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Effect of backfill on soil-geosynthetic interactive performance tests

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Title:
Effect of backfill on soil-geosynthetic interactive performance tests
Creator:
Gilbert, David J
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
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Language:
English
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136 leaves : illustrations ; 28 cm

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Subjects / Keywords:
Geosynthetics ( lcsh )
Soil mechanics ( lcsh )
Fills (Earthwork) ( lcsh )
Fills (Earthwork) ( fast )
Geosynthetics ( fast )
Soil mechanics ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 135-136).
Thesis:
Civil engineering
General Note:
Department of Civil Engineering
Statement of Responsibility:
by David J. Gilbert.

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|University of Colorado Denver
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|Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
45545609 ( OCLC )
ocm45545609
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LD1190.E53 2000m .G54 ( lcc )

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Full Text
EFFECT OF BACKFILL ON SOIL-GEOSYNTHETIC INTERACTIVE
PERFORMANCE TESTS
by
David J. Gilbert
B.S., Colorado State University, 1989
B.S., Colorado State University, 1995
M.S., University of Colorado, 2000
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science
Civil Engineering
2000
Al


This thesis for the Master of Science
degree by
David J. Gilbert
has been approved
by
Dunja Peric
Sarosh Khan


Gilbert, David J. (M S., Civil Engineering)
Effect of Backfill on Soil-Geosynthetic Interactive Performance Tests
Thesis directed by Professor Jonathan Wu
ABSTRACT
A series of laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the behavior of soil-
geosynthetic composites. The tests were conducted by using a soil-geosynthetic
interactive performance test device developed at CU-Denver, in which the soil and
geosynthetic reinforcement are allowed to deform, under a vertical load, in an
interactive manner. Three different soils were employed in this study. All the soils
have been used in actual construction of geosynthetic-reinforced soil structures,
including a bridge abutment in Black Hawk, Colorado, a bridge abutment in Castle
Rock, Colorado and a retaining wall in Black Hawk, Colorado. Each soil was
prepared to mimic the placement density and moisture content of the respective
earth structure. A total of four tests were conducted, of which two were used to
verify test repeatability.
The vertical displacements of the composite and lateral extensions of the
reinforcement were monitored throughout each test. Both short- and long-term
tests were performed. The vertical apparent Youngs modulus and the creep rate
of each soil-geosynthetic composite were determined. The results serve as
preliminary quantitative guides for estimating the deformation characteristics of
geosynthetic-reinforced soil structures.
This abstract accurately represents the contents of the candidates thesis. I
recommend its publication.
Signed
iii


DEDICATION
I dedicate this thesis to my classmates and professors in geotechnical engineering at
the University of Colorado-Denver, whose example and interest motivated me to
do my best.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
A special thanks to my advisor, Dr. Jonathan Wu, who introduced me into this
subject area, and was always ready to answer any questions.
A grateful acknowledgement to Dr.Kanop Ketchart for the technical support
provided while compiling this thesis.


CONTENTS
Figures......................................................................ix
Tables.......................................................................xi
Chapter
1. Introduction..........................................................1
1.1 Problem Statement.....................................................1
1.2 Research Objectives...................................................3
1.3 Research Methodology..................................................3
1.4 Report Contents.......................................................7
2. The Soil-Reinforcement Interactive Performance Test...................9
2.1 Test Apparatus........................................................9
2.2 Specimen Preparation.................................................11
2.3 Load Application.....................................................17
2.4 Test Instrumentation.................................................19
2.4.1 Electronic Displacement Transducers..................................20
2.4.2 Mechanical Displacement Dial Gauge...................................20
2.4.3 Data Acquisition System..............................................20
2.5 Laboratory Procedure.................................................21
3. Test Materials.......................................................25
3.1 Amoco 2044...........................................................25
3.2 Blackhawk Soil.......................................................27
3.3 Castle Rock Soil ....................................................27
vi


4. Test Results and Discussion of Results...........................29
4.1 Short-term Test with Blackhawk-1 Soil............................29
4.2 Long-term Test with Castle Rock Soil.............................34
4.3 Short-term Test with Blackhawk-2 Soil............................39
4.4 Long-term Test with Blackhawk-1 Soil.............................43
4.5 Comparison of Test Results.......................................48
5. Summary Findings and Conclusions.................................51
5.1 Summary..........................................................51
5.2 Findings and Conclusions.........................................52
Appendix
A. Soils Test Results...................................................54
A.l Blackhawk Soil.......................................................55
A. 1.1 Compaction Test......................................................56
A.1.2 Grain Size Test......................................................58
A. 1.3 Atterberg Limits.....................................................60
A. 1.4 Direct Shear Test....................................................62
A.2 Castle Rock Soil.....................................................64
A.2.1 Compaction Test......................................................65
A.2.2 Grain Size Test......................................................67
A.2.3 Atterberg Limits.....................................................69
A. 2.4 Direct Shear Test....................................................71
B. Product Literature...................................................73
B.l Conbel Consolidimeter................................................74
Vll


B.2 Trans-tekiM Displacement Transducers................................77
B.3 DATAQtm Data Analyzer...............................................81
B. 4 Amoco 2044 Geotextile...............................................84
C. Raw Data............................................................87
C.l Transducer Calibration Curves.......................................88
C.2 Conbel Calibration Curves...........................................91
C.3 Voltage Readings....................................................95
C.3.1 Short-term Test with Blackhawk-1 Soil...............................96
C.3.2 Long-term Test with Castle Rock Soil...............................102
C.3.3 Short-term Test with Blackhawk-2 Soil..............................119
C.3.4 Long-term Test with Blackhawk-1 Soil...............................124
References................................................................135
viii


FIGURES
Figure
1.1 Bridge Abutment in Black Hawk, Colorado..............................4
1.2 GRS Retaining Wall in Black Hawk, Colorado...........................5
1.3 Diagram of Soil-Geosynthetic Performance Device......................7
2.1 Final Configuration of Test Specimen................................10
2.2 Placement of Adjustable Spacers.....................................10
2.3 Placement of Silicon Grease.........................................11
2.4 Placement of Latex Membrane.........................................12
2.5 Removal of Air Bubbles..............................................13
2.6 First Loose Lifts of Soil Placed in Apparatus.......................13
2.7 Compaction of Soil Inside Container.................................14
2.8 Placement of First Layer of Geotextile..............................15
2.9 Placement of Geotextile at Mid-height of Specimen...................16
2.10 Final Specimen Height...............................................16
2.11 Loading Plate Placed on Specimen....................................18
2.12 Calibration of Loading Device.......................................18
2.13 Electronic Transducers in Place.....................................21
3.1 Load-Deformation Behavior of Amoco 2044.............................26
4.1 Stress/Strain vs. Time-Blackhawk-1 Soil;Short-term Test.............32
4.2 Vertical Strain vs. Stress-Blackhawk-1 Soil;Short-term Test.........33
4.3 Reinforcement Strain vs. Stress-Blackhawk-1 Soil;Short-term Test....34
4.4 Stress/Strain vs. Time-Castle Rock Soil;Short-term Loading..........36
4.5 Vertical Strain vs. Stress-Castle Rock Soil;Short-term Loading......36
4.6 Reinforcement Strain vs. Stress-Castle Rock Soil;Short-term Loading.37
IX


4.7 Strain vs. Time-Castle Rock Soil;Long-term Loading................38
4.8 Submergence Test-Castle Rock Soil.................................39
4.9 Stress/Strain vs. Time-Blackhawk-2 Soil;Short-term Test...........41
4.10 Vertical Strain vs. Stress-Blackhawk-2 Soil;Short-term Test.......42
4.11 Reinforcement Strain vs. Stress-Blackhawk-2 Soil;Short-term Test.43
4.12 Stress/Strain vs. Time-Blackhawk-1 Soil;Short-term Loading........44
4.13 Vertical Strain vs. Stress-Blackhawk-1 Soil;Short-term Loading....45
4.14 Reinforcement Strain vs. Stress-Blackhawk-1 Soil;Short-term Loading.46
4.15 Strain vs. Time-Blackhawk-1 Soil;Long-term Loading................47
x


TABLES
Table
3.1 Soil Properties: Blackhawk and Castle Rock Soils....................28
4.1 Target and Actual Values; Short-term; Blackhawk-1 Soil Test.........30
4.2 Target and Actual Values; Long-term; Castle Rock Soil Test..........35
4.3 Target and Actual Values; Short-term; Blackhawk-2 Soil Test.........40
4.4 Target and Actual Values; Long-term; Blackhawk-1 Soil Test..........44
4.5 Short-Term Behavior; Strain, Apparent Secant Modulus for Backfill...49
4.6 Long-Term Behavior; Creep Rate for Backfill.........................50
xi


1.0 Introduction
1.1 Problem Statement
Reinforced soil, is a soil mass that is strengthened by the inclusion of planar
reinforcement. This planar reinforcement, commonly in the form of horizontally
placed geosynthetic layers, serves to restrain the development of tensile strain in
the direction of the reinforcement. These internal reinforcements act
synergistically with the surrounding soil, tending to increase the stiffness and
strength of the soil.
Reinforced soil has become a subject matter in its own right during the last two
decades. There are a number of reasons for the designer to consider an internally
reinforced soil structure instead of an externally stabilized soil structure. Among
these are:
More tolerant to foundation settlement, more flexible structure makes
catastrophic failure less likely.
No need to embed walls into foundation material.
Favorable strength properties; both statically, and dynamically.
Less expensive to construct, in that the construction method is simpler if
executed properly.
1


In a reinforced soil the tensile forces in the reinforcement are induced by friction,
adhesion, and passive resistance between the confining soil and the contact area
of the reinforcement layer. Indeed, while a soil material is strong in both
compression and shear resistance, an added dimension is provided by the
reinforcement layer in resisting tensile stresses. Thus, an argument can be made
that if the strength is provided in a composite manner in a geosynthetic
reinforced soil (GRS) structure, then the testing of such a material should also be
done to composite specimens.
For purposes of this report, the composite soil-geosynthetic deformation behavior
typified in a GRS structure, with regards to different
soil backfill materials, will be examined. As with the rapid incorporation of
geosynthetic materials into various types of civil engineering design, GRS
construction will demand that standards be developed by which quality of
composite materials can be evaluated. At the present time, for GRS
specifications, most public agencies and designers still rely on soil material
standards for which the soil is tested on a stand-alone basis. These index
parameters may be disqualifying soil, which when placed in a GRS structure,
would be perfectly satisfactory. It is clear that in the case for GRS structures,
there is a gray area, for which the particular soil backfill material may or may not
meet the requirements of a proposed design, despite having met an existing
standard or code requirement.
By testing the soil-geosynthetic composite material deformation properties, more
insight may be gained as to the true behavior of a proposed GRS structure.
Variable parameters, e.g. moisture content, degrees of compaction, can be
adjusted to mimic the behavior of a generic soil-geosynthetic composite prior to
construction of a reinforced soil structure.
2


Eventually, the goal of any testing standard is to define the boundaries between
the performance of acceptable and unacceptable test materials. This report will
make an attempt to begin the process of defining an acceptable performance
standard with regard to earth backfill materials being incorporated into a GRS
structure.
1.2 Research Objectives
In essence, the research objectives are two-fold:
To investigate the effect of backfill on the load-deformation behavior of
soil-geosynthetic composites.
To establish preliminary criteria for selection of backfill for construction
of GRS structures.
1.3 Research Methodology
Since there is some controversy over what constitutes an acceptable backfill
material for GRS structures, a systematic study was initiated. In this study three
soils were examined, all of which have actually been used in the construction of
GRS structures in the State of Colorado.
The first soil, referred to as the Blackhawk-1 soil was used in the construction
of a GRS bridge abutment in Black Hawk, Colorado (Ketchart and Wu,1999).
Figure 1.1 depicts the bridge abutment. The second soil, referred to as the
Castle Rock soil was used in the construction of a GRS bridge abutment in
3


Castle Rock, Colorado, by the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT).
The wall experienced little deformation after construction. The third soil,
referred to as the Blackhawk-2 soil was used in the construction of a GRS
retaining wall in Black Hawk, Colorado (Ketchart and Wu, 1999). Figure 1.2
shows the retaining wall. This soil is essentially the same as the Blackhawk-1
soil, except that the soil was placed at a lower density and subsequently became
wetter after construction. This retaining wall eventually failed and had to be
reconstructed.
Figure 1.1 Bridge Abutment in Black Hawk, Colorado.
4


Figure 1.2- GRS Retaining wall in Black Hawk, Colorado.
Based upon factual forensic data, and matching the site soil conditions to the
laboratory specimens, the soils were subjected to interactive performance testing
using the apparatus first developed by Wu (1994) and Wu and Helwany (1996).
The approach used to accomplish the research objectives was the following:
5


Conduct a series of laboratory tests using different soils; and one common
fabric; under typical placement conditions in terms of compaction density
and moisture content.
Synthesize the results of the laboratory tests.
For the laboratory tests, short- and long-term soil-reinforcement interactive
performance tests (Wu and Helwany, 1996a); Wu, et al. 1997) were conducted.
The interactive performance test is capable of simulating soil-reinforcement
interactive behavior in typical reinforced soil structures. In the soil-reinforcement
interactive performance test, the reinforcement and the confining soil were
allowed to deform in an interactive manner. The reinforcement imposed a
restraining effect on soil deformation through ffiction/adhesion at the soil-
reinforcement interface.
Each test was conducted in such a manner so as to duplicate moisture and
compaction in the actual GRS structure in the field. For both the Blackhawk-1
and Castle Rock soil, placement was specified at 95 percent standard Proctor,
and within 2 percent of optimum moisture content. For Blackhawk-2 soil the test
was conducted in an under-compacted condition, and at a higher moisture
content. This was done to demonstrate the effect of poor field execution on a
GRS earth structure.
The soil-reinforcement interactive performance tests were conducted by using an
apparatus developed in the course of a study on long-term behavior of reinforced
soils (Ketchart and Wu, 1996). Figure 1.3 shows the typical equipment setup.
The test specimen was shaped as a rectangular block, with a 1 ft square cross
6


section, and 2 ft in horizontal length (i.e. in the longitudinal direction).
Embedded at mid-height of the block is the selected geosynthetic reinforcement.
Soil is compacted in lifts to the desired density and moisture content. Once
preparation of the test specimen was completed, incremental vertical loads were
applied to the top of the soil-geosynthetic composite specimen, under zero
confining pressure. Loading continued until failure occurred, or in the case of
sustained loading tests, an equivalent surcharge load of 20-25 ft overburden was
reached. In the sustained load test for Castle Rock soil, the surcharge load was
maintained over a period of several days, and finally submerged until failure
occurred. The vertical and lateral deformation of each specimen was recorded
throughout the test. These measurements were then analyzed to assess the soils
suitability for use as a backfill material for the construction of a GRS structure.
1.4 Report Contents
The following is a brief overview of chapter contents:
Chapter 2 Describes the overall test program, including: test methods, test
apparatus, test procedure, test materials, test instrumentation, and
load application device.
Chapter 3 Details the test materials used in the study.
Chapter 4 Details the test results and discussion of results for Blackhawk,
and Castle Rock soils.
Chapter 5 Reports summary, findings, and conclusions.
7


sustained pressw*
loodng plat*
Lateral SL^portsng pond
UVBT supporting
i a 12 a S v
(a) Before Releasing Lateral Supporting Panels
sustains pr**sur
(b) After Releasing Lateral Supporting Panels
Figure 1.3 Schematic Diagram of the Modified
Long-Term Soil-Geosynthetic Performance
Test Device
8


2.0 The Soil-Reinforcement Interactive
Performance Test
The laboratory testing consisted of both short- and long-term soil-reinforcement
interactive performance tests (Ketchart and Wu 1996) in which the soil-
reinforcement composite is subjected to a vertical load, and deformation is
measured along the horizontal and vertical faces. Short-term tests were conducted
such that soil specimens were loaded incrementally until a failure state was
achieved. Long-term tests involved incremental loading of the specimen until a
corresponding surcharge load of about 25 feet of overburden was reached. At that
point the load was sustained over a period of several days. For one long-term test,
(Castle Rock soil), the specimen was finally loaded to failure under submerged
conditions.
2.1 Test Apparatus
The test equipment was the apparatus used in a previous study for investigating
long-term soil-geosynthetic interactive behavior (Ketchart and Wu, 1996). Soil was
placed into a rigid plexiglass container and compacted to the desired density. For
the tests described in this report, the final soil test specimen measured 1 ft deep (in
the transverse direction), 2 ft wide (in the longitudinal direction), and 1 ft high (see
Figure 2.1). Adjustable plexiglass sidewalls measuring 2 ft wide by 1 ft high were
removed after compaction, exposing the transverse faces of the soil-geosynthetic
composite specimen. For purposes of this study the device was modified in that
instead of using air cylinders to fix the sidewalls during compaction, short 3-inch
sections of threaded rod with adjustable locknuts on either end, were employed
toprovide resistance against movement of sidewalls during compaction (see Figure
2.2).
9


Figure 2.2 -
Placement of adjustable spacers between removable side walls and
fixed sides.
10


2.2 Specimen Preparation
Before placement of soil into the plexiglass box, a thin layer of silicon grease was
spread along all non-removable sides and bottom (see Figure 2.3). A 0.02
millimeter latex rubber membrane was then placed over the silicone layer, (see
Figure 2.4) Air bubbles were carefully worked out using a 1-inch wooden dowel
rod.(see Figure 2.5) This ffictionless plexiglass-silicone-latex rubber interface
created a plane strain condition so that lateral and vertical deformation under load
was not influenced by friction along the soil-plexiglass boundary. Soil was then
directly placed in the plexiglass container, once the adjustable sidewalls were
firmly fixed, in uniform lifts and compacted to the desired density(see Figures 2.6,
and 2.7).
Figure 2.3 - Placement of thin layer of silicon grease.
11


Figure 2.4 Placement of latex membrane in container
12


Figure 2.5 Removal of air bubbles using wooden dowel rod
Figure 2.6 -
First loose lifts of soil placed in apparatus.
13


Figure 2.7 Compaction of soil inside container.
Each soil-geosynthetic composite specimen was compacted and prepared at a pre-
selected density and moisture content (see Chapter 4) Once the latex rubber
membrane was in place and air bubbles had been removed, a 2 ft by 1 ft sheet of
woven Amoco 2044 geotextile was placed at the bottom (see Figure 2.8). The
Amoco fabric was placed so that the machine (strongest) direction of the weave
was in the transverse direction of the apparatus ( i.e. perpendicular to the two
removable lateral supporting panels). This placement requirement also represents
typical field conditions. The soil was then placed in approximate 1-inch to 2-inch
lifts. Each lift volume was pre-weighed and stored separately in two gallon freezer
bags to ensure uniform moisture conditions. Compaction of desired density was
achieved using a standard 10 pound proctor hammer (see Figure 2.7), taking care to
monitor lift thicknesses during compaction by using an engineering tape. Soil was
scarified between lifts using a screw driver or similar tool, to maximize bonding
14


between lifts. At mid-height, or 6-inch specimen height, a single layer of Amoco
2044 is placed (see Figure 2.9), and compaction resumed until the soil specimen
was complete at a height of 12 inches. Another rectangular sheet of geosynthetic
fabric is placed at the final height,(see Figures 2.1, and 2.10) before the loading
plate was set on top of the soil specimen.
Figure 2.8 Placement of first layer of 2044 geotextile in bottom of container.
15


Figure 2.9 Placement of geotextile at midheight of specimen.
Figure 2.10 Final specimen height before placement of geotextile and loading
plate
16


2.3 Load Application
Before applying load to the specimen, the lateral supporting panels were removed,
and the instrumentation was fixed in place so that both lateral and vertical
deformation can be recorded. Test instrumentation consisted primarily of
electronic dispacement transducers (see Appendix B.2).
The load apparatus used in testing was a pneumatic air pressure-driven
consolidimeter, (Appendix B.l), featuring a single loading ram (see Figure 2.11).
The Conbel consolidimeter was calibrated prior to testing using an MTS 810
Electro HydraulicTesting System (see Figure 2.12). A calibration curve, converting
pressure (psi) values as read on the Conbel dial gauge to pounds-force (kips) was
derived and is included in Appendix C.2 The consolidimeter loading module was
supported on square tube steel members which framed into the 'A-inch steel base
plate through 1-inch columnar threaded steel supporting rods. The plexi-glass
housing was then placed inside the framed structure (see Figure 2.10). The
centralized loading ram of the consolidimeter applied pressure to a pyramid shaped
1 ft by 2 ft plexiglass loading plate which was placed directly upon the top surface
of the prepared specimen (see Figure 2.11). The bottom surface of the loading plate
was coated with a thin layer of silicone compound, and then covered with a single
layer of latex membrane. The removable sidewall panels were then detached, and
the displacement transducers were set in place.
17


Figure 2.11 Loading plate placed on specimen and loading apparatus in place.
Figure 2.12- Calibration of loading device using MTS system.
18


2.4 Test Instrumentation
Test instrumentation consisted of electronic displacement transducers, analog data
recorder, and mechanical displacement gauges. Two lateral oriented LVDTs were
situated and placed in direct contact with the soil at mid-height (see Figure2.13),
one on either side of the soil block, in order to measure lateral deformation. Two
vertically oriented LVDTs were fixed and placed in contact with the loading plate,
on either side of the loading ram, for measurement of vertical deformation. The
displacement transducers were then connected by a control cable to a data
acquisition module, which relayed voltage readings to a Windows based
program, WINDAQ, for processing input. Air supply is directed to the Conbel
loading ram in contact with the plexiglass loading plate in approximate 0.35 kip
increments until failure of the specimen occurs, or the desired long-term sustained
load level was reached.
The data files contained output in terms of voltage changes for each transducer.
These differential voltages were directly proportional to the displacements at the
location of each transducer. The corresponding displacements were obtained from
the calibration curves (Appendix C.l) for each transducer, which were input into a
spreadsheet format. The spreadsheet program used for this study was the Excel
Windows software.
19


2.4.1 Electronic Displacement Transducers
Trans-TekjM Series 240 displacement transducers were employed for the purposes
of this study. A stainless steel cylindrical housing contains a steel core rod, a linear
variable differential transformer, a solid state oscillator, and a phase sensitive
demodulator. Axial movements of the core rod within the fixed steel housing
produce voltage changes which are directly proportional to the corresponding
displacements. Lateral transducers were held in place by tightening thumbscrews in
the plastic side insertion tubes, and vertical transducers were locked in place
relative to a fixed point by using magnetic attachment mechanisms. Signal wiring
consisting of UL listed Type CM 22 AWG shielded cable joined the transducers to
the analog recorder and DC power supply. The conversion factor for each
transducer in terms of voltage-displacement are included in Appendix C.l.
Transducer specifications including range, linearity, and resolution are also
contained in Appendix B.2.
2.4.2 Mechanical Displacement Dial Gauge
Mechanical vertical displacement of the loading plate relative to an external fixed
reference point was provided by a dial gauge in the event of power failure or
malfunction of the electronic instrumentation.
2.4.3 Data Acquisition System
An analog to digital converter, DATAQtm, on loan to CU-Denver by the Federal
Highway Administration (FHWA), was used to transform analog voltage signals
detected by the transducers into digital output processed by the Windows based
20


WINDAQtm program. A description of the signal conditioning equipment,
DATAQ, is included in Appendix B.3.
Figure 2.13 Electronic transducers in place, lateral (right); vertical stylus visible
in upper left.
2.5 Laboratory Test Procedure
In summary, the step-by-step process for testing of each compacted soil specimen
is as follows:
1) Prepare soil using desired soil properties (dry density, moisture content)
obtained from compaction curves for the soil being tested. Store soil
overnight in a moisture proof container to achieve uniform moisture
absorption.
21


2) Pre-weigh soil for each lift and place into individual watertight containers
or plastic bags.
3) Center plexi-glass container on base of steel frame by measuring end
distances, and marking steel base plate with appropriate permanent marker.
4) Place removable side panels into container, and adjust and tighten threaded
rod spacers so that transverse dimensions of soil placement area measures 1
ft between panels.
5) Spread a thin uniform layer of silicon grease across bottom of container and
the two fixed sides.
6) Carefully place a sheet of 0.02 millimeter thick latex membrane inside
container and carefully work out air bubbles using a wooden dowel. If
desired, a 'A -inch grid can be drawn beforehand on one end of the
membrane, so that deformation of the specimen can be observed during
testing, through either of the transparent fixed sides. Tape both ends of
latex membrane to outside walls of container so that membrane does not
wrinkle, bunch, or become separated during compaction.
7) Place a 1-ft by 2-ft section of the desired geosynthetic on bottom, taking
care to cut section so that machine direction, as manufactured, is transverse
to the two removable supporting panels.
8) Empty first loose lift of pre-weighed soil into container, on top of
geosynthetic, and compact to pre-determined density using a proctor
hammer, and periodically measuring lift thickness. A straight edge can be
laid across the top edges of container to serve as a reference point from
which to measure distances.
9) Continue placing lifts, using a steel tool to lightly scarify the top surface of
each compacted lift, before placing the next lift.
22


10) When compaction to mid-height of sample is reached (6-inch total
thickness), lightly scarify soil surface, and place a 1 ft by 2 ft section of
desired geosynthetic on soil surface.
11) Continue compacting lifts of loose soil until 12-inch total thickness is
reached.
12) Place another 1 -ft by 2-ft section of geosynthetic on final prepared top
surface.
13) Spread a thin, uniform layer of silicon grease along bottom surface of
pyramid shaped loading plate, and cover with a 1 -ft by 2-ft layer of latex
rubber membrane, carefully working out air bubbles with a wooden dowel
rod.
14) Center loading plate on top of specimen, and carefully remove side panels,
taking care not to disturb soil surfaces or edges.
15) Place Conbel loading apparatus on supporting members, and adjust and
tighten bolts so that loading device is rigid, and firmly in place. Verify that
both square tube steel channel sections are level using a sight level.
16) Connect supply air to loading device.
17) Place displacement transducers at desired locations, taking care to level
each transducer in either vertical or horizontal positions, so that true
linearity is achieved. Tighten thumbscrews in transducer insertion tubes, at
fixed ends of container, or tighten extension devices to hold vertically set
transducers. A mechanical dial gauge for backup recording of vertical
deformations can also be fixed at this time.
18) Connect printer port cable between data analyzer and computer, attach
power supply, and connect all cable wiring between transducers at
appropriate terminals at data analyzer.
19) Fine-adjust DC voltage power supply to data analyzer to read 10 volts.
23


20) Turn on computer and data analyzer and allow to warm up for 10-15
minutes.
21) Start up data acquisition program, and set sampling rate, DC voltage
bandwidth, for each channel (i.e. transducer) being recorded. Observe
channel input to verify that signal is being received from each transducer.
22) Check all equipment, connections, and sample again before loading starts.
23) Lower loading ram so that contact is made between pyramid shaped
loading plate and loading ram. Adjust Conbel dial gauge to read desired
first step load increment or seating load if so desired.
24) Start record mode in Windows program, and open toggle switch to loading
ram.
25) Increase load in whole number increments on Conbel dial gauge, for one-
minute durations per increment, until desired sustained load is reached or
failure of specimen occurs.
26) If end of test is reached, playback and save raw data to diskette.
27) Convert voltage readings for each channel recorded into deformation
values, using an appropriate spreadsheet format, and calibration constants
for each transducer.
24


3.0 Test Materials
Two different soils were tested; Blackhawk soil, and Castle Rock soil, each having
different properties. Material tests were performed beforehand to establish soil
parameters; e.g. Atterberg limits, dry density compaction (Proctor), grain size
distribution, and direct shear. These tests were conducted at the CU- Denver Soils
Laboratory, or at the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) Materials
Laboratory using American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) test
procedures, or American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials (AASHTO) methods. The same geosynthetic, Amoco 2044, was
employed for all soil testing.
3.1 Amoco 2044
Amoco 2044 is a woven polypropylene geotextile. It was selected for use in this
study because its strength properties make it a credible choice for design of a GRS
earth structure. It can be easily cut and trimmed to precise dimensions, which
proved advantageous in carrying out the tests. The strength and elongation
properties, as listed by the manufacturer, are as follows:
Wide Width Tensile Strength - 400 lb/in
(ASTM D 4595)
Elongation at Break - 8%
(ASTM D-4595)
Grab Tensile Strength - 500 lb
(ASTM D-4632)
25


15%
Elongation at Break -
(ASTM D-4632)
The Wide Width Tensile Strength (ASTM D-4595) test is a non-routine test using
8-inch jaws to grip the specimen. The Grab Tensile Strength (ASTM D-4632) test
is an index property test in which a 1-inch grip jaw is employed. Additional
product information is contained in Appendix B.4.
Strain. %
Figure 3.1 Load-Deformation Behavior of Amoco 2044
(Courtersy of Rick Valentine,
Amoco Fabrics and Fibers Company)
26


3.2 Blackhawk Soil
This soil material is native to the foothills west of Denver. The soil was used as
backfill in the contruction of two geosynthetic reinforced structures (GRS) in Black
Hawk, Colorado. One structure is a bridge abutment (Ketchart and Wu,1996), and
the other is a retaining wall (Ketchart and Wu, 1999). The soil used in the bridge
abutment, referred to as Blackhawk-1 soil, was compacted to 95 percent standard
proctor maximum dry density, and at minus 2 percent of optimum moisture
content. Soil properties are listed in Table 3.1. The grain-size distribution curves,
and the compaction curves for Blackhawk material are shown in Appendix A.l.
Blackhawk 2 soil, and Blackhawk 3 soil, are the same material as Blackhawk 1
soil. Blackhawk 2 soil was under-compacted and at a plus 2 moisture content.
Blackhawk 3 soil was at the same moisture and density as Blackhawk 1 soil, except
a sustained load of approximately 22-ft of overburden was carried out over several
days. Direct shear tests were performed on the BlackHawk 1 soil, and Blackhawk 2
soil at different values of moisture and density. The results of the direct shear test
are contained in Appendix A.l, and are also listed in Table 3.1.
3.3 Castle Rock Soil
This soil material is a processed road base material used by CDOT as backfill for
construction of a GRS bridge abutment in Castle Rock, Colorado. The bridge
abutments were part of a two-span bridge, and each GRS support was
approximately 17 feet high, reinforced with TensarjM geogrid. This test was
performed at 95 percent standard proctor maximum dry density, and at six percent
moisture content. Soil properties are listed in Table 3.1. The grain-size
distribution curves dry density compaction curves, and shear test results for Castle
Rock material are demonstrated in Appendix A.2. A long-term soil-geosynthetic
27


interactive performance test under a sustained load was conducted, lasting over
several days. Upon completion of the long-term test the specimen was submerged,
under the same sustained load, and brought to failure.
Table 3.1 Soil Properties: Blackhawk and Castle Rock Soils
Soil Classification (AASHTO) PI (%) LL (%) Friction Angle (deg) Cohesion Intercept (ksf)
Blackhawk A-2-4 Silty gravel and sand 1 29 33 (28) 0.37(0.56)
Castle Rock A-l Well graded sand 0 33 0.56
Notes: 1) Values in parentheses are for Blackhawk-2 soil.
2) Friction angles are residual values.
3) PI=plasticity index ; LL= liquid limit.
28


4.0 Test Results and Discussion of Results
A total of four soil-geosynthetic interactive performance tests were conducted with
three different backfill materials. All four tests used the same geosynthetic
reinforcement: Amoco 2044. Deformation was evaluated in vertical and lateral
directions in each test. Short- term tests are those in which the soil-geosynthetic
composite specimens are loaded incrementally until a failure condition occurs.
Long term tests were carried out to evaluate deformation of specimens with an
applied load of around 25 ft of overburden over a period of several days.
Blackhawk-1 soil and Blackhawk-2 soil were employed in the short-term tests,
while Castle Rock soil and Blackhawk-1 soil were employed in the long term tests.
The test specimens were prepared at the density and moisture content mimicking
the field placement conditions in the actual GRS structures.
4.1 Short-Term Test with Blackhawk-1 Soil
The soil-geosynthetic interactive performance test with Blackhawk-1 soil was
prepared at 96 % of the maximum dry density (per AASHTO T-99) of 119.5 pcf,
and a target moisture content of minus two percent of optimum. The target moist
unit weight was established as 129 pcf. Test values demonstrating conformance
with target values are tabulated in Table 4.1
29


Table 4.1 Target and Actual Values of Moisture Content and Density for
Blackhawk Soil 1
Test Parameter Target Value Actual values
Moisture content (%) 12.2 11.7 11.2 10.8
Moist unit weight (pcf) 129 128 128 127
Two displacement transducers were placed in a vertical position, in contact with
the outside edges of the loading plate one on each side of the loading ram to
measure vertical displacement ; and laterally, in contact with both vertical exposed
sides of the soil-geosynthetic composite specimen, at mid-height of sample. This
middle position is also the location of reinforcement, and was consistent for all
other tests. A seating load of approximately 0.5 kips was applied first to the
specimen to allow any surface imperfections to level out. The test was conducted
by step loading the soil-geosynthetic composite specimen in equal 0.35 kip
increments, at about one minute per increment, until a failure condition was
achieved. Average displacements were taken for each set of transducers and
converted into strain values, and plotted along with the average applied stress as a
function of time, as shown in Figure 4.1.
Average vertical stress values for this test, and all other tests, were obtained by
dividing the converted kip-force reading (obtained from calibration curve in
Appendix A) by the area of the loading plate (two square ft) in contact with the top
surface of the soil-geosynthetic laboratory specimen.
The vertical strain was normalized with respect to the initial vertical dimensions of
the soil-gesosynthetic composite specimen. The reinforcement strain was
30


evaluated by taking the extension of the reinforcement divided by the initial length
of the reinforcement. The extension of the reinforcement was taken to be the
lateral displacement of the composite at the mid-height, where the reinforcement
was located.
The apparent Youngs Modulus for reinforcement, and vertical directions, can be
computed by dividing the value for average vertical stress (ksf), at a given
overburden height (say 10,15,20, and 25ft) by the strain experienced by the
specimen at that same equivalent surcharge. It should be noted that this term
"apparent Youngs Modulus" is actually a secant modulus, and not a tangent
modulus.
Figure 4.1 displays three test variables plotted vs. time; average vertical stress,
reinforcement strain, and vertical strain. Examination of Figure 4.1 shows a
limiting average vertical stress value of 3.63 ksf corresponding to an approximate
overburden value of 28 ft. An approximately linear vertical strain path followed the
load to failure. Lateral strain began to decline significantly as the average vertical
stress reached a value of approximately 2.5 ksf. This value corresponds to an
overburden height of 19 feet.
31


Average Vertical Streea (kef) ;
Reinforcement and Vertical Strain (%)
Figure 4.1 Stress / Strain vs. Time Plot
Short Term Loading to Failure Blackhawk-1 Soil
95% Std Proctor; -2% Moisture Content
time (sec)
32


The relationship for the average vertical stress and vertical strain, and between the
average vertical stress and reinforcement strain for the Blackhawk-1 soil-
geosynthetic composite specimen are displayed in Figure 4.2 and Figure 4.3,
respectively. Again, the vertical strain is approximately linear until a failure
condition is reached, while lateral strain follows a non-linear curve. In Figure 4.2 it
appears that there is a softer response until vertical strain reaches a value
approaching one percent, thereafter the pattern is linear. The apparent Youngs
Figure 4.2 Vertical Strain vs. Average Vertical Stress
Short Term Loading to Failure Blackhawk-1 Soil
95% Std Proctor ; -2% Moisture Content
modulus in the vertical, and reinforcement directions are listed in Table 4.5 at the
end of this chapter. It should be noted that there was no reinforcement strain until
the average vertical stress exceeded about 0.2 ksf. This implies that some
deformation is needed before the reinforcing effect can take place. It is also
observed that the reinforcement strain appears to reach a limiting value at the
average vertical stress of 3.6 ksf.
33


Figure 4.3 Reinforcement Strain vs. Average Vertical Stress
Short Term Loading to Failure Blackhawk-1 Soil
95% Std Proctor ; -2% Moisture Content
0 0.5 1 1 5 2 2.5 3 35 4 4.5
Reinforcement Strain (%)
4.2 Long-Term Test with Castle Rock Soil
The second test conducted was performed using Amoco 2044 geotextile as
reinforcement and the Castle Rock soil as backfill. In this test the specimen was
loaded by ramping up the load, again in approximate 0.35 kip increments per
minute of time, until a prescribed average vertical stress (3.63 ksf) was reached.
The prescribed average vertical stress of 3.63 ksf corresponds to about 25 feet of
surcharge load. This load was held constant over a period of several days. At the
end of the fourth day of sustained loading, little deformation was detected; the
specimen was flooded, with the 3.63 ksf average vertical stress maintained until a
failure condition was induced.
34


The Castle Rock soil was prepared with target values of 139.0 pcf moist unit
weight, (95% compaction), and a moisture content of 6 percent. Actual values of
moisture and density at time of placement compared with the target values for
preparation are listed in Table 4.2.
Table 4.2 Target and Actual Values of Moisture Content and Density for
Castle Rock Soil
Test Parameter Target Value Actual values
Moisture content (%) 6.0 6.6 6.7 6.3
Moist unit weight (pcf) 139.0 139.4 139.6 139.1
Figure 4.4 displays the applied load and the corresponding deformations plotted as
a function of time for the short-term ramped loading sequence. It can be observed
that the three curves are approximately linear. Figure 4.5 shows the vertical stress-
strain curve for the short-term loading path. The behavior is similar to Blackhawk-1
soil in that there is a softer response until vertical strain reaches a value around 0.75
percent (smaller than Blackhawk-1 soil), and thereafter the curve is linear. Figure
4.6 shows the relationship between the average applied stress and the reinforcement
strain. Unlike the response in the vertical direction, the stress-strain curve was
linear for the entire stress range. Again, as in the case with Blackhawk-1 soil
(Figure 4.3), there was no reinforcement strain until the average vertical stress
exceeded about 0.2 ksf. Figure 4.7 shows vertical and reinforcement strains as a
function of elapsed time under a sustained average vertical stress of 3.63 ksf. This
figure indicates that the strain rate decreased rapidly within 30 minutes after load
application. From then on, until about 80 hours after load application, the strain
rate on the semilog plot was nearly constant. Beyond 80 hours there was negligible
creep deformation.
35


Average Vertical Street (hef) Average Vertical Strata (kef);
N o> Lateral and Vertical Strain (%)
Figure 4.4 Stress and Strain vs. Time Plot
Short Term Loading to 3.63 ksf Castle Rock Soil
95% Std Proctor ; 6% Moisture Content
2
time (sec)
Figure 4.5 Vertical Strain vs. Average Vertical Stress
Short Term Loading to 3.63 ksf Castle Rock Soil
95% Std Proctor ; 6% Moisture Content
Vertical Strain (%)
36


Average Vertical Stress (kef)
Figure 4.6 Reinforcement Strain vs. Average Vertical Stress
Short Term Loading to 3.63 ksf Castle Rock Soil
95% Std Proctor ; 6% Moisture Content
4
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
Reinforcement Strain (%)
37


Figure 4.7 Strain vs. Time Plot
Castle Rock Soli ; 3.63 ksf average vertical stress
Sustained Load Day 1 to Day 4
-ave lat strain
-ave vert strain
elapsed time Into test (hours)
At the end of four days of sustained loading under an average vertical stress of 3.63
ksf, the deformation ceased and the soil-geosynthetic specimen was flooded. The
vertical deformation behavior under submergence is shown in Figure 4.8 The soil-
geosynthetic composite experienced large deformation within about 30 minutes
after submergence. The composite specimen failed after 35 minutes, with the soil
portion above the geotextile layer sloughing off, and the lower portion remaining
relatively intact. The submergence portion of the test does not accurately simulate
38


field conditions, in that the soil specimen is unconfined, but it does indicate the
dramatic effect of saturation on a relatively stable material.
Figure4.8 Submergence Test to Failure
Castle Rock Soil; 3.63 ksf average vertical stress
95% Standard Proctor
4.3 Short-Term Test with Blackhawk 2 Soil
For this test, the same material used in the Blackhawk-1 soil test was subjected to
short-term loading with an under-compacted density, and a moisture content higher
than optimum. This soil is referred to as the Blackhawk-2 soil. The Blackhawk-2
soil was compacted at approximately 93% of maximum dry density (per AASHTO
T-99), and approximately plus 3% wet of the optimum moisture content. Actual
values demonstrating conformance with target values of moisture and density are
tabulated in Table 4.3.
39


Table 4.3 Target and Actual Values of Moisture Content and Density for
Blackhawk Soil 2
Test Parameter Target Value Actual values
Moisture content (%) 17.2 18.0 16.8 16
Moist density (pcf) 130.2 131.1 129.8 128.9
The soil-geosynthetic composite failed at an average vertical stress of
approximately 3.0 ksf, corresponding to an equivalent overburden height of 23 feet.
Figure 4.9 depicts the applied load and corresponding deformations as a function of
time. Examination of the figure reveals the marked effect of poor soil placement
conditions on performance as related to deformation behavior. At approximately
3% wet of optimum and 93% standard proctor, the Blackhawk-2 soil shows a
significant decrease in strength. Figures 4.10 and 4.11 shows the relationships
between the average vertical stress and vertical strain, and between the average
vertical stress and reinforcement strain. For an equivalent average vertical stress
of approximately 2.5 ksf, the vertical strain was approximately three, and eight
percent, for Blackhawk-1 and Blackhawk-2 soils respectively. This difference
demonstrates the need for adequate quality control during construction. It is seen
that the vertical stress-strain response was softer at smaller stresses and became
stiffer when vertical strains were greater than around 2.2 percent, a value much
larger than the other two soils previously tested. It should be noted that creep
strains at each load increment were also significantly higher than the two previous
tests. Lateral transducers were removed at approximately one and a half percent
strain due to sloughing sidewalls of specimen and damage to instrumentation.
40


Average Vertical Stress (Ksf);
Reinforcement and Vertical Strain (%)
Figure 4.9 Stress / Strain vs. Time Plot
Short Term Loading to Failure Blackhawk-2 Soil
93% Standard Proctor ; +3% Moisture Content
4
A reinf strain
Overt strain
X vert stress
41


Average Vertical Stress (ksf)
Figure 4.10 Vertical Strain vs. Average Vertical Stress
Short Term Loading to Failure Blackhawk-2 Soil
93% Std Proctor ; +3% Moisture Content
3 5
42


Figure 4.11 Reinforcement Strain vs. Average Vertical Stress
Short Term Loading to Failure Blackhawk-2 Soil
93% Std Proctor; +3% Moisture Content
4.4 Long-Term Test with Blackhawk-1 Soil
This test used the same soil as the short-term test of Blackhawk-1 soil except that
the loading was ramped up to approximately 23 feet of overburden pressure and
sustained over a period of several days. Actual values demonstrating conformance
with target values of moisture and density are tabulated in Table 4.4.
43


Table 4.4 Target and Actual Values of Moisture Content and Density for
Blackhawk-1 Soil
Test Parameter Target Value Actual values
Moisture content (%) 12.2 11.9 12.5 11.9
Moist density (pcf) 129 128.7 129.4 128.7
Figure 4.12 displays the applied load and the corresponding deformations plotted as
a function of time for the short term ramped loading sequence. It can be observed
that the deformation response is approximately linear, up to an average vertical
stress of about 2 ksf. Figure 4.13 shows the vertical stress-strain curve for the
short-term loading path. It is seen that vertical strain values for both the short-term
(Figure 4.2) and long-term Blackhawk-1 soil tests (Figure 4.13), at certain average
vertical stress values are at worst within about 12 % of an average value between
the two tests. This is satisfactory, considering the possible variations implicit in
conducting the test (i.e. moisture content, density, etc.). Figure 4.14 shows the
Figure 4.12 Stress/Straln vs. Time Plot
Short Term Loading to 2.90 ksf Blackhawk-1 Soil
95% Standard Proctor; -2% Moisture Content
A reinf slrain
vert strain
X-stress(ksf)
44


relationship between the average applied stress and the reinforcement strain. Its
strain values, as compared to Figure 4.3, are also within 25 % of an average value,
and are considered acceptable. Both curves are approximately linear as average
vertical stress values approach 2.5 ksf. Figure 4.15 demonstrates vertical and
reinforcement strains as a function of elapsed time under a sustained average
vertical stress of 2.90 ksf. This figure indicates that the strain rates decreased
rapidly within 30 minutes after load application. From then on, until about 80
hours after load application, the strain rate on the semi log plot was nearly constant.
Beyond 80 hours there was negligible creep deformation.
Figure 4.13 Vertical Strain vs. Average Vertical Stress
Short Term Loading to 2.90 ksf Blackhawk-1 Soil
95% Standard Proctor ; -2% Moisture Content
Vertical Strain (%)
45


Average Vertical Stress (ksf)
Figure 4.14 Reinforcement Strain vs. Average Vertical Stress
Short Term Loading to 2.90 ksf Blackhawk-1 Soil
95% Standard Proctor ; -2% Moisture Content
3.5
Reinforcement Strain (%)
46


Strain (%)
Figure 4.15 Strain vs Time Plot
Blackhawk -1 Soil; 2.90 ksf average vertical stress
Sustained Load Day 1 to Day 4
6
5
4
3
2
1
- reinf strain
-vert strain
elapsed time Into test (hrs)
47


4.5 Comparison of Test Results
Table 4.5 summarizes the short-term test results so that comparisons may be made.
It is clearly seen that the Castle Rock soil is a better construction material than the
Blackhawk soil, based upon its lower strain values at various vertical stress levels.
It is also evident that the poor placement conditions for Blackhawk-2 soil results in
a higher strain for the same given stress and a lower secant modulus, than if the soil
was compacted at 95 percent of standard Proctor, and closer to the optimum
moisture content.
Table 4.6 lists creep strain rates, under constant load, at selected times into the the
two long-term tests (Castle Rock soil, Blackhawk-1 soil). Ten minute intervals at
the selected times are used to compute the strain rates.
48


Table 4.5 Short Term Behavior: Strain, and Apparent Secant Modulus for
Backfill
Backfill Type Overburden Height (ft) CT (ksf) Ey (%) Er (%) Ev (ksf) Er (ksf)
Blackhawk-1 (short-term) 10 1.29 1.77 0.36 0.73 3.54
15 1.93 2.41 0.71 0.80 2.73
20 2.58 3.07 1.36 0.84 1.90
25 3.22 3.79 2.85 .85 1.13
Castlerock 10 1.39 1.20 0.46 1.16 3.03
15 2.08 1.65 0.67 1.26 3.08
20 2.78 2.09 0.92 1.33 3.02
25 3.47 2.50 1.17 1.39 2.97
Blackhawk-2 10 1.30 4.33 1.03 0.30 1.26
15 1.95 6.29 NA 0.31 NA
20 2.60 9.28 NA 0.28 NA
25 3.25 NA NA NA NA
Blackhawk-1 (long-term) 10 1.29 1.55 0.35 0.83 3.64
15 1.93 2.57 0.55 0.75 3.50
20 2.58 3.85 0.82 0.67 3.13
25 NA NA NA NA NA
Where:
ct = average vertical stress (ksf)
ev = vertical strain experienced at a given vertical stress (%)
er = reinforcement strain experienced at a given vertical stress
(%)
Ey apparent secant modulus in vertical direction (ksf)
49


Er = apparent secant modulus in lateral (reinforcement) direction
(ksf)
Notes:
1) NA* : lateral transducers removed due to excessive deformation and possible
damage to instrumentation ; or failure of specimen occurred.
Table 4.6 Long-Term Behavior: Creep Strain Rates
Soil Type Sustained Load (ft) Time into Test (hrs) Vertical Strain Rate (%/min) Reinf Strain Rate (%/min)
Castle Rock 26 1 0.0009 0.001
10 0.0007 0.0003
80 0.0 0.0001
Blackhawk-1 22.5 1 0.0024 -0.0003
10 0.00007 0.0
80 0.0 0.0
Notes:
1) Sustained load values are given in equivalent height of moist overburden.
50


5.0 Summary Findings and Conclusions
5.1 Summary
The current state of practice in geosynthetic reinforced soil structure (GRS) design
often specifies soil backfill requirements using guidelines for backfill material for
highway construction, or for construction of conventional earth retaining
structures, e.g. cantilever concrete retaining walls. This is done because there has
not been any systematic study on backfill requirements for GRS structures.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the composite behavior of three
different backfill materials, all of which have been used in the construction of GRS
structures in the State of Colorado. The test method used, developed by Wu and
Helwany, examines the interactive performance of soil-geosynthetic composite
specimens. A total of four tests were conducted, all using the same geotextile
material. In the two short-term tests, the composite specimen was short-term loaded
to failure, and in the other two tests a sustained load was applied over a period of
several days. In the two short-term tests the same soil was used (Blackhawk soils);
one test performed at near optimum conditions (Blackhawk-1), the other test being
under-compacted and at an elevated water content in order to simulate poor
construction conditions (Blackhawk-2 soil). In the long-term tests the soil (Castle
Rock soil and Blackhawk-1 soil) were subjected to a load equivalent to 25 feet and
23 feet respectively, of overburden, and sustained over a period of several days.
For each test a two cubic ft rectangular block of soil was placed and compacted to a
pre-determined moist density. At mid-height of each specimen a single layer of
pre-selected geotextile was placed. Soil-geosynthetic specimens were then
51


subjected to a vertically applied load, and displacement in both lateral and vertical
directions were measured using electronic displacement transducers. Transducer
feedback was recorded and processed by an analog data loader in conjunction with a
windows based software program. Raw data conversions, in terms of linear voltage
differentials to displacement, were accomplished using transducer calibration
curves. Strains, and strain rates, and apparent Youngs modulus were calculated
so that a quantitative comparison can be made among different backfill materials.
5.2 Findings and Conclusions
Although many more tests would need to be performed before a relationship could
be established between deformation behavior and a backfills suitability for use in a
GRS structure, this study has provided preliminary insight into composite behavior
of a soil-geosynthetic specimen. The following findings were made as a result of
this study:
1. Blackhawk-1 soil,being an acceptable backfill as evidenced by the
satisfactory performance of the bridge abutment constructed with the
material (Ketchart and Wu, 1999), shows:
a) The apparent Youngs modulus in the vertical direction
at 20 ft overburden had an average value of 0.75 ksf.
b) The apparent Youngs modulus in the reinforcement
direction at 20 ft overburden had an average value of 3.01
ksf.
c) The creep rate decreased with time in the long-term
portion of the test.
52


2. Blackhawk-2 soil, being an unacceptable backfill as evidenced by the
failure of the retaining wall under similar placement conditions (Ketchart
and Wu,199?), shows:
a) The apparent Youngs modulus in the vertical direction
at 20 ft overburden was 0.28 ksf.
3. Castle Rock soil being an acceptable backfill as evidenced by the
satisfactory performance of the bridge abutment constructed with the
material, shows:
a) The apparent Youngs modulus in the vertical direction
at 20 ft overburden was 1.33 ksf.
b) The apparent Youngs modulus in the reinforcement
direction at 20 ft overburden was 3.02 ksf.
a) The creep rate decreased with time in the long-term
portion of the test.
53


Appendix A Soils Test Results
54


Appendix A.l Blackhawk Soil
55


Appendix A.1.1 Compaction Test
56


l a* ('

W/t 17 = K ( 1' t'X )
Compaction curva, Road baaa aoll
*- os., iisti* '*.*) o rcf
>*>e ' - *
SUmi*w ?
r-
tn


Appendix A.1.2 Grain Size Test
58


COLORADO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
GRADATION WORK SHEET
Field repen No. %dt
Construction
Preliminary
Red
Blade
Lab No..
Test No.
Geology Blue
Comp. Sub.
fl-7 /
Wt. % ReL Total
ReL % Pass
3 - lOO
r - loc
3/4- 100
3/8" 1 3 t / 91
-//<+ *114 5.H-T- c* 19 /
;Z7.5l) -//4 . t7 Dry 47 -// 4
W>- Total 11 i HF.M.
Wet Wt. Dry Wt. % Moist -
-IIA 3*fr 799 Cm. 'X iif /. r f-
Wet Wt. Dry Wt. Cotrwi /
Wash Wash iW.W Z? fe7
Wl A ReL /.Pass Total
ReL % Pass
IIA ICO l
//10 70.9 lb b // 40 /OT-Z. an
// 200 ^5J_ fcQ . CC - lb
As
Run
-
~wa 0i
Classification____________^ -1 -
Sp.Cr._______________
L.LJlfe_
P.L "7 5
*/. Abi.
P.L I I


Appendix A.1.3 Atterberg Limits
60


Colorado Department of Transportation
DIRECT SHEAR TEST REPORT (AASHTO T-236)
Field Sheet No. : Prelect ID
Date Received Project Black Hawk
Item Number Location
Lab Test No. Test Date 4/8/00
Source
Region
Classification A-l-nfo) Compaaion Method T-99
Liquid Limit ZS Max. Dry Dens, (pcf) 116.8 fcf-
Plastic Limit 11 Optimum Moisture 13.3%
Plastic Index 1
Specimens were compacted to 95% of AASHTO T-99 Method A at optimum moisture content
Specimen Preparation Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
Siacharoe Pressure (ksf) 0.83 1.81 3.94
Compacted Dry Density (pcf) 112.9 112.5 11ZS
Moisture Content 12.3% 12.2% 12.3%
Percent of Maximum Dry Density 98.3% 98.3% 98.3%
ttw Uud v Moruonm (Mactian
xs
Protect Speaficauons:
Residual Friction Angle: 32.7 degrees
Distnbution:
Tim Aschenorener
Matts & Geotech. Sea.
Engineer
61


Appendix A.1.4 Direct Shear Test
62


Colorado Department of Transportation
DIRECT SHEAR TEST REPORT (AASHTO T-236)
FMd Sheet No. I Prelect ID
Dale Received Project
Hem Number : Location Black
Lab Test No. : Test Date 5/1 AX)
Source
Region
Classification A-2-4<0) Compaction Method T-W
Liquid Limit : 28 Max. Dry Dens, (pcf) 118.8
Plastic Limn : 27 Optimum Moisture 13.3%
Plastic index : 1
Specimens were compacted to 63% of AASHTO T-66 Method A at optimum moisture content
ptus 2 percent of water from OMC
Specimen Preparation Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
Surcharge Presses (lof) OM 1.87 3.86
Compacted Dry Density (pet) 1122 112.5 112.4
Moisture Contort 122% 11.8% 12.0%
Percent of Maximum Dry Denary 66.0% 68.4% 662%
Project Specifications: -% i
Residual Friction Angle: degrees
Distribution:
Central Laboratory
Tim Asctienbrener
Matts. & Geotech. SecL
63


Appendix A.2 Castle Rock Soil
64


Appendix A.2.1 Compaction Test
65



MO13TTR Z-r ENS:77 ZVSVZ
;r.pac::::
T190A
Fieid Sheer *
Test #

cpci -um Moisture - n Maxi-u- Try Zens tty li:
Dry Dry Dry
\ K2C lensny V K2D lensi V H2C density
7.4 138.C 9.4 * > - 11.4 110.5
7.5 108.1 9.5 110.7 11.5 110.3
7.6 108.3 3.6 110.0 11.6 110.1
7.7 108.4 9.7 110.9 11.7 109.9
7 a 108.5 9.8 111.0 11.6 109.7
7.9 108.7 9.9 111.0 11.9 109.5
e.o 108.8 10.0 111.1 12.0 109.2
B.l 109.0 10.1 111.1 12.1 108.9
8.2 109.1 10.2 111.2 12.2 108.6
8.3 109.3 10.3 111.2 12.3 108.3
8.4 109.4 10.4 111.2 12.4 108.0
8.5 109.5 10.5 111.2 12.5 107.6
e.e 109.7 10.6 111.2 12.6 107.2
9.7 109.B 10.7 111.1 12.7 106.8
a .a 110.0 10.8 ... 12.8 106.3
3.9 110.1 10.9 111.0 12.9 105.9
9.0 110.2 11.0 110.9 13.0 105.4
9.1 110.3 11.1 110.9 13.1 104.8
9.2 110.4 11.2 110.7 13.2 104.3
9.3 110.5 11.3 110.6 13.3 103.7
66


Appendix A.2.2 Grain Size Test
67


%
COLORADO DEPARTMENT CF TRANSPORTATION
GRADATION WORK SHEET
Construction Q Red
Preliminary Q Blade
Geology Blue
Field report No.
Lab No.________
Test No._______
Comp._________
focL
Sub.
bS** 7
f. OCIL
Wt.
ReL
: 2
3/** lb
\b.*L
'<129 * :s. bo
Toul UZ. li C
Dry
*/. Re:. Total As
% Pass Run
________ __________________^22___________
r ' 31 _____
'G if
JJO__
to -__________
%FH.
Wet Wl Dry Wt.
-//4 _________T.3
Wet Wt. Dry Wt.
Wash ^73 Wash
Wl 2-fe
ReL
// io 22.9.7
//40 A(-%.7
-V 200 535 £r
C'.assu'cation

Sp. Gr.
% Abs.
SMoiu
Cm. / O Wf/.
7 Jb ~ Corral. :?.b / / 2fb, *
% ReL /.Pass Total V. Pass
0 .">A ^ to
3c - bO %
73 . C.I l>
7 - H
L.U plu
- P.L. N\f
P.l.
68


Appendix A.2.3 Atterberg Limits
69


%
i-
COLORADO DEPARTMENT Or TRANSPORTATION
GRADATION WORK SHEET
Construction Q Red
Preliminary Blade
Geology Blue
Field report No. fiociu
Lab No.___________________________
Test No.__________________________
Comp.______________Slab.__________
bS> ^ '/
ReL
3" -
r l 3t,
3 si
vr % n,
'^ , + " Ib.'tL
-// IS. fco Dry
Total ts2_ -jj
/. Ret.
b_
4
\C
UP
bo
Total As
% Pass Run
J22_________
Su _______
n ________
v
_______-// 4
%F.M.
Wet Wl Dry Wl * Moot
-// H /
Wet Wt. Wash 57 Wl I-fc % ReL % Pass Total
Rsl S Pass
H* _ 0 L'D bO
tf 10 22-9-7 K3 - *>0 3b
// 40 71 . C-l 13
//200 5>S fl- 7 - q
Classification r -1- ? LL rw
Sp. Gr. - PJ_
% Abs. PI
70


Appendix A.2.4 Direct Shear Test
71


Colorado Department of Transportation
DIRECT SHEAR TEST REPORT (AASHTO T-236)
Field Sheet No.
Date Received
Item Number
Lab Test No.
Classification
Liquid Limit
Plastic Limit
Plastic index
A-1-bfo }
NP
r1?
Protect ID
Protect
Location
Test Date
Source
Region
Castle Rock
4/0/00
Compaction Method T-99
Max. Dry Dens, (pcf) 111.2 ref-
Optimum Moisture 10.4%
Specimens were compacted to 95% of AASHTO T-99 Method A at optimum moisture content
Specimen Preparation Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
Suretrame Pressure (tsf) 0.90 1.70 3.00
Compacted Dry Density (pcf) 108.2 107.3 107.4
Moisture Content 8.3% 9.2% 9.1%
Percent of Maxmuxn Dry Density 97.3% 96.5% 96.8%
Project Specifications:
Residual Friction Angle: 33.2 degrees
Tim Aschenprener
Matts. & Geotech Sea.
Engineer
Distribution:
Central Laboratory
72


Appendix B Product Literature
73


Appendix B.l Conbel Consolidimeter
74


DUAL RANGE CONBELS -
A
The Controls for these Conbels are located
is follows:
1. RANGE SELECTOR VALVE: This
is a push-pull air switch located in
the lower center of the rear wall of
the machine base. When pushed in
(toward the front of the machine),
the air supply is directed to the low
range regulator. When pulled out,
the air supply is directed to the hiph
range regulator.
2. LOW RANGE AIR REGULATOR:
This is a precision air pressure
control valve, located on the left
side of the top of the machine base,
identified by the large KW handwheel.
Turning this handwheel clockwise
increases the air pressure passing
through this valve.
Models 354 -5
3.
LOW RANGE SHUT-OFF: Thin is a needle valve located near the LOW
RANGE REGULATOR, identified by the small KW handwheel. Tuning
this handwheel clockwise shuts the valve. When open, thin valve passes
the output of the LOW RANGE REGULATOR to the LOW RANGE GAGE
(on the left side of the front of the machine base), and to the LOAD VALVE.
HIGH RANGE AIR REGULATOR
HIGH RANGE SHUT-OFF
These two controls, located on the right half-of the top of the machine
base function similarly to the low range controls.
C. LOAD VALVE: This la a quick "opening globe valve, actuated by 90
motion of a toggle handle. When this handle is in a horizontal plane,
the valve ia shut. When the handle is vertical, the valve is open and
paaaea the output of either regulator to the load cell.
75


BLEEDER VALVE: This U a needle valve located in back of the load
cell. It U shut by clockwiie rotation of the email KW handwneel. When
open, it directly exhausts the high pressure air in the load cell.
SHUT BOTH AIR REGULATORS, and connect the fitting in the back of the Conbel
beat to steady supply of dry, filtered air. Supply pressure should not exceed
ISO pai, nor should it drop below 80 psl for Model 354, or below 125 psl for
Model 355.
\J)b]
V
The loading sequence is started with the range selector valve forward (low range),
the air regulators and the high range shut-off closed, and the low range shut-off
valve open. The load (toggle) vaive must be shut (handle horixontal).
Adjust the load cell until the swivel plate and the consolidometer are in contact, then
zero the dial indicator for measuring consolidation. The dial indicator may bear on
any part of the consolidometer. (Spacer blocks may be used between the load cell and
the consol!dome ter).
Select the desired load in K5F or TSF and change It to pounds on the soil sample.
Use the Conbel calibration chart to convert load In pounds to Conbel gage reading.
Slowly open the low range air regulator until the low range gage shows the desired
reading. The lose will be instantaneously applied to the soil sample whan tbs load
waive is opened.
To apply a load, first shut the load waive so that the existing sample load la
maintained. Thn open the low range air regulator until the gage showa the new
desired reading. The new load will be applied Instantaneously when the load waive
ia opened.
When the desired load exceeds the low range capacity, it la necessary to switch to
the high range. First shut the load vulva to maintain the existing load. Than CLOSE
THE LOW RANGE SHUT-OFF. The low range air regulator may now be a hut. CHECK
THE HIGH RANGE REGULATOR AND SHUT IT COMPLETELY. IF IT HAD PREVIOUSLY
BEEN OPENED. Poll out the selector switch to high range and open the high range
ahut-ofT. Slowly open the high range air regulator until the high range gage shews the
desired reading. (The low range wage should read lero during this process, II it has
been properly shut off). Load will be Instantaneously applied to the eoll sample when
ilia load valve ia opened.
For still higher loade, close the load valve, open the regulator to the dealred gage
reeding, then open the load valve.
To carry out an unloading sequence en either range, close the load valve, close the
regulator to below the dealred reading, slowly open the regulator to the dealred gage
reading, then open the load valve. Uae the high range until the applied sample load
on the high range ia within the capacity of the low range. For the next lower load,
abut the load valve, abut the high range regulator and the high range shut-off, and
push the selector switch in to low range. Open the low range shut-off, set the desired
reading by opening the low range regulator, then open the load valve.
76


Appendix B.2 Trans-tekTM Displacement Transducers
77


TUMMim
INCORPORATED
DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCER DC-DC s.es
6 TO 30 VOLT EXCITATION
CONSTRUCTION
Alt materials have been selected carefully to acnieve opti-
mum performance. The stainless steel housings, coil as-
sembly, osci'iator-demodulator, and Teflon-insuiated leads
are carefully w.vcaosuiated m epoxy resin. Oscillator-
demodulator nmoonents are individually selected to as-
sure accuracy and reliability.
FOR A DC VOLTAGE OUTPUT
PROPORTIONAL TO DISPLACEMENT
DC In. DC out
Adjustable icalo factor
No phasing, hormone or quadrature null problama
G Polarity protactad
Zaro hysteresis
Staplou output
Eicallant repeatability
Hifti output
Up to 8* range
Extreme linearity
Fast rcsooma
Li(ht waiftit
Magnetically shialdad
DESCRIPTION
Tha Trana-Tak Series 240 displocoment transducer is an
Integrated package consisting of a precision linear variable
differential transformer, a mid stata oscillator, and a
phase leruitivo demodulator.
Tha transducer is designed to combine in one small but
rugged package the achievement of excellent linearity,
infinite resolution. and high sensitivity. The phasing, quad-
rature null and harmonic problems often exoerienced with
AC differential transformers are eliminated.
Input and output circuits are electrically isolated from each
other and from the coil assembly housing, making them
usable directly in floating or ground return systems. DC
indicators, recorders, and control systems can usually be
driven directly by the large DC output. The care, whan
displaced axially within the coil assembly, produces a volt-
ego change in the output directly proportional to the
displacement.
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
The oscillator converts the DC input to AC. etoting the
primary winding of the differential transformer. Voltage is
induced in the secondary windings by the axial core posi-
tion. The two secondary circuits consist of a winding, a
full-wave Bridge, and an RC filter.
The circuits are connected in series opposition so that the
resultant output is a DC voltage proportional to core dis-
olacement from tne electrical center. The oolarity of the
.olfage is a function of the direction of the core displace-
ment with respect to the electrical center.
78


application
A Series 240 trvoducer can be used to measure physical
functions which can be translated into a linear displace-
ment Typical applications include servo position feedback,
sensor for pressure transducers, strain measurement in
structural members, automatic gauging, and machine
control.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
Blue lead is more positive with respect to Green lead as the
core is moved towards the lead end.
INSTALLATION
A Series 240 transduces. can be mounted by clamping
around the housing to a physical reference point The
dynamic member to be monitored is coupled to the
threaded connecting rod of the core assembly or to the
optional core by means of a threaded extension rod.
Mounting hardware should be of nonmagnetic materials
such as brass, aluminum, or 300 series stainless steel.
CORE OPTIONS
Can
Medal Option Fig Pi He. I C P t
02404000 Std. 1 C0044000 .542 .120 _ 1.90
02444000 1 1 0044001 .562 .099 1.90
02444000 2 2 C0054002 .542 .120 thra -
02444000 3 2 0050003 .562 .099 thru -
02414000 Std. 1 C0044004 750 .120 _ 1.90
02414000 1 1 C0044005 750 .099 - 1.90
02414000 2 2 C0054009 .750 .120 3/16 _
02414000 3 2 C0054010 750 .099 3/16 -
02424000 Std. 1 0044010 1.75 .120 - 1.90
02424000 1 1 0044006 1.75 .099 - 1.90
02434000 Sid. 1 0044011 1.17 .120 - 2.40
02434000 1 1 0044007 1.87 .099 - 2.40
02444000 Std. 1 0044012 2.00 .120 - 120
02444000 1 1 0044001 2.00 499 - 3 JO
02434000 Std. 1 0044013 3.50 .120 - 120
02434000 1 1 0044009 3.50 .099 - 5.20

02464000 Std. 1 0044014 3.50 .120 - 1.40
02464000 1 1 0044015 3.50 .099 - 1.40
DISPLACEMENT VS. OUTPUT DIAGRAM
NOTE: CURVES AT VARIOUS LOADS ARE SHOWN FOR
REFERENCE ONLY. LOAD RESISTANCE UNDER 50 KQ
MAY DEGRADE LINEARITY. OUTPUT MAY BE SHORT
CIRCUITED INDEFINITELY WITHOUT DAMAGE TO LVDT.
NUU.
DIMENSIONAL DIAGRAM


ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Model Number 02400000 0241-0000 0242 0000 0243-0000 0244-0000 024*4000 0246-0000

Range, working x 0-050 r .100 x .250 x 500 x 1.00 2.00 *360
Mai. usable x 0.075 x .150 x .375 x 750 11.50 2.75 4.00
Input, vttftS DC 6.0 M.n tb X Mai.
Nominal F.S. Output iV.D.C. (open arcutt)
4 6 V. input 12 2.1 1.6 3.0 4J 46 3.1
O 15 V. input 30 5.4 4 2 75 106 10.0 76
4 24 V. input 50 9.0 7.0 12-5 166 166 136
4 30 V. mput 5.9 10.7 8J 14.8 21.4 206 15.4
Input current &3 ma 4 6 V inbut to 52 ma 4 X V. input
LINEARITY % FULL SCALE OVER TOTAL WORKING RANGE *oj *06 0.5 x 0.5 xO.S 06 06
OVER MAX. USABLE RANGE x 1.0 x 1.0 11.0 x 1.0 1.0 11.0 x 1.0
Internal earner Free, rtj Nom. greater than 13000 12000 3600 3400 3200 1500 1400
% Ripple (RMS) nom. 0.7 07 06 0.8 06 1.0 1.0
Output impecance iohms) 2500 3500 5200 5500 5600 5500 5600
Freq. Response 3 db down Hi 300 140 115 no 100 no 75
Temperature Range - 65" F to + 250* F.
Resolubon Infinite
PHYSICAL SPECJnCATMWS
Med* Number 02400100 0241-0000 0242-0000 02430000 0244-0000 02456000 02466000 |

Coi assembly (length A) 067 1.12 Ml 3.71 4.71 621 1062
Cesl axsanOty (Might giaim) 22 28 70 80 104 180 220
Core assembly Cewht grams) 16 2.1 3.4 36 43 76 8.1
Termnetan almoddb 122 AWG by 18" tong Teflon emulated lead*
Ec 0-34 0.46 1.44 1.69 249 394 569
REPLACEMENT CORES
| Model Number 0240-0000 0241-0000 02426000 02430000 02446000 02456000 02466000

Replacement ore Part Numbers C604-0000 C004-0001 C005-0002 0305-0003 C004-0004 C004-0005 C005-0009 C0056010 C004-0006 C004-0010 C0046007 C004-0011 C004600B C0046012 C0046009 C0046013 C0046014 C0046015
Lnwf) miwwe as aw eeaon from o twat sraiptt ana ooiswq thru tan. a ms awn Q.5% of A* Mr acato aumut o*at Wm am
many tangs, (cl kbaw Q246400D total mjrsng range a 6.00 tnchast or f % ot trw maMajmum irsaom fangs
80


Appendix B.3 DATAQtm Data Analyzer
81


2. Specifications
Signal Connections
All portable instruments allow dual-access analog input signal connections. Connect your input signals to the
sheathed banana jacks or 10 the screw terminals. Digital inputs and outputs are accessible from the 37-pin
AUXILIARY PORT connector on DI-500-16 and Dl-510-8 instruments oniy.
All desktop and rack-mounted instruments support screw terminal input signal connccuons only (no sheathed
banana jacks).
Interface Characteristic*
Compatible computer architecture Any PC architecture. Connects to computer via the parallel (or
printer) port. Supports standard, bi-directional, or EPP parallel
pons.
Analog Channels
DI-500-16:
DI-300-32.
DI-5IO-32
DI-JICM8
Dl-J 10-64
16 signal condiuoncd channels
32 hign level channels
32 signal conditioned channels
16 signal condiuoned channels and 32 high level channels
64 huh level channels
'Note: all instruments are expandable to 240 channels i
All Analog Input*
Analog resoluuon
Sample throughput rate
Gaia nags
IlOlMiOB
12-bit. I part in 4096
standard parallel port: 40.000 samples/second max
bi-directional parallel port 80.000 samplea/second max
tnhenrrd parallel port (EPP): 220.000 samplea/second max
> 10 MQ in parallel with 30 pF
\JJk J: software selectable per channel
300V chanDcl-u>-channel
600V input-to-output
High Level Analog Inputs
Type
Measurement range full scale (intended)
Maximum analog input without damage
Common mode rejccuon
Gaia accuracy
Inpul ofTset voltage
Input settling ume
Differential
clOVFS 9A>I
30V
lOdbmin A.*l
<0.05*
3 ADC cornua
4p* to 0.01* at all gains
Signal Conditioned Analog Inputs
All specs Defined by DI-5B modules
Maximum analog inpul without damage 240V
Analog Output*
Number of channels Two
Resoluuon 12-bit: I part in 4.096
Update rate 500.000 samples/second max
Specifications
82


DL220/Vt-Z21TC Ur Mwwinl
Output voltage ranges Current dnvc/impcdance Output sealing lime to 0.01% I0V 5mA/0 3fl 4ps
Digital Input/Output Capacity Compatibility Maa source current Mai sink current Digital input termination g each input and output TTL compatible 0.4mA @ 2.4V 8mA @0.5V 4.7kfl pull-up to +5VDC
Input Scan List Capacity 240 elements
Output Scan Lint Capacity 16 elements
Triggering Pre-trigger length Post-trigger length Trigger channel Trigger level hysteresis 64k samples 64k samples Any channel S-bit (226 counts)
Power Requirements DI-500 instruments DI-510 instruments Power supply voltage range 700mA @ 12VDC typical, excluding 5B modules 1000mA @ 12VDC typical, excluding 5B modules 9 to 36VDC
Ptiyaleal/Emrironmantal Bcb dimensions I/O connector Operating environment: Portable Models: 15W"D by 19WW by 7Vi"H (300 models) 20WD by 24 "W by 8M"H (310 models) Desktop Models: I6.TT) by 16.88"W by 3.5"H (both models) 1 male, 1 female 37-pin D-type
Component temperature Relative humidity Sungc environment: 0" to 70* C 3% to 90% non condensing
Temperance Relative humidity -55* to 150* C 3% to 90% non condensing
Specifications
83


Appendix B.4 Amoco 2044 Geotextile
84


PREMIUM PRODUCTS DESIGNED TO MEET
YOUR MOSTDEMANDING DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
.* A'
MUUUUlf PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
*amrv< ^ Miinc; lira .Til 30 272
'into lew ASTW 0 A£32 to Aw 600 4500 300 Aw 70 4 no
u/*b Bonqraoo ASTW 0-<632 % 3 3
Adi Wtfitl Ira Jimnc ASIU 01595 aitn h AW 4800 41800 AW 2400 4 2400 1 I 1 *
htm fensa 6ionoMO-Ul!*Te ASTV 0 1535 S aw e 41 w 6 47 ft/*
Adi Watn le Uuitri Bun xsru s 250 300 100
-JKMf istw o-5:: to. 40 70 90
'-aotwo mr iSTwo-5:: to 300 70 70
jV Roan as 01255 s X X n
3ttnni 0cffw<5 ije as 0 172: JSSM *%*< 5CV7TJ 10 XtfO
as 0-U31 bVMnm- Sc 0 E 40 1 55 1 i]
85


AMOC
rwTBiifliriii
T*
FABRI
AMOCO WOVEN
CONSTRUCTION FABRICS
B
(MTvm Iastw^isii ;*. 1 witr ad wav sol n 1 1 Inum inuso l i 300 WAIT 179 WAAP RU. 1
Gr6 Elonvoo* UsTW^-tea X i WAW 30 j WAW 34 1 15 j 1* 1 1 1 HULO FIU.JJ 1 i - a ti
lUmha ASTUJTBB gm 490 ; 410 j 200 B0 aoo 771
Pum*re 4$TW-0-*33 bo 1 1*> 70 00 m m m
Tnama Ttr ASTM -0-*SXJ -ca WA*P a WAAP 79 X j 71 I 1 j SO j 90 I 1 'nun UVIbUACt AST14-0-43S5' 90 1 1 " 70 ; 70 t200 hroj j " 70 70 79
Abraaon Ar*mnc* i ASTM-0-388*nOOOIto*. 55 58 (Strength rwtwneoi 1 cvcl CS17 tin AopMmOcrvnq ASTM-0-4751 uS Saw >3050 7QTI00 SaatMB) |i it j | 30/70 30/70 30/70 3ono 30/50
Nr n ASTuaaai f 1- i j a 1 M 2 M 4 A* 4 I1 m | a ? ?
"fMKMMWRfnlMhAM
Tho odormation d'im'VM htrvm. wfw* not guar a mood. a to ma bM oi our hwqoia dgo
dm ana taunt* end m# acpam UMn*i *it moonubltcv for its im. No iny or
guarvoco tipmtd or mMd a moo* normn regarding mo porformanco o* any trodict.
ones M manner at uu and handling aro bovone our control. Noth mg untamed hervn a
to bo anmoo as p*nmsion or at a recam monoaoon to mfrotgo any patar*.
AMOCO FABRICS AND FIBERS COMPANY
900 Cad* 75 Partway. Sun* 300
Atom. Geonpa 30339
Tatapfiono 40*-98A-*a*4
86


Appendix C Raw Data
87


Appendix C.l Transducer Calibration Curves
88


IMfll
*t/v3
ALL KMlINTI OF LVOT ARK INWARD


Full Text

PAGE 1

EFFECT OF BACKFILL ON SOIL-GEOSYNTHETIC INTERACTIVE PERFORMANCE TESTS by David J. Gilbert B.S., Colorado State University, 1989 B.S., Colorado State University, 1995 M.S., University of Colorado, 2000 A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Civil Engineering 2000

PAGE 2

This thesis for the Master of Science degree by David J. Gilbert has been approved by Jonathan Wu I DunjaPeric Sarosh Khan ate

PAGE 3

Gilbert, David J. (M.S., Civil Engineering) Effect of Backfill on Soil-Geosynthetic Interactive Perfonnance Tests Thesis directed by Professor Jonathan Wu ABSTRACT A series of laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the behavior of soil geosynthetic composites. The tests were conducted by using a soil-geosynthetic interactive perfonnance test device developed at CU-Denver, in which the soil and geosynthetic reinforcement are allowed to defonn, under a vertical load, in an interactive manner. Three different soils were employed in this study. All the soils have been used in actual construction of geosynthetic-reinforced soil structures, including a bridge abutment in Black Hawk, Colorado, a bridge abutment in Castle Rock, Colorado and a retaining wall in Black Hawk, Colorado. Each soil was prepared to mimic the placement density and moisture content of the respective earth structure. A total of four tests were conducted, of which two were used to verify test repeatability. The vertical displacements of the composite and lateral extensions of the reinforcement were monitored throughout each test. Both shortand long-term tests were perfonned. The vertical "apparent" Young's modulus and the creep rate of each soil-geosynthetic composite were determined. The results serve as preliminary quantitative guides for estimating the defonnation characteristics of geosynthetic-reinforced soil structures. This abstract accurately represents the contents of the candidate's thesis. I recommend its publication. J athan u 111

PAGE 4

DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis to my classmates and professors in geotechnical engineering at the University of Colorado-Denver, whose example and interest motivated me to do my best.

PAGE 5

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A special thanks to my advisor, Dr. Jonathan Wu, who introduced me into this subject area, and was always ready to answer any questions. A grateful acknowledgement to Dr.Kanop Ketchart for the technical support provided while compiling this thesis.

PAGE 6

CONTENTS Figures .......................................................................................................................... ix Tables ............................................................................................................................ xi Chapter 1. Introduction ........................................................................................................ 1 1.1 Problem Statement ............................................................................................. I 1.2 Research Objectives ........................................................................................... 3 1.3 Research Methodology ...................................................................................... 3 1.4 Report Contents ................................................................................................. 7 2. The Soil-Reinforcement Interactive Performance Test ..................................... 9 2.1 Test Apparatus ................................................................................................... 9 2.2 Specimen Preparation ...................................................................................... 11 2.3 Load Application ............................................................................................. 17 2.4 Test Instrumentation ........................................................................................ 19 2.4.1 Electronic Displacement Transducers ............................................................. 20 2.4.2 Mechanical Displacement Dial Gauge ............................................................ 20 2.4.3 Data Acquisition System ................................................................................. 20 2.5 Laboratory Procedure ...................................................................................... 21 3. Test Materials .................................................................................................. 25 3.1 Amoco 2044 ..................................................................................................... 25 3.2 Blackhawk Soil ................................................................................................ 27 3.3 Castle Rock Soil ............................................................................................. 27 VI

PAGE 7

4. Test Results and Discussion of Results ........................................................... 29 4.1 Short-tenn Test with BlackhawkI Soil .......................................................... 29 4.2 Long-tenn Test with Castle Rock Soil ............................................................ 34 4.3 Short-tenn Test with Blackhawk-2 Soil .......................................................... 39 4.4 Long-tenn Test with BlackhawkI Soil ......................................................... .43 4.5 Comparison of Test Results ............................................................................. 48 5. Summary Findings and Conclusions ............................................................... 51 5.1 Summary .......................................................................................................... 51 5.2 Findings and Conclusions ................................................................................ 52 Appendix A. Soils Test Results ............................................................................................. 54 A.l Blackhawk Soil ................................................................................................ 55 A.l.l Compaction Test .............................................................................................. 56 A.l.2 Grain Size Test ................................................................................................ 58 A.1.3 Atterberg Limits ............................................................................................... 60 A.1.4 Direct Shear Test ............................................................................................. 62 A.2 Castle Rock Soil .............................................................................................. 64 A.2.1 Compaction Test .............................................................................................. 65 A.2.2 Grain Size Test ................................................................................................ 67 A.2.3 Atterberg Limits ............................................................................................... 69 A.2.4 Direct Shear Test ............................................................................................. 71 B. Product Literature ............................................................................................ 73 B.l Conbel Consolidimeter .................................................................................... 74 Vll

PAGE 8

B.2 Trans-tekrM Displacement Transducers .......................................................... 77 8.3 DATAQrM Data Analyzer ............................................................................... 81 B.4 Amoco 2044 Geotextile ................................................................................... 84 C. Raw Data ......................................................................................................... 87 C.l Transducer Calibration Curves ........................................................................ 88 C.2 Conbel Calibration Curves .............................................................................. 91 C.3 Voltage Readings ............................................................................................. 95 C.3.1 Short-term Test with Blackhawk-1 Soil .......................................................... 96 C.3.2 Long-term Test with Castle Rock Soil .......................................................... 102 C.3.3 Short-term Test with Blackhawk-2 Soil ........................................................ 119 C.3.4 Long-term Test with Blackhawk-1 Soil ........................................................ 124 References .................................................................................................................. l35 Vlll

PAGE 9

FIGURES Figure 1.1 Bridge Abutment in Black Hawk, Colorado .................................................. .4 1.2 GRS Retaining Wall in Black Hawk, Colorado .............................................. 5 1.3 Diagram of Soil-Geosynthetic Performance Device ....................................... 7 2.1 Final Configuration ofTest Specimen .......................................................... tO 2.2 Placement of Adjustable Spacers .................................................................. 10 2.3 Placement of Silicon Grease ......................................................................... 11 2.4 Placement of Latex Membrane ..................................................................... 12 2.5 Removal of Air Bubbles ............................................................................... 13 2.6 First Loose Lifts of Soil Placed in Apparatus ............................................... 13 2. 7 Compaction of Soil Inside Container. ........................................................... 14 2.8 Placement of First Layer of Geotextile ......................................................... 15 2.9 Placement of Geotextile at Mid-height of Specimen .................................... 16 2.10 Final Specimen Height. ................................................................................. 16 2.11 Loading Plate Placed on Specimen ............................................................... l8 2.12 Calibration of Loading Device ...................................................................... 18 2.13 Electronic Transducers in Place .................................................................... 21 3.1 LoadDeformation Behavior of Amoco 2044 ............................................... 26 4.1 Stress/Strain vs. Time-Blackhawk-! Soil;Short-term Test ........................... 32 4.2 Vertical Strain vs. Stress-Blackhawk-! Soil;Short-term Test ....................... 33 4.3 Reinforcement Strain vs. Stress-Blackhawk-! Soil;Short-term Test.. .......... 34 4.4 Stress/Strain vs. Time-Castle Rock Soil;Short-term Loading ...................... 36 4.5 Vertical Strain vs. Stress-Castle Rock Soil;Short-term Loading .................. 36 4.6 Reinforcement Strain vs. Stress-Castle Rock Soil;Short-term Loading ....... 37 IX

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4.7 Strain vs. Time-Castle Rock Soil;Long-tenn Loading ................................. 38 4.8 Submergence Test-Castle Rock Soil.. ........................................................... 39 4.9 Stress/Strain vs. Time-Blackhawk-2 Soil;Short-tenn Test.. ........................ .41 4.10 Vertical Strain vs. Stress-Blackhawk-2 Soil;Short-tenn Test ...................... .42 4.11 Reinforcement Strain vs. Stress-Blackhawk-2 Soil;Short-tenn Test.. ......... .43 4.12 Stress/Strain vs. Time-Blackhawk-1 Soil;Short-tenn Loading ................... .44 4.13 Vertical Strain vs. Stress-Blackhawk-1 Soil;Short-tenn Loading ............... .45 4.14 Reinforcement Strain vs. Stress-Blackhawk-1 Soil;Short-tenn Loading .... .46 4.15 Strain vs. Time-Blackhawk-} Soil;Long-tenn Loading .............................. .47 X

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TABLES Table 3.1 Soil Properties: Blackhawk and Castle Rock Soils ....................................... 28 4.1 Target and Actual Values; Short-term; Blackhawk-} Soil Test .................... 30 4.2 Target and Actual Values; Long-term; Castle Rock Soil Test ..................... 35 4.3 Target and Actual Values; Short-term; Blackhawk-2 Soil Test .................. .40 4.4 Target and Actual Values; Long-term; BlackhawkI Soil Test.. ................. .44 4.5 Short-Term Behavior; Strain, Apparent Secant Modulus for Backfill ........ .49 4.6 LongTerm Behavior; Creep Rate for Backfill ............................................. 50 Xl

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1.0 Introduction 1.1 Problem Statement "Reinforced soil", is a soil mass that is strengthened by the inclusion of planar reinforcement. This planar reinforcement, commonly in the form of horizontally placed geosynthetic layers, serves to restrain the development of tensile strain in the direction of the reinforcement. These internal reinforcements act synergistically with the surrounding soil, tending to increase the stiffness and strength ofthe soil. Reinforced soil has become a subject matter in it's own right during the last two decades. There are a number of reasons for the designer to consider an internally reinforced soil structure instead of an externally stabilized soil structure. Among these are: More tolerant to foundation settlement, more flexible structure makes catastrophic failure less likely. No need to embed walls into foundation material. Favorable strength properties; both statically, and dynamically. Less expensive to construct, in that the construction method is simpler if executed properly. 1

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In a reinforced soil the tensile forces in the reinforcement are induced by friction, adhesion, and passive resistance between the confining soil and the contact area of the reinforcement layer. Indeed, while a soil material is strong in both compression and shear resistance, an added dimension is provided by the reinforcement layer in resisting tensile stresses. Thus, an argument can be made that if the strength is provided in a composite manner in a geosynthetic reinforced soil (GRS) structure, then the testing of such a material should also be done to composite specimens. For purposes of this report, the composite soil-geosynthetic deformation behavior typified m a GRS structure, with regards to different soil backfill materials, will be examined. As with the rapid incorporation of geosynthetic materials into various types of civil engineering design, GRS construction will demand that standards be developed by which quality of composite materials can be evaluated. At the present time, for GRS specifications, most public agencies and designers still rely on soil material standards for which the soil is tested on a stand-alone basis. These index parameters may be disqualifying soil, which when placed in a GRS structure, would be perfectly satisfactory. It is clear that in the case for GRS structures, there is a gray area, for which the particular soil backfill material may or may not meet the requirements of a proposed design, despite having met an existing standard or code requirement. By testing the soil-geosynthetic composite material deformation properties, more insight may be gained as to the true behavior of a proposed GRS structure. Variable parameters. e.g. moisture content, degrees of compaction, can be adjusted to mimic the behavior of a generic soil-geosynthetic composite prior to construction of a reinforced soil structure. 2

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Eventually, the goal of any testing standard is to define the boundaries between the performance of acceptable and unacceptable test materials. This report will make an attempt to begin the process of defining an acceptable performance standard with regard to earth backfill materials being incorporated into a GRS structure. 1.2 Research Objectives In essence, the research objectives are two-fold: To investigate the effect of backfill on the load-deformation behavior of soil-geosynthetic composites. To establish preliminary criteria for selection of backfill for construction of GRS structures. 1.3 Research Methodology Since there is some controversy over what constitutes an acceptable backfill material for GRS structures, a systematic study was initiated. In this study three soils were examined, all of which have actually been used in the construction of GRS structures in the State of Colorado. The first soil, referred to as the "Blackhawk-! soil" was used in the construction of a GRS bridge abutment in Black Hawk, Colorado (Ketchart and Wu, 1999). Figure 1.1 depicts the bridge abutment. The second soil, referred to as the "Castle Rock soil" was used in the construction of a GRS bridge abutment in 3

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Castle Rock, Colorado, by the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT). The wall experienced little deformation after construction. The third soil, referred to as the "Blackhawk-2 soil" was used in the construction of a GRS retaining wall in Black Hawk, Colorado (Ketchart and Wu, 1999). Figure 1.2 shows the retaining wall. This soil is essentially the same as the "Blackhawk-! soil", except that the soil was placed at a lower density and subsequently became wetter after construction. This retaining wall eventually "failed" and had to be reconstructed Figure 1.1 Bridge Abutment in Black Hawk, Colorado. 4

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Figure 1.2 GRS Retaining wall in Black Hawk, Colorado. Based upon factual forensic data, and matching the site soil conditions to the laboratory specimens, the soils were subjected to interactive performance testing using the apparatus first developed by Wu (1994) and Wu and Helwany (1996). The approach used to accomplish the research objectives was the following: 5

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Conduct a series of laboratory tests using different soils; and one common fabric; under typical placement conditions in terms of compaction density and moisture content. Synthesize the results of the laboratory tests. For the laboratory tests, shortand long-term soil-reinforcement interactive performance tests (Wu and Helwany, 1996a); Wu, et al. 1997) were conducted. The interactive performance test is capable of simulating soil-reinforcement interactive behavior in typical reinforced soil structures. In the soil-reinforcement interactive performance test, the reinforcement and the confining soil were allowed to deform in an interactive manner. The reinforcement imposed a restraining effect on soil deformation through friction/adhesion at the soil reinforcement interface. Each test was conducted in such a manner so as to duplicate moisture and compaction in the actual GRS structure in the field. For both the Blackhawk-1 and Castle Rock soil, placement was specified at 95 percent standard Proctor, and within 2 percent of optimum moisture content. For Blackhawk-2 soil the test was conducted in an under-compacted condition, and at a higher moisture content. This was done to demonstrate the effect of poor field execution on a GRS earth structure. The soil-reinforcement interactive performance tests were conducted by using an apparatus developed in the course of a study on long-term behavior of reinforced soils (Ketchart and Wu, 1996). Figure 1.3 shows the typical equipment setup. The test specimen was shaped as a rectangular block, with a 1 ft square cross 6

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section, and 2 ft in horizontal length (i.e. in the longitudinal direction). Embedded at mid-height of the block is the selected geosynthetic reinforcement. Soil is compacted in lifts to the desired density and moisture content. Once preparation of the test specimen was completed, incremental vertical loads were applied to the top of the soil-geosynthetic composite specimen, under zero confining pressure. Loading continued until failure occurred, or in the case of sustained loading tests, an equivalent surcharge load of 20-25 ft overburden was reached. In the sustained load test for Castle Rock soil, the surcharge load was maintained over a period of several days, and finally submerged until failure occurred. The vertical and lateral deformation of each specimen was recorded throughout the test. These measurements were then analyzed to assess the soils suitability for use as a backfill material for the construction of a GRS structure. 1.4 Report Contents The following is a brief overview of chapter contents: Chapter 2 Describes the overall test program, including: test methods, test apparatus, test procedure, test materials, test instrumentation, and load application device. Chapter 3 Details the test materials used in the study. Chapter 4 Details the test results and discussion of results for Blackhawk, and Castle Rock soils. Chapter 5-Report's summary, findings, and conclusions. 7

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'I loa.*IQ pla"t Slo4IP(r1:0ftg pAM\ 12 61\. 1.211. ... (al Before Releasinq Lateral Supportinq Panels (b) After Releasinq Lateral Supportinq Panels Figure 1.3 Schematic Diaqram o! the Modified Lonq-Term Soil-Geosynthetic Performance Test Device 8

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2.0 Tbe Soil-Reinforcement Interactive Performance Test The laboratory testing consisted of both shortand long-term soil-reinforcement interactive performance tests (Ketchart and Wu 1996) in which the soil reinforcement composite is subjected to a vertical load, and deformation is measured along the horizontal and vertical faces. Short-term tests were conducted such that soil specimens were loaded incrementally until a failure state was achieved. Long-term tests involved incremental loading of the specimen until a corresponding surcharge load of about 25 feet of overburden was reached. At that point the load was sustained over a period of several days. For one long-term test, (Castle Rock soil), the specimen was finally loaded to failure under submerged conditions. 2.1 Test Apparatus The test equipment was the apparatus used in a previous study for investigating long-term soil-geosynthetic interactive behavior (Ketchart and Wu, 1996). Soil was placed into a rigid plexiglass container and compacted to the desired density. For the tests described in this report, the final soil test specimen measured 1 ft. deep (in the transverse direction), 2 ft. wide (in the longitudinal direction), and 1 ft. high (see Figure 2.1 ). Adjustable plexiglass sidewalls measuring 2 ft. wide by 1 ft. high were removed after compaction, exposing the transverse faces of the soil-geosynthetic composite specimen. For purposes of this study the device was modified in that instead of using air cylinders to fix the sidewalls during compaction, short 3-inch sections of threaded rod with adjustable locknuts on either end, were employed toprovide resistance against movement of sidewalls during compaction (see Figure 2.2). 9

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Figure 2.1 Final configuration of test specimen. Figure 2.2 Placement of adjustable spacers between removable side walls and fixed sides. 10

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2.2 Specimen Preparation Before placement of soil into the plexiglass box, a thin layer of silicon grease was spread along all non-removable sides and bottom (see Figure 2.3). A 0.02 millimeter latex rubber membrane was then placed over the silicone layer. (see Figure 2.4) Air bubbles were carefully worked out using a l-inch wooden dowel rod.(see Figure 2.5) This frictionless plexiglass-silicone-latex rubber interface created a plane strain condition so that lateral and vertical deformation under load was not influenced by friction along the soil-plexiglass boundary. Soil was then directly placed in the plexiglass container, once the adjustable sidewalls were firmly fixed, in uniform lifts and compacted to the desired density(see Figures 2.6, and 2.7). Figure 2.3 Placement of thin layer of silicon grease. 11

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Figure 2.4 Placement of latex membrane in container 12

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Figure 2.5 Removal of air bubbles using wooden dowel rod Figure 2.6 First loose lifts of soil placed in apparatus. 13

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Figure 2. 7 Compaction of soil inside container. Each soil-geosynthetic composite specimen was compacted and prepared at a pre selected density and moisture content (see Chapter 4) Once the latex rubber membrane was in place and air bubbles had been removed, a 2 ft by 1 ft sheet of woven Amoco 2044 geotextile was placed at the bottom (see Figure 2.8). The Amoco fabric was placed so that the machine (strongest) direction of the weave was in the transverse direction of the apparatus ( i.e. perpendicular to the two removable lateral supporting panels). This placement requirement also represents typical field conditions. The soil was then placed in approximate l-inch to 2-inch lifts. Each lift volume was pre-weighed and stored separately in two gallon freezer bags to ensure uniform moisture conditions. Compaction of desired density was achieved using a standard 10 pound proctor hammer (see Figure 2.7), taking care to monitor lift thicknesses during compaction by using an engineering tape. Soil was scarified between lifts using a screw driver or similar tool, to maximize bonding 14

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between lifts. At mid-height, or 6-inch specimen height, a single layer of Amoco 2044 is placed (see Figure 2.9), and compaction resumed until the soil specimen was complete at a height of 12 inches. Another rectangular sheet of geosynthetic fabric is placed at the final height,( see Figures 2.1, and 2.1 0) before the loading plate was set on top ofthe soil specimen. Figure 2.8 Placement of first layer of 2044 geotextile in bottom of container. 15

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Figure 2.9 Placement of geotextile at midheight of specimen. Figure 2.10 Final specimen height before placement of geotextile and loading plate 16

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2.3 Load Application Before applying load to the specimen, the lateral supporting panels were removed, and the instrumentation was fixed in place so that both lateral and vertical deformation can be recorded. Test instrumentation consisted primarily of electronic dispacement transducers (see Appendix B.2). The load apparatus used in testing was a pneumatic atr pressure-driven consolidimeter, (Appendix B.l), featuring a single loading ram (see Figure 2.11). The Conbel consolidimeter was calibrated prior to testing using an MTS 81 0 Electro HydraulicTesting System (see Figure 2.12). A calibration curve, converting pressure (psi) values as read on the Conbel dial gauge to pounds-force (kips) was derived and is included in Appendix C.2 The consolidimeter loading module was supported on square tube steel members which framed into the Yz-inch steel base plate through l-inch columnar threaded steel supporting rods. The plexi-glass housing was then placed inside the framed structure (see Figure 2.1 0). The centralized loading ram of the consolidimeter applied pressure to a pyramid shaped 1 ft by 2 ft plexiglass loading plate which was placed directly upon the top surface ofthe prepared specimen (see Figure 2.11). The bottom surface of the loading plate was coated with a thin layer of silicone compound, and then covered with a single layer of latex membrane. The removable sidewall panels were then detached, and the displacement transducers were set in place. 17

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Figure 2.11 Loading plate placed on specimen and loading apparatus in place. Figure 2.12 Calibration of loading device using MTS system. 18

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2.4 Test Instrumentation Test instrumentation consisted of electronic displacement transducers, analog data recorder, and mechanical displacement gauges. Two lateral oriented LVDT's were situated and placed in direct contact with the soil at mid-height (see Figure2.13), one on either side of the soil block, in order to measure lateral deformation. Two vertically oriented LVDT's were fixed and placed in contact with the loading plate, on either side of the loading ram, for measurement of vertical deformation. The displacement transducers were then connected by a control cable to a data acquisition module, which relayed voltage readings to a Windows based program, WINDAQ, for processing input. Air supply is directed to the Conbel loading ram in contact with the plexiglass loading plate in approximate 0.35 kip increments until failure of the specimen occurs, or the desired long-term sustained load level was reached. The data files contained output in terms of voltage changes for each transducer. These differential voltages were directly proportional to the displacements at the location of each transducer. The corresponding displacements were obtained from the calibration curves (Appendix C.l) for each transducer, which were input into a spreadsheet format. The spreadsheet program used for this study was the Excel Windows software. 19

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2.4.1 Electronic Displacement Transducers TransTek Series 240 displacement transducers were employed for the purposes of this study. A stainless steel cylindrical housing contains a steel core rod, a linear variable differential transformer, a solid state oscillator, and a phase sensitive demodulator. Axial movements of the core rod within the fixed steel housing produce voltage changes which are directly proportional to the corresponding displacements. Lateral transducers were held in place by tightening thumbscrews in the plastic side insertion tubes, and vertical transducers were locked in place relative to a fixed point by using magnetic attachment mechanisms. Signal wiring consisting of UL listed Type CM 22 A WG shielded cable joined the transducers to the analog recorder and DC power supply. The conversion factor for each transducer in terms of voltage-displacement are included in Appendix C.l. Transducer specifications including range, linearity, and resolution are also contained in Appendix B.2. 2.4.2 Mechanical Displacement Dial Gauge Mechanical vertical displacement of the loading plate relative to an external fixed reference point was provided by a dial gauge in the event of power failure or malfunction of the electronic instrumentation. 2.4.3 Data Acquisition System An analog to digital converter, DATAQTM, on loan to CU-Denver by the Federal Highway Administration (FHW A), was used to transform analog voltage signals detected by the transducers into digital output processed by the Windows based 20

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WINDAQ program. A description of the signal conditioning equipment, DATAQ, is included in Appendix B.3. Figure 2.13 Electronic transducers in place, lateral (right); vertical stylus visible m upper left. 2.5 Laboratory Test Procedure In summary, the step-by-step process for testing of each compacted soil specimen is as follows: 1) Prepare soil using desired soil properties (dry density, moisture content) obtained from compaction curves for the soil being tested. Store soil overnight in a moisture proof container to achieve uniform moisture absorption. 21

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2) Pre-weigh soil for each lift and place into individual watertight containers or plastic bags. 3) Center plexi-glass container on base of steel frame by measunng end distances, and marking steel base plate with appropriate permanent marker. 4) Place removable side panels into container, and adjust and tighten threaded rod spacers so that transverse dimensions of soil placement area measures 1 ft between panels. 5) Spread a thin uniform layer of silicon grease across bottom of container and the two fixed sides. 6) Carefully place a sheet of 0.02 millimeter thick latex membrane inside container and carefully work out air bubbles using a wooden dowel. If desired, a Yz -inch grid can be drawn beforehand on one end of the membrane, so that deformation of the specimen can be observed during testing, through either of the transparent fixed sides. Tape both ends of latex membrane to outside walls of container so that membrane does not wrinkle, bunch, or become separated during compaction. 7) Place a 1-ft by 2-ft section of the desired geosynthetic on bottom, taking care to cut section so that machine direction, as manufactured, is transverse to the two removable supporting panels. 8) Empty first loose lift of pre-weighed soil into container, on top of geosynthetic, and compact to pre-determined density using a proctor hammer, and periodically measuring lift thickness. A straight edge can be laid across the top edges of container to serve as a reference point from which to measure distances. 9) Continue placing lifts, using a steel tool to lightly scarify the top surface of each compacted lift, before placing the next lift. 22

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1 0) When compaction to mid-height of sample is reached ( 6-inch total thickness), lightly scarify soil surface, and place a 1 ft by 2 ft section of desired geosynthetic on soil surface. 11) Continue compacting lifts of loose soil until 12-inch total thickness IS reached. 12) Place another 1-ft by 2-ft section of geosynthetic on final prepared top surface. 13) Spread a thin, uniform layer of silicon grease along bottom surface of pyramid shaped loading plate, and cover with a 1-ft by 2-ft layer of latex rubber membrane, carefully working out air bubbles with a wooden dowel rod. 14) Center loading plate on top of specimen, and carefully remove side panels, taking care not to disturb soil surfaces or edges. 15) Place Conbel loading apparatus on supporting members, and adjust and tighten bolts so that loading device is rigid, and firmly in place. Verify that both square tube steel channel sections are level using a sight level. 16) Connect supply air to loading device. 17) Place displacement transducers at desired locations, taking care to level each transducer in either vertical or horizontal positions, so that true linearity is achieved. Tighten thumbscrews in transducer insertion tubes, at fixed ends of container, or tighten extension devices to hold vertically set transducers. A mechanical dial gauge for backup recording of vertical deformations can also be fixed at this time. 18) Connect printer port cable between data analyzer and computer, attach power supply, and connect all cable wiring between transducers at appropriate terminals at data analyzer. 19) Fine-adjust DC voltage power supply to data analyzer to read 10 volts. 23

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20) Turn on computer and data analyzer and allow to warm up for 10-15 minutes. 21) Start up data acquisition program, and set sampling rate, DC voltage bandwidth, for each charmel (i.e. transducer) being recorded. Observe channel input to verify that signal is being received from each transducer. 22) Check all equipment, connections, and sample again before loading starts. 23) Lower loading ram so that contact is made between pyramid shaped loading plate and loading ram. Adjust Conbel dial gauge to read desired first step load increment or seating load if so desired. 24) Start record mode in Windows program, and open toggle switch to loading ram. 25) Increase load in whole number increments on Conbel dial gauge, for one minute durations per increment, until desired sustained load is reached or failure of specimen occurs. 26) If end of test is reached, playback and save raw data to diskette. 27) Convert voltage readings for each charmel recorded into deformation values, using an appropriate spreadsheet format, and calibration constants for each transducer. 24

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3.0 Test Materials Two different soils were tested; Blackhawk soil, and Castle Rock soil, each having different properties. Material tests were performed beforehand to establish soil parameters; e.g. Atterberg limits, dry density compaction (Proctor), grain size distribution, and direct shear. These tests were conducted at the CUDenver Soils Laboratory, or at the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) Materials Laboratory using American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) test procedures, or American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) methods. The same geosynthetic, Amoco 2044, was employed for all soil testing. 3.1 Amoco 2044 Amoco 2044 is a woven polypropylene geotextile. It was selected for use in this study because it's strength properties make it a credible choice for design of a GRS earth structure. It can be easily cut and trimmed to precise dimensions, which proved advantageous in carrying out the tests. The strength and elongation properties, as listed by the manufacturer, are as follows: Wide Width Tensile Strength (ASTM D 4595) Elongation at Break (ASTM D-4595) Grab Tensile Strength (ASTM D-4632) 400 lb/in 8% 500 lb 25

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Elongation at Break (ASTM D-4632) 15% The Wide Width Tensile Strength (ASTM D-4595) test is a non-routine test using 8-inch jaws to grip the specimen. The Grab Tensile Strength (ASTM D-4632) test is an index property test in which a l-inch grip jaw is employed. Additional product information is contained in Appendix B.4. soor------------------------------400 c: ::. 300 200 1::1 0 100 15 Strain, '4 Figure 3.1 Load-Deformation Behavior of Amoco 2044 (Courtersy of Rick Valentine Amoco Fabrics and Fibers 26

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3.2 Blackhawk Soil This soil material is native to the foothills west of Denver. The soil was used as backfill in the contruction of two geosynthetic reinforced structures (GRS) in Black Hawk, Colorado. One structure is a bridge abutment (Ketchart and Wu, 1996), and the other is a retaining wall (Ketchart and Wu, 1999). The soil used in the bridge abutment, referred to as Blackhawk-1 soil, was compacted to 95 percent standard proctor maximum dry density, and at minus 2 percent of optimum moisture content. Soil properties are listed in Table 3.1. The grain-size distribution curves, and the compaction curves for Blackhawk material are shown in Appendix A.l. Blackhawk 2 soil, and Blackhawk 3 soil, are the same material as Blackhawk 1 soil. Blackhawk 2 soil was under-compacted and at a plus 2 moisture content. Blackhawk 3 soil was at the same moisture and density as Blackhawk 1 soil, except a sustained load of approximately 22-ft of overburden was carried out over several days. Direct shear tests were performed on the BlackHawk 1 soil, and Blackhawk 2 soil at different values of moisture and density. The results of the direct shear test are contained in Appendix A.l, and are also listed in Table 3.1. 3.3 Castle Rock Soil This soil material is a processed road base material used by CDOT as backfill for construction of a GRS bridge abutment in Castle Rock, Colorado. The bridge abutments were part of a two-span bridge, and each GRS support was approximately 17 feet high, reinforced with Tensar geogrid. This test was performed at 95 percent standard proctor maximum dry density, and at six percent moisture content. Soil properties are listed in Table 3.1. The grain-size distribution curves dry density compaction curves, and shear test results for Castle Rock material are demonstrated in Appendix A.2. A long-term soil-geosynthetic 27

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interactive performance test under a sustained load was conducted, lasting over several days. Upon completion of the long-term test the specimen was submerged, under the same sustained load, and brought to failure. Table 3.1 -Soil Properties: Blackhawk and Castle Rock Soils Soil Classification PI LL Friction Cohesion (AASHTO) (%) (%) Angle (deg) Intercept (ksf) Blackhawk A-2-4 1 29 33 (28) 0.37(0.56) Silty gravel and sand Castle Rock A-1 0 33 0.56 Well graded sand Notes: 1) Values in parentheses are for Blackhawk-2 soil. 2) Friction angles are residual values. 3) PI=plasticity index ; LL= liquid limit. 28

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4.0 Test Results and Discussion of Results A total of four soil-geosynthetic interactive performance tests were conducted with three different backfill materials. All four tests used the same geosynthetic reinforcement: Amoco 2044. Deformation was evaluated in vertical and lateral directions in each test. Shortterm tests are those in which the soil-geosynthetic composite specimens are loaded incrementally until a failure condition occurs. Long term tests were carried out to evaluate deformation of specimens with an applied load of around 25 ft of overburden over a period of several days. Blackhawk-} soil and Blackhawk-2 soil were employed in the short-term tests, while Castle Rock soil and Blackhawk-I soil were employed in the long term tests. The test specimens were prepared at the density and moisture content mimicking the field placement conditions in the actual GRS structures. 4.1 Short-Term Test with Blackhawk-1 Soil The soil-geosynthetic interactive performance test with Blackhawk-I soil was prepared at 96 % of the maximum dry density (per AASHTO T -99) of 119.5 pcf, and a target moisture content of minus two percent of optimum. The target moist unit weight was established as 129 pcf. Test values demonstrating conformance with target values are tabulated in Table 4.1 29

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Table 4.1 Target and Actual Values of Moisture Content and Density for Blackhawk Soil 1 Test Parameter Target Value Actual values Moisture content 12.2 11.7 11.2 10.8 (%) Moist unit weight 129 128 128 127 (pcf) Two displacement transducers were placed in a vertical position, in contact with the outside edges of the loading plate one on each side of the loading ram to measure vertical displacement ; and laterally, in contact with both vertical exposed sides of the soil-geosynthetic composite specimen, at mid-height of sample. This middle position is also the location of reinforcement, and was consistent for all other tests. A seating load of approximately 0.5 kips was applied first to the specimen to allow any surface imperfections to level out. The test was conducted by step loading the soil-geosynthetic composite specimen in equal 0.35 kip increments, at about one minute per increment, until a failure condition was achieved. Average displacements were taken for each set of transducers and converted into strain values, and plotted along with the average applied stress as a function of time, as shown in Figure 4.1. Average vertical stress values for this test, and all other tests, were obtained by dividing the converted kip-force reading (obtained from calibration curve in Appendix A) by the area of the loading plate (two square ft) in contact with the top surface of the soil-geosynthetic laboratory specimen. The vertical strain was normalized with respect to the initial vertical dimensions of the soil-gesosynthetic composite specimen. The reinforcement strain was 30

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evaluated by taking the extension of the reinforcement divided by the initial length of the reinforcement. The extension of the reinforcement was taken to be the lateral displacement of the composite at the mid-height, where the reinforcement was located. The apparent Youngs Modulus for reinforcement, and vertical directions, can be computed by dividing the value for average vertical stress (ksf), at a given overburden height (say 10, 15,20, and 25ft) by the strain experienced by the specimen at that same equivalent surcharge. It should be noted that this term "apparent Youngs Modulus" is actually a secant modulus, and not a tangent modulus. Figure 4.1 displays three test variables plotted vs. time; average vertical stress, reinforcement strain, and vertical strain. Examination of Figure 4.1 shows a limiting average vertical stress value of 3.63 ksf corresponding to an approximate overburden value of 28 ft. An approximately linear vertical strain path followed the load to failure. Lateral strain began to decline significantly as the average vertical stress reached a value of approximately 2.5 ksf. This value corresponds to an overburden height of 19 feet. 31

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Figure 4.1 Stress I Strain vs. Time Plot Short Term Loading to Failure Blackhawk-1 Soli 95% Std Proctor ; % Moisture Content time (sec) 32 ----1>reinf slrain -vert slrain X ave vert stress

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The relationship for the average vertical stress and vertical strain, and between the average vertical stress and reinforcement strain for the Blackhawk-! soil geosynthetic composite specimen are displayed in Figure 4.2 and Figure 4.3, respectively. Again, the vertical strain is approximately linear until a failure condition is reached, while lateral strain follows a non-linear curve. In Figure 4.2 it appears that there is a softer response until vertical strain reaches a value approaching one percent, thereafter the pattern is linear. The apparent Young's G:" ;. i 2.5 o; 'i f 2 r 1.5 0 0.5 Figure 4.2 Vertical Strain vs. Average Vertical Stress Short Term Loading to Failure Blackhawk-1 Soil 95% Std Proctor ; -2% Moisture Content 1.5 2 2.5 3 Vertical Strain (%) 35 4 4.5 modulus in the vertical, and reinforcement directions are listed in Table 4.5 at the end of this chapter. It should be noted that there was no reinforcement strain until the average vertical stress exceeded about 0.2 ksf. This implies that some deformation is needed before the reinforcing effect can take place. It is also observed that the reinforcement strain appears to reach a limiting value at the average vertical stress of 3.6 ksf. 33

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0 0.5 Figure 4.3 Reinforcement Strain vs. Average Vertical Stress Short Term Loading to Failure Blackhawk-1 Soil 95% Std Proctor ; -2% Moisture Content 1.5 2 2.5 3 Reinforcement Strain (%) 4.2 LongTerm Test with Castle Rock Soil 3.5 4 4.5 The second test conducted was performed usmg Amoco 2044 geotextile as reinforcement and the Castle Rock soil as backfill. In this test the specimen was loaded by ramping up the load, again in approximate 0.35 kip increments per minute of time, until a prescribed average vertical stress (3.63 ksf) was reached. The prescribed average vertical stress of 3.63 ksf corresponds to about 25 feet of surcharge load. This load was held constant over a period of several days. At the end of the fourth day of sustained loading, little deformation was detected; the specimen was flooded, with the 3.63 ksf average vertical stress maintained until a failure condition was induced. 34

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The Castle Rock soil was prepared with target values of 139.0 pcf moist unit weight, (95% compaction), and a moisture content of 6 percent. Actual values of moisture and density at time of placement compared with the target values for preparation are listed in Table 4.2. Table 4.2-Target and Actual Values of Moisture Content and Density for Castle Rock Soil Test Parameter Target Value Actual values Moisture content(%) 6.0 6.6 6.7 6.3 Moist unit weight (pcf) 139.0 139.4 139.6 139.1 Figure 4.4 displays the applied load and the corresponding deformations plotted as a function of time for the short-term ramped loading sequence. It can be observed that the three curves are approximately linear. Figure 4.5 shows the vertical stress strain curve for the short-term loading path. The behavior is similar to BlackhawkI soil in that there is a softer response until vertical strain reaches a value around 0.75 percent (smaller than Blackhawk-! soil), and thereafter the curve is linear. Figure 4.6 shows the relationship between the average applied stress and the reinforcement strain. Unlike the response in the vertical direction, the stress-strain curve was linear for the entire stress range. Again, as in the case with Blackhawk-! soil (Figure 4.3), there was no reinforcement strain until the average vertical stress exceeded about 0.2 ksf. Figure 4. 7 shows vertical and reinforcement strains as a function of elapsed time under a sustained average vertical stress of 3.63 ksf. This figure indicates that the strain rate decreased rapidly within 30 minutes after load application. From then on, until about 80 hours after load application, the strain rate on the semilog plot was nearly constant. Beyond 80 hours there was negligible creep deformation. 35

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Figure 4.4 Stress and Strain vs. Time Plot Short Term Loading to 3.63 ksf Castle Rock Soli 95"/o Std Proctor ; 6% Moisture Content -:1!. i i _:;:::::x 5: I t: "? t!> :: 0 .. = J! !l 0 0.5 800 1000 1200 lime (eel Figure 4.5 Vertical Strain vs. Average Vertical Stress Short Term Loading to 3.63 ksf Castle Rock Soli 95"/o Std Proctor ; 6% Moisture Content 1.5 Vertical Strain (%) 36 2 1400 2.5 >. ave Ia I strain --o--ave vert strain X ave vert stress

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4 3.5 3 C' .. :!!. .. 2.5 .. g Vl ;;; 2 u ;: .. > .. ... 1.5 I! .. > <( 0.5 0 0 0.2 Figure 4.6 Reinforcement Strain vs. Average Vertical Stress Short Term Loading to 3.63 ksf Castle Rock Soil 95% Std Proctor ; 6% Moisture Content 0.4 0.6 0.8 Reinforcement Strain (%) 37 1.2 1.4

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'! Figure 4.7Strain vs. Time Plot Castle Rock Soli ; 3.63 ksf average vertical stress Sustained Load Day 1 to Day 4 2 !,. --. .:,;, iii .. 0.1 10 100 elapsed time Into test (hours) -trave lal slrain -o-ave vert strain At the end of four days of sustained loading under an average vertical stress of 3.63 ksf, the deformation ceased and the soil-geosynthetic specimen was flooded. The vertical deformation behavior under submergence is shown in Figure 4.8 The soil geosynthetic composite experienced large deformation within about 30 minutes after submergence. The composite specimen failed after 35 minutes, with the soil portion above the geotextile layer sloughing off, and the lower portion remaining relatively intact. The submergence portion of the test does not accurately simulate 38

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field conditions, in that the soil specimen is unconfined, but it does indicate the dramatic effect of saturation on a relatively stable material. 8 1 7 1 6 I i :.t ; I r 'iii 4 "ii u t: .. > 3 2 1 1 I 0 0 5 Figure4.8Submergence Test to Failure Castle Rock Soil ; 3.63 ksf average vertical stress 95% Standard Proctor 10 15 20 tlma(mln) 25 4.3 ShortTerm Test with Blackhawk2 Soil 30 35 40 For this test, the same material used in the Blackhawk-} soil test was subjected to short-term loading with an under-compacted density, and a moisture content higher than optimum. This soil is referred to as the Blackhawk-2 soil. The Blackhawk-2 soil was compacted at approximately 93% of maximum dry density (per AASHTO T-99), and approximately plus 3% wet of the optimum moisture content. Actual values demonstrating conformance with target values of moisture and density are tabulated in Table 4.3. 39

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Table 4.3-Target and Actual Values of Moisture Content and Density for Blackhawk Soil 2 Test Parameter Target Value Actual values Moisture content(%) 17.2 18.0 16.8 16 Moist density (pcf) 130.2 131.1 129.8 128.9 The soil-geosynthetic composite failed at an average vertical stress of approximately 3.0 ksf, corresponding to an equivalent overburden height of 23 feet. Figure 4.9 depicts the applied load and corresponding deformations as a function of time. Examination of the figure reveals the marked effect of poor soil placement conditions on performance as related to deformation behavior. At approximately 3% wet of optimum and 93% standard proctor, the Blackhawk-2 soil shows a significant decrease in strength. Figures 4.10 and 4.11 shows the relationships between the average vertical stress and vertical strain, and between the average vertical stress and reinforcement strain. For an equivalent average vertical stress of approximately 2.5 ksf, the vertical strain was approximately three, and eight percent, for Blackhawk-1 and Blackhawk-2 soils respectively. This difference demonstrates the need for adequate quality control during construction. It is seen that the vertical stress-strain response was softer at smaller stresses and became stiffer when vertical strains were greater than around 2.2 percent, a value much larger than the other two soils previously tested. It should be noted that creep strains at each load increment were also significantly higher than the two previous tests. Lateral transducers were removed at approximately one and a half percent strain due to sloughing sidewalls of specimen and damage to instrumentation. 40

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Figure 4.9 Stress I Strain vs. Time Plot Short Term Loading to Failure Blackhawk-2 Soli 93% Standard Proctor ; +3% Moisture Content time lcl 41

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3.5 3 .;:2.5 ,;. .. .. g Ill '5 i: > 1.5 '" I! > c( 0.5 0 0 2 Figure 4.10-Vertical Strain vs. Average Vertical Stress Short Term Loading to Failure-Blackhawk-2 Soil 93% Sid Proctor ; +3% Moisture Content 6 B Verttcal Strain (%) 42 10 12

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Figure 4.11 Reinforcement Strain vs. Average Vertical Stress Short Term Loading to Failure Blackhawk-2 Soil 93"/o Std Proctor ; +3"!. Moisture Content :!!. .. Ul ;: C! 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 RelnlorcerMnl Strain (%) 4.4 Long-Term Test with Blackhawk-1 Soil 1.2 1.4 1.6 This test used the same soil as the short-term test of Blackhawk-! soil except that the loading was ramped up to approximately 23 feet of overburden pressure and sustained over a period of several days. Actual values demonstrating conformance with target values of moisture and density are tabulated in Table 4.4. 43

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Table 4.4-Target and Actual Values of Moisture Content and Density for Blackhawk-1 Soil Test Parameter Target Value Actual values Moisture content(%) 12.2 11.9 12.5 11.9 Moist density (pet) 129 128.7 129.4 128.7 Figure 4.12 displays the applied load and the corresponding deformations plotted as a function of time for the short term ramped loading sequence. It can be observed that the deformation response is approximately linear, up to an average vertical stress of about 2 ksf. Figure 4.13 shows the vertical stress-strain curve for the short-term loading path. It is seen that vertical strain values for both the short-term (Figure 4.2) and long-term BlackhawkI soil tests (Figure 4.13), at certain average vertical stress values are at worst within about 12 % of an average value between the two tests. This is satisfactory, considering the possible variations implicit in conducting the test (i.e. moisture content, density, etc.). Figure 4.14 shows the Figure 4.12 -Stress/Strain vs. Time Plot Short Term Loading to 2.90 ksf-Blackhawk-1 Soli 95% Standard Proctor ; -21/. Moisture Content time (sec) 44

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relationship between the average applied stress and the reinforcement strain. Its strain values, as compared to Figure 4.3, are also within 25 % of an average value, and are considered acceptable. Both curves are approximately linear as average vertical stress values approach 2.5 ksf. Figure 4.15 demonstrates vertical and reinforcement strains as a function of elapsed time under a sustained average vertical stress of 2.90 ksf. This figure indicates that the strain rates decreased rapidly within 30 minutes after load application. From then on, until about 80 hours after load application, the strain rate on the semilog plot was nearly constant. Beyond 80 hours there was negligible creep deformation. 0 0.5 Figure 4.13 Vertical Strain vs. Average Vertical Stress Short Tenn Loading to 2.90 ksf Blackhawk-1 Soli 95"/o Standard Proctor ; -2"/o Moisture Content 1.5 2 2.5 Vertical Slnlln (%) 45 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

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0.2 Figure 4.14 Reinforcement Strain vs. Average Vertical Stress Short Term Loading to 2.90 ksf Blackhawk Soli 95% Standard Proctor ; "1. Moisture Content 0.4 0.6 Reinforcement Strain (%) 46 0.8 1.2

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6 5 4 l I f. I c 3 e i iii I 2 I I ,I 0.1 Figure 4.15 -Strain vs Time Plot Blackhawk -1 Soli ; 2.90 ksf average vertical stress Sustained Load Day 1 to Day 4 10 elapsed time lnlo lesl (hrs) 47 100

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4.5 Comparison of Test Results Table 4.5 summarizes the short-term test results so that comparisons may be made. It is clearly seen that the Castle Rock soil is a better construction material than the Blackhawk soil, based upon it's lower strain values at various vertical stress levels. It is also evident that the poor placement conditions for Black.hawk-2 soil results in a higher strain for the same given stress and a lower secant modulus, than if the soil was compacted at 95 percent of standard Proctor, and closer to the optimwn moisture content. Table 4.6 lists creep strain rates, under constant load, at selected times into the the two long-term tests (Castle Rock soil, Black.hawk-1 soil). Ten minute intervals at the selected times are used to compute the strain rates. 48

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Table 4.5 Short Term Behavior: Strain, and Apparent Secant Modulus for Backfill Backfill Type Overburden (J Ev ER Ev ER Height (ft) (ksf) (%) (%) (ksf) (ksf) Blackhawk-1 10 1.29 1.77 0.36 0.73 3.54 (short-term) 15 1.93 2.41 0.71 0.80 2.73 20 2.58 3.07 1.36 0.84 1.90 25 3.22 3.79 2.85 .85 1.13 Castlerock 10 1.39 1.20 0.46 1.16 3.03 15 2.08 1.65 0.67 1.26 3.08 20 2.78 2.09 0.92 1.33 3.02 25 3.47 2.50 1.17 1.39 2.97 Blackhawk-2 10 1.30 4.33 1.03 0.30 1.26 15 1.95 6.29 NA 0.31 NA 20 2.60 9.28 NA 0.28 NA 25 3.25 NA NA NA NA Blackhawk-1 10 1.29 1.55 0.35 0.83 3.64 (long-term) 15 1.93 2.57 0.55 0.75 3.50 20 2.58 3.85 0.82 0.67 3.13 25 NA NA NA NA NA Where: cr = average vertical stress (ksf) Ev = vertical strain experienced at a given vertical stress(%) ER = reinforcement strain experienced at a given vertical stress (%) Ev = apparent secant modulus in vertical direction (ksf) 49

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ER = apparent secant modulus in lateral (reinforcement) direction (ksf) Notes: 1) NA : lateral transducers removed due to excessive deformation and possible damage to instrumentation ; or failure of specimen occurred. Table 4.6 Long-Term Behavior: Creep Strain Rates Soil Type Sustained Time into Vertical Reinf Strain Load (ft) Test (hrs) Strain Rate Rate (%/min) (%/min) Castle Rock 26 1 0.0009 0.001 10 0.0007 0.0003 80 0.0 0.0001 BlackhawkI 22.5 1 0.0024 -0.0003 10 0.00007 0.0 80 0.0 0.0 Notes: 1) Sustained load values are given in equivalent height ofmoist overburden. 50

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5.0 Summary Findings and Conclusions 5.1 Summary The current state of practice in geosynthetic reinforced soil structure (GRS) design often specifies soil backfill requirements using guidelines for backfill material for highway construction, or for construction of "conventional" earth retaining structures, e.g. cantilever concrete retaining walls. This is done because there has not been any systematic study on backfill requirements for GRS structures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the composite behavior of three different backfill materials, all of which have been used in the construction of GRS structures in the State of Colorado. The test method used, developed by Wu and Helwany, examines the interactive performance of soil-geosynthetic composite specimens. A total of four tests were conducted, all using the same geotextile material. In the two short-term tests, the composite specimen was short-term loaded to failure, and in the other two tests a sustained load was applied over a period of several days. In the two short-term tests the same soil was used (Blackhawk soils); one test performed at near optimum conditions (Blackhawk-!), the other test being under-compacted and at an elevated water content in order to simulate poor construction conditions (Blackhawk-2 soil). In the long-term tests the soil (Castle Rock soil and Blackhawk-1 soil) were subjected to a load equivalent to 25 feet and 23 feet respectively, of overburden, and sustained over a period of several days. For each test a two cubic ft rectangular block of soil was placed and compacted to a pre-determined moist density. At mid-height of each specimen a single layer of pre-selected geotextile was placed. Soil-geosynthetic specimens were then 51

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subjected to a vertically applied load, and displacement in both lateral and vertical directions were measured using electronic displacement transducers. Transducer feedback was recorded and processed by an analog data loader in conjunction with a windows based software program. Raw data conversions, in terms of linear voltage differentials to displacement, were accomplished using transducer calibration curves. Strains, and strain rates, and "apparent Young's modulus" were calculated so that a quantitative comparison can be made among different backfill materials. 5.2 Findings and Conclusions Although many more tests would need to be performed before a relationship could be established between deformation behavior and a backfill's suitability for use in a GRS structure, this study has provided preliminary insight into composite behavior of a soil-geosynthetic specimen. The following findings were made as a result of this study: 1. Blackhawk-! soil,being an "acceptable" backfill-as evidenced by the satisfactory performance of the bridge abutment constructed with the material (Ketchart and Wu, 1999), shows: a) The "apparent" Young's modulus in the vertical direction at 20ft overburden had an average value of0.75 ksf. b) The "apparent" Young's modulus in the reinforcement direction at 20ft overburden had an average value of 3.01 ksf. c) The creep rate decreased with time m the long-term portion of the test. 52

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2. Blackhawk-2 soil, being an "unacceptable" backfill--as evidenced by the failure of the retaining wall under similar placement conditions (Ketchart and Wu, 199?), shows: a) The "apparent" Young's modulus in the vertical direction at 20 ft overburden was 0.28 ksf. 3. Castle Rock soil being an "acceptable" backfill-as evidenced by the satisfactory performance of the bridge abutment constructed with the material, shows: a) The "apparent" Young's modulus in the vertical direction at 20 ft overburden was 1.33 ksf. b) The "apparent" Young's modulus in the reinforcement direction at 20ft overburden was 3.02 ksf. a) The creep rate decreased with time in the long-term portion of the test. 53

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Appendix A-Soils Test Results 54

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Appendix A.l -Blackhawk Soil 55

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Appendix A.l.l -Compaction Test 56

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..) ,. ,. -i "\ '.) .,., l "' 1 ..., Dry Dene"Y (pd) .... ____ I N n I l j I 1\rl r I I l .. 0 57 ""'!' 2 i 0 ... ,.. ..... ... I) 1.. "' ; : .... -..

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Appendix A.1.2-Grain Size Test 58

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_,-...... GRADATION WORK SHEET Field report No. {bJ..c._ Conslnlction a Red UbNo. Prelimirwy a Black Tc:st No. Geology a Blue Comp. Stab. lq 7 I WI. %ReL Total As RcL '""Pass RIID J" lOO I" IOC lW 100 l/1" --t /. ;llct +114 f !7. lf.'l. -//4 l3. ,, Dry //4 ... Total '2., t;q, %F.M. We1W1. DryWt % Moisl -//4 3;Gr ']c;s, Gm. 'J..r 14l . ,..
PAGE 71

Appendix A.l.3-Atterberg Limits 60

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Colorado Department of Transportation DIRECT SHEAR TEST REPORT (AASHTO T-236) Fteld Sheet No. ProJect ID Date Received Project : BlacK Item Number Location Lab Test No. Test Date Source Region Classification Compactaon Meti'10CI : T-99 L.iQuicllimil n Max. Dry Dens. (pcf) 118.8 rc f. PlaslJc Limit ';..7 Optimum Moasture 13.3% PlastiC Index Specimens were compactec to 95% of AASHTO T-99 Meti'10CI A at optamum moiSture content Soeomen Preoarauon Stage 1 Presur8 (ksf) 0.83 ed Dry Density (pd) 112..5 Maistln Conlin 12.3% Pen:en1 of Maximum Dty Oensrty_ 98.3% u----------------------.. ------::.,-:;.- Projec:l s peafications: Stage 2 i I I i 1.81 1 12..5 12.211)1, 98.3% Residual Friction Angle: 32.7 degrees Distnbution: 61 Stage 3 3.14 112..5 12.3% 98.3% -------Tim ASd'lenorener Matis & Geotecn. Sect. EnQaneer

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Appendix A.1.4-Direct Shear Test 62

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Field Sheet No. Ollie Received nem Numbs' Lab Tesl No. ClassifiC8lion LiQuid Umit Plastic Umrt Plastic Index Colorado Department of Transportation DIRECT SHEAR TEST REPORT (AASHTO T-236) :28 :rr : 1 ProjecliO Project L..cation : B .. c:ll Hawk Test Date : 511100 Source RegiOn Compaction Metl'lod : T -ei Max. Cry Dens. (pet) : 1 115.8 Optimum Moisture : 13.3% Specimens were compaded to 93,. of AASHTO T-ei Method A 8t optimum moiSture content 2 ot w.ter from OMC SWge 1 St8Qe 2 Stage 3 0.11 1.87 3.11 1122 112.5 112.4 12-.a 11.n. 12.ft .......... u u O..J 15 I --Prqec:t Specifications: :.. '!. i Residual Friction Angle: degrees DisbibutiOn: Central Labonltory 63 00 0 ll --------run Asctlenbrener Mmls. & Geotedl. Sec:t.

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Appendix A.2 Castle Rock Soil 64

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Appendix A.2.1 -Compaction Test 65

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::cr.-;pa.:::.:.::::-. Field ; Test # -------------------------------------------------------------:::pc:.:::-..::n Mo:.s:.-..:-e . :-:y :er.s:.:.y ::.1.2 .... Dry :Jry Dry :ens:.:y \ ... _,... \ H2:: Jens1ty !":.;t.w '7.4 :.J8.C 11.4 ::..c.=. 7.5 :os.1 3.5 ::0.7 11.5 :10.3 7.6 :08.3 5.6 ::o.e 11.6 110.1 7.7 108.4 9.7 :10.9 11.7 109.9 i.B 108.5 3.8 :::..o 11.6 :09.7 7.9 108.7 9.9 :::...o 11.9 109.5 8.0 108.8 10.0 111.1 12.0 109.2 8.1 109.0 10.1 111.1 12.1 108.9 8.2 109.1 10.2 111.2 12.2 108.6 8.3 109.3 10.3 :11.2 12.3 108.3 8.4 109.4 10.4 :11.2 12.4 108.0 8.5 109.5 10.5 :11.2 12.5 107.6 8.6 109.7 10.6 ::1.2 12.6 107.2 9.7 109.8 10.7 ::1.1 12.7 106.8 :.e :10.0 10.8 12.8 106.3 9.!? :10.1 1C.9 ::l. c 12.9 105.9 3.0 :10.2 11.0 ::..0.9 13.0 105.4 9.1 110.3 11.1 13.1 104.8 9.2 110.4 11.2 ::0.7 13.2 104.3 3.3 110.5 :.:.3 ::0.6 13.3 103.7 66

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Appendix A.2.2 -Grain Size Test 67

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...... ,., .,;. """' COLORA..::C Q;:? .l...RTI.rD-"T C? -::t.A..'-iSPORT A TION GRADATION \VOR.K SHEET Ficid rtj:)OM No. 0 Red Lab No.--------0 B!Kk Test No.--------0 Blue Comp. ___ Stab. bS / ,C(I,L.. Wt. Tow As RcL %Pus R:m J !()rj ;/4. J s::.. 'It J/1" I" ,, -;0l -,.t/4 lb. liZ-.//4 :5. loO Dry //4 --Toul %F.M. \\let WL Dry Wt. %Moiu -//4 Gm. / \\let Wt. Dry Wt. CorrW\. \\lash 57c; Wash (, lt':..U :_. WL Z-'o 'Yo Ret. %Pus Tow Ret. %PISS 1/4 0 :,-"\ k> ._, 1110 bO Jt, 1/40 -p, I} !! 200 7>5 .!f. 7 It ::us1f:uuon .:. I-"/ Sp. Gr. P.L -:--N .... 'It Abs. P.l. 68

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Appendix A.2.3 -Atterberg Limits 69

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. ; ;. I .. -........ COLORADO DE?A.RT\l:ENT OF TRANS?ORTA TION GRADATION WORK SHEET
PAGE 82

Appendix A.2.4-Direct Shear Test 71

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Colorado Department of Transportation DIRECT SHEAR TEST REPORT (AASHTO T-236) F"teld Sheet No. Pro;ediO Date Reoeived Pro;ect : caslle ROdt llem Number L.oc8tion Lab Test No. Test Date : 418100 Soun:e Region Classification A-1-b(o) Compaa1on Method T-99 UQuid Umrt ""' Max. Dry Di!ns. (pd) 111.2 Plastic Umlt M1 Optimum MoiSlure 10.4% Ptati<: Index rv Specimens were compaaed to 95% of AASHTO T -99 Method A at opllmum moiSture content Preoa1'311011 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Pressure (at) I Drv DensitY (pet) Coni .. PeR:enl of MaxirTun 0rv Density .. .. ... iu' j . .. .. .. ,. 12 .. --Prvjed Specifications: Residual Fridion Angle: Central Laboratorv 72 0.10 101.2 u .. 97.3% .. i I J 1.70 3.18 107.3 107.4 9.1 .. 98.5% 98.8% ............ ... ..-: .. ,. . 0 ,. '. 10 -- 33.2 degrees Tim A.sdlenDrener Matis. & Geotec.rt Sea. E.nomeer

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Appendix BProduct Literature 73

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Appendix 8.1 Conbel Consolidimeter 74

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-. DUAL RANGE CONBELS The Controls for theee Conbels located u follow1: 1. RANGE SELECTOR VALVE: Tw ia a push-pull a1r switch located in the lower ceater of the rear wall of the macb.i.ae bue. Whea pwrbed iD (toward the front of the zruachiDel, the air eupply is directed to the low raare regulator. When pulled o\1\, the air auoply is directed to tbe ">l rllli"re regulator. 2. LOW RANGE AIR REGULATOR: TbJ.a is a prec1S10n a1.r preasure c:oatrol va.lve, located on the left aide of the top o! the bue, identified by the large KW haAdwheel. TIII'1Wlg thU halldwheel doc2.!!e incrnan tte a1r preBiure panlD_J' throutlb tbJ.a va.l ve Models 354 S 3. LOW RANGE SHUT-OFF: Thia ill a aeedle valve located near the LOW RANGE REGULA TOR, ideat.Wed b7 tbe a mall KW haadwb .. l. 'I'IIraJDf tbla b&Dchrbeel cloell:wtae aba .. the 'llr'ILlYe. Whea opea, t.bU Yalft pu .._ oatpal of tbe LOW RANCE REGUI..A TOR to thll LOW RANGE GAGE ( die left aida of tbe froat of tbe maebille. baee), ud to the LOAD VALVE. 4. MGB RANGE AIR REGULATOR HIGH RANGE SHUT-OFF 'nleee two coatrol.a, located oa tbe rilbt halro! the top of the machine bue fuactioa eimilarly to the low ranee controle. LOAD VALVE: Thia i.e a quick-pelliDfllobe valve, actuated by 90 -tiDD of a togle b.aadle. Wbna thia b&Ddle is in a borizontal plane, U. nlYe Ul abat. Whea tbe baDdle is Yertical, the Y&lve ia open and puau the oacput of either reJ111.ator to the load ceU. 75

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" BLEEDER VALVE: nu. 1.1 a needle valve located In baclr. of the load ull. It la abut by clockwi.le rotation of the ama.ll KW handwaeel. Wbea open, ll directly u..bausts the high preuure air in the load cell. SBl.iT BOTH AIR REGULATORS, and co!Ulect the fitting 1a the back of the Coabel but: to a 1teacly 1upply of dry, !Utered air. Supply pre1aure 1bould aot eaceed UO pai. aor should It drop below 80 pai for Model 354, or below 125 pi lor Model 355. The loading sequence is started with the range selector valve forward (low range), the 11ir ref'llators and the higb range ahut-oCf closed, &lld the low range shut-off valve open. The load (toggle} va.i.ve must be shut (handle horizoaull. Adjust the lead cell until the &llrivel plate and the coaaolidometer are in contact, then zero the dial indicator for measuring consolidstion. The dial l.c.dicator may bear on &llJ part of the coasolidometer. (Spscer blocks may be used betyeea the load cell and the coasolidometer). Select tt. deaired load ill KSF or TSF a.ad c..banre 1t to pouoda oa the aoil aample. Uu the Coabel calibration chan to convert load l.c. pouada to Coo.bel race readia(. Slowly 01*1 tbe law ranee air regalaiDr 'UDtil tha low raJICe tao.. the cte.irftl n.. ..._ ..W be l.c.lta.ama-ly applied to tha aoil aample wbell tbe load nl.aw..-&. To applJ' a la1pei-load. flrwt a1mt tbe load 'nl.e ao that tbe .m.tlq aample load Ill ,_ tbe low rmp air rerabtor 1mtil the ...,. at.ow. tbe uw dealred readiAc. 'Ibe aew load wW be applied l..alta.ata11e0ul7 wbea tbe load nln Ill opeoed. WbeD tbe cleairecl load eaceeds the low raage capacit)', 1t 1a aecaauy to itc..b to tbe bJCb ruce. Firat amrt tbe load ftln to maiataia tha emtmc load. TbeD CLOSE TBE LOW RANGE SHUT-QFF. 'nle low ra.ap air replator m&J aow be abat. CHECK THE HIGH RANGE REGULATOR AND SHUT IT COMPLETELY, IF IT BAD PREVIOUSLY BEEN OPENED. Pall oat tbe 1electDr awitc..b 1D tup raace UUS opa tb1 tup ra.ap lbut-oa. Slowly OpeD the bip riD(e air replator 'UDUl the bipl rlll(e (lp lboWI the dalred readiAc. (Tbe low ranre :rare 1boald read &ero dartDf thJa proce1a, U lt baa beeD properly ahat cfO. Load will be l.c.IJanta.aeoualy applied to the 10il aample whea tba load YalYe ia opened. For atill hicher loada, cl.oae the load 'rlle. OpeD the regulator to the duired race nacUDc. thea opeD the load ..-aln. To CazT7 oat m .Uoadinf 1eqaeoce 011 either r1Dfe, cloae tbe load ..-aln, cloae the re(Ulatar to belaw the duired rea.ding. 1lowly opea the replaiDr tD the de1ired 111e nadii:C. tbeD'DjieD the load ..-aln. Oaa the hli'b ranre aaUl tha 1;1pUed 1ample load 011 tbe hilb r-cw l.a WitbiD tbe capactt)' of the low range. For tbe Dezt lower load, abut the w.d Yllln, abut the b1p range re(alator a.ad tbe b1fb 1bat-orl, aad pub t'le aelector 1Witc..b iD tc low range. Opea tbe low r1Dfe 1bvt-off, 1et the delired readiag by cpeaiag the low raqe re(Dlator, thea opea the load ..-aln. 76

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Appendix 8.2-Trans-tekTM Displacement Transducers 77

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INCORPORATED DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCER DC-DC SEIIES 240 CONSTRUCTION All matenals have been selected c;aretully to acn1eve opti mum penonnance. The sta1n1ns steel nou:..ngs, co11 assembly OSCI'Iator-clemodulator ano Tellon-1nsUiateo leads are -->caosurateo 1n epeay res1n. Osclllator oemooulator "moonenrs are tnOivtdually selected to assure accuracy ancl rehab1i1ty. 78 6 TO 30 VOLT DCITAnON FOR A DC VOL TA&E OUTPUT PROPORTIONAL TO DISPLACEMENT a DC In, DC aut a ra 1ac1ar a No Dhl11111. twtnnanc or Quallr-.ture nuu Df'DIIieml a P'alanty -.a a a Sleolesl OUtDUI a EsOIIIeftt repaUbtltty a Hip OUIDUt a Up taa ranp a Est,._ Jtnunty a a Licht _.., a Mll'l.ciCitiJ lhieldlld DESCRIPTION The Tr-.,..Tek Series 240 i1 1n lntllemed DICUP consistinl ot precision linur ..,...,. dlffl,.,till lrarllformlr. tl:llid sute oscdlllllr. 11111 The tnnsducer is desi.,.a ID combine in ...,.., but 1\1111<1 e>ackap the acllievM!ent of escellent 11,..-ity, infinite resolution, and hll!ll sen11tivily. The llhlsi"l, flllllre null lnd harmonic e>rvblems often eroertetacl witn AC diHenenllal transformers 1re elimiNtted. Input lind oua:ut are electricllly isolatlld lrom eldl other and from the coil housil!l. rnaltinc crwn usable directly in tlollinl or lrvund return systems. DC indicatars. recorders. and contnll systams can be drMin by the laf11'1 DC output. The core. wtwt ditllllced uially witnin the coil assembly, e>I"'dUCes 1 t ap chance in tne output directly e>roiJOI'tionll ta the diSDIKement. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION The oscillator converts the DC ine>ut 10 AC. eactbna the e>rirnllry vrndinl of tile diHerential transformer VOIU!p rs inducecl 1n the secondary vr1nd1np by the corw POS> tian. The two secondary Clrt:UIU consiSt of a ,.indins. a tuH-wiMI Dndp, and an RC filler. The circu1ts are connected in senes DDPOS1t1on so ll'lat the oute>ut 1s a DC voltase e>ropen1ona1 to core diS ::>tacement trom tne electncal center The PDiafl!y of the .clute IS a tuncllon ot the Otrect10n ot the core dlsolace ment w1th respect to the electnc:al center.

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APPLICATION A Series 240 trvosdL.ar un be used to measure physical functiOnS which un be nnsl8ted into linur nwnt Typical POiic.ltiont include servo position feedback, sensor tor piHSUn! transducers, strain measurement in stNCillnll memben, aut.orNtit saucina, and rnznine contnll. -1 -::: I : ...... L _________________ J a-"1 ....... tii:TIAftJif....,. a..IMJ) 'VI ...,...._ IUIIt'DI II'\IG'IIl.:!..,!!l! .....,._ fiC LN'I CIRCUIT DIAGRAM lull is mort CIOSrlive With respect to Green lead IS th8 CDn IS I'IIO'IeCIICIWII"dS the lead end. ----.-----DI$PI.ACMENT YS. OOTPUT DIAGRAM NOTE: CURV!S AT VARIOUS LOADS ARE SHOWN FOR REFERENCE ONLY. LOAD RESISTANCE UNDER 50 lUI MAY DEGRADE LINEARITY. OUTPUT MAY BE SHORT CIRCUITED INOEF1NITLY WITHOUT DAMAGE TO LVOT. FlG. I f--E--1 i I nc 2 TA&S&A,)J 1 72 Ut!'f THO. O.UP DIMENSIONAL DIAGRAM 79 IIISTALUTION A Series 240 un be mounted by clampinc miUnCI the housinB to physical referei1C8 point The dyNmic member to be ITIOflitDI'"Id Is couoled to the lhre.cled connectins rod of the core ssembly or to the optioNI c:ore by me.. of I lhruded eztBnsion rod. Mountina hardware should be al nontl'lallnetic materials such as brass. aluminum, or 300 series stainless steel. CORE OPTIONS c.. IWII G,-r., Pl h. I C D Sid. I C0044000 .S62 .120 uo I I CDCI44001 .562 .099 1.!10 024040011 2 2 CDQ5.40G2 .562 .120 lin 3 2 COOMI003 .562 .099 llvv 0241.0000 Sid. 750 .120 1.!10 0241.0000 I Cll0'-400S .750 .099 1.90 0241.0000 2 750 .120 3116 02CI.OOOO 3 CDOS-0010 .750 .099 3116 om.oooo Sid. 1.75 .120 1.90 om.oooo CD044006 1.75 .099 1.90 024].4000 Sill. 1 .17 .120 0243-0000 CD044007 1 .17 .099 0244-0000 Sid. 2.00 .120 0244-00011 I 2 .00 .1199 Sid. CD0441U 3 .50 .120 I t1IOC-400t 3.50 .lm Std. 3 .50 .120 1.401 I 3 .50 .099 1.40

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nlCTTUCAL SPECIFlCATIONS lbonp. wom,. zO..o50 "'.100 z.250 :.:.5al zi.OO z2.00 zl.OO lobi. USilble z0.075 "'-150 "'.175 z 750 z 1.50 z2.75 z4.00 InpUt, VOlts OC 6.0 loln. to lO lob1. Hom,,., F .S. OuiPIJI Z V.Q.C. (open OI'QIII) 0 6 V. inpUt 12 2.1 1.6 3.0 4.3 4.0 3.1 0 15 V. inDUt l.O 5.4 4.2 75 10.8 10.0 7.a 0 24 v. ini)UI 5.0 9.0 7.0 12..5 18.0 16.0 13.0 0 30 v .,I)UI 5.t 1U.7 8.3 14.8 21.4 20.0 15.4 Input curnnt 8.3 rna 0 6 V. inDUt to 52 rna o 30 V. input "LINEARITY FUll SCALE OVR TOTAL WORKING z0.5 z0.5 2:0.5 20..5 2:0.5 20..5 z0.5 RAHGE OVER IMX. USABlE RANGE :t 1.0 2:1.0 :t 1.0 = 1.0 :t 1.0 2:1.0 2:1.0 Internal earner Free. l'il Nom. 130al 12000 3600 3400 3200 15al 1400 1ruter thin '!1. R1Pf)le fRMS) nom. 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.0 OutpLOt 1moec,Jnce 1onms1 25al 3500 5200 55al S600 S5al S600 F rea. ResEIOnse lOO 140 115 110 100 110 75 3 Ob down Hz fbi,... -65" F to + 250" F. Aesaluhlln Infinite PHYSICAL SPECIFK:AllOIS 02400000 o241.(X)OQ o242.(X)OQ 02uar.o 0244.(X)OQ o246l0 I CDil_.., 0.87 1.12 3.21 171 4.n 8.21 lO..SZ (lq1h A Coil___., 2Z 28 70 80 liM 180 220 Can--1.6 2.1 14 1.8 4.l 7.0 8.1 T.,..,_,... 122 AWG by 18" a,. T.tlan ._ .. 1811 lllldl ......... Ec 0..34 0.46 1.44 1.fi9 Ut 1M 5,01 IEPIJCEIIEIIT CDIES 1 Model Humber 0240-QXX) 024Hl000 0242.0000 02Q.QX)() 0244-0000 0245-0:0l Relllac2ment an CXl04-
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Appendix B.3 DA T AQTM Data Analyzer 81

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2. Specifications c.nn-uona All poru.blc insauments allow dual-access analog mpu1 connea.aons. Connect your inpul 11goall 10 lhe staulhed ban211a Jaclu or 10 I he screw 1cmunals. Di anpuu and ou1puu are acccss1ble from !he J7 -pin Auxn.lARY PORT conncclor on and 01-51048 ansuumenu All dwcop and nclr.-moun!Cd insU\IJncnu suppon scnw cnnuw inpu1 signal connecuons only (no sheadled bmlna jatlr.s). Interface Characteriatlca Compauble arthlleCIUrc Analog Channel DI-S00-16: DI-SOO-n. Dl-.510-32 DISI0-64 Ma'J PC arcll11CCIUR. Conna:u to compucer via lhe panllcl (or pnnu:r) port. Suppons sWidalG. bi-directional. or EPP parallel pam. 16 SllrW cond1uoned ch3nncls J2 h1gn level :h.ulneis J2 signal conditioned clwtncls 16 s1(TW :ondiuonea clwlnels and J2 high le'lel channels 64 hl!h level INOI: alllnsllWI\cnu uc cxpand3blc to All Analov lnputa Analog rcsoluuon Smaple lhrou ghput rate H .... Levet Analog lnputa TYJIC Masuranmt full scale Cinteadcdl Muimum analo! input wlhoul dama!e ConiiDan IIIGde RJCCUOn Gai8a:ancy lnpul offset lnpaa sculina ume lienal Conditioned An.log lnputa All Muimum analo! mput "'nhou1 dama!C ...... Outputs Number of dwlnels Raoluuoa Updale rau: 82 12-biL I put 1n 4096 sWidard parallel pon: 4Q.OOO samples/second mu bMiira:uonal panallel pon: 10.000 samples/second mu panalld pon IEPPl: 2SO.OOO sampleslsceoad mu > 10 MO ill wid! SO pF l.lA.I; seleelable per channel lOUV chaiiDel.-.cllanJicl 6a1V inpulIO-
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Ou1p111 voll.lge ran1es Curmll drivclimped.ance time 10 0.01., Digital Input/Output Uj)acuy Compwbiliry Mu soun:e cu=nt M.u sink CUJnnl Digilal inpul Lennination Input Scan Uet Output Scan Uat Upat;i!y Trtggering Pre-1ngger length Posl-lngger length Triuer ch.anncl Trigger level hysLeresis Power Requirement DI-m DI-S 10 instrurncniS Power supply vol!aJc range LU COIIIIeCD Opaalilla cavironmenc CompDIICDl RelaliYC humidi!y Sungc enorinxarne111: Tempr:nDIR Rd.live humidiiY 83 :tlOV :t.SmA/0.30 41'5 8 each inpu1 and outpul TI1. compaLible 0.4mA@ 2.4V 8rnA@ O.SV 4.7Ul pull-up 10 +SVDC 240 elemeniS 16 elemenu 641r. samples 64k s.amples Aliy channel 8-bu 1256 counuJ 700mA @ llVOC typical. u.cluding SB modules l!n>mA @ llVOC 1ypical. e1.cludina SB modules 9 10 36VDC Ponablc Models: 1.5\4"0 by by 'm"'H (.500 modcb) 21M"D by 24"W by 1\4"11 (.510 lnodcls) Dc:sklop Models: 16.7"0 by 16.11'"W by 3..5'11 (bocb models) I male. I female 37 -pia [).rypc (J' 10 7(1' c S., 10 non condcnsin1 -.5S" 10 1.5f1' c S., 10 non condcasiDI Spccificauons

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Appendix 8.4 -Amoco 2044 Geotextile 84

PAGE 96

...... in! a.,.-lSN 0-43:2 lSN AS7W Q ...... Burs: l.)iW :l .1S7\I AS7V O-J!:.: !J8WII Jaennl; .lSnl D ,:;_: ;,jt .mal 0--"91 Ill. "'"600 :.1500 JJ ... ,..,_ h trn..m trn11 IIIL' ... h =.t:mo :Ill Ill -..() :m ... Jl JSS... ill'JO .._ &IIIMIIIIft 11 s. I . . Jl) 300 '20 '20 I) 41 5S Wnl20 11110 2D ... ft/J !10 II II 1l . .. -: . ... : :: . : : . : : . CIUG.H'Ci '..; . -: . . . : .. . ... 1\:-41 21!1 liZ2 .... 't ...... D) a -:.3: :-. 'J "-...... .!II. ;u ..: 4 il :::;) 500 m :i: 20U 201 liZ2 --&ai IJD au DXl &m.Camroo uu Sitr.a 85

PAGE 97

AMOCO WOVEN CONSTRUCTION FABRICS ------------------------.... ..._ ..... ! ltU llJ i 11 p:u _.._ ..... -'nl ,.,. J50 1 2 12 I) .. 10 I 13 ......... 100 'I ,. I. ,. Ul ..._ __ 'I'Cit 1110 :JDO I-1'111 IGD ,,.., IIU I j'IU ; .,. 1,. 12 I II Z2l I 2211 11211 1'111 i'IGD I !IIIII n. ---......,..., ---v--. s10,...,....,.,_... Due ..a IICCUfM8 ...... lfte f"'CCIIDDMft....,... .II flw liDfrta ........ .......... 01 ""Died .. maGII ..,.." ...... per'fot'rftera ol .... III"'Ddd.CC. ...W .. rna,_,.r af u:M _,.. "-'011"9 .. DI'YOfW:t OUI COIW'I"DD. NOifttnQ c:an&aii'Wd ..,_. ID ._ CDIIIIr'\JIO as IJII'f'ft\I'SI.IDn or n to .mr.,.. ., ..,.._ AIIOCO FABRICS AND RBERS Ca.> ANY 9111 CRill 75 P-.y. S... 300 ...... Geoo9a 30339 T-.nn .00._._.. 86 l u i Ill ,. IJ5 .51 AMOC . FABRI IU jl I I : ,-il' .. II .. ; m

PAGE 98

Appendix C Raw Data 87

PAGE 99

Appendix C.l -Transducer Calibration Curves 88

PAGE 100

--I = It = _..., : II .. I I ! ., i 1 I : ; J :l f t --I c I : I : I ; ! ., : -: 89 --... I = = I I I 3 --I c : I i :J : ., .. ,; . : : I I 0 c I .. c .. 21 I

PAGE 101

-- --... I c c : I : : I I I ., I I ., c I f I I f ! I I I I 0 .. I I I I .. i .. a -----I I I I .. .. 4 I I I I I '\' I I I I ! I f l I ;1 I c I .. I I .. I I 90

PAGE 102

Appendix C.2Conbel Calibration Curves 91

PAGE 103

.... 1.0 I ::l tv 0 "C ca.-.. CD en -0._. '-.... en c Conbel Correlation in Equivalent kips Values 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 10 20 30 Conbellnteger Reading r-----____ __.__ Series1 ----Series2 --. -. Conbel lnstron 11 tnatrclr'-! 0 0 0 2 0 578 0 574 4 1.348 1.32 6 2(16 2 06 8 vrJ 2.8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 2<4 26 3.538 4 286 5044 5.788 6.542 7.276 6038 8 788 9 52 3552 4.288 5034 5.792 8.542 7 28 8.038 8 788 9.514

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MODEL 3 Serial //3/ calibration oata 93

PAGE 105

...... 94

PAGE 106

Appendix C.3-Voltage Readings 95

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Appendix C.3.1-Short-term Test with Blackhawk-1 Soil 96

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81ac:kt\awt(-1 soil: sl'lor1-tenn test 95% Sid pn:x:IOI'.-2% Conbel DeformatJon Values (mm) Volt Volt Volt Volt Readn..g !Jme LVOT t2 LVDTI6 LVDT t7 LVDT IS 2.8931 -3.1653 -1.6235 -3.1592 0 0 0 0 0 2.8943 -3.1677 -1.5173 -2.97 5 0.010021 0.021283 .() 3762 -0.66632 2.8943 -3.16n -1 4n1 -2.9041 10 0 010021 0.021283 .()51 861 -0.89841 2.8943 -3_1689 -1 4i22 -2.8955 15 0.010021 0.031924 .() 53597 -0.9287 2.SS4J -3.1689 -14685 -2.8906 20 0 010021 0031924 .() 54907 .() 94596 2.8943 -3.1689 -1 4661 -2.887 25 0.010021 0.031924 -0.55757 -0.95863 2.8943 -3.1689 -1 4648 -2.8&45 30 0.010021 0.031924 -0.56218 -0.96744 2.8943 -3.1689 -14624 -2.8821 35 0.010021 0.031924 -057068 -0.97589 2.8943 -3.1689 -1 4612 -2.8796 40 0.010021 0.031924 -0.57493 -0.9647 2.8943 -3.1689 -146 -2.8784 45 0.010021 0.031924 .() 57918 -0.98892 2.8943 -3.1689 -146 -2_8n2 1 50 0.010021 0.031924 -0.57918 -0.99315 2.8943 -3.1689 -1.4587 -2.876 1 55 0.010021 0.031924 -058379 -099737 2.8943 -3.1689 -1 4465 -2 8564 2 60 0.010021 0_031924 -0.627 -Ul664 2.8979 -3.175 -1 2866 -2.5867 2 65 0 040063 0 086018 -1.19343 -2.01623 2.8992 -3_1763 -i 2561 -2 5269 2 70 0 050939 0.097546 -1 30148 -2.22683 2.9004 -3.1763 -12488 -2.5122 2 75 0.06096 0.097546 -1 32734 -2.2786 2.9004 -3_1n5 -1 2439 -2.5037 2 eo 0.06096 0.108187 -13447 -2.30854 28SS2 -3_1n5 -1 2415 -2.4976 2 85 0 050939 0.108187 -13532 -2.33002 2.9004 -3_1ns -1.239 -2.4939 2 90 0 06096 0.108187 -1.36205 -2.34305 2.9004 -J_1n5 -1 2366 -2.489 2 95 0.06096 0.108187 -137055 -2.36031 2.9004 -3_1n5 -12354 -2.4866 2 100 0.06096 0.108187 -1.37481 -2.36876 2.9004 -3.1ns -1 2329 -2.4841 2 105 o 06096 o.108187 -1 38366 -2.3n57 2.9004 -J.1ns -1 2317 -2.4817 2 110 0.06096 0.108187 -138791 -2.38602 2.9004 -3.1ns -12305 -2.4792 2 115 0.06096 0.108187 -1.39216 -2.39482 2.9(1)4 -3.1m -1.2183 -2.4585 3 120 0.06096 0.118829 -1.43538 -2.48773 2.9053 -3.1848 -1.1011 -2.2632 3 125 0.101879 0.172922 -1.85055 -3.15553 2.9065 -3.1. -1.0779 -2.2241 3 130 0.111899 0.183583 -1.93273 -3.29324 2.9055 -3.1873 -1.0706 -2.2119 3 135 0.111899 0.195092 -1.95858 -3.3362 2.'!KJTT -3.1873 -1.0645 -2.2046 3 140 0.12192 0.195092 -1.9802 -3.36191 2.9065 -3.1873 -1 0608 -2.19@5 3 145 0.111899 0.195092 -1.99331 -3.38339 2.'!KJ77 -3.1873 -1 0583 -2.1948 3 150 0.12192 0.195092 -2.00216 -3.39642 2.'!KJ77 -3.1873 -1.0559 -2.1912 3 155 0.12192 0.195092 -2.01067 -3.4091 2.'!KJ77 -3.1873 -1 0535 -2.1875 3 160 0.12192 0.195092 -2.01917 -3.42213 2.'!KJTT -3.1885 -1 0522 -2.1851 3 165 o.12192 0.205733 -2.023n -3.43059 2.'!KJ77 -3.1885 -1 0498 -2.1826 3 170 0.12192 0.205733 -2.03227 -3.43939 2.'!KJ77 -3.1885 -1_0486 -2.1802 3 175 0.12192 0.205733 -2.03653 -3.44784 2.WIT7 -3.1885 -1 0425 -2.1704 4 180 0.12192 0.205733 -2.05813 -3.48236 2.9126 -3.1946 .()_946 -2.0251 4 185 0.162839 0.259827 -2.39983 -3.99407 2.9138 -3.197 .() 918 -1 9861 4 190 0.172859 0.281109 -2.49927 2.915 -3.197 .() 9094 -1 9739 4 195 0.18288 0.281109 -2.52956 2.915 -3.197 .() 9033 -1.9653 4 200 0.18288 0.281109 -2.55117 2.915 -3.1982 .() 8984 -1.9604 4 205 o_ 18288 0.291751 -2.56845 2.915 -3.1982 -0_896 -1 9556 4 210 0.18288 0.291751 -2.5771 2.915 -3_1982 -0.8923 -1 9519 4 215 0.18288 0.291751 -2.5901 -4.25187 2.915 -3.1982 -0.8899 -1 9482 4 220 0 18288 0.291751 -2.59874 -4.2649 2.9163 -3.1982 -0.8887 -1.9458 225 0.193736 0.291751 -2.60306 -4.27335 97

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2.9163 -3.1982 -0.8862 -19434 4 230 0 193736 0.291751 -2.61171 2.9163 -3.1995 .{) 885 -1 9409 4 235 0 193736 0 303279 -2.61603 2.9163 -3.1995 -0 8814 -1.936 5 240 0 193736 0 303279 -2.62899 2.9211 -3.2056 -0 8057 -1.8262 5 245 0.23382 0,357372 -2.89712 2.9224 -32068 -O.T7i6 -1 7859 5 250 0 244676 0.368014 -2.99655 2.9224 -3.208 -0 7678 -1 7725 5 255 0 244676 0 378655 -3 03116 2.9236 -3208 -0 7617 _, 7651 5 260 o 254696 0.378655 -3.o52n 2.9236 -3.208 -0 7568 .759 5 265 0.254696 0 378655 -3 07006 93122 2.9236 -3.208 -07532 -1.7542 5 270 0.254696 0 378655 -3.08306 2.9236 -3.2092 -0.7495 -1.7505 5 275 0.254696 0 389296 -3.09602 -4.96116 2.9236 -3.2092 -0.7471 -1.7468 5 2BO 0.254696 0.389298 -3.10467 2.9236 -3.2092 -0.7446 -1.7444 5 285 0.254696 0.389296 -3.11331 2.9236 -3.2092 -0.7434 -1.7419 5 290 0.254696 0.389296 -3.11763 2.92.-8 -3.2092 -0 741 -1 7395 5 295 0.264717 0.389296 -3.12627 2.92.-8 -3.2092 -0.7385 -1 7358 6 300 0.264717 0.389296 -3.13492 -501293 2.9285 -3.2153 -0 6726 -16382 6 305 0.295615 0 44339 -3.36843 -5.35666 2.9297 -3.2178 -0.6409 -1 5942 6 310 0 305636 0 46556 -3.48087 -5.51162 29309 -3.219 -0.6299 _, 5808 6 315 0.315656 0.476201 -3.5198 -5.55881 2.9309 -3.2202 -0.6238 _, 5723 6 320 0.315656 0.486842 -3.54141 -5.58874 2.9309 -3.2202 -0.61e9 -1 5662 6 325 0.315656 0486842 -3.5587 -5.61023 2.9309 -3.2202 -0 614 -1 5613 6 330 0. 315656 0 486842 -3.57602 -5.62748 2.9309 -3.2214 -0 6104 -1.5576 6 335 0.315656 0.497484 -3.58898 -564051 2.9321 -3.2214 -0.6079 -1.5527 6 340 o.3256n 0.497484 -3.59763 -5.65777 2.9321 -3.2214 -06055 _, 5503 6 345 o.3256n 0.497484 -360627 -5.616622 2.9321 -3.2214 -0.603 _, 5479 6 350 o.3256n 0.497484 -3.61491 -5.67468 2.9321 -3.2214 -0.6006 -1 5454 6 355 o.32S6n 0.497484 -3.62356 -5.68348 2.9321 -32ZZT -0.5981 -1.5417 7 360 0.32.5677 0.509012 -3.83224 -5.68651 2.937 -3..2288 -0.531 -1.4526 7 365 0.366596 0.563105 -3.87004 -6.01CJ3 2.9395 -3.2324 -0.5005 -1.4136 7 370 o.3874n o.5950211 -3.97815 -6.14785 2.9407 -3.2336 -0.4895 -1.3989 7 375 0.397493 0.605671 -4.01708 -6.19942 2.9407 -3..2349 -0.4822 -13904 7 380 0.397493 0.617199 -4.04301 -6.22936 2.9419 -3.2361 -0.4761 -1.3831 7 385 0.407514 0.62784 -4.06466 -6.25507 2.9419 -3.2361 -0.4712 -1.3782 7 390 0.407514 0.62784 -4.08194 -6.27233 2.9419 -3.2373 -0.4675 -1.3745 7 395 0.407514 0.638482 -4.09491 -6.28536 2.9419 -3.2373 -0.4651 -1.3696 7 400 0.407514 0.638482 -4.10355 -6.30261 2.9419 -3.2373 -0.4614 -1.36n 7 405 0.407514 0.638482 -4.11652 -6.31107 2.9419 -3.2373 -0.459 -13635 7 410 0.407514 0.638482 -4.1252 -6.3241 2.9431 -3.2373 -0.4565 -1 3611 7 415 0.417535 0.638482 -4.13384 -6.33255 2.9431 -3.2385 -0.4553 -1.3586 8 420 0.417535 0.649123 -4.13816 -6.34135 2.948 -32434 -0.398 -1.2878 8 425 0.458453 0.692575 -6.5907 2.9504 -32483 -0.3626 -1 2427 8 430 0.478495 0 736027 -6.74953 2.9517 -3251J7 -0.3491 -1.228 8 435 0.489351 0.75731 -4.51436 -6.8013 2.9517 -3.252 -0.3418 -1.2183 8 440 0.489351 0.768838 -4.54029 -6.83546 2.9517 -3.2532 -0.3357 -12109 8 445 0.489351 o.n948 -6.86152 2.9529 -3.2532 -0.3308 -1 2061 8 450 0.499372 o.n948 -6.87843 2.9529 -3..2:544 -0.3259 -1.2012 8 455 0.499372 0. 790121 -4.59651 -6.89568 2.9529 -3..2:544 -0.3223 -1 1963 8 460 0.499372 0.790121 -6.91294 2.9529 -3..2:544 -03198 -1 1926 8 465 0.499372 0.790121 -6.92597 2.9541 -3..2:544 -0.3162 -1 1902 8 470 0.509393 0.790121 -6.93442 2.9541 -3.2556 -0.3137 -1 1865 8 475 0.509393 0.800762 -6.94745 98

PAGE 110

2.95-41 -3.2556 .Q 3113 -1 1841 9 480 0.509393 0.800762 -4.&4841 -6 95591 2.9578 -3.2617 -026 -11218 9 .oas G 54029 0 854856 -4.83003 -7 17532 2.9614 -3.2666 .Q ZZZl -1 on9 9 490 0 570353 0 898308 -4.96407 -7.32992 2.9626 -3.269 -02087 -1 062 9 495 0.580374 0.919591 -5 01165 -7 38592 2.96::<6
PAGE 111

3.0225 -3.3679 0.3626 -0.4492 13 730 1 080581 1. 796616 -7.03538 -9.54401 3.0249 -3.3728 o.Jn2 -0.4346 13 735 1. 1 OC622 1 840069 -7.08728 -9.5956 3.0261 -3.3765 0.3882 -0 4248 13 740 1.110643 1.872879 -7.12618 -9.63001 3.0286 -3.3801 0.398 -0.4163 13 745 1.13152 1.904803 -7.16078 -9.66009 3.0298 -3.3826 0 4053 -04089 13 750 1.141541 1.926973 -7.18671 -9.68587 3.0298 -3.3838 0 4114 -0.4028 13 755 1141541 1.937614 -7.20836 -9.70738 3031 -3.385 c 4175 -0398 13 760 1151562 1.948256 -7.22997 -9.72457 30322 -3.3875 0 4224 -0.3943 13 765 1 161582 1 970425 -7.24725 -9.73746 3.0334 -3.3887 0.4273 -0.3894 13 770 1.171603 1.981067 -7.26458 -9.75468 3.0334 -3.3887 04309 -0.3857 13 775 1.171603 1.981067 -7.2n54 -9.76757 3.0347 -3.3899 0.4346 -03821 14 780 1 182459 1.991708 -7.29051 -9.78046 3.0408 -3.3972 0.4797 -0.3333 14 785 1.233398 2.056443 -7.45052 -9.95243 3J)481 -3.407 0.5164 -0.2966 14 790 1.294359 2.143347 -7.58024 -10.0814 3.053 -3.4131 0.5347 -0.2808 14 795 1.335277 2.197441 -7.6451 -10.1373 3.0554 -3.4167 0.5481 -0.2686 14 800 1.355319 2.229365 -7.69268 -10.1803 3.0591 -3.4204 0.5579 -0.26 14 805 1.386216 2.262176 -7.72725 -10.2104 3.0015 -3.4229 0 5676 -0.2527 14 810 1.406258 2.284345 -7.76186 -10.2361 3.064 -3.4253 0 575 -02466 14 815 1 427135 2 305628 -7.78n9 -10.25n 3.0052 -3.4265 05811 -02405 14 820 1 437155 2.316269 -7.8094 -10.2791 3.0076 -3.429 0.5872 -0.2356 14 825 1 457197 2.338439 -7.83104 -10.2963 3.0688 -3.4302 0 5933 -02307 14 830 1.467218 2.34908 -7 85265 -10.3136 3.0713 -3 4314 0 5969 -0 2271 14 835 1 488095 2.359722 -7 86562 -10.3264 3.0725 -3.4338 0 6018 -0.2234 15 840 1.498116 2.381004 -7 88294 -10.3393 3.0737 -3.4351 0.6055 -0.2197 15 845 1.508136 2.392532 -7.8959 -10.3522 3.0798 -3.4399 06409 -0.1831 15 850 1.559076 2.435098 -8.0213 -10.4812 3.092 -3.4497 0 6751 -a 14n 15 855 1.660954 2.522002 -8.14238 -10.6059 3.0994 -3.4558 0.6921 -0.1306 15 860 1.722749 2.576096 -8.20292 -10.6661 3.1055 -3 .e619 0.7056 --0.1196 15 865 1.773689 2.630189 -8..2505 -10.7048 3.1104 -3.-4656 0.7166 --0.1099 15 870 1.814607 2.8153 -8.289311 -10.7392 3.1152 -3.4692 0.7263 -0.1025 15 875 1.85489 2.694824 -8.324 -10.7849 11189 -3.4729 0.7336 --0.0952 15 880 1.885588 2.727735 -8.34993 -10.7907 3.1238 -3..(753 0.741 .-Q 0891 15 885 1.926506 2.749018 -8.3759 -10.8122 3.1274 .J.4na 0.7471 -0.0842 15 890 1.956569 2.n1188 -8.39751 -10.8294 3.1311 -3.479 0.752 --0.0793 15 895 1.987467 2.781829 -8 ... 1 .. 79 -10.&466 3.1348 -3 ..S14 0.7581 -0.0745 16 900 2.018364 2.803112 -8.43644 -10.8638 3.1458 -3 ... 9 0.8032 -00269 16 905 2.110222 2.879375 -8.59641 -11.0315 3.1616 -3.5022 0.8423 0.011 16 910 2.987562 -8.73481 -11.1648 3.1702 -3.5107 0.863 0.0293 16 915 2.313979 3.062938 -8.80832 -11.2292 3.1n5 -3.5168 0.8789 00415 16 920 2.37 .. 939 3.117032 -8.86454 -11.2722 3.1824 -3.5229 0.8923 0.0525 16 925 2-"15858 3.171125 -8.91208 -11.3109 3.1873 -3.5278 0.9033 00598 16 930 2.456776 3.214578 -8.95101 -11.3367 3.1909 -3.5315 0.9131 0.0671 16 935 2.-486838 3.247388 -8.98562 -11.3625 3.1958 -3.5352 0.9216 0.0732 16 940 2.52n57 3.280199 -9.01587 -11.384 3.1982 -3.5388 0.929 0.0793 16 945 2.547799 3.312123 -9.04183 -11.4055 3.2007 -3.5413 0.9351 0.0842 16 950 2.568675 3.334293 -9.06344 -1 1.4227 3.2056 -3.5437 0.9412 0.0903 16 955 2.609594 3.355576 -9.08505 -11.4442 3.2104 -3.5474 0.946 0.094 17 960 2.6496n 3.388386 -9.10234 -11 4571 3.2214 -3.5547 0.9827 0.1318 17 96S 2.741535 3.453121 -9.2321 -11.5904 3.241 -3.5693 10254 0.1746 17 970 2.905209 3.582591 -9.38346 -11.7408 3.2556 -3.5803 1 051 0.1965 17 975 3.027129 3.680137 -9.47415 -11 8182 100

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3.2581 -3.5901 1.0706 0.2136 17 980 3.048006 3.767041 -9.54358 -11.87&4 3.2532 -3.5962 10864 0.2258 17 985 3 007087 3.821135 -9.59955 -11.9214 3.2666 -3 6023 1.0986 0.2368 17 990 3.118986 3.875229 -9.642n -11.9601 3.2751 -3.6096 1.1096 0.2454 17 995 3 189967 3.939964 -9.68173 -11 9902 3.2703 -3.6145 1.1194 0.2527 17 1000 3.149884 3.983416 -9.71645 -12.016 3.269 -3.6194 1 1292 02588 17 1005 3.139028 4 026868 -9.75116 -12.0375 3.2874 -3.623 1 1401 0.2686 17 1010 3 292681 4 058792 -9 78978 -12.0718 3.2874 -3.6292 1 1511 o2n1 17 1015 3.292681 4.113n2 -982874 -12.102 3.2727 -3.6328 11572 0.282 18 1020 3.169926 4.145697 -9.85035 -12.1191 3.2715 -3.6389 1.1768 0.3003 18 1025 3.159905 4.19979 -9.91978 -12.1836 3.291 -3.6511 1.2146 0.3157 18 1030 3.322744 43tJ79n -10.0537. -12.3083 3.3044 -3.6621 1.2366 0.354 18 1035 3.434643 4.405523 -10.1316 -12.3728 3.3386 -3.6719 12537 0.3662 18 1040 3.720237 4.492427 -10.1922 -12.4158 3.3459 -3.6792 1.2671 0.376 18 1045 3.781197 4.557162 -10.2397 -12.4502 3.3508 -3.6853 1.2793 0.3845 18 1050 3.822115 4.611256 -10.2829 -12.4803 3.3557 -3.6914 1 2903 0 3919 18 1055 3.863034 4.66535 -10.3218 -12.5061 3.3606 -3.6975 1 2988 0.3992 18 1060 3 903952 4.719443 -10.352 -12.5319 3.3643 -37024 1 3074 0.4053 18 1065 3.93485 4 762895 -10.3824 -12.5534 3.3679 -3.7061 1 3147 0.4102 18 1070 3.964912 4.795706 -10.4083 -12.5706 3 3716 -3.7109 1.3208 0.415 18 1075 3.99581 4.838272 -10.4299 -12.5878 33752 -3.7146 1 3269 0 4199 19 1080 4 025872 4 871083 -10.4515 -12.6049 3.3826 -3.7219 13562 04468 19 1085 4.087668 4 935817 -10.5553 -12.6995 3.396 -3.739 1 4014 0.4895 19 1090 4.199567 5.087457 -10.7154 -12.85 3.407 -3.75 1.4246 0.5078 19 1095 4.291425 5.185003 -10.7976 -12.9145 H155 -3.761 14429 0.5212 19 1100 4.362406 5.282548 -10.8624 -12.9618 3.4241 -3.7695 1 4575 0.5322 19 1105 4.434222 5.357925 -10.9141 -13.0005 3.429 -3.n69 1.4697 0.542 19 1110 4.47514 5.423546 -10.9574 -13.0349 3.4351 -3.7842 1.4807 0.5505 19 1115 4.5211079 5.4al281 -10.8963 -13.065 3.4399 -3.7891 1.4905 0.5579 19 1120 4.56115183 5.531734 -11.031 -13.C&J7 3.4436 -3.7952 1.499 0.564 19 1125 4.58708 5.58S827 -11.0611 -13.1122 3.4485 -3.8 1.5063 0.5701 19 1130 4.637V79 5.6211393 -11.CIB7 -13.1331 3.4521 -3.8049 1.5137 0.575 19 1135 4.668041 5.671&45 -11.1132 -13.1509 3.4546 -3.8098 1.521 0.5798 20 1140 4.688918 5.715297 -11.1391 -13.1681 3.4656 -3.822 1.5588 o.61n 20 1145 4.780776 5.823484 -11.273 -13.3014 3.481.C -3.8403 1.5979 0.6519 20 1150 4.912717 5.985765 -11.4115 -13.4218 3.4924 -3.8562 1.6211 0.6702 20 1155 5.004575 6.126763 -11.4937 -13.4863 3.4985 -3.8684 1.6394 0.6836 20 1160 5.055514 6.23495 -11.5585 -13.5335 3.5046 -3.8794 1.6553 0.69-46 20 1165 5.106453 6.332.C96 -116148 -13.5722 3.5107 -3.8892 1.6687 0.7044 20 1170 5.157392 6.4194 -11 6623 -13.6067 3.51S6 -3.89n 1.6797 0.7129 20 1175 5.198311 6.494m -11.7013 -13.6367 3.5217 -3.905 1.6907 0.7202 20 1180 5.24925 6.559512 -11.7.co2 -13.6625 3.5266 -3.9111 1.6992 0.7263 20 1185 5.290168 6.613605 -11.noo -13.6&4 3.5315 -3.91n 1.7078 0.7324 20 1190 5.331087 6.667699 -11.8008 -13.7055 3.5339 -3.9233 1.7163 0.7385 20 1195 5.351129 6.721792 -118309 -13.727 3.5376 -3.9282 1.7236 0.7434 20 1200 5.382026 6.765245 -11.8568 -13.7442 3.5388 -3.9331 1.7297 0.7471 20 1205 5.392047 6.8CII697 -11.87&4 -13.7571 3.5425 -3.938 1.7358 0 752 20 1210 5.422945 6.8521.C9 -11.9 -13.n43 3.5474 -3.938 1. 7419 0.7556 20 1215 5.-463863 6.852149 -11.9216 -13.7872 101

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Appendix C.3.2 Long-term Test with Castle Rock Soil 102

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Castle Rock soii-Shart-term portion of test 95"11.' 6'!1.mc voltage readings Deformation Values (mm) 12 t6 18 time LVDTt2 LVDTI6 LVDTI7 LVDT 18 2.87E..OO -2.nE+OO 6.25E-{)1 -3.24E+OO 0 0 0 0 0 2.87E+OO -2.77E+OO 5 32E-D1 -3.23E+OO 5 0 0 0.02593 0.017257 2.88E+OO -2 77E+OO e 26E-o1 -3 07E+<:'C 10 0 06096 0.054094 0.71351 0.610328 2.88E+OO -2.78E+OO 8 SSE-01 -3 02E+00 15 0 070981 0075376 0 851876 0.756483 2.88E+OO -2.78E+CO !! 73E-{)1 -3 02E+OO 20 0 081002 0075376 0.877807 0.782192 2.88E+OO -2.78E+OO 8 78E-{)1 -301E+OO 25 0 081002 0.075376 0 895129 2.88E.OO -2.78E+OO 880E-{)1 -3.01E..OO 30 0.081002 0.075376 0.903773 0808253 2.88E+OCI -2.78E+OO 8 BJE-{)1 -3.01E+OO 35 0.081002 0.075376 0.912416 0.816705 2.88E..OO -2.78E+OO 8 BSE-{)1 -3.00E+OO 40 0.081002 0.075376 0.921059 0.825158 2.88E+OO -2.78E+OO 8 87E-{)1 -300E+OO 45 0.081002 0.075376 0.929703 0.829736 2.88E..OO -2.78E+OO 8 B9E-{)1 -3.00E+OO 50 0 081002 0.075376 0.934025 0838188 288E+OO -2.78E+OO e 90E-{)1 -3 OOE+O'J 55 0 081002 0.075376 0.938346 0.842415 2.88E.OO -2.78E+OO e 91 E-{)1 -3 OOE+DO 60 0 081002 0.075376 0942668 0846993 2 BBE+OO -2 78E+OO -2 99E+00 65 0 081002 0.075376 0 955669 0 859671 2.89E+OO -2.78E+OO 02E+OO -2.88E+OO 70 0.142797 0.140111 1.409521 1.250943 2.89E+OO -2 79E+OO 1 06E+OO -2.85E+OO 75 0162839 0.162281 1534922 1.358358 2.89E+OO -279E+OO 07E+OO -2 85E"'"'JC eo 0.18288 0172922 1 561136 1.384067 2.89E+OO -2 79E+OO 07E+OO -2.84E+OO 85 018288 0.183563 1.578493 1.401324 2.89E.OO -2.79E+OO 1 07E+OO -2.84E+OO 90 0.18288 0.183563 1.591246 1 410129 2.B9E+OO -2.79E+OO 1 08E+OO -2.84E+OO 95 0.18288 0.183563 1.604353 1.418581 2 89E+OO -2.79E+OO 1 OSE+OO -2 83E+{IQ 100 0.18288 0.183563 1.612855 1.427033 2.89E+OO -2.79E+OO 1 .08E+OO -2.83E+OO 105 0.18288 0.183563 1.617106 1.435838 2.89Et00 -2.79E+OO 108E+OO -2.83E+OO 110 0.18288 0.183563 1.625962 1.440064 2.89E+OO -2.79E+OO 1.09E+OO -2.83E+OO 115 0.18288 0.183563 1.630212 1.44429 2.89E+OO -2.79E+OO 1.09E+OO -2.83E+OO 120 0.18288 0.183563 1.634ot83 1.4488619 2.89E+OO -2.79E+OO 1.09E+OO .83E+OO 125 0.182118 0.183563 1.643311 1.453085 2.90E+OO -2.79E+OO 1.17E+OO -2.77E+OO 130 0.23382 0.227016 1.937339 1.654894 2.90E+OO -2.80E+OO 1.23E+OO -2.73E+OO 135 0.274738 0.270468 2.149174 1.80!i627 2.90E+OO -2.80E+OO 1.24E-t00 -2.72E+OO 140 0.274738 0.281109 2.18389 1.82711 2.90E+OO -2.80E+OO 1.25E+OO -2.71E+OO 145 0.274738 0.291751 2..205498 1.844367 2.90E-+OO -2.80E+OO 12SE+OO .71E+OO 150 0.285594 0.291751 2.218251 1.857045 2.90E+OO -2.80E+OO 125E+OO -2.71E+OO 155 0.285594 0.291751 2.231358 1.86585 2.90E+OO .80E+OO 1.26E+OO -2.71E+OO 160 0.285594 0.291751 2..23986 1.870076 2.90E+OO -2.80E+OO 1.26E+OO -2.71E+OO 165 0.285594 0.291751 2.248716 1.878528 2.90E+OO -2.80E+OO 1 26E+OO -2.70E+OO 170 0.285594 0.291751 2.257217 1.882754 2.90E+OO -2.80E+OO 1.26E+OO -2.70E+OO 175 0.285594 0.291751 2.261468 1.887333 2.90E+OO -2.80E+OO 1.27E+OO .70E+OO 180 0.285594 0.302392 2.270324 1.891559 2.90-tOO -2.80E+OO 1 27E+OO -2.70E..OO 185 0.285594 0.302392 2.274575 1.895785 2.91E-t00 -2.81E+OO 1 33E+OO -2.66E+OO 190 0.325677 0.335203 2.494912 2.037713 2.91E+OO -2.81E+OO 1 39E+OO -2.62E+OO 195 0.366596 0.378655 2.707102 2.179642 2.92E-t00 -2.81E+OO 1 40E+OO -2.61E-t00 200 0.376617 0.378655 2.205351 2.92E+OO -2.81E+OO 1 41 E+OO -2.61E+OO 205 0.376617 0.378655 2.763072 2.222508 2.92E+OO -2.81E+OO 1 4,E+OO -2.61 E +00 210 0.376617 0.389290 2.78043 2.23106 2.92E+OO -2.81E+OO 41E+OO -2.60E+OO 215 0.376617 0.389296 2.793537 2.239865 2.92E+OO .81E+OO 1 42E+OO -2.60E+OO 220 0.376617 0.389296 2.802038 2.244091 103

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2.92E+OO -2 81E+OO 1.42E+OO -2.60E+OO 225 0.376617 0.389296 2.810894 2.252543 2.92E+OO -2.81E+OO 1 42E+OO -2.60E+OO 230 0.387472 0.399938 2.819396 2.256769 2.92E+OO -2 81E..OO 1 42E+OO -2.60E+OO 235 0.387472 0.399938 2.827898 2.261348 2.92E+OO -2.81E+OO 1 42E+OO -2.60E+OO 240 0 387472 0.399938 2.832503 2.265574 2.92E..OO -2.81E+OO 1 43+00 -2.59E+OO 245 0.387472 0.399938 2.836754 2.2698 2.92E+OO -2.82E+OO 1 49E+OO -2.55E+OO 250 0.427556 044339 3048589 2.424759 2.92E+OO -2 B2E+OO 1 53E+OO -2.52E+OO 255 c 458453 0.476201 3.19985 2.5364 2.92E+OO -2.82E+OO 1 S4E+{)Q -2.51E+OO 260 0.458453 0.486842 3.234565 2 553657 2.93E..OO -2.82E+OO 1 54E+OO -2.51E+OO 265 0.468474 0.497484 3 256174 2.566336 2.93E+OO -2 82E+OO 1.55E+OO -2.51E+OO 270 0.468474 0.497484 3.269281 2.579366 2.93E+OO -2.82E+OO -2.50E+OO 275 0.468474 0.497484 3.282034 2.587819 2.93E+OO -2.82E+OO 1.56E+OO -2.50E+OO 280 0 468474 0.49744 3.29514 2.592397 2.93E..OO -2.82E+OO 156E+OO -2.50E+OO 285 0.468474 0497484 3.303642 2.600849 2.93E+OO -2.82E+OO 1.56E+OO -2.50E+OO 290 0.468474 0.497484 3.312498 2.605075 2.93E+OO -2.82E+OO 156E+OO -2.50E+OO 295 0.468474 0.497484 3.316749 2.609302 2.93E+OO -2.83E+OO 156E+OO -2.50E+OO 300 0.468474 0.508125 3325251 2.61388 2 93E+OO -2.83E+OO 1 56E+OO -2.50E+OO 305 0468474 0.508125 3.329502 2.618106 2.93E+OO -2 83E+OO 63E+OO -2 45E+OO 310 0.519414 0.562219 35633 2.78997 2.94E+OO -2.84E+OO 1 57E+OO -2.42E+OO 0.550311 0.595029 3.684096 2.884706 2.94E..OO -2 84E+OO 167E+OO -241E+OO 320 0.550311 0 605671 3.714561 2.910416 2 94E..OO -2.84E+OO 1 EBE+OO -241E+OO 325 0.560332 0.605671 3.736169 2.923446 2.94E+OO -2.84E+CO 1 68E+OO -2 40E+OO 330 0.560332 0605671 3.753527 2.936125 2.94E+OO -2.84E..OO 1 69E+OO -2.40E+OO 335 0.560332 0.616312 3 76628 2.944929 2.94E..OO -2.84E..OO 169E+OO -2.40E+OO 340 0.560332 0.616312 3.n5136 2.949155 2 94E+OO -2.84E..OO 69E+OO -2.40E+OO 345 0.560332 0.616312 3.783637 2.957608 2.94E+OO -2.84E..OO UOE+OO -2.40E+OO 350 0.570353 0.616312 3.792493 2.961834 2.94E+OO -2.84E+OO 1.70E+OO -2.40E+OO 355 0.570353 0.616312 3.800995 2.966412 2.94E+OO .84E+OO 170E+OO .40E+OO 360 0.570353 0.616312 3.8052-46 2.9701538 2.94E+OO .84E+OO 1.70E+OO .39E+OO 365 0.570353 0.616312 3.809497 2.97 ... 2.94E+OO .84E+OO 1.75E+OO .35E+OO 370 0.611271 0.670406 4.CDXJ78 3.116783 2.95E+OO .85E+OO 1.7BE+OO .33E+OO 375 0.642169 0.692575 4.103516 3.198488 2.95E+OO .85E+OO 1.79E+OO -2 .32E +()() 380 0.642169 0.703217 4.133981 3.224208 2.95E+OO -2.85E+OO 180E+OO -2.32+00 385 0642169 0.703217 4.147088 3.237239 2.95E+OO -2 .85E+OCI 1.80E+OO -2.32+00 390 0.65219 0.713858 4.15984 3.245691 2 95E+OO -2.85E+OO 1.80E+OO -2.31 E+OO 395 0.65219 0.713858 4.172947 3.2541a 2.95E+OO -2.85E+OO 1.81E+OO -2.31 E+OO 400 0.65219 0.713858 4.181449 3.262948 2.95E+OO -2.85E+OCI 1 81E+OO -2.31E+OO 0.65219 0.713858 4.190305 3262948 2 95E+OO -2 .85E+OO 1.81E+OO -2.30e +()() 410 0.65219 0.713858 4.198807 3.292883 2.95E+OO -2.85E+OO 181E+OO -2. 30E+OO 415 065219 0.713858 4 203058 3.314386 2.95E+OO -2.e5E+OO 1.81E+OO -2 30E+OO 420 065219 0 724499 4.211914 3314366 2.95E+OO -2.85E+OO 1.82E+OO -2.30E +()() 425 0.65219 0.724499 4 216164 3.318944 2.95E..OO -2.86E+OO 1.B7E+OO -221E+OO 430 0.693108 0.767951 4.393284 3.422133 2 96E-t00 -2.!16E+OO 1.89E+OO -2.25E+OO 435 0.723171 0 790121 4 484324 :!495034 2.96E+OO -2.86E+OO 90E+OO -224E+OO 440 0.723171 0.800762 4 514435 3.520743 2.96E.OO -2 esE+OO 1 91E+OO -223E+OO 445 0.734027 0.800762 4.536043 3.538 2.96E+OO -2.86E+OO 191E+OO -223E+OO 450 0 734027 0.811404 4.553401 3.551031 2.96E+OO -2.86E+OO 1.91E+OO -2.23E+OO 455 0.734027 0.811404 4.566508 3.559483 2.96E+OO -2.86E..OO 192E+OO -2.22E+OO 460 0 744047 0.811404 457501 :!.572514 2.96E+OO -2.86E+OO 192+00 -222E+OO 465 0.744047 4.583511 3.57674 2.96E-+OO -2.1!6E+OO 92E+OO -2.22E+OO 470 0.744047 0.811404 4.592367 3585192 104

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2 96E+OO -2 86E+OO 1 92E+OO -2.22E+OO 475 0.744047 0.811<104 4.600869 3.589n1 2. 96E+OO -2 86E -+00 1 93E+OO -2.22E+OO 480 0.744047 0822045 460512 3.598223 2.96E+OO -2.86E-+00 193E+OO -2.22E+OO 485 0.744047 0.822045 4 613976 3602 .. 9 2.97E+OO -2.87E+OO 1 9BE+OO -2.18E+OO 490 0.794987 086S497 4.791096 3.731347 2.97E+OO -2.87E+OO 200E+OO -2.16E+OO 495 0.815028 0887667 4 882136 3.1100374 2.97E-+OO -2.87E-+OO 2.01E+OO -2.15E+OO 500 0825884 0.898308 4.912246 3.83031 2.97E+OO -2 87E+OO 2 02E....OO -2.15E+OO 505 0 825884 0898308 4.933855 3.&47567 2.97E+OO -2.87E-+00 202E+OO -2.14E+OO 510 0.825884 0.90895 4.9469e2 3860597 2.97E+OO -2.87E+OO 2.03E+OO -2.14E+OO 515 0.835905 0.90895 4 959714 3.873276 2.97E+OO -2.87E-+OO 2.03E+OO -2.14E+OO 520 0.835905 090895 4.96857 3.88208 2.97E+OO -2.87E-+OO 2.03E+OO -2.13E+OO 525 0.835905 0.90895 49no12 3.890532 2.97E+OO -2.87E-+OO 2.03E+OO -2.13E+OO 530 0.835905 0.919591 4.985928 3.899337 2.97E+OO -2.87E-+OO 2.03E+OO -2.13E+OO 535 0.835905 0.919591 4.99443 3.907789 2.97E+OO -2.87E+OO 2.04E+OO -2.13E+OO 540 0.835905 0.919591 5.003286 3.912015 2.97+00 -2.87E-+OO 2.04E+OO -2.13E+OO 545 0.835905 0919591 5.007537 3.916242 2.97E+OO -2.88E-+OO 2 08E+OO -2.10E+OO 550 0876824 0963043 5154546 4.01943 2.98E+OO -2.88E-+OO 2.11E+ro -2.07E+OO 5SS 0.896865 0.984326 5.262589 4105362 2.98E+OO -2 88E+OO 2 12E+OO -2.06E+OO 560 0.896865 0.995854 5.297305 413565 2.98E+OO -2.88E..OO 2 13E+OO -2.06E+OO 565 0.906886 0.995854 5.318914 4152907 2.98E+OO -2.88E+OO 213E+OO -2.0SE+OO 570 0.906886 1 006495 5.335917 4.170163 2 98E+OC -2 88E+OO 2.14E+OO -2.05E+OO 575 0.906886 1 006495 5.349024 4178616 2.9BE+OO -2.88E..OO 2.14E+OO -205E+OO 580 0.916907 1CXl6495 5362131 4.191646 2.98E+OO -2.88E+OO 2.14E+OO -2.05E+OO 585 0.916907 1.006495 5.370633 4200099 2.98E+OO -2.88E-+OO 2.14E+OO -2 04E+OO 590 0 916907 1017137 5379489 4.208551 2.98E+OO -2.88E-+OO -2.04E+OO 595 0.916907 1 017137 5.38799 4 213129 2.98E+OO -2.88E-+OO 2.15E+OO -2.04E+OO 600 0.916907 1.017137 5.396492 4.221582 2.98E+OO -2.88E-t00 2.15E+OO -2.04E+OO 60S 0.916907 1 017137 5.401097 4.225808 2.98E4 -2.89E+OO 2. 18E+OO -2.01 E+OO 610 0.9471104 1.048948 5.513391 4.31174 2.99E+m -2.89E+OO 2..22E+OO -1 99E+OO 615 0.987M 1 0112513 5.634541 4410702 2.9IIE+OO -2.11!1E+00 2.23E+OO -1.98E+OO 620 09717D2 1 0112513 5.868803 4.44099 2.&4 -2.89E+OO 2.23E+OO -1 97E+OO 625 0.981723 1104041 5.690511 4.482473 2.99E+OO -2.89E-t00 224E+OO -1.97E+OO 630 0.988723 1.104041 5.707869 4.475151 2. 99Eot(l) -2.89E-t00 2.24E +00 -1.96E+OO 635 0.988723 1.114682 5.720976 4.488182 2. 99E.m -2. 89E-t00 2.24E+OO -1 96E+OO 640 0998744 1.114682 5.734083 4 501213 2.99E+OO -2.89E+OO 2.25E+OO -196E+OO 645 0.998744 1.114682 5.742585 4.5096165 2.99E-tl -2 90E+OO 2.25E+OO -1 96E+OO 650 0.998744 1125324 5.751086 4.513891 2.99Eot(l) -2.90E+OO 2.25E+OO -1.95E+OO 655 0.9!11744 1125324 5.759942 4522898 2.99E.m -2.90E+OO 2.25E+OO 95E+OO 660 0.9!11744 1125324 5 768444 4.528922 2 99EtOO -2.90E+OO 2.26E+OO -1 95E+OO 665 1.0017&5 1125324 5 781551 4 53915 3.00E+OO .90E-+00 2.30E+OO -1 91E+OO 670 1.049683 1179417 5.950169 468885 3.00E+OO -2.90E-+OO 2 32E+OO -1 90E+OO 675 1.058704 1190059 6014995 4n4495 3.00E+OO -2 90E-t00 2.33E+OO -1 89E+OO 680 1 069725 1.201587 6.0C5106 4.750556 3.00E+OO -2.91E-t00 2.34E+OO -1.88E+OO 685 1.080581 1 212228 6 066714 767461 3.00E+OO -2 91E-+OO 2.34E+OO -1.88E+OO 690 1.080581 1.212228 s.0840n 4 784717 3.00E+OO -2_9,E-+OO 2.35+00 -1 88E+OO 695 1 080581 22287 6097179 479n48 300E+OO -2.91E-+OO 2.35E+OO -1 87E+OO 700 1 080581 1222'!7 6.110286 48062 300E+OO -2.91E-+OO 2.3SE+OO -1 87E+OO 705 1 O!lOEi01 6118788 4815005 3.00E+OO -2.91E+OO 2.36E+OO -1.87E+OO 710 1.090601 1.22287 6.131894 4823457 3.00E+OO -2.91E+OO 2.36E+OO -1 87E+OO 715 1 090601 1 233511 6.136145 483191 3.00E+OO -2.91E+OO 2.35E+OO -1.87E+OO 720 1 090601 1.233511 6.144647 4.836488 105

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3.05E..OO -2 96E+OO 2.B3E+OO -1.48E+OO 975 1 488095 1.69907 7.805324 6.207877 3.05E..OO -2. 96E +()() 2.84E+OO .<17E+OO 980 1.498116 1.709712 7.844291 6.237812 3.05E..OO -2. 96E +()() 2.85E+OO -U6E+()() 985 1.508136 1.720353 7 874401 6.259295 3. OSE-+00 -2.96E+OO 2.8SE-+OO _, .-se +()() 990 1.518992 1.731881 7.89601 6.280778 3 05E +00 -2.96E-+OO 2.86E -+00 -1 45E+()() 995 1.518992 1.731881 7.913367 6.293809 3. OSE+OO -2. 96E-+OO 2 .86E +()() -1 45E+()() 1000 1.529013 1 731881 7.92612 3 OSE+OO -2.97E-+OO 2.87E-+OO -1 44E+()() 1005 1 529013 1.742523 7.939227 6.319518 3 OSE-+00 -2 97E+OO 2.87E+OO -1 44E+OO 1010 1 529013 1.742523 7 952334 6 332549 3 OSE-+00 -2.97E-+OO 2.87E+OO -1 44E+OO 1015 1539034 1 742523 7.965086 6.341001 3.05E+OO -2 97E+OO 2.88E+OO -1.44E+OO 1020 1539034 1.742523 7 973942 6.349805 3 OSE.OO -2.97E-+OO 2 B8E+OO -1 43E+OO 1025 1.539034 1 753164 7.986695 6.358258 3 ref.OO -2 97E-+OO 2.89E+OO -1 43E+OO 1030 1 549055 1.753164 8021411 6.383967 3 05E-+OO -2.97E-+OO 2 90E+OO -1 1035 1 559076 1 763805 8.04727 6.409676 3.00E+OO -2.97E-+00 2.90E+OO -1 41E+OO 1040 1 569932 1 n5334 8.073484 6.431159 3 06E+OO -2.97E-+OO 2.94E+OO -1.39E+OO 1045 1 599994 1.807258 8.190029 6.517443 3.06E..OO -2.97E.OO 2.95E-+OO -1 38E+OO 1050 1 610015 1eon58 8.224744 6.547378 3.06E..OO -2.97E.OO 2.95E+OO -1 37E+OO 1055 1 610015 1 807258 8.250604 6 568861 3.06E..OO -2.97E.OO 2.96E+OO -137E+OO 1060 1.599994 1.796616 8.2n212 6 586118 3 (1-t()() .97E.OO 2.97E-+OO -1 36E -tOO 1065 1599994 1.796616 8.28957 6.603375 3.0&Et00 2.97E+OO -1.36E.OO 1070 1.610015 1.807258 8.302677 6.816053 3.DIIE+OO 2.97E-t00 -136E-+OO 1075 1.610015 18072511 8.315C3 6.629084 3.DIIE+OO 2.9EIE-t00 -1.35E-+OO 1011) 1.820871 1.807258 8.328537 6.637536 3.DIIE+OO -2.97E400 2.98E-+OO -1.35E-+OO 1085 1.620871 1.817899 8.345894 6.850567 3.07800 -2.91+00 3.02E-+OO -1.32E-+OO 1090 1.660954 1.85071 8.475646 6.74953 3.07E-t00 -2.91.00 3.04E-+OO -1.30E-+OO 1095 1.691852 1.871993 8.548874 6.809752 3.011E-t00 -2.91+00 3.05E+OO -1.30E-+OO 1100 1.712729 1.894162 8.58784 6.839688 3.0EIE-t00 -2.911E.OO 3.06E.OO -1.29E +()() 1105 1.732n 1.915445 8.818305 6.865397 3.0EIE-t00 -2.91+00 3.07E+OO -1.28E +()() 1110 1.742791 1.915445 8.652666 6.899911 3.0EIE-t00 -2.91.00 3.07E+OO -1 28E+OO 1115 1.742791 1.915445 8.674275 6.912941 3.0EIE-t00 -2.99E.OO 3.08E+OO -1.27E+OO 1120 1.742791 1.926086 8.691633 6.929846 3 OBE-tOO -2.99E.OO 3.08E+OO -1.27E +()() 1125 1.752812 1.926086 8.70899 6.9428n 3.0BE-t00 -2.98E.OO 3.09E.OO -1 26E+OO 1130 1.742791 1.915445 8.722097 6.955907 3.0BE+OO .91+00 3.09E+OO -1 .26E +()() 1135 1.742791 1.904803 8.730599 6.96436 3.0BE-t00 -2.98E.OO 3.09E+OO -1 26E+()() 1140 1742791 1.904803 8.743706 6.9731&4 3.08Et00 -2.98E.OO 3.10E-t00 -1 25E+OO 1145 1.742791 1.915445 8.756459 6.985842 3.0BE+OO -2.98E.OO 3.10E+OO -1.25E+OO 1150 1.752812 1.915445 8.765315 6.990069 3.0BE+OO -2.98E +00 3.10E+OO -1 25E+OO 1155 1752812 1.915445 8.713816 6.998873 3 (liE+()() -2.99E..OO 310E.OO -1 25E.OO 1160 1.773689 1.937614 8.782318 7.007325 3.0BE+OO -2.99E.OO 3.1 1E+OO -1.25E+OO 1165 1.773689 1.937614 8.791174 7 011552 107

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castle rodt; 1 hoU'" reading 1ntervaUong term portion r:A test Note: 15 min span around 1 hoU'" matt!. coreel time nto voltage readings rte IMI reading test f2 tl6 17 18 lat def vert def 20 O.SC8611 3.1 1E-+OO -3.01E-+OO 3.27E..OO -1Cl8E-+OO 1.971326 8.272233 20 0.798611 3.11E-+00 -301E-+OO 3.27E..OO -1.08E-+00 1.981657 8.308986 20 0.804167 3 11 E+OO -3.01E-+OO 3.27E..OO -1 OBE+OO 1.987421 8.311099 20 0.809722 3.11E+OO -301E-+OO 3.27E.OO -1.08E+OO 1.987421 8.311099 20 0.815278 3.11E-+OO -3.01E-+OO 3.27E.OO -1 OBE+OO 1 987421 8.313224 20 0.820633 3.11E-+OO -301E+OO 3.27E.OO -1.08E+OO 1.987421 8.315337 20 0.826389 3.11E-+OO -3.01E+OO 3.27E..OO -1.0BE+OO 1.987421 8.315337 20 0.831944 3.11 E-+00 -3.01E+OO 3.27E..OO -1.0BE-+OO 1.987421 8.317463 20 0.8375 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3.27E-+OO -UJeE-+00 1.992431 8.319576 20 0.843056 3.11E-+OO -3.01E+OO 3.27E+OO -1.Cl8E-+OO 1.992431 8.319576 20 0.848611 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3.27E+OO -1.08E-+OO 1.992431 8.338946 20 0.854167 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3.27E+OO -1.0BE+OO 1.992431 8.347587 20 0.859722 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3.27E.OO -1.08E+OO 1.992431 8.334732 20 0.865278 3.11E+OO -301E+OO 3.27E.OO -1.08E+OO 1.992431 8332443 20 0.870633 3 11 E+OO -3 01 E+OO 3.27E.OO -1 08E+OO 1 992431 8.334745 20 0.876389 3.11E+OO -3.01E-+OO 3.27E.OO -1 OBE+OO 1.99n52 8.337035 20 0.881944 3 11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3.27E.OO -1.08E+OO 1.99n52 8.33916 20 0.8875 3.11E+OO -301E+OO 3.27E+OO -1 OBE+OO 1.99n52 8.33916 20 0 893056 3.11E+OO -301E-+OO 3.27E+OO -1.08E+OO 199n52 8.33916 20 0.898611 3 11 E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 27E-+OO -1 OBE+OO 1.99n52 8.341285 20 0.904167 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3.27E+OO -108E+OO 1.99n52 8.341285 20 0.909722 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3.27E+OO -1 08E+OO 2.002762 8.343411 20 0.915278 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3.27E-+OO -1 OBE+OO 1.987421 8.343411 20 0.920833 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3.27E-+OO -UlBE-+00 1.971326 8.343411 20 0.926389 3.11E+OO -3.01+00 327'E400 -1.011E1<10 1.97ti&e 8.345538 20 0.931944 3.11 E+OO -3.01 E+OO 3..27E-+OO -1.011E1<10 1.981857 8.347848 2Q 0.9375 3.11E+OO -3.01E-t
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20 1 048611 3 11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 27E+OO -1 08E+OO 2 .002762 8 367108 20 1 054167 3 .11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1 08E+OO 2 002762 8 369233 20 1 .059722 3 .11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 002762 8.369233 20 1 .065278 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 002762 8 369233 20 1 .070833 3 .11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 002762 8 369233 20 1 .076389 3 .11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 002762 8 371359 20 1 .081944 3.11E+OO -301E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 002762 8 371359 20 10875 3.11E+OO -3 01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 .002762 8 371359 20 1 093056 3. 1E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 28E +00 -1 08E +00 2 008083 8 .373484 20 1 098611 311E+OO -3 01E+OO 3 .2BE+OO -1.08E+OO 2013511 8 .375597 20 1 .104167 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1 08E+OO 2 .013511 8 .375597 20 1 109722 311E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 2BE+OO -1 08E+OO 2 .013511 8 .375597 20 1 3 11E+OO -301E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 .013511 8 .375597 20 1120833 3 .11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 .2BE+OO -1.08E+OO 2 .013511 8 .3n9 20 1 .126389 3 1 1E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 .013511 8 380189 20 1 131944 3 .11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1 08E+OO 2 .013511 8 380189 20 1 .1375 3 .11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 0135i 1 8 380189 20 1 .143056 3 .11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 .013511 8 382314 20 1 .148611 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3.28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2.013511 8 382314 20 1.154167 3.11E+OO -3..01E+OO 3.28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2.013511 8.382314 20 1.159722 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3.28E+OO -1.08E-t(X) 2.013511 1.382314 20 1.165278 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3.28E+OO -1.011Eof(JO 2.013511 1.3112314 20 1 .1701133 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3..21E+OO -1.011Eof(JO 2.01a32 1.388553 20 1 .176389 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 .28Eof(JO -1.08E+OO 2 .01E2 8.388553 20 1 .181944 3.11E+OO -3 .01E+OO 3.28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 .01E2 8.386553 20 1 .1875 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E-t(X) 2 023842 8 386553 20 1 .193056 3 .11E+OO -3 .01E+OO 3.28E+OO -1.011E+OO 2 023842 8 388553 20 1 .198611 3 .11E+OO -3 .01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 .023842 8 388678 20 1.204167 3 .11E+OO -3 .01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2.CI23842 8 388678 20 1 .209722 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3.28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 .023842 8 .390791 20 1.215278 3.11E+OO -3 .01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 .023842 8 .390791 20 1.220833 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 .023842 8.393094 20 1..226389 3.11E+OO -3 .01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 .023842 8 405949 20 1.231944 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2.023842 8.405949 20 1.2375 3.11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3.28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2.023842 8 .408062 20 1.243056 3 .11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 .023842 8 .408074 20 1.248611 3 .11E+OO -3.01E+OO 3 .28E+OO -1.08E+OO 2 .023842 8 .408074 20 1.254167 3 .2!E+OO .08E+OO 2 .023842 8 .408074 109

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castle red.; 10 reading rntervat:long term portion of test Note: 15 mm sp8'l arouncs 1 o hour mar1t corUI time rrto voltage reacngs ave ave reeding test 12 16 17 t8 181 def vert def 20 9.7..a611 3.1 1E+OO -3 02E+OO 3 34E +00 -1. 03E+OO 2.097128 8.692622 20 9.754167 3 11E+{)() -3 02E+OO 3. 34 E +00 -1 03E +00 2.097128 20 9.759722 3 1 1 E+{)() -3 02E..OO 3.34E+OO -1.03E+OO 2.097128 8.692622 20 9.765278 311E+OO -302E..OO 3.34E+OO -1 .03E+OO 2.097128 8.692 20 9.n0833 311E+OO -302E..OO 3.34E+OO -1 03E+OO 2.097128 8.692622 20 9.n6389 3 11E+OO -3.02E..OO 3.34E+OO -1.03+00 2.097128 8.692622 20 9.781944 3.11 E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.34E-+OO -1.03-+00 2.102138 8.692622 20 9.7875 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E-+OO -1.03+00 2.097128 8.692622 20 9.793056 3.11 E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E-+OO -1.03E+OO 2.097128 8.692622 20 9.798611 3.11 E+OO -3.02E..OO 3.35E-+OO -1.03+00 2.097128 8.692622 20 9.804167 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E-+OO -1.03-+00 2.102138 8.692622 20 9.809722 3.1 1 E+OO -3.02E-+OO 3.35E-+OO -1 03E+OO 2.102138 8.692622 20 9.815278 3.11E+OO -3.02E-+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E-+OO 2.102138 8.692622 20 9.820833 3.11E+OO -302E+OO 3 35E+OO -1 03E+OO 2.102138 8.692622 20 9.8263139 3 1 1 E+OO -3 02E..OO 3.35E+OO -1 .03E+OO 2.102138 8.692622 20 9.831944 3 11E+OO -302E-+OO 3.35E+OO -1 .03+00 2.102138 8.692622 20 9.8375 311E+OO -302E+OO 3.35E+OO -1 .03E+OO 2.102138 8.692622 20 9.&43056 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03-+00 2.102138 8.692622 20 9.848611 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E+OO 2.102138 8.692622 20 9.854167 3.11 E+OO -3.02E-+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E+OO 2.102138 8.692622 20 9.859722 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E-+OO -1 03E+OO 2.102138 8.692622 20 9.865278 3.11 E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E-+OO -1.03E+OO 2.102138 8.692622 20 9.870833 3.11 E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E..OO 2.102138 8.6B2B22 20 9.876389 3.11E+OO -3.02E-t00 3.35E..OO -1.03E.OO 2.102138 8.684748 20 9.881944 3.11E+OO -3.02E-t00 3.35E.OO -1.03E-t00 2.017121 8.8!12SZ2 20 9.8!75 3.11E+OO -3.02E-t00 3.35E..OO -1.03E-t00 2.017121 8.8!12SZ2 20 9.893056 3.1 1 E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E.OO -1 .03E.OO 2.102138 8.&DIIZ2 20 9.898611 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E..OO 2.102138 8.694748 20 9.904167 3.11E+OO -3.02E-+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E..OO 2.102138 8.694748 20 9.909722 3.11 E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E..OO -1.03E..OO 2.102138 8.694748 20 9.915278 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E.OO 2.097128 8.694748 20 9.920833 3.11E+OO -3.02E-+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E..OO 2.102138 8.694748 20 9.926389 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E..OO -1.03E.OO 2.102138 U8C748 20 9.931944 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E..OO 2.102138 8.694748 20 9.9375 3.11 E+OO -3.02E-+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E+OO 2.102138 8.694748 20 9.943056 3.11E+OO -302E+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E+OO 2.102138 8.694748 20 9.948611 3.11 E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E-+OO -1.03E+OO 2.102138 8.694748 20 9.954167 3.11E+OO -302E+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E+OO 2.102138 8.694748 20 9.959722 3.1 1 E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E-t00 -1.03E+OO 2.102138 8.694748 20 9.965278 3.11 E+OO -3.Q2E+()C 3.35E+CO -1.03E+CO 2.102138 8.694748 20 9.970833 3.1 E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E+OO 2.102138 8.694748 20 9.976389 3. 1 E+OO -3 02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1 .03E+OO 2.102138 8.694748 20 9.981944 3.02E+OO 3.:!SE-+OO -1 03E+OO 2.097128 8.694748 20 9.9875 3. -3.02E+OO 3.35E-t00 -1.03E+OO 2.102138 8.694748 20 9.993056 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1 03E+OO 2.102138 8.696861 20 9.998611 -3C2E+OO 3.35E+OC -1 C3E+OO 2.102138 8.696861 110

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20 10.00417 3.11E+OO -3.02+00 3.35E+OO .03+00 2.102138 8.696861 20 1o.009n 3.11 E+OO -3.02+00 3.35E+OO -1 03E+OO 2.102138 8.696861 20 10.01528 3.11E+OO .02E+OO 3.35E+OO .03+00 2.102138 8.696861 20 10.02CE!3 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03+00 2.102138 8.696861 20 10.02639 3.11E+OO .02E+OO 3.35E+OO .03+00 2.102138 8.696861 20 10.03194 3.11E+OO .02E+OO 3.35E+OO .03E+OO 2.102138 8.696861 20 100375 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO .03+00 2.102138 8.696861 20 10.043CE 311E+OO .02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E+OO 2.102138 8.696861 20 3.11 E +00 .02E+OO 3.35E+OO .03E+OO 2.102138 8.696861 20 10.05417 3.11 E+OO .02E+OO 3.35E+OO .03E+OO 2.102138 8.696861 20 10.05972 3.11E+OO .02E+OO 3.35E+OO .03E+OO 2.102138 8.696861 20 10.06528 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO .03+00 2.102138 8.696861 20 10.07083 3.11 E+OO .02E+OO 3.35E+OO .03E+OO 2.102138 8.696861 20 10.07639 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03+00 2.102138 8.696861 20 10.08194 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E+OO 2.102138 8.696861 20 10.0875 3.11 E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO .03+00 2.102138 8.698986 20 10.09305 3.11E+OO .02E+OO 3.35E+OO .03E+OO 2.102138 8.696861 20 10 09861 3.11 E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1 03E+OO 2.102138 8.696861 20 10.10417 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E+OO 2.102138 8.698986 20 10.10972 3.11 E+OO .02E+OO 3.35E+OO .03E+OO 2.102138 8.698986 20 10.11528 3.11E+OO .02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03+00 2.102138 8.698986 20 10.12083 3.11 E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO .03E+OO 2.102138 8.698986 20 10.12"..3.9 3.11E+OO -302E+OO 3.35E+OO .03E+OO 2.102138 8.698986 20 10.13194 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3.35E+OO .03E+OO 2.102138 8.698986 20 10.1375 3.11E+OO .02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E+OO 2.102138 8.698986 20 10.14306 3.11E+OO .02E+OO 3.35E+OO -1.03E+OO 2.102138 8.698986 20 10.14861 3.11 E+OO .02E+OO 3.35E+OO .03E+OO 2.102138 8.698986 20 10.15417 3.11 E+OO -3.02+00 3.35E+OO .03E+OO 2.102138 8.698!Bi 20 10.15972 3.11E+OO -3.02E+00 3.35E-t00 -1.03E-t00 2.102131 8.-20 10.16528 3.11 E+Ol -3.02E+00 3.35E+(JO .03E+Ol 2.102131 .. _, 2D 10.17CII3 3.11 E+Ol -3.02E+00 3.35E+Ol .03E-t00 2.1071D3 8.2D 10.17639 3.11 E+Ol -3.02E+Ol 3.35E-t00 -1.03E-t00 2.102138 8.-20 10.18194 3.11E+Ol -3.02E-t00 3.35E-t00 .03E-t00 2.102131 8.-20 10.1875 3.11E+OO -3.02E..OO 3.35E+OO -1.03..00 2.102138 8 .... 20 10.19306 3.11E..OO .02E-t00 3.35E..OO .03E-t00 2.107903 8.619111!116 20 10.19861 3.11E..OO -3.02E+00 3.35E-t00 -1 03E..OO 2.102138 8.61!a16 20 10.20417 3.11 E-tOO .02E..OO 3.35E-t00 -1.03E..OO 2.102138 8.698111116 20 10.20972 3.11E..OO -3.02..00 3.35E..OO -1.03E-t00 2.1071D3 8.-20 1021528 3.11 E-tOO -3.02..00 3. 35E-t00 .03E-t00 2.102138 8 .... 20 10.22083 3.11E..OO -3.02+00 3.35E..OO -1.03-tOO 2.107'803 8.6i!Bal 20 10.22639 3.11E+OO -3.02E-t00 3.35E+OO .03E+OO 2.107903 8.698111116 20 10.23194 3.11 E+OO -3.02+00 3.3SE+OO .03E+OO 2.107903 8.61!a16 20 10.2375 3.11E+OO .02E+OO 3.35E+OO .03E+OO 2.107903 8.69111986 20 10.24306 3. 11 E+OO -3. 02E+OO 3.3SE+OO .03E+OO 2.102138 8. 691!!1986 20 1024861 311E+OO -3.02E-t00 3.3SE+OO -1.03E+OO 2.107903 8.698986 20 10.25417 3.11E+OO -3.02E+OO 3 3SE+OO 03E+OO 2.107903 8.698986 Ill

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castle nxk:BO t'lcl6 reading interval:long term portion of test Note:15 mrn span lll'tUld 80 l"a6 martt COI"ttee time inllo voltage reading$ ave ave ruding tell 12 16 17 t8 lat clef vert del 20 79.75417 3.10E+OO -305E+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-<11 2.204568 8.881269 20 79.75972 3. 1Cf+OO -3 05E+OO 3 39E+OO -9 78E-<11 2.204568 8 881269 20 79.76528 3 10E+OO -3 05E+OO 3.39E+OO -9 78E.{)1 2.204568 8.881269 20 79.77083 3 10E+OO -3 05E+OO 3.39E+OO -9. 78E-<11 2.204.568 8.881269 20 79.77639 3. 10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-<11 2.204568 8.881269 20 79.78194 3.10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3.39E+OO -9 78E-<11 2.204568 8.881269 20 79.7875 3.10E..OO -3.05E..OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-<11 2.204568 8.881269 20 79.79306 3.10E..OO -3.05E+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-<11 2.204568 8.881269 20 79.79861 3.1 OE+OO -3.05E+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-<11 2.204568 8.881269 20 79.80417 3. 10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-<11 2.204568 8.881269 20 79.809n 3.10E+OO -a.ose+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E.()1 2.204568 8.881269 20 79.81528 3.10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-01 2.204568 8.881269 20 79.82083 3 10E+OO -3.05E+OO 339E+OO -9.78E.{)1 2.204568 8.881269 20 79.82639 3 1CE+OO -305E+OO 3.29E+OO -9 78E-01 2.204568 8.881269 20 79.83194 3.10E+OO -305E+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-<11 2.204568 8 881269 20 79.8375 3. 10E+OO -3 OSE+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-<11 2.204568 8.882332 20 79.84306 3.10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3.39E+ro -9 78E.{)1 2.204568 8 881269 20 79.84861 3 10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3.39E+OO -9 78E.{)1 2.204568 8881269 20 79.85417 3.10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3.39E..OO -9 78E-<11 2.204568 8.882332 20 79.85972 3.10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-01 2.204568 8.882332 20 79.86528 3. 1 OE +00 -3 OSE +00 3.39E+OO -9.78E.()1 2.204568 8.882332 20 79.87083 3.1 OE+OO -3.05E+OO 339E+OO -9.78E-<11 2.204568 8.882332 20 79.87639 3.10E+OO ..J.OSE.-tOO 3.39E+OO -9 78E-01 2 204568 8.882332 20 71.18194 3.10E+OO -3.05E..OO 3.39E+OO 2204581 8.882332 2D 78..8875 3.10E+OO -3.05E-+00 3.39E.OO -9.71-<11 2204581 8.1112332 20 79.883011 3.10E.oo -3.05E.OO 3.39E.OO 2..204588 8.882332 20 71.-1 3. 10E+OO ..J.OSE.OO 3.39E.OO 2..204588 8.882332 20 79.90417 3. 10E+OO ..J.OSE+OO 3.39E.OO -9.78E-<11 2..204588 8.882332 20 79.90972 3.10E+OO -3.0SE+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-01 2.204568 8.882332 20 79.91528 3.10E+OO -3. OSE+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-<11 2.204568 8.882332 20 79.92083 3.10E+00 -3.0SE+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-01 2.204568 8.882332 20 79.92839 3.10E+OO -J.OSE+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-<11 2204568 8.882332 20 79.93194 310E+OO -3.05E.OO 3.39E-t00 -9.78E-01 2 204588 8.8112332 20 79.9375 3.10E+OO ..J.OSE+OO 3.39E+OO -9 78.()1 2..204588 8.882332 20 79.94306 3.10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3.39E+OO -9 78E-01 2.204568 8.8112332 20 79.94861 3.10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-01 2.204568 8.882332 20 79.95417 3.10E+OO -3. OSE+OO 3. 39E+OO -9.78E.()1 2.207228 8882332 20 7995972 310E+OO ..J.OSE+OO 3.39E+OO -9 78E.()1 2.204568 8.882332 20 79.96528 3.10E+OO -3.05E.OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E.()1 2.20C568 8.!82332 20 79.97083 3.10E+OO -3 05E+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-01 2.204568 8.882332 20 79.97639 3. 10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-01 2.207228 8.982332 20 79.98194 310E+OO -3 05E+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E.{)1 2.204568 8.882332 20 79.9875 3.10E+OO -3.05E..OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-
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20 8000972 3 .10E+OO ..J.OSE+OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E-01 2 207228 8 882332 20 80. 01528 3 .10E+OO -305E+OO 3 .39E+OO -9 .78E..01 2 204568 8 .882332 20 80 02083 3 10E+OO ..J.OSE+OO 3 .39E+OO -978E..()1 2 207228 8 882332 20 80 02639 310E+OO ..JOSE+OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E-01 2.201228 8.882332 20 80. 03194 3 .10E+OO ..J.OSE+OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E..()1 2 .201228 8 882332 20 80. 0375 3.10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E..()1 2 207228 8 882332 20 80 .043Qi 3.10E+OO ..J 05E+OO 3 .39E+OO -9.18E..()1 2 207228 8 882332 20 80.04861 3.10E+OO -305E+OO 3 .39E+OO -978E-01 2207228 8882332 20 80. 05417 3 10E+OO -3 OSE+OO 3 39E+OO -978E-01 2.204568 8 882332 20 80. 05972 3 10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E-01 2 204568 8 882332 20 80. 06528 3 10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E..()1 2 207228 8882332 20 8007063 3 10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3 .39E+OO -9 78E-01 2 207228 8 .882332 20 an 07 3 10E+OO -3 05E+OO 3 .39E+OO -9 78E..01 2 207228 8882332 20 80 08194 3 10E+OO -3 05E+OO 3 .39E+OO -978E-01 2 207228 8 882332 20 800875 310E+OO -3.05E+OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E..()1 2 .207228 8 882332 20 80 09306 310E+OO -3 05E+OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E..()1 2207228 8 .882332 20 80.09861 3 .10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E..()1 2 207228 8 .882332 20 110. 10411 3 .10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E..()1 2..207228 8.883572 20 110.10972 3.10Eot00 ..J.OSE-tOO 3.39E+OO -9.78E..()1 2..207228 8.883572 2D 110.11528 3.10Eot00 -3.05E.OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E-Ot 2..207228 8 883572 2D 110.12083 3.10E+OO ..J.05E.OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E41 2..207221 8.813572 20 111..12639 3.10E+OO ..J.05E.OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E-Ot 2..207221 8.883572 20 110. 13194 3.10E+OO ..J.OSE.OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E-01 2...2D722B 8 883572 20 80.1375 3.10E+OO ..J.OSE.OO 3.39E+OO -9.18E..()1 2..207228 8.883572 20 110. 14306 3. 10E+OO ..J.OSE.OO 3 .39E+OO -9 78E41 2..201228 8.883572 2D 110.1..a&1 3 .10E+OO ..J.OSE-tOO 3.39E+OO -9 .18E-01 2..207228 8.883572 20 80 15417 3.10E+OO -3. 05E-t00 339E+OO -9.78E..()1 2.207228 8 883572 20 110.15972 3.10E+OO -3. 05E-t00 3 .39E+OO -9 .18E..()1 2..2072211 8 883572 20 110.165211 3 .10E+OO ..J.OSE-tOO 3 .39E+OO -9 .78E-01 2.207228 8 883572 20 110.17083 3.10E+OO ..J.OSE-tOO 3 .39E+OO -9.18E..()1 2.207228 8 883572 20 80. 17639 3.10E+OO -3. 05E-t00 3 .39E+OO -9. 711E-01 2.2U7228 8 .883572 20 110.18194 3. -3.05E+OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E..()1 2.207228 8.883572 20 80.1875 3.10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3 .39E+OO -9.18E..()1 2.207228 8 883572 20 110. 19306 3.10E+OO -3 OSE->00 3 .39E+OO -9.78E..()1 2.207228 8 883572 20 80.19861 3. 10E+OO -3.05E.OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E..()1 2.207228 8 883572 20 80.20417 3.10E+OO -3.05E-o()() 3 .39E+OO -9.78E..()1 2.207228 8 883572 20 110.20972 3.10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E..()1 2.207228 8 883572 20 11021528 3.10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3.39E+OO -9.78E..()1 2..207228 8 .883572 20 110. 22083 3.10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E..()1 2.207228 8 883572 20 110.22639 3.10E+OO -3.05E-+OO 339E+OO -9 .78E..()1 2 207228 8 883572 20 80.23194 3.10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3 .39E..OO -9.7BE..()1 2.207228 8 883572 20 80 .2375 3.10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3 .39E..OO -9.78E..()1 2 207228 8 .883572 20 8l.24306 3.10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3 .39E..OO -9.78E..()1 2.207228 8883572 2C 8)24861 3.10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E..()1 2.207228 8883572 2C 8l.25417 3.10E+OO -3.05E+OO 3 .39E+OO -9.78E-01 2 207228 8 .883572 113

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Conbet Read1ng , 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3' .. .. .. .. 4 .. 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 114

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5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 :I 9 9 9 9 g g 9 g 9 115

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g 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 116

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13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 18 18 18 18 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 117

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18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 111 111 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 118

PAGE 130

Appendix C.3.3-Short-term Test with Blackhawk-2 Soil 119

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Bladdlawtl-2;93% proctor.-' ot opt1mun deformation voltage read1ngs conbel ave readino ave time LVDTI2 LVDT 13 LVDT 17 LVDTt8 reading lateral v.-tical 0 2.97 -1 9727 0.94116 -1 7993 1 5 2.9712 -1.9n5 1.2317 -U893 1 0 0 10 2.97 -1.9849 14221 -1.2769 0.0254 1.060483 15 2.97 -1.9861 1.4417 -1.2549 0.051823 1.n1135 20 2.9712 -1.D861 1.4514 -1.2427 0.056921 1.84519 25 2.9712 -1 9873 1.4587 -1.2354 0.061931 1.883854 30 2.9712 -1 i873 1.4648 -1.228 1 0.067028 1.909638 35 2.9712 -1 9885 14685 -1 2231 1 0.067028 1.933473 40 2.9712 -1 9873 1 4722 -1.2195 1 O.On126 1.948655 45 2.9712 -1 9885 475e .2158 0.067028 1 961548 50 2.9712 _, 9885 1.4783 _, 2122 0.072126 1.97444 55 2.9712 _, 9885 4832 _, 2073 1 0.072126 1.985207 60 2.9797 -2.0166 8921 74463 2 0.072126 2 002514 65 2.981 -2.0313 2.0703 2 0.226979 3.541473 70 2.981 -2.0337 2.0872 2 0.29485 4.196726 75 2.981 -2.0349 2.1106 2 0.305045 4.29166SI 80 2.9822 -2.0361 2.1204 2 0.310142 4.3412 85 2.9822 -2.0361 2.1289 2 0.32025 4377893 90 2.981 -2.0361 2.135 2 0.32025 4 ..a5855 95 2.SI822 -2.0374 2.1388 2 0.315231 4.427401 100 2.SI822 -2.0374 2.1448 2 0.325772 4.444673 105 2.1822 -2.0374 2.1484 2 0.325772 4.481SI83 110 2.9822 -2.0374 2.1521 2 0.325772 4.474784 115 2.1822 -2.0374 2.1558 2 0.325772 4.487782 120 2.9834 -2.0654 2.4792 3 0.325n2 4.502929 125 2.9834 -2.0789 2.6221 0.020752 3 o.449n1 5.671166 130 2.9846 -2 0813 2.6501 0.048828 3 0.507066 6.18221 135 2.9846 -2.0825 2.6166 0.065918 3 0.522271 6.281243 140 2.9846 -2.0825 2.6782 0.076904 3 0.527369 6.3 145 2.9834 -2.0837 2.6868 0.08667 3 0.527369 6.380453 150 2.9846 -2.085 2.6941 o092n3 3 0.527455 6.412882 155 2.9846 -2.085 2.7002 o0988n 3 0.537988 6.436559 160 2.9846 -2.085 2.7051 0.10376 3 0.537988 6.458112 165 2.9846 -2.0862 2.71 0.10864 3 0.537988 6.475389 170 2.9846 -2.0862 2.7136 0.1123 3 0.543085 6.492661 175 2.9846 -2.0862 2.7173 0.11597 3 0.543085 6.505482 180 2.9883 -2.1033 2.9138 0.31738 4 0.543085 6.518498 185 2.9907 -2.1143 3.0664 o4n41 4 o.6311n 7.221202 190 2.9919 -2.1179 3.1006 0 50781 4 0.687918 7 764479 195 2.9919 -::!.1204 3.1201 0.52734 4 0.708221 7 88739 200 2.9919 -2.1216 31335 0 54199 4 0.71884 7.956319 2C5 2.9919 -2.1228 31445 0.55176 4 o.n3938 8.00585 210 2.9919 -2 1228 3 1531 05603 4 0.729035 B 042537 120

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215 2.9919 -2.124 3.1604 0.56763 4 0.729035 8.072808 220 2.9919 .124 3.1665 0.57373 4 0.734132 8.098645 225 2.9919 -2.1252 3.1714 0.57861 4 0.734132 8.120191 230 2.9919 -2.1252 3.1763 0.5835 4 0.73923 8.137463 235 2.9919 -2.1252 3.1812 0.58716 4 0.73923 8.154752 240 2.9956 -2.1399 3.3484 0.7605 5 0.73923 8.169876 245 2.9968 -2.1545 3.4949 0.91064 5 0.817121 8.n12ss 250 2.9968 -2 1619 3 5327 0 94971 5 0 884149 9.295118 255 2.998 -2.1643 3.5559 0.9729 5 0.915583 9430867 260 2.998 -2.1667 3.5718 0988n 5 0.930788 9 512794 265 2.9993 -2.168 3.5828 0 99976 5 0.940983 9.568902 270 2.9993 -2.1704 35925 1 0107 5 0.951933 9.60n38 275 2.9993 -2.1716 3.6011 1.0181 5 0.962128 9.644182 280 2.9993 -2.1716 3.6084 1.0254 5 0.967225 9.672445 285 2.9993 -2.1729 3.6145 1 0315 5 0.967225 9.69823 290 2.9993 -2.1741 3.6206 1 0376 5 0.972747 9.719n6 295 2.9993 -2.1741 3.6255 1.0425 5 o.9n845 9.741321 300 30066 -2.1924 3.8098 12378 6 o.9n845 9.758629 305 30078 -2.207 3.9368 13684 6 1.086059 10.42896 310 3.009 -2.2131 3.9795 1 4124 6 1.153088 10.88388 315 30103 -2.2156 4 0051 1.4392 6 1.18401 11.03699 320 3 0115 -2.218 4.0234 1 4575 6 1.200057 1112953 325 3.0115 -2.2205 4 0369 1.4722 6 1 215262 11.19416 330 3.0115 -2.2217 40491 1.4832 6 1.225882 11.24396 335 3.0127 -2.2229 4.0588 1.4929 6 1.230979 11.28494 340 30127 .2241 40662 1.5015 6 1.241087 11.3192 345 3.0127 -2.2241 40735 1.5088 6 1.246184 11.34745 350 3.0127 -2.2253 4.0808 1.5161 6 1.246184 11.37323 355 3.0127 -2.2266 4.0918 1.5283 6 1.251282 11.351802 380 3.0212 -2.2437 4.27 1.7175 7 1.256804 11.43988 36S 3.0225 -2.2546 4.364 1.8164 7 1.364832 12.ca77 370 3.0225 -2.261J7 4.4067 1.8604 7 1.41ea51 12.42842 375 3.0212 -2.2644 4.436 1.8884 7 1.4C2572 12.58253 380 3.0212 -2.2568 4.4568 1.9092 7 1.452861 12.68373 385 3.0225 -2.2693 44727 1.925 7 1.463056 12.7572 390 3.0225 -2.2705 44849 1 9385 7 1.47V103 12.81318 395 30212 -2.2729 44958 1.9495 7 1.484201 12.85856 400 3.0212 -2.2742 4.5056 1.9592 7 1 .aal67 12.15724 <405 3.0212 -2.2754 4 5142 1 9678 7 1.48441 12.93168 410 3.0212 -2.2766 4 5215 1 9751 7 1.49SI587 12.96205 415 30212 -2.2766 45288 1.9824 7 1.504684 12.98784 420 3.0261 -2.2876 4.6375 2.1008 8 1.504664 13.01362 425 30273 -2.2998 4 7473 2.2168 8 1.571869 13.41464 430 3.0286 -2.3035 4.7974 2.2693 8 1.628703 13.81339 435 30286 -2 3071 48303 2.3022 8 1.649648 13.*57 440 3.0286 -2.3096 48535 2.3267 8 1.66514 14 11078 445 3.0298 -2.312 4.873 2.3462 8 1.675759 14.19501 450 3.0298 -2.3132 488n 2.3621 8 1.690964 14.26389 455 3.0298 -2.3145 4 9011 2.3755 8 1.696062 14 31792 ..so 3.0298 -2.3157 4 9121 23865 8 1 701584 14 36525 121

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465 3.031 -2.3169 4.9219 2.3962 8 1.706681 1U041 470 3.031 -2.3181 4.9304 2.406 8 1.716789 14.43854 475 3.031 -2.3193 4.93n 2.4146 8 1.721886 14.47085 480 3.0359 -2.3267 5.0024 2.4854 9 1.726984 14.<49893 <485 3.042 -2.3438 5.1<4n 2.6428 9 1.nean 1<4.1382 <490 3.0432 -2.3511 5.2148 2.7112 9 1 876984 15.27272 495 30444 -2.3572 5.2576 2.6746 9 1 913003 15.51201 500 3.0444 -2.3608 5.2893 2.7417 9 1.943925 15.52337 505 3.0444 -2.3645 5.3125 2.7991 9 1.959217 15.69767 510 3.0444 -2.3669 5.3333 2.821 9 1.974934 15.83984 515 3.0444 -2.3682 5.3491 2.8381 9 1.985129 15.91524 520 3.0444 -2.3694 5.3638 2.854 9 1.990651 15.97334 525 3.0457 -2.3706 5.376 2.8662 9 1.995748 16.02738 530 3.0457 -2.3718 5.387 2.8784 9 2.006274 16.07047 535 3.0457 -2.3718 5.3967 2.8882 9 2.011371 16.111<43 540 3.0493 -2.3804 5.481 2.9846 10 2.011371 16.14587 545 3.0542 -2.3938 5.6079 3.125 10 2062933 16.46493 550 3.0591 -2.3987 5.6738 3.1958 10 2.140313 16.93693 555 30603 -2.4023 5.7202 3.2434 10 2.181586 17 17832 560 30627 -2.4036 5.7544 3.28 10 2.201889 17.34433 565 3.064 -2.4048 5.7825 3.3081 10 2.217432 17.46935 570 3.064 -2.4048 5.8032 3.3325 10 2.227957 17.5686 575 3.064 -2.4048 5.8228 3.3533 10 2.227957 17.64823 580 3.0552 -2.4084 5.8398 3.3655 10 2.227957 17.71957 585 3.064 -2.3999 5.8545 3.3777 10 2.24826 11.n111 590 3.0652 -1 8066 5.8679 3.3936 10 2.207143 17.81869 595 3.0737 -1.8018 5.8801 3.4058 10 -0.308086 17.87042 600 2.886 -1.7V2 5.W98 3.54 11 -0.212S165 1U1351 ti05 1.1816 -1.7786 6.1353 3.6877 11 -2.038884 18.36184 610 O.il9487 -1.581M 62122 3.7n 11 -8.281694 18.116182 615 O.il9487 -1.554 6.2671 3.833 11 -8.875041 19.14657 620 0.99487 -1.554 6.3086 3.8733 11 -10.02541 19.34471 625 0.99487 -1.554 6.3416 3.9087 11 -10.02541 19.49569 630 0.99487 -1.554 6.3684 3.i38 11 -10.02541 19.61648 635 0.99487 -1.554 6.3928 3.9624 11 -10.02541 19.71554 640 0.99487 -1.5527 6.4124 3.9844 11 -10.02541 19.80172 645 0.99487 -1.554 6.42SM 4.0027 11 -10.QD4 19.87518 650 0.99487 -1.554 6.4453 4.0198 11 -10.02541 19.93751 655 0.99487 -1.554 6.46 40344 11 -10.02541 19.99579 860 0.99487 -1.554 6.5454 4.1321 12 -10.02541 20.04753 665 0.99487 -1.554 6.6638 4.2639 12 -10.02541 20.37083 670 0.99487 -1.5527 6.7383 4.3457 12 -10.02541 20.81263 675 0.99487 -1.5527 6.7944 4.4067 12 -10.03094 21.08862 680 0.99487 -1.5515 6.8396 4.4531 12 -10.03094 21.2954 685 0.99487 -1.5515 6.875 4 ... 934 12 -10.03603 21.45717 690 0.99487 -1 5515 6.9055 <4.53 12 -10.03603 21.59083 695 0.99487 -1.5515 6.9312 4.5593 12 -10.03603 21.7093 700 0.99487 -1.5515 6.9531 4.585 12 -10.03603 21.80642 705 0.99487 -1.5515 6.9739 4.60i4 12 -10.03603 21.89046 710 0.99487 -1.5515 6.991 4.6289 12 -10.03603 21 97027 122

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715 0.99487 -1 5515 7 0081 4.6472 12 -10.03603 2203489 720 0.99487 -1.5515 7 0837 4.7412 13 -10.03603 22.09741 725 0.99487 -1.5515 7.2205 4.9084 13 -10.03603 2239683 730 0.99487 -1.5515 7.3108 50183 13 -10.03603 2293356 735 0.99487 -1.5515 7.3792 5.1025 13 -10.03603 23.28702 740 0.99487 -1.5515 7.4316 5.1685 13 -10.03603 23.55644 745 0.99487 -1.5515 7.4744 5.2222 13 -10.03603 23.76547 750 0.99487 -1 5515 7.5098 5 2673 13 -10.03603 23.93.583 755 099487 -1 5515 7 5391 5.3076 13 -1003603 24.Dn95 760 0 99487 -1 5515 7 5&47 5 3418 13 -10 03603 24.20081 765 0.99487 -1 5515 7.5867 5.3723 13 -1003603 24D338 770 0 99487 -1.5515 7 6074 54004 13 -10 03603 24 39905 775 0.99487 _, 5515 7 6257 5.426 13 -1003603 244852 780 099487 -1.5515 7.7063 55457 14 -10.03603 24.56269 785 0.99487 -1.5503 7.8271 5.7336 14 -10.03603 24 g-t623 790 0.99487 -1 5515 7 9089 58655 14 -10.04113 25 "6106 795 0.99487 -1 5515 7 97 5.9692 14 -1003603 25.83821 800 0.99487 -1.5503 8.0176 60535 14 -10.03603 26.12903 80S 0.99609 -1.5503 8.0554 6.123 14 -10.04113 26.36179 810 0.99487 -1.5503 8.0859 6.1829 1
PAGE 135

Appendix C.3.4Long-term Test with BlackhawkI Soil 124

PAGE 136

blackhawk soii ;95"Ao SP;12%mc short term portion to 1 6 conbel reading la1eral vertical xducen strain(%) strain(%) c:albel Volt Volt von von t3 tl7 Al8 reacting sec 2 9968 .83-45 -4 0,73 -4. 3176 -o 00 2.1:!E-o6 .0001417 0 001409 1 0 2 .9956 .8345 -4.01?3 -4. 3176 -4. 83E.()6 2.13E-o6 .0. 001417 .0001409 5 2 .9956 8345 -4. 0161 -4.31&4 -o 0066e5 2 13E-o6 -0 004251 -0 005753 10 2.9968 8345 -40161 -4.31&4 -0 006685 0 020392 .0.175821 .0209195 1 15 2.9956 8345 -4. 0137 -4. 3127 .Q 006685 o .02n54 -0 2420&4 -0 290901 2 20 2.9956 8381 .86&4 -4.1394 -0 006685 0 034551 -0 249267 .0. 302288 2 25 2.9956 8394 .8123 -4. 0698 .0. 006685 0 034551 -0.255053 -0 308041 2 30 2.9956 .&406 .8062 -4. 0601 -0 006685 0 034551 -0 258005 -0 312384 2 35 2.9956 6406 .8013 ... 0552 -0 006685 0.034551 -0.260839 -0.315202 2 40 2.9956 .&406 .7988 ... 0515 .0. 006685 0.034551 -0.262256 -0. 318136 2 45 2 9956 8406 -3.796-4 -4. 0491 .Q 006685 0.034551 .0. 265208 -0. 320954 2 50 2.9956 8406 .7952 .... ().466 -{) 006685 0.034551 -0. 266625 322:!63 2 55 2 9956 8406 .792? ... 0442 -o 006685 0 034551 .0. 268042 .() 323889 2 60 2 9956 .&406 -3.7915 ... 043 .Q 006685 0 034551 .0. 269459 .0. 325297 2 65 2 9956 8406 790:! -4 0417 -o. 006685 0 .03-45S1 -0. 27241 1 -0. 329524 2 70 2 9956 8406 -3.7891 ... 0405 -0. 006685 0 082693 -0. 433825 .() 495752 2 75 2.9956 8406 -3. 7866 -4. 0369 .0. 006685 0 096852 -0. 464246 -0 551632 3 80 2 9956 .8491 3.&499 .8953 -0 006685 0.096852 -0. 494401 -0. 563136 3 85 2 9956 8516 6072 .84n -a 006685 0.103648 -0 500069 -0 570297 3 90 2.9956 2 8516 .5986 8379 .Q 006685 0.1 03648 -0. 504438 -0 57 4641 3 95 2.9956 8528 .5938 8318 -0 006685 0 103648 -0 50739 -0 578867 3 100 2.9956 .8528 .5901 .8281 -0 006685 0.103648 -0.510224 ..0.581802 3 105 2.9158 -2.8528 -3.5876 -3.8245 ..0. 006685 0.103648 -0.513058 ..0. 584619 3 110 2.1956 8528 .5852 -3.822 ..0. 006685 0.103648 -0.51801 -0.587554 3 115 2.9Q56 .8528 .5828 8196 -0 006685 0.110445 .0.517427 ..0. 588963 3 2.9956 8528 .5803 8171 -0 006685 0.110445 .0.518844 -0 59178 3 125 2 .9Q56 854 .5791 8159 -0 006685 0.110445 -0 523213 -0 596124 3 130 2.9956 854 -3. 5779 -3. 8135 0 020594 0 16595 -0 683211 -0 755192 3 135 2.9956 .854 .5742 8098 0 027274 0.179542 -0 729262 .0. 80391 4 140 3 0005 2 8638 .4387 6743 0 027274 0 .186339 -0 742251 .0. 816823 4 145 3.0017 -2. 8S62 .3997 6328 0 027274 0.186339 -0 748037 -0 825393 4 150 3 0017 8674 .3887 .6218 0.027274 0 .186339 -o 753823 .0. 831145 4 155 3 0017 -2.8674 .3838 6145 0 027274 0 186339 -0 758192 .0. 835371 4 160 3 0017 2 8674 -3.3789 6096 0 027274 0.186339 -o. 762443 -0. 839715 4 165 3.0017 8674 .3752 606 0 027274 0.193702 .0.765395 -0 842532 4 170 3 0017 .8674 .3716 6023 0.027274 0.193702 .0. 768229 -0.845467 4 175 3 0017 8687 :!.3691 5999 0 027274 0.193702 -0.769646 .0. 848285 4 180 3.0017 2 8687 :!.3667 3 5974 0027274 0 .193702 -o.n2598 -{)85122 4 185 3 0017 -2. 8687 .3655 595 0 027274 o .193702 -o n4o1s -o. 852628 4 190 3 0017 2 8687 -3. 363 3 5925 0 054553 0 228251 .() 866235 -0. 94431 2 4 195 3 0017 8687 3618 3 5913 0 067914 0.248&4 -o 942633 025018 5 200 3 0066 2 8748 3 2837 3 5132 0 075151 0 255437 .0. 958456 043158 5 205 3 009 8784 219 4436 0 07515, 0 255437 -0. 967193 053253 5 210 3 0103 -2. 8796 429 0 07515, 0 262799 -0. 974396 060414 5 215 125

PAGE 137

3.0103 -2.8796 -3.1982 -3.4204 0.081832 0.262799 -0.978&47 -1.066167 5 220 3.0103 -2.8809 -3.1921 -3.4143 0.081832 0.262799 -0.983016 -1.070393 5 225 3.0115 -2.8809 -3.1885 -3.4094 0.081832 0.262799 -0.987267 -1.074736 5 230 3.0115 -2.8809 -3.1848 -3.4058 0.081832 0.269596 -0.990219 -1.07908 5 235 3.0115 -2.8809 -3.1812 -3.4021 0.081832 0.269596 -0.993053 -1.081897 5 240 3.0115 -2.8821 -3.1787 -3.3984 0.081832 0.269596 -0.996005 -1.084715 5 245 3.0115 -2.8821 -3.1763 -3.396 0.081832 0.269596 -0.998839 -1.08765 5 250 3.0115 -2.8821 -3.1738 -3.3936 0.115792 0.310941 -1.134395 -1223826 5 255 3.0115 -2.8821 -3.1714 -3.3911 0.122472 0.331897 -1.193435 -1.288275 6 260 3.0176 -2.8894 -3.0566 -3.2751 0.122472 0.338693 -1.210792 -1.30694 6 265 3.0188 -2.8931 -3.0066 -3.2202 0.129153 0.338693 -1.220829 -1.318328 6 270 3.0188 -2.8943 -2.9919 -3.2043 0.129153 0.338693 -1.229448 -1.326897 6 275 3.02 -2.8943 -2.9834 -3.1946 0.129153 0.34549 -1.235652 -1.33265 6 280 3.02 -2.8943 -2.9761 -3.1873 0.129153 0.34549 -1.241021 -1.338402 6 285 3.02 -2.8955 -2.97 -3.1824 0.129153 0.34549 -1.24539 -1.344154 6 290 3.02 -2.8955 -2.9663 -3.1775 0.129153 0.34549 -1.249641 -1.346972 6 295 3.02 -2.8955 -2.9626 -3.1726 0.129153 0.34549 -1 252593 -1.351315 6 300 3.02 -2.8955 -2.959 -3.1702 0.129153 0.34549 -1.256844 -1 355659 6 305 3.02 -2.8955 -2.9565 -3.1665 0. 0.34549 -1.259796 -1.359885 6 310 3.02 -2.8955 -2.9529 -3.1628 0.156432 0.380039 -1.372208 -1.467417 6 315 3.02 -2.8955 -2.9504 -3.1592 0156432 0. 400994 -1.438451 -1.53621 7 320 3.0249 -2.9016 -2.8552 -3.0676 0.163112 0.407791 -1.458642 -1.559101 7 325 3.0249 -2.9053 -2.7991 -3.009 0.163112 0.407791 -1.471631 -1.572015 7 330 3.0261 -2.9065 -2.782 -2.9895 0.163112 0.414587 -1.481668 -1.581993 7 335 3.0261 -2.9065 -2.771 -2.9785 0.163112 0.414587 -1.488989 -1.589154 7 340 3.0261 -2.9077 -2.7625 -2.97 0.163112 0.414587 -1.494657 -1.596315 7 345 3.0261 -2.9077 -2.7563 -2.9639 0.163112 0.414587 -1.499026 -1.602067 7 350 3.0261 -2.9077 -2.7515 -2.9578 0.169793 0.421384 -1.504812 -1.60&411 7 355 3.0261 -2.9077 -2.7478 -2.9529 0.1651793 0.421384 -1.507646 -1.610637 7 360 3.0273 -2.9089 -2.7429 -2.94512 0.169793 0.421384 -1.512015 -1.614981 7 365 3.0273 -2.9089 -2.7405 -2.9456 0.169793 0.421384 -1.514848 -1.617798 7.370 3.0273 -2.9089 -2.7368 -2.94151 0.197072 0.449136 -1.617224 -1.716761 7 375 3.0273 -2.9089 -2.7344 -2.9395 0.21099 0.470092 -1 .68205 -1 784027 8 380 3.0322 -2.9138 -2.6477 -2.8552 0.21099 0.476888 -1.703658 -1.807036 8 385 3.0347 -2.9175 -2.5928 -2.7979 0.21099 0.476888 -1.718064 -1.822767 8 390 3.0347 -2.9187 -2.5745 -2.7783 0.21099 0.483685 -1.728219 -1.834271 8 395 3.0347 -2.9187 -2.5623 -2.7649 0.21099 0.483685 -1.736839 -1.842841 8 400 3.0347 -2.9199 -2.5537 -2.7551 0.21099 0.483685 -1 7 44042 -1.850002 8 405 3.0347 -2.9199 -2.5464 -2.7478 0.21099 0.490481 -1.749828 -1.857163 8 410 3.0347 -2.9199 -2.5403 -2.7417 0.21099 0.490481 -1.755614 -1.862915 8 415 3.0347 -2.5354 -2.7356 0.21099 0.490481 U59864 -1.868668 8 420 3.0347 -2.9211 -2.5305 -2.7307 0.21099 0.490481 -1.764233 -1.872894 8 425 3.0347 -2.9211 -2.5269 -2.7258 0.21767 0.490481 -1.770019 -1.877237 8 430 3.0347 -2.9211 .5232 -2.7222 0.244949 0.52503 -1.868026 -1.973265 8 435 3.0359 -2.9211 -2.5183 -2.7185 0.25831 0.53919 -1.924232 -2.034896 9 440 3.0408 -2.9272 -2.4353 -2.6367 0.545986 -1.948792 -2.060606 9 445 3.0432 -2.9297 -2.3877 -2.5842 0.264991 0.545986 -1.963198 -2.077862 9 450 3.0432 -2.9309 -2.3669 -2.5623 0.264991 0.552783 -1.974652 -2.090776 9 455 3.0444 -2.9309 -2.3547 -2.5476 0.264991 0.552783 -1.984807 -2.102163 9 460 3.0444 .9321 -2.345 -2.5366 0.264991 0.559579 -1.993427 -2.11085 9 465 126

PAGE 138

3.()44.4 -2.9321 -2.3364 -2.5269 0.272228 0.559579 -2.00063 -2.118011 9 470 30444 -2.9333 -2.3."'91 -2.5195 0.272228 -2.007832 -2.1237 9 475 3.007 -2.9333 -2.323 0.272228 0.559579 -2.012201 -2.129398 9 480 3.()457 -2.3169 -2.5085 0.272228 0.566SC2 -2.016452 -2.13515 9 ..as 3007 -2.9333 -2.3132 -2.5037 0.272228 0.5669<12 -2.020821 -2.13S49" 9 490 3 ()457 -2.9346 -2.309 -2.4988 0.29895 0.59o4694 -2.117411 -2.233996 9 495 30457 -2.9346 0 319549 C515CS4 -2.307132 10 500 30505 -2.9395 -2.2241 -2.4146 0326229 0 62188 -2.212465 -2.340119 10 505 3.0542 -2.9431 -2.1667 -2.3523 0.33291 0.629243 -2.23124 -2.360193 10 510 3.0554 -2.9443 -2.1436 -2.3242 0.33291 0.636039 -2.245646 -2.377333 10 515 3.0566 -2.9456 -2.1277 -2.3071 0.340147 0.636039 -2.257217 -2.390246 10 520 3.0566 -2.9468 -2.1155 -2.2925 0.340147 0.642836 -2.267254 -2.401751 10 525 3.0579 -2.9468 -2.1057 -2.2815 0.340147 0.642836 -2.274457 -2.41032 10 530 3.0579 -2.948 -2.0972 -2.2717 0.346828 0.642836 -2.28166 -2.41889 10 535 3.0579 -2.948 -2.0911 -2.2644 0.346828 0.649632 -2.287446 -2.426051 10 540 30591 -2.948 -2085 -2.2571 0 346828 0.649632 -2.293232 -2.431803 10 545 3 0591 -2.9492 -2 08-01 0 346828 0.649632 -2.299018 -2.437556 10 550 3.0591 -2.9492 -2.0752 -2.2461 0374107 0 677385 -2.382618 -2.523488 10 555 3.0591 -2.9492 -2.0703 -2.2412 0.387468 0 69834 -2.456064 -2.608128 11 560 3.064 -2.9541 -1 9995 -2.168 0.394148 0 711933 -2.487828 -2.648159 1 1 565 3 066-4 -2.9578 -1.9373 -2.0959 0.400829 C.71873 -2.509436 -2.675395 11 570 3.0676 -2.9602 -1 9104 -2.0618 0.400829 0.71873 -2.525259 -2.695469 11 575 3.0688 -2.9614 -1 8921 -2.0386 0.400829 0.725526 -2.538248 -2.712726 11 580 3.0688 -2.9614 -1.8787 -2.0215 0.408066 0 725526 -2.54982 -2.727048 11 585 3.0688 -2.9626 asn -2.0068 0.408066 0.732889 -2.55844 -2.738435 11 590 3.0701 -2.9626 -1 8579 0.408066 0.732889 -2.567059 -2.748531 11 5a5 3.0701 -2.9639 -1.8506 -1.9849 0.408066 0.139686 -2..57 4262 -2..7571 11 60) 3.0701 -2.9639 -1.8433 -1.9763 o .eoeoss 0.738686 -2.580048 -2.764261 11 605 3.0701 -2..9651 -1.8372 -1.i69 0.408066 0.739686 -2..587251 -2..772831 11 810 3.0701 -2.51651 -1.8323 -1.SI62i 0.-428108 0.774234 -2..686792 -2.877428 11 615 3.0701 -2.9651 -1.8262 -1.9556 0.442026 0.79519 -2..748886 -2..956317 12 620 3.0737 -2.9712 -1.741i -1.8665 0.442026 0.808783 -2..78043 -2.999283 12 625 3.0762 -2.9749 -1.6895 -1.7993 0.442026 0.81558 -2.803456 -3.029335 12 630 3.0762 -2.9773 -1.6626 -1.7627 0.442026 0.822376 -2.820813 -3.0501118 12 635 3.0762 -2.9785 -1.6431 -1.7371 0.442026 0.829739 -2.835219 -3.069484 12 640 3.0762 -2.9797 -1.6284 -1 7188 0.442026 0.829739 -2.848208 -3.085215 12 645 3.0762 -2..981 -1.6162 -1.7029 0.442026 0.836536 -2.858245 -3.098128 12 650 3.0762 -2.981 -16052 -1 6895 0.442026 0.836536 -2.8684 -3.109632 12 655 3.0762 -2.9822 -1.5967 -1 6785 0.442026 0 843332 -2.875602 -3.119611 12 660 3.0762 -2.9822 -1.5881 -1.6687 0.442026 0.843332 -2.882805 -3.129707 12 665 3.0762 -2.9834 -1.582 -1.6602 0.442026 0 843332 -2.890008 -3. 136868 12 670 3.0762 -2.9834 -1.5759 -1.6516 0.448706 0.871084 -2.97786 -3.228552 12 675 3.0762 -2.9834 -1.5698 -1 6455 0.448706 0.898837 -3.057209 -3.32458 13 680 3.0774 -2.9883 4954 -1.5674 0.448706 0.91243 -3.096058 -3.376115 13 685 3.0774 -2.9932 -1 4856 0.455387 c. 926023 -3.1 -3.413446 13 690 3.0774 -2.9956 -1.3953 -1 4417 0.455387 0 933385 -3.145061 -3.440682 13 695 3.0786 -2.998 3721 -1 4099 0.455387 0.940182 -3.162419 -3.462165 13 700 3.0786 -2.9993 3538 -1.3867 0.455387 0.946978 -3.176824 -3.4a083 13 705 3.0786 -3.0005 -1.3684 0.462067 0.946978 -3.189813 -3.496561 13 710 3.0786 -3.0017 .3."' -1 3525 0 4620 -3.19985 -3.509474 13 127

PAGE 139

3.0798 -3.0017 -1 3159 3391 c.953n5 -3.210005 -3.522387 13 720 3.0798 -30029 -1.3074 -1.32B1 0.961138 -3.218625 13 725 3.0798 -3.0029 -1 2988 -1.3171 0.462067 0.967934 -3.227245 -3.542462 13 730 3.0798 -3.0042 -1.2915 -1.3086 0.475985 0.974731 -3.259008 -3.57533:! 13 735 3.0798 -3.0054 -1.2842 -1.3 0.503264 1.009279 -3.354063 -3.681455 14 740 3.08:!3 -3.0066 -1.2573 -1.272 0.509945 1.022872 -3.398815 -3.740152 14 745 3.0872 -3.0127 -11768 -1.1816 0.515625 1.037032 -3.43046 -3.781709 14 750 3.0884 -3.0151 -1.1389 -1.1316 0.52"...306 1.050625 -3.456438 -3.813288 14 755 2.0895 -3.0175 -1.1121 -1.0962 1.057421 -3.47663 -3.840523 14 760 3 090!! -3.02 -1 0901 -1.0693 1.064784 -3.493987 -3.862006 14 765 3.0906 -30212 -1 073 -1 0461 0.522306 1.07158 -3.508393 -3.880554 14 T'!O 3.09C8 -3.0225 -1 0583 -1 0278 0.523206 1 .0783n -3.521264 -3.896:356 14 T'!5 3.0908 -3.0237 -1.0461 -1.012 0.523306 1.085173 -3.5328:36 -3.910689 14 780 3.0908 -3.0249 -1.0352 -0.99854 0.523306 1.085173 -3.542991 -3.923591 14 785 3.09011 -3.0261 -1.0254 -D.98633 0.523306 1.09197 -3.553027 -3.936481 14 790 3.0908 -3.0261 -1.0168 -0.97534 0.527'224 1.126519 -3.648164 --4.036793 14 795 3.09011 -3.0273 -1 0083 -D.96436 0.550585 1.154271 -3.72311 --4.1313n 15 BOO 3.0933 -3.0334 -D.92m -D.B7891 0.557265 1. 16843 -3. 76n91 --4. 190132 15 805 3.0957 -3.0383 -D.86426 -D.79834 0.557265 1. 18882 -3.800948 --4.234554 15 810 3.09&9 -3.0408 -0.82642 -0.74829 0.557265 1.202979 --4.26895 15 815 3.09&9 -3.0444 -0.79834 -0.71045 0.5153946 1..209n& -3..851392 --4.299031!1 15 820 3.09EB -3.0469 ..o.n515 -0.68115 0.51153946 1.218572 -3.870131 --4.323397 15 125 3.0981 -3.0481 -0.75562 -0.65552 0.583946 1.22'3311519 -3.88743 --4.34346 15 130 3.ta1 -3.0493 -0.73975 -0.634n 0.5631!M6 1.223369 -3.901847 15 135 3.0981 -3.0505 -0.72.51 -D.6176B 0.5631!M6 1.230731 -3.914824 --4.379288 15 840 3.0981 -3.0505 -0.71289 -0.60181 0.563946 1.230731 -3.92779 --4.393622 15 8C5 3.0981 -3.0518 -0.7019 -D.58716 0.571183 1.237528 -3.937886 --4.-407956 15 850 3.ta1 -3.0518 -0.69092 -D.57495 0.571183 1.244324 -3.96959 --4.440908 15 855 3.0994 -3.053 -0.68237 -D.56274 0.571183 1..278873 --4.064727 18 ., 3.0994 -3.0542 -0.65552 -D.53467 0.571183 1.299829 --4.115171 --4.618606 16 865 3.0994 -3.0603 -0.57495 -O .w312 0.5631!M6 1.313422 --4.152649 --4.67"3065 16 870 3.0994 -3.064 -D.53223 -D.3833 0.563946 1.327015 --4.182925 --4.714622 16 875 3.0981 -3.0664 -0.50049 -D.33691 0.563946 1.341174 --4.208867 --4.750439 16 880 3.0981 -3.0688 -D.47485 -D.30151 0.563946 1.347971 --4.230488 --4.780539 16 885 3.0981 -3.0713 -D.45288 -0.271 0.571183 1.347971 ""'249227 --4.80n62 16 890 3.0981 -3.0725 -0.43457 -D.24536 0.563946 1.354767 --4.266526 --4.830689 16 895 3.099C -3.0725 -D.4187 -D22217 0.563946 1 36213 --4 282372 --4 850752 16 900 3.0981 -3.0737 -D.40405 -D.20264 0.563946 1.368926 --4.295349 --4.869382 16 905 3.0981 -3.075 -D.39063 -
PAGE 140

:suslained load test under 16 c:::nbcl readings ccnsta1l 15 min lnteMII r. 1 ::-;;rt voltage reading3 time into l8llllral vertical strains tesl(houn) 12 .:3 17 tl8 ....., vert 0.75 3.1116 -3.1213 0.021973 0.34912 1.100818 5.006197 0.755556 3.1116 -3 1213 0.023193 0.35Q3.4 1.100818 5.009793 0.761 111 3.1116 -3.1213 0 024A14 0.35156 1.100818 5.01338:! 0.766667 3.1122 -3.1213 C.024A14 0.35278 1.104499 5.016256 1212 0.354 1104499 5.019846 o:nme 3.1128 -3.1213 0.025855 0.35522 1.104499 5.022719 0.783333 3.112! -3.1213 0.02!076 0.35645 1.107839 5.025594 0.788889 3.1128 -3.1213 0.028078 0.35767 1.107839 5.028467 0.794444 3.1125 -3.1213 0.029297 0.35889 1.111238 5.031341 o.e -3.1213 0.029297 0.36011 1.111238 5.034215 0.805555 3.1125 -3.1213 0.030518 0.36133 1.111238 5.037084 0.811111 3.1125 -3.1213 C.03173S 0.36255 1.111238 5.039957 0.8166 :!.112S -3.1213 0.03...'"'959 o.363n 1.111238 5.04211 0.822222 3.1128 -3 1213 0.36499 1.117976 5.04A99 0.827778 3.112!! -3.1213 0.03418 0.36499 1.117976 5.047864 0.833333 3.1128 -3.1213 0.03-418 0.36621 1.117976 O.B38!89 :! 112e C.Q35.4 0.36743 1 117976 0.844444 -3.1:!13 c C.3SBS.S 1.117976 S.CSS475 0.85 3.1128 .1:!13 0036621 0.36987 5.05t!e 0.855556 3.1128 -3.1213 0.037842 0.37109 1.121595 5.062224 0.8611 ,, 3.1125 -3.1213 0.039063 0.37231 1121595 5.065097 0.866667 3.114 -3.1213 0039063 0.37231 1.124993 5.067254 0.872222 3.112! -:!.1213 C.0402S3 0.31354 1.124993 5.069407 O.fJT1778 3.114 -3.1213 0.040283 0.37478 1.1283 5.070844 0.883333 3.114 -3.1213 0.041504 0.37598 1.124983 s.arsn 0.888889 3.114 -3.1213 0.0427"'.5 0.3772 1.1283 5.07515 0.894444 3.114 -3.1213 0.042rn 0.3772. 1.124993 5.078587 0.9 3.114 -3.1213 0.043945 0.37842 U283 5.078746 0.905556 3.114 0.043945 0.37964 1.124993 5.0801112 0.911111 3.114 0.045166 C.Jal86 5.0!2:3:!5 0.915657 -:!.1213 0.0463e7 0.38208 5.084493 0.9m22 0046387 0.38208 1.124993 5.08520!) 0.927778 3.114 -3.1213 0.047607 0.3833 1.124993 5.08B0B3 0.933333 3.114 -31213 0.047607 0.38452 1.124993 5.089519 0.938889 3.114 -3.121:! 0.048828 0.38574 1.124993 5.091612 0.944444 2.114 -:!.1213 C.04os:!! 0.:!8574 1.128333 5.093109 0.95 3.114 .1213 0.050049 0.38696 5.094546 -3 1:!13 0.050049 1.124993 5.006705 0.961111 3.114 ., 4.,4., -..,. -0.05127 0.38818 1.124993 5.0!JB141 0.966667 -3.1213 0.05127 0.3894 1.128333 3.114 a3.1213 c 05249 0.39063 112499:! 0.917779 -3 1213 0.05249 0.39185 1128333 510315! C.98n!3 3 -3. 0 0".27,, 0.39185 U28333 5.103884 0.9S8B89 3114 .1213 0 053711 039307 0.994444 0.054!!3.2 0.39422 .. 74 129

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1 3.114 .1213 0.056152 0.39429 1.128333 5.10891 1.005556 3.114 -3.1213 0.056152 0.39551 1.131731 5.110347 1.011111 3.114 -3.1213 0.057373 0.39673 1.128391 5.111784 1.016667 3.114 -3.1213 0.057373 0.39673 1.131731 5.113221 1.022222 3.114 -3.1213 0.058594 0.39795 1.131731 5.11538 3.114 -3.1213 0.058594 0.39917 1.131731 5.116096 1.033333 3.114 -3.1213 0.059814 0.39917 1.128391 5.117533 1038889 3.114 -3.1213 0.059814 0.40039 1.131731 5.11897 1.044444 3.1128 -3.1213 0.059814 0.401 5.120406 1.05 3.114 0.061035 c 401 1131731 5.121122 3.1 12e -3.1213 0.06102.5 0.40:!83 1.131731 5122559 3.1 .1213 C.OE225S 0.40405 5.123996 1. rw:,sc.s; 2.1 .., 4 ., .. ., C.404C.: 1.121731 5.1:!5.422 -.., ..... ..., 1.072222 3.114 ., 4 ., .. ., C.4cc:-27 4""1C0'"7 -..,. ..,, .. """"'' 1.077778 3.1 ,. -3.1213 o.0634n 0.405:!7 13507:! 5.1275e6 1.083333 ., .. ., .. ., -..,_ ... ,.., C.OS.,A77 0.40649 1.135072 5.129023 1 _t\OOQD!) 3.114 .., .. ., .. ., "'W, 16.1W 0.05.4697 C.4CSA!l 1.135072 5.130459 1.0'J444.4 3.114 -3.1226 0.0646!17 o.40n1 1.135072 5.131902 1.1 3.114 -3.1226 0.065918 O.
PAGE 142

blackhawk-1 sustained :;;a; :"SI under 16 conbel readings ccnstant 15 nun ll'lterval at 10 hour vallag8 readings time nto lawr.l \Wtlcal ltrainl 13 11 18 ,..., vert 9.75 3.1177 -3.1238 0.23193 0.6311 1.155791 5.413468 9.755556 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23193 0.6311 1.159131 5.413468 9.761111 3.1177 -3.1238 0.23193 0.6311 1.155791 5.413468 9.766667 3.1177 .1238 0.23193 0.6311 1.155791 5.413468 9.772222 3.1177 .1238 0.23193 0.6311 1.155791 5.413468 9.TTmB 3.1177 -3.1238 0.23193 0.6311 1.155791 5.41J.468 9.783333 3.1177 -3.1238 0.23193 0.6311 1.155791 5.41J.468 9.788889 3.1177 -3.1238 0.23193 0.63232 1.155791 5.414184 9.79444o4 3.1177 -3.1238 0.23193 0.63232 1.155791 5.414184 9.8 3.1177 .1238 0.23193 0.63232 1.155791 5.414184 9.805556 3.1177 .1238 0.23193 0.63232 1 155791 5.414184 9.811111 3.1189 .1238 0.23193 063232 1.159131 5.414184 9.816667 3.1177 .1238 0.23193 0.63232 1.155791 5.414184 9.822222 3.1177 .1238 023193 0 63232 1.155711 5.414184 9.827778 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23193 063232 1 159131 5.414184 9.833333 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23193 0.63232 1.159131 5.41 .. 184 9.838889 3.1177 .1238 0.23193 0.63232 1.155791 5 ... 14184 9.84444
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10 3 1177 -3.1238 0.23315 0.63354 1.155791 541562 10.00556 3.1177 .1238 0.23315 0.63354 1.155791 5.41562 10.01111 3.1189 .1238 0.23315 0.63354 1.159131 5.41562 10.01667 3.1177 .1238 0.23315 0.63354 1.155791 5.41562 10.02222 3.1177 .1238 0.23315 0.63354 1.155791 5.41562 10.02778 3.1177 .1238 0.23315 0.63354 1.155791 5.41562 10.03333 3.1177 .1238 0.23315 0.63354 1.155791 5.41562 10.03889 3.1177 .1238 0.23315 0.63354 1.155791 5.41562 1004444 3.1177 -3.1238 0.23315 0633.54 1 '155791 5.41562 10.05 3.1177 -3. 'J 23315 c 6335-4 1.155791 5.415 1005556 3.1189 -31238 0.23315 0 63.354 1 159131 5.41562 3.1177 1238 0.23315 0 S335A 1.155791 5.41562 10.06667 ; 1177 -3.1238 023315 0.63354 1.155791 5.41562 10.07222 3 1189 -31238 0 23315 0.633.54 1.159131 5.41562 1o.ome 3.1177 .1238 0.23315 0.63354 1.155791 5.41562 10.08333 3.1177 .1238 0.23315 0.63354 1.155791 5.41562 10.06889 3.1189 .1238 0.23315 0.53354 1.159131 541562 10.09444 3.1189 .1238 0.23315 0.63354 1.159131 5.41562 10.1 3.1177 -3.1238 023315 0.63354 1.155791 5.41562 10.10556 3.1177 -3.1238 0.23315 0.63354 1.155791 5.41562 10.11111 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23315 0.63354 1.159131 5.41562 10.11667 3.1177 -3.1238 0.23315 0.63354 1.1557i1 5.41562 10.12222 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23315 0.63354 1.159131 5.41562 10.12778 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23315 0.63477 1.159131 5.416342 10.13333 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23315 o.634n 1.159131 5.416342 10.13889 3.1177 -3.1238 0.23315 o.634n 1.155791 5.416342 10.14444 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23315 o.634n 1.159131 5.416342 10.15 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23315 0.63477 1.159131 5.416342 10.155!i6 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23315 o.634n 1.159131 5.416342 10.16111 3.1177 -3.1238 0.23438 o.634n 1.155791 5.417068 10.16667 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23438 0.634'77 1.159131 5.417068 10.17222 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23438 o.634n 1.159131 5.417068 10.1me 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23438 o.634n 1.159131 5.417068 10.18333 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23438 0.63477 1.159131 5.417068 10.1888i 3.1177 -3.1238 0.23438 o.634n 1.155791 5.417068 10.19444 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23438 o.634n 1.159131 5.417058 10.2 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23438 o.634n 1.159131 5.417068 10..20556 3.1177 -3.1238 C.Z'.A38 0.63477 1 '155791 5.417068 10.21111 3.1177 -3.1238 0.23438 c.G3-4n 1.155791 5.41706e 10.21667 3.1177 -3.1238 0.23438 0.63477 1.155791 5.41706e 10.22222 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23438 0.634'77 1.159131 5.417068 10.22ne J.11n -3.1238 0.23438 o.534n 1.155791 5.417068 10.23333 3.1189 -3.1238 0.23438 cS34n 1.159131 5.417068 10.23889 3.11n -3.1238 0.23438 053477 1 '15....:791 5.417068 ,0.24444 3 1189 -31238 0.23438 063477 1 '159131 5.417068 ,0.25 3.11e9 0.23438 0.63477 U59131 5.417068 132

PAGE 144

80 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27466 0.73608 1 193281 5.500315 80.005.5 3. -3.1335 027466 0.73608 1193281 5.500315 80.01111 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27466 073608 1.193281 5.500315 80.01667 3.1213 -3.1335 027466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 80.02222 3.1213 0.27466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 80.02778 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 80.03333 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 80()"...889 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27466 0.736Ce 1.193281 5.500315 80. Q4.4.4.o& 3 -3.1335 027466 0.736C8 193281 5.500315 eo C5 2 -3_1335 c 27.466 c 736ce 5.500315 8005556 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27466 0.73608 1 193281 5.500315 3 -3.1335 0.27-466 0 736C8 1 5.500315 8006667 3 -3 1335 0 27-466 0 73608 1 193281 5.500315 80.07222 3 12,3 -3.1335 C.27o466 0.73608 193281 5.500315 80.07778 3 1213 -3 1335 0.27466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 80.08333 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 eo.cesa!! 3.1213 -3.1325 027466 c 736CS 5.500315 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27466 0 73608 1.193221 5.500315 80.1 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27<466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 110.10556 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27<466 0.73608 1.1S3281 5.500315 110.11111 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27<466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 110.11667 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27<466 0.73608 1.1m:281 5.500315 110.12222 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27<466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 110.12778 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27<466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 80.13333 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27-4456 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 110.13889 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27-466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 80.14444 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 80.15 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27-466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 80.15556 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27<466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 80.16111 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27-466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 80.16567 3.1213 .. 3.1335 0.27466 073608 1.193281 5.500315 80.17222 31213 -3.1335 0.27-466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 80.17778 -3.1335 0.27466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 80.18333 3.1213 0.27-466 0.73608 1193281 5.500315 80.18889 3.1213 -3.1335 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27466 0.73608 1.193281 5 500315 80.2 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27i6 0736CS 1.193281 5.500315 80.20556 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 80.21111 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27466 0.73608 1193281 5.500315 80.21667 3.12':3 .1335 0.27466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 80.22222 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27466 0.736013 1.193281 5.500315 80.22778 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27i6 0.73608 1 193281 5.500315 80.23333 3.1213 -3.1335 0.27466 0.736013 1 193281 5.500315 80.23889 3.1213 -3.1335 027466 0.73608 1.193281 5.500315 eo.24444 3.1213 1335 027466 0 73608 1 193281 5.500315 80.25 3 ""'""l ......... -3 1335 027<166 () 736C8 1 193281 5.500315 133

PAGE 145

blad
PAGE 146

References Ketchart, K. and Wu, J.T.H., 1996, "Long-Term Performance Tests ofSoilGeosynthetic Composites," Final Report to the Colorado Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration, Report No. CDOT-CTI96-1, 156 pages. Ketchart,K., Wu, J.T.H. and Crouse, P.E., 1997, "How to Assess Long-Term Deformation of a GRS Structure?", Proceedings, International Symposium on Mechanically Stabilized Backfill, Balkema Publishers, Rotterdam, pp.345-350. Ketchart, K. and Wu, J. T.H., 1999, "Investigating Excessive Deformation of a GRS Wall in Black Hawk, Colorado", Draft Report for the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities. Ketchart, K. and Wu, J.T.H., 1999, "Consolidated-Drained Triaxial Test Results and Hyperbolic Soil Model Parameters for GRS Bridge Abutments of Meadows/Founders Bridge Project, Castle Rock, Colorado." Report submitted to the Colorado Department of Transportation. Wu, J.T.H. and Helwany, S.M.B., 1996a, "A Performance Test for Assessment of LongTerm Creep Behavior of Soil-Geosynthetic Composites," Geosynthetics International, Vol.3, No. I, pp. 107-124. Naser, A. H. and Wang, T., 1999, "Performance of Geosynthetic Walls Supporting Bridge Abutments and Approaches to Roadway Structures", Report for ASCE. 135

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Wu, J.T.H., Ketchart, K. and Adams, M., 1999, "GRS Bridge Pier and Abutment.", Report submitted to the Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center, Federal Highway Administration. 136