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Jefferson County

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Title:
Jefferson County growth & preservation in Colorado's most populous county
Creator:
Gardner, Richard James
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
229 leaves : illustrations ; 28 cm

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Subjects / Keywords:
Historic sites -- Conservation and restoration -- Colorado -- Jefferson County ( lcsh )
Suburbs -- Case studies -- Colorado -- Denver Metropolitan Area ( lcsh )
Historic preservation -- Colorado -- Jefferson County ( lcsh )
Historic preservation ( fast )
Historic sites -- Conservation and restoration ( fast )
Suburbs ( fast )
History -- Jefferson County (Colo.) ( lcsh )
Colorado -- Denver Metropolitan Area ( fast )
Colorado -- Jefferson County ( fast )
Genre:
Case studies. ( fast )
History. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Case studies ( fast )
History ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 224-229).
Thesis:
History
General Note:
Department of History
Statement of Responsibility:
by Richard James Gardner.

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Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
45140640 ( OCLC )
ocm45140640
Classification:
LD1190.L57 2000m .G37 ( lcc )

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Full Text
JEFFERSON COUNTY: GROWTH & PRESERVATION IN COLORADO'S
MOST POPULOUS COUNTY
by
Richard James Gardner
B.A., University of Colorado at Boulder, 1995
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Arts
History


This thesis for the Master of Arts
degree by
Richard James Gardner
has been approved
by
Laura McCall
Date


Gardner, Richard James (M.A., History)
Jefferson County: Growth and Preservation in Colorado's Most Populous
County
Thesis directed by Professor of History Thomas J. Noel
ABSTRACT
This work is an analysis that shows the harmful effects modern
suburban growth has had upon the historic landmarks in Jefferson County,
Colorado. It demonstrates this effect through the use of thirteen
representative examples.
Wheat Ridge's Baugh Farmhouse and Pleasant View's Pullman House,
which are Jeffco's two oldest buildings, represent the direct threat growth
poses when unplanned subdivision threatens to destroy places directly.
Lakewood's Heritage Center and Goldens Clear Creek Park represent
buildings displaced by growth that are moved to outdoor architectural
museums and how their historic integrity is harmed even though they are not
destroyed. Wheat Ridge's Soddy and Conifer's Bradford Junction show how
growth harms rural landmarks by encroaching on them and making them
useless by taking away the setting that gave them their historic purpose. The
Golden area's Ten Mile House and Leyden represent what were once actual
m


towns whose very identity is threatened with the growth that now surrounds
them. Ken Caryl Ranch's Bradford House and the Golden area's Brickyard
Manager's House illustrate how growth can harm a landmark by taking away
its setting, then allowing ruins to crumble despite the new community's
affluence. The Mt. Vernon House, Golden's Astor House and Lakeside are
used to represent how carelessly managed growth indirectly threatens
historic places, first through highway construction, second through urban
renewal spurred by shopping mall competition, and last by taking of services
spread thin by uncontrolled growth.
This work also shows the history of these individual places and how
historic growth patterns created them. This demonstrates why they are
significant enough to concern preservationists and how modem threats can
be the result of a cumulative history of events. It demonstrates how the
growth problems preservationists face, as well as the preservation theory
employed by community members urging their protection, is not simply a
local phenomenon but an American phenomenon making these cases
symptomatic of problems growth can pose nationwide. This work shows
how far the preservation movement has progressed in Jefferson County, and
illustrates the need for a stronger preservation ethic in Jeffco culture to
combat these harmful effects.
IV


This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I
recommend its publication.
Signed
Thonfas J. Noel
v


DEDICATION
I dedicate this thesis to Sid Squibb, the outsider who saved the Pullman
House written of in this work when nobody within our county had thought
to do so themselves. In doing this he saved one of our most valued
landmarks for me and a future generation, and a past generation from its own
shortsightedness. Jefferson County remains forever in his debt


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
My thanks to my advisor, Tom Noel, for his great help and support of me and
my work during these past five years, and for showing me sides of our
history more colorful than fiction.


CONTENTS
Figures.................................................x
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION.......................................1
2. SUBMERGED BY SUBURBIA: GROWTH MARCHING OVER
HISTORY...........................................13
Baugh Farmhouse.............................14
Pullman House...............................25
3. A TRIP TO THE ARCHITECTURAL ZOO: DISPLACEMENT
OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS.............................43
Lakewood's Heritage Center..................43
Hallack-Webber House...................47
Peterson House.........................48
Ralston Crossing School................49
Lane's Tavern..........................49
Gil's and Ethel's Barber Shop..........50
A Heritage Center......................54
Clear Creek Park............................58
Guy Hill School........................60
The Pearce Ranch.......................64
The Park...............................68
viii


4.. MADE USELESS BY DESIGN: ENDANGERING RURAL
LANDMARKS..................................75
Wheat Ridge Soddy.....................75
Bradford Junction.....................83
5. A TOWN-EAT-TOWN WORLD: GROWTH ENGULFING
HISTORIC TOWNSITES.........................98
Ten Mile House........................98
Leyden...............................114
6. THE GILDED CAGE: RUINS SURROUNDED BY
AFFLUENCE.................................132
Bradford House.......................133
Golden Brickyard Manager's House.....148
7. COLLATERAL DAMAGE: INDIRECT DANGERS OF
GROWTH....................................159
Mt. Vernon House.....................160
Astor House..........................172
Lakeside.............................192
8. CONCLUSION................................218
BIBLIOGRAPHY.........................................224
IX


FIGURES
Figure
1.1 Map of northern Jefferson County, 1868............................9
1.2 Map of northern Jefferson County, 1957...........................10
1.3 Map of northern Jefferson County, 1999...........................11
1.4 Approximate locations of the representative landmarks............12
2.1 Baugh Farmhouse, front...........................................14
2.2 Map of modem development of Wheat Ridge farm area................24
2.3 "Pullman House: A Survivor of Yesteryear" artwork 1940...........34
2.4 Metropolitan development approaching South Table Mountain........38
2.5 Modern Pleasant View development of Cold Spring Ranch area.......42
3.1 Guy Hill School within Clear Creek Park..........................62
3.2 Clear Creek Park, in urban setting of Golden.....................74
4.1 Wheat Ridge Soddy................................................76
4.2 Development of Conifer vicinity..................................97
5.1 View of historic Golden, 1893...................................106
5.2 View of modern Golden, 1996.....................................107
5.3 Magic Mountain design...........................................108
5.4 Map of modem development around Ten Mile House..................112
5.5 Remains of original Leyden mine.................................116
x


5.6 Leyden Company Store............................................119
5.7 Leyden miners cottage..........................................121
5.8 Leyden Chapel, within tiny Park at the Meadows in Arvada........123
5.9 Community of Leyden, looking southeast..........................129
5.10Map of modern development approaching Leyden area............131
6.1 Bradford House ruins, west side, original building and addition.137
6.2 Bradford House ruins, east side, front wall.....................146
6.3 Brickyard House, looking west...................................150
6.4 Brickyard House, looking northeast towards developed city.......153
6.5 Canyon Point development approaching Brickyard House............157
7.1 As tor House amid modern parking and buildings..................175
7.2 Canopy on Everett Block.........................................177
7.3 Lakeside, Tower of Jewels and casino building, c. 1908..........196
7.4 Lakeside Mall, 1999 appearance..................................204
7.5 Map of town of Lakeside.........................................207
xi


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
From the first year of its permanent white settlement in 1858, the
founders of Colorado's Jefferson County envisioned the greatest of dreams
for their place. For them it was not enough to simply be just another
settlement in the Pike's Peak Gold Rush region; they wished be its leader, to
have the greatest growth and population of any place in Colorado. To
accomplish this, they and their descendant generations nurtured, bankrolled
and adamantly promoted unrestrained, opportunistic growth. One hundred
and forty years later, the grand vision of Jefferson County's pioneers finally
came true, when the state demographer declared it the most populous county
in Colorado. However, while momentous, this great accomplishment has
come at the expense of the historic places that have defined Jefferson County
into the great place its founders envisioned it to be.
Not all of these places have been threatened in the same fashion;
modern growth of Jefferson County has harmed them in many ways, both
subtle and gross. Historic preservation ethics have been slow in permeating
the historically pro-growth culture of Jefferson County. As a result much of
its historic landscape and landmarks have been destroyed, damaged or
otherwise adversely affected. Because of its lack of care for historic places by
1


its governments, communities and culture, these places may be damaged or
demolished by pro-growth policies, and citizens often do not even know it
until it is too late.
Many of these historic places tell stories that are unique and
irreplaceable. They define the very character that makes Jefferson County
unique and valuable among Colorado places. It is important that their
history be told, so that Colorado's most populous county may know certain
landmarks are significant and shaped the place they live in that they call
great. According to scholars such as J.B. Jackson, it is important to persons to
preserve even fragments of these places because they offer tangible links to
the past, making it seem more immediate and real.1 If tangible links to the
past are erased, it is possible important things of our past may be forgotten.
For some of Jefferson County's historic places, their histories also tell
important history of the growth that has in modem times come to harm them,
and of local, state and nationwide influences affecting them. A few sites also
serve as examples of how the unbridled growth that called them into
existence now threatens them. This is the story of how growth has harmed
Jefferson County's historic landmarks, and of why that harm is a thing for
Jefferson's citizens to avoid in the future.
1 J.B. Jackson, The Necessity for Ruins and Other Topics (Amherst: University of Massachusetts
Press, 1980), p. 91.
2


Thirteen of Jefferson County's historic places stand out as examples of
how landmarks are endangered. Jefferson County's oldest and second-oldest
buildings, the Baugh House of Wheat Ridge and Pullman House of Pleasant
View, have been directly threatened by runaway growth. They illustrate a
larger pattern of how modem growth not only consumes rural countryside,
but also the settings individual landmarks are in, such as open space and
districts. Preservation historian James Marston Fitch notes that this is a
matter of critical importance to the Environmental Protection Agency, which
in its studies concluded that because of consuming sprawl the United States is
on a disaster course of urban growth.2
Bradford Junction and the Sod house of Wheat Ridge, the former once
a ranch and the latter a farm that helped give Wheat Ridge its name, each
have been made obsolete and placed in danger. The Soddy tells a story of
why even anonymous places appeal to the preservation consciousness of the
country, an historic environment now acting as an historic house museum,
the concept Fitch credits as "the basic module of historic preservation, acting
as the nursery for the entire movement."3 Bradford Junction shows the
difficulty of barn preservation drawing special attention from
2 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World
(Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 36.
3 Ibid, p. 43.
3


preservationists today through the National Trust for Historic Preservation's
program Barn Again!
In Lakewood's Heritage Center and Golden's Clear Creek Park stand
buildings displaced by Jefferson County's growth, one from the urban
centers, the other from the mountains. They tell the story of an international
pattern of such displaced landmarks taking refuge in architectural museums,
de facto zoos of relocated structures. Fitch shows how this, while saving
places and creating some successful museums, is still bad for the historic
places themselves. He states such artificial holdings are "disconcerting and
didactically counterproductive," creating a false world of places put together
that could never have existed that way in history.4 They also tell about what
kinds of growth problems facing rural and urban Jefferson County placed
them in their zoos in the first place.
The entire towns of Apex and Leyden are now being engulfed by their
incorporated neighbors. They tell of one of the greatest threats growth can
pose to the preservationist: wiping out the historic integrity and identity of
entire communities. David Hamer, an expert on the need for preservation of
whole districts, states places like these have "found themselves too much in
the shadow of the metropolis and ultimately became overwhelmed by its
4 Ibid, p. 224-25.
4


development."5 The future of Leyden may well depend upon designating
itself an historic district as a tool to help fend off being consumed by the fast-
growing town of Arvada.
The Bradford House and Golden Brickyard Manager's House each
represent the problem of demolition by neglect, each being a ruin that stands
amidst affluence that does not repair them. They also show how growth
erodes the cultural landscape that gave them their historical meaning, to the
point that their historical nature may become unidentifiable. The Bradford
House case shows how even people with the best of intentions may end up
causing such harm.
The Mt. Vernon House, Astor House and the town of Lakeside, while
from different eras, locations and atmospheres, each stand as examples of
growth's impact on historic places. The first nearly had an Interstate highway
plowed through it. The second was nearly razed in a urban renewal effort to
make Goldens downtown area competitive with new suburban shopping
malls. David Hamer notes how urban renewal traditionally has used
demolition and reconstruction as the only model of urban revitalization.6 The
Astor House put this national trend and its destructive effect towards historic
5 David Hamer, History in Urban Places: The Historic Districts of the United States (Columbus: Ohio
State University Press, 1998), p. 51.
6 Ibid, p. 12.
5


landmarks on trial in Golden, revealing public attitudes towards
preservation.
Lakeside, a very unique town reliant on the Jefferson County
government for services, was cut off to live or die because that service had
been stretched too thin by runaway growth. This, according to Fitch, is a
major hidden societal cost of growth, where "The true cost is shifted from the
individual entrepreneur to the community in general."7 It is growth whose
developers are not required to build services like roads, utilities, or help with
the cost of providing added police and fire protection. This sets an amazing
stage for Lakeside to prove the impossible: that a town of arrested growth
can be negatively impacted by urban sprawl.
None of these exemplary landmarks are destroyed. They remain
preserved in testimony to the developing backlash against Jefferson County's
tradition of unrestrained growth. The Astor House was saved through the
effort of the Golden Landmarks Association, Jefferson County's first historic
preservation entity. Former in 1971, GLA embodied popular resistance to
years of urban renewal, which Hamer states has always been "a crucial
catalyst for the emergence of a constituency for action on historic
preservation."8 The Soddy of Wheat Ridge is preserved through help of
7 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World
(Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 31.
8 David Hamer, History in Urban Places: The Historic Districts of the United States (Columbus: Ohio
State University Press, 1998), p. 14.
6


Jefferson County's second preservationist entity, the Wheat Ridge Historical
Society, established in 1972.
The Pullman House's new home comes as the benefit of efforts of
Jefferson County Open Space, which came into existence in 1972 to combat
destructive effects of growth towards historic natural landmarks and set land
aside for future generations to enjoy.9 The Mt. Vernon House was saved by a
newly-forming federal program for historic preservation reflective of the
rising national preservationist conscience. The Baugh Farmhouse spurred the
creation of Wheat Ridge's preservation ordinance, which is indicative of what
Hamer indicates is the evolving preservationist ethic, towards preserving
entire districts, not just buildings, which led to the formation in 1966 of the
National Historic Register.10 The advent and evolution of preservation
movements is one response to the destructive problems of Jefferson County's
growth and similar patterns across the United States.
If Jefferson County had a stronger preservation ethic engrained in its
governments and in its culture, it is possible these historic places may never
have been placed in harm's way. While it is not to be denied prior historic
preservation efforts (such as the Mt. Lookout Chapter D.A.R.s rescue of the
9 Carole Lomond, "Citizens created and continue to monitor Jefferson County Open Space", City and
Mountain Views. August-September 1999, p. 6.
10 David Hamer, History in Urban Places: The Historic Districts of the United States (Columbus:
Ohio State University Press, 1998), p. 18.
7


Boston Building in 1925) have taken place in this area, Jefferson County's
historic preservation movement is still only in its infancy. Jefferson County
has no countywide preservation law. The majority of its incorporated towns
do not have preservation ordinances, and despite having Colorado's greatest
population the whole county has only five urban national register districts.
Laws to directly combat growth itself, which often prove more divisive, are
similarly nonexistant. Non-profit community entities organized for historic
preservation purposes have only existed in Jefferson County since the early
1970s and do not come anywhere close to covering all of Jefferson County.
While the baby steps of Jefferson County's historic preservation movement
have demonstrated these representative landmarks can be saved, the lack of a
strong preservation ethic has endangered many potentially designated
landmarks. If such a preservation ethic existed, public awareness and
planning could have stopped the problems they confronted before they even
started, and serve as an example of effective preservation, which the county
still lacks.
8


Figure 1.1
Map of northern Jefferson County, 1868
(Source: Jefferson County Flistorical Commission, From Scratch: A History of
Jefferson County, Colorado (Golden: Jefferson County Historical
Commission, 1985))
9


Figure 1.2
Map of northern Jefferson County, 1957
Note increased urban settlement in northeast Jefferson County
(Source: Sara E. Robbins, Jefferson County Colorado: The Colorful Past of a
Great Community (Lakewood: Jefferson County Bank, 1962))
10


Figure 1.3
Map of northern Jefferson County, 1999
Note multicolors of multiple incorporated cities on eastern side
(Source: Rand McNally, Denver Regional Area StreetFinder map, 1999)
11


Figure 1.4
Approximate locations of the representative landmarks
12


CHAPTER 2
SUBMERGED BY SUBURBIA: GROWTH
MARCHING OVER HISTORY
Demolition is the most direct threat to historic landmarks in Jefferson
County and across the nation. In the absence of a countywide preservation
ordinance and in most of its municipalities, Jefferson County historic places
are particularly vulnerable to simply being bulldozed. In the cases of the
Baugh Farmhouse and Pullman House, emerging preservation movements
indicative of a growing national preservation consciousness saved them, one
leading to the enactment of a municipal preservation ordinance, the other to
dismantling and relocation as no other feasible option was available.
The Baugh Farmhouse's case exemplifies the problem growth poses in
development growing in massive pieces, taking away farmland throughout
Colorado and destroying the historic character of communities. The Pullman
House's future has been saved by the environmentalist objections to growth
that provided it a home of open space. In the case of each, the circumstances
that led to their preservation were a direct response and backlash towards
Jefferson County's history of unplanned, unchecked growth.
13


Baugh Farmhouse
Growth in Jefferson County jeopardized the existence of its oldest
remaining intact building. Today the Baugh Farmhouse stands in the middle
of a sea of suburbia, upon a small acreage reserving what is left of the oldest
remaining farm in Jefferson County. When Golden's Western Mountaineer
newspaper first reported the existence of this farm, it was six hundred acres
in size.11 Today it is a tiny preserve among houses.
Figure 2.1
Baugh Farmhouse, front (original building right side wing)
(Source: Gardner Family Collection)
11 Western Mountaineer. 22 November 1860.
14


This building was originally a one-story cabin of V-notched hewn logs,
constructed in August 1859 by pioneer miner turned farmer James H.
Baugh.12 It stands upon the acreage first claimed by him and his brother
(whose name remains unknown), likely pared down to the legally-mandated
maximum claim of 160 acres when Colorado Territory was organized in 1861.
James Baugh originally came to Colorado to mine, but quickly settled to a
farming life.13 Not many came to Colorado to farm in 1859; gold motivated
most of them. Agriculturalists were also aware of the prevailing myth of the
plains being part of the "Great American Desert."
Traveler Bayard Taylor, upon seeing Colorado and the Clear Creek
valley in 1866, scoffed at this myth. When he traveled out to farm of Richard
Sopris five miles west of Denver, he wrote: "Captain Sopris's ranche is on a
bluff overlooking the valley of Clear Creek. From the window of his parlor I
looked out upon several miles of beautiful wheat, a long pasture-ridge
beyond, and the grand summit of Long's Peak in the distance. Ten farmers
here have united their forces, and made a ditch ten miles in length, by which
their fields are irrigated."14 Taylor noted the generous yields of wheat, oats
and corn in the area, and the lucrative prices they drew, concluding that
farming was indeed a good business here. Such was how the community that
12 Wheat Ridge Historical Society, records.
13 Ibid.
14 Bayard Taylor, Colorado: A Summer Trip (Niwot: Colorado University Press, 1989), p. 43.
15


named itself for those wheat fields, spurred by the pioneering efforts of
fanners such as Baugh, began to grow.
From the beginning growth of permanent settlement in this area was
controversial among its residents. Only three years later, in an interview with
George West of the Colorado Transcript. Uintah Ute Chief Colorow, who had
lived off and on in this area since the 1840s, offered a contrary view. West
asked Colorow among other things what he thought of the white race and its
progress in settling the territory. Speaking in what West called "some bad
Spanish and worse English," Colorow replied:
Taking his pipe from his lips, and inspirating the smoke into his lungs,
which shortly issue in a huge volume from his nose, he cast a deep,
searching glance southward, where resting on Pike's Peak a light
fleecy cloud seemed unwilling to leave the hoary head of that gigantic
mound, pointing to that and giving a gutteral grunt of mixed sorrow
and pain, he remarked "Indian like morning cloud; white man's sun
rising in east, cloud is dissolved, and returns to mother earth. White
man fool; digs, works, hunts all over for gold; ploughs ground, builds
lodges, heap dig; drives [unreadable] and dies, and goes to his hunting
ground with nothing. Indian Ute big warrior heap squaw and horses,
no work, hunts, gets Arrapahoe scalp, dies and get to happy hunting
ground with his dog and horses. Poor when on earth, when dead as
well off as white brother. Indian believes where the sun sets lies his
happy hunting ground. White brother believes sun never sets; makes
his railroads, telegraphs, ocean cables and steamboats to follow
western sun. Indian borrows no trouble, and takes it as it is. Indian
soon gone can't hold out against his more crafty white brother.
White men can't be Indians. Indian must live like white brother, or
else can't live at all; but Ute independence will soon be gone, and our
hunting grounds the farms of the whites."15
15 Colorado Transcript. 29 December 1869.
16


With the interview George West noted "Our conversation took place in
front of his skin lodge, where, seated on a bear-skin, in full view of the
florious scenery of our foot hills, the picturesque Ute encampment contrasted
oddly with the background of mills, churches, stores and residences".16
Colorow had predicted the future wisely, and what were hunting grounds for
millennia did become transformed, for better and for worse, into one of
Colorado's earliest agricultural belts.
After David King Wall first pioneered irrigation on his farm in the
Golden valley other pioneers spread down the Clear Creek valley to
capitalize, including Baugh, William and Henry Lee, Hiram C. Wolff, Abram
Slater, Theodore Perry Boyd and others.17 One of Jefferson County's earliest
rural communities, the Vasquez Precinct organized itself politically in 1860,
and organized Wheat Ridge School District #8 on May 16, 1867.18 At this time,
there were estimated to be some 20 residents in the area.19 This is indicative
of early rural growth of Jefferson County, and these farms served to feed
people around the region including Denver. The Wheat Ridge Methodist-
Episcopal Church was established in 1874, and the Clear Creek Flouring Mills
16 Ibid.
17 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records.
18 County of Jefferson, place names records.
19 Wheat Ridge Historical Committee, History of Pioneer Wheat Ridge (Wheat Ridge: The City of
Wheat Ridge, 1971), p. 1.
17


was established at Boyd's Crossing (where W. 44th Ave. crosses Clear Creek)
by A. Beason in 1873.20 The Granger movement sweeping across the country
arrived in 1873. Ceres Grange #1 was organized in response to the growing
burden of agricultural property taxation used in large part to support the
Federal government. This Wheat Ridge Grange not only worked for
legislation and fair treatment of farmers, but also promoted education and
provided a central place for Wheat Ridge's people to socialize, congregate
and hold special events.21
In the meantime Baugh became a confirmed bachelor, growing wheat,
vegetables, strawberries, oats and potatoes, which he sold in Denver and the
mining towns. He sold the property during the 1890s, and the historic log
house was transformed with a large 2-story frame western addition into a
Victorian farmhouse.22 Wheat Ridge itself, like the rest of the plains of
Jefferson County, grew also as an agricultural area described by Jefferson
County historian Ethel Dark in 1939 as being "a community of common
interests rather than geographical dimensions."23 In essence more of a rural
collective than a town, Twentieth Century growth saw it become more and
20 Golden Globe. 6 December 1873.
21 Wheat Ridge Historical Committee, History of Pioneer Wheat Ridge (Wheat Ridge: The City of
Wheat Ridge, 1971), p. 16.
22 Wheat Ridge Historical Society, records.
23 Ethel Dark, History of Jefferson County Colorado, M.A. Thesis, Colorado State College of
Education 1939, p. 42.
18


more urbanized. The second permanent medical institution established in
Jefferson County was founded in Wheat Ridge on August 9,1905, established
as the Evangelical Lutheran Sanitorium.24 As this place began to grow into
the future Lutheran Hospital, Wheat Ridge by 1939 was described as "a
continuous line of beautiful residences surrounded by orchards, flowers, and
small fruit or vegetable gardens."25 As of this time Wheat Ridge boasted a
schoolhouse, post office, church, storage, and garage at the corner of
Wadsworth and West 38th Avenue.
Post World War II suburban growth changed everything, and with it
the way of life of the community of Wheat Ridge. Farms of once plentiful
acreage including the Baugh Farm were chopped up into smaller and smaller
parcels to facilitate smaller farms or even entire suburban subdivisions as
more and more people spread from Denver's urban core into the outlying
areas. In the 1970s the location of Baugh's sod house was engulfed, leading to
Wheat Ridge's first historic preservation campaign to save it.26 In 1969, to
avoid Denver's aggressive annexation efforts, Wheat Ridge incorporated as a
24 Sara E. Robbins, Jefferson Countv Colorado: The Colorful Past of a Great Community (Lakewood:
Jefferson County Bank, 1962), p. 39.
25 Ethel Dark, History of Jefferson County Colorado, M.A. Thesis, Colorado State College of
Education 1939, p. 42.
26 Wheat Ridge Historical Society, records.
19


community. It adopted home rule and a mayor-council-administrator form
of government in 1977.77
In I860, the area that is now Wheat Ridge was populated by 5 farms; in
1868 by 28 farms,*27 28 by the end of the 19th Century the makings of a fair-sized
rural Jefferson County community; by 1939 its own business district and
hospital. By 1970 it was Jefferson County's third-largest incorporated city, of
nearly 30,000 people.29 Through the 1970s-80s, as development increasingly
overwhelmed the once-rural countryside, Wheat Ridge set aside the Clear
Creek corridor as a greenbelt, not to be disturbed. By the 1990s the Baugh
House stood on only a few acres of remaining farmland, along with some
outbuildings. During the early part of the decade the building was wrecked
by an arsonist, its frame farmhouse additions severely damaged, along with
the roof of the original building.30 Growth finally caught up with it in the
form of developer Tom Sloan, who purchased the property in 1997 with the
stem intent of destroying it to make way for new houses.
Jefferson County's oldest building was now threatened with an enemy
becoming increasingly common in the United States towards once rural
places like itself. In its study "The Costs of Urban Sprawl," the
27 Jefferson Countv Magazine. 1996, p. 52.
28 Western Mountaineer. 1860 and Colorado Transcript. 1868.
29 U.S. Bureau of the Census, data, 1970.
30 Wheat Ridge Historical Society, records.
20


Environmental Protection Agency made the assertion that the United States
was a country on a disaster course of urban growth. This growth continues to
consume natural resources and draws vitality and resources away from
urban areas through speculative and unplanned development.31 This would
seem the definite case for the Baugh House, where instead of repairing the
burned farmhouse Sloan's goal was to level the ground and put in a number
of houses. This shows how Wheat Ridge, but to a greater extent Jefferson
County towns such as Arvada, Lakewood and Golden, have grown in a
haphazard fashion by spurts of development planned as each development
comes along, as Sloan's was, and not in accordance to an overall plan laid out
in advance. Such a plan could have identified the value of the Baugh House
and preplanned its preservation before the matter ever reached the crisis
stage.
When Sloan made his intentions known the Wheat Ridge City Council
opposed him.32 The preservationist thought of the Wheat Ridge community
had, since the crisis of the Soddy, matured into a priority deeply rooted in its
government. Save Our Soddy co-chair Claudia Worth was a member of the
Wheat Ridge City Council at this time. Sloan insisted the property had no
historical value; the Council thought otherwise, though the developer
31 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World
(Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 36.
32 Jefferson Sentinel. 9 January 1997.
21


obviously sensed a considerable preservationist ethic in Wheat Ridge in order
to feel the need to make such an assertion at all. Unable to reach a
compromise, Wheat Ridge condemned the property and acquired it.33 It was
the first time such dramatic means have ever been used by a Jefferson County
government for historic preservation, an unprecedented, bold and decisive
statement in its favor in Jefferson County history. Sloan said the $500,000 was
"quite an expense for Wheat Ridge to pay for three walls of a log cabin,"34 but
in retrospect seems small ransom for Jefferson County's oldest landmark.
However, what is more reflective on the growing preservationist ethic in
Wheat Ridge is that the City Council had no idea for certain that the Baugh
House was Jefferson County's oldest building until taking the decisive
condemnation steps.
The Baugh House has remained at the corner of West 44th Avenue and
Robb Street since that time. However, Wheat Ridge was not through making
Jefferson County preservation history yet. Having been jarred from
complacency by this crisis, officials resolved to place Wheat Ridge at the
forefront of Jefferson County's preservation world and quickly took the
additional step of enacting a preservation ordinance for the city. Claudia
Worth spearheaded the approval of its ordinance, providing for the
33 Interview with Claudia Worth, Wheat Ridge City Council member. Wheat Ridge, Colorado, 25
October 1999.
34 Jefferson Sentinel. 9 January 1997.
22


designation and protection of Wheat Ridge landmarks, and providing a
funding process to help property owners preserve homes and businesses.35
Wheat Ridge was taking part in another documented national preservation
trend, evolving from a focus on individual landmarks to community
planning and districts as well. Council approval of the ordinance, which is to
date the most protective and facilitative in Jefferson County, was a
unanimous 7-0 vote.36 The ordinance includes various provisions including
height variances, square footage, setbacks and use regulation to help preserve
historical integrity, as well as offering the City's help in securing grants,
funds and other economic incentives for property owners.37 The City also
established a fund to assist in preserving Wheat Ridge's historic places.
35 Rocky Mountain News. 31 December 1997.
36 Ibid.
37 Ibid.
23


&IM0I1
E

StmlojOii
AWJT

80030
.mac
ffiUrii £r
Wheat Ri
.
FijjirillU
i.lfcujeih.x
f-Aaalia
Figure 2.2
Map of modem development of Wheat Ridge farm area
Baugh House at location "X" in lower center
(Source: Rand McNally, Denver Regional Area StreetFinder map, 1999)
24


Pullman House
Pullman is down again from the mountains. Will he ever go home?38
Perhaps the period of most explosive growth in Colorado's history is
the era of the Gold Rush, when people from many places across the world
swarmed to a previously sparsely-settled land in hopes of finding a fortune.
With this growth came buildings and even entire towns that appeared almost
literally overnight.39 One of these buildings was an hewn log way station that
would come to be known as the Pullman House.
Early in the Colorado Gold Rush, discoveries by John H. Gregory and
George A. Jackson caused "a pell-mell race into the hills" of the multitude of
mining hopefuls.40 Quickly routes to these places were blazed, and they
forked at an area southeast of Golden, the present junction of South Golden
and Mt. Vernon roads. Entrepreneurial spirits soon saw opportunity here to
mine the miners and capitalize on the heavy traffic going up to the gold fields
by building this way station where they could stop and buy supplies, feed
and water their horses and oxen, or even spend the night if needed.
The Pullman House, like many other places around the region, was
built by a claim jumper. In the fall of 1859 James Snow jumped the 320-acre
Ibid, 22 March 1861.
39 Golden Landmarks Association, records.
40 Jerome Smiley, History of Colorado (Chicago, The Lewis Publishing Company, 1913), p. 249-255.
25


claim George Sears had made at the junction, and proceeded to build a house
at the junction's southeast corner.41 Sears had obviously decided to take
advantage of the location, but like others failed to tend to his property well
enough to keep others from commandeering it. Without any system of
government whatsoever in the region, the property became Snow's to do
with as he would. The explosive growth of the region had outpaced the
ability of government and law to keep up with it. Claim jumpings were
common in Colorado of the gold rush days, from Denver to the mountains.
By building his house Snow kept the property he had taken by establishing
his permanent presence on it.
Snow's building, constructed next to a spring to help service travelers,
was a 1-story log building of basic design with a central door flanked by
double-hung 6/6-pane wide rectangular windows. It was made of hand-
hewn V-notched logs, with a chimney at its west end.42 Near this place two
more claims were jumped, Richardson and Patterson taking over the 320
acres belonging to Hill and Sturgis. George W. Edgecomb, a prominent
downtown Golden merchant, jumped the 320 acre claim of James Orr in the
summer of I860.43 Richardson and Patterson proceeded to sell their parcel to
John A. Nye, who with relatives Hiram and Loyal S. Nye ran a freighting
41 County of Jefferson, claim records.
42 Golden Landmarks Association, records.
43 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records.
26


business up Mt. Vernon Road to the Jackson diggings as well as other places
in Colorado.44 Nothing more, however, is known of the original owners of
any of these properties.
While the Gold Rush led to the permanent formation and settlement of
the new state of Colorado, to which the Pullman House as a travelers' way
station contributed, this growth was not agreeable to everyone, in particular
neighbors who already inhabited the region. Among these were mountain
men, some of whom in the winter of 1859 came to sample the newly-
established town of Golden, where they met a bright-eyed young reporter
named George West.45 The mountain men fashioned their north Golden
cabin into a teepee setting on the interior, where they invited West to come in
and sit on their animal robes while sampling pipe smoke around their central
fire. West heard many of their stories of their way of life in this region, and
their laments on how this new growth was going to take it away:
The three regular occupants of the cabin Jack Fletcher, Cal. Pratt
and Rube Marvin were, as we before stated, reinforced on this
evening by Jim Baker and Jim Beckworth, making a party the like of
which we will hardly see again together. The youngest of them Pratt
- was probably not less than fifty years of age, and all of them had
lived for many, many years beyond the most western outpost of
civilization, enured to hardships they had learned to love for the
excitement and dangers every day of these many years brought to
them.
44 Golden Landmarks Association, records.
45 Colorado Transcript, early 1876.
27


The love of this wild sort of life, which seems to become "second
nature" to these hardy videttes of civilization, is well illustrated by an
anecdote we once heard of old Jim Bridger upon the occasion of a visit
to St. Louis, his first one for some twenty years. When he had last seen
the place it was but a trading post, with a few surrounding cabins
occupied by the traders and their employes, Upon his return to it he
found a populous city with long rows of brick buildings on either side
of many of the streets. A friend found the old mountaineer one day
sitting upon the curb-stone in front of the old Planters hotel, his grizzly
head buried in his hands.
"Hello, pard!" said his friend, giving him a sharp slap upon the
shoulder, "what are ye moping here for? Why ain't you taking in the
sights?"
"Sights be damned!" growled Jim, as he raised his head to see who
had so rudely broken in upon his home-sick reverie, "this 'ere ain't the
place I knowd in the early times. Thar hain't no fun yere for me any
more, and if there was there's so many dog-goned kanyons around
here a feller can't find it. I'm goin' to 'lite out o' here, for the mountins
in the morning."
Upon entering the cabin I found the grotesque group seated upon
the robes in the light of a huge fire of pitch pine, which was sending its
warmth and glow into every corner of the not large room. As usual a
hearty greeting awaited me from Buckskin Jack and the rest, all of
whom were known to me but Beckworth. My introduction to him was
as hearty as it was characteristic of old Jack, who performed that set of
politeness in this wise:
"Young feller," said he, pointing ever to his guest, "if you ain't
afeard of losin' yer character, I'll inderduce ye to Old Jim Beckworth,
the only white man a Crow Injin was ever knowd to give in to in lyin'
or stealin' hosses. Jim, this yere's George West, the cuss that's runnin'
a print shop down here. He's a good enough feller, but him and Byers
down thar on Cherry Creek are doin' a heap to bust up this kentry; for
if they keep on blowin' an' blowin and a bringin' in pilgrims, thar
won't be a beaver or a bar left betwixt St. Vrain's and Bar River."
As Jack closed this somewhat elaborate introduction, Jim rose from
his set upon the buffalo robe, extended his hand cordially, and gave
me the usual salutation,, "How!" and in a rather apologetic strain went
on to say, "I hope you know Jack Fletcher well enough to not mind his
compliments. I allow he's lived around with them 'Rapahoes and
Shians so long that he don't know a great deal about politeness."46
46 Ibid, 16 February 1876.
28


Nevertheless, Buckskin Jack's point was well-made; the grizzled
mountaineers' way of life here was coming to an end, thanks in no small part
to the crowing of Byers' Rocky Mountain News and West's own newspaper,
which he named Western Mountaineer in honor of the hardy frontiersmen he
would soon never see again.
The Gold Rush lured a bright young entrepreneur with high dreams,
named George Mortimer Pullman.47 Having recently invented a serviceable
sleeper railcar for use by the public, he came to Colorado in hopes of making
money to capitalize on his dream. Pullman began gold milling at Russell
Gulch above Central City, as well as operating a freight business and keeping
a store in Central City, under the name of Lyon, Pullman & Company.48
Being at a midway point on his constant journeys back and forth between
Central City and Denver, the way station of James Snow caught his attention.
In 1860 Pullman started moving to acquire it as his own personal enterprise.
Spafford C. Field, the brother of his associate Benjamin Field in Illinois (his
partner in inventing the Pullman cars) who had just moved to Colorado as
another partner to Pullman, traded 5 yoke of oxen and a lumber wagon,
worth $400, for the station house, spring and 160 acres surrounding them.49
47 Liston Edgington Leyendecker, Palace Car Prince: A Biography of George Mortimer Pullman
(Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992).
48 Ibid, p. 58.
49 Golden Landmarks Association, records.
29


He also purchased 160 acres of Edgecomb's parcel for $100 in the fall of 1860.
The Nye parcel had since been repossessed by the County sheriff and sold to
George Harlow, who sold 160 acres of it to Field that same fall.50 Field
conveyed his parcels to John F. Vandevanter, R.D. Thompson and Moore,
who were all business associates of Pullman.
Another associate, miner Samuel F. Cooper in Russell Gulch, claimed
160 acres to link the existing claimed parcels of land.51 Snow, Harlow and
Edgecomb were taken on as new partners in the enterprise and each retained
half of their original holdings. J.S. Pimple and James E. Lyon, also business
associates of Pullman, claimed 160 acres each to the south to add to the
enterprise while Pullman himself claimed his own 160 acre parcel. On May
20,1861, what Pullman named the Cold Spring Ranch was officially platted,
now a prominent way station ranch of 1600 acres, which under Pullman had
been expanded to 10 times its original size.52
Pullman had the idea to arrange this purchase for use as a stopover
point on his business trips between Central City and Denver, and kept a
buggy and horse team stationed there.53 He also used it to store goods when
50 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records.
51 Ibid.
52 Ibid.
53 Liston Edgington Leyendecker, Palace Car Prince: A Biography of George Mortimer Pullman
(Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992), p. 60.
30


his business at Central City ran out of space. The Cold Spring Ranch also
became a prominent stopover point on the way to the gold fields. Patrons
from stagecoaches to cowboys to outlaws to adventurers could buy
provisions, rest their animals, fix breakdowns, sleep inside the station house
or camp out on the surrounding acreage, sometimes for sizable amounts of
time. As such, the Pullman House itself helped facilitate Colorado's early
Gold Rush growth.
The Pullman House came to be known to freighters and stagecoach
drivers as Pullman's Switch, as it served as a place where you could switch
teams from one weary set of animals to a fresh set before making the long
climb into the mountains.54 The Pullman House served several stagecoach
lines including the Western Stage Company, Nye Forwarding Company and
Wells, Fargo & Company. Soon, however, the Civil War set in and along
with it economic depression, drying up gold mining in the mountains. In the
early-to-mid-1860s Pullman spent much of his time at this cabin, perfecting
plans for his sleeper cars before returning to the east.55 Pioneers witnessing
Pullman at work on his blueprints and model, and hearing him talk in
glowing terms of future prospects for the invention, often mistook what he
was doing for actually inventing the thing in Colorado.
54 Golden Landmarks Association, records.
55 Colorado Transcript. 20 October 1897.
31


Pullman made money during his years in Colorado, probably not
because of his gold operations in the unstable mining industry, but because of
his other Colorado business ventures such as the Cold Spring Ranch.56
Pullman returned to Illinois in 1863, and with the $20,000 he raised in
Colorado from enterprises such as the Cold Spring Ranch he commenced
building his famed sleeper railroad cars. Less than 10 years after his
departure, the famous Pullman Palace railroad cars rolled into Golden among
the first railroad equipment used by the Colorado Central Railroad.
In time Pullman and his associates sold off the Cold Spring Ranch,
which in modern terms had borders roughly on Ulysses Street, North Table
Mountain, the eastern border of Camp George West, and West 4th Avenue.57
Pullman himself gave it its name, and after going east founded America's first
company town outside of Chicago and built his railcar invention into an
internationally famous empire.58 However, Pullman always held a fondness
in his heart for the time he spent in Colorado, collecting all the literature he
could on Colorado of the early 1860s and visiting the place with his family in
his later years.
56 Liston Edgington Leyendecker, Palace Car Prince: A Biography of George Mortimer Pullman
(Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992), p. 66.
57 County of Jefferson, archives, map of the Cold Spring Ranch land area, 1999.
58 Liston Edgington Leyendecker, Palace Car Prince: A Biography of George Mortimer Pullman
(Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992).
32


In 1868, William (Billy) Martin, who ran the Railroad House hotel in
downtown Golden near what would be 11th and Ford Streets, leased the old
Pullman property and continued to run the Cold Spring Ranch as an
important area institution. He built a two-story log addition on the west side
and above the building, dismantling the original roof and chimney to expand
it into an I-house plan.59 The reborn Pullman House had a central entry hall
flanked by the original building space on the east and a tavern on the west,
and from the hall led an ornate staircase to the upper floor hall where
travelers could sleep on Pullman-style bunks.60
Jonas Morrison Johnson Sr., a prominent Golden citizen, by this time
owned the building and did not mind if Billy Martin held horse races at the
place. His family moved out the ranch in 1870.61 Johnson, and later his son
Mott (John Jr.), both served as sheriffs of Jefferson County, and the place
passed to the hands of his son long after Billy Martin and colorful local stage
drivers such as Lemuel Flower, Jake Hawk, Steve Eldred and Bill Turner
ceased to frequent the facility.62 The ranch had seen a number of famous
59 Golden Landmarks Association, records.
Interviews with Sid Squibb, former Director Gilpin County Historical Society, Golden, Colorado,
summer 1997.
61 Colorado Transcript. 1870.
62 Golden Landmarks Association, records.
33


guests from General Sherman to Isabella Bird, as well as being associated
with the sensational murders of Reuben Hayward and Maria LaGuardia.63
Figure 2.3
"Pullman House: A Survivor of Yesteryear"
1940 artwork by Herndon Davis
(Source: Denver Public Library, Western History Department)
In 1891 the Denver, Lakewood & Golden railway built a rail line from
Denver to Golden through the Cold Spring Ranch.64 What had long been a
rural frontier wilderness was suddenly within easy reach of the metropolis
and Mott Johnson wasted no time in taking advantage of the opportunity. He
63 Ibid.
64 Colorado Transcript and Golden Globe. 1891.
34


sold eastern acreage to be used as the Colorado National Guard's Rifle Range,
sold western acreage into the Pullman Hights (sic) subdivision, and soon
pared the Cold Spring Ranch to a stock ranch of 600 acres.65
This method of growth based on speculation, not careful urban
planning, soon resulted in a haphazard division very different from the
orderly vision Pullman commissioned for his city back east. By 1899 what
was a 1600-acre ranch was chopped into a jumble of properties of various
sizes, some elongated north-south ranges to small and mid-size ranches and
farms to the lots of the Pullman Hights subdivision and the acreage left of
Johnson's ranch.66 On the rifle range area land developed Camp George
West, Colorado's first permanent national guard training facility,67 while in
areas to the west uneven housing development occurred as various
speculators subdivided parcels even smaller into neighborhoods that would
come to be known as Pleasant View. Older farmhouses soon meshed with
nondescript mid-20th century suburban homes. Straight extensions of the
Denver avenue grid clashed with the existing non-directionally-conforming
roads dating from Gold Rush times.
65 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records.
66 Willits Insurance Company, Farm Map, 1899.
67 Jefferson County Historical Commission, Jefferson County National Register Historic Sites (Golden:
Jefferson County Public Library, 1995).
35


Soon speculative development began closing in on the very building
this land's fate once revolved around. Across the street to the west Rock Rest,
was built in 1907, offering liquor and women to the nearby area clientele.68
After the demise of the Johnson family their ranch was subdivided itself, and
the Pullman House became a service station and cafe for automobile
travelers, a modem translation of its historic way station use. By 1943 when
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Brown purchased it the building had been expanded
further to five times its original size and painted an extremely conspicuous
bright orange.69 With the end of World War II came more uncontrolled
growth to the Pleasant View area, and the Pullman House's property became
more and more valuable for commercial purposes. Explosive growth, which
once put the Pullman House on the map, sealed its fate in 1965, when the
Browns decided to demolish it to expand their business, claiming the famous
old building had become a firetrap.70
At this time, development was rampant in the region and many
historic landmarks in the Denver metropolitan area and nearby Golden were
being destroyed. No organized preservation efforts were available to
question growth at this time, whether for historic places or for open space.
68 Thomas J. Noel, Colorado: A Liquid History and Tavern Guide to the Highest State (Golden:
Fulcrum Publishing, 1999), p. 149.
69 Golden Landmarks Association, records.
70 Colorado Transcript. 1965.
36


However, the Pullman House was destined for a different path when Sid
Squibb, head of the Gilpin County Historical Society, happened by as the
building was being demolished and offered to buy the remaining logs,
number and dismantle them himself, and take them to Central City in hopes
of future reassembly.71 Thus the logs, including the total original 1859
structure Pullman knew, began an exile of 32 years out of growth's reach.
In the meantime, Pleasant View became a half-rural, half-suburban
community constantly encroached on by annexations of neighbors Golden
and Lakewood. With no agreements for urban growth in place, fights
occasionally erupted between Pleasant View residents and neighboring cities
and developers who wished to annex to them.72 Development all around
Jefferson County spurred the formation of a countywide open space
preservation movement during 1972, known as PLAN Jeffco.73 It set among
its goals for preservation South Table Mountain which immediately adjoined
Pleasant View.74 Jefferson County residents voted in favor of enacting a sales
tax to preserve open space that November, in what was then the nation's
71 Interviews with Sid Squibb, former Director Gilpin County Historical Society, Golden, Colorado,
summer 1997.
72 Golden Transcript. 1960s to 1990s.
73 Ibid, 20 March 1972.
74 Ibid.
37


fifth-fastest growing county. This public backlash against unquestioned
growth led to the eventual return of the Pullman House to its old home.
Figure 2.4
Metropolitan development approaching South Table Mountain
Future Pullman House location strip of open land in middle right side
(Source: Gardner Family Collection)
During 1998 a proposal surfaced from Nike Inc. to build a new factory
complex atop nearby South Table Mountain. While the Golden mayor Jan
Schenck secretly supported this proposal, it was soundly blasted by many of
Golden's citizens.75 A group called Save the Mesas was formed, which
stopped the proposal, which may have been no more than a bluff by Nike to
75 Ibid, 1998.
38


leverage support from its Beaverton, Oregon headquarters community.76
Nevertheless, efforts intensified to acquire and preserve South Table
Mountain land for Jefferson County Open Space. Through late 1998 and early
1999 negotiations between the United States Department of Energy, Colorado
National Guard and Jefferson County Open Space led to an agreement to
preserve much of the eastern acreage of South Table Mountain.77 Among this
land, destined to be leased to Pleasant View for a park, was a part of Camp
George West that once was the northeast corner of the Cold Spring Ranch.
In the meantime, the Golden Landmarks Association had acquired the
logs of the Pullman House and returned them to Golden from Central City.78
Without a suitable place to locate the reconstructed building, restoration
project director Richard Gardner soon identified the recent Open Space
acquisition as an ideal location. After considerable planning and negotiation
a new home, a 5-acre preserve of the original wilderness of the Cold Spring
Ranch, was secured, and efforts are presently underway to rebuild the
structure.79 Thus George Pullman's house will be joining a national pattern of
historic preservation, that known as Reconstitution, a more radical form of
76 Ibid.
77 Ibid, late 1998-early 1999.
78 Golden Landmarks Association, records and Gilpin County Historical Society, Pullman House
ownership transfer document.
79 Golden Landmarks Association, newsletters summer 1999 spring 2000.
39


preservation intervention where a building can only be saved by piece-by-
piece reassembly.80
Usually this involves places subject to natural or manmade disaster,
though other cases involve reconstitution on new sites.81 In the case of the
Pullman House, it involves a more unusual route, being placed on a new site
within its historic land area. While the vast majority of moved historic
buildings in Jefferson County are to places indicative of another pattern in
preservation strategy, pioneer village-type recreations consisting of an
architectural zoo of transplanted structures, the Pullman House will remain
alone. Its preservation moreover, in its land as well as the building itself,
recognizes another national trend against uncontrolled urban growth. It is
the local manifestation of a backlash against the overall negative aspects of
urban sprawl, against both the cost of eating up large chunks of the natural
environment, and of historic buildings just being "thrown away like
kleenex."82 Jefferson County's pioneer open space and historic preservation
movements, Golden Landmarks and Open Space, have literally teamed up to
create an oasis where growth may be permanently checked, and both the
80 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World
(Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 46-47.
81 Ibid.
82 Ibid, p. 35-36.
40


historical natural and manmade environments may exist in perpetuity for the
benefit of the public.
The Pullman House, created to facilitate Gold Rush growth, ended up
being pushed out by the modern suburban growth its owners helped
facilitate through poor planning of the subdivision of their land. However,
the end of its story is a happy one, being saved by Jefferson County Open
Space and the Golden Landmarks Association, each formed to combat the
modern growth that threatens historic landmarks like the Pullman House.
Many other historic ranches in Jefferson County have not been as fortunate.
41


Figure 2.5
Modem Pleasant View development of Cold Spring Ranch area
Cold Spring Ranch plat outlined in dark gray
(Source: Jefferson County archives)
42


CHAPTER 3
A TRIP TO THE ARCHITECTURAL ZOO:
DISPLACEMENT OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS
Beauties and beasts survive in Jefferson County at its architectural
zoos. On one hand, museums that house collections of displaced
architectural landmarks serve an end of preservation much like real zoos, that
of saving what is endangered and giving it a place of refuge. On the other
hand, the architectural zoo, like the real zoo, uproots something and places it
in an environment unlike its own, no matter how hard the keepers try to
recreate its environmental context. Jefferson County's architectural zoos,
Lakewood's Heritage Center and Clear Creek Park, are their own local
examples of this ongoing preservation dilemma that is international in scope.
As in the outside world, growth compels landmarks to take refuge in the zoo,
or face extinction.
Lakewood's Heritage Center
Over the course of the late 20th Century, growth has spread so rapidly
throughout Jefferson County that conservation and preservation movements
have often been ill-equipped to keep up. No local government had even
43


enacted a preservation ordinance until Golden created theirs in 1984.83 As a
result, city planners did not make historic preservation a priority. The result
was the endangerment of many historic landmarks as Jefferson County's
urban centers spread outward, and renewed their aging cores within. As
with other endangered species, the concept of taking threatened historic
buildings out of their natural habitat and housing them at a "200" for their
safe keeping in Jefferson County. The first such zoo is located in the county's
largest city, known as Lakewood's Heritage Center.
Modem growth has in no uncertain terms harmed Lakewood's historic
places. In 1976 Patricia Wilcox, who helped write 76 Centennial stories of
Lakewood, lamented: "Lakewood has few landmarks left. Fire and
"progress" have taken a heavy toll...The trend towards preservation came too
late: nevertheless, there are still some memorable buildings left and let us
hope they will be saved for future generations."84 Lakewood, which had been
platted by William A.H. Loveland, grew very rapidly during and after the
1940s, changing its rural nature into a sea of subdivisions chopping up among
other places the noted Bancroft, Bonfils, Molly Brown, Downing and Gov.
Grant country estates.85 During the 1960s it had become a sprawling
83 City of Golden, ordinances.
84 City of Lakewood, 76 Centennial Stories of Lakewood. Colorado (Lakewood: Lakewood
Centennial-Bicentennial Commission, 1976), p. iv-v.
85 Stephen J. Leonard and Thomas J. Noel, Denver: Mining Camp to Metropolis (Niwot: University
Press of Colorado, 1990), p. 302-303.
44


unincorporated metropolis, finally incorporating into one of Colorado's
largest cities in 1969. Preservation-minded citizens, mindful that Lakewood
had a far more distant past than that, quickly determined to do what they
could to save what was left of its heritage.
In 1971 five high school students named Brent Schlueter, Pam Exon,
John Young, Lloyd Wagner, and Terry Thompson discovered plans for the
development of the land surrounding the historic Belmar Estate.86 As part of
their Citizen's Action Lab they decided to make preserving the Belmar
grounds their semester project. A sizable campaign developed, which
included numerous contacts with the media petitions including 3,000
signatures, emphasizing the community's desire to preserve the property.87
Voters two years later approved the City's purchase of the 127 acres of land.
Members of the Lakewood Centennial-Bicentennial Commission were
attracted to this land in 1974, when they began looking for a site for the still
newly-incorporated city to house its first museum. The calf barn at the
southeast corner of the land got their attention, and they proposed that it be
converted into an ongoing exhibit area.88 Belmar Village, renamed
Lakewood's Heritage Center in 1998, had begun.
86 Lakewoods 25* Anniversary Commission, Lakewood-Colorado: An Dlustrated Biography
(Lakewood: Lakewood 25* Birthday Commission, 1994), p. 94.
87 Ibid.
88 Ibid.
45


The calf bam was renovated by local architect Robert Douglass into a
changing exhibit area on the first floor with an upstairs gallery.89 He added a
skylight and custom-designed stained glass window. The Belmar Museum,
as is was known, opened to the public on August 1,1976.90 Upon its opening,
Mayor Jim Richey reminded the crowd to remember that Lakewood's history
did not begin with its 1969 incorporation, but was deeply rooted in the more
distant past.
Belmar Village was designed specifically to be a place of refuge for
Lakewood landmarks threatened by development. As such buildings of 1859
through World War II vintage became available, they were to be moved to
this site.91 This is a phenomenon by no means local to Jefferson County; often
throughout the United States moving historic buildings is the only means of
preserving them. Ironically, several of the most successful outdoor
architectural museums were created this way.92 The park's original plans
called for historical interpretation based on its buildings from 1859 through
World War II, and the Village was an architectural and historical
interpretation center run as part of Lakewood's Department of Community
89 ibid.
90 Ibid.
91 Ibid.
James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World
(Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 133.
46


Resources.93 Refugee landmarks were to be moved to the park as soon as
they became available, and soon enough, they began to arrive.
Hallack-Webber House
This long, low, one-story frame house began as the carriage house of
the Charles Hallack estate, originally located on the southeast corner of Ohio
and South Wadsworth Boulevard on the future site of Villa Italia shopping
mall. In 1958, the rapidly-growing city of Lakewood widened Wadsworth,
placing the carriage house in jeopardy.94 The Webber family purchased it and
moved it to 2401 Zuni Street, and the family continued to live there for a
number of years. However, in 1980, the house was threatened again when
growing Denver decided it needed to widen Zuni Street as well.95 After being
contacted by Mrs. Webber, Joy Casserly (Belmar's first curator) convinced the
City and County of Denver to deed the house back to Lakewood.
Ironically, it ended up less than two blocks from its original site. On
May 15,1981, it was formally dedicated as the Ranch House at Belmar.96 The
93 Lakewoods 25* Anniversary Commission, Lakewood-Colorado: An Illustrated Biography
(Lakewood: Lakewood 25* Birthday Commission, 1994), p. 94-96.
* Ibid, p. 94.
95 Ibid.
96 Ibid.
47


second interpretive structure at the museum, it now serves as the Visitors
Center.
Peterson House
This rural residence was originally built along Bear Creek around 1872
by the Lewis family, miners who converted to a more lucrative farming trade.
They mined the miners, supplying mining towns with grain and hay from
their farm.97 Subsequently owned by some fifteen different families, the
home's basement was used by the Streer family during Prohibition for what
is believed to be Jefferson County's largest, most complete moonshine
operation.98 This was no small feat, considering major busts in this area of
Jefferson County were common.
The last couple to own it were Arthur and Edna Peterson, and in 1974
the area along Bear Creek including this house was purchased by the federal
government for a flood-control project. Displaced and in need of a new
home, it was donated to Morrison, but no suitable home could be found for
it.99 In 1986, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers moved it to its new Lakewood
97 Ibid, p. 96.
98 Ibid.
"Ibid.
48


home. The house had already been placed on the National Historic Register
in 1981.
Ralston Crossing School
For the next addition to the park Lakewood looked to Ralston Creek in
Arvada to the north. School District #12 at Ralston originally began around
1870, and purchased the rural community's Methodist Church in 1882 at its
first schoolhouse.100 Through the years, the school district grew and replaced
its schoolhouse during the 1920s with a large, 1-story frame building at
Ralston Crossing. Threatened by Arvada's own sprawling development, this
was moved to Belmar Village in the 1990s to be converted into the Country
School, one half being a c. 1920s classroom, the other a community meeting
area and museum programming space.101
Lane's Tavern
Likely the first project in Colorado history involving the move of an
historic watering hole for historic preservation purposes, Lane's Tavern was a
victim of increasing renewal development along West Colfax Avenue during
100 Golden Globe. 24 June 1882.
101 Lakewoods 25* Anniversary Commission, Lakewood-Colorado: An Dlustrated Biography
(Lakewood: Lakewood 25th Birthday Commission, 1994), p. 96.
49


the 1990s. Its one-story, frame, clapboarded building with pyramidal roof
had stood at 11400 West Colfax Avenue since the mid-1920s.102 The
institution, famous for its Bennyburgers, was topped by a huge beer glass
neon sign, and had been known once for selling the cheapest draft beer in
Lakewood.
When Lane's Tavern closed in the mid-1990s, Belmar Village saw in it
a golden opportunity to grab an entire preserved Lakewood institution for its
museum, complete with fixtures. The museum had been shifting its focus to
include greater attention to the history of the Colfax corridor, and
immediately sought to relocate the Tavern to their grounds. However, the
building itself had become too rotted structurally and was unmovable;
therefore, the interior was salvaged, and plans made to build a replica of the
building at the museum to house it.
Gil's and Ethel's Barber Shop
From time to time an historic landmark does not exemplify itself
through its classic architecture or famous people, but by being a beloved
fixture of the community for a good many years. This is the case of the latest
addition to Lakewood's Heritage Center, known simply as Gil's and Ethel's
Barber Shop.
102 Ibid, p. 254.
50


This building was originally built in 1948 at 3043 West Alameda
Avenue. As described by the Rocky Mountain News. 'It's not a fancy place,
by any means; it is small, curvy and perfectly comfortable in its tile and glass
block skin. With corner parapets, a showy clock, and an extra helping of
vernacular charm, Ethel's and Gil's doesnt need the imprimature of a famous
architect to attract interest. That's a good thing, because no one seems to
know who might have designed this place..."103 An International-style
building, others like it once stood along the roadways of the Denver area
including West Colfax Avenue, gaining it the attention of Belmar Village and
Historic Denver, Inc., Colorado's oldest historic preservation organization.
Standing at the intersection of West Alameda and Federal, what was
originally a laundry became the dual barber shop of Gilbert and Ethel Gomez.
Gil's shop, serving a male clientele, occupied one side of its double storefront,
while Ethel's served women on the other. However, growth was
encroaching, as the rapid expansion of Lakewood westward, such as the
massive Green Mountain Village subdivision on the south side of that
mountain, increased the traffic along Alameda. Thus, like the Hallack-
Webber House, Gil's and Ethel's soon became doomed by the need to expand
Alameda.
1M Rockv Mountain News. 15 September 1996.
51


Specifically, the Colorado Department of Transportation targeted the
intersection for new left turn lanes, landscaping and widened sidewalks. The
intersection in 1992 topped the list of accident locations in the entire City and
County of Denver.104 The widening threatened Gil's and Ethel's with
destruction, and Ethel Gomez lacked the resources to move it. So the Denver
government, the Department of Transportation and Colorado Historic
Preservation Office began looking for a way to preserve it. Quickly Belmar
Village, rechristened as Lakewood's Heritage Center, pursued the historic
building.105 They pointed out a new area of the park to be devoted to
Twentieth Century buildings that made Colfax Lakewood's main commercial
avenue after World War II. Park administrator Devorah Ellerman posed the
idea of making it part "a 20th century museum."
Several philosophical issues, which growth has been known to trigger
when displacing historic landmarks, soon came to the surface. The Denver
Landmarks Preservation Commission, in particular, was uneasy about taking
a transportation-related landmark such as this one (due to its association with
the Alameda commercial corridor) off the avenue.106 Questions arose, like "If
a Denver building moves out of Denver, and specifically out of its historical
context, does it lose too much in the translation?" "Is it better to destroy
104 Ibid.
105 Ibid.
106 Ibid.
52


something physically rather than diminish its meaning?" In essence, the
arguments posed by preservationists were that taking the building away
from its original setting took it out of its historical surroundings and placed it
in an alien world, where its historical nature and identity might not be as
easily understood or depicted. Such has been the case of buildings in places
of refuge such as Lakewood's Heritage Center. Historians have criticized
these historical "zoos" for lacking historical environment, much like a real
zoo's animals lack their own authentic surroundings.
However, the choice came down between a compromise on the
building's historic integrity and losing it altogether. Historic Denver opted
for compromise. "Yes, it troubles me," said commissioner Barbara Norgren,
"I dont know what the alternative is, except to lose it."107 Historic Denver
director Kathleen Brooker looked on the bright side: "This is a rare
opportunity for a building to be interpreted for a larger public."108 Soon it
was on its way to Lakewood, where its forward section was turned into a
1950s interpretation of Gil's and Ethel's shops complete with original
furnishings donated by Ethel Gomez herself. The rear was converted into a
replica dime store, created with the furnishings of the recently-closed Fair 5 &
10 store from downtown Golden.
107 Ibid.
Ibid.
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A Heritage Center
Originally known as Belmar Village, this collection of endangered
historic landmarks was transformed to celebrate Lakewood's 20th century
history towards the end of the 1990s. Its plans were changed to become a
village more completely depicting the total history of Lakewood. Through it
all, however, it has been the literal embodiment of a beauty and beast
confronting preservation efforts throughout the United States: the
architectural zoo.
When Gil's and Ethel's was moved to this place, preservationists
generally embraced the opportunity as enthusiastically as they might have
eating barbecued roadkill. It was better than destroying the building, but still
something unpalatable for which there was no alternative. It was repugnant
because such a scenario ripped the building out of its historic setting and
context and placed it within an architectural zoo where buildings could be as
much in their historical context as animals could be in their natural context.
Such a collection brought in from different places, in preservationist thought,
can be "disconcerting and didactically counterproductive," since it presents
to a person's view a group of places that in reality could never have been seen
together.109
109 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World
(Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 224-25.
54


This is exemplified in another architectural zoo being assembled in
Colorado, located between Central City and Black Hawk known as Mountain
City. Unwilling to preserve buildings in situ within this National Historic
Landmark District yet powerless to destroy them by local law, the solution
developers and local lawmakers came up with was to uproot any historic
buildings that got in their way and replant them in one location regardless of
their historical relationship with each other. The result is not only a
hodgepodge of Victorian buildings that never would have been built side-by-
side (especially coming from each of these fierce rival towns), but a recreation
of Mountain City that does not even remotely resemble the far more
rudimentary frontier construction of the original town on the site. Even more
exemplary of the problems of the architectural zoo concept is Black Hawk's
attempt to move the Lace House. This nationally noted work of Carpenter
Gothic construction is built onto a rock wall hillside terrace, and after a
pitched battle the Colorado Historical Society temporarily barred it from
being moved, to the chagrin of locals who carved its mountainside into an
island in a parking lot.110 However, if it was moved not only can the Lace
House not be placed on its rock terraced mountainside again, but it is
historically impossible for Mountain City to have possessed a building of its
110 Rockv Mountain News. 20 June 1998.
55


style, which had not yet even arrived in the locality by the time the town had
been absorbed into Central City during the early 1860s.111
The architectural zoo in Lakewood exists, nevertheless, because of the
necessities growth has imposed to mandate its being there. It will continue to
be added to as such, and plans to make the most of its situation and place the
buildings as much in their historic context as feasible. These plans include a
replica art deco movie house as a visitors center, with exhibit space and an
educational wing, as well as an outdoor amphitheater and 4 historical
learning centers. These include a Family Farm Center (concentrating on area
farming history), the Belmar Estate Center (about area affluent families and
their country retreats), the Colfax Hub (recreating West Colfax Avenue's
commercial development of the mid-20th century), as well as performances at
the Gazebo and Bonfils-Stanton Foundation Amphitheater.112 As of 1999 the
Lakewood Legacy Foundation and the Heritage Center had raised $2 million
of the $3.5 million goal to build this facility. This included donations of
$100,000 from Cobe Laboratories and a $230,000 contribution from the
Bonfils-Stanton Foundation, Lakewood's largest taxpayer.113 Helping lead
efforts is Lakewood Legacy, a nonprofit fundraising community organization
111 Jerome Smiley, History of Colorado (Chicago, The Lewis Publishing Company, 1913), p. 286.
112 Jefferson County Guide. 1999.
113 Rockv Mountain News. 12 January 1998.
56


led by Bill Shanley. Completion of the Heritage Center has been projected for
2009.
Other historic places now at Lakewood's Heritage Center include the
Wide Acres Trolley Stop and the Glen Creighton Pump House. Growth
displaced most if not all of its historic landmarks, both urban and rural. They
have been transported to this site due to projects ranging from road widening
for increased traffic not present when the buildings were built, to country
buildings displaced by urban sprawl. Lakewood's population in 1970,
shortly before the Belmar endeavors began, was 92,743. By 1990, it was
125,481, a one-third increase.114 Lakewood's corporate boundaries now
extend to encompass Green Mountain and the Rooney Valley, historically
within Golden's sphere of influence and places which until the past twenty
years have been a ranching and mining landscape. Its borders now meet not
only Golden but another historic Jefferson County small town in Morrison,
each of which have not expanded many miles beyond their original plats.
As Lakewood continues to expand into the 21st century, more country
landmarks will be threatened by new subdivisions, spurring renewal within
the established city to accommodate the new growth in areas such as traffic
control, tax base increase, and revitalizing older areas that previously affluent
populations abandoned for newer suburbs. While some may have intended
114 U.S. Bureau of the Census, data, 1990.
57


over the years for the Heritage Center to be a refuge for endangered
landmarks, the Center may become a disjointed mishmash of buildings with
wildly differing characteristics, leading to even greater arguments over the
educational value and place of historical context for the buildings and their
park. To best address the problem, Lakewood needs to hold a serious
examination of the impact growth has within its current corporate limits and
surrounding areas, and how the growth may best be channeled to promote
preservation and not destruction --or relocation-- of its historic places.
Clear Creek Park
During the 1990s mountain growth in Jefferson County exploded as it
had never before. Rural mountain communities such as Evergreen grew so
much that by 1994 Jefferson County government had spread services so thin
citizens debated incorporating this place of some 30,000 as its own town.115
Evergreen was larger than many incorporated municipalities in the county.
Growth also shifted to the northern mountains of Jefferson County,
threatening several important historical and natural resources of the area. In
response, Jefferson County Open Space made the acquisition of Clear Creek
Canyon one of its highest priorities, leading to the purchase of many parcels
1,5 Rocky Mountain News. 2 February 1994.
58


during the latter half of the 1990s.116 Other, less scenic areas were developed.
One of these was the area of Crawford Gulch, adjoining Golden Gate Canyon.
Golden Gate Canyon is one of Jefferson County's most historic
mountain communities, profiled in depth in James K. Ramstetter's book Life
in the Early Days (Denver: Alameda Press, 1996). Inside this an area pioneer
family member details much of the culture, events, landmarks and evolution
of this mountain community. The folklore of the area he remembers is
priceless, from a skeleton found buried standing up in 1918 to the author and
his twin brother dynamiting a frozen tree in 1922 to get firewood.
Golden Gate Canyon was a rural ranching community on one of the
main gold rush thoroughfares to Black Hawk and Central City. Its economy,
besides ranching, included timber milling and the trade at the stage stop
hostelries, which included the 5 Mile House, 8 Mile House, Michigan House,
Guy House and Centennial House.117 Its educational needs were long served
by the humble one-room frame Guy Hill and Robinson Hill schools of District
10, and the newer Belcher Hill District 29 that joined them.118 The Golden
Gate area was divided into a number of ranching locales within the area
between Ralston Creek and Clear Creek, these included Golden Gate Canyon
116 Jefferson County Open Space, records.
117 Charles and Mary Ramstetter, John Gregory Country: Place Names and History of Ralston Buttes
Quadrangle (Golden: C Lazy Three Press, 1999), p. 184-197.
118 Ibid, p. 170-183.
59


itself, Crawford Gulch, Michigan Hill, Douglas Mountain, Guy Hill, Robinson
Hill, Smith Hill, Mt. Tom, and Sheep Mountain.
As this area evolved into modern times various pioneer landmarks
were abandoned, which came to be vandalized by increasing automobile
travel on the area's roads. With the 1990s a new wave of development swept
over the area, threatening more of its historic buildings in Crawford Gulch.119
This was what led to the formation of Jefferson County's second architectural
"zoo," along Clear Creek in Golden. Its formation story begins by telling of a
much earlier preservation project, Guy Hill School.
Guy Hill School
Mitchell Elementary School kindergarten teacher Verna Katona was
driving around the mountains one day in the early 1970s when she spied at
Guy Hill an old schoolhouse.120 It was heavily vandalized, some of its
clapboarding even ripped off for firewood. This was one of the oldest
remaining school buildings of Jefferson County, built on the hill named for
Bostonian John C. Guy, who built the famed Guy House stage stop in 1859.121
Katona quickly determined something must be done to save the school, and
119 County of Jefferson, clerk and recorder plat records.
120 Charles and Mary Ramstetter, John Gregory Country: Place Names and History of Ralston Buttes
Quadrangle (Golden: C Lazy Three Press, 1999), p. 180.
121 James K. Ramstetter, Life in the Early Days (Denver, Alameda Press, 1996), p. 15.
60


voiced her thoughts at her next teachers' meeting. Soon Mitchell's 6th grade
children came to Mitchell Parent Teacher Association president Jo Ann
Thistlewood asking if her organization might sponsor moving Guy Hill
School to Golden as part of the upcoming Centennial-Bicentennial celebration
of 1976.122 After research and planning the 3-year project commenced.
Owners Franklin Stermole and Ramon Bisque and their wives donated
the building to the Golden Civic Foundation.123 Under Mitchell school
supervision the students and parents met with utility and government
officials for approval needed on the project. Students measured the building
(22 x 18 feet), and with their parents gathered rocks from Coal Creek Canyon
for a new foundation at Golden. Golden Landmarks Association founding
member Bo Bowers and a former Marine friend with Winslow Construction
Company arranged to use the 2nd-largest mobile crane in Colorado to put the
building into place. The building made the easy but winding trip down the
mountain roads in the back of a flatbed truck.124 The Golden Transcript
newspaper photographed the dramatic move, showing the little school and
detached airlock front moving their way by truckbed, taking over the entire
122 Golden Transcript. 23 November 1995.
123 Charles and Mary Ramstetter, John Gregory Country: Place Names and History of Ralston Buttes
Quadrangle (Golden: C Lazy Three Press, 1999), p. 179.
124 Golden Landmarks Association, records.
61


roadway.125 Soon it found its new home at the northwest comer of 12th and
Ford Streets in downtown Golden, atop the new foundation of gathered
rocks. It was a temporary foundation, in case the school had to be moved
again in the future.
Figure 3.1
Guy Hill School within Clear Creek Park
(Source: Gardner Family Collection)
Golden citizens donated bricks from the recently destroyed St. Joseph's
Catholic Church for a new chimney. Katona gathered historic furnishings to
fill the building, and in Massachusetts located the original desk the pioneer
125 Golden Transcript. 25 June 1975.
62


Ramstetter had used at Guy Hill.126 Many other volunteers lent their
expertise, and a priest from Regis College on sabbatical gave a check for
matching grants, while Charles Courtad chaired the Centennial-Bicentennial
project for Jefferson County, part of the celebration of Colorado's centennial
in the year of America's bicentennial. The Mitchell PTA received three
awards for outstanding project of the year, and gained national attention.127
According to area tradition the school was built at Guy Hill in 1876.128
This frame building consists of a main one-room hall with airlock front
entrance, door opening to one side, reached by a small flight of steps and
used for storing coats and supplies. The building was heated by wood stove,
and students originally sat on benches (more than likely the type of
inadequate furnishings early Jefferson County school superintendents were
known to be frustrated with in their reports), and later desks. Locked in a
factional rivalry with Crawford Gulch, the schoolhouse was in early years
yanked back and forth between the areas by rope.129 How many times is not
exactly known. This feud likely ended when the Belcher Hill area was
126 Golden Transcript. 23 November 1995.
127 Golden Landmarks Association, records.
128 James K. Ramstetter, Life in the Early Davs (Denver, Alameda Press, 1996), p. 21.
129 Golden Transcript. 30 July 1976.
63


granted its own school district. Guy Hill's own district, #10, had been formed
circa 1868.130
Some years as many as 22 students attended the school, which was
always served by one teacher, often a single young lady from the city of
Golden. The building doubled as an area community center, holding
religious services and social events. In 1951 it closed permanently, owing to
the consolidation of Jefferson County's remaining historic school districts into
the unified R-l district.131 Thus began its period of abandonment which is
among the longest for an eventually reclaimed building in Jefferson County
history.
The Pearce Ranch
Early in the 1990s, Harvey Moser decided to develop an historic ranch
of the Crawford Gulch and Belcher Hill area and Patrick Foss, son of
Frederick "Heinie" Foss of Foss General Store fame in downtown Golden,
stepped in to develop it. The result was the creation of the Red School Ranch
subdivision of smaller ranchettes.132 In developing the Red School Ranch
subdivision, Foss elected to restore the ranch's main home as well as the
130 County of Jefferson, place names records.
131 Golden Landmarks Association, records.
132 County of Jefferson, clerk and recorder plat records.
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Belcher Hill School (what the development was named after, built 1912133),
but the fate of the Pearce Ranch's other historic buildings was now in
jeopardy. Golden Pioneer Museum director Irma Wyhs lamented their
pending fate in the Golden Transcript, gaining the interest of the Golden
Landmarks Association. Quickly a movement was afoot to save these
threatened landmarks.
The buildings of the Pearce Ranch have different origins but share a
common history. Henry Treglown, possibly a miner from the Central City
area, first settled here in 1874.134 He built a small, one-story cabin of hewn
logs, with side-gabled roof and central front door flanked by small, double-
hung windows. He ranched here for years, raising daughter Annie with his
family, who grew up to marry miner Adam Reynolds. Upon her father's
death around 1903 Annie Reynolds inherited the ranch.135
Not far to the northeast another miner, John Rogers, took up a
ranching claim of his own. According to ring dating made on the logs, his
cabin was built in 1878.136 It was quite similar in design to the Reynolds
Cabin, except with taller, narrower windows manufactured by Sears,
133 Colorado Transcript. 1912.
134 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records.
135 Ibid.
]16 Charles and Mary Ramstetter, John Gregory Country: Place Names and History of Ralston Buttes
Quadrangle (Golden: C Lazy Three Press, 1999), p. 233.
65


Roebuck & Company.137 This strongly indicates the arrival of the railroads to
the region, making growth easier through shipping in prefabricated,
inexpensive material. Rogers and Reynolds during the 1890s partnered up to
run the North Star Copper Mine in southern Jefferson County, and the
common history of these cabins began.138
Thomas Ennis and Bertha Pearce settled at their ranch south of these
two in Golden Gate Canyon in 1900.139 They built their own, somewhat more
sizable cabin, which looked much like the others. The proliferation of log
construction was indicative of the poorer, blue-collar class who settled the
area. Pearce, originally of Cornwall, England, had come to the United States
in 1878 and had worked as a gold and silver miner in the Central City area
since the mid-1890s.140 The Cornish were part of a general spurt of growth in
this area during the late 1890s which included many kinds of immigrants in
Jefferson County. Many immigrants, particularly Swedish families, also
inhabited the Golden Gate Canyon area.141
137 Golden Landmarks Association, records.
138 County of Jefferson, mining claim records.
139 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records.
140 Colorado Transcript. 8 December 1992 and 26 March 1936.
141 Charles and Mary Ramstetter, John Gregory Country; Place Names and History of Ralston Buttes
Quadrangle (Golden: C Lazy Three Press, 1999).
66


Bertha soon died and Pearce married widow Henrietta Harry in
September, 1900.142 For years the Pearces engaged in cattle ranching and
farming in Crawford Gulch on the east side of Tom Hill. Piece by piece
Thomas Pearce went about acquiring neighboring ranches to add to his own,
starting with the Reynolds Ranch in 1912.143 In the meantime, Rogers died
and his ranch made it to the hands of German immigrant Kasper Hofmeister,
longtime owner of Golden's Goosetown Saloon, in 1902.
Hofmeister's cabin at some point gained two rear additions and a 2nd
floor, with one addition made of Swedish-cut logs suggesting an origin
unknown even in today's historical canon of the building. In 1917 it was sold
to James A. Helps.144 He was not a newcomer, originally coming to Colorado
in 1880 and living in Golden and vicinity starting in 1889.145 He and his wife
Mary and family meandered between Ralston Creek, Golden, this ranch and
Pleasant View through forty-seven years, and one of the family's Golden
homes (built in 1897) still stands at the northwest corner of 21st and East
Streets. Helps served as Jefferson County Road Supervisor for several years,
but was blinded by sunstroke in 1933, three years before his death at age 82.146
142 Colorado Transcript. 26 May 1935.
143 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records.
144 Ibid.
145 Colorado Transcript. 5 March 1936.
146 Ibid.
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The Hofmeister Cabin's ranch land was annexed by Thomas Pearce in
1919.147 He dismantled the cabin and moved it around Tom Hill to the main
ranch, numbering it log by log and reassembling it on a knoll with a
breathtaking view of the surrounding countryside. Its steeply-pitched roof
created too high a profile, however, and was blown away during a
windstorm, leaving the walls standing intact.148 A lower-pitched roof was
built to replace it.
The Park
Late in 1992 Golden Transcript writer Irma Wyhs alerted the area to
the development closing in on these historic ranch buildings. With the
economy picking up, Golden was not only growing, but also scenic places in
the mountains, and the population of the Golden Gate Canyon area was
exploding as never before. Other large ranches were purchased for division
into smaller spreads. Unfortunately, new houses pushed out the old ones as
developers elected not to care for them, and the cabins were placed in serious
danger.
Golden Landmarks resolved to salvage the logs of the cabins and move
them to Golden. The Golden Historic Preservation Board authorized the
147 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records.
14 Golden Transcript. 10 December 1992.
68


Cabin Preservation Committee in early 1993, which decided to move them to
unoccupied park land at the south side of Clear Creek to create a narrative
history site."149 Wyhs chaired the committee, who envisioned an historic park
staffed by volunteers providing ranching, homesteading and western history
on a part-time basis. The City of Golden applied for a $20,063 joint-venture
grant from Jefferson County Open Space to move the buildings.
By April 1994 a master plan for Clear Creek Living History Park had
materialized.150 It laid out an impressive re-creation of the Pearce Ranch area
on the south banks of Clear Creek, between Arapahoe and Illinois Streets. At
its west end were to be the Hofmeister and Reynolds cabins; in its center a
cattle barn, hay bam, corral, grain silo and blacksmith shop; on its east end
Guy Hill School, Visitors Center and the George M. Pullman ranching cabin
of the Pleasant View area long stored in Central City.151 "We want people to
know from the beginning that this is a place for people, that it is an
educational facility, and it is more important for us to provide an educational
facility than it is to be a museum" said Janine Sturdevant, co-chair with Wyhs
of the spearheading committee.
149 Ibid, 13 April 1993.
150 Ibid, 7 April 1994.
69


An estimate of two years was made for the park's completion, and
soon the Hofmeister and Reynolds cabins were dismantled and moved to
Golden. Contractor Bill Bailey rebuilt them with volunteer assistance, and
donations from cash to historic artifacts were soon being accepted.152 The
next year the log barn of the ranch was transplanted to the park.
By the mid-1990s Mitchell Elementary School was slated to move to
north Golden, and so Guy Hill School was in need of the new home earlier
contemplated when it had moved to Golden. With new growth in Golden
came extreme pressure to redevelop Golden's historic downtown, providing
maximum tax revenue to pay for new city services, parks and infrastructure
demanded by the growth. The pages of the Transcript and Golden City
Council minutes of this time verify Council members' continued call for
increasing the tax base to provide greater services of various kinds. Golden's
population through the 1980s alone had grown by 929 people, which would
have amounted to about a third of its population as late as 1940.153 With
growth projected to over 15,000 people by 2000, Golden needed more revenue
to accommodate the impact of its new growth, with sales taxes providing the
easiest opportunity to generate it. The historic Mitchell School, judged by the
Golden Historic Preservation Board's 1992 study of historic buildings to be
eligible for the National Historic Register, was destroyed by the Golden
152 Ibid.
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Urban Renewal Authority, despite even solid retail-oriented preservation
proposals.153 154
Guy Hill was donated from the school district to the park to join its
mountain refugee cousins, making its fourth move in 1996.155 It was rebuilt
atop a new stone foundation near the center of Clear Creek Ranch Park. In
1997 the last salvageable component of the historic Pearce Ranch, a log animal
shed, arrived. Over time re-creations of a blacksmith's shop, meat house, root
cellar and corral, were added. Clear Creek Ranch Park in 1996 was officially
opened for special community events, and the metro area's newest living
history facility was on its way.156
Clear Creek Park's existence and its cause is not a phenomenon unique
to Golden, but a problem and circumstance facing preservationists even
outside the United States. Architectural museums, in the form of re-created
environments like villages, farms or ranches, have been created as a direct
consequence of the pressures of urbanization on their locations. Some of
these include Upper Canada Village above Montreal, a collection of hundreds
of old buildings simulating a 19th Century riverside settlement; and Old
Bethpage Village on Long Island, recreating a Civil War-era farming
153 United States Bureau of the Census, data.
154 Golden Urban Renewal Authority, records, finalist proposals for Mitchell redevelopment, 1998.
155 Golden Landmarks Association, records.
156 Ibid.
71


village.157 Arguments against these museums have been that they seem
"lifeless," or they too often celebrate the upper class. In response, operators
of such museums have increasingly focused on interpreting their historic
things "actively," increasing use of demonstrative activities showing
historical processes such as milling, yam spinning, butter churning and
more.158 Clear Creek Park uses this method, being an architectural museum
emphasizing these things as "living history."
Nationally this is popular with the public, due in part to its being
divorced "from firsthand knowledge of how anything is made."159
Unfortunately, after the City of Golden took direct control of the facility this
approach to operating it came at the hazard of increasingly ignoring the true
context of its buildings, emphasizing the living history demonstrations
themselves. Today the Reynolds Cabin is not presented in any ranching
context, but as a miner's cabin as if at a mining camp complete with sluice
nearby. Elsewhere an Arapaho teepee sits between the schoolhouse and
Hofmeister Cabin, which never would have been among those buildings in
reality. Park programming presumes settings in 1843 and 1861 which are
architecturally impossible for the buildings to simulate (no intact buildings
157 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World
(Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 234.
158 Ibid, p. 240.
159 Ibid.
72


are known to have existed in the area in 1843). The park's purpose is to
simulate a generalized cross-section of historic area life, not paying close
attention to the actual background of the buildings, even to the point the City
government seems completely unaware of the cabins' origins. In the case of
Clear Creek Park, response to one common criticism of architectural
museums has led it deeply into the realm of another criticism, that of the
buildings' loss of the context in which they existed. Physically and culturally
the museum's depiction could not have actually existed.
The Park's future direction is somewhat uncertain. A simple visitors
booth modeled after the Guy Hill School outhouse has materialized at the
entrance, but the Visitors Center, large barn, grain silo, and recreated pinery
surrounding have never materialized. The Pullman House, owned by GLA,
jumped ship from the park plans in 1998 in favor of a return to its original
ranch land home in Pleasant View.160 In any event, the City of Golden with
Clear Creek Park is squandering a unique opportunity to become the only
facility depicting a complete history of one of Jefferson County's historic
mountain communities, Golden Gate Canyon being as old and
adventuresome as any town in the county. The cabins' common history in
copper mining is unique compared to the history of the surrounding area and
they are the only known remaining places owned by miners of copper. This
160 Golden Landmarks Association, records.
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was once an important Jefferson County industry, with mines in many area
locations.161 The disinterest in discovery of the cabins' past is puzzling, as the
history behind them is not only educational but was the very reason they
were preserved in the first place.
Figure 3.2
Clear Creek Park, lower center in urban setting of Golden
(Source: Gardner Family Collection)
161 Foothills Genealogical Society of Colorado, Inc., WPA History of Golden. Jefferson County
Colorado (Lakewood: Foothills Genealogical Society of Colorado, Inc., 1993), p. 432-454.
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CHAPTER 4
MADE USELESS BY DESIGN:
ENDANGERING RURAL LANDMARKS
The prospect of becoming functionally obsolete is a fate that faces
many historic landmarks across the nation, and Jefferson County's old places
are no exception. The Wheat Ridge Soddy was a house that fell prey to the
growth of its community, not just becoming obsolete as a dwelling, but never
having been intended to exist as long as it did in the first place. Bradford
Junction, one of Jefferson County's most historic locales, spurred the creation
of Conifer, among the county's largest unincorporated communities.
Conifer's growth turned back on the place of its birth to make obsolete the
Yellow Barn, a fate gaining special preservationist attention towards many
barns across America. In the case of each of these places, there is good
fortune of being in communities that care for them, the Soddy spurring a
preservationist movement exemplifying why preservationists might care to
preserve a landmark even if its history remains largely anonymous.
Wheat Ridge Soddy
Claudia Worth, Wheat Ridge City Council member and preservationist
said "Sod houses weren't ever meant to last a hundred years. This house has
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remained because it was plastered and lived in. Houses will stay forever if
they're lived in and loved. It's when they're abandoned that they
disintegrate."162 So demonstrates a fundamental truth of historic
preservation, where used landmarks last longer than abandoned ones.
Figure 4.1
Wheat Ridge Soddy
(Source: Gardner Family Collection)
Strangely enough, little is known of the Soddy, one of the rarest and
most unique buildings in Colorado. It was built before 1864, according to
dating of the tall prairie grass used in its construction, by the Denver Botanic
162 Rockv Mountain News. 15 March 1999.
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Gardens.163 It is one story tall, with narrow double-hung windows topped
with a hipped roof, making a fairly nondescript appearance. Its worth is its
architecture, a sod house built for some reason in a place where even near
neighbors on Clear Creek were made of the plentiful wood nearby.
This home of 400 square feet contains about 5,000 square feet of sod,
cut into strips 30 inches wide by 6 inches deep.164 These were placed into
walls 24 inches thick. In 1880, owner James H. Baugh put plaster over its
walls, sod construction being a type known to drop dirt on tenants from time
to time. This strongly implies continued residential use, yet throughout all
known historic account its is not mentioned at all, making it one of Jefferson
County's most mysterious landmarks. It is not impossible the Soddy was
meant to house Baugh's brother who did not remain here past the Gold Rush,
since sod construction was not meant to be a long-lasting design.
In 1892 Bert White purchased the Soddy7 s land and continued farming
it, specializing in Pascal celery.165 In keeping with Wheat Ridge's maturing
growth, in 1900 he built a 5-room brick bungalow beside the Soddy.166 In
1925, the Soddy was used by his son's family, and continued to be lived in
until 1973. During this time, Wheat Ridge was growing by leaps and bounds,
163 Ibid.
164 Ibid.
165 Ibid.
Ibid.
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with affordable housing subdivisions built by entrepreneurs such as George
W. Olinger placing its population at 1,094 by 1940, and almost 30,000 by the
time the city incorporated in 1969.167 By then development was subdividing
farms, ranches, even the Rose Acres Gardens, and encroaching all around the
Soddy, and its protective plaster coat that had indefinitely prolonged its
existence was crumbling.
Developer Frank Callahan purchased the Soddy7 s property in 1973.
The Soddy remained a mysterious place of nondescript design and unknown
origin; media accounts incorrectly dated the structure; yet regardless Wheat
Ridge residents, alerted by the Montgomery family, quickly rallied to save
it.168 This phenomenon while seemingly unusual is actually not in the United
States, as preservation historian J.B. Jackson wrote: "Much of our enthusiasm
for historical preservation seems to be prompted by the same instinct: history
means less the record of significant events and people than the preservation
of reminders of a bygone domestic existence and its environment."169 *
The salvation of the Wheat Ridge Soddy exemplifies the enthusiasm
Jackson speaks about. From the beginning its physical nature was used as the
167 Stephen J. Leonard and Thomas J. Noel, Denver: Mining Camp to Metropolis fNiwnt: University
Press of Colorado, 1990), p. 311.
168 Interview with Claudia Worth, Wheat Ridge City Council member. Wheat Ridge, Colorado, 25
October 1999.
169 J.B. Jackson, The Necessity for Ruins and Other Topics (Amherst: University of Massachusetts
Press, 1980), p. 89-90.
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reason to preserve it, and preserving a ruin of the past among the growing
modern city became paramount. This place was worth saving, it was argued,
because sod houses were once common for early plains settlers, but less
common in the Denver area, making this one even more special and
irreplaceable.170 Callahan too became convinced of this, and he offered the
Soddy and accompanying brick house and lot to those who would save them
at a cheaper price than another offer for development.171 Thus the fact that
the Soddy was an example of a bygone era of construction and environment,
and a rare one, placed citizens in general agreement that it should be saved,
even though the property could have easily been used to provide for growth
that was chopping up its farmland.
The Wheat Ridge citizens were not mistaken in their assessment of the
value of their landmark. Other sod houses may have existed in the area's
earliest years, as remarked by T.H. Simmons, a member of the Loveland party
which arrived in Golden in early July 1859. He stated: "When I first saw
Denver it consisted of a few sod houses and a number of tents."172 Denver's
first building was noted to be a 6-foot tall building on the east bank of Cherry
Creek between Blake and Wazee, built of round logs and an earthen roof,
170 Denver Post. 10 May 1973.
172 Colorado Transcript. 20 August 1908.
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"the prevailing fashion of that day."173 Simmons possibly confused such
buildings with true sod houses due to their use of earthen roofs; but it is also
possible given the generalities of early Denver description that sod houses
may have been there. Outside the Denver area, two other sod houses are
confirmed to exist in Colorado: the Genoa Sod House (1888), and Orchard's
Stoll Sod House (c. 1893).174 Both are far younger than the Wheat Ridge
Soddy but were built in a rare two-story design. Genoa's soddy also survived
to modern times due to plastering of its walls and being inhabited.
Wheat Ridge's effort to preserve the soddy formally materialized in
the form of the S.O.S. (Save Our Soddy) campaign. Claudia Worth and
Barbara Kline co-chaired the campaign, which needed to raise $19,000 to buy
the property.175 S.O.S. conducted bake sales and held a fundraiser at Lakeside
Mall, while Worth's Girl Scout troop collected aluminum cans and gave the
council and mayor their own trash bags to help out with the effort. School
children embraced the project with a will, raising money by washing cars,
babysitting, collecting cans and papers, and running errands. Other
community events included a bikeathon and walkathon, and special
173 Rocky Mountain News. 18 January 1860 & Western Mountaineer. 1860.
174 Thomas J. Noel, Buildings of Colorado (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), p. 254-255,
269.
175 Interview with Claudia Worth, Wheat Ridge City Council member, Wheat Ridge, Colorado, 25
October 1999.
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contributions from area organizations and citizens.176 The effort generated
great publicity in newspapers such as the Lakewood Sentinel. Golden
Transcript. Denver Post and Rocky Mountain News. Quickly the Colorado
Centennial-Bicentennial Commission designated the Soddy among its
recognized landmarks. Wheat Ridge officials were so impressed by the effort
that when $3,000 was raised they agreed to kick in the rest of the amount and
add the Soddy to their parks system.177 The Wheat Ridge Historical Society
converted the White House into a small museum.
The community effort continued when the Centennial/Bicentennial
celebration commenced in 1976. As duplexes rose around the Soddy, the city
appropriated $13,000, with matching funds from the Colorado Centennial-
Bicentennial Commission to restore it.178 The City consulted V.A. Keer, a
recognized authority on sod construction, in restoring the house, a piece of
which needed to be rebuilt (but the City recycled the same sod). Kerr, who
was curator of Sod Town at Colby, Kansas, examined photos of the soddy
brought to him and told Wheat Ridge how to solve the building's problems,
two weeks before his death.179 The place's walls were re-plastered in 1983
and the Soddy was part of a museum complex, Wheat Ridge Historic Park at
176 Ibid.
177 Ibid.
178 Rockv Mountain News. 3 April 1976.
m Ibid.
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4610 Robb Street. Wheat Ridge's historic Post Office, a one-story brick
storefront building built in 1910, was moved during the 1970s to join the
houses, and the Johnson-Colehan Log Cabin has also joined the mix.180
In essence, the success of the Sodd/s salvation reflects American
preservationist thought in two more ways. Noted preservation historian
James Marston Fitch notes that the historic house museum concept "has been
the basic module of historic preservation, acting as the nursery for the entire
movement."181 Today there are perhaps thousands of museums of this type,
including other sod buildings. Wheat Ridge's house, however, has been
preserved for a less common reason than most other historic house museums,
for its sheer architectural merit alone. Normally historic house museums in
America are preserved for being associated with famous people and events.
Lastly, the Wheat Ridge Sodd/s preservation from the growth forces
that threatened it strikes a note of irony unique to this place. Fitch noted of
the studies of Christopher Alexander and associates that modern urban
development grows "in massive chunks," and that once a building is built it
is considered permanently finished.182 Modern buildings, he says, "are
180 Interview with Claudia Worth, Wheat Ridge City Council member, Wheat Ridge, Colorado, 25
October 1999.
181 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation; Curatorial Management of the Built World
(Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 43.
182 Ibid, p. 35.
82


assumed to have a certain finite lifetime; the process of environmental growth
is seen as a process in which those buildings which have reached the end of
their lifetime are torn down and replaced by new large buildings, again
assumed to have a certain lifetime."183 This marked a change from the
tradition of keeping, re-using and modifying buildings, resulting in the threat
of modern growth towards historic structures. The irony in preserving the
Wheat Ridge Soddy against this growth is that it, too, was a structure
assumed to be of a finite lifetime, now preserved far beyond the lifetime its
builder envisioned. Today the Soddy is on the National Historic Register,
preserved for its pure being as a relic of the past, as to this day Wheat Ridge's
people have no firm idea of its origin.
Bradford function
The origin of the historic mountain community of Conifer lends a
tremendous amount of insight into Colorado's gold rush growth into the
mountains, and the vital importance of transportation thoroughfares in
facilitating it. The present fate of Bradford Junction, Conifer's birthplace, also
shows the most pervasive threat growth poses to Jefferson County's rural
landmarks: making them obsolete by taking away their ability to function.
in
Ibid.
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Bradford Junction is an important point in the history of Jefferson County's
growth, but now growth renders its place uncertain in a modem world.
Conifer began as Bradford Junction, the crossroads of the Bradford
Road and St. Vrain, Golden City & Colorado Wagon Road. The latter road
was first conceived by a company under its name. The company's object,
beginning in the winter of 1859, was to construct a wagon road from Fort St.
Vrain through Golden City to the South Park and Blue River gold diggings in
the mountains.184 The company secured a charter from the Jefferson
Territorial government and began work immediately. The road, one of the
most daunting projects yet undertaken in the gold rush region, was surveyed
and engineered by Sam. G. Jones, with construction superintended by Daniel
L. McCleery.185
The road commenced at St. Vrain's fort, where the company built a toll
free bridge, ran across the prairie to strike Clear Creek at McCleery's Ranch
(in present-day Adams County immediately east of Arvada), thence along the
north side of that river to Arapahoe City, then into Golden City where
patrons could cross Clear Creek at either Ford Street or Washington Avenue.
Then it would continue southward, enter the mountains, turn southwest at
the summit of the first range directly towards South Park, traveling over the
184 Western Mountaineer, winter 1859-spring 1860.
185 Ibid, 7 December 1859.
84


old Lodge Pole Trail.186 That name was an Arapaho identity given to trails
where a person could travel comfortably on horseback with lodge poles
trailing behind in a travois, hence "lodge pole" trail.187 It is not generally
known that native trails provided the backbone of Jefferson County's earliest
transportation network and much of its growth owed to Indians, and along
this ancient road was where Conifer was to materialize.
The object of the road, incorporating the trail, as stated by its
proprietors was to be the best and shortest route from the Platte valley to the
many new gold diggings discovered in South and Middle Park, Blue and
Colorado River areas.188 189 It was to save people twelve miles of travel
compared to other roads and provide plenty of timber to develop new towns.
By later in 1860 the new townsite of Illian was laid out on Bergen Hill, some
ten miles from Golden City along the road.109 This never became an actual
Jefferson County town but one of Jefferson County's oldest rural
communities, Pleasant Park. Robert B. Bradford started building his own
wagon road from Denver to join the St. Vrain, Golden City & Colorado Road,
186 Ibid, 14 December 1859.
187 Charles and Mary Ramstetter, John Gregory Country: Place Names and History of Ralston Buttes
Quadrangle (Golden: C Lazy Three Press, 1999), p. 107.
188 Western Mountaineer. Winter 1859 to Spring 1860.
189 Ibid, 25 January 1860.
85


founding a town of his own name where it entered the mountains. He was
hoping his shortcut from Denver would make him a handsome profit.
What appear to be separate unrelated communities in Colorado are not
as they seem due to the related enterprises spurred by the SGC&C Road. The
road itself, however, progressed slowly. It was a massive undertaking, even
by modern standards: plans included an estimated twenty bridges, fifteen to
sixteen miles of grading, and thirty miles of clearing forest to complete it from
the area of Cub Creek to the Blue River.190 C.P. Hall completed bridges thirty-
five feet long on Cub Creek and 200 feet long across Bear Creek, and the road
was to be twenty-five to thirty feet in width, quality enough to make it "safe
for a stage to drive over at night." Such daunting odds promising hefty profit
are classic of speculative ventures during Colorado's Gold Rush era.
By the end of February 1860 George W. Weed, a future member of the
Jefferson Territorial House, built a new stopping place on the road. It
included "good hotel accommodations, and good feed for stock in the
vicinity."191 In the latter part of 1860, Weed's advertisement changed to
reflect that the Bradford Road had now joined the main road at his place,
which was becoming known as Bradford Junction. On the main road,
progress was slow, yet this and the value of the road in promoting traffic to
grow the region were spoken of by one of the Mountaineer's correspondents:
1,0 Ibid, 8 February 1860.
86


The distance from Golden City to Tarryall is from sixty-five to seventy
miles. The road for the entire length is tolled one dollar for wagon and
single team; additional teams twenty-five cents each. There are very
beautiful valleys through which the road passes, between Golden City
and the Platte crossing; the grazing good. From the Platte crossing the
road follows up the canon of that river, nearly or quite to the Park.
There was, along this portion of the road, some most desperate bad
places, as it was almost a continuous pile of loose rocks. I should have
deemed it impossible, had I to have passed over it with anything but a
horse, prior to the improvements made by the St. V., G.C. & Colorado
Co. At all those rocky points so numerous as you pass up the canon, I
observed the company had made an admirable road, by passing near
the stream, or crossing, and taking up the opposite side, thus avoided
all the rocks and worst places along the route.
I saw but one house upon the entire route; that is located at the
Bradford junction, and is kept by Messrs. Weed and Sparks. There are
admirable points upon the route, and many stations are needed to
accommodate those who are daily traveling over the road. As it now
is, they have to pack their blankets and provisions their backs, to last
them the trip. Enterprising persons could scarcely help doing well by
locating at some points along the route, and affording entertainment to
travelers.192
The grand dreams of this road simply were never meant to be,
however. It was a risky venture, and like many other (many less honest) such
ventures of its time promoting growth it was doomed to fail. Editor William
Byers of the Rocky Mountain News later angrily lashed out on the front page:
Or is he yet dreaming the old Golden City dream that there is the
centre of Colorado; the pre-destined commercial metropolis of the
country? The same that was dreamed in 1859...then when a lot of
enthusiasts bankrupted themselves in staking out a road from St. Vrain
to Golden and grading it thence up the side of the mountain toward
the south park all to cut off Denver...So it has gone on and Golden
has grown poorer and her population is less than in 1859. Why?
1,1 Ibid, 22 February 1860.
m Ibid, 12 July 1860.
87


Because they would rather have nothing than to cease opposition to
Denver. They would not accept rain from a cloud that had first passed
over Denver if they could help it.193
Such was the epitaph Byers claimed for the defunct St. Vrain, Golden
City & Colorado Wagon Road, as if it was a predestined failure that ruined
many and accomplished nothing as a result of Golden's pride. This was
indicative of the many battles the two cities had for supremacy in the still
freshly settled region. Golden interests possibly had the aim Byers claims in
mind. However, history may not agree entirely with his assessment, as the
road clearly and successfully promoted the growth of the region, and Denver,
Breckenridge and other outsiders clearly were part of its scheme and sought
to capitalize on it.194
Bradford Junction continued to exist, and the road continued to be
used by many. While Weed soon left to join the Civil War as a member of the
10th Kansas Cavalry, his area attracted more settlers and became politically
organized as Junction District on August 11, I860.195 Junction District later
became one of three that rebelled against Jefferson Territory and seceded to
form the government of Ni Wot County in 1861. At the same time in late
summer at the Junction area residents were laying stones to build a well
1,3 Rocky Mountain News. 22 April 1870.
m Western Mountaineer. Winter 1859 to Spring 1860.
195 Jefferson County Historical Commission, From Scratch: A History of Jefferson Countv. Colorado
(Golden: Jefferson County Historical Commission, 1985), p. 3.
88


when a wagon driver told them that Confederate forces had defeated Union
soldiers at the First Battle of Bull Run.196 Thus was christened the famed Civil
War Well.
After the war ended growth continued at Bradford Junction, and a
post office was established there in May 1865.197 The hotel, tollgate and stage
stop known as the Junction House and the well served growing numbers of
travelers and settlers along the road, though a fire destroyed the place in
1878.198 A new one replaced it, and by 1880 the Junction had grown to have a
school (meeting 3 months of the year), hotel, store and post office in the same
building, the post office being named Hutchinson.199 This is likely the
building known as Spruce Cottage at the location of Bradford Junction. By
this time saw milling, such as Danson & Mitchel's mill in Kennedy Gulch,
was a prominent local industry, further spurring growth by providing
lumber throughout Jefferson County.
Religion joined the mix in 1879 when Mr. and Mrs. James Kemp, who
had immigrated from England in 1860, followers of the teachings of Brigham
Young but rejecting the practice of polygamy, brought the Reorganized
Church of Latter Day Saints to Hutchinson. They took up a homestead and
1.6 Historically Jefferson County, winter 1995, p. 2.
1.7 Ibid.
198 Denver Times, 27 September 1878.
1,9 Golden Globe. 28 February 1880.
89


Full Text

PAGE 1

JEFFERSON COUNTY: GROWTH & PRESERVATION IN COLORADO'S MOST POPULOUS COUNTY by Richard James Gardner B.A., University of Colorado at Boulder, 1995 A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts History 2000 ' I .'-'c,L 1 --.----i

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This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Richard James Gardner has been approved by Tho J. Noel Laura McCall

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Gardner, Richard James (M.A., History) Jefferson County: Growth and Preservation in Colorado's Most Populous County Thesis directed by Professor of History Thomas J. Noel ABSTRACT This work is an analysis that shows the harmful effects modern suburban growth has had upon the historic landmarks in Jefferson County, Colorado. It demonstrates this effect through the use of thirteen representative examples. Wheat Ridge's Baugh Farmhouse and Pleasant View's Pullman House, which are Jeffco's two oldest buildings, represent the direct threat growth poses when unplanned subdivision threatens to destroy places directly. Lakewood's Heritage Center and Golden's Clear Creek Park represent buildings displaced by growth that are moved to outdoor architectural museums and how their historic integrity is harmed even though they are not destroyed. Wheat Ridge's Soddy and Conifer's Bradford Junction show how growth harms rural landmarks by encroaching on them and making them useless by taking away the setting that gave them their historic purpose. The Golden area's Ten Mile House and Leyden represent what were once actual iii

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towns whose very identity is threatened with the growth that now surrounds them. Ken Caryl Ranch's Bradford House and the Golden area's Brickyard Manager's House illustrate how growth can harm a landmark by taking away its setting, then allowing ruins to crumble despite the new community's affluence. The Mt. Vernon House, Golden's Astor House and Lakeside are used to represent how carelessly managed growth indirectly threatens historic places, first through highway construction, second through urban renewal spurred by shopping mall competition, and last by taking of services spread thin by uncontrolled growth. This work also shows the history of these individual places and how historic growth patterns created them. This demonstrates why they are significant enough to concern preservationists and how modem threats can be the result of a cumulative history of events. It demonstrates how the growth problems preservationists face, as well as the preservation theory employed by community members urging their protection, is not simply a local phenomenon but an American phenomenon making these cases symptomatic of problems growth can pose nationwide. This work shows how far the preservation movement has progressed in Jefferson County, and illustrates the need for a stronger preservation ethic in Jeffco culture to combat these harmful effects. IV

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This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I recommend its publication. Signed Thonras J. Noel v

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DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis to Sid Squibb, the outsider who saved the Pullman House written of in this work when nobody within our county had thought to do so themselves. In doing this he saved one of our most valued landmarks for me and a future generation, and a past generation from its own shortsightedness. Jefferson County remains forever in his debt

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ACKNOWLEDG:MENT My thanks to my advisor, Tom Noel, for his great help and support of me and my work during these past five years, and for showing me sides of our history more colorful than fiction.

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CONTENTS Figures ................................................................................... x CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................ 1 2. SUBMERGED BY SUBURBIA: GROWTH MARCHING OVER HISTORY ...................................................................... 13 Baugh Farmhouse ................................................. 14 Pullman House ..................................................... 25 3. A TRIP TO THE ARCHITECTURAL ZOO: DISPLACEMENT OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS.......................................... . .43 Lakewood's Heritage Center ................................... .43 Hallack-Webber House ................................ .47 Peterson House ............................................ 48 Ralston Crossing School. ............................... .49 Lane's Tavern .............................................. 49 Gil's and Ethel's Barber Shop ......................... .50 A Heritage Center ........................................ 54 Clear Creek Park .................................................. .58 Guy Hill School. .......................................... 60 The Pearce Ranch ......................................... 64 The Park .................................................... 68 Vlll

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4.. MADE USELESS BY DESIGN: ENDANGERING RURAL LANDMARKS ............................................................... 75 Wheat Ridge Soddy ............................................... 75 Bradford Junction .................................................. 83 5. A TOWN-EAT-TOWN WORLD: GROWTH ENGULFING HISTORIC TOWNSITES .................................................. 98 Ten Mile House .................................................... 98 Leyden .............................................................. 114 6. THE GILDED CAGE: RUINS SURROUNDED BY AFFLUENCE ............................................................... 132 Bradford House ................................................... 133 Golden Brickyard Manager's House ........................ 148 7. COLLATERAL DAMAGE: INDIRECT DANGERS OF GROWTH ................................................................... 159 Mt. Vernon House ................................................ 160 Astor House ....................................................... 172 Lakeside ............................................................ 192 8. CONCLUSION ............................................................ 218 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................ 224 ix

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FIGURES Figure 1.1 Map of northern Jefferson County, 1868 ............................................ 9 1.2 Map of northern Jefferson County, 1957 .......................................... 10 1.3 Map of northern Jefferson County, 1999 .......................................... 11 1.4 Approximate locations of the representative landmarks ...................... 12 2.1 Baugh Farmhouse, front. .............................................................. 14 2.2 Map of modem development of Wheat Ridge farm area ..................... 24 2.3 "Pullman House: A Survivor of Yesteryear" artwork 1940 .................. 34 2.4 Metropolitan development approaching South Table Mountain ............ 38 2.5 Modern Pleasant View development of Cold Spring Ranch area ........... 42 3.1 Guy Hill School within Clear Creek Park. ........................................ 62 3.2 Clear Creek Park, in urban setting of Golden .................................... 74 4.1 Wheat Ridge Soddy .................................................................... 76 4.2 Development of Conifer vicinity ................................................... 97 5.1 View of historic Golden, 1893 ...................................................... 1 06 5.2 View of modern Golden, 1996 ...................................................... 107 5.3 Magic Mountain design .............................................................. 108 5.4 Map of modem development around Ten Mile House ...................... 112 5.5 Remains of original Leyden mine .................................................. l16 X

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5.6 Leyden Company Store ............................................................... 119 5.7 Leyden miner's cottage .............................................................. 121 5.8 Leyden Chapel, within tiny Park at the Meadows in Arvada .............. 123 5.9 Community of Leyden, looking southeast. ...................................... 129 5.10Map of modern development approaching Leyden area .................... 131 6.1 Bradford House ruins, west side, original building and addition ......... 137 6.2 Bradford House ruins, east side, front wall ..................................... 146 6.3 Brickyard House, looking west. .................................................... 150 6.4 Brickyard House, looking northeast towards developed city ............... 153 6.5 Canyon Point development approaching Brickyard House ................ 157 7.1 Astor House amid modern parking and buildings ........................... 175 7.2 Canopy on Everett Block ............................................................ 177 7.3 Lakeside, Tower of Jewels and casino building, c. 1908 ...................... 196 7.4 Lakeside Mall, 1999 appearance ................................................... 204 7.5 Map of town of Lakeside ............................................................ 207 XI

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION From the first year of its permanent white settlement in 1858, the founders of Colorado's Jefferson County envisioned the greatest of dreams for their place. For them it was not enough to simply be just another settlement in the Pike's Peak Gold Rush region; they wished be its leader, to have the greatest growth and population of any place in Colorado. To accomplish this, they and their descendant generations nurtured, bankrolled and adamantly promoted unrestrained, opportunistic growth. One hundred and forty years later, the grand vision of Jefferson County's pioneers finally came true, when the state demographer declared it the most populous county in Colorado. However, while momentous, this great accomplishment has come at the expense of the historic places that have defined Jefferson County into the great place its founders envisioned it to be. Not all of these places have been threatened in the same fashion; modern growth of Jefferson County has harmed them in many ways, both subtle and gross. Historic preservation ethics have been slow in permeating the historically pro-growth culture of Jefferson County. As a result much of its historic landscape and landmarks have been destroyed, damaged or otherwise adversely affected. Because of its lack of care for historic places by 1

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its governments, communities and culture, these places may be damaged or demolished by pro-growth policies, and citizens often do not even know it until it is too late. Many of these historic places tell stories that are unique and irreplaceable. They define the very character that makes Jefferson County unique and valuable among Colorado places. It is important that their history be told, so that Colorado's most populous county may know certain landmarks are significant and shaped the place they live in that they call great. According to scholars such as J.B. Jackson, it is important to persons to preserve even fragments of these places because they offer tangible links to the past, making it seem more immediate and real.1 If tangible links to the past are erased, it is possible important things of our past may be forgotten. For some of Jefferson County's historic places, their histories also tell important history of the growth that has in modern times come to harm them, and of local, state and nationwide influences affecting them. A few sites also serve as examples of how the unbridled growth that called them into existence now threatens them. This is the story of how growth has harmed Jefferson County's historic landmarks, and of why that harm is a thing for Jefferson's citizens to avoid in the future. 1 J.B. Jackson, The Necessity for Ruins and Other Topics (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980), p. 91. 2

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Thirteen of Jefferson County's historic places stand out as examples of how landmarks are endangered. Jefferson County's oldest and second-oldest buildings, the Baugh House of Wheat Ridge and Pullman House of Pleasant View, have been directly threatened by runaway growth. They illustrate a larger pattern of how modem growth not only consumes rural countryside, but also the settings individual landmarks are in, such as open space and districts. Preservation historian James Marston Fitch notes that this is a matter of critical importance to the Environmental Protection Agency, which in its studies concluded that because of consuming sprawl the United States is on a disaster course of urban growth.2 Bradford Junction and the Sod house of Wheat Ridge, the former once a ranch and the latter a farm that helped give Wheat Ridge its name, each have been made obsolete and placed in danger. The Soddy tells a story of why even anonymous places appeal to the preservation consciousness of the country, an historic environment now acting as an historic house museum, the concept Fitch credits as "the basic module of historic preservation, acting as the nursery for the entire movement."3 Bradford Junction shows the difficulty of barn preservation drawing special attention from 2 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial of the Built World (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 36. 3 Ibid, p. 43. 3

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preservationists today through the National Trust for Historic Preservation's program Barn Again! In Lakewood's Heritage Center and Golden's Clear Creek Park stand buildings displaced by Jefferson County's growth, one from the urban centers, the other from the mountains. They tell the story of an international pattern of such displaced landmarks taking refuge in architectural museums, de facto zoos of relocated structures. Fitch shows how this, while saving places and creating some successful museums, is still bad for the historic places themselves. He states such artificial holdings are "disconcerting and didactically counterproductive," creating a false world of places put together that could never have existed that way in history.4 They also tell about what kinds of growth problems facing rural and urban Jefferson County placed them in their zoos in the first place. The entire towns of Apex and Leyden are now being engulfed by their incorporated neighbors. They tell of one of the greatest threats growth can pose to the preservationist: wiping out the historic integrity and identity of entire communities. David Hamer, an expert on the need for preservation of whole districts, states places like these have "found themselves too much in the shadow of the metropolis and ultimately became overwhelmed by its 4 Ibid, p. 224-25. 4

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development."5 The future of Leyden may well depend upon designating itself an historic district as a tool to help fend off being consumed by the fastgrowing town of Arvada. The Bradford House and Golden Brickyard Manager's House each represent the problem of demolition by neglect, each being a ruin that stands amidst affluence that does not repair them. They also show how growth erodes the cultural landscape that gave them their historical meaning, to the point that their historical nature may become unidentifiable. The Bradford House case shows how even people with the best of intentions may end up causing such harm. The Mt. Vernon House, Astor House and the town of Lakeside, while from different eras, locations and atmospheres, each stand as examples of growth's impact on historic places. The first nearly had an Interstate highway plowed through it. The second was nearly razed in a urban renewal effort to make Golden's downtown area competitive with new suburban shopping malls. David Hamer notes how urban renewal traditionally has used demolition and reconstruction as the only model of urban revitalization.6 The Astor House put this national trend and its destructive effect towards historic 5 David Hamer, History in Urban Places: The Historic Districts of the United States (Columbus: Ohio State University Press. 1998), p. 51. 6 Ibid, p. 12. 5

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landmarks on trial in Golden, revealing public attitudes towards preservation. Lakeside, a very unique town reliant on the Jefferson County government for services, was cut off to live or die because that service had been stretched too thin by runaway growth. This, according to Fitch, is a major hidden societal cost of growth, where "The true cost is shifted from the individual entrepreneur to the community in general."7 It is growth whose developers are not required to build services like roads, utilities, or help with the cost of providing added police and fire protection. This sets an amazing stage for Lakeside to prove the impossible: that a town of arrested growth can be negatively impacted by urban sprawl. None of these exemplary landmarks are destroyed. They remain preserved in testimony to the developing backlash against Jefferson County's tradition of unrestrained growth. The Astor House was saved through the effort of the Golden Landmarks Association, Jefferson County's first historic preservation entity. Former in 1971, GLA embodied popular resistance to years of urban renewal, which Hamer states has always been "a crucial catalyst for the emergence of a constituency for action on historic preservation."8 The Soddy of Wheat Ridge is preserved through help of 1 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation Curatorial of the Built World (Charlottesviiie: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 31. 8 David Hamer, History in Urban Places: The Historic Districts of the United States (Colwnbus: Ohio State University Press, 1998), p. 14. 6

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Jefferson County's second preservationist entity, the Wheat Ridge Historical Society, established in 1972. The Pullman House's new home comes as the benefit of efforts of Jefferson County Open Space, which came into existence in 1972 to combat destructive effects of growth towards historic natural landmarks and set land aside for future generations to enjoy.9 The Mt. Vernon House was saved by a newly-forming federal program for historic preservation reflective of the rising national preservationist conscience. The Baugh Farmhouse spurred the creation of Wheat Ridge's preservation ordinance, which is indicative of what Hamer indicates is the evolving preservationist ethic, towards preserving entire districts, not just buildings, which led to the formation in 1966 of the National Historic Register.10 The advent and evolution of preservation movements is one response to the destructive problems of Jefferson County's growth and similar patterns across the United States. If Jefferson County had a stronger preservation ethic engrained in its governments and in its culture, it is possible these historic places may never have been placed in harm's way. While it is not to be denied prior historic preservation efforts (such as the Mt. Lookout Chapter D.A.R.'s rescue of the 9 Carole Lomond, "Citizens created and continue to monitor Jefferson County Open Space", City and Mountain Views, August-September 1999, p. 6. 10 David Hamer, History in Urban Places: The Historic Districts of the United States (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1998), p. 18. 7

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Boston Building in 1925) have taken place in this area, Jefferson County's historic preservation movement is still only in its infancy. Jefferson County has no countywide preservation law. The majority of its incorporated towns do not have preservation ordinances, and despite having Colorado's greatest population the whole county has only five urban national register districts. Laws to directly combat growth itself, which often prove more divisive, are similarly nonexistant. Non-profit community entities organized for historic preservation purposes have only existed in Jefferson County since the early 1970s and do not come anywhere close to covering all of Jefferson County. While the baby steps of Jefferson County's historic preservation movement have demonstrated these representative landmarks can be saved, the lack of a strong preservation ethic has endangered many potentially designated landmarks. If such a preservation ethic existed, public awareness and planning could have stopped the problems they confronted before they even started, and serve as an example of effective preservation, which the county still lacks. 8

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Figure 1.1 Map of northern Jefferson County, 1868 (Source: Jefferson County Historical Commission, From Scratch: A History of Jefferson County, Colorado (Golden: Jefferson County Historical Commission, 1985)) 9

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Figure 1.2 Map of northern Jefferson County, 1957 Note increased urban settlement in northeast Jefferson County (Source: Sara E. Robbins, Jefferson County Colorado: The Colorful Past of a Great Community (Lakewood: Jefferson County Bank, 1962)) 10

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Figure 1.3 Map of northern Jefferson County, 1999 Note multicolors of multiple incorporated cities on eastern side (Source: Rand McNally, Denver Regional Area StreetFinder map, 1999) 11

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Figure 1.4 Approximate locations of the representative landmarks 12

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CHAPTER2 SUBMERGED BY SUBURBIA: GROWTH MARCHING OVER I-llSTORY Demolition is the most direct threat to historic landmarks in Jefferson County and across the nation. In the absence of a countywide preservation ordinance and in most of its municipalities, Jefferson County historic places are particularly vulnerable to simply being bulldozed. In the cases of the Baugh Farmhouse and Pullman House, emerging preservation movements indicative of a growing national preservation consciousness saved them, one leading to the enactment of a municipal preservation ordinance, the other to dismantling and relocation as no other feasible option was available. The Baugh Farmhouse's case exemplifies the problem growth poses in development growing in massive pieces, taking away farmland throughout Colorado and destroying the historic character of communities. The Pullman House's future has been saved by the environmentalist objections to growth that provided it a home of open space. In the case of each, the circumstances that led to their preservation were a direct response and backlash towards Jefferson County's history of unplanned, unchecked growth. 13

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Baugh Farmhouse Growth in Jefferson County jeopardized the existence of its oldest remaining intact building. Today the Baugh Farmhouse stands in the middle of a sea of suburbia, upon a small acreage reserving what is left of the oldest remaining farm in Jefferson County. When Golden's Western Mountaineer newspaper first reported the existence of this farm, it was six hundred acres in size.11 Today it is a tiny preserve among houses. Figure 2.1 Baugh Farmhouse, front (original building right side wing) (Source: Gardner Family Collection) 11 Western Mountaineer, 22 November 1860. 14

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This building was originally a one-story cabin of V-notched hewn logs, constructed in August 1859 by pioneer miner turned farmer James H. Baugh.12 It stands upon the acreage first claimed by him and his brother (whose name remains unknown), likely pared down to the legally-mandated maximum claim of 160 acres when Colorado Territory was organized in 1861. James Baugh originally came to Colorado to mine, but quickly settled to a farming life.13 Not many came to Colorado to farm in 1859; gold motivated most of them. Agriculturalists were also aware of the prevailing myth of the plains being part of the "Great American Desert." Traveler Bayard Taylor, upon seeing Colorado and the Clear Creek valley in 1866, scoffed at this myth. When he traveled out to farm of Richard Sopris five miles west of Denver, he wrote: "Captain Sopris's ranche is on a bluff overlooking the valley of Clear Creek. From the window of his parlor I looked out upon several miles of beautiful wheat, a long pasture-ridge beyond, and the grand summit of Long's Peak in the distance. Ten farmers here have united their forces, and made a ditch ten miles in length, by which their fields are irrigated."14 Taylor noted the generous yields of wheat, oats and corn in the area, and the lucrative prices they drew, concluding that farming was indeed a good business here. Such was how the community that 12 Wheat Ridge Historical Society, records. 13 Ibid. 14 Bayard Taylor, Colorado A Summer Trip (Niwot: Colorado University Press, 1989), p. 43. 15

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named itself for those wheat fields, spurred by the pioneering efforts of farmers such as Baugh, began to grow. From the beginning growth of permanent settlement in this area was controversial among its residents. Only three years later, in an interview with George West of the Colorado Transcript, Uintah Ute Chief Colorow, who had lived off and on in this area since the 1840s, offered a contrary view. West asked Colorow among other things what he thought of the white race and its progress in settling the territory. Speaking in what West called "some bad Spanish and worse English," Colorow replied: Taking his pipe from his lips, and inspirating the smoke into his lungs, which shortly issue in a huge volume from his nose, he cast a deep, searching glance southward, where resting on Pike's Peak a light fleecy cloud seemed unwilling to leave the hoary head of that gigantic mound, pointing to that and giving a gutteral grunt of mixed sorrow and pain, he remarked "Indian like morning cloud; white man's sun rising in east, cloud is dissolved, and returns to mother earth. White man fool; digs, works, hunts all over for gold; ploughs ground, builds lodges, heap dig; drives [unreadable] and dies, and goes to his hunting ground with nothing. Indian Utebig warrior heap squaw and horses, no work, hunts, gets Arrapahoe scalp, dies and get to happy hunting ground with his dog and horses. Poor when on earth, when dead as well off as white brother. Indian believes where the sun sets lies his happy hunting ground. White brother believes sun never sets; makes his railroads, telegraphs, ocean cables and steamboats to follow western sun. Indian borrows no trouble, and takes it as it is. Indian soon gone -can't hold out against his more crafty white brother. White men can't be Indians. Indian must live like white brother, or else can't live at all; but Ute independence will soon be gone, and our hunting grounds the farms of the whites. "15 15 Colorado Transcript, 29 December 1869. 16

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With the interview George West noted "Our conversation took place in front of his skin lodge, where, seated on a bear-skin, in full view of the florious scenery of our foot hills, the picturesque Ute encampment contrasted oddly with the background of mills, churches, stores and residences" .16 Colorow had predicted the future wisely, and what were hunting grounds for millennia did become transformed, for better and for worse, into one of Colorado's earliest agricultural belts. After David King Wall first pioneered irrigation on his farm in the Golden valley other pioneers spread down the Clear Creek valley to capitalize, including Baugh, William and Henry Lee, Hiram C. Wolff, Abram Slater, Theodore Perry Boyd and othersY One of Jefferson County's earliest rural communities, the Vasquez Precinct organized itself politically in 1860, and organized Wheat Ridge School District #8 on May 16, 1867.18 At this time, there were estimated to be some 20 residents in the area.19 This is indicative of early rural growth of Jefferson County, and these farms served to feed people around the region including Denver. The Wheat Ridge MethodistEpiscopal Church was established in 1874, and the Clear Creek Flouring Mills 16 Ibid. 17 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records. 18 County of Jefferson, place names records. 19 Wheat Ridge Historical Committee, Hjstm:y of Pioneer Wheat (Wheat Ridge: The City of Wheat Ridge, 1971 ), p. 1. 17

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was established at Boyd's Crossing (where W. 44th Ave. crosses Clear Creek) by A. Beason in 1873.20 The Granger movement sweeping across the country arrived in 1873. Ceres Grange #1 was organized in response to the growing burden of agricultural property taxation used in large part to support the Federal government. This Wheat Ridge Grange not only worked for legislation and fair treatment of farmers, but also promoted education and provided a central place for Wheat Ridge's people to socialize, congregate and hold special events.21 In the meantime Baugh became a confirmed bachelor, growing wheat, vegetables, strawberries, oats and potatoes, which he sold in Denver and the mining towns. He sold the property during the 1890s, and the historic log house was transformed with a large 2-story frame western addition into a Victorian farmhouse.22 Wheat Ridge itself, like the rest of the plains of Jefferson County, grew also as an agricultural area described by Jefferson County historian Ethel Dark in 1939 as being "a community of common interests rather than geographical dimensions."23 In essence more of a rural collective than a town, Twentieth Century growth saw it become more and 20 Golden Globe, 6 December 1873. 21 Wheat Ridge Historical Committee, History of Pioneer Wbeat (Wheat Ridge: The City of Wheat Ridge, 1971), p. 16. 22 Wheat Ridge Historical Society, records. 23 Ethel Dark, "History of Jefferson County Colorado," M.A. Thesis, Colorado State College of Education 1939, p. 42. 18

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more urbanized. The second permanent medical institution established in Jefferson County was founded in Wheat Ridge on August 9, 1905, established as the Evangelical Lutheran Sanitorium.24 As this place began to grow into the future Lutheran Hospital, Wheat Ridge by 1939 was described as "a continuous line of beautiful residences surrounded by orchards, flowers, and small fruit or vegetable gardens."25 As of this time Wheat Ridge boasted a schoolhouse, post office, church, storage, and garage at the corner of Wadsworth and West 38th Avenue. Post World War II suburban growth changed everything, and with it the way of life of the community of Wheat Ridge. Farms of once plentiful acreage including the Baugh Farm were chopped up into smaller and smaller parcels to facilitate smaller farms or even entire suburban subdivisions as more and more people spread from Denver's urban core into the outlying areas. In the 1970s the location of Baugh's sod house was engulfed, leading to Wheat Ridge's first historic preservation campaign to save it.26 In 1969, to avoid Denver's aggressive annexation efforts, Wheat Ridge incorporated as a "" Sara E. Robbins, Jefferson County Colorado: The Colorful Past of a Great Community (Lakewood: Jefferson County Bank, 1962). p. 39. 25 Ethel Dark, "History of Jefferson County Colorado," M.A. Thesis, Colorado State College of Education 1939, p. 42. 26 Wheat Ridge Historical Society, records. 19

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community. It adopted home rule and a mayor-council-administrator form of government in 1977.27 In 1860, the area that is now Wheat Ridge was populated by 5 farms; in 1868 by 28 farms;8 by the end of the 19th Century the makings of a fair-sized rural Jefferson County community; by 1939 its own business district and hospital. By 1970 it was Jefferson County's third-largest incorporated city, of nearly 30,000 people.29 Through the 1970s-80s, as development increasingly overwhelmed the once-rural countryside, Wheat Ridge set aside the Clear Creek corridor as a greenbelt, not to be disturbed. By the 1990s the Baugh House stood on only a few acres of remaining farmland, along with some outbuildings. During the early part of the decade the building was wrecked by an arsonist, its frame farmhouse additions severely damaged, along with the roof of the original building.30 Growth finally caught up with it in the form of developer Tom Sloan, who purchased the property in 1997 with the stem intent of destroying it to make way for new houses. Jefferson County's oldest building was now threatened with an enemy becoming increasingly common in the United States towards once rural places like itself. In its study "The Costs of Urban Sprawl," the 77 Jef{erson County 1996, p. 52. 211 Western Mountaineer, 1860 and Colorado Transcript 1868. 29 U.S. Bureau of the Census, data, 1970. 30 Wheat Ridge Historical Society, records. 20

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Environmental Protection Agency made the assertion that the United States was a cotmtry on a disaster course of urban growth. This growth continues to consume natural resources and draws vitality and resources away from urban areas through speculative and unplanned development.31 This would seem the definite case for the Baugh House, where instead of repairing the burned farmhouse Sloan's goal was to level the ground and put in a number of houses. This shows how Wheat Ridge, but to a greater extent Jefferson County towns such as Arvada, Lakewood and Golden, have grown in a haphazard fashion by spurts of development planned as each development comes along, as Sloan's was, and not in accordance to an overall plan laid out in advance. Such a plan could have identified the value of the Baugh House and preplanned its preservation before the matter ever reached the crisis stage. When Sloan made his intentions known the Wheat Ridge City Council opposed him.32 The preservationist thought of the Wheat Ridge community had, since the crisis of the Soddy, matured into a priority deeply rooted in its government. Save Our Soddy co-chair Claudia Worth was a member of the Wheat Ridge City Council at this time. Sloan insisted the property had no historical value; the Council thought otherwise, though the developer 31 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial of the Built World (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. 1998), p. 36. 32 Jefferson Sentinel, 9 January 1997. 21

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obviously sensed a considerable preservationist ethic in Wheat Ridge in order to feel the need to make such an assertion at all. Unable to reach a compromise, Wheat Ridge condemned the property and acquired it.33 It was the first time such dramatic means have ever been used by a Jefferson County government for historic preservation, an unprecedented, bold and decisive statement in its favor in Jefferson County history. Sloan said the $500,000 was "quite an expense for Wheat Ridge to pay for three walls of a log cabin,"34 but in retrospect seems small ransom for Jefferson County's oldest landmark. However, what is more reflective on the growing preservationist ethic in Wheat Ridge is that the City Council had no idea for certain that the Baugh House was Jefferson County's oldest building until taking the decisive condemnation steps. The Baugh House has remained at the corner of West 441h Avenue and Robb Street since that time. However, Wheat Ridge was not through making Jefferson County preservation history yet. Having been jarred from complacency by this crisis, officials resolved to place Wheat Ridge at the forefront of Jefferson County's preservation world and quickly took the additional step of enacting a preservation ordinance for the city. Claudia Worth spearheaded the approval of its ordinance, providing for the 33 Interview with Claudia Worth, Wheat Ridge City Council member, Wheat Ridge, Colorado, 25 October 1999. 34 Jefferson Sentjnel, 9 January 1997. 22

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designation and protection of Wheat Ridge landmarks, and providing a funding process to help property owners preserve homes and businesses.35 Wheat Ridge was taking part in another documented national preservation trend, evolving from a focus on individual landmarks to community planning and districts as well. Council approval of the ordinance, which is to date the most protective and facilitative in Jefferson County, was a unanimous 7-0 vote.36 The ordinance includes various provisions including height variances, square footage, setbacks and use regulation to help preserve historical integrity, as well as offering the City's help in securing grants, funds and other economic incentives for property owners.37 The City also established a fund to assist in preserving Wheat Ridge's historic places. 35 Rocky Mountain News, 31 December 1997. 36 Ibid. 371bid. 23

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Figure 2.2 Map of modem development of Wheat Ridge farm area Baugh House at location "X" in lower center (Source: Rand McNally, Denver Regional Area StreetFinder map, 1999) 24

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Pullman House Pullman is down again from the mountains. Will he ever go home?38 Perhaps the period of most explosive growth in Colorado's history is the era of the Gold Rush, when people from many places across the world swarmed to a previously sparsely-settled land in hopes of finding a fortune. With this growth came buildings and even entire towns that appeared almost literally ovemight.39 One of these buildings was an hewn log way station that would come to be known as the Pullman House. Early in the Colorado Gold Rush, discoveries by John H. Gregory and George A. Jackson caused "a pell-mell race into the hills" of the multitude of mining hopefuls.40 Quickly routes to these places were blazed, and they forked at an area southeast of Golden, the present junction of South Golden and Mt. Vernon roads. Entrepreneurial spirits soon saw opportunity here to mine the miners and capitalize on the heavy traffic going up to the gold fields by building this way station where they could stop and buy supplies, feed and water their horses and oxen, or even spend the night if needed. The Pullman House, like many other places around the region, was built by a claim jumper. In the fall of 1859 James Snow jumped the 320-acre 38 Ibid, 22 March 1861. 39 Golden Landmarks Association, records. 40 Jerome Smiley, History of Colorado (Chicago, The Lewis Publishing Company, 1913), p. 249-255. 25

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claim George Sears had made at the junction, and proceeded to build a house at the junction's southeast corner.41 Sears had obviously decided to take advantage of the location, but like others failed to tend to his property well enough to keep others from commandeering it. Without any system of government whatsoever in the region, the property became Snow's to do with as he would. The explosive growth of the region had outpaced the ability of government and law to keep up with it. Claim jumpings were common in Colorado of the gold rush days, from Denver to the mountains. By building his house Snow kept the property he had taken by establishing his permanent presence on it. Snow's building, constructed next to a spring to help service travelers, was a 1-story log building of basic design with a central door flanked by double-hung 6/6-pane wide rectangular windows. It was made of handhewn V-notched logs, with a chimney at its west end.42 Near this place two more claims were jumped, Richardson and Patterson taking over the 320 acres belonging to Hill and Sturgis. George W. Edgecomb, a prominent downtown Golden merchant, jumped the 320 acre claim of James Orr in the summer of 1860Y Richardson and Patterson proceeded to sell their parcel to John A. Nye, who with relatives Hiram and Loyal S. Nye ran a freighting 41 County of Jefferson, claim records. 42 Golden Landmarks Association, records. 43 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records. 26

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business up Mt. Vernon Road to the Jackson diggings as well as other places in Colorado.44 Nothing more, however, is known of the original owners of any of these properties. While the Gold Rush led to the permanent formation and settlement of the new state of Colorado, to which the Pullman House as a travelers' way station contributed, this growth was not agreeable to everyone, in particular neighbors who already inhabited the region. Among these were mountain men, some of whom in the winter of 1859 came to sample the newlyestablished town of Golden, where they met a bright-eyed young reporter named George West.45 The mountain men fashioned their north Golden cabin into a teepee setting on the interior, where they invited West to come in and sit on their animal robes while sampling pipe smoke around their central fire. West heard many of their stories of their way of life in this region, and their laments on how this new growth was going to take it away: The three regular occupants of the cabin-Jack Fletcher, Cal. Pratt and Rube Marvin were, as we before stated, reinforced on this evening by Jim Baker and Jim Beckworth, making a party the like of which we will hardly see again together. The youngest of them-Pratt -was probably not less than fifty years of age, and all of them had lived for many, many years beyond the most western outpost of civilization, enured to hardships they had learned to love for the excitement and dangers every day of these many years brought to them. 44 Golden Landmarks Association, records. 45 Colorado Transcript, early 1876. 27

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The love of this wild sort of life, which seems to become "second nature" to these hardy videttes of civilization, is well illustrated by an anecdote we once heard of old Jim Bridger upon the occasion of a visit to St. Louis, his first one for some twenty years. When he had last seen the place it was but a trading post, with a few surrounding cabins occupied by the traders and their employes, Upon his return to it he found a populous city with long rows of brick buildings on either side of many of the streets. A friend found the old mountaineer one day sitting upon the curb-stone in front of the old Planters hotel, his grizzly head buried in his hands. "Hello, pard!" said his friend, giving him a sharp slap upon the shoulder, "what are ye moping here for? Why ain't you taking in the sights?" "Sights be damned!" growled Jim, as he raised his head to see who had so rudely broken in upon his home-sick reverie, "this 'ere ain't the place I knowd in the early times. Thar hain't no fun yere for me any more, and if there was there's so many dog-goned kanyons around here a feller can't find it. I'm goin' to 'lite out o' here, for the mountins in the morning." Upon entering the cabin I found the grotesque group seated upon the robes in the light of a huge fire of pitch pine, which was sending its warmth and glow into every corner of the not large room. As usual a hearty greeting awaited me from Buckskin Jack and the rest, all of whom were known to me but Beckworth. My introduction to him was as hearty as it was characteristic of old Jack, who performed that set of politeness in this wise: "Young feller," said he, pointing ever to his guest, "if you ain't afeard of losin' yer character, I'll inderduce ye to Old Jim Beckworth, the only white man a Crow Injin was ever knowd to give in to in lyin' or stealin' hosses. Jim, this yere's George West, the cuss that's runnin' a print shop down here. He's a good enough feller, but him and Byers down thar on Cherry Creek are doin' a heap to bust up this ken try; for if they keep on blowin' an' blowin and a bringin' in pilgrims, thar won't be a beaver or a bar left betwixt St. Vrain's and Bar River." As Jack closed this somewhat elaborate introduction, Jim rose from his set upon the buffalo robe, extended his hand cordially, and gave me the usual salutation" ''How!" and in a rather apologetic strain went on to say, '1 hope you know Jack Fletcher well enough to not mind his compliments. I allow he's lived around with them 'Rapahoes and Shians so long that he don't know a great deal about politeness."46 46 Ibid, 16 February 1876. 28

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Nevertheless, Buckskin Jack's point was well-made; the grizzled mountaineers' way of life here was corning to an end, thanks in no small part to the crowing of Byers' Rocky Mountain News and West's own newspaper, which he named Western Mountaineer in honor of the hardy frontiersmen he would soon never see again. The Gold Rush lured a bright young entrepreneur with high dreams, named George Mortimer Pullrnan.47 Having recently invented a serviceable sleeper railcar for use by the public, he carne to Colorado in hopes of making money to capitalize on his dream. Pullman began gold milling at Russell Gulch above Central City, as well as operating a freight business and keeping a store in Central City, under the name of Lyon, Pullman & Cornpany.48 Being at a midway point on his constant journeys back and forth between Central City and Denver, the way station of James Snow caught his attention. In 1860 Pullman started moving to acquire it as his own personal enterprise. Spafford C. Field, the brother of his associate Benjamin Field in Illinois (his partner in inventing the Pullman cars) who had just moved to Colorado as another partner to Pullman, traded 5 yoke of oxen and a lumber wagon, worth $400, for the station house, spring and 160 acres surrounding them.49 47 Liston Edgington Leyendecker, Palace Car Prince: A of Mortimer Pullman (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992). 48 Ibid, p. 58. 49 Golden Landmarks Association, records. 29

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He also purchased 160 acres of Edgecomb's parcel for $100 in the fall of 1860. The Nye parcel had since been repossessed by the County sheriff and sold to George Harlow, who sold 160 acres of it to Field that same fall.50 Field conveyed his parcels to John F. Vandevanter, R.D. Thompson and Moore, who were all business associates of Pullman. Another associate, miner Samuel F. Cooper in Russell Gulch, claimed 160 acres to link the existing claimed parcels of land.51 Snow, Harlow and Edgecomb were taken on as new partners in the enterprise and each retained half of their original holdings. J.S. Pimple and James E. Lyon, also business associates of Pullman, claimed 160 acres each to the south to add to the enterprise while Pullman himself claimed his own 160 acre parcel. On May 20, 1861, what Pullman named the Cold Spring Ranch was officially platted, now a prominent way station ranch of 1600 acres, which under Pullman had been expanded to 10 times its original size. 5 2 Pullman had the idea to arrange this purchase for use as a stopover point on his business trips between Central City and Denver, and kept a buggy and horse team stationed there.53 He also used it to store goods when 50 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records. Sl Ibid. 52 Ibid. 53 Liston Edgington Leyendecker, Palace Car Prince: A of Mortimer Pullman (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992), p. 60. 30

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his business at Central City ran out of space. The Cold Spring Ranch also became a prominent stopover point on the way to the gold fields. Patrons from stagecoaches to cowboys to outlaws to adventurers could buy provisions, rest their animals, fix breakdowns, sleep inside the station house or camp out on the surrounding acreage, sometimes for sizable amounts of time. As such, the Pullman House itself helped facilitate Colorado's early Gold Rush growth. The Pullman House came to be known to freighters and stagecoach drivers as Pullman's Switch, as it served as a place where you could switch teams from one weary set of animals to a fresh set before making the long climb into the mountains.54 The Pullman House served several stagecoach lines including the Western Stage Company, Nye Forwarding Company and Wells, Fargo & Company. Soon, however, the Civil War set in and along with it economic depression, drying up gold mining in the mountains. In the early-to-mid-1860s Pullman spent much of his time at this cabin, perfecting plans for his sleeper cars before returning to the east.55 Pioneers witnessing Pullman at work on his blueprints and model, and hearing him talk in glowing terms of future prospects for the invention, often mistook what he was doing for actually inventing the thing in Colorado. S4 Golden Landmarks Association. records. 55 Colorado Transcript, 20 October 1897. 31

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Pullman made money during his years in Colorado, probably not because of his gold operations in the unstable mining industry, but because of his other Colorado business ventures such as the Cold Spring Ranch.56 Pullman returned to Illinois in 1863, and with the $20,000 he raised in Colorado from enterprises such as the Cold Spring Ranch he commenced building his famed sleeper railroad cars. Less than 10 years after his departure, the famous Pullman Palace railroad cars rolled into Golden among the first railroad equipment used by the Colorado Central Railroad. In time Pullman and his associates sold off the Cold Spring Ranch, which in modern terms had borders roughly on Ulysses Street, North Table Mountain, the eastern border of Camp George West, and West 4th Avenue.57 Pullman himself gave it its name, and after going east founded America's first company town outside of Chicago and built his railcar invention into an internationally famous empire.58 However, Pullman always held a fondness in his heart for the time he spent in Colorado, collecting all the literature he could on Colorado of the early 1860s and visiting the place with his family in his later years. 56 Liston Edgington Leyendecker, Palace Car Prince: A of Mortimer Pullman (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992), p. 66. S7 County of Jefferson, archives, map of the Cold Spring Ranch land area, 1999. 58 Liston Edgington Leyendecker, Palace Car Prince: A of Mortimer Pullman (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992). 32

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In 1868, William (Billy) Martin, who ran the Railroad House hotel in downtown Golden near what would be 11th and Ford Streets, leased the old Pullman property and continued to run the Cold Spring Ranch as an important area institution. He built a two-story log addition on the west side and above the building, dismantling the original roof and chimney to expand it into an !-house plan.59 The reborn Pullman House had a central entry hall flanked by the original building space on the east and a tavern on the west, and from the hall led an ornate staircase to the upper floor hall where travelers could sleep on Pullman-style bunks.60 Jonas Morrison Johnson Sr., a prominent Golden citizen, by this time owned the building and did not mind if Billy Martin held horse races at the place. His family moved out the ranch in 1870.61 Johnson, and later his son Mott Qohn Jr.), both served as sheriffs of Jefferson County, and the place passed to the hands of his son long after Billy Martin and colorful local stage drivers such as Lemuel Flower, Jake Hawk, Steve Eldred and Bill Turner ceased to frequent the facility.62 The ranch had seen a number of famous 59 Golden Landmarks Association, records. 61 Interviews with Sid Squibb, former Director Gilpin County Historical Society, Golden, Colorado, summer 1997. 61 Colorado Transcript, 1870. 62 Golden Landmarks Association, records. 33

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guests from General Sherman to Isabella Bird, as well as being associated with the sensational murders of Reuben Hayward and Maria LaGuardia.63 Figure 2.3 "Pullman House: A Survivor of Yesteryear" 1940 artwork by Herndon Davis (Source: Denver Public Library, Western History Department) In 1891 the Denver, Lakewood & Golden railway built a rail line from Denver to Golden through the Cold Spring Ranch.64 What had long been a rural frontier wilderness was suddenly within easy reach of the metropolis and Mott Johnson wasted no time in taking advantage of the opportunity. He 63 Ibid. 64 Colorado Transcript and Golden Globe, 1891. 34

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sold eastern acreage to be used as the Colorado National Guard's Rifle Range, sold western acreage into the Pullman Hights (sic) subdivision, and soon pared the Cold Spring Ranch to a stock ranch of 600 acres.65 This method of growth based on speculation, not careful urban planning, soon resulted in a haphazard division very different from the orderly vision Pullman commissioned for his city back east. By 1899 what was a 1600-acre ranch was chopped into a jumble of properties of various sizes, some elongated north-south ranges to small and mid-size ranches and farms to the lots of the Pullman Hights subdivision and the acreage left of Johnson's ranch.66 On the rifle range area land developed Camp George West, Colorado's first permanent national guard training facility/7 while in areas to the west uneven housing development occurred as various speculators subdivided parcels even smaller into neighborhoods that would come to be known as Pleasant View. Older farmhouses soon meshed with nondescript mid-20th century suburban homes. Straight extensions of the Denver avenue grid clashed with the existing non-directionally-conforming roads dating from Gold Rush times. 65 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records. 66 Willits Insurance Company, Fann Map, 1899. 67 Jefferson County Historical Commission, Jefferson County National Historic Sites (Golden: Jefferson County Public Library, 1995). 35

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Soon speculative development began closing in on the very building this land's fate once revolved around. Across the street to the west Rock Rest, was built in 1907, offering liquor and women to the nearby area clientele.68 After the demise of the Johnson family their ranch was subdivided itself, and the Pullman House became a service station and cafe for automobile travelers, a modem translation of its historic way station use. By 1943 when Mr. and Mrs. Charles Brown purchased it the building had been expanded further to five times its original size and painted an extremely conspicuous bright orange.69 With the end of World War II came more uncontrolled growth to the Pleasant View area, and the Pullman House's property became more and more valuable for commercial purposes. Explosive growth, which once put the Pullman House on the map, sealed its fate in 1965, when the Browns decided to demolish it to expand their business, claiming the famous old building had become a firetrap.70 At this time, development was rampant in the region and many historic landmarks in the Denver metropolitan area and nearby Golden were being destroyed. No organized preservation efforts were available to question growth at this time, whether for historic places or for open space. 68 Thomas J. Noel, Colorado: A LiQuid Hjstm:y and Tayem Gujde to the HidJest State (Golden: Fulcrum Publishing, 1999), p. 149. f:R Golden Landmarks Association, records. 7 Colorado Transcript. 1965. 36

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However, the Pullman House was destined for a different path when Sid Squibb, head of the Gilpin County Historical Society, happened by as the building was being demolished and offered to buy the remaining logs, number and dismantle them himself, and take them to Central City in hopes of future reassembly.71 Thus the logs, including the total original 1859 structure Pullman knew, began an exile of 32 years out of growth's reach. In the meantime, Pleasant View became a half-rural, half-suburban community constantly encroached on by annexations of neighbors Golden and Lakewood. With no agreements for urban growth in place, fights occasionally erupted between Pleasant View residents and neighboring cities and developers who wished to annex to them. 72 Development all around Jefferson County spurred the formation of a countywide open space preservation movement during 1972, known as PLAN Jeffco.73 It set among its goals for preservation South Table Mountain which immediately adjoined Pleasant View.74 Jefferson County residents voted in favor of enacting a sales tax to preserve open space that November, in what was then the nation's 71 Interviews with Sid Squibb, fonner Director Gilpin County Historical Society, Golden, Colorado, summer 1997. 12 Golden Transcript 1960s to 1990s. 73 Ibid, 20 March 1972. 74 Ibid. 37

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fifth-fastest growing county. This public backlash against unquestioned growth led to the eventual return of the Pullman House to its old home. Figure 2.4 Metropolitan development approaching South Table Mountain Future Pullman House location strip of open land in middle right side (Source: Gardner Family Collection) During 1998 a proposal surfaced from Nike Inc. to build a new factory complex atop nearby South Table Mountain. While the Golden mayor Jan Schenck secretly supported this proposal, it was soundly blasted by many of Golden's citizens?5 A group called Save the Mesas was formed, which stopped the proposal, which may have been no more than a bluff by Nike to 75 Ibid, 1998. 38

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leverage support from its Beaverton, Oregon headquarters community?6 Nevertheless, efforts intensified to acquire and preserve South Table Mountain land for Jefferson County Open Space. Through late 1998 and early 1999 negotiations between the United States Department of Energy, Colorado National Guard and Jefferson County Open Space led to an agreement to preserve much of the eastern acreage of South Table Mountain.77 Among this land, destined to be leased to Pleasant View for a park, was a part of Camp George West that once was the northeast corner of the Cold Spring Ranch. In the meantime, the Golden Landmarks Association had acquired the logs of the Pullman House and returned them to Golden from Central City.78 Without a suitable place to locate the reconstructed building, restoration project director Richard Gardner soon identified the recent Open Space acquisition as an ideal location. After considerable planning and negotiation a new home, a 5-acre preserve of the original wilderness of the Cold Spring Ranch, was secured, and efforts are presently underway to rebuild the structure.79 Thus George Pullman's house will be joining a national pattern of historic preservation, that known as Reconstitution, a more radical form of 76 Ibid. 77 Ibid, late 1998-early 1999. 78 Golden Landmarks Association, records and Gilpin County Historical Society, Pullman House ownership transfer docwnent. 79 Golden Landmarks Association, newsletters swnmer 1999 spring 2000. 39

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preservation intervention where a building can only be saved by piece-by piece reassembly.80 Usually this involves places subject to natural or manmade disaster, though other cases involve reconstitution on new sites.81 In the case of the Pullman House, it involves a more unusual route, being placed on a new site within its historic land area. While the vast majority of moved historic buildings in Jefferson County are to places indicative of another pattern in preservation strategy, pioneer village-type recreations consisting of an architectural zoo of transplanted structures, the Pullman House will remain alone. Its preservation moreover, in its land as well as the building itself, recognizes another national trend against uncontrolled urban growth. It is the local manifestation of a backlash against the overall negative aspects of urban sprawl, against both the cost of eating up large chunks of the natural environment, and of historic buildings just being "thrown away like kleenex."82 Jefferson County's pioneer open space and historic preservation movements, Golden Landmarks and Open Space, have literally teamed up to create an oasis where growth may be permanently checked, and both the 80 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation Curatorial of the Built World (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 4647. 81 Ibid. 821bid, p. 35-36. 40

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historical natural and manmade environments may exist in perpetuity for the benefit of the public. The Pullman House, created to facilitate Gold Rush growth, ended up being pushed out by the modern suburban growth its owners helped facilitate through poor planning of the subdivision of their land. However, the end of its story is a happy one, being saved by Jefferson County Open Space and the Golden Landmarks Association, each formed to combat the modern growth that threatens historic landmarks like the Pullman House. Many other historic ranches in Jefferson County have not been as fortunate. 41

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Figure 2.5 Modem Pleasant View development of Cold Spring Ranch area Cold Spring Ranch plat outlined in dark gray (Source: Jefferson County archives) 42

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CHAPTER3 A TRIP TO THE ARCHITECTURAL ZCXJ: DISPLACEMENT OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS Beauties and beasts survive in Jefferson County at its architectural zoos. On one hand, museums that house collections of displaced architectural landmarks serve an end of preservation much like real zoos, that of saving what is endangered and giving it a place of refuge. On the other hand, the architectural zoo, like the real zoo, uproots something and places it in an environment unlike its own, no matter how hard the keepers try to recreate its environmental context. Jefferson County's architectural zoos, Lakewood's Heritage Center and Clear Creek Park, are their own local examples of this ongoing preservation dilemma that is international in scope. As in the outside world, growth compels landmarks to take refuge in the zoo, or face extinction. Lakewood's Herita&e Center Over the course of the late 20th Century, growth has spread so rapidly throughout Jefferson County that conservation and preservation movements have often been ill-equipped to keep up. No local government had even 43

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enacted a preservation ordinance until Golden created theirs in 1984.83 As a result, city planners did not make historic preservation a priority. The result was the endangerment of many historic landmarks as Jefferson County's urban centers spread outward, and renewed their aging cores within. As with other endangered species, the concept of taking threatened historic buildings out of their natural habitat and housing them at a "zoo" for their safe keeping in Jefferson County. The first such zoo is located in the county's largest city, known as Lakewood's Heritage Center. Modern growth has in no uncertain terms harmed Lakewood's historic places. In 1976 Patricia Wilcox, who helped write 76 Centennial stories of Lakewood, lamented: "Lakewood has few landmarks left. Fire and "progress" have taken a heavy toll ... The trend towards preservation came too late: nevertheless, there are still some memorable buildings left and let us hope they will be saved for future generations."84 Lakewood, which had been platted by William A.H. Loveland, grew very rapidly during and after the 1940s, changing its rural nature into a sea of subdivisions chopping up among other places the noted Bancroft, Bonfils, Molly Brown, Downing and Gov. Grant country estates.85 During the 1960s it had become a sprawling 83 City of Golden, ordinances. 84 City of Lakewood, 76 Centennial Stories of La.kewood. Colorado (Lakewood: Lakewood Centennial-Bicentennial Commission, 1976), p. iv-v. 85 Stephen J. Leonard and Thomas J. Noel, Denyer Minim: Camp to Metropo1is (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1990). p. 302-303. 44

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unincorporated metropolis, finally incorporating into one of Colorado's largest cities in 1969. Preservation-minded citizens, mindful that Lakewood had a far more distant past than that, quickly determined to do what they could to save what was left of its heritage. In 1971 five high school students named Brent Schlueter, Pam Exon, John Young, Lloyd Wagner, and Terry Thompson discovered plans for the development of the land surrounding the historic Belmar Estate.86 As part of their Citizen's Action Lab they decided to make preserving the Belmar grounds their semester project. A sizable campaign developed, which included numerous contacts with the media petitions including 3,000 signatures, emphasizing the community's desire to preserve the property.87 Voters two years later approved the City's purchase of the 127 acres of land. Members of the Lakewood Centennial-Bicentennial Commission were attracted to this land in 1974, when they began looking for a site for the still newly-incorporated city to house its first museum. The calf barn at the southeast corner of the land got their attention, and they proposed that it be converted into an ongoing exhibit area.88 Belmar Village, renamed Lakewood's Heritage Center in 1998, had begun. 86 Lakewood's 2.5"' Anniversary Commission, Lak:ewood-Colorado An Dlustrated Bioiraphy (Lakewood: Lakewood 25th Birthday Commission, 1994), p. 94. lf7 Ibid. 811 Ibid. 45

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The calf bam was renovated by local architect Robert Douglass into a changing exhibit area on the first floor with an upstairs gallery.89 He added a skylight and custom-designed stained glass window. The Belmar Museum, as is was known, opened to the public on August 1,1976.90 Upon its opening, Mayor Jim Richey reminded the crowd to remember that Lakewood's history did not begin with its 1969 incorporation, but was deeply rooted in the more distant past. Belmar Village was designed specifically to be a place of refuge for Lakewood landmarks threatened by development. As such buildings of 1859 through World War II vintage became available, they were to be moved to this site.91 This is a phenomenon by no means local to Jefferson County; often throughout the United States moving historic buildings is the only means of preserving them. Ironically, several of the most successful outdoor architectural museums were created this way.92 The park's original plans called for historical interpretation based on its buildings from 1859 through World War II, and the Village was an architectural and historical interpretation center run as part of Lakewood's Department of Community 891bid. 90 Ibid. 91 Ibid. 92 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial of the Built World (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 133. 46

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Resources.93 Refugee landmarks were to be moved to the park as soon as they became available, and soon enough, they began to arrive. Hallack-Webber House This long, low, one-story frame house began as the carriage house of the Charles Hallack estate, originally located on the southeast corner of Ohio and South Wadsworth Boulevard on the future site of Villa ltalia shopping mall. In 1958, the rapidly-growing city of Lakewood widened Wadsworth, placing the carriage house in jeopardy.94 The Webber family purchased it and moved it to 2401 Zuni Street, and the family continued to live there for a number of years. However, in 1980, the house was threatened again when growing Denver decided it needed to widen Zuni Street as well.95 After being contacted by Mrs. Webber, Joy Casserly (Belmar's first curator) convinced the City and County of Denver to deed the house back to Lakewood. Ironically, it ended up less than two blocks from its original site. On May 15, 1981, it was formally dedicated as the Ranch House at Belmar.96 The 93 Lakewood's 25"' Anniversary Commission, La.kewood-Co!orado An Dlustrated BioKraphy (Lakewood: Lakewood 25111 Birthday Commission, 1994), p. 94-96. 941bid, p. 94. 951bid. 961bid. 47

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second interpretive structure at the museum, it now serves as the Visitors Center. Peterson House This rural residence was originally built along Bear Creek around 1872 by the Lewis family, miners who converted to a more lucrative farming trade. They mined the miners, supplying mining towns with grain and hay from their farm.97 Subsequently owned by some fifteen different families, the horne's basement was used by the Streer family during Prohibition for what is believed to be Jefferson County's largest, most complete moonshine operation.98 This was no small feat, considering major busts in this area of Jefferson County were common. The last couple to own it were Arthur and Edna Peterson, and in 1974 the area along Bear Creek including this house was purchased by the federal government for a flood-control project. Displaced and in need of a new horne, it was donated to Morrison, but no suitable horne could be found for it.99 In 1986, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers moved it to its new Lakewood 91 Ibid, p. 96. 98 Ibid. 991bid. 48

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home. The house had already been placed on the National Historic Register in 1981. Ralston Crossins School For the next addition to the park Lakewood looked to Ralston Creek in Arvada to the north. School District #12 at Ralston originally began around 1870, and purchased the rural community's Methodist Church in 1882 at its first schoolhouse.100 Through the years, the school district grew and replaced its schoolhouse during the 1920s with a large, 1-story frame building at Ralston Crossing. Threatened by Arvada's own sprawling development, this was moved to Belmar Village in the 1990s to be converted into the Country School, one half being a c. 1920s classroom, the other a community meeting area and museum programming space.101 Lane's Tavern Likely the first project in Colorado history involving the move of an historic watering hole for historic preservation purposes, Lane's Tavern was a victim of increasing renewal development along West Colfax Avenue during 100 Golden Globe, 24 June 1882. 101 Lakewood's 25111 Anniversary Commission. Lakewood-Colorado: An Dlustrated (Lakewood: Lakewood 25111 Birthday Commission, 1994), p. 96. 49

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the 1990s. Its one-story, frame, clapboarded building with pyramidal roof had stood at 11400 West Colfax Avenue since the mid-1920s.102 The institution, famous for its Bennyburgers, was topped by a huge beer glass neon sign, and had been known once for selling the cheapest draft beer in Lakewood. When Lane's Tavern closed in the mid-1990s, Belmar Village saw in it a golden opportunity to grab an entire preserved Lakewood institution for its museum, complete with fixtures. The museum had been shifting its focus to include greater attention to the history of the Colfax corridor, and immediately sought to relocate the Tavern to their grounds. However, the building itself had become too rotted structurally and was unmovable; therefore, the interior was salvaged, and plans made to build a replica of the building at the museum to house it. Gil's and Ethel's Barber Shop From time to time an historic landmark does not exemplify itself through its classic architecture or famous people, but by being a beloved fixture of the community for a good many years. This is the case of the latest addition to Lakewood's Heritage Center, known simply as Gil's and Ethel's Barber Shop. 1021bid, p. 254. 50

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This building was originally built in 1948 at 3043 West Alameda Avenue. As described by the Rocky Mountain News. '1t's not a fancy place, by any means; it is small, curvy and perfectly comfortable in its tile and glass block skin. With corner parapets, a showy clock, and an extra helping of vernacular charm, Ethel's and Gil's doesn't need the imprimature of a famous architect to attract interest. That's a good thing, because no one seems to know who might have designed this place ... "103 An International-style building, others like it once stood along the roadways of the Denver area including West Colfax Avenue, gaining it the attention of Belmar Village and Historic Denver, Inc., Colorado's oldest historic preservation organization. Standing at the intersection of West Alameda and Federal, what was originally a laundry became the dual barber shop of Gilbert and Ethel Gomez. Gil's shop, serving a male clientele, occupied one side of its double storefront, while Ethel's served women on the other. However, growth was encroaching, as the rapid expansion of Lakewood westward, such as the massive Green Mountain Village subdivision on the south side of that mountain, increased the traffic along Alameda. Thus, like the Hallack Webber House, Gil's and Ethel's soon became doomed by the need to expand Alameda. 103 Rocky Mountain News, 15 September 1996. 51

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Specifically, the Colorado Department of Transportation targeted the intersection for new left turn lanes, landscaping and widened sidewalks. The intersection in 1992 topped the list of accident locations in the entire City and County of Denver.104 The widening threatened Gil's and Ethel's with destruction, and Ethel Gomez lacked the resources to move it. So the Denver government, the Department of Transportation and Colorado Historic Preservation Office began looking for a way to preserve it. Quickly Belmar Village, rechristened as Lakewood's Heritage Center, pursued the historic building.105 They pointed out a new area of the park to be devoted to Twentieth Century buildings that made Colfax Lakewood's main commercial avenue after World War II. Park administrator Devorah Ellerman posed the idea of making it part "a 20th century museum." Several philosophical issues, which growth has been known to trigger when displacing historic landmarks, soon came to the surface. The Denver Landmarks Preservation Commission, in particular, was uneasy about taking a transportation-related landmark such as this one (due to its association with the Alameda commercial corridor) off the avenue.106 Questions arose, like "If a Denver building moves out of Denver, and specifically out of its historical context, does it lose too much in the translation?" ''Is it better to destroy 104 Ibid. lOS Ibid. 106 Ibid. 52

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something physically rather than diminish its meaning?" In essence, the arguments posed by preservationists were that taking the building away from its original setting took it out of its historical surroundings and placed it in an alien world, where its historical nature and identity might not be as easily understood or depicted. Such has been the case of buildings in places of refuge such as Lakewood's Heritage Center. Historians have criticized these historical "zoos" for lacking historical environment, much like a real zoo's animals lack their own authentic surroundings. However, the choice came down between a compromise on the building's historic integrity and losing it altogether. Historic Denver opted for compromise. "Yes, it troubles me," said commissioner Barbara Norgren, '1 don't know what the alternative is, except to lose it."107 Historic Denver director Kathleen Brooker looked on the bright side: "This is a rare opportunity for a building to be interpreted for a larger public."108 Soon it was on its way to Lakewood, where its forward section was turned into a 1950s interpretation of Gil's and Ethel's shops complete with original furnishings donated by Ethel Gomez herself. The rear was converted into a replica dime store, created with the furnishings of the recently-dosed Fair 5 & 10 store from downtown Golden. 1071bid. ICIIJbid. 53

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A Heritage Center Originally known as Belmar Village, this collection of endangered historic landmarks was transformed to celebrate Lakewood's 20th century history towards the end of the 1990s. Its plans were changed to become a village more completely depicting the total history of Lakewood. Through it all, however, it has been the literal embodiment of a beauty and beast confronting preservation efforts throughout the United States: the architectural zoo. When Gil's and Ethel's was moved to this place, preservationists generally embraced the opportunity as enthusiastically as they might have eating barbecued roadkill. It was better than destroying the building, but still something unpalatable for which there was no alternative. It was repugnant because such a scenario ripped the building out of its historic setting and context and placed it within an architectural zoo where buildings could be as much in their historical context as animals could be in their natural context. Such a collection brought in from different places, in preservationist thought, can be "disconcerting and didactically counterproductive," since it presents to a person's view a group of places that in reality could never have been seen together.1rR 109 James Marston fitch, Historic Preservation Curatorial of the Built World (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 224-25. 54

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This is exemplified in another architectural zoo being assembled in Colorado, located between Central City and Black Hawk known as Mountain City. Unwilling to preserve buildings in situ within this National Historic Landmark District yet powerless to destroy them by local law, the solution developers and local lawmakers came up with was to uproot any historic buildings that got in their way and replant them in one location regardless of their historical relationship with each other. The result is not only a hodgepodge of Victorian buildings that never would have been built side-by side (especially coming from each of these fierce rival towns), but a recreation of Mountain City that does not even remotely resemble the far more rudimentary frontier construction of the original town on the site. Even more exemplary of the problems of the architectural zoo concept is Black Hawk's attempt to move the Lace House. This nationally noted work of Carpenter Gothic construction is built onto a rock wall hillside terrace, and after a pitched battle the Colorado Historical Society temporarily barred it from being moved, to the chagrin of locals who carved its mountainside into an island in a parking lot.110 However, if it was moved not only can the Lace House not be placed on its rock terraced mountainside again, but it is historically impossible for Mountain City to have possessed a building of its 110 Rocky Mountain News. 20 June 1998. 55

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style, which had not yet even arrived in the locality by the time the town had been absorbed into Central City during the early 1860s.111 The architectural zoo in Lakewood exists, nevertheless, because of the necessities growth has imposed to mandate its being there. It will continue to be added to as such, and plans to make the most of its situation and place the buildings as much in their historic context as feasible. These plans include a replica art deco movie house as a visitors center, with exhibit space and an educational wing, as well as an outdoor amphitheater and 4 historical learning centers. These include a Family Farm Center (concentrating on area farming history), the Belmar Estate Center (about area affluent families and their country retreats), the Colfax Hub (recreating West Colfax Avenue's commercial development of the mid-20th century), as well as performances at the Gazebo and Bonfils-Stanton Foundation Amphitheater.112 As of 1999 the Lakewood Legacy Foundation and the Heritage Center had raised $2 million of the $3.5 million goal to build this facility. This included donations of $100,000 from Cobe Laboratories and a $230,000 contribution from the Bonfils-Stanton Foundation, Lakewood's largest taxpayer.113 Helping lead efforts is Lakewood Legacy, a nonprofit fundraising community organization 111 Jerome Smiley, Hjstm:y of Colorado (Chicago, The Lewis Publishing Company, 1913), p. 286. 112 Jefferson County Guide, 1999. m Rocky Mountain News, 12 January 1998. 56

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led by Bill Shanley. Completion of the Heritage Center has been projected for 2009. Other historic places now at Lakewood's Heritage Center include the Wide Acres Trolley Stop and the Glen Creighton Pump House. Growth displaced most if not all of its historic landmarks, both urban and rural. They have been transported to this site due to projects ranging from road widening for increased traffic not present when the buildings were built, to country buildings displaced by urban sprawl. Lakewood's population in 1970, shortly before the Belmar endeavors began, was 92,743. By 1990, it was 125,481, a one-third increase.114 Lakewood's corporate boundaries now extend to encompass Green Mountain and the Rooney Valley, historically within Golden's sphere of influence and places which until the past twenty years have been a ranching and mining landscape. Its borders now meet not only Golden but another historic Jefferson County small town in Morrison, each of which have not expanded many miles beyond their original plats. As Lakewood continues to expand into the 21st century, more country landmarks will be threatened by new subdivisions, spurring renewal within the established city to accommodate the new growth in areas such as traffic control, tax base increase, and revitalizing older areas that previously affluent populations abandoned for newer suburbs. While some may have intended 114 U.S. Bureau of the Census, data, 1990. 57

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over the years for the Heritage Center to be a refuge for endangered landmarks, the Center may become a disjointed mishmash of buildings with wildly differing characteristics, leading to even greater arguments over the educational value and place of historical context for the buildings and their park. To best address the problem, Lakewood needs to hold a serious examination of the impact growth has within its current corporate limits and surrounding areas, and how the growth may best be channeled to promote preservation and not destruction --or relocation-of its historic places. Clear Creek Park During the 1990s mountain growth in Jefferson County exploded as it had never before. Rural mountain communities such as Evergreen grew so much that by 1994 Jefferson County government had spread services so thin citizens debated incorporating this place of some 30,000 as its own town.115 Evergreen was larger than many incorporated municipalities in the county. Growth also shifted to the northern mountains of Jefferson County, threatening several important historical and natural resources of the area. In response, Jefferson County Open Space made the acquisition of Clear Creek Canyon one of its highest priorities, leading to the purchase of many parcels m Rocky Mountain News, 2 February 1994. 58

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during the latter half of the 1990s.116 Other, less scenic areas were developed. One of these was the area of Crawford Gulch, adjoining Golden Gate Canyon. Golden Gate Canyon is one of Jefferson County's most historic mountain communities, profiled in depth in James K. Ramstetter's book Life in the Early Days (Denver: Alameda Press, 1996). Inside this an area pioneer family member details much of the culture, events, landmarks and evolution of this mountain community. The folklore of the area he remembers is priceless, from a skeleton found buried standing up in 1918 to the author and his twin brother dynamiting a frozen tree in 1922 to get firewood. Golden Gate Canyon was a rural ranching community on one of the main gold rush thoroughfares to Black Hawk and Central City. Its economy, besides ranching, included timber milling and the trade at the stage stop hostelries, which included the 5 Mile House, 8 Mile House, Michigan House, Guy House and Centennial House.117 Its educational needs were long served by the humble one-room frame Guy Hill and Robinson Hill schools of District 10, and the newer Belcher Hill District 29 that joined them.118 The Golden Gate area was divided into a number of ranching locales within the area between Ralston Creek and Clear Creek, these included Golden Gate Canyon 116 Jefferson County Open Space, records. 117 Charles and Mary Rarnstetter, Jobn Country Place Names and History of Ralston Buttes (Golden: C Lazy Three Press, 1999), p. 184-197. 118 Ibid, p. 170-183. 59

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itself, Crawford Gulch, Michigan Hill, Douglas Mountain, Guy Hill, Robinson Hill, Smith Hill, Mt. Tom, and Sheep Mountain. As this area evolved into modern times various pioneer landmarks were abandoned, which came to be vandalized by increasing automobile travel on the area's roads. With the 1990s a new wave of development swept over the area, threatening more of its historic buildings in Crawford Gulch.119 This was what led to the formation of Jefferson County's second architectural "zoo," along Clear Creek in Golden. Its formation story begins by telling of a much earlier preservation project, Guy Hill School. Guy Hill School Mitchell Elementary School kindergarten teacher Verna Katona was driving around the mountains one day in the early 1970s when she spied at Guy Hill an old schoolhouse.U0 It was heavily vandalized, some of its clapboarding even ripped off for firewood. This was one of the oldest remaining school buildings of Jefferson County, built on the hill named for Bostonian John C. Guy, who built the famed Guy House stage stop in 1859.121 Katona quickly determined something must be done to save the school, and 119 County of Jefferson, clerk and recorder plat records. Charles and Mary Ramstetter, John Country: Place Names and History of Ralston Buttes (Golden: C Lazy Three Press, 1999), p. 180. 121 James K. Ramstetter, Life in the Early Days (Denver, Alameda Press, 1996), p. 15. 60

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voiced her thoughts at her next teachers' meeting. Soon Mitchell's 6th grade children came to Mitchell Parent Teacher Association president Jo Ann Thistlewood asking if her organization might sponsor moving Guy Hill School to Golden as part of the upcoming Centennial-Bicentennial celebration of 1976.122 After research and planning the 3-year project commenced. Owners Franklin Stermole and Ramon Bisque and their wives donated the building to the Golden Civic Foundation.123 Under Mitchell school supervision the students and parents met with utility and government officials for approval needed on the project. Students measured the building (22 x 18 feet), and with their parents gathered rocks from Coal Creek Canyon for a new foundation at Golden. Golden Landmarks Association founding member Bo Bowers and a former Marine friend with Winslow Construction Company arranged to use the 2nd-largest mobile crane in Colorado to put the building into place. The building made the easy but winding trip down the mountain roads in the back of a flatbed truck.124 The Golden Transcript newspaper photographed the dramatic move, showing the little school and detached airlock front moving their way by truckbed, taking over the entire 122 Golden Transcript, 23 November 1995. 123 Charles and Mary Rarnstetter, John Country Place Names and History of Ralston Buttes (Golden: C Lazy Three Press, 1999), p. 179. 124 Golden Landmarks Association, records. 61

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roadway .125 Soon it found its new home at the northwest comer of 12th and Ford Streets in downtown Golden, atop the new foundation of gathered rocks. It was a temporary foundation, in case the school had to be moved again in the future. Figure 3.1 Guy Hill School within Clear Creek Park (Source: Gardner Family Collection) Golden citizens donated bricks from the recently destroyed St. Joseph's Catholic Church for a new chimney. Katona gathered historic furnishings to fill the building, and in Massachusetts located the original desk the pioneer 125 Golden Transcript, 25 June 1975. 62

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Ramstetter had used at Guy Hill.126 Many other volunteers lent their expertise, and a priest from Regis College on sabbatical gave a check for matching grants, while Charles Courtad chaired the Centennial-Bicentennial project for Jefferson County, part of the celebration of Colorado's centennial in the year of America's bicentennial. The Mitchell PTA received three awards for outstanding project of the year, and gained national attention.127 According to area tradition the school was built at Guy Hill in 1876.128 This frame building consists of a main one-room hall with airlock front entrance, door opening to one side, reached by a small flight of steps and used for storing coats and supplies. The building was heated by wood stove, and students originally sat on benches (more than likely the type of inadequate furnishings early Jefferson County school superintendents were known to be frustrated with in their reports), and later desks. Locked in a factional rivalry with Crawford Gulch, the schoolhouse was in early years yanked back and forth between the areas by rope.129 How many times is not exactly known. This feud likely ended when the Belcher Hill area was 1215 Golden Transcript, 23 November 1995. m Golden Landmarks Association, records. 1111 James K. Ramstetter, Life in the Early Days (Denver, Alameda Press, 1996), p. 21. 129 Golden Transcript, 30 July 1976. 63

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granted its own school district. Guy Hill's own district, #10, had been formed circa 1868.130 Some years as many as 22 students attended the school, which was always served by one teacher, often a single young lady from the city of Golden. The building doubled as an area community center, holding religious services and social events. In 1951 it closed permanently, owing to the consolidation of Jefferson County's remaining historic school districts into the unified R-1 district.131 Thus began its period of abandonment which is among the longest for an eventually reclaimed building in Jefferson County history. The Pearce Ranch Early in the 1990s, Harvey Moser decided to develop an historic ranch of the Crawford Gulch and Belcher Hill area and Patrick Foss, son of Frederick ''Heinie" Foss of Foss General Store fame in downtown Golden, stepped in to develop it. The result was the creation of the Red School Ranch subdivision of smaller ranchettes.132 In developing the Red School Ranch subdivision, Foss elected to restore the ranch's main home as well as the 130 County of Jefferson, place names records. 131 Golden Landmarks Association, records. 1 132 County of Jefferson, clerk and recorder plat records. 64

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Belcher Hill School (what the development was named after, built 191i33), but the fate of the Pearce Ranch's other historic buildings was now in jeopardy. Golden Pioneer Museum director Irma Wyhs lamented their pending fate in the Golden Transcript, gaining the interest of the Golden Landmarks Association. Quickly a movement was afoot to save these threatened landmarks. The buildings of the Pearce Ranch have different origins but share a common history. Henry Treglown, possibly a miner from the Central City area, first settled here in 1874.134 He built a small, one-story cabin of hewn logs, with side-gabled roof and central front door flanked by small, double-hung windows. He ranched here for years, raising daughter Annie with his family, who grew up to marry miner Adam Reynolds. Upon her father's death around 1903 Annie Reynolds inherited the ranch.135 Not far to the northeast another miner, John Rogers, took up a ranching claim of his own. According to ring dating made on the logs, his cabin was built in 1878.136 It was quite similar in design to the Reynolds Cabin, except with taller, narrower windows manufactured by Sears, 133 Colorado Transcript, 1912. 134 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records. 1JS Ibid. 136 Charles and Mary Ramstetter, John Couotzy: Place Names and History of Ralston Buttes (Golden: C Lazy Three Press, 1999), p. 233. 65

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Roebuck & Company. 137 This strongly indicates the arrival of the railroads to the region, making growth easier through shipping in prefabricated, inexpensive material. Rogers and Reynolds during the 1890s partnered up to run the North Star Copper Mine in southern Jefferson County, and the common history of these cabins began.138 Thomas Ennis and Bertha Pearce settled at their ranch south of these two in Golden Gate Canyon in 1900.139 They built their own, somewhat more sizable cabin, which looked much like the others. The proliferation of log construction was indicative of the poorer, blue-collar class who settled the area. Pearce, originally of Cornwall, England, had come to the United States in 1878 and had worked as a gold and silver miner in the Central City area since the mid-1890s.140 The Cornish were part of a general spurt of growth in this area during the late 1890s which included many kinds of immigrants in Jefferson County. Many immigrants, particularly Swedish families, also inhabited the Golden Gate Canyon area.141 137 Golden Landmarks Association, records. ua County of Jefferson, mining claim records. 139 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records. 140 Colorado Transcript 8 December 1992 and 26 March 1936. 141 Charles and Mary Ramstetter, John Country: Place Names and History of Ralston Buttes (Golden: C Lazy Three Press, 1999). 66

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Bertha soon died and Pearce married widow Henrietta Harry in September, 1900.142 For years the Pearces engaged in cattle ranching and farming in Crawford Gulch on the east side of Tom Hill. Piece by piece Thomas Pearce went about acquiring neighboring ranches to add to his own, starting with the Reynolds Ranch in 1912.143 In the meantime, Rogers died and his ranch made it to the hands of German immigrant Kasper Hofmeister, longtime owner of Golden's Goosetown Saloon, in 1902. Hofmeister's cabin at some point gained two rear additions and a 2nd floor, with one addition made of Swedish-cut logs suggesting an origin unknown even in today's historical canon of the building. In 1917 it was sold to James A. Helps.144 He was not a newcomer, originally coming to Colorado in 1880 and living in Golden and vicinity starting in 1889.145 He and his wife Mary and family meandered between Ralston Creek, Golden, this ranch and Pleasant View through forty-seven years, and one of the family's Golden homes (built in 1897) still stands at the northwest corner of 21st and East Streets. Helps served as Jefferson County Road Supervisor for several years, but was blinded by sunstroke in 1933, three years before his death at age 82.146 142 Colorado Transcript, 26 May 1935. 141 County of Jefferson. grantor/grantee records. 144 Ibid. 145 Colorado Transcript, 5 March 1936. 1461bid. 67

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The Hofmeister Cabin's ranch land was annexed by Thomas Pearce in 1919.147 He dismantled the cabin and moved it around Tom Hill to the main ranch, numbering it log by log and reassembling it on a knoll with a breathtaking view of the surrounding countryside. Its steeply-pitched roof created too high a profile, however, and was blown away during a windstorm, leaving the walls standing intact.148 A lower-pitched roof was built to replace it. The Park Late in 1992 Golden Transcript writer Irma Wyhs alerted the area to the development closing in on these historic ranch buildings. With the economy picking up, Golden was not only growing, but also scenic places in the mountains, and the population of the Golden Gate Canyon area was exploding as never before. Other large ranches were purchased for division into smaller spreads. Unfortunately, new houses pushed out the old ones as developers elected not to care for them, and the cabins were placed in serious danger. Golden Landmarks resolved to salvage the logs of the cabins and move them to Golden. The Golden Historic Preservation Board authorized the 147 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records. 148 Golden Transcript, 10 December 1992. 68

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Cabin Preservation Committee in early 1993, which decided to move them to unoccupied park land at the south side of Clear Creek to create a "narrative history site."149 Wyhs chaired the committee, who envisioned an historic park staffed by volunteers providing ranching, homesteading and western history on a part-time basis. The City of Golden applied for a $20,063 joint-venture grant from Jefferson County Open Space to move the buildings. By April 1994 a master plan for Clear Creek Living History Park had materialized.tso It laid out an impressive re-creation of the Pearce Ranch area on the south banks of Clear Creek, between Arapahoe and Illinois Streets. At its west end were to be the Hofmeister and Reynolds cabins; in its center a cattle barn, hay bam, corral, grain silo and blacksmith shop; on its east end Guy Hill School, Visitors Center and the George M. Pullman ranching cabin of the Pleasant View area long stored in Central City.151 "We want people to know from the beginning that this is a place for people, that it is an educational facility, and it is more important for us to provide an educational facility than it is to be a museum" said Janine Sturdevant, co-chair with Wyhs of the spearheading committee. 149 Ibid, 13 April 1993. 150 Ibid, 7 April 1994. lSI Ibid. 69

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An estimate of two years was made for the park's completion, and soon the Hofmeister and Reynolds cabins were dismantled and moved to Golden. Contractor Bill Bailey rebuilt them with volunteer assistance, and donations from cash to historic artifacts were soon being accepted.152 The next year the log barn of the ranch was transplanted to the park. By the mid-1990s Mitchell Elementary School was slated to move to north Golden, and so Guy Hill School was in need of the new home earlier contemplated when it had moved to Golden. With new growth in Golden came extreme pressure to redevelop Golden's historic downtown, providing maximum tax revenue to pay for new city services, parks and infrastructure demanded by the growth. The pages of the Transcript and Golden City Council minutes of this time verify Council members' continued call for increasing the tax base to provide greater services of various kinds. Golden's population through the 1980s alone had grown by 929 people, which would have amounted to about a third of its population as late as 1940.153 With growth projected to over 15,000 people by 2000, Golden needed more revenue to accommodate the impact of its new growth, with sales taxes providing the easiest opportunity to generate it. The historic Mitchell School, judged by the Golden Historic Preservation Board's 1992 study of historic buildings to be eligible for the National Historic Register, was destroyed by the Golden 152 Ibid. 70

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Urban Renewal Authority, despite even solid retail-oriented preservation proposals.154 Guy Hill was donated from the school district to the park to join its mountain refugee cousins, making its fourth move in 1996.155 It was rebuilt atop a new stone foundation near the center of Clear Creek Ranch Park. In 1997 the last salvageable component of the historic Pearce Ranch, a log animal shed, arrived. Over time re-creations of a blacksmith's shop, meat house, root cellar and corral, were added. Clear Creek Ranch Park in 1996 was officially opened for special community events, and the metro area's newest living history facility was on its way.156 Clear Creek Park's existence and its cause is not a phenomenon unique to Golden, but a problem and circumstance facing preservationists even outside the United States. Architectural museums, in the form of re-created environments like villages, farms or ranches, have been created as a direct consequence of the pressures of urbanization on their locations. Some of these include Upper Canada Village above Montreal, a collection of hundreds of old buildings simulating a 191h Century riverside settlement; and Old Bethpage Village on Long Island, recreating a Civil War-era farming tsJ United States Bureau of the Census, data. 154 Golden Urban Renewal Authority, records, finalist proposals for Mitchell redevelopment. 1998. tss Golden Landmarks Association, records. 1561bid. 71

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village.157 Arguments against these museums have been that they seem "lifeless," or they too often celebrate the upper class. In response, operators of such museums have increasingly focused on interpreting their historic things "actively," increasing use of demonstrative activities showing historical processes such as milling, yam spinning, butter churning and more.158 Clear Creek Park uses this method, being an architectural museum emphasizing these things as "living history." Nationally this is popular with the public, due in part to its being divorced "from firsthand knowledge of how anything is made."159 Unfortunately, after the City of Golden took direct control of the facility this approach to operating it came at the hazard of increasingly ignoring the true context of its buildings, emphasizing the living history demonstrations themselves. Today the Reynolds Cabin is not presented in any ranching context, but as a miner's cabin as if at a mining camp complete with sluice nearby. Elsewhere an Arapaho teepee sits between the schoolhouse and Hofmeister Cabin, which never would have been among those buildings in reality. Park programming presumes settings in 1843 and 1861 which are architecturally impossible for the buildings to simulate (no intact buildings m James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation Curatorial of the Built World (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 234. 158 Ibid, p. 240. 191 Ibid. 72

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are known to have existed in the area in 1843). The park's purpose is to simulate a generalized cross-section of historic area life, not paying close attention to the actual background of the buildings, even to the point the City government seems completely unaware of the cabins' origins. In the case of Clear Creek Park, response to one common criticism of architectural museums has led it deeply into the realm of another criticism, that of the buildings' loss of the context in which they existed. Physically and culturally the museum's depiction could not have actually existed. The Park's future direction is somewhat uncertain. A simple visitors booth modeled after the Guy Hill School outhouse has materialized at the entrance, but the Visitors Center, large barn, grain silo, and recreated pinery surrounding have never materialized. The Pullman House, owned by GLA, jumped ship from the park plans in 1998 in favor of a return to its original ranch land home in Pleasant View.160 In any event, the City of Golden with Clear Creek Park is squandering a unique opportunity to become the only facility depicting a complete history of one of Jefferson County's historic mountain communities, Golden Gate Canyon being as old and adventuresome as any town in the county. The cabins' common history in copper mining is unique compared to the history of the surrounding area and they are the only known remaining places owned by miners of copper. This 160 Golden Landmarks Association, records. 73

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was once an important Jefferson County industry, with mines in many area locations.161 The disinterest in discovery of the cabins' past is puzzling, as the history behind them is not only educational but was the very reason they were preserved in the first place. Figure 3.2 Clear Creek Park, lower center in urban setting of Golden (Source: Gardner Family Collection) 161 Foothills Genealogical Society of Colorado, Inc., WPA History of Golden. Jefferson County. Colorado (Lakewood: Foothills Genealogical Society of Colorado, Inc., 1993), p. 432-454. 74

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CHAPTER4 MADE USELESS BY DESIGN: ENDANGERING RURAL LANDMARKS The prospect of becoming functionally obsolete is a fate that faces many historic landmarks across the nation, and Jefferson County's old places are no exception. The Wheat Ridge Soddy was a house that fell prey to the growth of its community, not just becoming obsolete as a dwelling, but never having been intended to exist as long as it did in the first place. Bradford Junction, one of Jefferson County's most historic locales, spurred the creation of Conifer, among the county's largest unincorporated communities. Conifer's growth turned back on the place of its birth to make obsolete the Yellow Barn, a fate gaining special preservationist attention towards many barns across America. In the case of each of these places, there is good fortune of being in communities that care for them, the Soddy spurring a preservationist movement exemplifying why preservationists might care to preserve a landmark even if its history remains largely anonymous. Wheat Ridge Soddy Claudia Worth, Wheat Ridge City Council member and preservationist said "Sod houses weren't ever meant to last a hundred years. This house has 75

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remained because it was plastered and lived in. Houses will stay forever if they're lived in and loved. It's when they're abandoned that they disintegrate."162 So demonstrates a fundamental truth of historic preservation, where used landmarks last longer than abandoned ones. Figure 4.1 Wheat Ridge Soddy (Source: Gardner Family Collection) Strangely enough, little is known of the Soddy, one of the rarest and most unique buildings in Colorado. It was built before 1864, according to dating of the tall prairie grass used in its construction, by the Denver Botanic 162 Rocky Mountain News, 15 March 1999. 76

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Gardens.163 It is one story tall, with narrow double-hung windows topped with a hipped roof, making a fairly nondescript appearance. Its worth is its architecture, a sod house built for some reason in a place where even near neighbors on Clear Creek were made of the plentiful wood nearby. This home of 400 square feet contains about 5,000 square feet of sod, cut into strips 30 inches wide by 6 inches deep.164 These were placed into walls 24 inches thick. In 1880, owner James H. Baugh put plaster over its walls, sod construction being a type known to drop dirt on tenants from time to time. This strongly implies continued residential use, yet throughout all known historic account its is not mentioned at all, making it one of Jefferson County's most mysterious landmarks. It is not impossible the Soddy was meant to house Baugh's brother who did not remain here past the Gold Rush, since sod construction was not meant to be a long-lasting design. In 1892 Bert White purchased the Soddy's land and continued farming it, specializing in Pascal celery.165 In keeping with Wheat Ridge's maturing growth, in 1900 he built a 5-room brick bungalow beside the Soddy.166 In 1925, the Soddy was used by his son's family, and continued to be lived in until1973. During this time, Wheat Ridge was growing by leaps and bounds, 163 Ibid. 164 Ibid. 165 Ibid. 166 Ibid. 77

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with affordable housing subdivisions built by entrepreneurs such as George W. Olinger placing its population at 1,094 by 1940, and almost 30,000 by the time the city incorporated in 1969.167 By then development was subdividing farms, ranches, even the Rose Acres Gardens, and encroaching all around the Soddy, and its protective plaster coat that had indefinitely prolonged its existence was crumbling. Developer Frank Callahan purchased the Soddy's property in 1973. The Soddy remained a mysterious place of nondescript design and unknown origin; media accounts incorrectly dated the structure; yet regardless Wheat Ridge residents, alerted by the Montgomery family, quickly rallied to save it.168 This phenomenon while seemingly unusual is actually not in the United States, as preservation historian J.B. Jackson wrote: ''Much of our enthusiasm for historical preservation seems to be prompted by the same instinct: history means less the record of significant events and people than the preservation of reminders of a bygone domestic existence and its environment."169 The salvation of the Wheat Ridge Soddy exemplifies the enthusiasm Jackson speaks about. From the beginning its physical nature was used as the 167 Stephen J. Leonard and Thomas J. Noel, Denver: Minim: Camp to Metropo1is (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1990), p. 311. 168 Interview with Claudia Worth, Wheat Ridge City Council member, Wheat Ridge, Colorado, 25 October 1999. 169 J.B. Jackson, The Necessity for Ruins and Other Topjcs (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980), p. 89-90. 78

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reason to preserve it, and preserving a ruin of the past among the growing modern city became paramount. This place was worth saving, it was argued, because sod houses were once common for early plains settlers, but less common in the Denver area, making this one even more special and irreplaceable.170 Callahan too became convinced of this, and he offered the Soddy and accompanying brick house and lot to those who would save them at a cheaper price than another offer for development.171 Thus the fact that the Soddy was an example of a bygone era of construction and environment, and a rare one, placed citizens in general agreement that it should be saved, even though the property could have easily been used to provide for growth that was chopping up its farmland. The Wheat Ridge citizens were not mistaken in their assessment of the value of their landmark. Other sod houses may have existed in the area's earliest years, as remarked by T.H. Simmons, a member of the Loveland party which arrived in Golden in early July 1859. He stated: ''When I first saw Denver it consisted of a few sod houses and a number of tents."172 Denver's first building was noted to be a 6-foot tall building on the east bank of Cherry Creek between Blake and Wazee, built of round logs and an earthen roof, 110 Denyer Post, 10 May 1973. 171 Ibid. 172 Colorado Transcript, 20 August 1908. 79

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"the prevailing fashion of that day.''173 Simmons possibly confused such buildings with true sod houses due to their use of earthen roofs; but it is also possible given the generalities of early Denver description that sod houses may have been there. Outside the Denver area, two other sod houses are confirmed to exist in Colorado: the Genoa Sod House (1888), and Orchard's Stoll Sod House (c. 1893).174 Both are far younger than the Wheat Ridge Soddy but were built in a rare two-story design. Genoa's soddy also survived to modern times due to plastering of its walls and being inhabited. Wheat Ridge's effort to preserve the soddy formally materialized in the form of the S.O.S. (Save Our Soddy) campaign. Claudia Worth and Barbara Kline co-chaired the campaign, which needed to raise $19,000 to buy the property.175 S.O.S. conducted bake sales and held a fundraiser at Lakeside Mall, while Worth's Girl Scout troop collected aluminum cans and gave the council and mayor their own trash bags to help out with the effort. School children embraced the project with a will, raising money by washing cars, babysitting, collecting cans and papers, and running errands. Other community events included a bikeathon and walkathon, and special 173 Rocky Mountain News, 18 January 1860 & Western Mountaineer, 1860. 114 Thomas J. Noel, Buildin.:s of Colorado (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), p. 254-255, 269. 115 Interview with Claudia Worth, Wheat Ridge City Council member, Wheat Ridge, Colorado, 25 October 1999. 80

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contributions from area organizations and citizens.176 The effort generated great publicity in newspapers such as the Lakewood Sentinel. Golden Transcript. Denver Post and Rocky Mountain News. Quickly the Colorado Centennial-Bicentennial Commission designated the Soddy among its recognized landmarks. Wheat Ridge officials were so impressed by the effort that when $3,000 was raised they agreed to kick in the rest of the amount and add the Soddy to their parks system.177 The Wheat Ridge Historical Society converted the White House into a small museum. The community effort continued when the Centennial/Bicentennial celebration commenced in 1976. As duplexes rose around the Soddy, the city appropriated $13,000, with matching funds from the Colorado Centennial Bicentennial Commission to restore it.178 The City consulted V.A. Keer, a recognized authority on sod construction, in restoring the house, a piece of which needed to be rebuilt (but the City recycled the same sod). Kerr, who was curator of Sod Town at Colby, Kansas, examined photos of the soddy brought to him and told Wheat Ridge how to solve the building's problems, two weeks before his death.179 The place's walls were re-plastered in 1983 and the Soddy was part of a museum complex, Wheat Ridge Historic Park at 176 Ibid. 111 Ibid. 178 Rocky Mountain News, 3 April 1976. 179 Ibid. 81

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4610 Robb Street. Wheat Ridge's historic Post Office, a one-story brick storefront building built in 1910, was moved during the 1970s to join the houses, and the Johnson-Colehan Log Cabin has also joined the mix.180 In essence, the success of the Soddy's salvation reflects American preservationist thought in two more ways. Noted preservation historian James Marston Fitch notes that the historic house museum concept ''has been the basic module of historic preservation, acting as the nursery for the entire movement."181 Today there are perhaps thousands of museums of this type, including other sod buildings. Wheat Ridge's house, however, has been preserved for a less common reason than most other historic house museums, for its sheer architectural merit alone. Normally historic house museums in America are preserved for being associated with famous people and events. Lastly, the Wheat Ridge Soddy's preservation from the growth forces that threatened it strikes a note of irony unique to this place. Fitch noted of the studies of Christopher Alexander and associates that modern urban development grows "in massive chunks," and that once a building is built it is considered permanently finished.182 Modern buildings, he says, "are 180 Interview with Claudia Worth, Wheat Ridge City Council member, Wheat Ridge, Colorado, 25 October 1999. 181 James Marston fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial of the Built World (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 43. 182 Ibid, p. 35. 82

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assumed to have a certain finite lifetime; the process of environmental growth is seen as a process in which those buildings which have reached the end of their lifetime are torn down and replaced by new large buildings, again assumed to have a certain lifetime."1&3 This marked a change from the tradition of keeping, re-using and modifying buildings, resulting in the threat of modern growth towards historic structures. The irony in preserving the Wheat Ridge Soddy against this growth is that it, too, was a structure assumed to be of a finite lifetime, now preserved far beyond the lifetime its builder envisioned. Today the Soddy is on the National Historic Register, preserved for its pure being as a relic of the past, as to this day Wheat Ridge's people have no firm idea of its origin. Bradford Junction The origin of the historic mountain community of Conifer lends a tremendous amount of insight into Colorado's gold rush growth into the mountains, and the vital importance of transportation thoroughfares in facilitating it. The present fate of Bradford Junction, Conifer's birthplace, also shows the most pervasive threat growth poses to Jefferson County's rural landmarks: making them obsolete by taking away their ability to function. IBJ Ibid. 83

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Bradford Junction is an important point in the history of Jefferson County's growth, but now growth renders its place uncertain in a modem world. Conifer began as Bradford Junction, the crossroads of the Bradford Road and St. Vrain, Golden City & Colorado Wagon Road. The latter road was first conceived by a company under its name. The company's object, beginning in the winter of 1859, was to construct a wagon road from Fort St. Vrain through Golden City to the South Park and Blue River gold diggings in the mountains.184 The company secured a charter from the Jefferson Territorial government and began work immediately. The road, one of the most daunting projects yet undertaken in the gold rush region, was surveyed and engineered by Sam. G. Jones, with construction superintended by Daniel L. McCleery .1as The road commenced at St. Vrain's fort, where the company built a toll free bridge, ran across the prairie to strike Clear Creek at McCleery's Ranch (in present-day Adams County immediately east of Arvada), thence along the north side of that river to Arapahoe City, then into Golden City where patrons could cross Clear Creek at either Ford Street or Washington Avenue. Then it would continue southward, enter the mountains, turn southwest at the summit of the first range directly towards South Park, traveling over the 184 Western Mountaineer, winter 1859-spring 1860. 1&5 Ibid. 7 December 1859. 84

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old Lodge Pole Trail.186 That name was an Arapaho identity given to trails where a person could travel comfortably on horseback with lodge poles trailing behind in a travois, hence "lodge pole" trail.187 It is not generally known that native trails provided the backbone of Jefferson County's earliest transportation network and much of its growth owed to Indians, and along this ancient road was where Conifer was to materialize. The object of the road, incorporating the trail, as stated by its proprietors was to be the best and shortest route from the Platte valley to the many new gold diggings discovered in South and Middle Park, Blue and Colorado River areas.188 It was to save people twelve miles of travel compared to other roads and provide plenty of timber to develop new towns. By later in 1860 the new townsite of Illian was laid out on Bergen Hill, some ten miles from Golden City along the road.189 This never became an actual Jefferson County town but one of Jefferson County's oldest rural communities, Pleasant Park. Robert B. Bradford started building his own wagon road from Denver to join the St. Vrain, Golden City & Colorado Road, 186 Ibid, 14 December 1859. 187 Charles and Mary Ramstetter, John Country Place Names and History of RaJston Buttes (Golden: C Lazy Three Press, 1999), p. 107. 188 Western Mountaineer, Winter 1859 to Spring 1860. 189 Ibid, 25 January 1860. 85

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founding a town of his own name where it entered the mountains. He was hoping his shortcut from Denver would make him a handsome profit. What appear to be separate unrelated communities in Colorado are not as they seem due to the related enterprises spurred by the SGC&C Road. The road itself, however, progressed slowly. It was a massive undertaking, even by modern standards: plans included an estimated twenty bridges, fifteen to sixteen miles of grading, and thirty miles of clearing forest to complete it from the area of Cub Creek to the Blue C.P. Hall completed bridges thirty five feet long on Cub Creek and 200 feet long across Bear Creek, and the road was to be twenty-five to thirty feet in width, quality enough to make it "safe for a stage to drive over at night." Such daunting odds promising hefty profit are classic of speculative ventures during Colorado's Gold Rush era. By the end of February 1860 George W. Weed, a future member of the Jefferson Territorial House, built a new stopping place on the road. It included "good hotel accommodations, and good feed for stock in the vidnity."191 In the latter part of 1860, Weed's advertisement changed to reflect that the Bradford Road had now joined the main road at his place, which was becoming known as Bradford Junction. On the main road, progress was slow, yet this and the value of the road in promoting traffic to grow the region were spoken of by one of the Mountaineer's correspondents: 190 Ibid, 8 February 1860. 86

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The distance from Golden City to Tarryall is from sixty-five to seventy miles. The road for the entire length is tolled one dollar for wagon and single team; additional teams twenty-five cents each. There are very beautiful valleys through which the road passes, between Golden City and the Platte crossing; the grazing good. From the Platte crossing the road follows up the canon of that river, nearly or quite to the Park. There was, along this portion of the road, some most desperate bad places, as it was almost a continuous pile of loose rocks. I should have deemed it impossible, had I to have passed over it with anything but a horse, prior to the improvements made by the St. V., G.C. & Colorado Co. At all those rocky points so numerous as you pass up the canon, I observed the company had made an admirable road, by passing near the stream, or crossing, and taking up the opposite side, thus avoided all the rocks and worst places along the route. I saw but one house upon the entire route; that is located at the Bradford junction, and is kept by Messrs. Weed and Sparks. There are admirable points upon the route, and many stations are needed to accommodate those who are daily traveling over the road. As it now is, they have to pack their blankets and provisions their backs, to last them the trip. Enterprising persons could scarcely help doing well by locating at some points along the route, and affording entertainment to travelers.192 The grand dreams of this road simply were never meant to be, however. It was a risky venture, and like many other (many less honest) such ventures of its time promoting growth it was doomed to fail. Editor William Byers of the Rocky Mountain News later angrily lashed out on the front page: Or is he yet dreaming the old Golden City dream that there is the centre of Colorado; the pre-destined commercial metropolis of the country? The same that was dreamed in 1859 ... then when a lot of enthusiasts bankrupted themselves in staking out a road from St. Vrain to Golden and grading it thence up the side of the mountain toward the south park-all to cut off Denver ... So it has gone on and Golden has grown poorer and her population is less than in 1859. Why? 191 Ibid, 22 February 1860. 192 Ibid, 12 July 1860. 87

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Because they would rather have nothing than to cease opposition to Denver. They would not accept rain from a cloud that had first passed over Denver if they could help it.193 Such was the epitaph Byers claimed for the defunct St. Vrain, Golden City & Colorado Wagon Road, as if it was a predestined failure that ruined many and accomplished nothing as a result of Golden's pride. This was indicative of the many battles the two cities had for supremacy in the still freshly settled region. Golden interests possibly had the aim Byers claims in mind. However, history may not agree entirely with his assessment, as the road clearly and successfully promoted the growth of the region, and Denver, Breckenridge and other outsiders clearly were part of its scheme and sought to capitalize on it.194 Bradford Junction continued to exist, and the road continued to be used by many. While Weed soon left to join the Civil War as a member of the lOth Kansas Cavalry, his area attracted more settlers and became politically organized as Junction District on August 11, 1860.195 Junction District later became one of three that rebelled against Jefferson Territory and seceded to form the government of NiWot County in 1861. At the same time in late summer at the Junction area residents were laying stones to build a well 193 Rocky Mountain News, 22 April1870. 194 Western Mountaineer, Winter 1859 to Spring 1860. 195 Jefferson County Historical Commission, From Scratch: A Histocy of Jefferson County Colorado (Golden: Jefferson County Historical Commission, 1985), p. 3. 88

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when a wagon driver told them that Confederate forces had defeated Union soldiers at the First Battle of Bull Run.196 Thus was christened the famed Civil War Well. After the war ended growth continued at Bradford Junction, and a post office was established there in May 1865.197 The hotel, tollgate and stage stop known as the Junction House and the well served growing numbers of travelers and settlers along the road, though a fire destroyed the place in 1878.198 A new one replaced it, and by 1880 the Junction had grown to have a school (meeting 3 months of the year), hotel, store and post office in the same building, the post office being named Hutchinson.199 This is likely the building known as Spruce Cottage at the location of Bradford Junction. By this time saw milling, such as Danson & Mitchel's mill in Kennedy Gulch, was a prominent local industry, further spurring growth by providing lumber throughout Jefferson County. Religion joined the mix in 1879 when Mr. and Mrs. James Kemp, who had immigrated from England in 1860, followers of the teachings of Brigham Young but rejecting the practice of polygamy, brought the Reorganized Church of Latter Day Saints to Hutchinson. They took up a homestead and 196 Historically Jefferson County. winter 1995, p. 2. 197 Ibid. 198 Denver Times. 27 September 1878. 199 Golden Globe, 28 February 1880. 89

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mortgaged it for $600 to build a modest white clapboarded frame church.200 It was located 2 miles above Bradford Junction near John Ellis' ranch, and by 1882 had 35 members with 50 Sunday School students. The congregation would continue due to the efforts of its unpaid minister for over 30 years, the chapel later purchased for another school. In 1894, the post office name was changed to Conifer. 201 Throughout all this growth, this historic community maintained its flavor, the core Junction Ranch having 720 acres when it was sold from Frederich Buechner to John J. Mullen in 1918.202 Mullen, of the family of famous Colorado flour milling magnate J.K. Mullen, joined prominent area families including the Coors, Evans and Boettchers seeking a fine rural retreat from the rigors of cosmopolitan life. Near the Civil War Well Mullen built an impressive new 5,000 square foot barn to house his show horses.203 One of Jefferson County's largest and most unusual structures, it was built in the Pennsylvania Dutch style, with a high vaulted roof of cedar shakes covering three stories, painted over in a coating of yellow. :m Jefferson County Historical Commission, From Scratch: A HistoO' of Jefferson County. Colorado (Golden: Jefferson County Historical Commission, 1985), p. 119. 2111 Hjstorjcally Jefferson County, winter 1995, p. 3. 202 Ibid. 2D3 Ibid. 90

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The great structure was built partially from a kit sold by Montgomery Ward & Company.204 Jefferson County was truly coming of age, as prefabricated homes and other buildings had been springing up around since the arrival of the railroads in the 19th Century, enabling massive shipments. The barn's basement was used for horse carts, main floor for horses and top floor for a hay loft. The loft had a wonderful hardwood floor fit for dancing, regardless of weather, and the Conifer residents quickly exploited the opportunity. For many years the barn served as a main social gathering place for the maturing community, holding all-night dances, box socials, masquerade balls, and other activities. 205 The Mullen family (John J., Jeanette E. and the J.K. Mullen Corporation) sold what came to be known simply as the Yellow Barn in 1942.206 While the growing community had made it popular, growth after World War II began to encroach upon it and its well. When the ranch was sold another time in 1955, it had been reduced to 355 acres.207 Historic community landmarks were already being displaced by the effects of new growth, the old Mormon chapel destroyed in 1937 for widening Highway 204 Ibid. 2051bid. :!DIS County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records. '1n7 Historically Jefferson County, winter 1995, p. 3. 91

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285. 208 This happened the same year the railroad at the nearby north fork of the South Platte was abandoned. All were responses to the coming of the automobile age cutting into railroad passenger traffic and increasing road traffic. This historic roadway, the same Lodge Pole Trail and SGC Wagon Road, had become a true highway. In 1957 growth finally caught up with Bradford Junction itself. With increasing settlement of Jefferson County's southwestern mountains came increasing traffic on the mountain roads, and that year Route 73 was paved.209 The Civil War Well stood right in the center of the road, where it always had to water weary horses and travelers, and later when the road was part of the Peak to Peak Highway.210 The Currier family owned Bradford Junction land at Barclay Road and Highway 73, and agreed to release the right-of-way to reroute the paved road around the well, taking the road from between the well and Yellow Barn. It was a narrow escape, for the road today dodges Bradford Junction by less than 100 feet. As Conifer developed around the Junction, its buildings became more important to area residents as other landmarks continued disappearing. The original 1879 school, and the 1885 Hutchinson School, and Junction School passed by the wayside. The Conifer Junction School, built in 1923 just up the 2111 Ibid, p. 5. :!D) Ibid. 210 Ibid. 92

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hill from the Barn on one acre John Mullen had donated, remained, though soon creation of the R-1 School District and resulting consolidation made it obsolete. During the 1950s, growing Conifer built its first library and the West Jefferson Elementary School.211 Edward and Louis Currier, who owned Bradford Junction since 1955, continued whittling down the ranch as more people came to the area. Subdividing their land, they sold it in large and small parcels, keeping 25 acres lying between Highways 285 and 73.212 On March 17, 1989, they finally sold Bradford Junction to Dale Davis. What was once the great Mullen ranch of 720 acres was now a tiny shard of only 2.58 acres. Nearby Evergreen was growing as well. In 1940, it had 483 residents; by 1970, it had 2,321.213 Continuing growth prospects in this historically wilderness summer resort area prompted one of the earliest mountain protests to growth during the 1970s. Residents protested plans for the 1976 Winter Olympics that would've destroyed the historic Keys on the Green and other area historic landmarks, and afterward subdivisions that would've caused a profound alteration to the 211 Ibid. p. 6. 212 Ibid. p. 3. 213 Stephen J. Leonard and Thomas J. Noel, Denver Minim: Camp to Metropolis (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1990), p. 314-316. 93

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area's physical and social character.214 Mountain growth was beginning to become a serious problem for residents and historic places in Jefferson County. Bradford Junction over the years had gained a modern address, 27051 Barclay Road, but modern growth by 1990 took its purpose for being. The great Yellow Barn was useless, located on a tiny parcel, and travelers had long ceased using the well. The growth of the community Bradford Junction had spawned had turned on it and endangered it by taking away the land for which it had been useful. Evergreen nearby with modern growth dividing up country lands now possessed an estimated 16,000 residents by 1990 as wel1.215 Such explosive growth promises to come to Conifer with the widening of Highway 285 to four lanes.216 This phenomenon threatens a number of rural Jefferson County landmarks once development encroaches too far on their land. The fate of the Yellow Barn is not a local phenomenon either. The pattern of historic barns becoming obsolete and endangered across the country has become a special concern to historic preservationists. In response, the National Trust for Historic Preservation and Successful Farming 214 Barbara and Gene Sternberg, EyeriUeen: Our Mountain Community (Evergreen: Sternberg and Sternberg, 1987), p. 215-216. 2U Stephen J. Leonard and Thomas J. Noel, Denyer: Camp to Metropolis (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1990), p. 316. 216 Denyer Rocky Mountain News, world wide web site httj:rllwww insideclenyer.com, archives. 94

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magazine teamed up to create a preservation program known as Barn Again! Historic barns nationwide are jeopardized by becoming obsolete for modern farming needs, and too expensive to maintain.217 The program was set up to provide ideas, technological data and expertise for adapting historic barns to modern agricultural and ranching use, and includes demonstration projects and annual awards for outstanding projects across the nation. In June 1997, Colorado launched its own version of this endeavor as a cooperative effort of the National Trust, Colorado Historical Society, Colorado Department of Agriculture, and the Colorado State University Cooperative Extension Service.218 To date, overall in the nation, the barn preservation program has successfully rehabilitated hundreds of barns. The fact that barns have been singled out nationally and in Colorado for special preservation efforts is reflective not only of their importance to preservationists as historic icons of agriculture, but for the special problem their preservation poses due to becoming functionally obsolete. The Yellow Barn is one barn that is indicative of this matter of national concern, as it too is functionally obsolete and awaits a modern use. Unfortunately, the Yellow Barn cannot benefit from the specific preservation program offered by Barn Again! It no longer has any farm or 217 Bam Again!, world wide web site 3 March 2000. 2181bid. 95

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ranching spread as its property. Its preservation lies down a different path, one that does not involve agricultural use. Fortunately, the Yellow Barn remains a beloved center of the Conifer community, and residents speak of it in promotions and literature. The Yellow Bam is also the subject of works of art. However, it has not yet found a use in modem Conifer, and sits near its well as a sentinel to the past of the community it helped establish. Until it finds a new use it may always be in some sort of danger, like many other barns across the country, as empty buildings often become a burden on their owners, one sometimes too great to bear. 96

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Figure 4.2 Development of Conifer vicinity (Bradford Junction at highway junction at lower left side) (Source: Rand McNally Denver Regional Area StreetFinder map, 1999) 97

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CHAPTERS A TOWN-EAT-TOWN WORLD: GROWTH ENGULFING HISTORIC TOWNSITES Apex and Leyden were once considered rivals of neighboring towns, and news of their creation was received with apprehension for fear of attracting growth away from established towns. Today, the tables are turned, with the remaining buildings of Leyden and Apex facing the engulfing embrace of the modern growth of neighbors once miles away. They are Jefferson County's example of a problem growth poses to historic preservationists in urbanizing areas across the country: the daunting task of preserving the historic integrity and identity of entire communities. Ten Mile House Long-extinct Apex is the town most greatly shrouded in mystery in the history of Jefferson County. Accounts of it are rare, its origins generally forgotten, its people vanished to the ages. However, this early town, with one building left, had a history of drama and intrigue, as a worthy neighbor of Golden, which now stands in its place. The Ten Mile House that remains now stands engulfed by its Golden neighbors. 98

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Human settlement at the site of Apex was nothing new. Humans have inhabited the vicinity for millennia.219 They were drawn to a spring that still exists where Heritage Road crosses Apex Gulch. Jefferson County's earliest known building, a massive stone walled house, was constructed there around the year 600, thirteen and a half centuries before white nomads, too, settled and built on this same site. 220 With George Jackson's discovery of gold the Mt. Vernon Road was blazed through the hogback at Amos Gulch, as the waterway through the area was then called. A marker of the trail, where Heritage Square's Alpine Slide is now, was named Jackson Hill.221 Three Denver citizens, the Hon. B.D. Williams, D.C. Collier, and Mr. Phoadle, sought to take advantage of the location, platting out the townsite of Baden where the gulch went through the hogback. The name, which is the German word ''baths," may have been due to the spring there. Baden was a peculiar town, as evidenced by its earliest known description: We again turned our faces Bear-Creek-ward, and nothing of interest occurred until we came in sight of the long and spacious streets of Baden, which, like those of Philadelphia, are "straight, and cross each other like the lines on a chess board," as we are informed by the renowned Peter Parley. We failed to hear "The hum of busy 219 Golden Landmarks Association, Magic Mountain Archaeological Site archives. 22ll Golden IranscriDt. 25 October 1994. 221 Rocky Mountain News, 13 February 1861. 99

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thousands," and we left "The invisible throng," which "mjpht have been seen," had it been there, and proceeded on our journey. In other words, Baden was a paper town, one of many hollow speculative town ventures set up in gold rush era Colorado that failed to thrive. These tried to take advantage of locations close to traffic to enrich their landowners, or enrich said landowners through outside investment in the town company. At the close of 1860, people of the southwest portion of Jefferson County (which extended only as far south as Bear Creek under the Jefferson Territorial government) became disenchanted with the provisional government set up by local citizens in lieu of federal organization, Jefferson Territory.223 The Junction, Bergen and Mt. Vernon districts "seceded" from Jefferson Territory to form their own equally extralegal government, NiWot County. This act was done on the ironic premise that Jefferson Territory was extralegal and they should not follow it.224 NiWot was named for the famous area Arapaho chief, Left Hand. Gov. Robert W. Steele happened to live in the town of Mt. Vernon, as did several other Jefferson Territory supporters. They resolved to secede from Mt. Vernon, build their own wagon road up Amos Gulch, and make the Baden townsite a lot less like legend. A writer to the =Western Mountaineer, 11 October 1860. 223 Rocky Mountain News, 27 February 1861. 224 Rocky Mountain News, 27 February 1861. 100

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Rocky Mountain News by pen name of Ginger humorously noted these events: Another act of secession has taken place, of more importance to the citizens of this village than even that of South Carolina, to-wit: the secession of a part of the Town Company of Mount Vernon. Said part of the Town Company, thinking the old town of Baden-Baden had been neglected and shamefully abused, determined to resuscitate said Baden-Baden, by building a road up what is known as Amos Gulch, thereby making a small gain in distance to Gregory, but not so easy a road as the old one. This last act of secession on the part of the Town Company struck horror to the quiet citizens of Mt. Vernon, and had the Governor been friendly to their interest, I have no doubt but a military company would have been enrolled, and officers commissioned with orders to coerce the seceders into measures again, but unfortunately for the citizens, His Excellency was at the head of the seceders, and being backed by that noted millionaire, who is worth at least $40,000, and don't care who knows it. I think they will succeed at least in making a pretty good pack trail up said Amos Gulch.225 Led by Gov. Steele, the Mt. Vernon secessionists immediately set up the Apex & Gregory Road, which they built up Amos Gulch in an estimated 300 days. Before that, the road winded straight up the face of Jackson Hill.226 Ten days after Ginger's letter was written, Congress created the Territory of Colorado, effectively making moot the civil war within Mt. Vernon. However, the begrudged denizens continued to build what looked like a healthy business proposition. This was certainly not atypical of the highly speculative growth of the newly settling gold rush region. m Ibid. 18 February 1861. 2215 Golden Globe, 13 December 1913. 101

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Baden (occasionally called Baden-Baden) was renamed Apex after the road, which started at the apex of the road up Mt. Vernon, the road back to Denver, and the St. Vrain, Golden City & Colorado wagon road joining at this location. Steele and others built a number of new buildings here, and tents sprung up all around. The road journeyed from the road at the hogback into the mountains, with destinations including the Gregory Diggings, Russell Gulch, Tarryall, and Idaho Springs.227 The Apex townsite was situated at the mouth of Apex Gulch at the hogback. Other Apex inhabitants lived in tents strewn from the townsite up the mountainside. By the end of 1861 according to media account the Apex Road was completed and the new town flourished. However, for several months this mysterious and yet unexplained advertisement appeared in the Rocky Mountain News: BEWARE OF APEX ROAD. The town of Apex was not to vanish quickly into the night. Steele and his group stayed and promoted the Apex Road and town, and soon Apex grew beyond them. In 1862 James Metcalf moved to Apex and gained employment as keeper of its toll gates from 1862-68.228 In 1863 Apex made its first appearance on a map drawn by John Pierce of public surveys of m Rocky Mountain News, 6 May 1861. 228 Georgina Brown, The Mountains (Gwmison: B&B Printers, Inc., 1976), p. 37. 102

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Colorado. In 1864 a 1 1/2-story stone house known as the Ten Mile House was built in Apex, which served as a hotel and stage stop ten miles from the city of Denver.229 It was a substantial house built of local cut stone, with central front door flanked by two 6/6 double-hung windows with smaller window on the half story above. James Metcalf had charge of the toll gates for six years.230 What brought about this substantial building was undoubtedly the ten-year lease the Nye Forwarding Company of Denver gained on the Apex Road, thus ensuring a good traveling surface and much freighting. John A. Nye gained the rights to collect toll on the road when the Jefferson County Commissioners granted them on July 27, 1863.231 On December 30, 1865, Nye, David T. Smith and Edward Reser incorporated the Mt. Vernon Wagon Road Company, which began its road jurisdiction at a bridge over Apex Gulch in the town of Apex, and going up the gulch from there.232 The competition of the Nye interests and the poor upkeep of the old Mt. Vernon Road assured prosperity for Apex for several years. The Apex Road was a surprisingly good route to early pioneers, who often had to use toll roads that were too rough, steep or treacherous for good 2291bid, p. 36-37. 230 History of Clear Creek and Boulder Valleys. Colorado (Chicago: OL. Baskin & Co., 1880), p. 582. 231 Georgina Brown, The Mountains (Gunnison: B&B Printers, Inc., 1976), p. 37. 2321bid. 103

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or fast travel. One description came from Associate JusticeS. Newton Pettis of the Colorado Supreme Court, traveling from Denver to Bergen Ranch. He said ''We found ourselves winding our way up the summit, over a very smooth turnpike known as the Apex Road. Never was a mortal more surprised than I at the view that met my vision."233 Instead of normal rough terrain he encountered "gentle slopes, table lands, green fields, luxuriant vegetation and a smooth road. Strawberries were all over the fields, and the earth was not parched as in the valley or plain at the foot of the mountains." Around 1864, after the Apex Road went into the hands of the Nye interests, the Steele family moved to Empire.234 Beyond here, little more is heard of Apex. In 1870 the Nye Forwarding Company purchased the Mt. Vernon Road and made it their main thoroughfare into the mountains, and moved their base of operations to the Burgess Block (future Burgess House hotel) in Golden City.235 Around 1873 Joachim Binder purchased what had been Apex and established his own ranch there, making the abandoned Ten Mile House a part of it.236 Was Apex ever really a town of substance in Jefferson County? Otis A. Rooney provided an answer: 233 Ibid, p. 40. 234 Colorado Iranscriot, 29 July 1926. Z3S Ibid, 1870. 236 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records. 104

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A row of four trees close by the roadside, three box elders about nine feet apart and a cottonwood at a distance of about seventy feet, together with a few remains of foundations are all that now give any indication of that on that spot once sited the town or village of Apex, about three miles south of Golden. It was quite a lively place in the early sixties. A hotel under management of Mr. Metcalf, and a blacksmith shop operated by Clem Dixon, still, linger in memory. There was also a general merchandise store, a livery stable and a saloon. The road was blocked with covered wagons and the mountainside dotted with tents. Now the only residents of Apex are Mrs. Boom and her family, who reside upon the old homestead of Joaquin Binder, who lived there for many years. Indians used to come down from the mountains and camp there, because they could go to Denver, trade their buckskins and trinkets for flour, sugar, coffee, guns and ammunition and return to camp in a day. Apex was once a place of importance. Courts convened there and it is reported by the earliest settlers that a territorial meeting was once held there. A short distance up the mountainside stood a sawmill. With the building of the old Colorado Central railroad, came a great demand for ties. The tie choppers stripped the neighboring foothills of trees of commercial size. A quarter mile to the south was a dairy ranch, and the old milk cellar is there yet. The masonry of the arched stone roof was so well constructed that even the front and doorway were torn away for the good material they contained, thus to a great extent lessening the support to the roof, the work was so well done that it still stands. Apex is now a memory.237 Where was the remaining building of Apex? It was gutted by fire in 1878 from parties from Denver hunting for Christmas trees.238 Despite media account it had ''burned to the ground" later news accounts at the time of the discovery of the Magic Mountain archaeological site in the 1880s revealed its walls were still standing. It was eventually repaired by Joachim Binder as 737 Golden Globe, 24 March 1917. 105

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part of his ranch at that location, and the building has remained an anonymous area ranch house to this day. However, the ranch and space Apex once knew has been encroached upon by a new threat. During the 1950s, Golden experienced its greatest development boom since 1873, seeing massive retail and service industry growth in the downtown area accompanied by several subdivisions, churches and the Magic Mountain resort on the periphery.239 In 1958, Golden instantly doubled its historic size, taking in a huge amount of land area to the north and west of the Apex townsite.240 One of the main motivations for such immense growth was to create the Magic Mountain resort. Figure 5.1 View of historic Golden, 1893 (Source: Golden Globe Industrial Edition, May 1893) 238 Colorado Transcript. 25 December 1878. 239 Ibid, 1953-1959. 240 Ibid, 6/1211958. 106

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Figure 5.2 View of modern Golden, 1996 Note expanded view to right of modem growth of city (Source: Gardner Family Collection) Magic Mountain, now a Victorian village named Heritage Square, it is not far away from becoming as eligible for historic designation as the type of buildings it emulates. It was conceived in the early 1950s by prominent Denver area businessman Walter Francis Cobb and sculptor John Sutton, being an ambitious theme park catering to families much like the newly created Disneyland in California.241 Cobb hired Marco Engineering, a group from California comprised of a number of former Disneyland executives who wanted to go out into the country and build more parks like Disney's. They did so after hearing of Walt Disney's directive that there would be only one Disneyland, in Anaheim.242 After running into a buzzsaw of Applewood opposition at their first chosen site of South Table Mountain, Magic Mountain Inc. purchased most of the acreage of the Bachman Ranch, except for a small 241 Magic Mountain director's archive, Richard J. Gardner Collection. 242 Wall Street Journal, 17 April 1958. 107

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area that included the Ten Mile House. Art directors Wade B. Rubottom and Dick Kelsey designed a grand resort with core patterned after the American West theme.243 The whole was to be placed at the foot of Jackson Hill overlooking the Apex site, but with a property spanning 600 acres going well to the north and west into the mountains. Figure 5.3 Magic Mountain design by Wade B. Rubottom and Richard K. Kelsey (Source: Richard J. Gardner, Magic Mountain director's archive) 243 Wade B. Rubottom & Dick Kelsey, Magic Mountain design layout, 1958. 108

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Magic Mountain was to be unlike anything Jefferson County had ever seen. Its center was an imitation Victorian downtown village called Centennial City, two blocks of imitation frame storefronts with corner storefronts each sporting a tower facing towards the park's entrance.244 That entrance consisted of a heavy timbered railroad trestle, opening to a set of log buildings imitating frontier cavalry forts and lodges that led to the Victorian downtown. The head of the main street at the foot of the mountain would become Magic Mountain's Fairgrounds, an open square flanked by four large buildings with a Center of the Earth ride. Other features included a ski area, Storybook Lane, Magic of Industry, a trapper's lake surrounded by tepees and frontier wagons, and a futuristic area including the Outer Space Lines ride.2-G The whole was to be surrounded by its own full-sized railroad, with an ornate Victorian depot the likes of which Golden had never seen in its most glorious railroading years. Magic Mountain was part of a growing movement sweeping the nation to build family-oriented entertainment theme parks during the 1950s. It was a movement began by the famed Disneyland of Anaheim, California, whose concept and success others wanted to emulate. The Wall Street Journal was among those that chronicled the advent of the theme park 244 Magic Mountain director's archive, Richard J. Gardner Collection. 1AS Jbid. 109

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movement, in particular the creation and doings of Marco Engineering. When Magic Mountain was being built, the Journal noted its strong Disneyland connection and other theme parks Marco was building across the nation, including one known famously today as Six F1ags Over Texas.246 Led by C.V. Wood, a Los Angeles management consultant turned developer who played a key role in developing Disneyland as its first Vice President, Marco sought to take the Disneyland concept of a family amusement park (without thrill rides, hog dogs and soda pop) to other communities across the nation.247 With a fifteen-man staff of engineers, social scientists, statisticians, artists, economists and more, Marco offered a traveling package of theme park creating talent. It offered to evaluate feasibility of, design, build, and even run for a year anyone's new theme park. In 1958 Marco also was working on a third theme park based on a jungle theme in Thousand Oaks, Califomia.248 Other entrepreneurs were taking the plunge into the exciting new theme park movement that was sweeping the country. How much of Magic Mountain became reality? Construction of Magic Mountain began in 1958, and its first building was a tall log pole fort building on a side street just off the main street connected to a one-story elongated log 246 Wall Street Journal, 17 April 1958. 247 Magic Mountain director's archive, Richard J. Gardner Collection. 248 Wall Street Journal, 17 April 1958. 110

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lodge whose sections were connected by an octagonal tower. This was Magic Mountain's administrative center, known as the Cavalry Post.249 Centennial City arose in a fashion strikingly similar to its frontier predecessors, consisting of one-story commercial buildings covered by grand two-story ornate false fronts. The Victorian depot and train also materialized. It is not known whether the planned horse-drawn streetcar patterned after Denver's earliest streetcar system ever materialized. The lake did materialize, and the resort even managed a ski area running down Jackson Hill, complete with a rope tow instead of the planned chairlift. The Magic Mountain Ski Area became the second slope in the U.S. to manufacture artificial snow.250 One Fairgrounds building also materialized. Aside from these things, Magic Mountain produced no magic, at least not of the desirable variety. The enterprise collapsed by 1959, taking with it the money of its investors, dashing Cobb's dreams and making the park's stock promoters despised by founders and shareholders alike. The place stood idle until 1971, when it became Heritage Square, a Victorian shopping village and amusement park. Among its original tenants was the Heritage Square Opera House, now known as the Music Hall, opened at the first 249 Magic Mountain director's archive, Richard J. Gardner Collection. 250 John McMillen, historical files. 111

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Victorian storefront on the south side of the main street by William G. Oakley.251 Se" Potap 17 Figure 5.4 Map of modem development around Ten Mile House Building marked with "X" (Source: Rand McNally, Denver Regional Area StreetFinder map, 1999) Heritage Square ownership remained on an up-and-down rollercoaster, well into the 1980s, and owners seeing opportunity in its land holdings took advantage. Magic Mountain's land was split up during the early 1960s in foreclosure sales, and the rest became divided further during the 1980s.252 A subdivision immediately northwest of the Apex site known as Heritage Dells was constructed during the mid-1980s, joining Golden Ridge 251 Heritage Square promotional archive, Richard J. Gardner Collection. 252 County of Jefferson, clerk and recorder plat records. 112

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which had been platted to Apex's north during the 1970s. Quickly Golden was surrounding its former neighbor, and a new fire station was built immediately overlooking the Ten Mile House. Even Jackson Hill was not untouchable, when Heritage Square built in 1979 the second alpine slide in America outside of a ski area upon it.Zs..1 The slide was designed and built by Inventex Corp., which introduced this ride concept to America in 1976. Fortunately, what was Magic Mountain's western acreage, along with the remains of the Apex Road, was acquired by Jefferson County Open Space and is now one of its larger open space public parks. Today, Apex is a tiny ranch of no more then 15 acres almost completely surrounded by Golden's corporate limits and modern subdivisions. Growth, spurred and facilitated by Golden's incarnation of a unique national movement, has encased its remains, depriving the Ten Mile House of most of its historic setting. Growth may even take what remains if safeguard is not made. Development continues to stalk the Ten Mile House, the newest coming during the late 1990s just across West 4th Avenue from the ranch. Traffic generated from this, Golden Ridge, Heritage Dells and nearby Eagle Ridge has clogged the historic roadway leading to Golden, now appropriately renamed Heritage Road. It appears inevitable that expansionist Golden, whose leaders have always maintained a strong pro:UJ Golden Transcript, 20 July 1979. 113

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growth tradition, will engulf all of what was their neighboring town. Golden already stands on the threshold of what were two other neighboring towns, Golden Gate City (entrance to Golden Gate Canyon) and Jefferson County's first town, Arapahoe City (east side of North Table Mountain at Clear Creek). Annexed to a governmentally pro-growth town with a weak historic preservation ordinance, the Ten Mile House may stand no chance at all against the pressure of developers. Ironically, it may be put out of existence by developers as speculative as those who built Apex. Apex Road, however, will always remain. People in Apex Open Space Park see the road every day, which along with the invaluable Magic Mountain Archaeological Site (now on the National Historic Register) landowners have at least had some foresight to preserve. Leyden Leyden is one of historical Jefferson County's best-kept secrets. One of the most intact company towns in Colorado, Leyden is the community of Jefferson County that has lost the fewest buildings, only two, with just one destroyed. Once seen by neighboring Arvada as a threat when it was founded, their roles are now reversed, with Arvada's growth threatening to consume this tiny community. 114

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Coal mining for many decades was a leading industry of the county of Jefferson. After gold mining it was, in fact, the oldest industry of Jefferson County, with the Rocky Mountain News first reporting use of native coal for fuel late in 1859. A total of maybe fifty lignite mines have been dug and operated in Jefferson County, among the most of any county in northern Colorado. Leyden was the first and the last of them. In 1864 brothers John, Michael and Martin Leyden purchased a large acreage not far from where coal was first discovered in Jefferson County for use as a ranch.254 Within a year they realized the far more promising profits of coal mining, and Michael and Martin opened up the Leyden Creek Coal Mine. This mine was sunk at the south end of the hogback known as Shaddock's Point, named for William Shaddock, the first settler of the little creek valley that would soon bear the Leydens' name.255 The mine consisted of a tunnel and shaft in the southeast side of the hogback, with air holes punched through to the surface. It immediately became a success and a leading business venture in Jefferson County, despite its lengthy distance from any civilization. Coal had to be hauled from here by wagon, even once the road that is now Highway 93 was built to it by Boulder interests in 1868.256 254County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records. 255 Colorado Transcript, 14 November 1929. 2561bid, 24 July 1868. 115

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.. ... ... .... Figure 5.5 Remains of original Leyden Mine (note collapsed hogback tunnel) (Source: Gardner Family Collection) 116

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Despite its promise, the mine was doomed to tragedy. In 1866 Michael Leyden was brutally murdered at the mouth of the shaft while starting on a trip to Denver.257 Rumors of a vigilante group having killed him surfaced, but his murderers were never brought to justice. On September 12, 1870, Martin Leyden with two other miners, Patrick Kelly and Patrick Stanton, met their deaths when the mine quickly filled with fire damp (methane gas), and the pioneer mine met a premature halt.258 The fire that caused the disaster was the act of an unknown arsonist, and these deaths were but the first of many to stalk the Leyden coal. The mine and property were sold at public auction after the fire was put out, but another fire eventually reached the surface and collapsed the workings during the 1880s. The location was worked intermittently until it was purchased from the estate of Mary A. Tucker by the Denver & Northwestern Railroad Co. of David Moffat, including right-of-way to build his railroad into the mountains in 1902.259 Growth was the catalyst for the Leyden mine's existence. With the advent of new farms, ranches and towns throughout the area came a need for fuel to heat, power and fuel, and Leyden coal was shipped around the region. A new Leyden mine was begun on Little Rocky Flat to the east, using a diamond drill and experienced Gilpin County miners to sink two coal shafts 251 Ibid, 10 January 1867. 258Ibid, 14 September 1870. 259County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records. 117

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over 700 feet into the earth to the same vein that cropped up in the Leyden hogback.260 However, this new location was at the point where the vein was flat and easier to work, and 9 feet thick. The resurrected mine sprawled beneath Little Rocky Flat, stretching to the modem bounds of Quaker Street, Ralston Creek, Highway 93, and Highway 72.261 Producing 1,000 tons of coal per day, it helped fuel the entire region, from the Denver metropolis to mountain mining towns. Since the great mine was located in the countryside, the Denver Tramway Company (the Moffat subsidiary given control of the mine) laid out the new town of Leyden just to the southeast in the spring of 1903.262 The town was named in honor of the Leyden brothers by mine manager Robert Perry. It did not take very long for the town to make waves: Arvada people are kicking a little at the starting of another town within a mile or so of their western limits, on the line of the Moffatt road. Arvada people are working hard to make their little burg an ideal residence location and we hope they will not let this new scheme discourage them.263 2150 Colorado Transcript and Golden Globe, late 1902-1903. :IIStColorado Geological Survey, Colorado Front Range Inactive Coal Mine Data and Subsidence Information map, 1986. Transcript, 30 July 1903. 263 Colorado Transcript, 2 April1903. 118

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Figure 5.6 Leyden Company Store (now residence) (Source: Gardner Family Collection) Like other east Jefferson County communities, Arvada was attempting to grow into a larger suburban community at the turn of the Twentieth Century. Some Arvadans saw the advent of Leyden as interfering with their plans. Leyden, however, was a town unlike any other in Jefferson County history. For starters, it was Jefferson County's only town supplied entirely by artesian water, a test shaft having struck it earlier.264 The town was made up of a small collection of dark red frame houses (being colored "Leyden red") of ordinary design, 700-square-foot squares divided into four rooms each with a 119

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single Hght bulb to each room. Each cottage was a frame clapboarded structure with pyramidal roof of corrugated metal. A company store served the needs of residents, as well as a school, a large 2-story frame boarding house, chapel, and saloon. The first and only company town in Jefferson County's history, Leyden was considerably smaller than other such towns built at mines in southern Colorado. However, it did house a significant number of the over 100 workers its mine employed.265 A number of others commuted via tramway from Arvada. Leyden's government was the Moffat company, no more, no less. Leyden coal was used to power the entire Denver tramway system, which grew with the growing metropolitan area. In 1914, a daily average of 179 tons of Leyden coal were burned to generate 120,000 kilowatts to electric power for the great tramway network.266 The most vivid historic description of Leyden was given by the Rocky Mountain News: As the cars from Denver run into Leyden every hour, they pass through the town, a pathetically barren looking place. On the flat little valley in which are the mines, and on the low-lying hills, there is neither tree nor bush nor sagebrush. The town looks like a child's toy village prim, box-like houses set at regular intervals on a bare flat. The houses are all painted a dark red, and the square windows, devoid of curtains and, in many instances, of plants, are rimmed with a staring white ..... Even at that, the town of Leyden is as light is to darkness 264 Ibid. 30 July 1903. 2155County of Jefferson, place names records. 266 Denyer Rocky Mountain News, 23 April 2000. 120

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when compared with the faded, dusty and desolate coal camps of the southern part of the state.267 Figure 5.7 Leyden miner's cottage Note larger modern house peeking over southern ridge (Source: Gardner Family Collection) Leyden's people, all coal miners with their families, presented possibly the most diverse ethnic population of any town ever to exist in northern Colorado outside of Denver. Its immigrant population came from at least three continents, including Americans, Germans, Italians, Greeks, Austrians, Scots, Irish, Welsh, Mexicans, Slavs, Bohemians, even a Brazilian. 268 Keeping 267 Ibid, 17 December 1910. 268 Colorado Transcript and Golden Globe, 1900s-1910s. 121

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such a diverse workforce was common among the coal mining industry of this time, to discourage unionization through an uncommunicating workforce. The Leyden mine kept a regular compliment of around 125 employees, peaking at 290 about the year of 1910.269 Tragedy again struck Leyden in 1910, when a fire broke out and destroyed Shaft #2, collapsing it and sending 10 miners below to death via fire damp.270 Leyden was the last of a series of four great mine disasters in Colorado that year, which outraged the populace, who commanded stricter laws to ensure greater mine safety. With the growing state creating a very lucrative demand for coal, companies were loathe to expend much money on profitless activity, including safety precautions and improvements. Leyden's 10 victims were only a drop of water compared to the 220 victims of all four disasters (Primero, Delagua, Starkville and Leyden) combined.271 However, the State Mine Inspector treated Leyden as gravely as the others, citing only the happenstance of the disaster occurring at night making it cause less fatalities. Initially held harmless, the Moffat interests were brought to justice for negligence in mine management by the lawsuit of the widow of George 2119Colorado Transcript. 15 December 1910. 270Golden Globe, 17 December 1910. 271 State of Colorado, State Mine Inspector's report. 1910. 122

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Supanchis, who was awarded the sum of $5,000.zn This was a very rare event in Colorado mining law, and afterwards fireproof shafts were built, and the mine had a considerably better safety record in ensuing years. Figure 5.8 Leyden Chapel, within tiny Park at the Meadows in Arvada (Source: Gardner Family Collection) Leyden's church was a house converted into a mission by the Central Presbyterian Church to serve the poor miners, serving from 1905-25.Z73 It was the second Presbyterian congregation in Jefferson County, and after it ceased worship the building was sold and moved to Arvada. In 1927, the boarding 272 Golden Globe, 14 December 1911. 273 Rocky Mountain News, 7 March 1999. 123

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house burned down, killing 14-year-old Frank LaFollette, who was trapped on the 2nd floor.274 Aside from these losses no other building of Leyden has vanished from town, making it by far the most intact historic town in Jefferson County. Dwing the 1940s the Leyden Lignite Company doubled its compliment of homes, filling out Leyden's tiny street grid of J61 2nd and 3ro Avenues intersected by Leyden Road and Scott Street. Arvada was growing at well, annexing land and building subdivisions "beginning a landslide of development" after World War 11.275 In 1959, the Leyden Lignite Company closed shop and the 94-year-old mine was retired from service after turning out 6 million tons of coal in its career. The town was sold into private hands. However, this did not mean that the mine ceased to serve the growing Denver area. Not long thereafter, Public Service Company converted it into a natural gas storage reservoir.276 Being a large underground cavern out in the countryside seemed to PSCo a natural fit, with gas stored in the mine to help fuel the demand for heating fuel that came during the winter months. As the Denver metro area grew through modern times, this reservoir became an imperative piece of PSCo's plans to fuel it. 774 Colorado Transcript, 12 February 1927. m Stephen J. Leonard and Thomas J. Noel, Denyer Mjnini Camp to Metropolis (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1990), p. 308. Mountain News, 27 May 1961. 124

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Soon, the historical legacy of Leyden serving the region's growth was set on a collision course with it. During the latter 20th Century Arvada long since forgot its early jitters about Leyden, and exploded with many subdivisions expanding it north, east and especially westward.277 Incorporated in 1906 with 840 citizens by 1910, Arvada had 2,359 people in 1950, increasing phenomenally to 86,888 by 1990.278 As in times past, residential development was emphasized, and Arvada was Jefferson County's largest and fastest-growing incorporated town until Lakewood's municipal advent in 1969.279 During the 1980s, Arvada, not Golden or Morrison, became Jefferson County's westernmost incorporated city, expanding deep within Coal Creek Canyon. Its aggressive expansionism brought it a storm of criticism from Boulder to Westminster.280 It also became Jefferson County's first native town to expand beyond the county's borders, into Adams County to the east. While Boulder to the north enacted growth limits as early as 1978, Jefferson County's people contemplated no such thing. Instead of staying the compact historic town of earlier years Arvada became a m County of Jefferson, clerk and recorder plat records. 278 United States Bureau of the Census, data. 279 Stephen J. Leonard and Thomas J. Noel, Denyer: Camp to Metropolis (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1990), p. 309. 2110 Denyer Post, 20 April 1997. 125

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sprawling suburban behemoth of subdivisions and flagpole annexations stretching across two-thirds the width of Jefferson County.281 Arvada surrounded Leyden almost completely by the 1990s, engulfing the Boyd Ranch (W. 64th Ave. & Quaker St.) where the Leyden Chapel had been moved in 1925, prompting Arvada preservationists to crusade for its preservation.282 Leyden itself was now within a mile of Arvada's borders in every direction, with subdivisions closing in from the east and south. Eldorado Estates in the 1990s was soon peeking over the southern rise of Leyden's valley. It was not until that decade that Arvadans seemed to wish to very seriously consider any growth limitations, when citizens petitioned for a growth limitation measure in 1996.2tn By that time Arvada had 35,555 homes and subdivisions were poised to completely consume Leyden and beyond even to Rocky Flats, annexing land between the nuclear weapons facility and Leyden. Historian Tom Noel noted of this eventuality "Not even plutonium stopped the annexation wars, with Arvada and Lakewood adopting parcels of unincorporated Jefferson County."284 2111 Rand McNally, Denver Regional Area StreetFinder map, 2000. 2112 Rocky Mountain News, 7 March 1999. 2IJl Denyer Post, 4 July 1996. 2114 Stephen J. Leonard and Thomas J. Noel, Denyer: Camp to Metropolis (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1990), p. 321. 126

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Leyden's case is not unique in the nation; in fact, this is a situation represented across America. It comes in the form of communities being buried, being towns originally independent of others that became dominant in the area.285 They are towns that may once have been rivals but "once the rivalry had been decided, they found themselves too much in the shadow of the metropolis and ultimately became overwhelmed by its development."286 Historic districts established in such places have served to focus and revive attention towards the submerged town's identity. A number of such towns include Highlands, Barnum, Harman, Globeville, Montclair, Valverde, South Denver, and Elyria, which have already been absorbed by Denver.287 The potential destruction of the distinct identities and histories of towns consumed within the metropolis has been a problem throughout the Denver metro area and the nation. It is possible for Leyden to become its own historic district, to set itself apart from the newer subdivisionallayers around it and protect its identity and historical integrity. Examples in the country use institutional landmarks such as churches and governmental properties to set a submerged area 285 David Hamer, History in Urban Places: The Historic Districts of the United States (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1998), p. 51. 286 Ibid. 287 Stephen J. Leonard and Thomas J. Noel, Denyer Camp to Metropolis (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1990), p. 61. 127

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apart.288 In Leyden's case no such imposing buildings exist, but Leyden does have a uniformity of company town design setting it apart. Keeping Leyden's historic integrity may depend greatly on it remaining outside of Arvada limits. While Arvada's nearby suburbs feature large, affluent homes on curving paved and curbed streets, Leyden remains a time capsule of small, single-story blue collar homes laid out on a grid of dirt streets. Its only real similarity in character to nearby Arvada is that its houses are frame and of cookie-cutter design. The idea of creating an historic district of towns such as Leyden is the case elsewhere in the United States, including such places as Monroe, Michigan; Rockville, Maryland; and Clifton, Ohio.289 Such districts have helped assert the independence and attractiveness of endangered historic communities. Leyden certainly has made the effort to fight increasing suburbanization; its residents adamantly objected to the paving of Leyden Road and its potential of becoming a major thoroughfare to Arvada's projected Jefferson Center to the west.290 The Jefferson Center is now a dead concept, but Leydenites remain wary of Arvada's approach, and some resent even living under an unincorporated Arvada address. Leyden may be able to 288 David Hamer, History in Urban Places The Historic Districts of the United States (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1998), p. 51. 289 Ibid, p. 52. 290 Rocky Mountain News, 30 March 1997. 128

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enlist Arvadans if a crisis should arise, considering that an Arvada group called Citizens for Responsible growth in the 1990s already fought against the West Woods subdivisions directly to Leyden's south on Quaker Street.291 Figure 5.9 Community of Leyden, looking southeast Note larger modern homes peeking over sou them ridge (Source: Gardner Family Collection) Ironically, growth may have tripped itself up right at Leyden's doorstep. The area of the Leyden mine may never be developed. A gas leak discovered on the property of Richard Loesby north of the mine prompted a 291 Denver Rocky Mountain News, world wide web site hllp://www.insidcdcm cr. com, archives. 129

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jury to award him damages for harm done to his land.292 It was one of several discovered leaks causing a scare that prompted PSCo to plan the gas reservoir's shutdown in 2001. Despite this, gas may remain, and State law otherwise may prohibit building anything atop the mine's potential subsidence area, where workings could collapse. On the east side of Leyden is Leyden Lake, constructed as an irrigation reservoir by the Farmers Highline Canal Company in 1909.293 After years of reminder that the Leyden Dam was unsafe, the company planned to breach it, only to hear the adamant objection of Arvadans in response. As Arvada had built westward, roads, homes and schools had been built along where Leyden Gulch previously flowed. Many were built without thought to flood plain regulation, to the point where no actual stream bed for Leyden Creek exists anymore in several places.294 This resulted in a deal to transfer Leyden Lake ownership to Arvada, which dedicated itself to lowering the dam to a safe level and keeping Leyden Lake in perpetuity as an extension of a greenbelt. Due to poorly planned, unbridled growth, Leyden's eastern buffer from Arvada may remain forever secure. However, its six square blocks and thirty-one homes remain vigilant towards any future attempts by growth to erase Leyden from the face of the earth. 292 Rocky Mountain News, 20 August 1998. 293 Rocky Mountain News, 15 February 1999. 294 Ibid. 130

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Figure 5.10 Map of modem development approaching Leyden area (Leyden circled at top, location of chapel at "X") (Source: Rand McNally, Denver Regional Area StreetFinder map, 1999) 131

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CHAPTER6 THE GILDED CAGE: RUINS SURROUNDED BY AFFLUENCE Destruction through neglect is a problem faced by many historic landmarks in Jefferson County, one compounded by modern growth. Growth harms the historic place first by taking away its setting and purpose, leaving it an anonymous deteriorating shell blighting an urbanized landscape. Then, the beneficiaries of the new growth around it, even if sparing the relic from destruction, do not take the decisive steps needed to repair it. This is the case for the Bradford House, truly a ruin of an affluent home amongst a sea of such modern homes, and the Golden Brickyard Manager's House, a building of superior design and craftsmanship that may be doomed to ruin while lesser homes rise around it. Each of these cases grants a peek into larger patterns of the consequences of growth as well: the emerging realization that preservationists need to protect more than just individual buildings, as well as the case for growth limitations on communities. 132

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Bradford House One of the more interesting enigmas of Jefferson County's history of growth is the Bradford House, a ruin of stone walls located in a park at Ken Caryl Ranch. When first built it was not even located in Jefferson County, as the county borders did not extend farther south than Bear Creek.295 First it promoted a speculative town that never materialized, then it became part of one of the largest, most scenic ranches Jefferson County has ever known, only to end up being confined by the metropolis swarming around it in modern times. It now stands as a stone ruin amidst a sea of expensive homes, whose owners somehow have not provided the wherewithal for this place to restore itself. Robert B. Bradford, its creator, was born in 1813 near Nashville, Tennessee, a descendant relative of Governor William Bradford of Plymouth Colony. As a young man in the merchandising business he partnered with William Russell in Lexington, Missouri. With the lure of the gold rush enticing them on, Russell and Alexander Majors with William Bradford Waddell formed the firm of Russell, Majors & Waddell on August 3, 1859. Bradford was sent to Denver to set up a store where the firm could sell materials shipped over their stage route. At the Robert B. Bradford Company, 29s Western Mountaineer, 1859-60. 133

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he got to keep a third of his profits. Thus began Bradford's career as a prominent, if not always entirely successful, entrepreneur in Colorado. Bradford's store flourished in downtown Denver and he soon rose to prominence among the people. Quickly he sought to capitalize on other opportunities the new, raw gold mining region afforded him. One of these was to establish or help establish new towns at strategic points. His thoughts centered on a new road that the Western Mountaineer newspaper was avidly promoting as the key to unlocking the riches of the gold region. The St. Vrain, Golden City & Colorado Wagon Road was being constructed as a main route through the region from Fort St. Vrain through Golden to South Park and the Blue River gold mines, bypassing Denver, the region's most populous city.296 Bradford decided to take advantage of this situation by building a shortcut from Denver to the new road. Wagon roads were the first major thoroughfares through the region, and were instrumental in providing the region's earliest growth and establishment of major communities. Stagecoach lines serving Colorado's earliest thoroughfares were an important means of transportation throughout the area.297 Bradford was among the players responsible for promoting this earliest growth, in town building as well as wagon roads. Teaming up with 296 Ibid. m Paul F. Mahoney, Thomas J. Noel and Richard E. Stevens, Hjstorjcal Atlas of Colorado (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993), section 27. 134

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future Denver mayor Amos Steck and others, Bradford became president of the town company of St. Vrain at the beginning of the regional road.298 That road, while progressing slowly, held a great deal of speculative potential for entrepreneurs willing to gamble on the prospect of its completion and use. Three new townsites were laid out along its projected route in addition to the three existing towns, before construction had even reached their sites. Another town company of which Bradford was president was at the other end of the projected road, in the Blue River region, known as Breckinridge.299 Pleasant Park (known originally as Illian) was the third new town projected upon the road, while another future town, Conifer began embryonic existence as George W. Weed's stage stop in February 1860. Seizing his opportunity, Bradford on December 7, 1859 acquired a charter from the Jefferson Territorial government to build his new road. Incorporating under the name of the Denver, Auraria & South Park Wagon Road Company, he joined up with Samuel Brown, J.H. Cochran and Joseph M. Brown for this purpose.300 Bradford in 1860 purchased several hundred acres in section 24 of township 5, and platted a town that was to be two miles in length, known as Bradford, at the base of the hill that his road would ascend. He built the Bradford Toll Road in zigzag fashion up a steep hill on 2911 Western Mountaineer, 8 February 1860. 299 Ibid. 28 December 1859. 300 Ruth Beckwith, "Stage House Toward the Hills," Denyer Westerners Brand Book, 1954, pp. 71. 135

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his property, and to serve it Bradford constructed a one-story cut stone stage stop house with side gabled roof. After ascending the hill travelers came down to South Turkey Creek, turned south and proceeded to join the St. Vrain road at Weed's stage stop, which came to be known as Bradford Junction. The Bradford Road came to be known as a branch of the larger road, as noted by a correspondent named Prius from Missouri City in the Western Mountaineer: In going to the Park, I passed over the St. Vrain, Golden City and Colorado wagon road, which, at a vast outlay of money and labor, has been completed through to the Park, by the St. V., G.C. & Colorado Wagon Road Co. I met upon the road a few miles this side of the Park, Mr. Mcintyre, the President of the company, who, with some thirty men employed, was industriously engaged rebuilding a bridge which had been set on fire and burned down by some unprincipled fellows who were on their way from that country to the States, and repairing some rather bad places on the road caused by the bursting out of springs of water from the sides of the mountains. The road is much more direct than I expected to find it; and for a mountainous road, the best I have traveled over ... ... The road is being vigorously pushed through from Tarryall to the Blue. There is also a road building from Tarryall directly to the Blue River mines ... The St. V., G.C. and Colorado road has two branches; the first leading in from Mt. Vernon, is about seven miles in length. It joins the former road at a point about seven miles from Golden City ... The second branch leads in from Bradford, and is some fifteen miles in length. This branch connects itself with the St. V., G.C. and Colorado road some twenty-five miles from Golden City, and is tolled one dollar.301 301 Western Mountaineer, 5 July 1860. 136

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Figure 6.1 Bradford House nlln.s, west side, original building and addition Note landscaped park with picnic tables in foreground (Source: Gardner Family Collection) When Rocky Mountain News editor William N. Byers and his party went on an inspection tour of the new route in February 1860, and noted the presence of a stone cabin, log cabin, and several piles of lumber and hewn timber for future buildings.302 Bradford entertained his guests at a large natural cavern at his place, which had a level floor and ceiling opening for smoke to escape, and its earliest concert of modem settlement times was given by the Cibola Minstrels. Tradition holds that the place was used by the 302 Ruth Beckwith, "Stage House Toward the Hills," Denver Westerners Brand Book, 1954, pp. 68. 137

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Utes led by Chief Colorow for their councils, hence its becoming known as Colorow Cave.303 This is possibly corroborated by other historical fact. The Stephen Long expedition of 1820 noted that Bear Creek not far to the north was known as Grand Camp Creek.304 The creek was named that by French traders Auguste Pierre Choteau and Jules de Munn, who in September 1815 with forty-five hired Frenchmen and a trader named Phillebert had held a fruitful grand trading council with the Indians of its region somewhere around the area of the headwaters of this tributary of the South Platte. Colorow Cave is the only known place pinpointed in any regard as an Indian council meeting place in Jefferson County. Despite Bradford's prior success in helping growth in the territory with Denver, St. Vrain and Breckenridge, he did not fare as well with his Bradford road and town endeavor. Like many projected towns in its era, Bradford City did not pan out as well among the living as it did on paper. Despite Byers' early reports of the ease of the Bradford Road, its travelers thought otherwise, complaining of its winding steepness. On July 24, 1860, Edward Lewis noted the town's progress: ''Here seem to be one stone and one frame house finished, an unfinished frame and three unfinished log houses."305 Bradford abandoned the place as well, joining the Confederate ]()] Ibid. p. 70. 304 Jerome Smiley, HjstoQ' of Colorado (Chicago, The Lewis Publishing Company, 1913), p. 99. Transcript, 2 July 1976. 138

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Army during the Civil War, eventually attaining the rank of Major. He returned to his old place and began a new occupation of ranching. Here in 1872 he decided to tum his home into an elegant southern style mansion, building from his own quarry a cut stone front addition fifty by thirty-four feet, three stories high, complete with an elegant mohogany central staircase inside. Despite his pretensions the Major was not in the best of financial shape, considering that contractor Michael Kelly and his laborer William Rafferty filed mechanics' leins against the property for non-payment of some $2,000 worth of work soon after it was completed.306 After removing the third floor after lightning struck it three times, Bradford died in 1876. The ranch afterward passed through several owners including James Adam Perley and his son. It caught the eye of Rocky Mountain News owner John C. Shaffer, who had come here in 1913 from Chicago and purchased property adjoining the Bradford place as a country home for Kent, his invalid son suffering from tuberculosis. Shaffer, who also went on to own the Denver Times and Denver Republican. turned this into a fabulous showplace and named it after both his sons, Kent and Carroll, in the form of the Ken Caryl Ranch.307 Shaffer on a hilltop built the spectacular 8,000-square-foot ranch Manor House in Georgian Revival style more palatial than Bradford's 306 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records. JCJI Ruth Beckwith, "Stage House Toward the Hills," Denyer Westerners Brand Book;, 1954, p. 92. 139

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greatest dreams. Shaffer annexed Bradford's ranch in 1926 upon the death of James Perley, put in a hardwood floor on the second story to hold dances, and fulfilled Bradford's dream of using the valley for raising fine Hereford cattle. Shaffer lost everything during the Great Depression of the 1930s, and the great 28,000-acre ranch, possibly the largestJefferson County has known, passed through several more hands. Bradford's house was abandoned by 1954, and burned to the shell of its outer walls in 1967.308 The year 1971 set the stage for a year of growth pivotal in the history of southern Jefferson County, and with it the collateral damage it was to cause to what remained of Bradford's ranch. That year Johns Manville purchased the remaining acreage of the Ken Caryl Ranch, encompassing some 10,000 acres, a vast area of mountains and plains stretching from Deer Creek Canyon to Tiny Town.309 Johns Manville purchased the land to build its new Research & Development Center, an effort to consolidate headquarters, data processing and other Colorado staff facilities.310 When the facility next to Deer Creek Canyon was completed in 1972 it boasted one of the world's largest research facilities, for Johns Manville's operations in raw materials, insulations, pipe construction, environmental controls, and other industrial specialties. Its architecturally-acclaimed headquarters building resembled a skyscraper lying n County of Jefferson, place names records. 309 Golden Transcript, 3 November 1971. 110 Ibid. 140

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on its side.311 Not needing the areas outside of Deer Creek and Waterton canyons for their facilities, Johns Manville decided to subdivide and sell off their surplus lands, ushering in a great new amount of growth for southern Jefferson County. No real evidence suggests the Bradford House has ever been directly threatened with destruction by this growth. Quite the contrary; as early as 1975, the Ken Caryl Ranch Corporation gleefully accepted designation of the ruin as a Centennial Site by the Jefferson County Historical Comrnission.312 The only form of historical designation ever employed by Jefferson County's government, this was used to commemorate significant historic places in the county for the Centennial Bicentennial celebration in 1976. Other landmarks joining this elite group, among others, included the Hiwan Homestead, Astor House, Berthoud Hall, the Apex townsite, and the Wheat Ridge Soddy, evidence of an awakening preservationist consciousness throughout Jefferson County.313 When Johns Manville began building the massive new Ken Caryl Ranch area, the Bradford House was spared, with the exclusive ''West Ranch" being built just west of its location.314 By the time Ken Caryl was fully 311 Thomas J. Noel, of Colorado (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), p. 160. 312 Golden Transcript, 23 June 1975. 313 Ibid, 1975-1976. 314 Ibid. 2 July 1976. 141

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developed, the stone ruins were not only spared but were given their own little open space preserve, the walls receiving braces to ensure they would not fall down. Johns Manville had gone out of its way to be sensitive towards the surroundings it was in. Its facilities were constructed to compliment and not clash with their natural surroundings, being horizontally-oriented and designed with the helpful input of numerous civic and governmental organizations.315 Bradford House III, an archaeological site in a narrow rock shelter within a bluff on the property with remains dating to 565 B.C., was allowed to be excavated by the Denver Chapter of the Colorado Archaeological Society in 1974-75 and placed on the National Historic Register.316 The fabulous Manor House was another relic carefully preserved, in 1990 becoming one of the famed restaurants of twin brothers Dale and Dean Peterson. The Ken Caryl Ranch Master Association has been designated caretaker of the area's fine collection of historic places. It likely seemed at the time that developing all around the Bradford House but sparing it within a park was an ideal course of preservation for the institution the ranch once was. However, growth had harmed the Bradford House in a different way: by destroying the ranch surrounding it. It was the 315 Ibid, 3 November 1971. 316 Jefferson CoWlty Historical Commission. Jefferson County National Historic Sites (Golden: Jefferson CoWlty Public Library, 1995). 142

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setting the building had always been a part of, and developing it in effect took the building out of its environment and placed it in a gilded cage of upscale homes. The house was originally intended as part of a town, but became a noteworthy ranch, without which it was a building preserved without its context meaning. It was a ranch house belonging on a scenic ranch. Traveler Bayard Taylor on July 12, 1866, on his return trip from the mountains to Denver, gave one of the best descriptions of the Bradford Ranch area: Looking at the base of the mountains immediately below us, I became aware of a remarkable feature of their structure. Parallel with the general direction of their bases, and from a quarter to half a mile distant, ran a straight outcropping of vertical rock, abruptly broken through by the streams which issued upon the plains. Each section of this ridge, which was from one to two hundred feet in heights, resembled a ship's hull, keel upward. They are called 1/hog's backs11 in Colorado. Not only is their formation distinct from that of the mountains, but they are composed of different rock -mostly limestone, gypsum, or alabaster. Their peculiar appearance suggests the idea of having been forced up by the settling back of the great chain of the Rocky Mountains, after upheaval. I am told that this formation extends for a long distance along the eastern base of the mountains. As the road wound back and forth upon the bare, treeless slope, contracting the semicircle of the plains, the objects enclosed within this lower rampart attracted us more and more. Much of the space near at hand was already farmed, and green with lush fields of wheat, and the narrow terrace which it formed, seemed, at first sight, to have been inhabited for thousands of years. What appeared to be the ruins of giant cities arose behind the walls of rock, casting their shadows across the green. Rude natural towers, obelisks, and pyramids, monoliths two hundred feet in height, of a rich red color, were gathered in strange labyrinthine groups, suggesting arrangement or design. Beyond the Platte there was a collection of several hundred of these. Mr. Byers, who had visited the place, assured me that they greatly 143

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surpass the curious rock-images near Colorado City, called the "Garden of the Gods." A nearer view of them through a glass filled me with astonishment. I saw single rocks a hundred feet square, and nearly as high as Trinity spire, worn into the most fantastic outlines, and in such numbers that days might be spent in examining them. On our own road there were several detached specimens of lesser height, and beyond Bear Creek two lofty masses of a rude Gothic character. The wonders of Colorado have not yet been half explored, much less painted. Our proposed camping-place lay inside the nearest "hog-back," at the foot of one of those rocky masses. We came down the long slant and reached the spot before sunset, less fatigued by the journey than by the great labor (both of spirit and flesh) of keeping up the failing courage of our animals. Our bread was at an end, but Colonel Bradford's ranche, with its stately stone residence, seemed to offer indefinite supplies; so, after unsaddling beside the rock and turning the beasts loose to graze, we called upon the Colonel in a body. He kindly gave us all he had not bread, but flour and soda, a bunch of onions from the garden, and a wash-basin full of lettuce. Moreover, we had unlimited water from a spring in the garden, and milk from the dairy. The Colonel, a native of Alabama, is justly froud of his ranche, the location of which is wonderfully picturesque.31 Bradford's place, as historically noted, was not just the ranch house but its surroundings, which provided its most spectacular feature. Today, the valleys Taylor described are now developed with numerous houses and buildings. Fortunately, the crown jewels have been carefully preserved; the "two lofty masses of a rude Gothic character" now frame the Red Rocks Amphitheater of internationally renowned design. The Colorow Cave Byers earlier visited has also been preserved. The collection of several hundred red rocks Taylor described beyond the Platte, later photographed by William Henry Jackson, are today featured within the Arrowhead Golf Course. 317 Bayard Taylor, Colorado: A Summer Trip (Niwot: Colorado University Press, 1989), p. 149-50. 144

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However, the area of Bradford's historic ranch has been subdivided, with homes engorging its historic setting. Nothing of the ranch itself remains, save for some red rocks and the walls of "its stately stone residence" and feature addition. Why no thought was given to preserving more of Bradford's place certainly is owed to Johns Manville's desire to get a monetary return for its surplus acreage. However, a local manifestation of the pattern of nationwide preservationist thought was also a main reason. Traditionally, historic preservation had been primarily concerned with individual structures. During the 1970s, when Johns Manville sought to preserve the history within its lands, national movement was only beginning to fundamentally shift from preserving individual structures towards an emphasis on preserving the contexts of those structures.318 Contexts, such as preserving Bradford's picturesque ranch with his house, had not really been recognized as being worthy of preservation in their own right. Therefore, it is likely that while Ken Caryl's developers and the Jefferson County Historical Commission deserved much credit for their vision to preserve the ruins that could have easily been destroyed, the thought of any need to preserve anything further simply never occurred. Therefore, growth was allowed to consume the 318 David Harner, Histm:y in Urban Places The Historic Districts of the United States (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1998), p. 139. 145

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Bradford House's setting and context, and in that way still caused irreparable harm to the building's historic character. Figure 6.2 Bradford House ruins, east side, front wall Note park in foreground and housing behind ruins (Source: Gardner Family Collection) This problem locally and nationally has manifested itself in many ways, such as urban areas where an important building stood but everything that crucially interacted with it is gone. Focus on individual structures essentially tunnel-visioned preservationists into the structure itself, without paying attention to what was happening to its surroundings.319 This had the 319 Ibid. 146

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effect of harming the historic character of the individual structure by taking it out of its setting and placing it alone. Individually-preserved buildings, urban, suburban and rural, have been made more vulnerable to potential destruction due to the fact that by taking them out of their setting the meaning of their existence has become harder to understand, making it more difficult to know why it is important to preserve them. Such an eventuality probably will never happen to the Bradford House. Nevertheless, it will never be possible for one to survey the surroundings of this "stately stone residence" ever again. Instead, what its visitors see is only a relic of doddering limestone walls with metal braces within a chain link fence, anonymous in meaning amidst an affluent community. That community has carefully kept it from falling down but otherwise not made the greatest collective effort to preserve it despite the personal means available to them. The building's anonymity caused by its being isolated possibly has contributed to this. Other ranch structures such as the Theide or Tallman ranches within Jefferson County have been emphasized by their settings and gained National Register designation as preserved spreads. The future of the Bradford House remains to be seen. It seems destined to remain forever a ruin, neither repaired nor destroyed, a place worthy of preservation that will never again reside within the world it once 147

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knew. It is a noteworthy example of Jefferson County's earliest preservation efforts and consciousness, exemplifying its foresight and flaws. Where the inhabitant of the Bradford House tried to promote growth, growth ended up harming it, and the Bradford House stands as an example that can be learned from. Golden Brickyard Manager's House For a century the Golden valley was among the leaders of brickmaking in Colorado. Beginning in 1865 with the Golden City Brick Works owned by William A.H. Loveland, this ended in 1965 when the last of the historic brick plants was shut down by the Denver Brick & Pipe Company that had absorbed it. Today, the home of that plant's managers, who once devoted it to facilitating Jefferson County's growth, is poised to be destroyed by growth. In 1890 John B. and William Church, owners of the Golden Pressed Brick Works on what is now west 8th Street in Golden, purchased a parcel of land north of Golden and built a second brick works. Located at the north side of the junction of what is now Highway 93 and Golden Gate Canyon roads, it promised to dramatically increase the capacity of the company. To accompany their plant, they purchased 280 acres of land with coal mine from 148

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John Johnson, which operated jointly with the new brick works, all coal going towards powering the brickrnaking plant.320 The plant employed 195 men, under charge of secretary Benjamin Rowe and manager William Gay. With the plant came the need to construct homes for its workers, as this was the first rural brick works anyone had built in Jefferson County. The Church brothers immediately began building cottages to house them, chief among which was the home of manager Gay. William H. Gay himself became a rather experienced industrialist of the Golden area, being a placer miner who later worked one of the two gold dredges on Clear Creek below Golden.321 The Church brothers built for him a fine thirty-foot square, one and a half-story brick house, with second story in a frame pyramidal roof with two south-facing dormers. Built in the Richardsonian Romanesque style, the home conspicuously showed off the brickyard's product, featuring many kinds of curved and straight brick bandwork, Roman-arched windows and doors. It stood just to the west of the brickyard where Gay worked. Producing 100,000 bricks a day could go a long ways towards building up the growth of Jefferson County as it neared the tum of the century, and until the Silver Crash of 1893 many new brick homes, businesses and industrial facilities were built with this output made by the Church brothers. 320 Colorado Transcript, 31 May 1890. 149

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Some early places built with their brick included the Broadway Hotel and People's Bank in Denver?22 Within a year, the plant was able to tum out 200,000 bricks a day, helping fill the needs of new urban and suburban growth throughout the region and beyond. The Church Bros. shipped as far away as Montana, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Chihuahua, Mexico.323 321 Ibid, 26 October 1904. 322 Ibid, 12 April 1890. 323 Ibid, 14 July 1883. \' 0 Figure 6.3 Brickyard House, looking west (Source: Gardner Family Collection) 150

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The presence of Golden's brick factories had a pronounced impact on the early growth not just of Golden, or Jefferson County, but of Colorado as well. Once the new northern plant was built the Church brothers ran an industrial powerhouse fueling growth of the region. During the year of 1891, their two plants produced a combined 10,000,000 bricks, going to places like the Equitable Building in Denver.324 The illustrious career of the lower works ended in 1895 when that plant burned to the ground, and the brothers concentrated their efforts on the upper works. Early in the 20th century it left the hands of the Church family and became the Golden Fairview Pressed & Fire Brick Company. Despite two devastating fires in 1901 and 1915 that virtually wiped out the plant each time/25 the roller coaster was righted and steadied with the capable hands of Manager James C. Knox. Despite fate's wild fortunes and modernization replacing companion buildings, the manager's house, where Knox now lived, stood intact. The house is never shown on any of the Sanborn Insurance maps of the facility, undoubtedly because it stood too far away to warrant inclusion, much like the cottages and boarding house sheltering other workers. These workers mined fire clay from tunnels in the nearby hogback, while building 32.4 Ibid, 2 January 1892. 325 Colorado Transcript, 24 July 1901 and Golden Globe. 25 December 1915. 151

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clay came from open pits, and their clay became well-known for its refractoriness and fire resistance.326 The fire clay brick was sought after by smelters and other facilities requiring high resistance to heat, while the building clay brick became renowned in its own right. The plant's blond "GOLDEN" stamped brick became its particular trademark, but it also made bricks of all colors, shapes and varieties. In time, these bricks were exported not only to Utah, Wyoming and California, but as far as Japan, China, Mexico, Canada, and South Arnerica.327 By the mid-20th century the plant came into the orbit of the Denver Brick & Pipe Company and was purchased by them. Jefferson County's brickmaking industry came to an end in 1965 when they closed the plant, after the industry's illustrious career of exactly a century. The brick works' kilns and buildings were gradually destroyed as the Kilgroe Construction firm took over the lands and converted the place into their own construction facility.328 Two buildings have been spared, the 1920s-era brickyard office, and the manager's house. While the office has been used as storage and has more or less withstood the last quarter of the 20th Century, the manager's house 326 Ethel Dark. "History of Jefferson County Colorado," M.A. Thesis, Colorado State College of Education 1939, p. 70-71. 327 Colorado Transcript, 28 June 1934. 3211 Interview with Lance Kilgroe. Golden. Colorado, summer 1999. 152

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has been less fortunate. Abandoned since 1965, it has been vandalized of virtually all window glass, and its roof has deteriorated to allow extensive water damage to the southwest part of its interior. More importantly, its small northern addition has settled to one side, peeling away from the main building and structurally undermining the whole place. Simply put, while the house's builders were experts at brickmaking, they were not experts at foundation building. Figure 6.4 Brickyard House, looking northeast towards developed city (House is at right center of photograph) (Source: Gardner Family Collection) 153

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Because of these things, persons may automatically conclude that the building is not worth preserving, which is indicative of a national problem facing historic preservationists. It is demolition by neglect, where if a building is left deteriorating long enough persons will see how deteriorated it looks and encourage its demolition. Too many times in the country the structural stability of old buildings has been judged based on their cosmetic appearance alone.329 People judge historic buildings not worth salvaging on the basis of peeling paint, cracking stucco, worn-out windows and doors, a roof in need of repair or other elements of appearance not indicative of the building's structural soundness. In the case of masonry buildings such as this one, new techniques have been devised for mortar injection of concrete reinforcement or other methods making their preservation much more feasible than before.330 Despite the deteriorated condition of this building, it would seem best to investigate the feasibility of its repair before concluding it cannot be preserved. In this way, it can evade this pattern that has already cost a number of salvageable historic places. Since the brickyard closed, growth has gradually closed in around this place, once so far out in the country even Golden's fire companies could not reach it. During the 1970s its northwestern lands were cut up into little 5 and 329 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial Mana&ement of the Built World (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 64. 330 Ibid. 154

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10-acre spreads to become the Pine Ridge neighborhood, which fortunately retained the area's rural flavor and wildlife. Areas to the south and east were not as fortunate, as Golden maps and modern news accounts from the 1960s through today have confirmed. In the 1960s and 1970s new additions of ranch-style brick homes to Golden were laid out along north Ford Street east of the brickyard lands, after which growth stopped for about 20 years.331 During the 1990s the Coors-owned lands to the south were carved up into a sea of nondescript, largely gray-colored frame housing labeled as Canyon Point. To the east, the historic Foss Ranch at the foot of North Table Mountain, once home of the famed Foss Arabian horses, was cashed in by the elderly family to become the Mesa Meadows subdivision.332 This resulted in a new sea of gaudier earth-toned homes. The homes of these new subdivisions were jammed together, a pattern strangely reminiscent of the 1870s practice of jamming frame houses together in the new eastern Goosetown additions to Golden. However, this modern rendition came on a macro scale of three story homes larger than the town's Nineteenth Century mansions. These subdivisions were soundly criticized by many in the community, leading to the first efforts to curtail the sprawl of the Golden community since 1874. This became Golden's manifestation of another national pattern that the Environmental Protection Agency has taken note of: 331 County of Jefferson, clerk and recorder plat records. 155

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citizen pressure to limit suburban growth. The New York Times noted of the EPA's study "The Costs of Urban Sprawl" that "this is a national crises is clear from debates that currently rage about the right of communities to limit growth and the sociological and environmental use of zoning law, from open housing to ecology."333 In 1995, Golden's debate came to a head, against the wishes of the Golden business community and City Council, when the city's second growth ordinance was petitioned for and approved by a vote of the people. This ordinance limiting all residential growth in Golden to 1% per year passed by a margin of 59% to 41%, a vote of 1,882 to 1,326.334 Nevertheless, the damage before the anti-growth backlash started was done. With surrounding acreage developed the historic brickyard lands became more valuable, and were taxed more heavily by the County government. By the late 1990s the taxes on them became greater than the Kilgroe Construction Company was able to handle on its partially-developed land.335 Thus modern growth caused a massive shift of fate for this place, 332 Ibid. 333 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation Curatorial of the Built World (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 36. 334 Golden Transcript. 9 November 1995. 335 Interview with Lance Kilgroe. Golden, Colorado. summer 1999. 156

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used industrially since 1879, when the Kilgroe firm in 2000 began annexing its properties to Golden to sell off for mixed use development.336 Figure 6.5 Canyon Point development approaching Brickyard House location at left center (Source: Gardner Family Collection) Today, the fate of the brickyard manager's house is uncertain, now with growth closing in. The Brickyard House is an obsolete relic within the western Kilgroe land area, which is planned to become an office park. Within a few years the rural meadows around it, stacks of brick and historic equipment junked near it will all be part of the past. The construction firm is 336 City of Golden, city council minutes, March-April 2000. 157

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to consolidate elsewhere on the property, while houses and businesses spring up all around to relieve Kilgroe's tax burden.337 The tragedy facing the Golden area is that it is likely few in the community would doubt this brickyard house is far more ornate and unique than any modern housing that has helped to endanger it. Nevertheless, many historic homes and places stand witness to the important role the managers who lived here played to promote the historic growth of Golden and beyond. It is an irony that growth, which this place so much facilitated, should come back to threaten its very existence. 337 Interview with Lance Kilgroe, Golden, Colorado, summer 1999. 158

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CHAPTER7 COLLATERAL DAMAGE: INDIRECT DANGERS OF GROWTH Historic landmarks are generally not the first thing that comes to mind when considering the consequences of rapid growth. Usually such costs include the loss of open space, wildlife habitat, and community asthetics. The loss of historic landmarks is a hidden cost of growth. In endangering landmarks, the more hidden costs of growth not addressed in Jefferson County arise. These costs include what happens when a major highway that facilitates growth is built; what happens to an historic downtown when suburban shopping malls are constructed nearby; and the sheer costs of providing service and infrastructure to accommodate new growth. These costs are not simply local in nature but are symptomatic of problems felt around the nation. The Mt. Vernon House, Astor House and Lakeside are very different in terms of their setting. However, each has been profound! y affected by growth in hidden, indirect ways. In Lakeside it is actually possible to demonstrate how growth may negatively affect a community where growth has been arrested for nearly a century. 159

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Mt. Vernon House During the 1960s-70s Jefferson County's largest thoroughfare, the 70th highway of the nationwide Interstate system, rolled its way through the heart of the county. It changed Jefferson County's character forever, along with the communities it touched, for better or worse. The highway was used to promote growth along its route, spurring change everywhere. At the entrance to Mt. Vernon Canyon this tool met a stone wall, in fact a whole set, known as the Mt. Vernon House. This became one of the earliest tests of the value of federal recognition of historic places. The Mt. Vernon House is a two-story edifice of stone cut by Montreal stonemason George Morrison in 1860.338 It was a hotel and stage stop built with 22-inch-thick walls of rough native sandstone. Morrison was a newcomer to one of Jefferson County's earliest towns, Mt. Vernon, founded on November 17, 1859 at the entrance to the canyon bearing its name. Upon the opening of the road up this canyon to the gold fields George Andrew Jackson had discovered, settlers began congregating at the canyon mouth to put together Jefferson County's third town. The Mt. Vernon House was a place of great pretensions, being the county's first urban building made of anything other than wood. In fact, it was the first place of anything other than organic material known to be constructed within the area in 900 years. 338 Thomas J. Noel, of Colorado (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), p.l56-57. 160

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Not long after the Mt. Vernon House went up prominent local citizens including Robert Williamson Steele, Dr. Joseph Casto and J.F. Owens were settling in Mt. Vernon and building their homes here.339 Steele was the sitting governor of Jefferson Territory, the region's provisional government that preceded federal organization.340 The Mt. Vernon Town Company advertised in the Rocky Mountain News and Western Mountaineer that a limited amount of lots would be donated to those agreeing to build on them. By the summer of 1860 newspaper correspondent G.F. Mallett reported eight residences completed and several more under construction.341 Mt. Vernon had at least two hotels by 1861; the Mt. Vernon House kept by George Morrison, and the Jackson House kept by James Bell. Later the Valley House would join them. Mt. Vernon was small, but exemplary of the handful of such towns including Arapahoe City, Golden City, and Golden Gate City that made up Jefferson County's earliest urban growth. Mt. Vernon grew to a respectable size compared to its neighbors, topping out at around 500 citizens and covering a quarter square mile around 1865. In early years Mt. Vernon greatly benefited from the heavily-used long339 Western Mountaineer, 12 July 1860. 340 Jefferson County Historical Commission. From Scratch A History of Jefferson County. Colorado (Golden: Jefferson County Historical Commission. 1985), p. 6. 341 Ethel Dark, "History of Jefferson County Colorado," M.A. Thesis, Colorado State College of Education 1939, p. 46. 161

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distance wagon roads passing through it, including the Denver, Auraria & Colorado Wagon Road, and Denver, Mt. Vernon & Gregory Diggings Wagon Road.342 Also contributing to Mt. Vernon's economy was a nearby lime quarry, a pinery for milling lumber, a coal bank, and an iron mine. In the early 1860s Mt. Vernon boasted a fair-sized downtown of several businesses, and was platted out on a street grid similar to its neighbors. It was Jefferson County's only town besides Golden City to boast its own cemetery, today the oldest marked cemetery in the county. By June 1860 Mt. Vernon became the second Jefferson County town to have its own school, a secular one established by Rev. I.R. Dean of the Baptist Church, at the corner of Kendall and 2nd Streets.343 Rev. Jacob Adriance established a Northern MethodistEpiscopal church and Sunday School at Mt. Vernon, marking the town's religious debut. While distant rumblings came from the east of an imminent Civil War, Mt. Vernon fell into a civil war of its own. Since late 1860 discontentment grew with the Jefferson Territorial government, which had been organized extralegally by the citizens of a region that grew so fast that federal organization, with law and order, could not keep up. The government was popularly-elected, but without federal recognition, inviting dissenters to 342 Western Mountaineer, 4 January 1860. 343 Ethel Dark, "History of Jefferson County Colorado," M.A. Thesis, Colorado State College of Education 1939, p. 47. 162

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ignore and defy it if they did not like it. In early 1861, the majority of Mt. Vernon District voters elected to secede from Jefferson County and form Ni Wot County, in protest of the Territorial government.344 This forced a schism between Mt. Vernon leaders, compelling several, led by Gov. Steele, to secede from the town. They found refuge upon the nearby paper townsite of Baden, and formed the Apex Wagon Road Company to rival to business of Mt. Vernon. Mt. Vernon was not quite the same, nor as strong. It persevered thanks in large part to the continuing necessity of traffic up the Mt. Vernon Road. It was an easier route than the Apex Road, and by the end of the Civil War Mt. Vernon had outlasted both Apex and the Civil War Depression.345 Mt. Vernon was also the only Jefferson County town besides Golden City to have survived the greatest economic depression in the county's history. In 1867 Joseph Casto capitalized on postwar growth by advertising the lucrative town lot offers made before, and the town plat was officially filed by George W. Charles in the United States Land Office on March 6, 1866, and with the County on September 19, 1867.346 Accompanying the filing were statistics indicating Mt. Vernon possessed two hotels, a store, blacksmith shop, several 344 Rocky Mountain News, early 1861. 345 Jefferson County Historical Commission, From Scratch: A History of Jefferson County. Colorado (Golden: Jefferson County Historical Commission, 1985), Berthoud map of Jefferson County 1868. 346 Sara E. Robbins, Jefferson County Colorado The Colorful Past of a Great Community (Lakewood: Jefferson County Bank, 1962), p. 27. 163

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homes, and other buildings.347 A Baptist church was founded there during the Council of Baptist Churches by Rev. T.T. Potter, making Mt. Vernon the second Jefferson County town to possess more than one religious denomination. On February 7, 1870, the Jefferson County Commissioners ordered Mt. Vernon's incorporation, making it Jefferson County's second legally incorporated town.348 However, Golden City's Colorado Central Railroad soon provided a faster route than Mt. Vernon to the mountain mining towns, and growth was attracted to that town instead. The last known news account of Mt. Vernon as a town is in 1867, describing it as a town whose residents were decidedly "on it," meaning its six families had become quarrelsome, to the point where ''Their fights and family quarrels have cost the county nearly as much as their taxes would amount to in ten years."349 Morrison had abandoned his hotel for the site of the future town bearing his name, while the original building continued to serve as a Wells Fargo stage stop among other things. It was purchased by William Edward Mathews in 1874.150 347 Ibid. 348 Georgina Brown, The Mountains (Gunnison: B&B Printers, 1976), p. 54. 349 Colorado Transcript, 10 Apri11867. 3so County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records. 164

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Mathews for years ran the Mt. Vernon House as a way station, grocery store and tavern. Designated a Royal Bootmaker in his native home of England, Mathews arrived here after serving in the army and operating a store at 17th and Blake in Denver. There his wife, Louisia May, died, leaving him with thirteen children.151 Mathews returned to England and brought back another bride, Frances Elizabeth, who upon coming to Mt. Vernon had to get used to Colorow and his band that frequented the place during a time when whites and natives intermixed. As the Utes faded away Mt. Vernon faded too, and Mathews converted the hotel into a private residence, adding a front porch, additions and 2nd-story shingle cladding. By 1890 the town had vanished almost entirely, even the foundations of its buildings being carried away by periodic spring floods.152 In 1913 Frances E. Matthews filed a deed to vacate the townsite. The Matthews family continued to live peacefully in here for half a century while Jefferson County growth remained largely confined to the east. They owned a considerable stock ranching acreage to the southeast of this house, and were liked and respected in the community. Mt. Vernon with gradual rural growth changed from the gold rush town to an extended rural community up and down the valleys of Mt. Vernon Creek. It established 351 Georgina Brown, The Mountains (Gunnison: B&B Printers, 1976), p. 56. 352 Ethel Dark, "History of Jefferson County Colorado," M.A. Thesis, Colorado State College of Education 1939, p. 47. 165

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what became the Rockland Community Church in 1879, and never gave up School District #13, thanks largely to the 22 Mathews children.153 The Mt. Vernon town remained as two buildings: the Mt. Vernon House, which became a gas station along Highway 40, and a neighboring house built in 1872, according to tradition by an outlaw named Wilson who was "trying to become respectable."154 Steele's house, which had long since burned down, was given a marker of Salida granite by the Daughters of Colorado on August 1, 1926. In the meantime fading collective memory began to believe the Mt. Vernon House had been Steele's house. Mt. Vernon's entire way of life, unchanged for nearly a century, was instantly jeopardized in the 1960s. For years, prominent Denverites such as Saco R. DeBoer and Colorado Highway Department Chief Engineer Charles Vail dreamed of building a major east-west route through Denver, but were deterred by the immense cost of building into the mountains.355 In the meantime, Coloradans watched with envy as the nation's Interstate highway system, with accompanying economic opportunity, bypassed them through New Mexico and Wyoming. Governor Ed Johnson appealed directly to President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was fond of Colorado and whose wife 353 Georgina Brown, The Mountains (Gwmison: B&B Printers, 1976), p. 55-57. JS4 Golden Transcript, 6 October 1994. m Stephen J. Leonard and Thomas J. Noel, Denyer: Camp to Metropolis (Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1990), pp. 272. 166

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came from here. Johnson successfully made a case to route Interstate 70 through the Centennial State, and Eisenhower persuaded the U.S. Congress to provide a 90% federal match for state funds put towards the road.356 Instead of building the highway where nobody was at, the State placed it where opportunity could be realized within the metropolis. It marched through the historic Denver communities of Globeville and Swansea at a time when few if any preservationist movement existed to appeal on their behalf. Some Denverites wondered when I-70 opened through their city in 1966 whether it was urban renewal in disguise.357 Clearly highway promoters did not care about historic landmarks in their way; theirs was a march of progress, and soon they were on the doorstep of Jefferson County. Jefferson County's reaction towards I-70 was mixed. County government personnel relished its opportunities, including tremendous potential for increased urban development along its route.358 However, they also realized its potential impact on infrastructure, and expanded Ward Road, Indiana Street, West Alameda and West 32nd to accommodate increased traffic. Even before I-70 was completed, County officials noted a marked increase in urbanization and industrialization along its route.359 The highway JS61bid, p. 272-273. 3571bid, p. 273. 358 Denyer Post, 19 June 1967. 359 Ibid. 167

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truly acted as the growth magnet many had hoped, with large areas quickly rezoned for commercial development at many strategic points. The highway largely skirted the outer perimeters of Lakeside, Wheat Ridge, Lakewood and Golden, and did not meet serious objection until its route set right through the heart of Mt. Vernon. Interstate 70 was set to go through spreads used for ranching or development without regard to its impact on property. Historic roads within Mt. Vernon Canyon needed to be reworked. Most disturbingly, 1-70 was poised to come dangerously close to the Mt. Vernon House, with blasting and drilling projected to damage the building beyond repair.360 With the lack of care already shown towards myriad historic Denver homes, and accompanying growth promoted by the highway showing such promise in Jefferson County, it appeared the Mt. Vernon House was doomed. That was until Claire Matthews Lewis appealed to a higher authority: DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WASHINGTON, D.C. This is to certify that the historic building known as the Robert W. Steele house in the County of Jefferson and the State of Colorado has been selected by the advisory committee of the Historic American Building Survey as possessing exceptional historic or architectural interest and as being worthy of most careful preservation for the benefit of future generations and that to this end a record of its present J60 Ibid. 168

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appearance and condition has been made and deposited for permanent reference in the Library of Congress. Attest: Lancaster Hyde, District HAROLD ICKES, Secretary of Interior Department of Interior The Matthews descendent, whose family no longer lived there, pointed out this extant document that hung in the front room of the Mt. Vernon House. 362 In its defense she asked, "Are we going to lose places of historical value for the sake of progress?" One national movement promoting growth had just collided with another one promoting preservation. For some time prior to 1966, across the country, states took action and passed laws enabling the creation of historic districts, following a pattern of increasing interest in historic preservation beyond simply individual historic landmarks. In response, the U.S. Congress in 1966 passed the National Historic Preservation Act, which created the National Register of Historic Places.363 It also created guidelines and means for directing federal funds towards historic preservation. This move reflected the rising tide of 361 Denver Post, sununer 1967. 362 Ibid. 363 David Hamer, History in Urban Places: The Historic Districts of the United States (Colwnbus: Ohio State University Press, 1998), p. 18. 169

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preservationist thought across the country, not just for individual places but entire neighborhoods. The Historic American Building Survey identified the Mt. Vernon House as a place the Secretary of the Interior felt most worthy of preservation, therefore one among those most worthy of being listed on the National Register. The National Historic Preservation Act also provided protection for local historic places from the impacts of federal activity, notably, public works construction.364 Interstate 70 was partially funded by Congress, which at the time of this threat had just passed this Preservation Act and leaned well towards preservationist thought. The result of this clash of growth and preservation forces was astonishing even by modern preservationist standards. The Mt. Vernon House became "the house that moved a freeway" when Interstate 70 was constructed around it.365 I-70 had plowed through entire neighborhoods, ranches, farms, relocated agricultural ditches and a cemetery, and became the single greatest catalyst of Jefferson County development since the Colorado Central Railroad. It even walked through a hogback ridge, but finally met its match in a humble stone house. The remains of Mt. Vernon were completely spared, including the cemetery. The Mt. Vernon House even gained a lush 3641bid, p. 18-19. 365 Thomas J. Noel, of Colorado (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), p. 157. 170

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front yard after the relocation of the old highway in front. During the 1970s its ranching spread became Jefferson County Open Space. The first Jefferson County historic preservation battle for many years was won, but the question remains whether it was based on a mistake. The Mt. Vernon House was not Governor Steele's house, as Ickes claimed. However, tradition does relate that beneath the front hall's 12-foot ceilings the Jefferson Territorial Legislature met,366 making this the sole remaining place the body ever met. It is also known Governor Steele and his family had already located at Mt. Vernon by the time he was building his house.367 They had to be living somewhere, and the Mt. Vernon House, being the only known hotel in town at the time, likely housed them. Moreover, nearby Golden City became the permanent capital of Jefferson Territory later in 1860,368 and it is quite possible the all-volunteer legislature met nearer their Governor's residence at some point. In any event, Mt. Vernon remains, and is a testament to Jefferson County's earliest growth holding out against modern growth. 3661bid. p. 156. 367 Western Mountaineer, 12 July 1860. 368 Jefferson County Historical Conunission. From Scratch A Histmy of Jefferson County. Colorado (Golden: Jefferson County Historical Conunission, 1985), p. 9. 171

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Astor House The watershed events that led to Jefferson County's modern historic preservation movement revolved around one of the most unlikely landmarks anyone would wish to defend: Golden's Astor House hotel. In modem times this building has been a nondescript, oddly-designed structure of rough stone at the northeast comer of 12th and Arapahoe Streets in downtown Golden. No event of great significance took place there; it possessed no ornamental design; nobody of transcendent significance even to Golden area history owned it. Yet the Astor House was the line drawn in the sand which Golden citizens refused to let urban renewal cross. The Astor House was a two-story hotel of cut stone built by businessman Seth Lake in 1867. Its stone was covered with plaster in imitation of dressed brownstone, topped with a broad side-gabled roof with a balcony spanning two-thirds of its front in the center.369 Lake, who came to Colorado's Gregory Diggings area in 1860, was already running the Lake House at the site, a far less pretentious one-story false-front frame building, originally his Golden City Meat Market in 1863.370 He previously ran a hotel at Apex, and purchased the notorious Green Mountain Ranch 369 Thomas Meyers & William Mickel, Historic Structure Report for The Astor House Hotel at 822 12"' Street Golden. Colorado, (Boulder: John Feinberg, 1992), p. 2. no Colorado Democrat, February-April 1863. 172

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stagestop southeast of Golden next to the Cold Spring Ranch in 1862.371 Lake was among those moving Golden to grow towards respectability, it being noted "the rooms are large, airy and light and being new is entirely free from the pests of the old wooden buildings in the country."372 Respectability was important to promote Golden as an enduring city beyond many boom-andbust "shebang'' towns the region had known. Lake moved to Portland, Oregon in 1873, leasing it to S.M. French until he returned in 1874. Falling into ill health, Lake leased the hotel off and on to several individuals including Mrs. Hall, Mrs. Oakes and Ms. Rhody, and G.M. Ball during the 1880s.373 The most noteworthy interim proprietor was Fritz Kohler, who became better-known as an engraver in later years. Lake sold the hotel to Catherine W. MonPleasure on August 6, 1887, and died at age 75 the following year. Briefly renamed the Castle Rock House, the building went through several ownerships until1892 when it was purchased by German immigrant Ida Goetze.374 Long since fallen from the ranks of Golden's glamorous hostelries, the building was renamed Hotel Boston and 371 County of Jefferson, grantor/grantee records. 172 Colorado Transcript, 1 May 1867. 173 Thomas Meyers & William Mickel, Historic Structure Report for The Astor House Hotel at 822 121b Street Golden Colorado, (Boulder: John Feinberg, 1992), p. 8. 174 Golden Landmarks Association, records. 173

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converted into a boarding house. A new brick addition was tacked onto the rear in 1894.375 Many changes gave the Astor House its present appearance. The building also has the dubious distinction of being tied with Golden's Opera House Block for being the Golden's "most flammable building," having suffered four fires: 1886 (stable and frame annex rear); 1892 (arson); 1899 (defective flue); and 1908 (defective wiring).376 The lattermost heavily damaged the original roof and it was remodeled into a type of mansard third floor of three rooms, with off-center front dormer, one side dormer and one tiny rear shed dormer.377 During the early 1900s Goetze extensively remodeled the interior to make it more apartment-like in function.378 The building remained quietly as an apartment house catering in part to Colorado School of Mines students, and exited the Goetze family in 1950. It was deeded to Eileen Marshall in 1956, and continued to be run in shabby condition possibly due to her and husband Edwin's poor health. Despite the Marshalls' wish to preserve the building, they found the Golden Downtown 375 Thomas Meyers & William Mickel, Historic Structure Report for The Astor House Hotel at 822 12"' Street Golden Colorado, (Boulder: John Feinberg, 1992), p. 15. 376 Golden Landmarks Association, records. m Thomas Meyers & William Mickel, Historic Structure Report for The Astor House Hotel at 822 12"' Street Golden. Colorado, (Boulder: John Feinberg, 1992), p. 19. 378 Ibid, p. 18. 174

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Improvement District to be its only willing buyer, setting the stage for the Astor House to be demolished for parking space in 1971.379 Figure 7.1 Astor House amid modem parking and buildings (Source: Gardner Family Collection) This threat was the indirect result of what would become one of the greatest threats to Jefferson County's landscape: suburban sprawl. While Golden remained relatively modest in size, eastern Jefferson County was growing at a fast rate, and with it carne new commercial areas that challenged the downtown of Golden for business. Soon shopping centers were being 379 Ibid, p. 21. 175

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built within a short distance of Golden. The closest was Lakewood's Westland shopping center, built at West Colfax Avenue between Simms and Kipling in 1958.38) This new threat to Golden's economic welfare sent the town's business community scrambling. The Golden Chamber of Commerce in 1960 came up with a new plan for Golden's downtown: compete with suburbia's shopping centers by making downtown become one. This ambitious and rather radical plan called for the destruction of all non-commercial buildings within Golden's downtown district, surround the commercial core with a sea of parking, and build frame canopies on downtown's historic storefronts to give downtown a contemporary Western flavor.381 This would unify the downtown as a singular shopping unit and make it seem as if it was a mall, separated from extraneous elements with an asphalt moat. "What we propose to do is to turn Golden into a giant shopping centerone with a contemporary Western flavor but one with unique advantages over normal shopping centers" said Downtown Development Committee chairman Sam Hinds.382 Among the advantages he touted were competition among businesses that malls of that time did not allow, as well as 380 Colorado Transcript, 1958. 381 Ibid. 7 April 1960. 3821bid. 176

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the downtown having its own post office.383 Ironically, while suburban-style growth such as shopping malls have often been intended as a flight from the city, Goldenites had figured it was the type of growth, not location, newness, or quality of businesses, that would attract shoppers. Therefore, Golden's powerful business community successfully lobbied the City government and Golden Civic Foundation to take decisive steps to make their vision a reality. They started by constructing frame 1960s-style accordion canopies up and down Washington Avenue. Figure 7.2 Canopy on Everett Block at 12th and Washington, downtown Golden (Erected 1960s, destroyed 1984) (Source: Gardner Family Collection) 383 Ibid. 177

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This was a strange take on downtown Golden's heritage. Downtown businesses were attempting to capitalize on Golden's Western flavor in building the canopies, while destroying it at the same time by tearing down buildings. The canopies made for an odd architectural mix on a previously Victorian avenue. The renewal plan did not enjoy universal support among Golden's residents. In fact, as the first canopies were going up, their concept was publicly noted to be controversial.384 Canopies were nevertheless placed up and down Washington Avenue during the early 1960s, patterned after those at Scottsdale, Arizona, which had been used to promote its ''business personality."385 The reason given for aiming to destroy all non-residential buildings was to allow for commercial expansion through building parking lots and new commercial buildings, hoping to attract new businesses without hurting the existing. A combination of Golden's City Council records, ordinances and Transcript headlines throughout the 1960s into the early 1970s reveal this plan was embraced by the government and put into action. Many noted historic landmarks fell at the hands of the renewal machine. Among the casualties were Colorado's oldest Baptist chapel (701 12th St., built 1865); the home of Colorado Lt. Governor William Grover Smith (822 131h St., built 1873); Golden's historic City Hall and Central Fire Station (810 12th St., built 3841bid. 23 June 1960 and 30 June 1960. 178

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1885); and the home of famed engineer, geologist and historian Edward Louis Berthoud (720 11th St., built 1859). Their passing was met with no known active resistance. The reasons why it was it became necessary for Golden's downtown to fight shopping centers was directly due to the post-World War II growth that brought the shopping centers. This was a phenomenon troubling many communities in the United States. With increased mechanization such as the automobile, greatly fluid movement of goods and services became possible, and commercial activity historically centered inside the city could be moved out of it.386 Population shifted to the surrounding countryside such as farming communities like Lakewood, Arvada and Wheat Ridge, and with it commercial activity, coming much closer to Golden than ever before. Within two years two major shopping centers made their advent closer and closer to Golden's commercial district: Lakeside (1956, at W. 44th Ave. & Harlan); JCRS (1957, W. Colfax Ave. & Pierce); and Westland (1958, at W. Colfax Ave. near Kipling).387 Each contained hundreds of thousands of square feet in retail space with parking lots capable of accommodating around 4,000 cars apiece. Each mall had a variety of state-of-the-art constructed massive retail anchors 385 Ibid, 23 June 1960. 386 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial of the Built World (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 50-51. 387 Colorado Transcript, 1956-1958. 179

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catering to all needs including department stores like May D&F, J.C. Pennys, Joslins and Denver Dry.388 There were also grocery stores such as Safeway and Millers, and a variety of shops serving other needs. Instantly on Golden's periphery there surfaced several retail centers of size, scale and selection equal if not superior to downtown, where previously the nearest possible major competition was in Denver. This was a nationwide phenomenon of which Golden's story was a symptom. Throughout the country suburban migration of people and services has blurred the physical and cultural distinction between city and countryside. This has resulted in the surfacing of conceptions that not only the countryside is a better place to live, but that the city is becoming obsolete.389 Small town downtowns suffered similar fates as big city downtowns as goods and services transferred to the periphery. Facing new competition from attractive shopping centers, Golden's retail community felt it best to try to become like the suburban shopping center to better compete with it. This meant building its own vast parking lots and new construction for large anchors. Downtown thus expanded, emphasized or brought its own chain store anchors, including the department stores Hesteds (1295 Washington Ave.); Eakers (1117 Washington Ave.); Cottrells (1222 Arapahoe 388 Ibid. 389 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial of the Built World (Charlottesviiie: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 51. 180

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St.); and grocery stores Safeway (1111 Ford St.) and Millers (1222 Ford St.) with nearby King Soopers (1815 Jackson As time went on downtown Golden became more like a suburban shopping center by the year, for better or worse. The concept of urban renewal itself was becoming increasingly popular in the country during this time. In Golden, it involved the eventual demolition of half or whole blocks of buildings; in other places total demolition and reconstruction was the order of the day, to the point where it seemed to become the only model of urban revitalization.391 As downtown Golden renewal went on over the next ten years, the resulting destruction of its historic, cultural and architectural fabric became so extensive it alarmed Goldenites, who increasingly frowned on the redevelopment agenda. This long-simmering course of events finally reached its flashpoint on August 12, 1971, when Golden City Council member Ruben J. Hartmeister suddenly asked the simple phrase 'Wait a minute." As a member of the Golden Downtown Improvement District (which the Council doubled as), he had just voted for the District to purchase the run-down Astor House. After the vote Chairman Jon Andren noted the Astor House would then be torn 390 Colorado Transcript, 1957-1975. 391 David Hamer, Hjstor:y jn Urban Places: The Historic Districts of the United States (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1998), p. 12. 181

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down, since that was the only thing the GDID was set up to do.392 This was true, as the GDID was a special district formed by the downtown property owners to build their desired parking lots. Hartmeister appealed that destroying the Astor House "is the sort of decision that requires more thought-more planning." Thus the friendly, modest, bald engineer became the unlikely candidate who started one of the most bitter political battles in Golden's history, and the modern historic preservation movement in Jefferson County. The Astor House was also one of the most unlikely candidates to touch off any such things; it was as modest as the lone man appealing to save it. The question was posed much later in the ensuing battle by Cliff Evans (who seven years before had destroyed three quarters of the historic Linder Block to expand Hesteds) that the Astor House ''has been for sale for 15 years, why didn't somebody buy it before now if they wanted to save it so badly."393 Hartrneister responded that he hoped through petitions it could be put to a referendum vote of the people. Other things he and others said reveal why the Golden community had chosen this time, this place to make a preservationist stand. V. Gene Child in the Golden Transcript said "Who even remembers the old Baptist church, one of Golden's other landmark buildings, at the 392 Golden Transcript, 8 June 1972. 182

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corner of 121 h and Jackson? Golden is unique in Colorado because of its heritage, but in a few years at the rate we are 'progressing' nothing at all will remain of this heritage but some old pictures in a few books ... We advertise that this is the city 'Where the West Remains' but what of the West will remain in a few years but the hospitality for which we are famous?"394 He said Golden should tear down the Welcome Arch that said that advertisement first. Child also wrote that the Astor House should be turned into a place where Golden could welcome visitors and show them Golden was really ''Where the West Remains." Child's appeals came not just to save the building, but in the form of "safeguarding our heritage" that in modern times became a prevalent view among Americans to celebrate the past and integrate it into daily life. Contemporary American celebration of the past, preservationist historian J.B. Jackson argues, "suggests the past is a remote, ill-defined period or environment when a kind of golden age prevailed ... a period usually referred to as The Good Old Days ... a time without significant events, and a landscape without monuments."395 The reason why it became so important to 393 Ibid. 18 February 1972. 394 Ibid. 16 September 1971. 39s J.B. Jackson, The Necessity For Ruins and Other Topics (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980), p. 98. 183

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Goldenites to save a modest place like the Astor House may have been partly rooted in that idea, with "the West" as its idea of "The Good Old Days." Another reason given for saving the hotel was the upcoming Centennial-Bicentennial celebration (Colorado's centennial and the United States' bicentennial). Hartmeister appealed "We should at least give the city this opportunity to show off some of its truly historic buildings" for the celebration's activities.396 Jackson noted celebrations of this kind are indicative of how history has come to be observed in the United States, where the community does a spread-out celebration of several kinds of observances.397 The idea of the past as a golden age embodied by the Astor House surfaced often, with supporters saying it was the place where Colorado Territorial legislators stayed while Golden was the Colorado Territorial Capital. To this day it is never pointed out even in tours or literature that physically it was only possible for lawmakers to have stayed here only a few days late in 1867 before voting to transfer the capital to Denver/98 or that the Astor was one among many Golden area hotels they stayed at. Also missing is Bayard Taylor's 1866 observation that "Golden City enjoys the distinction of being the capital of Colorado Territory. That is, 396 Golden Transcript, 7 June 1972. 397 J.B. Jackson, The Necessity for Ruins and Other Topics (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980), p. 97-98. 398 Colorado Transcript, 1867. 184

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the Legislature regularly meets there, but adjourns to Denver before transacting any other business."399 Another reason the preservationist movement started was not only as a rally to save an old landmark and Golden heritage, but a backlash against the growth that had jeopardized it. A first objection, possibly demonstrating how this too had become a nationwide concern, came from Transcript reader Cornelius W. Hauck in Cincinnati, Ohio He wrote "Golden is in danger of turning its downtown area into one big, rambling parking lot dotted with stray buildings-hardly an attraction destined to lure weary shoppers away from nearby chrome-and-tinsel shopping centers."400 As early as September 1971 planning commission members Tom Andrews and Jeanie DeLuise criticized the GDID for the idea of destroying the original stone building for only six parking spaces, and abhorred the idea of turning downtown Golden into "an asphalt jungle."401 Larry McWilliams wrote "I believe the apparent fate of the Astor House signals a change in the merchants regard for the community. Those people who can dedicate so much focus and energy to the business community can, if no counter effort is applied, change Golden into a Target or K-Mart complex, with oceans of parking separating downtown 399 Bayard Taylor, Colorado: A Summer Trip (Niwot : Colorado University Press. 1989) p 49. 400 Golden Transcript 23 August 1971. 401 Golden Landmarks Association, records. 185

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from the community."402 Other criticisms were how downtown's renewal did not include landscaping or even fixing up existing storefronts beyond the canopies, ideas then largely foreign to the concept of suburban retail growth in Jefferson County. The group through which Goldenites opposed the Astor House demolition and the forces behind it became the Golden Landmarks Association. The nonprofit entity, formed in October 1971, included Child and McWilliams among its charter members.403 This group of Astor House supporters including McWilliams, Child and Howard Robinson (assistant manager for Minute Man Restaurant) had originally approached GDID about saving the building on September 23, 1971, proposing to convert the building into a restaurant. In addition, Robert Baxter offered land for a parking lot in exchange if the building was spared.404 The matter died on a tie vote with councilmen Hartmeister, Frank Leek and Kenneth Dillingham supporting it, and the Transcript proclaimed "Last Attempt Fails To Save Astor House." Regrouping as GLA, a full press to save the building ensued, revealing more of the citizens' backlash towards the status quo of Golden's development. The long list of recent landmarks destroyed including the Methodist Church, Jefferson County Courthouse and South School quickly 402 Golden Transcript, 13 October 1971. Golden Landmarks Association, records. 404 Golden Transcript, 24 September 1971. 186

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surfaced, making it crystal clear the argument of many Goldenites was not just to preserve the Astor House, ''but against the trend to sack Golden of its antiquity."405 An idea to further suburbanize Golden by turning the historic 12th Street neighborhood into an artery linking to downtown was criticized, while petitions including over 100 signatures, as well as an opposing one of nearly 100% of downtown businesses, came forward.406 Hartrneister brought the matter to a vote by moving Council authorize a study to find a use for the building, which went down 3-2 with Hartmeister and Leek for, and Mayor Andren, Don Eckberg and Leonard K. Dunn against. Leek argued that a study could do some good, that "it is the first time the citizens have had a chance to say their piece".w This alluded to another reason the Astor House made simmering sentiment come to the front, that with private owners previously tearing down landmarks this was the people's chance to finally be heard. Things moderated when several GDID members came to Council asking that GLA be given time to formulate a plan to save the building.408 Given six months from early 1972, GLA organized a plan for the City government to use general funds to purchase the building 405 Ibid, 13 October 1971. -4015 Golden Landmarks Association, records. 4lJI Ibid. 4lll Golden Transcrigt, 8 June 1972. 187

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and convert it into a museum. GLA also recruited hundreds of volunteers of all ages who conducted a pottery sale and started restoring the main floor and exterior of the building.409 GLA met fierce resistance from a business community accustomed to its modus operandi and idea of "progress." The GDID board never voted in favor of the Astor House, with member John Vincent frustratedly saying "Darned old barn. Nothing they do to it will make me think it's worth saving." Lu Holland, owner of the Holland House hotel, agreed, saying the Astor House was "a disgrace to the streets of Golden."410 However, GLA and Council agreed once a plan was together that the matter best go to a vote of the people and an election was set. Earlier in 1972 the Transcript wrote "Want to liven up your next meeting with a little controversy? The magic words are 'Astor House."' Editor Neil Paulson led the charge against it, placing three editorials against preservation from June 7-9, 1972. "Nobody is against the Astor House," he stated twice, yet continued coming up with reasons to vote against it.411 These included unknown costs of preserving it and accusing GLA of not fulfilling its obligations when it took control of the building. The Transcript moreover claimed the Astor House was not historically significant enough to 409 Golden Landmarks Association, records. 410 Golden Transcript, 18 February 1972. 411 Golden Landmarks Association, records. 188

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be worth saving (notwithstanding nobody on the paper was a historian) and cited a need to maintain existing business through making room for ongoing competition with shopping centers. Paulson said customers would not walk a half block to a store from parking space and strongly implied that non retailers in Golden were not very considerate of retailers. He also said "Anybody who represents that there is a deep, dark conspiracy by businessmen to tear down the old boarding house is a liar and a fool", ironic considering the origin of the events leading to this point. On Tuesday, June 13, 1972, 69% of the voters, 654 people, voted to save the Astor House.412 All four wards voted overwhelmingly in favor. The statement of the Golden community towards preservation and departing from the standards of growth theretofore accepted was very strong. Before the election, over 200 people donated 3,000 hours of labor in restoring the Astor House, with cash contributions of $1,550 and well over $1,000 in donated materials.413 Fifty people volunteered to go door-to-door urging people to vote in favor of saving the Astor House. The Astor House in ensuing years was converted by GLA into a hotel museum, featuring the historic piano of Colorado Territorial Gov. John Evans, getting the last laugh on he who had once been instrumental in taking 412 Golden Transcript, 14 June 1972. 413 Golden Landmarks Association, records. 189

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the capital away from Golden.414 Unfortunately, the Astor has always been treated as an unwanted stepchild by the City government commanded to own it, kept perpetually on a shoestring budget since 1972.415 While downtown succeeded in making itself a shopping center-like area it also adopted the concept's faults, which became glaringly apparent starting in 1976 through the end of the 1980s. During this time every chain department store and grocery store anchor either went out of business or left, causing a deep slump leading many to believe (if not entirely accurately), that downtown was dying. It did not make a very good shopping center. Except for Hesteds and Safeway its anchors were of substandard size compared to shopping malls and had every inclination to drive each other out of town if they could. In the end, the experiment that jeopardized the Astor House proved flawed in its very concept. The effects of sprawl had tempted Golden to try beating its enemy by joining them. At the Astor's doorstep the endeavor to turn downtown into a shopping mall met a halt. The plan in the end succeeded in demolishing most structures it desired, exacting a heavy price on Golden's historic and architectural fabric. However, a fundamental shift in attitude towards preservation, growth and renewal had begun in Jefferson County. GLA quickly went on to other achievements: helping preserve 12th Street, a future 414 Colorado Transcript, 1874. 190

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National Historic District (1972); Guy Hill School (1976); the Pearce Ranch cabins (1994); the Burgess House hotel (1995); Goosetown Tavern (transplanted to Denver 1997); Pullman House (1998 & continuing); and the Golden Schoolhouse (1999).416 Golden Landmarks literally succeeded in creating Golden's own embodiment of the nationwide response towards urban renewal, a thing preservationist historian David Hamer cited as "a crucial catalyst for the emergence of a constituency for action on historic preservation."417 Today Richard J. Gardner, the fourth GLA Historian, has helped designate the downtown Welcome Arch, built in 1949 by the same Lu Holland who once told his organization the Astor House was a disgrace to the streets of Golden. GLA in thirty years has succeeded in getting its community to agree with the vision still held proudly by its founding father, when he said back at the beginning with his first objection ''I'm hung up on people who have to put dollar value on everything. We do have other things of value." 415 Golden Landmarks Association, records. 416 Ibid. 417 David Hamer, Histm:y in Urban Places: The Historic Districts of the United States (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1998), p. 14. 191

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Lakeside The smallest town in Colorado exists within its most populous county. Lakeside, much better known as simply the amusement park within, is also a 160-acre town. Established in 1907, Lakeside existed for 90 years without a tax of any kind until the County's predicament brought a long-simmering feud with the town to a final conclusion. While growth could be said to have gained Jefferson County many towns, it nearly cost its citizens one of its most unique communities. Lakeside has been thought of by some of its residents as its own unique brand of paradise. It began as the paradise of the Brewer's Syndicate, as referred to by Colorado Transcript editor Harley Dean West. To avoid Denver's laws banning liquor, a group of Denver businessmen led by prominent brewer Adolph J. Zang decided to cross the border to Jefferson County and build a grand, sparkling new resort for the people of the entire Denver area to enjoy. They chose the site of West Berkeley Lake, and organized the Lakeside Realty & Amusement Company with an immense capital backing to promote what they hoped would become Jefferson County's greatest resort.418 Soon all 160 acres of and around the lake were purchased. First they built nine bungalows along Sheridan Boulevard north of West 44th Avenue to house the workers who would build their resort, with 418 Colorado Transcript and Golden Globe, 1907. 192

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others living in tents nearby. Work on Lakeside's signature landmark, the Casino, with its sparkling lighted 150-foot Tower of Jewels, began on Monday, September 24, 1907.419 Lakeside was designed by Denver architect Edwin H. Moorman to be a glimmering jewel in the dark expanse that was Jefferson County, and it made this intention clear in no uncertain terms. To start, the Lakeside Realty & Amusement Company purchased the searchlight used on the Ferris wheel at the St. Louis World's Fair. Its rays subsequently swept the city and even the foothills.420 The light was of 10,000 candle power and was installed atop the Tower of Jewels. General Manager Lewin planned Lakeside's lighting, using over 100,000 lights of different candlepower around the park, with the intention of making Lakeside the best-illuminated park outside of New York City. 20,000 lights encircled Lake Rhoda in large globelike clusters topping the poles lining the railroad, some of which still exist today. The Tower of Jewels alone used over 5,000 lights, with as many placed in other parts of the casino building. Edwin H. Moorman, who also designed the Pahaska Teepee atop Lookout Mountain, designed this fifteen-building resort.421 The Tower of 419 Colorado Transcript, 26 September 1907. 420 Ibid, 20 February 1908. 421 Denyer Republjcan, 1 September 19(J7. 193

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Jewels was at the time the tallest spire yet to grace Jefferson County. The Casino included a basement German-style rathskellar, dining room, and Casino design to be open yearlong.422 Atop the building was a roof garden, with public access to the top of the tower with stunning views of the mountains and plains. The building also housed a private ballroom, dining room and company offices. A roofed plaza greeted visitors from Sheridan, who parked their automobiles between its columns. Plans included surrounding the resort with trees and a picturesque slab board fence eight feet high with spreading vines. Other attractions included a boat house, bath houses, dancing pavilion, roller skating rink, roller coaster, and Japanese Tea Garden, built for half a million dollars.423 Another feature was touted to be "the largest and best equipped miniature railroad in the country," a 22-inch gauge line encircling Lake Rhoda in over a mile's distance. It featured tiny twin steam engines manufactured for the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904, stationed at a small replica of the original design of Denver's Union Station. The engines' nicknames were Puffing Billy and Whistling Tom. 422 Colorado Transcript, 20 February 1908. 423 Sara E. Robbins, Jefferson County Colorado: The Colorful Past of a Great Community (Lakewood: Jefferson County Bank, 1962), p. 39. 194

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On November 12, 1907, Lakeside officially became its own town, though a unanimous vote of its approximately 100 residents.424 A large majority were associated in some way with the Lakeside Company. Lakeside's first town officers included Marvin Adams as Mayor, with Ernest A. Allen, John P. Yaeger, Hugh O'Connell, John Fenster, Chester Weselquist, and (Mrs.) Kate Adams as Trustees.425 Adams appears to have been the first woman to hold a seat on any Jefferson County town's council. A who's who among prominent Denver businessmen financed Lakeside. These included Adolph J. Zang, Godfrey Schirmer, Peter J. Friederich, John A. Keefe and Albert Lewin. Zang was president of the company, and the resort took over $500,000 to build.426 The Syndicate's object for incorporation was simple: to control their own destiny by making their own liquor laws, creating advantages over competition like Elitch Gardens and Manhattan Beach. Likely in their minds were reports from the Transcript and other media since that 1880s that Denver had exerted illegal influence over the affairs of Edgewater and eastern Jefferson County. Lakeside's existence also allowed Zang to sell beer across the street from legally dry Denver, ensuring that the beer interests might build this place, get good sales, and not get arrested for it. 24 Colorado Transcript, 21 November 1907. 425 Ibid, 12 December 1907. 4261bid, 1 January 1908. 195

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Figure 7.3 Lakeside, Tower of Jewels and casino building, c. 1908 (Source: Gardner Family Collection) Lakeside Amusement Park officially opened Memorial Day, May 30, 1908. Around 50,000 people came to its grand opening and were dazzled. At lOam the resort was officially christened by Gertrude Zang, Adolph's daughter, who smashed a bottle of champagne against the Tower of Jewels.427 Mayor Robert Speer of Denver put this awesome machine of light and fun in motion by touching a button in his downtown office. Mayor Adams made a short grand opening speech with Golden Mayor John F. Vivian (father of 427 Ibid, 30 May 1908. 196

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future Governor John C. Vivian) at his side. For Mayor Adams to have been flanked in spirit by two of the most powerful political bosses in Colorado must have been a truly auspicious beginning indeed! Greeting visitors at the plaza between the Casino and lake were walks, fountains and flower beds, and hundreds of trees and shrubs placed there by a corps of expert gardeners.428 In the plaza was a fine bandstand where Dante's Italian Band of Venice, California performed. Beyond it was the miniature railway depot, and to the entrance's north was the summer skating rink, a huge ballroom, light refreshment pavilion, and the rustic Boathouse. To the south of the Casino was the Natatorium, with a glass roof and pool supposed to be of pure mountain water. At the southeast center of Lakeside was the shoot-the-chutes, a predecessor to the modern splash-down water rides. It divided the southeast part of the park in two; along avenue A were concession buildings including a moving picture theater, shooting school, box ball alleys, the airship (which the Denver Republican described as "a decided novelty"), touring cars, the "flying lady," and the haunted swing.429 On avenue B were the devil's palace, the third degree, the penny arcade and the pony and burro track depot. The rest of the avenue was used for rides. 428 Denyer Republican, 17 May 1908. 429 Ibid. 24 May 1908. 197

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Accessed through the square twin tile-roofed towers of its Mediterranean-style depot, the scenic railway gave wonderful views of the countryside, a ride reportedly unlike anything in a western amusement park. Nearby was the lofty velvet coaster with its own unique turns and twists.430 Contractor W.H. Labb of Indianapolis intended the roller coaster to be a combination of the Foster coaster of Chicago's White City and a type of figure-S with framework 1,200 feet long, with dips and turns extending its length to 3,600 lineal feet.431 Other rides included the Coney Island tickler, the double whirl, the Ferris wheel and the circle wave. Lakeside featured shaded picnic grounds including the Casa Manana pavilion, minor shows, free swings and weekly open air attractions. Dazzling visitors were lights everywhere, outlining, crisscrossing and encrusting the buildings, railways, roller coasters, with the tower described as "a pillar of captive fire."432 Partly because of its dazzling display of white lights, white buildings, white uniforms and gloves on waiters, and a banner bearing the name flown from the tower, Lakeside earned the nickname of White City. That nickname also came from a source of far greater significance, as Lakeside was inspired by, and likely Colorado's best private example of, a nationwide architectural movement: the City Beautiful. 430 Ibid. 431 Colorado Transcript, 26 December 1907. 432 Denver Republican. 31 May 1908. 198

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The movement was founded in Chicago with the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893, when famed master architect Daniel Hudson Burnham created the original White City.433 He presented a vision for civic leaders nationwide with a carefully crafted master plan of neoclassical buildings, sculptures, spacious landscaping, and plazas which awestruck visitors with grandiose design and use of space and perspective. Inspiring cities across the country, the City Beautiful movement became the most significant architecture theme of the nation from 1893 through 1941.434 Lakeside was the true embodiment of the City Beautiful. Aside from features already described, it had fountains, gardens and a walk called the Olympian Way, lined with statues of Olympic sports figures.435 The whole resort was literally designed in Mediterranean style, a sparkling classical metropolis. The City Beautiful offered Americans not only a rediscovery of classical architecture, but a vision and solution for dealing with cities' haphazard growth at the turn of the 20th Century. Lakeside was inspired even more directly by this movement, not only placing itself at a lake shore like the original White City but even taking on its name and inviting comparison to it. 433 Thomas J. Noel and Barbara S. Norgren, Denyer The City Beautiful and Its Architects. 1893-1941 (Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1987), p. 1. 434 Ibid. 435 Rocky Mountain News, 3 August 1986. 199

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Lakeside no doubt had Denver's Mayor Speer drooling, as the Columbian Exposition had transformed him into a great promoter of the City Beautiful movement.436 While there is no known evidence that Lakeside's design was his idea, the City Beautiful movement would come to be an even more profound local influence because of him. He implemented a three-stage plan for his vision: Denver's Civic Center of government buildings and cultural institutions; parks and parkways linking landscaping, transportation, open space and central Denver with outlying regions; and mountain parks providing scenery and recreation for the city's people.437 By the time the movement passed, not only had the City Beautiful ideal inspired civic rennaissance from Cleveland to Manila, but it became the one civic movement to most profoundly influence Jefferson County itself. It was responsible for inspiring Lakeside, Red Rocks Amphitheater, Buffalo Bill's grave and museum, the park of Evergreen Lake, Lariat Loop and Bear Creek Canyon roads, and much more. Virtually every remaining Jefferson County monument to the City Beautiful, save Lakeside, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Lakeside was a reputable and immensely popular place, living a completely legal and orderly beer-flowing existence, thumbing its nose at 436 Thomas J. Noel and Barbara S. Norgren, Denyer: The City Beautiful and Its Architects. 1893-1941 (Denver: Historic Denver, Inc .. 1987), p. 1-2. 4J7 Ibid, p. 10. 200

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Denver. Despite a 1911 fire that destroyed the Scenic Railway and other attractions Lakeside surged onward, going into the hands of the Colorado Realty & Amusement Company. This new corporation was headed by president Frank Kirprof, first vice-president William Buck, second vice president and general manager Arnold Bloedt, secretary and treasurer Philip Friedrich, and director John A. Keefe.438 New attractions were added, and the 1,100-seat Casino Theater continued featuring musicals and comedies, luring stars from New York and other places. The Lakeside Realty & Amusement Company originally planned to promote the remainder of its land as a residential district, but no more houses ever materialized.439 As a result, town population declined from a 1910 high of 103 to just a handful of people. Mayor Adams had doubled in civic duty as police magistrate, becoming the first of a long line of Lakeside citizens to service multiple roles in its government. El Patio hosted swing-era big bands and many big name entertainers, including Stan Kenton, Kay Kyser, Phil Harris, Tony Pastor, and Ted Weems.440 There, often sitting next to the cashier was a young girl named Rhoda, who loved watching the dancers, their motion, the floor patterns, the 438 Golden Globe, 17 May 1913. 4391bid. 440 Ibid. 3 August 1986. 201

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rhythm. Her father, Benjamin Krasner, had moved there in 1917. Despite these things, Lakeside was doomed, and went down with the Great Depression into bankruptcy. Krasner, the food concessionaire, put together a group of out-of-state investors and purchased Lakeside in 1936 for around $30,000.441 It had successfully risen from the ashes of the nationwide economic calamity that claimed many other business interests. In 1940, a new main attraction materialized at Lakeside's northeast comer when the noted father and son engineering team of Edward Vettel, of the famed family of roller coaster engineers, designed the Cyclone.442 During the 1940s Richard Crowther, fresh from working on the Golden Gate Exposition in San Francisco, redesigned the park in the form of streamline modeme, the latter-day horizontal-lined member of the Art Moderne family of architecture adding modern streamlining, curves and colors.443 The Fun House became the favorite of teenagers, with its ocean wave, monkey's cage, revolving barrels, spinning platter, air vents that surprised young women by blowing their skirts over their heads (until they wore trousers), and Sally the laughing lady. Lakeside the town took on a whole new character when Lakeside Mall was built in 1956, the first shopping mall built in Jefferson County. It was 441 Westward, 14-20 May 1986. 442 Thomas J. Noel, of Colorado (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), p. 157-58. 443 Ibid. 202

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reputedly the first air-conditioned, enclosed shopping mall ever constructed in the United States, designed by Gerri Von Frellick.444 It consisted of a central hall bounded on the north and south by shops, with trucks supplying each shop via an underground tunnel. In 1956 the Lakeside National Bank, a sizable multiwindowed concrete office tower, was built at the town's northwest side. Ownership of the rest of the town buildings was consolidated in 1961 when the Denver Real Estate Investment Association purchased the shopping center and office building. However, as in the beginning, the amusement park owner continued dominion over the land. Post World War II growth had come to Lakeside in the biggest way, along with suburban amenities. West Berkeley Lake, renamed Silvan Lake, was renamed Lake Rhoda after Ben Krasner's growing little girl. He died in 1965, and Rhoda and uncle Martie Ruttner inherited the amusement park. Upon Ruttner's death, Rhoda became general manager, which she has remained ever since.445 Rhoda Krasner had graduated from North High School in Denver and attended Mills College in California, but always knew Lakeside was her destiny. As she put it, "It has all the elements of a conventional business, but is far more 444 Rocky Mountain News, 7 January 1993. 445 Ibid, 3 August 1986. 203

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exciting. It is satisfying at the end of the day knowing we entertained a lot of people and that we put all the elements together to do that." Figure 7.4 Lakeside Mall, 1999 appearance (Source: Gardner Family Collection) By 1966, Puffing Billy and Whistling Tom had carried over 30 million passengers along the railroad.446 Lakeside's famous Kiddie Playland was the only one in the country with 16 rides, and its price was still only 5 cents per child. Among its most unique rides was the Merry-Go-Round, imported from Germany, which instead of horses featured every vehicle imaginable 446 Ibid, 11 June 1966. 204

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including motorcycles, a bus, a fire engine, and more. On the 4th of July, Lakeside made an annual display of fireworks over the lake. Krasner had inherited a park that by then had built itself a reputation "as a glorious example of a traditional iron park, but the grounds, including Moonlight Gardens and the natatorium had fallen derelict.447 In 1974, Moonlight Gardens was torn down, and the natatorium burned. However, the Cyclone came to be rated among the top 10 roller coasters in the United States by the New York Times. Soon steel roller coasters such as the Wild Chipmunk joined the mix. Since that time Lakeside has remained Denver's sole remaining major historic amusement park. For decades Lakeside citizens never paid city sales taxes or property taxes. The town did have the responsibility of maintaining the east half of Harlan Street and the north half of West 44th Avenue, and let the Jefferson County government keep highway use tax funds to keep the roads in good order.448 Lakeside also contracted with the County Sheriff for police protection, and enjoyed mutual-aid agreements for fire protection with departments in Denver, Wheat Ridge, Lakewood and Arvada. The amusement park was the town's sole major support through permit fee, with other revenue coming from liquor licenses, concessions, and park admission. Lakeside was particularly attractive to businesses because they did not have 467 Westward, 14-20 May 1986. 205

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to pay city taxes, making it cheaper to shop at Lakeside Mall. However, Lakeside's unique way of life was due for a nearly catastrophic interruption that would threaten the existence of the historic town itself. At first Lakeside's downturn was metaphorically and literally a matter of putting fires out. In 1972 the Wheat Ridge Fire Department, which had contracted to provide service to Lakeside, pulled out because Krasner would not allow them to inspect Lakeside.449 Lakeside responded by starting its own fire department with two fire trucks. In 1986 Lakeside Mayor George Thomas boasted that Lakeside had a "volunteer fire department that's probably one of the country's best-manned. Through the summer we got 300-some people we can draw on (the entire seasonal staff). It's compulsory. In the winter we revert back to the 60-some people that are in the maintenance department." Lakeside had weathered this challenge, but suspicions were growing that Lakeside was acting as a principality not playing by rules followed by other communities. Matters became complicated when, after a fatal roller coaster accident, the Jefferson County District Attorney conducted a grand jury investigation which found much of the park in violation of state and county health and safety codes.-l50 The park was closed for several weeks in 1973, and for two 448 Denyer Post 11 June 1979. 449 Westword, 14-20 May 1986. 4so Denyer Post, 11 June 1979. 206

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years the cost of repairs and negative publicity nearly threw Lakeside into its second bankruptcy. Lakeside tenaciously righted itself and enjoyed new development that had joined it in 1971: the Lakeside Office Park was built about the tower at the northwest side of town by the Denver Real Estate Investment Association.451 -.... Figure 7.5 Map of town of Lakeside (Source: United States Geological Survey) Nevertheless, Lakeside's misfortune fueled suspicion, and Jefferson County Commissioner John Stone began calling for its municipal status to be 451 Ibid. 207

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taken away in 1988.-152 He and others believed the town existed for Lakeside Amusement Park to be able to set its own rules including safety codes. However, Mayor (and Fire Chief) Robert Gordanier countered that Lakeside's insurance company would still insist on sufficient precautions. The year of 1988 was one of the darkest for Lakeside, when a stock car driven by Gary Burton at the Lakeside Speedway veered out of control, killing Kristy Carlson and injuring Megan Malara and Danielle Chapla. The town's police were criticized for not doing enough to investigate. Three lawsuits filed against Lakeside were eventually settled, without details released.-153 Stone quarreled with Lakeside over its slow pace of making road repairs, to which Gordanier responded that other small towns have similar trouble raising money. The County in 1988 even researched attempting to get state legislation passed to abolish Lakeside over the road not getting repaired.454 In the end, no one proved Lakeside's people abused power or broke the law, and efforts to abolish the town subsided .. .for the time being. The trials and tribulations of attacks on Lakeside's existence once led Guy Kelly of the Rocky Mountain News to put things in perspective: Let's lighten up on Lakeside. 452 Ibid, 30 January 1994. 453 Rocky Mountain News, 11 December 1990. 454 Ibid, 13 July 1988. 208

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Sure it's small, but so what. The place has eight homes along Sheridan Boulevard. There's Lakeside Mall, Lakeside Amusement Park and Lakeside National Bank. That's about it, but what more does a town need? Consider the benefits: Lakeside has about five amusement rides per person. Each resident has something like 90,000 square feet of mall space. Eat your heart out, Aurora. But all is not well in this town of 32 square blocks and perhaps 15 people. Seems the town has let things slide. It's reached the point that the mall wants out of Lakeside and into Wheat Ridge. Jefferson County has become so disenchanted with the town that they'd like to disband Lakeside. One commissioner even went as far as to say, "Lakeside is not a city. It's a joke." Another official called Lakeside "the uncity." Now hold on just a minute. Why don't they pick on someone their own size? This is a place that gets by on $100,000 or so a year. Granted, the town doesn't seem to provide many services. But look at it this way. There's no unemployment. They don't need a computer to handle the election returns. And there hasn't been much of a scandal here since 1980, when the police chief got a little too friendly with the owner of two houses of prostitution (not in Lakeside). Still, this is a Rodney Dangerfield kind of town. Lakeside can't even get any respect from the U.S. Census Bureau. In 1971, officials had to admit they goofed when they overlooked the local population here and listed Lakeside as a ghost town. They said the town vanished during the 1960s. Not so. Lakeside is still alive and, if not well, surviving-despite everyone's efforts. The only thing it seems to want is to be left alone. Is that too much to askrss Bustling with the smells of cotton candy and screams of delighted children in the summer, yet serene in the winter, with no property taxes to speak of, Lakeside lived on. Politics in Lakeside remained a laid-back, cozy, closely-knit affair. The Lakeside City Council meets without fail every 455 Rocky Mountain News, 15 January 1989. 209

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Monday of every month just by the Mayor hollering down the alley.456 The Mayor receives $5 per month for administering the government, being fire chief and looking after utilities. With a tiny town population, citizens took turns every two years serving on the board of trustees including a mayor and six trustees, and the mayor and mayor pro tern exchanged seats every election. Balloting takes place at a single polling place in the office of the amusement park, opening at 7am and closing at 7pm or when the last eligible voter of Lakeside casts their ballot, whichever comes first.457 They fill out paper ballots placed in a wooden ballot box. Results come in faster than any Jefferson County town. It is without question Lakeside has enjoyed the greatest percentage of voter turnout in Jefferson County history, virtually 100% every election. It is also the only Jefferson County town whose citizens could predict the outcome of an election consistently before it even started. Through it all Rhoda Krasner dispenses a gentle, benevolent dictatorship, and has been the best person for resolving disputes and problems in the town. The town government continued to retain an annual budget into the mid-tens of thousands, with additional revenue from state gas and cigarette taxes. Not all tax money from outside was accepted, however; Lakeside has always turned away school funding because, as 456 Westward, 14-20 May 1986. 457 Rocky Mountain News, 31 October 1982. 210

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Westword put it: "there are no schools in Lakesidejust a great place to play hookey." Lakeside's entire history of quiet, fun-loving way of life was to come close to a catastrophic conclusion during the middle of the 1990s. Growth in Jefferson County had continually built subdivisions since the late 1980s, and soon became a threat nobody had even thought of to a place like Lakeside. Lakeside had not had a new house built in it for nearly a century. However, the rapid growth of Jefferson County was consuming county resources, leading to a final confrontation over the County's longstanding friendship of providing services to its smallest town and simmering resentment of the town's existence. Lakeside soon became a victim of a hidden consequence of growth that has become a nationwide problem in scope. Elsewhere in Jefferson County, as early as 1994, Evergreen, a large unincorporated area of the southwest Jefferson County mountains of around 30,000 people, had considered incorporation in part because the County budgets had been so tight.Q Beginning in 1997, the issue exploded. That year the County government decided to put a much-needed $18 million jail expansion on the back burner while the commissioners looked "for ways to keep the county afloat financially over the next five years."ol59 The jail, originally built in 1986 and projected to last to 2010, had become obsolete due 458 Ibid, 2 February 1994. 211

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to the large jump in Jefferson County's population and resulting greater number of people committing crimes. For the County's finances overall, Commissioner Stone offered this dim outlook: "As we look five years down the road, a whole combination of things makes us see major red lights coming on and our long-term prospects look like the stock market in reverse."460 Stone mentioned several options for dealing with the shortfall, including putting Evergreen, Conifer and southern Jefferson County within a municipal boundary by incorporation or annexation into an existing city. As Stone put it, ''Better than one-third of the county is being operated under the unincorporated structure and it's handing us our lunch."461 A great deal of Jefferson County's growth since the 1970s had occurred outside of municipalities including places such as Ken Caryl Ranch, Evergreen, Conifer, Columbine, and Golden Gate Canyon.462 The County government's inability or unwillingness to implement growth controls had clearly stretched the County's financial resources so thin it could not even afford to expand and staff an adequate jail facility. In efforts to find new ways to save money, the government returned its sights to Lakeside. 4S9 Ibid, 17 September 1997. oW) Ibid. 461 Ibid. 462 County of Jefferson, clerk and recorder plat records. 212

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"It was a business decision" was the way Sheriff Ron Beckham put it. 'We have something like 80 enclaves the county wants cities to annex because we drive five to 10 miles through some cities to get to some. It's not cost-effective."463 And so, the Jefferson County Sheriff pulled out of Lakeside after decades of service to the tiny community. Suddenly Lakeside was without a police force, and the historic town of 12 adults and 5 children had to find some way to survive this sudden crisis. Since Lakeside was created it got by on the amusement park's annual permit fee which netted it $75,000 for a budget in 1996. It was now faced with coming up with around $200,000 for police protection alone. 464 The amusement park and mall needed patrolling. Lakeside attorney Daly said the town probably would not issue bonds to go into debt, "But again, they don't have a way to raise revenue. They are essentially without any funds."465 The town did find funds to quickly add two full-time and eight to nine on-call officers of its own, with Mayor Robert Gordanier acting as police chief, but clearly Lakeside had to change to survive. On November 4, 1997, Lakeside voters put to an end what had been a most unique way of life to the town for 90 years: they unanimously voted to enact Lakeside's first taxes. The town trustees asked voters to give them 463 Rocky Mmmtain News, 20 October 1997. -464 Ibid. 21 September 1997. 46S Ibid. 213

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authority to levy a sales tax of up to 3 percent, generating as much as $950,000 annually from a head tax on all who worked in the town, bonded indebtedness of up to $1.95 million for the government, and up to $1.95 million from a property tax.466 While town officials did not believe the full tax would be levied, they wanted a contingency allowing them options in deciding the town's needs, a fail-safe option in case of future crisis. Lakeside voters also approved two ballot issues exempting Lakeside from the revenue limits imposed by the state Taxpayer's Bill of Rights amendment, and included the ability to spend funds on infrastructure improvements and other needs as the town saw fit. Finally, Lakeside swept away one of the last visages of the envisioned major town it was never to be, exempting the mayor and trustees from term limits and limiting the publication of ordinances to title only. Jefferson County's modern growth was the catalyst these changes. Commissioner Stone told Evergreen only two months later "Every time another roof goes up in the county, it is another nail in the coffin ... Folks move out of the city into the country and want the same level of services."467 Jefferson County's commissioners had become alarmed at the increasing demand for services in the growing unincorporated areas and what 4661bid. lo671bid, 13 January 1998. 214

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happened to Lakeside was a relatively small piece of a much larger puzzle. It was symptomatic of a problem with growth across the United States. Nationally-known preservation scholar James Marston Fitch identifies what happened to Lakeside as one of the three hidden ways true societal costs of growth are hidden: "The true cost is shifted from the individual entrepreneur to the community in general."468 Housing developers, for instance, are not required to provide resources to build utilities, roads, schools, or even police and fire protection to accommodate their growth.469 It becomes the responsibility of the general community to provide these things, and thereby the community must financially absorb each of these impacts new growth places upon it. Jefferson County had created so much new growth without developers subsidizing the costs of its impact that Jefferson County found its service fw1ding rapidly shrinking, leading its leaders to the profound realization they had to limit these costs. One of these was to cut off services to Lakeside. Another was by encouraging the Evergreen citizens to incorporate, who were warned that cuts in service or higher taxes were on the horizon if demand soon outstripped revenue. With Stone warning ''The status quo is not an option anymore," the County formed a task force of citizens, business and civic 4611 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial of the Built World (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 31. 469 Ibid. 215

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leaders to seeks solutions to future budgetary problems caused by growth.470 Dan Brindle, zoning administrator of Jefferson County, warned at the time of Lakeside's election that if demand for services increased at the pace it was, County spending would exceed revenues shortly after the turn of the 2J81 Century.471 Evergreen residents balked at incorporation, noting their limited ability to provide water would act as a natural growth barrier anyway. Citing the Taxpayer Bill of Rights and other concerns, decisions on new subdivisions were delayed by commissioners, and efforts continued to press other areas into incorporating. Fairmount incorporation was soon considered and rejected by its citizens, and County efforts to deal with the budgetary crisis generated by its lack of foresight in managing growth continue to this day. Lakeside, meanwhile, has settled back down to enjoying itself as one of the few refuges from growth Jefferson County has left. It now has its own fire and police forces, though it still maintains uniqueness aside from any other town in Jefferson County. It still has its own separate telephone exchange, operating on an antique system where the operator fields calls at a phone console and plugs in phone lines much like in Jefferson County's earliest years.472 Most of the bungalows that have housed just about every Lakeside 470 Rocky Mountain News, 13 January 1998. 471 Ibid. 472 Ibid, 8 March 1987. 216

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resident that ever lived still stand along Sheridan Boulevard. The amusement park has continued as a bargain alternative to other Denver amusements, offering old-fashioned rides while maintaining family attractions. Lakeside still has its Casino building, the Tower of Jewels, train, and carousel from 1908. While many have thought Lakeside amusing, and some thought it a joke, it is no more a joke than five Jefferson County towns that passed through their entire history without any elected government whatsoever. Upon the tower as one exits Lakeside is written the Latin word "Redit," meaning "come back." 217

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CHAPTERS CONCLUSION Jefferson County has achieved its founders' dreams, and become Colorado's most populous county. However, growth has endangered its historical landmarks, unique character and cultural landscape. How growth has endangered them is symptomatic of larger issues facing historic preservationists across the United States. They are being saved by an emerging community preservation consciousness that is maturing like others around the country. Deliberate actions and negligent control regarding growth harm Jefferson County's landmarks. Lakeside was the victim of suburban development eating up limited resources needed to service it. The Astor House was nearly destroyed by urban renewal spurred as a means to compete with suburban shopping malls. Lakewood's Heritage Center contains refugee buildings displaced by sprawl directly and by streets widened to facilitate traffic spurred by growth. Leyden represents the growing nationwide need for protection of entire districts to maintain an historic town's identity in the face of growth. Situations leading to threats sometimes have taken years, or decades, to form. Some threatened landmarks are ironically products of growth 218

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similar in philosophy to suburban sprawl affecting them today. These things demonstrate that the problem of growth towards historic landmarks is a continuing phenomenon that may have no easy fix but must be remedied by comprehensive community planning over time. Given the complex variety of problems facing Jefferson County preservationists, it is urgent to develop a strong preservation ethic in the county. These problems are not localized; Jefferson County is a microcosm of national preservation concerns. James Marston Fitch notes that community building philosophy has changed from a tradition of re-use to throwaway structures. Fitch says that modern buildings "are assumed to have a certain finite lifetime."473 David Hamer notes how onetime rival cities such as Jefferson County's Apex and Leyden are now being engulfed by their neighbors, helping spur the need for preserving districts.474 Golden urban renewal, triggered to help its downtown compete against suburban malls, was part of a national policy to destroy and replace. Lakeside was threatened by growth overextending Jefferson County government services forcing it to cut off Lakeside. This made Lakeside the victim of what Fitch calls a major 473 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation Curatorial of the Built World (CharlottesvilJe: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 35. 474 David Hamer, History in Urban Places The Historic Districts of the United States (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1998), p. 51. 219

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hidden societal cost of growth.475 The Environmental Protection Agency has stated of growth "that this is a national crises is clear from debates that currently rage about the right of communities to limit growth and the sociological and environmental use of zoning law, from open housing to ecology."476 Jefferson County's emerging preservation movement likewise reflects national patterns. The Astor House was saved from urban renewal, which Hamer said is "a crucial catalyst for the emergence of a constituency for action on historic preservation."4n This led directly to the creation of Jefferson County's first historic preservation entity, the Golden Landmarks Association, in 1971. Fitch notes the house museum the Wheat Ridge Soddy became is the basic component of historic preservation, "acting as the nursery for the entire movement.'"'78 This place spurred the creation of the Wheat Ridge Historical Society, which has since matured to embrace greater aspects of the preservation movement including designating historic districts. The Baugh Farmhouse was the catalyst for enacting Wheat Ridge's preservation 475 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation Curatorial of the Built World (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 31. 476 Ibid, p. 36. 417 David Hamer, Hjstor:y in Urban Places The Historic Districts of the United States (Colwnbus: Ohio State University Press, 1998), p. 14. 478 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial of the Built World (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 43. 220

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ordinance, reflecting the rising national pattern towards preserving districts, not just places. The Mt. Vernon House is a virtual poster child for national patterns, being threatened by an Interstate highway, and saved by the National Historic Preservation Act which barred that highway from harming it. Hamer cites the evolution in preservation thinking away from preserving individual places to preserving districts.479 Without this, more Jefferson County buildings like many in the U.S. may be moved to outdoor architectural museums, which Fitch laments as "counterproductive" to maintaining their cultural integrity.41ll Or they could have their setting so altered they might as well be in a different place. Jefferson County is coming around to this thinking yet its government has no law to designate even singular buildings. It does not seem to hold historic preservation as a high priority and as a result Jefferson County's growth regulations do not take preservation into account, jeopardizing landmarks. Preserving settings and districts requires community planning and regulation to protect that setting's integrity. Jefferson County's preservation efforts are still in their infancy. Its citizens have concentrated on individual landmarks, leading to the 479 David Hamer, History in Urban Places: The Historic Districts of the United States (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1998), p. 18. 480 James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial of the Built World (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998), p. 224-225. 221

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preservation of architectural zoos like Lakewood's Heritage Center and Clear Creek Park; buildings set alone amidst blocks of parking like the Astor House; or a place locked within modem development like the Bradford House. Individual landmarks are under constant threat of destruction, and despite the national proliferation of growth-regulating laws few exist in Jefferson County. It is clear governments alone cannot accomplish preservation; a community ethic must also promote preservation. This is especially true in a place where government traditionally favors growth. Otherwise, it is possible preservationists may end up fighting battle after battle forever to keep individual places, when several could have been addressed at the same time. Growth is not always detrimental to historic landmarks. Indeed, many noted Jefferson County places were spurred by or facilitated growth, such as Leyden, Bradford Junction and the Brickyard House. Historic places are not numerous enough to dominate the Jefferson County landscape, and with careful planning and strong attention to preservation values by citizens and government, growth may be controlled and channeled to eliminate its harmful effects. It is possible to channel it even to revitalize historic places. But to do so requires Jefferson County's people to place more value on historic preservation. Preservation in Jefferson County has only begun, starting as its counterparts across the nation did with emphasis on individual landmarks. It 222

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is now evolving to preserving districts and historic cultural landscapes. As the cases of Lakeside and Leyden point out, districts may become the future pattern of historic preservation in Jefferson County, and in the nation, to embrace preserving a community's entire way of life. Indeed, old things are a vital part of a community's way of life. Through them the past and a community's collective identity through time may be interpreted. Once growth is planned and channeled effectively, a future Jefferson County will get the chance to enjoy its history. 223

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BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Brown, Georgina. The Shining Mountains. Gunnison: B&B Printers, Inc., 1976. Fitch, James Marston. Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998. Foothills Genealogical Society of Colorado, Inc. WPA History of Golden, Jefferson County, Colorado. Lakewood: Foothills Genealogical Society of Colorado, Inc, 1993. Hamer, David. History in Urban Places: The Historic Districts of the United States. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1998. History of Clear Creek and Boulder Valleys, Colorado. Chicago: O.L. Baskin & Co., 1880. Jackson, J.B. The Necessity for Ruins and Other Topics. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980. Jefferson County Historical Commission. From Scratch: A History of Jefferson County, Colorado. Golden: Jefferson County Historical Commission, 1985. Jefferson County Historical Commission. Jefferson County National Register Historic Sites. Golden: Jefferson County Public Library, 1995. City of Lakewood. 76 Centennial Stories of Lakewood. Lakewood: Lakewood Centennial-Bicentennial Commission, 1976. Lakewood's 251h Anniversary Commission. Lakewood-Colorado: An Illustrated Biography. Lakewood: Lakewood's 25th Birthday Commission, 1994. 224

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Leonard, Stephen J. and Noel, Thomas J. Denver: Mining Camp to Metropolis. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1990. Leyendecker, Liston Edgington. Palace Car Prince: A Biography of George Mortimer Pullman. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992. Mahoney, Paul F., Noel, Thomas J. and Stevens, Richard E. Historical Atlas of Colorado. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993. Meyers, Thomas and Mickel, William. Historic Structure Report for the Astor House Hotel at 822 121h Street Golden. Colorado. Boulder: John Feinberg, 1992. Noel, Thomas J. Buildings of Colorado. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. Noel, Thomas J. Colorado: A Liquid History and Tavern Guide to the Highest State. Golden: Fulcrum Publishing, 1999. Noel, Thomas J. and Norgren, Barbara S. Denver: The City Beautiful and Its Architects. 1893-1941. Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1987. Ramstetter, Charles and Mary. John Gregory Country: Place Names and History of Ralston Buttes Quadrangle. Golden: C Lazy Three Press, 1999. Ramstetter, James K. Life in the Early Days. Denver: Alameda Press, 1996. Robbins, Sara E. Jefferson County Colorado: The Colorful Past of a Great Community. Lakewood: Jefferson County Bank, 1962. Taylor, Bayard. Colorado: A Summer Trip. Niwot: Colorado University Press, 1989. Smiley, Jerome. History of Colorado. Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Company, 1913. Sternberg, Barbara and Gene. Evergreen: Our Mountain Community. Evergreen: Sternberg and Sternberg, 1987. Wheat Ridge Historical Committee. History of Pioneer Wheat Ridge. Wheat Ridge: The City of Wheat Ridge, 1971. 225

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GOVERNMENT RECORDS City of Golden. City council minutes. City of Golden. Ordinances. County of Jefferson. Claim records. County of Jefferson. Clerk and recorder plat records. County of Jefferson. Grantor/Grantee records. County of Jefferson. Mining claim records. Golden Urban Renewal Authority. Records, finalist proposals for Mitchell redevelopment, 1998. Jefferson County Historical Commission. Place Names records. Jefferson County Historical Commission. Records. Jefferson County Open Space. Records. State of Colorado. State Mine Inspector's report, 1910. United States Bureau of the Census. Data 1860-1990. INDIVIDUAL AND NONPROFIT RECORDS Richard J. Gardner Collection. Magic Mountain director's archive. Richard J. Gardner Collection. Heritage Square promotional archive. Gardner Family Collection. Photographs. Golden Landmarks Association. Magic Mountain Archaeological Site archives. Golden Landmarks Association. Records. 226

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McMillen, John. Historical files. Wheat Ridge Historical Society. Records. INTERVIEWS Kilgroe, Lance. Golden, Colorado. Interview, summer 1999. Squibb, Sid. Former Director Gilpin County Historical Society, Golden, Colorado. Interviews, summer 1997. Worth, Claudia. Wheat Ridge City Council member, Wheat Ridge, Colorado. Interview,25 October 1999. MAPS Colorado Geological Survey. Colorado Front Range Inactive Coal Mine Data and Subsidence Information, 1986. County of Jefferson, archives, map of the Cold Spring Ranch land area, 1999. Kelsey, Dick and Rubottom, Wade B. Magic Mountain design layout, 1958. Leyden Lignite Company. Ownership map, 1948. Rand McNally. Denver Regional Area StreetFinder map, 1999. Rand McNally. Denver Regional Area StreetFinder map, 2000. United States Geological Survey. Arvada Quadrangle Map, 1965, revised 1994. Willits Insurance Company. Farm map, 1899. 227

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PUBLICATIONS Beckwith, Ruth. "Stage House Toward the Hills." Denver Westerners Brand !!QQk, 1954. Colorado Democrat. Denver Post. Denver Republican. Denver Rocky Mountain News. (formerly known as Rocky Mountain News) Denver Times. Golden Globe. Golden Transcript. (formerly known as Colorado Transcript) Historically Jefferson County. Jefferson County Guide. Jefferson County Magazine. Jefferson Sentinel. Lomond, Carol. "Citizens created and continue to monitor Jefferson County Open Space." City and Mountain Views, August-September 1999. Western Mountaineer. Westward. THESES Dark, Ethel. ''History of Jefferson County Colorado." M.A. Thesis, Colorado State College of Education, 1939. 228

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WORLD WIDE WEB SITES Bam Again!. Web Site http://www.bamagain.org, 3 March 2000. Colorado Department of Agriculture. Web Site http://www.a&.state.co.us/. 4 March 2000. Denver Rocky Mountain News. Web site http:Uwww.insidedenver.com. archive. 229