yet at the same time challenging for the Ieamer. An i + 0 suggests that no language acquisition is taking place because the input being received is information that has previously been learned and is therefore not meaningful to the learner during the acquisition process. Finally, an i + 10 is a measured level where the intended message (input) is far beyond the Ieamer's current level of comprehension. Therefore, it is vital for the L2 learner to remain in a social/academic setting that promotes language acquisition within the student's zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978). Vygotsky defines the Zone of Proximal Development as: The distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers (p. 86). Clearly, the most common theme running through the theories/models discussed above consists of placing the learner in a social and academic environment that promotes meaningful, positive, and challenging language development. 18

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In the Classroom: Setting the Stage for ESL Students Children develop cognitive awareness through social interactions. The primary medium through which cognitive processes take place is via oral and written language inside the classroom and at home. Johnson (1995) discusses how children develop ways of communicating in different social groups (p. 56-59). Several ethnographic studies conducted on students' linguistic and cultural competencies suggest that children first learn to act in certain ways (acceptable or unacceptable) through members in their primary social group (e.g. mother). Outside of the primary group are various secondary social groups (e.g. school, church, playground, daycare) in which children must also learn how to behave and successfully communicate. Johnson claims that interactions within secondary groups require a more decontextualized language and less shared background knowledge (p. 57). Moreover, she states that L2 learners living within the dominant culture experience secondary groups less frequently: In the United States members of second language groups, such as Puerto Ricans, Mexican-Americans, Koreans, or Chinese, may not seek out and/ or participate in social institutions within the middle-class Anglo American culture. Less exposure to secondary social groups within the dominant culture means fewer opportunities for second language students to acquire the range of interactional competencies necessary to participate successfully in that culture (p. 57). Furthermore, Johnson argues that because children are socialized to behave in certain ways, L2 learners may be confronted with an antagonistic environment (i.e. the classroom in the dominant culture) that may want to challenge or abolish their 19

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primary (accepted in their native culture) learned ways of communicating. Other researchers such as Flores, Cousin, and Diaz (1991) extend on Johnson's argument by stating: Vygotsky postulates that since cognition is a social process, individuals become proficient learners by engaging in social interactions and experiences .... Since knowledge is socially constructed, individuals must be exposed to demonstrations by more proficient learners--both peers and adults--to understand ... (p. 3 71 ). However, the social interactions and experiences second language learners used to develop cognitive awareness are from a social and linguistic hegemonic environment that supports the dominant culture and language. Furthermore, social categories and labels will be determined by adults and peers within the classroom and internalized by those who have a minority status. Shelia Shannon (1995a) discusses the ramifications of such an ideology through Eriksen, "Being perceived and treated as inferior can cause and internalization of those perceptions, a belief that they are true and natural, along with an accompanying sense of self-contempt (Eriksen, 1992)" (p. 183). Once these perceptions of inferiority are internalized for the second language learner, his/her sense of reality and identity within the social world are modified and redefined to fit the demands of the host language and culture. Moreover, language tremendously influences how people shape their lives and how their perceptions of identity and reality are constructed. Oftentimes the dominant culture mediates for second language learners what their identity and sense of self is through the use of categories that determine and set the standards (norms) of academic ability and success. Standardized tests are often used as a 20

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measuring tool for academic ability or competency and they require the student to demonstrate proficiency in reading, writing, and arithmetic. Unfortunately, the majority of these tests are written with the English Only ideology in mind and so when ESL (English as a Second Language) students fail, their failure is deceptively measured and interpreted in terms of academic ability instead ofEnglish language proficiency. Mercado and Romero (1993) suggest most standardized assessments of bilingual students are skewed and misleading because there are several influencing factors that must be taken into account. Such factors are: a) the student's prior exposure to English, b) the length and level of schooling in their native language, c) socioeconomic status in the student's native country and the U.S., and d) their level of literacy in their native language (p. 145; see also Ogbu & Matute-Bianchi, 1986). Quite often when inunigrant children enter U.S. classrooms for the first time they arrive with little if any reading and writing skills, have had minimum, inconsistent exposure to instruction, and some come from very unstable, low economic living situations which increases the tendency for high mobility. Several studies on classroom culture propose that second language students are never given the full opportunity to learn in "regular" educational environments (e.g. the classroom) because the host language and culture is responsible for defining and creating the labels and categories that classify these students as "below the norm" or "at risk." Flores, Cousin, and Diaz (1991) discuss the consequences associated with having negative attitudes within the educational system: We can look back historically and see the development of categories that have been used to identify and stereotype each of the minority 21

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groups .... we currently have a situation in which many students are doubly labeled--as linguistic minorities-and-as special-education students .... Students are identified as at risk for failure from the day they enter the school doors (p. 369). Iflanguages other than English are viewed as deficient or secondary in purpose/use, then there is a greater risk for ESL students to fail academically. In many cases, the only way for second language learners to "pass" academically is to acculturate as quickly as possible to the dominant language and culture. Shelia Shannon{l995a), referring to an analysis by R. Phillipson (1992) on linguistic hegemony, strongly argues that: languages are talked about in order to persuade speakers and learners that a language is-important, necessary, and even linguistically superior .... the goal if-ensuring human -rights is -often used to persuade speakers of lang uages. other than English ... they should adopt English. as their -dominant language because English is the key to modernization and thus political and economic -power and control.. .. The attrition, loss, and death -of minority languages may unfortunately be part of that formula (p. 180). Although-culture refers to people within a particular ethnic group, it also designates a form of school culture or classroom culture. The classroom sets the stage for an environment that allows members -of similar and different-cultures to partake in daily communicative interactions (socialization). However, when a student's. culture is not supported or is even rejected by other cultures, then .the whole notion of socialization changes. Second language learners are oftentimes confronted with classroom environments that view their language and/or culture (whether directly or indirectly) as inferior to the language ofthe host culture. Shelia Shannon ( 1995a) termed this struggle as a form oflinguistic hegemony where: 22

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Wherever more than one language or language variety exists together, their status in relation to one another is often asymmetric. In those cases, one will be perceived as superior, desirable, and necessary, whereas the other will be seen as inferior, undesirable, and extraneous (p. 178). The culture of the classroom has been especially challenging for bilingual students because as they learn a second language (e.g. English) the culture they had once identified with (native language) is quickly redefmed by society's mainstream, dominant ideology with English as the prevalent language. Zaid (1999) argues this point by stating that there may be negative consequences associated with the culture of the classroom and second language learners. He reports," the culture-oriented classroom ... requires students to modify their schemata already determined by their native culture" (p. 115). Furthermore, Zaid suggests that within these classrooms, students are not only put through linguistic modification, but a cultural accommodation as well (p. 115). Students may feel as though they must take a defensive or offensive position when their native language and culture are challenged by the target language and culture. Undoubtedly, there is strong research to suggest that the culture of the classroom directly impacts how and what L2 learners learn. Almost daily, students are confronted with classroom environments that are challenging, confusing, and conflicting. However, if those students are L2 learners, then the situation becomes even more complex. When combining the social aspects of the classroom and language learning to those factors associated with gender, it becomes evident that L2 learning, gender, and scholastic achievement are closely correlated. 23

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CHAPTER3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS There are three main questions that this study seeks to explore: 1. Does gender (positively or negatively) affect the rate at which a second language (English) is proficiently acquired? What factors are associated with this? In order to evaluate whether or not gender negatively or positively influences the rate at which a second language is acquired, several elements must be looked at. One important theoretical perspective related to gender and this study is social cognition. An individual's schema is organized into social categories such as gender, race, and age. Furthermore, these social categories that are prescribed to individuals can oftentimes pose limitations. Studies such as Beal's (1994) research on the development of gender roles suggest boys are more assertive and independent than girls. Other research suggests that those who are most negatively (psychologically and socioculturally) affected by social roles are minority children and girls. Consequently, children (and adults) may be cognitively socialized to construct various negative attitudes, beliefs, and abilities towards a particular gender role. Such negative factors may inhibit a child's willingness to participate socially with other children and participate academically. Without these two contexts, a child's ability to successfully learn a second language is severely limited. Thus, social categories can greatly influence the rate at which a child acquires a second language. 24

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2. In what ways is the rate at which a second language is acquired for boys and girls different among Vietnamese and Hispanic students? This study will not only investigate, qualitatively, if second language acquisition is different for boys and girls, but it will also explore the rate of L2 acquisition between two ethnic groups: Hispanic and Vietnamese. Cultural studies such as Rong and Grant's (1992) research on school attainment of Asians, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites suggests there may be lea.riling differences between cultures. L2 acquisition is further complicated for children with various ethnicities because their culture as well as the host culture (for the purpose of this study, the U.S.) has determined social and academic roles for boys and girls. How a student is perceived or expected to act (appropriately) within a given culture-especially when shifting from membership within a dominant culture to a subservient culture--directly influences how they will interact within social contexts and how quickly they acquire the L2 language. 3. Is L2 attainment strongly associated with successful academic achievement? Finally, this study seeks to explore the relationship between L2 attainment and academic achievement. Studies conducted by Gardner and Macintyre (1992, 1993) and Mitchell and Myles (1998) suggest there is a correlation between cognitive and affective learner traits and there is need for subsequent research. Factors such as intelligence and language aptitude influence a L2 learner cognitively. Factors such as language attitude, motivation, and language anxiety represent the 25

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affective traits a L2leamer may experience. Using a case study approach, I will investigate the academic progress of four students during a variety of classroom activities as they relate to both cognitive (e.g. reading, writing, and language development) and affective (e.g. language and identity; anxiety, and attitude) traits. 26

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CHAPTER4 METHODOLOGY Focus of the Study Within this qualitative study, I explore the combined factors of gender and second language (L2) acquisition on a group of students' overall level of academic achievement at the elementary level. Participants selected for this study are all officially classified through the school and school district asEsL (English as a Second Language) students. For the purposes of this study, ESL (the program) will be defined according to the National Research Council (U.S.): Committee on Developing a Research Agenda on the Education of Limited-English-Proficient and Bilingual Students (1997) as well as the program guidelines set forth by the school district in which this study took place: ESL-Students receive specified periods of instruction aimed at the development of English-language skills, with a primary focus on grammar, vocabulary, and communication rather than academic content areas (p. 19). The district has established a set of criteria that help each of their public schools determine which children are in need ofESL instruction (to verify the child's dominant language). Teachers are asked to complete a questionnaire about the student and a home questionnaire is given in order to assess the language background of the student's family. The questions are summarized as follows (see also 27

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Appendix D}: 1) What is the language spoken at home? 2) Does the student speak: only or mostly another language or only or mostly English? 3) Does the child understand: only or mostly another language or only or mostly English? Response categories on each questionnaire are based on a scale that ranges from "Only the other language and no English" to "Only English." If the parents and/or teacher mark those categories which suggest the student's primary language is something other than English, tllen he/she qualifies for English language instruction. Furthermore, if it is determined that the child is monolingual or limited English proficient (LEP), he/she will attend pull-out ESL instruction (if available). If the child is partially proficient or proficient in English, then he/she will likely receive ESL instruction in the mainstream classroom. The following LAU (A,B,C,D) codes or LAS (1,2,3,4) scores for proficiency are defmed below: LAS scores 1-4/A-F: II A-monolingual non-English 2/B-dominant other language 3/C-bilingual/biliterate 4/D-first language English (yes no) and other language in home 4/FEnglish only The participants-were selected according to these criteria as well as from the student's level of English proficiency. From this, I address three central questions: I. Does gender positively or negatively effect the rate at which a second language (English) is proficiently acquired? What factors are associated 28

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Sample with this? 2. Is the rate at which the second language is acquired for boys and girls different among Vietnamese and Hispanic students? 3. In what ways is L2 attairunent strongly associated with successful academic achievement? Method The sample population for this research study consists of 7 to 8 year old boys and girls who attended an elementary school in an area southwest of Denver during the 1999-2000 school year. The school is located in an older, low socio economic with a high percentage of Hispanic families .in residence. The sample of 11 Vietnamese and Hispanic students (2Vietnamese girls, 3-Hispanic girls, 3-Vietnamese boys, and 3-Hispanic boys) was pulled from two, second grade ELA classrooms. All 5 of the Vietnamese students were from one room (Ms. Richards') along with 1 Hispanic boy and 1 Hispanic girl. The other 4 Hispanic students were from Ms. Carson's classroom. Of the 11 students, 7 (2 Vietnamese girls, 1 Hispanic girl, 3 Vietnamese boys, and 1 Hispanic boy) regularly attended an ESL pull-out class that lasted for 2 1/2 hours each morning. The remaining four students' proficiency in English (LAS score) was considered high enough for them to be mainstreamed into a regular classroom with ELA (language) support. The criteria guiding the sample selection were as follows: 29

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1. The student's native language (or parent's) is something other than English and they are learning English as their second language. The student qualifies as an ESL student from criteria set by the school in which they attend (Appendix D). 2. At home, the language dominantly spoken the majority of the time is a language other than English. 3. The students are boys and girls who have been assigned to one of two ELA (English Language Acquisition) second grade classrooms and may be attending "pull-out" ESL instruction. 4. The student is either of Vietnamese or Hispanic origin and has been given permission by their legal guardian to participate in this study. Table 4.1 shows the breakdown of students by ethnicity and English language proficiency (ELP). 30

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Table 4.1 Breakdown of Students by Ethnicity and ELP v 1etnamese H" Monolingual/Non-English Monolingual/Non-English IRn mr.!l. .Gl!Ii Tien -ua Limited English Proficient Limited English Proficient bn mr.!l. Hoa Mim Lam Tomas Partially Proficient Partially Proficient BJw. i.!!la Marta Due -Jose Shelley Proficient Pro11clent bn BJw. -Anthony -31

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Procedure Prior to any data collection, ESL students were infonned of my interest in observing them for the remainder of the school year. Also, parental (or guardians) pennission was required before they were allowed to participate in the study. All guardian consent fonns and student assent fonns were translated into Vietnamese and Spanish and, if requested, explained in further detail by two of the school's Vietnamese and Spanish interpreters. The two women are also employed by the same school district and are bilingual reading assistants at the same elementary school. A research protocol was submitted to and approved by the university's Human Research Committee and school district's Department of Assessment and Research Services. Further pennission was required of the school principal and two classroom teachers. Once student and guardian consent fonns were returned, students were selected primarily on their gender (equal ratio of boys to girls), ethnicity (equal ethnic representation), ESL status and levels (high, average, low) of academic achievement (e.g. grades, exams) as well as on other factors mentioned previously under sampling criteria. Student observations were made on a daily basis at different times of the day. Most were recorded during academic settings (e.g. reading, writing, science) but some were taken during their gym and recess time. Time was equally divided between the two second grade classrooms-usually three hours per classroom (1.5 hours in each during the morning and 1.5 hours in each during the afternoon). Occasionally, student interactions were tape-recorded and my direct involvement with the students 32

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during most of the observations (except when I was teaching a lesson) was kept to a minimwn in order to decrease the chance for bias. The second part of this qualitative study was concerned with the four case studies and interviews. Again, guardian consent, student assent, and district/school permission was required before any interviews took place. To determine whether patterns exist between gender, language acquisition, and educational attainment, all students were independently asked the same questions, in the same order, and each interview took place at the school in order to maintain a high level of familiarity and comfort. Interview responses were then coded and analyzed to look for any patterns that might be present. Measures Observations Observations were initially made on the original sample population of 11 students from February until late May with more exclusive observations and data collected during the last month on the four students selected for detailed case studies. As a participant observer (I was a reading assistant in both ELA cla.Ssrooms for the entire 1999-2000 school year), I made observations on the students on a daily basis throughout the entire three months. Some of the observations were taken from activities their teacher assigned while others were from activities I (or guest teachers) had planned with the students. Field notes were collected on the students during reading groups, writer's workshop, science, gym, testing, and occasionally during 33

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recess. Children were observed during group activities, independent work, and during afternoon ELA activities (each lasting 45 minutes) I lead with small groups of ESL students. All observed data were placed into student portfolios and later coded for analysis. Interviews The third instrument for this study was an interview guideline which was employed in order to identify factors related to gender and second language learning. Interviews were conducted only on the four students selected for the case studies and questions were structured around three major areas: gender, language, and academics. During the interviews, students were taken to an isolated area where they could answer the questions comfortably and without disruption. Students were read the questions from each category (Appendix A) by the interviewer (myself) and asked to respond while being tape recorded. The questions were open-ended in order to receive the greatest range of responses and to establish a more comfortable interview setting. All questions created for the interviews were based upon my observations with the students and structured around current educational research on second bmguage learning, gender, and academic achievement. It was hoped that by using such a guideline, the most valid data could be gathered about these second language students and their perceptions on gender and academic attainment. The interviews took place over the course of four days in the afternoon and the length of each one varied from 45 minutes to 55 minutes (longer than initially expected). 34

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Case Studies A multiple-case study approach was chosen due to the small sample population and limited time available for data collection (3 months). Case studies allowed for more in depth analysis as well as a more meaningful understanding of how gender affects second language learning. Out of the original 11 students observed, four students (2 girls and 2 boys, with ethnicity equally represented) were selected for in depth interviews and observations in late spring. Students were chosen based on several factors: 1) their ability to communicate their thoughts and feelings comfortably and effectively in English (the option of having a translator was always given to each student) during the interviews, 2) a willingness to participate, and 3) high accessibility (e.g. high attendance rate). 35

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CHAPTERS RESULTS: GROUP FINDINGS The eleven students initially selected for this study consisted of five girls (three Hispanic, two Vietnamese) and six boys (three Hispanic, three Vietnamese) who all attended the second grade at an urban elementary in south-west Denver. English proficiency status among the sample group ranged from students who were considered one of the following: a) limited proficient (i.e. predominantly monolingual), b) partially proficient (i.e. transitioning between their native and second language), or c) proficient (i.e. mainstreamedlexited). The students were observed on a daily basis and after analyzing data collected from reading groups, Writer's Workshop, independent and group ESL activities, and general classroom observations, the following factors emerged as being applicable to gender and second language (L2) learning: psychological and sociocultural. Psychological Factors on Gender and L2 Learning From extensive observations, several psychological factors emerged that were related to gender and appeared to influence academic achievement among second language learners. The most influential psychological factors for ESL students were: a) language shock, b) ethnic identity (positive/negative attitude), and c) self-esteem. 36

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Langnage Shock Several psychological factors influence students as they acquire a second language. Returning to Schwnann's Acculturation model (1978), there are various factors that create psychological distance (emotional distance due to language) among second language learners. One of these factors is language shock. Schwnann argues that many second language learners experience an intense sense of doubt and anxiety when attempting to communicate thoughts or ideas to others via the new language. L2 students may often feel uneasy or deficient when it comes to being able to effectively communicate what they want to say. In the two classrooms I observed, I noticed several of the ESL students experiencing language shock to some degree. In many instances it was during group discussions or instruction time (when students were asking questions or sharing/relating their personal experiences to what was being discussed) that I noticed language shock occurring. The following statement made by Tien (T), a new student to the school that year and who mostly spoke Vietnamese, highlights Schwnann's argwnent. Tien wanted to know if a particular material he was thinking of using to make his dinosaur would be acceptable for his home project (Note: (I) stands for interviewer which was always myself): (T) Ms. D., can I use dog bone for my dinosaur? (Class) Eeewww! That's gross! (I) Guys, I think what Tien meant was if he could use dog bones or biscuits for his dinosaur. Yes, that's fine. The reaction from his classmates caused Tien to look confused and slightly 37

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embarrassed and he immediately turned to his table partner (another Vietnamese student more fluent in English), Due, for help in remedying/clarifying the situation. Although Tien motioned with his hands the shape of a small dog bone or biscuit, the students took his question quite literally thinking Tien meant real dog bones. Tien's inability to communicate to his peers (about his dinosaur project) created a sense of stress for him. It also caused him to become withdrawn and not participate for the remainder of the instruction/ discussion period. Instead, he began playing with things inside his desk in order to avoid having to participate. Similar events often took place in the other second grade classroom whenever one of the monolingual Hispanic girls attempted to communicate their ideas during group instruction time. Several of the native English speaking students (usually the same one or two boys) would immediately correct them if they pronounced a word wrong or presented a concept incorrectly. Occasionally the English-speaking students would laugh at what the girls said which caused the girls to frequently become silenced and withdrawn. Oftentimes, L2 students become frustrated and insecure when they experience language shock. Due (D), a student in Ms. Richards' class experienced something similar at home. During an interview (Appendix C) I had with him he commented: (I) Why do you think it's been hard for you to learn English? (D) Cause my brothers when I learn words wrong them then when I mess up ... they laugh at me. (I) ... How does that make you feel when they laugh at you? (D) Mad. (I) Mad? Do you tell them you get mad? (D) (Shakes head 'no') 38

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(I) No? Do they leave you alone? (D) Sometimes. Students who are unable to communicate (effectively, comfortably) their thoughts, ideas, and emotions by way of the second language fmd the lack of communication skills extremely stressful because it is critical that they become accepted members of the dominant cultural group. Being able to effectively communicate with others is critical for successful assimilation to take place. Thus, it can be both socially and academically devastating to the student if he/she is unable to overcome the negative factors associated with language shock. Ethnic Identity/Conception of Self through Language According to Saylor and Aries (1999), ethnic identity is d:ynamic and everchanging. These two researchers argue that adolescents who have a strong sense of membership towards their ethnic groups (developed through family backgrounds) tend to have higher measures of self-esteem, self-evaluation, and social and peer interactions (p. 550). Those children who have a weak sense of ethnic membership tend to have a lower sense of self-esteem and as they get older are less likely to identify with their native culture within many social contexts. Furthermore, as L2 leaners become acculturated to the dominant language and culture, they may find themselves tom between identifying with one of the two ethnicities/cultures. This reveals how much power language has to provoke certain attitudes and beliefs about dominant and subordinant cultures and one's ethnic status in society (e.g. hegemony 39

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ofEnglish). Shelia Shannon (1995a) citing evidence from a study conducted by Nancy Commins (1989), argues how language can do this: children did internalize the inferior status of Spanish with the result that potentially bilingual children were coerced into shifting to English in order to obtain the rewards that came with speaking that language, particularly at school (p. 185). Moreover, McLaughlin (1978) suggests that bilingual students must undergo a variety of emotional adjustments because they belong ''yet not fully, to two communities" (p. 179). In essence, L2 learners are experiencing a sense of "double identity." Therefore, L2 learners are continually developing, defining, and rationalizing their attitudes, values, and beliefs within two cultures that may hold very different principles for behaving and learning. If the individual speaks a language that has been given a minority status (i.e. Spanish, Vietnamese, Hmong), then they may experience cultural and ethnic conflict in having to choose which one to identify with. Two students in Ms. Carson's classroom appeared to have experienced similar conflicts and consequently, began to distance themselves from speaking Spanish or acknowledging their ability to understand/speak it. Both students were raised in families where Spanish and English were both spoken. Each learned the two languages simultaneously. Anthony has family members who speak English and Spanish. His father speaks both and his mother speaks mostly Spanish. Anthony fluently understands Spanish but his verbal skills are limited. One afternoon Anthony (A) and I were reading a Dr. Seuss book that was 40

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written in both English and Spanish. He only read from the side that was in English. I asked Anthony about the story being in both English and Spanish and asked him about speaking Spanish. He appeared to see no real need to learn to speak more Spanish. Anthony also may have disassociated himself from other Spanish-speaking students in an effort to appear more connected with his Englishspeaking peers. (I) Did you read that story in both English and Spanish? (A) No. Only in English, but if you learned Spanish real good you could read it to the Spanish group. (I) Do you ever want to learn to speak Spanish? (A) No. (I) Why not? (A) Because, everyone at home speaks English except my mom. She only speaks a little. Also, while the majority of the bilingual students would help the monolingual students and would translate to the teachers what they were saying, Anthony never volunteered or said he could understand what they were saying in Spanish. He never truly associated himself with any of the other ESL students (though he was a mainstreamed ESL student himself) in terms of being able to speak or understand any language (e.g. Spanish) other than English. A second student in Ms. Carson's classroom displayed similar behavior which suggests she may have been experiencing cultural and linguistic hegemony inside and outside the classroom. Like Anthony, Shelley (S) was raised in a household where both English and Spanish was spoken. She not only understands Spanish but can speak it as well. Initial observations in March showed Shelley helping several of the monolingual ESL students communicate with other students 41

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and teachers. However at home, she noticed some of her family members becoming resentful when any Spanish was spoken: (I) What about your grandparents? Do they speak English? (S) Some ... my grandpa he Spanish more Spanish and my grandma too. (I) Do they want to learn how to speak English? (S) Yeah. (I) They do? So are they trying to learn? (S) Yeah, umm ... my cousins they know more English and they [cousins] don't want to talk to 'em in Spanish. And they tel 'em ta speak English. (I) You're cousins don't like to talk to them in Spanish? (S)Um-hum. As the school year progressed (more towards the end of the year) Shelley became more withdrawn in the classroom, speaking less Spanish, and translating/ communicating with the monolingual Spanish students in Spanish less often. Language clearly helps individuals identify with their cultural and ethnical background. However, language also has the ability to challenge and situate a person's cultural and ethnic identity. Although Pang's (1990) research looked at Asian-Americans, the fmdings express what many Hispanic individuals experience as well. Pang found that many Asian-Americans experience a sense of marginality and they may encounter conflicting attitudes that can manifest from cultural conflicts (being at odds with two cultures) or from situations where they are forced to choose membership in a particular social group (e.g. Americanization) (p. 55-57). As Shelley transitions from one language and culture to another, she may experience marginality and cultural conflict from her family where some members only want to speak English and others only Spanish. 42

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Self-Esteem Developing and maintaining a strong sense of self-esteem is crucial for all students. Coopersmith (1967) defmed self-esteem in his research on the antecedents and consequences associated with self-esteem as: ... the evaluation which the individual makes and customarily maintains with regard to himself: it expresses an attitude of approval or disapproval, and indicates the extent to which the individual believes himself to be capable, significant, successful, and worthy. In short, self esteem is a personal judgment of worthiness that is expressed in the attitudes the individual holds toward himself (p. 5). Self-esteem not only helps to defme for the student who they are in the social world, but it can also influence their ability to perform academically. It is clearly defmed inside the classroom within social and academic contexts. Moreover, developing self-esteem can be especially challenging for ESL students because it is partially through language where students are socialized and become members of the widely accepted group. If they are unable to learn the language, the L2 student may experience feelings of inadequacy and low self-esteem. In the English-speaking classroom, students whose primary language is something other than English have a difficult time being able to express an attitude of approval, self-worth, or being capable because these attitudes and beliefs are negotiated and evaluated through participation within the dominant culture and language. However, the reverse can hold true if the student is able to successfully learn the dominant language and assimilate (through language) quickly in order to become an accepted member of the 43

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larger group. Having low or high self-esteem also greatly influences a student's level of motivation to learn. Several L2 students in this study appeared to be struggling with self-esteem which, in tum, impacted the motivation of some students to learn. The majority of the boys (both Spanish and Vietnamese) appeared to work more independently and had more confidence in doing so than the girls (both Vietnamese and Spanish). Some of the girls needed encouragement during writing activities and needed to be told that they were doing their work correctly. Overall, a high sense of self-esteem appeared more strongly in the boys than the girls. This supports research which finds boys to have more confidence and higher self-esteem than girls or students with a minority status (in this study they are girls with a minority status). Once during a Haiku writing activity and many instances during her assigned seat work (usually a written activity) time for reading, Lam (L) would sit silently at her seat doodling in the margins of her paper. Lam was fairly proficient in her English oral and written skills, yet she was very hard on herself and oftentimes did not personally consider herself to be good at reading, writing or art. She made conunents such as the following during a Haiku writing assignment: (L) Ms. D., I wrote 'sun' but I don't know what else. (I) What things do you think ofwhen you think of a sun? (L) Ms. D., I don't know how to write this. Lam was very self-conscious of her ability to successfully complete activities at school. When the class was asked about how they thought they did on an exam 44

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(ITBS-Iowa Test of Basic Skills), she was one of only a few who did not raise their hand to say they did well. During the three months Lam was observed, she commented on several different occasions about how she didn't like school. Anthony (A) was another student who seemed to have low self-esteem when it came to doing school work. Several instances occurred during writing activities where Anthony's teacher or myself caught him off task. When confronted, Anthony typically had the same response: (I) Anthony, you need to be writing your Weekend News. Where is your paper? Let me see what you've got done so far. (A) But I don't know very many words! (I) I will help you Anthony, but you'll see you won't have as hard of a time as you think you will. (A) I like you. You're a good teacher because you know lots of words. His motivation to stay on task and complete assignments was usually quite minimal and his teacher struggled with him daily to complete his work. For Anthony, having to write made him feel uncomfortable, anxious, and even resentful because he "did not know that many words." It is evident that Anthony's self-esteem was not very high because his own judgment of his abilities as a writer were not positive or valued. In contrast, some of the other students like Due, Tien, Shelley and Jose would often ask the teacher or myself if what they had already written (on writing assignments in general) was correct and "enough" for a good grade so they could stop writing. Their sense of being "capable students" and overall self-esteem appeared to be stronger than Lam's or Anthony's. In turn, all of these students had a strong motivation to learn and were task/goal oriented. 45

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The remaining group of students (Lia, Marta, Hoa, Minh, and Tomas) were either monolingual or limited English proficient (LEP) and they all generally kept to themselves during daily classroom activities. During many writing activities the students had trouble understanding and completing many of the assignments. However, many would not seek outside help and turned in work that was incorrect or incomplete. These students (with the exception ofLia) were still in the early stages ofleaming English and it made completing work that required the use of English difficult for them. As a result, their sense of ability and success was significantly lower than the other students. It is apparent that an ESL student's development of self-esteem and perceived academic ability are heavily influenced by their own awareness of their proficiency of the English language. As is evident from the discussion above, there are several psychological factors that influence an L2leamer's ability to successfully acquire a second language. It appeared that the majority of the students who struggled most with selfesteem were the Vietnamese and Hispanic girls (at all levels of proficiency) while the boys' (both Vietnamese and Hispanic) notion of self-esteem remained relatively positive and constant. Sociocultural hnplications on Gender and L2 Learning Further observations of the group of ESL students revealed certain sociocultural factors related to gender roles and language that directly impacted how these 46

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students interacted socially and performed academically. The three sociocultural factors were: a) socialized gender roles, b) gender and play, and c) classroom culture. Socialized Gender Roles Boys and girls are socialized from birth into prescriptive gender roles or stereotypes (e.g. boys are strong and independent while girls are nurturing and dependent in nature). Beal (1994) suggests that gender stereotypes have several functions: 1. They guide our behavior so we fit into the expected roles and interact with others accordingly. 2. They help shape a child's development in order to master the skills needed in adulthood. 3. Gender stereotypes socialize children in order to assimilate or "fit in" to their culture. Beals also argues that gender categories are always perceived as polar opposites (e.g. boys are good students, girls are bad students) and these roles restrict the developmental options of children to their prescribed gender. The gendered world helps determine for the individual how they will interact with others in a variety of social contexts. Inside the classroom, boys and girls are exposed to a variety of social and cultural factors associated with gender. While schools try to promote diversity and equality in their classrooms, students enter school fully aware of how boys and girls are expected to act. These children will comply with the values, attitudes and beliefs that their gender defines for them. Below are some of the responses of the ESL students in this study when asked: Why do you like being a boy or a girl? 47

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(boy) Tien: bcos I cun play sokgr. (because I can play soccer) (girl) Marta: because I have a lot of fun with my dad. but I'm the only doller (daughter). of my wrill dad because he buy all the things I want. (boy) Due: That I can play all the sport and I can run fast. That I got a short. (boy) Jose: I like being a boy because pokemon cards and I am the only boy in my family. (girl) Hoa: becus girls get petty ring. Being a girl is spishl (special) is that my dad and my mom love girls beter then boys. being a girl is fun or a boy. (boy) Minh: I get to go to chucke cheeziz went its my brthday and I get to get prezhts (presents). (girl) Lam: I like to play things I want and I can be smart and when I grow up I could be a doctor because I relly want to do things like this. (boy) Tomas: I like ding (being) a boy because I can do tings in my bice (bike). (boy) Anthony: I like to be a boy because a boy runs. Some of the responses the boys gave were more oriented around physical activities (e.g. sports, riding bikes) while the girls tended to respond more emotionally and talked about doing things with family members. Several of the boys listed activities that were more independent and goal oriented and the girls listed activities that involved having relationships (e.g. dad buying things, mom and dad love girls). Their responses correlate to what Beal and other researchers argue are prescribed gender roles (i.e. competitiveness in boys, girls establishing meaningful relationships). During group instruction time and class discussions, the majority of students who regularly participated were boys who were not ESL students. One boy in Ms. Carson's classroom loved to show the class how much he knew and would constantly blurt out answers every chance he got. Ms. Carson would have to remind 48

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him to raise his hand and give the other students a chance to think of responses. Another boy in her class loved to share his personal experiences with everyone (e.g. what he did over the weekend) and took group instruction time to do it. While the boys in this classroom as well as in the other were more willing to participate, the girls were not. Table 5.1 shows how many boys and how many girls participated (in each classroom) during three different classroom activities. The majority of students who shared ideas, responded to questions, and gave critical feedback during discussions A, B, and C were boys (both ESL and non-ESL). 49

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Table 5.1 Number of Non-ESL and ESL Boys and Girls Participating During Group Discussion Discussion A: Boys Girls Group activity reading poem (comprehension) and math problems. (Ms. Richards' class) 4 2 Discussion B: "Authors Chair'' with guest teacher. Students share stories in front of 9 5 dass. (both classrooms, separately) Discussion C: Group poetry reading 5 3 and discussion. 50

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Generally, in both rooms the girls (both ESL and non-ESL) would sit grouped together and wait silently until the discussions were finished. In many cases, the girls would only share ideas and answers when forcefully called upon by the teacher. Furthermore, when the girls did share during class discussion, their voices were oftentimes softer, more hesitant, and unsure. This was evident in Hoa whenever she was called on to participate. Hoa would cautiously think of what she was going to say and would then respond by putting her answer in the form of a question. It was as though she was not quite sure if her answer was correct or not. There was a greater tendency in Ms. Richards' classroom for boys who were ESL students to participate than in Ms. Carson's room. However, the majority of ESL students (whether boys or girls) tended to participate less often than their nonESL peers. Moreover, it was very noticeable that the girls who were ESL students seldom participated unless forced to. Beal (1994) suggests that boys tend to be more assertive and independent than girls. She argues that children who are overly quiet and reserved, and who are too afraid to try new things without explicit instruction are more often girls. This was especially true in Ms. Carson's room where most of the ESL girls (with the exception of Shelley) were very quiet and very reserved. When Ms. Carson wanted the girls to respond to a question asked or share their personal ideas, the girls would speak very softly so that no one could hear them. Towards the end of the year, Ms. Carson took the following approach to get the girls to speak up: Ms. Carson: "J---, can you share with the class how you figured out the next math problem?" 51

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Student: Ms. Carson: Student: Ms. Carson: Student: Ms. Carson: Student: Ms. Carson: Student: Ms. Carson: Student: Ms. Carson: Shakes her head and hides her face. "I know you know how to do the problem. You just came up to me 5 minutes ago and showed me your answer." The girls next to her are talking to her in Spanish, pushing her towards the teacher. "If you come up here I'll help you explain it, ok?" She hesitantly walks up to the front of the room. "Ok, did you add or subtract on this one?" Whispering she says, "added." "Say it a little louder." Still whispering, "I added." "Louder. So they can hear you in the back." Sighing, she speaks a little louder, "I added." Smiling, "Ok. Thank you J----. That wasn't so bad was it?" It was quite common for the ESL students (particularly the girls) to go up to their teacher or myself right after large group discussions and whisper things like "I knew that" or "I got that one right." The girls were very willing to share their ideas and answers when it was just the teacher listening. All of these observations suggest that the eagerness of boys to participate during both personal and academic group-oriented discussions may stem from their being socialized to be more competitive, confident, and more willing to take risks. Just the opposite, girls were less likely to take the initiative when it came to classroom discussions. This was common among both Vietnamese and Hispanic students. Furthermore, evidence from student observations suggest that when ESL students participate/interact more with their peers (through the use of the second language), they are giving themselves more opportunities to strengthen and develop their second language. Conversely, the ESL students (both Vietnamese 52

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and Hispanic) who were more reserved and shy appeared to use English less frequently and speak it less fluently. After further examination of the data, the students who participated the least and had the most trouble with learning English were Vietnamese and Hispanic girls (with the exception of Shelley). Though more extensive research is needed, it appears that socialized gender roles can influence the rate at which a child is able to learn a second language. Gender and Play Socialized gender roles and their influence on children can also be observed while children are at play. The significance of play in relation to L2 acquisition is attributed to the social and cognitive development of children through interactions with others. These interactions are experienced in both verbal and physical contexts and are essential for the ESL student if he/she is to successfully learn a second language. They are what help the student to develop communicative competence in order to be able to make sense of the world around them. As boys and girls grow up, their sense of what to play and who to play with remains attached (though not always) to what their prescribed gender role has defined for them as acceptable behavior. Typically, boys play more aggressively and are involved in play that is more physical and competitive (e.g. contact sports). Girls, on the other hand, tend to be less competitive and more social-oriented when it comes to play. Building relationships within a variety of social groups and being nurturing are attributes usually associated with girls. 53

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On several occasions it was observed how gender influenced the choices the students made in the classroom. This held true for all students regardless of their ESL status. During center time (part of their daily reading rotation) and free/earned activity time, the boys would race for the math computer, building blocks, math manipulatives (i.e. money, tanagrams), and spelling or vocabulary building games. Furthermore, the boys grouped themselves homogeneously, either in pairs or teams and oftentimes the activities turned quite competitive. Each activity became a race to see who was faster, better, and ultimately the winner. Throughout their "contests," I noticed several of the students (especially those from my reading group which included Due) yelling out to Ms. Richards and myself the scores of each player, who was beating who, and who was sure to lose. One afternoon during a spelling game, Jose made a comment to Tien that he wasn't playing the game correctly because he was having trouble spelling some of the words. Tien responded physically to Jose by "standing his ground" (Tien loved to imitate the professional wrestlers he watched on t.v. at home) and yelled back at Jose that he did know how to spell the words. The boys then started giggling and resumed playing the game. In contrast, the girls tended to remain by themselves during center time and activity time. Occasionally the girls would work or play with a partner (usually their best friend). The activities they chose to work on consisted mostly of coloring or drawing pictures (e.g. flowers, butterflies, and other things in nature), playing grocery store (the girls used pretend money to buy items taken from the room), or 54

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listening to stories on tape. More often than not, the girls would choose art-related activities that they could work on at their seats while talking to other girls in the class. Competitiveness was never a factor for the girls. It was a time to talk about their personal lives and to compare with each other what they had drawn. Occasionally a few boys (e.g. Jose) and girls (e.g. Lam) were observed reading independently at their seats. As Tien progressed in reading through the semester, he was more willing and eager to stay at his seat and read books. After finishing a story, Tien would share his experience with Due (his table partner), Ms. Richards and myself about how much and how well he could read stories like Sammy the Seal and several books by Dr. Seuss. Observations of the ESL students while at play suggest that the playground can promote boys and girls to segregate into homogeneous gender groups. On several occasions I noticed Lam standing near the fence with another girl talking. They were quite removed from the rest of the students and did not appear to make any effort to join any of the recess activities (e.g. jump-rope, cheese house, swings) that were taking place. The following is a conversation I had with Lam about their recess: (I) What do you guys normally play when you come outside? (L) Nothing! (I) Nothing? Why? (L) Because its not fun. ********** (I) Do the boys ever play with the girls outside? (L) No. 55

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(I) No? Why? (L) Because the girls doesn't like to play with the boys. (I) They tell me they play soccer. Do they play soccer almost every day? (L) Yeah. (Lam's friend) Then the girls go over there and play by themselves. (L) I don't like to play soccer. (I) Why? (L) Because its's boring. ********* --At this point, Hoa walks over and joins the conversation--(1) There's Hoa. Hi Hoa. I was asking Lam what she normally played when she was outside. What do you like to play when you're out here? (H) Nothing. (I) Nothing? That's what Lam said! Most of the girls tended to stay by the school wall far away from where the boys played. They seldom played on any of the playground equipment and generally kept to themselves (standing and looking around at the other children). Hoa told me that she mostly played with her sister (a first grader) and some of her sister's friends. Classroom Culture Second language classrooms bring together students with diverse social, cultural, and linguistic backgrounds. Within these classrooms are students who not only have varied learning styles but different levels of English proficiency. The two second grade classrooms that were observed had students whose L2 proficiencies ranged from monolingual/non-English to English only. With such diverse ranges of linguistic and learner abilities, it is critical that all students be given the opportunity 56

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to become active learners. The medhun through which most active learning takes place is language. According to Johnson (1995) the Wlderlying structure of classroom language consists of a pattern of acts: 1. Initiation Act (teacher) 2. Response Act (student) 3. Evaluation Act (teacher) (p. 9) It is through these commWlicative acts where knowledge and Wlderstanding are negotiated for the L2 learner and defined by the dominant language and culture. The classroom environment can be extremely stressful for many second language students if they are Wlable to effectively communicate and express their beliefs, thoughts, ideas, learned experiences, and abilities to their teacher and peers. Johnson describes the need for all L2 learners to achieve communicative competence: CommWlicative competence is measured by the extent to which second language students can comply with the nonns that regulate communication within any given sociolinguistic context (p. 13). If the ESL student is unable to overcome the barriers associated with L2 acquisition and their "response act" is negatively evaluated due to their inability to effectively speak English, the likelihood of assimilating smoothly into the dominant culture and achieving membership within the classroom is limited. In tum, if the ESL student is given a variety of opportunities to express him/herself during social and academic contexts and he/she is able to overcome the barriers, then achieving membership through assimilation is highly likely. Although lWlch recess should have promoted socializing and playing with 57

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friends, several issues related to classroom culture surfaced while out on the playground. Many of the ESL students like Lam, Hoa, Tien, Anthony, and Tomas appeared to keep mostly to themselves and had little verbal interaction with any of their peers. Having little, if any, verbal or physical contact (interaction) with other ESL or non-ESL students ultimately lessens the opportunities these children have to develop strong communicative competencies. This especially held true for many of the girls I observed standing away from the larger groups of students. It would be interesting to investigate further why some of these ESL students chose not to interact with the other students and why most of them were girls. Through interviews and open conversations with the students in this study and their peers in the two classrooms, it became clear that they had all developed a sense of the abilities ofESL students and boys and girls in general. The following are excerpts from interviews I had with a few students. A. Jose's interview (see Appendix C) (I) Do you think boys are girls are better at school? (J) Both. (I) Both? ... Give me an example of how you think boys are good at school. (J) Ummrnrn they play a lot of sports. (I) ... give me an example of how you think girls are good at school? (J) Umrnmm they study a lot. (I) ... do you think girls play a lot of sports at school? (J) No .... because ... girls are slow? ********** (I) How do teachers feel about girls who are ESL students? (J) Good and some sad. (I) Why do you think good? (J) They're nice. 58

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(I) Why do you think she feels sad? (J) Because ummrnm they have ta learn more stuff. (I) How do you think teachers feel about boys who are ESL students? (J) Good? (I) Good? Ok. Do you think for the same reasons as the girls or ... (J) Same thing. B. Shelley's interview (I) Do you think boys or girls are better at school? (S) Both of them. (I) How do you think teachers feel about boys? (S) Ummm good? (I) How do you think teachers feel about girls? (S) Ok. (I) And why do you think ok? (S) 'Cause they're good. ********** (I) How do teachers feel about girls who are ESL students? (S) Sad. (I) Why do you think they feel sad? (S) Ummm they have ta go and find work. ... they [ESL students] have ta work hard. (I) How do teachers feel about boys who are ESL students? ... Do they have to work a lot? (S) A little bit. (I) [Not as much] as the girls? (S) Uh-huh. C. Due's interview (I) How do you think teachers feel about boys? (D) ..... mad. (I) Mad? Why do you think mad? (D) Because they bring toys and goof off and uhh don't listen. (I) How do you think teachers feel about girls? (D) ..... the same thing. ********** (I) How do you think teachers feel about girls who are ESL students? Do they feel differently then they do somebody else? 59

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(D) The same. (I) What about boys who are ESL students? Do you think teachers feel... differently about them? (D) ..... yeah .... 'cause like ummm like they don't ummm understand that much English so they have'ta learn differently. Additionally, there were a few incidents in Ms. Carson's classroom where a few of the non-ESL boys (and sometimes non-ESL girls) complained that the ESL girls (monolingual) were never given or never had to do ''regular seat work" such as the Weekend News (a weekly writing assignment) or math word problems. 1bis appeared to be bothersome to the boys until another student in the classroom reminded them of the fact that the girls "didn't speak English" and said they couldn't do the work. Even though the teacher assigned the ESL students the same work (or work that structured for ESL students) and had the same expectations, some of the non-ESL students often failed to recognize this. From the interviews and other observations, it became evident that the students who recognized and empathized with the successes and struggles of the monolingual and limited English students were ESL students themselves (i.e. Lam, Due, Jose, and Shelley). 1bis may be due to the fact that these mainstreamed ESL students (fluent enough in English to not have to attend ESL pull-out instruction) have probably at one time or another experienced similar situations related to learning English as a second language. Furthermore, responses from the student interviews indicated they thought their teachers felt sad about ESL students (both girls and boys) because they had to do more work and work harder than non-ESL students. Clearly, language played a large role in how ESL students were 60

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perceived. ESL students with limited English proficiencies had to work harder to achieve communicative competency in order to comply with the established norms (dominant culture) of the classroom. 61

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CHAPTER6 RESULTS: 4 CASE STUDIES After observing the larger group of students for two months, I selected four students (!-Vietnamese boy, !-Vietnamese girl, 1-Hispanic boy, 1-Hispanic girl) specifically for case study analysis. These four were chosen primarily because they were either partially proficient or proficient in English (they would be interviewed in English), had a high rate of school attendance, and felt comfortable with what I was doing. Each case study is broken down into four sections: student background, classroom observations and student interviews, and discussion. "When I Grow Up I'm Gonna Be Mostly Vietnamese" CJf CJ didD't know you, what three things would you want me to know about you'! "CJ don't speak much 'English." "CJ am not good at spelling words." "CJ can speak 'Vietnamese." 62

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Background: Personal Due is a small, bright 7 year old boy. He is the youngest of 9 siblings and lives with both parents in an apartment near the school. Due's parents were born in Vietnam and speak very little English--though Due tells me his mother is trying to learn more. Due, his brothers, and sisters all speak Vietnamese and English at various levels of proficiency. Due says he knew how to speak English before he started kindergarten but most of the English he has learned has been at school and from his brothers and sisters. Due is a socially active young child. He appears to have a lot of friends, gets along with the majority of his classmates, and his demeanor is rather non-confrontational. Furthermore, Due is a very soft spoken child who never speaks out of tum in class. At the same time, he appears to feel comfortable sharing ideas and answers with the class either when the responses are volunteered or asked of the teacher. frequently just watching and listening to other students in the classroom. He also loves to play basketball and soccer with a group of other boys from his room during gym and lunch recess. At the beginning of the year, Due was considered to be partially English proficient (LAS 3) and by the end of the year was retested {LAS 4) and found eligible for transitioning into the school's mainstream English instruction program. Although Due has never attended ESL pull-out, he has been placed in ELA classrooms which give ESL students added English language support. The only time I heard Due speak Vietnamese was when he was helping explain an assignment 63

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or idea to Tien. Background: Academic Due's attitude about school appeared to be very positive. He enjoyed math, reading, and science activities. Due was particularly strong in math and he always found himself in a friendly competition with Tien to see who knew more math and could learn new material the quickest. During our interview Due told me why he liked math: (I) What do you like best about school? (D) Math. (I) Math. You like math and why do you like math? (D) I like it when .. .! just like it. (I) Is math easy or hard for you? (D) ... .in the middle. (I) What makes you think you're good at math? (D) I'm the fastest one. (I) Do you get good grades on your math too? (D) Urn-hum [affmnative]. Due took the other subjects that he wasn't as strong in (e.g. writing, English) very seriously. He was very self-conscious of the areas in which he needs improvement and always wants to know his grades on tests and written assignments. Whenever his teacher and I monitored the room and walked passed Due's desk, he would uncover his paper (he tried to keep other students from copying him) and ask us if he was doing the assignment correctly. Knowing if he was on the right track was comforting to Due and allowed him to continue on with his work. However, one time during an ITBS test Due asked me ifl thought he was doing a math problem 64

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correctly. When I couldn't tell him anything, he turned back to his paper and began to erase several of his answers. From my observations of him, Due is a very task and goal oriented student. He is always concerned about what each assigrunent entails, how long it has to be, and if he is doing it correctly. Because he is so task oriented, he has trouble with activities such as creative writing where there tend to be no explicit instructions or direct guidelines to follow. Often, Due would get frustrated and would have a hard time coming up with ideas to write about on his own. Interestingly, Due's teacher never met his parents and knew little about his brothers and sisters. When the school had back to school night and parent-teacher conferences, Due's parents did not attend--even though a Vietnamese translator was provided. Due told me during our interview that his parents thought school was very important and Due's attendance and performance in school suggests that. However, it was never clear why his parents never attended any of the conferences and their absence was never mentioned by Due. Classroom Observations I observed Due in a variety of social and academic settings. Most of my time spent with him was during reading, Writer's Workshop, ELA group time, and art. Due appeared to be most comfortable in the classroom when a regular schedule was maintained. He was a very productive student and always made sure all of his work was finished and turned in. It bothered and worried Due when he had unfinished 65

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work from the day before and could not work on it the next morning because of a guest speaker or assembly. Not being able to complete tasks (i.e. assignments) made Due worry about getting bad grades and it sometimes caused stress because it put him behind in completing any new assignments. Reading. There were four reading groups in the classroom Due was in. They were broken down as follows: Group lA: early fluent readers, reading chapter books Group IB: upper emergent to early fluent, reading "starter" chapter books. Group 2: upper emergent, reading books with text supported by pictures Group 3: early emergent, reading books with limited text and heavy picture content Due was in Group 2, the reading group I lead. During our group discussions at reading time, Due brought with him prior experiences and background knowledge that enabled him to make sense of what he was reading and ultimately learning. However, when I asked Due during our interview if he thought he was a good reader, his perceptions about reading were different than mine. (I) What. .. things are hard for you in school? (D) Reading. (I) Reading? Why is reading hard for you? (D) Ummm 'cause I don know that much words? (I) You don't know that much words? Do you think it's because you're learning English as a second language or do you think it's because you need to practice. (D) Practice. ********** (I) How does your teacher know when someone's a good reader or not? (D) They test you in a book. (I) They test you in a book? and then that says where you're at for reading? 66

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(D) Urn-hum. If you umnun don't miss any words then you go to a higher book. Although Due found reading to be hard, he did not think it was because he was learning two languages. Instead, he thought it might be because he needed to practice more. Also. Due's comments about how he thought his teacher knew if someone was a good reader or not was interesting. So often, students develop a perception about learning that it is a three-step process. 1. The teacher teaches the new material 2. The student learns and practices the new material 3. The teacher tests the student on the new material and if he/she passes, he/she has learned it successfully. If not, then the student hasn't learned it and must start over. Classroom culture can often promote such thinking, without teachers and students being fully aware that it is taking place. Like most of the students in the class, Due was always curious to know how he did on assignments and how good of a reader and writer he was. When he was given the Developmental Reading Assessment test (DRA) in order to assess his reading level (measured according to grade level) and growth over the year, Due took every effort to make sure he pronounced each word correctly. This especially meant his -ed's and -ing's--something he had trouble with during regular reading and writing time. Due knew that his ability to "get these words right" meant the difference from continuing with the same books he had been reading or "moving up" into harder, chapter books like he saw other students reading. My observations and ability to directly work with Due and the other ESL 67

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students allowed me to see how disappointed and frustrated they sometimes got over what books they could read and could not read. In both second grade ELA classrooms, the teachers told the students when they went to check out books from the library or classroom (for fun or for projects) they needed to pick out two kinds of books: A ''just right" book (where the student could read it independently) and a "dream" book (where the student could read it with a parent or older sibling). I noticed several of the ESL students looking at books that interested them but were just too hard for them to read. So many of them were tired of reading the same kinds of books and wanted to venture out into newer, harder ones, but their language skills in English just weren't strong enough yet. There were several occasions where Due and the other students in my reading group asked why they couldn't read books like the ones Jose and other students from Group 1 were reading. Although most children are aware that all students have different reading abilities, for the students in my reading group (with the exception of one) their language skills made reading more challenging. Their L2 proficiencies were not quite at the level of their reading desires and interests. In her case study of an ESL student, Danling Fu (1995) discussed how frustrating this can be. "Tran had a dilemma. Literate in his first language (Lao), he was interested in more sophisticated issues and ideas than his limited familiarity with his second language could handle" (p. 72). Ultimately, Tran was unable to read the books he wanted to because the topics he found to be the most interesting were ones that had a subject matter and written text that went beyond what his social and academic experiences as a second 68

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language learner could meaningfully provide (e.g. comprehension). Additionally, reading can sometimes be difficult for ESL students because language can become a barrier, preventing them from being able to express their ideas and thoughts. They need strong language skills in order to be able to make sense out of what it is they're reading. One ESL student (a Hmong boy) who was in our reading group had a hard time relating his own experiences to the text he was reading. The bridge between his native language and experiences and those of his second language had not completely developed. Although Due struggled with his reading, the bridge between his two languages was more developed and he was able to communicate his ideas and answers more effectively to the rest of the group. Sometimes he would even help the other students when they got stuck on a word or concept. Furthermore, while I only had boys in my reading group, Due dominated the majority of discussions--whether it was about the story we were reading or the grammar lessons we were studying. During reading he was more willing to share and take risks than he was during larger group discussions. This may have been due to the fact that the reading group was smaller, consisted of all boys, and was at a level that challenged his literacy and linguistic abilities--yet at a comfortable or ''just right" level. Writing. The writing process for any student can be quite challenging. However, for Due it was even more so because he was learning English as a second language. To add to this, Due found creative writing to be challenging. If he was given a writing assignment that asked him to summarize or to write about 69

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something personal, Due was able to complete it. However, during writing activities such as poetry and short story writing, Due was less sure about his ideas and responses and the activities took longer for him to complete. For a few weeks during reading, my group was reading a story about Flipp (cartoon character of a dog) and a fantastic journal he kept about his daily experiences and troubles with writing. As a writing activity, the students were given journals of their own and told to write about things they had personally experienced that were similar to the ones Flipp had. One morning, the group was told they had a five minute free-write in their journals where they could write about anything. Due did not appear to be comfortable with the idea of writing about "anything" that came to his mind. Concerned, he asked me what sort of things he should write about. When I listed some examples of things he could write about, he went back to his seat and responded to each of them in his writing. Due needed to have structure and he needed to be given "explicit" instructions on what to write about as well as how much to write. From the same interview, Due talked about how he felt about writing. (I) Do you think you are a good writer? (D) .... (nods head) (I) Yes? You do? Tell me why? Why do you think you're a good writer? (D) Because I have good penmanship. (I) Because you have penmanship ... anything else? (D) (shakes head ''No") (I) How does your teacher know if someone is a good writer or not? (D) ..... What kind of story you have. (I) What kind of a story? Ok. Anything else? (D) If it's not plain or anything. 70

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(I) If it's not plain? What do you mean by plain? (D) Like its ... not already written. (I) Ohh, it's been written before like in another story? (D) (nods head) Although Due had successes with various writing assignments throughout the year, he continued to struggle with creative writing lessons because they were not formally structured and predictable. My observations of Due during most creative writing activities suggests that it was hard for Due to "get out" his words, thoughts, and ideas and put them down on paper. It appeared that Due's lack of enthusiasm for creative writing may have been complicated by his struggles as a second language learner because his limited vocabulary prevented him :from being able to fluently express himself through writing. Furthermore, Due's difficulties with writing were similar to those of other boys (in both classrooms). For them, creative writing was not as interesting as writing reports about their favorite dinosaurs or science projects. Overall, the majority of boys enjoyed reading and writing information that was non-fiction. Language and Identity While Due appeared to be transitioning smoothly into his second language, he still held a strong, positive attitude towards his Vietnamese background. My observations found Due to be comfortable in having such diverse linguistic skills. Although he considered learning English to be hard, he also saw positive factors associated with learning a second language. The following excerpts :from our 71

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interview suggest that Due thought there were different reasons for learning English and Vietnamese. Many of his responses were based upon personal experiences as well as attitudes he had about the future. (I) Who speaks English in your house? (D) My 4 brothers, kinda me, and my 4 sisters. (I) You said kind ofyou. Do you think that you don't speak as much English as they do? (D) (nods head) (I) You mean you're still learning English? (D) Urn-hum. (I) And you're not as good as speaking English as they are or do you mean you just speak more Vietnamese at home? (D) It's just ummm I'm stili learning. ********** (I) Do you ever listen to things in Vietnamese? (D) Music (I) Music? Ok. Did you know how to speak English before you started Kindergarten? (D) Yeah. (I) A little or a lot or some (D) A lot. (I) How did you know how to speak English? Who taught you? (D) I dunno. (I) Do you think it's been easy or hard for you to learn English? (D) Hard? (I) Hard? Why do you think it's been hard for you to learn English? (D) 'Cause my brothers when I learn words wrong them then when I mess up ... they laugh at me. ********** (I) Do you think that speaking two languages makes you smarter? (D) (shakes head ''No") (I) No? Do if you only spoke one language or you spoke 400 .. you're not any different? (D) (nods head) (I) How many languages do you speak? (D) Three ummm ... ummm then Jose tell some words that Spanish. 72

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(I) Is it important to speak many languages? (D) ..... (nods head) (I) Why? (D) Because ummm its umm like knowing ... uhh Vietnamese umrn that makes ... alone or only speak a little ummrn you can ... you could help them. (I) You could help them? ... You could talk to them in English and Vietnamese, you're right. ********** (I) Which language do you like to speak more? (D) Vietnamese. (I) Why? (D) Because I know more. (I) Do you think it's important to speak English? (D) (nods head) (I) Why? (D) Because uh like in school umm no one really speaks urnrn Vietnamese. (I) Which language do you think you'll speak more when you grow up? (D) Vietnamese. (I) Why do you think that? (D) Because when I grow up urnrn I'm gonna ... be mostly Vietnamese. (I) When you grow up do you still want to be able to speak both Vietnamese and English? (D) (nods head). What I found so amazing about Due (and the majority of other ESL students) was that he saw both languages to be useful in different linguistic contexts. He commented that there were times when speaking Vietnamese was more appropriate (e.g. at horne, at work) and there were situations when English would be more useful (e.g. at school). Although he struggled somewhat academically in reading and writing (English was the only language used), his strong sense of ownership over both languages was very positive and is what helped keep him motivated as a second language learner. More importantly, Due believed that he would use both languages 73

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when he got older and his reasoning behind this was so he could help people communicate with each other. Due's positive attitude towards both languages will help him to develop as a L2 learner-socially and academically. Gender and Identity Due was like any second grade boy when it came to talking about girls. He commented that most boys and girls do not play with each other or do school work with each other because their friends would laugh and say they liked each other. However, when I asked Due about boys and girls who were ESL students and how boys and girls learn, his responses were interesting. (I) Do you think boys and girls learn differently at school? (D) Uh-huh (shaking head "no") (I) No? Why? (D) Because wnmm (I) Do you think that everybody learns the same? (D) (quietly) Yeah. (I) You don't think that boys and girls learn differently? (D) Sometimes. {I) Sometimes? How sometimes? (D) Like at math. (I) How da you think the boys learn math differently than the girls? (D) Urnmrnm ... .like some ofthe'they just work at umm different level? (I) What do you mean by levels? (D) Grade. (I) Are those mostly boys or girls that work at that level? .... (D) About the same. ********** (I) Do you think more boys or girls might go to college? (D) Boys. (I) Boys? and why do you think more boys might go to college? 74

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(D) Because there are more boys wnmm in this school. (I) What about boys who are ESL students? Do you think teachers feel ,. differently about them? (D) ... Yeah (I) Why do you think that? (D) 'Cause like ummm like they don't umm understand that much English so they have'ta learn differently. ********** (D) ... the girls speak more English than the boys? (I) Ok. You think there's a reason why the girls speak more English than the boys? (D) The umm ... they just they watches they learn already? (I) So they've been learning English longer than some of the other boys? Ok. Due's perceptions about how boys and girls learn was interesting because he felt that the girls knew more English than the boys and the boys have to learn differently because they don't speak as much English. While Due thought all boys and girls learned differently in some areas, he attributed more learning differences to boys and girls who were ESL students. Moreover, Due distinguished the ESL boys from the ESL girls by stating that the boys learned differently due to their inability to speak English fluently. One possible reason for this may have been from Due's experiences with Tien, his table-mate who was new to the school and spoke limited English. Due saw how Tien struggled with his school work and needed extra support from his regular classroom teacher and his ESL teacher--who he worked with for 2 112 hours each day. However, it is interesting that Due thought the ESL girls didn't learn differently because both of the Vietnamese girls attended ESL pullout as well. His comments about the girls knowing more English might be attributed 75

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to the fact that he knew they had been at the school longer and had been attending ESL classes longer than Tien. Discussion Overall, Due was a hard working, dedicated student. Although he knew learning English as a second language was important and necessary in order to achieve academically, he maintained a strong sense of membership and dedication to both languages. At times it was evident that his level of English proficiency limited his ability to advance academically (e.g. literacy skills). However, it was from such limitations that Due was motivated to take more risks and to challenge himself in order to improve both academically and linguistically. 76

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JOSE "In school [I speak] English and in my bouse Spanish." '1f '1 didn't know who you were, what are three things you would like me to know about you! "9'fy name." '.cv/bat's my favorite sport." "CWbat grade '1 am." Background: Personal Jose was a quiet and eager young boy. Unlike Due, Jose came from a relatively small family. Jose is an ESL student who is transitioning from the ELA classroom to the mainstream classroom. His two sisters are identical twins and attend an ELA kindergarten (taught by a bilingual Spanish teacher) at the same school. The girls are significantly less proficient than Jose and rather quiet like him. Both of Jose's parents were born in Mexico and speak limited English. His family appears to be very close and his parents are very involved in their children's academic and social lives. Although Jose is somewhat reserved in the classroom, he is very competitive both physically and academically. In addition, Jose is a friendly child who seemed to get along with the majority of students in his class. While Due was less likely to work with any of the girls in the classroom, Jose could always be found working on a variety of school related tasks with a girl from his reading and math group. Based on my observations, they appeared to have similar social 77

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interests, likes/dislikes, and similar academic abilities. BackgroWld: Academic Academically, Jose is an exceptional student. His competitiveness and need for perfection is reflected in his high grades and high placement in reading and math groups. Like Due, Jose is very goal and task oriented and is always concerned about how he is doing in school. The positive attitude and desire he has for academic achievement is carried over at home with his father and the goals he has set for Jose-including learning English. During my interview with Jose, he commented about how his parents felt about school and what they did to reward Jose and his two sisters for good work. (I) Does your mom and dad think schools important? (J) Yes. (I) And how do you know that? (J) Because if all ofus pass .. dad will buy us something. (I) Wow. What kinds of things has he bought you before? (J) I don't know but when I if all of us pass and my sisters my dad will buy me a Nintendo-64. Clearly, Jose's parents are involved in their children's lives at school. Their desire for Jose to achieve academically can be seen in Jose's strong motivation to learn. At parent-teacher conferences, Jose's father commented to Jose's teacher how proud he was of his son. Moreover, his positive attitude about learning has helped him to not only perform well academically, but it has helped him to acquire a strong level of proficiency in his second language. 78

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Classroom Observations Jose was a well organized and responsible student when it came to school work. Each morning Jose would come in to class, tum in his homework, and sit quietly while reading a chapter book at his seat. Jose also frequently played the role of tutor to a few of the other students in the classroom. Quite often, Due and Tien would seek Jose's help with a math problem or vocabulary word they were not sure of. To Due and Tien, Jose was a friendly source to tum to for help. Jose spoke little if any Spanish while he was at school. Although there were other classmates who could speak Spanish, none of them ever talked to each other in anything but English. The only time Jose did speak Spanish was towards the end of the school year when the class got a new student. The student spoke little English and was placed next to Jose so that Jose could show him around and help him with his work in the classroom. Reading. Jose was placed in Group 1 for reading because he was a strong, fluent reader. Because the students in Group I were more independent readers, the teacher had them reading and working in writing journals at their own seats for part of their daily reading time. Jose appeared to enjoy reading out of the longer chapter books and working quietly at his seat. Jose seldom asked questions and seemed relatively confident working on and completing his reading assignments alone. During our interview, Jose's responses about reading and school in general were reflective of his strong product/goal oriented attitude about school 79

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work. (I) Do you think you're a good reader? (J) Ummrn ... yes. (I) And how do you know that? (J) I keep getting 3's. (I) 3's? You're talking about your sentences ... a 3 point sentence is the best sentence you can write? Do you think you're a better reader than some of the other kids in the class .. (J) (interrupting me) ... NO. (I) How does your teacher know if somebody is a good reader? (J) Because some readers don't make a lot of mistakes ********** (I) What subjects like math or spelling or art or reading ... are you good at? (J) Ummmm ... art. (I) Why do you think that? ( J) Because I keep getting E' s. (I) What subjects like math or spelling ... are hard for you? (J) Ummmm .... spelling .... Because sometimes I missed 1 or 2. ********** (I) Why do you think it's important to be a good student? (J) Ummm ... so you could pass to da other grades. (I) What do you think "being smart" means? (J) Ummmm ... you get good grades every time. (I) How does your teacher know when someone is smart? (J) Ummrn ... they get E's. ********** (I) Where do you read when you're at home? (J) In my bed. (I) Why do you read? If you do read, is it fun? Do you like to? Do you get to learn more? (J) I get to learn. (I) You get to learn more? (J) More words, umm-humm. From his responses, it became clear that Jose associates being a good student and good reader with getting good grades. Occasionally, Jose was noticeably worried 80

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about his schoolwork. His need to do well and get good grades may have put added pressure on him. However, it did not appear that he attributed any of his struggles to learning a second language. Like Due, Jose was motivated to take risks at school in order to succeed at achieving his academic goals. This dedication and motivation to academic success may have also helped Jose to develop higher levels of English proficiency. Writing. Writing for Jose appeared to be more challenging than reading was. Like Due, Jose had trouble with assignments that required him to write creatively. Jose liked to be given explicit instructions on written assignments and lessons that had defined tasks (e.g. short answer response to a given text). Creative writing was difficult for Jose because he was not going to be graded just on right or wrong answers. Moreover, creative writing (though hard for most children this age) is difficult for second language learners because there is less structure and fewer boundaries. For instance, science and social studies reports provide more linguistic structure because responses are framed according to facts taken from books and class notes. However, creative short stories that are authored solely by the student demand more academic and linguistic skills. Students need to have a strong vocabulary and ideas that can be communicated through this style of writing. For the L2 learner, this can be quite challenging because their second language skills may not strong enough to support their ability to write creatively. Although Jose did not have as much trouble as Tien or Hoa had with creative writing, his level of English proficiency occasionally influenced his ability to write effectively. 81

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When I asked him about writing, his responses were similar to the ones he gave about reading and getting good grades. (I) Do you think you're a good writer? (J) Yes. (I) Do you like ta write? (J) Umrnrn ... no. (I) Why do you think you're a good writer? (J) Because I keep getting 3-point answers. (I) 3-point answers ... and what else happened to you that you did really good on ... that you wrote? (J) My dinosaur report. While several of the ESL students struggled with creative writing (including Jose), Jose had an experience with creative writing that was very successful. For his Young Author's story, Jose chose to write a detective/mystery that ended up winning the gold medal for all primary grades at his school. His high level of motivation, strong literacy skills, and advancing English proficiency were all key in helping Jose to succeed. Language and Identity Out of all of the students I observed for this study, Jose was one of the most fluent second language speakers. He was also one of the few ESL students who was eligible to be mainstreamed into the regular classroom (one that did not require students to be given added language support). Daily observations showed Jose to be a well accepted member of the (English speaking) classroom community and his attitude towards his bilingual status was rather positive. Also, just as Due 82

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found being able to speak two languages rewarding, so did Jose. (I) Does anyone in your family speak English at home? (J) Yes. (I) Who speaks English? (J) My mom and me. No, no. My mom only a 'lil bit and my dad speaks a lot of English. (I) What language do they and you watch maybe t.v. or listen to music in? (J) Ummm ... I watch cartoons in English and hear Spanish music. ********** (I) Did you know who to speak English before you started kindergarten? (J) Yes. (I) Has it been easy or hard for you to learn English? (J) Ummm .. kind of easy. (I) Easy? And why do you think it's been so easy for you? (J) Because I watch t.v. and been I keep learning new words. ********** (I) Do you think that by speaking two languages that makes you smarter? (J) I think so? (I) And why do you think that? (J) Because if somebody doesn't know like English then because I know Spanish I can tell' em. (I) Do you think it's important to be able to speak a lot of languages? (J) Yes. (I) Why? (J) 'Cause you can have more friends. (I) Which language do you like to speak more? (J) Umm ... in school English and in my house Spanish. (I) And why is that? (J) Because my mom doesn't understand a lot ofumm ... (I) Of what? English? (J) Yeah. ********** (I) Do you think it's important to speak English? (J) Ummm ... yes. (I) Why do you think so? (J) Because ummm because ummm if your boss ummm and then like a person that wants to work doesn't it would be really hard .... Especially 83

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if you want a job. 0) Which language do you think you'll speak more when you grow up? (J) Spanish. (I) Why do you think that? (J) Ummm ... because when I work with my dad there lots of people that talk Spanish [his father works in construction]. It appeared through my conversations with Jose that he believed speaking both Spanish and English was useful. He knew that speaking both languages would be important in the future because he could help Spanish-speaking people at work communicate better with their English-speaking bosses. Jose did not indicate during our discussions that he found speaking either language to be negative or a burdening obstacle to overcome. Instead, Jose embraced his diverse linguistic and cultural background and believed it would help him as a working adult. Clearly, an ESL student's ability to find a positive purpose to becoming bilingual is a major motivating force to acquiring a second language more easily and quickly. Furthermore, a similarity appeared between Jose's and Due's responses to the question about differences between boys and girls who were ESL students. Both of them sensed that their teacher felt sad about the students who were learning English as a second language. They related this sadness to the fact that ESL students (regardless of gender) learned differently and school was sometimes harder for them because they didn't speak as much English. Gender and Identity Jose's perceptions about differences and similarities between boys and girls 84

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were not as explicit as some of the other students I interviewed for the four case studies. When it came to explaining academic differences between boys and girls he was more indifferent than when asked about their differences at play. However, like Due he did notice collective differences between boys and girls who were not ESL students and boys and girls who were. (I) Do you think boys and girls learn differently? (J) Umm ... yes. (I) How do you think they learn differently? (J) Ummm .. .l dun know. (I) Give me an example of how you think ... boys might learn differently than girls. (J) Ummm .. .I don't know. ********** (I) Do you think boys and girls play differently at school? (J) Yes. (I) Why do you think that? (J) Ummm ... because ummm I think play soccer and other things ... (I) What do you see the girls playing outside? (J) Umm .. on the ... swings on in the cheese house. ********** (I) Do you think more boys or girls go to college? (J) More boys. (I) More boys? And why do you think that? (J) 'Cause in our classroom there're more boys. (I) Do you think boys or girls are better at school? (J) Both. (I) How do you think boys are good at school? (J) Ummmm ... they play a lot of sports. (I) Give me an example of how you think girls are good at school? (J) Ummmm ... they study a lot. (I) Do you think girls play a lot of sports at school? (J) No. (I) Do you think boys study a lot at school? (J) Ummm ... yes. (I) Why do you think girls don't play as many sports as boys do? 85

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(J) ... because .... girls are too slow? ********** (I) How do you think teachers feel about boys (J) I don't know. (I) How do you think they feel about girls? (J) Umrnm ... .l don't know. (I) How do teachers feel about girls that are ESL students? (J)Umrnm (D Happy? Good? Bad? Sad? Mad? (J) Both? .... good and some sad. (I) Why do you think good? (J) Umrnmm .. .I don't know. (I) Why do you think she feels sad? (J) Because ummm ... because they [ESL students] have ta learn more stuff. (I) How do you think teachers feel about boys who are ESL students? (J)Ummrnm (I) Good? Bad? Sad? .... Mad? (J) Good? (I) Good? Do you think kinda for the same reasons as the girls or ... (J) Same thing. While Jose was rather reluctant to answer some of the questions, he distinguished various differences between boys and girls (in general) by their physical and academic abilities. He stated that he thought boys were good at school because they played sports and that girls were good at school because they studied. However, he also mentioned that boys were good at school because they studied (like the girls) but girls were not good at school by playing sports because they were too slow (unlike the boys). Clearly, Jose saw differences in abilities among boys and girls, however he was not exactly sure how they were different. 86

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Discussion Jose was a highly motivated and goal oriented student. He appeared to struggle less academically and socially as a L2 learner than many of the other students I observed. Jose worked more effectively when he was given assignments and tasks that were explicit and direct. Creatively, he struggled to write about things that required him to use a more diverse vocabulary and background. While these issues may not be directly related to second language acquisition, my examination of Jose and the other ESL students indicates that learning a second language does play a large role in how they performed socially and academically. Although subsequent research is necessary, Jose's academic success and strong English proficiency seemed to have been influenced by his ability to adjust more quickly as an ESL student. 87

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"When I was in kindergarten I didn't understand anything. Then I just understand it." 'If 'I didn't know who you were or what things you did, what would you Hke me to know about you! "'What 'I play!" "'What CJ do at home." ..CUting." (what 'I Uke to eat) Background: Personal Lam is a very quiet and reserved second grader. Lam has a fairly small family that consists of her mother, father and two sisters (one older and one younger). While her parents speak mostly Vietnamese, Lam has mentioned they have been practicing at home with a tutor to learn English. Her older sister speaks English and is in the 9th grade. Lam's younger sister is 2 years old and so her language status is unclear. Lam appears to have had a few close friends at school that she played with and worked on school projects with. However, Lam is not an overly social person. Her extreme shyness and self-consciousness often prevented her from participating in small group or large group discussions. Lam's ESL status is considered to be at a LAS 2 or possibly LAS 3. Because it has been determined that Lam is only partially proficient in English, additional ESL instruction (2 1/2 hours/day) through the school's pull-out program and through 88

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ELA support in her regular classroom is required. Lam appeared to enjoy attending the ESL class at her school and always came back to the regular classroom to tell us something funny that had happened earlier that morning. Background: Academic Lam commented to me on several occasions that she did not like school because it was boring. Although Lam is relatively reserved and quiet, she is very perceptive about what goes on around her in the classroom. She is also very strong academically in reading, math, art, and science. Lam appeared to enjoy reading, solving math problems, and creating colorful pictures of nature. While Lam has great ideas to share with her classmates, she unfortunately, rarely ever takes the initiative to express herself in front of others. Whenever she did choose to share her ideas and opinions, it was rarely with her peers. Most of her remarks were saved to be shared quietly with the teacher. Several times Lam whispered privately to her teacher or me, "I read that book. It was easy" after another student was finished sharing. Although Lam wanted to demonstrate her knowledge, she was only willing to express herself in front of the teacher and not her peers. Her ESL teacher commented to me (with Lam's knowledge) that she was the "Sticker Queen" in all of ESL. What Ms. Renee implied by this was that Lam was always coming in after school to get extra homework from her. They were usually worksheets of familiar songs (e.g. "The Ants Go Marching 'On") and the object of each assignment was to fill in the blanks with the part of the song that was missing. 89

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When the students brought back in their completed homework, Ms. Renee would give them a handful of stickers as a reward. Lam had the most stickers out of any of Ms. Renee's ESL students and therefore had turned in the most finished homework. It is unclear whether or not Lam did the homework in order to "get smarter" or to get stickers. Her behavior and attitude at school suggests that it may be a combination of the two. Below are some of Lam's thoughts on how important homework is and what the benefits associated with doing it are. (I) What do you think being smart means? (L) Uhhh ... that means you know everything? (D How does your teacher know when someone is smart? (L) They give them homework? ... and they do them? (I) They do them and then what? (L) And we turn it in and [Ms. Richards] check them. (I) Do your parents think school's important? (L) Yes. (I) Why do you think that? How do you know that? (L) Ummm ... because umrnrnm ... when you parent want you to be smarter? (I) Your parents want you to be smarter? (L) When you grow up. Classroom Observations Each morning the students who attended ESL pull-out had 10-15 minutes in the regular classroom before it was time to leave. In Ms. Richard's classroom, students were expected to get out their writing journals and be working in them until she could finish taking attendance and lunch count. However, I often noticed several of the ESL students (who left each morning) not writing in their journals. Lam often sat at her desk looking at stickers or pictures she had drawn from the night before. 90

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Occasionally she would pull out a book she had been reading and read silently or she would talk to the boy who sat next to her. When Lam had to be reminded to get out her journal, she would flip through it slowly, and then turn to tell me she didn't know what to write about. She often struggled to fmd things to write about on her own especially when there was no formal assignment with a structure to follow. Reading. While Lam attended ESL pull-out on a regular basis and missed reading time in Ms. Richard's room, there were times when ESL classes were canceled and Lam was in our room for reading. Lam was a strong reader and proficient enough in English to handle the more difficult chapter books. When this happened, Lam joined the other students who were in Group 1 and read at her own pace in the book. However, her teacher commented to me on several occasions that Lam appeared to enjoy reading but had a hard time staying on task when it was time to write down responses about the reading in her journal. Ms. Richards expressed she did not think Lam enjoyed working on these kinds of assignments even though she was a very capable reader and writer and seemed to understand the material. When I asked Lam about reading and school during our interview, she appeared somewhat shy and hesitant to answer some of the questions. However, as the interview progressed, Lam seemed to become more comfortable and started to open up. (I) Do you think you're a good reader? (L) Ummm ... good and ... (I) Good? ... You kind of shake [your head] like "So-so?'' (L)Um-hum (I) Why do you think you're a good reader? 91

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(L) Be-cause I try and figure ummm ... words out? (I) Ok. And why do you think you're not such a good reader because you were kind of shaking your head .. (L) Ummhmm .. .I doooon't want to ... ********** (I) How does your teacher know someone is a good reader? (L) I think she goes on the (school bell rings) internet and ... more ... (I) You think she goes on the internet more? What would she fmd on the internet? (L) About us ... (I) So you guys are on the internet? What kinds of things ... (L) Our names ... (I) What does it say about your name? (L) I don't know. ********** (I) Do you think it's important to be a good student? (L) Ummm (nods head) (I) Yeah? You're shaking your head "Yes," why? (L) ... because you try to be nice to everybody. (I) Do you think going to school is important? (L) Yes. (I) Yes? and why is it important? (L) Ummm ... you learn things. (I) You learn things? Is it important that you learn things? (L)Um-hum. (I) Yeah? Why? (L) Be'because when you grow up you can be smart. Lam's interview was interesting in how she explained what made a student a good reader and how her teacher knew when someone was a good reader. She also talked about the importance of learning things because it will help make you smarter when you are older. While she thought she was a good reader because she tries to figure words out, she also suggested that she wasn't a good reader. Unfortunately, Lam would not explain to me why she thought this--perhaps she was uncomfortable 92

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or too embarrassed to tell me. Again, modesty was very characteristic of Lam's behavior at school during both social and academic situations. I also observed Lam reading one time with a small group of students. I had just finished reading to the class the book The Magic Fan and instructed the students to divide up into groups to reread and share with each other ideas about the story. As Lam's teacher and I monitored the room, I noticed Lam reading outloud rather loudly. She was careful to pronounce each word correctly--demonstrating to the other students that she was a good reader. While in the middle of reading one sentence, Lam made a mistake and pronounced the word wrong. She quickly caught herself, announced what she did wrong to the other students, and immediately corrected herself and proceeded to read the rest of the story. I was rather surprised my Lam's eagerness to read outloud to the rest of the students. Unlike Due or Jose, Lam was generally not a risk taker and did not like taking the initiative on activities that meant having to speak/read in front of others. However, clearly in this instance she felt comfortable enough as a reader to take the risk and read a fairly challenging book. It is examples such as these that do not correspond to the perceptions Lam had about reading during our interview. Writing. When it came to writing in the classroom, Lam was no different than any of the other students who struggled with the writing process. Lam appeared to struggle with both technical (e.g. report writing) and creative writing. Having watched Lam work on various writing assignments over the duration of the semester, it became quite evident that Lam simply did not like to write. During 93

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my interview with Lam, this frustration and lack of interest for writing became apparent. (I) Are you a good writer? (L) (long pause) (I) Do you think you're a good writer? (L) (no response) (I) When you write papers and reports and things ... do you think you're a good writer? (L) Sometimes. (I) Sometimes? When are you a good writer? (L) When I grow up. (I) When you grow up you'll be a good writer? And when do you think you're not such a good writer? (L) When I am little? (I) Do you think practicing makes you a better writer? (L) (nods head) ********** (I) How does Ms. Richards know if you're a good writer or not? (L) (no response) (I) How would she know if you were a good writer or not? (L) Ummm ... may just write things and then she mi...she (I) ... she makes you write things and then she .. .looks at them or what? (L) Looks at 'em. Several factors can be associated with Lam's disinterest in writing. One of the most important factors relates to her limited English proficiency. Lam was not as advanced in her L2 language as Due, Jose, and Shelley were. While she may have developed strong reading skills, her ability to express her thoughts and ideas in oral and written contexts was limited by her level of communicative competency in English. Furthermore, Lam especially had trouble with creative writing assignments and poetry. She continually needed support and reinforcement from her teacher in 94

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order to stay on task and complete the writing assignments. On several occasions Lam raised her hand and asked what she should write about. She also expressed her frustrations with writing by commenting, "I don't know how to write this." It was evident that Lam needed added support in generating ideas and constant reassurance that her writing was "good." The uneasiness and disinterest she felt may have been complicated/aggravated by her limited vocabulary as a second language student. When a L2 learner is unable to effectively commwlicate his/her thoughts through oral and written contexts, then the student is more apt to shut down and withdraw from the source of the stress. While the data is too limited to draw any direct conclusions, Lam's frustrations with writing suggest language development can impact academic performance. It would be beneficial to research further research how language development influences a student's ability to write. Language and Identity While Lam was one of the most quiet and reserved ESL students I observed, her attitude about learning a second language was positive and similar to the perceptions Due and Jose had. In talking to Lam about her parents and other ESL students, it seemed that she saw a purpose to learning a second language. Although it was not easy for Lam to learn English, she believed that learning two languages makes a person smarter. Lam also agreed that people who can speak two languages can communicate with both Vietnamese and English speaking people. These perceptions she had about learning a second language were reinforced at home by her 95

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parents and their desire to learn English as well. (I) Does anyone in your family speak English at home? (L) Yes. (I) And who is that? (L) My sister. (I) Just your sister? Who else do you live with at home? (L) Ummm .. my mom 'an dad and baby sister anddddmmmy big sister. (I) There's five of you and so your sister's the only one your older sister's the only one that speaks English? Will your baby sister learn English? (L) I don't know. ********** (I) What language do they watch t.v. or listen to music in at home? (L) Ummm Vietnamese andddd sometimes Vietnamese be on the t.v. and sometimes English. (I) Do you think that you guys listen to more music ... (L) Because my mom and my dad uuuuuhhhh have a teacher at home. (I) They have a teacher at home? And what does this teacher .... (L) All the times except Tuesday the teacher teach them. (I) They teach them things like you learn in school? (L) Uh-huh. (I) They teach them English or ... what? (L) They teach them English and ... sometime uhh learn at school but it about George Washington ... whowazzzz first president I think. (I) Ohh, do they have to take a big test? [i.e. National Citizenship Exam] (L) (singing) And and ttthhheee girls against the boys and the boys against the girls. ********** (I) Did you know who to speak English before you started kindergarten? (L) No. (I) So you only learned English here? (L) I just only know a little teany tiny (I) So you learned to speak mostly English here at school? (L) (nods head) (I) Has it been easy or hard for you to learn English, [Lam]? (L) Humm? Uhhhh hard. (I) Why? .... what's been the hardest part about it? (L) Eenngglliisshh. 96

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(I) Is it hard to understand sometimes? (L) Uh-huh .... because when I was in kindergarten i didn understand anything. (I) Were you scared? (L) And then I just understand it. (I) Because you practiced? Or you hear it a lot or ... (L) I heard it a lot or something (I) Were you scared when you were in kindergarten and didn't know how to speak English? (L) I was shy (spoken in a very loud pitched voice) ********** (I) Does speaking two languages make you smarter? (L) Ummmm ... yes. (I) And why do you think that? (L) ... .1 don't want to answer. (I) Do you think that if you spoke Vietnamese and English that you could do more things? (L) Yeah. Through our conversation, Lam expressed how difficult it was for her to learn English. She talked about how she knew little English when she entered kindergarten and how shy she was because of it. Her experiences in learning English as a second language came not from practicing it but from being exposed to people who fluently spoke it or who were trying to speak English. Undoubtedly, Lam's submersion into a classroom that was dominated by native English speakers created an environment in which she had no choice but to learn the new language. Even if Lam was supported through an ELA program, as a young student she saw which language was being used more and complied accordingly in order to identify with other children as a member of the classroom. As Lam commented, ... then I just understand it." Also, it was interesting to hear Lam talk about her parents' experiences 97

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with learning English. She talked about how they had a teacher who came to their house each week and tutored them in English. When I asked Lam if they were getting ready to take a big test, her response seemed to indicate that they were preparing for their National Citizenship exam. Clearly, Lam saw how important learning English was to her parents. Perhaps seeing her parents find a purpose to learning English has helped motivate Lam and it will encourage her to be more confident as a second language speaker inside the classroom both academically and socially. Gender and Identity Like any typical second grade girl, Lam mentioned that boys and girls don't usually play with each other because they think they have cooties. When I observed Lam and the other ESL students during lunch recess, I noticed that most of the girls stayed off to the side of the school in small groups by the doors next to their classrooms. The majority of boys were out in the baseball field playing soccer in large teams. Lam was one of these girls who stayed off to the side of the playground and quietly watched the other children play. She stood and talked with one or two friends and appeared disinterested in what was going on around her. However during our interview, Lam's perceptions about boys and girls at school were more neutral than the other three students I interviewed. Her remarks about the differences between boys and girls and how they perform academically were interesting. (I) Do you think boys and girls play differently at school? 98

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(L) Yes. (I) How? (L) Ummm ... because there's different things? (I) Can you give me an example? (L) Some of the boys play jump-rope and the girls some of them ... (I) Some of them do? Ok. {I) Do you think more boys or girls go to college? (L) Girls. (I) And why do you think that? (L) Because (smiling) I like girls ... (I) You like girls? (L) More than boys. ********** (I) Are boys or girls better at school? (L) No. {I) Which one? Or neither ... do you think boys or girls are better ... (L) Both. {I) And why do you think that? (L) Because .... there's no such thing. {I) There's no such thing as ... as a boy or girl being better at something? (L) Uh.-huh. {I) Ok. How do you think teachers feel about boys? (L) .. .I don't know ... what was it about boys? {I) What do you think ... (L) Good. (I) Can you give me an example? (L) No. (I) How do you think teachers feel about girls? (L) Good ... too. (I) How do teachers feel about girls who are ESL students ... Do you think teachers ... feel differently about them? (L) I don't want to answer .... {I) .... How do you think teachers feel about boys who are ESL students? (L) I don't want to answer. ********** (I) How many languages do you speak? (L) Two. (I) And what are they? 99

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(L) Uhh, Vietnamese and English. (I) Do you think more girls or boys speak two languages? (L) Urnrnrn ... rnore girls. (I) And why do you think that? (L) Because I like girls again. ********** (I) Do you think it's more important to speak many languages? (L) Yes. (I) Why do you think it's important? (L) Because you'll be more smarter. (I) Do you think it's harder for boys or girls to learn English? (L) Umrnm ... both. (I) Why? Do you think it's hard in the same way for boys and girls? (L) Urn-hum. (I) Why do you think it's hard for boys to learn English sometimes? (L) Be' cause some boys speaks others language? (I) Why do you think its hard for girls to learn ... many languages? (L) ... because .. .it's they sometimes urnrn the girls don't speak mostly that language. (I) Do you think it's important to speak English? (L) ... yes. (I) And why do you think that? (L) Umrnm because you'll be smarder when you grow up, again. (I) Do you think you'll speak more Vietnamese or more English when you get older? (L) English because I donh now I forgot all my Eng .. Vietnamese things. Lam insisted that being a boy or a girl does not make you better at school. More importantly, she did not believe that there was any such thing as a boy being a better student than a girl or a girl being better than a boy. That notion simply did not exist. When I asked Lam if she thought there were differences between boys and girls, like Jose and Due, she saw differences between boy and girls who were non-ESL students (as a group) and boys and girls who were ESL students (as a group). To 100

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Lam, most ESL students, regardless of gender, have a hard time learning English as a second language because they don't know the new language very well and do not speak it as much. Nevertheless, Lam did believe that learning two languages was beneficial because it will make you smarter when you grow up. Discussion Watching Lam's social and academic behavior at school suggests that she is still struggling as a L2 learner. She is extremely quiet and reserved and unlike Jose and Due, not usually willing to take risks as a learner. Lam seldom shared with the class any of her schoolwork and rarely expressed any ideas about what she was learning or how she felt. Her reluctance to interact socially and academically may indicate that she is not confident enough yet in her English proficiency to demonstrate it (through conversation, written work, play) to others. Lam's lack of willingness to take risks appears to have impacted her level of English proficiency and rate of second language development. 101

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SHELLEY "My cousins they know more English and they don't want to talk to 'em [grandparents) in Spanish. They tell 'em ta speak English." CJr CJ didn't know you what would you want me to know about you! "9'ly name." "'Where CJ Uve." "cBe a good friend." BackgroWid: Personal Shelley is a very outspoken and outgoing young girl. She has a small family that includes her mother, father, younger brother and sister. Her family appears to be close and takes Shelley's academic progress very seriously. Socially, I noticed that Shelley and some of the other girls in the classroom had trouble getting along. There was one student in particular who Shelley seemed to have a "love/hate" relationship with on a daily basis. She came up to me several times throughout the semester to tell me that a few of the girls in the classroom were picking on her. Towards the end of the year I observed Shelley off by herself, somewhat excluded from the other students in the classroom. Shelley's ESL backgroWid is somewhat different than the other three students in the case studies. Most of the other students had parents who were born in other countries and spoke little, if any English. According to Shelley, her mother 102

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was born in Colorado and speaks both Spanish and English. Her step-father (no mention of real father) was also born in Colorado and speaks only English although he is trying to learn some Spanish Shelley says. Shelley also told me that her grandparents speak limited English and so English appears to be transitioning by generation into her family. Shelley is considered to be a mainstreamed ESL student primarily because she speaks both Spanish and English fluently and both languages are spoken in the home. Because the dominant language for Shelley is somewhat difficult to determine (although it appears she uses English more), she receives ELA instructional support from her regular classroom teacher. Background: Academic Shelley seemed to enjoy school especially during reading, writing, poetry, and art. Like Jose, Shelley was also a very competitive student both academically and physically. Academically, she was always willing to share ideas and answers during small and large group discussions. Unlike some of the other students in her class, her teacher had trouble keeping Shelley from blurting out the answer to every question. Physically, Shelley was very active and aggressive during gym. She clearly had a desire and eagerness to win at everything she played. However, this aggressiveness was not as apparent outside. Instead of playing sports or other group-centered activities, Shelley spent a lot of time socializing (talking) with other students. Towards the end of the school year, I noticed Shelley's willingness to learn 103

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and share ideas decreasing. In addition, Shelley seemed to be speaking Spani$h less and less with other ESL students in the classroom. She no longer volunteered to help any of the monolingual Spanish students communicate with the teacher in English. Overall, Shelley had become socially and academically disinterested. This may have been attributed to the fact that Shelley and another student (whose families were close) were gone from school for 3 weeks on a trip to El Salvador to visit relatives. Classroom Observations My observations of Shelley show her to be a very responsible and competitive student. Shelley did not have trouble staying on task when it came to completing assignments. Quite often she would show her work to other students and argue over whose paper was better. Furthermore, like Jose, Shelley adopted the role of tutor to several of the girls in her class who didn't speak any English. Out of the four students I observed for the cases studies, Shelley was the only one who openly and frequently used both languages in a variety of contexts (e.g. translating social studies activities, poem readings, and seat work assignments to other ESL students). Reading. Although Shelley somewhat struggled as a reader (she was in the "middle" reading group), she had a positive attitude about it and said she enjoyed reading a variety of books. However, from discussions with her teacher, Ms. Carson did not get the impression that Shelley liked to read. During daily reading groups, Ms. Carson commented that Shelley did not appear to be enthusiastic about reading. 104

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Also, at the beginning of the school year her teacher placed her on a literacy plan (ILPIndividual Learning Plan) that would help Shelley develop stronger reading and writing strategies. However, Shelley herself, never suggested she had trouble reading. Overall, her responses to some of the reading and good student questions in the interview were similar to the other students in the case studies. They all believed that good readers were determined by how many words they knew and how good their grades were. (I) Do you think you're a good reader? (S) Yeah. EI) Yeah? How do you know that? (S) 'Cause I read a lot. (I) You read a lot? How does your teacher know if someone' s a good reader? (S) By reading with them? (I) By reading with them? And how does she know if they are a good reader or not? (S) If they know mostly all the words. ********** (I) Why do you think it's important to be a good student? (S) Ta get good grades. (I) And why do you need to get good grades? (S) No ... (inaudible) go back to another grade. (I) Not go back another grade? Do you think going to school is important? (S)Yeah. (I) Why? (S) 'Cause umrnm ... you have ta know and learn a lot. (I) And you need to go to school to do that? (S) (nods head) (I) Do you read at home? (S)Yeah. ********** (I} Where do you read when you read at home? 105

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(S) Ummm ... the rocldng chair. (I) Do you read by yourself? (S) Yeah. (I) Most of the time or ... (S) Sometimes I read it ta my sister. (I) Why do you read? Do you read for fun? Is it to learn more? Or all of those things ... (S) Taleam (I) To learn? Do you ever read for fun? (S) Yeah. As I watched Shelley during various reading activities, she was most comfortable during large group poetry readings. Unlike Lam who did not like to read in front of large groups, Shelley saw this as an opportunity to show everyone how good of a reader she was and how well she could relate to the poem from personal experiences. In this context, Shelley was highly motivated and willing to actively demonstrate her skills as a reader. As each new poem was introduced, Shelley took it upon herself to quickly and correctly memorize it and then recite it to her teacher without looking. Occasionally, Shelley would translate to the class in Spanish what certain words in the poem were. Her willingness to demonstrate her knowledge in front of others as a reader and second language speaker suggests that Shelley was comfortable with her status as an ESL student. She found speaking the two languages to be useful and meaningful within an academic context. Writing. While reading for Shelley was somewhat challenging, writing appeared to be less difficult for Shelley. Shelley especially enjoyed writing about personal experiences and seemed to be more creatively inclined than Due, Jose, or Lam. One of the reasons for this may have been because Shelley loved to 106

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communicate with everybody in her class. She was always sharing with someone something that had happened to her over the weekend. This sense of "story" in her life translated into her strong ability to write. Furthermore, because Shelley was fluently proficient in English, her background vocabulary was more advanced than some of the other ESL students. She therefore struggled less with language as a barrier and was able to explore writing more :freely. However, Shelley's own perceptions about being a good writer stem from other criteria. (I) Do you think you're a good writer? (S) Yeah. (I) How do you know that? (S) (with confidence in her voice and rather nonchalantly) I look at my writing and people and people have good writing. (I) People say you have good writing? (S) (nods head) (I) Ok. Shelley based the fact that she was a good writer on how she compared to other students in her class. It appears as though these student comparisons increased her confidence as a writer. Nevertheless, her varied successes with writing (either creatively or technically) are closely related to her high level of English proficiency and subsequent communicative competency. Language and Identity Shelley's ranges in ability to speak both Spanish and English were diverse. Having heard both languages spoken as a child, it put Shelley at an linguistic advantage over most other ESL students. Although she may have been more 107

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bilingually proficient in her oral and written skills than the other ESL students, her attitude about learning to speak two languages was comparable to them. (I) Does anyone in your family speak English at home? (S) My sister's only 3 years old and my brother and everyone ... speaks both. (I) So everybody speaks English and Spanish? (S) My dad doesn't know very good. He kinda learning (I) Doesn't know very good what? (S) Ummm ... speaking Spanish. (I) Oh, so he's trying ta learn Spanish? Does he speak mostly English? (S) Yeah. (I) What language do you all watch t.v .... or listen to music in? (S) English. (I) Is it ever in Spanish? (S) Nuh-uh (shakes head) .... sometimes. ********** (I) Did you know how to speak English before you started kindergarten? (S) Yeah. (I) You did? How did you learn to speak English? (S) My mom. (I) Your mom? Has it been hard or easy for you to learn English? (S) Hard. (I) And why has it been hard? (S) 'Cause it's been hard 'cause umrnm ... (I) Did you learn English and Spanish at the same time? (S)Nuh-uhh (I) No? Which one did you learn first? (S) English. (I) What's been the hardest? (S) Spanish. (I) Spanish is hardest for you? Do you get confused sometimes? (S) Yeah. ********** (I) Are you glad that you speak both English and Spanish? (S) Yeah. (I) Why? 108

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(S) 'Cause .. .l can ... when someone speak Spanish I can speak Spanish and when someone speaks English I can speak English. (I) Do you think speaking two languages makes you smarter? (S) Uh-hum. Yes. (I) How? (S) Learn more. (I) Do you think it's important to speak many languages? (S) Yeah. (I) Why? (S) ... pauses (I) You think ... you think to speak two languages is better than one? (S) Yes. Urn-hum. ********** (I) Which language do you like to speak more? (S) English. (I) English? And why's that? (S) 'Cause I know more English. (I) You said that your dad is kind ofleaming Spanish? (S)Um-hum. (I) Does your mom have to learn how to speak English? (S)Nuh-uh. (I) No? She knew it? (S)Um-hum. (I) What about your grandparents? Do they speak English? (S) Some ... my grandpa he Spanish more Spanish and my grandma too. (I) Do they want to learn how to speak English? (S) Yeah. (I) They do? So are they trying to learn? (S) Yeah .. ummm ... my cousins they know more English and they don't want to talk to 'em in Spanish and they tell 'em ta speak English (I) Your cousins don't like to talk to them in Spanish. (S)Um-hum. (I) Why? (S) They know Spanish but ... they don't like it. Learning two languages (simultaneously) has been somewhat difficult for Shelley for several reasons. One that is most negatively associated with second language 109

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acquisition is resistance. While Shelley's immediate family has encouraged her to learn both English and Spanish, there are other members of her family who appear to resist speaking Spanish. Her cousin's refusal to speak the one language their grandparents can understand suggests that there are linguistic and cultural conflicts between the three generations. However, Shelley's relatively positive attitude towards being bilingual indicates that she has found speaking each one meaningful and useful. Finding a purpose has most likely helped Shelley to develop both personally and socially as a second language learner. Gender and Identity Unlike Lam and Due, Shelley was more willing to interact with boys and girls in a variety of social and school-related activities. Shelley took an active and rather aggressive approach to her learning and in her relationships with peers. This was especially noticeable during gym time and during large group discussions when she took on a more dominant role than some of the other girls, especially those who were ESL students. Shelley was not as socially intimidated as Lam was when it came to talking or playing in front of others. Because Shelley was a risk taker, she exposed herself to more social and academic contexts in which she could demonstrate her language proficiency (both in English and Spanish). During our interview, Shelley shared how in some situations boys and girls are similar and how in others, they are not. (I) Do you think boys and girls play differently at school? 110

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(S) Yeah. (I) How? (S) Boys play with boys and girls play with girls. (I) So the boys don't play with the girls and the girls don't play with the boys? Why do you think that? (S) 'Cause I see they don't play. (I) And why do you think that they don't play with each other? (S) I just do. ********"'* (I) Do you think more boys or girls go to college? (S) Yes. (I) Do you think more boys or girls go to college? (S) More boys. (I) You think more boys go? Why? (S) They just do. (I) You think there's a reason for that? That there's more boys or that they ... more boys want to go to college or ... ? (S) More boys want to go to college. (I) More boys want to go to college. Who do you think may not want to go to college? (S) Ummm ... (mumbling) I don't know. ********** (I) Do you think boys or girls are better at school? (S) Both of them. (I) Both of them you think? How do you think teachers feel about boys? (S) Umrnm ... good? (I) How do you think teachers feel about girls? (S) Ok. (I) And why do you think ok? (S) 'Cause they're good. (I) Good? Are boys good students? (S)No. (I) Are girls good students? (S) Yeah (I) Do you think teachers feel differently about boys and girls? (S)No. (I) No? (coughing) How do umm teachers feel about girls who are ESL students? 111

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(S) Sad. (I) Why do you think they feel sad? (S) Umrnm ... they have ta go and find work. (I) They have to go and fmd work? Is it different than staying in the regular classroom? (S)Um-hum. (I) Why do you think that? (S) Sometimes they get ta leave and they get to umrnm go longer? (I) Why do you think the teachers are so sad? Because what. .. (S) They have ta work hard. (I) And how do teachers feel about boys who are ESL students? (S) pauses .... (I) Do they have to work a lot? (S) A little bit. (I) .... as the girls? (S) Uh-huh. (I) Do you think teachers feel sad about boys who are ESL students too? (S) (nods head) ********** (I) Do you think its harder for boys or girls to learn uhhh English? (S) pauses ... umrnm both are. (I) You think it's both harder? Hard for both boys and girls to learn? (S) No. (I) Who's it harder for? (S) Uhhh umrnm both of them did. (I) Both of 'em? Do you think speaking English would be easy ... (S) Uh-huh. (I) Which language do you like to speak more? (S) English. (I) English? and why's that? (S) 'Cause I know more English. ********** (I) Which language do you think you'll speak more when you grow up? (S) Spanish and English. (I) Do you think you'll speak them both about the same? Ok. Why do you think that? (S) I'll probably be learning 'em. 112

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During our interview, Shelley clearly noticed several differences between boys and girls. Although she couldn't explain why, Shelley said that boys and girls play differently and that more boys go to college. When I asked her why, her responses to these two questions were the same, "They just do." Moreover, when I asked Shelley if boys or girls were better at school, she told me she thought they were both good at school. However, when I asked her if there were differences between boys and girls who were ESL students, she thought there were. Just as the other three students commented that their teachers felt sad about ESL students, Shelley commented that the teachers felt sad because ESL students had to go and flnd work and they had to work. hard. She also said that it was hard for both boys and girls to learn English as a second language. While Shelley perceived differences between the students in her classroom and school, these differences were determined more by ESL status rather than gender. Discussion My observations of Shelley suggest that she has assimilated more quickly to the dominant language and culture namely because she learned both languages at the same time and at an early age. Interestingly, as I watched Shelley interact with other ESL students who were not as proficient in English as she was, she did not seem to relate to them as a struggling L2leamer. Instead, Shelley approached the students (and situations) as a translator and/or mentor and someone who could help them learn/adapt to English. Furthermore, Shelley was more willing to take risks as a 113

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learner and individual in a variety of contexts and this helped her to achieve a higher level of bilingual proficiency. Unfortunately, Shelley was the only girl to be observed as a risk taker. The other girls were more withdrawn and tended to shy away from opportunities to express themselves academically and socially. 114

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CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION The present research study explored several factors attributed to gender and second language acquisition in order to answer the three research questions: I) Does gender (positively or negatively) affect the rate at which a second language (English) is proficiently acquired? What factors are associated with this? 2) In what ways is the rate at which a second language is acquired for boys and girls different among Vietnamese and Hispanic students? 3) Is L2 attainment strongly associated with successful academic achievement? Observations from the initial study group of eleven ESL students revealed psychological and sociocultural factors associated with gender that influenced the rate of second language development. Psychological factors strongly associated with gender and second language acquisition were: a) language shock, b) ethnic identity/ conception of self through language, and c) self-esteem. Sociocultural factors shown to be directly related to gender and L2 attainment were: a) socialized gender roles, b) gender and play, and c) classroom culture. The second part of the study employed a case study analysis on four of the eleven ESL students to investigate whether or not gender and the rate of L2 acquisition is different among Vietnamese and Hispanic students. Inquiries were also made on the four ESL students in order to determine 115

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how strongly L2 attainment is associated with successful academic achievement. Question 1 Does gender (positively or negatively) affect the rate at which a second language (English) is proficiently acquired? What factors are associated with this? Psychological Factors While all of the psychological factors appeared to influence the group of ESL students to some extent, language shock had the most direct impact on the students as L2 learners. The most frequent occurrences of language shock appeared during large group discussion times when the ESL students were required to use their English language skills. In Ms. Johnson's' class the majority ofESL students found it difficult and intimidating to speak out in front of others. This held most true for Lam, Marta, and Hoa. Their uneasiness was especially apparent when they were asked to answer a question (personal or academic related). Quite often, Lam would put her head down or shake and cover her face in order to avoid having to respond. When Hoa was willing to share her ideas and experiences, she typically phrased her response in the form of a question--suggesting she was unsure her answer would be accepted by the group as "correct." The experiences and behaviors of the girls in Ms. Johnson's' room could also be found with some of the girls in Ms. Carson's. During large group discussions all of the monolingual Spanish girls were clustered in the back of the room distancing themselves from the rest of the class. On several 116

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occasions Ms. Carson remarked how Lia and a few of the other ESL girls would shake their heads "no" (rather ambivalently) and look scared when asked to share their ideas and experiences. With the exception of Shelley, who was perhaps more comfortable with her communicative competence in English, the majority ofESL girls experienced language shock and this interfered with their oral language development in English. Although the girls struggled with oral participation, the boys in both second grade classrooms appeared to struggle less and were more willing than the girls to take risks. Risk-taking appears to be closely related to language development because when a L2 learner is more willing to socialize, share personal experiences, and demonstrate knowledge to others through language, they tend to develop and strengthen the skills necessary to become proficient second language speakers. Due often shared his own ideas and opinions and did not look as anxious when responding as did the girls. Moreover, Jose and Anthony, who were more proficient in English, were more comfortable and willing to participate during class discussions. They also showed more confidence (i.e. excited, happy, sure of themselves) when they responded to the questions and discussion. However, there were times when language shock did impact when and how much a few of the boys were willing to share. Tien, for example, often found himself struggling to communicate his ideas successfully to the other students because his English skills were not as developed as some of the other ESL boys. Nevertheless, the boys generally, appeared to have developed a stronger sense of confidence and self-esteem and were more willing to 117

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take risks than were the girls. Clearly, language shock played a large role in how well these ESL students advanced as second language learners. More importantly, the data suggest the boys were more willing to take risks in the classroom than the girls. Previous research suggests that oral participation plays a key role in determining how successful a second language is acquired. Therefore, frequent practice of the new language in a variety of contexts enables the L2 learner to advance in his/her linguistic proficiency. Because the boys demonstrated and practiced their English language skills more frequently than the girls, their level ofL2 acquisition was higher than the girls. A second psychological factor related to gender and L2 attainment was the ESL student's ethnic identity or conception of self through language. Most incidence of dual identity or conflict occurred in those ESL students who were "transitioning" from one language to another. Two students in Ms. Carson's classroom, Anthony and Shelley, displayed such cultural and linguistic conflicts. Because the two were fluent in English, they had been mainstreamed into a "regular" classroom where English was dominant and Spanish was not. During conversations with Anthony about speaking two languages, he commented to me that he saw no reason to speak Spanish because everyone around him spoke English. It was apparent that Anthony did not find a strong need or purpose to speak/learn Spanish. Similarly, Shelley's ethnic/cultural identity seemed to have been shaped by which language she chose to speak. During our interview, she talked about members of her family who spoke only Spanish and those who spoke both English and Spanish. It 118

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was revealed that there were defmite conflicts within her family over which language should predominantly be spoken. She talked about how her cousins refused to speak to their grandparents in Spanish (the only language they understood) because they only wanted to use English. Although Shelley saw a need to speak both languages now and in the future, it was evident that she struggled with a sense of marginality with regards to her bilingualism. Such cultural and linguistic conflicts that create marginality or dual membership between dominant and minority cultures can impact the rate at which a second language is acquired and used. Self-esteem is the third and final psychological factor influencing gender and L2 acquisition. If a student is unable to successfully acquire English as their second language, the ESL student may experience feelings of inadequacy and low self esteem. Self-esteem is also strongly related to the acceptance or exclusion of membership within the dominant group and culture. In both classrooms, the girls seemed to shy away from any form of risk taking both socially and academically. While it did not appear as though the girls had a low sense of self-esteem about themselves as individuals, there were instances which suggest they struggled as L2 learners and were less confident in during social and academic situations. These situations required them to speak in front of others and put them in a vulnerable position. Lam was often observed hiding her finished class work especially when it was art or science related. Like many of the other ESL girls, Lam was unwilling to show her work or talk about what she did. Having uncertainty and a lack of confidence over whether or not the work would be accepted by her peers 119

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was very unnerving for Lam. Overall, the data suggest that self-esteem appeared to be more gender related than culture related because the Vietnamese boys did not exhibit the same reserved, withdrawn behavior as the Vietnamese girls. Sociocultural Factors One of most important sociocultural factors that determine how much gender influences L2 acquisition is the socialized gender roles students experience within a variety of social and academic contexts. The roles boys and girls are socialized into greatly influence how they interact with others and approach learning inside the classroom. Risk-taking and confidence were more closely associated with the boys during social and academic activities while independence, diligence and the establishment of meaningful friendships were more common among the girls. Gender roles shape an individual's behavior, attitude, and perceived academic ability. The data collected from this research study suggest that regardless of ESL status (e.g. level of proficiency), gender roles clearly influenced their behavior inside and outside the classroom. Generally, the boys were more technical and competitive in nature. Additionally, the boys tended to work together at centers and played soccer together in large, homogeneous gender groups during lunch recess. In contrast, the girls appeared to be more creatively inclined, choosing art or the listening centers over computers or math. The girls also tended to work more independently or with a few select friends unlike the boys. It was obvious that the boys had established several relationships with their male counterparts (and perhaps 120

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not as close or personal) while the girls had established one or two close, personal relationships with other second grade girls. The competitiveness the boys displayed during many social activities carried over into their class work and group discussions. Their "aggressiveness" and willingness to take more risks than the girls may be attributed to the fact boys tend to report what they've learned in more formulaic and competitive manners. Girls, on the other hand, need to make more personal connections to what they are learning. Moreover, the boys exposed themselves to more linguistic opportunities and challenges while the girls' language use was limited due to shyness and being more reserved. However, personal connections (made through conversation) were sometimes difficult for the girls who were ESL students because their English proficiency was not as strong as some of their non-ESL peers. Thus, girls who are ESL students face several social and academic challenges associated with gender. These challenges are further complicated when the girls hold an ethnic and second language minority status. Furthermore, while some academic settings support the need for creativity and conversation, most are goal and task oriented (more closely related to how boys learn). In relation to L2 attainment, it is clear that risk taking and competitiveness can increase a student's level of English language proficiency and academic success. Those students who showed the most competitiveness and risk taking were the boys. Subsequently, the boys had more opportunities to use their linguistic skills and increase their overall English language proficiency. The data from 121

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this study suggest that in one year, the rate ofL2 acquisition among boys increased by 1 or 2levels while the girls showed slower progress (typically 1 level, Lia lost a level) in their oral language development (see also Table 7.1) A second category under sociocultural factors is gender and play. The significance of gender and play in relation to L2 acquisition is the social and cognitive development of children through verbal and physical interactions with others. Like most second graders, the students in this study stated that the girls only played with the girls and the boys only played with the boys. Moreover, the majority of ESL girls and a few of the ESL boys played alone during lunch recess. Isolation can impact a student's ability to develop strong conummicative competencies and this was found to be somewhat true for Lam, Hoa, Marta, and Tomas. These ESL students tended to struggle the most with their L2 competencies (fearful of speaking in a variety of contexts) and ultimately showed the least amount of progress in L2 development. Clearly social interactions related to gender can impact when and how often a second language is used and acquired. A final sociocultural factor that applies to gender and L2 acquisition was classroom culture. The classroom demands that students have strong communicative competencies in order to work effectively within different social and academic contexts (English structured). However, this is sometimes challenging for second language learners because their communicative competencies are more limited than others. Underlying most classrooms are established sociolinguistic norms that members of the dominant culture comply with. These norms require students to 122

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have strong linguistic skills in English. However, this environment can be stressful and challenging for the ESL student because their limited English proficiency can prevent them from participating fully as active members in the classroom. All of the students who participated in this study thought ESL students (regardless of gender) had to work harder than non-ESL boys and girls at school in order to do well. Also, the four students who were interviewed for the case studies commented that they thought their teachers felt sad about ESL students because the ESL students didn't understand a lot of English and learned differently. While these students noticed learning differences between non-ESL students and ESL students, they did not perceive any differences between boys and girls. In terms of classroom culture, the data suggest language appeared to have had a greater influence on how ESL students were perceived academically than did gender. Question 2 In what ways is the rate at which a second language is acquired for boys and girls different among Vietnamese and Hispanic students? An interesting correlation that emerged from the case studies and larger group analysis was the amount of oral participation that took place among the two ethnic groups of students. Although the majority of students in Ms. Carson's room were Hispanic and spoke mostly Spanish, Ms. Johnson's class was more ethnically diverse. There were students who spoke Vietnamese, Arabic, Spanish, English, and Hmong. The data collected indicate that those students who were more willing to 123

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share ideas, personal experiences, and demonstrate knowledge were Hispanic. This supports previous research (Rong and Grant, 1992; Shannon, 1995b; see also Garcia 1986; Pease-Alvarez, Garcia, and Espinosa, 1991) that states members of the Hispanic culture tend to socialize and learn more effectively through group interactions or communities. Students who were less willing to share ideas and withdrew from classroom discussions were more often Vietnamese and Hmong. This also supports research (Pang, 1990; R. Chia, J. Moore, K. Lam, C. Chuang, and B. Cheng, 1994) that suggests Asian students are more reserved and remain silent due to a strong respect for authority. Further detailed analysis suggests that within both ethnic groups, those who were more likely to participate were boys. Because the boys seemed to take more risks and participate more than girls, they allowed themselves more opportunities to demonstrate and strengthen their second language skills. Although subsequent research is needed, it appears as though the rate ofL2 attainment can vary among different ethnic groups and can be influenced by gender within those ethnic groups. The data represented in Table 7.1 reveal several key factors with regards to gender and second language progress among the 11 students. First, all of the students (except Marta) showed an increase in language proficiency from Fall of 1999 to Fall of2000. On average, each student progressed one LAS level over the duration of a year and as of this fall (2000), the majority ofESL students who participated in this study attained a high enough LAS score (LAS 4) to be considered candidates to exit the ESL program. In looking at the data more closely, two of the 124

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boys (Tien and Tomas) showed a significant increase in oral language development. In terms of ethnicity, Hispanic boys appeared to be more proficient over the other gender (girls) and ethnic group (Vietnamese). Only one girl (Lia) showed a significant increase in oral language development over the other girls and it appears as though there were no major differences in LAS scores between Hispanic and Vietnamese girls. In looking at the overall LAS progress of the eleven ESL students, the three LAS evaluations (fall '99, spring '00, and fall '00) show the boys to have achieved higher levels of English language proficiency than the girls. 125

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Student IT8S8 =8oyiG=Girl Fanoo 1. Jose <8> 69% 2. Anthony 4% 3. Tomas 20% 4. Due 7% N 0"1 5. lien <8> Below1% 6. Minh Below 1% 7. Shelley 24% 8.Lia (G) NIA 9. Marta 1% 10. Hoa 20% 11. Lam 1% Table 7.1 IT8S and LAS Scores for 1999-2000 ITBSIncrease LAS Spring oo YIN Fa11 64% N 3 8% y NIA 41% y 2 6% N 3 2% y 1 27% y 2 27% y 3 NIA NIA 1 9% y 3 43% y 2 18% y 2 --LAS Increase LASSpring oo YIN Fall oo 4 y 4 NIA NIA NIA 4 y 4 4 y 4 3 y NIA 3 y 4 4 y 4 3 y 2 3 N 4 3 y 3 3 y 3 L__ ____ L___

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Ouestion-3 Is L2 attainment strongly associated with successful academic achievement? Case Study Analysis: The Four Students The primary focus of the individual case studies was to survey whether or not L2 attainment is strongly associated with successful academic achievement among boys and girls. There were three areas approached in the case study analysis: a) student background b) classroom observations (reading and writing), c) language and identity, and d) gender and identity. The four students selected were Due, Jose, Lam, and Shelley. All were ESL students who were at different levels of English language proficiency (refer to Table 4.1 ). There were noticeable similarities and differences between the four students in the case studies. Table 7.1 shows the amount of progress each student made during the 1999-2000 school year in terms of English language proficiency (scores are based on the LAS test) and the ITBS test. Scores on the LAS test indicated Shelley, Jose, and Due were ready to be mainstreamed into the regular classroom, without the need of strong language support. Lam, however, was not a candidate to exit from the ESL program because her proficiency in English was not yet strong enough (a 4 or higher). She will still be in need of extended ESL pull-out support and will continue to receive it until her proficiency in English is stronger and more fluent. 127

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Further examination of the data collected from academic portfolios (e.g. writing samples, seat work, reading records, grades) indicate that all four students were at different reading and writing levels. Interviews of the four students also suggest they had their own perceptions about what it meant to be a good reader, writer, and overall good student. Table 7.2 swnmarizes how each of the four students felt about these two academic subjects and the importance of being a good student. 128.

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- Good Reader Good Writer Due: Reading is hard because you A good 'w1iter has good may not know that manywords p enmans hip. and you needs to practice. They test you in a book and if Vv'titingstories that are not you don't miss any words then plain and not aJready 'w1itt en you11 go to a higher book. make you a good wtiter. Lam: A good readertries to figure out Vou are a good Wfllerwhen the words. you grow up. Vou are not as N '0 good of a writer when you are little. Jose: You are a good reader when you To be a good writer means to get can read for fun and so you 3 point answers (comprehension). can learn. Shelley: A good reader reads a lot and A good writer compares their knoW'S mostlyallthe'w'ords. writing to another student's andlookse.l:which one is good. People tell you yo1J have good writing. Good 81udent You leamstuff. If you don't do your work you \!All flunk and go to the same grade. That's bad and you can't go to college. Vou learn things so you grow up to be smart. You pass to other grades and get good grades every time. You are a good student when you get good grades. Vou need to learn and lmowalot so you won't go back annutA ., ce c: (1) -.....! N G)::D(J) OCDIl>C: oa.c.. S!1:::::J a.)> mc:::JC:

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Through conversations and interviews it became clear that most of these students attributed being a good reader, good writer, and good student to receiving good grades. While Shelley and Jose thought they were good readers and writers due to good grades and comparing work with other students, Due and Lam did not think they were as good at reading and writing. Both Due and Lam thought it would take a lot of practice to become good readers and writers. Interestingly, none of the four students interviewed associated doing poorly or struggling academically to their ESL status. However, when they were asked about the learning differences between ESL students and non-ESL students, they each commented that ESL students had to work harder and learned differently because they did not know as much English as the rest of the students. Another important theme revealed from the interview was the positive attitude each student displayed about their ESL status and being a second language learner. While each member of the interview group openly discussed the struggles they encountered as second language learners (most of them first learned English in kindergarten by necessity, not choice), none of the students indicated they found speaking two languages to be burdensome or pointless. Instead, the four students appeared to appreciate their diverse linguistic backgrounds and over time, have developed a strong sense of purpose and meaning for learning/knowing the two languages. Specifically, as a L2 learner Due has developed a clear understanding about how both languages can be useful during different linguistic contexts. He suggests there are times when one language should be used over the other and uses 130

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the home vs. school as a good example (home= Vietnamese, school= English). The interview group also saw a need to continue speaking two languages because both would be useful to them in the future. One specific example each of the four students shared about the future was their ability to use their native and second languages to help people communicate better with each other at work. Even as second graders, Jose, Due, and Shelley took on the role of translator and mentor to several of the monolingual ESL students who needed help understanding. Finding such a meaningful purpose has not only motivated these students to continue to learn English, but it will also allow them the opportunity to advance as learners and as adults in the global work force. One final significant finding to come from this study was the four students' perceptions about learning differences that exist among boys and girls (in general) among non-ESL and ESL students. Jose, in particular, noticed physical and academic differences among boys and girls and used this to define (in part) what "makes a good student" Jose expressed that boys were good at school because they played sports and studied a lot. Girls, however, were just good at school because they studied. Due also noticed social and academic differences between girls and boys. It appears the boys were more consciously aware of the differences associated with gender than were the girls. Each of the four students also distinguished between the learning differences ofnon-ESL and ESL boys and girls. During the interviews, Due, Jose, Lam, and Shelley each stated that the ESL students had to work harder at school because they 131

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didn't know as much English as the non-ESL students. In addition, they perceived their teachers to feel sad sometimes about the ESL students and suggested it was because ESL boys and girls have to work harder and leain differently. Due found specific differences between boy ESL students and girl ESL students and remarked that girls know more English than the boys and the ESL boys learn differently because they don't know or understand as much English. Overall, socialized gender roles and the ESL status of students appeared to impact how these four students determined learning ability both positively and negatively. First, all four of the students implied there were learning differences between ESL and non-ESL students. Collectively, the group perceived ESL students to be the ones who struggled more academically than the non-ESL students. Their (and some of the others) perceptions about such learning differences suggests they viewed a student's level ofL2 proficiency to influence how they performed academically. Both Shelley and Jose perceived themselves to be good readers and writers because they got good grades. Relatedly, they were more fluent in their oral language proficiency than were the other ESL students observed. In contrast, both Due and Lam did not feel they were as good at reading and writing. They were not as strong in their (in comparison to Jose and Shelley) English proficiency and this may have influenced how they perceived themselves to perform academically. Regardless of how Due, Jose, Lam, and Shelley perceived themselves and/or others, the positive attitude they expressed towards their L2 status suggests they had a strong desire to advance as L2 learners. Finding a meaningful purpose to 132

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learning a second language strongly motivated these students and has encouraged them to develop both socially and academically. 133

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Limitations to the Study As in all research studies, there .were certain limitations encountered during the course of data collection. The most noticeable was the observation of different ethnic groups, cultures, and languages. Since o.bservations were made on students whose native languages were something other than English, the responses received during .the interviews and classroom discussions may have varied from one participant to the next, A second limitation to the study was the exclusion of certain cultural and social factors--such liS family .or socioeconomic status--and their relation .to gender and L2 attainment. Such factors were not addressed in this research study because they were too large and require future extensive, independent investigations oftheir own. Responses from the questionnaires that were distributed to the students' parents or legal guardians may have varied due to the guardian not fully understanding the questions and/or having confusion over the content of the material. However, it is nearly impossible to have the information writtenin.the consent forms and questionnaires translated verbatim (e.g. from researcher to participant and from .participant to researcher). Therefore, there was the chance for the meaning of the questions and responses to be altered slightly. Another major limitation of the research was that students and families of different cultures and ethnicities have certain values, behaviors, and beliefs that may 134

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have prevented them from participating and/or disclosing fully the information that was asked of them. Parks (1997) reports, "Asian Arnericans ... have distinct cultural values, such as conformity to authority and respect for elders, taciturnity, strong social hierarchy, male dominance, and a high emphasis on learning which are deeply rooted in the Confucian tradition" (p. 68). Parks also suggests that the parents of Asian American students encourage. them to be reserved and they tend to be more permissive to boys than to girls (p. 68). Thus, how these students have been socialized in their native (or parents native) culture may have greatly impacted their behavior and willingness to respond. Consequently, this may have effected the validity of the research. Further data collection and subsequent detailed research on the behaviors and values associated with culture should be investigated in order to gather more accurate data. One final limitation to the research was the short amount of time available to collect .data. The observations and participation in the. two ELA classrooms took place over the course of three months (end of February 2000 until mid June 2000) .. The short time period was due mostly to the fact that the Lockton* school district lets out for summer break during the second week of June. Therefore, I was only able to observe this particular group of students until then. Although my time with these students was rather abbreviated, I feel that the daily observations allowed for enough data to accurately represent the participants involved in the research. Ultimately, the_ short amount of time given for data collection may have impacted the validity of the resear.ch. This concern could be remedied in the future by conducting 135

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subsequent research at the same school or perhaps at other elementary schools in the southwest Denver area with demographically similar groups of students. 136

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Suggestions for Future Study The psychological and sociocultural factors found to.be associated with gender and second language learning are too numerous for the qualitative objectives of this research analysis. In the future, an extensive investigation should be conducted on each gender-related factor in order to effectively evaluate which factors influence L2 learning the most. Also, subsequent studies should explore these factors exclusively within each culture and then compare them to other cultures to see what similarities and/or differences are present. More importantly, educators and administrators need to further address research issues related to gender and L2 learning in order to develop and strengthen instructional programs that target and support the social and academic needs of ESL students. Future research studies should explore the following concerns related to L2 learning and gender: 1. Explore how gender impacts second language learning among students in different cultures, age/gmde groups, and socioeconomic backgrounds. 2. Investigate the short-tenn and long-tenn effects (both negative and .positive) psychological and sociocultural factors have on second language learners within classroom settings. How are they varied among boys and girls? 3. Evaluate how effective current ESLprograms are, how gender and culturally sensitive they are, how ESL programs are implemented, and what professional training teachers and administrators are receiving in order be.tter assess the needs of ESL students and encourage stronger L2 attainment. 137

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4. Investigate self-esteem and personal awareness ofESL status influences academic achievement among boys and girls. 5. Explore how extrinsic rewards (e.g. grades) influence the language .progression of L2 students. From this research it is hoped that educators and other researchers will have a clearer understanding on how gender influences both a student's ability to acquire English as a second language and his/her ability to perforn:t academically within an elementary school setting. 138

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Respondent #: Date of Interview: Time Started: Time Ended: Location: (address): APPENDIX A INTERVIEW GUIDELINE Second Language and Gender on Four Elementary Students Interviewee: code:#_) Interviewer: Jennifer Donnell (use code: J) Others }>resent: lntermptions: 139

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PART I Demographic ?'s 1. Sex of respondent o male c female 2. Age of respondent c 7 years c 8 years 3. Race/ethnicity c Vietnamese c Hispanic c Other: --------------------4. ESL pull-out status as of Spring 2000 c enrolled (LAS r or 2) c exited (LAS 3 or 4) 5. Attending summer school c yes, it's mandatory c yes, it's voluntary c no o not sure yet 6. Where student was born 140

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7. Where guardians were born: PART II : Questions to establish perceptions on gender 1. Do you think boys and girls learn differently? How? 2. Do you think boys and girls play differently at school? 3. Do you think more boys or girls go to college? Why? 4. Are boys or girls better at school? Why? 5. How do teachers feel about boys? 6. How do teachers feel about girls? 7. How do teachers feel about girls who are ESL students? 8. How do teachers feel about boys who are ESL students? 9. Who do you want to be like (someone you know) when you get older? Why? PART Ill: Academic/Language/School questions to establish perceptions on learning (classroom culture). ACADEl\1IC/SCHOOL: 1. Do you like school? Why? How about why not? 2. What do you like best about it? 3. What subjects (i.e. math, art) are you good at? How do you know that? 4. What subjects are hard for you? Why do you think that? 5. Do you think you are a good reader? How do you know that? How does your teacher know someone is a good reader? 6. Are you a good writer? Tell me why? (repeat teacher part from# 5) 7. What is your favorite thing to do at school? At home? Why 8. Why do you think it's important to be a good student? 9. Do you think going to school is important? Why? 10. What do you think "being smart" means? 141

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How does your teacher know when someone is smart? 11. What do you want to do when you are done with high school? What do people have to do to get that job? 12. Has anyone in your family gone to college? Who? Why/Why not? LANGUAGE: 1. Does anyone in your family speak English at home? What language do they watch T.V. or listen to music in at home? 2. Did you know how to speak English before you started kindergarten? 3. Has it been easy or hard for you to learn English? Why? 4. Does speaking two languages make you smarter? Why? 5. How many languages do you speak? What are they? 6. Do you think it's more important to speak many languages? Why do you think that? 7. Do you think more girls or boys speak two languages? Why do you think that? 8. Do you think it is harder for boys or girls to learn English? Why? 9. Which language do you like to speak more? Why? 10. Do you think it's important to speak English? Why? 11. Are the people who take care of you learning English? 12. Which language do you think you'll speak more when you're a grown-up? Why do you think that? PART IV: Personal/Social perceptions in relation to gender and second language learning 1. What do you usually do when you go home after school? 2. Who lives with you at home? 3. What kind of job do they have? What do they do at their job? 4. Do they think school is important? How do you know? 142

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5. Do your brothers and/or sisters like school? Why or why not? 6. Do you like to read? 7. Where do you read at home? 8. Why do you read {fun, like to, to learn more)? 9. Who do you play with at lunch recess? 10. What do you like to play when you're outside? 11. Do boys and girls play with each other at recess? Why/Why not? 12. What do you like to do for fun when you are at home? 13. What do you want to do when you grow up? 14. How do you think teachers feel about boys who are ESL students? 15. How do you think teachers feel about girls who are ESL students? 16. If I didn't know you, what would you like me to know about you? 143

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Post Interview Comment Sheet 1. Would you like the results of my interview (for legal guardian requests)? address: ---------------------2. If I need to, can I ask you more questions later? 4. Are there any other questions you have that you would like to talk to me about? 5. How did you feel about this interview? Please tell me. Field Notes 144

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APPENDIXB CONSENT/ASSENT FORMS February 1, 2000 To Whom It May Concern: My name is Jennifer Donnell and I am the Reading Assistant in your son/ daughter's second grade class at--------Elementary. The purpose of this letter is to inform you of a study I wish to conduct in your child's classroom as part of my Master's degree at the University of Colorado--Denver. What the study is about; I am interested in researching how learning a second language (English) is/is not influenced by gender (boys vs. girls) in elementary students who are between .the ages of7 and 8. What I will be doing; The research will consist of my daily observations in the classroom, some small group and 1-to-1 discussions (the discussions will strictly be about their learning in school) with only those students who are learning English as a second language, and possibly a questionnaire for the child's primary care giver to answer and return to me at school. There will be no video-tapping of your child but I may need to tape record their voiced responses during the discussions. When and where will the study take nlace; The study will take place during regular school hours at Johnson in Mrs. ------and Mrs. -------classrooms and possibly Ms. ---------(for those students who attend ESL). I will begin my observations on February 28, 2000 and continue until the end of the school year which ends on June 13, 2000. If you agree to have your child participate, he/she would be involved for the entire duration of the research study. 145

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Potential risks and benefits to this study: As with all research studies, there is a chance that your son or daughter may experience certain discomforts while participating in the study. For this study, the risks/discomforts that may occur for your child are: Psychological/Social Risks: a. Nervous or shy during group or 1-to-1 discussions-students may feel reluctant to answer in front of others. b. Uneasiness during discussions or during my observations of them (watching them work at school). Tills may include not always understanding what is being asked of them. c. Stress--the student may feel like he/she must perform well during our discussions and during my observations of them. While there is always a chance of risk or discomfort, to the best of my knowledge there are no known risks to participation in this study. Also, just as there are potential risks involved with research, there may also be benefits. Bene.fits: a. we can learn more about the differences between girls and boys and how they learn English as a second language. b. the information from this study may help future researchers develop activities or learning programs that will help second language students learn English more easily. c. no strangers will be involved in the study to disrupt the classroom environment. d. The students are familiar and comfortable with me-and I feel this will help negate the psychological and/or social risks. Confidentiality: Although I cannot guarantee absolute confidentiality, I will do everything I possibly can to protect the confidentiality of the participants in the study. Students, their legal guardians, and teachers'(and school) names will all be changed in the written report in order to protect privacy. Any and all information collected during the three months will be kept at my house in a lockable container for a minimum of three years after the study. None of the personal information will be discussed with anyone outside of this study. However, the results of this study (real names will!!.!!! be used) will be analyzed and included in my written thesis at the university and will be made accessible to others. For the participants involved (students, guardians, 146

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teachers, school), the possible negative consequences might include: public knowledge of who participated in the study, discomfort personally and/or in the social community, and possibly peers (friends, fellow students) of the participants having knowledge of the study and using it in a negative or inappropriate manner. Other lmoortant Information: Participation in this research study is completely voluntary and any refusal to participate or withdrawal from the study will present no penalty or loss of benefits to the participant. All participants have the right to withdraw from the study at any time. If you have any questions regarding this study--before, during or after-please feel free to contact myself or Ms.---or Ms.-----(translators) at (303) --------.You may also contact the University of Colorado--Denver's Office of Academic Affairs, CU-building, Suite 700 at (303) 556-2550 with questions about you and your child's rights as a research participant. **The consent form your child signs will be read to them in the presence of their teacher. **You will be given a copy of the signed consent form along with the one your child signs. Please read and sign the statement below if giving permission and return to Room 106 or Room 105: I have read the above information and agree to give permission for (name of child) to participate in this research study. (please print your name) (signature of child's legal guardian) (date) 147

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2-01-00 A quien Corresponda: Mi nombre es Jennifer Donnelly estoy asistiendo a su niilo(a) en Ia lectura en Ia clase de segundo ano en Ia escuela primaria ----------. El proposito de esta carta "" es para informarles del estudio que estoy haciendo en el salon con los nii10s como parte de mi maestri"a en Ia universidad de Colorado-Denver. yo are este estudio?: Yo estoy interesada en investigar como aprenden un segundo lenguaje (Ingles) que nb se esta' hablando en los ninos de la edad de 7 y 8 anos. Que es lo que yo voy hacer?: La investigaci6n en observarlos diariamente en el saldn, en pequenos grupos o en parejas en discuciones relacionadas acerca de su aprendizaje en Ia escuela. Con :Stos estudiantes que esf:ait aprendiendo ingh;'s como segundo idioma y positivamente darles un cuestionario para que lo contesten y me lo regresen. No les videos pero si algunas de sus conversaciones durante sus y donde se este estudio? I Tomara Iugar durante las clases regulares en los salones de las maestras Mrs. ---------y Mrs. ------y posiblemente con la maestra Mrs. -------con los de ESL. Yo mis observaciones ell 0 de Marzo, 2000 y continuar: basta que se terminen las clases el13 de Junio, 2000. Si ud de acuerdo conmigo y ci permiso a su mn>o(a) a que participe ser' envuelto en todo lo que dure estudio de . / mvestigacJ.On. Riesgas y Beneficios: Como todos los estudios de investigacio'n hay probabilidad de que su 148

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nih'o(a) se sientan inconfortables el rato que ellos participando en el estudio. Esto pasa solarnente con los nines que sicologicarnente son: / d hbl / / a) nerv10sos o vergonzosos cuan o a an en grupo o en pareJa o se stenten tiln.idos cuando pasan hablar enfrente del grupos. b) avergozados durante las pl,ticas
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estudiantes) de los participantes teniendo conocimiento del estudio y usando esto en / una negativa o inapropiada manera. Otra Importante Informacion: Participar en esta investigacion es completamente voluntario y cualquier qu no quiera participar 6 alejarse del estudio no nada en contra de nadie ni / perdidas de beneficios para el participante. Todos los participantes tienen el derecho de salir del estudio en cualquier tiempo. Si ud. tiene alguna pregunta sobre este estudio-antes, durante, b con confianza puede llamareme o a Ms.-----o Ms. --------al (303) ----------. 0 a la Universidad de Colorado -A la oficina academica CUEdificio, Suite 700 al (303) 556-2550 con preguntas acerca de sus derechos de su nfuo(a) 6 de Ud. como participante de la investigaci6n. *"'La forma fmnada de tu leida a ellos en presencia de su maestra. ** Se te una copia donde firmaste dando permiso a tu nin'o. Por favor, lee y fmna abajo si es que has decido dar penniso a tu nill'o(a) y " regresa esta forma al salon--o al---. He leido la informacio'n dada y estoy de acuerdo de dar penniso ami niho(a) ______________ para participar en este estudio de (nombre de run'o(a)) . ./ mvesttgac10n. (Por favor escribe su nombre) ( aqu( ponga su firma) (fecha) 150

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' .... Ngay 1 'Thang 2, Nam 2000 l. I I Goi Den Ngrloi va c6 quan he den, Ten tf>i la Jennifer Donnell va tr>i sela giup Jd' vi cho con CUa 5ng Ba hay Anh Chi Jwp Hai cJa Trd8ng Tieb Hoc----------. Ly' dock la thtl nay la . I I J N muon bao cho Ong B8, Anh Chi biet rang viec hoc rna t8i mong muan Ia hu8ng dan con em clta Ong B3, Anh Chi cfmg nhd Ia ;oi dahoc pho si crla roi J . trddngUCD. Tai sao hoc: I "' I ,._1 :-J I Toi th{ch tim toi lam the nao ae hoc mot ngoai ngli (Tien Anh) rna kh8ng . hn b' A h 'nh h 1. _:D -;z '). 8 '!p an Id oc s1 nam ay nu d T cuong ------rna o tuOI 7 va tu01 .. T" "' I' .,. 01 se am &: Su tlrn. toi se gdk ccf quan theo doi hing ngay cJa te,i trong tap h9c, vm nh6m nhb va n6i v6i tdng ngddi (nh-tfug cu'c hpp mlt nay te hi nghiem roc ve hoc hBnh cifa hoc sinh a trddng) voi hoc c- ... -t _7 <:7 J) .... J, J (V _cr._ sinh rna aang h2c them Anh ngrl nhu la ngon ngu thu hm, va chac chan se co nhWig diu hoi cho phlj huynh sinh trlldi va W cho tfii Jt.rucmg. Toi se kh8ng bang Video con cJa Ong Anh Chi nhung toi cd the Thau giong noi cJa cau tri . lffl trong luc noi chuy@n bang casset. ... oc _)J. 'I ..... Khi nao va n 1 cbuon& trmb hoc se diiUC bat diu; Chuong trtnh ella lop hQC Se trong gid hQC (8:30-3 :00) a Tn?dhg ... "l. .. r-:: ------d phong hi>c cua Mrs. -----va Mrs. ----va Ms. ------( cho nhung hQc sinh hoc them Anh Toi btt quan theo do'i vao Ngay 28 6 N-'am chtg B3, Anh Ch! cho con niinh tham dt/, con em cua C>ng B8, Anh Chi se tham dd chuong tiinh nay trong suot thoi gian td bay gid cho cuof .. 151

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. h \ men oc nay c< d "1. _, 3._ .. kh Nhune s anh huune ya lui tcb guan trong oa hoc nay; Cung nhd tat cJ su thn toi v@ chtion; hoc se c6 mot c6 hoi cho con ciia Ong aa, Anh Chi c6.thlbi't <'tude la chMc sgkhong ct"ugc dl ch!u cho t. _) '1. \ .. c:1_ ...... lam trong luc tham do bu6i hoc nay. Trang chuong trinh hoc nay, nhung khong elude chju cho 1-km. trong tham dtl buot" Trang tdnh hoc nay, kh8ng may/btlc minh kho chiu co the\iy d'eJ cho con cJa 6ng aa, Anh Ch!. '2. 't J..l s tl anh huong db T4m Iy' /Uy danh a. hay I'l}t r'e trong luc thAo v8i sinh trong nhom hay la rieng vai oohay thfty h9C sinh cO 4-) <.1-:l h1... +1 +.. h inh cuung ae tra ul eu vau 01 u-ucc dam aong oc s b l th"'1 kh' b' 1 h / Cam ay o chiu trong luc an un ay Ia luc t8t quan sat, theo d81 (quan sat yJa sinh). nAy c6 co nha'ng gl rna choog tUi te h5i nh{&g hoi rna khong thudng xuyet hieu Jude. .. } '!-1.. I "l. ,. c. Cang Thang--Hoc sinh co the cam thay ho phat lam mot gt 0 h 1 ... b' I ;\ ,i.CI h'l., I' h 'th"" --1. ay a an Ui1ll ve Va.u ai! gt p at am c o xong va at tot .. $ tnloc mat moi ngddi va trong hie toi quan theo dhl ho. . Tuy ring thudng thudng la co nhiiu chu khong may hay bllc minh, su bi't c-da t6i khong c6 oWns cheu kh8ng may rna khdng thlbiet trong tham dli chudng tr1nh hoc nay. Va coog nhd co nhtilig viec kh6ng may phii 18m _) \.. tool ,.J I ... h su tim tm, va cung se co cu 01 tc LcJi ich; a. Chlln.g ta se hoc itu"Bc sdldulc nhau hoc sinh nam va hoc Q rjl sinh nu va each hoc Anh ngu cua ho. b. cta' tJ chuong tiinh hoc nay co thl giup cho nhilitg 152

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ngJai chuyen t1rn toi trong tri'ong lai lam them it ghi'p -lr,l rV ad nhung hoc sinh hoc Anh ngti de dang hem. c. se khong co m6t ngrldi la dirac tham gia chudng trlnh hoc nay lam phiin trong phong hoc. d. Nhrlng hoc sinh quen di va cirn d@ chiu vdi t6i and t8i 'Z.. .... j -t!t _. 1-l-'-.l cam thay chuang trinh hoc nay se giup ao ve vD. ot rna 3nh hudng tam ly' va uy danh ctla hoc sinh 4-I .......... Nh ng diiu b1 mi\t kin oao; Mac du toi kh6ng tuyet se gid bf mat, tl>i lam ci nhdng g) rna toi c6 theiam cilma girl IOn b( niat Tttl sinh, phu huynh hoc p sinh, va ten nh'rlng thiy co giao tnfbng hoc c6 thlthay ctoi xuyen trong :s .,., ghi I tfnh.. hlnh' 2 b "1. "" :lb' na. v" d5ki...... .... to g1ay m ung xay ra rna ao aam 1 a iihg u 'n nay sl i trong th8i han ba thang t8i s'e gii dd kien nay d tai nha v "" 'Z. I \ rJ \ I v khi h :">) .. tot trong tu khoa tAt la IcY cang 1t nliat la ba nam sau c uong trinh hoc nay xong mot each hoan toiin. Tuy nhien, nhtfug ket qrla viec hoc nay (se khong d\mg . "' ... .,) h' "'h .. IA-I 'Z ,. ) t-il' .... ..... h umt se Cluoc p an t1c va ao gom trong wu an cua tm d ap not at: am Ot= tai c o moi ngu&i doog hay tham ngu'3i tham dt! (hoc sinh, phu huynh .. . .. hoc sinh, co giao hoc), nhdng alien phti nhan k@t qda c6 tht e I gd'm c6: cong tfong cJa nhrrng tham dtf chu'&g trlnh hoc nay, cim. t.t::1 b) "nh b ::.11. I' '!'!: +,/ "'( _)JI. h ,_J UC ffil Vvl an Ullill VCJJ uay a VOI ca IDOl nguvl trong Xa 61, Va CuaC C CUI la vdi ban .,e chng lap va chung mBt crla hiit dude _) \ \ \ I J 'Z ,. +.}l. I chudng trinh hoc nay va dung no trong phong each phu nhan hay Ia khong auoc chl:l.p nhah. r-! .. Nhdng diiu guan trong khac; e 7 _.) :::>. ,_ \. \ "\ _:7 .,.. I 1 Tham trong chuong tnnh tim tm nay thi hoan toan tu nguyen va neu co -' I "' nhiihg tU7 choi tham dllhay rut lui ra cu9c nay se khong co b! abh 153

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h1.tdng hay Ia mat Ji quyin 16i gl c;{_ Taf cl hoc sinh (rna oo tham du trong _] \ / t l _':)_:, ... ._ ,j _I) '-I .. chuong tnnh nay) co quyen rut lui ra khoi chuong tnnh nay bat cu luc nao. Ong I !:, ;: _")) '-' I Ba hay Anh Chi co thac mac gt ve chuong trinh hoc nay--cruoc--'trong luc hay sau chuong trtnh hoc--xin dUbg ngai rna goi t6i (Ms. Donnell) hay Mrs.-----(Nguoi I o thong dich) hay Ms. ------so dien thoai 303---------. C>ng Ba hay Anh Chi cwg 1 ..J. 0 J co the goi tnl8ng UCD phong phuc vu cho aai hoc, CU building, 700, s6 . ., thoai 303-'556-2550 h6i ve quyEn I6i ctia con em cJa 6ng Ba hay Anh . . Chi ,+... I)+ Cf rJ _flj.' -z. ,.. ** Su d8ng y' trong to don nhung chti ky' hay chu VJet cua con Ong Ba hay Anh Chi cfuoc ifoc lai cho con em cJa bng Ba hay Anh Chi vdi su bien dien 0 0 ella co vi thiy giao cita ho ** Phu huynh hoc sinh se cidac mot sao tiJ c'ton dingy' theo f-! rJ ,._I r.J 1 1 't A v61 nhung chu ky' va dau hieu chd vift cua con em cua ung Ba hay Anh Chi. '. \ 1 J"t I Xin vui long dCJC va ky' ten vao cho trong d phia duoi neu bang long cho phep con mlnh tham dn chucing trinh hoc nay d"ua lai ----hay phong hoc: liD 0 r-! rJ 'l .l Toi da cfoc nhdng dtl kien d tren va toi ddng y' cho phep con tbi (ten clta hoc sinh) tham du chuong trtnh hoc nay. -------------------. . (xin vui long viet chi? in)" (Ch\1 ky' cult Phu huynh hoc sinh) (Ngay) 154

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February 1, 2000 Dear Student: This letter is to tell you what I, Ms. Donnell, will be doing in Mrs. -----and Mrs. ---------classrooms over the next 3 months. 1. I want to learn more about boys and girls who are learning English as their second language. 2. I may want to talk to you and other ESL students in a big group or by yourself. Sometimes, I may just want to watch you. 3. I may need to tape your voice so I can take better notes. 4. We will start on February 28, 2000 and stop on June 13, 2000. You will work with me the whole time. 5. Sometimes when people watch other people, they wonder why. Sometimes we can feel shy when we are asked questions and are around other boys and girls. But I am someone you know and I want you to just be yourself. 6. You learn everyday when you come to school. If you work with me, you will help me learn. I will be a student just like you. 7. Mter school is out, I will write a long report but I will not use anyone's real name. I have to follow my school's rules and this means I will use fake names. I am the only one who needs to know your name. All of the notes I take will stay safe in my home. 8. Sometimes when people hear things about other people they may not say nice things. Sometimes people hear things they don't need to know about other people. This can make us feel angry or sad. My job is to make sure this does not happen to you. 9. I have talked to your family about what I want to do and I have told them to call me or my school if they have any questions. You can always come to me if you have questions or don't understand. 155

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10. It is important to understand this is not for a grade for this class. You do not have to do this if you don't want to. I understand what has been read to me and I want to be a part of Ms. Donnell's report. (your name) (date) 156

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2-01-00 Querido Alumno: / Esta carta es para decirte que yo, Ms. Donnell, estare trabajando durante los 3 meses siguientes en las clases de las maestras Mrs.-------y Mrs.---------. 1. Yo quiero aprender rna's acerca de ninos y nihas que aprendiendo Ingles como segundo Idioma. 2. Yo quisiera hablar contigo y con los otros estudiantes de ESL en un grupo o individualmente. AlgUnas veces yo solo obervart' ./ 3. 0 qmza algunas veces yo grabe sus voces para tomar notas. 4. Empezar[mos el 10 de Marzo del 2000 y el 13 de Junio del 2000. Ustedes trabajar6n conmigo todo el tiempo. 5. Algunas veces cuando alguien te observa, te preguntas porque" quiza'te puedes sentir avergonzado cuando te haga algunas preguntas y esten ah( niflas y nifi'os alrededor. No te sientas mal tU me conoces y yo solo quiero que seas tU mismo. 6. Tu aprendes cada d(a que vienes a Ia escuela. Yo tambien ser: como otra alumna y aprendere tambien. 7. de las clases, yo escribire un reporte de lo que hacemos y no usare' nombres reales. Yo tengo que seguir normas y esto qui ere decir que usa.re' nombres de mentiras. Solo yo Ia unica que necesita 0' que sabr{ sus nombres. Todas las notas y reportes las guardar{ en mi casa en un Iugar seguro. 8. Algunas veces alguien habla de alguien y eso hace sentir Algunas personas oyen cosas de otras personas y elias no quieren saberlo. Esto te hace sentir mhl quiza nos haga sentir enojados tristes. Mi trabajo es hacerte sentir b./ / ten y que esto no pasara con nosotros .I 9. Yo you hable con tus padres acerca de lo que yo quiero hacer y les he dicho que si tienen preguntas pueden llamarme a la escuela. Te pido que fri tambien vengas cuando no entiendas algo ri tengas preguntas. 157

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I 0. Es irnportante decirte que no los calificare" por participar 6 trabajar conrnigo. Y si tti no quieres estar conrnigo no tienes que hacerlo s( no quieres. Yo entendi lo que acabo de leer y quiero participar con Ms. Donnell en su reporte. (Tunombre) (fecha) 158

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Ngay 1 Than 2, Nam 2000 H "nh th' ,/ oc s1 an men, u{ thd nay Ia Jl n6i cho hoc sinh bidt nfug, toi Ms. Donnell, chu6ng tri'nb hoc nay 8e audc hoc J phong hoc Mrs. --------va Mrs. ------------kholng 3 thang sa; 0 1. T3i hoc them tat ci hoc sinh trai nhilng ngu3i rna dang hoc Anh < ngu nhu Ia ngon ngd thtl hai cua ho. 2 'T'a I th:J. 1 1 " Y, b h inh -... kh/' 1 01 co e muOn not vot an va ung (]C s nuoc ngoat ac trong nhdm hay la chi cb m8t miiih ban rna thoi. 3. Toi c6 thl thal.l. giong n6i ban trong casset vay toi co thlghi lai Ja)r j't ( uu. 4. Chtfng toi se' vao 28 27 2000 va ngtlng vao Ngay 13 6, 2000 ban Sl hoc nhO'm vO'i toi trong suot th8i gian nay. 5. c6 nhiEu hie khi rna ngtldi nay coi chifug hay ruilit ngJoi kia, ho ngac nhien vr tai sao. c6 nhi&! h.lc chUn.g ta cb thf hoi then khi h61 var cau h;i va chung quanh nh:t'fug hoc sinh nam va nlf khac. Nhting. m:a: tl>i Ia nguoi mij ban biSt va t6i mu8n Ia rna thoi khong cin vT ngtiiig nh\lhg ngt1di quanh rna khong d3m hoi hay n6i mot chuy@n gr. 6. Ban se hoc hfutg ngay khi tnlong. ban hoc vbi foi, ban se giup tOi hoc. rJ .. .. Va toi cung ra mot hoc sinh giong nhu ban. 7 S khi h ha h 1'. ,_) j!J A b1.. b /I dai'-;nh_.)_ "" rJ au tan oc y oc xong, tot se Vh::t mot an ao cao ung tm se khong diing tSn that cda b'at eft rigti"ai nao. lain theo cul nha trudng va c6 nghi3 Ia tOi se dilltg ten gil. _!:hi c6 toi Ia din biet ten ,._ cuta rna thoi. Nhtilig gi rna tfii vit Ve qtla trlnh h9c Clla OtlQC cat kJ 0) nhatoi. 159

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thlnoi co' nhiiu khi ngrl3i ta nhtfug gi-ma hq khng bit ve ngtloi khac. Vifc nay cb the lam cho toi gian va huon. Cong vi@c va ? 'l. I -ella toi Ia lam sao nhung chuyen nay se khong xay aen cho 9. TOi c6 noi chuyen vdi gia aiim elk vS-nhlfug gi t6i mu6h lam va !Oi ding ha..; ndi vdi hq c6. thl gqi toi hay h9c elk toi neb ho cci thic gT ch_ gfai -41 i "1. -t I V n .j ith j .j, h / .. aap. co the thuung xuyen oen gap tm neu ban co ac mac gi ay co gi .\-"1.. 1..-I r.J I -z.. / 10. Vifc quan tr9ng ae hieu rling chung ioi se khong cham cho lop hoc nay. Ban khong phau hoc hay tham dti neb ban khong muof . . Toi hi&i nhtfug gi rna t6i
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May 5, 2000 To Whom It May Concern: In March, you and your child agreed to participate in a study on second language learners. During the past few months I, Jennifer Donnell (Reading Assistant) have been observing your child in his/her daily activities at school. Now I would like to sit down and talk with your child and ask him/her some questions about their school, themselves, their family, and how they feel about being second language students. The student interviews will take place at ---------Elementary either just before school, after school, or during recess time. Times will be arranged so that the interviews are done when the child is already at school (no special arrangements will need to be made on your part). The interviews will take place towards the end of May. Also, the students will be interviewed individually in an area of the school where they feel most comfortable. Each interview will take 15-20 minutes and student responses will be tape recorded and later transcribed into my computer at home. During any interview there is always a chance that the person being interviewed may feel uncomfortable with either a question being asked or with the interview setting itself. These are all risks associated with any interview and could possibly occur during my interview with your child. It is important to know that if your child ever feels uncomfortable during the interview, he/she has the right to refuse to answer any questions or end the interview at any time. To maintain your child's privacy (and school's), pseudonyms (false names) will be used throughout the interview and duration of the study (in my notes and final report). The opportunity to learn more about your child as a second language learner is very interesting and important to me. In talking with your child, I will be 161

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able to gain a better understanding of how children perceive their academic and social envirorunents with regards to being second language students. I give permission for Jennifer Donnell to interview my child at------------Elementary: (name of child) (signature oflegal guardian) (date) 162

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May 5, 2000 A quien correspenda: En marzo usted y su niho (a) quedar6n de acuerdo en participar en un estudio sobre aprendiendo un segundo lenguaje. Durante los pasados meses, yo Jennifer Donnell (Asistente en lectura) habia estado observando a sus nmos en sus actividades diarias en Ia escuela. Ahora me gustarfa sentarme con sus mnos y hacerles algunas preguntas acerca de su escuela, de ellos mismos, de su familia, y como ellos se sintieron acerca de ser estudiantes con un segundo idioma. Las entrevistas que les a los niii'os sera aqill en Ia escuela algunas veces I I I antes de Ia escuela o despues de Ia escuela o durante el receso. Empezare las entrevistas basta el final de mayo. Tambie'n, los estudiantes seran entrevistados individualmente en una area de Ia escuela donde se sientan comodos. Carla entrevista ternan( de 15-20 minutos y sera'n grabadas las entrevistas en un caset y despues pasadas a una computadora en mi casa. Durante Ia entrevista hay siempre alguien que se sentim' incomodo con cualquier pregunta. riesgos con relacion a cualquier pregunta y podri8 incluso pasar en cualquiera de los nftlos. Es importante dejar saber su nillo(a) tiene el derecho de rehusarse a no continuar con Ia entrevista en cualquier tiempo. Para respetar Ia privacidad de su niho(a) se usaran nombres falsos al pasar Ia entrevista en mi computadora La oportunidad de aprender acerca de sus como estudiantes de un segundo idioma, es muy interesante e importante para mi. Hablando con sus nill'os yo disponible a ganar un mejor entendimiento de como los nihos persiven su desarrollo academico y social con relaci6n a ser un estudiente con segundo idioma Yo do mu permiso a Jennifer Donnell para que entreviste ami niii'o( a) en Ia escuela elementaria (nombre del (firma del Padre o Madre) (fecha) 163

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I Phu Huynh Hoc Sinh Thful Men, Ngay 5 Thang 5 Nam 2000 Trong Ba, tt>i va con cik 6ng B8, Anh Ch! long trong kh6a h2c th@m Tiing Anh. Vw thang tnldc J 'f:.J..) ..., p ong van nay khoang ru 15 20 phut va nhw1g cau tra lot se auoc thau bang va sau do ghi vao may vi tfnh cfia rieng cJa toi va J nha ,. 'l. "' ::11.1... .l .... z Trong CUQC phong van nao thuong thuong bi:i.t ciin5uol nao cung co cam gtac I hdi s{j, lo hay la khong auc ch!u cho lltm khi ngdoi khac Se hoi m1nh nhifm cftu t, ttl I ,.i .!,. ('I .. I a ,! 1 "Z I '2. hm. Se co rat nhieu lo lang se aen v 1 bat eli' phong vlfu nao va co the xay ra ,. + "1 I A t. t \ t trong luc aang phong van con ung Ba, Anh Chi. Cuc phong vful nay rat quan trong rl> rna con 6ng B3, Anh Chi elm giac lo, sg hayfa kho ch!u trong luc phJng van, hoc 'nh .I ; h-J kh.O "l. n h1. "Z. ..!). .. I J:. ;: .')_ SI co quyc:n tu c ul ung tra ut cau 01 cua LOI va co e yc:u cau ngw1g cu"c I I 1. I rJ phong vftn b!t cu hie nao trong I uc phong van. Toi aoi girl J.d'n nay, toi s't diing ten gi1 tl goi con 6ng Anh Chi trong suC:t thoi gian ph6ng vin va trong th'8i 0 gian hoc a trii&ng CUng nhu trong ghi lai ( cfut riSng tOi) v@ viec hoc c& hoc sinh. . . ., 164

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-4l ._ rJ Z A ('I Cd hQi ae h9c th@m nhieu ngon ngd m8i cua con Ong B3, Anh Ch! cung nhd hoc sinh hoc thl!m dude nhieu Anh toi rftt Ia c6 hllng th-6 va c\kg rift Ia quan tr
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May 5, 2000 Dear Student: In March, I had you sign a note saying that is was ok for me to watch you and the other students for my report. I have been taking a lot of notes and now I want to sit down with you and ask you some questions about you, what you do at school and at home, and how you feel about being an ESL student. This is called an interview and I will be interviewing you. 1. I will ask you questions about school, your home and being an ESL student. I need to tape your voice so I can take better notes. 2. Our interview will last 15-20 minutes and it will be where you feel most comfortable. There will not be any other students around to bother you or make you feel uncomfortable. 3. Sometimes when people ask you questions, you may not understand or may not want to answer some of them. That is ok. If I ask you a question you don't understand I want you to tell me. If I ask you a question you don't want to answer, you don't have to. 4. If you ever start to feel like you want me to stop asking you questions, just tell me and we'll stop. I want you to be comfortable and just be yourself. 5. During the interview and when I am writing my report, I will not use your real name. I will use a fake name for you instead. Also, I will not tell anyone what you and I talked about during the interview. I may want to write about our interview, but I will not use your real name. 6. Remember, you do nothave to do this and this is not for a grade. I think it is ok for Ms. Donnell to ask me questions about myself, my home and my school and I want to be a part of the interview and report. (your name) (date) 166

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Mayo 5, 2000 Querido Estudiante En marzo yo tenfa una nota donde dec(a que bien para mi que los observa para hacer un reporte sobre estudiantes con un segundo lenguaje. Yo tome' notas y ahora yo quiero sentarme con ustedes y hacerles algunas preguntas acerca de ustedes mismos sobre lo que haces en la escuela y en la casa y como tu te sientes siendo un estudiente con un segundo idioma o ESL. Las preguntas que yo les ar{ es Hamada entrevista y yo te entrevistarl. 1. Yo te ar{ preguntas acerca de la escuela, tu casa, y como estudiante de ESL. Yo voy a grabar tu voz asi puedo tomar mejor notas de lo que hablemos. 2. Nuestras entrevistas duraran 15 a 20 minutos con cada uno de ustedes y donde ustedes se sientan confortables. Nadie nos interumpin( as( nos sentirl'mos mru, comodos. 3. Algunas veces cuando la gente hace preguntas, tU' quizas no entiendes 6 quiza no quierres contestar. Esul'bie'n sitU' no entiendes yo quiero que me hagas saber. Si yo te hago una pregunta y tU no quierres contestar no hay problema. 4. Y si nf quierres que you you no te haga preguntas solamente d(melo y yo Ia entrevista. Yo quiero hacerte sentir comodo. 5. Durante Ia entrevista y cuando yo estoy escribiendo mi reporte, yo no tU nombre real. Yo usare un nombre falso. Tam bien, yo no le dire a nadie acerca de lo que hablemos en la entrevista. Yo quizaquiero escribir acerca de nuestra entrevista, pero yo no tu nombre real. 6. Recuerda, su tu no quieres hacer entrevista esta bien y tampoco es para darte una calificaci6n. Yo pienso que esuf bien para Ms. Donnell hacenne preguntas acerca de mi misma, mi casa, y mi escuela y yo quiero ser parte de la entrevista y del reporte. (Tunombre) (Fecha) 167

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Ngay 5 Thang 5 Nam 2000 I Hoc sinh Than.Men: 0 Trong Thfutg Ba, t8i yeu cAu b!fl ky' tn vao rna d"a bRng long cho ... r' -t"Z 1 '2 t8i theo-dbi .ve vi& hoc elk ban v'a nhifng hoc sinh.kh8c ae.tO.i.c6.thE.ghi v.ao ban ghi .. cJa t8i v@ cJa Toi ghi hit qUa tJinh cJa va bay t8i va n6i chuyen, ban diu hbi ban, ban lam g).Iuc ai hoc tru&ng vA a nha, ban c6 suy nshl hay cb ghic ban khi trd thlmh mat hoc e sinh hoc them ng8n ng'd Tiehg Anh. NWng gihi tlll'ch ctia pMn tten ituac goi Ia mOt .. 0 l I \ tol ... I lam phong vtin va t6i se Ia ngdui phong vfut 1 T"' ol hl, b A h'Z' _fih hfuh '1 b ' ghif'/ ""l b 01 se 01 an g Ci1U 01 ve vtec oc, 01a a cua an va suy n cua an t \. o-t'! I .._ t khi trd th8nh IDQt hQC sinh them ngen ngtl [ieng Anh. T8i call phai thau gi2ng cda bing may ghi am ttli c6 th@ nghe lfi gi9ng nbi elk nhifut lfut va ghi lai g1 ban ctt noi vdi t8i auac rb mng hdn. 2. CUQC phbnf! vah tf>i va bVn kholng tU 15 deh 20 ph6t va J mOt ch6 rna ban -z. 1#, I,. 1, ',' cam thay dS chiu nltat. Se khong co hoc sinh khac chung quanh lam phien ban 1.. "' ha).: lam ban cam tliay kho chiu. 3. Thf-nh thohng khi co hi>i b@Il cau hl>i, b!lfl kh6ng ththiet cfu'qc hay la kh6ng mu'Sn lai nhrlng cau hbi (i'Q'. Kh8ng sau dau. rna c6 hOi ban (tieu g) rna ban khong tf>i ban phlll noi cho t6i tOi c6 hbi g) rna kh'6ng mu5n t.r1t Ipi hav mugn noi cho tOi c6 thl kh6ng w I8i vi t6i kh6ng bat buQc ban ti! loi. I I 1 1 I 4. Neu ban muen t8i ngdng hoi ban tht!rn nhieu cau hoi, cu noi cho t8i biet, tai \ b N 1'\ ""t ;._1 ./ 't. ,.1 ,. 1).( ,' va se nfling cupc phong van ngax. Trong luc phong van tot muun co drn giac rat la bhm (dUng lo ling s1> gi8hj nhd thudrlg ngay. 5. Trong luc lam ph6ng van dmg nhrl rna toi ghi nhilng h2c cJa t8i s'e kh
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6 \ kh"' h1 h ,!., b ,, ht'I' A h'l. ,/ .. u rang, la ban at ay bt bat uoc p at am cuoc p ong van nay va t'l ... o J cung kh8ng audc chtin tern 'Foi nghl, tSi bing ldng cho Ms. Donnell t8i cflu vS than t8i, v@ gia t8i viSe hoc cfut t8i va tt>i mut>'n ph&ng v"an va ifudc ghi vao blk '1. . ghi cua Ms. Donnell. (Ten ho hoc sinh) ., (Ngay Thang }('am) 169

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APPENDIXC TRANSCRIBED INTERVIEWS Interviewee: Due (D) Interviewer: Jennifer Donnell (I) Date: 6/1/00 1: ok, this is Due dao ... and you are a boya. are you 7 or 8 years old: D:S. 1: 8 years old. and youre vietnamese ok. and you are have been exited out of esl. are you going to summer school this summer, Due? D: i dont know. 1: you dont know? urn-k. d'ya want ta go to summer school if you can or no? D: pauses 1: you tell me how you feel. D:no. 1: no. ok. where were you bom ... Duc? 1: in this place. 1: in colorado? D: un-hum. ok. uhh you live with mom and dad? D: yeah. 1: k. where were they born at? D: in vietnam. 1: they were born in vietnam. ok were gonna go inta part 2. um-k. do you think boys and girls learn differently at school? D: um-uh (shaking head) 1: no? why? D: because umrn .... pauses .... 1: do you think that everybody learns the same? D: (very quietly) yeah. 1: you dont think that boys and girls learn differently? D: sometimes 1: sometimes? how'how sometimes? can you give me an example ... 170

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D: like at math. 1: like at math? huh'how da you think the boys learn math differently than the girls? D: ummm .. .like some ofthe'they just work at ummm a different level? 1: work at a different level? and what do you mean by levels? do you mean like uhh ... D: grade. l:humm? D: grade. 1: grade? D:um-humm. 1: oh, so you mean like first grade er third grade er second er ... D: third. 1: third? so sum students work at a third grade level? are those mostly boys or girls that work at that level? D: pauses .... 1: or is it about the same? D: about the same. 1: equal? k. do you think boys and girls umm ..... play differently at school? D: yeah. 1: yeah? how? what d'you see whenyour outside playing? D: .... the boys play the soccer and the girls ummm play like swings and stuff ... 1: ok. do'the boys ever play with the girls? or do the girls ever play with the boys? D: urn-nub (shakes head) 1: and why d'ya think that? why d'ya think they dont play with each other? D: they think that umrnm they like each other. 1: that they .... D: other people think they like each other. 1: oh! that they like each other? ok. anything any other reasons why they may not play with each other? D: (shakes head, no) 1: k. kinna likea boyfriend/girlfriend thing? and then they might other other kids might see that? D: nods head 1: um-k. do you think that more boys or girls go to college? d'ya know what college is? college is after high school...and you go like a big college like the university of colorado. you'v ever heard of that place? D: (shakes head, no) I: a big place and you go for 4 years, sometimes longer uhh thats what you do after you get out of high school. so do you think that more boys or girls 171

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might go to college? er you think .... equal? D: boys. I: boys? and why d'ya think more boys might go to college? D: because theres more boys in ummm in ummm this school. I: therez more boyz in this school? there more boys in our classroom arent there? a lot more boys than gilrs. are boys or girls better at school? er do you think that theyre 'bout the same? D: pauses ..... girls? 1: you'think girls are better at school? why'daya think that? D: because theresmore boys and ummm they dont they dont really listen ummm what the teacher say. 1: the boys or girls dont listen to what the teachers say? D: i think the girls. 1: the girls dont? so do you think or you had said you thought girls were better at school. you you think girls are better at school? or did you mean you think boys are better at school? D: boys 1: boys? and why d'ya think boys are better at school? D: because .... 1: is wha is it what cha just said? because sometimes the girls dont listen to the teacher or ..... D: .. .i think theyre equal. 1: you think theyre equal? ok. and you certainly can change your mind anytime you want, Due. um-k. and if you dont understand a question you can ask me, ok? and ill try ta help you understand it better. how d'ya think teachers feel about boys? (bell rings) how'9'ya think teachers feel about boys? D: pauses .... mad. 1: mad? why'ya think mad? D: because they bring toys and goof off and uhh dont listen. I: they dont listen to the teacher? k. how'd'ya think teachers feel about girls? D: long pause ..... 1: how d'ya think teachers feel about girls? D: long pause .... the same thing. I: the same thing? sometimes they bring toys and they playwith' em and dont listen ? ok. how'd'ya think teachers feel about girls who are esl students? girls who are learning a second language? english as their second language? how'ya think teachers feel about them? D: pauses 172

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I: do they feel differently then they do somebody else who isnt ... an esl student? er do you think that. .. D: the same. I: the same? ok. what about boys who are esl students? d'ya think teachers feel.. .. differently about them? D: pauses .... yeah. I: you do think teachers feel differently about boys who .. are esl students? D:um-hum. I: how'da think that? D: 'cause like ummm like they dont ummm understand that much english so they have'ta learn differently. I: they learn differently? is that whatcha said? boys learn differ ... D: they have ta I: i'm sorry? D: they hav'ta work more if you work uhh hard ummrn then the teacher (hard to hear him) then they have'ta use one of our that then you have to already ummrn used that are extras. I: oh? the boys? D:um-humm. I: in your classroom? you have ta useahh a paper thats already been used? D:no. I: ohh ... D: like the extras of the ones you already used. I: um-hummrn. you have'ta use that? D: uh-huh. I: and the girls dont? D: pauses .. .like ummm noo ... you have'ta use like the one you already ummrn worked on thats like anything on it copy and then ... use it like ... they one of the extras? I: oh, so you can write on the back side, the blank side? and write other things? D: urn-hum. 1: is that whatchu mean? D: nods. 1: ok. and why do you think she does that with the boys and not the girls? do they girls ever hav'ta do that? D: (shakes head, no). I: no? they dont ever have'ta do that? why'd'ya think she just does that with the boys? 173

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D: pauses ... because ummm ... umrnm ... the girls speak more english than the boys? I: ok. ok. you think theresa reason why the girls speak more english than the boys? D: the ummrn ummm ... they just they watches (cant hear) they learn already? I: so theyve learned theyve been learning english longer than some of the other boys? ok. ok. who do you want to be like when you grow .. when you get older, Due? maybe its somebody you know maybe its somebody you dont know. whod'ya wannabe like when get older? it could be a person who has a job like a doctor or a builder of buildings or it could be somebody you know in your family or ... D: pauses ... I: whwho do you wanna be like? D: pauses ... I: or .. maybe theres nobody? D: umm nobody. I: nobody? k. whad'ya want ta do when you grow up? s'there something th'ya have in mind that' chad like ta do when you growup? D: work on computers. I: you wanna work on computers? do you like computers? D: nods I: yeah. anybody in your family do that? D: yes. I: who does that in your fam ... D: my sister. I: your sister does? does she like ta do that? D: nods I: and how old is your sister? D: i think 21. I: 21? wow. how many people do you have in your family, Due? D: counting my dad and my mom? I: urn-hum. you, your dad your mom, D: grandpa. my grandma. I: and grandpa and grandma? ok. and D: i have altogether 12 I: all together theres 12 of you in your family. Wow you live in an apartment or a house or a ... D: a house. I: a house. there 12 of you. wow and so'you have younger brothers and sisters or? D: no. i'm .. the small ... I: youre the youngest? youre the youngest. your the youngest of 12. um-k. lets go 174

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on to part three. urn-k. and this is these questions are about school. do you like school? D: nods head 1: why? D: because you learn and play 1: you can learn and play? is that what you said? D: nods 1: ok. why things do you not like about school? D: (shakes head, no) 1: no? you like everything ok? what do you like best about school? D:math. 1: math. you like math and'why do you like math? D: i like it when ummrnm pauses .... i just like it. I: you've just always liked math? is math easy or hard for you? D: .... in the middle. 1: in the middle? sometimes its easy sometimes its hard? um-k. so you said your you like math. what other things do you think youre good at? do you think youre good at math? D: nods head I: ok. is there anything else that yur good at? like are or science or reading or what other things do you think youre good at? D:ummmm .... I: like ... maybe meaning good at means like getting good grades er that you have a fun time doing it or ... ummm you enjoy doing it r there other things in school that you like? like gym? or D:gym 1: or music? gym? you like gym too? ok. and you said you think youre pretty good at math? how do you know your good at math? what makes you think youre good at math? D: i'm the fastest one I: youre the fastest ooonnnee. do you get good grades on your math too? D:um-humm. I: ok. what things are hard for you in school? what things that you do in school are hard for you? D: reading I: reading? and whyiz reading hard for you? D: umm 'cause i don know that much words ? I: you dont know that much words? um-k. do you think its because youre learning 175

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english as a second language? or do you think that its because you need to practice .. D: practice. 1: like everybody. ok. you need to practice ifya practice you become a good reader? D: nods 1: ok. and thats what everybody has ta do dont they? i had to practice too whe i was your age. how duz your teacher know when someones a good reader or not? D: they test you in a book. 1: they test you in a book? and then that that says where youre at for reading? D: urn-hum. if you ummm dont umm miss any words then you go to a higher book. 1: ok. you go to a higher book? do you think you are a good writer? D: pauses ... nods 1: um-humm. yes? you do? tell me why? ....... why do you think youre a good writer? D: because i have good penmanship. 1: because you have penmanship ... anything else? D: ...... shakes head 1: no? ok. i think youre a good writer because you have good ideas. ok. ummm .... how does your teacher know if someones a good writer or not? D: pauses ..... what kind of story do you have. 1: what kindof a story? ok. anything else? D: and if its not plain or anything. 1: if its not plain? what do you mean by plain? like is D: likes its ... not already written? 1: ohh, its been written before like in another story? D: nods 1: um-humm .like maybe m another book? ok. what is your favorite thing ta do at school? D: pauses .... play soccer. 1: play soccer. and why do you like to play soccer? D:ummm ... 1: is it fun orahhh .. D:fun. 1: fun? d'you play with all boys ? D: nods head 1: um-k. whats your favorite thing ta do at home? D: pauses ..... .i play volleyball. 1: you like ta play volleyball at home? ok. theres anything else that you really liketa do when you go home? or on the weekends? 176

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D: pauses .... 1: read er watch tv o play outside or ... help your mom or dad around the house or ... D: i help my dad 1: you help your dadw'da'ya help your dad do? D: fix cars 1: fix cars? wow. so you know how'ta fix some things in cars, huh? D: nods 1: well thats great. ok. ahhh lets see here. why do you think its important to be a good student? first, to you think its important to be a good student? D: pauses .... yeah. 1: yeah? why do you think that? whys it important to be a good student? D: because if you dont ummm if you dont do your work (cant hear .. bring it in??) if you dont join in swruner school then youll just flunk. 1: youll flunk? and what happens when you flunk? D: you go to the same grade. 1: and is that good or bad? D:bad. 1: and why do you think its bad? D: ummm then you cant ummm go like up to college? 1: um-k. do you think that going to school is important? D:um-humm. 1: urn-hum. you think everybody should go to school? D: nods head I: why do you think going to school is so important ? D: like you learn stuff 1: ok. you learn stuff? what do you think being smart means? what do you think that means ?what does being smart mean to you? D: pauses .... 1: have you ever heard that word, smart, before ? what does that mean to you? or how have you heard it used? D: that you need (or know--cant hear clearly) ummm ... .like words thats hard. 1: ok. you know words thats hard. urn-hum. anything else? D: pauses ...... shakes head. 1: no? ok. how does your teacher know when someone is smart? D: pauses ..... you dont fight. 1: you dont fight? um-k. anything else? D: shakes head 177

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I: no? k. what do you want to do when you are done with high school? D: work. I: you wanna work? and what to you want ta do? at work what kind of work? D: ... pauses ...... I: er are you not sure? D:no. I: yer not sure ? ok. you had mentioned earlier that you may wanna work on computers--what do you think people haveta do ta get a job like that? is there anything special you have ta do ta get a jon like that? D: you have ta ummmm .. .like fill in lines (hard to hear) like (rub??)it in .. (cant hear) I: is that like a test? or D: a test. I: at test? so does that mean youre youre in school when they give you a test? or .... or what? or are you not sure? D: not sure I: have you seen somebody have ta fill in lines before? on a test? or? D: shakes head. I: no? ok. has anyone in your family gone to college, Due? D: nods head I: who? D: my sister I: your sister? ok D: thats the only one I: thats the only one? and what is she going to college for? what does she want ta do? what kinds of things does she learn? D: i dont know I: you dont know, ok. ok. ok lets go on to the next part here. um-k. does anyone in you family speak english at home? D: nods head I: who speaks engnlish in your house? D: my 4 brothers kinda me and mmmy 4 sisters I: your 4 brothers, 4 sisters and you said kinda you. do you think that you dont speak as much english as they do? D: nods head I: you mean because youre still learning english D:um-hum I: and youre not as good as speaking english as they are or do you mean you just speak more vietnamese at home? 178

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D: its just wrun i 'm still learning 1: your still learning english? and theyve been learning english longer than you? ok. what language do you and your family watch tv or listen to music in ... when you guys watch tv is it in vietnamese (bell rings) or is it in english? D: english. 1: eng-english? is it ever in vietnamese? D: my mom ummm watch english mostly wnmm songs 1: and songs in english? does she ever listen to 'em in vietnamese? D:um-hwn. 1: urn-hum? do you ever listen to things in vietnamese? D: music 1: music? ok. did you know how to speak english before you started kindergarden? D: yeah 1: a little or a lot orahh some errr D: a lot. 1: and how did you know how to speak english? who taught you? D: i dunknow. 1: was it just at home? D: nods head 1: at home? ok. do you think its been easy or hard for you to learn english, Due? D: hard? 1: hard? and why do you think its been hard for you to learn english? D: cause my brothers when i learn words wrong them then when i mess up (??)they laugh at me. 1: ohhhh so they laugh at you ? anybody in the classroom ever do that? D: shakes head 1: no? they they dont laugh at you when youre trying to learn words? but your brothers do? well they once too they were learning words tooand i'm sure that they still are. how does that make you feel when they laugh at you? D:mad. 1: mad? do you tell them you get mad? D: shakes head 1: no? do they leave you alone? D: sometimes 1: sometimes? ...... do you think that speaking 2 languages makes you smarter? you speak vietnamese and you speak english --does that make you smarter? does it make you smarter to speak 2 languages? D: shakes head 179

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1: no? so if you only spoke one language or you spoke 400 it makes youre not any different? D: shakes head 1: ok. how many languages do you speak? D: 3 (??) umm umm ... ummm then Jose tell some words that spanish 1: so youre learning spanish too? so youre learning english and vietnamsese and your learning some words in spanish. thats great! youll be speaking three languages then, huh? goodk. D: my sister speak french and urn english and umm vietnamese ... 1: she speaks french english and vietnamsese ... wow she learns 3 too. are you teaching words to adiran in vietnamese? is he learning vietnamese words? are you teaching 'em? D: a little 1: yeah? is it easier to learn a spanish word or a vietnamese word? do you think? D: spanish 1: spanish? vietnamese words sometims are hard o pronounce arent they if your dont you arent sure how to. ok. and you know' em because youve been speaking vietnamses all your life. so its probably easier for you than for someone like me i'm sure. ok. do you think ..... its important to speak many languages? D: long pause ..... nods head 1: why? why do you think ... ( cant hear) D: because ummm its umm like knowing ummm knowing the know know uhh vietnamese ummm that makes (hard to hear him) ... alone or only speak a little umm you can umm you could help them? 1: you could help them? yeah certainly could you could help communicate you could talk them in english and in span vietnamese, youre right. do you think its harder for boys or girls to learn english?or do you think its hard for both of 'em? D: both of them 1: both of them? whats the hardest thing to learn about english? D: saying words 1: how ta say words? is it is there ... a correct way and not correct way to say words? D: nods head 1: just like there is in vietnamese isnt there, i'm sure? D: uh-huh. 1: ok. which language do you like to speak more? vietnamese or english? D: vietnamese 1: and why? 180

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D: because i know more 1: because you know more in vietnamese? do you think its important to speak english? D: nods head 1: why? D: because uh like in school umm no one really speaks umm vietnamese. I: have do you ever speak vietnamese when youre in school? D: nods head 1: urn-hum? you do? who do you talk to when you do? D: Tien 1: Tien? in vietnamese? ok ohhh lets see here. you think its ok to speak vietnamese in school? D: uh-hum. 1: ok. 'cause you help Tien dont you when he doesnt understand something. or even big problems (hard to hear). ok. are anybody in your house learning english? who in your you said your 4 brothers, right? and your 4 sisters and you--anybody else? D:mymom. I: your mom is learning english? is your dad?what about your grandma and grandpa? D: he he he knows umm a little already 1: he knows a little already? what about grandma and grandpa? D: only .... vietnamese. 1: only vietnamese? you think they want to learn english or no? D: pauses shakes head I: no? ok so you can talk to them in vietnamese? ok. which language do you think youll speak more when youre grown up? D: vietnamese 1: and why do you think that? D: because when i grow up umm i'm gonna umm i'm gonna ... (cant hear) be mostly vietnamese. 1: do you think youll have ta use english more? when you work you think youll have to use much more? D: nods head 1: when you grow up do you want to still be able to speak both vietnamese and english? D: nods head 1: thats great. ok. we're almost done. lets go on to the last part! k. um-k. this is part 4. ummm what do you do when you what do you typically do when you go home after school? whats a 181

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D: eat 1: eat? a snack or is it dinner? or D: uhh i eat rice. 1: you eat rice? then what do you do? D: play then do my homework. 1: do your homework? um-k. and what do you do after you do your homework? D: eat again and go sleep 1: go sleep? and you said you have 4 brothers and 4 sisters and your mom and dad and grandma and grandpa live with you? both D: grandma and grandpa live in vietnam 1: oh they live in vietnam?so, whos the other person that lives with you? youve got 4 brothers D: mom and dad 1: 4 sisters, your mom and your dad .... and you .. thats 11. who else? D: 10 1: 10? theres only 10 of you that live there? oh! i i'm sorry i thought you said your grandma and grandpa did live there. they live in vietnam? do you talk to them? D:um-hum 1: on the telephone? k. ummmmmm what kind of job does your dad have? ........ what does he do when he goes to work? do you know? D: once we went with him at the candy place I: and what did you do when you were there? or what did you see? D: candy 1: ummmm. what kinda candy? D: lots 1: like chocolate or different kinds or D: chocolate 1: chocolate .. ummm what was your dad doing there when you were watching? D: cleaning the windows. I: cleaning the windows? ok. does your mom work? D: she umm she ummm sells 1: she sells? what does she sell? D:SEWS 1: oh! sews! does she sew clothes and things? D: she sewed me a pant 1: she did? oh wow. does she sell any of the things she sews? D: she work with ummrn my cousin and my cousin does ummm gives stuff to my mom then my mom pays my cousin and then my cousin pays my mom. 182

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1: k. do they think schools important? do you nnom and dad think schools important? D: nods 1: how do you know that? D: cause when were late umm they just wake us up and tell us to go to school wake us and then go to school. 1: ok. so its very important to them that you be here? do they help you with your school work at home? D: shakes head 1: no? do a brother and sister help you if you ever get stuck? D: nods head 1: do your brothers and sisters like school? D:uh-humm 1: hum-hum, they do? D: my brother doesnt 1: which one? D:Tam 1: Tam and Tams in 3rd grade isnt he? he doesnt like school why do you think he doesnt like school? D: cause he has ta do work 1: he has ta do work and he doesnt want to? what would he rather do? what would he like ta do instead? D: eat 1: eat? he likes to eat? um-k. k. do you like to read? D:um-hum. 1: you do like to read? ok. where do you read when youre at home? D: at my desk 1: at chur desk? um-k. do you like to read by yourself? D:nodshead 1: urn-hum. um-k. why do you read? do you read for fun? or to learn more or because you like to D: for fun I: for fun? um-k. what kinda books do you read? ...... or like to read? whats one of your favorite books? D: the bears I: ohh, the bernstein bears yeah youve read a lot of those to me. there those i like those books too. those are funny stories. who do you play with when youre at lunch recess? who do you usually play with? 183

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tape gets cut off here. Continue with interview next day **This part of the tape is very hard to hear** I: who do you play with when your outside? D: Tran and Jose. and Tien I: and Tien, anyone else? (cant hear) .... what do you play when youre outside? D: soccer I: soccer? anything else? D: sometimes basketbll 1: sometimes basketball? ok. do they boys and girls play with eachother at lunch recess? D:no 1: they dont? why? D: they ummm others might think that that boy likes the girl or the girl likes the boy that they like each other. 1: they like each other? like boyfriend and girlfriend? D: nods head 1: why what do you think they would do if they saw that? D: laugh at them 1: laugh at them? does that keep most of the boys and girls from playing with each other? D: nods head I: yeah? ok. what do you like to do for fun when youre at home? D: pauses .... play volleyball with my brothers 1: play with you family? (cant hear tape) what do you think you wanna do when you grow up? **the rest cannot be heard. at the time, i wrote down on the sheet his repsonses to the questions D: be a fireman, save people. or computers. so i can learn 1: if i didnt know you, what three things would you want me to know about you? D: dont speak much english not good at spelling words speak vietnamese. 1: if i need to, can i ask more questions later? 184

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D: yes. 1: are there any questions you would like to ask me? D:no I: how did you feel about this interview? D:ok. 185

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Interviewee: Jose (J) Interviewer: Jennifer Donnell (I) Date: 5-31-00 1: ok, youre a boy. how old are you? are you 7 or 8 years old? J:8 1: 8 years old now. and are you vietnamese or hispanic or ..... J: hispanic 1: hispanic? J: yes. 1: yeah, ok. and you are exited, you have been exited out of the esl program that means that you dont go to ms. Smith'ss class. and are you going to summer school, adiran? J: no. 1: wn-k. where were you born? J: ummm, here. 1: here in colorado? J:nods I: where were your mom and dad born? J: in mexico 1: in mexico? both of em? J: yes. I: ok. do you think boys and girls learn differently? J:umm ..... I: these are your opinions--there are no right or wrong answersits just how you feel. J: can you repeat it? I: sure. do you think boys and girls learn differently? J: umm, yes. 1: why? or how J:umm 1: how' da think they learn differently? J: ummmm i dun know I: you dont know?what do you think? what makes you think? give me'an example of how you think (announcement over speaker) ... how you think boys might learn differently than girls. J:ummm I: is there a certain way? that they learn? or do you think maybe they lear somebody learns faster or what' da think? 186

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J: pauses .... umrnm i dont know. 1: do you think boys and girls play differently at school? J: yes. 1: and how'da think that--why do you think that? J: tunm because urnrnm i think play soccer and other things the kids think (hard to hear tape)??? 1: and are all your friends that play soccer with you are they all boys or girls or .... J: boys. 1: they're all boys? do the girls play by themselves on the playground? J: umrnm yeah. sometimes with their friends 1: with their friends ... and are those friends boys sometimes? or are they usually 'Is? gtr. J: girls. 1: girls? what do you see the girls playing outstide? J :pauses .... ummm on the .... swings onin the .... cheesehouse. 1: in the cheesehouse? what would you do if a girl ever came up to you is a girl came up to you and asked if they could play soccer with you ? would that be ok? J: nods 1: you think they could play soccer? do you think more boys or girls go to college? you know what college is? college is after you get out of high school and you dont have ta go to college but some people do go. do you think more boys or girls go to college? J: more boys. 1: more boys? and why do you think that? J: 'cause in our classroom there're more boys. 1: there are more boys arent there. theres what? 14 boys /15 boys now? J: 15 1: and there 7 girls youre right. um-k. do you think theres do you think that more boys go to college for other reasons or just that? that maybe theresjust more boys J: more boys 1: theres just more boys? do you think boys or girls are better at school? J: both. 1: both? an how'da think boys are good at school? J: ummm .... ummmm (long pause) 1: give me an example of how you think boys are good at school. J: umrnm they play a lot of sports 1: play a lot of sports? k, good. give me an example of how you think girls are good at school? 187

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1: urnmm they study a lot. I: they study a lot? um-k. do you think girls play a lot of sports at school? 1: no. I: umm, do you think boys study a lot at school? J: umm, yyyes. I: yes? why do you think girls dont play as many sports as boys do? J: .... because ... girls are too slow? I: girls are too slow? ok. and how' da think teachers feel about boys? how do you think your teacher or other teachers feel about boys? 1: pause I: do they like 'em? do they you think that that they ahhh how'da think teachers whada think? how da teachers feel about boys? 1: i dont know. I: you dont know? how'da think they feel about girls? J: ummm ...... (long pause) i dont know (???-hard to hear his response) I: um-k. do you think that. .. .it would be different if a teacher was a b' a man? do you think theres a difference teachers that are m that are that are men and teachers that are women? J: no. I: no? um-k. um-k. how do teachers feel about girls that are esl students? we have a couple of girls in our class that are esl students. how' da think your teacher feels about them? J:ummm .... I: happy? good? bad? sad? mad? J: both? I: what ... goood what? J: good and some sad. I: um-k. why do you think good? J: ummm i dont know. I: are they let .. do you think that she feels good about'em because theyre good students or theyre nice or all of that or? 1: theyre nice. I: theyre nice? um-k. why'da think she feels sad? J: because umm because they have ta learn more stuff. I: they have ta learn more stuff? ummm why d'ya think they have ta learn more stuff? whatya mean by that? J: ummm .... i dont know I: you dont know? 188

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J: no (quick to respond). I: um-k. how d'ya think teachers feel about boys who are esl students? J: umrnm ... I: and we have a couple of them in our class too ... how'da think teachers feel about them? (little boy comes up and interrupts, i tell him to be quiet). J:ummmm I: good, bad, sad ...... mad J:good? I: good? um-k. do you think kinda for the same reasons as the girls or .... J: same thing. I: the same reason. ok. who do you want to be like when you get older? and it can be somebody that'cha know? J: like my dad. I: like your dad? um-k and why do you wannabe like your dad when you get older? J: because i always work with him I: you work with him? what does your dad do? J: he puts ti-tile .... 1: he puts tile around ... thats hard work isnt it? its a lot of hard work. so you wanna belike him? J: nods head I: um-k. um-k were gonna go on to part 3 now ... .lets see ... um-k. do you like school? J: ummmm ... kinda. I: and why? why kinda? J: because we go to gym and we study. 1: and study. do you like ta do those things? J: kinda. 1: um-k. and what about school do you not like? J:ummmm 1: be honest.. .like i say this isnt gonna no one else is gonna know this this has nothin ta do with your schoolwork. so you can tell me exactly how you feel. what are some things that you do NOT like about school? J: ummmm,studying 1: studying? why? J: because ummm you might miss some spelling words 1: you might miss some spelling words? and what happens if you miss spelling words? J: you get a bad grade. I: you get a bad grade? so getting bad grades is not ok. your do you ever get bad 189

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grades? J: ummmm not always. 1: not always. how do you feel when you do? or if you were ever to get a bad grade how would you feel? J: ummmm ....... ummmm (lnuns: i dontknow) 1: wouya feel sad? mad? would you try harder? woud you ... J: kindof sad. 1: kindofsad?um-k. what do you ummmm like best about school? whats your favorite thing about school? J: gym (smiling) 1: gym. why is gym your favorite part? J: because we do lot of stuff. 1: you'get ta do a lot of stuff? um-k. what subjects like mather spelling er art er reading what subjects are you good at?do you think? J: ummmm art. 1: and why'da think that? J: because i keep getting E's. 1: because you keep getting E's. um-k. what subjects like mather or spelling or those are hard for you? J: ummmm .... spelling. 1: and why's that hard for you? J: because sometimes i missed 1 or 2 1: do you like art? J: yes. 1: do you like'ta draw? and color J: nods head 1: um-k. do you like spelling? J: ummm kind of. 1: kind of! um-k. ok. do you think youre a good reader? J: ummmm yes. 1: and how do you know that? J: because ummm .... ummmm .... 1: how do you know that'chur a good reader? what makes you think youre a good reader? J: i keep getting 3's. 1: 3's? and youre talking about your sentences when you write sentences that a 3 point sentence is the best sentence you can write? um-k. do you think youre a better reader than some of the other kids in the class ... 190

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J: (interupts me with a quick and stem) No. I: no? um-k. how does your teacher know if somebody is a good reader? J:ummmm I: how does she know if people in the classroom are a good reader or not? J: becaussssse some readers dont make a lot of mistakes I: some readers dont make a lot of mistakes? um-k. are you a good writer? J:wnmmm I: do you think your a good writer? J: yes. I: do you like ta write? J:ummmno. I: and why'da think youre a good writer? J: because i keep getting 3-point answers. I: 3-point answers, yeah. and what else happpened to you th't you did that you did really good on? that you wrote something? J: my dinosaur report. I: your dinosaur report. yeah. you did a good job on that. was there anything else that cha did that you wrote that was really special? J: ummm .... ummmm .... ummmm ... no. I: no? ok. uhhhhhh ummm what is your favorite thing to do at school? J: play soccer. I: play soccer? why? J: because ummm i get to run a lot. 1: you get to run a lot. whats your favorite thing ta'do at home? J: play with my sisters. 1: and are your sisters older or younger than you? J: younger. 1: younger. whacha like to play with 'em? J: ummmm sometimes on the swings 1: on the swings? that is fun isnt it? um-k. why do you think its important to be a good student? J: ummmm so you could pass to da other grades 1: so you can pass to the other grades? um-k. do you think umrnmm going to school is important? J: (firmly) yes. 1: k. and why d'ya think that? J: because if you miss a la'uv days you wont be on TOPS. 1: you wont be on tops. and TOPS is Totally Outstanding People? i think is what it 191

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stands for and you guys get an award from mrs. lawrence, dont you? J: nods. (lot of background noise, kids screaming) I: yeah. wn-k. what do you think being smart means? what duz that mean to you? what does being smart mean? J: wnmm you get good grades every time. I: um-k. how does your teacher know when someone is smart? J: ummm ... they get E's. 1: wn-k. so they do E work? J: yeah. I: wn-k. what do you want to do when youre done with .. high school? J:wnmm 1: what do you wanna do after you get out of high school? J: ummmm .... i dontknow. I: you dont know? k. you wanna go to college? or do you want ta work like your dad or d'ya want ta travel or ..... J: work with my dad. I: work with your dad? and what da people have'ta do ta get that kind ofajob? what would you have'ta do? J:wnmm ..... 1: what do you think? J: ummm a lot of money so you could buy ummm the stuff that you need. I: you need a lot of supplies and things to your for y'the job like your dad has? wn k. has anyone in your family gone to college? grandpa ora mom or dad or auntie or uncle or .... J: i dont know. I: you dunno? ok. do you want ta go to college? J: ummmm maybe. 1: maybe? does anyone in your family speak english at home? J: yes. 1: who speaks english? J: my mom and me no no. my mom only a lil bit and my dad speaks a lot of english. he knows ummm (cant hear tape). I: so your mom knows a lil'bit and your dad knows quite a bit and your sisters are learning theyre theyre learning like you? er actually, youre really fluent in english now. wn-k. what language do they and you watch maybe tv or listen to music in? what language is it? is it spanish er english? er both? J: ummmm i watch cartoons in english and hear spanish music. 1: spanish music? wn-k. did you know how to speak english before you started 192

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kindergarden here? J: yes. 1: did you know it? has it been easy or hard for you to learn english? J: urnrnmm kind of easy. 1: easy? and why'da think its been so easy for you? J: because i watch tv and been i keep learning new words. 1: so you watch tv and thats how you learned a lot ofwords?did you learn english any other way? J: wnmno. 1: ok. do you think that by speaking 2 languages that makes you smarter? J: ummm ...... 1: do you think youre smarter when you learn .... J: i think so? 1: and why do you think that? J: because if somebody doesnt know like english then because i know spanish i can tell'em. 1: um-humm. how many languages do you speak? J:ummm,2. 1: and what are they? J: english and spanish. 1: do you think its important to be able to speak a lot of languages? J: yes. 1: why? why do you think its important? J: 'cause you can have more friends. 1: you can have more friends. you could talk to a lot more people couldnt you? J: yes. 1: urn-hum. do you think that more boys or girls speak two languages? J: ..... both. 1: both? why do you think that? J: cause ummm anything that they ... ( cant hear tape) extra things ... 1: which language do you like to speak more? J: ummm in school english and'n in my house spanish. 1: and why is that? J: because my mom doesnt understand a lot of umm 1: of what? english? J: yeah. 1: k. do you think its important to speak english? J: ummmyes. 193

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1: why do you think so? J: because umrnm because ummm if your boss umrnm and then like a person that wants to work doesnt it would be really hard. 1: umrnm. yeah. J: especially(??) if you want a job. 1: it would be hard if, yeah if you couldnt talk to them. k. which language do you think youll speak more when you grow up? when you become an adult like your dad and your mom? which language will you speak more? spanish or english? J: spanish. 1: why do you think that? J: ummmm ... because when i work with my dad there lots of people that talk spanish. 1: all right. were gonna go on ta part 4 and this is the last part. your almost done. umk. what do you usually do when you go home after school? whats a typical day for Jose? J: i play my gameboy. 1: you play your gameboy when you go home? k. what else do you do? J: i do my homework. 1: and where do you usually do your homework? J: in my room. 1: in your room? k. and who all lives with you at home? J: ummmm my dad's friend and he lives in the basement and my family. 1: and its your family? and thats your 2 sisters twin sisters J: yeah. 1: and your mom and your dad? k. what kind of job you said your dad has he'lays down tile. does your mom stay at home er does she work? J: she works 1: and where does she work? J: umrnm making like like ummm like tubes for lips so they wont break apart. 1: for lips you said? ok. do they think school's important? does your mom and dad think schools important? J: yes. 1: and how do you know that? J: because if all of us pass and dad will buy us something. 1: uhh, wow. what kinds of things has he bought you before? J: ummm i dont know but when i if all of us pass and my sisters my dad will buy me a nintendo 64. 1: (gasp) that would be a special treat wouldnt it? yeah. so that makes you wanna 194

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work hard in school doesn't it. yeah, thats a neat treat! k. do your sisters like school? J:ummmmno. 1: no? what grade are they in J:kindergarden I: and why do they not like school? J: because they have to wake early. 1: they have ta get up early? do they go to school here? J: yes. 1: yes. k. do you like to read? J:ummmm 1: either at school or at home--do you like to? J: kind of. I: kind of? um-k. where do you read when youre at home? if you want to read when youre at home? where do you usually try and read? J: in my bed. I: so yoy read in your bedroom? J: yes. 1: um-k. why do you read? if you do read. is it fun do you like to do you get to learn more er what? J: i get to learn. I: you get to learn more? J: more words, umm-humm. 1: more words, yeah you do when you read dont you? k. what kindof books do you read for fun? J:ummm I: what are some of your favorites? J: pokemon. 1: pokemon? pokemons very popular isnt it? yeah. um-k. who do you play with when you go outside for lunch? J:ummm 1: who do you usually always play with ? J: Tran and Due. 1: Tran and ... J: and Tien. 1: and Tien? are they your best friends? J: yes. 1: yeah? and you guys always play .i don last couple of times ive been out there you 195

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play soccer. do you play soccer a lot? J: yeah. I: urn-hum. (page over intercom) do you play anything else when your outside? J: sometimes i play basketball. I: sometimes you play basketball? um-k. and you told me boys and girls usually dont play with eachother out on recess, right? J: yeah. I: k. why do you think that is? J:ununm, I: why do you think that more boys and girls dont play with eachother? J: ummm because ... ununm ... theyre might be mean. I: who? J: ummm the boys. I: the girls uhh the boys might be mean to the girls? J: nods head I: um-k. why do you think they'd be mean to 'em? J: ummm because ummm because if the girls play soccer with the boy the boy might hit the girl in the face. I: ohhh, so ifyer playing soccer and the boy accidently hits the girl in the face? J: nods head I: um-k. what do you like ta do for fun when youre at home? wha whats your whats the best thing that you do at home for fun? J: ummmm, play soccer outside and ummm play my gameboy. I: play soccer where? J: outside. I: outside? and then you play your gameboy? k. all right lets see here .... .last question Jose. uhhhh if i didnt know you what would you like me to know about you? if i didnt know who you were, wha what are 3 things you would like me to know about you? J:myname. I: your name? um-k. J:ununm I: what else would you really want me to know about you? J: and .... umrnm ... whats my favrit sport. I: whats your favorite sport? um-k. 1 more. J: ummmm ... what grade i am. I: what grade youre in? ok. ok. is it ok if i if i need to i can ask you questions later? J: nods head. 196

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I: ok. and do you have any questions you wanna ask me about this? J: no. I: um-k. how'd you feel about the interview. it wasnt was it bad was it good was it ok? J: ok. I: yeah? it was ok. i told there wouldnt be any real read different questions. ok. thats it Jose! 197

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Interviewee: Lam (L) Interviewer: Jennifer Donnell (I) Date: 5-31-00 1: ok this is A and she is a girl and you are 7 or 8 years old? L: 7 1: 7 years old, and you are vietnamese ... correct? L: nods head l: ... and you go to esl...um k. are you going to summer school this summer er no? L:no. 1: ok. where were you born a? L: in vietnam ... or saigon .. .i dont know. 1: where were your ... mom or dad or your family born. where were they bom ... who takes care of you ... L: i dont know .. 1: you dont know? ok. L: my umm .... sister take cares of me. 1: your sister takes care of you? ok. ok. lets start with the first question. 1: this goes into part 2. urn k. do you think boys and girls learn differently? L:no. 1: why? L: be ... cause (speaker overhead calling a teacher, she pauses) ... 1: this is just what you think a, you just tell me. theres no right or wrong answer at all. you just tell me what you think. L: because ... they're in the ... same classroom??? 1: urn k. 1: do you think boys and girls play differently at school? L: yes. 1: how? L: ummmm .... because theres different things? 1: k, can you like give me an example? like when youre outside or you're in gym? L: ummm, playing jump-rope? 1: and how, how do boys play differently than girls when they jump rope? L: huh?? 1: how do boys play differently than girls when they play jump-rope? L:uhhh 1: or do ... do the girls play jum-rope and the boys dont? L: some of the boys play jump-rope and the girls some of them .... 198

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I: some of them do?? urn k. do you think more boys or girls go to college? and college is .. is the big university that students go to after they get out of high school. L: my sister's in the 9th grade. I: in the 9th grade? wow. L: ... and she is in high school too. I: uh huh. so do you think more boys or girls go to college when they get older? L: girls I: and why do you think that? L: because (smiling) i like girls ... 1: because what? L: i like girls. 1: you like girls? L: more than boys. I: more than boys? Are boys or girls better at school? L:no. I: which one? or neither .. do you think boys or girls are better (L: both) at school? L: both I: and why do you think that? L: because ... there's no such thing. I: theres no such thing as ... as a boy or a girl being better at something? L: uh-huh. I: ok. how do you think teachers feel about boys? L: (in a whisper) .. .i dont know .... what was it about boys? pauses .... I:what do you think? L: good. I: they feel good .. and why do you say that? L: pauses ... 1: can you give me an example? L:no. I: no? how do you think teachers feel about girls? L: good ... too. 1: urn k. can you give me an example of why you think that? L: .... i cant even hear what i was asked the boys or the girls? I: you just kinda think they like em both .. are good that they feel good about em both? L: nods. I: ok. how do teachers feel about girls who are esl students? (repeats question). 199

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L: good. I: any different than students that arent esl students? L: wn-huh (quietly) I: you think there's a difference? how? L: i dont know what thought you were asking? I: how do teachers feel about girls who are esl students? do you think that girls who are esl students and girls that stay in a regular .classroom ... d'you think teachers feel about feel differently about them? L: wn-hwn (quietly) I: you, you do? how do you think they feel about the esl girls versus the girls in the classroom? what. .. what makes em feel differently? L: i dont want to answer ... I: you don't want to answer that one? L: uh-na. I: ok. do you want to anwer how to boys how do teachers feel about boys who are esl students? how do you think teachers feel about boys who are esl students? L: i dont want to answer. I: ok. who do you want to be like, maybe somebody you know, when you get()lder? who do you want to be like when you get older? ... L: pause .... my mom. I: and why do you want ta be like your mom? L: because she's nnnice to me? 1: she's nice to you .. what does your mom do? does she go to work? L: ssshhe work at night and the day aaaannnndd uwnmm she bakes things at home too. I: oooo, she bakes things at home. L: and .... she works. 1: and she works hard? you wannabe like your mom? wn-hwnm.ok we're gonna go on to the next part, part 3. 1: do you like school? L: yeah. 1: wn k. why do you like school? L: ... because you get to learn things? 1: you get to learn things? how about why not? why wouldn't you like school? L: pauses ... 1: err is there anything you don't like about school? L: nope. I: nope? you like everything about school? wn k. what do you like best about it? 200

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L: the best.. we get to play outside ... I: you get to play outside. that is fun isnt it. what subjects are you good at .. .like math or art or spelling? L: i dont know I: what do you think? L: well...i like art more ... I: you like art more? um-k. anything else that you think youre good at? L: shakes head (no) I: no? um-k. how do you know that youre good at art? L: ... because .... i..only color inside? 1: you only color inside? what do you think about some of the art projects that we do? do you do a good job on them? L: ummm .. .i dont know. 1: you dont know? L: ... or good, maybe ... I: do you think youre one of the best artists in the classroom? L: NO, good. I: just good? L:um-hum. I: not best, not .. just good. who do you think is the goodes--good at art? L: Sara I: Sara's good at art? are there any boys that are good at art in our classroom? L: like Sara and Julie. I: and Julie? what about boys? L: boys? i dont know (semi-laugh). 1: you dont know. urn. k. what subjects are hard for you? what ones are hard for you in school? L: ummmm what is subject? I: like math or english or science .... L: science. 1: and why? why do you think that? why do you think science? ------is looking at me marking response in paper ... gets distracted--------1: oh, don't worry about that...i'm just writing that you didnt want to answer ... why do you think that... why do you think science? L: pauses I: what makes it hard for you? L: ummmm i dont know ... 1: can you think of something that we've done for science that maybe was hard 201

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like dinosaurs or .... L: dinosaurs 1: were was that hard for you? L: un-huh. 1: what was hard about dinosaurs? L: because making the dinosaurs 1: making the dinosaurs .. you mean the ones that you did at home? your home project. L: (nods head) 1: that was hard wasn't it? did you have help on that? L: urn, yeah 1: so somebody helped you. that makes it easier doesnt it? a little easier. urn k. do you think you're a good reader? L: ummm .... (long pause/very hesitant to answer) ... ummm ... !:***inaudible*** L: good and ... I: good? .... you kina shake like "so, so?'' L:um-hum. 1: kinda sort good and .... why do you think that? L:um .... 1: why do you think you're a good reader first..lets start that.. why do you think you're a good reader? L: be-cause I try and figure ... ummm ... words out? 1: good. ok. and why do you think you're not such a good reader 'cause you were kinda shakn your head ... why d'you think that? L: umhm .... .I dooonnnt want to .... 1: um-k. d'you mean that you sometimes you just dont want you dont wanna answer or you dont want sometimes you dont wanna read? L: i dont want to answer (very softly) I: you dont want to answer, ok. How does your teacher know someone is a good reader? L: pauses .... I: howzz youre teacher know someones a good reader? L: (is distracted, then turns to me) huh? 1: how does mrs. Richards, your teacher know that'yer ... that the kids in her class are a good reader or not? how' does she know that? L: i think she goes on the (school bell rings) internet and ... more ... 1: you think she goes on the internet morewhat would she fmd on the internet? 202

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L: about us ... 1: about you guys?so you guys are on the internet? what kinds of things ... L: our names ... 1: your names and what does it say about you in your name? L: idontknow 1: you dont know but you think thats how she gets thats how she knows if youre a good reader or not? L:um-hum. 1: ok. are you a good writer? L: long pause 1: you think youre a good writer? L: no response 1: when you write papers and reports and things .. you think youre a good writer .. L: sometimes 1: somestimes ... when are you a good writer? when da'ya think youre a good writer? L: when i grow up. 1: when you grow up you'll be a good writer? and when do you think youre not such a good writer? L: when i am little? 1: when youre little, im-k. so sddo you think practicing makes you a better writer and ... ? L: nods 1: um-k. how does thihow does mrs. Richards if youre a good writer or not? how does she know that? L: no response. 1: how would she know ifyoure a good writer or not? L: umm .... may just write things and then she mi.. .. she 1: ... she makes you write things and then she .... pause .. .looks at 'em er what? L: looks at 'em. 1: looks at itand then she knows ifyoure a good writer or not? L: nods 1: ok. L: theres mrs. lawrence what are .. .is mrs lawrence doing? 1: maybe shes just comin to say hello. L: are maybe shes doing TOPS 1: umm ... she could be. L: but i dont think shes doin' TOPS .. .is that the last page? 1: umm .. almost. What is your favorite thing to do at school? 203

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L: pllllay. I: what is it again? L: play I: to play? what do you like to play at school? L: ummm .... everything! I: you like to play everything at school? um-k. what's your favorite thing to do at home? L: to play hide and seek. I: play hide and seek ... L: and go to the park. I: and go to the park. L: i hhave a Ilittle park and a big park. I: do you like ta do more things at school or at home? L: at. ... school and home. I: both of 'em? do you think ....... .let me go back. why do you think its important to be a good student? L: pauses ..... huh??? I: why do you think its important for you to be a good student. .. or for anyone to be a good student? why do you think its important? do you think its important to be a good student? L: ummm ....... nods I: yeah? youre shaking your head, yes? why? L: pauses ...... because you try to be niceto everybody? I: you try to be nice to everybody? if youre a good student what does that what does that do for you? how duz that help you? L: .... .i dont want to answer that. .. I: you dont want to answer?um-k. do you think going to school is important? L: yes. I: yes. and why is it important? L: ummrnm ... you learn things. I: you learn things? is it important that you learn things? L: urn-huh. I: yeah, why? L: be'because when you grow up you can be smart. I: when you grow up you can be smart?um-k. what do you think being smart means? whata you think that means? L: pauses .... I: if ssomebody says youre smart, what does that mean? 204

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L: uhhh ... that means you know everything? 1: means you know everything? um-k. how does your teacher know when someone is smart? L: pauses ... 1: how daya think mrs. donn ... L: they give them homework? 1: they give them homework..and then what? L: and they do them? 1: they do em' and then what? how does mrs. Richards then know youre smart? L: and we turn it in and mrs. Richards check them 1: she checks them ... um-k. what do you wanna do when yourere .... done with high school? when youre out of high school and yer big what do you want to do? L: out of college or high school? 1: out of high school.. .. L: high school.. .. (thinking) 1: college is after high school this is before. what do you want to do when you get out of high school? L: ummm ... per---meeeeaaaddd things 1: you wanna geta job or go to college or .... L: go to college 1: you want to go to college? L: and read ... ummm ... read books. 1: and read books. k. what kind of a job do you want to get when youre out and grown up? L: a doctor 1: you wanna be a doctor. what do people have to do to get that job? L: ..... they work hard ... 1: they have ta work hard? dothey have to go to school for a long time? L: yeah ..... 1: or for a short time or not at all? L: a long time 1: a long time?k. do you think thut you have to be smart to be a doctor? L:ummmno. 1: no? why not? L: uhhhh yes, i mean. 1: yes you do? why d'ya think you have to be smart to be a doctor? L: because we .... you chchchthe doctor check your teeth and things and give you 205

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medicine? I: urn, k. has anyone in your family, Lam--has anyone ever gone to college in your family? L:ummno. I: no? L: my sister is juzzl have two sisters (rapidly saying). I have a a baby sister cept. .. two and a half and my big sister is 15. I: she's 15. has anybody like grandma or grandpa er auntie er mom or anybody gone to college? .... L: i dont know because i was little I: you were little. does your sister want to go to college? L: uhhh, ummmm maybe?! I: maybe? um.k. ok. does anyone in your family speak english at home? L: yes. I: and who is that? L: my sister. I: just your sister? who else do you live with at home? L: ummmy momanddad and baby sister anddddm.mmy big sister. I: ok, so theres five of you. and so your sistersthe only one your older sisters the only one that speaks english? will your baby sister learn english? L: ununm I dont know. 1: you don't know? what language do they watch tv or listen to music in at home? L: umm vietnamese andddddd sometimes vietnamese be on the tv and sometimes english I: and sometimes english? do you think that you guys listen to more music ... L: because my mom and my dad uhhhhhhave a teacher at home I: they have a teacher at home? and what does this teacher ... L: today I: today? and what does this teacher do? L: all the times acceptuesday the teacher teach them. I: they teach 'em things like in yyou learn in school or? L: uh-huh. I: they teach 'em english er what? L: they teach them english and some .. time sometime uhhh learn at school but it about george washington whowazzz first president i think. 1: ohhhh ... do they have to take a big test? ... L: and and thhhhhhhe girls against the boys and the boys against the girls (singing this part) and they have ... 206

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I: what boys against what girls? L: the girls. I: just th'all girls? L: uh-huh. I: ohh, ok. L: we only have TWO boys and ummmnurun 4 girls bbbuuuhhhmmm sometimes the (vietnamese??) comes and they uhhhhthey are girls. I: they are girls ... oh! so you mean when your teachers whwhen the teachers in the house its the boys in your house against the girls?? L: um-hummm. I: oh! whos better? L: ummmm i dont. ... know uhhhh its ... (moving hands) I: both of 'em? L: because theyre on a tie. I: theyre on a tie. do your parents have ta take a big test after they study ... after they learn at home? L: (whispering to self) a big test?? I: will they have to take a test? L: ummm, yes. I: yes they will have to L: their teach their teacher told them. I: um-hum .. .is your teacher vietnamis their teacher vietnamese (tape becomes inaudible) L: she comes from louisianna .. I: louisianna? ahhh. d'ya know where that is? L:uhhh I: thats down in the south thats far away from here. Ill have to show you on the map. ok. did you know how to speak english before you started kindergarden? did you know any english before you started ... L:no. I: so you only learned english here? L: i just only know a little teany tiny I: just a little teany tiny bit? L: uh-huh. I: so you learned to speak mostly english here at school? L: nods head. I: um-k. has it been easy or hard for you to learn english, Lam? L: humm? uuuhhhh hard. 207

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I: and why? L:ummrnm ... I: Im sure it has been hardits hard ta learn a second language isnt it? whats been the hardest part about it? L: ennngglish I: english? L:um-hum. I: is it hard to understand sometimes? L: uh-huh. I: uh-huh L: because when i was inkindergarnen ididn understand anything. I: were you scared? L: and then i just understand it. I: then you just understood it one day? L: uh-huh. I: 'cause you practiced? or you heard it a lot or ... ? L: i heard it a lot or something. I: wn-hum. were you scared when you-wr in kindergarden and didnt know how to speak english? and everybody around you .... L: i was shy (in very high pitch tone) I: you were shy, yeah. ok. last page. does speaking two languages make you smarter? L: ummmm ..... yes. I: and why do you think that? L: pauses ... .i dont want to answer. I: you dont want to answer? do you think that if your spoke vietnamese and english that you could do more things? L: yeah (quietly) I: yeah? why d'ya think that? L: pauses .... ummmm I: you certainly can talk ta more people cancha .... L: uh-huh I: 'cause you can talk to both vietnamese people and english .... L: (says at same time as me) english people. I: urn-hum. can you write in vietnamese? L: ummrnmsome words I: some words? L: i could write wnm grape inah vietnamese but it start with an Nan end with a 0. I: urn-hum. 208

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L: its spell like this (shows me with hands) N H 0. 1: N H 0, ohh and howd'ya pronounce that? L: nyah 1: nyah? urn-hum. so do do you think that you know more if you speak two languages? L: yes. 1: yeah? um-k. How many languages do you speak? L:two. 1: and what are they? L: uh, vietnamese and english. 1: vietnamese and english. do you think more girls or boys speak two languages? L: umm, more girls. 1: and why do you think that? L: because i like girls again. 1: you like girls again (quietly). do you think (bell) do you think its more important to speak many language langauges? L: yes. 1: and why do you think that L:be ... 1: why doyathink its important? L: because you'll be smore smarter. 1: you'll be more smarter? um-k. anything else? L: shakes head. 1: no? do you think its harder for boys or girls to learn english? L: umm, both 1: both? and why? do yathink do you think its hard in the same way for for boys and girls L:um-hum. 1: yeah, (teacher speaking in background to class out in hall for b-room break). whyd'ya think its hard for boys to learn english ... uha hold on just a second (tape makes clicking noise) .... uhh, i'll sole so all let yup at the end i'lllet i'll play back some back to you so you can hear your voice. ok. why do you think its hard for boys to learn english sometimes? L: be' cause some boys speaks others language? 1: do you think they speak more languages than girls? L: umm, i dont know. 1: it just kinda depends? k. why d'ya think its hard for girls to learn ... many languages? 209

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L: pauses ..... because ...... it.. .... because ... you urnmm ... 1: why do you ... L: because .. .its. they sometimes umm the girls dont speak mostly that language. 1: sometimes the girls dont speak mostly that language? um-k. do you urnmm think its important to speak english? L: .... yes. 1: and why do you think that? L: ummm because youll be smarder when you grow up again 1: youll be smarter when you grow up again? do you think you'll have ta use english a lot when you get older, Lam? L: ummm, (higher pitch on next umrnm) umrnmrnmkinda.. 1: do you think youll speak more vietnamese or more english when you get older? L: english because i donh now i forgot all my eng vietnamese things. 1: you did? L: uh-huh. 1: so yer not learning anymore vietnamese at home? L: uh-nuh. 1: do you understand your parents when they talk to you in vietnamese ... L: yes. 1: yes. can you talk back to them in vietnamese? L: ahhhummm sometimes. 1: a little bit? um-k. so youre mom and dad are learning english at home you said then L: uh-huh. 1: ok. which ahhh oh we answered that one. ok lets go on to part 4last one then youll get to go the bathroom and then go to mmusic. what do you usually do when you go home after school? what doya uusually do ? L:ummm 1: whats a typical fer typical day for Lam? L: sometimes i watch tv and somestimes i do the homework first 1: when you watch tv do yawatch tv in vietnamese or in english ? L: urn both. 1: and what kinds of things do you watch? L: uhhhh, ummmm like movies 1: movies? L: uh-huh l: um-k. whats your favorite movie? L: i dunits in vietnameseuhhhi cant even say it ... 1: you cant say ... 210

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L: buhhbut i could mm .... (Iaughs lightly) but can take a drink when I go down there? 1: yes you may. you can take a bathroom break and everything. um-k. and you told me that you have a mom yourmom and your dad and your little sister and your older sister live with you at home. um-k. what kind of job does your dad have? L: ummm, (laughing) i donknow ifl only know what my mom do .. uhmy mom works at Tee -Wahh. 1: tee-wah and what does she do wheat tee-wah? L: cook. 1: she cooks. isit a restaurant? L: aeeyeah izz a ressssh restrant .. TAPE ENDS 1: ok, tee-wah, what is tee-wah? L: uhhizz a restrant ummmmmy moaahhh my mom cooks food and also vietnamese restaurant and some uhhhh americans people comes in aneat? 1: urn-hum. doesdodoes your dad wear any special outfit or anything or any kinda clothes when he goes to work? (screaming in background) L: nods head. 1: what does it look like? L: uhhhummmmi don know i knowh has another one 1: he has 2 jobs? L: un-huh 1: so hes very busy, k. L: its its in the morning and morning (child still yelling in hallway) 1: he works 2 jobs in the morning? L:wn-hum. 1: ok, do your parents think schoolz important? L: yes 1: (child still screaming) an why do you think that? how do you know that ? L: umm, because ummm when your parent want you to be smarter? 1: your parents want you to be smarter? L: when you grow up 1: when you grow up? k. do your brothers and sisters like school? orer you dont have any brothers but does your do your sisters like school? does your older sister like school? L: (high pitched) maybe. 1: maybe? why do you think she might not? L: un no, .... because maybe she learn all day and shes to real hot in the classroom. 1: maybe. yeah. why d'ya think she likes school? L: pauses ... go because shes learning some 211

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1: 'cause shes learning some L: just like me. 1: just like you. do you like to read Lam? L: ahhhummm, in the ... 1: for fun? L: yeah. 1: yeah? where do you read for fun when youre at home ? L: uhh, i go to where quiet is pplace and read 1: you read there? do you have anthing like do you sit on a chair er on the floor or L: ohh sometimes on the floor and on a chair. an on a sofa 1: on the sofa. and everybody leaves you alone when you read? L: un-hum. 1: do you read books in vietnamese? L:no ... 1: or just english? L: english. 1: just english? can you read in vietnamese? L:no. 1: why do you read? L: because ... 1: do you read for fun er ta learn more or? L: to learn more 1: youahh you always read to learn more or do you learn erta have fun sometimes when you read? L: uhh, yeah 1: sometimes that too? who do you play with at lunch recess? when your outside at lunch who do you play with? L: my frrriends ummmm 1: your friends? who are yur friends outside? L: like Sara, Hoa, and the first grade friends and Julie and Kelly? 1: k. L: all..all the girls not boys ... 1: what d'ya like ta play when youre outside? L: ummm, all of the things that my friends like 1: do they like to play alot of different things? L: uh-hum 1: un-hum. ya'ever have races with each other? L: (laughing somewhat) no ... 212

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I: no? L: because we cant run and we cant do races and a luh chases outside. I: how' come? L: because that mrs. lawrence rule or mr. tracys I: and so you havta follow the rules? wn-k. do boys and girls play with eachother at recess? L: wnmmm sometimes some I: some do? why'd you think that those they do? L: they ... I: and that some of the other boys and girls dont? why do you think boys and girls dont .... L: because I: play with each other L: because they uhh they boys think the girls have the cooties and the girls thinks the boys have the cooties. I: so you dont like to play with eachother? L: shakes head I: uh-huh? whats different about then the boys and girls that do play eachother? why doya think they play with eachother? L: because that the boys dont think that girl have the cooties? I: are'they older or younger than you guys? L: uhhhhhummmm 1 younger and 1 older. i jus like 7 or 8 I: so some of them are older and someofem younger an so it just kinda .... L: and second grade uhhh second grade plays with ahhh first grade I: oh, ok. what do you like to do for fun when you are at home? L: (laughing) watch tv. I: iz that all er there other things you like to do? L: uhhyeah, go to the park I: i like to go to the park too L: ummmthenwnmm the big park is like uhh theres a rainbow and we climb all theover it and we uhhh go ummmway down and ummm we climb upper and upper and we just down down more. I: do you go with yer sister? L: yeahhh, 1: that sounds like fun. um-k. whahhh L: one time my baby sister got lost I: uhh, uh-ooo. did you have ta go find her? L: yeahh, 213

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1: yeah? L: iz going to the park with my sister an ... 1: and did she follow you? L: yeah, uhhhshes run around circle. 1: (laughing) L: shes runnun all over 1: urn, k just a few more questions Lam and then well be done. what do you want to do when you grow up? unnn you had said that you wanted to be a doctor, right? what kind of a doctor? L: umrnm, ummm any kind. 1: any kind? it doesnt matter or like a eye doctor er teeth doctor or a baby doctor or what kind? L: any kind. 1: any kind? doesnt really matter to you? L: because i like to be a doctor 1: you wanted to be a doctor? ummm not too long (shes pointing to recorder). Ifi didn .. yup this is one this is the last question Lam ... L: two more! one more?? 1: yup.if i didnt know you, what would you like me to know about you? L: pauses 1: if i didnt know who you were or what things you did what would you like me to know about you? L:umm 1: give me 3 things ..... L:ummmm 1: three things L: what i play? 1: that you like to play? or what you play??? L: uh-huh 1: what you play? k. L: ummmmm what i do at home 1: what you do at home L: aaaannnnnddddd, the last thing? 1: uh-huh. last thing L: ummmm and eating I: eating. you like to eat? L:uh-hum 1: yeah? whats your favorite thing ta eat? 214

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L: ice cream. 1: yumm! i like ice cream too. whats your favorite flavor? L: umm, vanilla and chocolate. I: yum. L: all of the kinds I:hmmmm L: i like the orange and the whhh wnnun kind something i like all those kinds 1: you like all of em. wow. is there anything you wanna ask me Lam? L:ummno 1: no? is it ok ifi need to can i ask you more questions later? were these questions ok? i told you that wrouldnt be too bad, huh? they werent too bad. L: nods head. I:how do you feel about this interview? L:ummmm, 1: ok? good, nervous, bad, happy? L: umnun, good. I: good? ok. well thats it Lam! 215

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Interviewee: Shelley (S) Interviewer: Jennifer Donnell (I) Date: 6/2/00 1: this is Shelley herrera and are you 7 or 8 years old? S:8 1: 8 k, and youre hispanic. and you dont go toms. Smith's's. and are you going to summer school this summer? S: nods head 1: you are going to summer school this summer? S: yes. 1: do you have to go or do you just want to ? S: because i want to. 1: are you going to ----public schools summer school or is it one at your church or daycare? or? S: at my daycare. 1: um-k. (she caughs). where were you born at? here in colorado or S: in denver 1: in denver? do you live with your mom and dad? S:um-huh. 1: and where were they born? S: in denver too. 1: in denver? (a student comes up and says hi to me, i tell him i'm in the middle of an interview and to please be quiet) ok. do you think boys or girls learn differently? S: yes 1: boys and girls learn differently? yes? how do you think they learn differently? S: ummm .... i dontknow 1: can you give me an example of why you think that? S: ummm ... .long pause .. .i dont know. 1: do you think that they do? do you think that girls or boys that boys are better learners? or a girls better learners or are they about the same? or S: the same I: the same? ok. do you think boys and girls play differently at school? S:yeah 1: how? S: boys play with boys and girls play with girls. 1: so the boys dont play with the girls and the girls dont play with the boys? why do you think that? 216

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S: cause i see they dont play I: and why do you think that they dont play with each other? S: ijustdo. I: do you think more boys or girls go to college? you know what college is? S: yes. I: its after high school? so what do you think? S: more boys I: you think more boys go? why? S: they just do I: you think that more boys just go go to college? S:um-hum. I: you think theres a reason for that? that theres more boys or that they more boys want to go to college? or S: more boys want to go to college. 1: more boys want to go to college. how do you think may not want to go to college? S: umm, i dont know (mumbling) 1: you dont know? do you think boys or girls are better at school? S: both of them I: both of them you think? how do you think teachers feel about boys? S: ummm ... good? 1: good? and why do you think that? S: 'cause (cant hear my comments) 1: how do you think teachers feel about girls? S: ok. 1: and why do you think ok? S: 'cause theyre good. 1: good? are boys good students? S:no 1: are girls good students? S:yeah 1: you think teachers feel differently about boys and girls? S:no I: no? (caughing) how do umm teachers feel about girls who are esl students? theyre the ela students? S: sad 1: why do you think they feel sad? S: umm they have ta go and fmd work. 1: they have to go and find work? is it different than staying in the regular 217

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classroom? S:um-hum 1: why do you think that? S: sometimes they get ta leave and they get to ummm go longer??? 1: is it that they leave to go to esl classroom or why do you think the teachers so sad? because what? S: they have ta work hard 1: they have ta work hard? and how do teachers feel about boys who are esl students? S: pauses ..... 1: do they have ta work a lot? S: a little bit I: ... (not as much as the girls?? cant hear) as the girls? S: uh-huh 1: yeah? do you think teachers feel sad about boys who are esl students too? S: nods head 1: yes? who do you wanna be like when you get older? maybe its somebody you know or somebody ... or somebody S: the police? 1: the police? you might want ta be a policewoman? why do you wannabe a policewoman? S: i just do 'cause theyre cool. 1: you think theyre cool? that might be somethin youd like ta do? ok. were gonna go on to part 3 now. do you like school? S:yeah 1: why? S: cause you get ta learn ahd you getta do lots of work. 1: do you like ta do lots of work? S: nods head 1: what are some things you may not like about school? S: math, and thats all. 1: math and thats all? ok. what do you like best about school? S: ummm lunch. 1: lunch? and why do you like lunch the best? S: 'cause after youre done eating you go outside and play. 1: you like lunch recess? S: nods head 1: what what about math dont you like? what you dont like about school-math. why why do you no like math? 218

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S: 'cause you haveta do add, minus, times and equals. 1: is that hard for you? S:yeah 1: yeah? what subjects like mather art or science do you think youre good at? S:art 1: and why do you think your good at art? S: i dunknow. 1: do you like art? S: yes 1: yeah? S: we draw lots of pictures 1: you do. do you get good grades in art? S: yes. 1: you get good grades in art? ok. what subjects like mather art er science are hard for you? S: math I: and how d'ya know that? S: 'cause ummm you haveta figure out what it is 1: you have trouble sometimes doing that? S:yeah 1: do you think youre a good reader? S:yeah 1: yeah? how' do you know that? S: 'cause i read a lot. I: you read a lot? how does your teacher know if someones a good reader? S: by reading with them? 1: by reading with them? and how does she know if they are a good reader or not? S: if they know mostly all the words 1: mostly all the words? ok. do you think youre a good writer? S:yeah I: how do you know that? S: (with confidence and non-chalantly) i look at my writing and people and people have good writing. 1: people say you have good writing? S:nodshead I: ok. whats your favorite thing ta do at school? S: ummm, play. 1: play outside? at lunch recess? 219

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S: wn-hwn. I: k. whats your favorite thing ta do at home? S: play with my cousin I: and whatda do when you play with your cousin? S: we just play some different games (not clear on tape) I: ok. why do you think its important to be a good student? S: ta get good grades I: and why do you need ta get good grades? S: no (??) go back to another grade I: not go back ta another grade? do you think going to school is important? S:yeah I: why? S: 'cause ummm you have ta know and learn a lot I: and you need to go to school ta do that? S: nods head 1: ok. yes? S: nods head I: yes? yes? S: yes. 1: the reason why i asked you yes again is when you nod your head i cant hear it on there (points to tape). what do you think being smart means? S: school, doing math a lot 1: school? doing math a lot? what else? how does your teacher know when someone is smart? S: ummm like when she asks 1: the questions that she a8ks? do does that mean answering them any which way er the right way? S: like if theyre right or wrong 1: right or wrong? ifyoure smart does that mean youll always get the questions right? S:no. 1: no? if you can just answer them? ok. what do you wanna do when youre done with high school? whats something that you may wanna do? S: work? I: work? what would you lika ta do fo work? S:idontknow(hummingiQ 1: is there anything you might really like? that you see people do? S: shrugs shoulders I: no? 220

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S:no 1: ok. has anyone in your family ever gone ta college? S:yeah 1: who? S: my dad, and my mom 1: your dad and your mom? and what did your dad go to college for? S: to learn and do his homework 1: wha what did he study? did he wannabe a doctor? did he wanna become a .. S: he went for builders or for the a builder for the broncos ummm ... 1: broncos stadium? S: urn-hum 1: ok. what did your mom go ta college for? S: just to learn and ..... l: ok. what does she do at work? S: she does .. .i dont know 1: your not sure what she does? does she have ta wear a special uniform or anything when she goes ta work? S: nahh, she wears what she wants. 1: does anyone in your in your family speak english at home? who ails i your family first of all. lets see whos in your family. your mom? S:wn-hum 1: your dad S: dad, my sister and ... my brother. 1: an they all live you all live together? S: nods head 1: ok. does anyone speak english at home? or does everybody speak english? S: my sisters only 3 years old and my brother and everyone (??) speaks both. 1: so everybody speaks english and spanish? S: my dad doesnt know very good. he kinda learning 1: doesnt know very good what? S: ummm speaking spanish 1: oh, spanish so he's trying ta learn spanish? do he speaks mostly english? S: yeah. 1: ok. what language do you' all watch tv ... or listen to music in? what language is it? english? spanish? S: english. 1: is it ever in spanish? S: un-nuh 221

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I: no? S: sometimes 1: sometimes? did you know how to speak english before you started kindergarden? S:yeah 1: you did? how did you learn how ta speak english? S:mymom I: your mom? has it been easy or ... hard for you to learn english? S: hard 1: why'ha'sit been hard? S: 'cause its been hard 'cause ummm ..... 1: did you learn english and spanish at the same time, Shelley? S: un-nuh 1: no? which one did you learn first? S:english 1: english? and then spanish? is it hard ta go back and forth between the two? S: nods head 1: why? whats been the hardest? S: spanish 1: spanish is hardest for you? do you get confused sometimes? S: yeah 1: yeah. k. are you glad that you speak both english and spanish? S:yeah I: why? S: 'cause .. .i can .... when someone speak spanish i can speak spanish and when someone speaks english i can speak english. 1: you can talk ta a lot of different people. um-k. do you think speaking 2 languages makes you smarter? S: un-hum. yes. I: how? S: pauses ....... 1: how? what'da'ya think? tell me what you think? do you learn more? do you know more that way by speaking .. .languages .... ? S: learn more 1: you learn more? you learn different things? how many languages do you speak altogether? S: ...... 2. 1: what are they? S: spanish and english. 222

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1: k. do you think its more important to speak many languages? S:yeah 1: why? S: pauses ..... 1: you think ... you think to speak 2languages is better than one? S: yes. urn-hum 1: yeah? why? S: pauses .... cause ... ummm 1: what you said .. you could talk to 'em? S: yeah. like i just said (quietly) 1: um-k. speaking a lot of different languages help get different jobs? S: yeah. 1: you think they do help you get more than jobs than you would if you only spoke one language? S:no. 1: no? why do you think that? S: 'cause maybe if the job umrnm speak spanish and then i want it and then some people talk only in english 1: do you think more girls or boys speak two languages? S: girls. 1: and why d'ya think that? S: i dunnknow 1: is it because more girls want to speak two languages S:yeah 1: yeah? you dont think boys want ta speak two languages as much? S: huh-nuh 1: why not? S: urnm i dun know 1: you think theyre jus'not interested? or they just dont want to ? or S: dont want to. 1: dont want to? ok. do you think its harder for boys or girls ta learn uhhh english? S: pauses .... ummm both are 1: you think its both harder? hard for both boys and girls ta learn .... S:no. I: whos it harder for? S: uhh urnm both of them did 1: both of 'em? you think speaking english would be easy (hard to hear) S:uh-huh 223

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1: not hard? ok. which language do you like ta speak more? S:english 1: english? um-k. and whys that? S: 'cause i know more english 1: you know more english? S: uh-huh. 1: and you said that chur dad is kindoflearning spanish? S:um-hum. 1: does your mom haveta learn how'ta speak english? S: nuh-uh 1: no? she knew it? S: urn-hum 1: what about your grandparents? do they speak english? S: some ... my grandpa he spanish more spanish and my grandma too 1: do they want ta learn how ta speak english? S:yeah 1: they do? so are they trying ta learn? S: yeah umrn ... my cousins they know more english and they dont want to talk to 'em in spanish. and they tell 'em ta speak english 1: your cousins dont like ta talk ta them in spanish? S:um-hum 1: why? S: they know spanish but .. they dont like it 1: and they dont wanna talk to them? oh so why do you think that? do you not like ta speak in spanish? S: yeah .... aaa limle. 1: and why? why do you not like it sometimes? S: sometimes (higher pitch) its because i dont really know the wordsall the time 1: sometimes yer just not sure how ta say it? which language do you think youll speak more when you grow up? S: spanish and english I: you think youll speak 'em both about the same? ok. why do you think that? S: ill probably be( or keep??) learning 'em 1: you wanna keep learning both of em? S: nahjus one ... spanish 1: nah jus not what did you say? S: spanish 1: you wanna just learn ohhh you know english your saying you need ta practice on 224

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spanish? is that what youre saying? S: yes. 1: ok. do you think youll use both spanish and english at your job? S:yeah 1: what do you ... were gonna go on ta part 4 here. iz the last part. what do you usually do when you go home after school? S: ummm play with my sister or play with my lil brother. 1: anything else? S: shakes head 1: no? ok. who lives with you at home? S: my mom my litl brother my sister' and my dad. 1: and you said your dad is helping build the new bronco stadium S: urn-hum I: and jur not sure whachur mom does? S: uh-nuh. 1: ok. do your parents think schools important? S: yes 1: yeah? ok. how'da know that? what makes you know that they do think that schools important? S: 'cause they tell me all the time I: whadah they say? can you give me an example? S: they tell me school is goes better 'cause you learn a lot and (pass grades?) ... and learn about some different stuff. 1: do your brother and sister like school? S: they dont go ta school I: they dont? your brotherz younger than you too? S: yeah. 1: how old is he? S: wnm hes gonna be 4 months 1: hes 4 months does your little sister thats 3 years old is she learning spanish and english too? S: nu-uh 1: what? S:english 1: just english. you think shell ever learn spanish? S: yeah. 1: yeah? d'ya think your brother ulllearn spanish too? S:yeah 225

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1: but that theylllearn english first? S:um-hum 1: do you like ta read? S:yeah 1: what kinds of things do you like ta read? S: different books 1: different kinds of books like mystery and friend books and things like that? S:um-humm 1: do you read at home? S:yeah 1: where do you read when you read at home? S: ...... ummm the rocking chair. 1: the rocking chair? is that in your living room or in your bedroom or ... S: my bed 1: your bedroom? do you read by yourself? S:yeah 1: most of the time or S: sometimes i read it ta my sister. 1: does anybody read ta you at home? S: urn-nub 1: not usually? S: when my moms home or my dad 1: why do you read?do you read fer fun? is't ta learn more? om all of those things .. S:just for ... I: em dif:fr .lots of different reasons or? S: taleam 1: ta learn? do you ever read for fun? S:yeah 1: ok. when youre out at lunch recess, who do you usually play with? S:ummm .... Lia I: Lia? do you ever play with tha boys at all? S:one. I: whos that? S: Ricardo 1: Ricardo? hes your cousin isnt he? S:yeah 1: yeah. play with any oftha other boys? S: uh-nuh 226

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1: wha' da think would happen if a girl wanted ta play with the boys or a boy wanted ta play with the girls? wha'da think would happen? you think that would be ok? S:yeah 1: you think the other kids would say anything? S:wn-hwn 1: wha'da think they would say? S: that might say boyfriend and girlfriend 1: so they might tease 'em S:wn-hwn. 1: what do you like ta play when youre outside? what'r some things th'ch play? S: we play on the swings and sometimes i play soccer with 'em 1: k ....... what'da like ta do for fun when your at home? S: ride on my bike. 1: ride on your bike? is there anything else you'd like'ta do? S: uh-nuh. 1: thats mostly what cha do? wha'da'ya do in the wintertime when you can't ride your bike? S: ummm i think my mom lets me go ummm ta the mall with my sister. (can't really hear her) 1: ohh. thats fun. just a couple more questions, Shelley. what da you wanna do you think when you grow up? what are maybe a couple o' things you might wanna do? S:work 1: you maybe wanna work at computers (she mumbles urn-hum) or ... medicine or teacher or librarian or uhhhh work in a clothing store or what kinds of things might you want ta work? S: a clothing store 1: maybe a clothing store? what about a toy store? would cha like ta work in a toy store? S:yeah 1: that might be fun. ok. last question. ifi didnt know you what would you want ta know about.. what would you want me ta know about you? S:myname 1: k. what else? give me 2 more things. you want meta know your name. what else? S:ummmmm .... 1: if i didnt know you what would you want me ta know about you? S: where i live? I: where you live? whats'one more. one more. S:ummm ....... 227

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1: whats something else. if i didnt know you what would somebody what would be one thing youd really want me ta know about you before i left? S: be a good friend 1: mean what? that yur would be a friend? S: urn-hum 1: ok. ...... if i need to can i ask you more questions later? S: nods head 1: thats ok? S:um-hum 1: ok. are there any questions that you have for me? S:no. 1: ok. how' da feel about this interview? S:ok 1: ok (at same time as her). ok? yeah? it wasnt too bad. S:no. 1: they werent too personal were they. they were about school. S:um-hum. I: ok. ok Shelley. thats all i needed ok? S:um-hum 1: thank you very much. 228

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APPENDIXD SCHOOL AND ESL INFORMATION (The material presesnted in this section such as definitions, forms, and demographic data from the school and school district are accessible to the public. Some public material was accessed directly from their web site) Johnson Elementary* (1998-99 school year) ETHNICITY TOTAL# PERCENTAGE American Indian 6 1.4 African American 12 2.8 Asian 45 10.3 Hispanic 283 65.1 White 89 20.5 TOTAL: 435 100% Percentage of students eligible for free or reduced lunch: 78.3% Percentage of students who are English Language Learners: Total: 23.4 Spanish Speaking: 16.3 Other: 7.1 229

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DEFINITIONS OF LAS SCORES COral laneuaee proficiency test>: LAS 1 :The student is monolingual non-English. LAS 2: The student's first (native) language is dominant. LAS 3: The student is bilingual. Limited English Proficient (LEP) LAS 4: The student's first language may or may not be English, other language also in the home. LEP or EP (English Proficient) LAS 5: The student speaks English only. EP Students are considered eligible to be mainstreamed into regular classrooms once they demonstrate a level of English proficiency LAS 4 or higher and/or if they rank (achieve) in the 30th percentile in reading and language on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) or Colorado Student Assessment Program (CSAP). 230

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OVERVIEW OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROGRAM IN LOCKTON* PUBLIC SCHOOLS (as summarized on the district's web site) PROGRAM GOAL The goal of the English Language Acquisition Program is: "to use efficient and effective techniques to provide students with the English language skills they need to meaningfully participate in the mainstream English language instructional program." PARENT PERMISSION 1. Parents are provided with information about the English Language Acquisition Program and the services that may be provided. 2. Parents indicate in writing whether or not they want their children to receive Program services. TEACHERS 1. Fully qualified teachers are to be assigned to all Program classrooms. To be fully qualified, teachers must complete a 150-hour training program provided by the district. In addition, teachers providing native language instruction must demonstrate proficiency in speaking, reading, and writing Spanish on an objective assessment. 2. Where there are not a sufficient number of qualified Spanish-speaking teachers for Program classrooms, one of the following steps is taken: a. Spanish-speaking paraprofessionals are placed in the classroom to provide assistance; or b. Students are regrouped for instruction so that they have access to qualified Spanish-speaking teachers. 3. All core classrooms and courses providing Program services are identified based on whether or not instruction is in Spanish or supported English. Teachers proficient in Spanish are assigned to classrooms where instruction is provided in this language. Classrooms providing supported English instruction do not require teachers to be proficient in Spanish. 4. Training to effectively instruct English language learners or students 231

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transitioning to the mainstream program is provided for many district teachers in addition to those assigned to the Program. a. Special education teachers are provided with training in supported English and English language development techniques. b. Title I teachers are trained to respond to the language barriers that may impede academic success. c. Mainstream teachers are trained to meet the needs of English language learners who are transitioning from the Program. STUDENT SCREENING All students enrolling in a ---------public school are asked the following two questions: 1. Does this student speak a language other than English? 2. Is a language other than English regularly used by the student's parents or guardian? STQDENT PROFILE The Student Profile has been developed to ensure that a variety of factors affecting student educational success are considered in determining Program entry and exit, as well as placement within the Program. The English language development component of the Student Profile includes objective observation of classroom performance in the areas of speaking, understanding, reading, and writing English. These observations are recorded on a rating scale. The Student Profile also includes observation of classroom behavior to identify whether there are cultural factors that may be influencing academic success. Finally, information is collected about each student's educational history. INITIAL ASSESSMENT 1. Students answering ''yes" to either screening question are assessed on the LAS, an objective test of oral proficiency in English, determine whether or not they are eligible for English Language Acquisition Program services. 2. Students answering ''yes" to the first screening question and who are orally proficient on the LAS are further assessed in reading and writing. Also, their classroom performance is observed by one or more teachers and recorded on the English language development scales of the Student Profile. 232

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PLACEMENT IN THE PROGRAM 1. If parents agree, students who speak a language other than English are placed in the Program if they: a. Do not demonstrate oral proficiency on the LAS; or b. Cannot meaningfully participate in the mainstream English language program as indicated on the reading or writing scales of the Student Profile. 2. Students who speak only English and whose parents regularly speak another language are classified as English language learners if they do not demonstrate oral proficiency on the LAS. 3. Other assessments like classroom work samples, literacy tests, and norm-. referenced tests may be used to ensure that students are appropriately placed. PROGRAM SERVICES 1. Program services in neighborhood schools are provided in 75 of 81 elementary schools, 14 of 18 middle schools, and 5 of 1 0 high schools. If the Program is not offered at the neighborhood school, students are eligible for transportation to sites where services are provided. 2. Program services include transitional native language instruction, supported English content instruction (sheltered English), and English language develop ment (ESL ). Supported English is an intermediate step for students before they are placed in mainstream classes. The specific services provided and the delivery method used depends on the number of English language learners in a school and the language spoken. 3. Native language instruction in Spanish is offered in 41 elementary schools, 14 middle schools, and 5 high schools. 4. Program services are aimed at ensuring that all students transition to English only instruction in three years. a. All English language learners receive daily instruction to develop their English skills. b. Middle and high school students must participate in two English language development classes each day. c. Mainstream classroom teachers at the elementary and middle school levels are trained to facilitate the success of English language learners who are transitioning to the mainstream program. 233

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5. Newcomer centers at Merrill Middle School and South High School serve students with little or no formal education. Students participate in the new corner center for up to one year. The center's emphasis is on the acquisition of basic literacy skills in English and acculturation to an urban school setting. EXITING FROM THE PROGRAM 1. In order to measure progress and determine readiness for exiting the Program, students are assessed on a variety of instruments: a. Standardized oral proficiency tests; b. Norm referenced tests in reading and writing; c. Colorado Student Assessment Program tests in reading and writing; and d. Student Profile. 2. Students may be exited if they have sufficient English language skills to participate in the mainstream program, which is demonstrated by achieving oral proficiency on the LAS and meeting one or more of the criteria listed below: a. 30th percentile achievement in reading and language on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills {ITBS), or demonstrated proficiency on the reading and writing tests administered pursuant to the Colorado Student Assessment Program; b. 20th percentile achievement on the ITBS and ratings on the reading and writing components of the Student Profile that indicate the student can meaningfully participate in the mainstream English language instructional program. c. One year after oral proficiency, ratings on the reading and writing components of the Student Profile and the judgment of the classroom teacher indicate that the student can meaningfully participate in the mainstream English language instructional program. ASSURING PROPER PLACEMENT AND SERVICES 1. An Instructional Services Advisory (ISA) team is established at each school. Each school's team includes two fully qualified teachersand the principal or a school administrator. A central office Program specialist is assigned to each ISA team to provide training and support for effective, appropriate decision making. Responsibilities if the ISA team include making recommendations regarding Program entry and exit, reviewing the progress of Program students, and 234

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monitoring students for one year following exit to ensure that they have the English language skills to be successful in the mainstream program. 2. Individual learning plans are written for students who require more than three years to transition to English-only instruction. 3. Information about the effectiveness of Program services is included in the appraisal of teachers and principals. ACCO!JNTABILITY 1. Two annual reports provide accountability to the Board of Education and the community. Reports include the following information. a. The number of students served in the Program; b. The services provided to students; c. The qualifications of Program teachers; d. The number of students exited; e. The number of monitored students returned to the Program; f. Standards for classroom books and materials; g. Teacher participation in the district's English Language Acquisition Program training; and h. A recruiting and hiring plan. 2. Accountability to parents is provided by regular reports of their children's progress in acquiring English and the opportunity to participate on parent advisory committees. 3. Accountability to the U.S. District Court is provided by a monitor who reviews and verifies Program data. 235

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TEACHER AND HOME LANGUAGE ESL QUESTIONNAIRES PIIBUC SOIOOlS DEP.AR"IMENT OF Note: This form is lobe by the student's btlingml or ESOL teacher, counselor, or LAS lester. ______ (FJRSl) (MIDDLE) SCHOOt ________________________ __ GRADE ----------------! lhis focm helps ddcnnine the Shldc:nt"s dominaallanguage. A comparisoa of a Jan&uage sJcills 1o hislbcr English language skills provides IISCful infonnatioa for plao:menl ia an insmlclionaJ The language oCihe home, and playground IIIUSI be masidlred ia complcling 1his fMa . __ L The studcat spC:aks only the other language and ao En&fish. _._ l.. The studcat speaks mostly the other language and some Euglish. __ 3; Thcstudcut speaks die olhcr language and English about lhc $arne: dominance is difficult to ddc:nniin:. __ <1. The studcnl speaks rOOstly English and some of the other lanpgc; __ S. The studcat spcaJcs only English. B. Please dcsai"be the loplguagc undcmOod by the student. ..' . __ I. The stucknt understands only !he Olhcr lani!U3ge and 110 English. 2. The student undmtands mostly the other language and some English. 3. ThC srudc:nt undamnds the other language and Eiu:Jish aboUt the same. -<1. The student understands mosdy English and some oflhe other bnguage. = s .. The student underslands only English. C. Student Data I. Regisualion eard home language. Cin:lc: one: y r:.sfY c:s y c:S!Ho No!Yc:s No/No of person complc:Ung !his form Position NOlE: Please return to.thc Department of 236

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PUBLIC SCH()OLS H
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00 PUBLIC SCHOOLS Department qf : . En1llsh Lan1uaae ProOclency Sludent ____ ..;_ __ Student lOll. _____ School. _______ Grado ___ Oate(s) ---------Teacher Name-----------Subject eru: Lanauaae Ans l }Social Studlel ( Science ( 1 Other( Otrecllons: Rile this student' proOclency In speaktria, undcrstandlna, rcadlna, and wrltlna Enallah by chcckln& one boxln each row thai best deacrlbc1 iht student's pcrrormedce In your ctitsroom. Plcue ittach example of die atudcnt'a written dial auppon Judament. Alto; domlba the auppona Cor Enallsh lanauoao eomprehcntlon that are provided In the clusroom. Uae the "Comments" section to provide other Information reaardlnathls atudcnt' comprehension or Ensllsh In the four modalltl.e1. : tlndrrslondlnc I II "'I UIIC til loctdna In omnacy ond/or a1a11. Muco mny arunmoiiCII enCNII n .ol common 10 1\udrnllln molnt. lntm cluttaom 11 lld1 1ndolonlln lhlo tchool. 111 1h loncu comprchtnl on c.:uNmtntt til= tll2

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