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Little London legacy

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Title:
Little London legacy a study of historic preservation in Colorado Springs
Creator:
Karber, Jennifer Miller
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
173 leaves : ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Historic preservation -- History -- Colorado -- Colorado Springs ( lcsh )
Historic buildings -- Colorado -- Colorado Springs ( lcsh )
Historic buildings ( fast )
Historic preservation ( fast )
Colorado -- Colorado Springs ( fast )
Genre:
History. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
History ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 162-173).
Thesis:
History
General Note:
Department of History
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jennifer Miller Karber.

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Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
57707944 ( OCLC )
ocm57707944
Classification:
LD1190.L57 2004m K37 ( lcc )

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Full Text
LITTLE LONDON LEGACY
A STUDY OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN COLORADO SPRINGS
by
Jennifer Miller Karber
B.A, Colorado College, 1986
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Arts
History
2004


2004 by Jennifer Miller Karber
All rights reserved.


This thesis for the Master of Arts
degree by
Jennifer Miller Karber
has been approved
by
Thomas J. Noel
Pamela Laird


Karber, Jennifer Miller (M.A., History)
Little London Legacy A Study of Historic Preservation in Colorado Springs
Thesis directed by Professor Thomas J. Noel
ABSTRACT
Although the city of Colorado Springs has been the recipient of more land,
parks, roads and public buildings than any other city the state, it has a poor record of
maintaining and honoring its rich legacy. Four wealthy benefactors, William Jackson
Palmer, Winfield Scott Stratton, Spencer Penrose and Thayer Tutt, magnanimously
bestowed their gifts of property and money on the young city with the hope of
creating a luxurious resort community in the British tradition. Nicknamed Little
London, Colorado Springs was given everything it needed to become one of the
loveliest and most sophisticated cities in the state. However, ignorance, poor
education and a pro-development philosophy caused this inheritance to be
squandered. Growth, not preservation, has been the priority of the City
Administration over the past forty years. An uneducated, uncommitted citizenry has
permitted the old to be sacrificed for the new. As a result, little remains that once
defined Colorado Springs and gave it its special character. This thesis examines
what has happened to Colorado Springs esteemed historic structures. It chronicles
the history of preservation efforts in the city and suggests ways to improve its
mediocre preservation record. This analysis also includes an in-depth look at the
citys built environment and examines what significant sites have already been lost,
which ones are in danger of being destroyed and which ones are worthy of landmark
status. It is my hope that this document will inspire the citizens of Colorado Springs
to take measures to end the needless destruction of its public landmarks.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis. I
recommend its publication.
Signed
Thomas J. Noel
tv


DEDICATION
I dedicate this thesis to my family, Kent, Steve, Grace and Jack, and to my
parents.
v


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
My sincere thanks to Tim Scanlon, City Planner, for his wisdom, candor and
patience. I also wish to thank my Thesis Adviser, Professor Tom Noel for his
encouragement over all these years! Thank you as well to Kay Haynes, for being a
wonderful tour guide and neighbor and to the brilliant and generous staff from the
Special Collections Department of the Penrose Public Library. Finally, I would
like to express my deep gratitude to Judith Rice-Jones, Joyce Stivers, Bill Barnes
and the other Board members of the Historic Preservation Alliance. Never give
up hope!
vi


CONTENTS
Figures............................................... viii
Tables..................................................xii
CHAPTER
1. AHISTORY OF PRESERVATION............................1
2. LOST RESOURCES.....................................12
Introduction.................................12
List of Lost Resources.......................15
3. ENDANGERED RESOURCES...............................54
Introduction.................................54
Colorado Springs Endangered Sites List.......57
4. RESOURCES WITH LANDMARK POTENTIAL ................118
Introduction................................118
Potential Landmarks.........................121
5. CONCLUSION........................................158
BIBLIOGRAPHY..................................................162
vii


FIGURES
Figure
2.1 Alta VistaHotel...................................................15
2.2 Anders Hotel......................................................16
2.3 Bums Theater......................................................18
2.4 Broadmoor Casino..................................................20
2.5 Broadmoor Ice Palace..............................................22
2.6 Bruin Inn.........................................................23
2.7 Cobum Library.....................................................24
2.8 Colorado Springs High School......................................25
2.9 Opera House.......................................................27
2.10 Fannie Mae Duncan.................................................29
2.11 Cragmor Sanitarium................................................31
2.12 Hassell Iron Works................................................35
2.13 Hibbards Department Store........................................37
2.14 Hidden Inn........................................................38
2.15 Steele School.....................................................41
2.16 Ute Theater.......................................................42
vrn


.42
.57
.58
60
.62
.63
.65
.67
.69
.70
71
.73
74
.76
.78
.79
.81
.83
Ute Theater.......................
Boys Club........................
Cedar Springs.....................
Chadboum Spanish Gospel Mission...
Chucks Stop Diner................
City Auditorium...................
Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind.
Colorado Springs Hotel............
Crissey Fowler Lumber.............
ElPaso InigationDitches...........
Fire Station Four.................
Golden Cycle Mill Smokestack......
Grace Episcopal Church............
Median on Nevada Avenue...........
Kimballs Peak Theater............
Law Mortuary......................
MarionHouse.......................
Monument Valley Park..............
IX


3.19 Springs Reformed Church..........................................88
3.20 Prospect Lake Bath House.........................................90
3.21 Rock Island Roundhouse...........................................91
3.22 Spencers Nurseiy................................................94
3.23 TrolleyBuildings.................................................97
3.24 Union Printers Home............................................100
3.25 VemerZ. Reed Library............................................101
3.26 Vincent Street Bridge...........................................103
4.1 AcaciaPark......................................................121
4.2 AcaciaHotel.....................................................122
4.3 Antlers Garage..................................................124
4.4 Carriage House Museum...........................................125
4.5 CheyenneHotel...................................................126
4.6 Denver and Rio Grande Depot.....................................129
4.7 El Paso Club....................................................131
4.8 Halfway House...................................................135
4.9 Knights of Columbus Building....................................137
4.10 Myron Stratton Home.............................................141
x


4.11 Payne Chapel.......................................................145
4.12 Turn of the Century Building.......................................147
4.13 Woodmen of the World Sanitarium......................................148
xi


TABLES
Table
3.1 Nominations to Colorado List of Endangered Places..................55
xu


CHAPTER 1
A HISTORY OF PRESERVATION
Colorado Spring has been richly blessed. However, like the spoiled child of
wealthy parents, it has also been overindulged. Its founding fathers, William
Jackson Palmer, Spencer Penrose and Winfield Scott Stratton gave extravagantly to
the resort community of their dreams. Thanks to their largesse and public
mindedness, Colorado Springs became known statewide as having beautiful
buildings and parks. General Palmers dream of a genteel mountain paradise that
was the model of English civility had come true. Gold rush money sustained the city
until the 1930's, when the prominent millionaires began to die off. By then, the
citys benevolent benefactors had given more public land, streets, parks, buildings
and money to Colorado Springs than most cities dream of. Colorado Springs
abundance of tree-lined walking trails, its wide streets, its beautifully landscaped
medians and the handsome buildings which graced its downtown attracted and
impressed tourists from all over the country. With majestic Pikes Peak as its
backdrop, many considered Colorado Springs to be the most picturesque city in
Colorado.
1


Today, unfortunately, Colorado Springs has fallen off its lofty perch as one
of the states finest, most elegant cities and is now an object of embarrassment and
disappointment to those who know and love it most. Older citizens often remark
about their city and how lovely and exciting it once was. Visitors remember fun
times touring sites that no longer exist. Perhaps saddest of all is the lack of
appreciation the citys newer residents have for how great their home used to be.
Gone are many of the landmarks which gave the community a frame of reference.
Diminished and crumbling are the monuments and structures which provided
meaning for its citizens. What happened to cause such a metamorphosis?
Poor community education, a desire to attract developers and a diminished
concern for historic preservation exhibited by local leaders has compromised the
citys integrity. It is ironic that the citys culture began as one of public spiritedness
but deviated into one which embraced opportunism and growth at all costs. Bereft
of the financial support it came to depend on and lacking strong ties to its history,
Colorado Springs has lost sight of Palmers enlightened vision. Developers and
builders, not preservationists, appear to have more community clout and are able to
achieve results to their liking. Commercial encroachment has chipped away at the
citys historic core, turning beloved buildings into parking lots, office buildings and
fast-food restaurants. Of the over 2,000 public structures standing in 1900, only
2


about 200 remain. It seems obvious that while Colorado Springs citizens are
content to live in Palmers beautiful and peaceful community, they are reluctant to
invest in its maintenance.
It has been a long, hard road for the handful of citizens who are committed
to saving the citys past. Viewed by the citys conservative majority as tax and
spend liberal fanatics, preservation groups have experienced more resistence at the
local level than they have from the state. Norman Tyler, in his book, Historic
Preservation, emphasizes the protective power and regulation that is available from
local governments. His observation that in many ways, historic preservation is
most meaningful at the local level underscores the responsibility with which we
have entrusted our city governments.1 Richard Collins also addresses this issue in
his book, Americas Downtowns. He encourages cities like Colorado Springs to
try to define (their) community character.2 He also points out that historic
preservation has become more of a philosophy and less of a separate
movement.3 This evolution in preservation philosophy has yet to occur in
Colorado Springs. Only on a few occasions has the City Government modeled the
kind of preservationist attitude it hopes to inspire in its citizenry. The Citys
cautious approach towards saving its own historic public buildings certainly makes
it difficult for such a movement or philosophy to take root. The challenges of
3


preserving public charactefin this community have only just started to be met.4
Regrettably, Colorado Springs leaders have a history of not taking their
preservation role seriously enough. For every site or structure the community saves
from the wrecking ball, there are twice as many that are lost.
The citys first preservation group was founded in the early 1900s and called
themselves the Civic League.5 This womens organization was formed with the
intention of saving the citys unique character by affecting its evolution. One of the
most important things this group did was to commission a nationally prominent
New York engineer named Charles Mulford Robinson to make recommendations
on how to improve the city. Robinson came to Colorado Springs in 1905 as a
representative of the Good Roads Association. This organization of architects and
engineers travelled around the country promoting the benefits of paved streets.6 A
spokesman for the City Beautiful movement (a gathering of upper class reformers
who sought to improve civic culture and eliminate social ills through beautification),
Robinson drew up the citys first comprehensive plan. The plan included
suggestions for more parks, better roads, a diminished railroad presence and more
stringent air quality standards. He convinced city planners and leaders that
improving the appearance of Colorado Springs would, in turn, inspire its citizens to
live more harmoniously. Robinson successfully lobbied for the relocation of
4


railroads and coal mines to areas farther away from the heart of the city, which not
only cleaned up the air downtown but also freed up land for housing.
Colorado Springs first community preservation effort was bom out of the
Urban Renewal movement of the 1960s and 70s. At that time, federal tax laws
encouraged new construction in order to entice businesses to renovate older, less-
populated areas. Urban Renewal was the embodiment of a national attitude that
identified anything new as something to be desired and anything old as obsolete.
The influence of this movement spelled trouble for the historical face of Colorado
Springs. One major Urban Renewal effort, the Alamo Plaza Urban Renewal Project,
cleared a sizable number of downtown buildings.7 In 1970s Colorado Springs, a
buildings preservation depended upon how economically viable it remained. Many
were destroyed because of insurance and maintenance costs. Some sites were razed
because the potential profit to be made from the land beneath them was too
tempting. Compounding the problem downtown was the significant military
presence on the northern, eastern and southern perimeter of the city. Jobs
opportunities at military bases like Peterson and Ft. Carson became available, which
prompted families to leave their homes in the center of the city. As residents fled to
the suburbs, their former haunts became less fashionable and more obsolete.
5


The demolition in 1964 of Colorado Springs most cherished landmark, the
Antlers Hotel, was the catalyst for the creation of a fledgling preservation
movement. When a small group of concerned citizens rallied to rescue the
endangered hotel, their efforts went largely unnoticed and the structure was lost.
So, when residents got wind of the impending demise of the El Paso County
Courthouse, at about the same time as the Antlers demolition, they were even
more enraged. The El Paso County Commissioners felt that the 1903 courthouse
was too expensive and difficult to maintain and decided to replace it with a new,
and much plainer, building.8 Fortunately, the citizens group was more organized
and determined than when they tried to save the Antlers. Their campaign not only
saved the grandest structure in the downtown, but is also ensured its future
preservation by placing the site on the National Register of Historic Places. In fact,
many local historians credit the effort to save the courthouse as a seminal event. It
came to symbolize when the community took a firm stand against the mass
demolition of local landmarks.
In 1965, a Landmarks Preservation Committee formed with the intention of
educating the community and working on protective legislation for local historic
sites.9 This organization tried to take the city in a new direction and championed
the preservation of historic Rock Ledge Ranch. A major setback for preservation
6


groups like the Landmarks Committee occurred when the Bums Theater was tom
down in 1973. The Bums was the most beautiful and luxurious theater in the city.
In one swift move, this special spot was reduced to rubble in order to provide space
for bank offices.
Lacking direction from the city government and feeling ignored by
developers and builders, preservation advocates doggedly pressed on with various
projects in the 1970s. Although the Landmarks Preservation Committee eventually
dissolved, there were other organizations that remained active. One of the most
notable preservation efforts of the 1970s took place in Old Colorado City. In the
early 1970s, the historic part of Old Colorado City was referred to as Skid Row.
Developers eyed this dirty, abandoned and decaying strip of businesses along
Colorado Boulevard in the hopes creating an entirely new city. In 1975, involved
citizens pressured City Council to allow incremental re-investment in the area by
offering special tax incentives.10 They also received government funding to hire an
artist to do renderings of their old buildings and what they might look like if they
were restored. These drawings were used as a sales tool to convince
businesspeople to invest in Old Colorado City. Later, the citizens group convinced
the City to issue facade grants and block grants as well as to create an Old
Colorado City Security and Maintenance District.11 The rebirth of Old Colorado
7


City is a true success story and is a significant source of pride for local
preservationists. This project is often cited as the perfect example of what can be
accomplished when citizens groups and city officials work together in a spirit of
community.
The late 1980s was an era when Colorado Springs experienced a maturing
in its philosophy towards preservation. Two important events occurred in this
decade, which gave local preservation efforts a much needed boost. The first event
was the formation of the Historic Property Alliance with Debbie Abele, a Historic
Preservation Planner who worked for the city, as its leader.12 The HP A took on the
project of securing National Register District status for the WeberAVahsatch
neighborhood on the north side of town. This group also supported residents of the
Historic North End neighborhood when they nominated their area to the National
Register District list. Wanting to educate homeowners and interested citizens, the
HP A offered restoration classes and toured the Citys historic sites. The HP A
performed a very significant role in the community and continued to flourish until
the late 1990s, when it was transformed in the Historic Preservation Alliance. Like
its predecessor, the new HP A had an instructional component, however, this group
was and is much more proactive in its efforts to increase community awareness
about endangered sites and potential landmarks. The new HP A, under the
8


leadership of Joyce Stivers, raised its profile by sponsoring historic walking tours
each summer and hosting an annual awards gala, which recognizes outstanding
preservation and construction efforts in the community.
The second noteworthy event which helped the preservation movement in
the 1980s was the citys passage of the Historic Preservation Ordinance. The
Ordinance evolved as a result of pressure from influential, historically minded
citizens who lived in the North End. Having secured National Historic District
designation for their neighborhood, these community activists encouraged the city
to take a more active role in saving and promoting its history. The Historic
Preservation Board was established by municipal action with the passage of the
Historic Preservation Ordinance in November, 1988. Composed of seven members
appointed by the City Council, the Board is charged with developing a historic
preservation program for the city as well as advising City Council on how to best
implement the Ordinance.13 Aided by a Downtown Survey of designated buildings,
which Debbie Abele performed from 1983 to 1985, the Board does its best to
objectively identify and manage the citys historic resources. The good news is that
the presence of the Board induces the community to re-consider the use of the their
buildings. The bad news is that the city has lagged behind national preservation
trends for so many years that it has quite a bit of catching up to do.
9


NOTES
1 Tyler, Norman. Historic Preservation. New York: W.W. Norton and Company,
1994. 54.
2 Collins, Richard C., Elizabeth B. Waters and A. Bruce Dotson. Americas
Downtowns. New York: Preservation Press, 1991. 23.
3 Collins, et al. 22.
4 Collins, et al. 22.
5 Mayberry, Matt. The Unique History of the Founding of Colorado Springs.
Monument Valley Park Forum. City Council Chambers, Colorado Springs.
28 February 2004.
6 Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 17 March 2004.
7 City of Colorado Springs. Department of Comprehensive Planning. Historic
Preservation Plan. Colorado Springs: Department of Comprehensive
Planning, 1993. 5.
8 Duval, Linda. Courthouse Celebrates Birthday. Colorado Springs Gazette 19
October 2003: Ll-2.
9 Unknown author. Landmarks Preservation Committee Formed Here. Colorado
Springs Gazette-Telegraph 14 January 1965: Bl.
10 Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 26 September 2004.
11 Scanlon. 26 September 2004.
10


12 Jones, Judith Rice. History of Preservation Groups in Colorado Springs.
Meeting of the Historic Preservation Alliance Board of Directors. Petersen
Air Force Base, Colorado Springs. 14 February 2004.
13 City of Colorado Springs. Department of Comprehensive Planning. Historic
Preservation Plan. Colorado Springs: Department of Comprehensive
Planning, 1993. 36.
11


CHAPTER 2
LOST RESOURCES
Demolition is not always a wrecking ball swinging against
brick and mortar. Any building or structure or site that is not
being cared for properly is being demolished.1
Tony P. Wrenn and Elizabeth D. Mollov. Americas Forgotten Architecture
Introduction
Those citizens fortunate enough to live in Colorado Springs in the 1930's
saw the city at its finest. For fifty years, Colorado Springs trio of benefactors,
Winfield Scott Stratton, William Jackson Palmer and Spencer Penrose, had lavished
land, parks, and public buildings on the growing city.2 Moreover, a group of
noteworthy architects like George Summers, Thomas McLaren, Thomas Barber,
Charles Thomas and T.D. Hetherington had established a genteel traditon of
architecture that enhanced the young citys growing reputation as a Little
London.3 Local craftsmen had also contributed to citys handsome skyline. Ornate
iron fences from Hassell Iron Works, colorful tile from Van Briggle Pottery and
stone cut from local quarries became features which defined the communitys built
environment. Most importantly, Colorado Springs in the 1930s had not yet
experienced any major demolition project which would forever alter its appearance.
12


Although difficult times loomed on the horizon, as the citys leaders died off and
the community experienced the loss of their support, the 1930s were indeed the
best of times for Colorado Springs.
A glimpse of the city from the clock tower of the El Paso County
Courthouse would have revealed a panorama of treasured and prominent
landmarks. Most notably, the famous Antlers Hotel would have dominated the
landscape, from its central location at the west end of Pikes Peak Avenue. Down
the street, the prized Bums Theater would have drawn crowds for an evening
performance. The thirties was the decade in which other significant features, like
the Cobum Library, Colorado Springs High School and the Alta Vista Hotel, were
still present. Parking was plentiful on along the citys wide streets and the trolley
system still served a growing number of commuters. The 10,000 Cottonwood trees
which Palmer had brought to the city from the Arkansas River Valley in the late
1800s were maturing nicely, and created a verdant canopy over the city. In the
1930s, Colorado Springs promoters and planners were marketing the city as The
City of Trees and The City of Sunshine in hopes of attracting travelers and
tubercular invalids from the east. 4 More importantly, the Great Depression had
slowed development, grinding new construction projects to a halt. With less being
built downtown, fewer old structures needed to be tom down to make room.
13


Colorado Springs was in a static state and remained that way through the 1940s.
Like most American cities, Colorado Springs experienced a major amount
of growth after the post-war baby boom. The 1950s was an era of overcrowded
schools, bustling downtown attractions, new businesses and a vigorous tourist
industry. Colorado Springs reinvented its economy around the automobile, tourism
and the military. Thousands of acres of land were donated for Army and Air Force
facilities. As the demand for inexpensive, postwar housing grew, the city began
grow and spread away from its historic core.
The citys historic structures experienced their greatest threat during the era
of Urban Renewal in the 1960s and 1970s.5 During that time, businesses and
residents fled the downtown for newer suburban developments. As a result, the city
got caught up in a massive, government-funded effort to re-build and renew its core
in order to attract new businesses. Countless historical structures were lost to the
wrecking ball, never to return.
The downtown of today, with its eclectic, unattractive mix of old and new
and its haphazard, themeless arrangement of office space, retail space and public
space is a direct result of what happened in the 1960s and 70s. Even with the
14


development of a Downtown Action Plan in tfcie-1990s which outlined a clearer
vision for downtown Colorado Springs, a enormous amount of work still needs to
be done to bring back the city of Palmers dreams.
Below is a listing of some of the most egregious architectural casualties
experienced during the past forty years. It contains a cross-section of notable sites,
from theaters, to libraries, hotels, hospitals and schools. The list pays tribute to the
historic and cultural resources whose disappearance has impacted the city of
Colorado Springs in the most profound way.
List of Lost Resources
Alta Vista Hotel
118 North Cascade Avenue
Fig. 2.1. Alta
Vista Hotel
This beautiful four-story brick and stone hotel was built by Mr. and Mrs.
Hoyt Stevens shortly after they arrived in Colorado Springs in 1872. Bult in the
Italian Renaissance style out of brick and stone, the hotel quickly became a favorite
for visitors and residents alike. The 120-room hotel was flanked by Boyle and
15


Chapman Mortuaries. William and Frank Conway, who operated the largest
sightseeing company in town, leased the hotel. In 1939, the building was leased by
a Broadmoor couple named Jack and Elsie McClure. Ten years later they
purchased the building and eventually went out of business in 1961. The Jaberta
Corporation purchased the Alta Vista in 1963 and tore down everything but the
first floor. Part of the site became a parking lot, while the old lobby was kept for
use as the Kachina Lounge. Eventually, the rest of the site was razed to make room
for a bank.6
Antlers Hotel
Cascade and Pikes Peak Avenues
Fig. 2.2. Antlers
Hotel
The demolition of the second Antlers Hotel in 1964 is widely considered to
be the most meaningful architectural and historical loss for the City of Colorado
Springs. When El Pomar Investment Company razed the hotel in order to put a
bigger, more modem one in its place, the citys skyline was never quite the same.
The Antlers Era began in 1883 when William Jackson Palmer built his first Antlers
at the west end of Pikes Peak Avenue. Strategically located up the hill from the
16


Denver and Rio Grande Depot, the Antlers was the answer to the citys booming
tourist industry. Its Tudor-influenced architecture and lavish furnishings were
pleasing to travelling easterners and expatriates like Palmers wife, Queen. The first
Antlers Hotel was destroyed by fire in 1898. Palmer, who was traveling at the time,
rushed back to Colorado Springs and immediately began drawing up plans for an
even grander hotel to take its place. The second Antlers Hotel was designed by the
architects Varian and Sterner and used silver-gray bricks and red tile. This Italian
Renaissance-style hotel was widely believed to be even more beautiful than
Palmers first effort. The new Antlers proudly featured over 200 fireproof rooms, in
addition to the beautiful and popular Western Terrace which overlooked Monument
Park. Over the years, the hotels reputation for elegance and luxury grew. Palmers
masterpeice was not only a highly sought-after tourist destination, but it fostered a
great sense of civic pride as well. The Antlers gradually became the most
recognizable man-made landmark in Colorado Springs. Its majestic spires defined
the city skyline and it remained the place to be seen for Colorado Springs elites
for decades. The Antlers profitability began to diminish when Spencer Penrose
opened his lavish, $3,000,000 Broadmoor Hotel on the south end of town in 1918.
The Broadmoors elegant Turkish baths, grand ballroom, indoor swimming pool
and boating lake lured wealthy tourists away from the Antlers. The Antlers
continued to benefit from its proximity to downtown attractions, but a slow decline
17


in influence had begun. In 1964, above the protests of dedicated and loyal
residents, the Antlers was tom down. Quite remarkably, the loss of this beloved site
continues to be felt by the Colorado Springs community. With its removal, the city
lost a prominent piece of architectural history.7
Bums Theater
25 27 East Pikes Peak Avenue
Fig. 2.3.
Bums
Theater
Like the Antlers Hotel, the Bums Theater played a major role in the
formation of Colorado Springs downtown business district. Built by Cripple Creek
mining tycoon James Jimmie Bums from the remains of the old Durkee Building,
the Bums Theater opened in May of 1912. The Russian Symphony Orchestra
played at the opening night gala to a full house. In addition to being completely
fireproof and acoustically perfect, the Bums featured the first free hanging balcony
and gallery west of the Mississippi. The buildings terra cotta exterior hid the stone
and brick shell of the Durkee. Inside, Bums had spared no expense to make his
theater the most opulent around. The interior walls were polished marble and two
grand stairways opened into the outer lobby. At 50' by 80', the stage was larger
18


than any other American theaters at the time. Initially, the Bums hosted operas,
Shakespearian plays and symphonic performances. When silent pictures came into
fashion in the 1920's, the Bums featured vaudeville acts and short films In 1927,
William Nicholson, Bums son-in-law and owner/manager, undertook a $80,000
remodeling project. He added a state-of-the-art projection booth and $30,000
Wurlitzer organ as well as new carpet, drapes and heating. From 1928 to 1933
Paramount Publix leased the theater, which had struggled to remain independent.
Westland Theater Corporation took over the lease in 1933 and renamed it The
Chief Theater. Throughout the next three decades, the Bums was used principally
as a movie house. It was remodeled and refurbished twice more. In 1965, the
Exchange National Bank acquired a 99-year lease on the Bums. Citing the findings
of an architectural study which found the building to be unsafe, the bank
terminated the leases of its tenants in 1972. Faced with mounting pressure from the
community to restore the Bums, the owners granted permission to the Colorado
Historical Society to conduct an engineering and scientific investigation of the
theater. In its report, the State concluded that the Bums was worth saving and
would actually cost less money to restore than to replace. Their determination that
the removal of the structure would accelerate the demise of Colorado Springs
core area prompted a citizens group to be formed. In the end, the Save the Bums
campaign and the attempts of preservationists to push for a ballot initiative were in
19


vain. The Burns Theater was demolished in March 1973 to make room for the
banks new offices. The Bums fate is still the source of much sadness and
embarrassment to lovers of local history. Like the Antlers Hotel before it, older
residents remember the Bums fondly and see its removal as selfishly motivated and
lacking public spirit. This event marks a low point in the preservation history of
Colorado Springs.8
Broadmoor Casino
1 Lake Avenue
Fig. 2. 4.
Broadmoor Casino
The Broadmoor Casino, the last surviving building of Count Pourtales
dream development called Broadmoor City, was tom down in 1994. In its place
was built a new golf club and spa for the existing five-star Broadmoor Resort. The
Casino was the second one of its type to grace the shores of Broadmoor Lake.
Count James Pourtales, a German businessman, adventurer and outdoors man,
constructed the original casino in 1891 on a 2,400 acre tract south of town.
Originally, the Broadmoor Dairy Farm operated on the site. Pourtales hoped that
his elegant, Georgian style casino would entice home buyers to purchase lots he
was selling nearby. The beautiful, white-pillared building sat on top of the Cheyenne
20


Creek Dam and wined and dined tourists until it was destroyed by fire in 1897.
Within a year, Pourtales built another casino on the same site. Designed by noted
Colorado Springs architect Thomas McLaren, this newer version was more modest
and simple than the first. When Pourtales fortunes began to take a turn for the
worse in the early 1910's, a British company took the casino and grounds into
receivership. Winfield Scott Stratton, Colorado Springs millionaire philanthropist,
purchased the casino in 1913 and leased it to Harrison Ewing who operated a girls
boarding school on the site. In the summer of 1916, the casino was moved on to a
new foundation farther south, in order to free up space for a new hotel. Spencer
Penrose, the great promoter and developer of Colorado Springs, had purchased the
casino from the estate of Winfield Scott Stratton. Penroses dream for a luxury
resort was far more ambitious and ultimately more successful than Count
Pourtales. During the hotels construction, Penrose brought back Thomas
McLaren and had him convert the casino into a golf club for a cost of $4,700. In
addition to its connection to some of Colorado Springs most famous citizens, the
golf club/casino witnessed over seventy years of spectacular tournaments and
champions before its demise in 1994. 9
21


Broadmoor World Arena/Broadmoor Ice Palace
1 Lake Avenue
Fig. 2.5. Broadmoor
Ice Palace
In late 1937, Broadmoor Hotel tycoons Spencer Penrose and Charles L.
Tutt came up with the idea of converting the Broadmoor Riding Academy into an
ice rink. On January 1, 1938, after laying eleven miles of refrigeration pipe on the
floor of the equestrian center and flooding it, Penrose and Tutt opened the
Broadmoor Ice Palace. The Ice Palace quickly became a popular public attraction
because it was one of the first arenas in the country to operate on a year-round
schedule. It attracted figure-skaters and hockey players from around the nation who
used it as their premier training facility. Skating greats like Peggy Fleming and
Scott Hamilton trained at the Broadmoor, as did the Colorado College Hockey
Team. In 1961, the building was renamed the Broadmoor World Arena, in an effort
to capitalize on the international events it was hosting. That same year, after
completing the U.S. figure-skating championships at the Broadmoor, eighteen
members of the U.S. team plus their coaches and managers, died in a plane crash on
their way to the world championships in Prague. This tragedy was memorialized
with a skate-shaped granite bench that sat near the entrance to the Broadmoor
22


World Arena. In 1994, after a star-studded ice-skating performance which drew
over 4,000 fans, the Broadmoor World Arena closed. It had been the favorite
hangout for the skating community and a fun, safe place for kids to come after
school. The Broadmoor Hotels directors decided that the Arenas leaky roof and
other damaged areas would be too costly to repair. Instead, they razed the
structure to make way for a $27 million addition to the resort. Although skaters
would have the opportunity to pursue their sport at the new World Arena southeast
of the Broadmoor on Venetucd Avenue, it would never be as intimate and
homelike an environment as the one they left.10
Bruin Inn
Cheyenne Canyon
Fig. 2.6. Bruin Inn
Tucked away amongst the pines and boulders of Cheyenne Canyon stood a
rustic restaurant and dance hall known as the Bruin Inn. The Inn had a modest
beginning as a summer cabin, built in the 1880's by Professor Edward Payson
Tenney, the first president of Colorado College. Tenneys cabin was located three
miles west of the entrance to North Cheyenne canyon. The Inn opened in 1904 and
soon became a favorite hang out for Colorado College and high school students.
23


An evening spent dancing at the Inn was quite an event back in the early 1900's.
Students would ride the street car to the entrance of Cheyenne Canyon and get off
at the Stratton Park stop. Although they had to hike the three miles up to the Inn,
the students felt that the fine food and lively music were worth the effort. The Inn
burned down on December 13,1957. A rock design etched in the dirt, bearing the
name of the Inn can still be seen from the road near the top of North Cheyenne
Canyon.11
Cobum Library
Colorado College Campus
14 East Cache La Poudre
Fig. 2. 7. Cobum
Library
Cobum Library was one of the earliest structures to adorn the Colorado
College campus. Built in 1894 out of sandstone, the libraiy was designated as a
U.S. Government depository. It was named after Nathan P. Cobum, a family friend
of Colorado College President William F. Slocum. As enrollment increased at the
College, the librarys facilities grew strained. In 1939, the Board of Trustees
allocated $20,000 to build a four-story addition to the north end of the building.
24


However, the librarys storage and research space still remained inadequate. The
new library design, named for longtime resident and benefactor Charles Learning
Tutt, presented quite a contrast to the old Cobum Library. Cobum was a quaint,
ivy covered stone and wood structure with a tile roof. Designed by architects
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill in 1962, Tutt Library was a Modernist, cement-
slabbed cube with vertical slits for windows. In a remarkably cooperative effort,
shortly after Cobum was closed, the entire student body transported every book
from the old library to the new by hand. In 1964, the Cobum Library building was
tom down to provide a site for a modem, multi-purpose building called Armstrong
Hall.12
Colorado Springs High School
301 North Nevada Avenue
Fig. 2.8. Colorado
Springs High School
Known as one of the most handsome structures in the West, the Colorado
Springs High School was a Romanesque style beauty with four clocks and a 2800
pound school bell in its main tower. The building, with its gabled wall dormers;
arched windows and polychrome stonework, soon became the most prominent
25


municipal structure in the young city. Until its opening in 1893, high school
students crowded into the small First Congregational Church on East Bijou
Avenue. The new high school was designed by the architectural firm Lee and Boal
and was built of stone from local quarries. The schools $100,000 price tag was
met with objections from parents of grade-school students who felt cheated. Since
all the grade schools in District 11, including the annexes, were filled to capacity,
the new high school took in a large amount of youngsters and taught them in the
basement for its first few years. With the school population increasing by more than
two hundred students a year, space was at a premium. Additions were built on to
the high school in 1913, 1923 and 1929. In the mid 1930's, the district began
discussing replacing the school with a larger, more modem one. The reaction by
the public was swift and strong. Anonymous, typewritten postcards were mailed
out to numerous city residents, urging them to participate in a last-minute campaign
to save the school. North End residents were encouraged to act quickly and avoid
regretting the loss of such a cherished site. Let the old clock tower continue to
run! They urged. Nevertheless, in December 1938, a crew of fifty-five men began
demolishing the school. Buyers and collectors were on site to claim a parts of the
historic site as soon as they came available. The bell and the memorial statue
commemorating former students who died in World War I, were boxed and stored
for display at the new high school being built on the same site. The stone archways
26


at the entrance of the school were purchased by the Banning Lewis Ranch. The
contractor supervising the demolition took everything else that was left. Palmer
High School, designed by Denver architect Burnham Hoyt and Edward Bunts of
Colorado Springs, opened on the site in 1940.13
Colorado Springs Opera House
28 V2 S. Tejon Street
Fig. 2.9.
Opera House
The Colorado Springs Opera House was a favorite of the citys upper class,
built in the tradition of William Jackson Palmer and his vision for a refined, cultured
city. Located on Tejon Street, between Kiowa and Pikes Peak Avenues, the Opera
House was the source of lavish productions and cosmopolitan entertainment for
decades. Financed by Leadville silver miners Irving Howbert, J.F. Humphrey and
Ben Crowell, the Opera House opened in April 1881, slightly ahead of its major
competitor, the Tabor Opera House in Denver. Opening night featured a
memorable performance of Camille, starring Maude Granger. The Colorado
Springs Opera House was a handsome three-story brick structure accented by stone
27


window hoods and quoins. The seal of the State of Colorado hung over the stage.
The seats were made of cast iron, and more expensive box seats had gas lighting.
However, the pride and joy of the Opera Houses owners was the gas light
chandelier which hung in the center of the theater. In 1907, the Opera House was
purchased by Charles Learning Tutt. Tutt made $20,000 worth of improvements to
the site in 1908. At that time, the lobby entrance was redecorated in ivory and gold
accents, the entrance was tiled and the front steps were removed and replaced with
a gently sloping ramp. Also, waiting rooms for both sexes were added as well as
new dressing rooms. In 1910, architects Thomas McLaren and Charles Thomas
were hired to make additional changes in the building. The growth in popularity of
silent films as well as the construction of the Bums Theater nearby eventually put
the Opera House out of business. In 1919, the interior was demolished and rebuilt
as office space. Known as the Ferguson Building for a while, the Opera House is
most well known as the location of the downtown Woolworths store. Woolworths
closed in the late 1990s, when it began losing business to mega-stores like the new
8th Street WalMart. The building was converted to a restaurant and bar called Rum
Bay. All that is left of the Opera House is the brick exterior.14
28


Cotton Club
25 W. Colorado Avenue
Fig. 2.10. Fannie
Mae Duncan
From 1948 until 1975, Fannie Mae Duncans Cotton Club provided quality
entertainment to the black community of Colorado Springs. Duncan purchased the
building, once used as a tavern, from Mr. and Mrs. Tom Wallace. Called Duncans
Cafe and Bar, Fannie Maes first business served home-cooked meals to blacks who
were refused service by other downtown establishments In 1958, she purchased
Denton Printing Company next door and expanded her operation to include a
restaurant, bar and dance hall. She named her new business The Cotton Club after
the famous club of the same name in Harlem, New York. In the beginning, the
cavernous Cotton Club with its lively music and stand-up comedy was only
frequented by blacks. The Clubs hospitable service and big-name performers like
Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Fats Domino and Lionel Hampton, soon attracted
guests of all colors. Visitors to the Antlers Hotel next door and the City Auditorium
down the street would often stop by the Cotton Club for some late night
entertainment. Known for her legendary efforts to help the poor and unfortunate,
Fannie Mae Duncan had a personal magnetism that drew people to her and her
29


club. Fannie Maes colored guests, like Flip Wilson and T-Bone Walker, would
often end up staying at her big Victorian home on North Corona Street when they
were denied lodging at local hotels. By the late 1960's, the clientele at the Cotton
Club had changed. Soldiers from Ft. Carson, and the prostitutes who counted on
them for their livelihood, began to visit the club regularly. Like other bars around
town who catered to all levels of society, the Cotton Club began to see a decline in
business. In the mid-1970's the city began to target the area west of the Antlers
Hotel for urban renewal. Fannie Mae Duncan was paid $168,000 for her building; a
far lower price than the $450,000 offer she had been offered before the citys
redevelopment plans had been made public. By July, 1975, the Cotton Club was
gone. Fannie Mae Duncan retired to Denver, where she devoted her time to raising
her niece and writing a book about her life, which has yet to be published.15
30


Cragmor Sanitarium/Main Hall
University of Colorado at Colorado Springs Campus
Austin Bluffs Parkway and Meadow Lane
Fig. 2.11.
Cragmor
Sanitarium
Listed on the National Register in 1998, Cragmor Sanitarium is one of two
lost resources on this list which partly still exist. This four-story Mission Revival
style hospital, located on the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs campus,
is now known as Main Hall. Although hundreds of students walk through campus
on a daily basis, few know or appreciate the areas rich history. The southern-
facing, terraced area near the back of campus was the location Cragmor Sanitarium,
the premier facility for the care of tubercular patients in early 20th century Colorado
Springs. Cragmor was built in stages between 1914 and 1920. During its golden
age, it was characterized by its luxurious decor and the presence of many famous
and well-to-do patients. The buildings plan, which incorporated open air sleeping
rooms, was the collaborative work of architect Thomas McLaren and Dr. Edwin
Solly, a physician and specialist in the treatment of tuberculosis. Cragmor, known
as The Asylum of the Gilded Pill, hosted and healed wealthy, prominent patients
until the late 1920's. The sanitariums elite clientele were hit hard by the stock
31


market crash of 1929 and could no longer afford to stay there. On November 24,
1935, Cragmor was foreclosed on. The next year, the sanatorium was purchased
by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. It re-opened in 1936 with the
support of the newly formed Cragmor Foundation. However, due to the
impoverishment of its clientele as well as the declining health of its administrators,
the sanitarium went into decline. It was saved from closure in the early 1950's by
the efforts of a new director, Dr. George Dwire, who transformed the institution
into a rehabilitative facility for tubercular Navajo Indians. Cragmor treated and
trained the Navajos, sending them back home with job skills in addition to improved
health. In 1961, a legal dispute caused the Cragmor Sanitarium to lose its
government contract to help the Navajos. Without patients, funds or a disease to
treat (tuberculosis was no longer a major threat to Americans by the 1960's) the
hospital sat empty. The University of Colorado acquired Cragmor in 1964 and
began the transformation from medical facility to college campus. In the process,
many original buildings, gardens, and landscapes were lost. In the late 1990's, the
University received a State Historic Fund grant to perform an assessment of the site
with the idea to restore Main Hall. The assessment enabled the University to define
the building and its meaning in a more thorough manner The University received a
National Register listing for Cragmor in 1998. Unfortunately, the listing did not
impede the administration from making some significant and detrimental changes to
32


the structure. In an attempt to bypass state oversight on this project, the school
used money form the Department of Education and not from the state grant fund,
to pay for the renovation. Consequently, the state had no voice in what was being
done to Cragmor. Although the University made good on their promise to restore
and maintain the sandstone and rock exterior of the hospital, they completely gutted
the interior right down to the supports. The integrity of this grand structure had
been completely compromised. All that remains is the skin. Quite simply, the
school needed office space, so the University destroyed Cragmor and couched it as
a preservation project. Their decision created so much ill-will that it prompted the
City Preservation Board to recommend de-listing Cragmor from the National
Register. The State Historical Society agreed with their recommendation and
forwarded the paperwork on to the National Park Service. Cragmoor was de-listed
from the National Register in 2000.16
Dixie Apartments
Bijou and Weber Streets
Originally named the Barton Apartments after the buildings architect,
George Barton, the Dixie Apartments were erected in 1910. This modest, three-
story brick building played an important role as Colorado Springs first dedicated
apartment house. The housing unit, which served as a model for future urban
33


development in the downtown area, was renamed in 1918. The name Dixie
appeared in the stained glass window which hung over the transom at the front of
the building. The structure also featured a number of porches on its west side which
were probably used by tuberculosis patients in the 1910's and 20's. Over the years,
the Dudes reputation for affordable, downtown living grew. So, it came as quite a
shock when, in 1998, the First Presbyterian Church, which owned the building,
announced their plans to remove it. The destruction of the Dixie Apartments
marked the beginning of the churchs planned $7 million expansion. The land on
which the apartments sat was to be turned into a parking lot for the churchs new
youth complex. When the Colorado Springs Housing Advocacy Coalition heard
about the threat to the Dixie, they approached the citys Historic Preservation
Board in hopes of enlisting its support to save the site. They also nominated the
apartments for inclusion on the states Most Endangered Places List. These efforts,
along with letters of support written by the City Planner and Pioneer Museum staff
did little to sway the churchs governing board. They acknowledged that they were
aware of the sites special history when they voted to tear it down. When the
Preservation Board notified the church that they wanted to place an historic overlay
on the apartments (which would freeze the development process for ninety days)
the church stepped up its plans. Quickly, they secured a demolition permit and
within a few days, they apartments were gone. Buildings of that type are
34


increasingly rare in Colorado Springs and, with the demise of the Dixie Apartments,
they are almost non-existent.17
Hassell Iron Works
500 Sierra Madre Avenue
Decorative fences and wrought iron ornaments were extremely popular in
19th Century Colorado Springs. Fireproof, strong and maintenance-free, wrought-
iron fences appealed to Victorian tastes for useful and beautiful home decor. Up
until the late 1880's, homeowners seeking durable and elegant iron fences for their
property were forced to order them from foundries in the Midwest. Fortunately, in
1887, the Hassell Talcott Iron Works began to produce ornamental iron and wire
from its foundry on South 25th Street in Colorado City. William W. Hassell, the son
of a New Jersey dentist, moved to Florissant in 1885, in order to treat his
tuberculosis. While living in the Ute Pass area, he purchased a machine which
interwove wood pickets with wire to make fencing. Once he moved down to
Colorado Springs, he expanded his fencing business to include iron work and
electrical supplies. Hassell also acted as an agent for other firms, like the Hartmann
Fig. 2.12. Hassell
Iron Works
35


Company and the Barbee Iron and Wire Works in Chicago. When an overheated
stove caused the foundry to bum down in 1896, Hassell dissolved his partnership
with Talcott and built a new iron works on Sierra Madre Avenue, near the trolley
buildings. Hassells new business centered around the production of structural iron,
railroad and mining equipment. Moreover, he experienced a huge growth in
business as a result of the mining boom in Cripple Creek. Among the local
structures that the Hassell Iron Works helped construct were the Summit House on
Pikes Peak, the Court House tower and the first radio tower in the city. The
ornamental iron work they produced can be seen on fences around the Near West-
Side neighborhood and in Old Colorado City. Through the early 1900's and past
World War I, Hassell Iron Works remained a job shop which customized orders
to their clients specifications. Even though he had achieved a measure of success
producing woven wire fencing and iron castings, Hassell dreamed of getting out of
custom manufacturing and into the production of patented items. In 1922,
Hassell died and his son Bradford took over the business. The company struggled
through the Depression and, in 1938, was sold to A.C. Damon who renamed it the
Denver Equipment Company. The foundry was believed to be tom down in the
1960's.18 Today, the foundrys former site is being used for parking and light
industry.
36


Hibbard and Company Department Store
17-19 South Tejon Street
Fig. 2.13. Hibbards
Department Store
One of the most well-known historic buildings in the downtown area is the
old Hibbard and Company dry goods store on South Tejon Street. The five-story,
Late-Georgian Revival structure is easily recognizable because of the elegant, white
terra cotta garlands and swags on the upper three floors. These decorations
contrast beautifully with the two kinds of red brick used for the exterior walls, as
well as the stone and wood trim. The store was designed and built in 1914 by
prominent, turn-of-the century architect P.T. Barber. Its owner, Cassius Hibbard,
started his modest Colorado Springs grocery business in 1893. As he prospered,
Hibbard moved his business into this larger, uniquely styled building and passed the
store down to his children when he died. His descendants continued to operate the
business in a traditional manner until is closed in 1996. Special features of the
Hibbard Building included an elevator complete with smiling operator, a pneumatic
tube system which transported paperwork between floors, and lovely hardwood
floors which creaked when you walked on them. One of the citys most popular
37


retailers, Hibbards was completed renovated to attract new business. Among the
improvements were a new heating and cooling system, new elevators, windows,
electrical and phone systems. Currently, a restaurant occupies the first floor and
businesses lease the upper levels. All the furnishings and equipment were auctioned
off. Nothing remains of this landmark except the shell. In a 2001 newspaper
interview, owner Ralph Hibbard stated that he believed that the Hibbard and
Company name stands for history. It means something to be in a historical
building, he said. I find these to be rather ironic statements coming from a
member of a historic family who sold the heart of his
business to the highest bidder.19
The Hidden Inn
Garden of the Gods Park
Fig. 2.14. Hidden
Inn
In 1914, the Colorado Springs Park Commission, in cooperation with the
City of Colorado Springs, built a Native American style pueblo in the Garden of the
Gods park. Tucked into a niche between two sandstone monoliths, the Hidden Inn
cost $7,500 to build. It featured fireplaces copied from early Native American
38


designs and reproductions of scenes from the Pikes Peak region on its windows.
The interior was illuminated by bulbs hidden inside Navajo wedding bowls. The
exterior walls were covered with red plaster which was matched to the exact same
color as the surrounding rocks. For eight years, the Hidden served visitors as a gift
shop and snack bar. It was enlarged a few times over the years and was leased by a
variety of groups. In 1993, the City began the public process of updating the
Garden of the Gods Master Plan. In accordance with the new Master Plan, the city
tore down the Hidden Inn in 1998. By then, the spectacular and spacious Garden
of the Gods Visitor Center on 31st Street had been open for three years. Although
it was still structurally sound and profitable, the Hidden Inn could not begin to
compete with the new Visitor Center. Additionally, the Master Plan dictated that
all man-made structures in the central Garden area be removed. Predictably, there
was much resistance from residents who frequented the Garden of the Gods to the
citys proposal.. The nostalgic feelings created by this peculiar little shop, and the
bitter disappointment its demise has caused, linger in the minds of many residents.20
39


Liller School
Wahsatch Avenue and Cucharras Street
Erected on the northeast comer of Wahsatch Avenue and Cucharras Street,
the Liller School was the first brick school building in the city of Colorado Springs.
It was a massive three story structure designed by architect Robert Rauschlaub and
featured sandstone window trim and arched doorways. Inside, the walls were
decorated with a wainscot of Colorado pine. The classrooms were large and well
lighted with decent ventilation provided by transoms over the doors. The school,
which was built in 1884, was named after the J. Elsom Liller, the first editor of the
Out West newspaper. Liller was bom in England and moved to Colorado Springs
in 1871, shortly after the town was founded. The Lillers were prominent members
of early Colorado Springs society and were active leaders in the local Episcopal
Church. On Easter Sunday, 1875, Elsom Liller took his life with an overdose of
dmgs. As enrollment increased, four more rooms were added onto the original
building in 1891. Over the years, Liller School became a popular, accessible place
for lower class families to educate their children. In 1911, local architect Thomas
McLaren designed a blond brick annex which was erected on the west side of the
grounds. The school was closed in 1930, but reopened in 1941 to educate war
project workers. Although Liller School was condemned in 1945, it continued to
40


be used as a vocational school until 1957, when it was tom down. At the time of
its demolition, the Liller School had been the oldest elementary school in town.
The property was sold for $90,000. Today, the Goodrich Tire Store sits on the
site.21
Steele School
Del Norte and Weber Streets
Fig. 2.15. Steele
School
By 1900, the Del Norte school, which taught the children of wealthy North
End residents, had reached capacity. Bonds were issued for an eight-room school
which cost approximately $40,000 to build. Designed by Thomas McLaren, the
handsome Steele School opened in 1901. It was located on the old school grounds
at the comer of Del Norte and Weber Streets. It was named in honor of Benjamin
W. Steele, one of the early editors of the Gazette newspaper. Steele was a very
successful businessman and his transformation of the Gazette into a top-class
newspaper made a strong impression on the city. Steele also had a history of poor
health, and passed away quite suddenly on November 3, 1891. The school named
41


in his honor stood as an example of an outstanding grade school building. Upon
seeing the beautiful structure, the Moseley Commission of English Educators
claimed that it was one of the best of its kind that they had seen in the country. The
demolition of the school in 1972 was considered a huge loss for the historic North
End community. A modem, one story blonde building took its place and its name
Many neighbors still remember the graceful, lovely building and mourn it
disappearance.22
Ute Theater
126 E. Pikes Peak Avenue
Fig. 2.16.
Ute Theater
The Tinest Indian Theater in the World began its life as the Rialto Theater
in 1910. The elegant Princess Theater was the first occupant of 126 E. Pikes Peak,
but was tom down in the early 1900's. The Rialto replaced the Princess and
operated until its purchase by the Cooper Theater chain in the mid-1930's.
Extensive renovations undertaken by the new owner in 1935 rendered the Rialto
almost unrecognizable. The new, Pueblo-Revival style building was re-named the
Ute Theater. The Ute, with its tan stucco exterior, projecting wooden roof beams
42


and medicine-wheel shaped neon sign, rapidly became one of the most recognizable
landmarks in downtown Colorado Springs. Completely fireproof, the Utes interior
walls were painted with Western and Native American scenes. Unique chandeliers
graced the auditorium. Each one featured a cut-out scene of a buffalo hunt. In the
lobby, there was a fountain which emptied into a rock-lined pool. The sign over the
pool read, Old Indian Wishing Well. Make a wish, lean over the well. If it bubbles,
your wish will come true. If the person leaning over triggered the hidden electric
beam, the fountain would bubble. Always a trendsetter, the Ute was one of the first
theaters in the state with stereophonic sound and reserve ticket sales. In the mid-
1960's, the theater was sold to Colorado Interstate Gas Corporation. The Cooper
Theater chain immediately broke ground for a new Ute Theater on North Nevada
Avenue, but it was never as elaborate as the original. The old Ute Theater was
razed and converted to a parking lot on New Years Day, 1968. The carpeting and
seats were sent to other Cooper Theaters in Nebraska and in Greeley. The murals
were tom down, however, the fixtures, including the wishing well, chandeliers,
doors, and ticket booths, were bought by the owners of the Flying W Ranch
Steakhouse. Although this beloved landmark is gone, visitors to the Flying W can
still experience a little bit of Colorado Springs history at The Little Ute dinner
theater.23
43


Zoo Park
Cheyenne Road and Alsace Way
High Valley Park, one of Colorado Springs most exclusive neighborhoods,
was once home to a 100-acre zoological garden known at the Zoo Park. Built by a
Chicago Alderman named John Bathhouse Coughlin in 1905, the Zoo Park was
situated on the old Johnson Ranch. Coughlin had fallen in love with Colorado
Springs while vacationing in the area and returned to build a house on Mount
Washington Avenue. He also purchased 100 acres in High Valley Park, then
known as the Ivywild neighborhood. It was rumored that Bathhouse John used
money from political payoffs and extortion to finance the park. Coughlins park,
built on his property along Cheyenne Road, featured carnival attractions, a roller
coaster, a 65-foot-high water slide and wild animal exhibits. Princess Alice the
elephant and Toby the bear were major attractions. Surprisingly large in scope,
the park also contained a merry-go-round, a roller rink, dance hall and penny
arcade. On summer weekends, huge crowds rode the trolley to the Zoo Park and
paid the dime admission to enter. Sadly, the Zoo Park closed in 1915 because of a
change in Coughlins fortunes and a poor economy. After the animals and rides
were sold of£ the land was turned into one of the citys first automobile
campgrounds. Little remains of this wonderful attraction, save some ruts in the dirt
44


where the trolley line cut across the park and ran up the hillside toward Lake
Avenue.24
45


PHOTOGRAPHS
All photographs in this section, with the exception of the Cragmor
Sanitarium, are the property of the Special Collections Department of the Penrose
Public Libraiy, Pikes Peak Library District.
The photograph of the Cragmor Sanitarium on page 31 is from the authors
personal collection.
46


NOTES
1 Jones, Judith. Letter to the author. 2 March 2004.
2 Mayberry, Matt. The Unique History of the Founding of Colorado Springs.
Monument Valley Park Forum. City Council Chambers, Colorado Springs.
28 February 2004.
3 Noel, Thomas J. Buildings of Colorado. New York: Oxford University Press,
1997. 284.
4 Noel. 284.
5 Mayberry. 28 February 2004.
6 Mayberry. 28 February 2004.
7 Sources for the history of the Alta Vista Hotel include:
Reid, J. Juan. Growing Up in Colorado Springs The 1920's Remembered.
Colorado Springs: Century One Press, 1981. 63-64.
Unknown author. Alta Vista Hotel. Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph
11 May 1963:9.
Unknown author. Alta Vista Hotel Razing Slated During March.
Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 1 February 1963: 1.
8 Sources for the history of the Antler Hotel include:
Feitz, Leland. The Antlers: A Quick History of Colorado Springs Historic
Hotel. Denver: Golden Bell Press, 1972. 3-17.
47


Loe, Nancy E. Life in the Altitudes. Woodland Hills: Windsor Publications,
1983. 48-53.
Skolout, Patricia Fanis. Colorado Springs History. A to Z. 1989. Colorado
Springs: Patricia Skolout, 1999. 1-2.
9 Sources for the history of the Bums Theater include:
Reid. 11.
Sanger, Ann. The House That Jimmie Built...Falls. Colorado Springs
Gazette Telegraph 24 March 1973: D24-25.
Unknown author. History of the Bums Theater. Composite
Consortium Opinion. State of Colorado, Office of Archaeology and
Historic Preservation. Denver. 18 February 2004
.
Unknown author. State Historical Society Study Recommends That Bums
Be Retained. Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 23 January
1973: C3.
10 Sources for the history of the Broadmoor Casino include:
Geiger, Helen M The Broadmoor Story. N.p.: A.B. Hirschfeld Press, 1968.
5-6.
Skolout. 3-4.
Unknown author. Sprague Recalls Broadmoor Casino at Historical Meet.
48


Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 18 January 1961: 13:8.
11 Sources for the history of the Broadmoor Ice Arena include:
Gibney, Jim. A Glorious Farewell. The Denver Post 6 February 1994: n.p.
Unknown author. Walls Come Tumbling Down at Broadmoor Arena.
Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 21 April 1994: Al.
12 Sources for the history of the Bruin Inn include:
Foster, Dora. Peak Region Yesterdays. Colorado Springs Gazette-
Telegraph 1 December 1963: C2.
Foster, Dora. Tikes Peak Region Yesterdays. Colorado Springs Gazette-
Telegranh 11 April 1965: D7.
Reid, J. Juan. Colorado College The First Century 1874 1974. Colorado
Springs: Colorado College, 1979. 69.
13 Sources for the history of the Cobum Library include:
Colorado Colleee A Place of Learning Dir. Robert D. Loevy, Colorado
College. Videocassette. Loevy Video Productions. 1999.
Reid. Colorado College. 46 144.
14 Sources for the history of the Colorado Springs High School include:
Hutchinson, W.G. School Board Asks For Federal Grant For New
Buildings. Colorado Springs Gazette-Tele graph 4 August 1938:
Al.
49


Reid. Growing Up. 53.
Seibel, Harriet. A History of the Colorado Springs Schools District 11.
Colorado Springs: Century One Press, 1975. 59.
Unknown author. Crew of 53 Begin Wrecking Old High School Building.
Colorado Springs Gazette 6 December 1938: 3.
15 Sources for the history of the Colorado Springs Opera House include:
Reid. Growing Up. 10.
Unknown author. Colorado Springs New and Modem Playhouse.
Colorado Springs Gazette 16 February 1908: 88.
16 Sources for the history of the Cotton Club include:
Delaney, Ted. "Rhythms of Cotton Club Still Felt. Colorado Springs
Gazette-Telegraph 8 January 1989: Bl.
Emery, Erin. Everybody Welcome. Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph
25 February 1995: Al.
Smith, Linda D. Springs Cotton Club Catered to all Races with
Hospitality. Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 20 January 1985:
FI.
Unknown author. Council Rejects Cotton Club Bid for Relocation.
Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 13 August 1975: BIO.
17 Sources for the history of Cragmoor Sanitarium include:
50


McKay, Douglas R. Asylum of the Gilded Pill. Denver: State Historical
Society of Colorado, 1983.
United States. Department of the Interior. National Register of Historic
Places Registration Form. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service,
1998.
18 Sources for the history of the Dixie Apartments include:
Ames, Michele and John Diedrich. Downtowns Dixie Demolished.
Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 22 October 1998: Nl.
McKeown, Bill. Group Still Hopes to Save Dixie. Colorado Springs
Gazette-Telegraph 3 October 1998: N3.
Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 4 March 2004.
State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation.
Architectural Site Detail. 1 May 1985. 19 February 2004
.
19 Sources for the history of the Hassell Iron Works include:
Freed, Elaine. Iron Goods and Iron Work. Colorado Springs: Springs Area
Beautiful Association, n.d.
Lipsey, Julia Hassell. The Hassell Eon Works. Historical Society of the
Pikes Peak Region, Colorado Springs. 18 June 1957.
Noel. 284.
51


20 Sources for the history of Hibbards Department Store include:
Laden, Rich. Whats in a Name? Colorado Springs Gazette 19 February
2001: IB:8.
State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation.
Architectural Site Detail. 1 May 1985. 24 February 2004
.
State of Colorado. Colorado Historical Society. Office of Archaeology and
Historic Preservation. Historic Building Inventory Record. Denver:
OAHP, 1985.
Walsh, Chris. Tech Finn Takes Hibbards. Colorado Springs Gazette 14
April 2000: Bl.
21 Sources for the history of the Hidden Inn include:
City of Colorado Springs. Parks and Trails Homepage. Historical
Ownership of the Garden of the Gods. Colorado Springs: City of
Colorado Springs, 2001. 19 February 2004 Jenny/LOCALS- l/Temp/VKD8XZW.html>
Unknown author. The Gateway Rocks. Geocities 8119. 19 February 2004
>.
22 Sources for the history of Liller School include:
52


Siebel, Harriet. 40-41.
23 Sources for the history of Steele School include:
Siebel. 66.
24 Sources for the history of the Ute Theater include:
McKenzie, Bill. Ute Theater Faces Wrecking Ball. The Free Press 31
December 1967: 6-7.
FlvineW-com. 2004. Flying W Ranch. 26 February 2004
.
Reid. Growing Up. 11.
25 Sources for the history of the Zoo Park include:
Skolout. 47-57.
Vogrin, Bill. Resident Unearths Neighborhoods Wild Past. Colorado
Springs Gazette 25 September 2003:M1-4.
53


CHAPTER 3
ENDANGERED RESOURCES
In the end, we conserve only what we love. We love only what
we understand. We understand only what we are taught. 1
Babr Dioum Dioum, Senegalese Poet
Introduction
In 1997, a Denver-based non-profit organization called Colorado
Preservation, Incorporated launched their Endangered Places Program. This
program provides technical assistance to groups and individuals trying to save
threatened historic and cultural resources around the state.2 As part of this program,
the organization publishes an annual list of Colorados most endangered places.
The purpose of the list is to raise awareness about Colorados threatened historic,
archaeological, and cultural resources, which include buildings, structures, districts,
cultural landscapes, and archaeological sites.3 Placement of sites on the list is
determined by a statewide committee which selects the winners from a large pile
of nominations. Any individual or group may nominate their site for inclusion on the
list, however, only a few sites are chosen each year. Sites which make the list
benefit from statewide publicity, networking opportunities, grassroots community
54


assistance and development of funding resources. Although making The List is no
guarantee that a threatened site will be saved, inclusion is a prestigious and
worthwhile accomplishment.
Colorado Springs has never had the honor of seeing any of its endangered
sites listed on the Most Endangered Places List. Numerous sites have been
nominated but none have been selected by the committee. Apparently the threat to
these buildings and places was not deemed severe enough, when compared to other
nominations around the state, to earn them a spot on the list. A listing of Colorado
Springs places and the reason why they were nominated appears below.4
Table 3.1 Nominations to the Colorado List of Endangered Places
Place Year Reason for Listina
Boulder Park Neighborhood 2000 Demolition
Monument Valley Hist. District 2001 Redevelopment
Dixie Apartments 1999 Demolition
1st Grace Episcopal Church 2001 Vacancy, Neglect
Historic Medians 2001,02,03 Traffic, Pollution, Budget
Weber/Wahsatch Hist. District 2000 Development, Roads
Red Rock Canyon 2002,03 Encroachment
Air Force Academy Stable & Bams 2000 Demolition
55


In response to the failed efforts of preservation advocates in Colorado
Springs to attract statewide attention to their cause, I decided to compile a
comprehensive list of endangered sites. For many years, concerned citizens have
expressed the desire to have a complete list of threatened sites from which to work.
Although many excellent resources exist which point out the dangers to certain
landmarks, a single document which describes all the significantly endangered sites
in the City does not exist. One source which details the threatened historic and
cultural resources of Colorado Springs would prove extremely useful to
preservation groups as well as the city government. In an effort to confine the
study to a manageable number of sites, I have included only endangered public
buildings and places on this list. At this point it is important to note that the City is
close to completing a Downtown Survey which lists the buildings in its core that are
more than fifty years old. The Survey, which assesses the condition of these sites,
only encompasses a small area. The list I have made includes troubled sites from all
around the City. The loss of any one of these sites would impact the citizens of
Colorado Springs in a profound and lasting manner.
56


Colorado Springs Endangered Sites List
Boys Club
105 E. Moreno
History:
This inconspicuous variegated brick building on East Moreno Street was
once the home of the Boys Club; a Progressive Era project designed to keep the
boys of Colorado Springs safe and off the streets. Designed by F. R. Hastings and
financed by wealthy donors like Alice Bemis Taylor, this small Tudor-influenced
building matches the Colorado Springs Day Nursery next door. The building
opened in 1907 and in 1910, Spencer Penrose erected a gymnasium on the rear lot.
At one time, the site served as a homeless shelter and home to the Big Brothers
program. It is currently being used as office space.5
Status:
The Boys Club was remodeled in 1984. A peek inside reveals very little
remaining of the original interior. So much has been changed that it looks as if the
Fig. 3.1. Boys Club
57


building has always contained offices. Although this site has been completely
transformed, it remains a sentimental favorite of locals who grew up playing at the
Club. The exterior has been nicely maintained and visitors can still glimpse the
Gymnasium sign which hangs over the entrance. However, heavy landscaping and
large awnings hide much of the trim details and ornate brickwork. The fate of this
site may follow that of others situated near the Day Nursery. Recently, a massive
proposal has been made to re-develop the entire block across the street from the
Day Nursery. The neighborhood is in a state of flux which could pose problems
for the modest, often ignored Boys Club.6
Cedar Springs/Colorado Springs Psychopathic Hospital
2135 Southgate Road
Fig. 3.2. Cedar
Springs
History:
Originally known as the Colorado Springs Psychopathic Hospital, Cedar
Springs has an ongoing history of service to the community as a mental health
hospital. Today, all that exists of the circa 1923 campus is the Mission-style blonde
brick building on the south side of the grounds. The hospital was founded by Dr.
Emory John Brady, who was convinced the abundant sunshine in Colorado
58


Springs acted as a psychic stimulant for those suffering from mental illness. Brady
had moved to Colorado Springs from Michigan in 1916. At one time he served as
Superintendent of the Myron Stratton Home in addition to being part-owner of the
Woodcraft Hospital in Pueblo. Spacious grounds replete with lush flower gardens
and shady lawns surrounded the Psycopathic Hospital. The mens building featured
a kitchen, an auditorium, bowling alley, and a 20-bed dormitory. The womens
facility was similar to the mens and had 25 beds, a kitchen, various sun porches
and hydro-therapy rooms. Nearby, a 50-bed steam-heated hospital housed patients
with more severe medical needs. Finally, the campus contained separate residences
for physicians and nurses, as well as an administration building. In 1980, the
hospital was purchased by Rocky Mountain Health Services which merged with
Western Health Services. The Hospital changed hands again in 1984 when it was
sold to Healthcare International. Over the past sixty years, a variety of newer
buildings, like larger dormitories and physicians quarters, were erected on the site.
Presently, Cedar Springs serves adults and children with acute mental health and
substance abuse problems. In addition to adult and childrens crisis units, the
hospital offers a co-ed residential treatment center, a sexual offenders unit, a school
and a clinic to treat children with Reactive-Attachment Disorder. Out-patient
services and administration are located in the old hospital building.7
59


Status:
Recent development along Southgate Road has caused major traffic
problems and congestion in this formerly quiet neighborhood. To the west of
Cedar Springs, a new shopping center called Broadmoor Towne Center is being
erected. Restaurants, factory outlet stores and a fitness center now attract
thousands of residents from the south part of town. A fire station also shares space
with the strip mall. Another result of this growth is an increase in property values
which has begun to drive residents from the area. Hemmed in on the east and south
by modest homes, and encroached upon by developments on the west, this
historically sigificant location is in danger of becoming irrelevant.
Chadboum Spanish Gospel Mission
402 S. Conejos St.
History: Fig. 3.3. Chadboum
Spanish Gospel Mission
The Chadboum Mission was founded by a missionary nurse, Ruth
Chadboume, in 1928. She had reportedly moved to Colorado Springs because of
health concerns. Chadboume chose the site of an old Jewish grocery store on
Conejos Street, near the tracks of the Rio Grande railroad, for her church. The
60


congregation remodeled the store and produced a simple, elegant building in the
Spanish Mission Vernacular style. A single tower, added in the 1940's, rises from
the stucco facade, and stained glass windows grace the churchs entrance. The
Mission opened its doors in 1928 and, to this day, continues to serve the small
Hispanic population that lives in the industrial Mill Street neighborhood.8
Status:
The Mission has the misfortune of being located on the south end of an area
targeted by the City for urban renewal. In anticipation of the Confluence Park
development project, the City tried to purchase the church in the 1990's. It was
almost tom down before Mission members initiated a campaign to save the site.
Currently, friends of the church favor applying for historic landmark status.
Recently, members of the Mission applied for and received a $10,000 Cultural
Assessment grant from the State Historical Fund. The assessment is close to being
completed. However, the funds needed to restore the Church in the manner
indicated by the assessment, simply do not exist. In a generous move by the City,
the church has been deeded the property upon which it sits along with a bit extra
for a parking lot. For the time being, the City has allowed the church to remain,
although it has razed every structure around it. The sole survivor of a once bustling
community, the Mission is now an obscure relic. Noone knows how the church will
61


continue to minister to migrant workers and those few Hispanic families that still
live near Conejos Street. 9
Chucks Stop Diner
132 W. Cimarron St
History:
A local favorite, this 10-seat diner was built in 1954 by Glenn and Margaret
Richards. They named it Richards Grill and hauled it on a truck from Wichita,
Kansas to Nevada Avenue in Colorado Springs. In 1965 the diner was moved to its
present location on Cimarron Street. Passers by find it hard to resist the small
white building with the red stop sign on top. Displayed inside the cozy diner are a
collection of ladies teacups and a circa-1903's cash register owned by the late
Darlene Vigil. Darlene bought Chucks Stop from the Richards and ran the
restaurant until her tragic murder in March, 2000. Today, the Vigil family still owns
and operates Chucks Stop; a name derived from the words chuck wagon and
truck stop.10
Fig. 3. 4. Chucks
Stop Diner
62


Status:
The diner sits at the edge of the Southwest Urban Renewal District and may
be asked by the city to relocate when Confluence Park expands. The Vigils cant
afford to pay the $350,000 that the landowners, Burdick Electric, are asking for the
lot. At one time, the family looked into applying for landmark designation but
couldnt afford the nomination fees. Instead, they plan to move the diner up north
to Powers Boulevard if asked to vacate the neighborhood. Chucks Stop is a special
part of our downtown history and its removal would be a considerable loss.11
City Auditorium (NR)
231 E. Kiowa Street
History:
This 1922 building is the last classically-inspired civic building erected in
Colorado Springs. It represents a culmination of the Citys efforts to create a large,
multi-purpose meeting and entertainment facility. This downtown landmark is the
result of a collaborative effort by three of Colorado Springs most prominent
Fig. 3.5. City
Auditorium
63


architects: Charles E. Thomas, Thomas McLaren and Thomas Hetherington. The
building features historic murals painted by WPA artists Archie Musick and Tabor
Utley. It also houses the Lon Chaney theater and the organ from the old Bums
Theater. Known and loved by citizens who remember it in its heyday, the City
Auditorium is the favorite local venue for antique shows, rock bands and pet
shows.12
Status:
Recently, the city was approached by a local developer who offered to take
this dinosaur off of the citys hands and develop it properly. The developer
envisions converting the City Auditorium into a four-story residential building.
They proposed an adaptive re-use of the existing structure and offered to preserve
part of the exterior facade. Unfortunately, since the city is in the throes of one of
the worst budget crises in decades, the developers offer is being taken quite
seriously. Over the years, the city has received significant grant rewards from the
State Historical Fund to pay for improvements to the site. Before this recent turn
of events, the city received money to restore the balcony seats and the murals.
Acceptance of these awards placed financial conditions on the disposal of the
building as well as a 10-year covenant that would prohibit the city from altering the
property. Also, a portion of the grant money has to be returned to the State if the
64


building is sold within a ten year time-period. However, none of these issues will
significantly impact the citys ability to sell the building if it so chooses. In October
2003, Denver-based Leland Consulting Group was hired by the city to conduct a
blight study of the Auditorium block. If Leland finds the block is blighted, then an
urban renewal plan for the site will be drawn up and will detail possible uses for the
property.13
Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind/Colorado Institute for the Education of
Mutes (NR)
33 N. Institute Street
Fig. 3. 6.
Colorado
School for the
Deaf and Blind
History:
First known as The Colorado Institute for the Education of Mutes, this is
one of Colorado Springs oldest landmarks. Jonathan R. Kennedy founded the
school in 1874, in a small building downtown. By 1876, the student population had
outgrown their space, forcing Kennedy to move the school to a ten acre plot of land
donated by the citys founder, General William Palmer. The first classes provided
vocational training like housekeeping, needlework, baking, printing and carpentry.
65


In the early 1900's the school purchased a 120-acre dairy ranch next door, and
maintained a variety of farm animals on the land until the 1950s. Today, the school
occupies 18 buildings and sits on 37 acres. Most of the buildings are made from
rhyolite mined in Castle Rock. The campus contains an eclectic mixture of
architectural styles from the Neoclassical administration building (1906) to the
Modernist preschool (1967) and the Postmodern classroom addition (1984). The
entire Deaf and Blind School campus has been designated as an historic district.14
Status:
Having lost a few buildings at the hands of a more modernist administration
in the 1960s, the school has taken an increasingly preservationist approach in recent
years. It is their desire to operate a progressive yet traditional school that stands as
a proud symbol of the states first school for the deaf. Restoration projects have
been functional but also sensitive to the unique history of the school. Because of
current state budget shortages, the school has been forced to shelve all restoration
projects for at least another five years. More significant is the fact that educational
trends are moving away from state funding for the disabled. The past three decades
have seen a growth in technology and medicine to help treat blindness. As a result,
it has become easier to mainstream blind children into the regular school system.
This particular school has felt pressured to widen its scope and solicit students with
66


multiple handicaps, as well as older students. Sadly, state-funded residential
schools like the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind are becoming passe.
Moreover, the high costs associated with operating an institution of its size has
School officials concerned. It has been rumored that the State is considering selling
the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind; a move which might open up an
opportunity for a not-for profit, private school to operate in those facilities.15
Colorado Springs Hotel
617 S. Nevada Ave.
Fig. 3. 7.
Colorado
Springs Hotel
History:
This historic gem was the Citys most prominent building in 1872. Nestled
on the southeast comer of Cascade and Pikes Peak Avenues, it beckoned visitors
arriving on the train from Denver. It is believed that President Ulysses S. Grant,
Cornelius Vanderbilt and John D. Rockefeller all stayed there, probably enjoying
the unobstructed view of Pikes Peak. General Palmer built this hotel, but ended up
67


using it for storage when his new Antlers Hotel opened across the street in 1884.
In the 1940's the Colorado Springs Hotel was moved to its current location and
turned into apartments. Today, it houses the offices of Pikes Peak Legal Services.16
Status:
Recently, the State of Colorado consolidated all legal aid services which has
forced Pikes Peak Legal Services to lay off employees. At its present rate of
decline, the office may close in a few years. Despite some minor changes (including
the removal of the front porch and the application of a stucco surface) the exterior
of the building remains relatively unchanged. Inside, the apartments have been
chopped up and replaced by offices. However, the original coal chute, stairways
and basement plumbing still remain. It has retained its hotel atmosphere even after
all these years. The buildings owners, who rely on rent for retirement income, may
have to sell it. To the south, the police department has just completed a huge
expansion project and is out of room. Any future growth plans on their part will
consider available sites to the north, which includes the lot on which the old hotel
resides.17
68


Crissey Fowler Lumber Company
25 W. Vermijo
Fig. 3. 8. Crissey
History: Fowler Lumber
Believed to be the citys oldest retailer, Crissey Fowler Lumber Company
was founded in 1874. Giles Crissey, a lumberman from Avon, Illinois, built his first
lumber yard on the comer of Tejon and Boulder streets. He moved his business
twice and then lost it in the fire that burned down the Antlers Hotel in 1898. Alter
the fire, the company moved to its current location at 117 W. Vermijo Ave. The
businesses proximity to the rail yard has proved beneficial in keeping freight costs
down.18
Status:
This historic site sits directly in the middle of the Southwest Urban Renewal
District. The city has already begun to condemn and clear neighboring lots in order
to make room for the Confluence Park project. Clustered around Crissey Fowler
are several other longtime building supply companies. This group of businesses
benefits from having a major lumberyard next door and will be significantly
impacted by its departure. The current plan is to demolish the site and move the
69


business elsewhere.19
El Paso Canal Remnants
Mesa Road, Sondennann Park, Historic North End
History:
Fig. 3.9. El Paso
Canal Irrigation
Ditches
General Palmer financed and built the El Paso Canal in 1872. It was paid
for by Fountain Colony lot sales and provided the water that irrigated the lots
Palmer was selling near Colorado College. The Canal wound for 1114 miles,
beginning in Old Colorado City and passing through Evergreen Cemetery. At
Columbia Street, a series of lateral ditches were dug from the Canal and carried
water to lots on Cascade, Nevada, Wahsatch and Wood Avenues. The Ditch
drew water from Fountain Creek and deposited what remained in Prospect Lake.
In 1878, the citys residents passed a bond for a new water system. By 1956, the
entire city was metered and the Canal ceased to operate.20
70


Status:
Remnants of the El Paso Canal can be found near Mesa Road and in
Sondennann Park. Many pieces sit on private property and their status is uncertain.
However, the City Parks Department is aware of the significance of the Canal and
has plans to restore and interpret the portion that runs though Sondermann Park.
Funding for this project is non-existent. The city hopes receive State funds to
restore their part of the canal as well as the surviving flues. Evidence of the lateral
irrigation ditches which ran off of the main canal can still be seen, but the ditches
have been covered over and are not in use.?1
Fire Station Four
31 S. Institute
History:
Fig. 3.10. Fire Station
Four
Fire Station Four was built in 1904, at the same time as the second Station
Three. Both buildings were identical constructions of red brick and cost the city a
total of $12,575.15. In 1917, Station Four was the last of the Colorado Springs
Fire Department stations to convert from horse-drawn wagons to motorized fire-
71


fighting vehicles. The station operated until 1971, when the company moved into
the New Station Four on Southgate Road. Since then, the building has housed the
Colorado Springs Police Protective Association and the Flight for Life crews who
operate out of neighboring St. Francis Hospital. Its last tenant was the Pikes Peak
Justice and Peace Commission.22
Status:
Station Four is part of a larger piece of property which was recently sold by
the Sisters of St. Francis to a local developer. A 200-member non-profit
organization called the Friends of the Lester L. Williams Fire Museum hopes to
covert the site into a museum which will display artifacts from the Fallen Firefighter
Memorial a block away. They are hoping that the developer will donate the station
and surrounding land to the International Firefighters Union, which will, in turn,
allow them to use the space rent-free. Lester L. Williams served as physician and
unofficial historian for the fire department for over 60 years. The Friends goal is to
restore all of Station Four to the horse-drawn era of 1909. They hope to have the
horse stalls rebuilt as well reinstall the 2-story brass pole. They also plan to add
additional parking on the north side of the statioa Preservation advocates are
aware of the drainage problems around the building, as well as the exorbitant cost
to move the structure. Currently, the museums supporters are hoping that theyll
72


be allowed to move forward and return this beloved site to its earlier glory.23
Golden Cycle Mill Smokestack
Gold Hill Mesa at 21st Street
Fig. 3.11. Golden
Cycle Mill
Smokestack
History:
The Golden Cycle Smokestack sits proudly on top of Gold Hill Mesa, the
areas sole reminder of the impact that the Cripple Creek Gold Rush had on
Colorado Springs. First known as the Telluride Mill, the Golden Cycle processed
ore mined in Cripple Creek in the 1890s. The Mill was bought by John Milliken of
St. Louis in 1905. After a coal dust fire in 1907 nearly destroyed the Mill, Milliken
rebuilt it and added the now famous smokestack. The Golden Cycle Mill re-opened
in 1908 as a completely refurbished, fully automatic operation. It was the largest
custom mill for gold ore in the United States. So efficient was its operation that
within five years, the Golden Cycle had driven all other area mills out of business.
As the gold boom turned to bust in the 1920s and 30s, business began to dwindle at
the Golden Cycle Mill. In 1948, the Mill closed its doors.24
73


Status:
Gold Hill Mesa is made up of about 14,000,000 tons of tailings. These
tailings contain over one-half a million ounces of gold and two million ounces of
silver. The southeast comer of the mesa exhibits significant drainage and erosion
problems, a result of the cyanide leaching process used at the Mill. In 1996, the city
wanted to get rid of the smokestack because the area had become so unstable and
dangerous. Street gangs and homeless people frequented the site and vandalized
what little remained of the Mill. Today, the remaining foundation of the Mill site has
been approved for redevelopment. Soon townhouses will dot this abandoned site.25
Grace Episcopal Church
215 E. Pikes Peak Ave.
Fig. 3.12. Grace
Episcopal Church
History:
Empty and ignored, this rough-faced rhyolite landmark sits next door to the
downtown post office on Pikes Peak Avenue. The land on which the church was
built was donated by General William Jackson Palmer. In July 1873, the
cornerstone of Grace Episcopal Church (originally called Colorado Springs
Episcopal) was laid on the southwest comer of Pikes Peak Avenue and Weber
74


Street. The church was designed by Thomas McLaren and built by Winfield Scott
Stratton, prior to his success in the Cripple Creek gold mines. It is one of the few
remaining sites in town built by this famous miner and philanthropist. Bishop
Spaulding held a consecration ceremony in 1880 for the new Grace Church parish,
but the church was not occupied until 1891. In 1893, a group known as Trinity
Union (later known as St. Stevens) withdrew from Grace Church and held service
in the Antlers Hotel. In 1923, the congregation moved into the second Grace
Church on the comer of Monument and Tejon. From 1940 until the early 1960's,
the old church was home to a restaurant called the Village Inn (not the chain).
Other parts of the building have housed a florist and a photography shop.
Currently, the site is abandoned.26
Status:
Grace Church sits on a prime piece of downtown property. However, since
the parking lot behind the building was sold off, the access to the church is poor.
Moreover, the buildings odd configuration has made it difficult for other businesses
to flourish inside its walls. The alterations made to the site by the Village Inn and
flower shop have compromised its integrity. The east side of the church has been
covered with stucco, while the central part features prominent signage left over
from its days as a restaurant. Although residents would like to see the church
75


restored, the sad truth is that the land it sits on is more valuable than the building
itself.
27
Historic Medians
Wood, Cascade, Nevada, Wahsatch, Willamette, Platte and Kiowa Avenues.
Fig. 3.13.
Median on
Nevada
Avenue
History:
Unique to Colorado Springs Historic North End, these center medians or
parkings were installed between 1905 and 1912. Charles Mulford Robinson,
Secretary of the Municipal Art League of America and disciple of the City
Beautiful movement, recommended to City Council that the streets be parked
for aesthetic as well as cost-saving reasons. Robinsons comprehensive plan called
for property owners to be assessed a fee from an improvement district to pay for
the medians. Some medians were paid for entirely by the homeowners, while, in
other cases, the costs were shared. While some homeowners balked at these
assessments, by 1926 the presence of landscaped medians were a fixed feature in
the citys North End. The medians character and uniqueness are attributable to
76


their mature vegetation and Victorian Era landscaping. The landscaped medians,
along with uniform setbacks, are an important unifying element in the northern
neighborhoods. They also are a beautiful remnant of a time when General Palmers
vision for a garden city reined supreme.28
Status:
Since the early 1990's, the dty has begun removing sizeable portions of the
medians in order to make room for left-tum lanes. Despite the citys promise in its
Comprehensive Plan to maintain and protect the medians, it continues to remove
bits and pieces as it sees fit. The city officials solution to the perennial traffic
problem in the older neighborhoods is to remove trees and narrow the medians. A
failure to respect the integrity of the medians as worthwhile entities in and of
themselves has been a disappointing quality exhibited by Colorado Springs local
government.29
77


Kimballs Peak Theater
115 E. Pikes Peak Ave.
Fig. 3.14. Kimballs
Peak Theater
Histoiy:
Kimballs Twin Peak Theater had its beginnings in 1896 as a bank. The
building is located on one of Colorado Springs busiest streets, Pikes Peak Avenue,
between Nevada Avenue and Tqon Street. In 1936, it was converted to a one-
auditorium movie theater. Over the years the 750-seat theater has gone through
several owners. However, the popular neon-red and green marquee remains
unaltered. Likewise for the fifty-feet high florescent murals of Pikes Peak and the
Garden of the Gods which adorn the interior walls. In an effort to boost ticket sales,
the theater began showing dollar movies around 1986. By 1989, the single screen
complex closed and remained vacant until 1993. At that point, Kimball Bayles
purchased the building and converted the balcony into a second auditorium. For
the past decade, the little theater has attracted audiences by offering more obscure,
independently produced films. The Peak has carved out a niche for itself by
premiering films that large theaters will not touch, either because they are too
controversial or they arent projected to be big hits. Moreover, Bayles addition of
78


a wine and coffee bar tucked into a comer of the lobby, has been quite a success.
Moviegoers can order cocktails in the bar and take them in to the movie to enjoy.30
Status:
Although the Peak has a small but loyal following, its future is a precarious
one. The recent construction of megaplex theaters on the south, north and east
sides of town has certainly cut into the Peaks business. Also, the old downtown
has experienced a revival in the last decade and land values have risen sharply. Like
other endangered sites in this sought-after district, the property is often worth more
than the building which occupies it. The beloved Peak Theater could share the same
fete as its predecessors, the Cooper, the Ute, the Chief and the Trail Theaters which
were all tom down in the name of progress.31
.Law Mortuary
116 North Nevada Ave.
Fig. 3.15. Law
History: Mortuary
Owned and operated by the Law family for many years, the mortuary
started as a large Italianate style house which faced Nevada Ave. This site is an
79


excellent illustration of the Turn of the Century custom of building funeral parlors
inside large, stylish downtown homes. Its owner, Russell Law, added Italian
Romanesque features to this circa 1880's dwelling in 1913. The unusual
ecclesiastical style of this site is not as modest and conservative as other funeral
parlors of the time. Existing Italian-influenced structures are rare in Colorado
Springs, and this particular one adds to the diversity of the core neighborhood
which surrounds Acacia Park.32
Status:
The Law Mortuary building is currently unoccupied. Until recently, the site
housed Nortons Office Supply. Like its neighbor, the Oddfellows Hall, the
building has been the focus of developers who are interested in converting it to loft-
style apartments. Also, there has been talk of razing the structure and constructing
a multi-story, mixed use building. As with many other historic structures in the
downtown area, the land upon which the Mortuary sits is far more valuable than the
site itself. The Mortuarys proximity to the shops on Acacia Park makes it all the
more attractive to developers.33
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Marion House
14 W. Bijou Street
History: Fig. 3.16. Marion House
Built around 1920, this tired looking four-square is actually one of the most
popular places in town every day between 10:30 am and 1:00 pm. At that time,
between 400 to 500 homeless and indigent members of the community show up for
lunch. The Marion House Soup Kitchen has operated out of this old house since
1985. At that time, a group of faith-based citizens inspired by the Catholic Worker
Movement formed the Bijou Community. The soup kitchen they started was a
modest operation at first. Food was prepared in what used to be the recreation
room for the Sisters of Loretto. The Sisters gave Marion House its name and used
the site as a convent for many years. Originally, Marion House sat on a crowded
block of similar homes, all of which abutted the south entrance to Monument Park.
The construction of homes in this Boulder Crescent neighborhood were strongly
influenced by the City Beautiful movement. When the Sisters of Loretto needed a
place to live near the Catholic schools where they taught, they were drawn to this
quaint neighborhood. To allow for enough room, the church joined two houses
together by a long concrete hallway. When St. Marys High School and
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Elementary School both closed, the mins pursued other causes which took them
away from Marion House. When the Bijou group started the soup kitchen in the
empty convent, they used the bedrooms upstairs to house homeless women. During
the 1980's a Catholic priest operated a youth outreach project in the church-owned
houses next door. The houses are gone now, having been tom down to make room
for a parking lot. The Marion House Soup Kitchen was taken over by Catholic
Charities in 1994 and is still in business. It is all that is left of a block of early
1900's housing located in a central business district.34
Status:
Marion House has suffered the effects of overuse, inconsistent maintenance
and the changing needs of the Catholic Diocese. Its rooms have been altered, shut-
off chopped up and, in one instance, burned. Signs of neglect and decay are
evident. Quite simply, the house is ill-equipped to meet the needs of hundreds of
citizens on a daily basis. Moreover, the cinder-block walls added during the convent
era make the structure extremely difficult to re-model. Although their cause is a
loving and charitable one, the volunteers who operate the kitchen are exhausted and
burned-out. However, there is good news. Recently, Catholic Charities received a
$500,000 grant from the El Pomar Foundation to build an addition. The $4 million
project will add a dining room, kitchen and storage area to the west side of the
82


building The future looks brighter for this well-loved site, unless, of course, the
Catholic Church decides to get out of the soup kitchen business. Another potential
problem which could delay or even stop renovation, is the reaction of the Boulder
Crescent neighbors to the proposed expansion. Tired of the endless stream of
homeless people who leave trash and bodily waste in their yards, residents have
begun to speak out. Many are hoping to join forces and prevent the project from
continuing.3S
Monument Valley Park
Between Bijou and Monroe Streets
Fig. 3.17. Monument
Valley Park
History:
Monument Valley Park, an urban park in the historic North End which
surrounds Monument Creek, has been the favorite municipal recreational spot for
generations of residents. Of all the gifts made to the city by its founder, William
Jackson Palmer, Monument Park is viewed as the most significant Palmer created
the park during the City Beautiful era which was influenced by the 1893 Chicago
Expositioa It was his wish to create a lush garden spot and peaceful, scenic retreat
83


in the middle of, what was then, a growing, busy urban neighborhood. In 1904,
Palmer purchased all the land and properties along Monument Creek for two miles,
between Bijou and Monroe Streets. Working with General Robert Cameron, a
general planner, and Edmond Van Diest, the engineer who would design the park,
Palmer laid out a series of cultivated and natural pleasure grounds. An oasis of
wild gardens, rock work and natural vegetation which followed the tradition of
English gardens, Monument Park became a popular destination for residents and
Tuberculosis patients, as well as a source of pride for the city. Palmers desire to
see one of every kind of tree planted in his park transformed this dormant parcel
into the states premier botanic garden. In 1907, Palmer deeded the park to the
citizens after requiring that City Council appoint a citizen board to oversee the
parks. During the Palmer Era (1904- 1935) pedestrian bridges, lakes, undulating
trails, rock archways, baseball fields and scenic overlooks were added to the park.
Between 1911 and 1916, three distinctive structures (two pavilions and a swimming
pool) were designed and built in the park under the supervision of architect Thomas
McLaren. When Colorado celebrated its fiftieth year of statehood in 1926, McLaren
built a Spanish-style pavilion to cover Tahama Spring. The second period of
significance in the history of the park began after the 1935 flood. The WPA era
(1935 1952) was a time of major restoration projects in the wake of a Memorial
Day flood which devastated a major portion of Monument Valley Park. When
84


Monument Creek jumped its banks, it washed away the parks rustic bridges, a lake
and many gardens which were never replaced. However, the WPA worked to repair
the water damage, build stone retaining walls and construct new park features of
stone, including stairs, benches, walls and a grandstand for the baseball field. Over
the years, the WPA features have gained their own significance. Other important
events have taken place in the park since the end of the WPA era. Most siginificant
was the construction of Interstate 25 next to the parks western boundary. A flood
in 1965 took out some of the WPA stonework and the pavilion at Tahama Spring.
Unfortunately, a Downtown Intensive Suvey conducted in 1985 determined that the
park was not eligible for National Register status, but the pavilions were. In 2002,
A historic and archaeoligical survey completed in conjunction with the widening of
1-25 identified Monument Valley Park as eligible for the National Register. The
park certainly has experienced its share of tragedy and success through the years.
Yet, after almost 100 years, Monument Valley Park continues to represent Palmers
vision of a garden paradise.36
Status:
As Colorado Springs has grown, more and more people are living and
moving outside the heart of the city. The city has grown so large that, on a good
day, a trip from the northern-most point to the southern-most point could take over
85


forty-five minutes. This exodus from the historic downtown to points beyond does
not bode well for the future of Monument Valley Park. Monument Valley Park is
an endangered resource because a predominance of citizens do not know what it is,
where it is or what it means. A citizens group called Friends of Monument Valley
Park has taken it upon themselves to help the public gain a greater appreciation of
the park and its far-sighted creator, William Jackson Palmer. They have revived the
annual Palmer Day celebration, begun in 1932 and held in the park. Also, they are
hosting a series of workshops on the development of the park system, reading
cultural landscapes, preserving cultural materials and becoming responsible
stewards of public amenities. The increased noise from the widened freeway,
coupled with a severely strained parks maintenance budget, has taken its toll on the
old park. The stone archways and walls which mark the many entrances to the park
are in desperate need of repair. The creek itself has become overgrown with weeds
and is filled with debris. Homeless people camp in the park and leave their trash
behind. The distinctive structures in the park, including pavilions, ponds and
playgrounds, are in need of maintenance. This year the Friends of Monument
Valley Park are submitting a nomination for the National Register. Placement of
the park on the National Register would open up the opportunity for the city to
apply for grant money, with which to maintain this beautiful and beloved
landmark.37
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Oddfellows Hall
128 N. Nevada Ave.
Fig. 3.18. Oddfellows
Hall
History:
This building was originally home to Lodge No. 38 of the Independent
Order of Odd Fellows. Organized in England in the 18th Century, the Odd Fellows
was a secret fraternal society that aided the poor, aged and sick. In 1909, a
contractor named Thomas Wright was hired to build a two-story temple for the
Colorado Springs chapter. Wright erected a large, rectangular brick structure on
the comer of Nevada Avenue and Bijou Street. Designed by architect T.E. Linn,
the building provided retail space on the ground floor and a lodge, club room and
banquet hall above. The cornerstone was laid and dedicated in an elaborate
ceremony on March 31, 1910. The hall cost around $38,000 to build and was paid
for by lodge members. The original lodge can be distinguished by the stone trim
around the windows and the date stone near the top.38
Status:
The Oddfellows Hall is one of the only remaining buildings of its type in
87


downtown Colorado Springs. When the Pikes Peak area experienced rapid growth
around the tum-of-the century, the number and size of fraternal orders, lodges and
secret societies grew as well. Many lodge and club buildings were added to the
downtown landscape at that time. Like others of its kind, the Oddfellows Hall is a
distinctive structure constructed to reflect the pride and dedication of its
membership. However, its prime location at the comer of one of the citys busiest
downtown streets places it in danger of being tom down by developers. Indeed,
there has been talk of removing the building and constructing a multi-story, mixed
use site. Constructing new buildings which contain loft apartments is a popular fad
in Colorado Springs, but one for which there is no market. Filled with an eclectic
mixture of retail tenants, the Oddfellows Hall faces an uncertain future.39
Springs Reformed Church/Pillar of Fire Church
229 South Weber St.
Fig. 3.19. Springs
Reformed Church
History:
The Pillar of Fire mission was established in 1922 by Bishop Alma White, a
noted woman evangelist. This eclectic style church with its square tower,
Byzantine-influenced tower cap, Flemish gables and Romanesque windows, was
88


Full Text

PAGE 1

LITTLE LONDON LEGACY A STUDY OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN COLORADO SPRINGS by Jennifer Miller Karber B.A, Colorado College, 1986 A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts History 2004

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<02004 by Jennifer Miller Karber All rights reserved.

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This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Jennifer Miller Karber has been approved by Thomas J. Noel Pamela Laird __ .. .. Rebecca Hunt 1 '". 1.

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Karber, Jennifer Miller (M.A, History) Little London Legacy -A Study of Historic Preservation in Colorado Springs Thesis directed by Professor Thomas J. Noel ABSTRACT Although the city of Colorado Springs has been the recipient of more land, parks, roads and public buildings than any other city the state, it has a poor record of maintaining and honoring its rich legacy. Four wealthy benefactors, William Jackson Palmer, Wmfield Scott Stratton, Spencer Penrose and Thayer Tutt, magnanimously bestowed their gifts of property and money on the young city with the hope of creating a luxurious resort community in the British tradition. Nicknamed "Little London," Colorado Springs was given everything it needed to become one of the loveliest and most sophisticated cities in the state. However, ignorance, poor education and a pro-development philosophy caused this inheritance to be squandered. Growth, not preservation, has been the priority of the City Administration over the past forty years. An uneducated, uncommitted citizenry has permitted the old to be sacrificed for the new. As a result, little remains that once defined Colorado Springs and gave it its special character. This thesis examines what has happened to Colorado Springs' esteemed historic structures. It chronicles the history of preservation efforts in the city and suggests ways to improve its mediocre preservation record. This analysis also includes an in-depth look at the city's built environment and examines what significant sites have already been lost, which ones are in danger of being destroyed and which ones are worthy oflandmark status. It is my hope that this document will inspire the citizens of Colorado Springs to take measures to end the needless destruction of its public landmarks. This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I recommend its publication. Signed iv

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DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis to my family, Kent, Steve, Grace and Jack, and to my parents. v

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ACKNOWLEDG:MENT My sincere thank$ to Tim Scanlon, City Planner, for his wisdom, candor and patience. I also wish to thank my Thesis Adviser, Professor Tom Noel for his encouragement over all these years! Thank you as well to Kay Haynes, for being a wonderful tour guide and neighbor and to the brilliant and generous staff from the Special Collections Department of the Penrose Public Library. Finally, I would like to express my deep gratitude to Judith Rice-Jones, Joyce Stivers, Bill Barnes and the other Board members of the Historic Preservation Alliance. Never give up hope! VI

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CONTENTS Figures .......................................................................................................... viii Tables ............................................................................................................ xii CHAPTER 1. AIDS TORY OFPRESERVATION .................................................... 1 2. LOST;RESOURCES ......................................................................... 12 Introduction .......................................................................... 12 List of Lost Resources ....................................................... 15 3. END.AN"GEREDRESOlJR.CES ......................................................... 54 Introduction. .......................................................................... 54 Colorado Springs Endangered Sites List ............................... 57 4. RESOURCES WITH LANDMARK POTENTIAL ..................... 118 Introduction ......................................................................... 118 PotentialLandmarks ............................................................. 121 5. CONCLUSION ................................................................................ I58 BffiLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................... 162 vii

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FIGURES Figure 2.1 Alta Vista Hotel. ........................................................................................... 15 2.2 AntlersHotel. ................................................................................................ 16 2.3 Burns Theater ................................................................................................ 18 2.4 BroadmoorCasino ...................................................................................... 20 2.5 Broadmoor lcePalace ................................................................................. 22 2.6 Bruin Inn .................................................................................................... 23 2. 7 Coburn Library ........................................................................................... 24 2.8 Colorado Springs High School.. ................................................................. 25 2.9 Opera House .............................................................................................. 27 2.10 Fannie Mae Duncan .................................................................................... 29 2.11 Cragt11or Sanitarium ................................................................................... 31 2.12 IIassell Iron Works ..................................................................................... 35 2.13 ffibbard'sDepartment Store ........................................................................ 37 2.14 Hiddenlnn .................................................................................................. 38 2.15 Steele School. ............................................................................................. 41 2.16 Ute Theater ................................................................................................ 42 vw

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2.16 Ute Theater ................................................................................................ 42 3.1 Boy's Club ................................................................................................. 57 3.2 Cedar Springs ............................................................................................. 58 3.3 Chadbourn Spanish GospelMission ............................................................. 60 3.4 Chuck's Stop Diner .................................................................................... 62 3.5 City Auditorium .......................................................................................... 63 3.6 Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind ...................................................... 65 3.7 Colorado Springs Hotel. ................................................. ............................ 67 3.8 Crissey Fowler Lumber ............................................................................... 69 3.9 ElPasolrrigationDitches ............................................................................. 70 3.10 Fire StationFour ........................................................................................ 71 3.11 Golden Cycle Mill Smokestack. .................................................................. 73 3.12 Grace Episcopal Church ............................................................................. 74 3.13 Median onNevadaAvenue ......................................................................... 76 3.14 Kimball's Peak Theater ............................................................................... 78 3.15 Law Mortuary ............................................................................................. 79 3.16 MarionHouse ............................................................................................. 81 3.17 Monument Valley Park ............................................................................... 83 IX

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3 .I9 Springs Reformed Church .......................................................................... 88 3.20 Prospect Lake Bath House ......................................................................... 90 3.2I Rock Island Roundhouse ............................................................................ 91 3.22 Spencer's Nursery ...................................................................................... 94 3.23 Trolley Buildings ......................................................................................... 97 3.24 Union Printer's Home ............................................................................... I 00 3.25 VemerZ. ReedLibrary .............................................................................. IOI 3.26 Vmcent Street Bridge ................................................................................ I 03 4.I AcaciaPark ............................................................................................... 12I 4.2 AcaciaHotei. ............................................................................................ I22 4.3 AntlersGarage .......................................................................................... I24 4.4 Carriage House Museum ........................................................................... I25 4. 5 Cheyenne Hotel. ........................................................................................ I26 4.6 Denver and Rio Grande Depot ................................................................... 129 4.7 EIPaso Club ............................................................................................. 13I 4.8 IIa.lfVvay House ......................................................................................... I35 4.9 Knights of Columbus Building .................................................................. I37 4.10 Myron Stratton Home ............................................................................... 141 X

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4.11 Payne Chapel. .......................................................................................... 145 4.12 Tum ofthe CentwyBuilding .................................................................... 147 4.13 Woodmen of the World Sanitarium ........................................................... 148 xi

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TABLES Table 3.1 Nomin8tions to Colorado List ofEndangered Places ........................................ 55 XII

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CHAPTER 1 A IflSTORY OF PRESERVATION Colorado Spring has been richly blessed. However, like the spoiled child of wealthy parents, it has also been overindulged. Its founding fathers, William Jackson Palmer, Spencer Penrose and Wmfield Scott Stratton gave extravagantly to the resort community of their dreams. Thanks to their largesse and public mindedness, Colorado Springs became known statewide as having beautiful buildings and parks. General Palmer's dream of a genteel mountain paradise that was the model ofEnglish civility had come true. Gold rush money sustained the city until the 1930's, when the prominent millionaires began to die off. By then, the city's benevolent benefilctors had given more public land, streets, parks, buildings and money to Colorado Springs than most cities dream of Colorado Springs' abundance of tree-lined walking trails, its wide streets, its beautifully landscaped medians and the handsome buildings which graced its downtown attracted and impressed tourists from all over the country. With majestic Pikes Peak as its backdrop, many considered Colorado Springs to be the most picturesque city in Colorado. 1

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Today, unfortunately, Colorado Springs has fallen off its lofty perch as one of the state's finest, most elegant cities and is now an object of embarrassment and disappointment to those who know and love it most. Older citizens often remark about their city and how lovely and exciting it once was. Visitors remember fun times touring sites that no longer exist. Perhaps sadde$1 of all is the lack of appreciation the city's newer residents have for how great their home used to be . Gone are many of the landmarks which gave the community a frame of reference. Diminished and crumbling are the monuments and structures which provided meaning for its citizens. What happened to cause such a metamorphosis? Poor community education, a desire to attract developers and a diminished concern for historic preservation exhibited by local leaders has compromised the city's integrity. It is ironic that the city's culture began as one of public spiritedness but deviated into one. which embraced opportunism and growth at all costs. Bereft of the financial support it came to depend on and lacking strong ties to its history, Colorado Springs has lost sight ofPalmer's enlightened vision. Developers and builders, not preservationists, appear to have more community clout and are able to achieve results to their liking. Commercial encroachment has chipped away at the city's historic core, turning beloved buildings into parking lots, office buildings and fast-food restaurants. Of the over 2,000 public structures standing in 1900, only 2

PAGE 15

about 200 remain. It seems obvious that while Colorado Springs citizens are content to live in Palmer's beautiful and peaceful community, they are reluctant to invest in its maintenance. It has been a long, hard road for the handful of citizens who are committed to saving the city's past. Viewed by the city's conservative majority as "tax and spend" liberal fanatics, preservation groups have experienced more resistence at the local level than they have from the state. Norman Tyler, in his book, Historic Preservation. emphasizes the protective power and regulation that is available from local governments. His observation that "in many ways, historic preservation is most meaningful at the local level" underscores the responsibility with which we have entrusted our city governments.1 Richard Collins also addresses this issue in his book, America's Downtowns. He encourages cities like Colorado Springs to ''try to define (their) community character."2 He also points out that historic preservation has become "more of a philosophy and "less of a separate movement. "3 This evolution in preservation philosophy has yet to occur in Colorado Springs. Only on a few occasions has the City Government modeled the kind of preservationist attitude it hopes to inspire in its citizenry. The City's cautious approach towards saving its own historic public buildings certainly makes it difficult for such a "movement" or "philosophy'' to take root. The challenges of 3

PAGE 16

"preserving public character''in this community have only just started to be met.4 Regrettably, Colorado Springs' leaders have a history of not taking their preservation role seriously enough. For every site or structure the community saves from the wrecking ball, there are twice as many that are lost. The city's first preservation group was founded in the early 1900s and called themselves the Civic League. 5 This women's organization was formed with the intention of saving the city's unique character by affecting its evolution. One of the most important things this group did was to commission a nationally prominent New York engineer named Charles Mulford Robinson to make recommendations on how to improve the city. Robinson came to Colorado Springs in 1905 as a representative of the Good Roads Association. This organization of architects and engineers travelled around the coUn.try promoting the benefits of paved streets. 6 A spokesman for the City Beautiful movement (a gathering of upper class reformers who sought to improve civic culture and eliminate social ills through beautification), Robinson drew up the city's first comprehensive plan. The plan included suggestions for more parks, better roads, a diminished railroad presence and more stringent air quality standards. He convinced city planners and leaders that improving the appearance of Colorado Springs would, in tum, inspire its citizens to live more harmoniously. Robinson successfully lobbied for the relocation of 4

PAGE 17

railroads and coal mines to areas farther away from the heart of the city, which not only cleaned up the air downtown but also freed up land for housing. Colorado Springs' first community preservation effort was born out of the Urban Renewal movement of the 1960s and 70s. At that time, federal tax.laws encouraged new construction in order to entice businesses to renovate older, less populated areas. Urban Renewal was the embodiment of a national attitude that identified anything new as something to be desired and anything old as obsolete. The influence of this movement spelled trouble for the historical face of Colorado Springs. One major Urban Renewal effort; the Alamo Plaza Urban Renewal Project, cleared a sizable number ofdowntown buildings.7 In 1970s Colorado Springs, a building's preservation depended upon how economically viable it remained. Many were destroyed because of insurance and maintenance costs. Some sites were razed because the potential profit to be made from the land beneath them was too tempting. Compounding the problem downtown was the significant military presence on the northern, eastern and southern perimeter of the city. Jobs opportunities at military bases like Peterson and Ft. Carson became available, which prompted families to leave their homes in the center of the city. As residents fled to the suburbs, their former haunts became less fashionable and more obsolete. 5

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The demolition in 1964 of Colorado Spring's most cherished landmark, the Antlers was the catalyst for the creation of a fledgling preservation movement. When a small group of concerned citizens rallied to rescue the endangered their efforts went largely unnoticed and the structure was lost. So, when residents got wind of the impending demise of the El Paso County Courthouse, at about the same time as the Ander's demolition, they were even more enraged. TheEl Paso County Commissioners felt that the 1903 courthouse was too expensive and difficult to maintain and decided to replace it with a new, and much plainer, building. 8 Fortunately, the citizens group was more organized and determined than when they tried to save the Antlers. Their campaign not only saved the grandest structure in the downtown, but is also ensured its future preservation by placing the site on the National Register ofHistoric Places. In fact, many local historians credit the effort to save the courthouse as a seminal event. It came to symbolize when the community took a finn stand against the mass demolition of local landmarks. In 1965, a Landmarks Preservation Committee formed with the intention of educating the community and working on protective legislation for local historic sites. 9 This organization tried to take the city in a new direction and championed the preservation of historic Rock Ledge Ranch. A major setback for preservation 6

PAGE 19

groups like the Landmarks Committee occurred when the Burns Theater was tom down in 1973. The Bums was the most beautiful and luxurious theater in the city. In one swift move, this special spot was reduced to rubble in order to provide space for bank offices. Lacking direction from the city government and feeling ignored by developers and builders, preservation advocates doggedly pressed on with various projects in the 1970s. Although the Landmarks Preservation Committee eventually dissolved, there were other organizations that remained active. One of the most notable preservation efforts of the 1970s took place in Old Colorado City. In the early 1970s, the historic part of Old Colorado City was referred to as "Skid Row." Developers eyed this dirty, abandoned and decaying strip ofbusinesses along Colorado Boulevard in the hopes creating an entirely new city. In 1975, involved citizens pressured City Council to allow incremental re-investment in the area by offering special tax incentives.10 They also received government funding to hire an artist to do renderings of their old buildings and what they might look like if they were restored. These drawings were used as a sales tool to convince businesspeople to invest in Old Colorado City. Later, the citizens group convinced the City to issue :facade grants and block grants as well as to create an Old Colorado City Security and Maintenance District.11 The rebirth of Old Colorado 7

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City is a true success story and is a significant source of pride for local preservationists. This project is. often cited as the perfect example of what can be accomplished when citizens groups and city officials work together in a spirit of community. The late 1980s was an era when Colorado Springs experienced a maturing in its philosophy towm:ds preservation, Two important events occurred in this decade, which gave local preservation efforts a much needed boost. The first event was the formation of the Historic Property Alliance with Debbie Abele, a Historic Preservation Planner who worked for the city, as its leader.12 The HP A took on the project of securing National Register District status for the Weber/Wahsatch neighborhood on the north side of town. This group also supported residents of the Historic North End neighborhood when they nominated their area to the National Register District list. Wanting to educate homeowners and interested citizens, the HP A offered restoration classes and toured the City's historic sites. The HP A performed a very significant role in the community and continued to flourish until the late 1990s, when it was transformed in the Historic Preservation Alliance. Like its predecessor, the new HP A had an instructional component, however, this group was and is much more proactive in its efforts to increase community awareness about endangered sites and potential landmarks. The new HP A, under the 8

PAGE 21

leadership of Joyce Stivers, raised its profile by sponsoring historic walking tours each summer and hosting an annual awards gala, which recognizes outstanding preservation and construction efforts in the community. The second noteworthy event which helped.the preservation movement in the 1980s was the city's passage of the Historic Preservation Ordinance. The Ordinance evolved as a result of pressure from influential, historically minded citizens who lived in the North End. Having secured National Historic District designation for their neighborhood, these community activists encouraged the city to take a more active role in saving and promoting its history. The Historic Preservation Board was established by municipal action with the passage of the Historic Preservation Ordinance in November, 1988. Composed of seven members appointed by the City Council, the Board is charged with developing a historic preservation program for the city as well as advising City Council on how to best implement the Ordinance.13 Aided by a Downtown Survey of designated buildings, which Debbie Abele performed from 1983 to 1985, Board does its best to objectively identifY and manage the city's historic resources. The good news is that the presence of the Board induces the community to re-consider the use of the their buildings. The bad news is that the city has lagged behind national preservation trends for so many years that it has quite a bit of catching up to do. 9

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NOTES 1 Tyler, Norman. Historic Preservation. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1994. 54. 2 Collins, Richard C., Elizabeth B. Waters and A Bruce Dotson. America's Downtowns. New York: Preservation Press, 1991. 23. 3 Collins, et al. 22. 4 Collins, et al. 22. 5 Mayberry, Matt. "The Unique History of the Founding of Colorado Springs." Monument Valley Park Forum. City Council Chambers, Colorado Springs. 28 February 2004. 6 Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 17 March 2004. 7 City of Colorado Springs. Department of Comprehensive Planning. Historic Preservation Plan. Colorado Springs: Department of Comprehensive Planning, 1993. 5. 8 Duval, Linda. "Courthouse Celebrates Birthday." Colorado Springs Gazette 19 October 2003: L1-2. 9 Unknown author. ''Landmarks Preservation Committee Formed Here." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 14 January 1965: B1. 10 Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 26 September 2004. 11 Scanlon. 26 September 2004. 10

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12 Jones, Judith Rice. "History ofPreservation Groups in Colorado Springs." Meeting of the Historic Preservation Alliance Board of Directors. Petersen Air Force Base, Colorado Springs. 14 February 2004. 13 City of Colorado Springs. Department of Comprehensive Planning. Historic Preservation Plan. Colorado Springs: Department of Comprehensive Plal.ming, 1993. 36. 11

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CHAPTER2 LOST RESOURCES "Demolition is not always a wrecking ball swinging against brick and mortar. Any building or structure or site that is not being cared for properly is being demolished."1 Tony P. Wrenn andEiizabeth D. Molloy, America's Forgotten Architecture Introduction Those citizens fortunate enough to live in Colorado Springs in the 1930's saw the city at its finest. For fifty years, Colorado Springs' trio of benefactors, Wmfield Scott Stratton, William Jackson Palmer and Spencer Penrose, had lavished land, parks, and public buildings on the growing city.2 Moreover, a group of noteworthy architects like George Summers, Thomas McLaren, Thomas Barber, Charles Thomas and T.D. Hetherington had established a genteel traditon of architecture that enhanced the young city's growing reputation as a "Little London. "3 Local eraftsmen had also contnbuted to city's handsome skyline. Ornate iron fences from Hassell Iron Works, colorful tile from Van Briggle Pottery and stone cut from local quarries became features which defined the community's built environment. Most importantly, Colorado Springs in the 1930s had not yet experienced any major demolition project which would forever alter its appearance. 12

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Although difficult times loomed on the horizon, as the city's leaders died off and the community experienced the loss of their support, the 1930s were indeed the best of times for Colorado Springs. A glimpse of the city from the clock tower of the El Paso County Courthouse would have revealed a panorama of treasured and prominent landmarks. Most notably, the famous Antlers Hotel would have dominated the landscape, from its central location at the west end of Pikes Peak Avenue. Down the street, the prized Bums Theater would have drawn crowds for an evening performance. The thirties was the decade in which other significant features, like the Coburn Library; Colorado Springs High School and the Alta Vista were still present. Parking .was plentiful on along the city's wide streets and the trolley system still served a growing number of commuters. The I 0,000 Cottonwood trees which Palmer had brought to the city from the Arkansas River Valley in the late 1800s were maturing nicely, and created a verdant canopy over the city. In the 1930s, Colorado Springs promoters and planners were marketing the city as "The City of Trees" and "The City of Sunshine" in hopes of attracting travelers and tubercular invalids from the east. 4 More importantly, the Great Depression had slowed development, grinding new construction projects to a halt. Wrth less being built downtown, fewer old structures needed to be tom down to make room 13

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Colorado Springs was in a static state and remained that way through the 1940s. Like most American cities, Colorado Springs experienced a major amount of growth after the post-war baby boom. The 1950s was an era of overcrowded schools, bustling downtown attractions, new businesses and a vigorous tourist industry. Colorado Springs reinvented its economy around the automobile, tourism and the military. Thousands ofacresofland were donated for Army and Air Force facilities. As the demand for inexpensive, postwar housing grew, the city began grow and spread away from its historic core. The city's historic structures experienced their greatest threat during the era of Urban Renewal in the 1960s and 1970s. 5 During that time, businesses and residents fled the downtown for newer suburban developments. As a result, the city got caught up in a massive, government-funded effort to re-build and renew its core in order to attract new businesses. Countless historical structures were lost to the wrecking ball, never to return. The downtown oftoday, with its eclectic, unattractive mix of old and new and its haphazard, themeless arrangement of office space, retail space and public space is a direct result of what happened in the 1960s and '70s. Even with the 14

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development of a Downtown Action Plan in tJte ... 1990s which outlined a clearer .. vision for downtown Colorado Springs, a enormous amount of work still needs to be done to bring back the city of Palmer's dreams. Below is a listing of some of the most egregious architectural casualties experienced during the past forty years. It contains a cross-section of notable sites, from theaters, to libraries, hotels, hospitals and schools. The list pays tribute to the historic and cultural resources whose disappearance has impacted the city of Colorado Springs in the most profound way. List ofLost Resources Alta Vista Hotel 118 North Cascade Avenue Fig. 2. 1. Alta Vista Hotel This beautiful four-story brick and stone hotel was built by Mr. and Mrs. Hoyt Stevens shortly after they arrived in Colorado Springs in 1872. Bult in the Italian Renaissance style out ofbrick and stone, the hotel quickly became a favorite for visitors and residents alike. The 120-room hotel was flanked by Boyle and 15

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Chapman Mortuaries. William and Frank Conway; who operated the largest sightseeing company in town, leased the hotel. In 1939, the building was leased by a Broadmoor couple named Jack and Elsie McClure. Ten years later they purchased the building and eventually went out of business in 1961. The Jaberta Corporation purchased the Alta VISta in 1963 and tore down everything but the first floor. Part of the site became a parking lot, while the old lobby was kept for use as the Kachina Lounge. Eventually, the rest of the site was razed to make room fora bank.6 Antlers Hotel Cascade and Pikes Peak Avenues Fig. 2. 2. Antlers Hotel The demolition of the second Antlers Hotel in 1964 is widely considered to be the most meaningful architectural and historical loss for the City of Colorado Springs. When El Pomar Investment Company razed the hotel in order to put a bigger, more modem one in its place, the city's skyline was never quite the same. The Antlers Era began in 1883 when William Jackson Palmer built his first Antlers at the west end of Pikes Peak Avenue. Strategically located up the hill from the 16

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-Denver and Rio Grande Depot, the Antlers was the answer to the city's booming tourist industry. Its Tudor-influenced architecture and lavish furnishings were pleasing to travelling easterners and expatriates like Palmers wife, Queen. The first Antlers Hotel was destroyed by fire in 1898. Palmer, who was traveling at the time, rushed back to Colorado Springs and immediately began drawing up plans for an even grander hotel to take its place. The second Antlers Hotel was designed by the architects Varian and Sterner and used silver -gray bricks and red tile. This Italian Renaissance-style hotel was widely believed to be even more beautiful than Palmer's first effort. The new Antlers proudly featured over 200 fireproof rooms, in addition to the beautiful and popular Western Terrace which overlooked Monument Park. Over the years, the hotel's reputation for elegance and luxury grew. Palmer's masterpeice was not only a highly sought-after tourist destination, but it fostered a great sense of civic pride as well. The Antlers gradually became the most recognizable man-made landmark in Colorado Springs. Its majestic spires defined the city skyline and it remained "the" place to be seen for Colorado Springs' elites for decades. The Antlers profitability began to diminish when Spencer Penrose opened his lavish, $3,000,;)00 Broadmoor Hotel on the south end of town in 1918. The Broadmoor's elegant Turkish baths, grand ballroom, indoor swimming pool and boating lake lured wealthy tourists away from the Antlers. The Antlers continued to benefit from its proximity to downtown attractions, but a slow decline 17

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in influence had begun. In 1964, above the protests of dedicated and loyal residents, the. Antlers was tom down. Quite remarkably, the loss of this beloved site continues to be felt by the Colorado Springs community. With its removal, the city lost a prominent piece of architectural history. 7 Bums Theater 25-27 East Pikes Peak Avenue Fig. 2. 3. Bums Theater Like the Antlers Hotel, the Bums Theater played a major role in the formation of Colorado Springs' downtown business district. Buih by Cripple Creek mining tycoon James "Jumnie" Bums from the remains of the old Durkee Building, the Bums Theater opened in May of 1912. The Russian Symphony Orchestra played at the opening night gala to a full house. In addition to being completely fireproof and acoustically perfect, the Burns featured the first free hanging balcony and gallery west of the .Mississippi. The building's terra cotta exterior hid the stone and brick shell of the Durkee. Inside, Burns had spared no expense to niake his theater the most opulent around. The interior walls were polished marble and two grand stairways opened into the outer lobby. At 50' by 80', the stage was larger 18

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than any other American theater's at the time. Initially, the Burns hosted operas, Shakespearian plays and symphonic performances. When silent pictures came into fashion in the 1920's, the Burns featured vaudeville acts and short films. In 1927, William Nicholson, Burn's son-in-law and owner/manager, undertook a $80,000 remodeling project. He added a state-of-the-art projection booth and $30,000 Wurlitzer organ as well as new carpet, drapes and heating. From 1928 to 1933 Paramount Publix leased the theater. which had struggled to remain independent. Westland Theater Corporation took over the lease in 1933 and renamed it "The Chief Theater." Throughout the next three decades; the Burns was used principally as a movie house. It was remodeled and refurbished twice more. In 1965, the Exchange National Bank acquired a 99-year lease on the Burns. Citing the findings of an architectural study which found the building to be unsafe, the bank terminated the leases of its tenants in 1972. Faced with mounting pressure :from the community to restore the Burns, the owners granted permission to the Colorado Historical Society to conduct an engineering and scientific investigation of the theater. In its report, the State concluded that the Burns was worth saving and would actually cost less money to restore than to replace. Their determination that 'the removal of the structure would accelerate the demise" of Colorado Springs' core area prompted a citizens group to be formed. In the end, the "Save the Burns" campaign and the attempts of preservationists to push for a ballot initiative were in 19

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vam. The Bums_ Theater was demolished in March 1973-to_ make room for the bank's new offices. The Bums fate is still the source of much sadness and embarrassment to lovers oflocal history. Like the Antlers Hotel before it, older residents remember the Bums fondly and see its removal as selfishly motivated and lacking public spirit. This event marks a low point in the preservation history of Colorado Springs. 8 Broadmoor Casino 1 Lake Avenue Fig. 2. 4. Broadmoor Casino The Broadmoor Casino, the last surviving building of Count Pourtales' dream development called Broadmoor City, was tom down in 1994. In its place was built a new golf club and spa for the existing five-star Broadmoor Resort. The Casino was the second one of its type to grace the ofBroadmoor Lake. Count James Pourtales, a Gennan businessman, adventurer and outdoors man, constructed the original casino in 1891 on a 2,400 acre tract south of town. Originally, the Broadmoor Dairy Farm operated on the site. Pourtales hoped that his elegant, Georgian style casino would entice home buyers to purchase lots he was selling nearby. The beautiful, white-pillared building sat on top of the Cheyenne 20

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Creek Dam and wined and dined tourists until it was destroyed by fire in 1897. Within a year, Pourtales built another casino on the same site. Designed by noted Colorado Springs architect Thomas McLaren. this newer version was more modest and simple than the first. When Pourtales fortunes began to take a tum for the worse in the early 191O's, a British company took the casino and grounds into receivership. Wmfield Scott Stratton, Colorado Springs' millionaire philanthropist, purchased the casino in 1913 and leased it to Hanison Ewing who operated a girls boarding school on the site. In the summer of 1916, the casino was moved on to a new foundation farther south, in order to free up space for a new hotel. Spencer Penrose, the great promoter and developer of Colorado Springs, had purchased the casino from the estate ofWmfield Scott Stratton. Penrose's dream for a luxury resort was filr more ambitious and ultimately more successful than Count Pourtales'. During the hotel's construction, Penrose brought back Thomas McLaren and had him convert the casino into a golf club for a cost of $4,700. In addition to its connection to some of Colorado Spring's most famous citizens, the golf club/casino witnessed over seventy years of spectacular tournaments and champions before its demise in 1994. 9 21

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Broadmoor World Arena/Broadmoor Ice Palace I Lake Avenue Fig. 2. 5. Broadm.oor Ice Palace In late 1937, Broadmoor Hotel tycoons Spencer Penrose and Charles L. Tutt came up with the idea of converting the Broadmoor Riding Academy into an ice rink. On January 1, 1938, after laying eleven miles of refrigeration pipe on the floor of the equestrian center and flooding it, Penrose and Tutt opened the Broadm.oor Ice Palace. The Ice Palace quickly became a popular public attraction because it was one of the first arenas in the country to operate on a year-round schedule. It attracted figure-skaters and hockey players from around the nation who used it as their premier training facility. Skating greats like Peggy Fleming and Scott Hamilton trained at the Broadmoor, as did the Colorado College Hockey Team. In 1961, the building was renamed the Broadmoor World Arena, in an effort to capitalize on the international events it was hosting. That same year, after completing the U.S. figure-skating championships at the Broadmoor, eighteen members of the U.S. team plus their coaches and managers, died in a plane crash on their way to the world championships in Prague. This tragedy was memorialized with a skate-shaped granite bench that sat near the entrance to the Broadmoor 22

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World Arena. In 1994, after a star-studded ice-skating performance which drew over 4,000 fans, the Broadmoor World Arena closed. It had been the favorite hangout for the skating community and a fun, safe place for kids to come after school The Broadmoor Hotel's directors decided that the Arena's leaky roof and other damaged areas would be too costly to repair. Instead, they razed the structure to make way for a $27 million addition to the resort. Although skaters would have the opportunity to pursue their sport at the new World Arena southeast of the Broadmoor on Venetucci Avenue, it would never be as intimate and homelike an environment as the one they left.10 Bruin Inn Cheyenne Canyon Fig. 2. 6. Bruin Inn Tucked away amongst the pines and boulders of Cheyenne Canyon stood a rustic restaurant and dance hall known as the Bruin Inn. The Inn had a modest beginning as a summer cabin, built in the 1880's by Professor Edward Payson Tenney, the first president of Colorado College. Tenney's cabin was located three miles west of the entrance to North Cheyenne canyon. The Inn opened in 1904 and soon became a favorite hang out for Colorado College and high school students. 23

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An evening spent dancing at the Inn was quite an event back in the early 1900's. Students would ride the street car to the entrance of Cheyenne Canyon and get off at the Stratton Park stop. Although they had to hike the three miles up to the Inn, the students felt that the fine food and lively music were worth the effort. The Inn burned down on December 13, 1957. A rock design etched in the dirt, bearing the name of the Inn can still be seen from the road near the top ofNorth Cheyenne Canyon.11 Coburn Library Colorado College Campus 14 East Cache La Poudre Fig. 2. 7. Coburn Library Coburn Library was one of the earliest structures to adorn the Colorado College campus. Built in 1894 out of sandstone, the library was designated as a U.S. Government depository. It was named after Nathan P. a family friend of Colorado College President Wtlliam F. Slocum. As enrollment increased at the College, the library's facilities grew strained. In 1939, the Board of Trustees allocated $20,000 to build a four-story addition to the north end of the building. 24

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However, the library's storage and research space still remained inadequate. The new library design, named for longtime resident and benefactor Charles Learning Tutt, presented quite a contrast to the old Coburn Library. Coburn was a quaint, ivy covered stone and wood structure with a tile roof Designed by architects Skidmore, Owings and Merrill in 1962, Tutt Library was a Modernist, cementslabbed cube with vertical slits for windows. In a remarkably cooperative effort, . shortly after Coburn was closed, the entire student body transported every book from the old b"brary to the new by hand. In 1964, the Coburn Library building was tom down to provide a site for a modem, multi-purpose building called Armstrong Hall. 12 Colorado Springs High School 301 North Nevada Avenue Fig. 2. 8. Colorado Springs High School Known as one of the most handsome structures in the West, the Colorado Springs High School was a Romanesque style beauty with four clocks and a 2800 pound school bell in its main tower. The building, with its gabled wall arched windows and polychrome stonework, soon became the most prominent 25

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municipal structure in the young city. Until its opening in 1893, high school students crowded into the small First Congregational Church on East Bijou Avenue. The new high school was designed by the architectural firm Lee and Boal and was built of stone from local quarries. The school's $100,000 price tag was met with objections from parents of grade-school students who felt cheated. Since all the grade schools in District 11, including the annexes, were filled to capacity, the new high school took in a large amount of youngsters and taught them in the basement for its first few years. With the school population increasing by more than two hundred students a year, space was at a premium. Additions were built on to the high school in 1913, 1923 and 1929. In the mid 1930's, the district began discussing replacing the school with a larger, more modem one. The reaction by the public was swift and strong. Anonymous, typewritten postcards were mailed out to numerous city residents, urging them to participate in a last-minute campaign to save the school. North End residents were encouraged to act quickly and avoid regretting the loss of such a cherished site. Let the old clock tower continue to run!" They urged. Nevertheless, in December 1938, a crew of :fifty-five men began demolishing the school. Buyers and collectors were on site to claim a parts of the historic site as soon as they came available. The bell and the memorial statue commemorating former students who died in World War I, were boxed and stored for display at the new high school being built on the same site. The stone archways 26

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-at the entrance of the school were purchased by the Banning Lewis Ranch. The contractor supervising the demolition took everything else that was left. Palmer High SchooL designed by Denver architect Burnham Hoyt and Edward Bunts of Colorado Springs, opened on the site in 1940.13 Colorado Springs Opera House 28 % S. Tejon Street Fig.1.9. Opera House The Colorado Springs Opera House was a favorite of the city's upper class, built in the tradition of William Jackson Palmer and his vision for a refined, cultured city. Located on Tejon Street, between Kiowa and Pikes Peak Avenues, the Opera House was the source oflavish productions and cosmopolitan entertainment for decades. Financed by Leadville silver miners Irving Howbert, J.F. Humphrey and Ben CrowelL the Opera House opened in April 1881, slightly ahead of its major competitor, the Tabor Opera House in Denver. Opening night featured a memorable performance of Camille, starring Maude Granger. The Colorado Springs Opera House was a handsome three-story brick structure accented by stone 27

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window hoods and quoins. The seal of the State of Colorado hung over the stage. The seats were made of cast iron, and more expensive box seats had gas lighting. However, the pride and joy ofthe Opera House's owners was the gas light chandelier which hung in the center of the theater. In 1907, the Opera House was purchased by Charles Learning Tutt. Tutt made $20,000 worth of improvements to the site in 1908. At that time, the lobby entrance was redecorated in ivory and gold accents, the entrance was tiled and the front steps were removed and replaced with a gently sloping ramp. Also, waiting rooms for both sexes were added as well as new dressing rooms. In 1910, architects Thomas McLaren and Charles Thomas were hired to make additional changes in the building. The growth in popularity of silent films as well as the construction of the Bums Theater nearby eventually put the Opera House out_ofbusiness. In 1919, the interior was demolished and rebuilt as office space. Known as the Ferguson Building for a while, the Opera House is most well known as the location of the downtown Woolworth's store. Woolworths closed in the-late 1990s, when it began losing business to mega-stores like the new 8th Street Wa1Mart. The building was converted to a restaurant and bar called Rum Bay. All that is left of the Opera House is the brick exterior.14 28

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Cotton Club 25 W. Colorado Avenue Fig. 2. 10. Fannie Mae Duncan From 1948 until1975, Fannie Mae Duncan's Cotton Club provided quality entertainment to the black community of Colorado Springs. Duncan purchased the building, once used as a tavern, from Mr. and Mrs. Tom Wallace. Called Duncan's Cafe and Bar, Fannie Mae's first business served home-cooked meals to blacks who were refused service by other downtown establishments In 1958, she purchased Denton Printing Company next door and expanded her operation to include a restaurant, bar and dance hall. She named her new business The Cotton Club after the famous club of the same name in Harlem, New York. In the beginning, the cavernous Cotton Club "With its lively music and stand-up comedy was only frequented by blacks. The Club's hospitable service and big-name performers like Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Fats Domino and Lionel Hampton, soon attracted guests of all colors. Visitors to the Antlers Hotel next door and the City Auditorium down the street would often stop by the Cotton Club for some late night entertainment. Known for her legendary efforts to help the poor and unfortunate, Fannie Mae Duncan had a personal magnetism that drew people to her and her 29

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club. Fannie Mae's colored guests, like Flip Wilson and T-Bone Walker, would often end up staying at her big Victorian home on North Corona Street when they were denied lodging at local hotels. By the late 1960's, the clientele at the Cotton Club had changed. Soldiers from Ft. Carson, and the prostitutes who counted on them for their livelihood, began to visit the club regularly. Like other bars around town who catered to all levels of society, the Cotton Club began to see a decline in business. In the mid-1970's the city began to target the area west of the Antlers Hotel for urban renewal. Fannie Mae Duncan was paid $168,000 for her building; a far lower price than the $450,000 offer she had been offered before the city's redevelopment plans had been made public. By July, 1975, the Cotton Club was gone. Fannie Mae Duncan retired to Denver, where she devoted her time to raising her niece and writing a book about her life, which has yet to be published.15 30

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Cragmor Sanitarium/Main Hall University of Colorado at Colorado Springs Campus Austin Bluffs Parkway and Meadow Lane Fig. 2. 11. Cragmor Sanitarium Listed on the National Register in 1998, Cragmor Sanitarium is one of two lost resources on this list which partly still exist .. This four-story Mission Revival style hospital, located on the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs campus, is now known as Main Hall. Although hundreds of students walk through campus on a daily basis, few know or appreciate the area's rich history. The southern-facing, terraced area near the back of campus was the location Cragmor Sanitarium, the premier facility for the care of tubercular patients in early 20111 century Colorado Springs. Cragmor was built in stages between 1914 and 1920. During its golden age, it was characterized by its luxurious decor and the presence of many famous and well-to-do patients. The building's plan, which incorp.orated open air sleeping rooms, was the collaborative work of architect Thomas McLaren and Dr. Edwin Solly, a physician and specialist in the treatment of tuberculosis. Cragmor, known as "The Asylum of the Gilded Pill," hosted and healed wealthy, prominent patients until the late 1920's. The sanitarium's elite clientele were hit hard by the stock 31

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market crash of 1929 and could no longer afford to stay there. On November 24, 1935, Cragmor was foreclosed on. The next year, the sanatorium was purchased by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. It re-opened in 1936 with the support of the newly formed Cragmor Foundation. However, due to the impoverishment of its clientele as well as the declining health of its administrators, the sanitarium went into decline. It was saved from closure in the early 1950's by the efforts of a new director, Dr. George Dwire, who transformed the institution into a rehabilitative facility for tubercular Navajo Indians. Cragmor treated and trained the Navajos, sending themback home with job skills in addition to improved health. In 1961, a legal dispute caused the Cragmor Sanitarium to lose its government contract to help the Navajos. Without patients, funds or a disease to treat (tuberculosis was no longer a major threat to Americans by the 1960's) the hospital sat empty. The University of Colorado acquired Cragmor in 1964 and began the transformation from medical facility to college campus. In the process, many original buildings, gardens, and landscapes were lost. In the late 1990's, the University received a State Historic Fund grant to perform an assessment of the site with the idea to restore Main Hall. The assessment enabled the University to define the building and its meaning in a more thorough manner. The University received a National Register listing for Cragmor in 1998. Unfortunately, the listing did not impede the administration from making some significant and detrimental changes to 32

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the structure. In an attempt to bypass state oversight on this project, the school used money form the Department ofEducation and not from the state grant fund, to pay for the renovation. Consequently, the state had no voice in what was being done to Cragmor. Although the University made good on their promise to restore and maintain the sandstone and rock exterior of the hospital, they completely gutted the interior right down to the supports. The integrity of this grand structure had been completely compromised. All that remains is the skin. Quite simply, the school needed office space, so the University destroyed Cragmor and couched it as a preservation project. Their decision created so much ill-will that it prompted the City Preservation Board to recommend de-listing Cragmor from the National Register. The State Historical Society agreed with their recommendation and forwarded the paperwork on to the National Park Service. Cragmoor was de-listed from the National Register in 2000.16 Dixie Aparbnents Bijou and Weber Streets Originally named the Barton Apartments after the building's architect, George Barton, the Dixie Apartments were erected in 1910. This modest, threestory brick building played an important role as Colorado Springs' first dedicated apartment house. The housing unit, which served as a model for future urban 33

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development in the downtown area, was renamed in 1918. The name Dixie appeared in the stained glass window which hung over the transom at the front of the building. The structure also featured a number of porches on its west side which were probably used by tuberculosis patients in the 1910's and 20's. Over the years, the Dixie's reputation for affordable, downtown living grew. So, it came as quite a shock when, in 1998, the First Presbyterian Church, which owned the building, announced their plans to remove it. The destruction of the Dixie Apartments marked the beginning of the church's planned $7 million expansion. The land on which the apartments sat was to. be turned into a parking lot for the church's new youth complex. When the Colorado Springs Housing Advocacy Coalition heard about the threat to the Dixie, they approached the city's Historic Preservation Board in hopes of enlisting its support to save the site. They also nominated the apartments for inclusion on the state's Most Endangered Places List. These efforts, along with letters of support written by the City Planner and Pioneer Museum staff did little to sway the church's governing board. They acknowledged that they were aware of the site's special history when they voted to tear it down. When the Preservation Board notified the church that they wanted to place an historic overlay on the apartments (which would freeze the development process for ninety days) the church stepped up its plans. Quickly, they secured a demolition permit and within a few days, they apartments were gone. Buildings of that type are 34

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increasingly rare in Colorado Springs and, with the demise of the Dixie Apartments, they are almost non-existent.17 Hassell Iron Works 500 Sierra Madre Avenue Fig. 2. 12. Hassell Iron Works Decorative fences and wrought iron ornaments were extremely popular in 19th Century Colorado Springs. Fireproof, strong and maintenance-free, wroughtiron fences appealed to Victorian tastes for useful and beautiful home decor. Up until the late 1880's, homeowners seeking durable and elegant iron fences for their property were forced to order them from foundries in the Midwest. Fortunately, in 1887, the HassellTalcott Iron Works began to produce ornamental iron and wire from its foundry on South 25th Street in Colorado City. William W. Hassell, the son of a New Jersey dentist, moved to Florissant in 1885, in order to treat his tuberculosis. While living in the Ute Pass area, he purchased a machine which interwove wood pickets with wire to make fencing. Once he moved down to Colorado Springs, he expanded his fencing business to include iron work and electrical supplies. Hassell also acted as an agent for other firms, like the Hartmann 35

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Company and the Barbee Iron and Wire Works in Chicago. When an overheated stove caused the foundry to bum down in 1896, Hassell dissolved his partnership with Talcott and built a new iron works on Sierra Madre Avenue, near the trolley buildings. Hassell's new business centered around the production of structural iron, railroad and mining equipment. Moreover, he experienced a huge growth in business as a result of the mining boom in Cripple Creek. Among the local structures that the Hassell Iron Works helped construct were the Summit House on Pikes Peak, the Court House tower and the first radio tower in the city. The ornamental iron work they produced can be seen on fences around the Near WestSide neighborhood and in Old Colorado City. Through the early 1900's and past World War I, Hassell Iron Works remained a ''job" shop which customized orders to their client's specifications. Even though he had achieved a measure of success producing woven wire fencing and iron castings, Hassell dreamed of getting out of custom manufacturing and into the production of patented items. In 1922, Hassell died and his son Bradford took over the business. The company struggled through the Depression and, in 1938, was sold to AC. Damon who renamed it the Denver Equipment Company. The foundry was believed to be tom down in the 1960's. 18 Today, the foundry's former site is being used for parking and light industry. 36

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Hibbard and Company Department Store 17-19 South Tejon Street Fig. 2. 13. Hibbard's Department Store One of the most well-known historic buildings in the downtown area is the old Hibbard and Company dry goods store on South Tejon Street. The five-story, Late-Georgian Revival structure is easily recognizable because of the elegant, white terra cotta garlands and swags on the upper three floors. These decorations contrast beautifully with the two kinds of red brick used for the exterior walls, as well as the stone and wood trim. The store was designed and built in 1914 by prominent, tum-of-the century architect P.T. Barber. Its owner, Cassius Hibbard, started his modest Colorado Springs grocery business in 1893. As he prospered, Hibbard moved his business into this larger, uniquely styled building and passed the store down to his children when he died. His descendants continued to operate the business in a traditional manner until is closed in 1996. Special features of the Hibbard Building included an elevator complete with smiling operator, a pneumatic tube system which transported paperwork between floors, and lovely hardwood floors which creaked when you walked on them. One of the city's most popular 37

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retailers,.Hibbards was completed renovated to attract new business. Among the improvements were a new heating and cooling system, new elevators, windows, electrical and phone systems. Currently, a restaurant occupies the first floor and businesses lease the upper levels. All the furnishings and equipment were auctioned off. Nothing remains of thisJandmark .except the shell .. In a 2001 newspaper interview, owner Ralph Hibb3:1"d stated that he "believed that the Hibbard and Company name stands for history." "It means something to be in a historical building," he said. I find these to be rather ironic statements coming from a member of a historic family who sold the heart of his business to the highest bidder. 19 The Hidden Inn Garden of the Gods Park Fig.2.14.Hidden Inn In 1914, the Colorado Springs Park Commission, in cooperation with the City of Colorado Springs, built a Native American style pueblo in the Garden of the Gods park. Tucked into a niche between two sandstone monoliths, the Hidden Inn cost $7,500 to build. It featured fireplaces copied from early Native American 38

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designs and reproductions of scenes from the Pikes Peak region on its windows. The interior was illuminated by bulbs hidden inside Navajo wedding bowls. The exterior walls were covered with red plaster which was matched to the exact same color as the surrounding rocks. For eight years, the Hidden served visitors as a gift shop and snack bar. It was enlarged a few times over the years and was leased by a variety of groups. In 1993, the City began the public process of updating the Garden of the Gods Master Plan. In accordance with the new Master Plan, the city tore down the Hidden Inn in 1998. By then, the spectacular and spacious Garden of the Gods Visitor Center on 31st Street had been open for three years. Although it was still structurally sound and profitable, the Hidden Inn could not begin to compete with the new VISitor Center. Additionally, the Master Plan dictated that all man-made structures in the central Garden area be removed. Predictably, there was much resistance from residents who frequented the Garden of the Gods to the city's proposal.. The nostalgic feelings created by this peculiar little shop, and the bitter disappointment its demise has caused, linger in the minds of many residents. 20 39

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Liller School Wahsatch Avenue and Cucharras Street Erected on the northeast comer ofWahsatch Avenue and Cucharras Street, the Liller School was the first brick school building in the city of Colorado Springs. It was a massive three story structure designed by architect Robert Rauschlaub and featured sandstone window trim and arched do01ways. Inside, the walls were decorated with a wainscot of Colorado pine. The.classrooms wei-e large and well lighted with decent ventilation provided by transoms over the doors. The which was built in 1884, was named after the J. Elsom Liller, the first editor of the Out West newspaper. Liller was born in England and moved to Colorado Springs in 1871, shortly after the town was founded. The Lillers were prominent members of early Colorado Springs society and were active leaders in the local Episcopal Church. On Easter Sunday, 1875, Elsom Liller took his life with an overdose of drugs. As enrollment increased, four more rooms were added onto the original building in 1891. Over the years, Liller School became a popular, accessible place for lower class families to educate their children. In 1911, local architect Thomas McLaren designed a blond brick annex which was erected on the west side of the grounds. The school was closed in 1930, but reopened in 1941 to educate war project workers. Although Liller School was condemned in 1945, it continued to 40

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be used as a vocational school until1957, when it was tom down. At the time of its the Liller School had been the oldest elementary school in town. The property was sold for $90,000. Today, the Goodrich Tire Store sits on the site.21 Steele School Del Norte and Weber Streets Fig. 2. 15. Steele School By 1900, the Del Norte school, which taught the children of wealthy North End residents, had reached capacity. Bonds were issued for an eight-room school which cost approximately $40,000 to build. Designed by Thomas McLaren, the handsome Steele School opened in 1901. It was located on the old school grounds at the comer ofDel Norte and Weber Streets. It was named in honor of Benjamin W. Steele, one of the early editors of the Gazette newspaper. Steele was a very successful businessman and his transformation of the Gazette into a top-class newspaper made a strong impression on the city. Steele also had a history of poor health, and passed away quite suddenly on November 3, 1891. The school named 41

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in his honor stood as an example of an outstanding grade school building. Upon seeing the beautiful structure, the Moseley Commission of English Educators claimed that it was one of the best of its kind that they had seen in the country. The demolition of the school in 1972 was considered a huge loss for the historic North End community. A modern, one story blonde building took its place and its name. Many neighbors still remember the graceful, lovely building and mourn it disappearance. 22 Ute Theater 126 E. Pikes Peak Avenue Fig. 2. 16. Ute Theater The "Finest Indian Theater in the World" began its life as the Rialto Theater in 1910. The elegant Princess Theater was the first occupant of 126 E. Pikes Peak, but was tom down in the early 1900's. The Rialto replaced the Princess and operated until its purchase by the Cooper Theater chain in the mid-1930's. Extensive renovations undertaken by the new owner in 193 5 rendered the Rialto almost unrecognizable. The new, Pueblo-Revival style building was re-named the Ute Theater. The Ute, with its tan stucco exterior, projecting wooden roofbeams 42

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and medicine-wheel shaped neon sign, rapidly became one of the most recognizable landmarks in downtown Colorado Springs. Completely fireproof, the Ute's interior walls were painted with Western and Native American scenes. Unique chandeliers graced the auditorium. Each one featured a cut-out scene of a buffalo hunt. In the lobby, there was a fountain which emptied into a rock-lined pool. The sign over the pool read, "Old Indian Wishing Well. Make a wish, lean over the well. If it bubbles, your wish will come true." If the person leaning over triggered the hidden electric beam, the fountain would bubble. Always a trendsetter, the Ute was one of the first theaters in the state with stereophonic sound and reserve ticket sales. In the mid1960's the theater was sold to Colorado Interstate Gas Corporation. The Cooper Theater chain immediately broke ground for a new Ute Theater on North Nevada Avenue, but it was never as elaborate as the original. The old Ute Theater was razed and converted to a parking lot on New Year's Day, 1968. The carpeting.and seats were sent to other Cooper Theaters in Nebraska and in Greeley. The murals were tom down, however, the fixtures, including the wishing well, chandeliers, doors, and ticket booths, were bought by the owners of the Flying W Ranch Steakhouse. Although this beloved landmark is gone, visitors to the Flying W can still experience a little bit of Colorado Springs history at "The Little Ute" dinner theater.23 43

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Zoo Park Cheyenne Road and Alsace Way High Valley Park, one of Colorado Springs' most exclusive neighborhoods, was once home to a 1 00-acre zoological garden known at the Zoo Park. Built by a Chicago Alderman named John ''Bathhouse" Coughlin in 1905, the Zoo Park was situated on the old Johnson Ranch. Coughlin had fallen in love with Colorado Springs while vacationing in the area and returned to build a house on Mount Washington Avenue. He also purchased 100 acres in High Valley Park, then known as the Ivywild neighborhood. It was rumored that "Bathhouse" John used money from political payoffs and extortion to finance the park. Coughlin's park, built on his property along Cheyenne Road, featured carnival attractions, a roller coaster, a 65-foot-high water slide and wild animal exhibits. ''Princess Alice" the elephant and "Toby'' the bear were major attractions. Surprisingly large in scope, the park also contained a merry-go-round, a roller rink, dance hall and penny arcade. On summer weekends, huge crowds rode the trolley to the Zoo Park and paid the dime admission to enter. Sadly, the Zoo Park closed in 1915 because of a change in Coughlin's fortunes and a poor economy. After the animals and rides were sold oft: the land was turned into one of the city's first automobile campgrounds. Little remains of this wonderful attraction, save some ruts in the dirt 44

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where the trolley line cut across the park and ran up the hillside toward Lake Avenue.24 45

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PHOTOGRAPHS All photographs in this section, with the exception of the Cragmor are the property of the Special Collections Department of the Penrose Public Libraty, Pikes Peak Libraty District. The photograph of the Cragmor Sanitarium on page 31 is from the author's personal collection. 46

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NOTES I Jones, Judith. Letter to the author. 2 March 2004. 2 Mayberry, Matt. "The Unique History of the Founding of Colorado Springs." Monument Valley Park Forum: City Council Chambers, Colorado Springs. 28 February 2004. 3 Thomas J. Buildings of Colorado. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.284. 4 Noel. 284. 5 Mayberry. 28 February 2004. 6 Mayberry. 28 February 2004. 7 Sources for the history of the Alta Vista Hotel include: Reid, J. Juan. Growing Up in Colorado Springs The 1920's Remembered. Colorado Springs: Century One Press, I98I. 63-64. Unknown author. "Alta Vista Hotel." Colorado Springs GazetteTelegraph 11 May I963: 9. Unknown author. "Alta Vista Hotel Razing Slated During March." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph I February 1963: I. 8 Sources for the history of the Antler Hotel include: Feitz, Leland. The Antlers: A Ouick Histozy of Colorado Springs' Historic Hotel. Denver: Golden Bell Press, I972. 3-I7. 47

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Loe, Nancy E. Life in the Altitudes. Woodland Hills: Wmdsor Publications, 1983. 48-53. Skolout, Patricia Farris. Colorado Springs Histmy. A to Z. 1989. Colorado Springs: Patricia Skolout, 1999. 1-2. 9 Sources for the history of the Bums Theater include: Reid. 11. Sanger, Ann. "The House Thatfmunie Built...Falls." Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph 24 March 1973: 024-25. Unknown author. ''History of the Bums Theater." Composite Consortium Opinion. State of Colorado, Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Denver. 18 February 2004 . Unknown author. "State Historical Society Study Recommends That Bums Be Retained." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegra,ph 23 January 1973: C3. I 0 Sources for the history of the Broadmoor Casino include: Geiger, Helen M The Broadmoor Storv. N.p.: AB. Hirschfeld Press, 1968. 5-6. Skolout. 3-4. Unknown author. "Sprague Recalls Broad.moor Casino at Historical Meet." 48

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Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 18 January 1961: 13:8. 11 Sources for the history of the Broadmoor Ice Arena include: Gibney, Jun. "A Glorious Farewell." The Denver Post 6 February 1994: n.p. Unknown author. ''Walls Come Tumbling Down at Broadmoor Arena." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 21 Aprill994: AI. 12 Sources for the history of the Bruin Inn include: Foster, Dora. ''Peak Region Yesterdays." Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph I December 1963: C2. Foster, Dora. ''Pikes Peak. Region Yesterdays." Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph l1 Aprill965: D7. Reid, J. Juan. Colorado CollegeThe First Centurv 18741974. Colorado Springs: Colorado College, 1979. 69. 13 Sources for the history of the Coburn Library include: Colorado College -A Place of Learning. Dir. Robert D. Loevy, Colorado College. Videocassette. Loevy Video 1999. Reid. Colorado College. 46 -144. 14 Sources for the history of the Colorado Springs High School include: Hutchinson, W.G. "School Board Asks For Federal Grant For New Buildings." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 4 August 1938: AI. 49

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Reid. Growing Up. 53. Seibel, Harriet. A History of the Colorado Springs Schools District 11. Colorado Springs: Century One Press, 1975. 59. Unknown author. "Crew of 53 Begin Wrecking Old High School Building." Colorado Springs Gazette 6 December 1938: 3. 15 Sources for the history of the Colorado Springs Opera House include: Reid. Growing Up. 10. Unknown author. "Colorado Springs' New and Modern Playhouse." Colorado Springs Gazette 16 February 1908: 88. 16 Sources for the history of the Cotton Club include: Delaney, Ted. ''Rhythms of Cotton Club Still Felt." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegra.ph 8 January 1989: Bl. Emery, Erin. "Everybody Welcome." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 25 February 1995: AI. Smith, Linda D. "Springs' Cotton Club Catered to all Races with Hospitality." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 20 January 1985: Fl. Unknown author. "Council Rejects Cotton Club Bid for Relocation." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 13 August 1975: B10. 17 Sources for the history of Cragmoor Sanitarium include: 50

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McKay, Douglas R Asylum of the Gilded Pill. Denver: State Historical Society of Colorado, 1983. United States. Department of the Interior. National Register of Historic Places Registration Form. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1998. 18 Sources for the history of the Dixie Apartments include: Ames, Michele and John Diedrich. "Downtown's Dixie Demolished." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 22 October 1998: N1. McKeown, Bill. "Group Still Hopes to Save Dixie." Colorado Springs GaZette-Telegraph 3 October 1998: N3. Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 4 March 2004. State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Architectural Site Detail. 1 May 1985. 19 February 2004 . 19 Sources for the history of the Hassell Iron Works include: Freed, Elaine. Iron Goods and Iron Work. Colorado Springs: Springs Area Beautiful Association, n.d. Lipsey, Julia Hassell. "The Hassell Iron Works." Historical Society of the Pikes Peak Region, Colorado Springs. 18 June 1957. Noel. 284. 51

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20 Sources .for the history ofHibbard's Department Store include: Laden, Rich. ''What's in a Name?" Colorado Springs Gazette 19 February 2oo1: m:8. State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Architectural Site Detail. 1 May 1985. 24 February 2004 . State of Colorado. Colorado Historical Society. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Historic Building Inventozy Record. Denver: OAHP, 1985. Walsh, Chris. "Tech Firm Takes Hibbard's." Colorado Springs Gazette 14 April2000: B1. 21 Sources for the history of the Hidden Inn include: City of Colorado Springs. Parks and Trails Homepage. Historical Ownership of the Garden of the Gods. Colorado Springs: City of Colorado Springs, 2001. 19 February 2004 Unknown author. "The Gateway Rocks." Geocities 8119. 19 February 2004 . 22 Sources for the history ofLiller School include: 52

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Siebel, Harriet. 40-41. 23 Sources for the history of Steele School include: Siebel. 66. 24 Sources for the history ofthe Ute Theater include: McKenzie, Bill. 'CUte Theater Faces Wrecking Ball." The Free Press 31 December 1967: 6-7. FlyingW.com. 2004. Flying W Ranch. 26 February 2004 . Reid. Growing Up. 11. 25 Sources for the history of the Zoo Park include: Skolout. 47-57. Vogrin, Bill. "Resident Unearths Neighborhood's Wtld Past." Colorado Springs Gazette 25 September 2003 :M1-4. 53

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CHAPTER3 ENDANGERED RESOURCES "In the end, we conserve only what we love. We love only what we understand. We understand only what we are taught." 1 Babr Dioum Dioum, Senegalese Poet Introduction In 1997, a Denver-based non-profit organization called Colorado Preservation, Incorporated launched their Endangered Progra.nl. This program provides technical assistance to groups and individuals trying to save threatened historic and cultural resources around the state. 2 As part of this program, the organization publishes an annual list of Colorado's most endangered places. The purpose of the list is to "raise awareness about Colorado's threatened historic, archaeological, and cultural resources, which include buildings, structures, districts, cultural landscapes, and archaeological sites. "3 Placement of sites on the list is detennined by a statewide committee which selects the "winners" from a large pile of nominations. Any individual or group may nominate their site for inclusion on the list, however, only a few sites are chosen each year. Sites which make the list benefit from statewide publicity, networking opportunities, grassroots community 54

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assistance and development of funding resources. Although making "The List" is no guarantee that a threatened site will be saved, inclusion is a prestigious and worthwhile accomplishment. Colorado Springs has never had the honor of seeing any of its endangered sites listed on the Most Endangered Places List. Numerous sites have been nominated but none have been selected by the committee. Apparently the threat to these buildings and places was not deemed severe enough, when compared to other nominations around the state, to earn them a spot on the list. A listing of Colorado Springs places and the reason why they were nominated appears below. 4 Table 3.1 Nominations to the Colorado List ofEndangered Places Place Year Reason for Usting Boulder Park Neighborhood 2000 Demolition Monument Valley Hist. District 2001 Redevelopment Dixie Apartments 1999 Demolition 1st Grace Episcopal Church 2001 Vacancy, Neglect Historic Medians 2001,02,03 Traffic, Pollution, Budget Weber/Wahsatch Hist. District 2000 Development, Roads Red Rock canyon 2002,03 Encroachment Air Force Academy Stable &. Barns 2000 Demolition 55

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In response to the failed efforts of preservation advocates in Colorado Springs to attract statewide attention to their cause, I decided to compile a comprehensive list of endangered sites. For many years, concerned citizens have expressed the desire to have a complete list of threatened sites from which to work. Although many excellent resources exist which point out the dangers to certain landmarks, a single document which describes all the significantly endangered sites in the City does not exist. One source which details the threatened historic and cultural resources of Colorado Springs would prove extremely useful to preservation groups as well as the city government. In an effort to confine the study to a manageable number of sites, I have included only endangered public buildings and places on this list. At this point it is important to note that the City is close to completing a Downtown Survey which lists the buildings in its core that are more than fifty years old. The Survey, which assesses the condition of these sites, only encompasses a small area. The list I have made includes troubled sites from all around the City. The loss of any one of these sites would impact the citizens of Colorado Springs in a profound and lasting manner. 56

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Colorado Springs Endangered Sites List Boy's Club I 05 E. Moreno History: Fig. 3. 1. Boy's Club This inconspicuous variegated brick building on East Moreno Street was once the home of the Boy's Club; a Progressive Era project designed to keep the boys of Colorado Springs safe and off the streets. Designed by F. R Hastings and financed by wealthy donors like Alice Bemis Taylor, this small Tudor-influenced building matches the Colorado Springs Day Nursery next door. The building opened in 1907 and in 1910, Spencer Penrose erected a gymnasium on the rear lot. At one time, the site served as a homeless shelter and home to the Big Brothers program. It is currently being used as office space. s Status: The Boy's Club was remodeled in 1984. A peek inside reveals very little remaining of the original interior. So much has been changed that it looks as if the 57

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building has always contained offices. Although this site has been completely transformed, it remains a sentimental favorite oflocals who grew up playing at the Club. The exterior has been nicely maintained and visitors can still glimpse the Gymnasium sign which hangs over the entrance. However, heavy landscaping and large awnings hide much of the trim details and ornate brickwork. The fate of this site may follow that of others situated near the Day Nursery. Recently, a massive proposal has been made to re-develop the entire block across the street from the Day Nursery. The neighborhood is in a state of :flux which could pose problems for the modest, often ignored Boys Club. 6 Cedar Springs/Colorado Springs Psychopathic Hospital 2135 Southgate Road History: Fig. 3. 2. Cedar Springs Originally known as the Colorado Springs Psychopathic Hospital, Cedar Springs has an ongoing history of service to the community as a mental health hospital. Today, all that exists of the circa 1923 campus is the Mission-style blonde brick building on the south side of the grounds. The hospital was founded by Dr. Emory John Brady, who was convinced the "abundant sunshine" in Colorado 58

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Springs acted as a "psychic stimulant" for those suffering from mental illness. Brady had moved to Colorado Springs from :Michigan in 1916. At one time he served as Superintendent of the Myron Stratton Home in addition to being part-owner of the Woodcraft Hospital in Pueblo. Spacious grounds replete with lush flower gardens and shady lawns surrounded the Psycopathic Hospital. The men's building featured a kitchen, an auditorium, bowling alley, and a 20-bed dormitory. The women's filcility was similar to the men's and had 25 beds, a kitchen, various sun porches and hydro-therapy rooms. Nearby, a 50-bed steam-heated hospital housed patients with more severe medical needs. Finally, the campus contained separate residences for physicians and nurses, as well as an administration building. In 1980, the hospital was purchased by Rocky Mountain Health Services which merged with Western Health Services. The Hospital changed hands again in 1984 when it was sold to Healthcare International. Over the past sixty years, a variety of newer buildings, like larger dormitories and physician's quarters, were erected on the site. Presently, Cedar Springs serves adults and children with acute mental health and substance abuse problems. In addition to adult and children's crisis units, the hospital offers a co-ed residential treatment center, a sexual offenders unit, a school and a clinic to treat children with Reactive-Attachment Disorder. Out-patient services and administration are located in the old hospital building. 7 59

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. Status: Recent development along Southgate Road has caused major traffic problems and congestion in this formerly quiet neighborhood. To the west of Cedar Springs, a new shopping center ca1led Broadmoor Towne Center is being erected. Restaurants, factory outlet stores and a fitness center now attract thousands of residents from the south part of town. A fire station also shares space with the strip mall. Another result of this growth is an increase in property values which has begun to drive residents from the area. Hemmed in on the east and south by modest homes, and encroached upon by developments on the west, this historically sigificant location is in danger of becoming irrelevant. Chadbourn Spanish Gospel Mission 402 S. Conejos St. History: Fig. 3. 3. Chadbourn Spanish Gospel Mission The Chadbourn Mission was founded by a missionary nurse, Ruth Chadbourne, in 1928. She had reportedly moved to Colorado Springs because of health concerns. Chadbourne chose the site of an old Jewish grocery store on Conejos Street, near the tracks of the Rio Grande railroad, for her church. The 60

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congregation remodeled the store and produced a simple, elegant building in the Spanish Mission Vernacular style. A single tower, added in the 1940's, rises from the stucco facade, and stained glass 'Windows grace the church's entrance. The Mission opened its doors in 1928 and, to this day, continues to serve the small Hispanic population that lives in the industrial Mill Street neighborhood. 8 Status: The Mission has the misfortune of being located on the south end of an area targeted by the City for urban renewal. In anticipation of the Confluence Park development project, the City tried to purchase the church in the 1990's. It was almost tom down before Mission members initiated a campaign to save the site. Currently, friends of the church favor applying forhistoric landmark status. Recently, members of the Mission applied for and received a $10,000 Cultural Assessment grant from the State Historical Fund. The assessment is close to being completed. However, the funds needed to restore the Church in the manner indicated by the assessment, simply do not exist. In a generous move by the City, the church has been deeded the property upon which it sits along with a bit extra for a parking lot. For the time being, the City has allowed the church to remain, although it has razed every structure around it. The sole survivor of a once bustling community, the Mission is now an obscure relic. Noone knows how the church will 61

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continue to minister to migrant workers and those few Hispanic families that still live near Conejos Street. 9 Chuck's Stop Diner 132 W. Cimarron St. History: Fig. 3. 4. Chuck's Stop Diner A local favorite, this 10-seat diner was built in 1954 by Glenn and Margaret Richards. They named it Richard's Grill and hauled it on a truck from Wichita, Kansas to Nevada Avenue in Colorado Springs. In 1965 the diner was moved to its present location on Cimarron Street. Passers by find it hard to resist the small white building with the red stop sign on top. Displayed inside the cozy diner are a collection of ladies teacups and a circa-1903's cash register owned by the late Darlene Vigil. Darlene bought Chuck's Stop from the Richards and ran the restaurant until her tragic murder in March, 2000. Today, the Vigil family still owns and operates Chuck's Stop; a name derived from the words "chuck wagon" and "truck stop."10 62

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Status: The diner sits at the edge of the Southwest Urban Renewal District and may be asked by the city to relocate when Confluence Park _expands. The Vigils can't afford to pay the $350,000 that the landowners, Burdick Electric, are asking for the lot. At one time, the family looked into applying for landmark designation but couldn't afford the nomination fees. Instead, they plan to move the diner up north to Powers Boulevard if asked to vacate the neighborhood. Chuck's Stop is a special part of our downtown history and its removal would be a considerable loss.11 City Auditorium (NR) 231 E. Kiowa Street History: Fig. 3. 5. City Auditorium This 1922 building is the last classically-inspired civic building erected in Colorado Springs. It represents a CJdmination of the City's efforts to create a large, multi-purpose meeting and entertainment facility. This downtown landmark is the result of a collaborative effort by three of Colorado Springs' most prominent 63

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architects: Charles E: Thomas, Thomas McLaren and Thomas Hetherington. The building features historic murals painted by WP A artists Archie Musick and Tabor Utley. It also houses the Lon Chaney theater and the organ from the old Burns Theater. Known and loved by citizens who remember it in its heyday, the City Auditorium is the favorite local venue for antique shows, rock bands and pet shows. 12 Status: Recently, the city was approached by a local developer who offered to take this "dinosaur" off of the city's hands and develop it properly. The developer envisions converting the City Auditorium into a four-story residential building. They proposed an adaptive re-use of the existing structure and offered to preserve part of the exterior facade. Unfortunately, since the city is in the throes of one of the worst budget crises in decades, the developer's offer is being taken quite seriously. Over the years, the city has received significant" grant rewards from the State Historical Fund to pay for improvements to the site. Before this recent tum of events, the city received money to restore the balcony seats and the murals. Acceptance of these awards placed financial conditions on the disposal of the building as well as a 1 0-year covenant that would prohibit the city from altering the prQperty. Also, a portion of the grant money has to be returned to the State if the 64

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building is sold within a ten year time-period. However, none of these issues will significantly impact the city's. ability to sell the building if it so chooses. In October 2003, Denver-based Leland Consulting Group was hired by the city to conduct a blight study of the Auditorium block. lfLeland finds the block is blighted, then an urban renewal plan for the site will be drawn up and will detail possible uses for the property. 13 Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind/Colorado Institute for the Education of Mutes(NR) 33 N. Institute Street History: Fig. 3. 6. Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind First known as The Colorado Institute for the Education of Mutes, this is one of Colorado Springs' oldest landmarks. Jonathan R Kennedy founded the school in 1874, in a small building downtown. By 1876, the student population had outgrown their space, forcing Kennedy to move the school to a ten acre plot of land donated by the city's founder, General William Palmer. The first classes provided vocational training like housekeeping, needlework, baking, printing and carpentry. 65

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In the early 1900's the school-purchased a 120-acre dairy ranch next door, and maintained a variety of farm animals on the land until the 1950s. Today, the school occupies 18 buildings and sits on 3 7 acres. Most of the buildings are made from rhyolite mined in Castle Rock. The campus contains an eclectic mixture of architectural styles from the Neoclassical administration building (1906) to the Modernist preschool (1967) and the Postmodem classroom addition (1984). The entire Deaf and Blind School campus has been designated as an historic district.14 Status: Having lost a few buildings at the hands of a more modernist administration in the 1960s, the school has taken an increasingly preservationist approach in recent years. It is their desire to operate a progressive yet traditional school that stands as a proud symbol of the state's first school for the deaf. Restoration projects have been functional but also sensitive to the unique history of the school. Because of current state budget shortages, the school has been forced to shelve all restoration projects for at least another five years. More significant is the fact that educational trends are moving away from state funding for the disabled. The past three decades have seen a growth in technology and medicine to help treat blindness. As a result, it has become easier to mainstream blind children into the regular school system. This particular school has felt pressured to widen its scope and solicit students with 66

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-multiple handicaps, as well as older students. Sadly, state-funded residential schools like the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind are becoming passe. Moreover, the high costs associated with operating an institution of its size has School officials concerned. It has been rumored that the State is considering selling the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind; a move which might open up an opportunity for a not-for profit, private school to operate in those facilities.15 Colorado Springs Hotel 617 S. Nevada Ave. History: Fig. 3. 7. Colorado Springs Hotel This historic gem was the City's most prominent building in 1872. Nestled on the southeast comer of Cascade and Pikes Peak Avenues, it beckoned visitors arriving on the train from Denver. It is believed that President Ulysses S. Grant, Cornelius Vanderbilt and John D. Rockefeller all stayed there, probably enjoying the unobstructed view of Pikes Peak. General Palmer built this hotel, but ended up 67

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using it for storage when his new Antler's Hotel opened across the street in 1884. In the 1940's the Colorado Springs Hotel was moved to its current location and turned into apartments. Today, it houses the offices ofPik:es Peak Legal Services.16 Status: Recently, the State of Colorado consolidated all legal aid services which has forced Pikes Peak Legal Services to lay off employees. At its present rate of decline, the office may close in a few years. Despite some minor changes (including the removal of the front porch and the application of a stucco surface) the exterior of the building remains relatively unchanged .. Inside, the apartments have been chopped up and replaced by offices. However, the original coal chute, stairways and basement plumbing still remain. It has retained its hotel atmosphere even after all these years. The building's owners, who rely on rent for retirement income, may have to sell it. To the south, the police department has just completed a huge expansion project and is out of room. Any future growth plans on their part will consider available sites to the north, which includes the lot on which the old hotel resides.17 68

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Crissey Fowler Lumber Company 25 W. Vermijo History: Fig. 3. 8. Crissey Fowler Lumber Believed to be the city's oldest retailer, Crissey Fowler Lumber Company was founded in 1874. Giles Crissey, a lumberman from Avon, lllinois, built his first lumber yard on the comer of Tejon and Boulder streets. He moved his business twice and then lost it in the fire that burned down the Antler's Hotel in 1898. After the fire, the company moved to its current location at 117 W. Vermijo Ave. The businesses' proximity to the rail yard has proved beneficial in keeping.freight costs down. Is Status: This historic site sits directly in the middle of the Southwest Urban Renewal District. The city has already begun to condemn and clear neighboring lots in order to make room for the Confluence Park project. Clustered around Crissey Fowler are several other longtime building supply companies. This group of businesses benefits from having a major lumberyard next door and will be significantly impacted by its departure. The current plan is to demolish the site and move the 69

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business elsewhere. 19 El Paso Canal Remnants Mesa Road, Sondermann Park, Historic North End History: Fig. 3. 9. El Paso Canal Irrigation Ditches General Palmer financed and built the El Paso Canal in 1872. It was paid for by Fountain Colony lot sales and provided the water that irrigated the lots Palmer was selling near Colorado College. The Canal wound for 11 miles, beginning in Old Colorado City and passing through Evergreen Cemetery. At Columbia Street, a series oflateral ditches were dug from the Canal and carried water to lots on Cascade, Nevada, Wahsatch and Wood Avenues. The Ditch" drew water from Fountain Creek and deposited what remained in Prospect Lake. In 1878, the city's residents passed a bond for a new water system. By 1956, the entire city was metered and the Canal ceased to operate. 20 70

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Status: Remnants of the El Paso Canal can be found near Mesa Road and in Sondermann Park. Many pieces sit on private property and their status is uncertain. However, the City Parks Department is aware of the significance of the Canal and has plans to .restore and interpret the portion that runs though Sondennann Park. Funding for this project is non-existent. The city hopes receive State funds to restore their part of the canal as well as the surviving flues. Evidence of the lateral irrigation ditches which ran off of the main canal can still be seen, but the ditches have been covered over and are Q.Ot .in use. 41 Fire Station Four 31 S. Institute History: Fig. 3. 10. Fire Station Four Fire Station Four was built in 1904, at the same time as the second Station Three. Both buildings were identical constructions of red brick and cost the city a total of $12,575.15. In 1917, Station Four was the last of the Colorado Springs Fire Department stations to convert from horse-drawn wagons to motorized fire-71

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fighting vehicles. The station operated until 1971, when the company moved into the New Station Four on Southgate Road. Since then, the building has housed the Colorado Springs Police Protective Association and the Flight for Life crews who operate out of neighboring St. Francis Hospital. Its last tenant was the Pikes Peak Justice and Peace Commission.22 Status: Station Four is part of a larger piece of property which was recently sold by the Sisters of St. Francis to a local developer. A 200-mem.ber non-profit organization called the Friends of the Lester L. Williams Fire Museum hopes to covert the site into a museum which will display artifacts from the Fallen Firefighter Memorial a block away. They are hoping that the developer will donate the station and surrounding land to the International Firefighters Union, which will, in turn, allow them to use the space rent-free. Lester L. Williams served as physician and unofficial historian for the fire department for over 60 years. The Friends goal is to restore all of Station Four to the horse-drawn era of 1909. They hope to have the horse stalls rebuilt as well reinstall the 2-story brass pole. They also plan to add additional parking on the north side of the station Preservation advocates are aware of the drainage problems around the building, as well as the exorbitant cost to move the structure. Currently, the museum's supporters are hoping that they'll 72

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be allowed to move forward and return this beloved site to its earlier glory.23 Golden Cycle Mill Smokestack Gold Hill Mesa at 21 at Street History: Fig. 3. 11. Golden Cycle Mill Smokestack The Golden Cycle Smokestack sits proudly on top of Gold Hill Mesa, the area's sole reminder of the impact that the Cripple Creek Gold Rush had on Colorado Springs. First known as the Telluride Mill, the Golden Cycle processed ore mined in Cripple Creek in the 1890s. The Mill was bought by John Milliken of St. Louis in 1905. After a coal dust fire in 1907 nearly destroyed the Mill, Milliken rebuilt it and added the now famous smokestack. The Golden Cycle Mill re-opened in 1908 as a completely refurbished, fully automatic operation. It was the largest custom mill for gold ore in the United States. So efficient was its operation that within five years, the Golden Cycle had driven all other area mills out of business. As the gold boom turned to bust in the 1920s and 30s, business began to dwindle at the Golden Cycle Mill. In 1948, the Mill closed its doors.24 73

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Status: Gold Hill Mesa is made up of about 14,000,000 tons of tailings. These tailings contain over one-half a million ounces of gold and two million ounces of silver. The southeast comer of the mesa exhibits significant drainage and erosion problems, a result of the cyanide leaching process used at the Mill. In 1996, the city wanted to get rid of the smokestack because the area had become so unstable and dangerous. Street gangs and homeless people frequented the site and vandalized what little remained of the Mill. Today, the remaining foundation of the Mill site has been approved for redevelopment. Soon townhouses will dot this abandoned site. 25 Grace Episcopal Church 215 E. Pikes Peak Ave. History: Fig. 3. 12. Grace Episcopal Church Empty and ignored, this rough-faced rhyolite landmark sits next door to the downtown post office on Pikes Peak Avenue. The land on which the church was built was donated by General William Jackson Palmer. In July 1873, the cornerstone of Grace Episcopal Church (originally called Colorado Springs Episcopal) was laid on the southwest comer ofPikes Peak Avenue and Weber 74

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Street. The church was designed by Thomas McLaren and built by Winfield Scott Stratton, prior to his success in the Cripple Creek gold mines. It is one of the few remaining sites in town built by this famous miner and philanthropist. Bishop Spaulding held a consecration ceremony in 1880 for the new Grace Church parish, but the church was not occupied unti11891. In 1893, a group known as Trinity Union (later known as St. Stevens) withdrew from Grace Church and held service in the Antlers Hotel. In 1923, the congregation-moved into the second Grace Church. on the comer ofMonument and Tejon. From 1940 until the early 1960's, the old church was home to a restaurant called the Village Inn (not the chain). Other parts of the building have housed a florist and a photography shop. Currently, the site is abandoned. 26 Status: Grace Church sits on a prime piece of downtown property. However, since the parking lot behind the building was sold off, the access to the church is poor. Moreover, the building's odd configuration has made it difficult for other businesses to flourish inside its walls. The alterations made to the site by the Village Inn and flower shop have compromised its integrity. The east side of the church has been covered with stucco, while the central part features prominent signage left over from its days as a restaurant. Although residents would like to see the church 75

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restored, the sad truth is that the land it sits on is more valuable than the building itself.27 Historic Medians Wood, Cascade, Nevada, Wahsatch, Wtllamette, Platte and Kiowa Avenues. History: Fig. 3. 13. Median on Nevada Avenue Unique to Colorado Springs Historic North End, these center medians or "parkings" were installed between 1905 and 1912. Charles Mulford Robinson, Secretary of the Municipal Art League of America and disciple of the "City Beautiful" movement, recommended to City Council that the streets be "parked" for aesthetic as well as cost-saving reasons. Robinson's comprehensive plan called for property owners to be assessed a fee from an improvement district to pay for the medians. Some medians were paid for entirely by the homeowners, while, in other cases, the costs were shared. While some homeowners balked at these assessments, by 1926 the presence oflandscaped medians were a fixed feature in the city's North End. The median's character and uniqueness are attributable to 76

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their mature vegetation and Victorian Era landscaping. The landscaped medians, along 'With uniform setbacks, are an important unifying element in the northern neighborhoods. They also are a beautiful remnant of a time when General Palmer's vision for a garden city reined supreme. 28 Status: Since the early 1990's, the city has begun removing sizeable portions of the medians in order to make room for left-tum lanes. Despite the city's promise in its Comprehensive Plan to maintain and protect the medians, it continues to remove bits and pieces as it sees fit. The city officials' solution to the perennial traffic problem in the older neighborhoods is to remove trees and narrow the medians. A failure to respect the integrity of the medians as worthwhile entities in and of themselves has been a disappointing quality exhibited by Colorado Springs' local government. 29 77

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Kimball's Peak Theater 115 E. Pikes Peak Ave. History: Fig. 3. 14. Kimball's Peak Theater Kimball's Twin Peak Theater had its beginnings in 1896 as a bank. The building is located on one of Colorado Springs' busiest streets, Pikes Peak Avenue, between Nevada Avenue and Tejon Street. In 1936, it was converted to a oneauditorium movie theater. Over the years the 750-seat theater has gone through several owners. However, the popular neon-red and green marquee remains unaltered. Likewise for the fifty-feet high florescent murals of Pikes Peak and the Garden of the Gods which adorn the interior walls. In an effort to boost ticket sales, the theater began showing dollar movies around 1986. By 1989, the single screen complex closed and remained vacant until 1993. At that point, Kimball Bayles purchased the building and converted the balcony into a second auditorium. For the past decade, the little theater has attracted audiences by offering more obscure, independently produced films. "The Peak'' has carved out a niche for itself by premiering films that large theaters will not touch, either because they are too controversial or they aren't projected to be big hits. Moreover, Bayles' addition of 78

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a wine and coffee bar tucked into a comer of the lobby, has been quite a success. Moviegoers can order cocktails in the bar and take them in to the movie to enjoy. 30 Status: Although the Peak has a small but loyal following, its future is a precarious one. The recent construction of megaplex theaters on the south, north and east sides of town has certainly cut into the Peak's business. Also, the old downtown has experienced a revival in the last decade and land values have risen sharply. Like other endangered sites in this sought-after district, the property is often worth more than the building which occupies it. The beloved Peak Theater could share the same fate as its predecessors, the Cooper, the Ute, the Chief and the Trail Theaters which were all tom down in the name of progress. 31 .Law Mortuary 116 North Nevada Ave. History: Fig. 3. 15. Law Mortuary Owned and operated by the Law family for many years, the mortuary started as a large Italianate style house which faced Nevada Ave. This site is an 79

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excellent illustration of the Tum of the Century custom ofbuilding funeral parlors inside large, stylish downtown homes. Its owner, Russell Law, added Italian Romanesque features to this circa 1880's dwelling in 1913. The unusual ecclesiastical style of this site is not as modest and conservative as other funeral parlors of the time. Existing Italian-influenced structures are rare in Colorado Springs, and this particular one adds to the diversity of the core neighborhood which surrounds Acacia Park. 32 Status: The Law Mortuary building is currently unoccupied. Until recently, the site housed Norton's Office Supply. Like its neighbor, the Oddfellows Hall, the building has been the focus of developers who are interested in converting it to loft style apartments. Also, there has been talk of razing the structure and constructing a multi-story, mixed use building. As with many other historic structures in the downtown area, the land upon which the Mortuary sits is far more valuable than the site itself. The Mortuary's proximity to the shops on Acacia Park makes it all the more attractive to developers. 33 80

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Marion House 14 W. Bijou Street History: Fig. 3. 16. Marion House Built around 1920, this tired looking four-square is actually one of the most popular places in town every day between 10:30 am and I :00 pm. At that time, between 400 to 500 homeless and indigent members of the community show up for lunch. The Marion House Soup Kitchen has operated out of this old house since 1985. At that time, a group of faith-based citizens inspired by the Catholic Worker Movement formed the Bijou Community. The soup kitchen they started was a modest operation at first. Food was prepared in what used to be the recreation room for the Sisters of Loretto. The Sisters gave Marion House its name and used the site as a convent for many years. Originally, Marion House sat on a crowded block of similar homes, all of which abutted the south entrance to Monument Park. The construction of homes in this Boulder Crescent neighborhood were strongly influenced by the City Beautiful movement. When the Sisters of Loretto needed a place to live near the Catholic schools where they taught, they were drawn to this quaint neighborhood. To allow for enough room, the church joined two houses together by a long concrete hallway. When St. Mary's High School and 81

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Elementary School both closed, the nuns pursued other causes which took them away from Marion House. When the Bijou group started the soup kitchen in the empty convent, they used the bedrooms upstairs to house homeless women. During the 1980's a Catholic priest operated a youth outreach project in the church-owned houses next door. The houses are gone now, having been tom down to make room for a parking lot. The Marion House Soup Kitchen was taken over by Catholic Charities in 1994 and is still in business. It is all that is left of a block of early 1900's housing located in a central business district. 34 Status: Marion House has suffered the effects of overuse, inconsistent maintenance and the changing needs of the Catholic Diocese. Its rooms have been altered, shut of( chopped up and, in one instance, burned. Signs of neglect and decay are evident. Quite simply, the house is ill-equipped to meet the needs of hundreds of citizens on a daily basis. Moreover, the cinder-block walls added during the convent era make the structure extremely difficult to re-model. Although their cause is a loving and charitable one, the volunteers who operate the kitchen are exhausted and burned-out. However, there is good news. Recently, Catholic Charities received a $500,000 grant from the El Pomar Foundation to build an addition. The $4 million project will add a dining room, kitchen and storage area to the west side of the 82

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building The future looks brighter for this well-loved site, unless, of course, the Catholic Church decides to get out of the soup kitchen business. Another potential problem which could delay or even stop renovation, is the reaction of the Boulder Crescent neighbors to the proposed expansion Tired of the endless stream of homeless people who leave trash and bodily waste in their yards, residents have begun to speak out. Many are hoping to join forces and prevent the project from continuing. 35 Monument Valley Park Between Bijou and Monroe Streets History: Fig.3.17.Monurnnent Valley Park Monument Valley Park, an urban park in the historic North End which surrounds Monument Creek, has been the :favorite municipal recreational spot for generations of residents. Of all the gifts made to the city by its founder, William Jackson Paliner, Monument Park is viewed as the most significant. Palnier created the park during the City Beautiful era which was influenced by the 1893 Chicago Exposition It was his wish to create a lush garden spot and peaceful, scenic retreat 83

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in the.middle o( what was then, a growing, busy urban neighborhood. In 1904, Palmer purchased all the land and properties along Monument Creek for two miles, between Bijou and Monroe Streets. Working with General Robert Cameron, a general planner, and Edmond Van Diest, the engineer who would design the park, Palmer laid out a series of cuhivated and natural "pleasure grounds." An oasis of wild gardens, rock work and natural vegetation which followed the tradition of English gardens, Monument Park became a popular destination for residents and Tuberculosis patients, as well as a source of pride for the city. Palmer's desire to see one-of every kind of.tree planted in his park transformed this dormant parcel into the state's premier botanic garden. In 1907, Palmer deeded the park to the citizens after requiring that City Council appoint a citizen board to oversee the parks. During the Palmer Era (1904-1935)pedestrian bridges, lakes, undulating trails, rock archways, baseball fields and scenic overlooks were added to the park. Between 1911 and 1916, three distinctive structures (two pavilions and a swimming pool) were designed and built in the park under the supervision of architect Thomas McLaren. When Colorado celebrated its fiftieth year of statehood in 1926, McLaren built a Spanish-style pavilion to cover Tahama Spring. The second period of significance in the history of the park began after the 193 5 flood. The WP A era (19351952) was a time of major restoration projects in the wake of a Memorial Day flood which devastated a major portion of Monument Valley Park. When 84

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Monument Creek jumped its banks, it washed away the park's rustic bridges, a lake and many gardens which were never replaced. However, the WP A worked to repair the water damage, build stone retaining walls and construct new park features of stone, including stairs, benches, walls and a grandstand for the baseball field. Over the years, the WP A features have gained their own significance. Other important events have taken place in the park since the end of the WP A era. Most siginificant was the construction of Interstate 25 next to the park's western boundary. A flood in 1965 took out some of the WPA stonework and the pavilion at Tahama Spring. Unfortunately, a Downtown Intensive Suvey conducted in 1985 determined that the park was not eligible for National Register status, but the pavilions were. In 2002, A historic and archaeoligical survey completed in eonjunction with the widening of 1-25 identified Monument Valley Park as eligible for the National Register. The park certainly has experienced its share of tragedy and success through the years. Yet, after almost 100 years, Monument Valley Park continues to represent Palmer's vision of a garden paradise. 36 Status: As Colorado Springs has grown, more and more people are living and moving outside the heart of the city. The city has grown so large that, on a good day, a trip from the northern-most point to the southern-most point could take over 85

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. forty-five minutes. This exodus from the historic downtown to points beyond does not bode well for the future of Monument Valley Park. Monument Valley Park is an endangered resource because a predo:minap.ce of citizens do not know what it is, where it is or what it means. A citizens group called Friends ofMonument Valley Park has taken it upon themselves to help the public gain a greater appreciation of the park and it's far-sighted creator, William Jackson Palmer. They have revived the annual Palmer Day celebration, begun in 1932 and held in the park. Also, they are hosting a series of workshops on the development of the park system, reading cultural landscapes, preserving cultural materials and becoming responsible stewards of public amenities. The increased noise from the widened freeway, coupled with a severely strained parks maintenance budget, has taken its toll on the old park. The stone archways and walls which mark the many entrances to the park are in desperate need of repair. The creek itself has become overgrown with weeds and is filled with debris. Homeless people camp in the park and leave their trash behind. The distinctive structures in the park, including pavilions, ponds and playgrounds, are in need of maintenance. This year the Friends of Monument Valley Park are submitting a nomination for the National Register. Placement of the park on the National Register would open up the opportunity for the city to apply for grant money, with which to maintain this beautiful and beloved landmark. 37 86

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Oddfellows Hall 128 N. Nevada Ave. History: Fig. 3. 18. Oddfellows Hall This building was originally home to Lodge No. 38 of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Organized in England in the 18th Century, the Odd Fellows was a secret fraternal society that aided the poor, aged and sick. In 1909, a contractor named Thomas Wright was hired to build a two-story temple for the Colorado Springs chapter. Wright erected a large, rectangular brick structure on the comer ofNevada Avenue and Bijou Street. Designed by architect T.E. Linn, the building provided retail space on the ground floor and a lodge, club room and banquet hall above. The cornerstone was laid and dedicated in an elaborate ceremony on March 31, 1910. The hall cost around $38,000 to build and was paid for by lodge members. The original lodge can be distinguished by the stone trim around the windows and the date stone near the top. 38 Status: The Oddfellows Hall is one of the only remaining buildings ofits type in 87

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downtown Colorado Springs. When the Pikes Peak area experienced rapid growth around the tum-of-the century, the number and size of fraternal orders, lodges and secret societies grew as well. Many lodge and club buildings were added to the downtown landscape at that time. Like others of its kind, the Oddfellows Hall is a distinctive structure constructed to reflect the pride and dedication of its membership. However, its prime location at the comer of one of the city's busiest downtown streets places it in danger ofbeing tom down by developers. Indeed, there has been talk of removing the building and constructing a multi-story, mixed use site. Constructing new buildings which contain loft apartments is a popular fad in Colorado Springs, but one for which there is no market. Filled with an eclectic mixture of retail tenants, the Oddfellows Hall faces an uncertain future. 39 Springs Reformed Church/Pillar of Fire Church 229 South Weber St. History: Fig.3.19.Springs Reformed Church The Pillar ofFire mission was established in 1922 by Bishop Alma White, a noted woman evangelist. This eclectic style church with its square tower, Byzantine-influenced tower cap, Flemish gables and Romanesque windows, was 88

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constructed in 1925. The building is made of red brick with wood and stone trim. The church cost $20,000 to build on a site previously occupied by a circa 1904 ranch-style house, Prior to construction of their church on South Weber Street, the mission's fledgling congregation had met in a tent on the comer ofWahsatch and Pikes Peak Avenues. 40 Status: Currently, this building houses the Springs Reformed Church which has its roots in the ScotchIrish covenant tradition. A conservative, evangelical faith with ties to Calvin and Martin Luther, the Springs Reformed Church is a member of the Reformed Presbyterian Churches ofNorth America. The church owns the cottage to the east of the main building, which the pastor uses as office space. The large Victorian home to the south of the church is also church property and houses needy fiunilies in the congregation. Over the years, the South Weber neighborhood has become increasingly more urban. The church has made numerous attempts to minister to its neighbors and to the homeless who seek shelter in the area, but have been unsuccessful. While the Pillar of Fire Church served as a worship center for the black community, the Springs Reformed Church has a predominantly white congregation. Of the one-hundred and fifty members, most are young families from varied socio-economic backgrounds. Despite the changing neighborhood, the 89

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church building has remained amazingly intact. The building's excellent condition is a point of pride for church members. The only part of the site which is a cause for concern is the basement, whose floor has rotted away. Unfortunately, the church is quite small and has no available parking. Increased expenses and high land values could doom the site. 41 Prospect Lake 619 Prospect Lake Drive History: The land for this popular city park was donated by General Palmer in 1909. The lake was part of the city's original irrigation system, its purpose being to receive surplus water from the El Paso Canal. Prospect Lake encompassed 34 acres and originally had a driveway, trees and shrubs around it. It became part of Memorial Park in the 1940s and, at one time, was used by the Navy for training purposes. The bath house was built by architect Ed Bunts in 1937 as a WPA project and has recently been restored. 42 90

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Status: The lake and bath house experience a high level of use and, as a result, have high maintenance costs. Over the past few years, the lake's water level has dropped precipitously and the remains of rotted wood piers can be seen protruding from depths. Moreover, the lake is leaking and needs to have its clay liner sealed. Use of the lake for boating, fishing and swimming has ceased until it drains naturally. The repair to the liner could be a lengthy process. 43 Rock Island Railroad Roundhouse 2333 Steel Street History: Fig. 3. 21. Rock Island Roundhouse Unless a person were to accidentally stumble upon this 1888 roundhouse while touring the old railroad community of Roswell, they would never know that such a historic treasure existed on the north end of town. The roundhouse (what's left of it) can be found sandwiched between C. C. Sand Company and the city-91

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owned Fontanero Service Yard off of Steel Street. The tracks, which parallel Interstate 25 and service the roundhouse, were originally laid in 1888 by the Chicago, Kansas and Nebraska Railroad. That company was purchased by the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific in 1891. The Rock-Island Railroad as it was called, ran a route from Chicago to Limon. The trains split in Limon, with one group going to Denver and the other heading to Colorado Springs. This route, known as the Rocky Mountain Rocket, brought thousands of tourists and businessmen to Colorado Springs over an eighty year period. Regrettably, all that is left of this tourist destination is the roundhouse. At one time, a depot was located south of the roundhouse but was closed in 1926. Surrounding the roundhouse and its 60' turntable were a scale house, ice house, stockyard and freight car repair shop. The roundhouse started with ten maintenance and storage stalls. Each stall had a chimney on the roof to release the smoke from the engines. Today, the ceiling still bears the sooty stains of the old engines. In 1910, three more stalls were added. When bigger, longer engines began being used on the Rocket, six stalls had to be removed from the roundhouse because they were too short. Also, the turntable was replaced with a larger, 75' version to accommodate the new engines. The age of the automobile was ultimately responsible for the slow decline and eventual death of the Rock Island Railroad. By 1929, the roundhouse was reduced to three stalls as freight shipments waned. The last passenger service on 92

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the Rocket ended in 1966. At that point, the roundhouse closed and was leased to a feed company and drywall company respectively. The city purchased the building and the property in 1994.44 Status: Pik:es.Peak Historical Railway Foundation began renting the roundhouse from the city immediately after the building changed hands in 1994. The Foundation inherited a filthy, leaking, worn-out building with broken windows and doors. After hundreds of volunteer hours, the Foundation replaced the roo( remodeled the bathrooms and offices and added heating. All the work was done by railroad fanatics and was paid for by local companies. The brick and stonework on the outside of the roundhouse is all originaL as is the big door on the south side of the building. Remarkably, very little about the roundhouse has changed over the years, except its size. The building's three stalls house old Laclede and Birney trolley cars that the Foundation is restoring. The Railway Foundation's dream is to run trolley cars down the old Denver and Rio Grande tracks to the depot below the Wells Fargo Building. They are also currently working with the city on a plan to return trolley service to the streets of Colorado Springs. However, their dreams may be unfulfilled if the roundhouse is tom down. At various times, the city has thought about extending Constitution Avenue through to Interstate 25, and linking it with 93

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the Fillmore Avenue exit ramp. The construction would run right through where the roundhouse is located. Fortunately for railroad and trolley enthusiasts, there is a great deal of hostility to the idea of extending Constitution Avenue eastward. The city's plans are fluid at the moment and could change at any time. 45 Spencer's Nursery 1430 S. Tejon Street History: Fig. 3. 22. Spencer's Nursery A south-side landmark, Spencer's Nursery operates on the grounds of twin Victorian homes at 16 and 20 E. Brookside Drive. The homes were built in the late 1800s and remained private residences until the 1930s. Spencer's Nursery was started in 1932 by Noble Spencer, Sr on property across the street. Produce was sold by his children from wagons until the family moved to 20 E. Brookside in 1934. Noble Spencer, Jr. and his wife still live in one ofthe houses. The front yards of both sites are filled with containers of dormant plants and shrubs. This thirdgeneration business features a basement-level candy store, lawn and garden store and outdoor market. In autumn, the air at Spencer's is filled with roasting chiles and 94

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in summer, pansies bring color to their comer of Tejon St; and Brookside Drive.46 Status: Over the years the Spencer family has remained optimistic in spite of the fact that their business is located at the edge of Motor City. The years have seen more and more car dealerships erected on the blocks between Tejon Avenue and glh Street. As the city's growth moves south, Spencer's has found itself dwarfed by large, modem businesses. Furthermore, the property has been vandalized and encroached upon by the homeless for years. The seasoned Victorians and grand old trees for which Spencer's is known have lost their context. Their business continues to flourish, but their land is coveted by developers who would eagerly snap it up should anything change. 47 Starr Kempf Home and Sculpture Garden 2057 Pine Grove Avenue History: Starr Kempf was born in 1917 and grew up on a farm in Ohio's Amish country. He attended the Cleveland Institute of Art and served in the Air Force during World War ll. Acclaimed for his drawings and paintings, Kempf moved to 95

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Colorado Springs and became a prominent member of a gathering of artists associated with the Broadmoor Art Academy. Under the tutelage of Boardman Robinson, Kempfbegan to work in bronze sculpture. In 1942, he married Hedwig Roelen and designed their unique home on the comer ofPine Grove Street and Evans Avenue. Kempf delayed completion on his home for many years so that he would not have to pay as much tax. Finally, in 1953, the sprawling brick rancher was completed. Over the years; Kempfbuilt his reputation as a talented, reclusive sculptor who created surrealistic works in his home studio. His bronzes depict his fascination with the struggle of human existence, and are highly sought after by collectors and museums. However, the creations for which Kempf is most well known are his large kinetic pieces. Truly magnificent to behold, these steel, zinc and silver sculptures sit in the Kempf's front yard and catch the winds that shoot down neighboring Cheyenne Canyon. The ten pieces move and sway with the changing weather. Starr Kempf told his neighbors that the sculptures were a form of therapy that helped him in his struggle against depression. Over the years, thousands of visitors have admired these engineering masterpieces. 41 Status: The future of the sculptural attraction has been unclear since Kempf s death in 1995. Kempfbequeathed the care and maintenance of the site to the University 96

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of Colorado at Colorado Springs. His widow Hedwig continued to live in the house until recently. For many years, a family member tried to tum the site into a bigger tourist attraction by offering tours and soliciting business sponsorship. Meanwhile, the considerable maintenance needs of the sculptures were overlooked. In 2001, years of neighborhood pressure and complaints moved the city to prohibit any more tours. The family was also told to remove any pieces that were height and setback problems. As of now, four pieces have been moved. Some are on loan to a wind sculpture farm in New Mexico. About halfofthe original ten will be able to remain on display. 49 The Trolley Buildings 500 Block, South Tejon Street History: Fig. 3. 23. Trolley Buildings This block of tum-of-the-century buildings has a fascinating and little known history. All the structures on the block, except the Verner Z. Reed Library, at one time were maintenance and storage sites for the Colorado Springs & Interurban Railway. Winfield Stratton had these facilities constructed in an attempt 97

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to upgrade the old Colorado Springs & Manitou Street Railway, which he purchased in 1900. Conveniently located on the trolley's first route on Tejon Street, between Moreno Avenue and Cimarron Street, the barns could accommodate 72 double-truck cars. The main car bam actually consisted of four brick and steel car houses which were interconnected to form one structure. The upper floor was used as office space. At the same time, Stratton added two large workshops on the other side of the block. The carpenter-paint shop building, of brick and steel construction, is located between the alley behind the Tejon Street Bam and Cascade Avenue. Next to it is an identical building which served as the C S & I machine shop. Stratton's modernized and efficient streetcar system operated out of these sites unti11932. The trustees of the Stratton estate were tired oflosing money on the burdensome trolley car system and. decided to terminate the operation. The system was draining the endowment Stratton had left to support his favorite philanthropic project; the Myron Stratton Home. Once operation of the C S & I ceased, the cat barns on South Tejon were remodeled into retail space. At various times, the barns were used by companies like St Vmcent de Paul's, B& B Sales and Furniture Liquidators. so 98

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Status: Today, a well-known watering hole called Southside Johnny's anchors the Trolley Building on South Tejon Street. Other businesses which share the immense space are a pub, a computer store and a coffee shop. The addition of a white stucco exterior, modem lighting and green awnings has completely transformed the exterior of this historic site and made it virtually unrecognizable. While some of the tenants have maintained the original brick and wood interior, most have not. As the city's development moves south, the areaon South Tejon Street is experiencing a renaissance. More and more businesses move into this popular area every month. Even the old machine and paint barns to the east, between Tejon Street and Cascade Avenue, are being eyed for potential re-use. The Colorado Springs VISitors' Bureau and the Wme Shop have taken over part of the space to the west, and a construction company plans to move in shortly. As far as the Trolley Building is concerned, the owner indicates that he is not interested in the preservation or restoration of his site. His desire is to fill his space as quickly as possible. His apparent lack of concern over the historical potential his building possesses has resulted in alterations which may have permanently compromised the site. 5 1 99

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Union Printers Home 101 S. Union Blvd. History: Fig. 3. Union Printers Home This 1892 Chateau-style castle provided physical and mental care for more than 25,000 aged, sick and indigent union printers from all over the country in the last century. Tuberculosis was a common ailment for printers who were exposed to toxic carbon compounds in the ink they used. At the time of construction, the life expectancy of a printer was 41 years. The Union Printers' Home was built on an 80-acre plot donated by the Colorado Springs Board of Trade. The building was constructed of grey/white lava trimmed with red sandstone and lyonstone. The hands on the clock in the front of the building are permanently set at 8:00, to commemorate the passage oflegislation establishing an 8-hour work day. The home sat way out in "the country'' on elaborately landscaped grounds and was served by a trolley line that stopped at its entrance. In the early 1900's, TB tents were erected on the site, near the hospital building and dairy. Additionally, a sanatarium was constructed on the site in 1932.52 100

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Status: Today, much of the grounds and surrounding property has been sold off. The development of medical offices and businesses along Printer's Parkway threatens the site's eastern side. While the home continues to aid a dwindling number of retired and ill printers, it has recently opened its doors to the public. For this magnificent landmark to survive, it must take in more patients. Many rooms need renovation and the maintenance costs for the building are quite high. The plan is to either boost revenues or risk closing. 53 Verner Z. Reed Library 502 S. Tejon Street History: Fig. 3. 25. Verner Z. Reed Library Verner Z. Reed was a Cripple Creek millionaire, car racer, novelist, developer and private secretary to Colorado Governor Shoup. Reed was known as "The Developer of the West" and introduced the concept of mortgages to Colorado Springs. In 1919, Reed's wife donated money for the land and building 101

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as a memorial to her husband. The library was built in the Greek Revival style by architect T .D. Hetherington and features a pedimented doorway and Palladian windows. Once completed, the little red brick library was made available for public use. The basement housed a private men's membership club that featured cocktails, card games and pool. Currently, the library is home to the Minuteman Press. 54 Status: The h"brary is sits on the north end of the Trolley Building block and is set apart from the rest of the structures that grace the east side. Parking is non-existent. Farther south, the bustle of restaurants and businesses signals the rebirth of this long neglected area. Redevelopment pressures are tremendous in this South Tejon neighborhood. The Trolley Buildings have been remodeled in an impressive example of adaptive reuse, however the h"brary appears to have missed this exciting opportunity at revival. In the meantime, preservation proponents watch nervously for signs indicating developer's interest in the site. ss 102

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Vmcent Street Bridge (NR) Vmcent Street at Interstate 25 and Woodmen Blvd. History: Fig. 3. 26. Vmcent Street Bridge The Vmcent Street Bridge crosses Cottonwood Creek on the east side ofl-25 and Woodmen Avenue. Built in 1924, it is one of the City's oldest bridges. It features handrails with balusters and 10-foot wide lanes, which are now obsolete. The bridge is one of a dwindling number ofhistoric sites on the north side of town. Its graceful arched girders and elegant design seem almost out of place when framed against the wall of retail space marking the Woodmen conidor. The bridge is sandwiched between a young, rapidly expanding neighborhood, and I-25 which is being widened and straightened to the west. 56 Status: The Vmcent Street Bridge is missing the shoulders and sidewalks common of more modern bridges. The city budgets $150,000 annually for bridge maintenance which means that low-use bridges like Vmcent get inspected and repaired infrequently City planners estimate that the bridge has already exceeded 103

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its life expectancy of 50-75 years. The concrete girders holding up the deck are decaying. Also, the deck drains need to be extended. Rather than pay the estimated $3.75 million to replace the bridge, the city is considering expanding the east side and restoring the west side. 57 104

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PHOTOGRAPHS All the photographs in this chapter, unless indicated below, are from the author's personal collection. The following photographs are the property of the Special Collections Department of the Penrose Public Library, Pikes Peak Library District. Page 65 -.Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind Page 70 El Paso Canal Remnants Page 73 Golden Cycle Mill Smokestack .. Page 83 Monument Valley Park 105

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NOTES I Jones, Judith. Letter to the author. 2 March 2004. 2 "Colorado's Endangered Places Program," Colorado Preservatio11 Inc., ed. Traci C. Worm, 2001, Colorado Preservation, Inc., Denver, 28 January 2004 . 3 "Colorado's Endangered Plaees Program," 28 January 2004. 4 Holcomb, Patricia. Memo to the author. 28 May 2003. 5 Sources for the Boy's Club history include: Ormes, Manley. Book of Colorado Springs. Colorado Springs: Dentan Printing Co., 1933. Scanlon, Tim. Personal interview. 9 September 2003. 6 Sources for the status of the Boy's Club include: Scanlon, Personal interview, 9 September 2003. 7 Sources for the history of Cedar Springs include: Colorado Springs Psychopathic HospitaL plaque oil hospital wall. "Emory John Brady Hospital," Pikes Peak Library District Special Collections, 19371981, Pikes Peak Library District Manuscript. Collection Number MSS 0030, 26 January 2004, 106

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. Hitch, Laura. Personal interview. 15 January 2004. 8 Sources for the history of the Chadbourn Mission include: Clark, Sally, "History of the Chadbourn Spanish Gospel Mission," Meeting of the Historic Preservation Alliance, Carnegie Library, Colorado Springs, 8 January 2004. Phillips, David, ''Miracle on Conejos Street," Colorado Springs Gazette, 5 July 2003, L1 and L3. State of Colorado. Colorado Preservation Office. Architectural/Historical Component Form (Denver: State of Colorado, 1985) Resource No. 5EP 643. 9 Sources for the status of the Chadbourn Mission include: Barnes, William. Telephone interview. 18 September 2003. Clark, ''History of the Chadbourn Gospel Mission," 8 January 2004. 10 Sources for the history of Chuck's Stop Diner include: Christensen, Anne. ''Mom-and-Pops Built on Dreams." Colorado Springs Gazette 31 March 2000.23 September 2003 . 107

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Epstein, Warren. "History Coming Right Up!" Colorado Springs Gazette 7 September 1993. 23 September 2003 . 11 Sources for the status of Chuck's StopDiner include: VigiL Tom(?) Telephone interview. 25 September 2003. 12 Sources for the history of the City Auditorium include: Thomas J. Buildings of Colorado. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. Scanlon, Personal interview, 9 September 2003. 13 Sources for the status of the City Auditorium include: Jones, Judith Rice. "Re: City Auditorium" E-mail to Historic Preservation Alliance Board ofDirectors. 18 September 2003. Laden, Rich. "Auditorium Block Evaluated." Colorado Springs Gazette 24 October 2003, B 1 +. Stivers, Joyce. "City Auditorium." E-mail to Historic Preservation Alliance Board ofDirectors. 16 September 2003. Stivers, Joyce. "City Auditorium Endangered!" E-mail to Historic Preservation Alliance Board of Directors. 8 August 2003. 14 Sources for the history of the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind include: 108

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Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind. 2003. 5 September 2003 . Thomas J. Buildings of Colorado Stivers, Joyce. "Summer Historic Tour #8. E-mail to Historic Preservation Alliance members. 26 August 2003. 15 Sources for the status of the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind include: Gonzalez, Kathie. Personal interview. 5 September 2003. Scanlon. Personal interview. 9 September 2003. 16 Sources for the History of the Colorado Springs Hotel include: Lawrence, Carol. "Locations." The Gazette. Date unknown. Unknown author. "A City by Design." The Gazette. 27 July 1997, AI+. 17 Sources for the status of the Colorado Springs Hotel include: Billings, Marilyn. Personal interview. 11 October 2003. Unknown author. "Lifestyles." The Gazette. 18 November 1990, 18+. 18 Sources for the history of Crissey Fowler Lumber include: Tumis, Jane. "Pulling Up Some Very Deep Roots." The Gazette. 16 August 1999, m8+. 19 Sources for the status of Crissey Fowler Lumber include: Scanlon. Personal interview. 9 September 2003. 109

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20 Sources for the history of the El Paso Canal include: Sweimler, Joel. El Paso Canal. Unpublished essay. Special Collections Penrose Public Library, 1980. Unknown author. ''El Paso Canal." Colorado Springs GazetteTelegnmh. 10 July 1994, D1+. 21 Sources for the status of the El Paso Canal include: Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 26 September 2003. 22 Sources for the history of Fire Station #4 include: Colorado Springs Fire Department Centennial Committee. Colorado Springs Fire Department100 Years ofPublic Service. Colorado Springs: Colorado Springs Fire Department Centennial Committee, 1994. N. Pag. Ryan, David. Personal interview. 22 August 2003. Turner, Ray. Personal interview. 3 December 2003. 23 Sources for the status of Fire Station #4 include: Ryan. Personal interview. 22 August 2003. Turner. Personal interview. 3 December 2003. 24 Sources for the history of the Golden Cycle Mill include: DeGette, Cara. "Gold Hill or Toxic Pile?" Colorado Springs Independent 1 110

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March 1995. N. Pag. Hughes, David. Historic Old Colorado City. Colorado Springs: Old Colorado City District, 1978. 8. Unknown author. Golden Cycle Dump -Monument to an Era." Colorado Springs Free Press 19 December 1956. N. Pag. 25 Sources for the status of the Golden Cycle Mill include: Hughes. Historic Old Colorado City. 8. Scanlon. Telephone interview. 26 September 2003. 26 Sources for the history of Grace Episcopal Church include: Doyle, Pat. ''Re: Endangered List." E-mail to the author. 29 July 2003. Feitz, Leland. "The Church of England's Little London Home." Silhouette Magazine 2 January 1972: 4. Unknown author. "Historic Churches Find Afterlife in Commerce." Colorado Springs Gazette 31 May 2003: Ll-5. 27 Sources for the status of Grace Episcopal Church include: Scanlon. Personal interview. 9 September 2003. 28 Sources for the history of the Historic Medians include: Mundy, Catherine. ''Historic MediansColorado Springs, Colorado." Colorado's Most Endangered Places Nomination Form. Ill

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30 August 2001. 29 Sources for the status of the I.storic Medians include: Mundy, Catherine. ''Historic Medians." 30 August 2001. 30 Sources for the history of the Peak Theater include: Bayles, Kimball. Telephone interview. 13 January 2004. Scanlon. Telephone interview. 26 September 2003. Wear, Ben. "Downtown's Peak Theater Losing its Lease on Life After 52 Years." Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph n.d. 1989: A1-3. 31 Sources for the status of the Peak Theater include: Scanlon. Telephone interview. 26 September 2003. 32 Sources for the history of the Law Mortuary include: State of Colorado. Colorado Historical Society. Office of Archaeology and I.storic Preservation. Historic Building Inventory Record. Denver: OAHP, 1985. 33 Sources for the status of the Law Mortuary include: Scanlon. Telephone interview. 26 September 2003. 34 Sources for the history of the Marion House include: Cortiz, Mary. Telephone interview. 16 January 2004 Handen, Steve. Telephone interview. 16 January 2004. 112

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Mitgard, Kris. Telephone interview. 14 January 2004. Scanlon. Personal interview. 9 September 2003. 3 5 Sources for status of the Marion House include; Handen. Telephone interview. 16 January 2004. Scanlon. Personal interview. 9 September 2003. 36 Sources for the history ofMonument Valley Park include: Mayberry Matt. "The Unique History of the Founding of Colorado Springs." Monument Valley Park Forum. City Council Chambers, Colorado Springs. 28 February 2004. Palmer, William Jackson. Letter. 1 August 1901. Century Chest Collection. Colorado College, Colorado Springs. State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Cultural Resource Re-evaluation Form. Denver: OAHP, 1998. 37 Sources for the status of Monument Valley Park include: Jones, Judith Rice. Address. Monument Valley Park Forum. City Council Chambers, Colorado Springs. 28 February 2004. Scanlon, Tim. Personal interview. 4 March 2004. 38 Sources for the history of the Oddfellows Hall include: State of Colorado. Colorado Historical Society. Office of Archaeology and 113

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Historic Preservation. Historic Building Inventory Record. Denver: OAHP, 1985. 39 Sources for the status of the Oddfellows Hall include: Scanlon. Telephone interview. 26 September 2003. 40 Sources for the history of the Pillar ofFire Church include: Mann, Ruth. Telephone interview. 5 February 2004. Reece, David. Telephone interview. 14 January 2004. State of Colorado. Colorado Historical Society. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation Historic Building Inventory Record. Denver: OAHP, 1985. 41 Sources for the status of the Pillar of Fire Church include: Reece, David. Telephone interview. 14 January 2004. Scanlon. Telephone interview. 26 September 2003. 42 Sources for the history ofProspect Lake include: Barry, Deb. Telephone interview. 21 October 2003. City of Colorado Springs. Department of Parks and Recreation. A Living Legacy. Colorado Springs: Parks and Recreation Department, 1996. Scanlon. Personal interview. 4 March 2004. 43 Sources for the status ofProspect Lake include: 114

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Barry, Deb. Telephone interview. 21 October 2003. Scanlon. Personal interview. 4 March 2004. 44 Sources for the history of the Rock Island Roundhouse include: Haney, John. Personal interview. 28 January 2004. Lee, Thors R. Rock Island Westward. Manhattan: AG. Press, 1998. Pelles, Steve. Telephone interview. 4 February 2004. Roberts, Greg. Personal interview. 28 Janwuy 2004. 45 Sources for the status of the Rock Island Roundhouse include: Pelles. Telephone interview. 4 February 2004. Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 4 February 2004. 46 Sources for the history of Spencer's Nursery include: Spencer, Alice. Personal interview. 29 August 2003. 47 Sources for the status of Spencer's Nursery include: Spencer. Personal interview. 29 August 2003. 48 Sources for the history of the Starr Kempf house include: Starr Kempf. Ed. Paul Nickels and E. Gill. 1987. 14 January 2004. . Wmemiller, Jeff. Telephone interview. 2 February 2004. 49 Sources for the status of the Starr Kempf house include: 115

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Telephone interview. 2 February 2004. 50 Sources for the history of the Trolley Buildings include: Catky, Morris and John Haney. Pikes Peak Trolleys. Colorado Springs: Century One Press, 1983. 2 -45. Ormes, Manly. The Book ofColorado Springs. 83. 51 Sources for the status of the Trolley Buildings include: Guy, Richard.Personal interview. I I November 2003. Scanlon. Telephone interview. 26 September 2003. 52 Sources for the history of the Union Printer's Home include: One Hundredth Anniversary Committee Union Printers Home. The Union Printer's Home18921992. Colorado Springs: One Hundredth Anniversary Committee, 1992. 9-15. Childs-Drexel Home for Union Printers. Colorado Springs: Union Printers Home, 1892. 53. Sources for the status of the Union Printer's Home include: Scanlon. Telephone interview. 26 September 2003. 54 Sources for the history of the Verner Z. Reed Library include: Scanlon. Personal interview. 9 September 2003. Verner Z. Reed. Index card -Local History File. Colorado Springs: Penrose 116

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Public Library. 55 Sources for the status of the Verner Z. Reed Library include: Scanlon. Personal interview. 9 September 2003. 56 Sources for the history of the Vmcent Street Bridge include: Unknown author. "City Bridges Inspected Infrequently." Colorado Springs Cheyenne Edition 13 June 2003: 20. Unlmown author. ''Bridge Exceeds Life Expectancy." Colorado Springs Cheyenne Edition 20 June 2003: 11. 117

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CHAP'rER4 RESOURCES WITH LANDMARK POTENTIAL "The stones of our old buildings are the very fabric of our history, worn and scoured by the passing tides of humanity which have lapped against them for generations. "1 Moutrie R. Kelsall and Stuart Harris, A Future for the Past Introduction In 1993, the City of Colorado Springs developed a Historic Preservation Plan as a guideline to help identify and schedule a program of projects to preserve the city's significant historic resources. One of the goals of this plan is to evaluate and rank the historic resources within the city limits according to their significance and their association with twelve identified historic trends. 2 In the Strategic Plan section of this document, the twelve general historic trends associated with the city's development were identified as: railroads, mining, initial planning of town site, Little London atmosphere, English influence, health industry, tourism, Colorado College, business and civic leadership, philanthropy, the American Renaissance Movement and the City Beautiful Movement. 3 When creating this goal, the City Administration intended that their Historic Preservation Board conduct this survey of important sites and then begin a landmark program with their 118

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findings, However, this project was never undertaken by the Board. However, a smaller, more narrow survey was initiated by the lone City Planner charged with monitoring historic sites in the downtown area. Apparently, the Board was overburdened with other responsibilities and the city lacked the money to match any grant funds they might receive up front in order to begin the program. 4 Seeing that the city wouldn't be able to sponsor this substantial project, the non-profit Historic Preservation Alliance decided to take it on. As a member of the Alliance Board, I was asked to start selecting sites which should be nominated to the Alliance's Landmark and Plaque Program and possibly, later on, to the National or State Registers. In my attempt to identify public structures which merit some sort of local landmark designation, l confined my analysis to sites which were defined by one of the historic trends identified by the city. The other criteria upon which I based my selections were those established by the Colorado State Register of Historic Properties. According to their criteria, a property is.deemed worthy of Register status if it: A Is associated with events that have made a significant contnbution to history. B. Is connected with persons significant in history. C. Has distinctive characteristics of a type, period, method of construction or artisan. 119

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D. Is of geographic importance. E. Contains the possibility of important discoveries related to prehistory or history.5 Finally, I added a few criteria of my own in order to make the list of potential landmarks more manageable and interesting. All the sites which I selected for landmark status had to be absent from both the State Historic Register and the National Historic Register listings. Moreover, I payed particular attention to sites which had channing, unique uses and colorful histories, but which, for various reasons, may have been overlooked by historians, planners and preservationists. Of the numerous worthy sites which I have not chosen, I am certain that most will, in time, be included on the list. This eclectic mix of structures provides a good starting point for a landmarks and plaques program that will hopefully blossom into the meaningful and respected enterprise our community deserves. 120

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Acacia Park and Bandstand 126 E. Bijou Street Potential Landmarks Fig. 4.1. Acacia Park Among the 2,000 acres of land given to the City of Colorado Springs by General William Jackson Palmer was one square block of dirt now known as Acacia Park. The land for the park was donated in 1871 and was later landscaped by John Blair. The park was first known as Acacia Place, and then North Park. Eventually it came to be called Acacia Park; Acacia being the favorite plant of General Robert Cameron, who laid out the city's streets. A band shelL with decorative urns and a cast-iron railing was added to the south end of the park in 1914. Ever since its modest beginnings as a treeless block in the middle of the business district, Acacia Park has been a much loved attraction. Watered by the El Paso Canal, the trees surrounding the park grew and flourished. Paths and walkways were added over time, as were benches, a large, centrally located fountain and a shuftleboard court. During school days, the park was a popular lunch spot for students from Colorado Springs High School (now Palmer High School), next door. On weekends, Acacia Park has hosted parades, fairs, 121

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demonstrations, concerts and picnics. In the .I970s and '80s the overgrown, dark park became a favorite spot for vagrants and drug dealers. The city's efforts to re-claim the Park in the I990s resulted in a renewed public interest in this downtown sanctua.Iy. Nowadays, children and their parents can be seen enjoying Uncle Wdber's Fountain on the comer ofBijou and the playground nearby. Summer jazz concerts have become extremely popular. In 2003, the Farmer's Market became such a success that it had to be moved due to overcrowding! The park remains historically significant because of its association with General Palmer as well as with many notable events in the city's past. Through the years, Acacia Park has been appreciated by locals as a scenic oasis and point of referene in the city's core. 6 Acacia Hotel I 04 East Platte Avenue Fig. 4.2. Acacia Hotel The historic Acacia Hotel, located across Platte Avenue from Acacia Park, is rapidly approaching its I ooth anniversary as one of the city's finest downtownarea hotels. The Acacia was designed by architect Thomas McLaren in 1907 at the request of miner and real estate investor Frederick L. Martin, who wanted a facility which served health seekers and mining speculators. The business was managed by I22

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a local contractor named James Atkinson, who lived in the hotel and ran it through World War ll. An elegant and tasteful Renaissance Revival style building, the Acacia rivaled other fashionable downtown hotels like the Antlers, the Alta Vista and the Rex. It boasted electric lights, steam heat, telephones in every room, hot and cold water in every room and music every evening. On the west side of the lobby were the Paris Drug Store and a doctor's office When Spencer Penrose built a highway up Pikes Peak in 1915, Atkinson saw an opportunity to make his hotel a tourist destination by organizing promotional tours of western attractions like Pikes Peak. The Acacia, as well as its rivals, offered bus service from the train station and sightseeing tours of the city. The Great Depression and World War ll sent the tourist industry into a steep decline. In an attempt to boost business, the hotel opened its doors to families from Camp Carson who resided there on a permanent basis. Even though tourism picked up in the 1950s, the Acacia still lost money as visitors preferred to stay in the sleek, modem hotels that dotted Nevada Avenue. In 1972, the city purchased the Acacia from a local couple and converted it into apartments for seniors. The hotel was restored in 1989. The renovation project cost the city $1. 8 million and included the replacement of a 1902 stem locomotive engine that served as the hotel's boiler! Today, the Acacia looks much as it did a century ago A worthy downtown landmark, the Acacia has outlasted all its rivals as the oldest hotel in the heart of the city? 123

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Antlers Garage 22 West Pikes Peak Avenue Fig. 4.3. Antlers Garage Hidden down a side-street between the Penrose Public Library and Antlers is the last remaining built artifact from the Antlers Hotel. The Antlers Garage, now just a brick facade built in the Commercial style, welcomes visitors to the parking lot of the library. The Antlers Garage was built in 1921 from a design by prominent Colorado Springs architect Thomas McLaren. The front of the building is adorned with an elk's head and Van Briggle tiles. The portico was covered in terra cotta tile. When it was built, the Antlers Garage was reportedly the first commercial garage between the Mississippi River and the West Coast. It had enough capacity to hold 150 cars and was used principally by the guests of the Antlers Hotel. When the Antlers Hotel was tom down in 1964, the garage was kept. At some point it was acquired by the El Pomar Foundation, who, in tum, donated it to the Pikes Peak Library District in 1991. Most of the garage was demolished in 1996, to provide much-needed parking for patrons of the library. Today, visitors to the library drive through the south wall of the garage on their way to park. 8 124

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Carriage House Museum 1 Lake Avenue Fig. 4.4. Carriage House Museum The Carriage House, located in the Broadmoor Hotel complex near the Golf Club and Tennis Courts, is one of the most unique buildings in the city. When the hotel's founder, Spencer Penrose, died in 1939, his wife Julie had the building constructed to store her husband's carriage collection. The low, round, concrete building has a special set of oversize doors designed to make it easy for the vehicles to move in and out. Since its opening in the 1940s, the Carriage House has been a favorite attraction for Broadmoor guests. Over 7,500 visitors annually tour the museum and experience Penrose's impressive collection ofvehicles. Recently, however, the museum has experienced some setbacks. When Julie Penrose designed the building, she intended it to be used only as a storage facility. There is too much light and not enough humidity to effectively maintain the artifacts kept within. TheEl Pomar Foundation, owner of the Carriage House Museum, has considered upgrading the facility, but has had to put the project on hold in light of recent plans announced by the Broadmoor to redevelop the block. There has been some speculation that the Broadmoor may purchase the property and then tear it 125

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down or move it to make room for a row of private residences. At this point, however, the threat to the site does not seem substantial enough to warrant listing it as endangered. There remains an excellent chance that the Carriage House will continue to showcase Spencer Penrose's splendid carriage collection, whether from its current location or, perhaps, from another convenient spot.9 Cheyenne Hotel 2 -8 East Pikes Peak Avenue Fig. 4.5. Cheyenne Hotel Currently the home of a successful brew-pub called the Phantom Canyon Brewing Company, this three story Renaissance Revival style building was designed by the architecture team of Roberts and Bishoff in 1901. In the beginning, the site housed the offices of the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad. It was converted to a hotel in 1909. The hotel was made out of red and yellow brick and was adorned with the bust of a Cheyenne Indian over its northeast comer entrance. The roof was tiled in terra cotta. After the hotel closed, the building changed hands a number of times. In the late 1980s, it came close to being tom down a number of times. During the 1980s, the First National Bank owned the Cheyenne HoteL The Bank's office was located on northwest side of the same block. Sensing an 126

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opportunity, the Bank hoped to bulldoze the Cheyenne Hotel and build a new headquarters on the site. Due to restrictive banking laws and the stubbornness of nearby businesses that the bank planned to raze, First National ended up having to sell the hotel instead of tear it down. At that point, the Pikes Peak Library District, which was desperate for parking space adjacent to the Penrose Library, tried to buy the comer lot and demolish the hotel. These schemes prompted the City Preservation Board to designate the hotel as a Historic Preservation Overlay Zone. Any planned changes to the site were immediately postponed for ninety days, in order to give the building a chance at a second life. Saved from the wrecking ball in 1993, the historic Cheyenne Hotel was purchased by Denver restauranteur and mayor John Hickenlooper. With financing that he cobbled together, Hickenlooper performed a magnificent restoration of the old hotel. The Cheyenne Hotel, now known as the Phantom Canyon Brewing Company, is one of the most popular restaurants in town. Hickenlooper' s project has been credited with revitalizing the downtown area by bringing new life and energy to the city's stagnant core. 10 127

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Colorado .College Physical Plant/Van Briggle Art Pottery Factory 1125 Glen Avenue Residents of the historic North End have long appreciated the existence of this Art Nouveau treasure in their neighborhood. In fact, the red brick factory, with its distinctively tapered kiln chimneys and its tile ornamentation, is easily one of the most revered landmarks in the city .. Designed by Nicholas van den Ahrend in 1907 for a Dutch artist named Artus Van Briggle and his wife Anne, the Van Briggle Factory introduced the chic international "Art Nouveau" style to Colorado. Its success as a pottery studio specializing in the lost art of Chinese glazing is remarkable considering that Van Briggle arrived in Colorado Springs suffering from tuberculosis, with no money and a list of untrained, inexperienced assistants. Despite Colorado Springs' reputation for healthy living and miraculous triumphs over "The White Plague," Van Briggle died in 1904. The building, known as "The Memorial Pottery" was Anne Van Briggle's monument to her husband. It was built on land donated by General Palmer. Following Artus' death, Anne re-married and continued producing art pottery, but an unsuccessful restructuring of the business led to the building's sale in 1912. An investor named E. DeForest Curtis purchased the site, which freed up Anne to pursue her painting career and move to Denver. Through many years and many owners, the factory continued to produce art pottery based on Van Briggle's designs. In 1954, the pottery business, which at the 128

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time was owned by Kenneth Stevenson; was moved to the vacant Colorado Midland Terminal Railroad Roundhouse on 2181 Street and Cimarron Avenue . Colorado College purchased the old Dutch style factory with money from the Boettcher and Kresge Foundations. In 1970, the building's interior was remodeled to provide offices and shops for the school's physical plant. The exterior has been lovingly preserved and the grounds have been nicely landscaped with the addition of a sundial garden to the south of the building in the late 1960s.11 Denver and Rio Restaurant I 0 South Sierra Madre Street Fig. 4.6. Denver and Rio Grande Depot This sandstone and rhyolite Queen Anne style railroad depot is one of the oldest buildings in the city. It can be found west of and behind the Adam' Mark Antlers Hotel, on Sierra Madre Street. Set on the tracks of the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad, the depot often witnesses the passing of up to thirty trains a day. The rambling building, with its stained glass windows, tiled roo( donners and cupola, was designed by Frederick J. Sterner to mirror the architecture of its neighbor, the Antler's Hotel. The depot cost railroad magnate and town founder, 129

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Wtlliam Jackson Palmer, about $16,000 to build in 1887. It transported vacationing socialites, miners, TB patients and settlers to the City for eighty-four years, often making up to $30,000 a day on ticket sales. One of the most recognizable sites in town, the depot is rich with history and memorabilia. The Depot was the location of the fire which burned down the Antler's Hotel in 1898. A hobo had tossed a lit cigar into a trash heap near the building. The fire moved east, up the hill and rapidly consumed the beautiful hotel. The depot, however, was spared. Tasteful, corresponding additions added to the depot in 1901, 1911 and 1919 enabled the station to provide continuous passenger service until1971. In 1973, Giuseppe's restaurant, which had been operating out of the old Rex Hotel, purchased the depot and moved in. Inside the main lobby, guests can see the original twenty-five foot pine ceiling and floor tiles from 1887. Hundreds of historic photos and antiques grace the walls. The dining room is illuminated by gas from the comer ofPikes Peak and Cascade Avenues. The Pullman Lounge, named after the Pullman Palace Sleeping Cars of the steam era, was the Station master's office when the Depot was a working train station. Sensitively restored and filled with railroad artifacts, the Denver and Rio Grande Depot has been lovingly maintained by its current owners. A fine tradition of hospitality continues in Giuseppe's Restaurant. 12 130

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ElPaso Club 30 E. Platte Fig. 4. 7. El Paso Club TheEl Paso Club, an exclusive, private men's club organized in 1877, is believed to be the oldest town club west of Chicago. The building currently occupied by the Club was built in 1883 by Professor James H. Kerr as his residence. Prior to the construction of Kerr's home, a cottage owned by the first President of the Club, Major Wagner, stood on the property. The E1 Paso Club purchased Dr. Kerr's home in 1890 and has occupied the building ever since. Kerr's home was designed by architect James Ellis in the Queen Anne style. It is loaded with a variety of ornamentation and features a finial on top of the comer tower which was made by the Hassell Iron Works. Since its beginnings as a nine-man club which eschewed alcohol and firearms, the El Paso Club has grown steadily to its present-day membership of around four hundred. In earlier times, the Club was the fitvorite meeting place for mining millionaires and eastern blue bloods, who spent money lavishly on food and 131

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entertainment. The extravagant soirees hosted by the El Paso Club contnouted greatly to the city's cosmopolitan reputation. Today, membership in this powerful and elite club continues to a define a gentleman's status in the community. TheEl Paso Club's success and longevity are remarkable in an era unfavorable to private clubs. Many men's organizations have had difficulty surviving the protests from feminist groups. High maintenance costs could make the El Paso Club's future a precarious one but, for now, the grand, old Club flourishes as the only one of its kind in the west.13 Garvin Cabin Bancroft Park, Old Colorado City This much-loved historic site was built in 1859, the very first year of the founding of Colorado City. Its original use was as a home office and drug store for a local physician named Doctor Garvin. Unbeknownst to many residents, this modest building has experienced more history than any other still standing in the City. Members of the First Territorial Legislature caucused in the cabin in 1862. At various times, thetiny log building served as the County Seat, the City Morgue, Post Office, and Telegraph Office from its original location at 2620 West Colorado Avenue. It also housed Sam Wah's Chinese Laundry and Mrs. Hendee's Antique 132

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Shop in the 1920's. Garvin's Cabin was saved from the wrecking ball in 1927 by Spencer Penrose and Charles Tutt. They purchased the building for $400 and moved it near the 181h green of the Broadmoor Golf Course. Adding a quaint touch to the surrounding resort, the cabin remained at the Broadmoor until 1959. At that point, it was moved, log by log, to the grounds of the State Capitol to commemorate the state's centennial. After the celebration was over, the cabin was returned to its first home in Old Colorado City. In 1976, the Pikes Peak or Bust by '76 Centennial Committee received a grant from the El Pomar Foundation to restore the old cabin. During the last there decades, Garvin's Cabin has resided in Bancroft Park, next door to the Old Colorado City Historical Society and the 1904 Carnegie Library. From that central spot, the cabin has served as an information center and gathering place for old timers and visitors who want to learn more about the history of the Colorado's first Territorial Capitol. 14 Gray Rose 24 North Tejon Street At the time of its closing in 1997, the Gray Rose was the oldest continually operating retail establishment left downtown. Hibbard's Department Store down the street had previously earned that distinction, but it closed in 1996. The Gray Rose's owner, businesswoman and couture designer Irene Newcomb, built the Art-133

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Deco style building in 1939 with the help of a bank loan and support from her father. The structure was designed by architect Earl Dietz. The Gray Rose, with its asymmetrical, angled entrance and huge, two-storied glass windows, stands out from its neighbors on Tejon Street. For fifty-eight years, Newcomb's boutique provided wealthy customers with the finest couture, from traditional, classic clothing to high-end bridal wear. In the 1940s and 50s, the Gray Rose was the location of choice for fashion shows and alterations. In 1947, Newcomb enlarged her business, decorating the walls with rose-colored plaster and cream-colored leather. A sweeping, curved stairway of tinted plaster carried shoppers to the second floor. She also added a beauty salon in the rear and a new neon sign out front. As the years passed, the Gray Rose's established client base aged, as did the businesses' owner. Irene Newcomb was in her eighties when she decided to sell the business in 1997. Today, the unique and sophisticated Gray Rose building proudly displays motorcycles from behind its massive windows, instead of evening gowns. 15 134

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Halfway House 12 -14 East Boulder Street Fig. 4.8. Halfway House This attractive, cottage-like building is located mid-block on Boulder Street, in a heavily churched area oftown. The neighborhood's religious character proved to be the ideal location for the Halfway House; a therapuetic workshop to assist Tuberculosis patients who were "half way'' between sickness and health. Built in 1928 in the Tudor Revival style, the Halfway House features extensive half-timbering, a steeply pitched, gabled roof and a combination brick and stucco exterior. It is considered a particularly valuable site because of its fine craftsmanship, attractive design and quality materials. Although it was built downtown for commercial purposes, the structure has a distinctly residential feel. The Halfway House was considered part of the Community Chest, or ''Red Feather Agency," although it was.originallystarted with private funds. Mrs. William H. Evans built the house and endowed it in memory of her husband. The house contained a large, sunny work room, a carpenter shop and a gift shop. In the gift shop, articles made by patients, such as leather belts, woven place mats and tablecloths, were sold. In 1945, the original workshop was reorganized to function 135

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as a Rehabilitation Center. In the I950s, this charitable organization offered social services, occupational therapy and educational programs designed with the goal of returning patients to their normal lives. The house continued its humanitarian function until some time in the 1970s, when it began its new life as an insurance agency. Currently, this architectural treasure is being used as office space. 16 King's Chef Diner II 0 East Costilla Street This custom-made Valentine Diner, with its mediaeval towers, striped awnings and purple paint job, has been serving customers from its current location since 1957. Every day around lunch time, hungry diners can be seen lining up for one of the ten seats available in the tiny restaurant. One of only twenty Valentine Diners in the country, the King's Chef diner stood on the comer of Tejon and Costilla in I956. When Sam Johnson bought the resturaunt and moved it down Costilla Street, the diner was pink. In I976, Johnson painted it red, white and blue in honor of the nation's bi-centennial. In I99I, he sold the business to Merle and Sondra Moore who owned it for one and a half years before selling it again Gary Geiser, a young, Olympic-caliber bicycle racer and entrepreneur, purchased the Kings' Chef in 1997. Since then, the diner has earned a reputation for its delicious and fiery-hot green chile. Geiser, its chef and owner, is proud of the "Best Diner'' 136

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awards he receives annually from all the local papers. King's Chef still has all its original kitchen equipment. It has received an electric upgrade and the addition of a patio, but that is all. The castle-shaped diner serves breakfast and lunch only, and the wait for a stool is well worth it. When guests eat their entire order, they are rewarded with membership into the "Clean Plate Club" and given their choice of candy. Dining at this colorful and well-known spot is indeed a memorable event.17 Knights of Columbus Building 25 West Kiowa Street Fig. 4.9. Knights of Columbus Building The Knights of Columbus Building is easily dwarfed by its more prominent neighbors on Kiowa Street, namely the Carnegie Library, Penrose Public Library and St. Mary's Cathedral. This modest, Mediterranean Revival style structure was the home of the Colorado Springs Council No. 588 for only a few years; its longest and most memorable use being as a county museum. It is a lovely brick building with stone trim and tile ornamentation. The front, central arched parapet proudly displays the Knights of Columbus emblem. Most importantly, this old hall is significant as one of the few remaining downtown structures constructed by a 137

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fraternal order. In 1928, the Knights of Columbus built their new community center for a cost of$16,000. One of the last downtown structures designed by Thomas the building was intended to be used by young people in the community. It featured a large gymnasium with hardwood floors, men's locker rooms and a kitchen on the ground level and a tearoom with a fireplace on the upper floor. During the 1930's, the building was purchased by the City of Colorado Springs to house the collection of the El Paso County Pioneers Association. The museum continued to operate in the building until the late 1970's. During its occupancy, the Pioneer Museum installed a clock out in front of the site and constructed a rear addition in 1961. When the club was converted to office space in 1977, the interior was renovated and several windows were added to the west wall. In 1994, the Pikes Peak Library District purchased the building to use as a repository for printed information. They hope to make the site available as a research facility in the near future. 18 Maytag Building 701 South Cascade Avenue This International style building is of such unique construction and design that it richly deserves consideration as a local landmark. The Maytag Building was erected in 1957 from a design by the noted local architectural firm ofLusk and 138

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Wallace. Jun. Wallace won many awards for his design of the Broadmoor Community Church, the Air Force Academy VISitors Center and the Pikes Peak Center. L.B. Maytag, Jr., an heir to the estate ofF.L. Maytag, (of washingmachine fame), commissioned the project as office space for the Maytag Aircraft Refueling Company, which designed refueling systems. The contemporary design of the structure includes numerous aviation references. The exterior consists of blue glass and blue-green brick which was made especially for the project. The large, square, metal panels that wrap around the building are made to resemble airfoils. Part of the glass and aluminum framing system was patterned after an aerodynamic design of a house which Wallace visited in New England. The recessed foundation gives the structure the appearance of floating or hovering. Another interesting design feature was a tunnel, which was constructed to convey building systems to different parts of the main building. A separate structure was built on the south side of the main building, and housed the private offices of the Maytag family. Outside the site, a protected courtyard was designed to encourage employees to take breaks and hold meetings outdoors. After the Maytags left, the building was leased by an insurance company and an occupational therapist. Today, the site appears unchanged and is carefully maintained by its current owner, the Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA). CASA has done an excellent job tailoring their decorating to the sixties-feel of the building and is currently nominating this 139

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unusual site to the State Register.19 Municipal Utilities Building 18 South Nevada Avenue The Municipal Utilities Building on South Nevada is considered to be the best non-residential example of the Art Deco style in the city. The building was constructed in 1931 from a design by architect Thomas D. Hetherington. The structure's Zigzag styling is representative of early Art Deco buildings from the 1920s and 1930s. The lavish ornamentation, exotic, geometric designs and terra cotta features on the building's facade remain intact. Of equal importance is the fact that the building is completely :fireproof with reinforced concrete and steel joints. The structure's foundation and framework were designed for the addition of extra stories if needed. A model of efficiency, the Municipal Utilities Building was planned as a showcase of modem technology and labor conservation. Because it was built to be toured by utility and building trade experts, the highest quality of building materials and furnishings were used. The glass-fronted showrooms displayed and sold the latest energy saving devices, including lighting, heating and household equipment. Historically, this building is representative of the growth of municipal operations in the city. The city paid for the $110,000 structure entirely from Utility Department funds without having to issue bonds or take out a loan. 140

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Today, this significant structure is still as elegant and pristine as it was when it was built. It remains a strikingly handsome even though it is sandwiched between two large, modem office buildings which tower above it. The city's Utilities District continues to use the building for office space and storage. 20 Myron Stratton Home Colorado Highway 115 and Southgate Road Fig. 4.10. Myron Stratton Home When Wmfield Scott Stratton, one of the city's most colorful and tragic benefactors, passed away in 1902, he left behind a will that would be disputed for the next thirteen years. Called the ''Midas of the Rockies" by many, Stratton had stipulated that the lion's share of his estate, some $4.4 million, be used to build a home for orphans and the elderly poor. Throughout his lifetime, Stratton made generous gifts of his Cripple Creek millions to the city. Projects funded by Stratton included a new street car system, a baseball park, land on which to build City Hall and the post office, the :Mining Exchange Building, parks, buildings and bicycles for the city's laundresses. So, it was ironic that his final wish should be so vehemently rejected by the very citizens for whom Stratton had done so much. Members of the 141

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City's upper crust complained about the vagrants that the home might release onto the streets, as well as the crime rate which would undoubtably soar when this "menace to society'' moved in. However, Stratton's ironclad will withstood years of challenges and eventually prevailed. In 1909, the Myron Stratton Home Foundation (named after Stratton's father) purchased 2,400 acres on the south side of town. Interestingly, one of the property's previous owners had been Count Pourtales who aspired to turn the land into elegant homes for the City's aristocrats, but went bankrupt instead. On the Stratton Home campus, architect Maurice B. Biscoe built a beautiful Mediterranean Revival style filcility, complete with villas, dormitories and treatment centers. The first elderly residents moved into the Home in 1913, followed by the children in -1914. All guests were required to be Colorado residents, with special preference given to El Paso County residents. Between that time and 1979, some 7,000 children lived at the Home and received free, long-term residential care. Mostly orphans, these childrens' lives were substantially improved by the services afforded them by the Home. By the late 1970s, federal legislation had affected the Home by emphasizing the use of foster homes rather than institutionalized care for orphan children. In response to the new laws, the Home shifted its focus and began offering outpatient treatment for emotionally disturbed children. Meanwhile, traditional care for the elderly continued without interruption. In the 1980's the Home's annual operating budget of$2.1 million was routinely 142

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exceeded. By 1989, operating expenses had reached $4 million. Concerned trustees petitioned the 4111 Judicial Court to convert the trust into a grant-making foundation. Another great public uproar ensued when the Home was about to be closed. Citing the crucial need that the Home was meeting in present day society, the judge ruled that it should stay open. However, some provisions were made as to the way the Home was run. The judge permitted the Myron Stratton Home to contract for services and allowed elderly residents to be charged a small amount for rent. The Home also contracted with the Denver-based Cleo Wallace Center to provide residential and outpatient psychiatric services. Since that time, the cottages where seniors lived have been remodeled. Also, the infirmary has been changed into.an assisted living facility. Unlike any other residential treatment facility in the city, the Myron Stratton Home has endured nearly a centwy of change and growth. Although its grounds have been whittled away to a mere 100 acres, the Myron Stratton Home remains an important landmark because it is a great source of local pride and goodvvill. 21 Patty Jewett Golf Club 900 East Espanola Patty Jewett Golf Course, located near Colorado Springs historic North End, has been in continuous operation since 1898 and ranks as the third oldest golf 143

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course west of the Mississippi. Like so many early courses, Patty Jewett started out as a private club called the Town and Gown Club. The course, with its breathtaking view ofPikes Peak, was designed by a colorful Scot named Willie Campbell. When it went bankrupt, a New York banker named William E. Jewett bought it along with a few other business partners. Jewett eventually bought out all of the other investors and, for unknown reasons, moved to California. His wife Patty, an avid golfer, died there in 1917 at age 58. Two years later, W.E. Jewett deeded the golf course to the City. His stipulations for the gift were that the course had to be named after his wife, Patty Stuart Jewett, and that the grounds must never be anything but a golf course or park. He also insisted that all revenue generated at the golf course had to remain there. Finally, Jewett mandated that all golfers be at least I 0 years of age or older. This generous gift has had a profound impact on Colorado Springs. Not only is it one of the most beautiful places in the city, but is also the city's most popular and profitable golf course. In the mid 1990's, Patty Jewett ranked number one for rounds played. The course generates hundreds of thousands of dollars in profits each year, which enables the green fees to stay low. Patty Jewett's junior golf program is the best in the city and has been the training ground for golf legends like Hale Irwin, Judy Bell and Byron Nelson. A stop in the Spanish Eclectic style clubhouse reveals fine, wood paneled rooms and grand views of the Front Range. In 1998, the course celebrated its I oolh 144

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Anniversary with a party that included speeches by Patty Jewett's relatives and friends. A lush, treed haven in a modest neighborhood, Patty Jewett is a cherished retreat for golfers of all ages and abilities. 22 Payne Chapel 128 Pueblo Avenue Fig. 4.11. Payne Chapel Even though it is now just more office space in the city's ever expanding business district, the Payne Chapel has special significance to Colorado Springs' black community. One of only two black congregations formed early in the city's history, the African Methodist Episcopal Church was a dedicated and prosperous force of influential Christians. Four brothers from the African Methodist Episcopal faith, Laurence, Isaiah, A W. and Oliphant Carter, founded Payne Chapel in 1872, and built a small, wooden frame church on land donated by General Wtlliam. Jackson Palmer. The church was named in honor of their leader, Bishop D.A Payne. For seventeen years, members of the congregation served the Lord and fought racial injustice from these modest headquarters. When the congregation outgrew their church in 1918, they moved the structure and built a rough faced 145

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ashlar, Gothic Revival style chapel in its place. Members of the church helped with the project by transporting stones from Bear Creek by horse and wagon. The completed church featured leaded, arched Gothic windows, a bell tower with a louvered belfry and a front facing, steep gabled roof. Over the years, the members of Payne Chapel became more politically active in the community as well as in the national Civil Rights Movement. When W.E.B. DuBois, founder of the NAACP, came to town and was told he could not speak on City property, the members of Payne Chapel opened their doors to him. In fact, DuBois ended up marrying the daughter of Payne Chapel's minister, the Rev. D.A Graham. The church also hosted the first meetings of the NAACP in Colorado Springs and its pastor in 1918, the Rev. A Wayman Ward, served as the organization's first president. Many leaders of the local NAACP came from the Payne Chapel congregation. Moreover, members participated in marches and rallies which focused on fairer treatment for blacks. In the 1980's, the congregation added a new front entry to the which doesn't do justice to the rustic, European elegance evidenced by the rest of the site. Payne Chapel continued to flourish throughout the last century, closing its doors in the last five years as the neighborhood became more commercial and membership declined. 23 146

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The Tum of the Century Building 725 -733 North Tejon Street .,U;i __ .. Fig. 4.12. Tum of the Century Building This Classically inspired residential complex on North Tejon Street, near the Colorado College campus,. was one of the first luxury apartment blocks built in the City. This structure, made from pink brick and wood trim, was erected during a time of major construction activity in the city. The early decades of the last century witnessed a huge building boom in the city as miners who had struck it rich in the Cripple Creek gold fields retired to "Little London" and the genteel, cultured life it offered. A local businessman named J.F. Murphy financed the construction of the 32-room building in 1902. The Tum-of-the-Century Apartments is one of the few buildings remaining on North Tejon which was built for residential purposes, as most of the others have been converted to commercial use. Throughout the last century, the building has served various residential, office and retail purposes and continues to be a commercial center. Very little in the way of alteration or renovation has been done; only some modem doors and windows have been added, along with metal railings. Otherwise, the separate, covered entrances, the pillared porches and contrasting wood trim still remain and have been lovingly maintained. 147

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Adding to the site's significance is the fact that it reflects the city's change from the use of red brick to lighter colored brick in its major downtown structures. The Apartments are also a unique example of a townhouse built to resemble English Council houses; a style not seen elsewhere in the city.24 Woodmen of the World Sanatarium/Mount St. Francis 7665 Assissi Heights Fig. 4.13. Woodmen of the World Sanitarium The Modem Woodmen of America, a national fraternal benefit society, was founded in 1893 by Joseph Cullen Root in Lyons, Iowa. As its membership became increasingly afflicted with Tuberculosis, the Modem Woodmen took steps to help them by establishing a sanatarium in Colorado Springs. other open air hospitals located in the health mecca, the Woodmen Sanatarium was constructed with the belief that the City's dry air would increase resistance to the disease. Funded by allocations from the Modem Woodmen of America and from volunteer contributions, the Sanatarium was constructed in 1909 about eleven miles northwest of downtown. The Sanatarium was a self-contained community on 1,360 acres in an area known as Mount Cedar Valley. At its height, the site 148

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contained an administration building, receiving hospital, auditorium, tent cottages, laundry, post office, greenhouses, 24 staff homes, a 200-acre garden, a large dairy herd and a central heating plant. Most of the structures were built out of native granite in the Craftsman style, with red tile roofs. By 1925, there were seventeen hospitals and sanatorium in the Colorado Springs area. The Modem Woodmen Sanatarium was the largest. For thirty-seven years, this rustic and yet modem hospital provided free treatment to more than 12,000 members. The care given at the Modem Woodmen Sanatarium resulted in a seventy-five percent recovery rate among its 12,000 patients. As the medical treatment of the disease improved and the prevalence of tuberculosis declined, the Sanatarium gradually became obsolete. In 1950, the land was sold to Blevins Davis. Through the estate ofDavis' wife, Marguerite Hill Davis, the complex was donated to the Sisters ofPerpetual Adoration in 1954, who used it for a convent. Known today as Mount St. Francis, the health-oriented complex works to enhance the spiritual, mental and physical well-being of its guests. The Sisters' ministries at Mount St. Francis includes a nursing center, retreat center and Franciscan Family Counseling Program. Proud of their history in health care, the Sisters of Mount St. Francis offer tours of the old sanitarium which includes a trip around the grounds and a look inside a restored tent-cottage. 25 149

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PHOTOGRAPHS All photographs are part of the author's personal collection except as noted. The photographs listed below appear courtesy of the Special Collections Department of the Pikes Peak Library District, Penrose Public Library. Page 121 -Acacia Park Page 141 -Myron Stratton Home Page 148 Woodmen of the World Sanitarium 150

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NOTES 1 Jones, Judith. Letter to the author. 2 March 2004. 2 City of Colorado Springs. Comprehensive Planning Department. Historic Preservation Plan. Colorado Springs: City of Colorado Springs, 1993. 3 City of Colorado Springs. Historic Preservation Plan. 1993. 4 Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 17 March 2004. 5 State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Colorado State Register of Historic Properties Nomination Form. Denver: OAHP, nd. 6 Sources for the history of Acacia Park include: Thomas J., and Cathleen M Norman A Pikes Peak Partnership. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2000. 77. Owen-Cooper, Teresa. "Acacia Park: Downtown's Melting Pot." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph. 13 August 1995: B1-2. State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Architectural Site Detail. Denver: OAHP, 1995 . 7 Sources for the history of the Acacia Hotel include: Curtin, Dave. "Acacia Hotel Aging Gracefully at 90." Colorado Springs Gazette 31 July 1997: N1-4. 151

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State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Architectural Site Detail. Denver: OAHP, I985 . 8 Sources for the history of the Antlers Garage include: Bounds, Amy. "Library Remodeling Hotel Garage." Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph II July I996: B3. State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Architectural Site Detail. Denver: OAHP, I995 . Unknown author. ''Work Started Yesterday on Antlers Hotel Garage." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 20 December I92I:1-6. 9 Sources for the history of the Carriage House Museum include: Mason, Beverly. Telephone interview. I7 November 2003. I 0 Sources for the history of the Cheyenne Hotel include: Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 4 March 2004. State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Architectural Site Detail. Denver: OAHP, 1985
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. oahp.org/compass/OAHP/M _l)isplay.asp>. "Welcome." Phantomcanyon.com. 2001. Phantom Canyon Brewing Co. 4 March 2004 . 11 Sources for the history of the Colorado College Physical Plant include: Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center. Van Briggle Pottery: The Early Years. Colorado Springs: The Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, 1975. Van Briggle Pottery Office. Telephone intenriew. 17 March 2004. 12 Sources for the history of the Denver and Rio Grande Depot include: "Giuseppe's Old Depot Restaurant." Guisewes-de,pot.com 2001. Giuseppe's Old Depot Restaurant. 5 March 2004 . Noel, Thomas J. Buildings of Colorado. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.290. Skolout, Patricia Farris. Colorado Springs HistoJY A to Z. Colorado Springs: Patricia Farris Skolout, 1989. 1-9. 13 Sources for the history of the El Paso Club include: "History." Elpasoclub.com. n.d. El Paso Club. 5 March 2004 . Scanlon, Tim. Personal interview. 9 September 2003. 153

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Skolout. 11-12. 14 Sources for the history of the Garvin Cabin include: Aldridge, Dorothy. Historic Colorado City. Colorado Springs: Little London Press, 1996. 11. Geiss, Liz; Personal interview. 14 August 2003. 15 Sources for the history of the Gray Rose include: Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 4 March 2004. Turnis, Jane. "Goodbye, Gray Rose." Colorado Springs Gazette 17 July 1997: AI. Unknown author. ''Newly Remodeled Gray Rose To Hold Open House Monday." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 27 April1947: D5. 16 Sources for the history of the Halfway House include: Sack, Gudrun. "The HalfWay House." Ent-Ries October 1956: 1-7. Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 4 March 2004. State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. ArchitectUral Site Detail. Denver: OAHP, 1985 . State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Historic Building Inventory Record. Denver: OAHP, 1985. 154

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17 Sources for the history of the King Chef Diner include: Geiser, Gary. Personal interview. 16 August 2003. 18 Sourees for the history of the Knights of Columbus Building include: Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 17 March 2004. State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Architectural Site Detail. Denver: OAHP, 1985 . State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Historic Building Inventory Record. Denver: OAHP, 1985. 19 Sources for the history of the Maytag Building include: Scanlon, Tim. Memorandum from meeting with Jtm Wallace. Spring 2001. Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 17 March 2004. Struller, Trudy. Telephone interview. 19 March 2004. 20 Sources.for the history of the Municipal Utilities Building include: Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 4 March 2004. State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Architectural Site Detail. Denver: OAHP, 1983 . 155

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State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. ArchitecturaliHistorical Component Form. Denver: OAHP, 1983. 21 Sources for the history of the Myron Stratton Home include: Campbell, Bob. "The Historical Legacy ofWmfield Scott Stratton." The Cheyenne Edition 31 July 1998: 1-17. Skolout. 49-50. State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Architectural Site Detail. Denver: OAHP, 1980 . 22 Sources for the history of Patty Jewett Golf Course include: City of Colorado Springs. Parks and Recreation Department.. Pattv Jewett Golf Course. Colorado Springs: Parks and Recreation Department. 2001. 2 March 2004 . Holland, David R "Patty Jewett Golf Course., RockiesGolf.com. 2002. Rockies GolfWebsite. 2 March 2004 . 156

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Noreen, Barry. ''Patty Jewett Breaks 50." Colorado Springs Gazette 5 August 1998: AI. 23 Sources for the history of the Payne Chapel include: State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Architectural/Historical Component Form. Denver: OAHP, 1985. 24 Sources for the history of the Tum of the Century Building include: State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Architectural Site Detail. Denver: OAHP, 1985 . State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Historic Building Inventozy Record. Denver: OAHP, 1985. 25 Sources for the history of the Woodmen Simitarium include: Sullivan, Jon'al. "Mount St. Francis Has Roots In Sanitarium." Colorado Springs Gazette 2 August 1999: N4. Modem Woodmen of America's Tuberculosis Sanitarium. Colorado Springs: Mount St. Francis Ministries, n.d. 157

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CHAPTERS CONCLUSION In conclusion, an examination of the historic sites which Colorado Springs has lost, is about to lose and should landmark reveals that there is still much work to be done by both citizens and elected officials to protect the community's heritage. If the city wants to have a preservation program that can compete with other large cities iike Denver and Boulder, they need to act quickly, before more resources are lost. To begin with, instead of just providing technical assistance, information and guidance to citizens, the city government needs to lead by example. The city-sponsored restoration of City Hall in 2000 was a positive effort that inspired the community. Unfortunately, when faced with a budget crisis, the city's solution to auction off sites like its National Register-listed Auditorium sends the wrong message to its citizens. Moreover, the current Administration's tendency to regard development as a basic industry and its reluctancy to see the value in historic preservation sets a bad precedent. Additionally, the mayor's tacit support for reversing the overlay zoning in the historic North End sends a message that the city is unwilling to dig in and enforce its own rules when a few citizens complain. 158

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Other issues concerning preservation continue to bubble to the surface. For example, there are many people within city government as well as private citizens who feel that the city's preservation ordinance is too weak because the consequences for violating the ordinance are not severe enough. Effective enforcement of the ordinance continues to be a concern for those committed to saving Colorado Springs' history. Moreover, when the citizens of Colorado passed the Taxpayer Bill of Rights (TABOR) in 1992, state and local government spending was severely curtailed. The city's ability to hire consultants to develop programs like historic signage, a speaker's bureau, and an educational program for school children has been hampered: Their Historic Preservation Plan supports the establishment of financial incentives to maintain historic sites and calls for the creation of a technical assistance program to help citizens nominate their properties to the National Register. These projects have been stymied because of the funding limits imposed by TABOR If TABOR limits are delaying the instigation of the city's Preservation Plan, the city needs to search for alternate funding sources. The time has come for the city to begin to rely more on community non-profit groups like Colorado Preservation, Inc. and the Historic Preservation Allaince to assist with grant writing and fundraising in support of their programs. tntimately, the fate of Colorado Springs' historic structures depends on its 159

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community and how much they care. It is my belief that the more our citizens learn about the history of their home, the more committed they will be to save it. It is up to citizen groups to expand their educational efforts. So much more could be done by homeowner's associations and newcomer's groups to teach new residents about the city's heritage. Above all, citizens must place a higher price on their membership in this community by encouraging each other to learn about its history. If they don't know what is worth saving in their city, how can they save it? In the words of Sidney Hyman, from his 1966 book, With Heritage So Rich. ... a nation can be a victim of amnesia, it can lose the memories of what it was, and thereby lose the sense of what it is or wants to be."1 160

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NOTES 1 Jones, Judith Rice. Letter to the author. 2 March 2004. 161

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BffiLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Aldridge, Dorothy. Historic Colorado City. Colorado Springs: Little London Press, 1996. Cafky, Morris and John Haney. Pikes Peak Trolleys. Colorado Springs: Century One Press, 1983. City of Colorado Springs Parks and Recreation Department. A Living Legacy The Stozy ofParks and Recreation in Colorado Springs. Colorado Springs: Colorado Springs Parks and Recreation Department, 1996. Collins, Richard C., Elizabeth B. Waters, and A Bruce Dotson. America's Downtowns. New York: Preservation Press, 1991. Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center. Van Briggle Pottery: The Early Years. Colorado Springs: The Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, 1975. Colorado Springs Fire Department Centennial Committee. Colorado Springs Fire Department100 Years ofPublic Service. Colorado Springs: Colorado Springs Fire Department Centennial Committee, 1994. Feitz, Leland. A Pictorial History of Colorado Springs. Colorado Springs: Little London Press,. 2000. Freed, Elaine and David Barber. Historic Sites and StructuresEl Paso County. Colorado. Colorado Springs: El Paso County Land Use Department, 1977. Geiger, Helen M The Broadmoor Stmy. Colorado Springs: AB. Hirschfeld Press, 1968. Hill, Robert. Colorado College. 1874-1999 -A History ofDistinction. Colorado Springs: Colorado College Office of College Relations, 1998. 162

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Hughes, David R Historic Old Colorado City. Colorado Springs: Old Colorado City District, 1978. Kitch, Jr., John, and Betsy B. Kitch. Woodmen Valley. 2nd ed. Palmer Lake: The Filter Press, 1983. Lee, Thors R Rock Island Westward. Manhattan: AG. Press, 1998. Loe, Nancy E. Life in the Altitudes. Woodland Hills: Wmdsor Publications, 1983. Maddex, Diane, ed. Master Builders -A Guide to Famous America Architects. Washington, D.C.: The Preservation Press, 1985. Mansfield, Howard. The Same Ax. Twice. Hanover: University Press ofNew England, 2000. McAlester, Vrrginia and Lee McAlester. A Field Guide to American Houses, New York: Alfred Knopf, 1984. McKay, Douglas R Asylum of the Gilded Pill. Denver: State Historical Society of Colorado, 1983. Monahan, Sherry. Pikes Peak Adventurers. Communities and Lifestyles. Chicago: Arcadia Publishing, 2002. Moore, Arthur Cotton. The Powers of Preservation. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998. Noel, Thomas J. Denver Landmarks and Historic Districts. Niwot: University Press ofColorado, 1996. Noel, Thomas J. Buildings of Colorado. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. Noel, Thomas J., and Cathleen M Norman. A Pikes Peak Partnership. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2000. Norman, Cathleen M In and Around Old Colorado City. Lakewood: Preservation Publishing, 2001. 163

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Ormes, Manly D. The Book of Colorado Springs. Colorado Springs: Dentan Printing Co., 1933. Reid, J. Juan. Colorado CollegeThe First Centwy 1874-1974. Colorado Springs: Colorado College, 1979. Reid, J. Juan. Growing up in Colorado Springs: The 1920's Remembered. Colorado Springs: Century One Press, 1981. Ruhtenberg, Polly King and Dorothy E. Smith. Henry McAllister: Colorado Pioneer. South Dakota: Pine Hill Press, 1972. Seibel, Harriet. A Histmy of the Colorado Springs Schools District 11. Colorado Springs: Century One Press, 1975. Shaw, Lloyd. Pictorial Guide of Colorado Springs and the RoclgrMountains. Denver: The Smith-Brooks Press, n.d. Skolout, Patricia Farris. Colorado Springs Histozy. A to Z. Colorado Springs: Patricia Skolout, 1999. Sprague, Marshall. Chinook: Promise of Spring. Colorado Springs:.The Chinook Bookshop, Inc., n.d. Stark, Dolores. The Story of the Historic Jackson House. Colorado Springs: O'Brien Typesetting and Printing, Inc., 1969. Tyler, Norman. Historic Preservation. 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2000. Wtlcox, Rhoda Davis. The Man on the Iron Horse. Colorado Springs: The Dentan Printing Company, 1959. PERIODICALS "A City By Design." Colorado Springs Gazette 27 July 1997: AI+. "Alta Vista Hotel." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 11 May 1963: 1. 164

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"AltaVista Hotel Razing Slated During March." Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph I February 1963: I. Ames, :Michele and John Diedrich .. ''Downtown's Dixie Demolished." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 22 October 1998: Nl. "Bridge Exceeds Life Expectancy." Colorado Springs Cheyenne Edition 20 June 2003: 11. Campbell, Bob. "The Historical Legacy ofWmfield Scott Stratton." Colorado Springs Cheyenne Edition 31 July 1998: 1-17. Christensen, Anne. ''Mom-and-Pops Built on Dreams." Colorado Springs Gazette 31 March 2000: n.p. "City Bridges Inspected Infrequently." Colorado Springs Cheyenne Edition 13 June 2003:20. "Colorado Springs' New and Modem Playhouse." Colorado Springs Gazette 16 February 1908: 88. "Council Rejects Cotton Club Bid for Relocation." Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph 13 August 1975: BIO. "Crew of 53 Begin Wrecking Old High School Building." Colorado Springs Gazette 6 December 1938: 3. DeGette, Cara. "Gold Hill or Toxic Pile?" Colorado Springs Independent 1 March 1995: n.p. Delaney, Ted. "Rhythms of the Cotton Club Still Felt." Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph 8 January 1989: Bl. Duval, Linda. "Courthouse Celebrates Birthday." Colorado Springs Gazette 19 October 2003: L1-2. ''El Paso Canal." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 10 July 1994, Dl+. 165

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Emery, Erin. ''Everybody Welcome." Colorado Springs GazetteTelegraph 25 February 1995: AI. Epstein, Warren. "History Coming Right Up!" Colorado Springs Gazette 7 September 1993: n:p. Feitz, Leland. "The Church of England's Little London Home." Silhouette Magazine 2 January 1972: 4. Foster, Dora. "Peak Region Yesterdays." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph I December 1963: C2. Foster, Dora. ''Pikes Peak Region Yesterdays." Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph II Aprill965: D7. Gibney, Jim. "A Glorious Farewell." The Denver Post 6 February 1994: n.p. "Golden Cycle Dump-Monument to an Era." Colorado Springs Free Press 19 December 1956: n.p: ''Historic Churches Find Afterlife in Commerce." Colorado Springs Gazette 31 May 2003: Ll-5. Hutchinson, W.G. School Board Asks For Federai Grant For New Buildings." Colorado Springs GazetteTelegraph 4 August 1938: AI. Laden, Rich. "Auditorium Block Evaluated." Colorado Springs Gazette 24 October 2003: Bl+. Laden, Rich. "What's in a Name?" Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 19 February 2001: m:s. ''Uindmarks Preservation Committee Formed Here." Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph 14 January 1965: Bl. Lawrence, Carol. ''Locations." Colorado Springs Gazette n.d., n.p. "Lifestyles." Colorado Springs Gazette 18 November 1990, 18. 166

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McKenzie, Bill. ''Ute Theater Faces Wrecking Ball." The Free Press 31 December 1967: 6-7. McKeown,Bill. "Group Still Hopes.to Save Dixie." Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph 3 October 1998: N3. ''Newly Remodeled Gray Rose to Hold Open House Monday." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 27 April1947: DS. Noreen, Barry. ''Patty Jewett Breaks 50." Colorado SpriAgs Gazette 5 August 1998: Al. Owen-Cooper, Teresa. "Acacia Parle Downtown's Melting Pot." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 13 August 1995: Bl-2. Phillips, David. ''Miracle on Conejos Street." Colorado Springs Gazette, 5 July 2003: L1-3. Sack, Gudrun. "The Half-Way House." Ent-Ries October 1956: 1-7. Sanger, Ann. "The House That JliDDlie Built...Falls." Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph 24 March 1973: D24-25. Smith, Linda D. "Springs' Cotton Club Catered To All Races With Hospitality." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 20 January 1985: Fl. "Sprague Recalls Broadmoor Casino at Historical Meet." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 18 January 1961: 13-8. Sullivan, Jon'al. ''Mount St. Francis Has Roots In Sanitarium." Colorado Springs Gazette 2 August 1999: N4. Turnis, Jane. "Goodbye, Gray Rose." Colorado Springs Gazette 17 July 1997: Al. Tumis, Jane. "Pulling Up Some Very Deep Roots." Colorado Springs Gazette 16 August 1999: m8. Vogrin, Bill. ''Resident Unearths Neighborhood's Wdd Past." Colorado Springs Gazette 25 September 2003: Ml-4. 167

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"Walls Come Tumbling Down at Broadmoor Arena." Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph 21 April1994: AI. Walsh, Chris. "Tech Firm Takes Hibbard's." Colorado Springs Gazette 14 April 2000: Bl. Wear, Ben. "Downtown's Peak Theater Losing its Lease on Life After 52 Years." Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph 1989: Al-3. PAMPHLETS Childs-Drexel Home for Union Printers. Colorado Springs: Union Printers Home, 1892. Freed, Elaine. Iron Goods and Iron Work. Colorado Springs: Springs Area Beautiful Association, n.d. Modern Woodmen of America's Tuberculosis Sanitarium. Colorado Springs: Mount St. Francis Ministries, n.d. One Hundredth Anniversary Committee -Union Printers Home. The Union Printer's Home-18921992 Colorado Springs: One Hundredth Anniversary Committee, 1992. 9 -15. GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS City of Colorado Springs. Department of Comprehensive Planning. Historic Preservation Plan. Colorado Springs: Department of Comprehensive Planning, 1993. City of Colorado Springs. Parks and Recreation Department. Historical Ownership of the Garden of the Gods. Colorado Springs: City of Colorado Springs, 2001. 19 February 2004 . 168

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City of Colorado Springs. Parks and Recreation Department. PattY Jewett Golf Course. Colorado Springs: Parks and Recreation Department. 2001. 2 March 2004 . State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic.Preservation. Architectural/Historical Component Form. Denver: OAHP, 1983. State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Architectural Site Detail. Denver: OAHP, 1983 . State of Colorado. Colorado Preservation Office. Architectural/Historical Component Form. Denver: State of Colorado, 1985. Resource No. 5EP 643. State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Architectural Site Detail. Denver: OAHP, 1985 . State of Colorado. Colorado Historical Society. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Historic Building Inventmy Record. Denver: O.AHP, 1985. State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Architectural Site Detail. 1 May 1985. 19 February 2004 . State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Architectural Site Detail. 1 May 1985. 24 February 2004 . State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Architectural Site Detail. Denver: OAHP, 1995 . State of Colorado. Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Cultural Resource Re-evaluation Form. Denver: O.AHP, 1998. 169

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State of Colorado, Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Colorado State Register ofHistoric Properties Nomination Form. Denver: OAHP, n.d. United States. Department of the Interior. National Register of Historic Places .Registration Form. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, I998. VIDEOTAPES Colorado College -A Place ofLearning. Dir. Robert D. Loevy, Colorado College. Videocassette. Loevy Video Productions. I999. SPEECHES Clark, Sally, "History of the Chadbourn Spanish Gospel Mission," Meeting of the Historic Preservation Alliance, Carnegie Library, Colorado Springs. 8 January 2004. Jones, Judith Rice. Address. Monument Valley Park Forum. City Council Chambers, Colorado Springs. 28 February 2004. Jones, Judith Rice. ''History ofPreservation Groups in Colorado Springs." Meeting of the Historic Preservation Alliance Board ofDirectors. Petersen Air Force Base, Colorado Springs. I4 February 2004. Mayberry, Matt. "The Unique History of the Founding of Colorado Springs." Monument Valley Park Forum. City Council Chambers, Colorado Springs. 28 February. INTERVIEWS Barnes, William. Telephone interview. I8 September 2003. Barry, Deb. Telephone interview. 21 October 2003. Bayles, Kimball. Telephone interview. 13 January 2004 Billings, Marilyn. Personal interview. II October 2003. Cortiz, Mary. Telephone interview. 16 January 2004 Geiser, Gary. Personal interview. 16 August 2003. 170

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Geiss, Liz. Personal interview. 14 August 2003. Gonzalez, Kathie. Personal interview. 5 September 2003. Guy, Richard. Personal interview. 11 November 2003. Handen, Steve. Telephone interview. 16 January 2004. Haney, John. Personal interview. 28 January 2004. Hitch, Laura. Personal interview. 15 January 2004. Mann, Ruth. Telephone interview. 5 February 2004. Mason, Beverly. Telephone interview. 17 November 2003. Mitgard, Kris. Telephone interview. 14 January 2004. Pelles, Steve. Telephone interview. 4 February 2004. Reece, David. Telephone interview. 14 January 2004 Roberts, Greg. Personal interview. 28 January 2004. Ryan, David. Personal interview. 22 August 2003. Scanlon, Tim. Personal interview. 9 September 2003. Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 26 September 2004. Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 4 March 2004. Scanlon, Tim. Telephone interview. 17 March 2004 . Spencer, Alice. Personal interview: 29 August 2003. Stroller, Trudy. Telephone interview. 19 March 2004. Turner, Ray. Personal interview. 3 December 2003. Van Briggle Pottery Office. Telephone interview. 17 March 2004. Vigil, Tom(?) Telephone interview. 25 September 2003. Wmemiller. Telephone interview. 2 February 2004. Doyle, Pat. ''Re: Endangered List." E-mail to the author. 29 July 2003 Holcomb, Patricia. Memo to the author. 28 May 2003. Jones, Judith. Letter to the author. 2 March 2004. Jones, Judith Rice. ''Re: City Auditorium." E-mail to Historic Preservation Alliance Board ofDirectors. 18 September 2003. 171

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Mundy, Catherine. "Historic Medians Colorado Springs, Colorado." Colorado's Most Endangered Places Nomination Form. 30 August 2001. Stivers, Joyce. "City Auditorium." E-mail to Historic Preservation Alliance Board ofDirectors. 16 September 2003. Stivers, Joyce. "City Auditorium Endangered!" E-mail to Historic Preservation Alliance Board ofDirectors. 8 August 2003. Stivers, Joyce. "Summer Historic Tour #8." E-mail to Historic Preservation Alliance members. 26 August 2003. MANUSCRIPT COLLECTIONS Lipsey, Julia Hassell. The Hassell Iron Works. Historical Society of the Pikes Peak Region, Colorado Springs. Special Collections, Penrose Public Library, 18 June 1957. Palmer, William Jackson. Letter. Century Chest Collection. Colorado College, Colorado Springs. 1 August 1901. Sweimler, Joel El Paso Canal. Unpublished essay. Special Collections Penrose Public Library. 1980. INTERNET SITES "Colorado's Endangered Places Program," Colorado Preservation. Inc .. Ed. Traci C. Worm, 2001. Colorado Preservation, Inc., Denver. 28 January 2004 . Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind. 2003. 5 September 2003 . ''Emory John Brady Hospital," Pikes Peak Libraty District Special Collections. 193 7 1981. Pikes Peak Library District Manuscript Collection Number MSS 0030. 26 January 2004, 172

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. Flyingw.com. 2004. Flying W Ranch. 26 February 2004 . "Giuseppe's Old Depot Restaurant." Guiseppes-depot.com. 2001. 5 March 2004 . ''History." Elpasoclub.com. n.d. El Paso Club. 5 March 2004 . Holland, David R "Patty Jewett Golf Course." RockiesGolf.com. 2002 Rockies GolfWebsite. 2 March 2004 . Starr Kempf Eds. Paul Nickels and E. Gill. 1987. 14 January 2004. . ''The Gateway Rocks." Geocities.com. 2004. Geocities Website. 19 February 2004 . "Welcome." Phantomcanyon.com. 2001. Phantom Canyon Brewing Co. 4 March 2004 . MISCELLANEOUS SOURCES Colorado Springs Psychopathic Hospital plaque on hospital wall. Verner Z. Reed. Index cardLocal History File. Colorado Springs: Penrose Public Library. 173