ENVISIONING A SELF -SUSTAINING CITY: THE PRACTICE AND PARADIGM OF URBAN FARMING IN SHANGHAI by ATALYA EVE KOZAK B.A., Pace University, 2009 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Landscape Architecture Landscape Architecture 2015
! ii 2015 ATALYA E KOZAK ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
! iii This thesis for the Master of Landscape Architecture degree by Atalya Eve Kozak has been approved for the Landscape Architecture Program by Jody Beck, Chair Ann Komara Joern Langhorst Date 8 April 2015
! iv Kozak, Atalya Eve (M.L.A., Landscape Architecture) Envisioning a Self-Sustaining City: The Practice and Paradigm of Urban Farming in Shanghai Thesis directed by Associate Professor Jody Beck. ABSTRACT With rapid urbanization and population growth, the severity of environmental and social issues in Shanghai, China is increasing, threatening the health and safety of human and ecological populations. Increased production through urban farming can help alleviate some of these problems. This body of research is a study of the existing practice and future potential of urban farming in Shanghai. Space limitations, rapid urbanization, an influx of immigrants both from rural China as well as foreigners, make Shanghai an interesting context for a study of urban agriculture potential. Survey analyses reveal that the vast majority of people living in Shanghai are interested in growing their own food, and have an interest in seeing a growth in the urban farming movement. I have explored and analyzed public perceptions of potential design strategies to accommodate urban farming, as well as understandings about reasoning of and motives for growing food within the city limits. Through research and integrated methodologies, I begin to reveal who the urban farmers in Shanghai are, narrating pieces of their stories. This research also includes an introductory study of the potential for incorporating urban farming into the existing urban fabric in Shanghai based on availability of vacant, developing, or existing vegetated surface area. The goal of this portion of the study is to begin to develop an
! v understanding of the spatial potential for increased urban farming opportunities. Based on this research, which illustrates the scope and character of urban farming in Shanghai and the quantity of available land, proposed strategies are outlined to encourage the growth of urban farming in Shanghai. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: Jody Beck
! vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many people were tremendously helpful to me during both the process of collecting data in Shanghai as well as compiling and writing the results in the U.S. Id like to thank my advisors Jody Beck of CU Denver and Han Feng of Tongji University for helping mentor me along the way, offering thoughtful and attentive guidance throughout. Professor Liu Yuelai was incredibly helpful in helping me to navigate the existing community urban farming in Shanghai and connecting me to important subjects with whom to learn from, as were professors Dong Nannan and Wang Yuncai. I am humbled by the amount of help I received from Tongji University students in connecting me with people, sharing outreach calls for interview subjects via their personal social networks, taking their time to come along as translators during interviews, and constantly responding to my regular inquiries regarding text translations. Many, many thanks to Yang Yimeng Wei Weixuan Qian Sun Liu Quan ( and Bai Yang Thank you to all the interview subjects who offered their time and interest in sharing their experiences, and who have an amazing willingness to support my research and learn and grow from one another. Your spirit is a strong motivation behind this research. Wil McClung has been an incredible help to transcribe all of the audio content for this research. Ian Lipton deserves a huge thank you for not only providing photographic content for the mixed media piece, but more importantly for offering continuous love and support to help push me through to the end.
! vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION.. A. Research Questions1 B. Background...2 i. Urbanizatio n in Shanghai......2 ii. Urban Farming in Shanghai..2 iii. Why People Grow...3 iv. Urban Farming Defined ..4 C. Literature Review.5 i. Related Fields .. ii. Conventional Farming and Environment .7 iii. Agriculture and Urbanization in China .9 iv. Urban Farming Defined 0 v. The Role of Urban Agriculture and Benefits of the Practice ..12 vi. Urban Farming in the United States.. 12 D. Ratio nale .17 i. Problems that Urban Farming Addresses 17 ii. Environmental Issues ...18 iii. Public Health .18 iv. Urban Problems19 v. Urban Design and Landscape Architecture ..19
! viii E. Purpose/Significance of Study .2 II. RESEARCH METHODS24 A. Introduction to Methods 24 B. Survey.. 24 C. Expert Interviews and Mixed Media25 D. Mapping ..27 III. SURVEY .30 A. Survey Results...30 i. Demographics ...30 ii. Growing Food 32 iii. Advantages and Impediments of Urban Farming 34 iv. Preferred Design Strategies for Urban Farming.. 40 v. Understandings and Opinions of Urban Farming 44 B. Survey Analysis and Discussion.8 i. Demographics ...48 ii. Growing Food 49 iii. Advantages and Impediments of Urban Farming52 iv. Preferred Design Strategies for Urban Farming.. 57 v. Understandings and Opinions of Urban Farming in Shanghai..60 IV. INTERVIEWS ..62 A. Interviews Background ..2 B. Interviews Discussion ...62
! ix i. Growing Methods .62 ii. Challenges of Growing 66 iii. Motives for Growing .66 iv. Public Reception...... 74 V. MAPPING .... 76 A. Mapping Background 76 B. Mapping Discussion..76 VI. CONCLUSION 83 A.Summary..83 i. Interest and Demand83 ii. Availability of Space .83 B. Suggestions For Further Research.84 REFERENCES 85 APPENDICIES A. English Lan guage Survey...100 B. Chinese Language Survey ..05 C. Sample Outreach Letter..110 D. Sample Expert Interview Questions ..111 E. Produce Productivity112
! x LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. Age Distribution.. .30 2. Residency1 3. Participants Who Grow Food at Their Home .2 4. Number of People Participants Know Who Grow Their Own Food in Shanghai ..3 5. Percent of Participants Who Would Grow Their Own Food if They Had All the Necessary Resources .4 6. Benefits of Growing Ones Own Food .4 7. Factors Preventing Participants From Growing Food 35 8. Reasons to Include Urban Farming in Future Development of Shanghai Parks, Gardens, and Public Spaces 6 9. If you had all of the appropriate resources and materials, would you grow your own food, and why? .7 10. Preferred Design Strategies, Image Provided on Survey 0 11. First Choice Design Strategy 1 12. Second Choice Design Strategy ..1 13. Third Choice Design Strategy...42 14. Weighted Average of Preferred Urban Farming Strategy3 15. Sample Instructions for Likert Scale Questions on Survey..4 16. Likert Scale Survey Question 1 45
! xi 17. Likert Scale Survey Question 2 45 18. Likert Scale Survey Question 3 45 19. Likert Scale Survey Question 4 46 20. Likert Scale Survey Question 5 46 21. Likert Scale Survey Question 6 46 22. Likert Scale Survey Question 7 47 23. Likert Scale Survey Question 8 47 24. Li kert Scale Survey Question 9 47 25. Likert Scale Survey Question 10 ..8 26. Likert Scale Survey Question 11 ..8 27. Likert Scale Survey Question 12 ..8 28. Parks, intended for public use .. 29. Residential Organizations (A), intended for public use .7 30. Residential Organizations (B), intended for public use .8 31. Residential Organizations (C), intended for public use 8 32. Community Beds and Market, intended for public use .8 33. Non -Profit Organization, intended for public use ...9 34. Rooftop, intended for public use ..9 35. Residential Rooftop (A), intended for personal use ..9 36. Residential Rooftop (B), intended for personal use ..70 37. Indoor Residential Balcony, intended for personal use ....70 38. Outdoor Residential Balcony, intended for personal use ....70
! xii 39. Indoor Hydroponics (A), intended for personal use ..71 40. Indoor Hydroponics (B), intended for personal use ..71 41. Enclosed Yard (A), intended for personal use ...71 42. Enclosed Yard (B), intended for personal use ...72 43. Ground Level Enclosed Patio, intended for personal use ....72 44. Semi -Open Patio (A), intended for personal use ..72 45. Semi -Open Patio (B), intended for personal use ...73 46. Ground Level Containers in Lane (A), intended for personal use ..3 47. Ground Level Containers in Lane (B), intended for personal use ..3 48. Construction Site, intended for personal u se .....74 49. Riverfront, intended for personal use or sale .....74 50. Alongside Transit, intended for personal use or sale ...74 51. Large Context Map of Shanghai......76 52. Context Map of Shanghai City Center.77 53. Mapping Study Area A1.78 54. Mapping Study Area A2.78 55. Mapping Study Area B1.79 56. Mapping Study Area B2.79 57. Mapping Study Area C1.80 58. Mapping Study Area C2.80 59. Mapping Study Area D1.81 60. Mapping Study Area D2.81
! 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Research Q uestions A. What is the current paradigm of urban farming in Shanghai? a. Who are the urban farmers in Shanghai, what are they growing, how and why? b. What is the common perception among the general public of urban farming in Shanghai? c. What is the relationship between the concept of urban farming and the concept of public, shared space in Shanghai? B. What might be the future of urban farming in Shanghai? a. Would the practice of urban farming pose a feasible, beneficial opportunity in Shanghai and why? b. Could urban farming meet some of the demand for food in Shanghai ? c. How much could urban farming mitigate environmental problems such as heat-island or water and air pollution? d. Are there viable spatial opportunities for growing food in Shanghai? C. What sort of investment(s) would encourage the growth of urban farming in Shanghai?
! 2 B. Background i. Urbanization in Shanghai As population growth in China increases, so too does the number of people moving from rural into urban areas. The City of Shanghai today is comprised of a diverse demographic of individuals, many of whom are transplants from other parts of China, while some are transplants from across the globe. This results in the fact that the communities of urban farmers in Shanghai are made up of diverse groups of people. This demographic diversity is congruent with a vivid architectural display of such contrast. Therefore not only do the people experience wide-ranging lifestyles but the infrastructure of the city also has the capacity to foster various social and physical activities. Existing and potential suitable spaces to accommodate urban farming practices include indoor and outdoor, public and private, horizontal and vertical, permeable and paved surfaces from the ground-plane and walls to balconies and rooftops. Moreover, with the immense rapid urbanization that Shanghai is currently actively pursuing, there are numerous possibilities for added innovative design strategies to accommodate urban farming. ii. Urban Farming in S hanghai The scope of the urban farming practice takes shape in Shanghai in various forms. There are some urban farmers who grow food in containers lining the alleyways outside of their homes. Others grow within their homes and on their balconies. Gated apartment complex communities utilize the landscaped shared
! 3 space in-between buildings to plant crops. Some people, who fear rural farming practices that might involve growing on polluted soils or use of pesticides, rent a plot of land and hire a farmer to grow food for their personal consumption. While the previous example might be considered rural as opposed to an urban farm, the user group is relevant in that they might have an interest in local urban farming practices. A young community of students also exists who follow a similar practice but do so in a joint effort and who will grow the food themselves and participate in food sharing activities. Another niche lies in the restaurant industry where food is grown on the premise of their urban storefront, either for retail sale, or for use as ingredients on the menu. There are school curricula that incorporate growing food for educational purposes, teaching children to grow their own food and engage with nature. Finally, pockets can be found in the city that appear to be recently vacated land covered in a mix of rubble and soil. In these locations, illegitimate farming practices occupy parts of the se abandoned lots until new construction takes its place. Such practices can be unsafe; urban farmers like these would benefit from opportunities to grow crops in healthy media without risk of loosing their plot without notice iii. Why People G row The r easoning behind each persons intention to practice urban farming in Shanghai varies widely. For some it is because of the economical benefits of growing ones own food versus purchasing at store prices. For many it is related to a decrease in trust of the farming practices as it is widely acknowledged that
! 4 waterways and soils are highly polluted, and pesticide use is widespread. To some people, farming is a practice that they grew accustomed to in their rural home prior to moving to Shanghai. Environmentalists enjoy supporting an activity that has a positive impact in addressing environmental issues. Others reap the benefits of spiritual benefits from connectivity to the Earth and nature. Some urban farmers are young, some elderly, some locals, and some foreigners. As it stands today, there are a handful of urbanites who, for their own reasons, possess high hopes that safe, ethical, and local farming practices will become mainstream. It appears that this group is significantly made up of college students and faculty, young educated community members, and entrepreneurs. Not only are these people making efforts to spread awareness about urban farming but they are also creating inventive ways to help facilitate and simplify the process for both the government and the general public to get involved. iv. Urban Farming D efined The previous description of the background of urban farming and farmers in Shanghai is based on casual observation and informal communication with a range of Chinese city dwellers. As it became obvious that there is a loosely defined existence of this niche for urban farming in Shanghai, the relevance of this body of research grew apparent. Based on observations of what might be considered significant for this research, the term urban farming is clarified. Urban farming, as defined in this research, is the practice of growing food in a high density, urban context. The scale and the yield vary tremendously.
! 5 Someone can be considered an urban farmer if they grow anything from a single pot of herbs to a vast rooftop farm, so long as the vegetation is edible. Food might be grown by and for a single individual. Produce that is grown and sold is also considered urban farming so long as it is grown and sold locally, within the urban context. The city of Shanghai, while commonly known for the high-density urban are as does include farms as well. The city-center of Shanghai, as it is commonly referred to, consists of districts that are mostly high-density, but there are various districts that make up the city of Shanghai and some of these are predominately rural farms. Development in these rural parts is taking place rapidly, yet there is still a tremendous amount of both developed and rural total land area that makes up Shanghai, ensuring that rural areas will remain for quite a long time despite rapid urbanization. For this research, only the high-density urban areas in the districts within the city-center were considered for studying urban farming, while rural areas were excluded. C. L iterature R eview i. Related F ields This body of research will be relevant for the following disciplines: Landscape Architecture, Urban Planning, Urban Renewal, Architecture, Engineering, Agriculture, Sociology, Cultural Preservation, Public Health, Sustainability, and Policy. All of these fields ought to be proponents for designing solutions to accommodate urban farming into the urban fabric in China and across the globe.
! 6 Landscape architects are not limited to their expertise as designers, but rather have a unique capability of and responsibility to envision sustainable place-making for people and the ecosystem. We have the knowhow and the tools to alter the environment of a large, diverse population of humans, plants, and animals. As environmental and social problems reach across the globe, landscape architects are using their strengths as professionals to advance in their scope of work to incorporate solutions that help alleviate such problems. It is not surprising that urban farming is making its way into the discipline of landscape architecture, what with the capacity to mitigate some of these problems, and with the direct relationship to one of a landscape architects greatest tools: plants. Many articles that are published from landscape architectural sources, discuss the topic of urban farming as a popular new topic, or the up and coming part of the profession, or a practice making its way into the discipline. Websites that publish news articles, such as World Landscape Architect, American Society of Landscape Architects, and Land8, are all examples of landscape architecture professionals that regularly incorporate urban farming into their dialogue. However, only few of directly address a specific relationship to landscape architectural design. For example, articles will speak to projects that are taking shape in cities and are not designed by landscape architects but rather executed by non -profit organizations and private businesses. For this reason the topic of urban farming as it relates directly to landscape architecture has not yet found
! 7 direction in very many publications. As previously mentioned however, principles of two landscape architecture firms have published books that discu ss the bridging of the two disciplines. The landscape architecture firm Nelson, Byrd, Woltz published a book entitled Garden, Park, Community, Farm. The text describes projects that the firm has completed that directly relate to sustainable and regenerative design, some through implementation and incorporation of agriculture into the design strategy. April Philips, landscape architect and principle of April Philips Design Works, published a book entitled Designing Urban Agriculture: A Complete Guide to the Planning, Design, Construction, Maintenance and Management of Edible Landscapes. This publication speaks to urban agriculture as a part of designing sustainable landscapes and strengthening community, using a range of international projects as examples. Th e text can also be considered of a guide for landscape architects looking to incorporate urban farming into their designs. ii. Conventional Farming and Environment Conventional farming practices leveraged the human population to sustain growth. Some argue that t he advent of innovative methods to control and manipulate the land, seeds, and water allowed more people to be fed, less to die of starvation and more people to procreate. Today however, it is d ebated that the Earths carrying capacity1 is becoming outweighed by human impact given !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1 Carrying capacity refers to the biological or human population size that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water, and other resources. For a more detailed definition, see (Daily).
! 8 current patterns of resource usage. Fears that were once based on future projections since the Industrial Revolution are now a reality. (Daily) Natural resource depletion and pollution are steering us in the direction away from sustained growth and we are at a turning point whereby conventional farming practices need to be replaced with innovative strategies such as urban farming methods to combat environmental issues. Widespread conventional farming practices that may have originally been intended t o feed the growing population pose detrimental threats to the environment. Declines in annual food growth globally have been the result of deteriorating conditions for growth; globally, yield increases have leveled off for most crops, grain reserves are shrinking and can involve salting, waterlogging, compaction, contamination by pesticides, decline in the quality of soils structure, loss of fertility, and erosion.  Agricultural resources such as soil, water, and genetic diversity are overdrawn and degraded, global ecological process on which agriculture ultimately depends are altered (Gliessman). Thorough details of detrimental affects of these issues can be found at Despommier et al., Gliessman et al. (2000), and Daily et al. (1996), among other sources. While it might be impossible to entirely eliminate large-scale farming practices, they do need to shift toward alternative methods such as agro-ecology as mentioned by G liessman et al. (2000). However, even if these practices improve, the growing population will still need to be fed and there is simply not enough space or resources to fulfill this demand. Urban farming will alleviate
! 9 some of the demand for large-scale, environmentally draining, farming practices as well as deal with some of the challenges of urbanization. iii. Agriculture and Urbanization in China China is one country that is especially threatened by these concerns. In the arid and semi -arid regions of north China the main aspect of degradation was sandy desertification.  Human activities that increased desertification were overcultivation, over-grazing, over-collection of fuelwood, technological factors and misuse of water resources (Zhu). Increased dry soil quality is placing strains on existing water supplies, yet the main water arteries are polluted. (Larson) Land availability in China is a sensitive and complex subject. It is widely understood that China is a country with vast population and scarce land per capita. This basic characteristic has determined the preciousness of cultivated land to its people.  With the continuous increase in population and an ever-growing demand for food, the pressure on cultivated land is also mounting (Yang). An ongoing debate has stirred concerns as to whether or not China will be able to feed itself by 2030. (Yang) (Brown) Along with continuing disappearance of farmland, [China] is also confronted by an extensive diversion of irrigation water to nonfarm uses-an acute concern in a country where half the cropland is irrigated and nearly four fifths of the grain harvest comes from irrigated land. With large areas of north China now experiencing water deficits, existing demand is being met partly by depleting aquifers. (Brown) It is clear that alternative and innovative strategies to combat these problems are imperative.
! 10 Some Chinese publications discuss urbanization in China as being a threat to food security and a contribution to the loss of arable land. The arg ument is that urban expansion is taking over agricultural land, and also that some urbanization tends to take place on arable fertile soils. (Tan) (Chen) In actuality, urbanization is not only inevitable, but it is absolutely necessary as populations continue to grow, and the alternative sprawl would be more environmentally straining than developing vertically. The framework for larger cities has already been established, and it is these cities that will expand. If these happen to be on fertile soils, then that increases the potential for accommodating urban agriculture. Moreover, it necessitates the inclusion of innovative, sustainable urbanization strategies, such as urban agriculture, in order to protect the quality of the land in and around these cities, as well as deal with issues of food security. iv. Urban Farming D efined Urban farming takes form internationally today in many capacities, and research on the subject has increased in the past decade. The defining characteristics of the practice are generally agreed upon, but might vary depending on the span of a particular study. A thorough description of classifications used in existing studies is provided by Van Veenhuizen et al. (2007). An acronym devised by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization is commonly used in research studies: UPA, or Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture. (De Zeeuw) Urban, or nonperi-agriculture, is also sometimes referred to as intra-urban agriculture, which
! 11 takes place within the inner city (Van Veenhuizen). This research will focus on intra-urban agriculture. UPA is practiced in a variety of places (on field plots, on vacant public land, in gardens, on rooftops, in barns and cellars). UPA most often focuses on perishable, high-value products (green vegetables, mushrooms, herbs, fresh milk, eggs, poultry and pig meat, fish) that can be grown in confined spaces. The orientation and scale of UPA may vary from purely subsistence-oriented or recreational types of UPA at the micro scale, through small-scale semi-commercial gardeners and livestock keepers, to a mediumand large-scale fully commercial enterprises (De Zeeuw). In the case for Shanghai, peri-urban agriculture is already a relatively large industry, including raising livestock. Peri-urban agriculture will be excluded from the scope of study area for this research as it is borderline rural, and this focus is geared toward high-density urban design opportunities. Due to the high urban density of Shanghai, permitting the raising of livestock in dense (ie. non peri-agriculture) areas of the city would pose a h ealth risk to humans living in close proximity. The previous description of the background of urban farming and farmers in Shanghai is based on casual observation and informal communication with a range of Chinese city dwellers. As it became obvious that there is a loosely defined existence of this niche for urban farming in Shanghai, the relevance of this body of research grew apparent. Based on observations of what might be considered significant for this research, the term urban farming is clarified. Urban farming, as defined in this research, is the practice of growing food in a high density, urban context. The scale and the yield vary tremendously. Someone can be considered an urban farmer if they grow anything from a single pot of herbs to a vast rooftop farm, so long as the vegetation is edible it qualifies. Food might be grown by and for a single individual. Produce that is grown and sold is also considered urban farming so long as it is grown and sold locally,
! 12 within the urban context. The city o f Shanghai, while mostly high -density urban space, does include farms that are technically rural as they are surrounded by other farms, water channels, and little development; these will be excluded from this research. v. The Role of Urban Agriculture and Benefits of the P ractice Van Veenhuizen et al. (2007) diagrammatically illustrates a breakdown of different types of urban farming, coupled with the ecological, social, and economic benefits. This breakdown is comprehensive, and is in agreement with many o ther sources including Despommier et al., De Zeeuw et al. (2010), and Stratus et al. (2009), as well as websites hosting information about urban agriculture practices. A collective summary of the information distributed in the aforementioned sources is as follows. The ecological benefits of urban agriculture include urban greening, improved microclimate, reduced ecological footprint, improved storm-water management, decreased pollution levels, added biodiversity, environmental education, and recreation. Social benefits attributed to urban agriculture include poverty alleviation, food security and nutrition, social inclusion, and community building. Economic benefits include income generation, enterprise development, fewer abandoned lots and buildings, and increased job opportunities vi. Urban Farming in the United States Urban farming can occupy an array of spaces, using a variety of different growing media, and produce an assortment of edibles. Soil is the most common growing
! 13 medium and can be used in both indoor and outdoor facilities. In the practice of hydroponics, water is the predominant growing medium. Aquaponics also uses water as the predominant growing medium, and it also incorporates the harvest of fish from the same medium providing added nutrients and more diverse production. There are various examples of different types of urban agriculture in the United States. Eagle Street in New York City, for example, is a very well established farm integrating many opportunities for collaboration with the local community. Educational programs offer children and adults opportunities to learn about farming and cooking, and an apprenticeship program offers individuals the opportunity to gain experience farming. Many partnerships with local organizations are a large part of the success of this farm. The rooftop was able to hold 200,000 pounds of growing medium upon construction, which consists of compost, rock particulates and shale from Pennsylvania. The green-roof can sustain 1.5 of rain, reducing storm water runoff. The building has experienced energy savings since implementation. Recycled materials were used to save money. There are sixteen north-south beds, each thirty inches to four feet wide, with a soil depth of 4 -7. The material used to fill the walkways is mulched bark. Watering is done by hand for seedlings and transplants, and established crops rely on rainwater. Three beehives provide honey. Hens are kept for eggs. The farm grows a range of crops including cucumbers, hot peppers, tomatoes,
! 14 eggplants, spinach, radishes, kale, Swiss chard, carrots, peas, beans, salad greens, herbs, flowers, corn, squash, and more. Another example in the United States is the Gary Comer Youth Center Green Roof in Chicago, Illinois. The Center yields over 1,000 pounds of fruits and vegetables every year. The Caf in the youth center uses the food produced in order to feed the children each day. Surplus food is given to nearby restaurants and sold at a farmers market. The green roof serves as an outdoor classroom for educational programming in the subjects of mathematics, horticulture, culinary arts, sustainability, and business. Since the green roof installation, during the winter the temperature is twenty to thirty degrees Fahrenheit warmer and ten degrees Fahrenheit cooler in the summer. This amounts to a $250 annual energy savings for the building. Located over the gymnasium and cafeteria and encircled by the broad windows of the third floor, this courtyard garden provides students who have little access to safe outdoor space the opportunity to interact with the natural world freely (http://www.greenroofs.com/projects/pview.php?id=998). Sweet Water of Milwaukee, Wisconsin is an example of a site that was once an abandoned industrial crane factory until it was converted into an aquaponic farm, raising over 80,000 tilapia and perch, as well as vegetation including various lettuce and basil, watercress, tomatoes, peppers, chard, an spinach. The business did not begin without experimentation to test which crops were most suitable for the growing conditions. Today, ten four-foot deep tanks hold the fish,
! 15 with planting beds above them and grow lights above that. This is a symbiotic, closed-loop system whereby nutrients to feed the vegetables are provided by fish waste, which also cleans the water. The farm sells over 150 lbs. of vegetables per week and thousands of fish seasonally. The owners have big plans to expand to additional sites locally, selling over 400,000 lbs. of fish per year in addition to over 800 lbs. of produce every week. Urban Oasis Hydroponic Farm in Tampa, Florida is an example of an organic, hydroponic operation. Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) shares are available to consumers, and farmers markets take place weekly during the growing season, September through June. Crops include tomatoes, lettuce, peppers, green beans, cucumbers, broccoli, okra, eggplant, Swiss chard, collard greens, turnips, cabbage, celery, sweet onions, bok choi, kale, arugula, tatsoi, spinach, scallions, yellow squash, zucchini, herbs, and more. The company sells home growing systems, offers tours of their farm, educational workshops, and much more to elevate their business as well as engage with the community. Vertical systems allow for increased production in a smaller amount of space. The company advertises the advantages of hydroponic farming: sterile growing medium without unwanted micro-organisms that might be found in polluted soils, re-uses and recycles growing media, eliminates fear of animal manure based bacteria such as E. coli and salmonella. These are all factors that might prove advantageous in Shanghai based on conditions.
! 16 The final example is one of many yet to be implemented p rototype designs, living in the hypothetical world of the future, involving the construction of high-rise buildings utilizing variations of aquaponic and hydroponic systems, with levels upon levels of food production, looking something like stacks of greenhouses. Designs have yet to be implemented in the United States, and the question remains: who will be the first to take on a project of this scale? Many cities around the world have introduced the idea of vertical farming into their agenda2, but the upfront costs of such projects are a major deterrent, even though projected fiscal gains from such an endeavor are enormous. Attempts at prototypes have taken root, and news articles speak to projected hypothetical construction start dates. It is unclear how far in the future it will be before the concepts bec ome realized. It is unlikely to read an article on the subject that excludes one mans name: Dickson Despommier, a Columbia University professor working in the department of Environmental Health Sciences. His vision for the future can be found on his website, including a collection of design concepts from outsiders, and a well-cited essay discussing the need for vertical farming. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2 Singapore is the only country to have actively and successfully employed versions of vertical farming into their infrastructure. Sky Greens is the most prominent endeavor, and information about that can be found at http://www.skygreens.appsfly.com/ CNN also published an article in 2012, which can be found at http://edition.cnn.com/2012/12/09/business/eco-singaporevertical-farm/.
! 17 D. Rationale i. Problems that Urban Farming Addresses Chinas population is continuing to increase exponentially and shifts toward urbanization are rampant. As Shanghais population becomes progressively more dense, environmental concerns are increasingly problematic. The c ity is facing serious threats related to high pollution rates in the water, soil, and air, as well as dangers and discomforts produced by the heat-island effect. These factors disturb the quality of life for urban dwellers, as well as have lasting, detrimental effects on the larger ecosystem. Furthermore, Chinas general public is growing concerned about food security as well as both the quality and nutritional value of their produce. Urban farming can make some contribution to remedying all of these concerns. ii. Environmental Is sues Vegetation, including crops, helps to mitigate many of the aforementioned environmental concerns. The heat-island affect is lessened as vegetation cools the surrounding environment through evapotranspiration. Local air quality is also improved as vegetation absorbs some air pollutants. Permeable surfaces, such as planting beds, decrease runoff as rainwater is absorbed to feed the vegetation. This aids with storm-water management, as less rainwater during storms prevents pipes from overflowing beyond capacity and dumping contaminated water into waterways. Groundwater and soil qualities are improved since permeable surfaces capture some of the water that would otherwise be
! 18 contaminated runoff from impervious urban streetscape. Improving the quality of the soil and water is directly related to the quality of produce consumed from local markets selling food grown at rural farms. Hence, this decreases both the fear and the actuality of purchasing and consuming produce harvested from contaminated media. Locally grown food also decreases air pollution from fewer delivery trucks transporting food in and out of the city, and reduces traffic congestion. A decrease in waste production takes place as a result of eliminating the use of over-packaging produce. One discipline of literature to be examined will encompass the aforementioned environmental concerns, including findings that identify the ways in which urban farming practices can alleviate some of Shanghais existing environmental issues. This will legitimize on e of the goals of this research, which is to encourage the practice of urban farming with the ambition of alleviating some environmental concerns. iii. Public H ealth Public health is one subject to which urban farming is related for several reasons. Urban farming increases consumption of fresh produce, encouraging a healthy diet. With more people growing anxious and concerned about the quality and growing conditions of their produce, knowledge of and access to local farming can alleviate these concerns. Similarly, a lack of food security in China can cause families much stress and worry, which can be quelled by direct access to food. Studies have also shown that increased exposure to nature among urban
! 19 dwellers can have positive psychological impacts on a given community. Improved air quality deceases risk of asthma. iv. Urban Problems As it relates to urban planning, strategies to accommodate growing food locally have an impact on sustained growth of urban populations. Urban farming can help to alleviate urban poverty, treating issues of malnourishment and decreasing deaths caused by starvation. As the population grows, and as more of this growing population takes root in urban city-centers, addressing problems of food security will be imperative. Incorporation of strategic urban design solutions will be vital. This relates to alleviating urban poverty, and decreasing the gap between the rich and the poor, and addressing problems of social equity. With vast numbers of people moving from rural to urban China, there will be many opportunities for employment in the urban farming sector. Rural farmers who migrate to Shanghai can be trained to work in urban farming facilities. v. Urban Design and Landscape Architecture Urban renewal is an area where urban design and landscape architecture coincide. Many cities that have begun to move forward with strategically incorporating urban farming into their urban fabric have found a niche in abandoned or unused urban spaces. Some urban farms have made their way to the expanse of warehouse rooftops, and others have taken over the spaces of collapsed buildings or empty lots. Innovative designs for progressive new structures have taken form as hypothetical, but realistic, proposals waiting to be
! 20 considered and realized by cities that have the economic means. Some of these include a range of systems and media including vertical farming, indoor and outdoor practices, aquaponics and hydroponics. The execution of urban agriculture projects faces many challenges but is nonetheless making strides towards relevance in the discipline of landscape architecture. As the issue becomes an increasingly relevant and popular topic, it is hardly possible to avoid regularly coming across related news articles when reading landscape architecture news; this goes for both projects in the United States and abroad. Several prominent landscape architecture firms in the United States are taking on projects that revolve around designing for food production, such as Nelson, Byrd, Woltz, Grow Studio (EOA), Urban Edge Studio, April Philips Design Works, BASE Landscape, and others. (*See literature review for more details.) Many of the challenges for landscape architects to design spaces for food production relates to the perceptions of and interactions with public and private space. If food is grown on the street level in non-enclosed spaces, then the success of the harvest might be dependent on how passersby or users of a given space perceive and interact with food grown. In Shanghai, all land is public. This means that someone can start to farm but that there is no clear certainty that what is grown will remain their own. In China, the p erceptions and uses of public and private space, as well as the concepts of permanence and ownership, are determined both by practices of the Communist government as well as the space
! 21 limitations due to high population density, among possibly other less tangible reasons such as ancient tradition and culture. In the United States, we can learn from beginn ing to understand how people in Shanghai use their creativity to deal with problems of space limitations and land/property ownership. Furthermore, as discussions of urban farming evolve it becomes clear that there is a strong relationship to notions of a paradigm shift. If we can better understand local and global paradigms, we are then better positioned to be thoughtful and responsible in our intentions to encourage the direction of paradigm shifts through design. In a city like Shanghai, are concepts of space and sharing second nature? Can American designers, coming from a culture of privacy and ownership, learn from Chinese culture? Studying the social perceptions of urban farming locally and abroad can bring us that much closer to understanding the potential for incorporating food production in landscape architecture projects. This research will be valuable for local and foreign designers alike. Understanding the social perceptions of urban farming in Shanghai will be valuable for landscape architects undergoing projects in Shanghai as they will have reference for better understanding what the public might like or dislike in their shared spaces. Some might be disinterested in incorporating farming systems into designed public landscapes because they associate farms with peasant lifestyle or simply believe them to be an eyesore. This becomes incredibly relevant for landscape architects. We have the ability to design beautiful, interesting, and modern landscapes, and we have the capacity to treat urgent environmental and social
! 22 issues through incorporating urban farming projects. Our expertise can evolve into aesthetically pleasing landscape architectural projects that include urban agriculture, and creating beautiful designs for the greater good. A dialogue that has been underway in the academic world surrounds the idea of encouraging integration between the fields within colleges of architecture and planning. This bleeds into the professional world as well. It would be of great value if landscape architects, architects, and urban planners could increase lines of communication to create holistic designs for the greater good. Urban agriculture, for its interdisciplinary qualities, could be the catalyst for this type of integration. E. P urp ose/Significance of Study One purpose of this study will be to collect sufficient literature in order to effectively convey the relevance of this research, specifically as it relates to the timely, important issues of climate change and sustainability. It will be imperative to spell out the urgency of addressing environmental degradation and shifting away from traditional agriculture practices to alternative methods of urban agriculture. Globally, we are at a crucial point when rapid urbanization must coincide with conscious efforts to combat environmental problems. China in particular is facing some of these environmental problems to an incredible degree, and while urban development is exceptionally rapid so too is the urgency of implementing innovative sustainable development strategies. The hope is that this research will shed light on the ways in which Shanghai ought to incorporate
! 23 urban agriculture into the dialogue of sustainable, rapid urbanization. Furthermore, a clear demonstration of Shanghais capacity for such green development will be essential. As a landscape architect, another purpose of this report is to demonstrate the role that urban agriculture can play in landscape architectural design, in order to continue paving the way for landscape architects to take responsibility for solving some of the worlds greatest environmental and social issues. Documenting the story of the current practices in Shanghai will be useful for existing and future urban farmers. Local urban farmers can learn from one anothers stories and perhaps this effort can help mobilize Shanghais urban farming movement, contributing to a final goal of this research, which is to serve as a catalyst for local connectivity. Other Cities around China and internationally can learn from some of the local efforts that will be unveiled in this study.
! 24 CHAPTER II RESEARCH METHODS A. Introduction to Research Methods Careful consideration for both the complexity of the topic of urban farming in Shanghai, coupled with the variation among the questions sought to be answered in this thesis, have called for employing a series of complementary methodologies. The following i s a description of each selected research method. B. S urvey Surveys were created to distribute to a large number of city dwellers. The basis and goal of the surveys was to gain an understanding of whether or not Shanghai city dwellers and their friends or family have in interest in growing their own food, if they think designing to incorporate more urban farming in the future is feasible and desirable and why, and what sort of urban farming design strategies they might best like to see take shape. Many rounds of edits took place based on feedback from locals, and 56 pilot surveys were distributed at three different locations, then analyzed for further editing. The final survey was four sections long with one section per page. Based on the challenges faced during the pilot distribution, it was determined that all surveys would be distributed strictly at parks and on various days of the week during a range of times. Distributing surveys as a foreigner is already a challenge in and of itself, the sidewalks in particular are a place where most people are passing quickly from one destination to the next and seemingly prefer not to be disrupted. I was far more
! 25 successful trying to distribute in parks where many diverse groups of people linger and relax, and have the time to participate. Districts were limited to dense, city center locations including JingAn, Huangpu, Xu Hui, and Putuo. Surveys were also posted online on a commonly used Chinese survey website that is open to the public. Site locations were determined with the assistance of Tongji University advisors. All survey participants were required to be currently living in Shanghai for both the in-person distributions as well as the online distributions. The method of approach consisted of me entering the parks, introducing myself to strangers and inquiring if they might be willing to participate in the survey. Due to my limited language skills, I was unable to answer more detailed questions the participants had, but most were immediately directed to the cover page where a more descriptive introduction was offered in Chinese. I attempted to distribute in park locations where there were benches, as the surveys were long and I preferred that most people had the chance to sit if they were uncomfortable. Surveys were logged and analyzed using a basic Microsoft Excel tool as no complex software programs were necessary in order to extract necessary information. C. Expert Interviews and Mixed M edia In depth, expert interviews were conducted with fifteen subjects. Most of the interviews were scheduled meetings, while some were planned chance encounters. There were two types of chance encounter scenarios. One example
! 26 was in the case when I had previously observed that food was being grown in a given area, but I was unaware of how to get in touch with the grower so I awaited an encounter and proceeded to inquire if I could interview the subject. Another example of chance encounter scenario was when I had a scheduled interview that took place on the day of an event when local farmers setup stalls for selling produce, and I asked if I could speak with two and they obliged. Scheduled interviews were arranged after various forms of outreach. Most interview subjects volunteered to work with me after I conducted several forms of advertising and outreach to both a local urban farming MeetUp.com group and a message board via WeChat (a popular social media cell phone app). Some advertisements were posted in English, while others were translated and spread through the social network. See Appendix C for sample outreach letter. Some interview subjects were contacted based on references from Tongji University professors and students, and others were arranged based on interest expressed during the trial survey distribution. The goals of the expert interview sessions were twofold. One objective was to document the interviews in order to produce a mixed-media component to accompany this body of research. This can serve as a story-telling piece so that the general public can watch and listen to the urban farmers of Shanghai, and learn about what and why they are growing. As an international research thesis, the foreign audience who might be completely unfamiliar with Shanghai can better visualize the story of urban farming in Shanghai. The mixed-media piece is
! 27 also intended to offer the existing community of urban farmers a chance to learn about each other and possibly increase their connectivity and network. As of yet, the existing urban farmers are quite disparate from one another yet all are very eager to learn from one another. The other objective of the expert interviews was to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the existing community of urban farmers in Shanghai, and have a series of questions answered regarding both their personal relationships to growing food as well as their understanding or perception of the potential for urban farming in Shanghai. See Appendix D for a sample of questions that were asked of interview subjects. Questions were not always followed exactly but most were attempted during most interviews. A website was created to house the mixed media pieces including photography and audio of the interview subjects. The site also serves a route to connect the interview subjects or others interested in participating the community of urban farmers in Shanghai, and launch a network for them to carry on their relationships. This methodology has proven to offer valuable insight into the depth of the paradigm of urban farming in Shanghai, and provides a basis of knowledge to analyze in response to the first set of questions outlined in Chapter 1. D. Mapping The purpose of the mapping component to this research is to illustrate the notion that there is viable available space in Shanghai to accommodate urban farming through a series of methods and design strategies of varying scales. I have
! 28 gathered both from the survey results as well as through conversations with individuals that there is a general perception leaning toward an assumption that space is limited and therefore urban farming is less plausible. The second question of the survey asks, What are some of the major factors that might prevent you from growing your own food; there was no limit to the number of response choices the participants could check. One choice was not enough space. 149 out of 221 participants, or 67% chose this option, which was the most frequently selected response. Meanwhile, all of the subjects for the expert interviews, when asked about space, would argue that there is in fact available space. They discuss details such as the numerous vacant lots, the large number of balconies, the many available rooftops, and the abundance of new architecture rapidly constructed that could be designed in such a way to accommodate urban farming. The interview subjects are familiar with the varying scales of urban farming; they understand the difference between large-scale agricultural production and small-scale urban farming. Subjects with this knowledge are more likely to advocate that there is enough space. It is reasonable to assume that most survey subjects are unfamiliar with strategies for planning, design of the urban fabric, the concept of scale, and methods of urban farming. These subjects would have no reason to believe that there is enough space in Shanghai to accommodate urban farming. I believe that there is a general misconception of space and what it means to grow food in varying scales. The survey results shed
! 29 light on the demand and interest of urban farming, while the following maps are intended to reveal the availability of space to accommodate urban farming. This methodology is a complement to the other data, but it ought to be understood that it is not by any means extensive, as such information would comprise an entirely independent body of research. This mapping is intended to propose a general, suggestive argument of availability of space, using only a few examples of street blocks that house existing and current mixed uses, within a select few districts in the dense city center of Shanghai. Districts chosen are among those where the surveys were distributed as well. They include (A) Putuo, (B) JingAn, (C) Yangpu, and (D) Pudong.
! 30 CHAPTER III SURVEY A. Survey Results i. Demographics Table 1. Age D istribution 53% (111) of the survey participants were between the ages of 23-30, while 24% (50) were 3140, 9% (19) were 4155, 7% (15) were 19-22, and 7% (15) were over 55. 51% of the survey participants were male and 49% were fe male.
! 31 Table 2. Residency The Shanghai Districts listed do not represent all districts in Shanghai, but rather the collection of districts where the survey distributions took place. All survey participants live in Shanghai.3 The majority of the participants did not live within the district where they were when filling out the survey. 52% of the survey participants did not grow up in a rural landscape, while 47% did grow up in a rural landscape ; 1% of participants were unsure. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 3 When approached to participate in the survey, individuals were first asked if they live within Shanghai and if they responded no then they were no longer invited to participate as such participants would deviate from the focus of this study.
! 32 ii. Growing Food Table 3 Participants Who Grow Food at Their Home When asked the question of whether or not participants grow their own food at their home in Shanghai, 11% indicated that they do. When choosing one of four no options, 38% indicated that they do not grow food, 36% indicated that they do not grow food but that they would like to, 13% indicated that they do not but that they have in the past, and 2% indicated that they do not grow at their home in Shanghai but that they grow elsewhere.4 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 4 There was a translation error for survey question number 3, whereby the first no choice that reads on the English survey no, I would never do that, the translated response read no, I never do that).
! 33 Table 4. Number of People Participants Know Who Grow Their Own Food in Shanghai 38% of participants are unsure of how many people they know who grow their own food in Shanghai, 25% know 1-2 people, 19% do not know anyone who does, 9% know 3-4 people who do, 5% know 5-10 people who do, and 4% know more than 10 who do.
! 34 Table 5 Percent of Participants Who Would Grow Their Own Food if They Had All the Necessary Resources 85% of survey participants indicated that they would like to grow their own food if they had the proper materials and resources, while 15% indicated that they would not. iii. Advantages and Impediments of Urban Farming Table 6 Benefits of Growing Ones Own Food
! 35 Survey participants could select all options that applied for this question. 75% out of 221 survey participants indicated that relaxation/therapy is a benefit of growing food, 72% indicated that being close to nature is a benefit, 59% indicated distrust in the quality of food being an incentive to grow, 31% felt that its beneficial for the environment, 28% chose memory of life on the farm/familiarity, 27% enjoy the aesthetic value, 24% chose financial security, 20% selected physical exercise, and 7% were in favor of the social experience.5 Table 7 Factors Preventing Participants From Growing Food Survey participants could select all options that applied for this question. 67% of 221 survey participants indicated that a major factor preventing them from growing food is the lack of space, while 43% indicated they do not have enough time, 36% lack proper materials, 33% do not know how, 29% indicated that it requires too much energy/it is too difficult. Among the least indicated factors !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 5 Three answer choices from survey question number one were combined to form the category financial security. Among those options were to save money, of which 42 respondents indicated, followed by food security indicated by 5 respondents and to sell and make a profit indicated by 4 respondents.
! 36 preventing people from growing their own food include: it is a waste of time (9%), never thought about it (6%), it looks ugly/dirty (3%), it is not important (3%), it is too expensive (2%). Table 8 Reasons to Include Urban Farming in Future Development of Shanghai Parks, Gardens, and Public Spaces For this question, participants could select as many options as they chose. Out of 221 participants, 75% indicated that a reason to include urban farming in the future development of Shanghai parks, gardens, and public spaces is to promote healthy eating, followed by 69% indicating a preference for relaxation or therapy. 53% chose for better quality produce, 52% chose to decrease air and water pollution, and 50% chose environmental education. 39% of participants indicated a decrease in the use of chemicals as a reason, 34% chose to promote physical exercise, 32% chose to promote eating local food, 31% chose increased aesthetic value, and 31% also chose to promote socialization. Few participants
! 37 chose to create jobs (21%) to decrease transportation (16%), food security (12%), and no important reasons (2%).6 The following table represents the collection of both positive and negative responses to the open-ended question: if you had all the appropriate resources and materials, would you like to grow your own food, and why?7 Table 9 If you had all of the appropriate resources and materials, would you grow your own food, and why? Some participants responded with more than one reason, in which case each of their responses were accounted for with equal weight on above table ; in other words, each statement by each participant was accounted for to represent !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 6 Two answer choices, food security and to feed the population were combined to create the option food security. Only one count was taken for those who chose only one of the two options as well as for those who chose both. 7 When asked this question, participants had already been exposed to a series of potential responses via question 1, so they may have pulled response options from those rather than answering off the top of their head.!!
! 38 one response. 30% of 221 participants indicated that they would like to grow their own food in order to consume chemical-free food, followed by 15% who were in favor in order to consume healthy/fresh food. One participant stated, the current conditions do not allow for growing food, but I am interested in growing food mainly because of the food safety problem; chemical-free food makes me feel healthier. 11% of participants indicated an interest in growing food for leisure/fun, and 10% for the experience/process. Participants noted phrases such as, growing food makes leisure life colorful, or Id like to grow for relaxation; seeing greenery keeps me in good humor. One participant expressed interest to relax and cultivate a new lifestyle. Others specified the personal educat ional component to the leisurely activity, growing my own food would help me learn about more plant species and the various functions of plants, while others alluded to the interest in teaching their children as a part of the leisurely activity. Several participants spoke of the enjoyment of the process of growing, growing food is about enjoying the process not the quantity of production, or I like planting vegetables and flowers to increase the fun of life and to enjoy the planting process. Some participants referred specifically to how growing food can help ease the stresses or slow the pace of urban life, growing food is a good way to cultivate the mind and adjust to the rhythm of life. Another participant noted, Id like to grow food to relax the mind and body, and to focus on something aside from my job. One participant expressed interest but not without
! 39 noting that the city might not be the right place, city life has a fast pace, which gives me no mood to grow food. If I lived in the country, I would like to grow my own food. Three responses amount to 8% each: for the psychological/spiritual health, to benefit the environment, and to be close to nature, followed by 7% who indicated that they would not like to grow as a result of being too tired or not having enough time. 3% indicated that they would like to because it tastes good, and 3% also said they would like to in order to save/earn money. The remainder of responses amounts of 2% of the 221 participant votes, while any response with fewer than 5 votes amounts to less than 2% and is therefore is not included in this table. Other notable quotes relate to memories or traditions from country life, I do not grow food because Im too lazy, but I think it is important to grow because I dont want to forget my instinct, which is something that my friends also agree upon, or I dont grow food because I havent the time, but I would like to. I am the son of a farmer. I enjoy growing food that is healthy and safe, and to save money. Among those participants who indicated that they would not be interested in growing food, one said Shanghai is not a proper place to grow food, another stated, I have too much pressure from my job to grow food, and the conditions in Sha nghai do not allow for growing, and another participant commented, Im too tired to grow food; it is troublesome and I havent the patience.
! 40 iv. Preferred Design Strategies for Urban Farming The following questions were based on a series of images pre sented on the survey as seen below. Table 10. Preferred Design Strategies, Image Provided on Survey When asked which of the two columns (A or B) is preferred, 54% of participants indicated a preference for column A, while 43% indicated a preference for column B. Participants were asked to respond in sequence which of 1 through 6 is their first choice, second choice, and third choice.
! 41 Table 11. First Choice Design Strategy The majority of participants, 26%, chose park fruit trees and vegetables as their first choice, followed by urban community farming at 22%, and balcony farming at 19%. Table 12. Second Choice Design Strategy
! 42 The majority of participants, 21%, chose urban community farming as their second choice, followed by balcony farming at 19%, and rooftop farming at 18%. Tab le 13. Third Choice Design Strategy The majority of participants, 24%, chose urban community farming as their third choice, followed by park fruit trees and vegetables at 21%, and balcony farming at 17%.
! 43 Table 14. Weighted Average of Preferred Urban Farming Strategy8 The top three preferred urban farming strategies are in close competition with 22% of participants indicating a preference for urban community farming, 21% indicating a preference for park fruit trees and vegetables, and 19% indicating a preference for balcony farming. There was little reception to the concepts of rooftop farming (15%), vertical farming (13%), and public plaza farming (10%). Following this series of questions participants were asked to identify which strategy they think is the most relevant to a host of potential functions. When asked which is the most practical/functional, 36% of participants indicated !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 8 Based on the results of the previous three tables, an additional table more accurately reflects the overall preferred urban farming strategy in Shanghai. The weighted average was pulled from multiplying the first choice totals by three, the second choice totals by two, the third choice totals by one, and finally adding the values together to form the percentages that are reflected in this pie chart.
! 44 balcony farming, with the remaining choices falling below 18%. When asked which is the least practical/functional, 31% chose public plaza farm, followed by 24% for vertical farming, with the remaining choices dropping below 14%. When asked which is the most aesthetically appealing, 54% chose vertical farming, 23% chose park fruit trees and vegetables, and the remaining choices fell below 8%. When asked which is the least aesthetically appealing, 25% chose rooftop farming and 25% also chose public plaza farming, with the remaining choices falling below 16%. When asked which is the most appealing for social life, 30% chose urban community farming and 30% chose park fruit trees and vegetables, with the remaining choices falling below 12%. Finally, wh en asked which is the best strategy to address concerns with food safety, 28% chose balcony farming, 26% chose public plaza farm, and 21% chose urban community farming, while the remaining choices falling below 11%. v. Understandings and Opinions of Urban Farming A series of twelve questions employed the Likert scale whereby the following image depicted how participants were to answer the questions. Table 15. Sample Instructions for Likert Scale Questions on Survey The following tables represent the data from the previously mentioned series of questions.
! 45 Table 16. Likert Question 1 Table 17. Likert Question 2 Table 18. Likert Question 3
! 46 Table 19. Likert Question 4 Table 20. Likert Question 5 Table 21 Likert Question 6
! 47 Table 22. Likert Question 7 Table 23. Likert Question 8 Table 24. Likert Question 9
! 48 Table 25. Likert Question 10 Table 26. Likert Question 11 Table 27. Likert Question 12 B. Survey Analysis and Discussion i. Demographics The male to female ratio of participants is relatively equal, while the age is quite skewed. Individuals over the age of about 45 are less willing to or interested in
! 49 participating in a dialogue with a young foreigner. They are seemingly skeptical, and if they have difficulty understanding the concept of the survey, I am only able to offer basic conversation to explain but hardly able to offer a reasonable explanation outside of the cover page of the survey. Therefore, it was too challenging to attempt to collect information from the older demographic as I was frequently turned away. Perhaps this creates a slight bias, or perhaps it is then targeting the most relevant demographic in terms of taking into consideration a future of urban farming in Shanghai. ii. Growing Food Survey question 3 asks do you grow your own food at your home in Shanghai? Within each of the categories for yes and no, there were various options from which participants could choose one. Of 221 participants, 194 claim that they do not grow their own food at their home in Shanghai. A significant finding in the data is that of those 194 participants who do not grow their own food, 42% chose the response, no, I do not grow my own food, while 41% chose the resp onse no, but I would like to, and the remaining were those who either do not grow now but they have before in the past, or they grow elsewhere, or they hire someone else to grow for them. The majority of those who state that they have grown before in the past or that they grow elsewhere are those who grew up in a rural landscape. Had more participants been of 41 years and older, there would likely be a greater number of participants who indicated yes, I grow my own food. Of the 11% who claimed that they do grow their own food, the majority
! 50 (38%) of those individuals were of 41 years and older, which is particularly significant considering how many fewer participants are 41 years and older than 40 years and younger. To supplement this data, I can state that based on observation, coupled with a basic cultural and historical understanding, elderly people and especially those within the retired co mmunity tend to have more time for growing food as a hobby. Some also grow purely based on familiarity with the lifestyle, having grown up on a farm. The majority of participants, 85%, indicated that if they had all the resources necessary, they would like to grow their own food, while the remaining 15% chose to respond no. There is no significant variation between the age groups nor between rural versus urban participants. However, a slight increase among yes responses corresponds with an age increase suggesting that the same is true for this topic: that if greater number of older people were questioned the percentage of yes responses would be higher. This particular survey question was left open -ended for participants to fill in their response as to why or why not they would grow their own food if they had all of the resources necessary. However, it is important to note a potential bias in the responses as the participants were already exposed to an assortment of potential responses seen in question 1, eliminating the need for them to candidly invent a response. It is clear that the quality of food is incredibly important to participants, including freshness and a decreased use in chemicals or pesticides. One secondary tier of interest in growing food involves reasons revolving around factors such as leisure
! 51 activities and hobbies, experiential processes and education, and psychological or spiritual well being. The other secondary tier of interest in growing food suggests a concern among participants with addressing environmental issues, as well as an interest in fostering a relationship with nature. Among the few who responded that they would not like to grow their own food, the majority claimed reasons related to a lack of time or being too tired. Th is is not surprising; many Chinese people living in Shanghai, especially those within the dominant age group as that of survey participants, are particularly busy working long hours across various fields of work; many have little time for hobbies outside of spending free time with their family. The majority of survey participants (54%) eat 25% of their meals out at restaurants. Most over the age of 55 eat 0%-25% at restaurants, and otherwise most variation among responses occurs in the age group of 19 to 30, which can likely be attributed to more erratic or unpredictable schedules. Survey participants between the ages of 19 and 30 are more likely to eat 75% to 100% of all meals outside of their home, while age groups of 31 and older eat outside of their home less frequently. Perhaps many younger people cook at home less frequently, thereby possibly swaying their interest in growing food. However, many younger people might also live with older members of their family. It is difficult to discern whether or not habits of eating at restaurants versus at home have any correlation to an interest in growing food.
! 52 iii. Advantages and Impediments of Urban Farming The three most commonly occurring responses to the question inquiring about the benefits o f growing ones own food are relaxation/therapy, to be close to nature, and a lack of trust in the quality of food from farms. The percentage of votes takes a large leap from the aforementioned choices, ranging between 17% and 22%, down to 9% or lower for the remaining choices. Through word of mouth I was able to gain a general understanding of the perceptions of increasing concern about the quality of food from farms, leading me to speculate if it was true for a wider pool of individuals. This data offers insight into the truth and reality of how potentially widespread these fears might be. If it is in fact the case that people are concerned with the quality of their food, it is clearly an issue that ought to be addressed and urban farming might be one of many means to do so. As for interest in being close to nature, and enjoying relaxation or spiritual/psychological therapy, these are not surprising as they are in line wit h a deeply rooted and ancient cultural tradition of an appreciation for the simple beauties found in nature, of which the majority of the population exhibits in their own ways. The influences based on the culture of retirement also plays a role in possibly why there is a particular interest in growing food as a hobby and for relaxation; it is something that all Chinese people aspire to and perhaps therefore such a concept of growing ones own food is placed high upon a pedestal, or seen as a luxury. That being said, an interest in community and socialization
! 53 appear to be aligned with retirement and enjoying hobbies, so it is surprising that so few selected the choice of social experience. Taking into consideration Chinas recent history of famine and increasing overpopulation, coupled with a widespread rural to urban migration (hence fewer farmers), it is surprising that food security is among the least commonly selected choice in the discussion of the benefits of growing food. However, it is curious to note whether or not there is an element of shame associated with these national struggles, placing limitations on the truth of the data results. There may also be cultural barriers of which I am unfamiliar that have to do with what the general public can and cannot openly acknowledge; the government may discourage the public from speaking of such matters. The other equally least commonly selected choice in the discussion of the benefits of gr owing food relates to saving money or earning a profit. Similarly, these response choices may pose an intrusion on the participant s vulnerabilities thereby creating a potential bias to the outcome of the data. This is another surprising result worth mentioning since there is a large income disparity in Shanghai, and many people live off a very low income. It would seem logical for most people to have at least a slight interest in saving or earning extra money. On the contrary, it could be the case that since produce is so largely inexpensive, the cost of growing outweighs the benefits related to financial concerns.
! 54 Not surprisingly, a large majority (75%) of those who value memory of life on farm/familiarity as a benefit of growing food are those who grew up in a rural landscape. There is a strong similarity between the responses regard ing the benefits of growing ones own food and the responses regarding the most important reasons to include urban farming in future development of shanghai parks, gar dens, private and public spaces.9 The most commonly selected choice for an important benefits of urban farming is to promote healthy eating and for relaxation or therapy, followed by environmental concerns such as education and to decrease air and water pollution, as well as for better quality produce. The third tier of most commonly selected choices included a concern for chemicals and pesticides, and to promote physical exercise and socialization.10 There were no significant differences in responses between individuals who grew up in a rural landscape versus not. Generally, the responses among various age groups hardly differ, with minor exceptions. The concern of decreasing air and water pollution seems to be !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9 It is relevant to note that the question regarding the benefits of urban farming in public spaces was presented to the participants following a series of detailed questions about design strategies for urban farming, therefore offering the participants a stronger knowledge base about what exactly urban farming is. "#!It is of interest to question whether the responses for this question would be the same had people simply been asked which among the issue are of most concern to them, unrelated to/despite urban farming.
! 55 stronger for age groups of 41 years or older. Promoting physical exercise is predominately a concern for the age group of 41 to 55. In terms of the factors that might prevent individuals from growing their own food, it is clear that most participants (149 of 221, or 67%) are concerned with the availability of space. This is not at all surprising, and in fact confirms the observation I made regarding general perceptions of space in Shanghai. Interestingly, as a designer I can think creatively about the availability of space and to me it does not appear that there is much less available space than major cities in the United States where urban farming is taking flight. However, it is apparent that to the average person for whom the field of landscape architecture and urban farming are unfamiliar, it could appear that there is not enough space Dividing the data between those who grew up in a rural environment and those who did not, there is a greater gap between the highest selected response (not en ough space) and the second highest selected response (dont have time) among those who did n ot grow up in a rural landscape in contrast to those who did grow up in a rural landscape; in other words, the issue of space is of greater concern to those who did not grow up in a rural environment than for those who did. This could indicate a difference in perceptions of the amount of available space as well as the amount of space that is required to grow. Interestingly, most pockets of available space throughout Shanghai are clearly taken over for temporary use to grow crops.
! 56 Ninety -four participants indicated that they dont have the time to grow food, which is also not surprising as many people, especially those within the predominant age group of survey participants, are too busy for hobbies. Taking a closer look at the divided age groups, it becomes clear that dont have time was a choice predominately selected by age groups between 19 and 40, while for those 41 and older the greatest issues preventing participants from growing food was dont have enough space, followed by lack proper materials/resources, and dont know how to.11 Interestingly, based on further research including the interviews with urban farmers, it seems that for those who would like to grow food, the greatest challenge has to do with access to proper resources and materials; for those individuals who already prioritize their hobby of growing food, time is not a concern as they make time to accommodate their interest, and space is also less of a concern since they are able to visualize the possibilities within their limitations in light of an interest to manage their hobby. Those who did not grow up in a rural landscape also seem to have a more conflicted runner up in the count of factors that prevent them from growing food, in that three options fall closely within the same range including dont know how, dont have time, and lack proper resources. Most likely this is a result of a lack of proper knowledge required for growing food among this participant group. One cannot be expected to isolate their reasoning as to what might be preventing them from growing food if they have such limited knowledge and !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 11 Most individuals over the age of 41 are nearing retirement, and concerns with having enough time are not prevalent.
! 57 experience with the activity. For those who grew up in a rural landscape, on the contrary, there is a clear demarcation of the runner up: dont have time. iv. Preferred Design Strategies for Urban Farming When asked to choose a preference between two categories of images, selfmanaged and outside managed, there was not a relevant, clear choice. Contradictory results among questions indicate some confusion between the difference between community gardens and park fruit trees, etc. It is possible that the question was quite complicated to decipher what exactly was being asked. In fact, many of the questions in the section might pose many biases when looking closer. For example, some might prefer the way the image looks and therefore choose that option, some might have more familiarity with one type of urban farming and therefore choose that while neglecting to include in their response the options that are entirely foreign, such as vertical farming. The nature of this section is quite unfamiliar and complicated, and with the many potential biases associate, it might become clear that it cannot be heavily relied upon. It is also possible to assume that the responses are relatively accurate, but that there simply is no clear preference for a type of design that is both most suitable and desirable in Shanghai. In my experience and observations, many Chinese Shanghai dwellers really enjoy flashy colors and design when it comes to presentations so this could pose a real bias, especially if the text is not an exact description or people dont clearly understand what each image is depicting without guided verbal communication.
! 58 The least desired choices are the vertical farm and the public plaza/farm. B oth of these c oncepts are relatively difficult to fathom if one has never seen examples in the past. T hey can be considered progressive ideas which is perhaps why so few people opted to select them as a favorite. The public plaza/farm might have been least desirable because it is the option that uses the most flat land, which comes across as wasteful in such a dense city. The other possibility for a disinterest in the public plaza/farm is that the aesthetic is highly reminiscent as that of the rural countryside and it is not uncommon for city-dwellers in Shanghai to disassociate such concepts with those of urban development; the image of the rural countryside might not be as highly valued as skyscrapers. M eanwhile the community garden option was of greater interest even though it too takes up much flat land. As for age differentiation, 57% prefer the park fruit trees, especially among the younger demographic, with middle age still enjoying the option; older demographic (41+) prefer the balcony option. The older demographic might lean toward the balcony farming since perhaps it seams more practical and they have more free time to attend to their crops, so the appeal of having the balcony farm as a hobby makes sense. Younger people might also be more transient, in which case they might have a harder time envision the permanence of a balcony in a home of their own where they can grow food. In other words, the younger demographic could get more use out of the public park fruit trees. Similarly, the urban community farm is the most de sirable option among 31-40 year olds with
! 59 the park fruit trees as the runner up. Generally speaking, it is more likely for older demographics to prefer the self-managed options since they have more available time. Among those who come from a non-rural background, 26% preferred urban community farm, 21% tied between park fruit trees and balcony farming. This is not a significant difference. Meanwhile, those who come from a rural background have a distinct preference for park fruit trees at 34%, with balcony farming following at 18% and community farm at 16%. Perhaps the image used for the park fruit trees were most reminiscent of farm life and therefore seemingly most appealing. The series of questions that follow offer more clearly defined respons es. The majority of participants, 76, think that the balcony farming is the most practical/functional. The m ajority of participants think that the public plaza farm is the least functional, followed by vertical farming; perhaps this is the reason that so few chose this option as their favorite One might deduce that they take into consideration or that they value practicality in their decision-making. The majority of participants, 120, think that vertical is the most aesthetically appealing, with park fruit trees as the runner up with 50 votes. There is a close tie for the question regarding the most unappealing aesthetically, with 49 for rooftop farming, followed by public plaza farm at 46; community farm follo ws at 32, and the least voted for was park fruit trees at 13 followed by vertical at 24. The most appealing for social life among the majority of participants, 63, is the community
! 60 farm followed closely by 62 for the park fruit trees 59 participants choose Balcony farming and 55 chose public plaza farm as the best options for food safety, while vertical farming was at a clear loss with only 9 people choosing it. Once reviewing the responses for this series of questions I can become less skeptical about whether or not the images properly depicted what they were intended to and whether or not the questions were understood. Many of the responses to some of these questions are logical, while there are no right and wrong answers, some do clearly have a logical lean toward one response. In other words, it seems from this series of questions that people do seem to understand exactly what I was attempting to discover. This knowledge can only tell me one thing: that while people do seem to have a strong interest in urban farming, they do not necessarily have many strong preferences for methods of design. v. Understandings and Opinions of Urban Farming in Shanghai 79% of survey participants either strongly agree or agree that they would like to see more urban farming opportunities in Shanghai, and 76% strongly agree or agree that it is possible to accommodate more urban farming. 78% strongly agree or agree that they would like to grow their own food if they had all the resources they needed. 69% strongly agree or agree that consuming locally grown food is an important issue. 81% strongly agree or agree that it is important to them to learn about where their food comes from and how it is farmed. 37% strongly agree or agree that they prefer urban farming at a public park or plaza as
! 61 opposed to growing food themselves, while 35% had neutral feelings toward the question. 71% of participants would rather like to buy food from local urban farmers than from unknown farms. While for the previous descriptions the responses strongly agree and agree were lumped together, the following two questions about children demonstrate a significant discrepancy between those who selected strongly agree and those who selected agree, which is why they are divided: A significant majority of participants, 68% strongly agree that it is important for their children/grandchildren/future generations to learn about nature, followed by 25% who agree, 3% who felt neutral, 1% who disagree, and 3% who strongly disagree. Similarly, 64% strongly agree that urban farming can help educate children about nature, followed by 26% who agree, 5% who feel neutral, 2% disagree, and 3% strongly disagree. 80% prefer to eat most meals at home than to eat out at restaurants, and would also like to know about the farms where restaurants they eat at purchase their food.
! 62 CHAPTER IV INTERVIEWS A. Interviews B ackground The following discussion will focus on four relevant points of interest based on information extracted from the interviews. While many of the interview conversations digressed from the talking po ints, and some followed the outlined questions more than others, the compilation of all responses resulted in certain relevant patterns. The fist discussion point will outline variation of growing strategies employed by the interview subjects. Next will be a discussion of some of the challenges that many of the urban farmers have encountered in their experience. Motives and interests in growing their own food will follow, and finally a discussion about the common responses to one of the questions they were asked regarding how they are generally received with the public learns of their efforts to grow food in Shanghai.12 B. Interviews D iscussion i. Growing Methods There were many different forms of urban farming witnessed throughout the interview process. Two interview subjects were experimenting with both indoor and outdoor hydroponics and aquaponics grow systems whereby the growing !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 12 Note that the mixed media pieces, which used the audio recordings of interviews and photographic documentation of the interviews, is currently (possibly temporarily) housed at the following website: www.shanghaigrowers.com
! 63 medium is water as opposed to soil. Many of the subjects referred to soil as a struggle in terms of both access to good quality as well as the load bearing constraints in the case for balcony or rooftop growing. For this reason, eliminating the use of soil might be particularly advantageous for urban farmers in Shanghai. Other growers took advantage of their small space at their homes for growing in containers with soil. Such spaces included enclosed balconies13, outdoor balconies, ground-level apartment units with patios seen in both high-rise and low -rise residential, rooftops, along the walls beside the front doors of apartment s situated within lane s14, and even in the ornamental planting beds outside of apartment buildings Some of the interview subjects were a part of or responsible for the urban farming component of a larger organization. For example, one subject was the owne r of a site that was situated in a rooftop/large balcony area of a mall. There were various raised planting beds, some of which were for individuals in the community to rent out for growing while others were managed by staff of the organization. The area was a popular spot for hosting community events as well, and during the time of the interview there was a sort of farmers market held !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 13 This is very commonly seen in the high-rise residential buildings throughout Shanghai, predominately in order to hang dry clothing without creating an eyesore from the exterior faade. They are essentially balconies that have been enclosed with windows. 14 Lanes are a common type of traditional housing in Shanghai, much like an alley off of a main road, with additional alley -like offshoots. Vehicles can pass through but many children and adults will also spend t ime sitting out in the lanes and socializing. Some have a gate with a guard at the end of the lane, and most people know one another in these communities.!!
! 64 whereby local farmers setup tents to sell food. I was able to interview two of these farmers, but in fact they came out from a nearby area called Chongming Island which is a part of Shanghai that is rapidly developing into a center for ecotourism and organic farming. Because this particular area is not technically in the city center of Shanghai and is more rural than urban, it is not a focus for this particular body of research. Another interview subject was an expatriate who had been living in Shanghai for several years and working for an organization that promotes alleviating issues of sustainability in Shanghai through various community efforts as well as through research. Urban farming is one branch of effort the push for, and they have a series of growing beds on the rooftop of a restaurant. Interested community members participate in growing food, they hold events and educational experiences for children and young adults to learn about growing food. There is an active composting area on the rooftop in addition to raised beds. The final example of a more public or community site is that of Century Park situated in Pudong district. I interviewed the landscape architect and park manager who have been implementing edible plantings into their designs on large scale monocultures, such as areas covered in rapeseed and other planting beds designated for gourds. Another interview took place at a site where there were many apartment buildings nestled into a housing community, and where the staff for the community centers were very involved and interested in addressing issues of sustainable living, growing food on site, and offering educational and social events for people to learn how to grow. There, they had
! 65 everything from indoor grow rooms to pots in an outdoor garden to indoor hydroponic systems. Finally, one typical type of urban farming throughout Shanghai can be witnessed when passing through construction sites, in-between vacant land such as the strips of space alongside train tracks, and the strips of hillside below bridges that are hugging the sides of waterways. It is uncommon to approach the aforementioned circumstances and not observe rows of crops. Many people take advantage of all the space they can get their hands on, even if they know it might be taken from them by developers on any given day. In the case of the construction sites, many of the construction workers come from the countryside and during the time of construction they live on site in temporary housing; these individuals are accustomed to growing food as a way of life, so it is instinctive to grow food in those space. It is also a way for them to save money. However, the conditions of the soil at such construction sites might be dangerous for food growth and consumption. As for the areas beside transportation routes as well as areas alongside water bodies, there is an abundance of each of these circumstances within Shanghai. Again, the soil in these areas might be highly contaminated but nonetheless, there is space and a demand for growing food. There were three circumstances whereby documentation of these types of sites could be captured, but only few words were exchanged in my efforts to inquire about conducting an interview with the growers. See Appendix
! 66 ii. Challenges of Growing The most common challenge that the interview subjects discussed was the issue of accessing good quality soil. Many mentioned a couple of known shops where they could purchase soil but that it was not good quality, especially because different plants require different soils and their options are limited to only one or two types. Many of the growers are aware that the soils might be contaminated but they grow anyway. Few people faced issues with neighbors, but there were a couple who mentioned that maybe the neighbors would take the ripe fruits and vegetables or one mentioned complaints of water or soil reaching the balcony of the people living below. Generally there was not much disappointment or anger, especially in the case of sharing food with neighbors. Most are happy to share or find it humorous that people will take their food. iii. Motives for Growing Most interview subjects are interested in growing food because it is a hobby that they enjoy. Some have found ways to turn it into an organization or business, but even so they all seem to possess a either a passion or an innate interest based on upbringing. Most seem to feel passionate about the process or achievement of the hobby, some find it a stimulating learning experience, others enjoy it to connect with nature or for the aesthetic value, many feel that it is healthier or more safe for themselves or their children, and many feel an additional
! 67 commitment to addressing larger social, political, and environmental issues related to growth and development in Shanghai. The following series of photographs were taken during the interviews, and depict the typical growing scenarios found in Shanghai.15 Table 28. Parks, intended for public use Table 29. Residential Organizations (A), intended for public use !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 15 Photo credit Tables 28 to 50: Ian Lipton (www.ianliptonphoto.com)
! 68 Table 30. Residential Organizations (B), intended for public use Table 31. Residential Organizations (C), intended for public use Table 32. Community Beds and Market, intended for public use
! 69 Table 33. Non -Profit Organization, intended for public use Table 34. Rooftop, intended for public use Table 35. Residential Rooftop (A), intended for personal use
! 70 Table 36. Residential Rooftop (B), intended for personal use Table 37. Indoor Residential Balcony, intended for personal use Table 38. Outdoor Residential Balcony, intended for personal use
! 71 Table 39. Indoor Hydroponics (A), intended for personal use Table 40. Indoor Hydroponics (B), intended for personal use Table 41. En closed Yard (A), intended for personal use
! 72 Table 42. Enclosed Yard (B), intended for personal use Table 43. Ground Level Enclosed Patio, intended for personal use Table 44. Semi -Open Patio (A), intended for personal use
! 73 Table 45. Semi -Open Patio (B), intended for personal use Table 46. Ground Level Containers in Lane (A), intended for personal use Table 47. Ground Level Containers in Lane (B), intended for personal use
! 74 Table 48. Construction Site, intended for personal use Table 49. Riverfront, intended for personal use or sale Table 50. Alongside Transit, intended for personal use or sale iv. Public Reception Most of the interview subjects were asked to answer the question how do people react when they learn that you grow food. Prior to conducting interviews I hypothesized that people would have more dramatic responses and assume
! 75 positions of isolation from the general public in their attempts to describe what they grow and why. I was surprised to discover that across the board, interview subjects replied positively, remarking that the public express interest, curiosity, and intrigue. They are impressed. They want to learn. They want to share.
! 76 CHAPTER V MAPPING A. Mapping B ackground The following maps will introduce the context of Shanghai, highlighting the city center, and will proceed to move in to view the four study areas. Each study area, A though D, will first illustrate a context map with existing infrastructure, followed by a deta iled map discussing some potential suggestions for incorporating urban farming into the landscape. Calculations of available space as well as potential productivity are also outlined in the maps and further detailed in the discussion to follow. B. Mapping Discussion Table 51. Large Context Map of Shanghai
! 77 Table 52. Context Map of Shanghai City Center The previous maps are to outline the context in which the maps for A through D are situated. The following set of maps will include two for each of areas A, B, C, and D. The first for each area gives the context, and deals with a given number mega blocks radius where the existing infrastructure includes a mixed set of development types including traditional/low-rise residential, high-rise residential, empty lots, sites under construction, low -rise businesses, high-rise businesses, industry, parks, and streetscape The second of two maps for each area is more detailed and offers some suggested examples of the types of urban farming that might be poss ible to include in the highlighted areas. Additionally, the second map discusses basic quantities of food production according to a short list of examples of produce that could be implemented in the given scenario.
! 78 Table 53. Mapping Study Area A1 Table 54. Mapping Study Area A2
! 79 Table 55. Mapping Study Area B1 Table 56. Mapping Study Area B2
! 80 Table 57. Mapping Study Area C1 Table 58. Mapping Study Area C2
! 81 Table 59. Mapping Study Area D1 Table 60. Mapping Study Area D2 There are many ways in which to grow food in the urban context. These maps demonstrate a glimpse into some examples of how. Food production is not a straightforward calculation, and there are numerous factors to take into
! 82 consideration w hen attempting to m ake such calculations that are based on items that reach beyond the scope of this study. Soil conditions, sunlight, environmental constraints, and maintenance are among many items to take into consideration. Productivity is also sometimes dependent on the age of the plant or even whether or not is on an off or on year for bearing fruit. For the sake of this study, common plant species that are grown and consumed commonly in Shanghai were used as examples. Productivity is calculated base on averages provided in the sources in the bibliography. See Appendix A.5 for a more detailed produce productivity chart. Furthermore, it is impossible to calculate according to a prediction of how a particular space might be built out to accommodate urban farming. For ex ample, in the scenario of a community garden, one plot might be built out using only a vertical plane while another plot might host various trellises for vertical farming to maximize productivity. A similar diversity in the capabilities for use of space come up in the scenario of building out a streetscape to accommodate urban farming. Note that for this study, all calculations were based only on surface area, not vertical space within those surfaces. That includes the example of vertical farming whereby the dimensions of the surfaces of single building sides were calculated and considered for food production based on the same calculations for flat areas.
! 83 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION A. Summary There are several conclusions that have been drawn from this research. Some anticipated results were not achieved while other unexpected conclusions were made. The following text will outline all of the conclusions that were realized based on this research. i. Interest and Demand It is evident based on the results of the surveys that the majority of the general public would enjoy the opportunity to grow food in the city center of Shanghai. There is no conclusive data that reveals a definitive preference for one design strategy for urban farming over another. More extensive studies need to be done in order to understand what strategies people would most like to see take form. ii. Availability of Space This research begins to demonstrate the argument that there is in fact enough space for growing food in Shanghai. More extensive case studies would need to be conducted in order to more accurately and concisely understand the ratio of available space. There is a notable difference in perceptions of the possibility to accommodate urban farming among the general public as opposed to individuals who possess previous knowledge of design, architecture, urban planning, landscape architecture, farming, or other related fields. Survey participants can reveal mostly that they are interested in growing food, but are not necessarily
! 84 credible sources for discovering information about whether or not urban farming is plausible despite what their perceptions might be. B. Suggestions for Further Research 1. Extensive mapping studies 2. Studies to understand what d esign strategies might be desired of the public 3. Laws and regulations of available space, use of space in parks/allowance for agriculture, etc. 4. Understanding rural to urban demographic, how to accommodate more of the rural population coming into shanghai as well as the temporary dwellings for construction workers 5. Soil tests to reveal whether or not there are contaminants in the urban soils, and how those might be detrimental 6. Productivity testing to further evaluate what can be grown and how many people could be fed 7. Carbon footprint analysis 8. Architecture to incorporate agricultural production, and structural understandings of existing structures and possibility to accommodate urban farming on rooftops
! 85 REFERENCES B ooks Anderson, E N. The Food of China N.p.: Yale University, 1988. Print. Brown, Lester R. (1995). Who Will Feed China? Wake-up Call For a Small Planet (The Worldwatch Environmental Alert Series). W. W. Norton & Company: Worldwatch Institute. Lester R. Brown is an American environmental analyst and activist who founded Worldwatch Institute, as well as the Earth Policy Institute. He is an author of over fifty books that have been translated into over forty languages. Who Will Feed China? is a text that covers issues related to overpopulation and food security as they relate to the environmental impacts of farming, and weighs in on how the impact that Chinas problems in these areas will affect the rest of the world. Despommier, D. (2010). The Vertical Farm: Feeding the World in the 21st Century. N ew York, NY: St. Martin's Press. Daily, G. C., & Erlich, P. R. (1996). Population, Sustainability, and the Earth's Carrying Capacity. Ecosystem Management: Selected Readings 435 -451. Gliessman, S. R. (2000). Agroecology: Ecological Processes in Sustainable Agriculture. N.p.: CRC Press LLC. This book offers a critical, all-encompassing overview of environmental and socio-economic issues brought about through conventional farming practices. These matters are discussed in order to introduce the relevance
! 86 for alternative farming practices. The focus is on agro-ecology, an incredibly necessary shift in which large scale farming practices must partake. Sources cited in this text are valuable for this body of research. Author Stephen Gliessman is a professor at the Department of Environmental Studies at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and a Ph.D. from University of California, Santa Barabara. He has conducted various case studies internationally, and has several publications based on the subject of agricultural studies. Websites 10 Mile Farms: Grow Local, Grow Smart N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2014. . BIOFarm. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2014. . China International Urban Agriculture. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. . Demchak, Kathleen. "Gogi Berry Culture." Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences. N.p., 28 Mar. 2014. Web. 6 Mar. 2015. . Despommier, Dickson. The Vertical Farm. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. . Dickson Despommier is well known for his research and activism to promote vertical farming. The reasons behind the urgency of incorporating such systems into urban planning agendas are the same with vertical
! 87 farming as they are with any form of urban farming, and therefore Despommiers research is valuable to this study as well. Dickson Despommier is a professor at Columbia University in the department of Environmental Health Sciences. His vision for the future can be found on his website, including a collection of design concepts from outsiders, and a well-cited essay discussing the need for vertical farming. (n.d.). In Hangzou Permaculture. Retrieved April 8, 2014, from http://www.hzpumen.com/ Industrial Farm (n.d.). In ECF Farm Systems. Retrieved April 8, 2014, from http://www.ecf-farmsystems.com/en/ecf-industrial-farm/ Local Harvest. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Mar. 2014. . Morton, Julia F. "Fruits of Warm Climates." Purdue Horticulture. N.p., 1987. Web. 6 Mar. 2015. . Morton, Julia F. "Orange." Purdue Horticulture. N.p., 1987. Web. 6 Mar. 2015. . Mossler, Mark A. "Florida Crop/Pest Management Profile: Specialty Brassicas (Arrugula, Bok Choi, Chinese Broccoli, Chinese Mustard, Napa)." University of Florida IFAS Extension. N.p., Nov. 2005. Web. 14 Mar. 2015. .
! 88 New York Times : Urban Agriculture. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014. . The New York Times website hosts a section devoted to Urban Agriculture. Archived and current articles surrounding the topic and links to accredited resources are among the highlights. This is a reliable source for remaining up-to -date on the subject. Rooftop Farms (n.d.). In Good to China Retrieved April 8, 2014, from http://goodtochina.com/urban-farming/rooftop-farms/ RUAF Foundation Resource Centres on Urban Agriculture and Food Security N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Apr. 2014. . RUAF Foundation, or Resource Centres on Urban Agriculture and Food Security, is a global network of organizations across the globe including China. Since 1999, initially based out of the Netherlands, the non-profit organization seeks to contribute to the development of sustainable cities by facilitating awareness raising, knowledge generation and dissemination, capacity development, policy design, and action planning regarding resilient and equitable urban food systems. The webs ite is a comprehensive hub for sharing research, reports, upcoming independently sponsored events, news, manuals, and more surrounding the topic of worldwide urban agriculture. Collaboration and partnerships largely contribute to the validity and effectiveness of the organization, making it a
! 89 reliable and important source for discovering existing and up-to -date information for this body of research. The foundation is responsible for a publication entitled Urban Agriculture Magazine, in addition to books and papers that are published. RUAF hosted an international conference in Nanjing in 2008, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), the Urban Harvest programme of the CGIAR institutes, the Chinese Urban Agriculture Association and the Nanjing Agriculture and Forestry Bureau, organised a session called "Urban and peri-urban agriculture for Resilient Cities (Green, Productive and Socially Inclusive). Sky Greens N.p., 2011. Web. 7 May 2014. . Sunshine Home N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2014. . (n.d.). In Trees For Peace. Retrieved April 8, 2014, from www.treesforpeace.org Tucker, D, T Wheaton, and R Muraro. "Citrus Tree Spacing." University of Florida Cooperative Extension. N.p., June 1994. Web. 5 Mar. 2015. . The Urban Farm. N.p., 2007. Web. 5 Mar. 2015. .
! 90 Urban Farmer. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2014. . Urban Farming: More Than a Gardening Organization. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2014. . UrbanFood.org. Ed. Nathan McClintock. Portland State University, n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2014. < http://www.urbanfood.org/>. Vertical Grow. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Mar. 2015. . Articles Barrett, J. (2010, May 14). Fish Are Jumping Off Assembly Line. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052748703950804575242 594125593702?mg=reno64wsj&url=http%3A%2F%2Fonline.wsj.com%2F article%2FSB1000142405274870395080457524259412 -5593702.html Boyer, M. (2011, December 12). Frisch Vom Dach to Convert Former Berlin Malt Factory into a Rooftop Aquaponics Farm. InInhabitat: Design Will Save the World. Retrieved April 8, 2014, from http://inhabitat.com/frisch-vom -dachto -convert-former-berlin-malt -factory-into -a-rooftop-aquaponics-farm/ Butterworth, J., McIntyre, P., & da Silva Wells, C. SWITCH in the City: Putting Urban Water Management to the Test. SWITCH Consortium: International Water and Sanitation Centre Retrieved April 7, 2014, from http://www.ruaf.org/sites/default/files/SWITCH%20in%20the%20city%3B%
! 91 20Putting%20urban%20water%20use%20to%20the%20test%2C%20IRC %2C%20The%20Hague%2C%202011%20%28407%20pages%29.pdf Cai, J., Yang, Z., Liu, S., Liu, M., Guo, H., & Du, S. (2011, September). Urban Agriculture Development in Minhang, Shanghai.Urban Agriculture Magazine. Retrieved April 8, 2014, from http://www.ruaf.org/sites/default/files/UAM%2025Urban%20Agriculture%20development%206062.pdf This article reviews the changes that the Chinese government has made in order to accommodate urban agricultural practices in cities, and specifically in Shanghai. Topics related to policy, designs, planning, funding, evaluation, and progress are brought to light. The information presented is based on information that was current at the time, however because the government makes quick changes it will be crucial to investigate whether or not these practices still hold true. Moreover, the article focuses on what would be considered peri-urban agriculture, which exists on the perimeters rather than in the heart of Shanghai. Nonetheless, the information in this article is especially relevant since this might be only one of the few articles published in English, and that is directly re lated to Shanghai.
! 92 Chen, Jie. (2007). Rapid Urbanization in China: A Real Challenge to Soil Protection and Food Scurity. Science Direct, Catena, 69, 1-15. Retrieved June 1, 2014. Demchak, K. (2014, March 28). Goji Berry Culture. Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved from http://extension.psu.edu/plants/treefruit/news/2014/goji-berry-culture Despommier, D. The Vertical Farm: Reducing the Impact of Agriculture on Ecosystem Functions and Services. The Vertical Farm. Retrieved May 8, 2014, f rom http://www.verticalfarm.com/more?essay1 De Zeeuw, H., Van Veenhuizen, R., & Dubbeling, M. (2011). Foresight Project on Global Food and Farming Futures: The Role of Urban Agriculture in Building Resilient Cities in Developing Countries. Journal of Agricultural Science 1-11. Retrieved March 3, 2014 The Role of Urban Agriculture in Building Resilient Cities in Developing Countries begins to discuss the topic of urban agriculture in the context of individual or household decisions to harvest food for self-sufficiency, especially in developing countries and/or impoverished areas. This framework unfolds into a discussion about the potential benefits that urban agriculture might offer in response to urban challenges. A concise outline follows incorporating some important issues discussed in this research, including poverty alleviation, food security and nutrition, and environmental
! 93 challenges. Following is a brief about risk management and policy. While brief, a comprehensive list of references validates this body of work. The Edible City (n.d.). In American Society of Landscape Architects. Retrieved April 8, 2014, from http://www.asla.org/sustainablelandscapes/Vid_UrbanAg.html Etherigton, R. (2010, January 12). Landgrab City by Joseph Grima, Jeffrey Johnson, and Jose Esparza. dezeen Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.dezeen.com/2010/01/12/landgrab-cityby-joseph -grima-jeffreyjohnson -and -jose -esparza/ From Seed to Table Programme (FSTT) Final Technical Report (2011, October). In RUAF Foundation: Res ource Centres on Urban Agriculture and Food Security Retrieved April 8, 2014 The Future of Urban Agriculture: Gallery (n.d.). In Popular Mechanics. Retrieved June 7, 2014, from http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/engineering/infrastructure/f uture-urban-rooftop-agriculture-gallery#slide-1 Gary Comer Youth Center Green Roof (n.d.). In GreenRoofs.com. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.greenroofs.com/projects/pview.php?id=998 Gold, M. V. (2007, August). Sustainable Agriculture: Definitions and Terms. United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Library. Retrieved April 8, 2014, from http://www. nal.usda.gov/afsic/pubs/terms/srb9902.shtml
! 94 Green City, Clean Waters (n.d.). In Philadelphia Water Department. Retrieved May 23, 2014, from http://www.phillywatersheds.org/what_were_doing/documents_and_data/c so_long_term_control_plan Green, J. (2009, February 10). Edible Rooftop Garden in L.A. In American Society of Landscape Architects: The Dirt: Uniting the Built and Natural Environments. Retrieved April 8, 2014, from http://dirt.asla.org/2009/02/10/urban-rooftop-gardenin-la/ Green, J. (2012, October 11). Metropolitan Agriculture at All Scales. In American Society of Landscape Architects: The Dirt: Uniting the Built and Natural Environments. Retrieved April 8, 2014, from http://dirt.asla.org/2012/10/11/metropolitan-agriculture-one-size -doesnt-fitall/ Hua ng, J., Rozelle, S., & Wang, H. (2005, October). Fostering or Stripping Rural China: Modernizing Agriculture and Rural to Urban Capital Flows. The Developing Economics, 44(1), 1-26. Retrieved April 8, 2014, from http://sourcedb.igsnrr.cas.cn/yw/lw/200906/P020090625739780456200.pd f Joint WHO, Food and Agriculture Organization and Chinese Government Mission on SARS Animal Reservoir and Possible Transmission to Humans (n.d.). In World Health Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2014, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2003/prchina/en/
! 95 Knight, J. (2013, June). Inequality in China. In The World Bank. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/IW3P/I B/2013/06/13/ 000158349_20130613150441/Rendered/PDF/WPS6482.pdf Landgrab City Urban Farm (n.d.). In Landscape Architects Network Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://landarchs.com/landgrab-city-urban-farm/ Land Revitalization Fact Sheet: Urban Agriculture (2011, April). In Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved April 8, 2014, from http://www.epa.gov/landrevitalization/download/fs_urban_agriculture.pdf Larson, C. (2013, February 8). Loosing Arable Land: China Faces Stark Choice: Adapt or Go Hungry. Science Magazine ,339, 644-645. Las Vegas to Build World's First 30 Story Vertical Farm (2008, January 2). In Next Energy News. Retrieved April 7, 2014, from http://www.nextenergynews.com/news1/next-energynews -las -vegasvertical-farm-1.2b.html Lehrer, M., & Dunne, M. (2011, January 18). Urban Agriculture: Practices to Improve Cities. Retrieved June 8, 2014, from http://urbanland.uli.org/sustainability/urban-agriculture-practices-to improve-cities/ Los Angeles Finally Allows Parkway Farming (2013, August 10). In American Society of Landscape Architects: The Dirt: Uniting the Built and Natural Environments. Retrieved April 8, 2014, from
! 96 http://dirt.asla.org/2013/08/13/los-angeles -finally -allows -parkwayvegetables/ Morton, J. F. (1987). Orange, Citrus Sinesis. Fruits of Warm Climates. Retrieved from https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/orange.html Mossler, M. A. Florida Crop/Pest Management Profile: Specialty Brassicas (Arrugula, Bok Choy, Chinese Broccoli, Chinese Mustard, Napa). UF IFAS Extension University of Florida. Retrieved from http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/PI/PI10700.pdf Pallavicino, E. (2013, September 23). At K11 Shanghai the Most Innovative Mall in Mainland China Art and Veggies Are For Breakfast and Lunch. In Illywords. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from ht tp://www.illywords.com/2013/09/at-k11-the -most -innovative-mall -inmainland -china-art-and -veggies-are-for-breakfast-and -lunch/ Roberts, G. (2010, September 27). Fish Farms, With a Side of Greens. New York Times Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.nytime s.com/2010/09/28/business/energy-environment/28ihtrbofish.html?_r=0 Smit, B., & Yunlong, C. (1996). Climate Change and Agriculture in China. Global Environmental Change, 6(3), 205-214. Retrieved April 5, 2014 Smit and Yunlong discuss a broad overview of the affects of climate change in China, as they relate to agriculture. Resource scarcity as addressed as a major concern. The article is mostly concerned with
! 97 agriculture on a large scale, including imports and exports. As China changes rapidly, both in the area of development as well as governmental law enforcement, it is difficult to discern how valuable a publication from 1996 might be. Stratus Consulting Inc. A Triple Bottom Line Assessment of Traditional and Green Infrastructure Options for Controlling CSO Events in Philadelphia's Watersheds Final Report (2009, August 24). In Michigan.gov. Retrieved April 27, 2014, from http://www.michigan.gov/documents/dnr/TBL.AssessmentGreenVsTraditio nalStormwaterMgt_293337_7.pdf Tan, Minghong, Li, Xiubin, Xie, Hui, Lu, Changhe. (2005). Urban Land Expansion and Arable Land Loss in China A Case Study of Beijing Tianjin Hebei Region. Land Use Policy, 22, 187-196. Retrieved June 1, 2014. Tucker, D., Wheaton, T., & Muraro, R. (1994, June). Citrus Tree Spacing. University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service Retrieved from http://www.university.uog.edu/cals/people/PUBS/FRUITS/CH02600.pdf Van Veenhuizen, R. (2007). Profitability and Sustainability of Urban and PeriUrban Agriculture [Electronic version]. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations This paper discusses the ways in which urban agriculture can be used as a means to address and combat some of the Millennium Development
! 98 Goals. It is a very comprehensive study that outlines existing research, and bridges gaps between these. Rene Van Veenhuizen has published several works on the topic of urban agriculture, including a book entitled Cities Farming for the Future. She works as a consultant for ETC-Urb an Agriculture, the RUAF Foundation, International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, and the International Development Research Centre. Vertical Farms to Transform Our Cities (n.d.). In Esquire. Retrieved June 7, 2014, from http://www.esquire.com/features/vertical-farms#slide-1 Yang, Hong, Li Xiubin. (2000) Cultivated Land and Food Supply in China. Elsevier Science, Land Use Policy, 17, 73-88. Retrieved May 6, 2014. This study aims to evaluate the possible reasons why much of Chinas land has faced tremendous losses in fertility. It discusses the environmental impacts of certain practices related to agriculture and development. Concerns with food security are evaluated as they relate to existing practices and the possible outlook if similar trends continue. Zhu, Z. D., & Wang, T. (1993). Trends of desertification and its rehabilitation in China. Desertification Control Bulletin, 22, 27 -30. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
! 99 APPENDIX : SUPPLEMENTARY DOCUMENTS The following pages are comprised of all supplementary documents used in the process of conducting this thesis.
! 100 Appendix A. English Language Survey Hello! I am a foreign exchange student at the College of Architecture and Planning at Tongji University. I am conducting research to understand the potential for including urban farming in future development of Shanghai. Your participation in this survey is completely voluntary. I do not anticipate any risks to you participating in this study. Your answers are confidential and will remain completely anonymous. Thank you for your time! What is urban farming? Urban farming, as defined in this research, is the practice of growing anything edible in a high density, urban context. The scale and the yield vary tremendously. Someone can be considered an urban farmer if they grow anything from a single pot of herbs to a vast rooftop of vegetables, so long as the vegetation is edible it qualifies. Food might be grown by and for a single individual. Produce that is grown and sold is also considered urban farming so long as it is grown and sold locally, within the urban context. If you have any questions or comments, feel free to contact me or my local faculty supervisor: Atalya Kozak firstname.lastname@example.org 15618964395 Professor HAN Feng email@example.com 21 65983044
! 101 Section 1: Growing food FOR QUESTIONS 1 & 2, CHECK ALL BOXES THAT APPLY. 1. In your opinion, what might be some benefits of growing your own food? (1) Relaxation/therapy (2) To save money (3) Social experience (4) Memory of life on farm / familiarity (5) Physical exercise (6) To be close to nature (7) Food security (8) To sell and make a profit (9) Dont trust quality of food from farms (10) Beneficial for the environment (11) For the aesthetic value (12) Other: ________________ _______ 2. What are some of the major factors that might prevent you from growing your own food ? (1) Its too much energy/too difficult (2) Dont know how to (3) Its too expensive (4) Its a waste of time (5) Dont have time (6) It looks ugly/dirty (7) Not have enough space (8) Lack proper materials/resources (soil, tools, water source) (9) Never thought about it (10) Its not important (11) Other: ________________ ____ FOR THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS, CHECK ONLY ONE BOX THAT BEST DESCRIBES YOUR ANSWER. 3. Do you currently grow your own food at your home in Shanghai? (Food includes anything that you can eat or drink, including herbs, fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, legumes, mushrooms, etc.) (1) Yes, for my own consumption (2) Yes, to sell (3) No, I would never do that (4) No, but I have before/in the past (5) No, but I would like to (6) No, but I grow food elsewhere (7) No, but I hire someone to grow my food 4. If you had all of the appropriate resources and materials, would you like to grow your own food, and why? (1) Yes, because: _____________________________________________________ (2) No, because: ______________________________________________________ 5. How many people do you know who live in Shanghai city-center grow food ? (1) None (2) 1 2 (3) 3 4 (4) 5 10 (5) More than 10 (6) Not sure 6. What percentage of your meals to do you eat at a restaurant/canteen/etc.? (1) 0% (All of my meals are homemade by myself or someone that I know.) (2) 25% (3) 50% (4) 75% (5) 100% (I eat all of my meals out at a restaurant/canteen, etc.)
! 102 Section 2: Urban Farming Design & Strategy FOR ALL OF THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS, PLEASE CHOOSE ONLY ONE RESPONSE. 7. Which of these sets of images is most appealing to you? A B AMONG THESE IMAGES, WHICH URBAN FARMING STRATEGY WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE IN SHANGHAI? 8. FIRST choice: 1 2 3 4 5 6 9. SECOND choice: 1 2 3 4 5 6 10. THIRD choice: 1 2 3 4 5 6 WHICH OF THESE URBAN FARMING STRATEGIES IS THE MOST 11. Practical/functional? 1 2 3 4 5 6 12. Impractical/non-functional? 1 2 3 4 5 6 13. aesthetically appealing? 1 2 3 4 5 6 14. aesthetically unappealing/ugly? 1 2 3 4 5 6 15. appealing for social life? 1 2 3 4 5 6 16. good for food safety? 1 2 3 4 5 6
! 103 Section 3: Opinions and Future of Urban Farming in Shanghai CHECK THE BOX THAT MOST ACCURATELY DESCRIBES YOUR POSITION ON THE STATEMENT. 17. Prior to taking this survey, I was already familiar with the concept of Urban Farming. 1 2 3 4 5 18. I would like to see more urban farming opportunities in Shanghai. 1 2 3 4 5 19. I think it is possible for Shanghai to accommodate more urban farming. 1 2 3 4 5 20. If I had all the resources that I needed, I would like to grow my own food. 1 2 3 4 5 21. It is important to me to consume locally grown food. 1 2 3 4 5 22. It is important to me to learn about where my food comes from and how it is farmed. 1 2 3 4 5 23. I would rather experience urban farming at a public park or plaza than grow food myself. 1 2 3 4 5 24. I would rather buy food from local urban farms than from unknown farms. 1 2 3 4 5 25. It is important for my children/grandchildren/future generations to learn about nature. 1 2 3 4 5 26. I think urban farming can help educate children and adults about nature. 1 2 3 4 5 27. I prefer to eat homemade meals than to eat out. 1 2 3 4 5 28. I would like to know about the farms where restaurants I eat at purchase their food. 1 2 3 4 5 FOR THE FOLLOWING QUESTION, YOU MAY CHECK MORE THAN ONE RESPONSE. 29. What do you think are the most important reasons, to include urban farming in future development of Shanghai parks, gardens, private, and public spaces? (1) To feed the population (2) To decrease transportation (3) To promote eating local food (4) To decrease use of chemicals (5) Promote healthy eating (6) Food security (7) Relaxation/therapy (8) Promote physical exercise (9) To create jobs (10) To decrease air/water pollution (11) For better quality produce (12) Increased aesthetic value (13) Promote socialization (14) Environmental education (15) No important reasons Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5
! 104 Section 4: Basic Information and Demographics 30. What is your gender? (1) Female (2) Male 31. What is your age? (1) Under 18 (2) 19 22 (3) 23 30 (4) 31 40 (5) 41 55 (6) Over 55 32. Did you grow up living in a rural landscape/environment and/or on a farm? (1) Yes (2) No (3) Not Sure 33. What Shanghai District do you live in now? (1) JingAn (2) Huangpu (3) Yangpu (4) Putuo (5) Xuhui (6) None of the above. 34. How many people live in your household? (1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 4 (5) More than 4 35. What is your role in your household? CHECK ALL THAT APPLY. (1) Parent (2) Child (3) Grandparent (4) Spouse (5) Roommate (6) Girlfriend/Boyfriend (7) Other 36. What is your monthly income? (1) Less than 1,000 (2) 1,000 3,000 (3) 3,000 5,000 (4) 5,000 7,000 (5) 7,000 9,000 (6) More than 9,000 37. What is your job/profession? ______________________________________________ Are you willing to offer your contact information for further interview? Yes. No. E-mail/QQ/telephone#/WeChat: ____________________________________________ If you have any comments, please share below or on the reverse of this page. Thank you!
! 105 Appendix B. Chinese Language Survey Atalya Kozak firstname.lastname@example.org 15618964395 email@example.com 21 65983044
! 106 1 2 1. (1) / (2) (3) (4) / (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) : ________________ _______ 2. (1) / (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) / (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) : ________________ ____ 3. ? ( ) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4. (1) _____________________________________________________ (2) ______________________________________________________ 5. (1) (2) 1 2 (3) 3 4 (4) 5 10 (5) 10 (6) N 6. (1) 0% ( ) (2) 25% (3) 50% (4) 75% (5) 100% ( )
! 107 | 7. A B 6 8. : 1 2 3 4 5 6 9. : 1 2 3 4 5 6 10. : 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 14. / 1 2 3 4 5 6 15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 16. 1 2 3 4 5 6
! 108 17. 1 2 3 4 5 18. 1 2 3 4 5 19. 1 2 3 4 5 20. 1 2 3 4 5 21. 1 2 3 4 5 22. 1 2 3 4 5 23. 1 2 3 4 5 24. 1 2 3 4 5 25. 1 2 3 4 5 26. 1 2 3 4 5 27. 1 2 3 4 5 28. 1 2 3 4 5 29. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) / (8) (9) (10) / (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) 1 2 3 4 5
! 109 30. (1) (2) 31. (1) 18 (2) 19 22 (3) 23 30 (4) 31 40 (5) 41 55 (6) 55 32. (1) (2) (3) 33. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 34. ? (1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 4 (5) 4 35. ? (1) (2) (3) (4) / (5) (6) / (7) 36. ? (1) 1,000 (2) 1,000 2,000 (3) 2,000 3,000 (4) 3,000 5,000 (5) 5,000 8,000 (6) 9,000 37. /? ______________________________________________ ! /QQ//: ____________________________________________ //
! 110 Appendix C. Sample Outreach Letter Atalya Kozak Sample Invitation Letter (For Expert Interviews) Hey Urban Farmer! Do you grow food at your home here in Shanghai? A pot of herbs in the window, some crops on the balcony, or on some small plot of land somewhere in this metropolis? I would love to speak with you about your experience. I am a Tongji University graduate student preparing research for my Landscape Architecture/Urban Planning master's thesis on the topic if urban farming here in Shanghai. I'm hoping to incorporate a mixed media component to complement my research. That's where you come in! WHAT: A quick visit to your garden, professional photographic documentation of you and your plants (if you allow it), and a few questions answered for a short interview. WHY: One goal of this component is to create an opportunity for Shanghai urban farmers to learn about what one another are doing. Why else? Because the stronger my research is the more likely it will be used as a design strategy tool to accommodate urban farming in the future development of Shanghai. And why else? You'll get to keep a copy of professional photographs of you and your garden! HOW LONG WILL THIS TAKE? Anywhere from 30 minutes to 2 hours if you allow it. It's up to you. Please help me out if you're interested! Feel free to forward my info to anyone you know who might be interested. The best way to contact me is: E-mail: AtalyaKozak@gmail.com WeChat ID: AtalyaK Cell: 15618964395 Sincerely, Atalya Kozak ***Please note that the reason I mention Tongji University in these letters and on the cover of the survey, as opposed to CU Denver, is because that is the local university. If people know that I am a Tongji student they will feel more comfortable participating in my research, as opposed to a foreign University that they are unfamiliar with.
! 111 Appendix D. Sample Expert Interview Questions Atalya Kozak Expert Interviews : Urban Farmers Question Sample 1. Can you tell about the first moment when you had the idea or felt inspired to grow food? What sparked your interest? 2. Describe your planting area, how large is it, how many plants, what plants, etc.? 3. Can you walk me through the process of growing your food? Tell me about the soils, the water, the fertilizers you use, methods, procedures, harvesting, etc.? 4. How often to you consume the food that you grow? (Do you like to cook?) 5. What are the challenges youve encountered in growing food? 6. Any special plans for the next growing season? 7. How do people react when they learn that you grow food in the city? 8. What is urban farming to you, and why is it important? 9. Is there a need for anything in particular here in Shanghai that could help the movement for urban farming grow and thrive? 10. Have you seen or heard of examples of urban farming in other cities across the globe that you think could work here in Shanghai? 11. What role can urban farming have in community, socialization, and public spaces in Shanghai? 12. Do you believe there is an aesthetic value to edible plants? (Talk about this.) a. Do you feel any sense of connection to the rural, agricultural landscape/any need or desire to preserve this? 13. What is your ideal vision for the future of urban farming in Shanghai? 14. What is your favorite part about growing your own food? 15. Can you think of a story of a most memorable or meaningful experience related to growing food in the City? AND?OR is there anything else that you want to share with me?
! 112 Appendix E. Produce Productivity