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Standardizing methods for documenting and analyzing Egyptian mummified human remains

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Title:
Standardizing methods for documenting and analyzing Egyptian mummified human remains
Creator:
Ware, Cheryl Suzanne
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
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v, 106 leaves : illustrations ; 28 cm

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Mummies -- Analysis -- Egypt ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Thesis:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Arts, Department of Anthropology
Statement of Responsibility:
by Cheryl Suzanne Ware.

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|University of Colorado Denver
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|Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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26186715 ( OCLC )
ocm26186715
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LD1190.L43 1991m .W37 ( lcc )

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Full Text
STANDARDIZING METHODS FOR DOCUMENTING
AND ANALYZING EGYPTIAN
MUMMIFIED HUMAN REMAINS
by
Cheryl Suzanne Ware
B.A., Loretto Heights College, 1975
M.A., University of Northern Colorado, 1977
, A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Arts
Department of Anthropology
1991


This thesis for the Master of Arts
degree by
Cheryl Suzanne Ware
has been approved for the
Department of
Anthropology
by

Date


Ware, Cheryl Suzanne (M.A., Anthropology)
Standardized Methods for Documenting and Analyzing
Egyptian Mummified Human Remains
Thesis directed by Professor Lorna G. Moore
After surveying mummy collections, and doing an
extensive literature search, I found a lack of any
standardized system for analyzing and documenting
mummified human remains from Ancient Egypt. This
has prohibited the organized and comparative study
of data and has resulted in a loss of critical
information dealing with dentition, health/disease,
cultural practices, nutrition, medical procedures,
mummification procedures, osteometries, aesthetics,
pathologies, anomalies and demography. Using the
mummy collections at the British Museum, London,
England; the Rosecrucian Museum, San Jose,
California; and the Denver Museum of Natural
History, Denver, Colorado, I have tested this
theory, devised forms for standardized use and
developed a worksheet for the examination of
mummified remains and implemented them in an attempt
to synthesize the information gleaned into a
standardized form.


The results of this application of my
standardized form to the various collections
mentioned revealed a definite lack of
standardization and continuity concerning the
comparative data. Conclusions are that there is a
definite need for this standardized method and that
there are mummy collections around the world which
would benefit from this new concept of data
retrieval and documentation and the need for a re-
examination of existing data as applied to this new
documentation procedure is crucial.
The form and content of this abstract are approved.
I recommend its publication.
Signed


DEDICATION
To Rosalie J. Bennington, without whose support I
could never have completed this work, I give my
sincere appreciation. Thanks, Rosie, for stepping
around the books, papers, and bones and for your
patience while I was buried in the Museum
collections and, especially, for never giving up on
it all.
To Dr. Michael Charney, who accepted me as his
student and taught me so much about the "process" of
Physical and Forensic Anthropology. Thanks, Mike,
for helping me and teaching me the value of loving
the work and dedication to excellence.
To Mr. Robert Akerley, who planted the "seeds" of
Forensics and Paleoanthropology in my mind and who
encouraged me to pursue my interests, enabled me to
share my thoughts and findings with him and kept me
on "the path," I am deeply indebted. Without you,
Bob, I might have chosen another avenue.... your
enthusiasm and support made this thesis a reality.
To Ms. Barbara Stone who shared her expertise and
insights with me, who always believed in my work and
helped me incorporate my academic interests into the
field of Egyptology. Thanks, Barb, for your
willingness to listen and for your support.


CONTENTS
Acknowledgements.............................i
Introduction.................................iii
Chapter
1. OVERVIEW..............................1
Chapter
2. CHECKLIST WORKSHEET...................3
Sarcophagus, Coffin
Wrapping/Adornment,
Physical Remains,
Accompanying Materials
& Conclusion.......................3
Chapter
3. EXAMINATION PROCEDURE WORKSHEET......16
The Sarcophagus, the Coffin, the
Wrapping & Adornments, the
Physical Remains,
the Accompanying Material..........16
Chapter
4. EXAMINATION OF THE MUMMY.............21
Measurement equipment,
Analytical Interpretations of
Skeletal Materials.................21
Chapter
5. PRACTICAL EVALUATION OF THE
CHECKLIST WORKSHEET.................52
Chapter
6. CONCLUSION...........................55


57
Appendix A: Dental Eruption.
Appendix B: Age by Dentition................58
Appendix C: Pubic Symphysis Ageing..........59
Appendix D: Sex Differences in Skull........60
Appendix E: Sex from Innominates............61
Appendix F: Hieroglyphic Writing............62
Appendix G: Sarcophagus Information.........63
Appendix H: X-Ray of Jewelry................64
Appendix I: Ytterbium Isotope...............65
Appendix J: Cephalometric Apparatus.........66
Appendix K: Royal Mummy X-Ray Order.........67
Appendix L: Os Pubis Ageing.................68
Appendix M: Ages of Royal Mummies...........69
Appendix N: Dentition of Royal Mummies.......70
Appendix 0: Cephalometric Measurements......71
Appendix P: New Kingdom Queens..............72
Appendix Q: Centers of Ossification.........73
Appendix R: Epiphyses Closure...............74
Appendix S: Cranial Suture Closure..........75
Appendix T: Vault Suture Closure............76
Appendix U: Pubic Symphysis.................77
Appendix V: Sex Traits on Skull
78


Appendix W: Sex by Pelvis.................79
Appendix X: Race/Stature in Long Bones..-...80
Appendix Y: Stature Calculations............81
Worksheet for Mummy BM6660..................82
Worksheet for Mummy BM6681..................85
Worksheet for Mummy BM6692..................88
Worksheet for Mummy BM32756.................91
Worksheet for Mummy BM52888.................94
Worksheet for Mummy BM57353.................97
Conclusions made from the
British Museum Collection which
substantiates the tenets of
the Thesis...................................100
References Cited.............................103


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First, I would like to thank the British Museum,
London, England, for their generous support of my
work and for allowing me to1 study the mummy
collection and to have access to the Reading Room
and the research collection. The librarians at the
Museum were most helpful and I thank them for their
help and expertise.
Next, I would like to thank the Anthropology
Department at the Denver Museum of Natural History
for allowing me access to the research collections
and for letting me explore my interests within the
realm of their Museum setting. I would especially
like to acknowledge Kris Haglund, Eloise Howerton
and Liz Clancy of the Library/Archives Department
for their help during the time of my research.
I would also like to acknowledge the University of
Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland for their provision
of data to enhance my work, and also the Rosecrucian
Museum, San Jose, California, for providing
information via telephone and in person concerning
their collections.
i


Thanks are given, especially, to my thesis
committee for their time, expertise and patience
leading to the completion of this project. Many
times they have gone beyond the call of duty to help
me bring this project to fruition.
Further acknowledgement goes to Dr. David
Silverman of the University of Pennsylvania for his
willingness to talk to me about this project and to
listen to my career plans and give me advice. Also
to Dr. Janet Johnson of the Oriental Institute at
the University of Chicago for her continuing
suggestions regarding my study of Egyptology and
this thesis, and last, but not least, a special
acknowledgement goes to Ms. Mary Pratchett for
reading the manuscript over many times and lending
her support and suggestions and to Ms. Betty Van
Bergen for helping it come together after much
discussion and analysis.


INTRODUCTION
The processes used to standardize methods to be
used for the examination and documentation of data
concerning mummified human remains from Ancient
Egypt are as follows:
1) An extensive literature search was
performed.
2) Visits to numerous museums took place.
3) A comparison of the documentation of six
existing mummies from the British Museum
collection was made using the Standardized
Checklist/Worksheet generated in this thesis.
The initial research concluded that there has not
been a standardized method of comparing existing
information obtained from Ancient Egyptian mummies.
The development of a standardized method for
obtaining and publishing such data is crucial to the
furtherance of the scientific method, to the study
of Egyptology, and will permit more adequate
comparison of skeletal materials. Without this type
of standardized form for comparing data from both
previous and future examinations, the information
iii


gathered will remain incompatible, thereby rendering
it virtually useless in comparative scientific
research. With the implementation of a standardized
form the work will be able to be integrated into a
workable corpus of data which will be able to be
used in an indisciplinary fashion.
This thesis contains documents and supporting
data for one type of standardization procedure and
will include the anthropometric formulae,
mathematical equations and actual forms needed to
implement the techniques and correct the
discrepancies found in the existing work as well as
provide an examination procedure and a
checklist/worksheet to be used.
If we are to fully utilize the mummy
collections around the world as well as the mummies
which will be excavated in the future, and if we are
ever going to be able to make specific scientific
statements about them in relationship to one
another, then there must be a standardized method of
evaluation and a checklist of pertinent data.
Without this standardization, mummified remains will
continue to be analyzed non-systematically and
iv


valuable cultural and physical data will be
overlooked or lost. By standardizing the process
with which mummified remains are examined we also
will develop a standardized method of communication
between the scientists doing the work so that data
can then be compared and statements be made about
the information retrieved.
v


CHAPTER ONE
OVERVIEW
Below is a standardized method of dealing with
Egyptian mummified material which lists the areas of
investigation of the human body and its linen
wrappings and categorizes each area into a workable
repository of information. Additionally there is a
checklist/worksheet which may be used to record data
from each individual. This checklist/worksheet,
then, can be used as a basic form for on-going
comparative research and will provide a uniform
method of recording and retrieving information.
The form will addresses two issues:
1) The physical body and wrappings
(including any accompanying artifacts).
The cultural materials accompanying the
body such as the canopic jars, amulets,
artwork, coffin or other artifacts.
2)


In the appendix from pages 81-98, I apply the
checklist/worksheet to a sampling of the research
collection to include six mummies, and in appendix
from pages 99-101, I compare the data from the
mummies in the research collections to determine
similarities in style, type, process of embalming
and physical attributes. In the course of the
research, examples from the following collections
were used:
1) The British Museum, London, England
2) The Rosicrucian Museum, San Jose,
California, U.S.A.
3) The Denver Museum of Natural History,
Denver, Colorado, U.S.A.
2


CHAPTER TWO
CHECKLIST WORKSHEET
This chapter contains the checklist worksheet
to be used. This document contains the major
divisions of examination and methods of recording
the data. The actual checklist worksheets are found
on pages 82-99.
Sarcophagus
A) Photograph the entire sarcophagus from top,
sides and ends with metric scale recorded.
B) Analyze composition of the sarcophagus:
1) Wood
2) Stone
3) Other
C) Record Measurements:
1) Length
2) Thickness of the walls of
sarcophagus
3


3) Width
4) Height or depth
D) Record transcription.
Coffin
A) Photograph the entire coffin from top, sides
and ends using the metric scale.
B) Record any bacteria, weathering, chipping or
other disturbances on the coffin lid.
C) Analyze paint and binder.
D) Sample wood for dendrochronological dating
purposes.
4


E)
Document the method of connecting the parts
of the coffin:
F)
G)
1)
2)
3)
Document
repair.
Document
1)
2)
3)
Dowelling
Gluing
Other
any intrusions, conservation or
style of coffin:
Anthropoid
Rectangular
Other
H) Photograph the individual and the coffin:
1) Note that the coffin and the body
are a "fit", and if there are
significant differences in the
relationship of the person to the
5


coffin, record them.
2) Check for accompanying artifacts
which may be loose in the coffin:
a) Amulets
b) Jewels
c) Animals
d) Papyri
e) Other
3) Document any disturbances of the
mummy which occur. This might
include evidences of pilfering in
ancient times, evidences of modern
tampering, evidence of inadequate
bandaging in ancient times or
dismemberment and breakage.
6


Wrapping and Adornment
A) Place individual mummy on examining
table, (Always have assistance with this
removal from the coffin and the
placement of the mummy in the work area
to minimize risk of damaging or dropping
the individual.)
B) Photograph the mummy from all sides and
from the head downward and from the feet
upward.
C) Document any unusual visual images which
are projected during the photography
session:
1) Insect damage
2) The presence of insects
3) Pigment
4) Other
7


D) Document any adornment and any wrapping
techniques used. Record any and all
body adornment and amuletic information.
Note the substance of these artifacts.
Systematically catalogue these artifacts
with accompanying documentation, and
numbering.
1) Are the wrapping techniques
used consistent with what has
been observed before? If so,
indicate; if not, make a
notation.
2) Is there a single amount of
wrapping or has the mummy been
re-wrapped?
3) What is the status of the
wrapping in regard to
craftsmanship and expertise
exhibited by the embalmers -
such as loose or tight
8


wrapping?
4) What type of weave is
exhibited in the bandages?
a) Coarse (C)
b) Semi-coarse (SC)
c) Fine (F)
Physical Remains
Always include a black-and-white line drawing
of the human skeleton upon which you mark all the
bones or fragments thereof which are.present at
the time of your analysis.
A) Photograph the body from all sides. From the
feet upward and from the head downward.
B) Obtain hair sample for protein and other
analyses. Hair from one area only is all
that is needed for this examination There
9


are three sources from which to obtain hair:
1) Head
2) Armpit
3) Pubis
C) Check and record any unusual images which
appear on the skin:
1) Impressions left by wrapping
2) Impressions left by amulets and/or
other displaced artifacts
3) Evidence of skin anomalies:
a) Pock marks
b) Lesions
c) Birthmarks
10


d) Disease
e) Tattoos/mutilations
4) Record condition of finger/toe
nails:
a) Are they sheathed in gold or
silver?
b) Are they removed or still in
place?
*
c) Are they polished or plain?
d) Is there sufficient residue
under the nail edge to warrant
scraping so that soil,
bacteria, etc., can be
analyzed?
e) Describe/document any
anomalies.
11


5) Using the formulae described in
this document, measure the remains
and record the data for the
following categories:
a) Height
b) Weight
c) Stature
d) Sex
e) Age at death
f) Handedness
g) Race
h) Cause of death,if known
i) Anomalies
12


Accompanying Materials
A. Describe and document all visual
abnormalities or variances in the present
matrix surrounding the individual:
1) Soil, if present
2) Foreign substances, if present
3) Provenance, if known
4) Animals or humans buried with the
individual
5) Orientation of the head in burial
site, if known
6) Any other pieces of information
which will be helpful in describing
the individual and the situation of
burial
13


Conclusion
This standardized checklist should produce
enough evidence for a comparative data bank to be
established.
The categories of data can be organized into
succinct statements concerning the physical body of
the deceased individual and accompanying material
culture. This corpus of data can be incorporated
into other categories, as needed, for comparison of
the materials and for the formulation of theories
concerning the people of Ancient Egypt. Some of the
other cultural categories that could benefit from
these data are religion, mythology, literature,
aesthetics, demographics and archaeology.
After completion of this checklist there should
be enough data to establish that there are certain
physical attributes which were prevalent in mummies
from Ancient Egypt. It should also establish that
these attributes can be documented with consistency,
and therefore, comparisons can be made from one
individual to another employing a scientific method.
14


The use of the scientific method will enable
the scientist, then, to discuss data and make
educated statements concerning Ancient Egypt. As
statements are able to be made about Ancient Egypt,
the problem of how this culture fits into the scheme
of world history can also be discussed.
This checklist will also provide consistent
information which will enable the physical
anthropologist, the forensic anthropologist and the
Egyptologist to work together with a common data
base to compare Egyptian mummified human remains
with mummified humans from other locales, worldwide.
15


CHAPTER THREE
EXAMINATION PROCEDURE WORKSHEET
The Sarcophagus
Photographs taken: Yes____No___
Composition: Wood____Stone_____Other____________
Measurements: Length___________Thickness of the
wall s____________Width________Height___________
The Coffin
Photographs taken: Yes____No_____
Describe bacteria, weathering, chipping or other
disturbances:
Paint composition:
16


Paint binder:
Wood sample taken for Dendrochronological work:
Securing: Dowel___Glue____Other_________________
Documentation of intrusions, conservation or
patching:_______________________________________
Style: Anthropoid____Rectangular_____Other_
Photograph taken of the individual inside:
Accompanying artifacts:________________'
Other disturbances:
17


The Wrapping and Adornments
Photographs taken: Yes_____No_____
Insect damage:__________________________
Insects present:__________________
Pigment:________________________________
Other:__________________________________
Adornment and wrapping techniques used:
Techniques consistent: Yes______No
Original wrapping: Yes______No___
Mummy re-wrapped: Yes_____No____
Craftsmanship:___________________
Weave: (C)_____(SC)____(F)____
18


The Physical Remains
Line drawing completed: Yes______No
Photographs taken: Yes____No_____
Hair sample taken: Yes____No_____
Sample from:__________________.
Images recorded on skin:_________
Condition of finger/toe nails:
Anomalies:
19


Height___________________Weight
Stature__________________Sex_____
Age at death___________Handedness
Race_____________________________
Cause of death___________________
Anomalies
The Accompanying Material
Soil___________________________
Foreign substances___________________
Provenience__________________________
Animals/Humans buried with individual
Orientation of the head
Other information
20


CHAPTER FOUR
EXAMINATION OF THE MUMMY
The ideal way of obtaining physical data from a
wrapped or semi-wrapped mummy is through the
radiographic process of computerized axial
tomography (C.A.T. Scan). Harris and Wente (1980)
employed this method with great success and
established that this is, perhaps, the best method
to identify physical anatomical information and
information concerning the amulets and packing, as
well.
The use of the cephalogram as a form of
measurement of the craniofacial structure is most
helpful in determining variation through racial
types, Dynastic populations, families and age groups
(Harris and Wente 1980).
Ideally, radiographic work should be done in
the radiology departments of modern, well equipped
21


hospitals, but often, due to the delicate nature of
the materials to be studied, the museum curatorial
staff insists upon the work being done on site.
This, then, necessitates the use of mobile
equipment.
The most recent example of the use of this
equipment in this manner is the work by the
University of Michigan for its Memorial Phoenix
Project where the General Electric 90 kV dental X-
ray device was used. During this project, the Oak
Ridge Laboratory of the Atomic Energy Commission
became involved in the interpretation of analyses.
The users of the equipment (Harris and Wente
1980) utilized a manual shutter control which could
be operated .from a distance so that the mummies
could have the X-ray film placed externally to the
leaded glass case. This allowed the work to be done
without much disturbance to the individual because
the isotope's energy had only to pass through one
side of the coffin.
22


Measurement Equipment
The osteometric board is the most
accurate method of measurement for the postcranial
skeleton as well as the accompanying artifacts.
Always use a scale based on the metric system. The
skull, if detached, can also be measured in this
manner.
The hinge or spreading caliper is devised to
facilitate measurement of the cranial material and
works well on curved surfaces.
The sliding caliper is used for portions of the
cranial material, especially around the facial area
and when reference points are close together.
Analytical Interpretations of Skeletal Materials
Sex Estimation from Long Bones
Subadult skeletal material is very difficult to
analyze for gender specifications and can often be
misinterpreted. The primary and secondary
characteristics needed for accurate analysis do not
23


appear until the onset of puberty. According to
Brues (1958), Krogman (1973) and Stewart (1954) it
is almost impossible to be accurate when examining
the subadult skeleton and great caution should be
taken when examining this material.
Charney (1980), Krogman (1973) and Stewart
(1954) state that in the adult skeletal inventory
the general "look" of the long bones is the
beginning of the analysis. They further concur that
usually female long bones are less massive than male
long bones and that usually the female long bones
are shorter than those of the male. Often there is
a difference in the overall size and dimensions of
the female long bone articulating surfaces than in
the male.
In 1899, Pearson as cited in Bass (1969),
developed a general scale of gender determination of
the skeleton as follows:
Female: X-41.5cm to 43.5cm
Probably Female: 41.5cm
Male: 45.5-X
Probably Male: 44.5cm-45.5cm
Either Female or Male: 43.5cm 44.5cm
24


In 1905 Dwight as cited in Bass (1969),
elaborates further and supplies the following table,
in millimeters, for the head.of the humerus as it is
used to estimate sex on the skeleton:
Female: 42.67 Vertical
Female: 36.98 Transverse
Male: 48.76 Vertical
Male: 44.66 Transverse
Sex Determination from the Pelvis
The pelvis is the most reliable skeletal
source for the data which will determine the sex or
gender of the individual.
Bass (1988), Charney (1978) and Krogman (1973)
all state that it can be observed, immediately, that
the female pelvis has much more of an iliac "flare"
and the brim or inlet has a greater posterior
breadth than in the male. They go on to explain
that there is also usually a greater antero-
posterior length in the female which facilitates
childbirth by making the cavity more spacious.
25


Stewart (1954) concurs with the above mentioned
anthropologists and elaborates that the ischia
diverge in the female pelvis and converge in the
male pelvis. The ischiatic spines are more reduced
in the male than in the female,, and the lower
portion of the female sacrum is usually bent
backward and has a tendency to be up-turned, quite
sharply.
When observing the innominate (halved pelvis),
Bass (1969) and Charney (1978) comment that it is
quite apparent that generally the sacro-sciatic
notch is characteristically wide and shallow in the
female and deep and narrow in the male pelvis. This
can also be measured immediately (non-
scientifically) by placing the index finger on the
pubic symphysis and observing the angle of the
"spread" in the area between the finger and the
bone. A wide angle will usually appear for females
and a more narrow one for males.
Bass (1969) goes on to explain that, the
articulation of the two innominates provides yet
another area of sex determination. In females, the
26


symphysial region is lower and much more broad, the
sub-pubic angle created by the articulation of these
two pieces will be greater in females than in males.
Krogman (1973) and Washburn (1948) claim to be
accurate in 95% of their observances based on this
method.
According to Bass (1969), Charney (1982) and
Krogman (1973) there are three major characteristics
of the female pubis and the ischiopubic ramus which
yield sex determination information. They are:
1) The Ventral Arc: This is described as a
lightly elevated ridge of bone which makes an
impression across the ventral surface of the
female pubis. In males there is no ventral
arch, only a slight ridge on the ventral
surface.
2) The Medial Aspect of the Ischiopubic
Ramus: There is a ridge or a narrow surface
immediately below the symphyseal surface in
females along the medial aspect of the
ischiopubic ramus. In the male the medial
aspect of this area is usually a broad
27


surface.
3) The Sub-pubic Concavity: The female will
project a lateral curvature a few millimeters
from the symphysis on the inferior side.
This can be observed from the dorsal surface
of the bone.
Other observable differences which distinguish
the sexes, according to Brues (1958), Charney (1982)
and Krogman (1973) are:
1) The acetabulum is smaller, for the most
part, in females and larger in males.
2) The obturator foramen is smaller and much
more triangular, usually, in females and more
oval and larger in males.
It must also be observed that there are other
landmarks used for the sex determination of a
skeleton, but they are considered to be inferior to
the ones mentioned. One of them is the angle of the
ramus of the mandible, and the other the square
appearance of the chin in males and a more rounded
look in the chin of the female. Since there is such
a variation in the human population, the presence of
28


a bony browridge (usually in males) versus the
smooth browridge in females should be considered but
only as secondary support data (Charney 1982; Hooten
1943; Stewart 1951).
As Brues (1958), Charney (1982), Hooton (1943)
and Snow (1948) all point out, there is much need to
be cautious because there are always individuals who
do not conform to the standards for their sex and
exhibit opposite or combinations of the traits
mentioned.
Race Determination from Skeletal Material
Hooton (1943) explains that humankind can be
repeatedly divided into various local populations.
These populations can be defined as racial
classifications.
Krogman (1973) follows Hooton (1943) in stating
that there are three major racial groups of
humankind, and many variations within these
categories. The three main racial groups are:
1) Negroid: To include all dark skinned
people of African descent.
29


2) Mongoloid: To include all Asiatic,
Oriental, Eskimo and American Indian peoples.
3) Caucasoid: To include all Northern
Europeans, Central Europeans and Southern
Europeans from the Mediterranean area.
For the purposes of this thesis, the Mongoloid
classification will be dismissed and I will focus on
the Negroid and Caucasoid classifications. Although
there were Mongoloid peoples in Ancient Egypt most
of the mummies discovered are part of the Negroid
and Caucasoid population.
As Charney (1982), Hooton (1943), and Krogman
(1973) propose, determining the racial status of an
individual will be of great help in tracking genetic
information, studying the gene pool for a specific
area and tracing demographic information. In the
case of Ancient Egypt, this information can be
invaluable in piecing together the lineages of
prominent families, tracing the basic genetic stock
of people who migrated to the Nile Valley and
studying the phenotypical attributes of royal
30


personages.
The term "race" has come to mean myriad things
to a great number of people. The racial
classification of humans has become an emotional
issue, and there is much debate as to the method to
be employed and the statements which can be made.
For a discussion of this topic in the literature see
Bass (1980), Charney (1980), Hooten (1943), Krogman
(1973) and Montagu (1960).
In this thesis, race is used in the strict
sense as applied to human identification and
physical anthropology.
The first task of a person who attempts to
identify racial affinities and document these data
is to devise a set of criteria that distinguish the
established human groups. Each group is composed of
individuals who have distinguishable characteristics
indicating homogeneity. Each of these groups must,
then, differ substantially from one another as to
demonstrate observable traits which can be recorded
by visual observation and measurement.
Charney (1982) and Krogman (1973) both state
that the task is complicated further by ambiguity in
31


determining subtle differences within the realm of
the individual. If the individual, or group of
individuals, were stripped of cultural
accoutrements, such as clothing and jewelry, and
were left naked to the observer, it would not be
difficult to differentiate between a Negroid and a
Caucasoid. The real difficulty becomes evident, as
Charney (1982,) and Krogman (1973) have both stated,
in the process of determining racial differences
between persons within the same group. An example
of this would be the admixture found in the
Mediterranean areas or in the Delta area of Egypt.
The measurement of the cranial capacity of the
skull (cephalic Index) refers to measurements taken
from living populations, therefore, it is not
pertinent to this thesis.
According to Bass (1980), Charney (1982),
Hooton (1943) and Krogman (1973), there are
certain traits which manifest themselves in certain
t
racial groups. These can be documented with
regularity. These characteristics are:
1) Negroid: The postcranial skeletal
material has a more streamlined appearance
32


and often will offer smaller articular heads
and joint surfaces. The male pelvis has a
tendency to be higher and narrower than the
female pelvis. The female pelvis is wider
and more flared than the male pelvis but
often there is such a small degree of
difference that it is difficult to determine
the sex by this landmark alone. The tibia,
fibula, ulna and radius are markedly longer
relative to the humerus and femur.
Once again, the skull is the most
reliable of all the landmarks from which to
retrieve racial data. The bone is more dense
in appearance, exhibiting a healthier, more
robust profile. There is strong alveolar
prognathism and the inferior nasal concha is
low and broad. The nasal bones tend to be
more flattened and the nasal aperture is
exaggerated.
The longitudinal nasal suture is often
fused or obliterated completely and the
palate and dental arches of the Negroid skull
lean toward slimness and narrowness.
33


The general appearance of the teeth is
more robust than in the other races and often
there is adequate space in the alveolar
processes behind the third molars which make
impacted wisdom teeth a rarity in this race
of people.
The malar region will usually exhibit a
more flaring and deep look and the eye orbits
usually are low and rarely tilted downward or
outward. The male skull will often appear
more symmetrically rounded, while the female
skull will often appear more bulbous in the
frontal region. The temporal region of the
Negroid skull is almost always flat and a
round-like constriction across the skull just
behind the coronal suture is quite often
visible. The occipital area is often
pronounced and symmetrical and the nuchal
crest often does not exhibit pronounced
muscle attachment evidence.
34


2) Caucasoid: As Bass (1980), Charney
(1982), Hooton (1943) and Krogman (1973) go
on to point out, there are definite landmarks
which reinforce the Caucasoid racial data.
There are some prominent diagnostics on
the postcranial skeletal material such as a
tendency to exhibit thicker, heavier and more
massive postcranial material. There are also
evidences of much more advanced muscle
attachment lines on the bone, due to the
prolonged lifespan of the Caucasian, who will
often outlive aboriginal peoples. The pelvis
of the Caucasian is often wider and more
robust in appearance.
Again, as the scientists above have
mentioned, as with most skeletal material,
the skull is the most accurate and lucrative
source of racial information. Caucasian
skulls will tend to be long, narrow and have
extended height in the region of the nasion.
The nasal aperture has sharp lower borders
and the nasal spine is well developed. The
35


mandibular eminence is larger and more
prominent due to the reduced angles of the
alveolar borders. Browridges (especially in
males) are quite evident. Very elaborate and
intricate cranial sutures are often present
and the mastoid processes and styloid
processes are likely to be much more
pronounced. Faces devoid of prognathism are
the norm for this racial group. The palatine
is observed as shallow and deep with smaller,
more uniform teeth.
Ace Determination from Skeletal Material
The use of the term age estimation or
determination does not mean how long the individual
has been dead, but rather the age of the person at
the time of death. It is difficult, if not
impossible, to estimate the time a person has been
deceased (Charney 1983).
In the case of the mummified remains of Ancient
Egypt, it is the material culture associated with an
36


individual that helps to establish the Dynasty that
is connected with the individual and thereby helps
to determine the time period involved.
Bass (1980) states that the stage of life which
has been achieved at the time of death will
determine the difficulty with which age estimation
can be reached. Age is very difficult to determine
on subadult skeletal material. X-rays of the
carpals and metacarpals must be done to achieve the
most accurate data.
Bass (1980), Brues (1958) and Charney (1982)
all explain that the fusion of the epiphysis to the
body of the bone can be used with a great deal of
accuracy. Tooth eruption can be used if there is
nothing else to work from, but must be used with
extreme caution as individual differences are
rampant in this area and can skew data.
From the last stages of permanent dentition as
well as growth of the postcranial material from
about age thirty the process of determining age is
simply a matter of recording the amount of
degenerative changes which have taken place. As an
37


example of this, I cite the disease of arthritis
which begins to be evident in the lumbar vertebrae
at this time, and henceforth begins its journey
upward into the thoracic and cervical vertebrae by
the time the individual reaches the age of sixty.
Stewart (1954) claims- that there is a great deal of
variability within the human population, and it must
always be remembered that people mature at different
stages based upon their nutrition, genetics and
adaptations. In the Ancient world this is quite
evident. A male will usually mature later than a
female, and, therefore, there will be a marked
difference in the epiphyseal closure process. But
there could be an individual of either
sex who matures at a different rate, thus
facilitating changes at a different rate (Charney
1982).
As Stewart (1954) points out, there are also
great variabilities in the formation of teeth and
bone. There should always be comparative work done,
and always room for exploration into the differences
in individuals.
38


T. Wingate Todd et al 1922, began the task of
determining age at time of death after World War I,
during the 1920s. Before that time, there were no
reliable data. Todd and his colleagues from Western
Reserve University began studying the epiphyseal
union rates and morphologies on cadavers from the
dissecting rooms. The object of the study was to
determine if there were general biological codes
which established sequential changes in the skeleton
of humans during the life cycle. The result (Todd
1922) was that this was, indeed, the case. We have
since learned that zoologists are able to make that
same statement concerning other species and their
development.
Dr. Rudolph Kronfeld (1935) began a study in
the 1930s at Loyola University Dental School in
which he summarized the histologic and
roentgenographic data concerning tooth formation for
both deciduous and permanent dentition.
As McKern and Stewart (1957) state, the absence
of adequate samples of documented skeletal materials
which had known factors of race, age, sex and cause
39


of death were scarce. Their work on the skeletal
material from males involved with the Korean War led
to the accumulation of significant data which
enabled physical anthropologists to begin to use the
information in making remarks about age at death of
male individuals.
Krogman (1973) synthesized the previous
information and developed the working system which
was in use until it was revised and upgraded by
Kerley (1965). It is the Kerley method which
provides substantial accuracy and which has been
tested time and time again with astounding results.
One of the most accurate areas of age
estimation is the pelvis. The innominate is the
most important bone to use for this purpose. The
pubic symphysis will record the years with
astounding accuracy. It is best to compare the
skeletal material with the plaster casts of the
pubic symphyses which have been done by McKern and
Stewart (1957) and later upgraded and improved by
Brooks (1968).
Charney (1982) states that the sutures of the
40


skull as used for age estimation are very suspect
and that often there will be age differences between
other bones of the skeleton and the skull sutures;
therefore, they are used only as a last resort or
when no other corroborating skeletal material is
present. He goes on to state that all too often
cranial sutures do not follow a regular pattern of
development and/or closure.
Also, it must be remembered that if the Stewart
(1954) method of age estimation by epiphyseal
closure is used, one year and eighteen months must
be deducted from the time for females, as they
generally mature earlier than males.
Todd (1922) has recognized the following as
observable methods of age estimation of skeletal
material at the time of death:
1) First Post-Adolescent: 18-19 years of
age. The symphysial surface will be rugged,
and traversed by horizontal ridges which are
separated by well marked grooves. There will
be no ossific nodules fusing with the surface
and no definite delineation in the margins.
There will be no definition of the
41


extremities.
2) Second Post-Adolescent: 20-21 years of
age. Symphysial surface will still be rugged
and have the profile of the above mentioned
stage, but the grooves on the dorsal side
will have a new formation of finely textured
bone. This formation begins to obscure the
posterior extremities of the horizontal
ridges. A foreshadowing of the ventral bevel
begins.
3) Third Post-Adolescent: 22-24 years of
age. There is progressive commencing of bone
formation of the dorsal plateau and presence
of fusing ossific nodules; dorsal margins
gradually become more defined; and a beveling
as a result of ventral rarefaction becomes
more pronounced; but still there is no
delimitation of the extremities.
4) Age 25-26 Years:
Great increase of ventral beveled area and a
corresponding delimitation of lower
extremities.
42


5) Age 27-30 Years:
Little or no change in symphyseal face and
dorsal plateau except that sporadic and
premature attempts at the formation of a
ventral rampart occur; lower extremity, like
the dorsal margin, increases in clearness
commencing formation of upper extremity with
or without the intervention of a bony nodule.
6) Age 30-35 Years:
This time frame is more difficult to appraise
correctly; essential features here are
completion of the oval outlines Of symphyseal
faces and more individual variation than at
younger ages. Increase in the definition of
the extremities occurs and development and
near completion of the ventral rampart is
also present. Retention of granular
appearances of symphysial faces and ventral
aspect of pubis and absence of lipping of
symphysial margin also occurs.
43


7) Age 35-39 Years:
The paramount feature of this stage is the
face and ventral aspect change from granular
in texture to a fine-grained or dense bone.
Changes in symphyseal face and ventral aspect
of pubis are consequent upon diminishing
activity, commencing bony outgrowth into
attachments of tendons and ligaments,
especially the gracilis tendon and sacro-
tuberous ligament.
8) Age 39-40 Years:
Symphysial face is generally smooth and
inactive; ventral surface of pubis is also
inactive and the oval outline is complete or
approximately complete. The extremities are
clearly defined; there is no distinct "rim"
to symphysial face and no marked lipping of
the dorsal or ventral margins.
9) Age 45-50 Years:
This stage is characterized by well-marked
44


"rim" which is marked universally with
lipping on the dorsal rim as well as
uniformly marked lipping on the ventral rim.
10) 50 Plus Years:
There is rarefaction of the face and
irregular ossification. The symphysial face
is eroded, showing erratic ossification;
ventral border is more or less broken down,
and disfigurement increases as age
progresses.
Age after 55 becomes difficult, if not
impossible, to calculate with precise accuracy.
Osteon counting can be done under laboratory
conditions, but since it involves shaving of small
portions of bone to be studied, it is best to have
this done by an expert in that field.
See the appendix in this document for formulae
and diagrams concerning quick reference materials in
age estimation.
Stature Estimation from Skeletal Material
45


The estimation of stature is of paramount
importance to the physical anthropologist (Bass
1969). The overall "picture" of human existence
would be incomplete without it.
Pearson is cited in Krogman (1973) as first
conceptualizing and organizing mathematical
regression formulae for this purpose in 1899. The
most reliable tables for this purpose, however, have
been recently developed by Trotter and Gleser (1952,
1958) and will be cited in the appendix of this
document as the standardized chart for stature
estimation.
Work in this area should always be done by
metric scale and converted to feet and inches by
dividing the answer by 2.4 (Charney 1982).
Estimation is complicated by racial differences
between populations so the racial affiliation of the
sample must be known and the appropriate formulae or
tables for that racial group used in order to be
accurate in stature documentation (Krogman 1973).
The most desired combination of long bones used for
stature estimation is the femur/fibula combination.
46


If that is not available then humerus/radius,
humerus/ulna should be used. If bones are
fragmented or incomplete in the combinations
mentioned, stature can still be estimated with a
relative degree of success by measurement of each
fragment and recording within the scale presented on
the chart.
Weight Estimation of Individual at the time of death
A current weight chart from any physician can
be used here.
It is an estimation only. Weight is based upon
the robustness of the bones, and the general
morphology as compared to the height and sex of an
individual (Charney 1982). There is no way to
estimate the degree of obesity at the time of death
because there is no record of this on the bone,
according to Bass (1971). The bones should be
carefully examined for the roughness and robustness
of the muscle attachment lines. These will indicate
a more developed or less developed individual, and
weight should be calculated higher or lower,
47


respectively (Bass 1980; Charney 1982).
Anomalies and Bone Pathologies;
There will be many times when an individual or
group of individuals will not remain consistent with
the charts and formulae used and will not retain the
osteological profile which is attributed to a person
following the norm. This is individual human
variation and cannot be predicted (Bass 1969),
(Cockburn 1980) and (Krogman 1973).
Each individual, regardless of racial placement
or sex constrictions, will exhibit personal and
individual anomalies or pathologies which are unique
to that individual. These landmarks contain
information which can be utilized to distinctly set
this individual apart from all others. These
anomalies and pathologies will help identify the
person as the "one-of-a-kind" human being that she
or he has become throughout her/his life according
to sex, diet, environment and osteological stressors
(Krogman 1973).
Anomalies are a categorized as anything which
is not consistent with the normal osteological
information. They are a "red flag," if you will,
48


that alerts the scientist to the possibility that
biological registration of data on the skeleton has
been altered, in some way. The physical
anthropologist or Egyptologist can interpret these
pieces of information and can learn a great deal
about the person from them.
In the case of the inhabitants of Ancient Egypt,
the following major anomalies and pathologies have
been known to occur and should be consistent with
the individuals of that time period and geographical
locale. According to Harris and Weeks
and Harris and Wente (1980), they are:
1) Osteoarthritis
2) Arrested growth in long bones
3) Antemortem/postmortem fractures
4) Dislocation of joints
5) Vascular calcifications
6) Gallstones
7) Bone infection
8) Dental caries
9) Urethral calculus
10) Opacification of the intervertebral discs
49


11) Malignant neoplasia
12) Tuberculosis
13) Leprosy
14) Syphilis
15) Rickets
16) Osteogenesis imperfecta
17) Systemic disease
18) Smallpox
19) Schistosomiasis
20) Club foot
21) Cleft palate
22) Parietal thinning
23) Inter/petroclinoid calcification
24) Malocclusial trauma
25) Scoliosis
26) Kyphosis
27) Weaponry wounds
28) Amputations
29) Separation of the pelves
30) Hypertrophic arthritis
31) Degenerative arthritis
32) Ankylosing spondylitis
33) Chondrocalcinosis
50


34) Arteriosclerosis
The presence of other diseases and anomalies is
possible and probable. Also combinations of the
above are quite feasible. All anomalies and
pathologies should be documented and photographed,
when possible. There should be a special category
on the report for this purpose.
When pathologies are intricate and obscured
from view, e.g., internal organ pathologies or
trauma, then every precaution should be taken to
describe them in detail and further laboratory
analysis should be forthcoming.
I will state, here, that I believe that
pathologies should be examined by those people whose
areas of expertise correspond with the disease. I
realize that the highly technical nature of this
type of examination warrants specialization of the
discipline and that the physical anthropologist and
Egyptologist must seek outside professional help in
areas where personal competency is lacking. It is
impossible to be an expert in all areas. The
communication between physical anthropologist,
Egyptologist and medical personnel should always
remain open and frequent.
51


CHAPTER FIVE
PRACTICAL EVALUATION OF CHECKLIST WORKSHEET
In order to test the premise of this thesis the
standardized checklist worksheet was implemented
with a random sampling of mummies from the British
Museum collection in London, England.
The assemblage of mummies used was:
1) Number: BM6660 Name: Denytamun
2) Number: BM6681 Name: Peftjau
3) Number: BM6692 Name: Takhebkhenem
4) Number: BM32756 Name: Not given
5) Number: BM52888 Name: Not given
6) Number: BM57353 Name: Not given
After the sampling was determined, the
standardized checklist worksheet was applied and the
following results were tallied.
Out of 96 categories on the standardized
checklist worksheet (beginning page 100 of this
document), the most that had been completed for any
52


one of the mummies was 15. The least amount
completed for any one of the mummies was six. This
leaves, at best, 81 categories in which information
is absent, thus resulting in a severe lack of data
available from which to compare all the mummies.
This triggers an alarming perception that much
valuable data has not been recorded and may be lost
for all time. These discrepancies result in an
incomplete data base which allows far too much
opportunity for conjecture. Inconclusive scientific
reporting, therefore, becomes the end result.
Although this pattern of investigation has been
prevalent in the past, it is now evident that the
use of a standardized checklist worksheet, such as
the one found in this document, is mandatory. With
the use of this type of standardization, comparisons
can be made from different museum collections, as
well as compared to archaeological material yet to
be discovered.
This standardized checklist worksheet can be
modified to fit any given situation while retaining
the major categories of information. This, then,
becomes the "yardstick" for evaluating the
53


information concerning life and death in Ancient
Egypt, and enables physical anthropologists and
Egyptologists to converse and compare the results of
their work. Standardization will help us develop a
corpus of data from which to assess the
contributions of Ancient Egypt to civilization as we
know it.
54


CHAPTER SIX
CONCLUSION
The purpose of the information in this
document, including the appendix which contains
formulae as well as charts and drawings, is to
standardize the collection of data obtained from the
osteological work done on mummies from Ancient
Egypt. It is offered, as well, as a method by
which the physical anthropologist and the
Egyptologist can work together to formulate
hypotheses, track data, make cultural comparisons
and document human health and disease as well as
patterns of life and death.
This thesis deals only with the physical realm
of the deceased, but such information can be
correlated and integrated into the overall "picture"
of Ancient Egypt.
By standardizing the methods used and the
information gathered by the scientists, it can be
understood, more fully, that there is a need to
apply the scientific methods of physical
55


anthropology to the discipline and interpretation of
Egyptology. By combining this knowledge we can
begin to make accurate statements in a scientific
manner concerning the inhabitants of the Nile Valley
and their contributions to human civilization.
56


APPENDIX A
DENTAL ERUPTION SEQUENCE FROM BIRTH TO ADULTHOOD.
In the following diagram the shaded teeth are
decidious as shown in Shipman et al. 1985.
57


APPENDIX B
AGE ESTIMATION BASED ON DENTAL ATTRITION AT TIME OF
DEATH. (Top) Molar wear is classified into
numerical stages by comparing the amount of enamel
wear and dentin exposure (black) with these
standards. (Bottom) Associated skeletons that are
sufficiently complete to provide information on both
dental attrition and age at death, as shown by
osteological indicators, are used to establish the
stage of dental attrition that characterizes
different age periods. The table can be used to
estimate age on individuals known only from teeth in
that population as shown in Shipman et al. 1985.
(i)
(2)
No
wear
VJJ
Enamel
only
(2+)
a
(3)0+) (4) (4+) (5)
(5+)
(5++)
(6)
(7)
66
\ / :
(3-)
Unequal wear
Down to
the neck
Roots
only
58


APPENDIX C
MORPHOLOGICAL CRITERIA FOR AGE ESTIMATION BASED ON
MALE PUBIC SYMPHYSES. This is illustrated in McKern
and Stewart 1957.
Component I
Component II
IM 11-2 II-3 II-4 11-5
Component III
III-1 III-2 HI-3 III-4 HI-5
59


APPENDIX D
SEXUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE SKULL. (Left) female and
(Right) male as shown in Shipman et al. 1985.

60


APPENDIX E
THE ISCHIOPUBIC INDEX, USED TO SEX INNOMINATES. The
ischium, ilium, and pubis meet at point "A". The
index equals the length of the pubis (AC) X 100,
divided by the length of the ischium (AB) as seen in
Shipman et al. 1985.
61


APPENDIX F
EXAMPLE OF WRITING WHICH CAN BE OBTAINED FROM
EXAMINATION OF INSCRIPTIONS ON THE SARCOPHAGUS OF AN
EGYPTIAN MUMMY. This example is from the
sarcophagus of Seti I as shown in Harris and
62


APPENDIX 6
EXAMPLE OF VALUABLE SOURCES OF INFORMATION WHICH CAN
BE OBTAINED FROM AN EGYPTIAN MUMMY SARCOPHAGUS AND
WRAPPED MUMMY. This specimen is of Amenhotep I as
63


APPENDIX H
EXAMPLE OF INFORMATION CONCERNING JEWELRY AND
PHYSICAL INFORMATION WHICH CAN BE OBTAINED FROM AN
EGYPTIAN MUMMY VIA THE RADIOGRAPHY METHOD. This is
illustrated in Harris and Wente 1980.
64


APPENDIX I
THE YTTERBIUM 169 ISOTOPE UNIT USED IN X-RAYING
THE ROYAL MUMMIES. This is illustrated in Harris
and Wente 1980.
65


APPENDIX J
THE COMPLETE CEPHALOMETRIC APPARATUS USED IN THE
X-RAYING OF THE ROYAL MUMMIES. This is illustrated
in Harris and Wente 1980.
66


APPENDIX K
AN EXAMPLE OF THE BASIC PROCEDURAL ORDER IN WHICH
EACH ROYAL MUMMY WAS EXAMINED. This is illustrated
in Harris and Wente 1980.
I. Skull (vault)
A. Sutures
B. Bone texture
II. Dentition
A. Wear of teeth
B. Alveolar involvement
1. Periodontal disease
2. Resorption due to tooth loss
III. Long bones
A. Epiphyseo-diaphyseal relationship
B. Cortex-medulla relationship
C. Lipping" of articular surfaces
1. Peripheral "rampart
2. Osteophytic development
- D. Tuberosities and lineae
E. The humerus
1. Relation of medullary cavity to humeral head
2. Texture of spongiosa
F. General texture and trabeculation
IV. Flat bones: scapula, pelvis
A. Scapula
1. Atrophic rarefaction of supra- and infraspinous fossae*
2. "Pleating and buckling" of the bone in the infraspinous region*
3. Lineae of the subscapularis muscle*
4. Subacromial "plaque" arising from the humeroacromial articulation*
3. Lipping in the glenoid fossa
B. Pelvis
1. The pubic symphysis
a) Symphyseal surface
ft) Dorsal and ventral ramparts"
c) Upper and lower extremities
d) Trabeculation of the pubic bone
2. Iliac bone
a) Lineae or osteophytes on iliac crest
ft) Atrophic areas in the iliac fossa
3. Ischial tuberosity (osteophytic processes)
V. The vertebral column and ribs
A. Lipping of vertebral bodies
B. Texture of vertebral bodies
C. Evidences of compression due to the demineralization with age of the
vertebral bodies
1. Relation of lateral surfaces to upper/lower surfaces of
vertebral bodies
a) Lateral surface straight
ft) Lateral surface concave to give hourglass effect
2. Definition of intervertebral spaces, wide to narrow
D. Ribs: anterior end (costostemal and costochondral); posterior end
(costovertebral); not amenable to precise evaluation
VI. Miscellaneous: fractures, pathology, and/or other unique or distinctive bony
traits
67


APPENDIX L
AGE CHANGES IN THE OS PUBIS. This is illustrated in
Harris and Wente 1980.
Age (Years) Texture Symphyseal Surface Extremities Compacta
0-25 Very fine Undulating Not defined No streak
26-39 Average Slightly irregular or straight Lower beginning to sharpen No streak
40-55 Average Slightly irregular or straight Lower angular Streak moderately dense
55+ Open texture Irregular eroded Upper margin sharp Streak dense
68


APPENDIX M
AGE SUMMARY, BY DECADES, OF THE ROYAL MUMMIES OF
ANCIENT EGYPT. This is illustrated in Harris and
Wente 1980.
Decade (D X-Ray Film No. (2) Sex (3) Name (4) Age (5)
10-19 (D 45 M Thutmose 1 16-22
20-29 53 F Slptah (20-25)
(5) 44 M Amenhotep 1 (20-25-30)
54 M Set! II (25)
46 M Thutmose II (25-30)
43 M Ahmosa 1 (25-30)
30-39 57 M Ramesses V (25-30-35)
(13) 574 F "Elder Lady* (25-30-35)
L4 M Amenhotep III (30-35)
60 F Ahmes-Nefertary (30-35)
61 F Sitkamose (30-35)
58 M Ramesses VI (30-35)
62 F Meryetamon (30-35)
63 F Nodjme (30-35)
55 M Ramesses III (30-35)
64 F Makare (30-35-40)
49 M Thutmose IV (30-35-40)
65 F Henttowy (30-35-40)
59 M Ramesses IX or XI (35-40)
40-49 42 M Seqenenre Tao (35-40)
(6) 47 M Thutmose III (35-40)
50 M Sett 1 (35-40)
48 M Amenhotep II (35-40-45)
56 M Ramesses IV (35-40-45)
52 F Merenptah (45-50)
50-59 (D 51 M Ramesses II (50-55+)
69


APPENDIX N
SUMMARY OF THE DENTAL HEALTH OF THE ROYAL MUMMIES
FROM ANCIENT EGYPT. This is illustrated in Harris
and Wente 1980.
Periodontal Interincisal
Age at Death Attrition Health Angle (degrees)
Pharaohs
Seventeenth Dynasty
6342 Seqenenre Tao 35-40 Mod. Ext. Good 122
Eighteenth Dynasty
6343 Ahmose 1 25-3 0 Mod. Ext. Fair 137
6344 Amenhotep 1 20-25-30 Minimal Good 140
6345 Thutmose 1 18-22 Moderate Fair . 109
6346 Thutmose II 25-30 Minimal Good 122
6347 Thutmose III 35-40 Moderate Fair 163
6348 Amenhotep II 35-40-45 Moderate Fair 134
6349 Thutmose IV 30-35-40 Moderate Fair 154
6350 Amenhotep III 30-35 Mod. Ext. Poor 130
Tutankhamon 20-25 Minimal Good 128
Yuya Extensive Severe
Nineteenth Dynasty
6350 Setil 35-40 Mod. Ext. Fair-Poor 127
6351 Ramesses II 50-55+ Extensive Severe 144
6352 Merenptah 45-50 Extensive Severe 119
6353 Siptah 20-25 Minimal Good 111
6354 Set! II 25 Minimal Good 123
Twentieth Dynasty
6355 Ramesses III 3035 Moderate Fair 155
6356 Ramesses IV 35-40-45 Moderate Fair 139
6357 Ramesses V 25-30-35 Minimal Good 145
6358 Ramesses VI 30-35 Moderate Fair
6359 Ramesses IX or XI 35-40 Mod. Ext. Poor-Sev. 151
Queens
6350 Ahmes-Nefertary 30-35 Extensive Poor 115
6361 Sitkamose 30-35 Moderate Good 133
, 6362 Meryetamon 30-35 Moderate Good 119
6360 Nodjme 30-35 Extensive Poor 151
01 Tawosret
" 6364 Makare 30-35-40 Moderate Fair 138
i 6365 Henttowy 30-35-10 115
- 6366 Esemkhebe 128
' 6362 Tetisheri Extensive Poor 127
T)uya Extensive Severe 120
Elder Lady 25-30-35 Moderate Fair 139
70


APPENDIX O
CEPHALOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF NEW KINGDOM PHARAOHS
AND CRANIOFACIAL VARIATION IN THE ROYAL MUMMIES FROM
ANCIENT EGYPT. This is illustrated in Harris and
Wente 1980.
6342
Saqenanr 6343 6344 6345 6346 6347
Measurement Tao Ahmoea 1 Amenhotep I Thutmoae 1 Thutmosa II Thutmote i
ANB 0.22 7.5 5.56 10.46 3.41 8.1
SNA 84.55 62.0 68.47 87.57 78.23 77.1
SNB 78.33 74.59 82.91 77.12 74.82 71.0
SN Pop 76.62 78.12 85.58 77.04 75.61 72.48
NS Art 126.32 13244 126.75 126.73 131.16 145.49
NS Gon 103.68 113.36 101.54 108.45 105.76 111.70
NSPog 67.54 70.59 63.45 66.73 69.40 73.07
NS PNS 68.37 78.50 73.84 71.66 75.93 70.37
NS 8as 133.94 136.26 . 129.07 131.99 146.90
Gonial Angle 121.0 104.0 123.7 118.0 129.8 127.0
Gon-Art-Pog 39.0 52.0 39.0 42.0 35.2 36.0
SN-P Plana 11.88 14.52 13.74 16.03 11.80 17.52
Sn-M Plane 34.0 27.2 33.7 34.0 37.4 43.1
Y-Axis 84.1 90.5 - 68.0 86.0 62.6
U1-P Plane 113.9 102.0 111.2 117.0 117.5 99.5
L1-M Plana 101.0 105.4 90.0 113.6 95.0 76.5
Interinclaal 122.0 137.5 140.36 109.8 122.4 163.0
Ramus/Body 0.67 0.60 0.64 0.55 0.60 0.63
Maxflla/Body 0.70 0.67 0.71 0.71 0.70 0.63
Maxilla/Mandlble 0.48 0.51 0.49 0.53 0.46 0.46
Ramus/Maxilla 0.36 0.89 0.90 0.77 0.36 0.63
SN/Body 0.98 0.83 0.66 0.89 0.96 0.91
Baa N/Art Gn 0.98 1.03 . 0.98 0.99 0.61
Cranial Index 0.66 0.68 - 0.72 0.71 0.61
UFH/TFH 0.4S 0.46 0.48 0.48 0.43 0.48
A-0 dill. S.8 14.0 4.2 16.0 6.6 12.4

6348 6349 2088 1075 6350 6381 6352
Amenhotep Thutmose. Amenhotep Smcnkh- Set! I Harnesses Merenptah
Measurement II IV III kara II
ANB 5.5 5.64 6.00 5.41 5.49 6.94 7,5
SNA 66.5 67.45 65.0 65.18 79.70 80.77 80.0
SNB 60.6 81.61 79.0 79.77 74.15 73.63 72.3
SN Pog 61.6 63.10 61.04 80.62 76.4 75.32 74.8
NS Art 121.0 125.79 134.68 140.94 130.01 131.63 122.0
NS Gon 110.0 102.89 107.0 109.72 108.00 112.25 111.3
f MS PNS 73.2 72.43 74.55 85.75 74.05 77.08 81.2
NS Bas 131.1 129.80 135.44 142.24 131.70 133.68 132.1
Gonial Angle 115.6 113.2 122.5 127.64 116.3 107.9 109.0
Gon-Art-Pog 4S.0 43.2 37.0 35.10 41.6 43.0 44.1
SN-P Plane 13.0 10.69 12.46 8.70 13.86 10.25 10.5
Sn-M Plana 36.4 26.2 28.0 37.33 32.22 31.9 33.4
Y-Axis 90.0 63.0 85.0 69.0 90.B 90.2 90.2
U1-P Plane 116.0 100.8 110.0 107.73 114.0 94.1 69.0
L1-M Plane 84.0 90.4 102.0 62.60 97.8 101.1 97.0
Interincisal 134.3 154.4 130.9 141.04 127.0 144.0 119.4
Ramus/Body 0.S7 0.73 0.69 0.69 0.62 0.65 0.68
Mexilla/Body 0.57 0.68 0.66 0.67 0.66 0.61 0.66
Maxilla/Mandlble 0.42 0.47 0.45 0.45 0.47 0.45 0.42
Ramus/Maxilla 1.00 1.07 1.04 1.03 0.95 1.06 1.34
SN/Body 0.77 0.86 0.65 0.75 0.92 0.86 0.93
0as N/Art Gn 0.85 0.87 0.68 0.85 0.98 0.93 0.69
Cranial index 0.70 0.71 0.72 0.74 0.68 0.68 0.74
UFH/TFH 0.44 0.45 0.58 0.57 0.44 0.45 0.59
A-B dill. 0.6 2.0 3.4 2 150 11.8 1.2
71


APPENDIX P
CEPHALOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF NEW KINGDOM QUEENS AND
CRANIOFACIAL VARIATION IN THE ROYAL MUMMIES FROM
ANCIENT EGYPT. This is illustrated in Harris and
Wente 1980.
Measurement 56 Tetlaheri 6350 Nefartary 6361 Sllkamo* 6382 Meryetamon 69 TJuya
ANB 4.71 1.43 . 7.75 5.97
SNA 68.35 73.47 85.76 65.5 60.31
SNB 61.63 72.03 78.00 77.5 74.34
SN Poo 61.22 73.92 78.68 78.5 76.09
NS Art 119.64 . 134.93 127.30 125.5 130.64
NS Gan 98.64 111.77 100.59 101.00 107.25
NS Poo NS PNS 87.73 75.96 6520 64.50 77.31
NS Bis 129.54 140.62 138.80 136.50 137.09
Gonlaf Angfd 128.89 115.89 127.55 128.00 12528
Goiv-Afl-Pog 3S.34 42.56 35.33 36.50 35.59
SN-P Plane 6.89 23.96 826 8.00 13.64
SN-M Plane 31.75 32.79 34.95 33.50 36.51
Y-Axia 85.66 89.59 79.92 80.50 90.07
Ul-P Plane 111.25 117.34 119.80 118.50 106.06
L1-M Plane 103.29 87.27 93.19 96.00 89.56
Interinelsal 120.59 146.53 120.32 120.50 141.46
Ramua/Body* .65 .70 .69 .72 .66
MaxlllafBody .67 .61 .65 .68 67
Maxllla/Mandlble .46 .43 .44 .43 .46
Remua/Maxllla .96 1.15 1.07 1.08 1.01
SN/Body . .97 .91 .98 .98 .91
Baa N/Bas Gn .98 .99 .90 .98 .94
Cranial Index .79 .74 .87 .78 .74
UFWTEH .49 .47 .51 .52 .46
A-B dlfl. 8.2 220 92 6.4 82
R1 Tlye R39 Tawoaret 6363 Nodjme 6364 Makar* 6389 Henttowy 6366 Esamkhabe
6.54 421 4.34 8.74 10.53 3.81
74.44 64.59 77.89 7320 80.31 75.06
67.69 60.38 73.55 64.46 73.86 7125
67.98 81.54 74.81 64.73 74.14 71.29
13922 139.99 135.62 143.63 135.56 136.51
116.59 107.83 113.66 123.01 116.67 116.47
75.13 76.91 79.07 81.15 80.57 6024
148.69 143.16 147.55 148.19 140.51 142.64
125.48 121.30 119.12 12225 121.38 113.92
38.95 37.45 4027 40.93 40.42 4225
22.12 10.71 25.16 22.38 15.25 1506
47.16 29.46 40.39 52.93 45.52 39.54
91.40 85.23 90.56 96.57 96.91 93.39
105.66 116.70 118.27 90.04 99.66 110.34
97.04 96.04 95.64 94.35 100.99 105.50
13224 128.50 130.64 145.04 128.85 119.69
.56 .75 .66 .61 .61 .73
.65 .61 .59 .64 .64 .60
.47 .41 .42 .47 .46 .43
.91 123 1.14 .94 .95 1.20
.94 .79 .62 .89 .75 .86
1.01 .62 .91 .95 .91 .92
.76 .71 .74 .77 .69 .69
.48 .44 .46 .48 .45 .46
112 -1.00 1.16 12.2 13.4 620
72


APPENDIX Q
CHART OF POSTNATAL UNION OF CENTERS OF OSSIFICATION.
This is illustrated in Harris and Wente 1980.
Scapula
Acromion 18:0-19:0
Vertebral margin 20:0-21:0
Inferior angle 20:0-21:0
Clavicle
Sternal end 25:0-28:0
Acromial end 19:0-20:0
Humerus
Head 19:6-20:6
Distal 14:0-15:0
Medial epicondylc 15:0-16:0
Radius
Proximal 14:6-15:6
Distal 18:0-19:0
Ulna
Proximal 14:6-15:6
Distal 18:0-19:0
Hand
Metacarpals 15:6-16:6
Phalanges I 15:0-16:0
Phalanges II 15:0-16:0
Phalanges III 14:6-15:6
Pelvis
Primary elements 13:0-15:0
Crest 18:0-19:0
Tuberosity 19:0-20:0
Femur
Head 17:0-18:0
Greater trochanter 17:0-18:0
Lesser trochanter 17:0-18:0
Distal 17:6-18:6
Tibia
Proximal 17:6-18:6
Distal 15:6-16:6
Fibula
Proximal 17:6-18:6
Distal 15:6-16:6
Calcaneal epiphysis 14:6-15:6
Foot
Metatarsals - 15:0-16:0
Phalanges I 14:6-15:6
Phalanges II 14:0-15:0
Phalanges III 14:0-15:0
73


APPENDIX R
CHART OF CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER OF APPEARANCE AND
FUSION OF EPIPHYSES. This is illustrated in
Krogman 1973.
At the age of 8:
Both sexes
Female
At the age of 9:
Female
Male
At the age of 10:
Male
At the age of 11:
Female
Male
At the age of 12:
Male
At the age of 13:
Female
Male
At the age of 14:
Female
Male
At the age of 15:
Both aeaea
Female
Male
At the age of 16:
Female
Male
At the age of 17:
Both sexes
Female
Male
At the age of 18:
Female
Male
At the age of 19:
Male
At tlte age of 20:
Roth inn
Male
At the age of 21.
Both sntn
Female
At the age of 22:
Roth inn
Appearance
Appearance
Fuiion
Appearance
Appearance
Appearance
Appearance
Fuiion
Appearance
Fuiion
Appearance
Appearance
Fuiion
Appearance
Fuiion
Appearance
Fuiion
Appearance
Fuiion
Fuiion
Appearance
Fusion
Fuiion
Appearance
Fiction
Fuiion
Appearance
Fusion
Fusion
ApophyiU of calcaneus
Olecranon
Troehlea, pisiform
Rami of ischium and pubti
Trochlea, olecranon
Lateral epieondyle
Filiform
Lateral epieondyle
Froaimal sesamoid of thumb
Lower conjoint epiphysis of humerus, distal
phalanx of ihumo, bodies ilium. Ischium and
pubii
Capituhim to trochlea and lateral epieondyle
Acromion, Iliac crest, lesser trochanter
Olecranon, upper radius, proximal phalanx of
ring Anger, distal phalanx of thumb, head of
femur, greater trochanter, distal tibia and
fibula, apophysis calcaneus, Ant metatarsal,
proximal phalanges of toes
Proximal sesamoid of thumb, base of fifth
metatarsal
Sesamoid of little Anger
Distal phalanges of second, third and fourth
toes
Sesamoid of index and little Angers
Medial epieondyle, first metacarpal, proximal
phalanx of thumb, distal phalanges of inner
four fingen, proximal tibia, outer four meta-
tarsals, middle phalanx of second toe, distal
phalanges of inner four toes
Acromion
Ilium, Ischium and pubis
Distal sesamoid of thnmb, tuber (schil
Inner four metacarpals, proximal phalanges of
index, middle and little fingers, middle
phalanges of fingen
Lower conjoint epiphysis of humerus, medial
epieondyle, olecranon, head of radius, distal
phalanx of middle finger, apophysis of caU
cancua
Acromion
Upper conjoint epiphysis of humerus, distal
ulna, distal femur, proximal fibula
Distal sesamoid of thumb
First metacarpal, proximal phalanges of thumb
and ring nnger, middle phalanges. Index,
middle and ring fingers, distal phalanges of
thumb, index, ring and little fingen, head of
femur, greater trochanter, distal tibia and
fibula, metatarsals, proximal phalanges of
toes, middle phalanx of second toe, distal
phalanx of hallux
Distal radius
Inner four metacarpals, proximal phalanges of
index, middle and little fingen. nuddle
phalanges of little finger, proximal tibia
Soamoid of Index, lubrr itehii
Upper conjoint epiphysis of humerus, distal
radius and ulna, distal femur, proximal
fibula
Iliac crest
Tuber isehu
Clavicle
Tuber ischil
Clavicle
74


APPENDIX S
CHART OF AGES OF CRANIAL SUTURE CLOSURE. This is
illustrated in Krogman 1973.
Endoctanial Fxtocrvniai
Malt White Male Ntgra Malt Whitt Male Negra
Suture C* 7> lUmtnki C T Rtamh C T Remarks C T Remarks
1. Sagittal 22 35 Slows at 31 at 3.9. Stow to 26 22 31 Slow* to 26 complete 20 29 3.9 in obeiica 2.4 alone; 2.9 in gen- eral Slow to 26 20 32 Slowly to 24. 2.9- 3.6 in gen., 4.0 in obeiica alone
2. .Spheno- frontal orbital 27 64 Slows at 30 at 3.0. Final burst of act. 20 44 Slow to 26 complete 28 46 2.3 at 31, 3.8 at 46 21 35 3.5 at 35, may reach 4.0 at 43
3. Spheno- frontal temporal 22 65 Same 23 44 Slow to 26 complete 28 38 2.1 at 38, may reach 4.0 In old age 25 46 1.9 at 35
4. Coronal 1 and 2 24 38 Slows at 29 at 3.4 24 38 Slows at 32 at 3.6 26 29 bregmatica at 2.3, complicata at 0.9 23 32 Breg. at 2.4, comp, at 1.7
5. Coronal 3 26 41 Slows at 29 at 2.1 rapid to ca. 30 2S 44 Slows at 31 at 2.3 28 so 50 at 3.7, spurious rise at 21 25 35 35 at 2.8, spur, rise at 21
6. Lambdoid 1 and 2 2 ft 42 Slows at 31 at 3.4 23 46 Stows at 30 at 2.5. Slow to 46 2 7. I.ambdoi fi._ Masio- occipital 3 2u 72 32-48 at 3.2. Slow progress thereafter 17 30 30at3.3. No further progress thereafter 26 33 1.4 at 33, may reach 4.0 in old age 26 31 Spurious rise at 21 see. act. at 50
V. Spheno- parietal 29 65 29-46 at 3.0 23 49 Slows at 30 at 2.7 28 38 2.0 at 38, 3.5 at 31, continues to old age 28 46 1.4 at 31
l*. Spheno- temporal 2 30 67 Slow at once, 67 at 3.9, grad, progress 40 51 51 at 3.3. Oscilla- tions thereafter 36 ?65 Prob. never closes 50? 0 Prob. never closes
11. Sphcno- temporal 1 31 64 31-62 at 2.5, 64 at 2.4. Burst of acL at 63 40 41 41 at 1.2, then oscil. 37 ?65 Prob. never closes 50? 0 Prob. never doses
12. Mario- orcipital 30 81 32-45 at 1.25, act. bet. 46 & 64, linal burst 25 46 46 al3.5,then oscil. 28 32 32 at 0.B-1.0, may reach 3.5 in old age 27 31 31 at 2.7, spur, rise ca. 18, sec. act. 50
13. Parieto- mastoid 37 HI Almost inact. till 50, slow thereafter 33 51 51 at3.6, thcnosril. 39 ?64 Prob. never closes 50? 0 Prob. never doses
14. Sqnnmoii poster it-r 37 HI Hursts at 63 ft 79, almost inact. till 62 40 49 49 at 1.7, then oscil. 38 >65 Prob. never closes 50? 0 Prob. never doses
15. Squama"" anteriot 37 81 Same 40 49 Same 38 ?6S Prob. never closes 50? 0 Prob. never closes
75


APPENDIX T
CHART OF LOCATION OF BEGINNING CLOSURE IN VAULT
SUTURES (IN %). This is illustrated in McKern and
Stewart 1957 and published in Krogman 1973.
Sagittal Lambdoid Coronal
Pars Pars Part Pars Pars Part Part Pars Pars Pars Pars
Age No. treg. vert. obel. iamb. lamb. inter. aster. treg. comp. steph. pier.
17-18 55 - 4 8 4 1 2 4 2 2
19 52 11 IS 11 6 6 4 4 8 6 4 1
20 45 9 22 IS 24 9 ii 7 2 13 9 2
21 37 10 16 5 19 16 10 8 2 8 2 2
22 24 20 20 16 25 12 20 4 20 16 8 8
23 26 7 19 ii 23 ii 11 7 19 19 23 34
24-25 27 26 19 30 26 26 26 26 15 14 19 22
26-27 25 23 1 l 23 3 i 2 3 3 1 37
28-30 29 9 12 9 25 12 29 9 16 29 12 16
31-40 43 u 18 13 17 28 11 18 28 28 18 17
41-50 Total 6 369 16 16 16 33 50 50 16 33 33 16
76


APPENDIX U
CHART OF THE TEN PHASES IN POSTNATAL AGE-CHANGES IN
THE PUBIC SYMPHYSIS. This is illustrated in
Krogman 1973.
Phase Symphyseal Surface Ossifie Nodules Ventral Margin Dorsal Margin Extremities
First Rugged horiz. grooves, None None None No definition
18-19 furrows and ridges
Second Grooves filling dorsally May appear on Ventral bevel begins Begins No definition
20-21 and behind sym, surf.
Third Ridges and furrows pro- Present almost Beveling more pro- More definite dorsal pla- No definition
22-24 gressively going constantly nounced teau begins
Fourth Rapidly going Present Beveling greatly Complete dorsal plateau Lower commencing deft-
25-26 increased present nition
Fifth Little change May be present Sporadic attempt at ven< Completely defined Lower clearer: upper
27-30 tral rampart extremity forming
Sixth Granular appearance re- May be present Ventral rampart conv Defined Increasing def. upper and
30-35 tained plete lower
Seventh Texture finer; change due May be present Complete Defined Carry on
35-39 to diminishing activity
Eighth Smooth and inactive; no May be present No lipping No lipping Oval outline complete,
39-44 rim extremities clearly out-
lined
Ninth Rim present May be present Irregularly lipped Uniformly lipped Carry on
44-50
Tenth Erosion and erratic osslfi-

50+ cation
77


APPENDIX V
CHART OF TRAITS DIAGNOSTIC OF SEX IN THE SKULL.
This is illustrated in Krogman 1973.
Trait
Male
Female
General size
Architecture
Supra-orbilal ridges
Mastoid processes
Occipital area
Frontal eminences
Parietal eminences
Orbits
Forehead
Cheek bones
Mandible
Palate
Occipital condyles
Teeth
Large (endocranial volume 200
cc. more)
Rugged
Medium to large
Medium to large
Muscle lines and protuberance
marked
Small
Small
Squared, lower, relatively
smaller, with rounded mar-
gins
Steeper, less rounded
Heavier, more laterally arched
Larger, higher symphysis,
broader ascending ramus
Larger, broader, tends more to
U-shape
Large
Large; lower Ml more often 5-
cusped
Small
Smooth
Small to medium
Small to medium
Muscle lines and protuber-
ance not marked
Large
Large
Rounded, higher, relatively
larger, with sharp mar-
gins
Rounded, full, infantile
Lighter, more compressed
Small, with less corpal and
ramal dimensions
Small, tends more to para-
bola
Small
Small; molars most often 4-
cusped
78


APPENDIX W
CHART OF SEX DIFFERENCES IN PELVIC MORPHOLOGY.
is illustrated in Krogman 1973.
Trail
Male
Female
Pelvis as a whole Massive, rugged, marked mus-
cle sites
Symphysis Higher
Subpubic angle V-shaped, sharp angle
Obturator foramen
Acetabulum
Greater sciatic notch
Ischiopubic rami
Sacro-iliac articula-
tion
Preauricular sulcus
Large, often ovoid
Large, tends to be directed
laterally
Smaller, close, deep
Slightly everted
Large
Not frequent
Ilium High, tends to be vertical
Sacrum Longer, narrower, with more
evenly distributed curva-
ture; often 5+ segments
Pelvic brim, or inlet Heart-shaped
True pelvis, or cavity Relatively smaller
Less massive, gracile, smoother
Lower . .
U-shaped, rounded; broader
divergent obtuse angle
Small, triangular
Small, tends to be directed
anterolaterallv
Larger, wider, shallower
Strongly everted
Small, oblique
More frequent, better de-
veloped
Lower, laterally divergent
Shorter, broader, with tend-
ency to marked curve at
Sl-2 and S3-5; 5 segments
the rule
Circular, elliptical
Oblique, shallow, spacious
This
79


APPENDIX X
CHART OF AVERAGES OF STATURE AND SELECTED LONG BONES
(IN CMS) ACCORDING TO YEAR OF BIRTH, SOURCE, RACE
AND SEX (for Caucasians and Negroids). This is
illustrated in Krogman 1973.
Av. Age
When
Year of Birth No. Stature Was Measured Stature as Measured . Corrected Stature** Femur . Tibia Femur and Tibia
WHITE MALES
Terry Collection
1840-49 9 83.9 171.6 172.8 46.5 36.5 83.0
1850-59 29 76.0 168.2 168.9 45.2 34.8 80.0
1860-69 79 68.3 170.0 170.3 45.8 35.6 81.4
1870-79 68 58.9 171.2 170.9 45.8 35.4 81.2
1880-89 51 49.3 170.3 169.5 45.4 34.9 80.4
1890-99 15 38.9 171.4 169.9 45.4 35.0 80.4
1900-09 4 33.2 175.8 173.9 47.5 37.2 84.7
Military Personnel
1905-09 33 32.8 171.2 46.1 35.6 81.7
1910-14 77 29.1 172.9 47.1 36.5 83.6
1915-19 171 24.5 173.3 47.1 36.7 83.8
1920-24 249 20.3 174.8 47.5 37.1 84.6
NEGRO MALES
Terry Collection
1840-49 5 85.8 166.2 167.6 45.2 35.9 81.1
1850-59 14 77.1 169.6 170.4 46.9 37.0 83.9-
1860-69 45 67.6 171.7 172.0 47.6 37.6 85.2
1870-79 67 59.9 172.5 172.3 47.6 37.9 85.5
1880-89 83 50.0 172.0 171.2 47.2 37.3 84.5
1890-99 65 39.0 172.2 170.7 47.2 37.4 84.6
1900-09 72 29.8 175.6 173.6 48.1 38.3 86.4
1910-19 9 24.3 176.6 174.6 48.0 38.4 86.4
Military Personnel
1905-09 8 32.1 168.5 46.5 36.5 83.0
1910-14 15 29.8 173.8 48.5 39.0 87.5
1915-19 25 24.8 171.2 48.3 38.4 86.7
1920-24 33 20.1 173.2 48.5 38.9 87.4
WHITE FEMALES
Terry Collection
1840-49 2 87.0 150.5 151.9 40.3 30.2 70.5
1850-59 11 79.9 156.0 157.0 42.1 32.9 75.0
1860-69 22 71.2 161.8 162.3 43.2 33.3 76.5
1870-79 10 61.2 162.6 162.5 43.4 33.8 77.2
1880-89 8 52.2 160.1 159.4 43.4 33.5 76.9
1890-99 4 38.0 166.5 165.0 44.4 34.3 78.7
1900-09 6 32.3 162.2 160.3 42.0 32.0 74.0
NEGRO FEMALES
Terry Collection
1840-49 3 87.0 155.0 156.4 43.1 34.9 78.0
1850-59 8 80.0 155.2 156.2 42.7 33.3 76.0
1860-69 18 71.0 158.7 159.2 43.7 34.7 78.4
1870-79 23 62.0 162.0 161.9 43.9 34.6 78.5
1880-89 32 49.0 160.9 160.0 43.5 34.5 78.0
80


APPENDIX Y
CHART OF.THE CALCULATION OF STATURE FROM LONG BONES.
This is illustrated in
1. Scapular index:
2. Infra-spinous index:
3. Supra-spinous index:
Charney 1980.
Morphological length (2) X 100
Morphological breadth (l)
Breadth of infra-spinous fossa X 100
Morphological length
Breadth of supra-spinous fossa X 100
Morphological lengtli
Observations
(1) I'crtebral border (from scapular spine to inferior angle): Convex,
straight, concave.
(2) Scapula notch: Absent, slight, medium, deep, foramen.
(3) Shape of acromion process: Sickle, triangular, quadrangular, inter-
mediate.
(4) Age changes:' Lipping oE glenoid fossa, pleating, buckling, atrophic
patches. Classify each in following categories: absent, sub-medium,
medium, pronounced.
THE HUMERUS, THE RADIUS, THE ULNA
The elementary student is advised to confine his measuring to the
maximum lengths of these bones and to the maximum diameter of the
humeral head. The former are of use in reconstructing stature and limb
proportions, the latter in the determination of sex.
STATURE RECONS TRUCTION FORMULAE
Male Stature
(a) 81.30(5 -}- l.SSU Femur
(1>) 7<).(>11 -f- 2.S5M Humerus
(c) 78.<>f>4 -j- 2.37b Tibia
(d) 8r,.!)2.r> J- 3.271 Radius
(e) 71.272 -j- 1.13!) (Femur 4-Tibia)
(I) 71.113 I- 1.22(1 Femur q- 1.080 Tibia
(g) (ili-Sri'i |- l.7all (I Imuerus -j- Radius)
(h) (5(1.788 2.7uli 1 lumerus -}- .Ml!) Radius
(i) (>8.307 -j- 1.0:50 Femur-f- l.i"7 Humerus
(k) (i7.01!.'-f- .913 Femur 4- .GOO Tibia -f- 1.225 Humerus .187 Radius
Female Stature
(a) 72.811 -j- l.JM'i Femur
(l) ) 71.-17.r) -j- 2.754 Humerus
(c) 71.771 4-2.352 Tibia
(d) 81.224 -f 3.3-13 Radius
(e) (i|).l.r) l 4-1.12(5 (Femur'Tibia)
81


EXAMINATION 07 THE COFFIN: fofolp O
MATERIAL USED SZfesflAJL-
STYLE OF COFFIN: Anthropoid_Rectangular__Other____ .
'TtV-7 ~yurj~
MEASUREMENTS:LengthWidth Condition: Poor____Fair Good_______Excellent XL"
TYPE OF GROUND FOR PAINT: Gesso
.X.
Sare wood
Other
COLOURS USED:
Red V Black White Blue V" Brown
Yellow L sienna Green Other________
DYNASTIC INFORMATION (if known)

STYLE OF INSCRIPTION: Hieroglyph Klerat/c
Coptic,;_______Greek____
YtL
Demotlc
Other
INSCRIPTIC
TRANSLATION:____^
P&utftAmi/V Sortd U*JftC.F-C\r ia/v oi? Non._______MoTH^n. frtMWtftoj
I -vx-v> T
PA^ZHterL OF- fi/ksK/hvs____________________________
INDIVIDUAL NAMES RECORDED ON COFFIN D kTVCjTfrWV/J.
J A/£5&jT)fJS_______________________________
COMMENTS_______________________________________________________________
-------
DATE SjUtfT
NAME OF EXAMINER /L&aL__________________
MUSEUM NAME AND ADDRESS ^---------------
MUSEUM NUMBER_ (? & b &
STORAGE LOCATION
^fQhf/itU^OO^
82


EXAMINATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL:
/ (ffleljo
TYPE OP WRAPPING
CONDITION OF WRAPPING: Poor.
JEWELRY PRESENT:/§-
Good
Excellent. X
FUNERARY AMULETS PRESENT:
METHODOLOGIES USED: Blood reconstitution//Vj DNA fingerprinting^^
i
X-RAYHZa/ CAT SCAN (j* FINGERPRINTS TAKEN //^PROTEIN WORKUP /t^3
PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN: Yes Xnq______Photos attached__L^2._________________
v*~
TISSUE SAMPLES TAKEN: Yes____No Results attached,
op )u*JoKj-(i-^ (j£VW-Cj~
PERSONAL PROFILE: Gender O* Height AJK- Weight fJRace
Stature A/^Anomalies/Patholooles
DENTITION: Poor________Fair______Good ^ Excellent___________Comments____
ilLn^tli -2- <*A. J2~C/£ crdrtJ
NAME OF EXAMINER _____________DATE / f ______________
NAME AND ADDRESS OF MUSEUM MtcL IF EXCAVATED: Site number____________
_______COi/l
Location
d* ice 'T&IC4. XcX__~
Accompanying artifacts.
Burial number^^-tV^'Depth from surface.
je: i
Prii
E) Flexed_F) Extended. X .Partial cre-
Depth from datum ~ Burial type: A)' Natural
mummification A#\-b) Cremation______C) Primary 7P} '
Secondary
amatlon
Burial dimension
l
.Deposition:
A) Orientation of the head g) Direction of the
83


rest of the Photographs taken: Yes ^4^No_If
so are photos attached to this document? Yes ^No
Y-eA^ie ,
COMMENTS e-r/
o (LsC-&£l_
^/ (/[ (Lest*^ ~lu_ ~f£c#-z^-xr - l^Cc'do
nLft qujl. cCl /___________________________________________________
LIST ALL OTHER SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION ASSOCIATED WITH THIS
EXAMINATION REPORT:



i
t^-^7 -
<^7?

j?^f /fy (OnAjU^ /)
NAME OF EXAMINER
^UU --
____________________DATE. / 'fluLt iiJKy WM. Ctu ^ /c svujlmmma*. jd/jn
tos? 6ve~CC tfo 4
sZjtLtyAAJ
/f"
Co^
r
84


EXAMINATION 07 THE COFFIN:
MATERIAL USED
STYLE OF COFFIN: Anthropoid X Rectangular
Other
^*4
MEASUREMENTS: Length^? WldthT^fs^-Depth Thickness
_Good X. _Excellent_
Condition: Poor
Fair
TYPE OF GROUND FOR PAINT: Gesso Bare wood_
M-VWV- Other
T
COLOURS USED: Red
X.
Black
A
White
XL
Blue
Brown
Yellow
DYNASTIC INFORMATION (If known) ,-2/
Sienna Green Other
54

STYLE OF INSCRIPTION: Hieroglyph A Klerat/c________Demotlc_
Coptic_________Greek_________Other___
INSCRIPTIC
TRANSLATION

-£
-==

k.
/VW\
4
'P^TJaO (ew\)/H>iKUotJS AAJttHuveFF&L
INDIVIDUAL NAMES RECORDED ON COFFIN
4k

Ut

COMMENTS 4t^4e^- /tciJL ~T)(?7uf-Ufrl\MuT CfarfZ-] fn*~ (svix, s%jy& sJyn
(i ipeA-i^y
lpex-rn 7T/
EXAMINER_
NAME OF
MUSEUM NAME AND ADDRESS
DATE


MUSEUM NUMBER

STORAGE LOCATION

z*-^

85


EXAMINATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL:
TYPE OF WRAPPING

CONDITION OF WRAPPING: Poor
1___Fa 1 r__Good
Excellent
JEWELRY PRESENT: C U*-
?: /I/UTyUs f /iJtluAisi-WJ-J- sd&tcst*-
FUNERARY AMULETS PRESENT:

METHODOLOGIES USED: Blood reconstltutlon//fc) DNA fingerprinting N
X-RAY(7g-/ CAT SCAN /\J0 FINGERPRINTS TAKEN A/^ PROTEIN WORKUP /j d

PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN
EN: Yes yC. No_Photos attached (y]Q.<3
TISSUE SAMPLES TAKEN: Yes_______No Y- Results attached
ytuMj aJUjujf
PERSONAL PROFILE: Gender Q7 Height -i~fc.?telght/V / Stature
AIK.-Anomalles/Pathologles/2/x .tfeAJ/jUf-t&A. -
fiz yh*u vbiM.K ^vdL/u, 2-i&ujg,
Fair Good
DENTITION: Poor
Excellent
Comments
muixJIx sLjCJC^ _____
^ '* Ar NAME OF EXAMINER
NAME AND ADDRESS OF MUSEUM
TZuTZZ IhtZStZi
y
IF EXCAVATED: Site number/7'tvf&-wLocation
Accompanying artifacts {~o**.
Burial number /7/Ll/rf~Depth from surface_
Depth from datum,
mummification____
Secondary_
amatlon____
_E) Flexed
___________Burial type: A)'Natural
B) Cremation_____C) Primary________D)
Partial cre-
_F) Extended
Burial dimensions
.Deposition:
A) Orientation of the head/7^/~ B) Direction' of the
86


rest of the bodv/TtjY' photographs taken: Yes^^No_____If
so are photos attached to this document? Yes>£\No___
COMMENTS Ct&^_ TyT?^-^ yU^-rzAJ /7&(A.isC% 7
LIST ALL OTHER
EXAMINATION REPORT:
NAME OF EXAMINER

DATE.
87


Full Text

PAGE 1

STANDARDIZING METHODS FOR DOCUMENTING AND ANALYZING EGYPTIAN MUMMIFIED HUMAN REMAINS by Cheryl Suzanne Ware B.A., Loretto Heights College, 1975 M.A., University of Northern Colorado, 1977 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Anthropology 1991

PAGE 2

This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Cheryl Suzanne Ware has been approved for the Department of Anthropology by .

PAGE 3

Ware, Cheryl Suzanne (M.A., Anthropology) Standardized Methods for Documenting and Analyzing Egyptian Mummified Human Remains Thesis directed by Professor Lorna G. Moore After surveying mummy collections, and doing an extensive literature search, I found a lack of any standardized system for analyzing and documenting mummified human remains from Ancient Egypt. This has prohibited the organized and comparative study of data and has resulted in a loss of critical information dealing with dentition, health/disease, cultural practices, nutrition, medical procedures, mummification procedures, osteometries, aesthetics, pathologies, anomalies and demography. Using the mummy collections at the British Museum, London, England; the Rosecrucian Museum, San Jose, California; and the Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver, Colorado, I have tested this theory, devised forms for standardized use and developed a worksheet for the examination of mummified remains and implemented them in an attempt to synthesize the information gleaned into a standardized form.

PAGE 4

The results of this application of my standardized form to the various collections mentioned revealed a definite lack of standardization and continuity concerning the comparative data. Conclusions are that there is a definite need for this standardized method and that there are mummy collections around the world which would benefit from this new concept of data retrieval and documentation and the need for a reexamination of existing data as applied to this new documentation procedure is crucial. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Si

PAGE 5

DEDICATION To Rosalie J. Bennington, without whose support I could never have completed this work, I give my sincere appreciation. Thanks, Rosie, for stepping around the books, papers, and bones and for your patience while I was buried in the Museum collections and, especially, for never giving up on it all. To Dr. Michael Charney, who accepted me as his student and taught me so much about the "process" of Physical and Forensic Anthropology. Thanks, Mike, for helping me and teaching me the value of loving the work and dedication to excellence. To Mr. Robert Akerley, who planted the "seeds" of Forensics and Paleoanthropology in my mind and who encouraged me to pursue my interests, enabled me to share my thoughts and findings with him and kept me on "the path," I am deeply indebted. Without you, Bob, I might have chosen another avenue .... your enthusiasm and support made this thesis a reality. To Ms. Barbara Stone who shared her expertise and insights with me, who always believed in my work and helped me incorporate my academic interests into the field of Egyptology. Thanks, Barb, for your willingness to listen and for your support.

PAGE 6

CONTENTS Acknowledgements ......................... i Introduction ................................ iii Chapter 1 OVERVIEW ................ 1 Chapter 2. CHECKLIST WORKSHEET ................. 3 Chapter Sarcophagus, Coffin Wrapping/Adornment, Physical Remains, Accompanying Materials & Conclusion . ; ................... 3 3. EXAMINATION PROCEDURE WORKSHEET ...... l6 Chapter The Sarcophagus, the Coffin, the Wrapping & Adornments, the Physical Remains, the Accompanying Material ......... l6 4. EXAMINATION OF THE MUMMY ........... 21 Chapter Measurement equipment, Analytical Interpretations of Skeletal 5. PRACTICAL EVALUATION OF THE CHECKLIST WORKSHEET ................. 52 Chapter 6. CONCLUSION ......................... 55

PAGE 7

Appendix A: Dental Eruption .................. 57 Appendix B: Age by Dentition ............... 58 Appendix C: Pubic Symphysis Ageing ........... 59 Appendix D: Sex Differences in Skull ......... 60 Appendix E: Sex from Innominates ............. 61 Appendix F: Hieroglyphic Writing ............ 62 Appendix G: Sarcophagus Information .......... 63 Appendix H: X-Ray of Jewelry ................. 64 Appendix I: Ytterbium Isotope ............... 65 Appendix J: Cephalometric Apparatus .......... 66 Appendix K: Royal Mummy X-Ray Order ......... 67 Appendix L: Os Pubis Ageing ................. 68 Appendix M: Ages of Royal Mummies ............ 69 Appendix N: Dentition of Royal Mummies ..... 70 Appendix 0: Cephalometric Measurements ....... 71 Appendix P: New Kingdom Queens .............. 72 Appendix Q: Centers of Ossification ....... 73 Appendix R: Epiphyses Closure ................ 74 Appendix S: Cranial Suture Closure ........... 75 Appendix T: Vault Suture Closure ........... 76 Appendix U: Pubic Symphysis ................ 77 Appendix V: Sex Traits on Skull .............. 78

PAGE 8

Appendix W: Sex by Pelvis ............... 79 Appendix X: Race;stature in Long Bones ........ 80 Appendix Y: Stature Calculations ............. 81 Worksheet for Mummy BM6660 ............ 82 Worksheet for Mummy BM6681 ................. 85 Worksheet for Mummy BM6692 .................. 88 Worksheet for Mummy BM3 27 56 ............... 91 Worksheet for Mummy BM52888 ................ 94 Worksheet for Mummy BM57353 ................. 97 Conclusions made from the British Museum Collection which substantiates the tenets of the Thesis ................................... 100 References Cited ........................ l03

PAGE 9

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First, I would like to thank the British Museum, London, England, for their generous support of my work and for allowing me to' study the mummy collection and to have access to the Reading Room and the research collection. The librarians at the Museum were most helpful and I thank them for their help and expertise. Next, I would like to thank the Anthropology Department at the Denver Museum of Natural History for allowing me access to the research collections and for letting me explore my interests within the realm of their Museum setting. I would especially like to acknowledge Kris Haglund, Eloise Howerton and Liz Clancy of the Library/Archives Department for their help during the time of my research. I would also like to acknowledge the University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland for their provision of data to enhance my work, and also the Rosecrucian Museum, San Jose, California, for providing information via telephone and in person concerning their collections. i

PAGE 10

Thanks are given, especially, to my thesis committee for their time, expertise and patience leading to the completion of this project. Many times they have gone beyond the call of duty to help me bring this project to fruition. Further acknowledgement goes to Dr. David Silverman of the University of Pennsylvania for his willingness to talk to me about this project and to listen to my career plans and give me advice. Also to Dr. Janet Johnson of the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago for her continuing suggestions regarding my study of Egyptology and this thesis, and last, but not least, a special acknowledgement goes to Ms. Mary Pratchett for reading the manuscript over many times and lending her support and suggestions and to Ms. Betty Van Bergen for helping it come together after much discussion and analysis.

PAGE 11

INTRODUCTION The processes used to standardize methods to be used for the examination and documentation of data concerning mummified human remains from Ancient Egypt are as follows: 1) An extensive literature search was performed. 2) Visits to numerous museums took place. 3) A comparison of the documentation of six existing mummies from the British Museum collection was made using the Standardized Checklist/Worksheet generated in this thesis. The initial research concluded that there has not been a standardized method of comparing existing information obtained from Ancient Egyptian mummies. The development of a standardized method for obtaining and publishing such data is crucial to the furtherance of the scientific method, to the study of Egyptology, and will permit more adequate comparison of skeletal materials. Without this type of standardized form for comparing data from both previous and future examinations, the information iii

PAGE 12

gathered will remain incompatible, thereby rendering it virtually useless in comparative scientific research. With the implementation of a standardized form the work will be able to be integrated into a workable corpus of data which will be able to be used in an indisciplinary fashion. This thesis contains documents and supporting data for one type of standardization procedure and will include the anthropometric formulae, mathematical equations and actual forms needed to implement the techniques and correct the discrepancies found in the existing work as well as provide an examination procedure and a checklistjworksheet to be used. If we are to fully utilize the mummy collections around the world as well as the mummies which will be excavated in the future, and if we are ever-going to be able to make specific scientific statements about them in relationship to one another, then there must be a standardized method of evaluation and a checklist of pertinent data. Without this standardization, mummified remains will continue to be analyzed non-systematically and iv

PAGE 13

valuable cultural and physical data will be overlooked or lost. By standardizing the process with which mummified remains are examined we also will develop a standardized method of communication between the scientists .doing the work so that data can then be compared and statements be made about the information retrieved. v

PAGE 14

CHAPTER ONE OVERV:IEW Below is a standardized method of dealing with Egyptian mummified material which lists the areas of investigation of the human body and its linen wrappings and categorizes each area into a workable repository of information. Additionally there is a checklistjworksheet which may be used to record data from each individual. This checklist/worksheet, then, can be used as a basic form for on-going comparative research and will provide a uniform method of recording and retrieving information. The form will addresses two issues: 1) The physical body and wrappings (including any accompanying artifacts). 2) The cultural materials the body such as the canopic jars, amulets, artwork, coffin or other artifacts.

PAGE 15

In the appendix from pages 81-98, I apply the checklist/worksheet to a sampling of the research collection to include six mummies, and in appendix from pages 99-101, I compare the data from the mummies in the research collections to determine similarities in style, type, process of embalming and physical attributes. In the course of the research, examples from the following collections were used: 1) The British Museum, London, England 2) The Rosicrucian Museum, San Jose, California, u.s.A. 3) The Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. 2

PAGE 16

CHAPTER TWO CHECKLIST WORKSHEET This chapter contains the checklist worksheet to be used. This document contains the major divisions of examination and methods of recording the data. The actual checklist worksheets are found on pages 82-99. Sarcophagus A) Photograph the entire sarcophagus from top, sides and ends with metric scale recorded. B) Analyze composition of the sarcophagus: 1) Wood 2) Stone 3) Other C) Record Measurements: 1) Length 2) Thickness of the walls of sarcophagus 3

PAGE 17

3) Width 4) Height or depth D) Record transcription. Coffin A) Photograph the entire coffin from top, sides and ends using the metric scale. B) Record any bacteria, weathering, chipping or other disturbances on the coffin lid. C) Analyze paint and binder. D) Sample wood for dating purposes. 4

PAGE 18

E) Document the method of connecting the parts of the coffin: 1) Dowelling 2) Gluing 3) Other F) Document any intrusions, conservation or repair. G) Document style of coffin: 1) Anthropoid 2) Rectangular 3) Other H) Photograph the individual and the coffin: 1) Note that the coffin and the body are a "fit", and if there are significant differences in the relationship of the person to the 5

PAGE 19

coffin, record them. 2) Check for accompanying artifacts which may be loose in the coffin: a) Amulets b) Jewels c') Animals d) Papyri e) Other 3) Document any disturbances of the mummy which occur. This might include evidences of in ancient times, evidences of modern tampering, evidence of inadequate bandaging in ancient times or dismemberment and breakage. 6

PAGE 20

Wrapping and Adornment A) Place individual mummy on examining table, (Always have assistance with this removal from the coffin and the placement of the mummy in the work area to minimize risk of damaging or dropping the individual.) B) Photograph the mummy from all sides and from the head downward and from the feet upward. C) Document any unusual visual images which are projected during the photography session: 1) Insect damage 2) The presence of insects 3) Pigment 4) Other 7

PAGE 21

D) Document any adornment and any wrapping techniques used. Record any and all body adornment and amuletic information. Note the substance of these artifacts. Systematically catalogue these artifacts with accompanying documentation. and numbering. 1) Are the wrapping techniques used consistent with what has been observed before? If so, indicate; if not, make a notation. 2) Is there a single amount of wrapping or has the mummy been re-wrapped? 3) What is the status of the wrapping in regard to craftsmanship and expertise exhibited by the embalmers such as loose or tight 8

PAGE 22

wrapping? 4) What type of weave is exhibited in the bandages? a) Coarse (C) b) Semi-coarse (SC) c) Fine (F) Physical Remains Always include a black-and-white line drawing of the human skeleton upon which you mark all the bones or fragments thereof which are.present at the time of your analysis. A) Photograph the body from all sides. From the feet upward and from the head downward. B) Obtain hair sample for protein and other analyses. Hair from one area only is all that is needed for this examination There 9

PAGE 23

are three sources from which to obtain hair: 1) Head 2) Armpit 3) Pubis C) Check and record any unusual images which appear on the skin: 1) Impressions left by wrapping 2) Impressions left by amulets and/or other displaced artifacts 3) Evidence of skin anomalies: a) Pock marks b) Lesions c) Birthmarks 10

PAGE 24

d) Disease e) Tattoos/mutilations 4) Record condition of fingerjtoe nails: a) Are they sheathed in gold or silver? b) Are they removed or still in place? c) Are they polished or plain? d) Is there sufficient residue under the nail edge to warrant scraping so thatsoil, bacteria, etc., can be analyzed? e) Describe/document any anomalies. 11

PAGE 25

5) Using the formulae described in this document, measure the remains and record the data for the following categories: a) Height b) Weight c) stature d) Sex e) Age at death f) Handedness g) Race h) Cause of death,if known i) Anomalies 12

PAGE 26

Accompanying Materials A. Describe and document all visual abnormalities or variances in the present matrix surrounding the individual: 1) Soil, if present 2) Foreign substances, if present 3) Provenance, if known 4) Animals or humans buried with the individual 5) Orientation of the head in burial site, if known 6) Any other pieces of information which will be helpful in describing the individual and the situation of burial 13

PAGE 27

Conclusion This standardized checklist should produce enough evidence for a comparative data bank to be established. The categories of data can be organized into succinct statements concerning the physical body of the deceased individual and accompanying material culture. This corpus of data can be incorporated into other categories, as needed, for comparison of the materials and for the formulation of theories concerning the people of Ancient Egypt. Some of the other cultural categories that could benefit from these data are religion, mythology, literature, aesthetics, demographics and archaeology. After completion of this checklist there should be enough data to establish that there are certain physical attributes which were prevalent in mummies from Ancient Egypt. It should also establish that these attributes can be documented with consistency, and therefore, comparisons can be made from one individual to another employing a scientific method. 14

PAGE 28

The use of the. scientific method will enable the scientist, then, to discuss data and make educated statements concerning Ancient Egypt. As statements are able to be made about Ancient Egypt, the problem of how this culture fits into the scheme of world history can also be discussed. This checklist will also provide consistent information which will enable the physical anthropologist, the forensic anthropologist and the Egyptologist to work together with a common data base to compare Egyptian mummified human remains with mummified humans from other locales, worldwide. 15

PAGE 29

CHAPTER THREE EXAMINATION PROCEDURE WORKSHEET The Sarcophagus Photographs taken: Yes ___ No __ Composition: Wood ____ stone ____ Other ______________ Measurements: Length. ____________ Thickness of the walls Width Height --------------The Coffin Photographs taken: Yes No Describe bacteria, weathering, chipping or other disturbances: -----------------------------------------Paint composition: __________________________________ ___ 16

PAGE 30

Paint binder: ------------------------------------------Wood sample taken for Dendrochronological work: ____ Securing:Dowel ____ Glue ____ Other ____________________ __ Documentation of intrusions, conservation or patching: ____________________________________________ ___ style: Anthropoid ____ Rectangular ____ other __________ __ Photograph taken of the individual inside: __________ Accompanying artifacts: ______________________________ Other disturbances: ------------------------------------17

PAGE 31

The Wrapping and Adornments Photographs taken: Yes No ____ Insect damage: ______________________________________ __ Insects Pigment: ____________________________________________ __ Other: -------------------------------------------------Adornment and wrapping techniques used: __________ __ Techniques consistent: Yes ____ No __ __ Original wrapping: Yes ____ No __ __ Mummy re-wrapped: Yes No Craftsmanship: ________________________________________ Weave: (C) (SC) (F) ------------18

PAGE 32

The Physical Remains Line drawing completed: Yes __ No __ Photographs taken: Yes No Hair sample taken: Yes No Sample from: __________________________________________ ___ Images recorded on skin: ____________________________ Condition of fingerjtoe nails: ____________________ __ Anomalies: 19

PAGE 33

Height ____________________ weight __________________ __ Stature Sex ------------------Age at death Handedness ---------------------Race ------------------------------------------------------Cause of death -------------------------------------------Anomalies ------------------------------------------------The Accompanying Material Soil Foreign substances ____________________________________ Provenience ----------------------------------------------Animals/Humans buried with individual ----------------Orientation of the head --------------------------------Other information --------------------------------------20

PAGE 34

CHAPTER FOUR EXAMINATION OF THE MUMMY The ideal way of obtaining physical data from a wrapped or semi-wrapped mummy is through the radiographic process of computerized axial tomography (C.A.T. Scan). Harris and Wente (1980) employed this method with great success and established that this is, perhaps, the best method to identify physical anatomical information and information concerning the amulets and packing, as well. The use of the cephalogram as a form of measurement of the craniofacial structure is most helpful in determining variation through racial types, Dynastic populations, families and age groups (Harris and Wente 1980). Ideally, radiographic work should be done in the radiology departments of modern, well equipped 21

PAGE 35

hospitals, but often, due to the delicate nature of the materials to be studied, the museum curatorial staff insists upon the work being done on site. This, then, necessitates the use of mobile equipment. The most recent example of the use of this equipment in this manner is the work by the University of Michigan for its Memorial Phoenix Project where the General Ele-ctric 90 kV dental Xray device was used. During this project, the Oak Ridge Laboratory of the Atomic Energy Commission became involved in the interpretation of analyses. The users of the equipment (Harris and Wente 1980) utilized a manual shutter control which could be operated .from a distance so that the mummies could have the X-ray film placed externally to the leaded glass case. This allowed the work to be done without much disturbance to the individual because the isotope's energy had only to pass through one side of the coffin. 22

PAGE 36

Measurement Equipment The osteometric board is the most accurate method of measurement for the postcranial skeleton as well as the accompanying artifacts. Always use a scale based on the metric system. The skull, if detached, can also be measured in this manner. The hinge or spreading caliper is devised to facilitate measurement of the cranial material and works well on curved surfaces. The sliding caliper is used for portions of the cranial material, especially around the facial area and when reference points are close together. Analytical Interpretations of Skeletal Materials Sex Estimation from Long Bones Subadult skeletal material is very difficult to analyze for gender specifications and can often be misinterpreted. The primary and secondary characteristics needed for accurate analysis do not 23

PAGE 37

appear until the onset of puberty. According to Brues (1958), Krogman (1973) and Stewart (1954) it is almost impossible to be accurate when examining the subadult skeleton and great caution should be taken when examining this material. Charney (1980), Krogman (1973) and Stewart (1954) that in the adult skeletal inventory the general "look" of the long bones is the beginning of the analysis. They further concur that usually female long bones are less massive than male long bones and that usually the female long bones are shorter than those of the male. Often there is a difference in the overall size and dimensions of the female long bone articulating surfaces than in the male. In 1899, Pearson as cited in Bass (1969), developed a general scale of gender determination of the skeleton as follows: Female: X-41.5cm to 43.5cm Probably Female: 41.5cm Male: 45.5-X Probably Male: 44.5cm-45.5cm Either Female or Male: 43.5cm -44.5cm 24

PAGE 38

In 1905 Dwight as cited in Bass (1969), elaborates further and supplies the following table, in millimeters, for the head of the humerus as it is used to estimate sex on the skeleton: Female: 42.67 Vertical Female: 36.98 Male: Male: 48.76 44.66 Transverse Vertical Transverse Sex Determination from the Pelvis The is the most reliable skeletal source for the data which will determine the sex or gender of the individual. Bass (1988), Charney (1978) and Krogman (1973) all state that it can be observed, immediately, that the female pelvis has much more of an iliac "flare" and the brim or inlet has a greater posterior breadth than in the male. They go on to explain that there is also usually a greater anteroposterior length in the female which facilitates childbirth by making the cavity more spacious. 25

PAGE 39

Stewart (1954) concurs with the above mentioned anthropologists and elaborates that the ischia diverge in the female pelvis and converge in the male pelvis. The ischiatic spines are more reduced in the male than in the female, and the lower portion of the female sacrum is usually bent backward and has a tendency to be up-turned, quite sharply. When observing the innominate (halved pelvis), Bass (1969) and Charney (1978) comment that it is quite apparent that generally the sacro-sciatic notch is characteristically wide and shallow in the female and deep and narrow in the male pelvis. This can also be measured immediately (nonscientifically) by placing the index finger on the pubic symphysis and observing the angle of the "spread" in the area between the finger and the bone. A wide angle will usually appear for females and a more narrow one for males. Bass (1969) goes on to explain that.the articulation of the two innominates provides yet another area of sex determination. In females, the 26

PAGE 40

symphysial region is lower and much more broad. the sub-pubic angle created by the articulation of these two pieces will be greater in females than in males. Krogman (1973) and Washburn (1948) claim to be accurate in 95% of their observances based on this method. According to Bass (1969), Charney (1982) and Krogman (1973) there are three major characteristics of the female pubis and the ischiopubic ramus which yield sex determination information. They are: 1) The Ventral Arc: This is described as a lightly elevated ridge of bone which makes an impression across the ventral surface of the female pubis. In males there is no ventral arch, only a slight ridge on the ventral surface. 2) The Medial Aspect of the Ischiopubic Ramus: There is a ridge or a narrow surface immediately below the symphyseal surface in females along the medial aspect of the ischiopubic ramus. In the male the medial aspect of this area is usually a broad 27

PAGE 41

surface. 3) The Sub-pubic Concavity: The female will project a lateral curvature a few millimeters from the symphysis on the inferior side. This can be observed from the dorsal surface of the bone. Other observable differences which distinguish the sexes, according to Brues (1958), Charney (1982) and Krogman (1973) are: 1) The acetabulum is smaller, for the most in females and larger in males. 2) The obturator foramen is smaller and much more triangular, usually, in females and more oval and larger in males. It must also be observed that there are other landmarks used for the sex determination of a skeleton, but they are considered to be inferior to the ones mentioned. One of them is the angle of the ramus of the mandible, and the other the square appearance of the chin in males and a more rounded look in the chin of the female. Since there is such a variation in the human population, the presence of 28

PAGE 42

a bony browridge (usually in males) versus the smooth browridge in females should be considered but only as secondary support data (Charney 1982; Hooten 1943; Stewart 1951). As Brues (1958), Charney (1982), Hooton (1943) and Snow (1948) all point out, there is much need to be cautious because there are always individuals who do not conform to the standards for their sex and exhibit opposite or combinations of the traits mentioned. Race Determination from Skeletal Material Hooton (1943) explains that humankind can be repeatedly divided into various local populations. These populations can be defined as racial classifications. Krogman (1973) follows Hooton (1943) in stating that there are three major racial groups of humankind, and many variations within these categories. The three main racial groups are: 1) Negroid: To include all dark skinned people of African descent. 29

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2) Mongoloid: To include all Asiatic, oriental, Eskimo and American Indian peoples. 3) Caucasoid: To include all Northern Europeans, Central Europeans and Southern Europeans from the Mediterranean area. For the purposes of this thesis, the Mongoloid classification will be dismissed and I will focus on the Negroid and Caucasoid classifications. Although there were Mongoloid peoples in Ancient Egypt most of the mummies discovered are part of the Negroid and Caucasoid population. As Charney (1982), Hooton (1943), and Krogman (1973) propose, determining the racial status of an individual will be of great help in tracking genetic information, studying the gene pool for a specific area and tracing demographic information. In the case of Ancient Egypt, this information can be invaluable in piecing together the lineages of prominent families, tracing the basic genetic stock of people who migrated to the Nile Valley and studying-the phenotypical attributes of royal 30

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personages. The term "race" has come to mean myriad things to a great number of people. The racial classification of humans has become an emotional issue, and there is much debate as to the method to be employed and the statements which can be made. For a discussion of this topic in the literature see Bass {1980), Charney {1980), Hooten {1943), Krogman (1973) and Montagu {1960}. In this thesis, race is used in the strict sense as applied to human identification and physical anthropology. The first task of a person who attempts to racial affinities and document these data is to devise a set of criteria that distinguish the established human groups. Each group is composed of individuals who have distinguishable characteristics indicating homogeneity. Each of these groups must, then, differ substantially from one another as to demonstrate observable traits which can be recorded by visual observation and measurement. Charney {1982} and Krogman {1973. } both state that the task is complicated further by ambiguity in 31

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determining subtle differences within the realm of the individual. If the individual, or group of individuals, were stripped of cultural accoutrements, such as clothing and jewelry, and were left naked to the observer, it would not be difficult to differentiate between a Negroid and a Caucasoid. The real difficulty becomes evident, as Charney (1982. ) and Krogman (1973) have both stated, in the process of determining racial differences between persons within the same group. An example of this would be the admixture found in the Mediterranean areas or in the Delta area of Egypt. measurement of the cranial capacity of the skull (cephalic Index) refers to measurements taken from living populations, therefore, it is not pertinent to this thesis. According to Bass (1980), Charney (1982), Hooton (1943) and Krogman (1973), there are certain traits which manifest themselves in certain L racial groups. These can be documented with regularity. These characteristics are: 1) Negroid: The postcranial skeletal material has a more streamlined appearance 32

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and often will offer smaller articular heads and joint surfaces. The male pelvis has a tendency to be higher and narrower than the female pelvis. The female pelvis is wider and more flared than the_ male pelvis but often there is such a small degree of difference that it is difficult to determine the sex by this landmark alone. The tibia, fibula, ulna and radius are markedly longer relative to the humerus and femur. Once again, the skull is the most reliable of all the landmarks from which to retrieve racial data. The bone is more dense in appearance, exhibiting a healthier, more robust profile. There is strong alveolar prognathism and the inferior nasal concha is low and broad. The nasal bones tend to be more flattened and the nasal aperture is exaggerated. The longitudinal nasal suture is often fused or obliterated completely and the palate and dental arches of the Negroid skull lean toward slimness and narrowness. 33

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The general appearance of the teeth is more robust than in the other races and often there is adequate space in the alveolar processes behind the third molars which make impacted wisdom teeth a rarity in this race of people. The malar region will usually exhibit a more flaring and deep look and the eye orbits usually are low and rarely tilted downward or outward. The male skull will often appear more symmetrically rounded, while the female skull will often appear more bulbous in the frontal region. The temporal region of the Negroid skull is almost always flat and a round-like constriction across the skull just behind the coronal suture is quite often visible. The occipital area is often pronounced and symmetrical and the nuchal crest often does not exhibit pronounced muscle attachment evidence. 34

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2) Caucasoid: As Bass (1980), Charney (1982), Hooton (1943) and Krogman (1973) go on to point out, there are definite landmarks which reinforce the Caucasoid racial data. There are some prominent diagnostics on the postcranial skeletal material such as a tendency to exhibit thicker, heavier and more massive postcranial material. There are also evidences of much more advanced muscle attachment lines on the bone, due to the prolonged lifespan of the Caucasian, who will often outlive aboriginal peoples. The pelvis of the Caucasian is often wider and more robust in appearance. Again, as the scientists above have mentioned, as with most skeletal material, the skull is the most accurate and lucrative source of racial information. Caucasian skulls will tend to be long, narrow and have extended height in the region of the nasion. The nasal aperture has sharp lower borders and the nasal spine is well developed. The 35

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mandibular eminence is larger and more prominent due to the reduced angles of the alveolar borders. Browridges (especially in males) are quite evident. Very elaborate and intricate cranial sutures are often present and the mastoid processes and styloid processes are likely to be much more pronounced. Faces devoid of prognathism are the norm for this racial group. The palatine is observed as shallow and deep with smaller, more uniform teeth. Age Determination from Skeletal Material The use of the term age estimation or determination does not mean how long the individual has been dead, but rather the age of the person at the time of death. It is difficult, if not impossible, to estimate the time a person has been deceased {Charney 1983). In the case of the mummified remains of Ancient Egypt, it is the material culture associated with an 36

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individual that helps to establish the Dynasty that is connected with the individual and thereby helps to determine the time period involved. Bass (1980) states that the stage of life which has been achieved at the time of death will determine the difficulty with which age estimation can be reached. Age is very difficult to determine on subadult skeletal material. X-rays of the carpals and metacarpals must be done to achieve the most accurate data. Bass (1980), Brues (1958) and Charney (1982) all explain that the fusion of the epiphy$is to the body of the bone can be used with a great deal of accuracy. Tooth eruption can be used if there is nothing else to work from, but must be used with extreme caution as individual differences are rampant in this area and can skew data. From the last stages of permanent dentition as well as growth of the postcranial material from about age thirty the process of determining age is simply a matter of recording the amount of degenerative changes which have taken place. As an 37

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example of this, I cite the disease of arthritis which begins to be evident in the lumbar vertebrae at this time, and henceforth begins its journey upward into the thoracic and cervical vertebrae by the time the individual reaches the age of sixty. Stewart (1954) claims that there is a great deal of variability within the human population, and it must b'Ei remembered that people mature at different stages based upon their nutrition, genetics and adaptations. In the Ancient world this is quite evident. A male will usually mature later than a female, and, therefore, there will be a marked difference in the epiphyseal closure process. But there could be an individual of either sex who matures at a different rate, thus facilitating changes at a different rate (Charney 1982) As Stewart (1954) points out, there are also great variabilities in the formation of teeth and bone. There should always be comparative work done, and always room for exploration into the differences in individuals. 38

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T. Wingate Todd et al 1922, began the task of determining age at time of death after World War I, during the 1920s. Before that time, there were no reliable data. Todd and his colleagues from Western Reserve University began studying the epiphyseal union rates and morphologies on cadavers from the dissecting rooms. The object of the study was to determine if there were general biological codes which established sequential changes in the skeleton of humans during the life cycle. The result (Todd 1922) was that this was, indeed, the case. We have since learned that zoologists are able to make that same statement concerning other species and their development. Dr. Rudolph Kronfeld (1935) began a study in the 1930s at Loyola University Dental School in which he summarized the histologic and roentgenographic data concerning tooth formation for both deciduous and permanent dentition. As McKern and Stewart (1957) state, the absence of adequate samples of documented skeletal materials which had known factors of race, age, sex and cause 39

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of death were scarce. Their work on the skeletal material from males involved with the Korean War led to the accumulation of significant data which enabled physical anthropologists to begin to use the information in making remarks about age at death of male individuals. Krogman (1973) synthesized the previous information and developed the working system which was in use until it was revised and upgraded by Kerley (1965). It is the Kerley method which provides substantial accuracy and which has been tested time and time again with astounding results. One of the most accurate areas of age estimation is the pelvis. The innominate is the most important bone to use for this purpose. The pubic symphysis will record the years with astounding accuracy. It is best to compare the skeletal material with the plaster casts of the pubic symphyses which have been done by McKern and Stewart (1957) and later upgraded and improved by Brooks (1968). Charney (1982) states that the sutures of the 40

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skull as used for age estimation are very suspect and that often there will be age differences between .other bones of the skeleton and the skull sutures; therefore, they are used only as a last resort or when no other corroborating skeletal material is present. He goes on to state that all too often cranial sutures do not follow a regular pattern of development andjor closure. Also, it must be remembered that if the Stewart (1954) method of age estimation by epiphyseal closure is used, one year and eighteen months must be deducted from the time for females, as they generally mature earlier than males. Todd (1922) has recognized the following as observable methods of age estimation of skeletal material at the time of death: 1) First Post-Adolescent: 18-19 years of age. The symphysial surface will be rugged, and traversed by horizontal ridges which are separated by well marked grooves. There will be no ossific nodules fusing with the surface and no definite delineation in the margins. There will be no definition of the 41

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extremities. 2) Second Post-Adolescent: 20-21 years of age. Symphysial surface will still be rugged and have the profile of the above mentioned stage, but the grooves on the dorsal side will have a new formation of finely textured bone. This formation begins to obscure the posterior extremities of the horizontal ridges. A foreshadowing of the ventral bevel begins. 3) Third Post-Adolescent: 22-24 years of age. There is progressive commencing of bone formation of the plateau and presence of fusing ossific nodules; dorsal margins gradually become more defined; and a beveling as a result of ventral rarefaction becomes more pronounced; but still there is no delimitation of the extremities. 4) Age 25-26 Years: Great increase of ventral beveled area and a corresponding delimitation of lower extremities. 42

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5) Age 27-30 Years: Little or no change in symphyseal face and dorsal plateau except that Sporadic and premature attempts at the formation of a ventral rampart occur; lower extremity, like the dorsal margin, increases in clearness commencing formation of upper extremity .with or without the intervention of a bony nodule. 6) Age 30-35 Years: This time frame is more difficult to appraise correctly; essential features here are completion of the oval outlines of symphyseal faces and more individual variation than at younger ages. Increase in the definition of the extremities occurs and development and near completion of the ventral rampart is also present. Retention of granular appearances of symphysial faces and ventral aspect of pubis and absence of lipping of symphysial margin also occurs. 43

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7) Age 35-39 Years: The paramount feature of this stage is the face and ventral aspect change from granular in texture to a fine-grained or dense bone. Changes in symphyseal face and ventral aspect of pubis are consequent upon diminishing activity, commencing bony outgrowth into attachments of tendons and ligaments, especially the gracilis tendon and sacrotuberous ligament. 8) Age 39-40 Years: Symphysial face is generally smooth and inactive; ventral surface of pubis is also inactive and the oval outline is complete or approximately complete. The extremities are clearly defined; there is no distinct "rim" to symphysial face and no marked lipping of the dorsal or ventral margins. 9) Age 45-50 Years: This stage is characterized by well-marked 44

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"rim" which is marked universally with lipping on the dorsal rim as well as uniformly marked lipping on the ventral rim. 10) 50 Plus Years: There is.rarefaction of the face and irregular ossification. The symphysial face is eroded, showing erratic ossification; ventral border is more or less broken down, and disfigurement increases as age progresses. Age after 55 becomes difficult, if not impossible, to calculate with precise accuracy. Osteon counting can be done under laboratory conditions, but since it involves shaving of small portions of bone to be studied, it is best to have this done by an expert in that field. See the appendix in this document for formulae and diagrams concerning quick reference materials in age estimation. Stature Estimation from Skeletal Material 45

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The estimation of stature is of paramount importance to the physical anthropologist (Bass 1969). The overall 11picture11 of human existence would be incomplete without it. Pearson is cited in Krogman (1973) as first conceptualizing and organizing mathematical regression formulae for this purpose in 1899. The most reliable tables for this purpose, however, have been recently developed by Trotter and Gleser (1952, 1958) and will be cited in the appendix of this document as the standardized chart for stature estimation. Work in this area should always be done by metric scale and converted to feet and inches by dividing the answer by 2.4 (Charney 1982). Estimation is complicated by racial differences between populations so the racial affiliation of the sample must be known and the appropriate formulae or tables for that racial group used in order to be accurate in stature documentation (Krogman 1973). The most desired combination of long bones used for stature estimation is the femurjfibula combination. 46

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If that is not available then humerusjradius, humerusjulna should be used. If bones are fragmented or incomplete in the combinations mentioned, stature can still be estimated with a relative degree of success by measurement of each fragment and recording within the scale presented on the chart. Weight Estimation of Individual at the time of death A current weight chart from any physician can be used here. It is an estimation only. Weight is based upon the robustness of the bones, and the general morphology as compared to the height and sex of an individual (Charney 1982). There is no way to estimate the degree of obesity at the time of death because there is no record of this on the bone, according to Bass (1971). The bones should be carefully examined for the roughness and robustness of the muscle attachment lines. These will indicate a more developed or less developed individual, and weight should be calculated higher or lower, 47

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respectively (Bass 1980; Charney 1982). Anomalies and Bone Pathologies: There will be many times when an individual or group of individuals will not remain consistent with the charts and formulae used and will not retain the osteological profile which is attributed to a person following the norm. This is individual human variation and cannot be predicted (Bass 1969), (Cockburn 1980) and (Krogman 1973). Each individual, regardless o f racial placement or sex constrictions, will exhibit personal and individual anomalies or pathologies which are unique to that individual. These landmarks contain information which can be utilized to distinctly set this individual apart from all others. These anomalies and pathologies will help identify the person as the "one-of-a-kind" human being that she or he has become throughout herjhis life according to sex, diet, environment and osteological stressors (Krogman 1973). Anomalies are a categorized as anything which is not consistent with the normal osteological information. They are a "red flag," if you will, 48

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that alerts the scientist to the possibility that biological registration of data on the skeleton has been altered, in some way. The physical anthropologist or Egyptologist can interpret these pieces of information and can learn a great deal about the person from them. In the case of the inhabitants of Ancient Egypt, the following major anomalies and pathologies have been known to occur and should be consistent with the individuals of that time period and geographical locale. According to Harris and Weeks (1973) and and Wente (1980), they are: 1) Osteoarthritis 2) Arrested growth in long bones 3) Antemortem/postmortem fractures 4) Dislocation of joints 5) Vascular calcifications 6) Gallstones 7) Bone infection 8) Dental caries 9) Urethral calculus 10) Opacification of the intervertebral discs 49

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11) Malignant neoplasia 12) Tuberculosis 13) Leprosy 14) Syphilis 15) Rickets 16) Osteogenesis imperfecta 17) Systemic diSease 18) Smallpox 19) Schistosomiasis 20) Club foot 21) Cleft palate 22) Parietal thinning 23) Interjpetroclinoid calcification 24) Malocclusial trauma 25) Scoliosis 26) Kyphosis 27) Weaponry wounds 28) Amputations 29) Separation of the pelves 30) Hypertrophic arthritis 31) Degenerative arthritis 32) Ankylosing spondylitis 33) Chondrocalcinosis 50

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34) Arteriosclerosis The presence of other diseases and anomalies is possible and probable. Also combinations of the above are quite feasible. All anomalies and pathologies should be documented and photographed, when possible. There should be a special category on the report for this purpose. When pathologies are intricate and obscured from view, e.g., internal organ pathologies or trauma, then every precaution should be taken to describe them in detail and further laboratory analysis should be forthcoming. I will state, here, that I believe that pathologies should be examined by those people whose areas of expertise correspond with the disease. I realize that the highly technical nature of this type of examination warrants specialization of the discipline and that the physical anthropologist and Egyptologist must seek outside professional help in areas where personal competency is lacking. It is impossible to be an expert in all areas. The communication between physical Egyptologist and medical personnel should always remain open and frequent. 51

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CHAPTER FIVE PRACTICAL EVALUATION OF CHECKLIST WORKSHEET In order to test the premise of this thesis the standardized checklist worksheet was implemented with a random sampling of mummies from the British Museum collection in London, England. The assemblage of mummies used was: 1) Number: BM6660 Name: Denytamun 2) Number: BM6681 Name: Peftjau 3) Number: BM6692 Name: Takhebkhenem 4) Number: BM32756 Name: Not given 5) Number: BM52888 Name: Not given 6) Number: BM57353 Name: Not given After the sampling was determined, the standardized checklist worksheet was applied and the following results were tallied. Out of 96 categories on the standardized checklist worksheet (beginning page 100 of this document), the most that had been completed for any 52

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one of the mummies was 15. The least amount completed for any one of the mummies was six. This leaves, at best, 81 categories in which information is absent, thus resulting in a severe lack of data available from which to compare all the mummies. This triggers an alarming perception that much valuable data has not been recorded and may be lost for all time. These discrepancies result in an incomplete data base which allows far too much opportunity for conjecture. Inconclusive scientific reporting, therefore, becomes the end result. Although this pattern of investigation has been prevalent in the past, it is now evident that the use of a standardized checklist worksheet, such as the one found in this document, is mandatory. With the use of this type of standardization, comparisons can be made from different museum collections, as well as compared to archaeological material yet to be discovered. This standardized checklist worksheet can be modified to fit any given situation while retaining the major categories of information. This, then, becomes the 11yardstick11 for evaluating the 53

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information concerning life and death in Ancient Egypt, and enables physical anthropologists and Egyptologists to converse and compare the results of their work. Standardization will help us develop a corpus of data from which to assess the contributions of Ancient Egypt to civilization as we know it. 54

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CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION The purpose of the information in this document, including the appendix which contains formulae as well as charts and drawings, is to standardize the collection of data obtained from the osteological work done on mummies from Ancient Egypt. It is offered, as well, as a method by which the physical anthropologist and the Egyptologist can.work together to formulate hypotheses, track data, make cultural comparisons and document human health and disease as well as patterns of life and death. This thesis deals only with the physical realm of the deceased, but such information can be correlated and integrated into the overall "picture" of Ancient Egypt. By standardizing the methods used and the information gathered by the scientists, it can be understood, more fully, that there is a need to apply the scientific methods of physical 55

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anthropology to the discipline and interpretation of Egyptology. By combining this knowledge we can begin to make accurate statements in a scientific manner concerning the inhabitants of the Nile Valley and their contributions to human civilization. 56

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APPENDIX A DENTAL ERUPTION SEQUENCE FROM BIRTH TO ADULTHOOD. In the following diagram the shaded teeth are decidious as shown in Shipman et al. 1985. lyr. 4mos. 21+ yrs. 57

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APPENDIX B AGE ESTIMATION BASED ON DENTAL ATTRITION AT TIME OF DEATH. (Top) Molar wear is classified into numerical stages by comparing the amount of enamel wear and dentin exposure (black) with these standards. (Bottom) Associated skeletons that are sufficiently complete to provide information on both dental attrition and age at death, as shown by osteological indicators, are used to establish the stage of attrition that characterizes different age periods. The table can be used to estimate age on individuals known only from teeth in that population as shown in Shipman et al. 1985 . (1) (2) (2+) (3)" (3+) (4). (4+) (S) (S+) (S++) (6) (7) ffi C@ @J J J Jij ew @). .\1\J .W \id Age period (years) Molar number Wear pallem (3-) Unequal wear Down to RoolS lhe neck only Abouti7-2S 2S-3S 33-45 About4S+ Ml M2 M3 Ml M2 M3 Ml M2 M3 Ml I M2 I M3 @ ( ... "' .... J (WJ (j) -.\n, lf'Ntrt' .. ,,... uf WNP Or .. .-. ll.,.n in liM" ....... .... .., cuhanu-. @ ........ @) @) (W) .... t. ., .... ... '" u""lu .. J ftlf"M .,.,......, Or ... @) 58

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APPENDIX C MORPHOLOGICAL CRITERIA FOR AGE ESTIMATION BASED ON MALE PUBIC SYMPHYSES. This is illustrated in McKern and Stewart 1957. Component I al II ( I A 1i .J. ..A :t G : \V .J -1 '; ,. I I 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 Component II ( ... .. .::: \ I ... ;.: .. \ .; .. Il-l 11-2 11-3 11-4 11-5 Component Ill III-I 111-2 111-3 111-4 111-5 59

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APPENDIX D SEXUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE SKULL. (Left) female and (Right) male as shown in Shipman et al. 1985. 60

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APPENDIX E THE ISCHIOPUBIC INDEX, USED TO SEX INNOMINATES. The ischium, ilium, and pubis meet at point "A". The index equals the length of the pubis (AC) X 100, divided by the length of the ischium (AB) as seen in Shipman et al. 1985. 61.

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APPENDIX F EXAMPLE OF WRITING WHICH CAN BE OBTAINED FROM EXAMINATION OF INSCRIPTIONS ON THE SARCOPHAGUS OF AN EGYPTIAN MUMMY. This example is from the sarcophagus of Seti I as shown in Harris and Wente 1980. 62

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APPENDIX G EXAMPLE OF VALUABLE SOURCES OF INFORMATION WHICH CAN BE OBTAINED FROM AN EGYPTIAN MUMMY SARCOPHAGUS AND WRAPPED MUMMY. This specimen is of Amenhotep I as seen in Harris and Wente 1980. 63

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APPENDIX H EXAMPLE OF INFORMATION CONCERNING JEWELRY AND PHYSICAL INFORMATION -WHICH CAN BE OBTAINED FROM AN EGYPTIAN MUMMY VIA THE RADIOGRAPHY METHOD. This is illustrated in Harris and Wente 1980. . A. r ; .-. ..-....... .. ...,. .I 64

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APPENDIX I THE YTTERBIUM -169 ISOTOPE UNIT USED IN X-RAYING THE ROYAL MUMMIES. This is illustrated in Harris and Wente 1980. 65

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APPENDIX J THE COMPLETE CEPHALOMETRIC APPARATUS USED IN THE X-RAYING OF THE ROYAL MUMMIES. This is illustrated in Harris and Wente 1980. 66

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APPENDIX K AN EXAMPLE OF THE BASIC PROCEDURAL ORDER IN WHICH EACH ROYAL MUMMY WAS EXAMINED. in Harris and Wente 1980. I. Skull (vault) A. Sutures B. Bone texture II. Dentition A. Wear of teeth B. Alveolar involvement I. Periodontal disease 2. Resorption due to tooth loss III. Long bones A. Epiphyseo-diaphyseal relationship B. Cortex-medulla relationship C. Lipping" of articular surfaces 1. Peripheral "rampart" 2. Osteophytic development D. Tuberosities and lineae E. The humerus This is illustrated I. Relation of medullary cavity to humeral head 2. Texture of spongiosa F. General texture and trabeculation IV. Flat bones: scapula, pelvis A. Scapula I Atrophic rarefaction of supra and infraspinous fossae 2. ""Pleating" and "buckling"' of the bone in the infraspinous region 3. Lineae of the subscapularis muscle 4. Subacromial "plaque" arising from the humeroacromial articulation S. "Lipping" in the glenoid fossa B. Pelvis I. The pubic symphysis a) Symphyseal surface b) Dorsal and ventral "ramparts" c) Upper and lower extremities d) Trabeculation of the pubic 2. Iliac bone a) Lineae or osteophytes on iliac crest b) Atrophic areas in the iliac fossa 3. Ischial tuberosity (osteophytic processes) V. The vertebral column and ribs A. "Lipping" of vertebral bodies B. Texture of vertebral bodies C. Evidences of compression due to the demineralization with age of the vertebral bodies I. Relation of lateral surfaces to upper/lower surfaces of vertebral bodies a) Lateral surface straight b) Lateral surface concave to give "hourglass" effect 2 Definition of intervertebral spaces, wide to narrow D. Ribs: anterior end (costostemal and costochondral); posterior end (costovertebral); not amenable to precise evaluation VI. fractures, pathology, and/or other unique or distinctive bony traats . 67

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APPENDIX L AGE CHANGES IN THE OS PUBIS. This is illustrated in Harris and Wente 1980. Age Symphyseal (Years) Texture Surface Extremities Compacta Q-25 Very fine Undulating Not defined No streak 26-39 Average Slightly irregular Lower beginning No streak or straight to sharpen 4Q-55 Average Slightly irregular Lower angular Streak moderately or straight dense 55+ Open texture Irregular "eroded" Upper margin Streak dense sharp 68

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APPENDIX M AGE SUMMARY, BY DECADES, OF THE ROYAL MUMMIES OF ANCIENT EGYPT. This is illustrated in Harris and Wente 1980. Decade X-Ray Film No. Sex Name Age (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 10-19 45 M Thutmosel 18-22 (1) 20-29 53 F Slptah (20-25) (5) 44 M Amenhotep I (2045,-30) 54 M Sell II (25) 46 M Thutmose II 43 M Ahmosel (2&-30) 30-39 57 M Ramesses V (13) 574 F "Elder Lady"" L4 M Amenhotep Ill 60 F Ahmes-Nefertery 61 F Sllkamose 58 M Ramesses VI 62 F Meryetamon 63 F Nodjme (30-35) 55 M Ramesses Ill (30-35) 64 F Makara (30-35-40) 49 M ThutmoseiV (30-35-40) 65 F Hentiowy (30-35-40) 59 M Ramesses IX or XI (35-40) 40-49 42 M Seqenenre Tao (35-40) (6) 47 M Thutmose Ill (35-40) 50 M Sell I (35-40) 46 M Amenhotep II (35-40-45) 56 M Ramesses IV (35-40-45) 52 F Merenptah (45-50) 5()-59 51 M Ramesses II (SG-55+) (1) 69

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APPENDIX N SUMMARY OF THE DENTAL HEALTH OF THE ROYAL MUMMIES FROM ANCIENT EGYPT. This is illustrated in Harris and Wente 1980. Periodontal lnterlnclsal Age at Death Attrition Health Angle (degrees) Pharaohs Seventeenth Dynasty . 6342 Seqenenre Tao 35-40 Mod. Ext. Good 122 : Eighteenth Dynasty 6343 Ahmose I 25---.30 Mod. Ext. Fair 137 6344 Amenhotep I 2()..25-30 Minimal Good 140 6345 Thutmose I 18-22 Moderate Fair 109 6346 Thutmose II 25-30 Minimal Good 122 6347 Thutmose Ill 35-40 Moderate Fair 163 6348 Amenhotep II 35-40--45 Moderate Fair 134 6349 Thutmose IV 30-35-40 Moderate Fair 164 6350 Amenhotep Ill 30-35 Mod. Ext. Poor 130 Tutankhamon Minimal Good 128 Yuya Extensive Severe Nineteenth Dynasty 6350 Setll 35-40 Mod. Ext. Fair-Poor 127 6351-Ramesses II 5G-55+ Extensive Severe 144 6352 Merenptah 45-50 Extensive Severe 119 6353 Slptah 2Q-25 Minimal Good 111 6354 Sell II 25 Minimal Good 123 Twentieth Dynasty 6355 Ramesses Ill Moderate Fair 155 6356 Ramesses IV 35-40--45 Moderate Fair 139 6357 Aamesses V 25---.30-35 Minimal Good 145 6358 Ramesses VI 30-35 Moderate Fair 6359 Ramesses IX or XI 35-40 Mod. Ext. Poor-sev 151 Queens 6350 Ahmes-Netertary 3o-35 Extensive Poor 115 6361 Sitkamose 30-35 Moderate Good 133 6362 Meryetamon 30-35 Moderate Good 119 6360 Nodjme 30-35 Extensive Poor 151 01 Tawosret 6364 Makare 30-35-40 Moderate Fair 138 6365 Henttowy 30-35-40 115 6366 Esemkhebe 128 6362 Tetlsherl Extensive Poor 127 Tjuya Extensive Severe 120 Elder Lady 25---.30-35 Moderate Fair 139 70

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APPENDIX 0 CEPHALOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF NEW KINGDOM PHARAOHS AND CRANIOFACIAL VARIATION IN THE ROYAL MUMMIES FROM ANCIENT EGYPT. This is illustrated in Harris and Wente 1980. 8342 Seqenenre 8343 6344 6345 6348 6347 Meaaurern.nl Teo AllmoN I Amenhotepl ThutmoMI ThulmoM II Thutmoie Ill ANB 6.22 7 5 5.58 10.46 3.41 6.1 SNA 84.55 82 0 88.47 87.57 78.23 n 1 SNB 78.33 74.59 82.91 n 12 74.82 71. 0 SN Pog 78 82 78.12 85. 58 n.04 75 .81 72.48 NSArt 128.32 132.24 126 75 128 73 131. 18 145.49 NSGon 103.88 113.3& 101. 54 108 .45 105.76 111.70 NS Pog 67.54 70.59 63.45 68 73 69.40 73.07 NS PNS 68.37 78 50 73.84 71. 68 75.93 78.37 NS Bas 133.94 138.26 129 07 131.99 146.90 Gonlal Angle 121.0 104 0 123.7 118 0 129.8 127. 0 Gon-Art-Pog 39.0 52 0 39.0 42 0 35.2 38.0 SN-P Plane 11.86 14 52 13.74 16.03 11.80 17.52 Sn-M Plane 34.0 27 2 33.7 34 0 37.4 43. 1 Y-Axls 84 1 90.5 88 0 88.0 82.6 U1-P Plane 113.9 102 0 111.2 117 0 117 5 99.5 U-MPiane to1 o 105.4 90 0 113 8 95 0 76. 5 lnterlnciBBI 122.0 137.5 140.38 109.8 122.4 183. 0 Ramus/Body' 0.67 0.60 0.64 0.55 0.60 0 .83 Maxilla/Body 0.70 0 87 0.71 0 .71 0.70 0.83 Maxilla/Mandible 0.48 0.51 0.49 0.53 0.48 0.48 Ramus/Maxilla 0.38 0 89 0.90 o.n 0.36 0.83 SN/Body 0.98 0.83 0.88 0.89 0.98 0.91 Baa N/Art Gn 0.98 1.03 0 98 0.99 0.81 Cranial lndax 0.68 0 68 0 72 0.71 0 .61 UFHITFH 0.45 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.43 0 .49 A-Bdlll. 5.8 14.0 4.2 18. 0 6.6 12.4 8348 6349 20811 1075 8350 6351 8352 Amenhotep Thutmose Amenhotep SmenkllSell I Rameuee Merenpteh Measurement II IV Ill ka,. II ANB 5 5 5.84 8 .00 5.41 5 .49 8 94 7 5 SNA 88 5 87 .45 85 0 85.18 79 70 ao. n 80 0 SNB 80.8 81.81 79 0 79 77 74.15 73 83 72 3 SN Pog 81.8 83.10 81. 04 80.62 78 .4 75.32 74.8 NSArt 121. 0 125.79 134 68 140.94 130 .01 131.63 122 0 NS Gon 110.0 102.89 107 0 109.72 108 .00 112.25 111. 3 Pog 69.5 64.22 67.46 71.38 70.5 72.52 70.8 IISPNS 73.2 72.43 74.55 85.75 74 05 n.08 61. 2 NS Bas 131.1 129.80 135.44 142.24 131.70 133.88 132.1 Gonial Angle 115 8 113.2 122.5 127.84 118 3 107.9 109 0 Gon-Art-Pog 45.0 43.2 37 0 35.10 41. 6 43 0 44 1 SN-P Plane 13.0 10.89 12.48 8 70 13 88 10.25 10 5 Sn-M Plane 38 4 28.2 28.0 37 33 32.22 31.9 33.4 Y-Axls 90 0 83.0 85.0 89.0 90 8 90.2 90 2 U1-P Plano 118.0 100.8 110.0 107.73 114 0 94.1 89 0 LI-M Plane 84 0 90.4 102 0 82.60 97.8 101.1 97 8 lnlarinciSIII 134.3 154.4 130.9 141.04 127.0 144.0 119.4 Ramus/Body 0.57 0.73 0 69 0.69 0 62 0.65 0 88 Maxilla/Body 0 57 0.88 0 68 0.87 0.66 0.61 0 66 Maxilla/Mandible 0.42 0.47 0.45 0.45 0 .47 0.45 0.42 Ramus/Maxilla 1.00 1 07 1 04 1.03 0.95 1.06 1 34 SN/Body o.n 0 66 0.85 0.75 0.92 0 88 0 93 Bas N/Art Gn 0.85 0 87 0 66 0 85 0.98 0 93 0 89 Clanl al Index 0.70 0 .71 0 72 0.74 0 68 0 68 0 .7' UFHITFH 0.44 0.45 0 58 0.57 0 .44 0.45 0 59 A-B dill. 0 8 2.0 3 4 .2 15. 0 11.8 1.2 71

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APPENDIX P CEPHALOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF NEW KINGDOM QUEENS AND CRANIOFACIAL VARIATION IN THE ROYAL MUMMIES FROM ANCIENT EGYPT. This is illustrated in Harris and Wente 1980. 58 6350 6381 8382 88 MeUUNment Tellahorl Nol ortiJy Sltllamoo Meryetamon T)uya ANB 4 .71 U3 7 75 5 .97 SNA 88.35 73 47 95 78 85 5 80 .31 SNB 81. 63 72.03 78.00 n 5 74.34 SN Pog 81.22 73 92 78 88 78 5 78.09 NS A11 119 84 134 93 127 30 125 5 130 .64 NSGon 98 84 111. n 100.59 101. 00 107.25 NS Pog NS PNS 87 73 75 98 85.20 84 50 n.31 NS Bas 129.54 140 62 138 .80 138 50 137 09 Gonlal 128 89 115 89 127 55 128 00 125.28 Goi>-Art..Pog 35 34 42. 58 35 33 38.50 35.59 SN-P Plana 8 89 23 98 8.28 8 00 13 .64 31.75 32 79 34 95 33 50 36.51 Y Allo 85.88 89 59 79 92 80.50 90 .07 U1..PP1sne 111.25 117.34 119 .80 118.50 108 08 LI-M Plane 103.29 87 27 93 19 98. 00 89 .58 lnterlnclsal 120 59 148 63 120.32 120.50 141.48 Ramus/Body" 85 70 88 72 88 MaxllloiBody .87 .81 85 88 .87 MullloiMandlbla 48 43 .44 43 48 Ramus/Mullla 98 1.15 1 07 1.08 1 .01 SNIBody . 97 .91 98 98 .91' BaaNIBuGn 98 99 .90 98 .94 Cranllllndu 79 74 87 78 .74 UFHII'EH 49 47 .51 .52 48 A-,8 diH. 5.2 2.20 1.2 8 4 8.2 Rl R39 8383 8384 8385 63811 Tlya Tawouet Nodjma Makara Henttowy Eaamkl\ebe 8.54 4 .21 4 34 1.74 10 63 3.81 74 44 84 51 n 89 73.20 80.31 75 08 87 81 80 38 73. 55 64.48 73. 88 71.25 87 98 81.54 74 .81 84 73 74.14 71.29 139 22 139 99 135 82 143 63 135 58 138.51 118 59 107 63 113 68 123 .01 116 : 67 116.47 75 13 76 .91 79 07 81. 15 80 57 80.24 148 69 143 16 147 55 148 19 140 .51 142 84 125.48 121. 30 119 12 122.35 121.38 113 92 38 95 37 45 40.27 40 .63 40 42 42.25 22 12 10 .71 25.16 22 .38 15.25 15.06 47 16 29 48 40 39 52 93 45 52 39 54 91. 40 85 23 90 58 98.57 98 .91 93 .39 105 .68 118 70 118.27 90 .04 99.88 110 34 97 .04 98 04 95.64 94.35 100 .99 105 .50 132.24 128 50 130 84 145.04 121.85 119.69 .58 75 68 .81 .61 73 .65 .81 59 .64 .84 60 47 .41 .42 47 .48 43 .91 1.23 1.14 .94 95 1.20 .94 .78 .82 89 .75 88 1 .01 62 .91 95 .91 .92 78 .71 .74 .n 69 69 48 44 48 48 45 48 11. 2 -1.00 1.18 12.2 13.4 8.20 72

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APPENDIX Q CHART OF POSTNATAL UNION OF CENTERS OF OSSIFICATION. This is illustrated in Harris and Wente 1980. Scapula Pelvis Acromion 18:G-19:0 Primary elements 13:G-15:0 Vertebral margin 20:G-21:0 Crest 18:G-19:0 Inferior angle 20:G-21:0 Tuberosity 19:G-20:0 Clavicle Femur Sternal end 25:0-28:0 Head 17:G-18:0 Acromial end 19:G-20:0 Greater trochanter 17:G-18:0 Humerus Lesser trochanter 17:G-18: 0 Head 19: 6-20:6 Distal 17: 6-18:6 Distal 14:G-15:0 Tibia Medial epicondyle 15:G-16:0 Proximal 17:6-18:6 Radius Distal 15:6-16:6 Proximal 14:6-15:6 Fibula Distal 18:0-19:0 Proximal 17 6-18:6 Ulna Distal 15 6-16:6 Proximal 14:6-15:6 Calcaneal epiphysis 14 6-15:6 Distal 18:0-19:0 Foot Hand Metatarsals 15 G-16:0 Metacarpals 15: 6-16:6 Phalanges I 14 6-15:6 Phalanges I 15:G-16:0 Phalanges 11 14 Q-15:0 Phalanges II 15: 0-16:0 Phalanges III 14 G-15:0 Phalanges II 1 14: 6-15:6 73

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APPENDIX R CHART OF CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER OF APPEARANCE AND FUSION OF EPIPHYSES. This is illustrated in Krogman 1973. At the ase of 1: Bothocaa ApP=!rance ApophYJI of c.alcancut Female Olecranon At the accof9: Female Apparaace Trochlea, pbiform Male Fua.ioa Ramlolltchlum and pubis AI the of SO: Male ApparaDce Trocblc., olea-anon At the eofll: Fnnalc Appeanncc Lateral eplcondrle Male l'lliCcmn At the: .. e of 12: Male Appean-Lakral cptcondylc At the IIJC or 13: Female Appearance PnlaltMinnmaid of rhumb Fuai.on pubil Male Capitulum to trochlea and epicondyle Allhe c of14: Female Appearance Acromion, lilac crelt, leucr trochanter Fwion :: lemur, trochantu, dinal tibia and fint mctltanal, Male Appearance Proairn..l sesamoid of thumb, base of fiJth ractatanal At the IIIJC oflSl Bothaun Appoaronee Sctamokl o( lillie finaer Fwion D&atal of second, third and fourth .... Female Appearance Sesamoid of lndrx and little fingm Fuaion Medial epicondyle. &nc metaarpal, proltimal fchalarUI o( thumb, di.ttal pta.bnsct of lnrwr our fi"tm-J::oimal tibia, outer four mrta-tanab, add le phalaru: or lctond loc, diltal pbalaafet o( lancr four toa Male Appearance Acromion Fu.alon lllum, laeh l um and pubb AI the e or 16: F'emalc Appearanc:e Diltale.amoid of thamb, rubcr ltchll Fuaion Inner four metacarpal, JWoaimal or lnde., middle and little finsen, middle phalanwa ol fiqcn Male Lowrr conjoint epiphyt l l of humer-u1, medial ........ At the llle of 17: Both ICJlt'l }"u:Jun Acromion Fctnale Upper conjoint t'piph)'lil or humCI'UI, di.Jt.a.J ulna, dlltal rmrur' fibula t-ble AppcanllCe Dltalanamoid of thumb Fw.ion o0r middle and finw;en, dlual or thumb, inde., ""'and little finccn. head or femur, frel.lCI' trochanter, diatilll tibia and fibula, meutarub, prozirml phalanca cd At the ace of liS; or lctond toe, dlatal ffmale Fu1ion DtnaJ radiut Male At thr " Q( 19; phalanset or little fingtt t proaimal tibia Ma14" Appnnu1a' Scnmoid of lndea. aut.T itchii Fltlinn fibula Ar II"' "" nf 20: Ro1h1n" Fta:!nn Ui:llt'crnl Mle 1'ubn-isddi AI thr of 21 llo1h1n" Appnrant't" Clavidcfution Tubrr iachil At th4" al(e or 22: Rnthln" Fusion 74

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APPENDIX S CHART OF AGES OF CRANIAL SUTURE CLOSURE. This is illustrated in Krogman 1973. F.nionanial F.doaorri al Walt lt'Ailt ''"'' ,.,,,, Molt IVAit1 Molt N,,. .... ,,, c .. 1" .. r.mtarll c T c T RtwtcrrA: c T I. 22 !'lows at ll at 3 9 22 31 Slow to 26 compl 20 29 '3. 9 in obelica 2.4 20 32 Slowly to 24. 2 9-!i;tow to 26 alone: 2 9 in 3 6 in gm., 4.0 in eral Slow to 26 obeltca alone 2. Sphcno--27 r.4 Slo" at 30 at l.O. 20 44 fmntai Final bunt or at't. Slow to 26 complete 28 46 2 3 31, 3.8 at 21 3. at may ruch 4 0 at 43 urhital 3. Spheno-frontal 22 Same 23 44 to 26 C'ompleac 28 38 2 I at lB, may reach 4 0 in old Re 46 1.9 at35 temporal 2.3, Brec. at 2.4, comp 4. Coronal I 24 38 Slows at at 3 4 24 38 Slows at 32 all. 6 26 29 at 23 32 and 2 compUc.ata at 0. 9 at 1.7 5. Coronal 3 26 41 Slow at 29 at 2.1 25 44 Slows atll at 2.3 28 50 SO at 3 7, rpurious 25 35 JS at 2 8, spur. rise rapid to ca JO rite at 21 at 21 li, l.ambdo i d 2fi 42 Slows at 31 atl.-4 23 46 Slow at JO at 2 !'. 24 30 rise at 21. 23 31 Lamb 2 . meclla I nd 2 Slow to 46 l.ambdlca 2. J, 2 0 media I. 9 7 l .a mbdoid J ,2r, 47 SIO\\ t at 30 at 2 2 27 46 at ll at 2. 7 26 131 Nat more than 1 0 22 ?31 Not more than 1 0 H Ma1'o-2f 72 32-48 at 3 .2. !\Ia\\ 17 30 30atl. 3. NoCunhcr 26 33 I .<4 at ll, may reach 26 31 Spurious rite at 21 occipital l pro"rHS &lerea(&u progrns thereafter 4 0 In old aae sec. act. at 50 '' SphC'no-.2'J 65 29-46 3 : 0 23 49 Slo"' at JO .rot 2 7 28 38 2.0 ac 38 3 5 at 31, 28 46 1.4 31 , continues Co o l d age Ptob. never dotco .lll lo7 Sfnw al oncr, 6 7 at 40 51 51 l .l. Oscilla 36 ?65 Prob. never closes SO? 0 temporall :trw-: tlont lhereaer II. Sphcno-. II lo4 40 41 41 at I. 2, then oacil 37 165 Prob. never closes SO? 0 Prob. never dosa temporal I 2 4 Bunt or atL at 63 12. Jn 81 32-4S at I 2S, 25 46 46 ai3.S,th
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APPENDIX T CHART OF LOCATION OF BEGINNING CLOSURE IN VAULT SUTURES (IN%). This is illustrated in McKern and Stewart 1957 and published in Krogman 1973. SaJiiiGl Lam6tloid O..onal Pau Pars Pars Pars Part Pass Pars Pars PtJrs PaTs Pttrs Age No. brtg ""' obtl. lamb. lamb. inl,. aJitr. brtf. com,, sk,,, ,,.,, 17-18 55 -4 8 4 I 2 4 2 2 19 52 II IS II 6 6 4 4 8 6 4 1 20 45 9 22 IS 24 9 11 7 2 13 9 2 21 37 10 16 s 19 16 10 8 2 8 2 2 22 24 20 20 16 25 12 20 4 20 16 8 8 23 26 7 19 II 23 II II 7 19 19 23 34 24-25 27 26 19 30 26 26 26 26 IS 14 19 22 26-27 25 23 I I 23 3 I 2 3 3 1 37 28-30 29 9 12 9 25 12 29 9 16 29 12 16 31-40 43 II 18 13 17 28 II 18 28 28 18 17 41-50 6 16 16 16 33 so so 16 33 33 16 Tolal 369 76

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APPENDIX U CHART OF THE TEN PHASES IN POSTNATAL AGE-CHANGES IN THE PUBIC SYMPHYSIS. This is illustrated in Krogman 1973. s,m;h,llal Ossifo Vtnlral a/ Phase Surfatt NoJulu Margin Margin Fint Rugged horiz. grooves, None None None 18-19 furrows and ridges Second Grooves filling donally May appear on Ventral bewl brgins Begins 20-21 and behind sym. surf. Third Ridges and furrows proPresent almoJI Beveling pro-More deli nile donal pia22-24 gressivdy going eonllantly nounccd teau brgins Fourth Rapidly going Present Beveling greally Complete dorsal plateau 25-26 incrcatCd present Fifth Little change May be present Sporadic attempt at venCompletely defined 27-30 tral rampart Sixth Granular appearance reMay be present Ventral rampart comDefined 30-35 tained plete Seventh Texture finer; change due May be present Complete Defined 35-39 to diminishing acrivity Smooth and inactive; no May be present No lipping No lipping urim11 Ninth Rim present May be present Irregularly lipped 44-50 Uniformly lipped &trrmilit6 No definition No definition No definition Lower commencing definition Lower clearer: upper extremity forming lncrc:aing def. upper and lower Carry OD Oval outline complete, extremities clearly out lined Carry on Tenth Erosion and erratic ossifi-.---------------------------Broken down--------------------------+ 50+ cation 77

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APPENDIX V CHART OF TRAITS DIAGNOSTIC OF SEX IN THE SKULL. This is illustrated in Krogman 1973. Trait General size Architecture Supra-orbital ridges Mastoid processes Occipital area Frontal eminences Parietal eminences Orbits Forehead Cheek bones Mandible Palate Occipital condyles Teeth Male Large (endocranial voluine 200 cc. more) Rugged Medium to large Medium to large Muscle Jines and protuberance marked Small Small Squared, lower, relatively smaller, with rounded mar gins Steeper, less rounded Heavier, more laterally arched Larger, higher symphysis, broader ascending ramus Larger, broader, tends more to U-shape Large Large; lower Ml more often 5-eusped 78 Female Small Smooth Small to medium Small to medium Muscle lines and protuberance not marked Large Large Rounded, higher, relatively larger, with sharp margins Rounded, full, infantile Lighter, more compressed Small, with less corpal and ramal dimensions Small, tends more to parabola Small Small; molars most often 4cusped

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APPENDIX W CHART OF SEX DIFFERENCES IN PELVIC MORPHOLOGY. is illustrated in Krogman 1973. Trait Pelvis as a whole Symphysis Subpubic angle Obturator foramen Acetabulum Greater sciatic notch rami Sacro-iliac articulation Preauricular sulcus Ilium Sacrum Male Massive, rugged, marked muscle sites Higher V-shaped, sharp angle Large, often ovoid Large, tends to be directed laterally Smaller, close, deep Slightly everted Large Not frequent High, tends to be vertical Longer, narrower, with more evenly distributed curva ture; often 5 + segments Pelvic brim, or inlet Heart-shaped True pelvis, or cavity Relatively smaller 79 Female Less massive, gracile, smoother Lower U-shaped, rounded; broader divergent obtuse angle Small, triangular Small, tends to be directed anterolaterally Larger, wider; shallower Strongly everted Small, oblique More frequent, better de veloped Lower, laterally divergent Shorter, broader, with tend ency to marked curve at Sl-2 and 83-5; 5 segments the rule Circular, elliptical Oblique, shallow, spacious This

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APPENDIX X CHART OF AVERAGES OF STATURE AND SELECTED LONG BONES (IN CMS) ACCORDING TO YEAR OF BIRTH, SOURCE, RACE AND SEX (for Caucasians and Negroids) This is illustrated in Krogman 1973. AD. Age When StaJurt StaJure Femur Yfar of Was QJ' Corrected and Birth No. Measurtd Measured Stature Femur Tibia Tibia WHITE MALES Terry Collection 1841>--49 9 83.9 171. 6 172. 8 46.5 36.5 83.0 1850-59 29 76.0 168.2 168.9 45.2 34. 8 80.0 1860-69 79 68. 3 170. 0 170.3 45. 8 35.6 81.4 1870-79 68 58. 9 171.2 170.9 45. 8 35.4 81.2 1880-89 51 49.3 170.3 169. 5 45. 4 34.9 80.4 1890-99 15 38.9 171.4 169.9 45.4 35. 0 80.4 1900-09 4 33.2 175.8 173.9 47.5 37.2 84.7 Military Personnel 1905-09 33 32. 8 171. 2 46.1 35.6 81.7 1910-14 77 29.1 172.9 47.1 36.5 83.6 1915-19 171 24. 5 173.3 47. 1 36.7 83.8 1920-24 249 20. 3 174.8 47.5 37. 1 84. 6 NEGRO MALES Terry Collection 1840-49 5 85. 8 166.2 167. 6 45. Z 35.9 81.1 1850-59 14 77. 1 169. 6 170.4 46. 9 37.0 83.91860-69 45 67. 6 171.7 172. 0 47. 6 37.6 85. 2 1870-79 67 59. 9 172.5 172.3 47.6 37.9 85. 5 1880-89 83 50.0 172. 0 171.2 47.2 37.3 84.5 1890-99 65 39.0 172.2 170. 7 47. 2 37.4 84. 6 1900-09 72 29.8 175. 6 173. 6 48. 1 38. 3 86. 4 1910-19 9 24.3 176. 6 174. 6 48.0 38. 4 86. 4 Military Personnel 1905-09 8 32.1 168. 5 46. 5 36. 5 83.0 1910-14 15 29. 8 173.8 48.5 39.0 87. 5 1915-19 25 24. 8 171.2 48. 3 38.4 86. 7 1920-24 33 20. 1 173. 2 48.5 38.9 87.4 WHITE FEMALES Terry Collection 1840-49 2 87.0 150.5 151.9 40. 3 30.2 70.5 1850-59 11 79. 9 156.0 157. 0 42. 1 32. 9 75.0 1860-69 22 71.2 161.8 162. 3 43.2 33.3 76.5 1870-79 10 61.2 162. 6 162. 5 43.4 33.8 77.2 1880-89 8 52. 2 160.1 159A 43.4 33.5 76.9 1890-99 4 38.0 166. 5 165. 0 44. 4 34.3 78.7 1900-09 6 32. 3 162. 2 160.3 42.0 32.0 74. 0 NEGRO FEMALES Terry Collection 1840-49 3 87.0 155. 0 156. 4 43.1 34.9 78' .0 1850-59 8 80.0 155. 2 156. 2 42.7 33.3 76.0 1860-69 18 71.0 158. 7 159. 2 43. 7 34.7 78.4 1870-79 23 62. 0 162. 0 161.9 43.9 34. 6 78. 5 1880-89 32 49.0 160.9 160.0 43. 5 34. 5 78. 0 80

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APPENDIX Y CHART OF. THE CALCULATION OF STATURE FROM LONG BONES. This is illustrated in 1. index: Charney 1980. Morphological length (2) X 100 breadth ( 1) Breadth of infra-spinous fossa X 100 2. Infra-spinous index: Bn:ulth of supra-spinous fossa X 100 3. Supmspinous index: 0 bscrvatinus (I) I' crtdmtl lwrrlcr g (from scapular spine to inferior angle): nmca\'e. ltoicll: Absent, sli)!;ht, medium; dcl'J> foramen. (3) SlwjJt! of acromicm Jnocess: Sidde,
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EXAMINATION THE ; . .. . ..:. . : . : STYLE OF COFFIN: Anthropoid Rectangular P'-'""' Thickness {) ?' . j/ Condition: Poor Fair . Good cellent X TYPE OF GROUND FOR PAINT: Gesso y Bare wood '11! Other __ COLOURS USED: Red ')( Black X White X Blue Y Brown_x_ Yellow )<( Sienna )<:' Green ,X Other ____ DYNASTIC INFORMATION ( 1 f known) STYLE OF INSCRIPTION: Demotic __ Coptic_. _____ Greek. ______ Other _____ !NDIV!DUA[, NAMES RECORDED ON COFFIN ___ (/,v N f:fl:'lf, ,rlA1 ov I !W l iV t?S r./.5 COMMENTS ______________________________________ __ 2 / (?(Zlf t ?) NAME OF EXAMINER p'v/9.,_ DATE MUSEUM NAME AND / MUSEUM NUMBER (R W {p 0 STORAGE t.OCATION 82

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EXAMINATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL: TYPE OF WRAPPING. (p il (, 0 CONDITION OF WRAPPING: Poor __ Excellent x JEWELRY '-.2 d I I FUNERARY AMULETS PRESENT: 'I METHODOLOGIES USED: Blood TAKENA/OPROTEIN WORKUP Afa PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN: ___ Photos attached. __ TISSUE SAMPLES TAKEN: Yes ___ PERSONAL PROFILE: IF EXCAVATED: Site number Location __________________ U,u c:& Accompanying artifacts l?t=t t(f Bur.ial ... Depth from surface ______________ Depth from datum Burial type: A)' mummification AJt\ B) Cremation _____ c) Primary D) Secondary __ !) Flexed_:&') !xtendedL._Partial ere-amation __ Burial Deposition: A) Orientation of the Direction of the J 83

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LIST ALL OTHER SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION ASSOCIATED WITH THIS l?z4 r2 =l &-/ I I I 84

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EXAMINATION OF THE COFFIN: __ .. .. .. STYLE OF COFFIN: Anthropoid >( Rectangular Other _ r (.
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EXAMINATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL: TYPE CONDITION OF WRAPPING: Poor ____ Fair __ __ ______ __ .7p;WELRY PRES:ENT: FUNERARY AMULETS PRESENT: .... -t-v'-' METHODOLOGIES USED: Blood SCAN-AliLFINGERPRINTS TAKENAIOPROTEIN PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN: ___ Photos TISSUE SAMPLES TAKEN: Yes No)( Resu,ts attached ____________ __ t;i:;:o::r_, &f 1111.. PERS ONAL PROFILE: u.r-eightA/ /<(_Race IJ ;.L_ / Stature ti 1& tU... ()t tU.lvUe 2 &-;?#tA-u fvl.fJ.-U?-r @ r o 9 Poor _____ Excellent Comments __ Ut-l IF EXCAVATED: Site number....-1'--t.vf,e.l,'IA--Location __ -__________ Accompanying ;,..,._ Burial number Dep4 from surface ----. c Depth from datum Burial'type: A)" Natural mummification B) Cremation ___ C) Primary D) Secondary __ !) Flexed __ F) ExtendedPartial creamation __ Burial dimensions Depos1 tion: A) Orientation of the B) Direction of the I 86

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rest of the Photographs YeX-No_If LIST ALL OTHER SUPPORTING RE?ORT: NAME OF EXAMINER _____ DATE 87

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EXAMINATION OF THE COFFIN: USED ... . .... STYLE OF COFFIN: AnthropiQ.j,d X Rectangular Other ---NKDepth NK Thickness IJk. Condition: Poor Fair Good X Excellent __ TYPE OF GROUND FOR PAINT: Gesso X Bare wood Other __ COLOURS USED: Red_j{_Black K White X Blue __ Yellow ___ Sienna X Green. ___ Other ____ --"1/. rtJ DYNASTIC INFORMATION (if known) STYLE OF INSCRIPTION: X Coptic Greek Other ____ INSCRIPTIO .c::l 11 dfi [J /_ t=r c-3 /} a TRANSLATION: I 7 ........_._ I T/HC!Ie7J,ta/GA1t'W/ PEPtKHoNS ptrr T lJ tit(L f;d.Md diM# p /fdtL +-l:?f4-.. INDIVIDUAL NAMES RECORDED ON COFFIN t/1 /
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EXAMINATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL: TYPE OF CONDITION OF WRAPPING: Poor ____ Fair ____ Good ____ __ __ .7J1;WELRY PRESENT: FUNERARY AMULETS PRESENT: /21-@14 METHODOLOGIES USED: Blood DNA TAKEN PROTEIN WORKUP PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN: ___ Photos TISSUE SAMPLES TAKEN: Yes. attached a.;J.v.A.J. PERSONAL PROFILE: A/(<:_ I Poor ______ Fair ____ Good _____ Excellent )< Comments __ v NA&\1E OF EXAMINER DATE ___ +--NAME AND ADDRESS OF 7 IF EXCAVATED: Site number ft/? Location Accompanying Burial number Depth from surface ______________ __ Depth from datum Burial type: A)' Natural mummification B) Cremation _____ C) Primary /D) Secondary ____ E) Flexed _____ :&') ere-amation ___ Burial Deposition: A) Orientation of the head Direction of the ; 89

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NA1'2E OF EXAMINER DATE I 4A 90 wr

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MEASUREMENTS:Length ______ Width. _____ Depth. ______ Thickness ____ __ Condition: Poor ______ ____ Good. ______ Excellent ____ __ TYPE OF GROUND FOR PAINT: Gesso ____ Bare wood. _____ Other __ COLOURS USED: Red _____ Black ____ White ______ Blue ____ Brown __ Yellow. ____ Sienna ______ Green. _____ Other ________ DYNASTIC INFORMATION (if known) __ STYLE OF INSCRIPTION: Hieroglyph ______ HieraUc _____ Demotic. _____ Coptic _______ Greek. ________ other ________ __ !NSCRIPTIC TRANSLATION: _____________________________________________ __ INDIVIDUAL NAMES RECORDED ON COFFIN --------------------COMMENTS ________________________ NAME OF EXAMINER Su.t., WMADATE 4:z IJ, ty9.Y AND ADDRESS _,_, MUSEUM NAME 91

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EXAMINATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL: TYPB OJ' WRAPPING fl(.l7-u.,_. OF WRAPPING: Poor ____ Fair __ __ Good ____ Excellent ________ __ PRESENT: ftYt.L-FUNERARY AMULETS PRESENT: Jt;r= METHODOLOGIES USED: Blood reconsti'tutionkDNA PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN: ___ Photos 7 fJ:/. TISSUE TAXEN: Yes ___ attached h9c (-5"1 M po;-PERSONAL PROFILE: lvtl( <:_ "/, J' S/4tu .1..L-t-,.f_t_.J &) ewLo..f 11, 1 ' I Poor ______ _____ Excellent Comments __ S:rrt-LL Mit It. ) j IJ' EXCAVATED: Site number Location I Accompanying # it" /UA-t;urial number 3...< 15"4 dn:> Depth from surface I Siz. l.t 4 Depth from datum A)' mummification >( B) Cremation _____ C) Primary )( D) Secondary ____ !) Extended ____ Partial cre-amation __ __ Burial Deposition: .. A) orientation ot the head.c?!-!l-j1&4ZA--'B) Direction of the 92

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93

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EXAMINATION THE COFFIN: MATERIAL USED . . I I. . . t. ... .. : . Condition: Poor ______ __ --Good. ______ .Excellent. ____ __ TYPE OF GROUND FOR PAINT: Gesso ______ ....;Bare wood X Other __ COLOURS USED: Red _____ Black _____ White ____ Blue ______ Brown ____ Yellow ______ Sienna ______ Green. ______ Other _________ DYNASTIC INFORMATION (if known)--L/:_-$;;.. ___ ;_jtJI:...<-..:";.._--------STYLE OF INSCRIPTION: Hieroglyph ____ HieraUc _____ ______ Coptic ______ Greek. _________ Other INSCRIPTIO INDIVIDUAL HAMES RECORDED ON COFFIN COMMENTS ____________________________________________________ NAME OF EXAMINER DATE--J./-'?'-:-'-I_o ____ MUSEUM NAME AND ADDRESS 7 MUSEUM NUMBER S.:i.-f-}"' yl STORAGE LOCATION 94

PAGE 108

EXAMINATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL: TYPE OJ!' CONDITION OF WRAPPING: __ __ Good ____ Excellent ________ __ PRESENT: /!Ukri? __ J!'UNERARY AMULETS PRESENT: dL-r!-(. 4_ METHODOLOGIES USED: Blood reconstitution N'O DNA fingerprinting A/a SCAN..6:LQ__F!NGERPRINTS WORKUP /v' PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN: ___ Photos __ TISSUE SAMPLES TAKEN: Yes ___ attached tvor 1./WL IVbk-L-PERsoNAL PROFILE: ____ Weight ____ Race ________ __ wc-11\....... /7-./. Stature __ Anomalies/Pathologies ..c:nl.:c.+--DEN'i'!T!Ol'i: Poor _____ Fair ____ Comments __ $1u-1""'t'--/ v. NAME OF EXAMINER DATE NAME AND ADDREss oF MusEuM /31-t-z I IF EXCAVATED: Site number Location f{ -(Jd,( Accompanying artifacts TJlfTe/C:./-1-fv . Burial number -1/il/ c;p Depth f .;om Depth from Burial type: A)" Natural mummification B) Cremation ___ C.) Primary D) Secondary ____ !) ____ Partial ere-amation Burial Depos1 tion: A) Orientation of the head I D1rect1on'of the 95

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. J-/. / I I Y. rest of the taken: so are photos to this COMMENTS 7?u_ 0 c=-o/L..-.._ i LIST ALL OTHER SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION ASSOCIATED WITn THIS EXAMINATION RE?ORT: --??AJ,u5t
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EXAMINATION THE COFFIN: USED .. STYLE OJ!' COFFIN: Anthropoid_Rectangu;lar __ Other __ MEASUREMENTS:Length Width Depth Thickness ____ __ Condition: Poor ______ ____ Good _____ Excellent ____ __ TYPE OF GROUND FOR PAINT: Gesso _______ Bare wood. ______ Other ____ __ COLOURS Red ______ B.lack ______ ____ ______ B.rown ____ I I Yellow ______ sienna. ______ ______ other __________ DYNASTIC INFORMATION (if known) STYLE OF INSCRIPTION: Hieroglyph _____ HieraUc Demotic ______ Coptic _______ Greek. _________ Other ________ __ INSCRIPTIO TRANSLATION=---------------------------------------------------INDIVIDUAL NAMES RECORDED ON COFFIN COMMENTS-------------------------------------------------------NAME OF EXAMINER _________________________ .DATE ________________ __ MUSEUM NAME AND MUSEUM NUMBER $" 1.3 5'" 3 STORAGE LbCATION i 97

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EXAMINATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL: TYPE OF CONDITION OF WRAPPING: Poor_K_Fair_ Good __ Excellent ____ JEWELRY PRESENT: , I FUNERARY AMULETS METHODOLOGIES USED: Blood WORKUP PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN: ___ Photos : I TISSUE SA:v!PLES TAKEN: Yes_NoLResults attached /.A-PERSONAL PROFILE: uvr .. :J.d!tt.(.,. v7h0t!4 j,f,U.r_,c.lt[ DEN'1ITION: Poor ___ Fair __ Comments_ /{,{..t_ IF EXCAVATED: Site tdcation (/ Accompanying artifacts Burial Depth surface ________ I Depth from datum Burial A)' mummification K B) Cremation __ Cl. Primary K D) ) Secondary __ E) Extended __ Partial ere-' amation __ Burial dimensions Deposition: > #_ I A) Orientation of the head<-+ B). Direction of the 98

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. {/ LIST ALL OTHER SUPPORTING OOCUMENTA ,TION ASSOCIATED WITn THIS EXAMINATION RE?ORT: 99

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CHECKLIST/WORKSHEET USED AT THE[BRITISH MUSEUM TO IMPLEMENT THE TENETS OF THIS THESIS MUMMY # f.tl iR9Z. 5ZS8S 5=t353 SARCOPHAGUS I Photo Compo I I Stone : Wood Other I MEASUREMENT L D w : H I I COFFIN Photo I I Disturb : I Paint : BJ.nder Dating D I G I 0 .I Repair I Style : I A R 0 i In Situ I Fit I Artifacts ; A I I J I : A i p I 0 I I Tampering I : 100

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fDloC4.o I 3Z.=tS'to 5'28'?J> [ s '9-35'3 WRAPPING & I ADORNMENT Placement Photo Document I PI PIG 0 WrapTech Adornment Re-Wrap? EmbalmTech Weave c sc F PHYSICAL REMAINS Photo H : Arm l;'ub Images wrap i Amul. : Skin Les I Disease Tattoo I I Toenails I Gold I Rem In pl.ace Plain Residue I Record i I I Stature I 101

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I s C;&. &o (oqz._ .. Gender l e A at D Hand Race c o:r D Anomal ACCOMPANYING MATERIALS Matrix So1l Foreiqn Proven I An/Hum buried Orient of H Other OONCLUSION lo /0 /3 b 5 15 102

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REFERENCES CITED j Bass, William M. 1969 1971 1980 Recent Developments in the Identification of Human Skeletal Material. "American Journal of Physical Anthropology," 30:459-462. Human Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual of the Human Skeleton. The Missouri Archaeological Society, Inc. Reprint of the above. Brooks, Sheila T. 1968 Skeletal age at death; the reliability of cranial and pubic age indicators. "American Journal of Physical Anthropology", 13: 567-597. Brues, Alice M. 1958 Regional differences in the physical characteristics of an American population. "Journal 6f Physical Anthropology" Vol. 4, no. 4, 463-481. Charney, Michael 1972 1980 1982 Miscellaneous laboratory Notes for an Introduction to Forensic Human Biology. Laboratory for Forensic Anthropology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. Reprint of the above. Amended reprint of the above. 103

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I Cockburn, T. A. 1 Mummies, Disease, and lncient Cultures. Cambridge University London 1980 Harris, James E. and Kent R. Weeks 1973 X-Raying the Pharaohs. Charles scribner and Sons, New York Harris, James and K. Wente 1980 Hooten, E.A. An X-Rav Atlas of the Royal Mummies. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London 1943 Up From the Aoe. McMillan and Company, New York, New York 1 Kerley, J. A. 1965 The Microscopic Determination of Age in Human Bone. "American.Journal of Physical Anthropology",: 23: 149-164 i Krogman, W.M. 1962 1973 The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine. Charles c. Thomas, Springfield, Ill. I The role of physical in dental and medical research. "Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 9, 211-218. Kronfeld, Rudolph 1935 Fallacies of anthropological identifications and redonstructions. A critique based on anatdmical dissections. Fac-sci P,ublication, University at Masaryk, ;Prague, 207:1-18. McKern T.W. and T.D. Stewart 1957 Skeletal Age Changes in Young American Males. "Technical Repdrt", Headquarters Quartermaster Researchland Development Command. Natick, Mass.; 104

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Montagu, Ashley 1960 An Introduction to Physical Anthropology. Charles c. Thomas, Springfield, Ill. Shipman, Pat and Alan Walker, and David Bichell 1985 "The Human Skeleton" Snow, Clyde C. and Joan Williams 1948 Variation in Premortem Statural Measurements Compared to Statural Estimates of Remains. "Journal of Forensic Sciences", 16:455-464 Stewart, T. D. and Mildred Trotter (ed.) 1954 Basic Reading on the Identification of Human Skeletons; Estimation of Age. Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, New York. Todd, et al Endocranial suture closure, its progress and age relationship, 1922 Part I. Adult males of white stock. "American Journal of Physical Anthropology"; 7:325-384 Trotter M. and G. c. Gleser 1952 1977 Corriegenda to Estimation of Stature from long limb bones of American Whites and Negroes. "American Journal of Physical Anthropology". 47:355-356. Reprint of the above. 105

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Ubelaker, Douglas H. 1978 Human Skeletal Remains: Excavation, Analysis, and Interpretation. Washburn, S. L. 1948 Sex Differences in the Pubic Bone. "American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 6:199-208 . 106