Citation
Photography in place experience

Material Information

Title:
Photography in place experience
Creator:
Frankel, Marjorie Mildred
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xvii, 87 leaves : illustrations ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Landscape photography -- Arizona -- Grand Canyon National Park ( lcsh )
Place (Philosophy) ( lcsh )
Travel photography -- Arizona -- Grand Canyon National Park ( lcsh )
Tourists -- Attitudes ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 69-87).
Thesis:
Landscape architecture
General Note:
Department of Landscape Architecture
Statement of Responsibility:
by Marjorie Mildred Frankel.

Record Information

Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
268659000 ( OCLC )
ocn268659000
Classification:
LD1193.A77 2008m F72 ( lcc )

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Full Text
PHOTOGRAPHY IN PLACE EXPERIENCE
by
Marjorie Mildred Frankel
B.A., Wellesley College, 2003
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Landscape Architecture
2008


This thesis for the Master of Landscape Architecture
degree by
Marjorie Mildred Frankel
has been approved
by
Ann Komara
Austin Allen
ol 2-5 -1-0 ?
Date


Frankel, Marjorie Mildred (Master of Landscape Architecture)
Photography in Place Experience
Thesis directed by Assistant Professor Joem Langhorst
ABSTRACT
What does landscape mean in modem contexts? This thesis investigated
attitudes towards landscape from the perspective of tourist photography. What role
does photography play in experience of place? Specifically, how do photographs of
iconic landscapes express attitudes towards place and self?
An experiment was carried out using the online photo-sharing community,
flickr. Participants were found using a search feature of the site that allows searches
of user-defined labels of photographs called tags. The Grand Canyon was identified
as the subject for this investigation of representation of place. Flickr members with
Grand Canyon photographs were contacted and asked to fill out an online survey
which asked questions about their use of the flickr site, activities at the Grand
Canyon, and were also asked to choose two to three photographs from their posted
photographs which accurately reflected their experience. The photographs provided
were used to analyze attitudes towards landscape as posed by the primary question of
the thesis.
The analysis showed a privileging of visual senses in the representation of
the Grand Canyon, suggesting the view's character as a commodity. Photographs
were grouped into categories based on content and secondarily, composition. These
groupings revealed common patterns of photographing the Grand Canyon that
suggest that tourists share similar preferences about the landscape of the Grand
Canyon. This thesis argues that these similarities are culturally constructed and
reflect commonly held attitudes about landscape. Further research is needed to test
these conclusions on other landscapes and time periods to establish a map of attitudes
and expectations towards landscape. This thesis argues that photography is a tool to
influence these attitudes and could be investigated further from other points such as
the production and distribution of photographs.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis. I recommend
its publication.
Signed


DEDICATION
to Eric, for his unending love and patience.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Joem Langhorst for his patience and guidance. Ann Komara for her initial
encouragement and insights throughout. Austin Allen for his feedback and
enthusiasm. Rori Knudtson, Neotha Meirath, Eric Miller, Ken Renaud, and
Christine Taniguchi, my fellow thesis students who provided the forum for insightful
conversations and support throughout the process. Especially thanks to Eric Miller
who made my thesis seem possible again by creating an online survey that allowed
me to collect more responses more easily. Thanks too to John Hunt, who was always
a good friend throughout graduate school and after, and has always encouraged me
to think outside the norm. Thanks to Elbe Solomon who made mysterious spaces go
away and helped me to understand the formatting of the document in InDesign.
Eric Merges for his loving support, patience, and willingness to leave town when I
needed the apartment to myself. As well editing the final document.
My family, Allen, Mildred, and Debbie Frankel for making me feel I can do anything
with my life and supporting me in my quest to find my passion.
Special thanks to all my new friends on flickr who enriched this project so much by
participating in the survey and generously allowing me access to their photographs
for research purposes.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Figures........................................................ix
Tables.......................................................xiii
Foreword......................................................xiv
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION.................................................1
Motivations from Landscape Architecture...................1
Context of Scholarship....................................4
Literature Review.........................................4
2. IMAGE AND PHILOSOPHY OF NATIONAL PARKS.........14
Meanings of Selection/Bias...............................14
Philosophy of the National Park Service..................15
Western Landscape Attitudes Derived from Painting........16
Traditions of Landscape Photography......................17
Sublime..................................................19
3. MEANING AND INTERPRETATION OF PHOTOGRAPHS...................21
Representation of Reality in Photography.................21
Framing..................................................23
Objects..................................................25
Life in the Digital Age..................................27
vi


4. ACQUIRING COLLECTIVE CONCEPTIONS
29
Photography on the Internet.................................29
Getting Specific............................................30
Methodology.................................................31
5. EVALUATING A COLLECTIVE IMAGE..................................33
Scale.......................................................35
Sublime.....................................................38
The Sum of the Parts........................................40
Sensorial Experience........................................42
Evidence of Human...........................................44
I Was There.................................................46
Mule Deer and Other Endearing Creatures.....................48
How I Got There.............................................50
6. IMAGES AS EVIDENCE OF RELATIONSHIP TO LANDSCAPE................52
Matrix......................................................52
Western Sky.................................................53
Imaging Generic.............................................53
Location....................................................54
Point of Focus..............................................55
Self-Reflective.............................................55
vii


7. CONTEXT OF THESE SNAPSHOTS AND CONCLUSION
57
Reflection on Links to Imaging Traditions...........57
Existence of the Sublime at the Grand Canyon........57
Making Strange Places Familiar and Owning a Place
Through Photography.................................58
Authenticity........................................62
Epilogue..................................................64
APPENDIX
A. CONSENT FORM...........................................65
B. QUESTIONNAIRE..........................................66
ENDNOTES........................................................68
THEMATIC BIBLIOGRAPHY...........................................69
REFERENCES......................................................79
viii


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
0.1 Marjorie Frankel, View of Colorado River................................xii
0.2 Marjorie Frankel, Bikes on Rim.......................................xvii
1.1 William Henry Jackson, Grand Canyon of the Colorado, 1870-1880 .........11
1.2 Ansel Adams, Grand Canyon from Yavapai Point, Grand Canyon National
Park, Arizona, 1942 ................................................12
1.3 John Ward, Desert View, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 1983 ......13
2.1 Thoman Moran, Chasm of the Colorado, 1873-74............................16
2.2 F. Petit after H. Bolton Jones from a photograph by John K. Hillers, Grand
Canyon of the Colorado, View from the Hance Trail, in Harpers vol.
LXXXII, Nov. 1890-April 1891........................................16
2.3 Arthur Wesley Dow, The Grand Canyon, c. 1911-1912......................16
3.1 Claude Glass, collection of the Victoria & Albert Museum................23
http://www.vam.ac.uk/images/image/5470-popup.html
3.2 The Reverend William Gilpin, View from the bank of a river.............23
3.3 Abelardo Morell, Camera Obscura Image of Bostons Old Custom House in a
Hotel Room, 1999....................................................24
http://www.vam.ac.uk/images/image/5548-popup.html
3.4 Underwood and Underwood, Thos. Moran, Americas Greatest Scenic Artist
from The Grand Cayon of Arizona: Through the Stereoscope, 1908.........
.24
5.1 Marc Gutierrez, A Desert View...........................................35
5.2 Benjamin Hayes, Grand Canyon from Bright Angel Trail...................36
5.3 Carina Saur, Cloud and Rift............................................36
IX


5.4 Meredith Missroon, #3752
36
5.5 Senthil Dharmarajan, Grand Canyon...........................................36
5.6 Moacir, Grand Canyon........................................................36
5.7 Bryn Jones, Grand Canyon...................................................37
5.8 Benjamin Hayes, Grand Canyon from Kaibab Trail.............................37
5.9 Lakshal Perera, The Grand Canyon...........................................37
5.10 Mariusz Jurgielewicz, Mother Point.........................................37
5.11 Tony Eckersley, Grand Canyon After the Storm...............................38
5.12 Tony Eckersley, HDR-Grand Canyon Lightning.................................39
5.13 Srinath Kashyap, Sunset at the Bottom of the Grand Canyon..................39
5.14 Jesse Varner, Sunset from Timp Point, Grand Canyon North Rim...............39
5.15 Matt Fetterley, Grand Canyon Snowstorm.....................................39
5.16 Shardul Rao, Grand Canyon..................................................39
5.17 Matt Ottosen, The Crazy Lithuanian.........................................40
5.18 Brian Knott, Havasu Falls..................................................41
5.19 Vincent Marchese, Grand Canyon Sept. 65....................................41
5.20 Matt Fetterley, Grand Canyon...............................................41
5.21 Christopher Byrd, Grand Canyon Rock Abstract...............................41
5.22 Juli Kearns, Tourists at the Grand Canyon..................................42
5.23 Alvin Pastrana, Summer Coolin.............................................43
5.24 James Mcardle, Grand Canyon Campfire.......................................43
x


5.25 James Mcardle, Canyon Sunbeam...........................................43
5.26 B. Jefferson Bolender, Watchtower: Striking Interior....................44
5.27 Meredith Missroon, Grand Canyon Tower...................................45
5.28 Louis Moore, People on Skywalk..........................................45
5.29 Mariusz Jurgielewicz, Skywalk...........................................45
5.30 Judy Baxter, The Chief..................................................45
5.31 Bruno Bollaert, Trail...................................................45
5.32 Louis Echeverii, Great Canyon...........................................46
5.33 Sheldon Shaw, Plane and Pilot to Grand Canyon South Rim.................47
5.34 Matthew Perkins, Grand Canyon...........................................47
5.35 Joel Gaff, Road Trip 6-18-05 Grand Canyon 048...........................47
5.36 David Willbanks, Grand Canyon Lookout...................................47
5.37 Ken Scott, Carolyn Overlooking the Colorado River, Grand Canyon.........47
5.38 Leo Koolhoven, Grand Canyon Deer........................................48
5.39 Robin Keefe, Squirrely..................................................49
5.40 Joe Heaphey, Crow at Grand Canyon.......................................49
5.41 Joe Heaphey, Prickly Pear at Grand Canyon...............................49
5.42 Andrew Miller, Grand Canyon.............................................49
5.43 Louis Moore, Raven Over the Canyon at Guano Point...................49
5.44 Robert Campbell, Road from North Rim Grand Canyon.......................50
5.45 Vlasta Juricek, South or North?.........................................51
xi


5.46 Tiffany Follett, The Great American Road Trip..............................51
5.47 Ivan McKinley, Grand Canyon by Helicopter..................................51
5.48 Denis Desmond, Crown Tour Bus..............................................51
5.49 Erik Peterson, Bertie at the Grand Canyon..................................51
xii


LIST OF TABLES
Table
6.1 Content category percentage distributions.................................52
6.2 Emphasis on sky and landscape by content category (percentages)...........53
6.3 Uniqueness of images by content category (percentages)....................54
6.4 Location of photographer (in relation to rim) by content category
(percentages)...........................................................54
6.5 Emphasis in picture plane by content category (percentages)...............55
6.6 Representation of humanity by content category (percentages)..............55
xiii


FOREWORD
My Journey in the Four Comers
In May of 2006 I set out on a road trip with my boyfriend to discover the
Southwest. We knew few things when we left Boulder, we didnt know what we
would see or where we would sleep, what we would do, or whom we would meet.
We simply knew the first day we could leave and when we needed to return. The
few things we consciously bought or brought beyond the requisite food and camping
gear are indicative of what we deemed essential for such a road trip. We bought a
topographic map of the Grand Canyon, a book on hiking the Grand Canyon, a travel
writers account of traveling in the high desert southwest, a general tourist guide book
for use in lodging and meal selection, and a topographic map of Zion. We brought
four cameras: two digital point-and-shoots, a medium format film camera, and a
35mm film camera, two bikes, and our backpacking gear. In fact, the absence of
planning in our case is an illustration of the freedom often associated with automobile
travel in the United States. A quick look at some classic American novels supports
this association: Jack Kerouac's On the Road, Nabikovs Lolita, and to a lesser extent
Steinbecks The Grapes of Wrath. Its no wonder that I didnt want to corrupt an
experience so associated with freedom and coming of age with plans. In many ways
our trip was like many others, motivated by a longing for adventure and discovery.
But most relevant for this thesis is the fact that we brought four cameras and were
both moved by our experience at the Grand Canyon in ways we couldn't predict
before going.
In the semester leading up to the trip, I took a class intended to help me
develop ideas for my thesis. I spent much of the semester exploring my various
interests and brainstorming how I could investigate them through a thesis in landscape
architecture. I have always been fascinated by others stories and the different ways
we experience the world and have been interested in photography for fifteen years
so I chose to combine the two into this thesis. At the end of the semester I knew I
wanted to look at the stories people told through their photographs of landscape and
said so in my proposal. However, the topic was so broad that I was at a loss for how
to make it actionable, as my professor said, and begin my research. It was at this
point in the thesis development that I embarked on the road trip not knowing it would
actually prove applicable to my academic work.
We arrived at the Grand Canyon about a third of the way through the road
trip having spent a great deal of time visiting the ruins of the ancient peoples of the
high desert southwest at Chaco and Mesa Verde. Before going to the park we spent a
night out of our tent in Flagstaff taking showers, doing laundry, and eating good food.
We knew for us an experience at the Grand Canyon meant going below the rim and
xiv


View of Colorado River
hiking to the river so the next morning we
went to a local outdoor store and inquired
how we could get a permit to do that. The
clerk looked at us as the lazy non planners
we were, told us we could maybe get one
if we were patient and lucked into one of
the permits reserved for walk-in hikers. He
strongly advised us to high-tail it out of
Flagstaff and gets ourselves on the wait list
for the next mornings walk-in slots. So
we left Flagstaff immediately after that and
went straight to the back country office at
the South Rim. We were given a piece of
paper with the number six on it and were
told to be at the office at 8 o'clock sharp the \
next morning for our first shot at a permit.
We were also told to strongly consider going to the North Rim after we checked
out the South Rim. The ranger who gave us the wait-list number talked about how
beautiful it was over there and how much more intimate the experience was as far
fewer people make the trek north. We filed the comments for later consideration.
That being taken care of, we went to the campground to see if we could find a spot to
spend the night. Luckily, we got one of the two spots left. Interestingly, we had yet
to see the Grand Canyon at this point. After setting up camp, we finally headed out
with our bikes to the rim road and to get our first glances of the canyon. We brought
two cameras with us for the occasion, the medium format film camera and the larger
of the two digital cameras.
Once we got to the rim road I remember that I was constantly searching for
a view of the river. I remember thinking that it was very beautiful but I couldnt get
a grasp on just how big it was or what it was really like down there from the rim.
We took a number of pictures, most of which werent particularly note worthy. I
remember the details of the experience more so than those of the physical landscape,
perhaps because I knew this was only my first meeting with the place. I remember
how friendly other people were and how surprised I was that people actually
approached and talked to us, something that very rarely happens back in Boulder.
This could be partly due to the fact that we were the only ones biking the road at
the time, and therefore stood out, and seemed like a harmless enough couple. In the
summer months, most people experience the rim according to the rhythm of the bus
that now runs along the road, stopping only at designated vantage points. There is
also a path that follows the road most of the way, separated by a bit of vegetation, but
the road is not short and most people looking to hike go into the canyon. Some people
walk between a few viewpoints but in general the visitor experience is dictated by the
rhythm of the bus. We biked as far as the first viewpoint that allowed views all the
XII


way to the bottom of the canyon and then hiked back to the top of Bright Angel Trail.
We did not want to be on the narrow, windy, pot-holed road in low light conditions
so we chose to leave the road prior to sunset. We found a rock and shared a snack
as sunset approached. We watched as a steady flow of hikers came up the Bright
Angel trail, watched as the sunset bus left for Yavapi Point, and just enjoyed the
atmosphere.
That night we hung out at our campsite and enjoyed the pleasure of a site
adjacent to the bathroom, which meant we got very little sleep. The next morning we
were at the back country office with a good margin. The ranger came out to talk to
us a little before 8 oclock and gave us an idea of what we were signing up for, what
sites were available in the coming days, and how the walk-in permit process worked.
Lucky for us, several people before us didnt show up on time and we were able to do
our ideal trip with only one day to hang out on the rim. We chose to go to the bottom
and spend one night there, at Bright Angel Campground, and another half-way up at
Indian Garden. The ranger gave us the permit and gave us some basic information
about backpacking in the Grand Canyon, recommending we bring a certain amount
of water, try to trim as much weight off our packs as possible, and think about renting
trekking poles to save our knees on the long descent. These were all very logical
recommendations but her last told me just how unique the Grand Canyon would be;
bring money. She told us to bring money with us as we may well want to spend it at
the bottom, because you might decide to buy a T-shirt or a lemonade. Its not every
day you go on a backpacking trip where you have the opportunity to buy a T-shirt
halfway through. Such is the odd combination of nature and human convenience
present at the Grand Canyon.
After securing our permit we booked another night at the campground and
then set out on a hike to Dripping Springs, a hike recommended to us by the ranger
we met the day before. In general it had been a particularly hot May but we lucked
out on a cloudy day, which left me wondering just how hot the next day would be
when we dropped the full 5,000 feet. I dont remember too many details from the
hike, it just felt like we were killing time until the main event the following day. The
wall at the spring was covered with maidens hair ferns that moved ever so slightly
as wind and water disrupted their tender leaves. And I remember the building at
Hermits rest, one of Mary Colters designs. There was a beautiful grand fireplace
inside where families sat relaxing. We bought a few postcards to send to our families.
After returning to the campground via the bus we paid a visit to the grocery store.
This store is not your average grocery store; its a grocery store, outdoor store and
souvenir shop all in one. At the campsite we cooked dinner and packed by head lamp
as we prepared for our adventure the following day. .
When at the Grand Canyon, life takes on a different schedule, always aimed at
avoiding the heat. So we woke at five and were on the bus to the trailhead by six with
many other hikers. When we arrived at the South Kaibab trailhead, I was nervous and
impressed by the magic of the upcoming experience. Beyond us there was a family
xvi


with suspiciously little gear, and a large
group of teenagers with small backpacks
and large sleeping bags, their gear strapped
everywhere possible to the outsides.
You may wonder, what came next,
what was it like to hike the Grand Canyon.
Or you may be bored and wondering when
the real thesis will begin. I could not
possibly describe what it was like there,
beside such a mighty river with a strip of sky|
above framed by the canyon walls. Instead pjgure 0 2
I will offer a few snippets of the experience, Bj| verbal snapshots if you will. I remember
the mule corral with the inside toilets, the last before the bottom of the canyon. I
remember the short, sprightly ranger with the dark beard who came bounding along
with one hiking pole and showed us dinosaur tracks. I remember the intense red
of one layer and how it transitions abruptly into another. I remember feeling as if I
were descending through time, through millions of years of history as I passed from
one layer to another. I remember the boys in black with little water that we gave
juice boxes, a few bars, and an extra liter of water, knowing it wasn't quite enough
but knowing it would help and that it was all we could afford. I remember the deep
blue-green of the Colorado. I remember sitting on the sandy beach next to the river
once the sun had left the canyon. I remember the wild turkey across the stream from
our campsite. I remember the flush toilets and the lemonade. I remember listening to
the ranger at the evening program and his tales of tragedy at the canyon. I remember
the feeling of community that night. I remember the pink rattlesnake the next day.
I remember constructing pools in the pipe-runoff creek. I remember watching the
sunset from the point and watching as the river below and rim above disappeared
into outlines of the night sky. No matter how cliched the Grand Canyon can seem
at times, it really is spectacular and almost indescribable both visually and verbally.
This thesis is a result of this trip and a desire to explore further its popular image.
xvn


CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
What does landscape mean in modern contexts? Is it as some have argued
recently, an entity far removed from that of humanity? Or is it something to be
subjugated, tamed and conformed to our value system? Or is it something defined
and constructed by humanity, which lacks meaning without us? This thesis will look
at landscape from a particular perspective, that of tourist photography. A tourist
photograph is a visual quotation of experience, scene, and cultural values. As such,
there is a specific pattern of reference for a given destination, the Grand Canyon,
which can be attributed to commonly held ideas about landscape. Most notably, the
perspective that landscape is something to be looked at and to be appreciated from a
visual standpoint. By definition, painting, photography, and all other two dimensional
art forms solely reference the visual world. The popularity of the snapshot points
to the preference of sight over other senses. Anne Spim talks about this affinity
towards sight in Landscape Architecture and Architecture, lamenting the exclusion of
attributes unaccounted for.
Architects and even many landscape architects persist in perceiving the landscape as a visual
setting for the built object, responding merely to the shape and color of hills, trees and flowers
within the landscape, as opposed to the processes that animate it. (Spim 39)
A photographer makes choices about what is included in a picture and how that
content is framed, but their choice of photography as a means of recording speaks
towards a belief in its ability to accurately document the content. This thesis
addresses these patterns in documentation and shows through its patterns a common
look at relationship to landscape. An experiment was carried out to further explore
these conceptions of landscape through flickr, an online photo-sharing and social
networking site. Photographs of the Grand Canyon were solicited from members.
While this methodology was highly specific, the insights provided speak beyond its
scope.
Motivations from Landscape Architecture
Because this thesis is a Landscape Architecture thesis it makes sense at
this time to site it within the discipline. Why and how is the representation of the
American West, specifically the Grand Canyon, relevant to the field of landscape
architecture? The ideas presented here are not about a new way to design landscape.
They do not point out a flaw in our approach to the manipulation of landform.
However, increasingly, Landscape Architects inhabit unique positions and hold the
ability to mediate the current dialogue on landscape. This thesis speaks to the role of
the profession to direct this dialogue and define the parameters of the discussion. It is


a dialogue held across disciplines that recognizes as central the relationship between
physical and social networks. Because landscape architects design space for people,
it is important to understand how these people experience and understand place.
To properly place this discussion within the discipline of landscape
architecture it is essential to establish the definitions of some seemingly common
words that have become highly contested in the field.
Landscape, as just intimated, is not the same as land, landmass, real estate, place, property,
countryside, terrain or. even, environment (wild, cultivated or built). Yet it is also more
than view, scene, vista, or prospect. Whether out there, in and of actual matter (such as
landforms, habitations, or civil engineering structures) or represented in visual or written
forms, landscape is a term that lies at the intersection of nature (itself a highly complex term
and not at all natural) and culture (again, one of the most important but contested terms we
have), and carries with it the notion of human intervention of some kind if only in the act
of representation itself. At the very least, it necessarily implies a viewer, and a viewer who
cannot but look with preconceptions; it inevitably links mind to matter. (Gidley 1)
This quote places the dialogue squarely within the intersection of nature and culture.
Gidley seems to argue that the act of representation is a type of human intervention.
He supports such a claim by pointing out that a representation implies an eventual
viewer and by definition connects ideas of the mind to the physicality of what is
portrayed. This speaks to one of the central principles of experimentation, that by the
very act of observing something the results have been altered and no longer reflect the
unobserved and now inaccessible state, a popular interpretation of Heisenbergs more
general observations in his uncertainty principle. Therefore, the photography, or
representation in other ways, of landscape is not an innocent act. It is one that places
values on previously valueless terrain, one that, while attempting in the tradition of
landscape photography to ignore the man behind the camera, can never really escape
his presence.
The depth and scope of this thesis suggests that it applies most specifically
to conceptions of western landscape. Some art critics have lamented that the genre
of western American art is limited in scope and relies heavily on the conventions
established initially by painting in the nineteenth century.
As long as the genre of western photography remains rooted not just in a particular style but
in a set of circumscribed topics, however, it will have a problematic relationship to western
life as well as to the larger art market. If we continue to imagine that western photography
must deal with the unpopulated and recognizably western landscape or with people who
by virtue of their ethnicity or profession seem descendants of nineteenth-century western
types, the genre cannot possibly address the complexity of contemporary life in the western
United States. Unless the genre can somehow embrace an expanded set of subject matter that
includes urbanism, consumer culture, and the enormous impact of immigration on current
western life, it will remain a fundamentally backward-looking sort of art with a limited
capability to address issues of current social interest, and it will reinforce popular ideas about
the West as a place shaped by frontier culture. (Hassrick 65)
The limitations placed on the representation of the American West are evident in this
researchers ability to classify the photographic documents of over a hundred separate
2


visitors to the Grand Canyon. Why are most of the photographs indistinguishable?
What is each of these photographers communicating to the viewer? For one, these
photographers are placing themselves within the context of Western art. The fact that
few photographers chose to share pictures of their old buses or pretty cars suggests
that for most visitors, these photographs do not fall within their preconceived
ideas of the representation of the west. The West is about John Wayne, sparse
landscapes, sublime beauty, the play of light, and the discovery of oneself. These
are all topics circumscribed by Western art and established by painters, writers, and
philosophers of the nineteenth century. This begs the question, what does this mean
for interpretations of Western landscape? And therefore, what do these interpretations
mean for landscape architects?
Landscape architects are the mediators in the dialogue between man and land.
We can use our profession to redefine, or reinforce, established connections to the
landscape. This thesis indicates that photography is the prevalent method for relating
to landscape and performing the intervention of representation. An intervention
which while seemingly innocent, in the context of Landscape Architecture is anything
but. What ultimately happens in a designed landscape is shaped by initial attitudes
towards a place formed through images and perpetuated by imagery collected and
referenced during the design process. But yet again we can ask why we, as landscape
architects care? Should we design landscapes specifically for photographers and
what would those look like? Initially, such a landscape would be like the picturesque
landscapes of England with ha-has and follies which attempted to guide visitor
experience through a sequence of views, a technique inspired by landscape painting.
So, actually, such a construction of experience has already been attempted. This
construction is no longer at the site scale but at the scale of designating what people
visit. This is perhaps why so many people only spend two days at the Grand Canyon.
It has become an experience framed in the context of a trip to the American West,
placed in sequence with other sites such as Mesa Verde, Chaco, Canyon de Chelly,
Yosemite, Death Valley, and others. This thesis suggests that current and historical
photographic representations of the American West can be classified into categories
based on intent and scale of experience conveyed. These representations are cyclical,
they are formed by previous exposure to a place or to types of places related to the
specific landscape in the mind of the photographer, and they in turn help to reinforce
this established image discourse. The job of a landscape architect is to analyze
what these frameworks mean and the role of the specific media in determining the
reception of an image. This thesis is proposing an organizational framework to aid
landscape architects in the understanding of a region and of a specific place, the
Grand Canyon. The results point towards an underlying discourse established long
before these tourists visited the Grand Canyon.
3


Context of Scholarship
The previous section established the relevance of this research for the
discipline of Landscape Architecture, but this thesis, like the discipline, is not self-
contained. Landscape Architects, for various reasons, among them a lack of critical
work1-1, look towards other disciplines to understand their own work and the world
they work within. Therefore, this thesis draws on numerous disciplines to establish
a critical analysis of tourist photography. Among these are Anthropology, Literary
Theory, Landscape Architectural Theory, Architectural Theory, American Studies,
Sociology, Photographic Theory, Film Theory, as well as physical (or digital)
products in representational disciplines such as Architecture, Landscape Architecture,
Photography, and Film. The investigation of these disciplines is structured around
mans relationship to and documentation of landscape. The section that follows
highlights the literature and representational work of note relevant to this study.
Literature Review
The approach of this thesis was highly influenced by a course focused on
the use of Reception theory to interpret landscape. Reception theory is a theory
developed for the criticism and interpretation of literature that has been adopted
by critics in Landscape Architecture. Its main premise is that the interpretation
of literature is not static, it is something which must take into account the cultural
frameworks for its moments of creation and reception, the so-called cultural
horizon. Therefore, a piece may have several interpretations dependant on the
cultural horizon of the reader. Such a framework can be applied to the interpretation
of landscape and art, after all it simply argues that these works are not culturally
isolated and demand that changing cultural knowledge be acknowledged. The
seminal work on in this area is Toward an Aesthetic of Reception: Theory and History
of Literature (1982) by Hans Robert Jauss. However this work is rather dense and
Holub offers a more readable version of the theory in Reception Theory: A Critical
Introduction (1984). John Dixon Hunt applied the theory to Landscape Architecture
in The Afterlife of Gardens (2004).
After establishing a framework for the interpretation of landscape through
imagery with Reception Theory, it is useful to look at the relevance of anthropology.
There is a great deal of work within the discipline that takes a critical perspective on
tourism. This literature implies that tourism is an activity with broad implications.
Critics argue that the activities and choices of tourists can be looked at as reflections
of the values of greater society. John Urry offers a compelling discussion of the
tourist in Consuming Places (1995). He describes a tourists gaze, emphasizing the
visual nature of tourist experience. The tourist gaze comes in two forms: collective
and romantic. In his discussion of tourism, Urry describes the demands of each type
of gaze and emphasizes insights into the consumptive nature of tourism, a concept
4


derived from economics. This thesis incorporates both forms of gaze at the Grand
Canyon. After all, the Grand Canyon is framed both from the perspective of the
solitary contemplative tourist and that of the collective of tourists looking together at
the sunset from a viewpoint.
The gaze is directed to features of landscape and townscape which separate them off from
everyday and routine experiences. Such aspects are viewed because they are taken to be in
some sense out-of-the-ordinary. The viewing of such tourist sights often involves different
forms of social patterning, with a much greater sensitivity to visual elements of landscape or
townscape than is normally found in everyday life. People linger over such a gaze which is
then visually objectified or captured through photographs, postcards, films, models, and so on.
These enable the gaze to be endlessly reproduced and recaptured. (Urry 133)
Urry frames tourism as a consumptive act that consumes the objects of the
gaze, including locals deemed part of the scenery and thus objectified. Other
articles informative in critical attitudes towards tourism include Malcom Cricks
Representation of International Tourism in the Social Sciences: Sun, Sex, Sights,
Savings, and Servility (1989) as well as Cathy Greenblats Temporary Strangers:
Travel and Tourism from a Sociological Perspective (1983). Common among this
literature is an emphasis on the consumptive nature of tourism and the perpetual
search for authenticity in experience.
Urry argues that the tourist gaze has increasingly become prevalent in the
everyday.
The way in which tourism has been historically separated from other activities, such as
shopping, sport, culture, architecture and so on, is dissolving. The result of such a process is
a universalizing of the tourist gaze. (Urry 140)
As such, it is informative as well to look towards critical writing on so-called ordinary
landscapes, of note in this area is D.W. Meinings The Interpretation of Ordinary
Landscapes: Geographical Essays (1979). Schwartz and Ryans Picturing Place:
Photography and the Geographical Imagination (2003), a compilation of essays on
the role of photography in forming ideas about place is informative in this respect.
Also of interest is Yi Fu Tuans Space and Place and J.B. Jacksons Landscape in
Sight (1997)
The field of landscape architecture is not entirely silent on the subject of
imaging and perception of landscape. Notable among theorists in the field is James
Corner who wrote the seminal essay, Representation and Landscape: Drawing
and Making in the Landscape Medium (1992), which addresses the relationship
of representation and action in and toward landscape. In his edited book of
essays, Recovering Landscape (1999), the essays speak to various levels of human
intervention in the landscape ranging from long-distance paths in the alps to highly
structured urban landscape such as those produced by Rem Koolhass's firm, OMA.
Central to the essays is a taking stock of relationships to landscape and principles for
engagement with the land by practitioners. This book is more useful for a general
grounding in landscape architectural theory but lacks direct relevance to this thesis.
John Stilgoes book, Landscape and Images (2005), which speaks specifically to
5


the imaging of landscape, its status as visual commodity, and a waning connection
between urbanites and the rhythms of landscape. Also of note is a volume edited
by Stuart Wrede and William Howard Adams in collaboration with the Museum of
Modem Art, Denatured Visions: Landscape and Culture in the Twentieth Century
(1991). The book is a result of a symposium in October 1998 of historians, scholars,
architects, landscape architects, and artists to address the issue of landscape in the
twentieth century.... [A] Long-ignored subject that needed to be assessed critically.
(Wrede 4) The essays look at landscape in the twentieth century from a variety of
disciplines and perspectives, incorporating historical landscapes and perspectives
where appropriate. One artists monograph of relevance to this discussion of
Landscape Architectural literature is Alan Wards American Designed Landscapes:
A Photographic Interpretation (1998), his photographs are some of the few which
really concentrate on the built work of Landscape Architects and other designers of
landscapes. While technically classified within the boundaries of American Studies,
the collection of essays in Mick Gidleys Modern American Landscapes (1995) is
particularly insightful in teasing out American conceptions of and relationships to
landscape. Of particular interest is Robert Lawson-Peebles essay entitled: American
Ideas of Landscape. There are of course more theoretical writings within the
discipline but the above are most useful in describing the framework of ideas about
landscape.
Central to the American visual relationship to landscape is the idea of the
sublime12. This is particularly relevant when talking about landscapes categorized
by Urry as objects of the consumptive romantic gaze. Most theoretical writing in
the topic is written from the perspective of literature or art critics. Among the more
accessible is Barbara Novaks article: American Landscape: Changing Concepts of
the Sublime (1972).
As this thesis concentrates on the Grand Canyon as specific landscape it was
informative to gain a broad understanding of the place. Unfortunately many books
found specifically about the Grand Canyon feel more like advertisements than sources
of critical understanding. One real exception to this is Mark Neumanns book, On
the Rim: Looking for the Grand Canyon (1999). Neumann spent numerous summers
at the Grand Canyon and his book is insightful on many levels about the meaning
of the Grand Canyon to the tourists that visit. He also includes a collection of his
own photographs of tourists he spoke to posing on the rim. It is well written and
entertaining and can not be recommended enough. Another book which provides
critical insight is Betty Leavengoods Grand Canyon Women: Lives Shaped by
Landscape (1999). Leavengood chronicles the lives of twenty-six women for
whom the Grand Canyon was central to their lives. These women range from a
young woman who came out to the Grand Canyon as part of a tour group from the
east coast doing the western grand tour and met her husband, to Mary Colter, the
architect who designed many of the famous buildings on the South Rim, to a river
runner. The perspectives offered and the range of women included are diverse and
6


informative in scope. The books specifically on the Grand Canyon are in general
rather disappointing unless one is interested in analyzing them for their representation
of the famous destination.
The theoretical writings on visual representation and communication are
highly relevant to this area of research as they provide a theoretical grounding for
the interpretation of two dimensional media. The seminal writings on representation
generally are Ways of Seeing (1973) and Patterns of Intention: On the Historical
Explanation of Pictures (1985) by John Berger and Michael Baxandall respectively.
Of note for communication theory is the work of Marshall McLuhan, oft cited with
the medium is the message.11 Despite his attempt in the above book to make his
philosophy of media more understandable, it is still useful to look to others who have
since interpreted McLuhans work for greater clarity, most notably John Moss in At
the Speed of Light There is Only Illumination: A Reappraisal of Marshall McLuhan
(2004). The author spent time reading literature specific to the changes brought
about by the internet but no specific work was found particularly relevant for this
thesis beyond background knowledge and thus is not cited in the references. Niklas
Luhmanns book, Art as a Social System (2000), has the interesting premise of using
Art as a means to analyze cultural framework and society. Luhmann describes the
intent thusly in the introduction:
Carrying this program in the realm of art requires theoretical models that cannot be extracted
from observing works of art and can be demonstrated in the communicative employment of
these works. Here we use distinctions in the communicative employment of these works.
Here we use distinctions such as system/environment, medium/form, first- and second-order
observation, self-reference and external reference, and above all the distinction between
psychic systems (systems of consciousness) and social systems (systems of communication);
none is meant to assist in judging or creating works of art. (Luhmann 3)
The above works collectively establish a framework for looking at visual art and at its
role within society of communication of knowledge and values.
Up until now we have been talking mainly about the theoretical, about
Americans relationship to landscape, about the role of tourism in consuming
landscape, and about specific relationships to landscape present at the Grand Canyon.
Now the discussion will move into a discussion on actual representational methods.
First of all, modem landscape photography is a derivation of landscape painting and
it is useful to first mention this tradition in any discussion of landscape photography.
The works mentioned in the references in this area concentrate for the most part
on the representation of the American west as that tradition has had the most direct
applications to the traditions of landscape photography. Thomas Moran was a famous
painter of the American West, hired by the Fred Harvey company to make a painting
of the Grand Canyon for promotional purposes. He also created famous paintings
of Niagara Falls, capturing the volume and power of the falls and advertising
their uniqueness to many. An examination of landscape painting of the American
West therefore includes a survey of his work. Gail Davidsons Frederick Edwin
Church, Winslow Homer, Thomas Moran, and Cooper-Hewitt Museum (2006) does
7


such a survey nicely. The catalogue for an exhibition at the Denver Art Museum,
Redrawing Boundaries: Perspectives on Western American Art (2007), provides a
broader overview of representations in drawing and painting of the Western United
States. Beyond exhibitions and overview books on specific western artists there are
some scholars who trace the connection between photography and painting through
contrast.
These works aim to distinguish the essential characteristics of the two
mediums and thus for the most part deal with topics revolving around the
representation of reality. Oft cited among these is Joel Snyder and Neil Walsh Allen's
article: Photography, Vision, and Representation (1975). Barbara Savedoff elaborates
on specific contrasts and explicates the differences between photography and painting
in Transforming Images: How Photography Complicates the Picture (2000). Martha
Rosier writes on the topic of representation, her work is compiled into Decoys
and Disruptions: Selected Writings. 1975-2001 (2004). These works overlap in
some respects with the seminal writings in photography which aim to explicate its
essential characteristics as a medium but more broadly or deeply than contrasting the
representations of reality in photography and painting/drawing.
Roland Barthes Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography (1981) is
essential reading for anyone venturing into photographic criticism. Susan Sontags
book, On Photography (1977), is useful in eliciting the readers opinions about
photography but leaves the reader at the start of their exploration of the medium.
Also of note for general photographic theory is David Finns How to Look at
Photographs: Reflections on the Art of Seeing (1994). A.D. Coleman wrote articles
for years in newspapers and magazines. Collections of his writing are informative
in tracking the evolution of photography in content, attitudes, and technology. He
collected his work specific to digital photography into: The Digital Evolution: Visual
Communication in the Electronic Age: Essays, Lectures and Interviews. 1967 1998
(1998). The collection is particularly interesting as it provides historical perspective
to what seems so prevalent now in terms of digital technologies in photography
and its distribution. Also of note for the analysis of photography in the digital
age is Hubertus von Amelunxens Photography after Photography: Memory and
Representation in the Digital Age (1996) which contains essays and images surveying
the so-called new age of photography.
The earlier discussion of writings in anthropology covered aspects of place
construction and conception. There are also some scholarly works which specifically
address the role of the photograph in creating place. These fall into two categories:
those which address social landscape and place and those which address the
portrayal of physical landscape. Within the social/cultural aspect, Louis Kaplans
American Exposures: Photography and Community in the Twentieth Century (2005)
offers a detailed look at the work of photographers whom Kaplan argues, have
created, defined, or clarified community through their work. Among these artists
is Pedro Meyer, discussed in relation to Latino community and Nan Golding who
8


made the documentation of her community on the fringe. Work in the realm of
snapshot and travel photography also touches on this definition of social landscape.
Deborah Chambers chapter in Schwartzs Picturing Place: Photography and the
Geographical Imagination (2003) is particularly insightful and argues that family
photo albums construct a particular landscape where family becomes place,. In
addition to Chambers excellent essay, the book as a whole is well worth looking at
and offers a number of well-written essays related to photography and place. Also,
the exhibition catalogue from The Art of the American Snapshot, 1888-1978: From
the Collection of Robert E. Jackson (2007) is extensive enough that it seems that
the catalogue is constructing a certain version of America from the collection of
snapshots. Snapshots, by their personal nature seem more apt at portraying social
aspects of America than those of professional photographers. As a result there are a
number of books which look seriously at the snapshot to offer insight into American
attitudes. In a similar manner travel literature, brochures, posters, and postcards
offer perspectives into American attitudes towards travel. John Margolies and Eric
Baker compiled a broad collection of travel brochures covering destinations across
the United States in See the USA: The Art of the American Travel Brochure (2000).
Morgan Hal and Andreas Brown offer a collection of American postcards in Prairie
Fires and Paper Moons: The American Photographic Postcard, 1900-1920 (1981).
Some postcards were distributed in bulk by professional photographers while others
were more personal in nature. One example is that taken of a boy before he went
to war and perhaps sent to his parents. While these more personal postcards were
sometimes made by professional photographers as well, they were made for that
person explicitly to send as a postcard. This distinction gives a specific intention
to all the photographs gathered in the book and provides a unique look at the early
twentieth century.
While snapshot photography and travel advertisements offer a certain
perspective on the American West, it is useful to familiarize oneself with the
professional photographs portraying the West. Landscape photography is not a
genre without moral dilemmas or political statements especially when photographers
portray the interaction between man and landscape. Estelle Jussim and Elizabeth
Lindquist-Cock offer a competent introduction to the genre in Landscape as
Photograph (1985).
But it is not merely preconceptions about the meanings of land and nature, but
preconceptions about what is appropriate to photograph that influences criticism of the genre.
Communications difficulties encumber even the task of finding a simple definition for the
term landscape. What, exactly, is a landscape? Is it a picture of wildness, or wilderness? Is
it an image of a certain dimension or color? Can it contain humans, animals, houses, ships?
Must a landscape always speak of beauty? Of solitude? Of rapture? Of poetic excess? Of
homely everyday things? Can a landscape be symbolic? If so. of what? (Jussim 10)
Also serving as a critical overview of photography of the American West is Sandy
Humes The Great West: Real/Ideal (1977). Some photographers portray the
romanticized West, among these Ansel Adams, John Ward, and Steve Mulligan.
9


These photographs are beautiful and speak most directly to the tradition of landscape
portrayal from landscape painting. Contemporary landscape photography has taken
on a more critical attitude towards its content as described in the book, Between Home
and Heaven, from the collection of the Consolidated Natural Gas Company (1992).
By the early 1980s it seemed unlikely that landscape photography could continue under the
guise it had assumed for most of the twentieth century. Almost overnight, a single view of
anything came to seem insufficient. The methods introduced by the New Topographers and
the RSP [Rephotographic Survey Project) proposed aesthetic revelations that could sometimes
reach beyond themselves towards areas of moral concern. The ordinary, simple act of
describing these landscape suddenly became loaded with responsibility. These developments
- along with the admission that a persistent romantic avowal, however dressed in the guise
of science, could still preside over a new American cultural landscape completely altered
contemporary notions about photography. (National Museum of American Art 44)
One photographer working in this part of the genre is John Ganis as demonstrated by
his work in Consuming the American Landscape (2003).
The rich collection of theoretical writings about film also informed this
research. Scott MacDonalds The Garden in the Machine: A Field Guide to
Independent Films About Place (2002) is notable in film theory writing. Scholars
who have written specifically about the representation of nature include Sean Cubitt
in Eco Media (2005) and Pat Brereton in Hollywood Utopia (2005).
This thesis takes experimental inquiry as its model and shows through a
collection of tourist photographs commonalities in representation of the Grand
Canyon. This thesis is structured to support and trace the results of this inquiry.
Chapter two establishes an understanding of the National Park Service through
a discussion of the sublime, landscape painting, landscape photography, and the
Services philosophy. This introduction to the Park Service is necessary to properly
place this thesis. As the study carried out focuses on the Grand Canyon it is
essential to establish what such a choice means for the general and specific case of
the conclusions. Chapter three discusses photography from a critical perspective,
specifically concentrating on the aspects of the medium which make it unique.
Chapter four follows with an introduction to the study carried out on flickr and a
discussion of the methodology. Chapter five includes a preliminary analysis of the
photographs, focusing on content. In chapter six, the results presented in chapter five
are placed in connection to each other and conclusions are made more extensively.
Chapter seven serves to connect the results of the study to traditions in photography
and ideas about landscape. This discussion is centered around critical attitudes
towards tourism and connects representational results with cultural attitudes. In
the epilogue, future directions for inquiry are proposed. The chapters which follow
explore a variety of disciplines with the aim to present the visual bias in attitudes
towards landscape and the support for such attitudes in representation in photography,
painting, and film.
10


Figure 1.1
Grand Canyon of the Colorado
11


Figure 1.2
Grand Canyon from Yavapai Point
12


Figure 1.3
Desert View, Grand Canyon National Park
13


CHAPTER 2: IMAGE AND PHILOSOPHY OF NATIONAL PARKS
Meanings of Selection/Bias
What is the image of the Grand Canyon? What do we think about it visually
and what does it mean to us? The naturalist Joseph Wood Krutch wrote about his
experience at the Grand Canyon.
On my first visit a fellow traveler took one look and then ran back to throw his arms around a
tree. When 1 saw him last, he was desperately resisting the efforts of two women companions
to pry him loose.
At first glance the spectacle seems to be too strange to be real. Because one has never seen
anything like it, it stuns the eye but cannot really hold the attention. For one thing, the scale is
too large to be credited. The Canyon is ten miles across from rim to rim... and almost exactly
a mile deep....
....Because we cannot relate ourselves to it, we remain outside, very much as we remain
outside the frame of a picture. (Gidley 23)
Krutch argues that the scale of the canyon makes it impossible to relate ourselves to
it while making the experience in a way less terrifying and more memorable. The
image of the Grand Canyon as icon or masterpiece is being contested, which is not
to say that the geologic wonder aspect of the park is changing. Instead its image
is being asked to adapt. What exactly is it, a masterpiece or a tourist attraction?
The traditional nineteenth century image seems incapable of admitting figures
or experience outside of those of solitary contemplation. Neumann frames his
description of the Grand Canyon from the perspective of the distinguishing locations
and activities which serve to uphold this nostalgic view.
Playing Chopin can be dangerous: it depends on where you sit at the piano. Sometimes you
can bend a branch so it does not break; its a matter of judgment and force. In the end, what
is at stake in all of these examples centers less on questions of damaging the environment and
protecting lives. If this were the case, the daily mule trains to Phantom Ranch would end; the
rivers would be free of spirited vacationers wanting to ride the rapids; the propellers on the
planes and helicopters flying over Grand Canyon would stop turning; and guardrails would
surround the canyon. What is really at stake is damaging a vision of the scene that remains
lodged in a nineteenth-century frame, a potential vandalizing of a masterpiece. (Neumann
299)
What then is the Grand Canyon for? Is it a place to fulfill fantasies from the
nineteenth century? A place that fails to recognize the disconnect between image
and place in the modem media? The Grand Canyon is iconic; it is not an ordinary
landscape and as such raises some questions about the applicability of research
conducted on it to any ideas about normal places. However, as the Grand Canyon
is so much a landscape out of the everyday, it is the embodiment of the essential aims
14


of tourism, to escape the everyday. Therefore the Grand Canyon has been chosen in
this research to show through its extremes, through its status, what the ideal tourist
landscape is. The argument being that its status points to common conceptions of
landscape and tourism which can be used to understand attitudes and imaging of
landscape in general. The perceived value of spectacular landscapes such as the
Grand Canyon triggered their designation of being worth of preservation. The park
service was founded to preserve these national treasures for future generations,
treasures immortalized by Ansel Adams in his photographs and John Muir in his
writing.
Philosophy of the National Park Service
"...to promote and regulate the use of the...national parks...which purpose is to conserve the
scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the
enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for
the enjoyment of future generations. National Park Service Organic Act. 16 U.S.C.l (http://
www.nps.gov/legacy/mission.html)
The mission statement of the United States Park Service places an emphasis
on preservation and portrays a hands-off relationship to the lands under its
supervision. This mission can be connected to the concept of the sublime discussed
in detail at the end of this chapter. Here the National Parks are seen almost as objects
of reverence whose appropriate experience is a visual one. The mission does not talk
about using the natural resources for other means as the Forest Service mission states.
Nearly every welcome sign to a National Forest contains the agencys motto: the land
of many uses. This difference has guided how both agencies manage their lands and
structure visitor experience. The National Parks have taken to heart the mission of
preservation and strive to alter the lands under their protection as little as possible
while still serving the mission of providing access. This has meant that the National
Park Service does not actively fight forests fires except when in areas with large
amounts of infrastructure, striving instead to maintain the natural ecosystems, which
often depend on fire for health and reproduction. In contrast, the forest service fights
most fires that occur on their lands, viewing their lands as monetary commodities.
The philosophy of the National Park Service is built on the concept of the sublime
and has exhibited this connection in the nature of the lands chosen for preservation
and on how visitor experience has historically been structured, emphasizing the
cultivation of a respect for nature through educational programs. This cultivation
of an appreciation of the sublime through the National Parks is exemplified by the
following description of a road atlas from the 1960s that aimed to establish a certain
preferred relationship between tourist and park.
I recall finding a 1967 Rand McNally guide in my parent's basement. Visiting the national
parks is truly an art, requiring time, training, patience, it said, echoing observers who stood
on the rim in 1899. Walking through a gallery, the man who has learned how to look at
pictures perceives deeper than eye level. He absorbs with his mind and senses; so, too. should
15


it be with national parks. But in all of the trips we took to
national parks during my childhood, I never recall my parents
taking such advice too seriously. My father bought the Rand
McNally for its road maps and lists of campgrounds. We knew
little about how to properly see works of art. but we could
sometimes feel the land stir our hearts and bodies nonetheless.
(Neumann 292)
Such an idea connects with conceptions of the sublime that
seemed to indicate that one could not understand landscape
properly without the cultivation of the appropriate moral
capacities. This is not to say, as the writer indicates in
the quote, that users of the atlas actually paid attention
to such aims to guide their experience. However, his
description of the land stirring their hearts and bodies points
to the sublime, a concept present even when supposedly
ignored. The National Parks have developed over the
years struggling more and more with providing access
while still preserving. However, the concept of the sublime
was central to the motivations behind their founding and
continues to influence the experience of parks through
staging of experience.21
Western Landscape Attitudes Derived from Painting
The specific reception of the sparse American wilderness
is rooted in the tradition of British romantic painting
and philosophy. This tradition setup a relationship of
reverence to the sublime landscape and established a
specific mode of interaction and preservation evident
today in photography, writing, and ideas about nature.
While such styles of painting and philosophy established
a baseline for representation of the West, it was a different
type of landscape than those encountered traditionally in
Europe. Exceptions to this were the landscapes of the
Alps and Scottish Highlands, the representation of which
is most directly correlated to early reactions to Western
American landscapes. Early travellers tried to compare the
scenery of the United States to that of Europe, lamenting
the lack of castles and cultural monuments. And unsure
how to deal with new demands of vast scale and landscape
as sole subject unmediated by picturesque old buildings.
Landscape became a retreat from urban America, presented
Figure 2.1
Thomas Moran, Chasm of
the Colorado
Figure 2.2
Grand Canyon of the
Colorado, .View from the
Hance Trail, in Harper's
vol. LXXXII
Figure 2.3
Arthur Wesley Dow, The
Grand Canyon
16


as a separate identity. J.M. W. Turner hinted at this separation when he spoke of the
closing of the frontier.
By externalizing their very personal reactions to the western landscape, essentially claiming
it as their own, tum-of-the-century American artists effectively made the West artistic by
aestheticizing western nature. Intertwining such trends as Impressionism, Tonalism, and
Pictorialism. they helped reify Turners thesis, making the West look like a timeless, sepia-
toned or strangely colored dreamworld that was closed off, distinct, and isolated from the
outside world, or from time itself. In effect, these artists shaped the West into an escape
from modem urban life. Thus, the end or the purpose of the frontier was to make the West
variously a refuge, a stage for nationalist heroics, or a place in which to reach a higher plane
of spirituality. (Neff 53)
Artists of the early West such as Thomas Morran and Albert Bierstadt set up an
aesthetic of the West as refuge which prevails today in attitudes and images of the
region. This work served to separate man from nature and establish a relationship of
reverence and spirituality to the vast landscapes of the West.
Traditions of Landscape Photography
The types of photographs tourists create and see are in large part influenced by
trends in the Fine Arts. This section will briefly describe the traditions in landscape
portrayal in the nineteenth century and contrast those with modem portrayals
produced after photography became widely used. For the most part this is a story of
the increasing celebration of details.
In the introduction to Ganis' book of photographs portraying the industrially
consumed American landscape, Robert Sobieszek argues that the changing artistic
visions have been constantly influenced and changed by shifting cultural and moral
values about the land itself. (Ganis 5) Therefore, he argues that the portrayal of
landscape is tied to the purpose deemed for the landscape object. In other words,
must everything serve a material purpose and be owned by someone? Such an
attitude motivated much of early photography. It was often sponsored by a railroad
hoped to profit from what the exploration team discovered and the photographer
documented. In such cases, the photographs (or paintings) became propaganda or
advertising for the sponsoring organization through the promotion of particular scenes
and types of landscape.
Another commonality in much of landscape painting and photography is
the absence of people. Why is this? This characteristic has been most influential
on tourist experience and expectation. The absence of the figure from European
landscape painting indicates a certain conception of landscape that is unfulfilled with
the portrayal of traces of humans in figures or structures portrayed. Mitchell defines
the landscape as an icon with this reasoning.
This is the landscape whose purification makes it innocent of all possible idolatry. The
idol, we suppose, must appear as a figure, a statue that surveys the landscape. The empty
17


landscape, the waste, or wilderness, or void, is an iconoclastic icon; it throws down the high
places and smashes the traces of aboriginal dwelling. (Mitchell 273)
So, what does this mean, what does this absence of the trace of humankind mean
for the landscape painting/photograph? In a way it allows each artist to pretend that
the landscape is indeed untamed wilderness untainted by previous users, artists, or
inhabitants.
In their different ways, though, the nineteenth-century survey photographs and the twentieth-
century western landscapes by photographers like Adams and Porter made a similar point
about life in the American West. The physical landscape existed as something apart from
human culture. It might be subdued by technology, despoiled by careless intruders, or saved
through thoughtful preservation, but it could still be encountered in a fundamentally pristine
state. This way of thinking erased the older Indian history of the region and underscored the
idea that the key dynamic of western American history lay in the physical encounter between
Euro-Americans and the environment. (Hassrick 6.3)
It gives each photograph a false sense of discovery of the grand vista. Such a
portrayal is also distinct from that discussed earlier which concentrated on the
material use of the land. In this case the landscape painting or photograph portrays
the use of the landscape in a more cerebral fashion suggesting a reverential and
solitary encounter between landscape and artists.
Some critics argue that the development of photography allowed painters
more freedom. Prior to the development of photography, painting was relied on
(along with other hand work like drawing and print making) as the sole means for
recording the world. With the development of photography, this burden shifted.
These landscape photographers of the nineteenth century, who were making the most of
the new art medium, discovered that when they pointed their cameras at spectacular natural
phenomena they could frame in their lenses wonderfully striking compositions. The
photographs they took are compelling not only because they captured the awesomeness of
their subjects, but because they found a way of looking at those subjects with a fresh eye.
Their approach was different from painters of famous places whose quest for verisimilitude
stifled their originality. The photographers of the nineteenth century were artists who were
liberated from the task of reproducing the wonders of nature their cameras did that for
them. They could concentrate their efforts on exploring the awe-inspiring scenes for striking
compositions that when captured on film would produce dramatic works of art. (Finn 102-
103)
Freed from the burden of replication due to the very definition of photography as a
copy of reality, portrayals of landscape evolved to produce unique representations.
Where previously painters had felt compelled to capture the entire awe-inspiring
scene, photography evolved to include more personal interpretations. This does
not mean that the desire to replicate does not exist in landscape photography.
Simply that there are two traditions in landscape portrayal relevant to this thesis:
the European landscape painting tradition which produced beautiful and sublime
representations and the evolving photographic tradition which no longer attempted to
capture everything in a scene, instead focusing on detail. As Diana Edkins expressed
Twentieth-century landscapes derive their meaning from the interior, the personal,
18


the subliminal rather than from the novel in the previously unseen. (Hume 43)
Both traditions of all encompassing, awe-inspiring landscape and personal, unique
landscape are reflected in historic and current portrayals of the Grand Canyon.
Sublime
One cannot talk about the Grand Canyon or the American West for that
matter without invoking the sublime. However, often the exact meaning of such a
description is unclear. What does it mean for something to be sublime? Sometimes
youll hear someone describe a really good dessert as sublime. Other times
someone could describe a view from a mountaintop as sublime. The meaning in
these uses is not so dissimilar and this section will establish what it means to invoke
the sublime.
The sublime has not always held the same meaning. When it was originally
conceptualized the term invoked a contrast to man. An experience of the sublime
could be scary and often emphasized the pure force of nature. A babbling brook
was not so much sublime as tranquil and quaint. However, the raging torrent of the
rapids of a creek invoked the sublime by its exhibition of the strength of nature. Kant
described the sublime as measureless. (Paulson 431) Kant's definition can be used to
explain this mans description of the sublime.
...overwhelmed with an emotion of the sublime such as I have rarely felt. It was not that the
jagged precipices were lofty, that the encircling woods were of the dimmest shade, or that the
waters were profoundly deep; but that over all, rocks, wood and water, brooded the spirit of
repose, and the silent energy of nature stirred the soul to its inmost depths. McCoubrey in
(Novak 40)
In this case the sublime was a powerful experience of silence. This original
conceptualization of the sublime required a certain degree of moral cultivation to
be appreciated. (Donougho 913) The literature establishes the sublime as distinct
from beautiful, a concept able to be more widely appreciated. Therefore, identifying
something as sublime required a gentleman with specific values2 2 and was not a
concept to be understood by the uninitiated.
With the popularization of art and culture in general, the concept of the
sublime has evolved to include more Christian implications. Therefore, the sublime
is no longer just talking about power, strength, the incomprehensible, or the contrast
with human scale. Now an experience as described by the writer above with the
powerful silence of nature is seen as a way to be in dialogue with God. This imbues
divinity throughout and tends to emphasize a solitary experience that can presumably
bring one closer to understanding God, deity, or higher force.
Such paintings, in eliminating any reminders of the artists intermediary presence, remove him
even from his role of interpreter. In their quiet tranquility, they reach above time and outside
of space. In this new concept of sublimity, oneness with Godhead is complete, and the influx
19


of the divine mind is no longer mediated by the theatrical trappings of the late eighteenth
century Gothic. (Novak 42)
However, despite this move to a more christianized definition, the sublime is
still about an appreciation of the infinite and incomprehensible. Conceptualizing
landscape from the perspective of the sublime implies a separation, mentally, between
man and land. The sublime moment for agency consists, presumably, in the dual
fact that the individual is finite and yet must acknowledge its potential to be infinite.
(Donougho 929) It suggests the appropriate way to interact with landscapes of
extremes such as the Grand Canyon, is one that allows for the appreciation of the
silent power of nature. This idea of how one should act has guided the founding of
the National Parks and continues to appear today in representations which emphasize
the scale and emptiness of the Grand Canyon.
20


CHAPTER 3: MEANING AND INTERPRETATION OF PHOTOGRAPHS
Representation of Reality in Photography
Photography has a special relationship to its subjects, which has historically
distinguished it from other mediums. Unlike painting where the artists hand is
the intermediary between the scene portrayed and the object created, photography
deceptively does not have such intermediary. Instead, a photograph directly records
reality through reception of light onto light-sensitive materials. Historically,
this unique relationship has meant that photography is sometimes inaccurately
characterized as completely truthful and as an accurate document of reality. Barbara
Savedoff argues that the lack of distinction between document and duplication in the
medium leads to a confusion about what is actually portrayed.
Nevertheless, we tend to conflate the separate concerns of documenting and duplicating when
we look at photographs, and this conflation allows our faith in the documentary character
of the photograph to be inappropriately transferred to the way things appear within the
photograph. When this occurs, we believe not only that a photograph gives evidence of an
objects existence, but also that is shows us how that object really looks. (Savedoff 193)
This trust of medium and representation is what distinguishes a photograph from a
painting. If a fantastical creature such as a unicorn were to appear in a painting this
would not seem to disturb our image of the medium or painting itself. However, if
something is pictured in a photograph, its existence is confirmed and an appearance
of impossible situations or things make the viewer question their understanding of the
medium and its relationship to reality. As a result, the common understanding of a
photograph often takes out the photographer out from control of the scene portrayed.
However, such a mental disconnect is not something that can be done without
consequences. A photograph, just as a painting, can portray objects and ideas which
do not really exist. If two people in a photograph appear to be at odds or completely
in love, that does not imply that such a relationship exists. Therefore, a photograph
can inaccurately portray reality.
Critics argue that this overconfidence in the relationship between a photograph
and the reality it portrays means that viewers have a different reaction to a photograph
of the same thing portrayed in a painting.
Because we readily think of paintings as constructions, we see the equivalences and
transformations they show as products of the artists imagination. On the other hand, because
we tend to think of photographs as objective records of the world, the phenomena they show,
no matter how surprising or disturbing, are not as easily dismissed as imaginative fictions.
(Savedoff 82)
Such a tradition of interpretation gives photographers a power and responsibility
that other artists do not share. Like Spidermans Uncle Ben said, with great power
21


comes great responsibility. This is not to equate superhero powers with the ability
to directly record reality but to emphasize the importance this reception plays in
how a scene pictured in a photograph and in another medium are interpreted. A
photographer has the power to define reality by what they show and exclude. As
the photographer Alan Ward describes, Photography is a process of editing out the
unessentials to make compelling images. (Ward, 126) So, the power to define reality
lies with the person behind the camera.
They |Joel Snyder and Neil Walsh Allen] deny that the photograph can be treated as a
reliable index of what was in front of the camera by describing the many ways in which
the photographic image diverges from what we see when we look at the world. These
divergences mean there is no one true picture of what is photographed, only various ways
of presenting the subject. The photographers choice of shutter speed, lens, and camera angle
will determine the look of the resulting image. It is because the photographer has this choice
and control that we can evaluate photographs as art. (Savedoff 49)
This recognition of the power of the photographer is why photography has come
to be regarded as art. In the beginning, a photograph was regarded as a simple
record and document of reality. Progressively, the role of the photographer in the
production of a photograph has been recognized as the role of artist. The portrait of
reality shown is in the control of the photographer and is thus a reflection of their
own mental interpretation. Seemingly simple adjustments such as shutter speed can
significantly affect the image and its message. A slow shutter speed for an action shot
will communicate the grace of movement. On the other hand, a fast shutter speed
will reveal a level of detail and a moment imperceptible to the eye. This mechanical
change affects the idea communicated by the image and emphasizes unique points of
view.
Photography is not only about the representation of reality but also the
privileging of the moment/object/landscape/person photographed. Ideas about
what is worthy of photographing have not always been the same. Roland Barthes
observes that initially photographers photographed the notable to create surprising
photographs. Now, photographers take what is known and show it differently.
The photograph becomes surprising when we do not know why it has been taken: what
motive and what interest is there in photographing a backlighted nude in a doorway, the front
of an old car in the grass, a freighter at the dock, two benches in a field, a womans buttocks
at a farmhouse window, an egg on a naked belly (photographs awarded prizes at a contest for
amateurs)? In an initial period, photography, in order to surprise, photographs the notable;
but soon, by a familiar reversal, it decrees notable whatever it photographs. The anything
whatever then becomes the sophisticated acme of value. (Barthes 34))
Barthes point speaks to what reality is presented. It seems that the predictable, the
once majestic sublime, might be categorized with the notable and force photographers
to find new ways of presenting the same place. Such a reversal is not unique to
photography, as will be discussed later in this thesis, as tourism also struggles with
the prioritization of place.
22


Framing
It is worthwhile to revisit a point earlier highlighted
by Alan Wards description of photography as a version of
editing reality. This framing is central to the understanding
of the photographers interaction with the camera and the
resulting representation. It is interesting that the concept of
framing to aid in the appreciation and understanding of the
reality before us existed before photography. For example,
an object called a Claude-glass was an aid to the tourist in
the strange and previously incomprehensible Eighteenth
century landscape of the wild.
In 1782, a century after Bumet, William Gilpin published
the first of his five volumes of Picturesque travels. The
picturesque, as its name suggests, was deeply indebted to
painting, specifically the work of such Italian painters as
Claude and Rosa. It mixed the Beautiful and the Sublime
in an attempt to achieve a painterly composition. Indeed,
it encouraged its 'Picturesque tourists to create their own
composition by viewing the scene through a Claude-glass, a
darkened mirror with beveled edges which, like the painter for
whom it was named, softened the contrasts of the scene but
which also, unlike Claude, reversed it. With the arrival of the
picturesque, it appeared that a complete language of terrestrial
description had been achieved. The dark corners of the Earth
may not have been vanquished, for people still distinguished
between civilization and savagery. But it seemed that savage
lands were now. at least, comprehensible. (Gidley 25)
While the result of a photograph is a physical object, it is
interesting to think that such a framing aid was suggested to
tourists in the eighteenth century. Painters at the time used
devices called the camera obscura to help them visualize
their paintings and render detailed architectural details.
This was essentially a simple camera without the ability to
record the projected image. The camera obscura is a box
with a small hole through which the image is projected,
sometimes with a lens at this end. The size of the device
can vary and sometimes, as in the case of figure 3.3, can
be made to take up an entire room. The device was also
used at tourist resorts before photography. Small pavilions
were sometimes built which allowed tourists to look at
a specific scene projected on the walls of the pavilion.
Figure 3.1
Example of a Claude glass
manufactured in England
during the 18th century.
To use the tool a person
was instructed to turn his
back to the object that
he views, suspend the
object by the upper part
of the case and look at the
reflected image.
Figure 3.2
Watercolor by the amateur
artist. Rev. William
Gilpin, the oval shape and
emphasis on tonal range
suggest the image was
produced using a Claude
glass.
23


framing and selecting a specific version of reality. Modem
photographers may find themselves thinking in a similar
manner, breaking up the world before them into framed
sections even when they do not have their camera. The
act of selecting the version of reality to record is powerful,
and as shown through the examples of the Claude glass and
the camera obscura, is an idea that has been in existence
in various ways for centuries. With the invention of
photographic processes, one persons version of reality
simply became more accessible to others in a seemingly
more direct way. This structuring of experience was
taken to another level with the popularity of stereoscopic
views in the late 19th to early 20th centuries. These were
photographs taken with a special camera to produce two,
slightly offset views of the same scene. When seen through
the special viewing devices the photographs constructed a
three-dimensional version of the scene pictured. As a result
the photographs seemed to transport the viewer and were
seen as a way to visit places. They also became popular
souvenirs.
By 1901, the firm Underwood and Underwood had produced
a boxed set of stereoviews of the Grand Canyon that included
detailed descriptions of the explorations of the geological
formations as well as a set of instructions for viewing the
cards. The map placed the armchair traveler along the rim
of the canyon (just as Thomas Moran is pictured here),
from which the views were photographed, and explained
the landmarks visible in each cone of vision [FIG. 29]. The
instructions reminded the viewer to place the stereoscope
close about the eyes in order to reduce the possibility of
distraction by peripheral light and objects. The intention was
to actually follow along in the footsteps of the photographer
and experience the sensation of the view. (Davidson 99)
Underwood and Underwoods views were precursors to
the modem slide-show where travellers would walk friends
and family through their vacation. Of course what the slide
show gained in personalized verbal commentary, it lost in
three dimensional qualities.
Some critics have discussed the areas where
photography and reality seem to represent different things.
One example of this seeming disconnect is the higher
level of detail visible in some photographs, especially
those using macro lenses and cropping. In these cases the
Figure 3.3
Abelardo Morell turned
his hotel room into a
camera obscura and
recorded the resultant
phenonmenon in an eight-
hour exposure using his
large-format camera.
Figure 3.4
Underwood & Underwood
Stereoscopic view of
Grand Canyon
24


photograph still represents reality, but a reality beyond that visible without the aid of
the photograph.
The selective framing and tonality of the photographic image permits a new image of the
world to be recorded. The right combination of negative, plate, lens and paper can produce
detail beyond what the unaided human eye can see. The compelling quality of this detail
not only changes our knowledge of the subject but also permits us to enter the picture as if
entering another world. Thus photography soon became a way of extending the viewers
experience of a selectively rendered and abstracted reality. (Hulick 419)
The views expressed in this quotation suggest a slight unease with photographic
representation. This impression is further developed when talking about phenomena
previously unobserved, such as how a horse gallops and verifiable only through
another photograph.
When Eadweard Muybridge succeeded in freezing rapid motion to settle a bet as to how
horses galloped- his results were met with dismay by artists, photographers, and the general
public alike as being 'unnatural' and untrue. This was not an expression of doubt in the
veracity of Muybridges results but, instead, a perception that the results lay outside of
common visual experience, and outside of the conventions of representation that obtained at
the time. People believed that horses might indeed gallop as Muybridge had photographed
them, but the proposition could only be confirmed by other photographs, not by direct
observation. (Snyder 156)
All this talk about photography and reality suggests that the resultant representation
of reality in a photograph is not a static and predictable entity. The photograph is the
photographer's interpretation of reality, of a specific object, of a person, of a place
constructed through manipulation of light, contrast, framing, and frozen physically
in the negative.
It is the light reflected by the objects and refracted by the lens which is the agent of the
process, not the physical objects themselves.'These physical objects do not have a single
image their image but, rather, the camera can manipulate the reflected light to create an
infinite number of images. An image is simply not a property which things naturally possess
in addition to possessing size and weight. The image is a crafted, not a natural, thing. (Snyder
151)
This thesis rests on this personal interpretation: the fact that the taking of a
photograph is an interpretation of reality no matter how much truth-value is attributed
to it. A photographer is not capturing an innate representational property; they are
constructing the representation. Therefore, the resultant photograph is a reflection,
most of all of the photographer and their ideas about a place, subject, and themselves.
Objects
Photographs, traditionally, have been objects to hold. Objects which are
representative of contents of the greater world. Roland Barthes relates photographs to
language and argues that it aspires to be a collection of signs speaking in a meaningful
way. However, as photography is constantly picking out for preservation particular
moments or people with seeming arbitrariness, it lacks the rigor of signs.11
25


This fatality (no photograph without something or someone) involves photography in the
vast disorder of objects this object, this moment, rather than some other? Photography is
unclassihable because there is no reason to mark this or that of its occurrences; it aspires,
perhaps, to become as crude, as certain, as noble as a sign, which would afford it access to the
dignity of a language: but for there to be a sign there must be a mark; deprived of a principle
of marking, photographs are signs which dont take, which turn, as milk does. Whatever it
grants to vision and whatever its manner, a photograph is always invisible: it is not it that we
see. (Barthes 6)
Barthes recognizes the photograph as a conveyance of other knowledge, other
images. When we look at a photograph we are not really looking at the photographic
object, at the thickness of the paper, the tone, etc. While these details may be noticed
occasionally, they are not what the photograph is about. Therefore the object status of
a photograph is gained from its relationship to reality in the content portrayed. There
are cases where this simplification of the object is not accurate, but this discussion
simply covers one aspect of such a definition. John Stilgoe elaborates further on the
connection between photograph and content, extending to irrational reluctance to the
destruction of photographic representations.
Yet. even in our contemporary technological society, Americans prove amazingly reluctant
to destroy photographs. Ask lovers to photograph each other with instant cameras and then
exchange the images. Next hand each an icepick and tell them to poke out the eyes on each
scrap of cardboard. Almost invariably revulsion stays their hands. The images are left whole.
The icepick might be a voodoo needle, the American citizens Haitian peasants. However
casually made, the snapshots acquire awesome potency as instantaneously as they slide from
the camera. (Stilgoe 260)
A photograph, because it is connected to reality, has a message and an existence
beyond the moment of its production. The photographs in our closets are links to
actual people and places left behind long-ago. They are also links to a version of us
that may no longer exist. We can look through the photographs and tell a story which
seems to allow access to the reality of the photographs. Couples hire photographers
to photograph their wedding so that they can experience the day, the people, and
their younger selves whenever they pull out the album. It is unclear what digital
photography means for this object status. After all, digital photographs are simply
collections of pixel values that make fleeting appearances on computer screens and
projections, and are sometimes printed. Does the image on the screen have the same
power as that which you hold in your hand? It seems some of its meaning is lost
in the translation to digital. Similar to the comparison between a letter written to a
lover and an e-mail; an e-mail may communicate the same ideas through words, a
letter offers a physical connection lacking in the digital environment, you can touch
the paper knowing that on the other end the writer held the same paper. Similarly,
a photograph is tangible; you can touch a little girl's hair and imagine what it
feels like. Perhaps some stroke their computer screens but it is not conventional.
It is unclear how this reverence and reluctance to destroy the photographic object
translates into the new digital era. After all, now a photograph can be destroyed
when the moment of its inception has just barely passed by choosing to delete the
26


file with the trash can button of the camera. Does this mean that the value of each
photograph has been reduced with the ease of creation or with the shear number of
images created?
Life in the Digital Age
Initially, the technical aspects of the process limited photography; the
slow speed of the film required subjects to sit still for long periods of time and the
delicate chemical process required immediate development. This meant certain
versions of reality were excluded from that portrayed in photographs. However,
as the process and technology has evolved, the possibilities have expanded. The
essential relationship between photographer and camera has not changed. Even
with new technologies, an understanding of the principles of light, time, and light-
sensitive material are still important to create successful photographs, images
that portray what the photographer sought to communicate. Digital technology has
again increased the possibilities and made it easier to share photographs with a larger
audience.
Just as computers have made it much easier to revise papers (there is no laborious retyping
of a whole manuscript to go through and no messy traces of cutting and pasting), computers
make it easier to revise a photograph and when something is easier to do, people do it with
more frequency and less thought. One can easily imagine the vain routinely doctoring their
photographs to take a few inches off their waists and add a few hairs to their heads. Or one
can imagine the newly divorced methodically deleting ex-spouses from their family pictures.
(Savedoff 202)
This is not to say that the biggest contribution going digital has had on photography is
making it easier to remove unwanted exes from pictures. But the implication that the
spouse was never there is one of the more important contributions.
In old-fashioned negative and print photography it was possible to manipulate
images, it was just harder and less accessible. In printing one could present a
relationship in light and shadow inaccurate to the reality it was derived from through
burning and dodging techniques. By burning an area of a print the printer was
able to lighten areas of a print and show details in the negative at a contrast that did
not accurately represent the range of light and dark in the scene. Similarly, dodging
is the purposeful darkening of an area. Some photographers merged realties in the
darkroom long before Photoshop made it possible to cut-out elements from different
images and combine them into a believable montage image. This process was
called sandwiching negatives and simply involved the simultaneous printing of two
negatives together in one enlarger. These are just some of the techniques available
to photographers in the traditional darkroom setting that allow manipulation of the
reality portrayed in the final image. In many ways Photoshop and other digital
imaging software have simply made these techniques accessible to more people
and thus increased the possibility to manipulate image for a greater number of
photographers.
27


When this thesis was begun, it seemed undeniable that the new digital
technologies meant a different relationship between photographer and landscape. If
one could take more pictures and distribute photographs to an audience previously
inaccessible, would alter the actual experience and how it was portrayed? Research
both in the relevant literature and in the empirical research performed, convinced this
author otherwise. However, digital technology has changed what a photograph is and
how it is interpreted.
Will future generations come to see the transformation of traditional photography the
apparent disjunctions of space, the defamiliarization of ordinary objects, the fortuitously
frozen moments as constructions of the photographer, rather than as revealing something
uncanny about our world? It is impossible to know for certain, but changes in the
expectations surrounding photographs, altering the kind of pleasure, and the kind of pain, that
photographs give. (Savedoff 209)
So, a photograph, in the future, may loose the implicit veracity of the reality it
portrays which will change how photography is received. That argument, while
rich and important, belongs in another thesis. This thesis is concerned with
how a landscape is portrayed by photographers and leaves off in its arguments
with the viewer. Thus, this thesis argues that, the changes caused by new digital
photographic technology have so far affected the reception and not production ends
of the spectrum. This does not mean that digital technology has not changed the
possibilities of production. But that as of yet it has not fundamentally changed the
interaction between a photographers intention and the resulting photograph. The
fundamental relationship between photographer and landscape or reality in general
has been preserved.
28


CHAPTER 4: ACQUIRING COLLECTIVE CONCEPTIONS
Photography on the Internet
For some insights into the new frontiers of photography on the internet lets
turn to Virginia Heffemans article in the New York Times about flickr. In the article,
Heffeman discusses the new aesthetic and rules of photography associated with flickr.
She argues that flickr is changing how photographers and their work are viewed. As
a result, photographers outside the gallery and museum circuit are able to gain the
notoriety and exposure outside of traditional venues. Heffeman argues that this has
created a new genre of photographs, the flickr photograph.
While pretty and even cute, these images are also often surreal and prurient, evoking the
unsettling paintings of de Chirico and Balthus, in which individual parts are beautiful and
formally rendered, but something is not quite right over all. Flickrs fantasy pictures, many of
the erotic (rather than sexy) portraits that have been forcibly manipulated with digital tricks,
stand in contrast to the rawer and grainier 35-millimeter photography thats still canonized by
august institutions like the International Center of Photography. (Heffeman 1)
But is the flickr photograph really a new genre? This is unclear. It has succeeded in
popularizing a type of photography that was explored by photographers such as Jerry
Uelsmann before digital photography. And a romance explored by photographers
of the Nineteenth century such as Julia Margaret Cameron. Cameron's photographs
are surreal in their beauty and treatment of subjects. Uelsmanns work is surreal
in the sense that the scenes portrayed often do not make sense. So, what is a flickr
photograph then? It is a photograph beyond reality, a photograph that takes the
world beyond itself by pushing contrasts, intensifying colors, and creating a new
interpretation of reality. One member whose photographs exhibit these qualities goes
by Merkley.
On his (Merkley) Flickr profile, he calls the classic film camera The Robot Camera Machine
and proposes digital processing as the antidote to films inhumanity. (Heffeman 3)
Perhaps the real flickr remained elusive in this survey because the methodology of
this research did not fully respect and understand the new medium. The researcher
did not find the evidence of the social network believed so central to the site. Maybe
thats because the methodology didnt use the construction of the site to access it in a
meaningful way. The results showed the site as one concerned with the formalisms of
photography but revealed little about the relationship between users. But maybe, as
Heffeman suggests in the article, the fault lay in not recognizing the uniqueness of the
new medium. This approach meant an inability to distinguish between the insights
of digital and analogue photography. If instead the site was accessed through its
unique network, through photographs highlighted in the interestingness section, the
29




i1
place through photograph*h,!a^h|IcttW Pe!>le COme ,0 know and experience
rerewor^on am^
,ame created a tool to allow gamers to share photos while playing and if lumed out to
e more fun than the game. So the game was scraped and flickr was bom.
Butterfield says flickr's biggest innovation came from recognizing the social nature of
photography. It s meant to be shared, talked about, pointed to, saved, archived and available
by as many means as possible, he says. (Graham)
Members of the site have individual pages which showcase their work in
a chronologically posted photo stream. However, because flickr is more than just
a place to post and store photos, other members can comment on photographs in a
number of ways. When a photograph is viewed individually there is a comments
section directly below the picture where other members can discuss the photograph.
Members that have something specific to say about a portion of the photograph can
also comment directly on the photograph with discrete tags which pop-up when
scrolled over. In order to allow photographs with similar atmbutes *
has a feature called tags. A photographer labels a
on, for example a
that photograph alo
nize groups along s which eo over roads, anomci u.. ...
been invited to group fiw-i ^ as they would in ffiekr and_.h=n

find that
nVl0t0&Vi\p^ ^ lCl The dynamics of the site were ,ear if they would be


. vjjas c veSoou

rOw' ,xv




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volume of comments used to judge the connection to the group, and recognized how
the dynamics help to shape the photographs, the findings might have been different.
Getting Specific
Of course, this research could have been approached from many directions;
the choice of this approach is the bias of the thesis. In this case, the research and data
on a specific place and in a specific distribution context are asked to represent broader
ideas. This author chose to focus on imagery of the Grand Canyon in the online
context of the photo-sharing site, flickr. The conclusions are necessarily limited
by the information provided by subjects. The subjects motivations for visiting are
unclear, while they were asked to provide specific activities they intended to do they
were not asked why they chose to go to the Grand Canyon at this time. As such
knowledge about the actual production of the photographs is limited and inferences
must be drawn from the knowledge that the photographs chosen were consciously put
up for public viewing on flickr and again chosen to represent their experience to this
researcher. Therefore, while this thesis aims to understand the moment of production
the methodology described below will point out its inabilities to do this and
emphasize why much of the conclusions and analysis center around the photographs
provided.
One could argue that the Grand Canyon is not a typical place. The Grand
Canyon is a unique place, broadly conceptualized in the public visual and textual
discourse, few people choose to go there without prior exposure to it. The
Grand Canyon was chosen as the physical object of this research because of its
iconic status4'. Which suggests that visitors to the Grand Canyon have common
expectations for their experience. While not all visitors to the park have the same
expectations, they have a range of common expectations set up both by their own
personalities and desires but also influenced by visual and textual portrayals in the
public domain. Many people probably are influenced in ways similar to this author.
I cant cite a specific reason I wanted to visit the Grand Canyon but I can
remember being exposed to it several times before my trip. In elementary school a
friend of mine went on a cross-country trip around the United States one summer and
when she returned to school in the fall, talked of the Grand Canyon. I also saw the
Brady Bunch episode that portrayed the family on a trip to the Grand Canyon though
I had forgotten that it had occurred at the Grand Canyon until I started doing research
for this thesis. In the 1990s National Geographic ran an article on a rafting expedition
in the Grand Canyon which I remember reading with great interest, and looking at
the pictures with even greater interest. My encounter with the park in the magazine
was probably the most influential in how I defined my expectations of my own Grand
Canyon experience. I was impressed by the beauty at the bottom of the Canyon and
the beauty of the river and wanted to experience being at the river myself. So when
30


I finally went in 2006 I knew I wanted to backpack to the bottom and experience the
Canyons true power.
This thesis is about understanding how people come to know and experience
a place through photographs so the subjects as a rule needed to use photography to
document and understand their lives. Flickr seemed capable of providing a source of
subjects. The site was created by Caterina Fake and Stewart Butterfield when they
were working on a game with a social networking focus. One of the engineers for the
game created a tool to allow gamers to share photos while playing and it turned out to
be more fun than the game. So the game was scraped and flickr was bom.
Butterfield says flickrs biggest innovation came from recognizing the social nature of
photography. Its meant to be shared, talked about, pointed to. saved, archived and available
by as many means as possible, he says. (Graham)
Members of the site have individual pages which showcase their work in
a chronologically posted photo stream. However, because flickr is more than just
a place to post and store photos, other members can comment on photographs in a
number of ways. When a photograph is viewed individually there is a comments
section directly below the picture where other members can discuss the photograph.
Members that have something specific to say about a portion of the photograph can
also comment directly on the photograph with discrete tags which pop-up when
scrolled over. In order to allow photographs with similar attributes to be found, flickr
has a feature called tags. A photographer labels a photograph with the tag Grand
Canyon, for example and as long as they make it public, anyone can search for and
find that photograph along with others also tagged Grand Canyon. Members also
organize groups along similar interests, for example, in recent days the author has
been invited to a group focused on bridges which go over roads, another on Spanish
horses, another where members tag real life objects as they would in flickr and then
photograph the real world to post on flickr, and another where members are supposed
to post an image per day. The dynamics of the site were intriguing and without
fully understanding the social networking focus, it was unclear if they would be
detectable in the survey. This thesis is therefore based on the particular collective
conception of the Grand Canyon that flickr members hold. Ideally the results would
be representative of the general photographing population, but before starting the
experiment the hypothesis was necessarily vague.
Methodology
Because flickr is an online community the data gathering was completely
electronic through an online survey that made it easier to gather and store responses.
As flickr is not a small site, it was necessary to develop a methodology for finding
participants. Attempting to take advantage of the social networking aspects of
the site, this author joined a few groups relevant to the Grand Canyon; Road Trip
America, Americas National Parks, and Travel Photography. However, only one
31


response came out of this method and it was abandoned. Instead, members were
directly solicited based on their appearance in searches for Grand Canyon tags.
Unfortunately this methodology excluded from participation users who had visited
the Grand Canyon but not posted photographs, users who had not tagged their work
with the operative words of Grand Canyon, and simply users who had never been
to the Grand Canyon. Appendix A and B include screen shots from the informed
consent form and survey. The purpose of the survey was to gain an understanding
of how people defined their own experience at the Grand Canyon through their
photography. To allow this, the end of the survey asked users to choose up to three
images from their photostreams to describe their experiences. The survey was able
to automatically search their photostream for tagged photographs from the Grand
Canyon and allow participants to link to the photos by clicking on the thumbnails
within the survey. These photographs were self-selected and produced visual
representations of experience.
In addition to this visual interpretation, the survey included questions intended
to provide context to the photographs and allow a more detailed understanding (see
Appendix A). Participants were asked about their motivations for joining flickr, how
long they had been a member, and to what extent they talked to other members about
travel, if at all. The answers to these questions provided a greater understanding
of how flickr worked in the context of this research. A primary concern dealt with
influences on an individuals expectations and the role flickr played in constructing
these expectations. In addition, the survey asked a series of questions about the
participants actual experience at the Grand Canyon. These questions were intended
to obtain a better understanding of the characteristics of the survey group. An early
expectation was that most people would report spending time at the rim as their
primary activity. However, if everyone had instead backpacked down to the river, the
photographs would likely have reflected this and the interpretations would be skewed
if there was an abnormality in reported activities. Participants were asked about their
length of stay, something that correlated to experience and reflected the length of
time participants believed sufficient to have the proscribed experience. In order to
understand how well photographs reflected their experience, participants were asked
to rate, on a scale of one to ten, how accurately their photographs described their
experience at the Grand Canyon. These questions were intended to give information
about the characteristics of the sample, as well as describe the experience portrayed
in the photographs collected. Each response was stored on a central server for the
length of the survey and incrementally imported into excel for data analysis. The
photographs were also downloaded at the end of the survey and printed to allow the
researcher to assess their collective meaning.
32


CHAPTER 5: EVALUATING A COLLECTIVE IMAGE
As the survey progressed and a sufficient number of responses were received
the assumptions and main argument of this thesis needed to be reconsidered. Initially,
when the author started work on the thesis, she was interested in what peoples
pictures say about them and what they are trying to remember, in the story of the
photograph about the individual moment, and what motivated people to take a picture
at specific moments. However, as work progressed, it became necessary to redirect
the focus of the research. As opposed to the moment of the photograph and the
moments leading up to the creation of the shot, the research began to concentrate on
the moments after the photograph was created. How the reproduction and distribution
of photographs affected their interpretation became important. Was it different to
see a photograph in a magazine or online as the result of a google search? Did it
matter that a photograph was the work of a professional photographer and labeled as
such when it was distributed? How had technology changed the types of landscape
photography produced? Did it matter that photographers were increasingly using
digital equipment? Did that mean that the essential characteristics of landscape
photographs had changed? Does how a photographer intends to share their work
inform the photographs at the production stage? As spring and summer progressed
into fall, the focus continued to shift. It became important to understand how the
imagery a tourist is exposed to prior to a visit affects the experiences they seek and
their memories with which they come away. It also became evident that there was
a discontinuity between landscape imagery that is produced and park experience.
Since textual and visual representation orchestrates the expectation, experience, and
memory of National Parks, understanding how this orchestration was working to
provide fulfilling experiences for park visitors was of interest. In December of 2007,
the essential question was identified as: How have new digital technologies altered
the relationship between intention and reception in photography? This is the question
that sparked the creation of the flickr the survey. However, as the survey progressed,
rather than answering the question, it became evident that the question was not being
addressed at all. It was the wrong question.
So, what was the right question? In order to find the right question it was
necessary to look at the answers provided by the survey results. The method chosen
to access these answers was through the photographs chosen by participants to typify
their experiences at the Grand Canyon. This was no small task as there were one
hundred and thirty three responses and each participant had identified one to three
photographs to describe their experience. It was a struggle to find meaning in so
many photographs digitally and was eventually ineffective. The next step was to
print all two hundred and ninety photographs, that seeing all the photographs together
would give insight into the meaning of the results. After laying all the photographs
33


on the floor of the living room, making sure to make paths to allow access to the room
and to the photographs, it was time to just let them lay there, time to live with the
photographs. After seeing the images all together, a pattern began to emerge. The
photographs did not all describe the same experience. Some had people standing,
smiling at the camera. Others were devoid of people or anything in the foreground
and concentrated on the broad expanse before the photographer. Still others pictured
cute little squirrels. These differences in experience represented the diverse ways
people experienced the Grand Canyon, and after the fact, what photographs spoke
to the memory of their experience. The chapters that follow are a discussion of the
categorizations which resulted and the experiences they typify.
This evolution in answer suggested an evolution in the question, and again
lead to a concentration on the production stage of the photograph. The photographs
were essential to understanding the role photography played in each participants
discovery of place. By concentrating on the production end of the photograph again
came acknowledgement that a photograph has as much, if not more to say about the
photographer than about the physicality of a place.
We know that even ordinary perception is a biologically and culturally mediated construct.
That is, our perceptions of the world will ultimately tell us more about our perception than
they will tell us of the world. Likewise, any photograph tells us more of photography than
of the subject represented and a body of work by an individual will inform us more of the
photographer per se than of photography. (Hume 120)
A group of individuals by implication is a collective. Therefore, the results can say
something about the collective of flickr photographers. What do they value about the
Grand Canyon? What experience do they feel is essential to their visit? What do they
value about travel? What do photographs do for them? What are the cultural views
of the Grand Canyon? What is our relationship to nature? Cultural conceptions of
the national parks were set up in the nineteenth century and determined the types of
landscapes, the United States identified with and wanted to preserve. These were for
the most part landscapes of extraordinary scale, landscapes deemed wild and pure.
The Grand Canyon is a place where people come because it is the iconic landscape of
the United States. It is beautiful, it is sparse, and it is waiting to be explored despite
all the individuals who have come before.
In part, our cultural views of Grand Canyon do not change because it remains under the eyes
of observers who sought to anchor themselves against the uncertainties of national identity
and the ambivalent atmosphere of change at the end of the nineteenth century. Their quest
was for culture, and that meant places like the Grand Canyon became the equivalents of great
artworks that were to be admired from a silent and contemplative distance.... The stuntman
driving over the edge and the tightrope walker ask us to celebrate the individual over the
canyon. But this role has typically been reserved for the scientist and the artist. (Neumann
298)
The following chapters explore the individual visual constructions of the Grand
Canyon, as derived from an analysis of photographs, and the role of photography in
facilitating experience.
34


Scale
Figure 5.1
A Desert View
35


For many, the most impressive aspect of the Grand
Canyon is its scale. It is a vertical mile from rim to river
and that's a long way. For many, viewing the canyon
from the rim is their only experience. This is a hands-off,
reverential view of the place. While the photographers
may appreciate nuances, these photographs are not about
the nuances of place. They attempt to, in one photograph,
show what the Grand Canyon is. They lack the specificity
afforded by foreground objects and place the photographer
within an indistinguishable collective experience. From
such a photograph it is evident that the photographer has
visited the Grand Canyon, however the photograph hardly
attests to anything else. The number of photographs
identified by the participants in this category attests to
the commonality of this experience, of the prevalence of
such a connection to the Grand Canyon. It also points to a
collective need to document this experience. The failure to
photograph this proscribed grand scale photograph might
be tantamount to not taking a picture at the summit of a
high peak, it is simply what you do. The largest percentage
of photographs, thirty-seven percent, fell into this category.
This could be attributable to how long people choose to
stay at the Grand Canyon. A shorter experience means that
it is harder for a visitor to become intimate with a landscape
so large. A longer experience implies a different set of
expectations, one that emphasizes individual experience
and self-discovery. The median length of a visit for the
survey participants was two days, hardly enough time to
become intimate with the Grand Canyon. Its hard to know
what these photographs mean to the photographers now
besides the fact that they believe the photographs typify
their experience at the Grand Canyon. Such photographs
are often taken among throngs of others also gazing over
the edge. However, the serenity of the photographs does
not belie this context. For all I as a viewer know, what it is
like to be at the Grand Canyon is to be all alone, pointing
my camera over the edge of the rim, contemplating the
expanse before me. Estelle Jussim expresses the sentiment
exhibited in these photographs, that the desire to present a
certain image of a Grand Canyon devoid of other tourists
who would only serve to mare the image.
Figure 5.2
Grand Canyon from
Bright Angel Trail
Figure 5.3
Cloud and Rift
Figure 5.5
Grand Canyon
Figure 5.6
Grand Canyon
36


Nature was a cathedral, not a dance hall. And certainly
humans used in photographs simply to provide a sense of scale
for all those impressive natural monuments were to be scorned
as measuring rods, hardly considered as ornaments in a work
of would-be art. (Jussim 31)
However, some photographers, attempting to communicate
the scale of the Grand Canyon choose to include
inconspicuous figures. These figures are not identifiable,
often appear in silhouette, and are very small in comparison
to the scene portrayed in the photograph. The inclusion
of human figures in this way supports a view of the Grand
Canyon as a place of reverence incomprehensible in scale.
Figure 5.7
Grand Canyon
Figure 5.8
Grand Canyon from
Kaibab Trail

Figure 5.9
The Grand Canyon
Figure 5.10
Mother Point
37


Sublime
Figure 5.11
Grand Canyon After the Storm
38


The second category of photographs to discuss
is that of photographs intended as objects of art. These
photographs have a higher instance of artistic license than
the previous category and tend to portray a version of
the Grand Canyon intended by the photographer. Their
existence conforms to the ideals of landscape photography,
portraying beautiful and sublime landscapes. However,
unlike the images chiefly concerned with scale, these
photographers are concerned with creating a beautiful
image. They strive to show the sublteties of the landscape
through variations in light and color. The photographer for
these photographs is as much concerned with showing the
Grand Canyon as displaying their skill as a photographer.
Walter Lippman describes this type of photograph.
There is, of course, some connection between the scene
outside and the mind through which we watch it... A man has
rarely looked at a landscape, let us say, except to examine its
possibilities for division into building lots, but he has seen a
number of landscapes hanging in the parlor. And from then
he has learned to think of a landscape as a rosy sunset, or as
a country road with a church steeple and a silver moon. One
day he goes to the country, and for hours he does not see
a single landscape. Then the sun goes down looking rosy.
At once he recognizes a landscape and exclaims that it is
beautiful. But two days later, when he tries to recall what
he saw, the odds are that he will remember chiefly some
landscape in a parlor. (Hume 8)
These photographs were plentiful, comprising twenty
percent of the photographs submitted. However they
were less abundant than the previous category, testifying
to their higher technical demands and need for planning.
The photographer needs to be at the correct place at the
correct time to document the landscape, which generally
seems to happen at sunrise and sunset. The beauty of these
photographs implies a common impression of the Grand
Canyon and a desire to show its variation in different light.
It also reveals a drive by flickr photographers to get that
shot.
Figure 5.12
HDR-Grand Canyon
Lightning
Figure 5.13
Sunset at the Bottom of
the Grand Canyon
Figure 5.14
Sunset from Timp Point.
Grand Canyon North Rim
Figure 5.15
Grand Canyon Snowstorm
39
Figure 5.16
Grand Canyon


The Sum of the Parts
Figure 5.17
The Crazy Lithuanian
40


Some would say that a camera is a way for a
photographer to explore the world. Imposing an aesthetic
to what they see and training them to notice things missed
by non-photographers. The photographs in this category
show a desire on the part of the photographers to discover
the Grand Canyon themselves through their photographs.
There are photographs of stone, of waterfalls, of specific
rock formations, of stately trees, all which serve to bring
detail into the experience of the Grand Canyon. No longer
are these photographers photographs like those of every
other tourist. Although in a place as visited as the Grand
Canyon some, admittedly that are of specific landmarks
start to look like others. Therefore, these images can
become as iconic as those that encompass the scale of the
canyon, just at a smaller scale.
These photographs show a level of experience that
suggests a certain degree of intimacy with the landscape.
They also suggest an integration of photography into
experience and can be seen as a tool for discovery. Sixteen
percent of the photographs fell into this category.
Figure 5.18
Havasu Falls
Figure 5.19
Grand Canyon Sept 65
Figure 5.20
Grand Canyon
Figure 5.21
Grand Canyon Rock
Abstract
41


Sensorial Experience
Figure 5.22
Tourists at the Grand Canyon
42


This category of photographs tells the story of a
trip. These photographers are concerned with what it is like
to be at the Grand Canyon, on their trip. The photographs
evoke specific moods and have the power to allow the
viewer to have a sensory experience beyond the visual of
the photographic object. Feeling the cool water of the
Colorado river as it splashes the rafters, the warmth of
the campfire, the camaraderie of hiking together are all
examples of the sensory experience. Their technique varies
but together they are able to convey the actual experience.
In other words, these images describe more than other
categories the immediate sensations of actually being at this
place in this moment and offering the explicit point-of-view
of the photographers. The photographers for this reason
probably chose these photographs because they were
able to bring back memories of the trip and the moments
captured on him. Nine percent of the photographs
collected fell into this category.
43
Figure 5.23
summer coolin'
Figure 5.24
Grand Canyon Campfire
Figure 5.25
Canyon Sunbeam


Evidence of Human
Figure 5.26
Watchtower: Striking Interior
44


Some photographers choose not to ignore the
influence and evidence of human presence on the
supposedly wild landscapes of our national parks. This
group of photographs documents the influence of humans
on Grand Canyon National Park. From the buildings of
Mary Colter, intended to evoke the spirit and architecture
of American Indians, to the trails which lay atop the
landscape of cliffs and rocks. These photographs portray
an experience that does not pretend to erase the fact that
millions of people have visited the same place you have,
and that people have influenced the landscape for nearly a
thousand years. These photographs make up seven percent
of those submitted, not necessarily an insignificant amount.
Figure 5.27
Grand Canyon Tower
Figure 5.28
People on Skywalk
Figure 5.30
The Chief
Figure 5.31
Trail
45


I Was There
Figure 5.32
Great Canyon
46


About five percent of the photographs collected
are prototypical snapshots, picturing a smiling individual
or group in front of the camera. These photographs
are relevant to the experience of the Grand Canyon in
illustrating the importance of these photographers of human
networks. Instead, they illustrate the importance to these
photographers of human networks. The photographs
evoke memories of the people pictured and characterize
the trip by its characters more than the landscape. This
number is most likely not an accurate reflection of the
number of photographs actually taken which fall into this
category. When asked why they joined flickr, sixty-one of
participants responded that they wanted to improve their
photography and get a forum for their work. Flickr is a
forum for serious amateur photographers and others, but
mostly it is focused on photography to a degree one would
not expect from a social networking site. Another reason
the numbers may not be entirely accurate is because many
of the photographers may be nervous about posting images
of their children on flickr or providing the license to publish
photographs of their children. This simply means that more
people may have submitted photographs in this category to
typify their experiences had the survey been conducted in a
different manner.
Figure 5.33
Plane and Pilot to Grand
Canyon South Rim
Figure 5.34
Grand Canyon
Figure 5.35
Road Trip 6-18-05 Grand
Canyon 048
Figure 5.36
Grand Canyon Lookout
Figure 5.37
Carolyn overlooking the
Colorado River, Grand
Canyon
47


Mule Deer and Other Endearing Creatures
Figure 5.38
Grand Canyon Deer
48


Another category of photographs received through
the survey were those of the unique, or not so unique,
wildlife and plant life of the Grand Canyon. The Grand
Canyon has a number of species that only exist in the park
and similar ecosystems bordering it. For example, there are
pink rattlesnakes at the Grand Canyon, the Grand Canyon
rattlesnake, a species many may have the good fortune
(or perhaps misfortune) of seeing in the campground at
Indian Garden. The North Rim has a unique squirrel; the
Kaibab Squirrel, named after the plateau that is its habitat.
For many, wild animals and the presence of plants define
nature. These photographs document an approach to the
Grand Canyon, not as a vast unfathomable chasm, but as
a beautiful example of nature populated by unique and
fascinating creatures. This experience is not very common,
or at least it is not common as a photograph that typifies
a visitors experience at the Grand Canyon as only three
percent of the photographs from this survey fall into the
category. However, wildlife is often part of the experience
of America's National Parks. Just think of the elk at Rocky
Mountain National Park, the Giant Sequoias at Sequoia,
and the deer and mountain goats at Olympic National Park.
49
Figure 5.39
Squirrely
Figure 5.40
Crow at Grand Canyon
Figure 5.41
Prickly Pear at Grand
Canyon
Figure 5.42
Grand Canyon
Figure 5.43
Raven over the Canyon at
Guano Point


How I Got Here
Figure 5.44
Road from North Rim Grand Canyon
50


Although, everyone uses some form of
transportation to arrive at the Grand Canyon, this category
of photographs, documenting transportation, was a very
small percentage of the photographs submitted, only
two percent. However, these photographs show a highly
personal side of the photographer's experience at the
Grand Canyon, and likely on a larger trip. The emotions
evoked in the images transport one to times of freedom
and images of the open road. American life is tied to
cars and transportation so its of no surprise that these
images appeared and were described by the photographers
as typifying their experiences. The small percentage of
photographs in this category might indicate a decreasing
connection to the American road trip experience or to
cars as central to identity. Cars are prevalent but may not
hold the same meaning they did historically. In order to
investigate this hypothesis it would be necessary to do
further research.
51
Figure 6.45
South or North?
Figure 6.46
The Great American Road
Trip
Figure 6.47
Grand Canyon by
Helicopter
Figure 6.48
Crown Tour Bus
Figure 6.49
Bertie at the Grand
Canyon


CHAPTER 6: IMAGES AS EVIDENCE OF RELATIONSHIP TO LANDSCAPE
Matrix
Table 6.1: Content category percentage distributions
Scale Sublime Parts Sensory Self- Reflective Posing Creatures Got There
Sky 1.9 11.9 0.0 4.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 14.3
Land 42.6 22.0 70.2 56.0 26.3 13.3 60.0 14.3
Both 55.6 66.1 29.8 40.0 73.7 86.7 30.0 71.4

Unique 19.4 33.9 46.8 64.0 89.5 73.3 60.0 57.1
Generic 80.6 66.1 53.2 36.0 10.5 26.7 40.0 42.9

Above 96.3 84.7 57.4 40.0 78.9 53.3 70.0 100.0
Below 3.7 15.5 42.6 60.0 21.1 46.7 30.0 0.0

Fore 12.0 1.7 21.3 32.0 31.6 66.7 80.0 71.4
Middle 45.4 35.6 61.7 56.0 57.9 33.3 20.0 28.6
Back 42.6 62.7 17.0 12.0 10.5 0.0 0.0 0.0

Human 25.0 15.3 21.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 30.0 100.0
None 75.0 84.7 78.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 70.0 0.0
After the previous chapter the conclusions of this thesis may seem overly
obvious. What does it mean that the photographs can be categorized based on
their content and that there are patterns sufficient to group images from disparate
photographers? This chapter aims to distill the meaning behind these categorizations,
arguing that the photographs can be approached with structural concepts. Therefore
this analysis looked at characteristics of the images such as framing choice, location
of subject, etc. that focused on characteristics of the photograph more than the place
it was taken. As has been stated earlier, this thesis aims to be applicable beyond an
analysis of the Grand Canyon. This chapter proposes a way in which photographs
can be approached to access attitudes and connect the content analysis to distill
inherent characteristics of each type of content. Such an analysis could be applied to
groups of photographs about disparate landscapes and could aid in distinguishing the
52


essential characteristics of each. This chapter will serve to introduce these concepts
of distinction and explicate their implications for the group of Grand Canyon
photographs collected.
Western Sky
Table 6.2: Emphasis on sky and landscape by content category (percentages)
Scale Sublime Parts Sensory Self- Reflective Posing Creatures Got There
Sky 1.9 11.9 0.0 4.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 14.3
Land 42.6 22.0 70.2 56.0 26.3 13.3 60.0 14.3
Both 55.6 66.1 29.8 40.0 73.7 86.7 30.0 71.4
The sky is a major part of common ideas of the west. Montana is Big Sky
Country, while an ad for a local Colorado ski/golf resort touts wide open spaces
as its big selling point given the motto's use with emphasized inflection at the end of
every commercial. This category could give really insightful, meaningful results if
compared to a group of photographs from another place. Without that the statements
lose some of their meaning from an inability to distinguish attitudes and images of
the Grand Canyon. The Grand Canyon is a vast landform and if one is standing on
the rim, an enormous hole surrounded by vast sky. As such, one would expect many
photographs which include sky or sky and landscape. The alternative is found only
if the camera is pointed down or the photographer is below the rim. Some slightly
startling results include the absence of the sky from photographs which portray
portions of the canyon, subjects (or friends) posing, and contents which show the
absence of humans. Some statistics of note are the relatively even distribution of
photographs in the scale category and the emphasis of Sensorial on land. If we
look at the data several categories lack an emphasis on sky to a point to which their
definitions almost seem to exclude it. This analysis of sky and land shows a general
leaning towards equal inclusion of both. However, it would be most informative
to apply this analysis to a range of other places and landscape to ascertain if this
distribution is normal or unique to the Grand Canyon.
53


Imaging Generic
Table 6.3: Uniqueness of images by content category (percentages)
Scale Sublime Parts Sensory Self- Reflective Posing Creatures Got There
Unique 19.4 33.9 46.8 64.0 89.5 73.3 60.0 57.1
Generic 80.6 66.1 53.2 36.0 10.5 26.7 40.0 42.9
What does it mean for a photograph to be generic? A succinct definition
seems elusive. The intention is to describe a photograph which does not seem to
duplicate preconceived views of the Grand Canyon. Merriam-Websters online
dictionary defines it as having no particularly distinctive quality or application.
Therefore, a generic photograph is one that lacks qualities which separate it from
other photographs. Therefore not all sunset or sunrise photographs are unique and as
a genre these photographs sometimes seem to feel repetitive. The categories which
most seemed to emphasize individual perspective were those focusing on aspects of
human interaction or experience or wildlife. Photographs falling within the Scale
and Sublime categories from the previous chapter, by virtue of a de-emphasis on
humanization lack this distinction between photographs.
Location
Table 6.4: Location of photographer (in relation to rim) by content category
(percentages)
Scale Sublime Parts Sensory Self- Reflective Posing Creatures Got There
Above 96.3 84.7 57.4 40.0 78.9 53.3 70.0 100.0
Below 3.7 15.5 42.6 60.0 21.1 46.7 30.0 0.0
Approximately one percent of visitors to the Grand Canyon venture below the
rim.6' This analysis offers an idea of which types of photographs tend to be taken
from above and below the rim. For example, no photographs classified as attempting
to convey the enormous scale of the Grand Canyon were taken from below the rim.
The reverse relationship was true though less polarized for photographs conveying
sensorial or experiential experience, for these sixty percent of the photographs
appeared to be taken below the rim. This grouping clarifies the meaning of the
categories in the previous chapter more than anything else, specifying where certain
photographs are and can be taken. In other situations the definition of location types
54


will be different. However, most objects or places have multiple ways in which they
are conventionally experienced and categories derived from these perspectives should
be informative.
Point of Focus
Table 6.5: Emphasis in picture plane by content category (percentages)
Scale Sublime Parts Sensory Self- Reflective Posing Creatures Got There
Fore 12.0 1.7 21.3 32.0 31.6 66.7 80.0 71.4
Middle 45.4 35.6 61.7 56.0 57.9 33.3 20.0 28.6
Back 42.6 62.7 17.0 12.0 10.5 0.0 0.0 0.0
What does it mean to focus on the foreground of a photograph? The
background? Or the middle ground? It speaks to the type of subject in an indirect
way. For instance, if youre taking a photograph of a friend you are unlikely to make
the background the focus of the picture. In this case, we arent talking specifically
about focus in terms of depth of field but instead mean where the weight or
emphasis of the picture lies. Is the photograph about a single subject (or subjects)
placed close to the camera or is it about something with no clear focus where the
focus of the picture seems to be everywhere and infinite. As with the previous
typology, this grouping describes from a different perspective the categories from
the previous chapter. Almost in a reverse way saying if a certain type of photograph
is the aim then certain conditions must be met, the photograph must be focused on
infinity and lack a distinct point of interest or must be focused on the foreground
or risk loosing the posing friend to the rest of the photograph. This section also
speaks to the earlier discussion about inclusion of land and sky. A photograph which
emphasizes the sky will not have its main focus on the foreground.
Self-Reflective
Table 6.6: Representation of humanity by content category (percentages)
Scale Sublime Parts Sensory Self- Reflective Posing Creatures Got There
Human 25.0 15.3 21.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 30.0 100.0
None 75.0 84.7 78.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 70.0 0.0
Initially this characteristic was named evidence of human. While this
remained the criteria for classification as having humans or no humans, the name
55


does not really reflect the meaning of the characteristic. The presence of humans or
evidence of their existence through buildings, objects, or trails, places the photograph
in the cadre of those which reflect on the human condition or in the cadre of those
who dismiss it. As the Grand Canyon is a place heavily constructed by man even the
photographs which aimed to convey the scale did not exclude human presence. This
presence was often that of a silhouetted figure, a distant figure, or a trail cutting across
portions of the landscape. Photographs of the Grand Canyon speak to the integration
of humans and landscape through the purposeful exclusion or inclusion of either.
The category most lacking in humans or their paraphernalia was that of the Sublime
photograph, speaking again to the ideas of the sublime as composed of solitude and
deafening silence.
56


CHAPTER 7: CONTEXT OF THESE SNAPSHOTS AND CONCLUSION
Reflection on Links to Imaging Traditions
After critically evaluating the photographs collected in the survey for this
research it seems clear that something is at work to produce such a distribution of
content and photographic structure. The photographs can be separated into those
which specifically use the conventions of landscape painting and photography as
well as images seen before, and those which aim to move away from such traditions
in order to uniquely experience and document place. As has been argued earlier, the
choice of inclusion and exclusion, framing, and emphasis of the picture plane are
all important decisions for the message of the photograph. Manipulation of these
characteristics takes an image from that of a generic version and to a unique version.
Traditions of landscape painting were about the appreciation of visual landscape from
a certain, safe distance. This tradition sometimes even seemed to exclude the artist's
attitudes or perspective, trying at best to exclude clues to a specific non-reproducible
moment. The landscapes pictured and photographed in this tradition derived from
the sublime emphasized a wildness and solitude. Osborne speaks of the meaning of
photography in constructing personal experience.
But the power of travel to induce the production of images holds a significance that goes
beyond the concerns of art photography and its public. The photographic image continues
to play the part in the extension and reinforcement of the global economy and culture it was
given at its inception. Yet, in alliance with types of travelling, it remains one of the means
of challenging this order. In a world squeezed into the cliche journeys and images which
disregard conventional itineraries and resemblances, which endlessly reinvent strangeness
and explore new territories of human connection, become indispensable for the continuous of
autonomous experience. In the traditions of modernism the traveller-photographer may seek
to emphasise the shocking and irreducible otherness' of the world and confront viewers with
the particularity of their own responses. (Osborne 193)
The results of the analysis for this thesis support the continued relevance for the
traditions established by Edmund Burke in his writing and the English landscape
painters of the Nineteenth century.
Existence of Sublime at Grand Canyon
The sublime, by some definitions, is perfectly described by the Grand
Canyon. Burkes category of the Sublime was based on the induction of pain and
was described using pain and fear. So, according to Burke a sublime landscape is
one which is not smooth, which is rough, difficult to see fully, or overwhelming in
strength or power. Finley describes how infinity ties to Burkes idea of the sublime
57


If darkness was an aspect of obscurity, then it served efficiently also as a component of
another cause of sublimity: 'privation. Burke believed that privation was characterized by
three other terrible components, 'vacuity', solitude, and silence. (Finley 143)
The Grand Canyon is seemingly infinite and part of the challenges in imaging it lie in
the inability to see its full extent from a single perspective. Similarly it elicits in some
an emotion of fear at the size of the chasm. As has been shown earlier in discussions
of the portrayal of landscape, the idea of the sublime is especially relevant.
If we look beyond the Grand Canyon to the general conceptions of the
American West the idea of the sublime continues to be relevant and point towards a
particular definition of national identity.
In Bowles (author of The Switzerland of America) mind, the Mountain of the Holy Cross
was yet another example of how Americans, faced with vistas lacking the layers of human
patina suggested by the castles and ruins of European antiquity, could derive continuity and a
sense of security from the West's majestic, sublime wilderness and its perceived timelessness.
American national identity had long been rooted in its landscape, which was promoted as
a New Eden. Following a tradition of penetrating the untouched places of the American
continent (one that disregarded the claims of the First Americans), Euro-Americans perceived
the West as the last bastion of cherished hopes and dreams of a peaceful and bountiful land.
Western lands were willed into sanctity and made sacred. (Neff 14)
The America is defined by its possession of untouched lands, by its vastness.
Therefore, the Grand Canyon is central to a sense of national identity which includes
these ideas of expansive space initially discussed by Burke in his introduction of the
concept of the sublime.
Making Strange Places Familiar and Owning a Place Through Photography
Why do people travel? What do individuals hope to accomplish by leaving
the familiarity of their own home? In common is a departure from normal routine.
Some seek experiences that challenge them physically and make them feel more
alive. Others choose to spend their vacations leisurely on the beach. Still others
choose to visit foreign countries and experience new cultures and landscapes. There
are many ways individuals choose to spend their two weeks or so of allotted vacation
time each year and these choices say a great deal about these individuals and culture
in general. This section will discuss travel in relationship to the representation
and description of landscape, but first will touch briefly on issues of the needs and
expectations specific to a traveler and connect these to ideas of authenticity and
consumption.
Many people travel to experience something out of their normal routine and
strive in their travels to broaden their experience. However, travel is not an innocent
exercise. A UNESCO report once stated that: Tourism....is life in parenthesis.
(Crick 332). Some may argue that this is not entirely the case. How one acts, what
one does, and how one responds to experiences while traveling say more about
a person and their culture71 than about the actual place itself. Crick expands on
58


this idea, asserting the naivete in the belief that a tourist can achieve an authentic
experience.
Tourism is very much about our culture, not about their culture or our desire to learn about
it. This explains the presence in guidebooks of sites and signs that have little genuine historic
or living connection to a culture but that exist simply as markers in the touristic universe. As
Barthes remarks perceptively, travel guidebooks are actually instruments of blindness. They
do not. in other words, tell one about another culture at all. (Crick 328)
So, what is tourism then? What does travel mean? Is it just about the tourist, our own
values and us? Its about the perspective we gain on ourselves from the experience.
The picture painted by Crick is pretty discouraging. According to Crick, all a tourist
does when traveling is perpetuate, in the style of old imperialism, their culture. While
we may strive for the authentic experience, we have no way to know what an actual
authentic experience is, after all the guidebooks just make us blind and our very
presence makes the experience inauthentic. Most tourists dont think of themselves as
bad people or of themselves in such a imperialist role.
While we may be uncomfortable with such a negative assessment of our own
motivations for travel, such a perspective is useful in analyzing the interaction of
tourist and landscape and broadly with unfamiliar cultural landscapes. As reluctant
as most would be to admit it, much of travel is about consumption. We may strive
not to exploit the places we go to and the cultures we visit, but nevertheless travel
is about the ownership of the place through personal experience of it, often an
interaction documented in image. Perhaps the insistence by some people that they
are not themselves tourists, is based on a desire to distance themselves from a group
of people they disapprove of, asserting a desire to be associated only with individuals
whose values they respect.
The satisfaction is derived not from the individual act of consumption but from the fact
that all sorts of other people are also consumers of the service and these people are deemed
appropriate to the particular consumption in question. (Urry 131)
Such a conception of tourism is often played out in an elitist manner. The people you
are satisfied to share your consumption with probably are of a similar socioeconomic
status and share your values. Some critics have observed that as a spot becomes more
popular the rich are likely to move on, seeing their private spot as polluted by less
well-off tourists who cannot afford the same level of experience. This observation
of the class-stratification of tourist locales is not highly relevant for this thesis and
therefore will not be further discussed.
After all, the Grand Canyon is a very well known place where few people
could realistically expect to only encounter people with similar values, with the
exception perhaps in lodging and restaurants. Part of the pleasure of visiting such
a place is often in the experience of meeting a variety of people, of becoming on
an equal plane by virtue of the locale. No matter who you are at the Grand Canyon
your experience is more affected by the amount of time you spend there than how
much money you make. Everyone wants to look over the rim and see the void that
59


is the Grand Canyon. And that means that the tourists who visit the Grand Canyon
can collectively be characterized as consumers of the landscape. So the purpose of
visiting the Grand Canyon is to have an experience outside of everyday experience,
after all there is only one true Grand Canyon and it cannot be said that youve seen
something similar, it is a sight unto itself. Urry talks about this consumption in the
context of the visual consumption, an idea he later describes as the gaze.
Central to tourist consumption then is to look individually or collectively upon aspects of
landscape or townscape which are distinctive, which signify an experience which contrasts
with everyday experience. (Urry 132)
Urrys discussion objectifies the object of the view, making the seemingly public
thing a view into something which is owned in a way. Through photography the
gaze is captured in photographs, postcards, films, models, and so on. These enable
the gaze to be endlessly reproduced. (Urry 133). The conflict occurs when the gaze
is one which cannot be shared with others. This goes back to the earlier discussion
of authenticity and searching for unique experience. The post-tourists may embrace
the kitche and the crowds, but the established conception of the Grand Canyon and
many other sites considered wild aligns much more with the inner experience of
the sublime. Like the Road Atlas described by Neumann, there is an established and
proper way to experience the Grand Canyon set up by the imagery which reproduced
this preferred, solitary gaze. Urry describes this type of gaze, the romantic tourist
gaze.
As a material good the mountain can be viewed for its grandeur, beauty and conformity to the
idealized Alpine horn. There is almost no limit to this good. No matter how many people are
looking at the mountain it still retains these qualities. However, the same mountain can be
viewed as a positional good, as a kind of shrine to nature, which individuals wish to enjoy in
solitude. There is then a romantic form of the tourist gaze, in which the emphasis is upon
solitude, privacy and a personal, semi-spiritual relationship with the object of the gaze. (Urry
137)
This, is the gaze most influential in forming expectations and experience at the Grand
Canyon. The reproduction of this gaze means that the landscape is often portrayed
without people who would otherwise intrude into the viewers romantic experience
of the landscape.
For the most part this research has ignored how expectations of experience are
constructed, arguing that the Grand Canyon is so prevalent in image, text, and general
knowledge that it is not possible to claim to trace the source of the expectations.
However, it can be argued that this prevalence frames the way visitors experience the
Grand Canyon in a way that is distinct from places less often portrayed in popular
culture. After all, the Grand Canyon often shows up in television adds for cars, is a
recognizable part of many movies, and has shown up multiple times in places like
National Geographic, The New York Times, and The Washington Post in the past
year. It has also been portrayed by famous painters and photographers like Ansel
Adams. As a result, Greenblat argues, the normal anxiety associated with travel to
strange places is reduced. She describes this in relation to Paris, the city of lights,
60


the city featured in An American in Paris and Amelie to name a couple that come
immediately to mind. As a result, someone visiting one of these places has known
landmarks already established which make the foreign place less unpredictable and
act to construct the experience.
Some aspects of potential unfamiliarity are in part reduced by the general media presentations.
For example, Paris will seem far more familiar than Madrid because more movies and
television shows have used it as their story location. Commercials and advertisements feature
the Arc de Triomphe, the Champs Elysees, the Eiffel Tower, and Notre Dame Cathedral.
These landmarks are part of the iconography of Paris and are the physical backdrop which
operates as the psychological organizer of the tourist experience, offering some comfort to
temporary strangers as they find something that they know.The question, What are we
going to do today? is answered in part by the existence of these known locations and the
sense of expectation met by visiting them." (Greenblat 102)
A similar thing has happened with the Grand Canyon. There are known landmarks
that construct the experience at the Park. Visitors frame their experience based on
Ansel Adams photographs from specific viewpoints, some seeking to replicate
the exact framing and perspective. The canyon is often portrayed in extraordinary
conditions like thunderstorms or sunrises and sunsets, therefore some visitors
construct their experience, and documentation of it, around these known portrayals.
Once on vacation, this framing of place continues to influence how the tourist
constructs and reproduces the experience. Joel Snyder describes an early connection
established between the car and photography around the time of the popularization of
the Kodak camera. He observes that: according to several magazine experts, using
a camera improved ones ability to see; by extrapolation, carrying a camera while
automobiling sharpened ones notice of beautiful rural landscapes. (Snyder 304) In
essence, Snyder is describing the camera as a way to better appreciate landscape,
the preferred method for observation. We can think back to the earlier discussion
of the Claude Glass and the camera obscura for context. The purposeful framing of
landscape is not a new thing and seems to be linked to a better appreciation. In all
these cases the landscape is moderated by something, by the reflection in the glass
that the eighteenth century traveler looked at instead of the landscape before them,
by the small hole which allowed light to pass and project onto the wall behind, and
by the mirrors of the camera which reflect several times the world before it reaches
the tourist's eye in the viewfinder. The camera is used at times to understand the
world (or the landscape), to break it down into smaller pieces and frame sections of
interest or relevance. In this way, the camera can be seen as a tool for exploring.
It is one way that someone can come to understand a place among others. Some
tourists choose to write journals chronicling their days, the scenery, the people,
and their thoughts. Others write letters home. Still others sketch. All are devices
to aid understanding and allow the tourists to explore in more depth the strange
surroundings. Finn discusses the role of photography in personalizing the experience.
The experience of personal discovery with a camera can be particularly rewarding when one
visits a famous site that has been photographed by millions of others, usually with a friend
61


or relative standing in the middle, to make a prized addition to a scrapbook. Postcards show
popular views that have become cliches, and when you see those views with your own eyes
you cant help but be as excited as everybody else by the mere fact of being there. But if you
wander away from the crowd and look around you through the camera lens, you may enjoy
the thrill of finding views that perhaps none of those millions of other sightseers ever saw.
(Finn 44)
Photography is part of tourism and plays a role in understanding landscape. The
imagery tourists are exposed to prior to visiting a place may influence photographers
to seek out their own classics by recreating a famous Ansel Adams shot, or
may prompt them to personalize their photographs, and thus their memory of the
experience, through more exploratory photography.
Authenticity
What is authentic? According to Merriam Webster's online dictionary,
authentic is: conforming to an original so as to reproduce essential features, as in
the reproduction of an image or object; made or done the same way as an original,
as in a traditional ceremonial dance; or not false or imitation, as in an experience
or handicraft. But how can something be authentic if observed from someone
outside the original experience or culture? Authenticity is unrealistically sought in
both representation of place and in actual experience. Such an attitude means that
manipulated photographs are taken outside the realm of accurate documents and
lose their truth value, classified instead now in the realm of art. It is the reason that
tourists baulk at calling themselves tourists. After all, they arent the loud obnoxious
people who seem to care little that they are in a new place with people that may judge
them and their culture based on their actions. No, they are the people who talk to the
locals, who strive to become part of the social network of the place, who appreciate
the beauty of the traditions and of place without alteration for their comfort. But is
this really authentic? Pretending that the separation between tourists and locals does
not exist is naive. The presence of a tourist does change the place, even the tourist in
search of the authentic experience. Maybe thats why some delight in the absurdity
of the loud tourist, of the tacky signs, the overly manipulated landscapes, and the
kitsch of gift shops.
It has recently been suggested that some tourists might best be described as post-tourists,
people who almost delight in inauthenticity. The post-tourist finds pleasure in the multitude
of games that can be played and knows that there is no authentic tourist experience. They
know that the apparently authentic fishing village could not exist without the income from
tourism or that the glossy brochure is a piece of pop culture. It is merely another game to be
played at. another pastiched surface feature of postmodern experience. (Urry 140)
Moss observes that authenticity has been applied in an odd way to photography and
that sometimes the artifact of the experience, the photograph, is regarded as more
authentic than the actual experience.
62


Time is a mathematical concept, a theoretical construction. Print is a method of encapsulating
fragments of consciousness and removing them from what we experience as the temporal
continuum. The past in print becomes more authentic in the reading mind than in the
personal past, which is encoded in memory and is empirically unstable. The present in print
is instantaneous, as in actual experience, but unlike actual experience it may be sustained for
perusal and returned to. again and again. (Moss 13)
The photograph is a record, seemingly of what actually happened, untainted by
human emotion and the frailty of memory. This view is consistent with earlier
discussion of the inherent trust of a photograph to accurately reproduce reality. And
perhaps the reason people take so many photographs is to retain the memory of the
authentic experience, to reproduce for themselves the event over and over, untainted
by the fragility of human memory.
The research undertaken in this thesis strongly suggests that amateur, touristic
photographs reveal attitudes toward iconic places, such as the Grand Canyon.
These attitudes have been evaluated through analysis of photographic content and
structure. This analysis shows a privileging of visual senses in representation of
the Grand Canyon. It also shows a common expectation of the actual experience
and representation of it. Though this thesis did not directly address expectations
for each individual prior to their visit, it did demonstrate the presence of such a
collective set of expectations. An examination of the results from the perspectives
of anthropologists, photography and film critics, landscape architects, architects,
and sociologists supports the assertion that this research reveals an essentially
visual, consumptive relationship to the Grand Canyon. Though this thesis focuses
solely on the Grand Canyon its conclusions can be applied beyond this single iconic
landscape to others within the National Parks. Further attempts to generalize will
need to be tested through further experiements in both empirical qualitative and
quantitative research for instance, attitudes to everyday landscapes. These iconic
landscapes have a specific purpose as an escape from everyday experience. However,
the decision to visit represents attitudes towards landscape present in the everyday.
Therefore a use of structural analysis of photographs for attributes specifically related
to framing and engagement with landscape appears promising to elicit such attitudes
in this different context.
63


EPILOGUE
This thesis concentrated on a single place, the Grand Canyon, and many of
the opportunities to further the ideas presented here are intended to establish how
photography explicitly of this place relates to others.
One option to extend this research includes a historical survey of photography
at the Grand Canyon. The survey conducted for this research sampled only a single
group, photographers on flickr, and a single moment in time. A historical survey
centered around the place could show changing (or unchanging) attitudes to the
Grand Canyon. In this study the photographs collectively portrayed a superficial,
one-dimensional Grand Canyon, a result which has been traced to attitudes about
landscape and wilderness. Nature has been described collectively as something to
appreciate and as a result it is not surprising how much photographs focus on this
activity. However these results are only connected historically through conjecture
supported by comparing professional photographs to those of flickr users.
Another question raised by discussions of influences on expectations is
that of the portrayal of the Grand Canyon in film. It would be possible to establish
expectations and attitudes towards landscape through an analysis of scenes involving
the Grand Canyon in film and television. Some starting points could be The Brady
Bunch, Thelma and Louise, and Grand Canyon.
A third direction for further exploration involves the use of the analysis
presented in chapter six to understand formalistically the content of photographs as
insight into attitudes towards landscape. Such an undertaking could aim to define the
distinction between imaging towards national parks and places in the everyday realm.
Such a study would need to be extensive in terms of scope of landscapes portrayed
in order to hope to develop distinguishing patterns. This researcher believes that
the Grand Canyon is distinct from everyday places, a factor in its popularity as
destination. Therefore, a distinction should be possible which characterizes the
differences between everyday and places tourists escape to.
This thesis has shown that imaging of the Grand Canyon is primarily done
in a way which privileges visual senses. Therefore, attitudes towards the Grand
Canyon often involve physical features which can be ascertained visually, such as
its size, despite the challenge in imaging it. As well, photographs which explicitly
reference humans are not the prevalent image produced as they serve to interrupt the
connection between viewer and landscape and remind the viewer of the intermediary
photographer.
64


APPENDIX A
Flickr Grand Canyon Survey
To participate in this survey, you must have a Flickr account and you must complete the following consent form:
Photographing Place Experience
participation form
By signing this form, I willingly choose to participate in this thesis prefect I understand that I will be interviewed by the researcher through an
online questionaire and asked to talk about my experiences in the flickr community and on my trip to the Grand Canyon In addition the
researcher may contact me through fhckrmail to clarify my answers or to ask follow-up questions
The study aims to understand the ways in which place, specific ally the Grand Canyon, is represented and received in the digital era The
researcher has chosen to focus on online photo sharing communities, believing that their contributions are specific to this era and have greatly
affected the main topic of interest, reception of place. I also understand that since this project is about representation, the research would
benefit from access to. and use of. a selection of my photography, which will be credited to me. unless requested otherwise The researcher
foresees minimal risk from participation associated with the sharing of personal experiences and the knowledge that the subject's photography
will be compared with that of other participants There is the risk that once published another person may chose to copy the photographs but
this risk does not exceed that of publishing work on the online community Digital files will be used solely by the researcher and will not be
distributed. Confidentiality of the subject will be protected to the extent desired, as some may wish to be credited for their photography
My signature indicates my willingness to participate In this study and I understand that participation is entirely voluntary I further understand
that I may withdraw from the study at any point and may ask questions of the researcher before, during, or after the study. I understand as
wed, that I may chose to consent to all or some of the conditions below and still participate
Name
By checking this box I consent to participation In this study through answering questions online
By checking this box I consent to the use of a selection of my photographs for research and analysis purposes.
By checking this box I consent to the use of a selection of my photographs for use in presentations related to the thesis
G By checking this box I consent to the use of a selection of my photographs for publication in a paper to be written at the
conclusion of the thesis The thesis will be stored at the school's library and used solely by university faculty, students and library
patrons and will not be published outside of the academic context specified here
By checking this box I consent to the use of a selection of my photographs for publication In academic journal articles.
By checking this box I consent to the use of my name for crediting the photographs when used for the uses consented above
Please print my name as follows
For questions about the project or participation contact the researcher. Marjorie Frankel. by email at flickr-surveyijloattemierf.com This
electronic form is considered your copy of this consent, please print or save it as you wish.
For questions about your rights as a research subject contact the HSRC Administrator. 1360 Lawrence Street. Suite 300, (303) 556-4060
Flickr ID or Username: £2J f
(1*9)


APPENDIX B
Flickr Grand Canyon Survey
66


11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
On vrtiaf you How long did you spend at the Grand Canyon?
Please tB us the nmber of days
What dMwinlmd how long you p*ntth*ra7
DM you U othor ptocoo on your Mp In aMlon to Sw Grand CanyonT
O y
O n
ym,twm?
Do you convoraa ragutariy wldi eckr manbon about tnvolT
O Y-
O No
Explain:
How much kiHuanca dH tha MofmoUon gafewd hom flckr Hava on your dadalons about wham to Uovali
acBvMaa. ale. during your moat meant ug>*otha Grand Canyon?
On a scale cd 1 to 10
How will do you believe your photographs of the Grand Canyon reflect your experience there?
On a scale of 1 to 10
Further sxptantlon or comments?
Please choose up to three photographs that illustrate your experience of the Grand Canyon. Below are a few
photographs from your Flickr account tagged with Grand Canyon. You may choose from these or paste in
the URL of any photo on the internet If your photograph Is not available through the internet please include
it as an attachment in an email to flickr-surveyffpattemleaf.com.
So te.my .Flisfr .oftoiaglrram,
Photo URL 1! M
Photo URL 2! ! in
Photo URL 31 i in
67


ENDNOTES
Chapter 1
1.1 See John Dixon Hunt: Greater
Perfections. University of Pennsylvania
Press, 2000 and The Garden as Cultural
Object in Denatured Visions
1.2 Actually, a large part of the
American Attitude deals with the idea of
a Middle Landscape, a place between
the wilderness discussed here and the
urbanized landscape of cities. See Leo
Marx's The Machine in the Garden for
more on this idea.
1.3 Actually this was a misprint and
the title of the book was actually printed
as the medium is the massage. McLu-
han believed the new title supported
the point of his book so he chose not to
change it.
Chapter 2
2.1 See Guy Debords Society of
Spectacle.
2.2 The idea that one must be of a
certain class and posses a specific set
of moral values is also present in art
criticism. Historically the appreciation of
art has been seen as a taste cultivated by
the economically and socially privileged.
Chapter 3
3.1 Continental and post-modern phi-
losophy argue that this problem applies to
signs as well. The relations between sig-
nifier and signified are highly influenced
by personal biases and preferences, and
connotations and denotations are negoti-
ated.
Chapter 4
4.1 Other parks which also fall into
this category are: Yellowstone, Yosemite,
Arches, and Niagara Falls.
Chapter 6
6.1 As reported by the ranger who
spoke at the evening program we
attended the night we slept at Bright
Angel. This number is simply the
number of people that went below the
rim in any capacity so the number that
actually camp (or stay in a cabin) is even
smaller.
Chapter 7
7.1 While it may seem natural for
me to speak of American culture here I
dont believe it is appropriate. Many of
the respondents to the survey were not
Americans and point towards a com-
mon understanding of the Grand Canyon
and landscape, which is peculiar to the
landscape of the American West but is
not restricted by culture. Some critics
have argued that there is now a global
youth culture of travel that transcends
national boundaries and points towards a
collective vision of travel by the twenty
somethings of wealthy nations.
68


THEMATIC BIBLIOGRAPHY
LITERARY THEORIES
Reception Theory
Holub, Robert C. Reception Theory : A
Critical Introduction. London ;
New York: Methuen, 1984.
Jauss, Hans Robert. Toward an Aesthetic
of Reception. Theory and History
of Literature ; V. 2. Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press,
1982.
Sublime
Donougho, Martin. Stages of the
Sublime in North America.
MLN 115, no. 5, Comparative
Literature Issue (2000): 909-40.
Finley, Gerald. The Genesis of Turner's
Landscape Sublime. Zeitschrift
fVor Kunstgeschichte 42. no. 2/3
(1979): 141-65.
Novak, Barbara. American Landscape:
Changing Concepts of the
Sublime. American Art Journal
4, no. 1 (1972): 36-42.
Paulson, Ronald. Versions of a Human
Sublime. New Literary History
16, no. 2, The Sublime and the
Beautiful: Reconsiderations
(1985): 427-37.
Photography as an aid for teaching
writing
Kligerman, Jack. Photography,
Perception, and Composition.
College Composition and
Communication 28, no. 2 (1977):
174-78.
GRAND CANYON
General
Babbitt, Bruce E. Grand Canyon an
Anthology : A Selection of
Outstanding Writings, lsted.
Flagstaff, Ariz.: Northland
Press, 1978.
Fleck, Richard F. A Colorado River
Reader. Salt Lake City University
of Utah Press, 2000.
Critical Perspectives
Neumann, Mark. On the Rim :
Looking for the Grand Canyon.
Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota Press, 1999.
Photography of the Grand Canyon
Lockwood, C. C. Beneath the Rim : A
Photographic Journey
through the Grand Canyon.
Baton Rouge: Louisiana State
University Press, 1996.
History of the Grand Canyon
Leavengood, Betty. Grand Canyon
Women : Lives Shaped by
69


Landscape. Boulder, Colo.: Pruett Norris, Scott. Discovered Country:
Pub. Co., 1999. Tourism and Survival in the
American West. Albuquerque,
ANTHROPOLOGICAL WRITINGS MN: Stone Ladder Press, 1994.
Tourism
Brameld, Theodore, and Midori
Matsuyama. Tourism as Cultural
Learning: Two Controversial
Case Studies in Educational
Anthropology. Washington,D.
C.: University Press of America,
1978.
Carll, Jennifer L. Cowboys, Indians, and
Wide-Open Spaces: German's
Image of the American West
and Its Impact on Tourism
Marketing. University of
Colorado, 1999.
Crick, Malcom. Representations of
International Tourism in the
Social Sciences: Sun, Sex, Sights,
Savings, and Servility. Annual
Review of Anthropology 18
(1989): 307-44.
Gomez, Arthur R. Quest for the Golden
Circle : The Four Comers and the
Metropolitan West. 1945-1970.
1st ed. Albuquerque: University
of New Mexico Press, 1994.
Greenblat, Cathy Stein, and John H.
Gagnon. Temporary Strangers:
Travel and Tourism from a
Sociological Perspective.
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PHOTOGRAPHY IN PLACE EXPERIENCE by Marjorie Mildred Frankel B.A., Wellesley College, 2003 A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Landscape Architecture 2008 r-1 ALl I ...............

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This thesis for the Master of Landscape Architecture degree by Marjorie Mildred Frankel has been approved by \J Joern Ann Komara Austin Allen olt.:s-Loo Date

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Frankel, Marjorie Mildred (Master of Landscape Architecture) Photography in Place Experience Thesis directed by Assistant Professor Joem Langhorst ABSTRACT What does landscape mean in modem contexts? This thesis investigated attitudes towards landscape from the perspective of tourist photography. What role does photography play in experience of place? Specifically, how do photographs of iconic landscapes express attitudes towards place and self? An experiment was carried out using the online photo-sharing community, flickr. Participants were found using a search feature of the site that allows searches of user-defined labels of photographs called tags. The Grand Canyon was identified as the subject for this investigation of representation of place. Flickr members with Grand Canyon photographs were contacted and asked to fill out an online survey which asked questions about their use of the flickr site, activities at the Grand Canyon, and were also asked to choose two to three photographs from their posted photographs which accurately reflected their experience. The photographs provided were used to analyze attitudes towards landscape as posed by the primary question of the thesis. The analysis showed a privileging of visual senses in the representation of the Grand Canyon, suggesting the view's character as a commodity. Photographs were grouped into categories based on content and secondarily, composition. These groupings revealed common patterns of photographing the Grand Canyon that suggest that tourists share similar preferences about the landscape of the Grand Canyon. This thesis argues that these similarities are culturally constructed and reflect commonly held attitudes about landscape. Further research is needed to test these conclusions on other landscapes and time periods to establish a map of attitudes and expectations towards landscape. This thesis argues that photography is a tool to influence these attitudes and could be investigated further from other points such as the production and distribution of photographs. This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I recommend its publication. Signed Joem Langhorst

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DEDICATION to Eric, for his unending love and patience.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Joem Langhorst for his patience and guidance. Ann Komara for her initial encouragement and insights throughout. Austin Allen for his feedback and enthusiasm. Rori Knudtson, Neotha Meirath, Eric Miller, Ken Renaud, and Christine Taniguchi, my fellow thesis students who provided the forum for insightful conversations and support throughout the process. Especially thanks to Eric Miller who made my thesis seem possible again by creating an online survey that allowed me to collect more responses more easily. Thanks too to John Hunt, who was always a good friend throughout graduate school and after, and has always encouraged me to think outside the norm. Thanks to Ellie Solomon who made mysterious spaces go away and helped me to understand the formatting of the document in InDesign. Eric Merges for his loving support patience, and willingness to leave town when I needed the apartment to myself. As well editing the final document. My family, Allen, Mildred, and Debbie Frankel for making me feel I can do anything with my life and supporting me in my quest to find my passion. Special thanks to all my new friends on flickr who enriched this project so much by participating in the survey and generously allowing me access to their photographs for research purposes

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Figures .............................................................................................................. ix Tables .............................................................................................................. xiii Foreword ......................................................................................................... xiv CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ I Motivations from Landscape Architecture ............................................. I Context of Scholarship .......................................................................... .4 Literature Review ................................................................................... 4 2. IMAGE AND PHILOSOPHY OF NATIONAL PARKS ............................ I4 Meanings of Selection/Bias ................................................................. l4 Philosophy of the National Park Service .............................................. IS Western Landscape Attitudes Derived from Painting .......................... I6 Traditions of Landscape Photography ................................................ 17 Sublime ................................................................................................ I9 3. MEANING AND INTERPRETATION OF PHOTOGRAPHS .................. 21 Representation of Reality in Photography ........................................... 21 Framing ................................................................................................ 23 Objects ................................................................................................. 25 Life in the Digital Age ........................................................................ 27 vi

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4. ACQUIRING COLLECTIVE CONCEPTIONS ......................................... 29 Photography on the Internet. ................................................................ 29 GettingSpecific ..................................................................................... 30 Methodology ........................................................................................ 31 5. EVALUATING A COLLECTIVE IMAGE ................................................. 33 Scale ... ... . ...... ....... ... ...... ........... ...... ................ .... ................................. 35 Sublime .............................................................. ... ............................... 38 The Sum of the Parts ............................................................................ 40 Sensorial Experience .......................................... ................................. 42 Evidence of Human ...... ............... .... ...... ........ ..... ................... ............. 44 I Was There ....................................... ... .................................... ... ......... 46 Mule Deer and Other Endearing Creatures ......................................... .48 Ho\v I Got There ............................ . ....... .......... . .... ................ ... .......... 50 6. IMAGES AS EVIDENCE OF RELATIONSHIP TO LANDSCAPE ......... 52 Matrix .................................. .................................. .......... ...... ... ......... 52 Western Sky .............. .... ............... .... ..................................................... 53 Imaging Generic ................................................ ... ................... ... .......... 53 Location ............................................................................................... 54 Point of Focus ............................. ... ....................................................... 55 Self-Reflective .................................................... ................................. 55 vii

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7. CONTEXT OF THESE SNAPSHOTS AND CONCLUSION ................... 57 Reflection on Links to Imaging Traditions ........................................... 57 Existence of the Sublime at the Grand Canyon .... ... .................. ... ........ 57 Making Strange Places Familiar and Owning a Place Through Photography . ........... ............ ..... .......... ........... ............. .... ...... 58 Authenticity ............ ... ................. ..... .................. ... ................. .... ........... 62 Epilogue .................. ... ........ ........ ...... ..... ....... ............................. .... .... .............. 64 APPENDIX A. CONSENT FORM ..................................................................................... 65 B. QUESTIONNAIRE ... ... .................... .. ...................... .... .............................. 66 ENDNOTES ................. ......... ..... .......... ........................................................................ 68 THEMATIC BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................. 69 REFERENCES ............................. ....... ............. ...... . ............ ... ..................... ......... ....... 79 viii

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 0.1 Marjorie Frankel, View of Colorado River ........................................................... xii 0.2 Marjorie Frankel, Bikes on Rim ......................................................................... xvii 1.1 William Henry Jackson, Grand Canyon of the Colorado, 1870-1880 ................ II 1.2 Ansel Adams, Grand Canyon from Yavapai Point, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 1942 ......................................................................................... 12 1.3 John Ward, Desert View, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 1983 .............. 13 2.1 Thoman Moran, Chasm of the Colorado, 1873-7 4 ............................................... 16 2.2 F. Petit after H. Bolton Jones from a photograph by John K. Hillers, Grand Canyon of the Colorado, View from the Hance Trail, in Harper's vol. LXXXII, Nov. 1890-April 1891 ...................................................................... 16 2.3 Arthur Wesley Dow, The Grand Canyon, c. 1911-1912 ........................................ 16 3.1 Claude Glass, collection of the Victoria & Albert Museum .................................. 23 http://www. vam .ac. uk/i mages/image/54 70-popup. html 3.2 The Reverend William Gilpin, View from the bank of a river .............................. 23 3.3 Abelardo Morell, Camera Obscura Image of Boston's Old Custom House in a Hotel Room, 1999 ........................................................................................... 24 http://www. vam.ac. uk/images/image/5548-popup.html 3.4 Underwood and Underwood, 'Thos. Moran, America's Greatest Scenic Artist' from The Grand Cayon of Arizona: Through the Stereoscope, 1908 ................. . 24 5.1 Marc Gutierrez, A Desert View ............................................................................. 35 5.2 Benjamin Hayes, Grand Canyon from Bright Angel Trail... ................................. 36 5.3 Carina Saur, Cloud and Rift.. ................................................................................ 36 IX

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5.4 Meredith Missroon, #3752 .................................................................................... 36 5.5 Senthil Dharmarajan, Grand Canyon .................................................................... 36 5.6 Moacir, Grand Canyon ........................................................................................... 36 5. 7 Bryn Jones, Grand Canyon ................................................................................... 37 5.8 Benjamin Hayes, Grand Canyon from Kaibab Trail... .......................................... 37 5.9 Lakshal Perera, The Grand Canyon ...................................................................... 37 5.10 Mariusz Jurgielewicz, Mother Point... ................................................................ 37 5.11 Tony Eckersley, Grand Canyon After the Storm ................................................. 38 5.12 Tony Eckersley, HDR-Grand Canyon Lightning ................................................ 39 5.13 Srinath Kashyap, Sunset at the Bottom of the Grand Canyon ............................ 39 5.14 Jesse Varner, Sunset from Timp Point, Grand Canyon North Rim ..................... 39 5.15 Matt Fetterley, Grand Canyon Snowstorm .......................................................... 39 5.16 Shardul Rao, Grand Canyon ................................................................................ 39 5.17 Matt Ottosen, The Crazy Lithuanian .................................................................. .40 5.18 Brian Knott, Havasu Falls .................................................................................. .41 5.19 Vincent Marchese, Grand Canyon Sept. 65 ....................................................... .41 5.20 Matt Fetterley, Grand Canyon ............................................................................ .41 5.21 Christopher Byrd, Grand Canyon Rock Abstract... ............................................ .41 5.22 Juli Kearns, Tourists at the Grand Canyon ......................................................... .42 5.23 Alvin Pastrana, Summer Coolin' ........................................................................ .43 5.24 James Mcardle, Grand Canyon Campfire ........................................................... .43 X

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5.25 Jame s Mcardle, Canyon Sunbeam ......... ...... ................... ....... ............................. .43 5.26 B Jefferson Bolender, Watchtower: Striking Interior ........ ... .... .............. .... ..... 44 5.27 Meredith Missroon, Grand Canyon Tower ..... ... .............. .... .................. ... ....... .45 5.28 Louis Moore People on Skywalk ........ ...... . .... ...... ...... . ......... ....... .... .... ... ..... .45 5.29 Mariusz Jurgielewicz, Skywalk .................. ... ................. .... .................. ............. .45 5 30 Judy Baxter The Chie... ......... .................. . ..... .... ... ...... .......... ......... ......... ..... .45 5.31 Bruno Bollaert, Trail .......... . ..................... ..... ................... ............... ... .............. 45 5.32 Louis Echeverii Great Canyon ........... ... ..... ........ ....... .............................. ... ...... .46 5.33 Sheldon Shaw, Plane and Pilot to Grand Canyon South Rim ...... ... ..... . .... ..... .47 5.34 Matthew Perkins, Grand Canyon ....... ....... ... ... ......... ... ... .... ............. ........ ....... .47 5.35 Joel Gaff, Road Trip 6-18-05 Grand Canyon 048 ..... ........... ......... ... ... ... .... ... ..... .47 5.36 David Willbanks Grand Canyon Lookout... ... .................. ............... ....... ......... .47 5.37 Ken Scott Carolyn Overlooking the Colorado River, Grand Canyon ... .... ... .... .47 5.38 Leo Koolhoven, Grand Canyon Deer ....... ........................ .... ........... .... . .......... .48 5.39 Robin Keefe, Squirrely ... . ....... . ...... ... .... ... .... .................... ......... ...................... .49 5.40 Joe Heaphey, Crow at Grand Canyon ......... ... .................... ...................... ........ .49 5 .41 Joe Heaphey Prickly Pear at Grand Canyon ................... ............ . ........ ........ ... .49 5.42 Andrew Miller, Grand Canyon . ... .......... ..... .................................... ..... . ......... .49 5.43 Louis Moore, Raven Over the Canyon at Guano Point... ..... ....... .... ...... .......... .49 5.44 Robert Campbell, Road from North Rim Grand Canyon ...................... ............. 50 5.45 Vlasta Juricek, South or North? ........................................ ...... . ......... ................ 51 xi

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5.46 Tiffany Follett, The Great American Road Trip ............ ............. ..... ................... 51 5.47 Ivan McKinley, Grand Canyon by Helicopter ..................................................... 51 5.48 Denis Desmond, Crown Tour Bus ................. ... ........................ ... ....................... 51 5.49 Erik Peterson, Bertie at the Grand Canyon ......................................................... 51 XII

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LIST OF TABLES Table 6.1 Content category percentage distributions ............................................................ 52 6.2 Emphasis on sky and landscape by content category (percentages) ..................... 53 6.3 Uniqueness of images by content category (percentages) ..................................... 54 6.4 Location of photographer (in relation to rim) by content category (percentages) .................................................................................................... 54 6.5 Emphasis in picture plane by content category (percentages) .............................. 55 6.6 Representation of humanity by content category (percentages) ........................... 55 XIJI

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FOREWORD My Journey in the Four Comers In May of 2006 I set out on a road trip with my boyfriend to discover the Southwest. We knew few things when we left Boulder, we didn't know what we would see or where we would sleep, what we would do, or whom we would meet. We simply knew the first day we could leave and when we needed to return. The few things we consciously bought or brought beyond the requisite food and camping gear are indicative of what we deemed essential for such a road trip. We bought a topographic map of the Grand Canyon, a book on hiking the Grand Canyon, a travel writer's account of traveling in the high desert southwest, a general tourist guide book for use in lodging and meal selection, and a topographic map of Zion. We brought four cameras: two digital point-and-shoots, a medium format film camera, and a 35mm film camera, two bikes, and our backpacking gear. In fact, the absence of planning in our case is an illustration of the freedom often associated with automobile travel in the United States. A quick look at some classic American novels supports this association: Jack Kerouac's On the Road, Nabikov's Lolita, and to a lesser extent Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath. It's no wonder that I didn't want to corrupt an experience so associated with freedom and coming of age with plans. In many ways our trip was like many others, motivated by a longing for adventure and discovery. But most relevant for this thesis is the fact that we brought four cameras and were both moved by our experience at the Grand Canyon in ways we couldn't predict before going. In the semester leading up to the trip, I took a class intended to help me develop ideas for my thesis. I spent much of the semester exploring my various interests and brainstorming how I could investigate them through a thesis in landscape architecture. I have always been fascinated by others stories and the different ways we experience the world and have been interested in photography for fifteen years so I chose to combine the two into this thesis. At the end of the semester I knew I wanted to look at the stories people told through their photographs of landscape and said so in my proposal. However, the topic was so broad that I was at a loss for how to make it "actionable," as my professor said, and begin my research. It was at this point in the thesis' development that I embarked on the road trip not knowing it would actually prove applicable to my academic work. We arrived at the Grand Canyon about a third of the way through the road trip having spent a great deal of time visiting the ruins of the ancient peoples of the high desert southwest at Chaco and Mesa Verde. Before going to the park we spent a night out of our tent in Flagstaff taking showers, doing laundry, and eating good food. We knew for us an experience at the Grand Canyon meant going below the rim and xiv

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hiking to the river so the next morning we went to a local outdoor store and inquired how we could get a permit to do that. The clerk looked at us as the lazy non planners we were, told us we could maybe get one if we were patient and lucked into one of the permits reserved for walk-in hikers. He strongly advised us to high-tail it out of Flagstaff and gets ourselves on the wait list for the next morning's walk-in slots. So we left Flagstaff immediately after that and went straight to the back country office at the South Rim. We were given a piece of paper with the number six on it and were told to be at the office at 8 o'clock sharp the VFi_gure 0 f .cl 1 d R. 1ew o o ora o 1ver next morning for our first shot at a permit. We were also told to strongly consider going to the North Rim after we checked out the South Rim. The ranger who gave us the wait-list number talked about how beautiful it was over there and how much more intimate the experience was as far fewer people make the trek north. We filed the comments for later consideration. That being taken care of, we went to the campground to see if we could find a spot to spend the night. Luckily, we got one of the two spots left. Interestingly, we had yet to see the Grand Canyon at this point. After setting up camp, we finally headed out with our bikes to the rim road and to get our first glances of the canyon. We brought two cameras with us for the occasion, the medium format film camera and the larger of the two digital cameras. Once we got to the rim road I remember that I was constantly searching for a view of the river. I remember thinking that it was very beautiful but I couldn't get a grasp on just how big it was or what it was really like down there from the rim. We took a number of pictures, most of which weren't particularly note worthy. I remember the details of the experience more so than those of the physical landscape, perhaps because I knew this was only my first meeting with the place. I remember how friendly other people were and how surprised I was that people actually approached and talked to us, something that very rarely happens back in Boulder. This could be partly due to the fact that we were the only ones biking the road at the time, and therefore stood out, and seemed like a harmless enough couple. In the summer months, most people experience the rim according to the rhythm of the bus that now runs along the road, stopping only at designated vantage points. There is also a path that follows the road most of the way, separated by a bit of vegetation, but the road is not short and most people looking to hike go into the canyon. Some people walk between a few viewpoints but in general the visitor experience is dictated by the rhythm of the bus. We biked as far as the first viewpoint that allowed views all the XII

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way to the bottom of the canyon and then biked back to the top of Bright Angel Trail. We did not want to be on the narrow, windy, pot-holed road in low light conditions so we chose to leave the road prior to sunset. We found a rock and shared a snack as sunset approached. We watched as a steady flow of hikers came up the Bright Angel trail, watched as the "sunset" bus left for Yavapi Point, and just enjoyed the atmosphere. That night we hung out at our campsite and enjoyed the pleasure of a site adjacent to the bathroom, which meant we got very little sleep. The next morning we were at the back country office with a good margin. The ranger came out to talk to us a little before 8 o'clock and gave us an idea of what we were signing up for, what sites were available in the coming days, and how the walk-in permit process worked. Lucky for us, several people before us didn't show up on time and we were able to do our ideal trip with only one day to hang out on the rim. We chose to go to the bottom and spend one night there, at Bright Angel Campground, and another half-way up at Indian Garden. The ranger gave us the permit and gave us some basic information about backpacking in the Grand Canyon, recommending we bring a certain amount of water, try to trim as much weight off our packs as possible, and think about renting trekking poles to save our knees on the long descent. These were all very logical recommendations but her last told me just how unique the Grand Canyon would be; bring money. She told us to bring money with us as we may well want to spend it at the bottom, because "you might decide to buy aT-shirt or a lemonade". It's not every day you go on a backpacking trip where you have the opportunity to buy aT-shirt halfway through. Such is the odd combination of nature and human convenience present at the Grand Canyon. After securing our permit we booked another night at the campground and then set out on a hike to Dripping Springs, a hike recommended to us by the ranger we met the day before. In general it had been a particularly hot May but we lucked out on a cloudy day, which left me wondering just how hot the next day would be when we dropped the full 5,000 feet. I don't remember too many details from the hike, it just felt like we were killing time until the main event the following day. The wall at the spring was covered with maiden's hair ferns that moved ever so slightly as wind and water disrupted their tender leaves. And I remember the building at Hermit's rest, one of Mary Colter's designs. There was a beautiful grand fireplace inside where families sat relaxing. We bought a few postcards to send to our families. After returning to the campground via the bus we paid a visit to the grocery store. This store is not your average grocery store; it's a grocery store, outdoor store and souvenir shop all in one. At the campsite we cooked dinner and packed by head lamp as we prepared for our adventure the following day. When at the Grand Canyon, life takes on a different schedule, always aimed at avoiding the heat. So we woke at five and were on the bus to the trailhead by six with many other hikers. When we arrived at the South Kaibab trailhead, I was nervous and impressed by the magic of the upcoming experience. Beyond us there was a family xvi

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with suspiciously little gear, and a large group of teenagers with small backpacks and large sleeping bags, their gear strapped everywhere possible to the outsides. You may wonder, what came next, what was it like to hike the Grand Canyon. Or you may be bored and wondering when the real thesis will begin. I could not possibly describe what it was like there, beside such a mighty river with a strip of i .. 1 2' 1 I 1 ... r -?fl/" t .. .- ... I --J. ,__., '-V'--..4'-..... < i\j I 'r': -above framed by the canyon walls. Instead F. 0 2 . 1gure I will offer a few smppets of the expenence, Bikes on Rim verbal snapshots if you will. I remember the mule corral with the inside toilets, the last before the bottom of the canyon. remember the short, sprightly ranger with the dark beard who came bounding along with one hiking pole and showed us dinosaur tracks. I remember the intense red of one layer and how it transitions abruptly into another. I remember feeling as if I were descending through time, through millions of years of history as I passed from one layer to another. I remember the boys in black with little water that we gave juice boxes, a few bars, and an extra liter of water, knowing it wasn't quite enough but knowing it would help and that it was all we could afford. I remember the deep blue-green of the Colorado. I remember sitting on the sandy beach next to the river once the sun had left the canyon. I remember the wild turkey across the stream from our campsite. I remember the flush toilets and the lemonade. I remember listening to the ranger at the evening program and his tales of tragedy at the canyon. I remember the feeling of community that night. I remember the pink rattlesnake the next day. I remember constructing pools in the pipe-runoff creek. I remember watching the sunset from the point and watching as the river below and rim above disappeared into outlines of the night sky. No matter how cliched the Grand Canyon can seem at times, it really is spectacular and almost indescribable both visually and verbally. This thesis is a result of this trip and a desire to explore further its popular image. xvii

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CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION What does landscape mean in modern contexts? Is it as some have argued recently, an entity far removed from that of humanity? Or is it something to be subjugated, tamed and conformed to our value system? Or is it something defined and constructed by humanity, which Jacks meaning without us? This thesis will look at landscape from a particular perspective, that of tourist photography. A tourist photograph is a visual quotation of experience, scene, and cultural values. As such, there is a specific pattern of reference for a given destination, the Grand Canyon, which can be attributed to commonly held ideas about landscape. Most notably, the perspective that landscape is something to be looked at and to be appreciated from a visual standpoint. By definition, painting, photography, and all other two dimensional art forms solely reference the visual world. The popularity of the snapshot points to the preference of sight over other senses. Anne Spirn talks about this affinity towards sight in Landscape Architecture and Architecture, lamenting the exclusion of attributes unaccounted for. Architects and even many landscape architects persist in perceiving the landscape as a visual setting for the built object. responding merely to the shape and color of hills. trees and flowers within the landscape. as opposed to the processes that animate it. (Spim 39) A photographer makes choices about what is included in a picture and how that content is framed, but their choice of photography as a means of recording speaks towards a belief in its ability to accurately document the content. This thesis addresses these patterns in documentation and shows through its patterns a common "look at" relationship to landscape. An experiment was carried out to further explore these conceptions of landscape through flickr, an online photo-sharing and social networking site. Photographs of the Grand Canyon were solicited from members. While this methodology was highly specific, the insights provided speak beyond its scope. Motivations from Landscape Architecture Because this thesis is a Landscape Architecture thesis it makes sense at this time to site it within the discipline. Why and how is the representation of the American West, specifically the Grand Canyon, relevant to the field of landscape architecture? The ideas presented here are not about a new way to design landscape. They do not point out a flaw in our approach to the manipulation of landform. However, increasingly, Landscape Architects inhabit unique positions and hold the ability to mediate the current dialogue on landscape. This thesis speaks to the role of the profession to direct this dialogue and define the parameters of the discussion. It is

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a dialogue held across disciplines that recognizes as central the relationship between physical and social networks. Because landscape architects design space for people, it is important to understand how these people experience and understand place. To properly place this discussion within the discipline of landscape architecture it is essential to establish the definitions of some seemingly common words that have become highly contested in the field. Landscape, as just intimated, is not the same as land, landmass, real estate, place, property, countryside, terrain or. even, environment (wild, cultivated or built). Yet it is also more than view, scene, vista, or prospect. Whether out there, in and of actual matter (such as landforms, habitations, or civil engineering structures) or represented in visual or written forms, landscape is a term that lies at the intersection of nature' (itself a highly complex term and not at all 'natural') and 'culture' (again, one of the most important but contested terms we have), and carries with it the notion of human intervention of some kind--if only in the act of representation itself. At the very least, it necessarily implies a viewer, and a viewer who cannot but look with preconceptions; it inevitably links mind to matter. (Gidley I) This quote places the dialogue squarely within the intersection of nature and culture. Gidley seems to argue that the act of representation is a type of human intervention. He supports such a claim by pointing out that a representation implies an eventual viewer and by definition connects ideas of the mind to the physicality of what is portrayed. This speaks to one of the central principles of experimentation, that by the very act of observing something the results have been altered and no longer reflect the unobserved and now inaccessible state, a popular interpretation of Heisenberg's more general observations in his uncertainty principle. Therefore, the photography, or representation in other ways, of landscape is not an innocent act. It is one that places values on previously valueless terrain, one that, while attempting in the tradition of landscape photography to ignore the man behind the camera, can never really escape his presence. The depth and scope of this thesis suggests that it applies most specifically to conceptions of western landscape. Some art critics have lamented that the genre of western American art is limited in scope and relies heavily on the conventions established initially by painting in the nineteenth century. As long as the genre of western photography remains rooted not just in a particular style but in a set of circumscribed topics. however. it will have a problematic relationship to western life as well as to the larger art market. If we continue to imagine that 'western' photography must deal with the unpopulated and recognizably western landscape or with people who by virtue of their ethnicity or profession seem descendants of nineteenth-century western types, the genre cannot possibly address the complexity of contemporary life in the western United States. Unless the genre can somehow embrace an expanded set of subject matter that includes urbanism. consumer culture. and the enormous impact of immigration on current western life. it will remain a fundamentally backward-looking sort of art with a limited capability to address issues of current social interest, and it will reinforce popular ideas about the West as a place shaped by frontier culture. (Hassrick 65) The limitations placed on the representation of the American West are evident in this researchers ability to classify the photographic documents of over a hundred separate 2

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visitors to the Grand Canyon. Why are most of the photographs indistinguishable? What is each of these photographers communicating to the viewer? For one, these photographers are placing themselves within the context of Western art. The fact that few photographers chose to share pictures of their old buses or pretty cars suggests that for most visitors, these photographs do not fall within their preconceived ideas of the representation of the west. The West is about John Wayne, sparse landscapes, sublime beauty, the play of light, and the discovery of oneself. These are all topics circumscribed by Western art and established by painters, writers, and philosophers of the nineteenth century. This begs the question, what does this mean for interpretations of Western landscape? And therefore, what do these interpretations mean for landscape architects? Landscape architects are the mediators in the dialogue between man and land. We can use our profession to redefine, or reinforce, established connections to the landscape. This thesis indicates that photography is the prevalent method for relating to landscape and performing the intervention of representation. An intervention which while seemingly innocent, in the context of Landscape Architecture is anything but. What ultimately happens in a designed landscape is shaped by initial attitudes towards a place formed through images and perpetuated by imagery collected and referenced during the design process. But yet again we can ask why we, as landscape architects care? Should we design landscapes specifically for photographers and what would those look like? Initially, such a landscape would be like the picturesque landscapes of England with ha-has and follies which attempted to guide visitor experience through a sequence of views, a technique inspired by landscape painting. So, actually, such a construction of experience has already been attempted. This construction is no longer at the site scale but at the scale of designating what people visit. This is perhaps why so many people only spend two days at the Grand Canyon. It has become an experience framed in the context of a trip to the American West, placed in sequence with other sites such as Mesa Verde, Chaco, Canyon de Chelly, Yosemite, Death Valley, and others. This thesis suggests that current and historical photographic representations of the American West can be classified into categories based on intent and scale of experience conveyed. These representations are cyclical, they are formed by previous exposure to a place or to types of places related to the specific landscape in the mind of the photographer, and they in tum help to reinforce this established image discourse. The job of a landscape architect is to analyze what these frameworks mean and the role of the specific media in determining the reception of an image. This thesis is proposing an organizational framework to aid landscape architects in the understanding of a region and of a specific place, the Grand Canyon. The results point towards an underlying discourse established long before these tourists visited the Grand Canyon. 3

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Context of Scholarship The previous section established the relevance of this research for the discipline of Landscape Architecture, but this thesis, like the discipline, is not self contained. Landscape Architects, for various reasons, among them a lack of critical work11 look towards other disciplines to understand their own work and the world they work within. Therefore, this thesis draws on numerous disciplines to establish a critical analysis of tourist photography. Among these are Anthropology, Literary Theory, Landscape Architectural Theory, Architectural Theory, American Studies, Sociology, Photographic Theory, Film Theory, as well as physical (or digital) products in representational disciplines such as Architecture, Landscape Architecture, Photography, and Film. The investigation of these disciplines is structured around man's relationship to and documentation of landscape. The section that follows highlights the literature and representational work of note relevant to this study. Literature Review The approach of this thesis was highly influenced by a course focused on the use of Reception theory to interpret landscape. Reception theory is a theory developed for the criticism and interpretation of literature that has been adopted by critics in Landscape Architecture. Its main premise is that the interpretation of literature is not static, it is something which must take into account the cultural frameworks for its moments of creation and reception, the so-called "cultural horizon." Therefore, a piece may have several interpretations dependant on the cultural horizon of the reader. Such a framework can be applied to the interpretation of landscape and art, after all it simply argues that these works are not culturally isolated and demand that changing cultural knowledge be acknowledged. The seminal work on in this area is Toward an Aesthetic of Reception: Theory and History of Literature ( 1982) by Hans Robert Jauss. However this work is rather dense and Holub offers a more readable version of the theory in Reception Theory: A Critical Introduction ( 1984 ). John Dixon Hunt applied the theory to Landscape Architecture in The Afterlife of Gardens (2004). After establishing a framework for the interpretation of landscape through imagery with Reception Theory, it is useful to look at the relevance of anthropology. There is a great deal of work within the discipline that takes a critical perspective on tourism. This literature implies that tourism is an activity with broad implications. Critics argue that the activities and choices of tourists can be looked at as reflections of the values of greater society. John Urry offers a compelling discussion of the tourist in Consuming Places ( 1995). He describes a tourist's gaze, emphasizing the visual nature of tourist experience. The tourist gaze comes in two forms: collective and romantic. In his discussion of tourism, Urry describes the demands of each type of gaze and emphasizes insights into the consumptive nature of tourism, a concept 4

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derived from economics. This thesis incorporates both forms of gaze at the Grand Canyon. After all, the Grand Canyon is framed both from the perspective of the solitary contemplative tourist and that of the collective of tourists looking together at the sunset from a viewpoint. The gaze is directed to features of landscape and townscape which separate them off from everyday and routine experiences. Such aspects are viewed because they are taken to be in some sense out-of-the-ordinary. The viewing of such tourist sights often involves different forms of social patterning, with a much greater sensitivity to visual elements of landscape or townscape than is normally found in everyday life. People linger over such a gaze which is then visually objectified or captured through photographs, postcards, films, models, and so on. These enable the gaze to be endlessly reproduced and recaptured. (Urry 133) Urry frames tourism as a consumptive act that consumes the objects of the gaze, including "locals" deemed part of the scenery and thus objectified. Other articles informative in critical attitudes towards tourism include Malcom Crick's Representation of International Tourism in the Social Sciences: Sun, Sex, Sights, Savings, and Servility ( 1989) as well as Cathy Greenblat's Temporary Strangers: Travel and Tourism from a Sociological Penpective ( 1983). Common among this literature is an emphasis on the consumptive nature of tourism and the perpetual search for authenticity in experience. Urry argues that the tourist gaze has increasingly become prevalent in the everyday. The way in which tourism has been historically separated from other activities, such as shopping, sport. culture. architecture and so on, is dissolving. The result of such a process is a universalizing of the tourist gaze. (Urry 140) As such, it is informative as well to look towards critical writing on so-called ordinary landscapes, of note in this area is D.W. Meining 's The of Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essa.vs ( 1979). Schwartz and Ryan's Picturing Place: Photography and the Geographical Imagination (2003), a compilation of essays on the role of photography in forming ideas about place is informative in this respect. Also of interest is Yi Fu Tuan 's Space and Place and J.B. Jackson's Landscape in Sight ( 1997) The field of landscape architecture is not entirely silent on the subject of imaging and perception of landscape. Notable among theorists in the field is James Corner who wrote the seminal essay, Representation and Landscape: Drawing and Making in the Landscape Medium ( 1992), which addresses the relationship of representation and action in and toward landscape. In his edited book of essays, Recovering Landscape ( 1999), the essays speak to various levels of human intervention in the landscape ranging from long-distance paths in the alps to highly structured urban landscape such as those produced by Rem Koolhass's firm, OMA. Central to the essays is a taking stock of relationships to landscape and principles for engagement with the land by practitioners. This book is more useful for a general grounding in landscape architectural theory but lacks direct relevance to this thesis. John Stilgoe's book, Landscape and Images (2005), which speaks specifically to 5

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the imaging of landscape, its status as visual commodity, and a waning connection between urbanites and the rhythms of landscape. Also of note is a volume edited by Stuart Wrede and William Howard Adams in collaboration with the Museum of Modem Art, Denatured Visions: Landscape and Culture in the Twentieth Century ( 1991 ). The book is a result of a symposium in October 1998 of historians, scholars, architects, landscape architects, and artists to address "the issue of landscape in the twentieth century .... fA] Long-ignored subject that needed to be assessed critically." (Wrede 4) The essays look at landscape in the twentieth century from a variety of disciplines and perspectives, incorporating historical landscapes and perspectives where appropriate. One artists monograph of relevance to this discussion of Landscape Architectural literature is Alan Ward's American Designed Landscapes: A Photographic Interpretation ( 1998), his photographs are some of the few which really concentrate on the built work of Landscape Architects and other designers of landscapes. While technically classified within the boundaries of American Studies, the collection of essays in Mick Gidley's Modern American Landscapes ( 1995) is particularly insightful in teasing out American conceptions of and relationships to landscape. Of particular interest is Robert Lawson-Peebles essay entitled: American Ideas of Landscape. There are of course more theoretical writings within the discipline but the above are most useful in describing the framework of ideas about landscape. Central to the American visual relationship to landscape is the idea of the sublimeu. This is particularly relevant when talking about landscapes categorized by Urry as objects of the consumptive "romantic gaze." Most theoretical writing in the topic is written from the perspective of literature or art critics. Among the more accessible is Barbara Novak's article: American Landscape: Changing Concepts of the Sublime ( 1972). As this thesis concentrates on the Grand Canyon as specific landscape it was informative to gain a broad understanding of the place. Unfortunately many books found specifically about the Grand Canyon feel more like advertisements than sources of critical understanding. One real exception to this is Mark Neumann's book, On the Rim: Looking for the Grand Canyon ( 1999). Neumann spent numerous summers at the Grand Canyon and his book is insightful on many levels about the meaning of the Grand Canyon to the tourists that visit. He also includes a collection of his own photographs of tourists he spoke to posing on the rim. It is well written and entertaining and can not be recommended enough. Another book which provides critical insight is Betty Leavengood's Grand Canyon Lives Shaped by Landscape ( 1999). Leavengood chronicles the lives of twenty-six women for whom the Grand Canyon was central to their lives. These women range from a young woman who came out to the Grand Canyon as part of a tour group from the east coast doing the western "grand tour" and met her husband, to Mary Colter, the architect who designed many of the famous buildings on the South Rim, to a river runner. The perspectives offered and the range of women included are diverse and 6

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informative in scope. The books specifically on the Grand Canyon are in general rather disappointing unless one is interested in analyzing them for their representation of the famous destination. The theoretical writings on visual representation and communication are highly relevant to this area of research as they provide a theoretical grounding for the interpretation of two dimensional media. The seminal writings on representation generally are Ways of Seeing ( 1973) and Patterns of Intention: On the Historical Explanation of Pictures ( 1985) by John Berger and Michael Baxandall respectively. Of note for communication theory is the work of Marshall McLuhan, oft cited with "the medium is the message."u Despite his attempt in the above book to make his philosophy of media more understandable, it is still useful to look to others who have since interpreted McLuhan 's work for greater clarity, most notably John Moss in At the Speed o.f Light There is Only Illumination: A Reappraisal of Marshall McLuhan (2004 ). The author spent time reading literature specific to the changes brought about by the internet but no specific work was found particularly relevant for this thesis beyond background knowledge and thus is not cited in the references. Niklas Luhmann's book, Art as a Social System (2000), has the interesting premise of using Art as a means to analyze cultural framework and society. Luhmann describes the intent thusly in the introduction: Carrying this program in the realm of art requires theoretical models that cannot be extracted from observing works of art and can be demonstrated in the communicative employment of these works. Here we use distinctions in the communicative employment of these works. Here we use distinctions such as system/environment, medium/form, firstand second-order observation, self-reference and external reference, and above all the distinction between psychic systems (systems of consciousness) and social systems (systems of communication); none is meant to assist in judging or creating works of art. (Luhmann 3) The above works collectively establish a framework for looking at visual art and at its role within society of communication of knowledge and values. Up until now we have been talking mainly about the theoretical, about American's relationship to landscape, about the role of tourism in consuming landscape, and about specific relationships to landscape present at the Grand Canyon. Now the discussion will move into a discussion on actual representational methods. First of all, modem landscape photography is a derivation of landscape painting and it is useful to first mention this tradition in any discussion of landscape photography. The works mentioned in the references in this area concentrate for the most part on the representation of the American west as that tradition has had the most direct applications to the traditions of landscape photography. Thomas Moran was a famous painter of the American West, hired by the Fred Harvey company to make a painting of the Grand Canyon for promotional purposes. He also created famous paintings of Niagara Falls, capturing the volume and power of the falls and advertising their uniqueness to many. An examination of landscape painting of the American West therefore includes a survey of his work. Gail Davidson's Frederick Edwin Church, Winslow Homer, Thomas Moran, and Cooper-Hewitt Museum (2006) does 7

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such a survey nicely. The catalogue for an exhibition at the Denver Art Museum, Redrawing Boundaries: Perspectives on Western American Art (2007), provides a broader overview of representations in drawing and painting of the Western United States. Beyond exhibitions and overview books on specific western artists there are some scholars who trace the connection between photography and painting through contrast. These works aim to distinguish the essential characteristics of the two mediums and thus for the most part deal with topics revolving around the representation of reality. Oft cited among these is Joel Snyder and Neil Walsh Allen's article: Photography, Vision, and Representation ( 1975). Barbara Savedoff elaborates on specific contrasts and explicates the differences between photography and painting in Tramforming Images: How Photography Complicates the Picture (2000). Martha Rosier writes on the topic of representation, her work is compiled into Decoys and Disruptions: Selected Writings. 1975-2001 (2004). These works overlap in some respects with the seminal writings in photography which aim to explicate its essential characteristics as a medium but more broadly or deeply than contrasting the representations of reality in photography and painting/drawing. Roland Barthes' Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography ( 1981) is essential reading for anyone venturing into photographic criticism. Susan Sontag's book, On Photography ( 1977), is useful in eliciting the reader's opinions about photography but leaves the reader at the start of their exploration of the medium. Also of note for general photographic theory is David Finn's How to Look at Photographs: Reflections on the Art of Seeing ( 1994 ). A.D. Coleman wrote articles for years in newspapers and magazines. Collections of his writing are informative in tracking the evolution of photography in content, attitudes, and technology. He collected his work specific to digital photography into: The Digital Evolution: Visual Communication in the Electronic Age: Essays, Lectures and Interviews. 1967-1998 ( 1998). The collection is particularly interesting as it provides historical perspective to what seems so prevalent now in terms of digital technologies in photography and its distribution. Also of note for the analysis of photography in the digital age is Hubertus von Amelunxen's Photography after Photography: Memory and Representation in the Digital Age ( 1996) which contains essays and images surveying the so-called new age of photography. The earlier discussion of writings in anthropology covered aspects of place construction and conception. There are also some scholarly works which specifically address the role of the photograph in creating place. These fall into two categories: those which address social landscape and place and those which address the portrayal of physical landscape. Within the social/cultural aspect, Louis Kaplan's American Exposures: Photography and Community in the Twentieth Centur.v (2005) offers a detailed look at the work of photographers whom Kaplan argues, have created, defined, or clarified community through their work. Among these artists is Pedro Meyer, discussed in relation to Latino community and Nan Golding who 8

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made the documentation of her community on the fringe. Work in the realm of snapshot and travel photography also touches on this definition of social landscape. Deborah Chamber's chapter in Schwartz's Picturing Place: Photography and the Geographical Imagination (2003) is particularly insightful and argues that family photo albums construct a particular landscape where family becomes place, In addition to Chamber's excellent essay, the book as a whole is well worth looking at and offers a number of well-written essays related to photography and place. Also, the exhibition catalogue from The Art of the American Snapshot, I888-I978: From the Collection of Robert E. Jackson (2007) is extensive enough that it seems that the catalogue is constructing a certain version of America from the collection of snapshots. Snapshots, by their personal nature seem more apt at portraying social aspects of America than those of professional photographers. As a result there are a number of books which look seriously at the snapshot to offer insight into American attitudes. In a similar manner travel literature, brochures, posters, and postcards offer perspectives into American attitudes towards travel. John Margolies and Eric Baker compiled a broad collection of travel brochures covering destinations across the United States in See the USA: The Art of the American Travel Brochure (2000). Morgan Hal and Andreas Brown offer a collection of American postcards in Prairie Fires and Paper Moons: The American Photographic Postcard, I 900I 920 ( 1981 ). Some postcards were distributed in bulk by professional photographers while others were more personal in nature. One example is that taken of a boy before he went to war and perhaps sent to his parents. While these more personal postcards were sometimes made by professional photographers as well, they were made for that person explicitly to send as a postcard. This distinction gives a specific intention to all the photographs gathered in the book and provides a unique look at the early twentieth century. While snapshot photography and travel advertisements offer a certain perspective on the American West, it is useful to familiarize oneself with the professional photographs portraying the West. Landscape photography is not a genre without moral dilemmas or political statements especially when photographers portray the interaction between man and landscape. Estelle Jussim and Elizabeth Lindquist-Cock offer a competent introduction to the genre in Landscape as Photograph ( 1985). But it is not merely preconceptions about the meanings of land and nature. but preconceptions about what is appropriate to photograph that influences criticism of the genre. Communications difficulties encumber even the task of finding a simple definition for the term landscape. What. exactly, is a landscape? Is it a picture of wildness, or wilderness? Is it an image of a certain dimension or color? Can it contain humans, animals, houses, ships? Must a landscape always speak of beauty? Of solitude? Of rapture? Of poetic excess? Of homely everyday things? Can a landscape be symbolic? If so. of what? (Jussim 10) Also serving as a critical overview of photography of the American West is Sandy Hume 's The Great West: Real/Ideal (1977). Some photographers portray the romanticized West, among these Ansel Adams, John Ward, and Steve Mulligan. 9

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These photographs are beautiful and speak most directly to the tradition of landscape portrayal from landscape painting. Contemporary landscape photography has taken on a more critical attitude towards its content as described in the book, Between Home and Heaven ,from the collection of the Consolidated Natural Gas Company (1992). By the early 1980s it seemed unlikely that landscape photography could continue under the guise it had assumed for most of the twentieth century. Almost overnight, a single view of anything came to seem insufficient. The methods introduced by the New Topographers and the RSP [Rephotographic Survey Project) proposed aesthetic revelations that could sometimes reach beyond themselves towards areas of moral concern. The ordinary. simple act of describing these landscape suddenly became loaded with responsibility. These developments along with the admission that a persistent romantic avowal, however dressed in the guise of science, could still preside over a new American cultural landscape completely altered contemporary notions about photography. (National Museum of American Art 44) One photographer working in this part of the genre is John Ganis as demonstrated by his work in Consuming the American Landscape (2003). The rich collection of theoretical writings about film also informed this research. Scott MacDonald's The Garden in the Machine: A Field Guide to Independent Films About Place (2002) is notable in film theory writing. Scholars who have written specifically about the representation of nature include Sean Cubitt in Eco Media (2005) and Pat Brereton in Hollywood Utopia (2005). This thesis takes experimental inquiry as its model and shows through a collection of tourist photographs commonalities in representation of the Grand Canyon. This thesis is structured to support and trace the results of this inquiry. Chapter two establishes an understanding of the National Park Service through a discussion of the sublime, landscape painting, landscape photography, and the Service's philosophy. This introduction to the Park Service is necessary to properly place this thesis. As the study carried out focuses on the Grand Canyon it is essential to establish what such a choice means for the general and specific case of the conclusions. Chapter three discusses photography from a critical perspective, specifically concentrating on the aspects of the medium which make it unique. Chapter four follows with an introduction to the study carried out on flickr and a discussion of the methodology. Chapter five includes a preliminary analysis of the photographs, focusing on content. In chapter six, the results presented in chapter five are placed in connection to each other and conclusions are made more extensively. Chapter seven serves to connect the results of the study to traditions in photography and ideas about landscape. This discussion is centered around critical attitudes towards tourism and connects representational results with cultural attitudes. In the epilogue, future directions for inquiry are proposed. The chapters which follow explore a variety of disciplines with the aim to present the visual bias in attitudes towards landscape and the support for such attitudes in representation in photography, painting, and film. 10

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Figure 1.1 Grand Canyon of the Colorado II

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Figure 1.2 Grand Canyon from Yavapai Point 12

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Figure 1.3 Desert View, Grand Canyon National Park 13

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CHAPTER 2: IMAGE AND PHILOSOPHY OF NATIONAL PARKS Meanings of Selection/Bias What is the image of the Grand Canyon? What do we think about it visually and what does it mean to us? The naturalist Joseph Wood Krutch wrote about his experience at the Grand Canyon. On my first visit a fellow traveler took one look and then ran back to throw his arms around a tree. When I saw him last. he was desperately resisting the efforts of two women companions to pry him loose. At first glance the spectacle seems to be too strange to be real. Because one has never seen anything like it, it stuns the eye but cannot really hold the attention. For one thing, the scale is too large to be credited. The Canyon is ten miles across from rim to rim ... and almost exactly a mile deep .... .... Because we cannot relate ourselves to it, we remain outside. very much as we remain outside the frame of a picture. (Gidley 23) Krutch argues that the scale of the canyon makes it impossible to relate ourselves to it while making the experience in a way less terrifying and more memorable. The image of the Grand Canyon as icon or masterpiece is being contested, which is not to say that the geologic wonder aspect of the park is changing. Instead its' image is being asked to adapt. What exactly is it, a masterpiece or a tourist attraction? The traditional nineteenth century image seems incapable of admitting figures or experience outside of those of solitary contemplation. Neumann frames his description of the Grand Canyon from the perspective of the distinguishing locations and activities which serve to uphold this nostalgic view. Playing Chopin can be dangerous: it depends on where you sit at the piano. Sometimes you can bend a branch so it does not break: it's a matter of judgment and force. In the end, what is at stake in all of these examples centers less on questions of damaging the environment and protecting lives. If this were the case, the daily mule trains to Phantom Ranch would end; the rivers would be free of spirited vacationers wanting to ride the rapids; the propellers on the planes and helicopters flying over Grand Canyon would stop turning; and guardrails would surround the canyon. What is really at stake is damaging a vision of the scene that remains lodged in a nineteenth-century frame, a potential vandalizing of a masterpiece. (Neumann 299) What then is the Grand Canyon for? Is it a place to fulfill fantasies from the nineteenth century? A place that fails to recognize the disconnect between image and place in the modern media? The Grand Canyon is iconic; it is not an ordinary landscape and as such raises some questions about the applicability of research conducted on it to any ideas about "normal" places. However, as the Grand Canyon is so much a landscape out of the everyday, it is the embodiment of the essential aims 14

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of tourism, to escape the everyday. Therefore the Grand Canyon has been chosen in this research to show through its extremes, through its status, what the ideal tourist landscape is. The argument being that its status points to common conceptions of landscape and tourism which can be used to understand attitudes and imaging of landscape in general. The perceived value of spectacular landscapes such as the Grand Canyon triggered their designation of being worth of preservation. The park service was founded to preserve these national treasures for future generations, treasures immortalized by Ansel Adams in his photographs and John Muir in his writing. Philosophy of the National Park Service ... to promote and regulate the use of the ... national parks ... which purpose is to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment offuture generations." National Park Service Organic Act. 16 U.S.C.I (http:// www.nps.gov/legacy/mission.html) The mission statement of the United States Park Service places an emphasis on preservation and portrays a hands-off relationship to the lands under its supervision. This mission can be connected to the concept of the sublime discussed in detail at the end of this chapter. Here the National Parks are seen almost as objects of reverence whose appropriate experience is a visual one. The mission does not talk about using the natural resources for other means as the Forest Service mission states. Nearly every welcome sign to a National Forest contains the agency's motto: the land of many uses. This difference has guided how both agencies manage their lands and structure visitor experience. The National Parks have taken to heart the mission of preservation and strive to alter the lands under their protection as little as possible while still serving the mission of providing access. This has meant that the National Park Service does not actively fight forests fires except when in areas with large amounts of infrastructure, striving instead to maintain the natural ecosystems, which often depend on fire for health and reproduction. In contrast, the forest service fights most fires that occur on their lands, viewing their lands as monetary commodities. The philosophy of the National Park Service is built on the concept of the sublime and has exhibited this connection in the nature of the lands chosen for preservation and on how visitor experience has historically been structured, emphasizing the cultivation of a respect for nature through educational programs. This cultivation of an appreciation of the sublime through the National Parks is exemplified by the following description of a road atlas from the 1960s that aimed to establish a certain preferred relationship between tourist and park. I recall finding a 1967 Rand McNally guide in my parent"s basement. "Visiting the national parks is truly an an, requiring time, training, patience; it said, echoing observers who stood on the rim in 1899. "Walking through a gallery, the man who has learned how to look at pictures perceives deeper than eye level. He absorbs with his mind and senses; so. too. should 15

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it be with national parks. But in all of the trips we took to national parks during my childhood, I never recall my parents taking such advice too seriously. My father bought the Rand McNally for its road maps and lists of campgrounds. We knew little about how to properly see works of an, but we could sometimes feel the land stir our heans and bodies nonetheless. (Neumann 292) Such an idea connects with conceptions of the sublime that seemed to indicate that one could not understand landscape properly without the cultivation of the appropriate moral capacities. This is not to say, as the writer indicates in the quote, that users of the atlas actually paid attention to such aims to guide their experience. However, his description of the land stirring their hearts and bodies points to the sublime, a concept present even when supposedly ignored. The National Parks have developed over the years struggling more and more with providing access while still preserving. However, the concept of the sublime was central to the motivations behind their founding and continues to influence the experience of parks through ''staging" of experience .11 Western Landscape Attitudes Derived from Painting The specific reception of the sparse American "wilderness" is rooted in the tradition of British romantic painting and philosophy This tradition setup a relationship of reverence to the sublime landscape and established a specific mode of interaction and preservation evident today in photography, writing, and ideas about "nature." While such styles of painting and philosophy established a baseline for representation of the West, it was a different type of landscape than those encountered traditionally in Europe. Exceptions to this were the landscapes of the Alps and Scottish Highlands, the representation of which is most directly correlated to early reactions to Western American landscapes. Early travellers tried to compare the scenery of the United States to that of Europe, lamenting the Jack of castles and cultural monuments. And unsure how to deal with new demands of vast scale and landscape as sole subject unmediated by picturesque old buildings. Landscape became a retreat from urban America, presented 16 Figure 2.1 Thomas Moran. Chasm of the Colorado Figure 2 2 Grand Canyon of the Colorado, View from the Hance Trail, in Harper's vol. LXXXII Figure 2.3 Anhur Wesley Dow, The Grand Canyon

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as a separate identity. J.M. W. Turner hinted at this separation when he spoke of the closing of the frontier. By externalizing their very personal reactions to the western landscape. essentially claiming it as their own, tum-of-the-century American artists effectively made the West artistic by aestheticizing western nature. Intertwining such trends as Impressionism. Tonalism, and Pictorialism. they helped reify Turner's thesis, making the West look like a timeless, sepia toned or strangely colored dreamworld that was closed off, distinct, and isolated from the 'outside world,' or from time itself. In effect, these artists shaped the West into an escape from modem urban life. Thus, the 'end' or the purpose of the frontier was to make the West variously a refuge, a stage for nationalist heroics, or a place in which to reach a higher plane of spirituality. (Neff 53) Artists of the early West such as Thomas Morran and Albert Bierstadt set up an aesthetic of the West as refuge which prevails today in attitudes and images of the region. This work served to separate man from nature and establish a relationship of reverence and spirituality to the vast landscapes of the West. Traditions of Landscape Photography The types of photographs tourists create and see are in large part influenced by trends in the Fine Arts. This section will briefly describe the traditions in landscape portrayal in the nineteenth century and contrast those with modem portrayals produced after photography became widely used. For the most part this is a story of the increasing celebration of details. In the introduction to Ganis' book of photographs portraying the industrially consumed American landscape, Robert Sobieszek argues that the changing artistic visions have been constantly influenced and changed by shifting cultural and moral values about the land itself. (Ganis 5) Therefore, he argues that the portrayal of landscape is tied to the purpose deemed for the landscape object. In other words, must everything serve a material purpose and be owned by someone? Such an attitude motivated much of early photography. It was often sponsored by a railroad hoped to profit from what the exploration team discovered and the photographer documented. In such cases, the photographs (or paintings) became propaganda or advertising for the sponsoring organization through the promotion of particular scenes and types of landscape. Another commonality in much of landscape painting and photography is the absence of people. Why is this? This characteristic has been most influential on tourist experience and expectation. The absence of the figure from European landscape painting indicates a certain conception of landscape that is unfulfilled with the portrayal of traces of humans in figures or structures portrayed. Mitchell defines the landscape as an icon with this reasoning. This is the landscape whose purification makes it innocent of all possible idolatry. The idol. we suppose, must appear as a figure. a statue that surveys the landscape. The empty 17

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landscape, the waste, or wilderness. or void, is an iconoclastic icon; it throws down the high places and smashes the traces of aboriginal dwelling. (Mitchell 273) So, what does this mean, what does this absence of the trace of humankind mean for the landscape painting/photograph? In a way it allows each artist to pretend that the landscape is indeed untamed wilderness untainted by previous users, artists, or inhabitants. In their different ways, though, the nineteenth-century survey photographs and the twentieth century western landscapes by photographers like Adams and Porter made a similar point about life in the American West. The physical landscape existed as something apart from human culture. It might be subdued by technology, despoiled by careless intruders, or saved through thoughtful preservation. but it could still be encountered in a fundamentally pristine state. This way of thinking erased the older Indian history of the region and underscored the idea that the key dynamic of western American history lay in the physical encounter between Euro-Americans and the environment. (Hassrick 63) It gives each photograph a false sense of discovery of the grand vista. Such a portrayal is also distinct from that discussed earlier which concentrated on the material use of the land. In this case the landscape painting or photograph portrays the use of the landscape in a more cerebral fashion suggesting a reverential and solitary encounter between landscape and artists. Some critics argue that the development of photography allowed painters more freedom. Prior to the development of photography, painting was relied on (along with other hand work like drawing and print making) as the sole means for recording the world. With the development of photography, this burden shifted. These landscape photographers of the nineteenth century, who were making the most of the new art medium, discovered that when they pointed their cameras at spectacular natural phenomena they could frame in their lenses wonderfully striking compositions. The photographs they took are compelling not only because they captured the awesomeness of their subjects. but because they found a way of looking at those subjects with a fresh eye. Their approach was different from painters of famous places whose quest for verisimilitude stifled their originality. The photographers of the nineteenth century were artists who were liberated from the task of reproducing the wonders of nature-their cameras did that for them. They could concentrate their efforts on exploring the awe-inspiring scenes for striking compositions that when captured on film would produce dramatic works of art. (Finn 102-103) Freed from the burden of replication due to the very definition of photography as a copy of reality, portrayals of landscape evolved to produce unique representations. Where previously painters had felt compelled to capture the entire awe-inspiring scene, photography evolved to include more personal interpretations. This does not mean that the desire to replicate does not exist in landscape photography. Simply that there are two traditions in landscape portrayal relevant to this thesis: the European landscape painting tradition which produced beautiful and sublime representations and the evolving photographic tradition which no longer attempted to capture everything in a scene, instead focusing on detail. As Diana Edkins expressed "Twentieth-century landscapes derive their meaning from the interior, the personal, 18

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the subliminal rather than from the novel in the previously unseen." (Hume 43) Both traditions of all encompassing, awe-inspiring landscape and personal, unique landscape are reflected in historic and current portrayals of the Grand Canyon. Sublime One cannot talk about the Grand Canyon or the American West for that matter without invoking the sublime. However, often the exact meaning of such a description is unclear. What does it mean for something to be sublime? Sometimes you'll hear someone describe a really good dessert as 'sublime.' Other times someone could describe a view from a mountaintop as 'sublime. The meaning in these uses is not so dissimilar and this section will establish what it means to invoke the sublime. The sublime has not always held the same meaning. When it was originally conceptualized the term invoked a contrast to man. An experience of the sublime could be scary and often emphasized the pure force of nature. A babbling brook was not so much sublime as tranquil and quaint. However, the raging torrent of the rapids of a creek invoked the sublime by its exhibition of the strength of nature. Kant described the sublime as measureless. (Paulson 431) Kant's definition can be used to explain this man's description of the sublime ... overwhelmed with an emotion of the sublime such as I have rarely felt. It was not that the jagged precipices were lofty, that the encircling woods were of the dimmest shade, or that the waters were profoundly deep; but that over all, rocks, wood and water. brooded the spirit of repose, and the silent energy of nature stirred the soul to its inmost depths. McCoubrey in (Novak 40) In this case the sublime was a powerful experience of silence. This original conceptualization of the sublime required a certain degree of moral cultivation to be appreciated. (Donougho 913) The literature establishes the sublime as distinct from beautiful, a concept able to be more widely appreciated. Therefore, identifying something as sublime required a gentleman with specific values2 2 and was not a concept to be understood by the uninitiated. With the popularization of art and culture in general, the concept of the sublime has evolved to include more Christian implications. Therefore, the sublime is no longer just talking about power, strength, the incomprehensible, or the contrast with human scale. Now an experience as described by the writer above with the powerful silence of nature is seen as a way to be in dialogue with God. This imbues divinity throughout and tends to emphasize a solitary experience that can presumably bring one closer to understanding God, deity, or higher force. Such paintings. in eliminating any reminders of the artist's intermediary presence. remove him even from his role of interpreter. In their quiet tranquility, they reach above time and outside of space. In this new concept of sublimity. oneness with Godhead is complete, and the influx 19

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of the divine mind is no longer mediated by the theatrical trappings of the late eighteenth century Gothic. (Novak 42) However, despite this move to a more christianized definition, the sublime is still about an appreciation of the infinite and incomprehensible. Conceptualizing landscape from the perspective of the sublime implies a separation, mentally, between man and land. "The sublime moment for agency consists, presumably, in the dual fact that the individual is finite and yet must acknowledge its potential to be infinite." (Donougho 929) It suggests the appropriate way to interact with landscapes of extremes such as the Grand Canyon, is one that allows for the appreciation of the silent power of nature. This idea of how one should act has guided the founding of the National Parks and continues to appear today in representations which emphasize the scale and emptiness of the Grand Canyon. 20

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CHAPTER 3: MEANING AND INTERPRETATION OF PHOTOGRAPHS Representation of Reality in Photography Photography has a special relationship to its subjects, which has historically distinguished it from other mediums. Unlike painting where the artists' hand is the intermediary between the scene portrayed and the object created, photography deceptively does not have such intermediary. Instead, a photograph directly records reality through reception of light onto light-sensitive materials. Historically, this unique relationship has meant that photography is sometimes inaccurately characterized as completely truthful and as an accurate document of reality. Barbara Savedoff argues that the lack of distinction between document and duplication in the medium leads to a confusion about what is actually portrayed. Nevenheless, we tend to contlate the separate concerns of documenting and duplicating when we look at photographs, and this contlation allows our faith in the documentary character of the photograph to be inappropriately transferred to the way things appear within the photograph. When this occurs, we believe not only that a photograph gives evidence of an object's existence. but also that is shows us how that object really looks. (Savedoff 193) This trust of medium and representation is what distinguishes a photograph from a painting. If a fantastical creature such as a unicorn were to appear in a painting this would not seem to disturb our image of the medium or painting itself. However, if something is pictured in a photograph, its existence is confirmed and an appearance of impossible situations or things make the viewer question their understanding of the medium and its relationship to reality. As a result, the common understanding of a photograph often takes out the photographer out from control of the scene portrayed. However, such a mental disconnect is not something that can be done without consequences. A photograph, just as a painting, can portray objects and ideas which do not really exist. If two people in a photograph appear to be at odds or completely in love, that does not imply that such a relationship exists. Therefore, a photograph can inaccurately portray reality. Critics argue that this overconfidence in the relationship between a photograph and the reality it portrays means that viewers have a different reaction to a photograph of the same thing portrayed in a painting. Because we readily think of paintings as constructions, we see the equivalences and transformations they show as products of the anist's imagination. On the other hand, because we tend to think of photographs as objective records of the world, the phenomena they show, no matter how surprising or disturbing. are not as easily dismissed as imaginative fictions. (Savedoff 82) Such a tradition of intell'retation gives photographers a power and responsibility that other artists do not share. Like Spiderman's Uncle Ben said, "with great power 21

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comes great responsibility." This is not to equate superhero powers with the ability to directly record reality but to emphasize the importance this reception plays in how a scene pictured in a photograph and in another medium are interpreted. A photographer has the power to define reality by what they show and exclude. As the photographer Alan Ward describes, "Photography is a process of editing out the unessentials to make compelling images." (Ward, 126) So, the power to define reality lies with the person behind the camera. They [Joel Snyder and Neil Walsh Allen] deny that the photograph can be treated as a reliable index of what was in front of the camera by describing the many ways in which the photographic image diverges from what we see when we look at the world. These divergences mean there is no one 'true' picture of what is photographed, only various ways of presenting the subject. The photographer's choice of shutter speed, lens. and camera angle will determine the look of the resulting image. It is because the photographer has this choice and control that we can evaluate photographs as art. (Savedoff 49) This recognition of the power of the photographer is why photography has come to be regarded as art. In the beginning, a photograph was regarded as a simple record and document of reality. Progressively, the role of the photographer in the production of a photograph has been recognized as the role of artist. The portrait of reality shown is in the control of the photographer and is thus a reflection of their own mental interpretation. Seemingly simple adjustments such as shutter speed can significantly affect the image and its message. A slow shutter speed for an action shot will communicate the grace of movement. On the other hand, a fast shutter speed will reveal a level of detail and a moment imperceptible to the eye. This mechanical change affects the idea communicated by the image and emphasizes unique points of VIeW. Photography is not only about the representation of reality but also the privileging of the moment/object/landscape/person photographed. Ideas about what is worthy of photographing have not always been the same. Roland Barthes observes that initially photographers photographed the notable to create surprising photographs. Now, photographers take what is known and show it differently. The photograph becomes 'surprising' when we do not know why it has been taken: what motive and what interest is there in photographing a backlighted nude in a doorway. the front of an old car in the grass, a freighter at the dock, two benches in a field. a woman's buttocks at a farmhouse window. an egg on a naked belly (photographs awarded prizes at a contest for amateurs)? In an initial period. photography, in order to surprise. photographs the notable; but soon. by a familiar reversal. it decrees notable whatever it photographs. The 'anything whatever' then becomes the sophisticated acme of value. (Barthes 34)) Barthes point speaks to what reality is presented. It seems that the predictable, the once majestic sublime, might be categorized with the notable and force photographers to find new ways of presenting the same place. Such a reversal is not unique to photography, as will be discussed later in this thesis, as tourism also struggles with the prioritization of place. 22

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Framing It is worthwhile to revisit a point earlier highlighted by Alan Ward's description of photography as a version of editing reality. This framing is central to the understanding of the photographer's interaction with the camera and the resulting representation. It is interesting that the concept of framing to aid in the appreciation and understanding of the reality before us existed before photography. For example, an object called a Claude-glass was an aid to the tourist in the strange and previously incomprehensible Eighteenth century landscape of the wild. In 1782, a century after Burnet, William Gilpin published the first of his five volumes of 'Picturesque travels.' The picturesque, as its name suggests, was deeply indebted to painting, specifically the work of such Italian painters as Claude and Rosa. It mixed the Beautiful and the Sublime in an attempt to achieve a painterly composition. Indeed, it encouraged its 'Picturesque tourists' to create their own composition by viewing the scene through a Claude-glass. a darkened mirror with beveled edges which, like the painter for whom it was named, softened the contrasts of the scene but which also, unlike Claude, reversed it. With the arrival of the picturesque, it appeared that a complete language of terrestrial description had been achieved. The dark corners of the Earth may not have been vanquished, for people still distinguished between civilization and savagery. But it seemed that savage lands were now. at least, comprehensible. (Gidley 25) While the result of a photograph is a physical object, it is interesting to think that such a framing aid was suggested to tourists in the eighteenth century. Painters at the time used devices called the camera obscura to help them visualize their paintings and render detailed architectural details. This was essentially a simple camera without the ability to record the projected image. The camera obscura is a box with a small hole through which the image is projected, sometimes with a lens at this end. The size of the device can vary and sometimes, as in the case of figure 3.3, can be made to take up an entire room. The device was also used at tourist resorts before photography. Small pavilions were sometimes built which allowed tourists to look at a specific scene projected on the walls of the pavilion, 23 F igure 3.1 Example of a Claude glass manufactured in England during the 18th century. To use the tool a person was instructed to tum his back to the object that he views, suspend the object by the upper part of the case and look at the reflected image. F igure 3 2 Watercolor by the amateur artist, Rev. William Gilpin. the oval shape and emphasis on tonal range suggest the image was produced using a Claude glass.

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framing and selecting a specific version of reality. Modem photographers may find themselves thinking in a similar manner, breaking up the world before them into framed sections even when they do not have their camera. The act of selecting the version of reality to record is powerful, and as shown through the examples of the Claude glass and the camera obscura, is an idea that has been in existence in various ways for centuries. With the invention of photographic processes, one person's version of reality simply became more accessible to others in a seemingly more direct way. This structuring of experience was taken to another level with the popularity of stereoscopic views in the late 19th to early 20th centuries. These were photographs taken with a special camera to produce two, slightly offset views of the same scene. When seen through the special viewing devices the photographs constructed a three-dimensional version of the scene pictured. As a result the photographs seemed to transport the viewer and were seen as a way to "visit" places. They also became popular souvemrs. By 1901, the finn Underwood and Underwood had produced a boxed set of stereoviews of the Grand Canyon that included detailed descriptions of the explorations of the geological formations as well as a set of instructions for viewing the cards. The map placed the armchair traveler along the rim of the canyon (just as Thomas Moran is pictured here). from which the views were photographed, and explained the landmarks visible in each cone of vision [FIG. 29]. The instructions reminded the viewer to place the stereoscope close about the eyes in order to reduce the possibility of distraction by peripheral light and objects. The intention was to actually follow along in the footsteps of the photographer and experience the sensation of the view. (Davidson 99) Underwood and Underwood's views were precursors to the modem slide-show where travellers would walk friends and family through their vacation. Of course what the slide show gained in personalized verbal commentary, it lost m three dimensional qualities. Some critics have discussed the areas where photography and reality seem to represent different things. One example of this seeming disconnect is the higher level of detail visible in some photographs, especially those using macro lenses and cropping. In these cases the 24 his hotel room into a camera obscura and recorded the resultant phenonmenon in an eight hour exposure using his large-format camera. Underwood & Underwood Stereoscopic view of Grand Canyon

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photograph still represents reality, but a reality beyond that visible without the aid of the photograph. The selective framing and tonality of the photographic image permits a new image of the world to be recorded The right combination of negative, plate, lens and paper can produce detail beyond what the unaided human eye can see The compelling quality of this detail not only changes our knowledge of the subject but also permits us to enter the picture as if entering another world Thus photography soon became a way of extending the viewer's experience of a selectively rendered and abstracted reality (Hulick 419) The views expressed in this quotation suggest a slight unease with photographic representation. This impression is further developed when talking about phenomena previously unobserved, such as how a horse gallops and verifiable only through another photograph. When Eadweard Muybridge succeeded in 'freezing' rapid motion-to settle a bet as to how horses gallopedhis results were met with dismay by artists, photographers. and the general public alike as being 'unnatural' and 'untrue.' This was not an expression of doubt in the veracity of Muybridge 's results but, instead, a perception that the results Jay outside of common visual experience, and outside of the conventions of representation that obtained at the time People believed that horses might indeed gallop as Muybridge had photographed them. but the proposition could only be confirmed by other photographs, not by direct observation. (Snyder 156) All this talk about photography and reality suggests that the resultant representation of reality in a photograph is not a static and predictable entity The photograph is the photographer's interpretation of reality, of a specific object, of a person, of a place constructed through manipulation of light, contrast, framing, and "frozen" physically in the negative. It is the light reflected by the objects and refracted by the lens which is the agent of the process, not 'the physical objects themselves.' These physical objects do not have a single 'image' 'their imagebut, rather, the camera can manipulate the reflected light to create an infinite number of images. An image is simply not a property which things naturally possess in addition to possessing size and weight. The image is a crafted, not a natural, thing. (Snyder 151) This thesis rests on this personal interpretation: the fact that the taking of a photograph is an interpretation of reality no matter how much truth-value is attributed to it. A photographer is not capturing an innate representational property; they are constructing the representation. Therefore, the resultant photograph is a reflection, most of all of the photographer and their ideas about a place, subject, and themselves Objects Photographs, traditionally, have been objects to hold Objects which are representative of contents of the greater world. Roland Barthes relates photographs to language and argues that it aspires to be a collection of signs speaking in a meaningful way. However, as photography is constantly picking out for "preservation" particular moments or people with seeming arbitrariness, it lacks the rigor of signs.11 25

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This fatality (no photograph without something or someone) involves photography in the vast disorder of objects-this object, this moment, rather than some other? Photography is unclassifiable because there is no reason to mark this or that of its occurrences; it aspires. perhaps. to become as crude, as certain. as noble as a sign, which would afford it access to the dignity of a language: but for there to be a sign there must be a mark; deprived of a principle of marking, photographs are signs which don't take, which turn, as milk does. Whatever it grants to vision and whatever its manner, a photograph is always invisible: it is not it that we see. (Barthes 6) Barthes recognizes the photograph as a conveyance of other knowledge, other images. When we look at a photograph we are not really looking at the photographic object, at the thickness of the paper, the tone, etc. While these details may be noticed occasionally, they are not what the photograph is about. Therefore the object status of a photograph is gained from its relationship to reality in the content portrayed. There are cases where this simplification of the object is not accurate, but this discussion simply covers one aspect of such a definition. John Stilgoe elaborates further on the connection between photograph and content, extending to irrational reluctance to the destruction of photographic representations. Yet, even in our contemporary technological society, Americans prove amazingly reluctant to destroy photographs. Ask lovers to photograph each other with instant cameras and then exchange the images. Next hand each an icepick and tell them to poke out the eyes on each scrap of cardboard. Almost invariably revulsion stays their hands. The images are left whole. The icepick might be a voodoo needle. the American citizens Haitian peasants. However casually made, the snapshots acquire awesome potency as instantaneously as they slide from the camera. (Stilgoe 260) A photograph, because it is connected to reality, has a message and an existence beyond the moment of its production. The photographs in our closets are links to actual people and places left behind long-ago. They are also links to a version of us that may no longer exist. We can look through the photographs and tell a story which seems to allow access to the reality of the photographs. Couples hire photographers to photograph their wedding so that they can experience the day, the people, and their younger selves whenever they pull out the album. It is unclear what digital photography means for this object status. After all, digital photographs are simply collections of pixel values that make fleeting appearances on computer screens and projections, and are sometimes printed. Does the image on the screen have the same power as that which you hold in your hand? It seems some of its meaning is lost in the translation to digital. Similar to the comparison between a letter written to a lover and an e-mail; an e-mail may communicate the same ideas through words, a letter offers a physical connection lacking in the digital environment, you can touch the paper knowing that on the other end the writer held the same paper. Similarly, a photograph is tangible; you can "touch" a little girl's hair and imagine what it feels like. Perhaps some stroke their computer screens but it is not conventional. It is unclear how this reverence and reluctance to destroy the photographic object translates into the new digital era. After all, now a photograph can be destroyed when the moment of its inception has just barely passed by choosing to delete the 26

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tile with the "trash can" button of the camera. Does this mean that the value of each photograph has been reduced with the ease of creation or with the shear number of images created? Life in the Digital Age Initially, the technical aspects of the process limited photography; the slow speed of the film required subjects to sit still for long periods of time and the delicate chemical process required immediate development. This meant certain versions of reality were excluded from that portrayed in photographs. However, as the process and technology has evolved, the possibilities have expanded. The essential relationship between photographer and camera has not changed. Even with new technologies, an understanding of the principles of light, time, and light sensitive material are still important to create "successful photographs", images that portray what the photographer sought to communicate. Digital technology has again increased the possibilities and made it easier to share photographs with a larger audience. Just as computers have made it much easier to revise papers (there is no laborious retyping of a whole manuscript to go through and no messy traces of cutting and pasting). computers make it easier to revise' a photograph and when something is easier to do, people do it with more frequency and less thought. One can easily imagine the vain routinely doctoring their photographs to take a few inches off their waists and add a few hairs to their heads. Or one can imagine the newly divorced methodically deleting ex-spouses from their family pictures. (Savedoff 202) This is not to say that the biggest contribution going digital has had on photography is making it easier to remove unwanted exes from pictures. But the implication that the spouse was never there is one of the more important contributions. In old-fashioned negative and print photography it was possible to manipulate images, it was just harder and less accessible. In printing one could present a relationship in light and shadow inaccurate to the reality it was derived from through "burning" and "dodging" techniques. By "burning" an area of a print the printer was able to lighten areas of a print and show details in the negative at a contrast that did not accurately represent the range of light and dark in the scene. Similarly, "dodging" is the purposeful darkening of an area. Some photographers merged realties in the darkroom long before Photoshop made it possible to cut-out elements from different images and combine them into a believable montage image. This process was called sandwiching negatives and simply involved the simultaneous printing of two negatives together in one enlarger. These are just some of the techniques available to photographers in the traditional darkroom setting that allow manipulation of the reality portrayed in the final image. In many ways Photoshop and other digital imaging software have simply made these techniques accessible to more people and thus increased the possibility to manipulate image for a greater number of photographers. 27

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When this thesis was begun, it seemed undeniable that the new digital technologies meant a different relationship between photographer and landscape. If one could take more pictures and distribute photographs to an audience previously inaccessible, would alter the actual experience and how it was portrayed? Research both in the relevant literature and in the empirical research performed, convinced this author otherwise. However, digital technology has changed what a photograph is and how it is interpreted. Will future generations come to see the transformation of traditional photography the apparent disjunctions of space, the defamiliarization of ordinary objects, the fortuitously frozen moments-as constructions of the photographer, rather than as revealing something uncanny about our world? It is impossible to know for certain, but changes in the expectations surrounding photographs, altering the kind of pleasure, and the kind of pain. that photographs give. (Savedoff 209) So, a photograph, in the future, may loose the implicit veracity of the reality it portrays which will change how photography is received. That argument, while rich and important, belongs in another thesis. This thesis is concerned with how a landscape is portrayed by photographers and leaves off in its arguments with the viewer. Thus, this thesis argues that, the changes caused by new digital photographic technology have so far affected the reception and not production ends of the spectrum. This does not mean that digital technology has not changed the possibilities of production. But that as of yet it has not fundamentally changed the interaction between a photographer's intention and the resulting photograph. The fundamental relationship between photographer and landscape or reality in general has been preserved. 28

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CHAPTER 4: ACQUIRING COLLECTIVE CONCEPTIONS Photography on the Internet For some insights into the new frontiers of photography on the internet let's tum to Virginia Heffernan's article in the New York Times about flickr. In the article, Heffernan discusses the new aesthetic and rules of photography associated with flickr. She argues that flickr is changing how photographers and their work are viewed. As a result, photographers outside the gallery and museum circuit are able to gain the notoriety and exposure outside of traditional venues. Heffernan argues that this has created a new genre of photographs, the flickr photograph. While pretty and even cute, these images are also often surreal and prurient, evoking the unsettling paintings of de Chirico and Balthus, in which individual pans are beautiful and formally rendered. but something is not quite right over all. Flickr's fantasy pictures. many of the 'erotic' (rather than sexy) ponraits that have been forcibly manipulated with digital tricks, stand in contrast to the rawer and grainier 35-millimeter photography that's still canonized by august institutions like the International Center of Photography. (Heffernan I) But is the flickr photograph really a new genre? This is unclear. It has succeeded in popularizing a type of photography that was explored by photographers such as Jerry Uelsmann before digital photography. And a romance explored by photographers of the Nineteenth century such as Julia Margaret Cameron. Cameron's photographs are surreal in their beauty and treatment of subjects. Uelsmann 's work is surreal in the sense that the scenes portrayed often do not make sense. So, what is a flickr photograph then? It is a photograph beyond reality, a photograph that takes the world beyond itself by pushing contrasts, intensifying colors, and creating a new interpretation of reality. One member whose photographs exhibit these qualities goes by Merkley. On his (Merkley) Flickr profile, he calls the classic film camera 'The Robot Camera Machine and proposes digital processing as the antidote to film's inhumanity. (Heffernan 3) Perhaps the real flickr remained elusive in this survey because the methodology of this research did not fully respect and understand the new medium. The researcher did not find the evidence of the social network believed so central to the site. Maybe that's because the methodology didn't use the construction of the site to access it in a meaningful way. The results showed the site as one concerned with the formalisms of photography but revealed little about the relationship between users. But maybe, as Heffernan suggests in the article, the fault lay in not recognizing the uniqueness of the new medium. This approach meant an inability to distinguish between the insights of digital and analogue photography. If instead the site was accessed through its unique network, through photographs highlighted in the "interestingness" section, the 29

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,finally,went in 2006 I knew I wanted to backpack to the bottom and experience the .anyon s true power. This thesis is about understanding how people come to know and experience place through photographs so the subjects as a rule needed to use photography to ocument and understand their lives. Flidcr seemed capable of providing a source of ubjects. The site was created by Caterina Fake and Stewart Butterfield when they working on a ga m e with a social networking focus. One of the engineers for the :arne created a tool to allow garners to share photos while playing and it turned out to 1e more fun t h a n the game. So the game was scraped and ftickr was born. Butterfield says ftic kr 's biggest innovation came from recognizing the social nature of photography. "It me a nt to be shared, talked about, pointed to, saved, archived and available by as many means as possible," he says. (Graham) Members of the site have individual pages which their .in_ hronologically posted photo stream. However, because fttckr ts more t.han a c d store hotos other members can comment on photographs m a a place to post an p h . d individually there is a comments b f Y s When a photograp ts vtewe h num er o wa . h other members can discuss the photograp section directly below the ptcture w.fiere about a portion of the photograph can h omething spect c to say h n Members that ave s h with discrete tags which pop-up w e also comment directly on the photograp h with similar attributes to be found, fttckr scrolled over. In order a photograph with has a feature called tal as long as they make it public, acnyone also for examp e ed "Grand anyon. Canyon h along with others also tagg ent days the author has find that photograf similar interests, for example, m rec ds another on Spanish organize groups a ong f sed on bridges which go over roa ld in ftickr and then been 1nv\ted to a group ocubers tag rea\ life objects as are supposed t her where mem \Y k and another w ere d without horses, a n o \ Nl){\U \0 \C r, 'te were intrigutng an u\d be t l \\1 The dynamics of the st it was unc\ear if ll"'l 7:;'d un N \\\ \\\e \ ()\'\ \\\1.\\ \\lckr but be \ QO u ' ... o\ \\'\e ' \ 1 l\ s r:.\ote \ot\' '' \"S o\ \ \O 'C '3.r:.'Qec \\ 't"t\\'l '3. '\ e't, \0 t.:J cess'3.'{ \o \ \"=' sv o't1 '' . .. "". ,. '?ll ,.,._,

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volume of comments used to judge the connection to the group, and recognized how the dynamics help to shape the photographs, the findings might have been different. Getting Specific Of course, this research could have been approached from many directions; the choice of this approach is the bias of the thesis. In this case, the research and data on a specific place and in a specific distribution context are asked to represent broader ideas. This author chose to focus on imagery of the Grand Canyon in the online context of the photo-sharing site, flickr. The conclusions are necessarily limited by the information provided by subjects. The subject's motivations for visiting are unclear, while they were asked to provide specific activities they intended to do they were not asked why they chose to go to the Grand Canyon at this time. As such knowledge about the actual production of the photographs is limited and inferences must be drawn from the knowledge that the photographs chosen were consciously put up for public viewing on flickr and again chosen to represent their experience to this researcher. Therefore, while this thesis aims to understand the moment of production the methodology described below will point out its inabilities to do this and emphasize why much of the conclusions and analysis center around the photographs provided. One could argue that the Grand Canyon is not a typical place. The Grand Canyon is a unique place, broadly conceptualized in the public visual and textual discourse, few people choose to go there without prior exposure to it. The Grand Canyon was chosen as the physical object of this research because of its iconic 1 Which suggests that visitors to the Grand Canyon have common expectations for their experience. While not all visitors to the park have the same expectations, they have a range of common expectations set up both by their own personalities and desires but also influenced by visual and textual portrayals in the public domain. Many people probably are influenced in ways similar to this author. I can't cite a specific reason I wanted to visit the Grand Canyon but I can remember being exposed to it several times before my trip. In elementary school a friend of mine went on a cross-country trip around the United States one summer and when she returned to school in the fall, talked of the Grand Canyon. I also saw the Brady Bunch episode that portrayed the family on a trip to the Grand Canyon though I had forgotten that it had occurred at the Grand Canyon until I started doing research for this thesis. In the 1990s National Geographic ran an article on a rafting expedition in the Grand Canyon which I remember reading with great interest, and looking at the pictures with even greater interest. My encounter with the park in the magazine was probably the most influential in how I defined my expectations of my own Grand Canyon experience. I was impressed by the beauty at the bottom of the Canyon and the beauty of the river and wanted to experience being at the river myself. So when 30

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I finally went in 2006 I knew I wanted to backpack to the bottom and experience the Canyon's true power. This thesis is about understanding how people come to know and experience a place through photographs so the subjects as a rule needed to use photography to document and understand their lives. Flickr seemed capable of providing a source of subjects. The site was created by Caterina Fake and Stewart Butterfield when they were working on a game with a social networking focus. One of the engineers for the game created a tool to allow garners to share photos while playing and it turned out to be more fun than the game. So the game was scraped and flickr was born. Butterfield says flickr's biggest innovation came from recognizing the social nature of photography. "It's meant to be shared, talked about, pointed to. saved, archived and available by as many means as possible,'" he says. (Graham) Members of the site have individual pages which showcase their work in a chronologically posted photo stream. However, because flickr is more than just a place to post and store photos, other members can comment on photographs in a number of ways. When a photograph is viewed individually there is a comments section directly below the picture where other members can discuss the photograph. Members that have something specific to say about a portion of the photograph can also comment directly on the photograph with discrete tags which pop-up when scrolled over. In order to allow photographs with similar attributes to be found, flickr has a feature called tags. A photographer labels a photograph with the tag "Grand Canyon", for example and as long as they make it public, anyone can search for and find that photograph along with others also tagged "Grand Canyon." Members also organize groups along similar interests, for example, in recent days the author has been invited to a group focused on bridges which go over roads, another on Spanish horses, another where members tag real life objects as they would in flickr and then photograph the real world to post on flickr, and another where members are supposed to post an image per day. The dynamics of the site were intriguing and without fully understanding the social networking focus, it was unclear if they would be detectable in the survey. This thesis is therefore based on the particular collective conception of the Grand Canyon that flickr members hold. Ideally the results would be representative of the general photographing population, but before starting the experiment the hypothesis was necessarily vague. Methodology Because flickr is an online community the data gathering was completely electronic through an online survey that made it easier to gather and store responses. As flickr is not a small site, it was necessary to develop a methodology for finding participants. Attempting to take advantage of the social networking aspects of the site, this author joined a few groups relevant to the Grand Canyon; Road Trip America, America's National Parks, and Travel Photography. However, only one 31

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response came out of this method and it was abandoned. Instead, members were directly solicited based on their appearance in searches for Grand Canyon tags. Unfortunately this methodology excluded from participation users who had visited the Grand Canyon but not posted photographs, users who had not tagged their work with the operative words of "Grand Canyon", and simply users who had never been to the Grand Canyon. Appendix A and B include screen shots from the informed consent form and survey. The purpose of the survey was to gain an understanding of how people defined their own experience at the Grand Canyon through their photography. To allow this, the end of the survey asked users to choose up to three images from their photostreams to describe their experiences. The survey was able to automatically search their photostream for tagged photographs from the Grand Canyon and allow participants to link to the photos by clicking on the thumbnails within the survey. These photographs were self-selected and produced visual representations of experience. In addition to this visual interpretation, the survey included questions intended to provide context to the photographs and allow a more detailed understanding (see Appendix A). Participants were asked about their motivations for joining flickr, how long they had been a member, and to what extent they talked to other members about travel, if at all. The answers to these questions provided a greater understanding of how flickr worked in the context of this research. A primary concern dealt with influences on an individual's expectations and the role flickr played in constructing these expectations. In addition, the survey asked a series of questions about the participant's actual experience at the Grand Canyon. These questions were intended to obtain a better understanding of the characteristics of the survey group. An early expectation was that most people would report spending time at the rim as their primary activity. However, if everyone had instead backpacked down to the river, the photographs would likely have reflected this and the interpretations would be skewed if there was an abnormality in reported activities. Participants were asked about their length of stay, something that correlated to experience and reflected the length of time participants believed sufficient to have the proscribed experience. In order to understand how well photographs reflected their experience, participants were asked to rate, on a scale of one to ten, how accurately their photographs described their experience at the Grand Canyon. These questions were intended to give information about the characteristics of the sample, as well as describe the experience portrayed in the photographs collected. Each response was stored on a central server for the length of the survey and incrementally imported into excel for data analysis. The photographs were also downloaded at the end of the survey and printed to allow the researcher to assess their collective meaning. 32

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CHAPTER 5: EVALUATING A COLLECTIVE IMAGE As the survey progressed and a sufficient number of responses were received the assumptions and main argument of this thesis needed to be reconsidered. Initially, when the author started work on the thesis, she was interested in what people's pictures say about them and what they are trying to remember, in the story of the photograph about the individual moment, and what motivated people to take a picture at specific moments. However, as work progressed, it became necessary to redirect the focus of the research. As opposed to the moment of the photograph and the moments leading up to the creation of the shot, the research began to concentrate on the moments after the photograph was created. How the reproduction and distribution of photographs affected their interpretation became important. Was it different to see a photograph in a magazine or online as the result of a google search? Did it matter that a photograph was the work of a professional photographer and labeled as such when it was distributed? How had technology changed the types of landscape photography produced? Did it matter that photographers were increasingly using digital equipment? Did that mean that the essential characteristics of landscape photographs had changed? Does how a photographer intends to share their work inform the photographs at the production stage? As spring and summer progressed into fall, the focus continued to shift. It became important to understand how the imagery a tourist is exposed to prior to a visit affects the experiences they seek and their memories with which they come away. It also became evident that there was a discontinuity between landscape imagery that is produced and park experience. Since textual and visual representation orchestrates the expectation, experience, and memory of National Parks, understanding how this orchestration was working to provide fulfilling experiences for park visitors was of interest. In December of 2007, the essential question was identified as: How have new digital technologies altered the relationship between intention and reception in photography? This is the question that sparked the creation of the flickr the survey. However, as the survey progressed, rather than answering the question, it became evident that the question was not being addressed at all. It was the wrong question. So, what was the right question? In order to find the right question it was necessary to look at the answers provided by the survey results. The method chosen to access these answers was through the photographs chosen by participants to typify their experiences at the Grand Canyon. This was no small task as there were one hundred and thirty three responses and each participant had identified one to three photographs to describe their experience. It was a struggle to find meaning in so many photographs digitally and was eventually ineffective. The next step was to print all two hundred and ninety photographs, that seeing all the photographs together would give insight into the meaning of the results. After laying all the photographs 33

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on the floor of the living room, making sure to make paths to allow access to the room and to the photographs, it was time to just let them lay there, time to "live with" the photographs. After seeing the images all together, a pattern began to emerge. The photographs did not all describe the same experience. Some had people standing, smiling at the camera. Others were devoid of people or anything in the foreground and concentrated on the broad expanse before the photographer. Still others pictured cute little squirrels. These differences in experience represented the diverse ways people experienced the Grand Canyon, and after the fact, what photographs spoke to the memory of their experience. The chapters that follow are a discussion of the categorizations which resulted and the experiences they typify. This evolution in answer suggested an evolution in the question, and again lead to a concentration on the production stage of the photograph. The photographs were essential to understanding the role photography played in each participants discovery of place. By concentrating on the production end of the photograph again came acknowledgement that a photograph has as much, if not more to say about the photographer than about the physicality of a place. We know that even ordinary perception is a biologically and culturally mediated construct. That is, our perceptions of the world will ultimately tell us more about our perception than they will tell us of the world. Likewise. any photograph tells us more of photography than of the subject represented and a body of work by an individual will infonn us more of the photographer per se than of photography. (Hume 120) A group of individuals by implication is a collective. Therefore, the results can say something about the collective of ftickr photographers. What do they value about the Grand Canyon? What experience do they feel is essential to their visit? What do they value about travel? What do photographs do for them? What are the cultural views of the Grand Canyon? What is our relationship to nature? Cultural conceptions of the national parks were set up in the nineteenth century and determined the types of landscapes, the United States identified with and wanted to preserve. These were for the most part landscapes of extraordinary scale, landscapes deemed wild and pure. The Grand Canyon is a place where people come because it is the iconic landscape of the United States. It is beautiful, it is sparse, and it is waiting to be explored despite all the individuals who have come before. In part. our cultural views of Grand Canyon do not change because it remains under the eyes of observers who sought to anchor themselves against the uncertainties of national identity and the ambivalent atmosphere of change at the end of the nineteenth century. Their quest was for culture. and that meant places like the Grand Canyon became the equivalents of great artworks that were to be admired from a silent and contemplative distance .... The stuntman driving over the edge and the tightrope walker ask us to celebrate the individual over the canyon. But this role has typically been reserved for the scientist and the artist. (Neumann 298) The following chapters explore the individual visual constructions of the Grand Canyon, as derived from an analysis of photographs, and the role of photography in facilitating experience. 34

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Scale Figure 5.1 A Desert View 35

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For many, the most impressive aspect of the Grand Canyon is its scale. It is a vertical mile from rim to river and that's a long way. For many, viewing the canyon from the rim is their only experience. This is a hands-off, reverential view of the place. While the photographers may appreciate nuances, these photographs are not about the nuances of place. They attempt to, in one photograph, show what the Grand Canyon is. They lack the specificity afforded by foreground objects and place the photographer within an indistinguishable collective experience. From such a photograph it is evident that the photographer has visited the Grand Canyon, however the photograph hardly attests to anything else. The number of photographs identified by the participants in this category attests to the commonality of this experience, of the prevalence of such a connection to the Grand Canyon. It also points to a collective need to document this experience. The failure to photograph this proscribed grand scale photograph might be tantamount to not taking a picture at the summit of a high peak, it is simply what you do. The largest percentage of photographs, thirty-seven percent, fell into this category. This could be attributable to how long people choose to stay at the Grand Canyon. A shorter experience means that it is harder for a visitor to become intimate with a landscape so large. A longer experience implies a different set of expectations, one that emphasizes individual experience and self-discovery. The median length of a visit for the survey participants was two days, hardly enough time to become intimate with the Grand Canyon. It's hard to know what these photographs mean to the photographers now besides the fact that they believe the photographs typify their experience at the Grand Canyon. Such photographs are often taken among throngs of others also gazing over the edge. However, the serenity of the photographs does not belie this context. For all I as a viewer know, what it is like to be at the Grand Canyon is to be all alone, pointing my camera over the edge of the rim, contemplating the expanse before me. Estelle Jussim expresses the sentiment exhibited in these photographs, that the desire to present a certain image of a Grand Canyon devoid of other tourists who would only serve to mare the image. 36 Figure 5.2 Grand Canyon from Bright Angel Trail Figure 5.3 Cloud and Rift Figure 5.4 #3752 Figure 5.5 Grand Canyon --... Figure 5.6 Grand Canyon

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Nature was a cathedral, not a dance hall. And certainly humans used in photographs simply to provide a sense of scale for all those impressive natural monuments were to be scorned as measuring rods. hardly considered as ornaments in a work of would-be art. (Jussim 31) However, some photographers, attempting to communicate the scale of the Grand Canyon choose to include inconspicuous figures. These figures are not identifiable, often appear in silhouette, and are very small in comparison to the scene portrayed in the photograph. The inclusion of human figures in this way supports a view of the Grand Canyon as a place of reverence incomprehensible in scale. 37 Figure 5.7 Grand Canyon Figure 5.8 Grand Canyon from Kaibab Trail Figure 5.9 The Grand Canyon Figure 5.10 Mother Point

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Sublime Figure 5 .11 Grand Canyon After the Storm 38

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The second category of photographs to discuss is that of photographs intended as objects of art. These photographs have a higher instance of artistic license than the previous category and tend to portray a version of the Grand Canyon intended by the photographer. Their existence conforms to the ideals of landscape photography, portraying beautiful and sublime landscapes. However, unlike the images chiefly concerned with scale, these photographers are concerned with creating a beautiful image. They strive to show the sublteties of the landscape through variations in light and color. The photographer for these photographs is as much concerned with showing the Grand Canyon as displaying their skill as a photographer. Walter Lippman describes this type of photograph. There is, of course. some connection between the scene outside and the mind through which we watch it... A man has rarely looked at a landscape. let us say, except to examine its possibilities for division into building lots, but he has seen a number of landscapes hanging in the parlor. And from then he has learned to think of a landscape as a rosy sunset. or as a country road with a church steeple and a silver moon. One day he goes to the country, and for hours he does not see a single landscape. Then the sun goes down looking rosy. At once he recognizes a landscape and exclaims that it is beautiful. But two days later. when he tries to recall what he saw, the odds are that he will remember chiefly some landscape in a parlor. (Hume 8) These photographs were plentiful, comprising twenty percent of the photographs submitted. However they were less abundant than the previous category, testifying to their higher technical demands and need for planning. The photographer needs to be at the correct place at the correct time to document the landscape, which generally seems to happen at sunrise and sunset. The beauty of these photographs implies a common impression of the Grand Canyon and a desire to show its variation in different light. It also reveals a drive by flickr photographers to get "that shot". 39 Figure 5.12 HDR-Grand Canyon Lightning Figure 5.13 Sunset at the Bottom of the Grand Canyon Figure 5.14 Sunset from Timp Point, Grand Canyon North Rim Figure 5.15 Grand Canyon Snowstorm Figure 5.16 Grand Canyon

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The Sum of the Parts Figure 5.17 The Crazy Lithuanian 40

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Some would say that a camera is a way for a photographer to explore the world. Imposing an aesthetic to what they see and training them to notice things missed by non-photographers. The photographs in this category show a desire on the part of the photographers to discover the Grand Canyon themselves through their photographs. There are photographs of stone, of waterfalls, of specific rock formations, of stately trees, all which serve to bring detail into the experience of the Grand Canyon. No longer are these photographers' photographs like those of every other tourist. Although in a place as visited as the Grand Canyon some, admittedly that are of specific landmarks start to look like others. Therefore, these images can become as iconic as those that encompass the scale of the canyon, just at a smaller scale. These photographs show a level of experience that suggests a certain degree of intimacy with the landscape. They also suggest an integration of photography into experience and can be seen as a tool for discovery. Sixteen percent of the photographs fell into this category. 41 Figure 5.18 Havasu Falls Figure 5.19 Grand Canyon Sept 65 Figure 5.20 Grand Canyon Figure 5.21 Grand Canyon Rock Abstract

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Sensorial Experience Figure 5 22 Tourists at the Grand Canyon 42

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This category of photographs tells the story of a trip. These photographers are concerned with what it is like to be at the Grand Canyon, on their trip. The photographs evoke specific moods and have the power to allow the viewer to have a sensory experience beyond the visual of the photographic object. Feeling the cool water of the Colorado river as it splashes the rafters, the warmth of the campfire. the camaraderie of hiking together are all examples of the sensory experience. Their technique varies but together they are able to convey the actual experience. In other words. these images describe more than other categories the immediate sensations of actually being at this place in this moment and offering the explicit point-of-view of the photographers. The photographers for this reason probably chose these photographs because they were able to bring back memories of the trip and the moments captured on film. Nine percent of the photographs collected fell into this category. 43 Figure 5.23 summer coolin Figure 5.24 Grand Canyon Campfire Figure 5.25 Canyon Sunbeam

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Evidence of Human Figure 5.26 Watchtower: Striking Interior 44

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Some photographers choose not to ignore the influence and evidence of human presence on the supposedly wild landscapes of our national parks. This group of photographs documents the influence of humans on Grand Canyon National Park. From the buildings of Mary Colter, intended to evoke the spirit and architecture of American Indians, to the trails which lay atop the landscape of cliffs and rocks. These photographs portray an experience that does not pretend to erase the fact that millions of people have visited the same place you have, and that people have influenced the landscape for nearly a thousand years. These photographs make up seven percent of those submitted, not necessarily an insignificant amount. 45 Figure 5.28 People on Skywalk Figure 5.30 The Chief Figure 5.31 Trail

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Figure 5.32 Great Canyon I Was There 46

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About five percent of the photographs collected are prototypical snapshots, picturing a smiling individual or group in front of the camera. These photographs are relevant to the experience of the Grand Canyon in illustrating the importance of these photographers of human networks. Instead, they illustrate the importance to these photographers of human networks. The photographs evoke memories of the people pictured and characterize the trip by its characters more than the landscape. This number is most likely not an accurate reflection of the number of photographs actually taken which fall into this category. When asked why they joined ftickr, sixty-one of participants responded that they wanted to improve their photography and get a forum for their work. Flickr is a forum for serious amateur photographers and others, but mostly it is focused on photography to a degree one would not expect from a social networking site. Another reason the numbers may not be entirely accurate is because many of the photographers may be nervous about posting images of their children on ftickr or providing the license to publish photographs of their children. This simply means that more people may have submitted photographs in this category to typify their experiences had the survey been conducted in a different manner. 47 Figure 5.33 Plane and Pilot to Grand Canyon South Rim Figure 5.34 Grand Canyon Figure 5.35 Road Trip 6-18-05 Grand Canyon 048 Figure 5.37 Carolyn overlooking the Colorado River, Grand Canyon

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Mule Deer and Other Endearing Creatures Figure 5.38 Grand Canyon Deer 48

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Another category of photographs received through the survey were those of the unique, or not so unique, wildlife and plant life of the Grand Canyon. The Grand Canyon has a number of species that only exist in the park and similar ecosystems bordering it. For example, there are pink rattlesnakes at the Grand Canyon, the Grand Canyon rattlesnake, a species many may have the good fortune (or perhaps misfortune) of seeing in the campground at Indian Garden. The North Rim has a unique squirrel; the Kaibab Squirrel, named after the plateau that is its habitat. For many, wild animals and the presence of plants define nature. These photographs document an approach to the Grand Canyon, not as a vast unfathomable chasm, but as a beautiful example of nature populated by unique and fascinating creatures. This experience is not very common, or at least it is not common as a photograph that typifies a visitor's experience at the Grand Canyon as only three percent of the photographs from this survey fall into the category. However, wildlife is often part of the experience of America's National Parks. Just think of the elk at Rocky Mountain National Park, the Giant Sequoias at Sequoia, and the deer and mountain goats at Olympic National Park. 49 Figure 5.39 Squirrely Figure 5.40 Crow at Grand Canyon Figure 5.41 Prickly Pear at Grand Canyon Figure 5.42 Grand Canyon Figure 5.43 Raven over the Canyon at Guano Point

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How I Got Here Figure 5.44 Road from North Rim Grand Canyon 50

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Although, everyone uses some form of transportation to arrive at the Grand Canyon, this category of photographs, documenting transportation, was a very small percentage of the photographs submitted, only two percent. However, these photographs show a highly personal side of the photographer's experience at the Grand Canyon, and likely on a larger trip. The emotions evoked in the images transport one to times of freedom and images of the open road. American life is tied to cars and transportation so it's of no surprise that these images appeared and were described by the photographers as typifying their experiences. The small percentage of photographs in this category might indicate a decreasing connection to the American road trip experience or to cars as central to identity. Cars are prevalent but may not hold the same meaning they did historically. In order to investigate this hypothesis it would be necessary to do further research. 51 Figure 6.45 South or North? Figure 6.46 The Great American Road Trip Figure 6.47 Grand Canyon by Helicopter Figure 6.48 Crown Tour Bus Figure 6.49 Bertie at the Grand Canyon

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CHAPTER 6: IMAGES AS EVIDENCE OF RELATIONSHIP TO LANDSCAPE Matrix Table 6.1: Content category percentage distributions Scale Sublime Parts Sensory SelfPosing Creatures Got There Reflective Sky 1.9 11.9 0.0 4.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 14.3 Land 42.6 22.0 70.2 56.0 26.3 13.3 60.0 14.3 Both 55.6 66.1 29.8 40.0 73.7 86.7 30.0 71.4 Unique 19.4 33.9 46.8 64.0 89.5 73.3 60.0 57.1 Generic 80.6 66.1 53.2 36.0 10.5 26.7 40.0 42.9 Above 96.3 84.7 57.4 40.0 78.9 53.3 70.0 100.0 Below 3.7 15.5 42.6 60.0 21.1 46.7 30.0 0.0 Fore 12.0 1.7 21.3 32.0 31.6 66.7 80.0 71.4 Middle 45.4 35.6 61.7 56.0 57.9 33.3 20.0 28.6 Back 42.6 62.7 17.0 12.0 10.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 Human 25.0 15.3 21.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 30.0 100.0 None 75.0 84.7 78.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 70.0 0.0 After the previous chapter the conclusions of this thesis may seem overly obvious. What does it mean that the photographs can be categorized based on their content and that there are patterns sufficient to group images from disparate photographers? This chapter aims to distill the meaning behind these categorizations, arguing that the photographs can be approached with structural concepts. Therefore this analysis looked at characteristics of the images such as framing choice, location of subject, etc. that focused on characteristics of the photograph more than the place it was taken. As has been stated earlier, this thesis aims to be applicable beyond an analysis of the Grand Canyon. This chapter proposes a way in which photographs can be approached to access attitudes and connect the content analysis to distill inherent characteristics of each type of content. Such an analysis could be applied to groups of photographs about disparate landscapes and could aid in distinguishing the 52

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essential characteristics of each. This chapter will serve to introduce these concepts of distinction and explicate their implications for the group of Grand Canyon photographs collected. Western Sky Table 6.2: Emphasis on sky and landscape by content category (percentages) Scale Sublime Parts Sensory Self Posing Creatures Got There Reflective Sky 1.9 11.9 0.0 4.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 14.3 Land 42.6 22.0 70.2 56.0 26.3 13.3 60.0 14.3 Both 55.6 66.1 29.8 40.0 73.7 86.7 30.0 71.4 The sky is a major part of common ideas of the west. Montana is "Big Sky Country," while an ad for a local Colorado ski/golf resort touts "wide open spaces" as its big selling point given the motto's use with emphasized inflection at the end of every commercial. This category could give really insightful, meaningful results if compared to a group of photographs from another place. Without that the statements lose some of their meaning from an inability to distinguish attitudes and images of the Grand Canyon. The Grand Canyon is a vast landform and if one is standing on the rim, an enormous hole surrounded by vast sky. As such, one would expect many photographs which include sky or sky and landscape. The alternative is found only if the camera is pointed down or the photographer is below the rim. Some slightly startling results include the absence of the sky from photographs which portray portions of the canyon, subjects (or friends) posing, and contents which show the absence of humans. Some statistics of note are the relatively even distribution of photographs in the scale category and the emphasis of Sensorial on land. If we look at the data several categories lack an emphasis on sky to a point to which their definitions almost seem to exclude it. This analysis of sky and land shows a general leaning towards equal inclusion of both. However, it would be most informative to apply this analysis to a range of other places and landscape to ascertain if this distribution is normal or unique to the Grand Canyon. 53

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Imaging Generic Table 6.3: Uniqueness of images by content category (percentages) Scale Sublime Parts Sensory SelfPosing Creatures Got There Reflective Unique 19.4 33.9 46.8 64.0 89.5 73.3 60.0 57.1 Generic 80.6 66.1 53.2 36.0 10.5 26.7 40.0 42.9 What does it mean for a photograph to be generic? A succinct definition seems elusive. The intention is to describe a photograph which does not seem to duplicate preconceived views of the Grand Canyon. Merriam-Webster's online dictionary defines it as "having no particularly distinctive quality or application." Therefore, a generic photograph is one that lacks qualities which separate it from other photographs. Therefore not all sunset or sunrise photographs are unique and as a genre these photographs sometimes seem to feel repetitive. The categories which most seemed to emphasize individual perspective were those focusing on aspects of human interaction or experience or wildlife. Photographs falling within the Scale and Sublime categories from the previous chapter, by virtue of a de-emphasis on humanization lack this distinction between photographs. Location Table 6.4: Location of photographer (in relation to rim) by content category (percentages) Scale Sublime Parts Sensory SelfPosing Creatures Got There Reflective Above 96.3 84.7 57.4 40.0 78.9 53.3 70.0 100.0 Below 3.7 15.5 42.6 60.0 21.1 46.7 30.0 0.0 Approximately one percent of visitors to the Grand Canyon venture below the rim.6 1 This analysis offers an idea of which types of photographs tend to be taken from above and below the rim. For example, no photographs classified as attempting to convey the enormous scale of the Grand Canyon were taken from below the rim. The reverse relationship was true though less polarized for photographs conveying sensorial or experiential experience, for these sixty percent of the photographs appeared to be taken below the rim. This grouping clarifies the meaning of the categories in the previous chapter more than anything else, specifying where certain photographs are and can be taken. In other situations the definition of location types 54

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will be different. However, most objects or places have multiple ways in which they are conventionally experienced and categories derived from these perspectives should be informative. Point of Focus Table 6.5: Emphasis in picture plane by content category (percentages) Scale Sublime Parts Sensory SelfPosing Creatures Got There Reflective Fore 12.0 1.7 21.3 32.0 31.6 66.7 80.0 71.4 Middle 45.4 35.6 61.7 56.0 57.9 33.3 20.0 28.6 Back 42.6 62.7 17.0 12.0 10.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 What does it mean to focus on the foreground of a photograph? The background? Or the middle ground? It speaks to the type of subject in an indirect way. For instance, if you're taking a photograph of a friend you are unlikely to make the background the focus of the picture. In this case, we aren't talking specifically about focus in terms of "depth of field" but instead mean where the weight or emphasis of the picture lies. Is the photograph about a single subject (or subjects) placed close to the camera or is it about something with no clear focus where the focus of the picture seems to be everywhere and infinite. As with the previous typology, this grouping describes from a different perspective the categories from the previous chapter. Almo.st in a reverse way saying if a certain type of photograph is the aim then certain conditions must be met, the photograph must be focused on infinity and lack a distinct point of interest or must be focused on the foreground or risk loosing the posing friend to the rest of the photograph. This section also speaks to the earlier discussion about inclusion of land and sky. A photograph which emphasizes the sky will not have its main focus on the foreground. Self-Reflective Table 6.6: Representation of humanity by content category (percentages) Scale Sublime Parts Sensory SelfPosing Creatures Got There Reflective Human 25.0 15.3 21.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 30.0 100.0 None 75.0 84.7 78.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 70.0 0.0 Initially this characteristic was named "evidence of human." While this remained the criteria for classification as having humans or no humans, the name 55

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does not really reflect the meaning of the characteristic. The presence of humans or evidence of their existence through buildings, objects, or trails, places the photograph in the cadre of those which reflect on the human condition or in the cadre of those who dismiss it. As the Grand Canyon is a place heavily constructed by man even the photographs which aimed to convey the scale did not exclude human presence. This presence was often that of a silhouetted figure, a distant figure, or a trail cutting across portions of the landscape. Photographs of the Grand Canyon speak to the integration of humans and landscape through the purposeful exclusion or inclusion of either. The category most lacking in humans or their paraphernalia was that of the Sublime photograph, speaking again to the ideas of the sublime as composed of solitude and deafening silence. 56

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CHAPTER 7: CONTEXT OF THESE SNAPSHOTS AND CONCLUSION Reflection on Links to Imaging Traditions After critically evaluating the photographs collected in the survey for this research it seems clear that something is at work to produce such a distribution of content and photographic structure. The photographs can be separated into those which specifically use the conventions of landscape painting and photography as well as images seen before, and those which aim to move away from such traditions in order to uniquely experience and document place. As has been argued earlier, the choice of inclusion and exclusion, framing, and emphasis of the picture plane are all important decisions for the message of the photograph. Manipulation of these characteristics takes an image from that of a generic version and to a unique version. Traditions of landscape painting were about the appreciation of visual landscape from a certain, safe distance. This tradition sometimes even seemed to exclude the artist's attitudes or perspective, trying at best to exclude clues to a specific non-reproducible moment. The landscapes pictured and photographed in this tradition derived from the sublime emphasized a wildness and solitude. Osborne speaks of the meaning of photography in constructing personal experience. But the power of travel to induce the production of images holds a significance that goes beyond the concerns of art photography and its public. The photographic image continues to play the part in the extension and reinforcement of the global economy and culture it was given at its inception. Yet, in alliance with types of travelling, it remains one of the means of challenging this order. In a world squeezed into the cliche journeys and images which disregard conventional itineraries and resemblances, which endlessly reinvent strangeness and explore new territories of human connection, become indispensable for the continuous of autonomous experience. In the traditions of modernism the traveller-photographer may seek to emphasise the shocking and 'irreducible otherness' of the world and confront viewers with the particularity of their own responses. (Osborne 193) The results of the analysis for this thesis support the continued relevance for the traditions established by Edmund Burke in his writing and the English landscape painters of the Nineteenth century. Existence of Sublime at Grand Canyon The sublime, by some definitions, is perfectly described by the Grand Canyon. Burke's category of the Sublime was based on the induction of pain and was described using pain and fear. So, according to Burke a sublime landscape is one which is not smooth, which is rough, difficult to see fully, or overwhelming in strength or power. Finley describes how infinity ties to Burke's idea of the sublime. 57

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If darkness was an aspect of obscurity, then it served efficiently also as a component of another cause of sublimity: 'privation.' Burke believed that privation was characterized by three other 'terrible' components, vacuity', 'solitude', and 'silence.' (Finley 143) The Grand Canyon is seemingly infinite and part of the challenges in imaging it lie in the inability to see its full extent from a single perspective. Similarly it elicits in some an emotion of fear at the size of the chasm. As has been shown earlier in discussions of the portrayal of landscape, the idea of the sublime is especially relevant. If we look beyond the Grand Canyon to the general conceptions of the American West the idea of the sublime continues to be relevant and point towards a particular definition of national identity. In Bowles" (author of The Swit:.erland of America) mind. the Mountain of the Holy Cross was yet another example of how Americans. faced with vistas lacking the layers of human patina suggested by the castles and ruins of European antiquity, could derive continuity and a sense of security from the West's majestic. sublime wilderness and its perceived timelessness. American national identity had long been rooted in its landscape. which was promoted as a New Eden. Following a tradition of penetrating the untouched places of the American continent (one that disregarded the claims of the First Americans). Euro-Americans perceived the West as the last bastion of cherished hopes and dreams of a peaceful and bountiful land. Western lands were willed into sanctity and made sacred. (Neff 14) The America is defined by its possession of "untouched" lands, by its vastness. Therefore, the Grand Canyon is central to a sense of national identity which includes these ideas of expansive space initially discussed by Burke in his introduction of the concept of the sublime. Making Strange Places Familiar and Owning a Place Through Photography Why do people travel? What do individuals hope to accomplish by leaving the familiarity of their own home? In common is a departure from normal routine. Some seek experiences that challenge them physically and make them feel more alive. Others choose to spend their vacations leisurely on the beach. Still others choose to visit foreign countries and experience new cultures and landscapes. There are many ways individuals choose to spend their two weeks or so of allotted vacation time each year and these choices say a great deal about these individuals and culture in general. This section will discuss travel in relationship to the representation and description of landscape, but first will touch briefly on issues of the needs and expectations specific to a traveler and connect these to ideas of authenticity and consumption. Many people travel to experience something out of their normal routine and strive in their travels to broaden their experience. However, travel is not an innocent exercise. A UNESCO report once stated that: "Tourism .... is life in parenthesis." (Crick 332). Some may argue that this is not entirely the case. How one acts, what one does, and how one responds to experiences while traveling say more about a person and their culture7 1 than about the actual place itself. Crick expands on 58

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this idea, asserting the nai"vete in the belief that a tourist can achieve an authentic expenence. Tourism is very much about our culture. not about their culture or our desire to learn about it. This explains the presence in guidebooks of sites and signs that have little genuine historic or living connection to a culture but that exist simply as markers in the touristic universe. As Barthes remarks perceptively, travel guidebooks are actually instruments of blindness. They do not. in other words, tell one about another culture at all. (Crick 328) So, what is tourism then? What does travel mean? Is it just about the tourist, our own values and us? It's about the perspective we gain on ourselves from the experience. The picture painted by Crick is pretty discouraging. According to Crick, all a tourist does when traveling is perpetuate, in the style of old imperialism, their culture. While we may strive for the "authentic" experience, we have no way to know what an actual authentic experience is, after all the guidebooks just make us blind and our very presence makes the experience inauthentic. Most tourists don't think of themselves as bad people or of themselves in such a imperialist role. While we may be uncomfortable with such a negative assessment of our own motivations for travel, such a perspective is useful in analyzing the interaction of tourist and landscape and broadly with unfamiliar cultural landscapes. As reluctant as most would be to admit it, much of travel is about consumption. We may strive not to exploit the places we go to and the cultures we visit, but nevertheless travel is about the ownership of the place through personal experience of it, often an interaction documented in image. Perhaps the insistence by some people that they are not themselves tourists, is based on a desire to distance themselves from a group of people they disapprove of, asserting a desire to be associated only with individuals whose values they respect. The satisfaction is derived not from the individual act of consumption but from the fact that all sorts of other people are also consumers of the service and these people are deemed appropriate to the particular consumption in question. (Urry 131) Such a conception of tourism is often played out in an elitist manner. The people you are satisfied to share your consumption with probably are of a similar socioeconomic status and share your values. Some critics have observed that as a spot becomes more popular the rich are likely to move on, seeing their private spot as polluted by less well-off tourists who cannot afford the same level of experience. This observation of the class-stratification of tourist locales is not highly relevant for this thesis and therefore will not be further discussed. After all, the Grand Canyon is a very well known place where few people could realistically expect to only encounter people with similar values, with the exception perhaps in lodging and restaurants. Part of the pleasure of visiting such a place is often in the experience of meeting a variety of people, of becoming on an equal plane by virtue of the locale. No matter who you are at the Grand Canyon your experience is more affected by the amount of time you spend there than how much money you make. Everyone wants to look over the rim and see the void that 59

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is the Grand Canyon. And that means that the tourists who visit the Grand Canyon can collectively be characterized as consumers of the landscape. So the purpose of visiting the Grand Canyon is to have an experience outside of everyday experience, after all there is only one true Grand Canyon and it cannot be said that you've seen something similar, it is a sight unto itself. Urry talks about this consumption in the context of the visual consumption, an idea he later describes as the gaze. Central to tourist consumption then is to look individually or collectively upon aspects of landscape or townscape which are distinctive. which signify an experience which contrasts with everyday experience. (Urry 132) Urry's discussion objectifies the object of the view, making the seemingly public thing a "view" into something which is owned in a way. Through photography the gaze is "captured in photographs, postcards, films, models, and so on. These enable the gaze to be endlessly reproduced." (Urry 133). The conflict occurs when the gaze is one which cannot be shared with others. This goes back to the earlier discussion of authenticity and searching for unique experience. The post-tourists may embrace the kitche and the crowds, but the established conception of the Grand Canyon and many other sites considered "wild" aligns much more with the inner experience of the sublime. Like the Road Atlas described by Neumann, there is an established and proper way to experience the Grand Canyon set up by the imagery which reproduced this preferred, solitary gaze. Urry describes this type of gaze, the "romantic" tourist gaze. As a material good the mountain can be viewed for its grandeur. beauty and conformity to the idealized Alpine hom. There is almost no limit to this good. No matter how many people are looking at the mountain it still retains these qualities. However, the same mountain can be viewed as a positional good, as a kind of shrine to nature, which individuals wish to enjoy in solitude. There is then a 'romantic' form of the tourist gaze, in which the emphasis is upon solitude. privacy and a personal. semi-spiritual relationship with the object of the gaze. (Urry 137) This, is the gaze most influential in forming expectations and experience at the Grand Canyon. The reproduction of this gaze means that the landscape is often portrayed without people who would otherwise intrude into the viewers "romantic" experience of the landscape. For the most part this research has ignored how expectations of experience are constructed, arguing that the Grand Canyon is so prevalent in image, text, and general knowledge that it is not possible to claim to trace the source of the expectations. However, it can be argued that this prevalence frames the way visitors experience the Grand Canyon in a way that is distinct from places less often portrayed in popular culture. After all, the Grand Canyon often shows up in television adds for cars, is a recognizable part of many movies, and has shown up multiple times in places like National Geographic, The New York Times, and The Washington Post in the past year. It has also been portrayed by famous painters and photographers like Ansel Adams. As a result, Greenblat argues, the normal anxiety associated with travel to strange places is reduced. She describes this in relation to Paris, the city of lights, 60

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the city featured in An American in Paris and Amelie to name a couple that come immediately to mind. As a result, someone visiting one of these places has known "landmarks" already established which make the foreign place less unpredictable and act to construct the experience. Some aspects of potential unfamiliarity are in part reduced by the general media presentations. For example, Paris will seem far more familiar than Madrid because more movies and television shows have used it as their story location. Commercials and advertisements feature the Arc de Triomphe, the Champs Elysees, the Eiffel Tower, and Notre Dame Cathedral. These landmarks are part of the iconography of Paris and are the physical backdrop which operates as the psychological organizer of the tourist experience, offering some comfort to temporary strangers as they find something that they 'know.' The question, 'What are we going to do today'?" is answered in part by the existence of these 'known' locations and the sense of expectation met by visiting them." (Green blat I 02) A similar thing has happened with the Grand Canyon. There are "known" landmarks that construct the experience at the Park. Visitors frame their experience based on Ansel Adams' photographs from specific viewpoints, some seeking to replicate the exact framing and perspective. The canyon is often portrayed in extraordinary conditions like thunderstorms or sunrises and sunsets, therefore some visitors construct their experience, and documentation of it, around these known portrayals. Once on vacation, this framing of place continues to influence how the tourist constructs and reproduces the experience. Joel Snyder describes an early connection established between the car and photography around the time of the popularization of the Kodak camera. He observes that: "according to several magazine experts, using a camera improved one's ability to see; by extrapolation, carrying a camera while automobiling sharpened one's notice of beautiful rural landscapes." (Snyder 304) In essence, Snyder is describing the camera as a way to better appreciate landscape, the preferred method for observation. We can think back to the earlier discussion of the Claude Glass and the camera obscura for context. The purposeful framing of landscape is not a new thing and seems to be linked to a better appreciation. In all these cases the landscape is moderated by something, by the reflection in the glass that the eighteenth century traveler looked at instead of the landscape before them, by the small hole which allowed light to pass and project onto the wall behind, and by the mirrors of the camera which reflect several times the world before it reaches the tourist's eye in the viewfinder. The camera is used at times to understand the world (or the landscape), to break it down into smaller pieces and frame sections of interest or relevance. In this way, the camera can be seen as a tool for exploring. It is one way that someone can come to understand a place among others. Some tourists choose to write journals chronicling their days, the scenery, the people, and their thoughts. Others write letters home. Still others sketch. All are devices to aid understanding and allow the tourists to explore in more depth the strange surroundings. Finn discusses the role of photography in personalizing the experience. The experience of personal discovery with a camera can be particularly rewarding when one visits a famous site that has been photographed by millions of others, usually with a friend 61

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or relative standing in the middle, to make a prized addition to a scrapbook. Postcards show popular views that have become cliches, and when you see those views with your own eyes you can't help but be as excited as everybody else by the mere fact of being there. But if you wander away from the crowd and look around you through the camera lens, you may enjoy the thrill of finding views that perhaps none of those millions of other sightseers ever saw. (Finn 44) Photography is part of tourism and plays a role in understanding landscape. The imagery tourists are exposed to prior to visiting a place may influence photographers to seek out their own "classics" by recreating a famous Ansel Adams shot, or may prompt them to personalize their photographs, and thus their memory of the experience, through more exploratory photography. Authenticity What is authentic? According to Merriam Webster's online dictionary, authentic is: "conforming to an original so as to reproduce essential features," as in the reproduction of an image or object; "made or done the same way as an original," as in a traditional ceremonial dance; or "not false or imitation," as in an experience or handicraft. But how can something be authentic if observed from someone outside the original experience or culture? Authenticity is unrealistically sought in both representation of place and in actual experience. Such an attitude means that manipulated photographs are taken outside the realm of accurate documents and lose their truth value, classified instead now in the realm of art. It is the reason that tourists baulk at calling themselves tourists. After all, they aren't the loud obnoxious people who seem to care little that they are in a new place with people that may judge them and their culture based on their actions. No, they are the people who talk to the locals, who strive to become part of the social network of the place, who appreciate the beauty of the traditions and of place without alteration for their comfort. But is this really authentic? Pretending that the separation between tourists and locals does not exist is naive. The presence of a tourist does change the place, even the tourist in search of the "authentic" experience. Maybe that's why some delight in the absurdity of the "loud" tourist, of the tacky signs, the overly manipulated landscapes, and the kitsch of gift shops. It has recently been suggested that some tourists might best be described as "post-tourists", people who almost delight in inauthenticity. The post-tourist finds pleasure in the multitude of games that can be played and knows that there is no authentic tourist experience. They know that the apparently authentic fishing village could not exist without the income from tourism or that the glossy brochure is a piece of pop culture. It is merely another game to be played at. another pastiched surface feature of postmodern experience. (Urry 140) Moss observes that authenticity has been applied in an odd way to photography and that sometimes the artifact of the experience, the photograph, is regarded as more authentic than the actual experience. 62

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Time is a mathematical concept, a theoretical construction. Print is a method of encapsulating fragments of consciousness and removing them from what we experience as the temporal continuum. The past in print becomes more authentic in the reading mind than in the personal past, which is encoded in memory and is empirically unstable. The present in print is instantaneous, as in actual experience, but unlike actual experience it may be sustained for perusal and returned to, again and again. (Moss 13) The photograph is a record, seemingly of what actually happened, untainted by human emotion and the frailty of memory. This view is consistent with earlier discussion of the inherent trust of a photograph to accurately reproduce reality. And perhaps the reason people take so many photographs is to retain the memory of the authentic experience, to reproduce for themselves the event over and over, untainted by the fragility of human memory. The research undertaken in this thesis strongly suggests that amateur, touristic photographs reveal attitudes toward iconic places, such as the Grand Canyon. These attitudes have been evaluated through analysis of photographic content and structure. This analysis shows a privileging of visual senses in representation of the Grand Canyon. It also shows a common expectation of the actual experience and representation of it. Though this thesis did not directly address expectations for each individual prior to their visit, it did demonstrate the presence of such a collective set of expectations. An examination of the results from the perspectives of anthropologists, photography and film critics, landscape architects, architects, and sociologists supports the assertion that this research reveals an essentially visual, consumptive relationship to the Grand Canyon. Though this thesis focuses solely on the Grand Canyon its conclusions can be applied beyond this single iconic landscape to others within the National Parks. Further attempts to generalize will need to be tested through further experiements in both empirical qualitative and quantitative research for instance, attitudes to "everyday landscapes." These iconic landscapes have a specific purpose as an escape from everyday experience. However, the decision to visit represents attitudes towards landscape present in the everyday. Therefore a use of structural analysis of photographs for attributes specifically related to framing and engagement with landscape appears promising to elicit such attitudes in this different context. 63

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EPILOGUE This thesis concentrated on a single place, the Grand Canyon, and many of the opportunities to further the ideas presented here are intended to establish how photography explicitly of this place relates to others. One option to extend this research includes a historical survey of photography at the Grand Canyon. The survey conducted for this research sampled only a single group, photographers on ftickr, and a single moment in time. A historical survey centered around the place could show changing (or unchanging) attitudes to the Grand Canyon. In this study the photographs collectively portrayed a superficial, one-dimensional Grand Canyon, a result which has been traced to attitudes about landscape and wilderness. Nature has been described collectively as something to appreciate and as a result it is not surprising how much photographs focus on this activity. However these results are only connected historically through conjecture supported by comparing professional photographs to those of ftickr users. Another question raised by discussions of influences on expectations is that of the portrayal of the Grand Canyon in film. It would be possible to establish expectations and attitudes towards landscape through an analysis of scenes involving the Grand Canyon in film and television. Some starting points could be The Brady Bunch, Thelma and Louise, and Grand Canyon. A third direction for further exploration involves the use of the analysis presented in chapter six to understand formalistically the content of photographs as insight into attitudes towards landscape. Such an undertaking could aim to define the distinction between imaging towards national parks and places in the everyday realm. Such a study would need to be extensive in terms of scope of landscapes portrayed in order to hope to develop distinguishing patterns. This researcher believes that the Grand Canyon is distinct from everyday places, a factor in its popularity as destination. Therefore, a distinction should be possible which characterizes the differences between everyday and places tourists "escape" to. This thesis has shown that imaging of the Grand Canyon is primarily done in a way which privileges visual senses. Therefore, attitudes towards the Grand Canyon often involve physical features which can be ascertained visually, such as its size, despite the challenge in imaging it. As well, photographs which explicitly reference humans are not the prevalent image produced as they serve to interrupt the connection between viewer and landscape and remind the viewer of the intermediary photographer. 64

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APPENDIX A Fllckr Grand Canyon Survey To participate In this s..-.oy you must have 11CC01.1111Wld you must complete the following corsent lorm : Photographing Pl8c:e Experience portlcipallon 1om By signing this form, t wllingly a-e to partlclplle In this thesis projec:l 1 oodefstand thet 1 will be -b)' the -her through an online quos-lnl ked to talk oboul my expellonces In the lllckr comm unity lWld on my tJ1p to the Gnond Canyon. In the -'* mey contoct me through llic k rmol to d8rily my ans-. to k lol-...p questions The study alms to ....-.land the ways In """'h poce apedllcally the Gnond Canyon, Ia _.mod lWld received In the dgtal era. The ......,her hM cholen to locus on online photo shoring carntnl.llitles believing thll their c:omtbWono .., spoclllc to this era lWld -e gne11y llllected the meln topic ot Meeption ot poce. I elso ....-.tlWld lhllt since lllio projec:t Is 1111out f'IIII8Sonllllion. -.ld benellt from eccen to lWld use ol, e selectlonol my will be credited to me, .ness requested Olherwlse. Theforesees minimal risk lnJm participellon essocillled with the shoring ot personal experlencellnl the lhllt the subject's will be compoo.d with lhllt ot partlclporU Thollshed ..-person mey chose to Clilhingon the online comt11l111ty. fileslMI bo used sololy b)' the rMewcho< lWld will no1 bo distributed Conf!denliolity ot the subject,.. bo pn>tocted to the extent delinld, ....,.. mey wish t o bo credited f My algnoture inclcateo my ....._, to partlclplle In this study lWld I ....-.land that partlclpotlon Is entJAIIy vollofltary. I l l.l!her ....-.land that I mey -fnlm the otudy at any poinllnl mey esk questions ot the researohe< belont during, after the s tudy. IIRlonotand .. that I mey chose to cot-" to al oome ot the concllJons below lWld stlM partlclplle 0 By ct.:ltographlfld>llcatlon In a t o bo -en Ill the conclusion Gl the thesis. The thesis wiM bo sted at the school'liibnwy lWld used 1o1oty b)' 11'11Yershy facllty st\ldenls lWld lllnry patrons lWld will no1 be J)l.t>llshed outslde Gl the acedornlc context apecHied hera. 0 B y checking this box t consent to the use Gl a Hlectlon Gl my ph>tographlf acedornlc jcunolarticles 0 By checking this box t consent t o the use of my nome lor crediting the photographs wllen used I the useo cot-"ed ollove P leese print my nome asf-: F quostlono 1111out tho projec:t partlclpallon c:ontsct the ... Marja1e Frankel, b)' email at lllckr..-.evCpitr41111 com. This e1ect10n1c form Is consldond ycu C
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APPENDIX B Fllckr Grand Canyon Survey _____ ... ........, o_.., ___ .,._ 8111118.-...._ a_.., _____ s-... ..... -_ ..... Ollor: I ...... ,..._...., ... a....e.a.in .. USCI'c..karr,. .. e ... .. 6 ... ___ ,_ __.,., Add"" to 5 ca.. Wt -..... .... ....................... -... .-c..,... _,., O...IIIWIIAIIY'. 8T ... ao..-e Gocn ...... B 8.,..., 8_ ..... 8--.. 8 __ .... 8 .......... 13-Oilier. Dlll,..._ .._., ... .-c..,... ... ........ .. 6 Y 6'*' Dill,... ...... ________ 0 Y 0'*' 66

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11. OnwMilfOUdldlwrw? 12. How IDna did lfOU .,_. .... GIWid C8nyon? -1011 .. 1ho....-oldoys 1 4 Did lfOU vtllatller,.._ on ,.__.In ..._ID 1w GIWid c.n,on? 0 Y 0No 15. .,..,....,.? 1 8 Do JOU-.....-rtf ... tldlr--...lllouthftl? 0 Y ONo 1a. Hownuch Ina-did 1M....., .. ,...., plnedi'IWitlcllr"on Mloui...,.ID ._., 8CIIviiK, n:. dumg ,.........a-.. GIWid C8nyon? On IICMd 11010 ,..., 1 9 How Will do you believe your phOtographs of the Grand Cnyon raflec t your exparltnce there ? On S
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ENDNOTES Chapter I 1.1 See John Dixon Hunt: Greater Perfections. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000 and "The Garden as Cultural Object" in Denatured Visions 1.2 Actually, a large part of the American Attitude deals with the idea of a "Middle Landscape," a place between the wilderness discussed here and the urbanized landscape of cities. See Leo Marx's The Machine in the Garden for more on this idea. 1.3 Actually this was a misprint and the title of the book was actually printed as "the medium is the massage." McLu han believed the new title supported the point of his book so he chose not to change it. Chapter 2 2.1 See Guy Debord's Society of Spectacle. 2.2 The idea that one must be of a certain class and posses a specific set of moral values is also present in art criticism. Historically the appreciation of art has been seen as a taste cultivated by the economically and socially privileged. Chapter 3 3.1 Continental and post-modem phi losophy argue that this problem applies to signs as well. The relations between sig nifier and signified are highly influenced by personal biases and preferences, and connotations and denotations are negoti ated. Chapter 4 4.1 Other parks which also fall into this category are: Yellowstone, Yosemite, Arches, and Niagara Falls. Chapter 6 6.1 As reported by the ranger who spoke at the evening program we attended the night we slept at Bright Angel. This number is simply the number of people that went below the rim in any capacity so the number that actually camp (or stay in a cabin) is even smaller. Chapter 7 7.1 While it may seem natural for me to speak of American culture here I don't believe it is appropriate. Many of the respondents to the survey were not Americans and point towards a com mon understanding of the Grand Canyon and landscape, which is peculiar to the landscape of the American West but is not restricted by culture. Some critics have argued that there is now a global youth culture of travel that transcends national boundaries and points towards a collective vision of travel by the twenty something's of wealthy nations. 68

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THEMATIC BIBLIOGRAPHY LITERARY THEORIES Reception Theory Holub, Robert C. Reception Theory : A Critical Introduction. London : New York: Methuen, 1984. Jauss, Hans Robert. Toward an Aesthetic of Reception. Theory and History of Literature ; V. 2. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982. Sublime Donougho, Martin. "Stages of the Sublime in North America." MLN 115, no. 5, Comparative Literature Issue (2000): 909-40. Finley, Gerald. "The Genesis of Turner's 'Landscape Sublime'." Zeitschrift fVor Kunstgeschichte 42, no. 2/3 (1979): 141-65. Novak, Barbara. "American Landscape: Changing Concepts of the Sublime." American Art Journal 4, no. 1 ( 1972): 36-42. Paulson, Ronald. "Versions of a Human Sublime." New Literary History 16, no. 2, The Sublime and the Beautiful: Reconsiderations (1985): 427-37. Photography as an aid for teaching writing Kligerman, Jack. "Photography, Perception, and Composition." College Composition and Communication 28, no. 2 ( 1977): 174-78. GRAND CANYON General Babbitt, Bruce E. Grand Canyon an Anthology : A Selection of Outstanding Writings. I st ed. Flagstaff, Ariz.: Northland Press, 1978. Fleck, Richard F. A Colorado River Reader. Salt Lake City University of Utah Press, 2000. Critical Pen.pectives Neumann, Mark. On the Rim : Looking for the Grand Canyon. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999. Photograph_v of the Grand Canyon Lockwood, C. C. Beneath the Rim: A Photographic Journey through the Grand Canyon. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996. History of the Grand Canyon Leavengood, Betty. Grand Canyon Women : Lives Shaped by 69

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Landscape. Boulder, Colo.: Pruett Pub. Co., 1999. ANTHROPOLOGICAL WRITINGS Tourism Brameld, Theodore, and Midori Matsuyama. Tourism as Cultural Learning: Two Controversial Case Studies in Educational Anthropology. Washington,D. C.: University Press of America, 1978. Carll, Jennifer L. "Cowboys, Indians, and Wide-Open Spaces: German's Image of the American West and Its Impact on Tourism Marketing." University of Colorado, 1999. Crick, Malcom. "Representations of International Tourism in the Social Sciences: Sun, Sex, Sights, Savings, and Servility." Annual Review of Anthropology 18 ( 1989): 307-44. Gomez, Arthur R. Quest for the Golden Circle : The Four Comers and the Metropolitan West. 1945-1970. I st ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994. Greenblat, Cathy Stein, and John H. Gagnon. "Temporary Strangers: Travel and Tourism from a Sociological Perspective." Sociological Perspectives 26, no. I ( 1983): 89-110. Norris, Scott. Discovered Country: Tourism and Survival in the American West. Albuquerque, MN: Stone Ladder Press, 1994. Stronza, Amanda. "Anthropology of Tourism: Forging New Ground for Ecotourism and Other Alternatives." Annual Review of Anthropology 30 (200 I): 261-83. Urry, John. Consuming Places. International Library of Sociology. London; New York: Routledge, 1995. Wrobel, David M., and Patrick T. Long. Seeing and Being Seen : Tour ism in the American West. Lawrence: Published for the Center of the American West, University of Colorado at Boulder by the University Press of Kansas, 200 I. Meaning of Landscape Jackson, John Brinckerhoff, and Helen Lefkowitz Horowitz. Landscape in Sight : Looking at America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997. Marx, Leo. The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America. New York,: Oxford University Press, 1964. Mitchell, W.J.T. "Israel, Palestine, and the American Wilderness." In Landscape and Power, edited by W.J.T. Mitchell. Chicago: 70 University of Chicago Press, 2002.

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Olwig, Kenneth R. "Recovering the Substantive Nature of Landscape." Annals of the Association of American 86, no. 4 ( 1996 ): 630-53. Said, Edward W. "Invention, Memory, and Place." In Landscape and by W.J.T. Mitchell. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Perspectives on Ever.vday Place Meinig, D. W., and John Brinckerhoff Jackson. The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes : Geographical Essays. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. Research Methods Collier, John, and Malcolm Collier. Visual Anthropology : Photography as a Research Method. Rev. and expanded ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1986. COMMUNICATION Luhmann, Niklas. Art as a Social System. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2000. Moss, John George, and Linda M. Morra. At the Speed of There Is Only Illumination : A Reappraisal of Marshall Mcluhan. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2004. OTHER ART Visual Theory Arguelles, Jose. The Transformative Vision : Reflections on the Nature and History of Human Expression. Berkeley, Calif. New York: Shambhala ; distributed by Random House, 1975. Baxandall, Michael. Patterns of Intention : On the Historical Explanation of Pictures. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. New York,: Viking Press, 1973. Bernheimer, Richard. The Nature of Representation: a Phenomenological InQuiry. New York,: New York University Press, 1961. Architectural Theory Grosz, E. A. Architecture from the Outside : Essays on Virtual and Real Space. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 200 I. Hendrix, John. Architectural Forms and Philosophical Structures. New York: Peter Lang, 2003. Kruft, Han noWalter. A History of Architectural Theory : From Vitruvius to the Present. Translated by Ronald Taylor, Elsie Callander and Antony Wood. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. 71

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Spim, A.W. "Toward a Unified Vision: Architecture in the Landscape." Landscape Architecture, August 1990, 36-41. Landscape Architecture Theory Comer, James. Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999. Comer, James. "Representation and Landscape: Drawing and Making in the Landscape Medium." Word and Image 8, no. 3 ( 1992): 24375. Czerniak, Julia. "Challenging the Pictorial: Recent Landscape Practice." Assemblage, no. 34 (1997): 110-20. Gidley, M., and Robert Lawson-Peebles. Modem American Landscapes, European Contributions to American Studies ; 26. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1995. Hunt, John Dixon. The Afterlife of Gardens, Penn Studies in Landscape Architecture. Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004. Stilgoe, John R. Landscape and Images. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005. Tuan, Yi-Fu. "Language and the Making of Place: A NarrativeDescriptive Approach." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 81, no. 4 ( 1991 ): 684-96. Tuan, Yi-Fu. Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1977. Wrede, Stuart, William Howard Adams, and Museum of Modem Art (New York N.Y.). Denatured Visions : Landscape and Culture in the Twentieth Century. New York: Museum of Modem Art : Distributed by Harry N. Adams, 1991. Compilations: Landscape Painting Davidson, Gail S., Frederick Edwin Church. Winslow Homer.Thomas Moran. and Cooper-Hewitt Museum. Frederic Church. Winslow Homer. and Thomas Moran :Tourism and American Landscape. I st ed. New York: Bulfinch Press, 2006. Glanz, Dawn. How the West Was Drawn :American Art and the Settling of the Frontier, Studies in the Fine Arts. Iconography ; No. 6. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1982. Museum siC ollecting Bal, Mieke. "Telling Objects: A Narrative Perspective on Collecting." In Grasping the World: The Idea of the Museum, edited by Donald Preziosi and Claire 72

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Farago. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2004. Todd, Jennifer. "The Roots of Pictorial Reference." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 39, no. I (1980): 47-57. Exhibitions Hassrick, Peter H., Brian W. Dippie, Institute of Western American Art., and Denver Art Museum. Redrawing Boundaries : Perspectives on Western American Art, Western Passages. Denver: Institute of Western American Art, 2007. National Academy of Design (U.S.), Dita Amory, Marilyn F. Symmes, and Cooper-Hewitt Museum. Nature Observed. Nature Interpreted : Nineteenth Century American Landscape Drawings & Watercolors from the National Academy of Design and Cooper-Hewitt. National Design Museum. Smithsonian Institution. New York: National Academy of Design with Cooper Hewitt National Design Museum Smithsonian Institution, 1995. Neff, Emily Ballew, Museum of Fine Arts Houston., and Los Angeles County Museum of Art. The Modem West : American Landscapes. 1890-1950. New Haven Houston: Yale University Press ; Museum of Fine Arts, 2006. PHOTOGRAPHY Theory Barthes, Roland. Camera Lucida : Reflections on Photography. I st American ed. New York: Hill and Wang, 1981. Diamonstein, Barbaralee, and Harry M. Callahan. Visions and Images. American Photographers on Photography. New York: Rizzoli, 1981. Finn, David, and Harry N. Abrams Inc. How to Look at Photographs : Reflections on the Art of Seeing. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1994. Goldberg, Vicki. Light Matters: Writings on Photography. New York: Aperature Foundation, 2005. La Grange, Ashley. Basic Critical Theory for Photographers. Amsterdam ; Boston: Elsevier Focal Press, 2005. Morris, Wright. Time Pieces : Photographs. Writing. and Memory. Writers and Artists on Photography. New York, NY: Aperture : Distributed by Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1989. Price, Mary, and Stanford University Press. The Photograph--a Strange Confined Space. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1994. Rabate, Jean-Michel, ed. Writing the Image after Roland Bartbes. Edited by Carroll Smith-73

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Rosenberg Joan DeJean, Peter Stallybrass, Gary A. Tomlinson, New Cultural Studies. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997. Shawcross, Nancy M. Roland Barthes on Photography : The Critical Tradition in Perspective. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997. Sontag, Susan. On Photography. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1977. Community/Culture Kaplan, Louis. American Exposures : and Community in the Twentieth Century. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005. Lyons, Nathan, Bruce Davidson, George Eastman House., and Horizon Press. Toward a Social Landscape. New York,: Horizon Press, 1967. Mirzoeff, Nicholas. An Introduction to Visual Culture. London ; New York: Routledge, 1999. Travel Osborne, Peter. Travelling Light : Travel and Visual Culture, The Critical Image. Manchester; New York: Manchester University Press ;Distributed exclusively in the USA by St. Martin's Press, 2000. Anal_vsis in the press Coleman, A. D., and Nazraeli Press. Critical Focus : Photography in the International Image Community. Munich: Nazraeli, 1995. Coleman, A. D., and University of New Mexico Press. Depth of Field : Essays on Photography. Mass Media. and Lens Culture. I st ed. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1998. Graham, Jefferson. "Flickr of Idea on a Gaming Project Led to Photo Website." USA TODAY 2006. Heffernan, Virginia. "Sepia No More." The New York Times, April 27 2008. Story, Louise. "What Adams Saw through His Lens." The New York Times, April 27 2008. Government Sponsored Photography Curtis, James. Mind's Eye. Mind's Truth : Fsa Reconsidered, American Civilization. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989. Constructing Place Hiss, Tony. "The Experience of Place." Aperture 1998, 41 42. Hoelscher, Steven. "The Photographic Construction of Tourist Space in Victorian America." Geographical Review 88, no. 4 ( 1998): 548-70. 74

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Margolies, John, and Eric Baker. See the USA: The Art of the American Travel Brochure. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2000. Schwartz, Joan M., and James R. Ryan, eds. Picturing Place: Photography and the Geographical Imagination. New York: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd, 2003. Interpretations of Amateur Photography Chambers, Deborah. "Family as Place: Family Photograph Albums and the Domestication of Public and Private Space." In Picturing Place: Photography and the Geographical Imagination, edited by Joan M. Schwartz and James R. Ryan. New York: I.B. Tauris, 2003. Green, Jonathan, and Aperture Inc. Ih.e_ Snap-Shot. Millerton, N.Y.: Aperture, 1974. Greenough, Sarah, Diane Waggoner, Sarah Kennel, Matthew S. Witkovsky, and National Gallery of Art (U.S.). The Art of the American Snapshot. 18881978 : From the Collection of Robert E. Jackson. Hardcover ed. Washington fD.C.lPrinceton, N.J.: National Gallery of Art ; Princeton University Press, 2007. Exhibitions Braden, Donna R., and Judith E. Endelman. Americans on Vacation. Ann Arbor, MI: University Lithoprinters, Inc., 1990. The Museum of Contemporary Photography, Columbia College Chicago, ed. Photography's Multiple Roles. New York: D.A.P. Distributed Art Publishers, Inc., 1998. National Museum of American Art (U.S.), Merry A. Foresta, Stephen Jay Gould, Karal Ann Marling, and Consolidated Natural Gas Company. Between Home and Heaven : Contemporary American Landscape Photography from the Consolidated Natural Gas Company Collection of the National Museum of American Art. Smithsonian Institution. Washington, D.C.: National Museum of American Art in association with the University of New Mexico Press Albuquerque N.M., 1992. Nevada Museum of Art., Peter E. Pool, Patricia Nelson Limerick, Dave Hickey, and Thomas W. Southall. The Altered Landscape. Reno;: Las Vegas : Nevada Museum of Art in association with University of Nevada Press, 1999. Reproduction/Distribution Melin, William E. "Photography and the Recording Process in the Age 75 of Mechanical Reproduction." Leonardo 19, no. I ( 1986): 53-60.

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Morgan, Hal, and Andreas Brown. Prairie Fires and Paper Moons : The American Photographic Postcard. 1900-1920. Boston: D.R. Godine, 1981. Saxby, Graham. The Science of Imaging: An Introduction. Philadelphia: Institute of Physics Publishing, 2002. Zonn, Leo. Place in Media : Portrayal. Experience. and Meaning. Savage, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1990. Digital Photography Amelunxen, Hubertus von, Stefan Iglhaut, Florian Rotzer, Alexis Cassel, Nikolaus G. Schneider, Siemens Aktiengesellschaft., Aktionsforum Praterinsel (Munich Germany), and Gorden & Breach Arts International. Photography after Photography :Memory and Representation in the Digital Age. fAmsterdaml: G+B Arts, 1996. Coleman, A. D. The Digital Evolution : Visual Communication in the Electronic Age : Essays. Lectures and Interviews. 1967-1998. Tucson, AZ: Nazraeli Press : Distributed to the US trade by D.A.P., 1998. Hulick, Diana Emery. "The Transcendental Machine? A Comparison of Digital Photography and Nineteenth Century Modes of Photographic Representation." Leonardo 23, no. 4 (1990): 419-25. Lister, Martin. The Photographic Image in Culture, Comedia. London ; New York: Routledge, 1995. Representation of Reality Arnheim, Rudolf. "The Two Authenticities of the Photographic Media." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 51, no. 4 ( 1993): 537-40. Leighten, Patricia D. "Critical Attitudes toward Overtly Manipulated Photography in the 20th Century." Art Journal 37, no. 4 ( 1978): 313-21. Rosier, Martha. Decoys and Disruptions: Selected Writings. 1975-2001. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press in association with International Center of Photography New York, 2004. Savedoff, Barbara E. Transforming Images : How Photography Complicates the Picture. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2000. Savedoff, Barbara. "Transforming Images: Photographs of Representations." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 50, no. 2 (1992): 93-106. Snyder, Joel, and Neil Walsh Allen. "Photography, Vision, and 76

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Representation." Critical Inquir:y 2, no. I (1975): 143-69. Landscape Photography Wolf, Daniel. The American Space: Meaning in Nineteenth-Century Landscape Photography. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1983. Jussim, Estelle, and Elizabeth Lindquist Cock. Landscape as New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. Snyder, Joel. "Territorial Photography." In Landscape and Power, edited by W.J.T. Mitchell. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Artist Monographs: Photography Grand Can von Adams, Ansel, and Andrea Gray Stillman. The Grand Canyon and the Southwest. I st ed. Boston: Little, Brown, 2000. Artist Monof?raphs: General Western U.S. Landscape Photograph_v Fryxell, Fritiof. The Tetons: Interpretations of a Mountain Landscape. Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1938. Hume, Sandy, Ellen Manchester, Gary Mertz, and Nathan Lyons. The Great West : Real/Ideal. Boulder [Colo.]: Dept. of Fine Arts University of Colorado at Boulder, 1977. Ward, John, and El Paso Museum of Art. Land and in the American West : Photographs. San Antnio: Trinity University Press in association with the El Paso Museum of Art Foundation, 2004. Artists Monographs: Landscape Photowaphy Gomes, Lyle. Imagining Eden : Connecting Landscapes. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005. Mulligan, Steve. Terra Incognita. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, 1998. Ward, Alan. American Landscapes: A Photographic Interpretation. Vol. I. Washington, DC: Spacemaker Press, 1998. Artists Monographs: Interaction between Nature and Human in Photowaphy Ganis, John, Robert A. Sobieszek, and Stanley Diamond. Consuming the American Landscape. Stockport: Dewi Lewis, 2003. Vanderbilt, Paul. Between the Landscape and Its Other. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993. Artists Monographs: Plwlof?raphy of American Culture Gordon, Richard, and Chimaera Press. 77 Meta Photographs. [ s.l.]Berkeley, Calif.: Chimaera Press ; distributed by Bookpeople, 1978.

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History of Photography Newhall, Beaumont. The History of Photography: From I 839 to the Present Day. 4th ed. New York: Museum of Modem Art, 1978. Newhall, Beaumont. Latent Image : The Discovery of Photography. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor, 1967. Rosenblum, Naomi. A World History of Photography. Rev. ed. New York: Abbeville Press, 1989. FILM THEORY Representation of Nature Allen, Karen, ed. Mark Lewis. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2006. Brereton, Pat. Hollywood Utopia : Ecology in Contemporary American Cinema. Bristol, UK ; Portland, Ore.: Intellect Books, 2005. Cubitt, Sean. Eco Media. New York: Rodopi, 2005. Place Debord, Guy. Society of the Spectacle. Detroit: fBlack & Red], 1973. MacDonald, Scott. The Garden in the Machine : A Field Guide to Independent Films About Place. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. 78

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REFERENCES Adams, Ansel, and Andrea Gray Stillman. The Grand Can)'on and the Southwest. I st ed. Boston: Little, Brown, 2000. Allen, Karen, ed. Mark Lewis. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2006. Amelunxen, Hubertus von, Stefan lglhaut, Florian Rotzer, Alexis Cassel, Nikolaus G. Schneider, Siemens Aktiengesellschaft., Aktionsforum Praterinsel (Munich Germany), and Gorden & Breach Arts International. Photograph)' after Photograph)' : Memor)' and Representation in the Digital Age. f Amsterdam l: G+B Arts, 1996. Arguelles, Jose. The Transformative Vision : Reflections on the Nature and Histor)' of Hyman Expression. Berkeley, Calif. New York: Shambhala ; distributed by Random House, 1975. Arnheim, Rudolf. "The Two Authenticities of the Photographic Media." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 5 I, no. 4 (1993): 537-40. Babbitt, Bruce E. Grand Can)'On an Antholog)' : A Selection of Outstanding Writings. I st ed.Flagstaff, Ariz.: Northland Press, 1978. Bal, Mieke. "Telling Objects: A Narrative Perspective on Collecting." In Grasping the World: The Idea of the Museum, edited by Donald Preziosi and Claire Farago. Burlington, VI: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2004. Barthes, Roland. Camera Lucida : Reflections on Photograph)'. I st American ed. New York: Hill and Wang, 1981. Baxandall, Michael. Patterns of Intention : On the Historical Explanation of Pictures. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. Berger, John. Wa)'S of Seeing. New York,: Viking Press, 1973. Bernheimer, Richard. The Nature of Representation: a Phenomenological Inquir)'. New York,: New York University Press, 1961. Braden, Donna R., and Judith E. Endelman. Americans on Vacation. Ann Arbor, MI: University Lithoprinters, Inc., 1990. Brameld, Theodore, and Midori Matsuyama. Tourism as Cultural Learning: Two Controversial Case Studies in Educational Washington,D. 79

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C.: University Press of America, 1978. Brereton, Pat. Hollywood Utopia : Ecology in Contemporary American Cinema. Bristol, UK ; Portland, Ore.: Intellect Books, 2005. Carll, Jennifer L. "Cowboys, Indians, and Wide-Open Spaces: German's Image of the American West and Its Impact on Tourism Marketing." University of Colorado, 1999. Chambers, Deborah. "Family as Place: Family Photograph Albums and the Domestication of Public and Private Space." In Picturing Place: Photography and the Geographical Imagination, edited by Joan M. Schwartz and James R. Ryan. New York: I.B. Tauris, 2003. Coleman, A. D., and Nazraeli Press. Critical Focus : Photography in the International Image Community. Munich: Nazraeli, 1995. Coleman, A. D., and University of New Mexico Press. Depth of Fjeld : Essays on Photography. Mass Media. and Lens Culture. I st ed. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1998. Coleman, A. D. The Digital Evolution : Visual Communication in the Electronic Age : Essays. Lectures and Interviews. 1967-1998. Tucson, AZ: Nazraeli Press : Distributed to the US trade by D.A.P., 1998. Collier, John, and Malcolm Collier. Visual Anthropology : Photogra phy as a Research Method. Rev. and expanded ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1986. Comer, James. Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporacy Landscape Architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999. Corner, James. "Representation and Landscape: Drawing and Making in the Landscape Medium." .wmd_ and Image 8, no. 3 ( 1992): 24375. Crick, Malcom. "Representations of International Tourism in the Social Sciences: Sun, Sex, Sights,Savings, and Servility." Annual Review of Anthropology 18 (1989): 307-44. Cubitt, Sean. Eco Media. New York: Rodopi, 2005. Curtis, James. Mind's Eye. Mind's Truth : Fsa Photography Reconsidered, American Civilization. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989. Czerniak, Julia. "Challenging the Pictorial: Recent Landscape 80

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Practice." Assemblage, no. 34 (1997): II 0-20. Davidson, Gail S., Frederick Edwin Church. Winslow Homer.Thomas Moran. and Cooper-Hewitt Museum. Frederic Church. Winslow Homer. and Thomas Moran :Tourism and American Landscape. I st ed. New York: Bulfinch Press, 2006. Debord, Guy. Society of the Spectacle. Detroit: fBlack & Redl. 1973. Diamonstein, Barbaralee, and Harry M. Callahan. Visions and Images. American Photographers on Photography. New York: Rizzoli, 1981. Donougho, Martin. "Stages of the Sublime in North America." MLN 115, no. 5, Comparative Literature Issue (2000): 909-40 Finley, Gerald. "The Genesis of Turner's 'Landscape Sublime'." Zeitschrift fvlor Kunstgeschichte 42, no. 2/3 (1979): 141-65. Fleck, Richard F. A Colorado River Reader. Salt Lake City University of Utah Press, 2000. Finn, David, and Harry N. Abrams Inc. How to Look at Photographs : Reflections on the Art of Seeing. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1994. Fryxell, Fritiof. The Tetons: Interpretations of a Mountain Landscape. Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1938. Ganis, John, Robert A. Sobieszek, and Stanley Diamond. Consuming the American Landscape. Stockport: Dewi Lewis, 2003. Gidley, M., and Robert Lawson-Peebles. Modem American Landscapes, European Contributions to American Studies ; 26. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1995. Glanz, Dawn. How the West Was Drawn : American Art and the Settling of the Frontier, Studies in the Fine Arts. Iconography ; No. 6. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1982. Goldberg, Vicki. Light Matters: Writings on Photography. New York: Aperature Foundation, 2005. Gomes, Lyle. Imagining Eden: Connecting Landscapes. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005. Gomez, Arthur R. Quest for the Golden Circle: The Four Comers and the Metropolitan West. 1945-1970. I st ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994. Gordon, Richard, and Chimaera Press. 81 Meta Photographs. f s.l. ]Berkeley, Calif.: Chimaera Press ; distributed by Bookpeople, 1978.

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Graham, Jefferson. "Fiickr of Idea on a Gaming Project Led to Photo Website." USA TODAY 2006. Green, Jonathan, and Aperture Inc. The Snap-Shot. Millerton, N.Y.: Aperture, 1974. Greenblat, Cathy Stein, and John H. Gagnon. "Temporary Strangers: Travel and Tourism from a Sociological Perspective." Perspectives 26, no. I (1983): 89-110. Greenough, Sarah, Diane Waggoner, Sarah Kennel, MatthewS. Witkovsky, and National Gallery of Art (U.S.). The Art of the American Snapshot. 18881978 : From the Collection of Robert E. Jackson. Hardcover ed. Washington [D.C.]Princeton, N.J.: National Gallery of Art; Princeton University Press, 2007. Grosz, E. A. Architecture from the Outside : Essays on Virtual and Real Space. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 200 I. Hassrick, Peter H., Brian W. Dippie, Institute of Western American Art., and Denver Art Museum. Boundaries : Perspectives on Western American Art, Western Passages. Denver: Institute of Western American Art, 2007. Heffernan, Virginia. "Sepia No More." The New York Times, April 27 2008. Hendrix, John. Architectural Forms and Philosophical Structures. New York: Peter Lang, 2003. Hiss, Tony. "The Experience of Place." Aperture 1998, 41 42. Hoelscher, Steven. "The Photographic Construciton of Tourist Space in Victorian America." Review 88, no. 4 ( 1998): 548-70. Holub, Robert C. Reception Theory : A Critical Introduction. London ; New York: Methuen, 1984. Hulick, Diana Emery. "The Transcendental Machine? A Comparison of Digital Photography and Nineteenth Century Modes of Photographic Representation." Leonardo 23, no. 4 ( 1990): 419-25. Hume, Sandy, Ellen Manchester, Gary Mertz, and Nathan Lyons. The Great West : Real/Ideal. Boulder [Colo.]: Dept. of Fine Arts University of Colorado at Boulder, 1977. Hunt, John Dixon. The Afterlife 82 of Gardens, Penn Studies in Landscape Architecture. Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

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Jackson, John Brinckerhoff, and Helen Lefkowitz Horowitz. Landscape in Sight : Looking at America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997. Jauss, Hans Robert. Toward an Aesthetic of Reception. Theory and History of Literature ; V. 2. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982. Jussim, Estelle, and Elizabeth Lindquist Cock. Landscape as Photograph. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985. Kaplan, Louis. American Exposures : Photography and Community in the Twentieth Century. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005. Kligerman, Jack. "Photography, Perception, and Composition." College Compostion and Communication 28, no. 2 ( 1977): 174-78. Kruft, Hanno-Walter. A History of Architectural Theory : From Vitruvius to the Present. Translated by Ronald Taylor, Elsie Callander and Antony Wood. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1994. La Grange, Ashley. Basic Critical Theory for Photographers. Amsterdam ; Boston: Elsevier Focal Press, 2005. Leavengood, Betty. Grand Canyon Women : Lives Shaped by Landscape. Boulder, Colo.: Pruett Pub. Co., 1999. Leighten, Patricia D. "Critical Attitudes toward Overtly Manipulated Photography in the 20th Century." Art Journal 37, no. 4 ( 1978): 313-21. Lister. Martin. The Photographic Image in Digital Culture, Comedia. London ; New York: Routledge, 1995. Lockwood, C. C. Beneath the Rim :A_ Photographic Journey through the Grand Canyon. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996. Luhmann, Niklas. Art as a Social System. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2000. Lyons, Nathan, Bruce Davidson, George Eastman House., and Horizon Press. Toward a Social Landscape. New York,: Horizon Press, 1967. MacDonald, Scott. The Garden in the Machine : A Field Guide to Independent Films About Place. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. Margolies, John, and Eric Baker. See the USA: The Art of the American Travel Brochure. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2000. 83

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Marx, Leo. The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America. New York,: Oxford University Press, 1964. Meinig, D. W., and John Brinckerhoff Jackson. The Interpretation of Ordinar:y Landscapes : Geographical Essays. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. Melin, William E. "Photography and the Recording Process in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction." Leonardo 19, no. I (1986): 53-60. MerriamWebster, Incorporated. (2005). MerriamWebster Online Dictionary. Retrieved May I 0, 2008, from MerriamWebster Online: http://www.merriam webster.com/ Mirzoeff, Nicholas. An Introduction to Visual Culture. London ; New York: Routledge, 1999. Mitchell, W.J.T. "Israel, Palestine, and the American Wilderness." In Landscape and Power, edited by W.J.T. Mitchell. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Morgan, Hal, and Andreas Brown. Prairie Fires and Paper Moons : The American Photographic Postcard. 1900-1920. Boston: D.R. Godine, 1981. Morris, Wright. Time Pieces : Photographs. Writing. and Memory. Writers and Artists on Photography. New York, NY: Aperture : Distributed by Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1989. Moss, John George, and Linda M. Morra. At the Speed of Light There Is Only Illumination : A Reappraisal of Marshall Mcluhan. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2004 Mulligan, Steve. Terra Incognita. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, 1998. The Museum of Contemporary Photography, Columbia College Chicago, ed. Photography's Multiple Roles. New York: D.A.P. Distributed Art Publishers, Inc., 1998. National Academy of Design (U.S.), Dita Amory, Marilyn F. Symmes, and Cooper-Hewitt Museum. Nature Observed. Nature Interpreted : Nineteenth Century American Landscape Drawings & Watercolors from the National Academy of Qesign and Cooper-Hewitt. National Design Museum. Smithsonian Institution. New York: National Academy of Design with Cooper Hewitt National Design Museum Smithsonian Institution, 1995. National Museum of American Art (U.S.), Merry A. Foresta, Stephen Jay Gould, Karal Ann Marling, and Consolidated Natural Gas Company. Between Home and 84

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Heaven : Contemporary American Landscape from the Consolidated Natural Gas Company Collection of the National Museum of American Art. Smithsonian Institution. Washington, D.C.: National Museum of American Art in association with the University of New Mexico Press Albuquerque N.M., 1992. Neff, Emily Ballew, Museum of Fine Arts Houston., and Los Angeles County Museum of Art. The Modem West : American Landscapes. 1890-1950. New Haven Houston: Yale University Press ; Museum of Fine Arts, 2006. Neumann, Mark. On the Rim : Looking for the Grand Canyon. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999. Nevada Museum of Art., Peter E. Pool, Patricia Nelson Limerick, Dave Hickey, and Thomas W. Southall. The Altered Landscape. Reno;: Las Vegas : Nevada Museum of Art in association with University of Nevada Press, 1999. Newhall, Beaumont. The History of From 1839 to the Present Day. 4th ed. New York: Museum of Modem Art, 1978. Newhall, Beaumont. Latent : The Discovery of Photography. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor, 1967. Norris, Scott. Discovered Country: Tourism and Survival in the American West. Albuquerque, MN: Stone Ladder Press, 1994. Novak, Barbara. "American Landscape: Changing Concepts of the Sublime." American Art Journal 4, no. I ( 1972): 36-42. Olwig, Kenneth R. "Recovering the Substantive Nature of Landscape." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 86, no. 4 ( 1996 ): 630-53. Osborne, Peter. Travelling Light : Travel and Visual Culture, The Critical Image. Manchester; New York: Manchester University Press ;Distributed exclusively in the USA by St. Martin's Press, 2000. Paulson, Ronald. "Versions of a Human Sublime." New Literary History 16, no. 2, The Sublime and the Beautiful: Reconsiderations (1985): 427-37. Price, Mary, and Stanford University Press. The Photograph--a Strange Confined Space. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1994. Rabate, Jean-Michel, ed. Writing the Image after Roland Barthes. Edited by Carroll Smith Rosenberg Joan DeJean, 85 Peter Stallybrass, Gary A. Tomlinson, New Cultural Studies.

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Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997. Rosenblum, Naomi. A World History of Rev. ed. New York: Abbeville Press, 1989. Rosier, Martha. Decoys and Disruptions: Selected Writings. 1975-2001. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press in association with International Center of Photography New York, 2004. Said, Edward W. "Invention, Memory, and Place." In Landscape and by W.J.T. Mitchell. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Savedoff, Barbara E. Transforming Images : How Photography Complicates the Picture. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2000. Savedoff, Barbara. "Transforming Images: Photographs of Representations." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 50, no. 2 ( 1992): 93-106. Saxby, Graham. The Science of Imaging: An Introduction. Philadelphia: Institute of Physics Publishing, 2002. Schwartz, Joan M., and James R. Ryan, eds. Picturing Place: Photography and the Geographical Imagination. New York: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd, 2003. Shawcross, Nancy M. Roland Barthes on : The Critical Tradition in Perspective. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997. Snyder, Joel, and Neil Walsh Allen. "Photography, Vision, and Representation." Critical Inquiry 2,no.1 (1975): 143-69. Snyder, Joel. "Territorial Photography." In Landscape and Power, edited by W.J.T. Mitchell. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Sontag, Susan. On Photography. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1977. Spirn, A.W. "Toward a Unified Vision: Achitecture in the Landscape." Landscape Architecture, August 1990, 36-41. Stilgoe, John R. Landscape and Images. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005. Story, Louise. "What Adams Saw through His Lens." The New York 27 2008. Stronza, Amanda. "Anthropology of Tourism: Forging New Ground for Ecotourism and Other Alternatives." Annual Review of Anthropology 30 (200 1): 261-83. Todd, Jennifer. "The Roots of Pictorial Reference." The Journal of 86

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Aesthetics and Art Criticism 39, no. I (1980): 47-57. Tuan, Yi-Fu. "Language and the Making of Place: A Narrative-Descriptive Approach." Annals of the Association of American Geogra no. 4 (1991): 684-96. Tuan, Yi-Fu. Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1977. Urry, John. Consuming Places. International Library of Sociology. London : New York: Routledge, 1995. Vanderbilt, Paul. Between the Landscape and Its Other. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993. Ward, Alan. American Designed Landscapes: A Photographic Interpretation. Vol. I. Washington, DC: Spacemaker Press, 1998. Ward, John, and El Paso Museum of Art. Land and Light in the American West : Photographs. San Antnio: Trinity University Press in association with the El Paso Museum of Art Foundation, 2004. Wolf, Daniel. The American Space: Meaning in Nineteenth-Century Landscape Photography. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1983. Wrede, Stuart, William Howard Adams, and Museum of Modern Art (New York N.Y.). Denatured Visions : Landscape and Culture in the Twentieth Century. New York: Museum of Modern Art : Distributed by Harry N. Adams, 1991. Wrobel, David M., and Patrick T. Long. Seeing and Being Seen :Tourism in the American West. Lawrence: Published for the Center of the American West, University of Colorado at Boulder by the University Press of Kansas, 2001. Zonn, Leo. Place Images in Media 87 : Portrayal. Experience. and Meaning. Savage, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1990.