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Teachers' perceptions concerning conceptions of teaching work and differentiated supervision

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Title:
Teachers' perceptions concerning conceptions of teaching work and differentiated supervision
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Kielty, Catherine Patricia Cecelia
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Denver, CO
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University of Colorado Denver
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English
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xvii, 304 leaves : forms ; 29 cm

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School supervision, Elementary -- Methodology -- Colorado -- Jefferson County ( lcsh )
Teachers -- Attitudes -- Colorado -- Jefferson County ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Thesis:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Doctor of Philosophy, School of Education and Human Development
Statement of Responsibility:
by Catherine Patricia Cecelia Kielty.

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|University of Colorado Denver
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|Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
25983219 ( OCLC )
ocm25983219
Classification:
LD1190.E3 1991d .K53 ( lcc )

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Full Text
TEACHERS' PERCEPTIONS CONCERNING CONCEPTIONS OF
TEACHING WORK AND DIFFERENTIATED SUPERVISION
by
Catherine Patricia Cecelia Kielty
B.A., University of Cincinnati, 1971
M.Ed., University of Cincinnati, 1977
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
School of Education
1991


1991 by Catherine Patricia Cecelia Kielty
All rights reserved.


This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy
degree by
Catherine Patricia Cecelia Kielty
has been approved for the
School of
Education
by
Richard Koeppe
Michael/J. Murphy
Date ^ (


Kielty, Catherine Patricia Cecelia (Ph.D., Education)
Teachers' Perceptions Concerning Conceptions of Teaching Work
and Differentiated Supervision
Thesis directed by Professor Bob L. Taylor
The purposes of this research were to study how a group of
elementary teachers perceived teaching in the context of
Mitchell and Kerchner's (1983) conceptions of teaching work
model which defined teaching in terms of labor, craft,
profession, and art; and to study "how satisfactory" teachers
perceived Glatthorn's (1984) differentiated supervision
practices were for promoting quality instruction. These
practices were administrative monitoring, artistic supervision,
clinical supervision, learning-centered supervision, self-
directed development, teacher behavior observations, and
cooperative professional development.
A non-random sample of elementary teacher volunteers,
predominantly from Jefferson County Public Schools, was used
in this study. The data collection method was a survey titled
"Conceptions of Teaching Work and Differentiated Supervision
Questionnaire" which was developed by the researcher.
Two statistical hypotheses related to how teachers
perceived teaching and supervision were tested. The statistical
methods that were used to test these hypotheses were the ANOVA,


V
the Newman-Keuls Comparison of Means procedure, Chi-square Tests
of Association and the Chi-square Goodness of Fit tests.
Both null hypotheses were rejected. Six subgroups of
elementary teachers who fitted patterns of perceptions which
were classified according to the conceptions of teaching work
model were identified. These subgroups were the craft subgroup,
the profession subgroup, the art subgroup, the craft-profession
subgroup, the craft-art subgroup, and the profession-art
subgroup. It waT concluded that the ways teachers perceived
teaching were linked to ways they perceived supervision. The
subgroups were found to perceive less directive forms of super-
vision more satisfactorily. The subgroups were found to
perceive two methods of supervision, cooperative professional
development and teacher behavior rating scales, significantly
different.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend
its publication.
Signed


DEDICATION
This thesis is dedicated to the memory of three women who
taught me the meaning of good works--Ms. Westendorph,
Mrs. Connie Madsen and Mrs. Betty Adams.


CONTENTS
Tables........................................... xiii
Chapter
I. INTRODUCTION........................................ 1
The Problem....................................... 1
Purpose of This Research........................ 1
Problem Statement .............................. 1
Sample.......................................... 2
Research Questions Posed by the Study .... 2
Hypotheses........................................ 3
Limiting Factors.................................. 4
Delimitations .................................... 5
Assumptions....................................... 6
Background and Significance of the Problem. . 6
Supporting Research ............................. 10
Theoretical Framework ........................... 11
Definitions...................................... 13
The Conceptions of Teaching Work Model-
Description.................................... 17
Labor, Craft, Profession and Art Conceptions
of Teaching Work............................. 20
Differentiated Supervision, Model Description 24


viii
II. REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE............... 28
Overview of the Development of Conceptual
Orientation to Teaching as an Occupation
in the Social and Historical Context
of American Society .............................. 28
Religious and Secular Control in Education. 29
Bureaucratic Organizational Development
and American Schools.................... 31
The Effects of Industrialization on the
Occupation of Teaching.................. 34
Educators' Occupational Identity and
Unionism................................ 39
Research on Collective Bargaining .............. 46
Views of Teaching........................... 51
Knowledge and Its Application in Teaching . 54
How the Concept of Method, Knowledge and
the Characteristics of Rules Apply to
Conceptualization of Teaching .................. 55
Teaching as Technology......................... 58
Teaching as Labor.............................. 59
Teaching as a Craft............................ 59
Teaching as a Profession....................... 64
Teaching as an Art............................. 65
Instructional Supervision ........................ 72
Historical Background of Supervision. ... 72
Current Definitions of Supervision........ 80
Theories of Supervision ........................ 82
Clinical Supervision and Related Theory
and Practice.............................. 85


ix
Methods of Clinical Supervision ........... 86
Forms of Artistic Supervision, Related
Theory and Practice.......................... 90
Cooperative Professional Development
and Related Theory and Practice ............. 92
Self-Directed Development and Related
Theory and Practice.......................... 93
Administrative Monitoring and Related
Theory and Practice.......................... 97
Related Research Differentiated
Supervision.................................. 98
Research on the Relationship of Different
Supervision Methods to Conceptions of
Teaching Work..................................100
Conclusion.......................................101
III. RESEARCH DESIGN....................................103
Problem Statement .............................. 104
Description of the Instrument....................104
Description of the Demographic Information
Checklist....................................105
Description of Part Two, Conceptions of
Teaching Work Statements.....................106
Part Three, the Differentiated Supervision
Statements.................................. 109
Development of the Questionnaire.................Ill
Stage One Operationalization and Validation
of Constructs Used as a Basis for
Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements . Ill
Stage Two Development, Validation and
Addition to the Questionnaire of
Statements Describing Differentiated
Supervision Practices ....................... 113
Stage Three Revision of Second Version


X
Methods of Clinical Supervision ............... 86
Forms of Artistic Supervision, Related
Theory and Practice.......................... 90
Cooperative Professional Development
and Related Theory and Practice ............. 92
Self-Directed Development and Related
Theory and Practice.......................... 93
Administrative Monitoring and Related
Theory and Practice.......................... 97
Related Research Differentiated
Supervision.................................. 98
Research on the Relationship of Different
Supervision Methods to Conceptions of
Teaching Work..................................100
Conclusion.......................................101
III. RESEARCH DESIGN.....................................103
Problem Statement .............................. 104
Description of the Instrument....................104
Description of the Demographic Information
Checklist....................................105
Description of Part Two, Conceptions of
Teaching Work Statements.....................106
Part Three, the Differentiated Supervision
Statements...................................109
Development of the Questionnaire.................Ill
Stage One Operationalization and Validation
of Constructs Used as a Basis for
Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements . Ill
Stage Two Development, Validation and
Addition to the Questionnaire of
Statements Describing Differentiated
Supervision Practices ........................ 113


xi
Stage Three Revision of Second Version
of Questionnaire and Transmittal to
Panel of Experts for Review....................115
Stage Four Piloting and Reorganization
of Third Version of the Questionnaire
with Contextual Lead Statements................116
The Sample.......................................119
Research Methods.................................121
Procedure for Gathering Data...................121
Methods of Analysis and Description of Data . 124
Methods of Scoring Items and Categorizing
Data.........................................127
IV. ANALYSES OF DATA AND FINDINGS......................137
Demographic Information ........................ 139
Teachers' Personal Characteristics.............140
Teachers' Professional Characteristics. . . 140
Analysis of Teachers' Responses to the
Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements
and the Differentiated Supervision
Statements.......................................141
Analysis of Teachers' Responses to the
Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements . 143
Elements of the Conceptions of Teaching
Work That Were Perceived Consistently
as Ideal Circumstances in Teaching.............148
Analysis and Findings of the Total Group's
Responses to Differentiated Supervision
Statements.....................................151
Findings Concerning the Chi-square
Goodness of Fit Test.........................154
The Subgroups Identification Process.............155
Categorization of Teachers into the
Conceptions of Teaching Work Subgroupings. .
156


xii
Analysis of Subgroups' Responses to the
Conception of Teaching Work Statements. . . 157
Brief Overview of Subgroups' Responses to
the Conception of Teaching Work
Statements....................................161
Analysis and Findings Concerning Conceptions
of Teaching Work, Set One Teacher
Qualifications Statements ..................... 165
Analysis Concerning Conceptions of Teaching
Work, Set Two Implementation of
Instruction Statements..........................175
Analysis Concerning Conceptions of Teaching
Work, Set Three Classroom Management
Statements......................................182
Analysis Concerning Conceptions of Teaching
Work, Set Four Values and Ethos of the
Teaching Occupation Statements............... . 191
Analysis Concerning Conceptions of Teaching
Work, Set Five Occupational Satisfaction
in Teaching Statements..........................200
Analysis for Subgroups' Perceptions
Concerning How Satisfactory Differentiated
Supervision Practices Were Rated.............208
Findings Concerning Analyses of Variance
Among Subgroups' Responses to Differentiated
Supervision Statements........................208
Results of Newraan-Keuls Comparison of
Means Procedures for the Supervision
Practice Cooperative Professional
Development.....................................209
Results of Newman-Keuls Comparison of
Means Procedure for the Supervision
Practice Teacher Behavior Rating Scales . 210


xiii
Results of Chi-square Tests of
Association with Respect to Subgroups'
Low Satisfactory Ratings, Medium
Satisfactory Ratings, and High Satisfactory
Ratings for the Differentiated Supervision
Practices..................................210
Findings for Subgroups' Responses to
Cooperative Professional Development
Supervision Practice.........................212
Findings for Teacher Behavior Rating
Scales Supervision Practice ................. 216
Findings for Subgroups' Responses to
Clinical Supervision Practice ............... 221
Findings for Subgroups' Responses to
Administrative Monitoring Supervision
Practice........................................224
Findings for Self-directed Development
Supervision Practice..........................228
Findings for Subgroups' Responses to
Artistic Supervision Practice ............... 231
Findings for Subgroups' Responses to
Learning-centered Supervision Practice. . 235
Findings Based on the Research Questions
Studied in This Thesis..........................238
Findings with Respect to Hypotheses Studied
in This Thesis................................242
V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................... 244
The Problem.......................................244
Design of the Study...............................245
Description of the Instrument and Data
Collection....................................245
Problems, Hypotheses, and Research Questions. . 245
Maj or Findings................................. 247
Conclusions
254


xiv
Implications.....................................258
Recommendations ................................ 263
REFERENCES.............................................. . 264
APPENDIX
A. QUESTIONNAIRE BASED ON ESTABLISHING FACE
VALIDITY.........................................278
B. DEMOGRAPHIC AND COMPARISON TABLES ................ 285
C. LETTER TO PRINCIPALS REQUESTING ASSISTANCE. ... 289
D. HUMAN RESEARCH COMMITTEE REVIEW .................. 291
E. CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING WORK AND DIFFERENTIATED
SUPERVISION QUESTIONNAIRE ...................... 296


TABLES
Table
1. Lists of Possible Major Subgroups by Points
and Percentage Conversion.......................130
2. Lists of Possible Split Subgroups by Points
and Percentage Conversion.......................130
3. Means and Standard Deviations Comparison
Table for Total Group's Responses to the
Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements...........144
4. Frequency Distributions of Perceived-as-more-
true Responses and Perceived-as-less-true
Responses by Percents and Numbers for
Total Group's Responses to the Conceptions
of Teaching Work Statements........................145
5. Total Elementary Teachers Group's Responses
for Supervision Practices--Means, Standard
Deviations, Percentages, and Frequencies
of Responses.......................................152
6. Comparison Table for First Choice Responses
by Numbers and Percentages for the
Conceptions of Teaching Work Subgrouping .... 158
7. Comparison Table for Chi-square Tests of
Association for the Subgroups' Responses to the
Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements............162
8. Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of
Teaching Work Statements, Set One Teacher
Qualifications ................................... 168
9. Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of
Teaching Work Statements, Set Two -
Implementation of Instruction .................... 176
10. Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of
Teaching Work Statements, Set Three -
Classroom Management ................................... 184


xvi
11. Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions
of Teaching Work Statements, Set Four -
Values and Ethos of the Teaching
Occupation.........................................193
12. Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of
Teaching Work Statements, Set Five -
Occupational Satisfaction..........................201
13. Results of the One-Way ANOVA for the
Supervision Statements ........................... 209
14. Chi-square Tests of Association Results
for Low Satisfactory, Medium Satisfactory,
and High Satisfactory Ratings for the
Differentiated Supervision Practices ............ 211
15. Cooperative Professional Development -
Means, Standard Deviations, Percents,
Frequencies, and Newman-Keuls Comparison
of Means, Results for Subgroups Responses . . 213
16. Teacher Behavior Rating Scales Means,
Standard Deviations, Percents, Frequencies,
ANOVA, Chi-square, and Newman-Keuls
Comparison of Means Results for Subgroups'
Responses........................................217
17. Clinical Supervision Statement Means,
Standard Deviation, ANOVA, Percents,
Frequencies, Chi-square and Newman-Keuls
Results for Subgroups' Responses ................ 222
18. Administrative Monitoring Means, Standard
Deviations, Percents, and Frequencies, ANOVA,
Newman-Keuls and Chi-square, Summary Table . . 225
19. Self-directed Development Supervision
Statement Means, Standard Deviation,
Percents, Frequencies, ANOVA, Chi-square,
Newman-Keuls Results for Subgroups'
Responses........................................229
20. Artistic Supervision Statement Means,
Standard Deviations, Percents, Frequencies,
ANOVA, Chi-square Results for Subgroups'
Responses
232


XVI1
21. Learning-centered Supervision Means,
Standard Deviations, Percents, Frequencies,
ANOVA, Chi-square, and Newman-Keuls
Comparison of Means Results for Subgroups'
Responses.................................
236


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The Problem
Purpose of This Research
The purpose of this research was to study how a group of
elementary teachers perceived teaching in the context of the
conceptions of teaching work model (Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983)
and to study "how satisfactory" teachers perceived Glatthorn's
(1984) differentiated supervision practices were for promoting
quality instruction.
Problem Statement
The problem of this study was threefold: (a) to describe
ways in which teachers perceived teaching in terms of the labor,
craft, profession, and art conceptions of teaching work, (b) to
identify teachers' perceptions regarding how satisfactory
different instructional supervision practices were in promoting
quality instruction, and (c) to determine if there were any
differences between the ways teachers perceived teaching work
and how they perceived different types of instructional
supervision practices.


2
Sample
The volunteer sample was comprised of approximately 250
volunteer elementary teachers in Jefferson County Public
Schools. The sample was dependent on individual schools and
self-selection for participation. Sampling techniques included
quota sampling and purposive sampling. Information concerning
participants' demographic characteristics was included in this
study. These characteristics were gender, age group, level of
training, number of years teaching, grade level of teaching,
area of specialization, marital status, and responsibility for
dependent children. The sample had the characteristics of a
population. Results were interpreted as indicators of the
participants' perceptions and not used as indicators of
perceptions of elementary teachers in general.
Research Questions Posed bv the Study
The research questions posed by this study were:
1. Did this group of elementary teachers' perceptions of
teaching fit patterns which could be categorized as a labor,
craft, profession, or art conception of teaching?
2. Were these categories pure categories?
3. Were some elements in the conception of teaching work
perceived more consistently as an ideal circumstance in teaching
than others? These elements involved how teachers perceived
(a) the abilities and knowledge that the most qualified teacher


3
possessed, (b) conditions related to implementation of instruc-
tion in which teaching is most successful, (c) good classroom
management, (d) values and ethos of the teaching occupation in
terras of teaching itself being valued, and (3) occupational
satisfaction in terms of the most important sources of satis-
faction in teaching.
4. Were some methods of supervision perceived as more
satisfactory than others?
Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were designed to answer questions
regarding teachers' perceptions about teaching and their
perceptions about supervision.
1. Null hypothesis one was: There were no significant
differences (at alpha .10) in the ways teachers perceived
teaching with respect to a labor conception of teaching work,
a craft conception of teaching work, a profession conception of
teaching work, or an art conception of teaching work.
2. Null hypothesis two was: There were no significant
differences (at alpha .10) in the ways teachers perceived
teaching with respect to a labor conception of teaching work, a
craft conception of teaching work, a profession conception of
teaching work, or an art conception of teaching work and how
satisfactory they perceived different supervisory practices
were in promoting quality instruction. The supervision prac-


4
tices were administrative monitoring, artistic supervision,
clinical supervision, learning centered supervision, self-
directed development, teacher behavior observations, and
cooperative professional development.
Limiting Factors
This study was limited in terms of generalizing the
findings and conclusions by the following conditions:
1. This study was based on teachers' perceptions. It did
not concern actual overt behaviors or make judgments about the
inherent or demonstrated value of any described practice.
2. The study was an exploratory study. Its purpose was
to describe and not to prescribe behavior or practice.
3. The sample was numerically limited and was based on
voluntary self-selection. It did not conform to strict
statistical standards necessary to describe a universal
population.
4. The language used in the labor conception of teaching
work statements could have affected the participants'
responses. The labor conception of teaching work, as described
by Mitchell and Kerchner (1983) did not present ideal
occupational values associated with elementary teaching.


5
Delimitations
The study was delimited by the following factors:
1. The conception of teaching work model was the one
heuristic device being used to study the nature of teaching
work. Each conception was an ideal type and elements of each
conception exist in some part in the occupation of teaching.
2. The supervisory practices used in this study were
defined as pure practices. Elements of each practice often
exist in the everyday work of supervisors.
3. Participants in the study were asked to respond to
each supervisory practice based on their knowledge of the
described practice. Knowledge and degree of experience of each
practice varied with the individuals surveyed.
4. This study surveyed perceptions. There was no attempt
to assess the degree of congruence between belief and practice.
5. This study was not intended to make judgments or draw
conclusions about the effectiveness of specific supervisory
practices.
6. This study was not intended to make judgments or draw
conclusions about the inherent value of one conception of
teaching work as compared to another.
7. This study did draw conclusions or make generaliza-
tions about all educators. The findings are limited to those
who fit the demographic profile of the participants.


6
8. The majority of subjects in the sample were from one
school district.
Assumptions
The following assumptions were operant in this study:
1. All participants accurately and truthfully completed
the survey.
2. The survey items adequately represented each conception
of teaching work.
3. Items intended to describe supervisory practice
described each practice adequately.
4. Participants had adequate knowledge and ability to
make sound judgments in expressing their opinions in survey
items.
Background and Significance
of the Problem
The quality of education which American students received
has been a continuous concern with the American public. This
concern has been aired in the political arena and has been
defined as a national imperative. Studies and publications
such as A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Education
Reform (National Commission on Excellence in Education,1983),
A Place Called School (Goodlad, 1984), and A Nation Prepared:
Teachers for the 21st Century (Task Force on Teaching as a
Profession, 1986) have pointed to the desire for improvement in


7
American education. National movements concerned with
accountability, instructional success, effective schools, and
excellence in education have added impetus for reforms in
current educational practice. Although it has been generally
agreed that change is needed, agreement on what is to be done
and how to do it has been multifaceted (Elmore & McLaughlin,
1988; Sergiovanni & Moore, 1989).
The goals of education have become vast and complex in
comparison to when the first schools were instituted in the
colonies, with the primary goal of teaching biblical reading
skills. How to define quality education and how to improve
education have continued to be central issues with many
questions and possible answers. Complex conditions in society
and the multiplicity of goals for education have made decision
making in educational policy and practice a difficult task.
Gaining consensus, maintaining trust, commitment and organi-
zational stability have been continuing problems for school
systems to solve.
Mitchell and Kerchner (1983) cited Meyer and Rowan (1978)
in stating that the call for school reform has added stress to
the work relationships of teachers and administrators.
Traditional relationships where teachers and administrators
have assumed that each other was performing effectively has
been questioned. Public sentiments have identified the
improvement of teacher quality rather than changing school


8
structure or curriculum as the key educational reform (Darling-
Hammond, Wise, & Pease, 1983). Improving teacher quality was
the most frequent response to a 1979 Gallop poll question
concerned with what public schools could do to earn an "A"
(Gallop, 1979).
Researchers (Cronin, 1983; Kerr, 1982) documented several
means for improving the quality of teachers which have been
nationally implemented in varying degrees. These measures
included:
1. ' Attempts to increase pre-service standards for teacher
preparation through the review of national accreditation
agencies.
2. Extending pre-service teacher preparation to include a
fifth year of professional studies and apprenticeship
requirements.
3. More extensive screening of pre-service teachers
through state-mandated teacher competency testing for
certification.
4. Competency testing for the recertification of veteran
teachers.
5. State-mandated programs of systematic teacher
evaluation and formal performance appraisal of all
certificated personnel.
6. Development of effective instructional supervisory
programs for instructional improvement.


9
Improving teacher preparation programs to ensure that
teachers had the needed prerequisite skills to teach competently
and employing rigorous evaluation programs to eliminate
individuals who were unable to teach competently have been
viewed as necessary but insufficient means in order to improve
teacher quality (Darling-Hammond & Wise, 1985; Wise, 1990; Wise
& Darling-Hammond, 1984-1985). Educators and researchers
(Glatthorn, 1984; Glickman, 1981; Odden, 1985; Wise & Darling-
Hammond, 1984-2985) have proposed that instructional supervision
systems need to be instituted in order to promote teacher
renewal and improvement in teaching. The nature of these
systems was considered to be important. Odden (1985) believed
that the methods used for instructional improvement should be
compatible with teachers' beliefs about the nature of teaching
work. Glatthorn (1984); Glatthorn & Shields (1983); and
Glickman (1981) stressed the importance for instructional
supervision to meet teachers' needs for improvement in a way
that was congruent with their professional needs.
Lightfoot (1983) noted, in her summary of the 1981 Survey
on "The Status of the American Teacher," that most members of
the teaching force were not neophytes. The report showed that:
the average public school teacher was older (i.e., thirty
nine years old), had spent more time in college, was
relatively less well paid, and was far less likely to
choose teaching as a career if given a second chance than
was the case in 1976. School staffs, once relatively
mobile, are becoming static, and teachers are having to
cope with the pressures of a demanding and unchanging


.10
environment. There is minimal opportunity for criticism
and renewal from new colleagues, (pp. 157-158)
Given that a majority of teachers were experienced and
that there has been a lack of opportunity for renewal from new
colleagues, the occupation has been left with the option of
(
looking within for the resources of renewal. Insight
concerning teachers' opinions regarding quality in teaching
has been considered a valuable tool in educational reform
(Fieman-Nemser & Floden, 1986).
Supporting Research
Teachers and the work of teaching have been of continued
interest to educators, social scientists and philosophers.
What was the nature of teaching and what made a good teacher
have been perennial questions which have been most affected by
historical and social conditions. In order to gain understand-
ing into what made a good teacher, studies have focused on
trait analysis, intellectual ability, moral character, descrip-
tions of personal lives, sentiments, political affiliation,
and elements of social and occupational status of teachers.
This interest in teachers and teaching has developed into
a strong line of inquiry where knowledge of teaching as an
occupation has been important. In order to understand more
about the nature of quality teaching, teaching has been
compared to a mission (Nelson, 1983), a vocation, a calling
(Adler, 1984; Butts, 1953; Harris, 1982); a craft (Adler,


11
1984; Allen, 1987; Broudy, 1956; Dreeben, 1973; Eisner, 1983;
Greene, 1986; Jackson, 1968; Kohl, 1976; Lortie, 1975); a
profession (Adler, 1984; Covert, 1989; Darling-Hammond, 1985,
1986, 1988, 1989, 1990; Darling-Hammond & Wise, 1981, 1985;
Duke, 1984; Darling-Hammond, Wise & Pease, 1983; Etzioni,
1969; Lieberman, 1988; Little, 1986, 1990; Katz, 1987;
Shuleman & Sykes, 1983; Wise, 1979, 1986, 1990); and an art
(Barth, 1986; Bird, 1989; Eisner, 1983; Goodman, Goodman, &
Hood 1989; Hansen, 1987; Lessinger & Gillis, 1976; Rubin,
1983a, 1983b, 1985; Smyth, 1986; Stenhouse, 1984).
Theoretical Framework
The coming of the scientific method, the formalization of
teacher training, and the increased bureaucratization of the
contemporary work place have all contributed to rethinking the
nature of good teaching. Up to the present, the dominant
themes concerning the nature of teaching have emphasized a
technical-craft view, a professional view, and a talent-
artistic view. Recently a view which has incorporated the
perceived effects of increased rationalization and
routinization of modern occupations has been formulated. A
labor conception of teaching work was proposed to describe a
situation where intensive standardization of practice was the
critical element. This standardization was based on the
routinization of teaching practice which limited teachers'


12
responsibility to contractual agreement (Mitchell & Kerchner,
1983) .
The conceptions of teaching work model, first devised by
Mitchell and Kerchner (1983), and the differentiated
supervision model developed by Glatthorn (1984) have provided
the framework of this study. Mitchell's version of the concep-
tions of teaching work model was chosen because it provided a
comprehensive and pragmatic outline of ways of conceptualizing
teaching work in the contemporary context of the teacher as an
employee in modern society. This model provided a descriptive
device in which to delineate traditional and modern views of
teaching and inferred the philosophical implications of holding
particular conceptions about the nature of teaching.
Glatthorn's (1984) differentiated supervision was chosen
because it provided the most complimentary description of a
system of instructional supervision practice which fitted the
various oversight mechanisms noted by Mitchell and Kerchner
(1983) .
In this study, teaching was approached as an occupation
which emphasized instruction as its primary mode of production.
Teaching was considered in terms of its task definition, values
and occupational ethos, and also its oversight and quality
control mechanisms. The task definition of teaching was
defined by teachers' perceptions concerning (a) the prepara-
tion, skill, knowledge and abilities needed to be a qualified


13
teacher, (b) the means of implementing instruction for success-
ful teaching, and (c) the nature of good classroom management
systems. Occupational ethos was presented in terms of the
values the teacher placed on the occupation of teaching, with
respect to ownership and responsibility for the work.
Oversight and quality control mechanisms were defined as
instructional supervision practices.
Definitions
The following definitions of terms were used in this study.
They have been listed in order to clarify their theoretical
meanings.
1. Conceptions of Teaching Work The conceptions of
teaching work are the ways in which teaching was viewed as an
occupation and defined as a labor craft, profession and art as
presented by Mitchell and Kerchner (1983).
2. Art Conception of Teaching The conception of teaching
which defined teaching as an art emphasized work that required
creativity and a personal approach to instruction. Good
teachers are expected to be innovative and develop original
curriculum (Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983).
3. Craft Conception of Teaching Work The conception of
teaching defined as a craft occupation emphasized work that
required specialized skill. The role of the teacher was to
know and choose the appropriate techniques that would ensure


14
that students reach specified instructional objectives.
Competency in the performance of instructional technique and
methodology is determined as the most important factor to assess
teacher effectiveness (Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983).
4. Labor Conception of Teaching Work The conception of
teaching defined as a labor occupation emphasized work that was
highly predictable. Instruction and all related teaching
activities were regulated into specific tasks. Teachers needed
only to follow regulations set by superiors in order to be
effective (Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983).
5. Profession Conception of Teaching Work The conception
of teaching defined as a professional occupation emphasized
work that required not only specialized skills but included
theoretical knowledge, dedication to service, individual
judgment, and personal ethical responsibility for the
educational well-being of students (Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983).
6. Instructional Supervision Instructional supervision
was defined as a process of facilitating the professional growth
of a teacher, primarily by giving the teacher feedback about
classroom inter-actions and helping the teacher make use of
that feedback in order to make teaching more effective
(Glatthorn, 1984, p. 2).
7. Administrative Monitoring Administrative monitoring
was defined as the supervision method in which the supervisor
was to conduct brief drop-in visits, monitor lesson plans and


15
use of methods and materials, check that reports were acceptable
and tell the teacher if a performance problem was evident or
make positive comments (Glatthorn, 1984).
8. Artistic Supervision Artistic supervision was defined
as the method in which the supervisor observed classrooms and
shared with the teacher impressions and feelings about climate,
student involvement in learning, and student-teacher
relationships. The supervisor assumed the role of an artistic
critic of an instructional performance. Professional growth of
teachers was enhanced by increased understanding and awareness
of teaching from the supervisor's description (Glatthorn, 1984).
9. Clinical Supervision Clinical supervision was defined
as the method in which the supervisor engaged in the following
procedures: (a) conferred with teachers on lesson planning,
(b) observed the lesson, (c) analyzed the collected data, (d)
gave the teacher feedback about the observation, (e) then the
supervisor and teacher developed an appropriate professional
growth plan. This procedure could be repeated many times
(Glatthorn, 1984).
10. Cooperative Professional Development Cooperative
professional development was defined as the method in which the
supervisor arranged time for small groups of individual teachers
to observe, to provide feedback to each other, and to share
professional concerns in order to promote mutual growth
(Glatthorn, 1984).


16
11. Learning Centered Supervision Learning centered
supervision was defined as the method in which the teacher and
supervisor conferred in order to identify any immediate problems
that needed attention, shared views about professional issues
and developed a supervisory contract. The supervisor observed
the class to gather specific information that would identify
teacher strengths and weaknesses. The teacher and the
supervisor met for a feedback and problem-solving conference to
assess what happened in the past and plan strategies of what
should happen in the future. Learning centered supervision was
a method of clinical supervision that Glatthorn (1984)
developed.
12. Self-Directed Development Self-directed development
has been defined as the method in which the supervisor assumed
that the individual teacher was responsible for his or her
professional growth. The teachers determined their own
professional growth needs and the supervisor acted as a
facilitator and provided resources and information to meet
these needs (Glatthorn, 1984).
13. Teacher Behavior Rating Scales Teacher behavior
rating scales have been defined as the method in which the
supervisor observed a lesson and completed a checklist or scale
that rated the teacher on evidence of predetermined skills and
teaching behaviors. Strengths and weaknesses were noted, and
recommendations in the form of goals and objectives were


17
developed into an improvement plan. This information is shared
with the teacher. This form of supervision was directive in
nature and also could be considered a formal type of
administrative monitoring. This method was often associated
with inspection and evaluation modes of practice (Glanz, 1990).
14. Perception The term "perception" in this study was
defined as the act of perceiving. Perception is used in this
study as a derivative of the word "percept" which was defined
by Webster II (1984) as "an impression in the mind of something
perceived by the senses, viewed as a basic component in the
formation of concepts" (p. 72).
The Conceptions of Teaching
Work Model Description
The conceptions of teaching work model proposed by Mitchell
and Kerchner (1983) was based on a theoretical framework
comprising four conceptual ways of looking at teaching work.
The conceptual views were defined into constructs called con-
ceptions of teaching work. These constructs included the
following: the conception of teaching work as labor, the
conception of teaching work as a craft, the conception of
teaching work as a profession, and the conception of teaching
as an art. The model delineated three major traditional views
of teaching, and it developed the conceptualization of teaching
as labor. This conceptual construct was developed in order to
articulate the factors of increased rationalization in the


18
contemporary work place. This conceptual model was developed
in order to introduce the view that work arrangements and
contractual agreements affect the nature of classroom teaching
and types of supervision used to promote quality in instruction
(Darling-Hammond, Wise, & Pease, 1983; Mitchell & Kershner,
1983).
Each conception was developed according to positions and
assumptions about the degree of task complexity attributed to
the work of teaching. The positions were developed in somewhat
polar terms of identifying teaching as a work which required
adaptability or work which was routine in nature. The belief
about predictability and complexity of the task of providing
quality instruction results in perceptions about the nature of
teaching. Assumptions concerning the expertise, competencies,
or type of qualifications needed by teachers; assumptions about
the role of teachers in educational decision making, assumptions
about teachers' responsibility for instruction and curriculum
development, assumptions regarding educational quality control,
and the reciprocal role responsibility of the supervisor or
administrator were all related to perceptions of how complex
the work of teaching was thought to be. Inherent in each
conception were opinions about the nature of quality teaching,
how quality teaching should be judged, and opinions about what
was considered the most important and valued in the occupation.


19
The labor, craft, profession, and art conceptions of the
Mitchell and Kerchner model (1983) are related to points on the
continuum of the nomothetic-ideographic view of education that
has been described by several researchers (Harris, 1982; Silver,
1983; von Wright, 1971; Windelband, 1894).
According to Harris (1982), the nomothetic view of
education held that rules for teaching could be discovered and
formulated in order to guarantee successful teaching. The
ideographic view of education held that variability and non-
predictability were inherent in teaching and that creativity
and adaptability were essential in successful teaching.
The labor, craft, profession, and art conceptions of
the Mitchell and Kerchner model were built on assumptions based
on beliefs about the degree of complexity of the tasks of
providing quality instruction. In theory, the labor and craft
conceptions of teaching work can be defined as more congruent
with a nomothetic view of education. Best practice in these
views consisted of instructional activities which were based on
prescriptive or established practice rather than on
idiosyncratic technique. The labor and craft conceptions of
teaching have relied heavily on the belief that educational
quality was guaranteed through the discovery and development of
guiding rules to rationalize educational practice.
Precitability, respectability, and replicability of successful
techniques have been the foundations of this thinking.


20
The profession conception and the art conception of
teaching work can be defined as more congruent with the
idiographic view of education. The profession and art concep-
tions of teaching work were based on the belief that quality
teaching was best guaranteed through the promotion of indi-
vidual responsibility and creativity. Teaching in these
conceptions has been defined as a very complex task in which
the teacher must respond to nonpredictable factors in the
educational environment.
Labor. Craft. Profession and
Art Conceptions of Teaching Work
Mitchell and Kerchner's (1983) descriptions of teaching
work as labor, craft, profession, and art are presented in the
following summary.
In Mitchell and Kerchner's (1983) definition of the labor
conception of teaching work, the tasks of education were viewed
as a highly predictable endeavor. A tight bureaucratic
organizational system was seen as the best form of an
educational system. Power was to be vested in a strong
hierarchical system. Teaching activities were to be rationally
planned, programmatically organized and routinized in the form
of standard operating procedures by superiors. Instruction and
all related teaching activities were to be regulated into
specific tasks. Teachers needed only to follow regulations set


21
by superiors in order to be considered fulfilling expectations.
Insubordination was seen as unacceptable in any circumstance.
In this conception, teaching was not seen as an occupation
which required particular expertise. Teachers were not expected
to make instructional or curricular decisions. Decisions of
what to do and when were already prescribed. Educational
quality control was to be the sole responsibility of admini-
stration. It was the administrator who decided which practices
were of value. The administrator also took full responsibility
for the success or failure of educational programs.
The preferred role of the school administrator was that of
an inspector. The primary value of a teacher was loyalty to the
organization and was demonstrated through compliance to rules
and regulations.
In the framework which viewed teaching work as a craft,
teaching was seen as an occupation that required specialized
skill and knowledge. Teachers were expected to be able to apply
general rules of instruction in order to choose the best method
to reach specified objectives. Teachers made instructional
decisions concerning methodology. Decisions concerning instruc-
tional goals and students' needs were to be made exclusively by
the state and local school boards and articulated by
administrative personnel.
In viewing teaching as a craft, teaching tasks, including
instruction, were believed to be generally predictable. Tech-


22
niques were to be chosen because they had been proven through
practice to work best in ensuring instructional outcomes. The
goal of curriculum development in a craft conception was to
standardized practice based on the past proven techniques.
Teachers were to be evaluated on the bases of technical skill
performances and resultant outcomes.
The role of the school administrator was defined as
manager whose job it was to hold teachers to general perfor-
mance standards. The administrator was to be charged with
overseeing teachers to make sure that a reasonable degree of
standard practice was followed and instructional objectives
were reached. Lack of technical skill and lack of knowledge of
when to apply skill appropriately were considered the greatest
faults a teacher could demonstrate.
In the conception of teaching as a profession, teaching
was seen as an adaptive and complex task. Instructional
outcomes were not seen as always predictable. The teacher
needed to be able to draw from a broad base of theoretical
knowledge and specialized skill in order to ensure quality
educational practice. Teachers were to make decisions
concerning goals and objectives for educational practice.
Teachers were also expected to diagnose students' learning needs
and choose the means to meet these needs. Teachers were held
responsible for the students' educational well-being and were
bound by ethical practice.


23
Peer review was considered to be the primary mode of
evaluating teaching performance. Work relationships were to be
collegial relationships. The role of the school administrator
was to ensure that teachers had the resources necessary to
carry out their work in a quality manner. The administrator
was expected to act as a colleague in decision-making processes.
Lack of discretion in instructional decision-making and lack of
commitment to service were considered as malpractice.
In the conception of teaching as an art, the tasks of
teaching were considered to be very complex and dependent on
the teacher's ability to adapt to the unforeseen. Teaching as
an art required specialized skill but emphasized creativity and
innovation. Practice was not based primarily on a body of
theoretical knowledge but on personal expression. Education
was seen as an experience. Teachers were expected to develop
original curriculum. The process of evaluation was to be
concerned with appreciation and understanding of the teacher-
learner relationship. Teaching was considered a talent that
could be improved through educational criticism.
In the conception of teaching work as an art, the teacher
owned her or his work and received recognition for it.
Qualities associated with the arts, such as talent, dynamic
performance, personal expression, insight, intuition, and taste
were considered the important elements which comprised the art
position of teaching work. Evidence of frivolity, lack of


24
commitment, and lack of meaning were deemed to be the most
negative elements that could be noted in evaluating teaching
practice.
The role of the administrator was to act as a leader whose
work it was to encourage teachers' creative efforts and to offer
constructive educational criticism (Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983,
pp. 214-237).
Differentiated Supervision
Model Description
Glatthorn's (1984) differentiated supervision model has
been chosen as the primary structure for the part of this study
which has been concerned with operationally defining the
oversight mechanism associated with supervising instruction.
In education at this time, the purpose and goal of quality
control measures and oversight mechanisms have not been limited
to maintenance behaviors but have been defined as major
functions of the school organization. Improvement of teacher
quality has been actualized into improving instruction. The
essential purpose of the differentiated model of supervision
has been seen as the improvement of instruction through super-
vision compatible with teachers' needs.
The major approaches Glatthorn (1984) proposed were:
1. Clinical supervision, which was an intensive process
designed to improve instruction by conferring with the teacher
on lesson planning, observing the lesson, analyzing the


25
observational data, and giving the teacher feedback about the
observation. Glatthorn (1984) cited Cogan's (1973), Eisner's
(1982), McNeil's (1971) and Russell and Hunter's (1980) versions
of supervision in this context.
2. Cooperative professional development, which was a
collegial process in which small groups of teachers agreed to
work together for their own professional growth.
3. Self-directed development, which was a process in which
the individual teacher worked independently on professional
growth concerns. The supervisor acted as a resource.
4. Administrative monitoring, which was the process in
which the administrator monitored the work of the staff, making
brief and unannounced visits simply to ensure that the teachers
were carrying out assignments and responsibilities in a
professional manner (Glatthorn, 1984, pp. 4-6).
The model had been chosen as a theoretical basis for a
number of reasons.
1. The model clearly articulated and described the major
components and methods of supervision in practice today.
2. Each of the practices, theoretic underpinnings, and
assumptions could be extrapolated and philosophically deduced.
3. The model defined options in supervision which in field
tests indicated using alternative forms of supervision was
practical and suggested positive effects on those who partici-
pated (Glatthorn, 1984, p. vii).


26
4. One of the desired outcomes of this research was to
identify methods of instructional supervision that teachers
perceived to be appropriate in terms of their professional
needs.
5. The model was developed in order to give teachers a
choice of the supervision method in which they were to
participate. The model was developed to promote instructional
improvement of the already responsible and competent teacher.
The model was not designed as a systematic evaluation system,
nor as a system of remediation for marginal teachers.
6. The model was congruous with the oversight and quality
control mechanisms outlined in Mitchell and Kerchner's (1983)
conceptions of teaching work model (i.e., inspection, direct
oversight, peer review, critical review and methods of analysis.
7. The differentiated system offered alternatives to
clinical supervision and traditional practices.
Glatthorn's (1984) rationale for developing this system
concluded that:
1. Standard practices of supervision were inadequate,
ineffective, and potentially dangerous.
2. Clinical supervision was neither feasible nor needed
by all teachers. It is time consuming for administra-
tors .
3. Teachers had different growth needs and learning
styles. Teachers differed on their preference for directive


27
and indirective styles of supervision. Some teachers preferred
helping relationships with supervisors while others preferred a
collegial relationship.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
Three major areas of related literature are included in
this review. The first is historical literature which
includes a description of the development of secularism,
bureaucratization, industrialization and unionism. The second
review describes teaching practice in terms of labor, craft,
professional and artistic views of teaching. The third area of
literature includes a description of the historical development
of the practice of school supervision, a description of
instructional supervisory methods and a review of research
related to these supervisory practices.
Overview of the Development of Conceptual
Orientation to Teaching as an Occupation
in the Social and Historical Context
of American Society
The interaction of major societal developments has provided
the context in which beliefs and values have been born and
nurtured. Different conceptual orientations regarding the
nature of teaching as an occupation have resulted from different
perspectives affected by societal changes associated with
secularism, bureaucratization, industrialization, and unionism.


29
Religious and Secular Control
in Education
Early education in America was closely tied to the
cultural-religious Reformation in Europe. People who settled
the colonies were concerned with religious freedom in terms of
establishing their own community based on their particular
religious beliefs. Within this community the prevailing, and
usually only, religious sect established both community
standards of behavior and also educational practices which
promoted the well being of the creed. The goals of education
were to maintain and promote a learned ministry, who were able
to work productively, who were able to read, and who understood
colonial law (Butts, 1953).
Colonial education was primarily under the control of the
local religious authority, but secular control began to develop
slowly. Legislation guiding educational practice appeared as
early as the mid-1600s. The first compulsory education law was
\
the Massachusetts Act of 1642 (Knight, 1951). This law stated
that parents could be fined if children were not taught a trade,
could not read, and did not understand colony law. The children
who were required to be educated at this time were sons of land
owners. Female education was the responsibility of the home
and included learning housekeeping skills and biblical reading
(Butts, 1953; Knight, 1951, p. 100).
America, in the 1700s, began to change from strictly
agricultural to a nation based on commerce and trade. The rise


30
of merchant capitalism developed a stronger monetary system and
communities began to invest financially in schools. Individual
families paid for educational services through rate bills to
church or municipal schools, and tuition to dame schools or
private tutors. There was some concern to educate those
children who were unable to pay; this was evident through
money, land donation, and other gifts to support charity
schools. Charity schools were organized on the monitorial
system and were the responsibility of private parties (Katz,
1987, p. 16).
The occupational status of teachers was heavily influenced
by religious and community moral standards. Teachers' social
status was higher than their wages. Appointment to teaching
positions was based on political agreements with the community.
Men who were college educated and waiting for a position in a
higher paid profession dominated formal teaching positions.
Adler (1984) stated that teaching at this time was viewed as a
"calling in which the teacher could adequately instruct himself.
Character, a sense of discipline and dedication, not specific
skills or practices, was seen as the key to good teaching" (p.
5). The school teacher was respected for his education and
held authority based on his association with the local religion.
Most formal community or religious schools required that
students have rudimentary skills before being admitted. The
education of young children was undertaken in the home. Women


31
offered instruction in the basics of reading, writing, and
arithmetic in dame schools and kitchen schools. The
educational preparation of these women varied, but most had
minimal formal training (Butts, 1953).
Industrialization, the growth of city life, massive emigra-
tion, migration from rural areas, the development of wage-labor
arrangements, and changes in the nature of institutions during
the 1800s had the most dramatic influence on the American
education as we know it today. During this time the dominance
of church influence had eroded and a growing concern for
political freedom and economic opportunity increased rapidly.
Teaching as an occupation became more formalized and individuals
were required to have training in order to teach. The lyceum
movement was instituted and resulted in the development of
pedagogy which became increasingly associated with teaching
technique. Teaching could not only be moral, but also could be
technical (Adler, 1984). Women were officially admitted into
the occupation. Schools became institutions which were often
considered an extension of the home (Katz, 1987).
Bureaucratic Organizational
Development and American Schools
One social development which had an overwhelming effect
on education as we see it today was the bureaucratization of
American institutions. Weber (1947) described bureaucratization
as a highly complex form of administrative machinery which was


32
based on an extensive market economy. He described these
features as peculiar phenomena of western society.
Although Weber concentrated on economic theory, his ideas had
pervasive effects on common views of how school systems should
operate.
Silver (1983) summarized the main points of Weber's theory.
Bureaucracy was a form of organization that achieved the epitome
of efficiency and rationality while at the same time rested on
a bedrock of legitimacy. Authority of the organization was
primarily derived from legal agreements and contracts.
Characteristics of a bureaucracy included a hierarchy of
offices, rules and regulations, specialization of tasks,
impersonality, written records, salaried personnel, and control
of resources.
The principles of rationality and of efficiency were
defined as key elements of pure bureaucratic organization.
Rationality refers to the goal directedness in an organization.
Efficiency referred to the cost effectiveness of an
organization, which included the expenditure of time, money,
energy and other organizational resources (Silver, 1983).
Katz (1987) wrote that bureaucratization and the emergence
of institutions as surrogate families were critical social and
organizational developments of the first three quarters of the
nineteenth century which led to the formation of schools as we
know them today.


33
For the latter part of the nineteenth century the
organization, scope, and role of schooling had been
transformed. In place of a few casual schools dotted about
town and country, in most cities there existed true
educational systems; carefully articulated, age graded,
hierarchically structured grouping of schools, primarily
free and often compulsory, administered by full-time
experts and progressively taught by specially trained
staff, (p. 6)
Katz (1987) cited Friedrich's (1950) description of the
characteristics of bureaucratic systems which appeared in
American schools. Six elements of a bureaucracy were presented
in two groups. One set ordered the relationship of members of
the organization to one another and included centralization of
control and supervision, differentiation of function, and
determination for qualifications of office. The other set
included rules for defining desirable habit or behavior
patterns of all members of such an organization, namely,
objectivity, precision and consistency, and discretion.
Whether Weber or Friedrich were used as the main source
of analysis, the core views concerning production and the
exercise of authority are common. Meyers (1972) wrote that
bureaucratic theory is based on the assumption that a specific,
identifiable, uniform final product or service were both
possible and desirable. Work arrangements were to be based on
rational structuring which assumed that all steps in the pro-
duction process could be identified, separated into specific
production tasks, routinized, and assigned to individual
employees. Once identified, these steps could be routinized


34
to produce the final desired product. Supervision, in this
context, was to be designed to assure uniformity in performance -
and to make sure that production tasks were performed in the
prescribed manner. Supervision was to ensure compliance with
behaviors determined to be desirable for each person in the
production process.
The Effects of Industrialization
on the Occupation of Teaching
Concurrent with changes from traditional organization
structure of cottage-type industries to bureaucratic structure
in American institutions, the role of the worker in emerging
industrial society also underwent changes. Status of occu-
pational relationships was renegotiated. Those who needed to
earn a living not only needed a source of income, but the
conditions under which people worked were a central area of
concern. The onset of industrialization and market economy
created a situation where individuals traded their time,
effort, skills, knowledge, and expertise for monetary com-
pensation. The range of trade spanned the efforts of the
unskilled laborer to the ministrations of those who were the
educated elite. Occupations began to develop formal
associations in order to influence the conditions in which
they worked, to raise the power and status of the group, and
to set internal standards and values and for some to control
or own the work itself.


35
Lieberman (1956) described the concern of occupations
regarding the desire for prestige among its neighbors. He
wrote,
The importance of occupational status is heightened by the
belief that individual talent and character determine
occupation. If occupational status were only a matter of
what others thought, it would not be nearly so important.
But one's self-evaluation, job satisfaction and outlook on
life are closely tied to the opinions of others on these
same matters, that is, the status of one's occupation. It
is this fact which explains certain occupational trends.
The janitor becomes a custodian, the streetcleaner becomes
a sanitary technician, and the junk man a dealer in waste
materials. Typing and shorthand become a secretarial
science. These are a few of the many attempts to abandon
an occupational symbol of low prestige in favor of a new
higher one of higher prestige, (p. 454)
According to Lieberman (1956), the opinions of others
regarding the worth of an occupation were a focus for
concentration for the working class laborer as well as for the
educated of higher means. For trade, the laborer had his
effort, the craftsman his technical skill, the professional
his science and service, and the artist his art. Each had to
negotiate his way in industrial society. Each formed
collective associations, sometimes referred to as labor
unions, craft unions, professional associations, and art
guilds, in order to promote mutual well-being.
Cresswell and Murphy (1980) cited Webb and Webb (1920)
and defined these associations generally as unions.
A union ... is a continuous association of wage earners
for the purpose of maintaining and improving conditions of
their work lives. Unions maintained and improved their
position in the following manner. Occupational unions
formulate their own rules regarding conditions of


36
employment, specify terms under which employment would be
accepted, control entrance into a skilled work group, and
restrict the availability of certain types of work to
members of the association. The methods of enforcing these
conditions include collective bargaining, the process of
joint determination of work rules between employer and
employee; and persuading governmental legalization of rules
which protect the interest of the occupation. The American
Medical Association and the American Bar Association are
prime examples of the latter method. (Cresswell & Murphy,
pp. 54-55)
The various occupations differed according to the members'
knowledge, skill, degree of control over the work itself and
conditions of employment. In the context of the developing
labor movement, the professionalizing of some occupations, and
increasing technological development, school people had to
negotiate their occupational identities.
Weber (1947) described work in terms of dichotomous
relationships. "Human services for economic purposes may be
distinguished as (a) 'managerial,' or (b) oriented to the
instructions of a managerial agency" (p. 219). The latter form
of human service he described as labor which, in the
bureaucratic mode, demanded obedience. Weber described this
nature of obedience as
the action of the person obeying follows in essentials such
as the course that the content of the command may be taken
to have become the basis of action for its own sake.
Furthermore, the fact that it is taken is referable only
to formal obligation, without regard to the actor's own
attitude to the value or lack of value of the content of
command as such. (p. 327)
The unskilled worker had to negotiate a wage-effort
agreement which specified duties and obligations in terms of


37
compliance and obedience to work specifications of managers.
Laborers gained little control over the work itself, but were
able to influence the conditions in which they worked by
collectively withholding their labor.
The skilled worker was able to modify the obligations
associated with Weberian obedience. The skilled were able to
negotiate some control over their work by nature of possessing
a degree of technical knowledge and practical know how. Skill
implied that the worker knew how to do the job and took some
degree of personal responsibility in performing the tasks
competently. Skilled workers negotiated compensation for time,
effort, knowledge, and skill. These workers learned their trade
or craft through apprenticeship, practice, and experience.
The occupations which claimed professional status
negotiated for control over the work itself, whether it be in
the role of the medical practitioner, academician, minister, or
manager. The work of a professional was seen to be so complex
that it could only be performed by those who were formally
educated in the particular field. Evaluation of the work was
subject only to the members of the occupation and was not to be
directed from without.
Lieberman (1956) described the classic characteristics
which define occupations as professions:
1. A profession provided a unique and definite essential
service.


38
2. A profession emphasized intellectual techniques in
performing its services.
3. A profession required a long period of specialized
training.
4. A profession allowed a broad range of autonomy for
both the individual practitioners and the occupational group as
a whole. Autonomy referred to the extent that practitioners
are able to exercise their best judgment in terms of confronting
a wide variety of problems.
5. A profession supposed the acceptance by the
practitioners of broad personal responsibility for judgments
made and acts performed within the scope of professional
autonomy.
6. A profession emphasized the importance of the service
rendered, rather than the economic gain to the practitioners,
as the basis for the organization and performance of the social
service delegated to the occupational group.
7. A profession had a comprehensive self-governing organi-
zation of practitioners. Professions regulated and set their
own standards (pp. 1-5).
Many occupations sought professional status through the
development of expertise based on technical and theoretical
knowledge and also sought control over the product and
conditions in which they were to perform. Professions often


39
used the life or death criteria to define their work as an
essential social service.
Educators* Occupational Identity
and Unionism
School people, along with other Americans, engaged in
occupational efforts which have included labor relations and
professional modes of behavior. The development of the National
Educational Association and the American Federation of Teachers
demonstrated concern with the establishment of an occupational
identity, with occupational status, and with work condition
issues. The following summary describes the organization,
development, and central issues specific to the national
Education Association and the American Federation of Teachers
as researched by Cresswell and Murphy (1980).
The National Education Association. According to Cresswell
and Murphy (1980), for the first half of the 1800s educational
associations were chiefly state organizations. In the summer
of 1857, 43 educators gathered in Philadelphia. These people
represented 10 state organizations and called themselves the
National Teachers Organization. The members of this group were
college presidents and school administrators. The organization
changed its name to the National Education Association in the
late 1800s when it merged with the National Association of
School Superintendents. In the early years of the organization,
classroom teachers were encouraged to be members. Although


40
classroom teachers were allowed membership, they did not have
much influence until the mid-1900s.
Cresswell and Murphy (1980) wrote that the NEA upheld
conservative ideals. The goal of the NEA in the 1800s was to
professionalize school administration. The NEA looked to
business for bureaucratic principles of organization and
control. The metaphor of the factory was used to describe the
one best system for schools. NEA's mission was to reform
educational practice by replacing political control with expert,
elitist control. The members believed that the prestige and
financial conditions of teachers and school people would improve
after education was improved through scientific knowledge.
Speeches, given from 1858 through 1890, by William T. Harris,
a prominent superintendent from St. Louis, reflected the
predominant concerns at that time. His topics included theory,
psychology, high schools, colleges, manual and technical
schools, course of study, kindergarten, primary grades, music
education, moral and religious instruction, and the philosophy
of methods.
Cresswell and Murphy (1980) cited Sayre's (1958) writings
which documented that the NEA had developed a body of doctrine
or myths which could be described as four propositions which had
directed organizational behavior. They were as follows:
1. There was unity of interest among educators;
administrators' and teachers' concerns were the same;


41
2. Gains for education would follow increases in the
quality of educational practice;
3. Education institutions should be organized equivalent
to corporations in the private sector; and
4. Educational decisions should be protected from partisan
interest and should be non-political.
These beliefs controlled the NEA direction for several
decades and resulted in strong orientation toward consensus
decision making in the organization. NEA's approach to solving
education problems and tasks was based on persuasion by
expertise rather than by advocacy. The NEA commitment to pro-
fessionalism and style was also demonstrated by the high
quality of research efforts which began in the 1930s. This
information was used to influence key decision makers such as
school boards and state departments which had direct financial
influence over school systems (Cresswell & Murphy, 1980).
The American Federation of Teachers. According to Murphy
and Cresswell (1980), the American Federation of Teachers, from
its inception in 1916 through the social upheaval of the 1960s,
marked a decisive divergence of intent and philosophy from the
NEA. The American Federation of Teachers was associated with
organized labor and the social reconstructionist movement. The
AFT grew out of classroom teacher discontent with the NEA's
approach and policy toward educational change and the concern
that teachers did not benefit from the economic growth of the


42
period 1870 through 1910. Margaret Haily, a Chicago classroom
teacher, helped found the AFT with the financial and organizing
support of the American Federation of labor. The AFT and the
AFL shared common interests in improving work conditions of
teachers and of supporting free public education.
By 1920 the AFT had developed a platform of 11 principles
which demonstrated the core of AFT beliefs and concerns. The
organization believed in the right of teachers to (a) organize
and affiliate with labor, (b) receive warning and have a hearing
before separation of service (the forerunner of due process
rights), and (c) have freedom to work all avenues of
citizenship. (Public employees were limited in their political
activity.)
The AFT also believed that (a) the control of the teaching
staff should be in the hands of a professional, the superinten-
dent, not the local school board, (b) a democratic form of
administration should exist whereby teachers had a voice in
decision making, (c) the application of the merit principle of
civil service should be applied rather than that of political
appointment, (d) financial recognition should be commensurate
with the importance of educational services to the community,
(e) a unit system of vocational education, (f) popular election
of the school board should be encouraged, (g) free text books
should be provided, and (h) pensions for retired teachers should
be provided (Cresswell & Murphy, 1980, pp. 74-75).


43
In the 1920s and 1930s the AFT continued its aggressive
activities of pursuing teacher welfare and keeping concern with
social issues. Although the AFT maintained minority status, it
was the AFT that, in the 1930s depression, forced banks and
city councils to meet teacher payrolls. In the 1940s it was
the AFT which wrestled internally with conflict over bread and
butter unionism versus spending its energy fighting racial
discrimination and promoting women's rights. Members of the
AFT included educational thinkers such as John Dewey, George
Counts, John Child, Bruce Ramp, Goodwin Watson, and Jessie
Newland. These men affected teaching in not only bread and
butter ways, but had significant effect on philosophy in
education (Cresswell & Murphy, 1980).
During the mid 1930s through the 1940s, the AFT became a
strong and effective organization. In 1935, the Wagner Act,
which gave organized labor the right to free collective
bargaining was passed. By 1944, the first collective
bargaining contract with the AFT and the Board of Education was
signed in Cicero, Illinois. The contract provided for a single
salary scale, pay for extra classes, a sabbatical leave program,
a grievance procedure, the AFT local as the exclusive bargaining
agent, and procedures for revision and renewal of the contract
(Cresswell & Murphy, 1980).
In the early 1960s, the AFT, the American Federation of
Labor, the Committee for Industrial Organization of Labor (the


44
branch of trade-craft union base of the AFL) and the New York
United Federation of Teachers collaborated and staged two
strikes which were to have decisive effects on teachers' work
relationships in school systems. The first strike, which took
place in New York City's Public Schools on November 7, I960,
won the UFT the right to hold elections to determine whether
teachers wanted the right to bargain collectively. In June of
1961, the teachers voted to participate in collective bargaining
and chose the UFT as their exclusive bargaining agent.
Contract negotiations began, but broke down in March of 1962.
The teachers struck on April 11th. The strike only lasted one
day. The teachers were able to win an increase in salary,
reduction in class loads, increases in specialized services,
and guarantees against overly large classes (Cresswell & Murphy,
1980, pp. 84-85).
Collective bargaining: The National Education Association
and The American Federation of Teachers. 1960 to present.
Cresswell and Murphy (1980) held that by using industrial labor
methods, the AFT and UFT were able to demonstrate that
aggressive means, the strike, arbitration and collective
bargaining could affect the outcomes of teacher-school district
agreements. The success of these measures and threat of non-
survival caused the NEA to rethink its policies and position
concerning teacher welfare issues. In its early years, NEA
administrators encouraged classroom teachers to join NEA rather


45
than to join other organizations. Throughout NEA's life,
administrators continued to be the most influential members of
the organization, but over time the number of active teacher
members increased considerably. Concerns about teacher welfare
issues were strong with these members and have continued to
affect the organization's outlook (Cresswell & Murphy, 1980).
Prior to trends toward teacher militarism demonstrated in
the early 1960s, the NEA held that professional group action
regarding salary proposals should be in the form of democratic
persuasion. The organization provided support for salary
committees to study local salary schedules and financial con-
ditions Changes within the occupation of teaching and the
successful example of the AFT led NEA to recognize a process
called professional negotiations, which was described as demo-
cratic participation in the determination of policies of common
concern and other conditions of professional service. Profes-
sional negotiations meant that industrial methods of mediation
and arbitration were found to be acceptable as part of NEA
organizational behavior. Sanctions were considered to be an
appropriate means in which to influence work conditions within
school districts. The prohibition against strikes as a norm of
acceptable professional behavior was terminated. Participation
in grievance procedures and withdrawal of services were also
considered acceptable activities of members if such means were
deemed necessary by the organization (Cresswell & Murphy, 1980).


46
In response to urban school crises of the 1960s, the NEA
Urban Project allowed the NEA to work directly with local
associations. By 1970, reform in NEA developed into the Uniserv
program, which sought to provide one professional staff member
for every 1,200 members. Teachers had to be members of local,
state and national levels of the organization (Cresswell &
Murphy, 1980).
During the last two decades, the NEA and the AFT have
become similar in attitude and in organizational aims. Both
unions have championed bread and butter issues for teachers and
improvement of work conditions, and also have attempted to
influence policy issues which affected teaching practice. By
the 1980s, approximately 91% of all teachers belonged to a union
and 89% of all school districts with more than 1,000 students
had participated in collective bargaining (Mitchell & Kerchner,
1983, p. 214).
Research on Collective Bargaining
The effects of collective bargaining and the effects of
contract negotiations on teaching practice and school organi-
zation relationships have been areas of interest to researchers
and policy analysts (Bacharach, Shed & Conley, 1989; Darling-
Hammond, 1990; Elmore, 1987; Floden et al., 1988; Shed, 1988).
The contract has been viewed as a document which could cause
stagnation in schools through limiting teacher responsibility to
routine practices (Kerchner, 1986; Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983;


47
Mitchell, Kerchner, Erck & Pryor, 1981). Some recent examples
of expanded contracts have indicated that teachers' responsi-
bility for participation and educational decision making could
be successfully expanded (Routh, 1990; Watts & McClure, 1990).
How the contract has been applied and affected work relationship
in districts has varied. Some districts have continued to use
a labor mode of application, but others have moved toward a
more professional mode (Kerchner, 1988; Shed, 1988).
Effects and implications of traditional collective
bargaining and contract negotiation. The research of Cresswell
and Murphy (1980), Mitchell, Erck and Pryor (1981) and Mitchell
and Kerchner (1983) has substantial bearings on conceptions of
teaching in terms of the labor conception of teaching work. The
following summary presents these researchers' views.
Collective bargaining and contract negotiations which were
completed since the 1960s have resulted in increased
standardization of policy and practice in the treatment of
school personnel. Equity of treatment, due process, and other
guards against favoritism and discrimination have limited the
flexibility of the teacher-principal relationship (Cresswell &
Murphy, 1980).
The contract, which has been the result of the collective
bargaining agreement, has become the explicit framework of the
agreements and procedures which define the relationships
between administrators and school workers. Traditionally in


48
the labor-management relations mode, the scope of the contract
focused on wage, benefits, workloads and duties, evaluation
procedure, and the maintenance of standards had related to
teacher welfare and work conditions. By the 1970s the scope of
subjects that were considered in agreements included issues
such as (a) teacher participation in educational policy decision
making, (b) teacher participation in curriculum and textbook
decisions, and (c) teacher protection for responsibility in
pupil discipline. Language in contracts has ranged from being
highly specific concerning proscribed behavior to language which
is general and allows more leeway in interpretation based on
local situations.
Mitchell and his colleagues (Mitchell, Kerchner, Erck, &
Pryor, 1981; Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983) expressed the concern
that negative effects of uniformity on the process of teaching
could result from adherence to proscriptive behavior detailed
in contracts which emphasized insistence on conformity by
teachers and administrators. Mitchell and Kerchner (1983)
argued that intensive labor relations negotiations which
strictly defined and limited teaching activities, including
classroom management and instruction, would be strictly
predetermined by management and subject to close inspection.
They indirectly counseled readers to reflect on their values
and beliefs, and to consider alternate conceptualizations of
teaching by suggesting the implications of the effects that a


49
labor conception of teaching would have on educational policy
and practice.
Kerchner (1980) maintained that school systems are open
systems in which relationships of trust, harmony, conflict, and
cooperation all change over time. He held that schools were
sensitive to their environments, that participants were change-
able and that the nature of labor process was always unfinished.
He described labor impacts in relation to three decision-making
modes. These modes included (a) the bureaucratic professional
--the supervision function of administration, (b) the political
mode--which involved participants' needs and preferences; and
(c) the labor relations mode--in which a threat of disturbance
affected how decisions were made. He proposed that the com-
bining of these decision modes, along with other existing modes
of governance (e.g., national, state, and local legitimate power
in governance) and also with collective bargaining, has sig-
nificantly impacted ways in which managers approach their jobs.
The most common representation of the impact of unionization is
that there are new rules to follow via the contract and policy.
The locus of control in decision making is more strongly based
on contract administration which usually places great reliance
on uniformity. Standardization of teaching practice is one
critical way in which uniformity could be achieved.
Although trends in educational practice have appeared to
be becoming more standardized, the degree of standardization


50
varies. In practice, the process of standardizing through
formal means has been mitigated by normative values. Feiman-
Nemser and Floden (1986) reviewed research concerning norms of
the informal system of exchange that teachers and school prin-
cipals traditionally have engaged in before and after the
institutionalization of formal negotiated agreements in school
districts. They found:
1. Teachers wanted little interference in daily classroom
events, and particularly have not wanted interference with
classroom decisions concerning curriculum and instruction.
2. Teachers have also continued to want administrators to
act as a buffer between the outside pressures from parents,
community, and other teachers. Principals have been expected
to continue to maintain student discipline, establish school-
wide policies, and back teachers in their classroom discipline.
3. Districts differ in the degree that teachers have held
to the specifications of contracts in their work relationships
with principals. A general trend toward an informal system of
exchange was still evident. Teachers have continued to depend
on the good will of the principal for many services while a
principal also has continued to depend on the good will of the
teachers to provide high educational standards (p. 509).


51
Views of Teaching
The following section presents an overview of different
views of teaching in terms of (a) beliefs about ways authority
is practiced in schools, (b) values and preferences of teaching
styles, (c) beliefs about the role of technology in education,
and (d) beliefs about knowledge and skills needed to teach
successfully. This section presents examples of research and
literature which have described ways of conceptualizing
teaching.
The bureaucratic model of organization has continued to
operate in some degree in most major American institutions.
The school is one in which authority has functioned in
hierarchical and lateral manners. Formal authority vested in
the state has been dispersed in a chain of command and has been
exercised by the local school board. Permission to act then
has been passed through the superintendent, to central
administrative personnel, to building administrators, and last
to teachers. Parents, community members, and various teacher
organizations and interest groups have demonstrated influence
through personal and political means. Statute and formal school
policy and contract language have mediated and defined work
roles, relationships, and responsibilities in school organiza-
tions. In addition to the formal specifications of modern
interwork relationships, other traditional, cultural, and
personal factors have formed undercurrents and have affected


52
how school systems operate. Bureaucratic theory has assumed
that there is consensus of goals, obj ectives, agreement about
means of production, and compliance with rules and standards
set by the organization. In the bureaucratic mode, it has been
assumed that all members have specific tasks to do; these tasks
have been defined, and outcomes have been predictable. The
organization works like a well maintained machine. Individu-
ality and expression of personality were not to be encouraged.
The place of bureaucratic values in teaching practice has
been an area of discussion for educational theorists and
practitioners. The premise that bureaucratic organization has
been the only system that could have operated in schools has
not been universally accepted (Katz, 1987). Strict
hierarchical structuring of school organizations has been
questioned by Weick (1982), who described school systems as
loosely coupled organizations in which teachers and
administrators meet on occasion to interact, but where
classroom events of instruction and management have remained
the domain of the teachers. Wolcott (1977) viewed teachers and
administrators as members of separate social-work groups who
have reciprocal responsibilities but hold different values and
expectations in their organizational roles. He described
teachers as teachers, but described administrators and
researchers as technocrats. He compared the teachers' and
technocrats' relationship to the moiety system used in


53
anthropology. Each group was described as part of a dual group
system that interacted in four distinct ways. The types of
interactions have included complementary behavior, reciprocity,
conceptual antithesis, and rivalry.
Both Wolcott (1977) and Weick (1982) presented factors
which have mitigated organizational processes which sought to
promote the rationalization of educational practice in schools.
Sarason (1983) developed a profile of significant educators and
researchers who have attempted to search for and develop laws
or rules which would guarantee educational outcomes through
scientific inquiry. They are presented in the following
listing:
1. Itard, a French physician of the late 1700s, was noted
for attempting to educate a handicapped adolescent named Victor,
who was known as the Wild Boy of Aveyron. Victor was a boy who
had been abandoned in the French countryside and had lived on
his own by scavenging. Victor also did not have any developed
language abilities. Itard believed in Rousseau's concept of
the noble savage and believed that science would one day lead
to the perfectability of man. He attempted to develop an
educational program that would teach Victor to be normal.
2. Dewey, an American educational philosopher and
psychologist (Heidbreder, 1933), was recognized for establishing
the Laboratory School in Chicago. This school was founded in
order to develop a program of psychology related to education.


54
Dewey established a place where ideas about children,
classrooms, and teaching strategies could be tested and studied.
3. Binet, a French psychologist of the early 1900s, was
recognized for his contributions to the development of
experimental pedagogy. Sarason (1983) described Binet's
interest in education as a major quest to discover how to
translate knowledge about teaching and learning to tactics and
strategies that were appropriate to the needs and characters of
children and to the nature and the constraints of the classroom.
These men's works have influenced educational thinking with
the belief that strong and direct cause and effect relation-
ships between specific techniques used by teachers and students'
learning could be discovered through research. Other results
of this pursuit of knowledge have been the development of a
range of methodologies and educational practices which have
included highly prescriptive rule-based teaching
practices to highly idiosyncratic teaching practices.
Knowledge and Its
Application in Teaching
How scientific knowledge and other types of personal and
practical knowledge were to be applied in educational practice
were reflected in differing nomothetic philosophy and
ideographic philosophy of education. The nomothetic philosophy
held that practice should be directed by rules which were
determined to be correct practice because they were validated


55
by science and bureaucratic authority. The ideographic
philosophy of education viewed scientific information,
personal knowledge, and practical knowledge as the factors which
should guide teaching practice (Harris, 1982).
How instructional methodology based on experimental
scientific method was implemented in practice has been a major
defining factor in the development of general conceptions of
teaching. These definitions of teaching conceptions have
included (a) the technical-labor fashion of using methodology
where methodology was used strictly according to prescrip-
tion, with no teacher discretion; (b) a craft fashion, the
methodology was modified to allow for contextual circumstances
of the classroom; (c) a profession fashion, the methodology was
used in a highly discretionary manner, where implementation of
the method has been subject to critical review by the teacher;
and (d) in an artistic fashion, where methodology which was
based on scientific research was not considered as being of
primary importance in instruction. Art approaches used
methodology in a highly idiosyncratic manner.
How the Concept of Method.
Knowledge and the Character-
istics of Rules Apply to
Conceptualization of Teaching
Harris (1982) developed a scheme to demonstrate the
relationship of method, rules, knowledge and conceptual
orientations toward educational practice and teaching. Harris


56
(1982) used Buchler's (1961) conception of method and
Oakeshott's (1962) conception of knowledge; Scheffler's (1960)
characteristic of rules and actions have been provided to
delineate critical attributes of different conceptions of
teaching and educational practice.
According to Harris (1982), Buchler (1961) defined method
as the repeatable elements in practice, as distinguishable from
mere random events. Buchler's (1961) premises were:
1. Whoever acted methodically (a) chose a mode of conduct,
(b) to be directed in a given way, (c) to a particular set of
circumstances, (d) for the attainment of a result.
2. The mode of conduct adopted may have consisted of
(a) established practice, or (b) established practice
modified by idiosyncratic technique, or (c) essentially
idiosyncratic private practice.
3. Whatever procedure was adopted may be utilized
(a) strictly in accordance with prescription, or (b) loosely
variably with discretionary relationship to prescription, or
(c) uniquely in consequence of predominant reliance on insight.
4. Circumstances under which the procedure was utilized
may (a) have been definitely classifiable circumstances, or
(b) ranged from the expected and classified down to the mini-
mal circumstances that would allow for the procedure.
5. Results toward which the activity aims may have been
(a) an envisaged or familiar type of result, or (b) an


57
indefinite result accepted as such in terms of desirability, or
(c) a relatively novel result (Harris, 1982, pp. 32-33).
Buchler (1961) believed that all methods could be
formulated in some way. According to him, all methodology could
be articulated. Whether this articulation was expressed by
written codification in the form of rules, directives, or
written in expressive, descriptive narrative was based on views
about the nature of knowledge, the characteristic of rules, and
how knowledge and rules related to the work of instruction and
managing a classroom.
The nature or type of knowledge considered to have been
needed in teaching was significant in relation to approaches to
conceptualizing the nature of teaching. Harris (1982) described
Oakeshott's (1962) definitions of technical knowledge and
practical knowledge. Technical knowledge was that information
which could be precisely formulated. Technical knowledge could
be codified. Practical knowledge existed only in use and was a
customary or traditional way of doing things. Practical know-
ledge or know-how could be learned but not directly taught.
The master-apprentice relationship was the means of this passing
of knowledge.
Harris (1982) summarized Scheffler's (1960) description of
the characteristics of rules in the following manner. Rules
could be formulated for activities in a complete set of rules
which guaranteed success or an incomplete set of rules which


58
were helpful but did not guarantee success. Translated into
educational language, methodologies which included a complete
set of rules would most likely be highly prescriptive,
hierarchical, demand the establishment of a highly structured
classroom environment, and would have implied a diminished role
of the teacher as an instructional decision maker.
Teaching as Technology
Harris (1982) cited Bereiter and Engelmann's (1968) methods
as another example of teaching as technology. The methodology
of instruction prescribed by these curriculum developers
included scripted lessons of reading instruction for teachers
to follow. The teachers were also admonished to stay close to
the recipes in order to avoid failure. The teacher was to
implement a program in which all the decisions had been made by
the instructional programs' developers. In essence, the
teacher was to manage a product developed by an expert.
This mode of teaching fitted Harris' (1982) descrip-
tion of teaching as technology. Instruction was seen purely as
the management of prescribed technological procedure. The
methods of instruction used were based on established prac-
tice, used in strict accordance with prescriptions, practiced
in definitely classifiable circumstances, and were aimed toward
an envisaged or familiar type of result.


59
Teaching as Labor
Teaching as technology has been related to the labor
conception of teaching. A view of teaching, in which teaching
has been seen as a highly predictable endeavor where rules,
routinization, and strict prescription dominated the work of
teachers has been compared to a labor conception of teaching.
Sarason (1977) eloquently described what it means
to labor.
When we say that a person labors, we refer to an activity
the end product of which in no way bears the doer's
personal stamp. It is an activity so structured,
ordinarily so predetermined, that there is no room for the
product to reflect something distinctive about its maker.
So, when we say someone is a laborer or occupies a certain
place on an assembly line, what gets conjured up in our
minds is an impersonal relationship between person and
product, i.e., the product is independent of its maker.
One can substitute for another but one would never know by
looking at the product. The activity, of course, has
meaning for the person but whatever that meaning may be,
it is supposed to remain internal and not to affect the
product. It is so to speak, a mindless activity, (pp.
116-117)
Teaching as a Craft
Harris (1982) proposed that good teaching was a craft and
not to be limited to implementing technologies. She used
Buchler's (1961) terms to express her views. Craft teaching
used established practice which was modified by idiosyncratic
technique. Teaching methods were performed in a discretionary
manner in relationship to prescribed practice. Craft teaching
involved using instructional methodologies in a variety of
circumstances and toward indefinite results.


60
Harris (1982) argued that teaching should be treated as a
craft because it was not a task which was completely predictable
and amenable to strict rules of a technology. She believed
that teachers should implement curriculum and educational
innovations in a way that methodology was applied according to
the teachers' judgments about appropriateness of the procedures
in a given instructional situation.
Several theoreticians and researchers (Greene, 1986;
Jackson, 1968, 1986; Kohl, 1976; Lortie, 1975; Smith &
Geoffrey, 1968) have developed the conceptual view of teaching
as craft. Lortie (1975) conducted extensive survey research in
the Dade County Public School System in Florida during the 1960s
and found teachers' perceptions of teaching to be in line with
craft occupational configuration of work. Other researchers
have developed the craft conception of teaching work through
their personal-professional experiences and reflection upon
teaching.
Lortie (1975) has been credited by Feiman-Nemser and Floden
(1986) for his classic analysis of the teaching occupation in
terms of identifying teachers' "sentiments" which were defined
as teachers' beliefs, preoccupations, and preferences. He
emphasized the endemic uncertainties in which the teacher must
work, the importance of adapting methodology, the values
teachers placed on their work and their preferences concerning
work conditions. He stated:


61
In thinking about teachers it is useful to conceive of the
occupation as engaged in a craft; we can compare the con-
ditions affecting this craft with those of other crafts.
All craftsmen must adjust and readjust their actions in
line with hoped-for outcomes; they must monitor their steps
and make corrections as they proceed. Monitoring of this
kind is particularly important when the outcome is remote
in time; mistaken assessments can deflect movement toward
the goal and prove extremely costly when the proof comes
in. (p. 135)
Lortie's (1975) data, collected in the early 1960s,
outlined seven findings which comprised his observations of
teaching as a craft occupation.
1. Teachers believed that students' moods strongly affect
instruction and that these moods are often whimsical.
2. Experience improved performance over time.
3. Teachers were the essential catalyst for student
achievement.
4. Teacher prestige and dignity were subject to the good
will of administrators and others for and with whom they work.
Teachers were vulnerable in their work.
5. Psychic rewards, the good feeling that comes with
seeing students learn, were the most rewarding aspects of
teaching, and were rated above salary or social prestige.
6. If granted ideal work conditions, teachers would choose
(a) autonomy, in terms of getting away from other people
(adults), (b) more time to teach, smaller classes, less inert
task (those activities which did not directly relate to
instructional activities), and (c) better educated
administrators who did not emphasize rules as much.


62
7. Teachers expressed little concern with developing a
common technical culture or having a great amount of influence
over general school policy.
The central theme of a craft view of teaching has been the
need for teachers to adapt established curriculum and teaching
methods to students' needs and interests in a way that teacher
behavior operated as a flexible response system to the oppor-
tunities and constraints of the classroom. Kohl (1976)
contrasted craft teaching with traditional teaching.
Teaching involves different skills in different school
settings. In a traditional classroom teaching well
consists of being able to manage a large number of students
who are required to master a preset and inflexible curricu-
lum. To do this a teacher must be able to control the
students with a minimum of conflict and keep them moving
through a standard text or work book. . One must learn
how to control the day. . traditional teachers need
not know much about the subject . the text and
teacher's manual tell you all you need to know, . the
basic skills traditional teachers must have are the mastery
of body, space, and time. . The ability of teachers to
manage students and avoid major discipline problems are
the most important qualities in which teachers are judged
by administrators. . Teaching from my perspective
involves the skill and ingenuity to reconstruct the
curriculum, redesign the environment and change one's
behavior so that students will have the experiences,
resources, and support they need to develop their
sensitivity, compassion and intelligence. Teachers need
to be responsive to students rather than to preset
curriculum. It takes time and experience to observe and
to respond well to young people. ... As with any craft,
it takes time and experience to feel comfortable and build
up enough resources to deal with problems which arise
unexpectedly, (pp. 29-30)
Kohl's (1976) resources were primarily materials and
methods that were practical ways of doing and teaching. His
suggestions emphasized practical knowledge, the know-how of


63
teaching in which the teacher builds up a repertoire of skill
based on personal experimentation of working with students.
His resources included listings of methods and techniques that
other teachers have found to be successful in practice. He
also described games, crafts, and activities such as map making,
toy making, drawing, cooking, woodworking, and photography as
examples of teaching activities which help teach and interest
students.
Jackson (1986) described the knowledge needed for good
teaching as common sense and good sense. Common sense was
defined as knowledge and awareness of cultural constraints,
sanctions, and social exchange in the school and community.
This kind of knowledge was the practical knowledge that
individuals needed in order to survive in society. Waller
(1932) proposed that knowledge of social relationships and of
expectations for teachers was necessary for beginning teachers
to understand in order to keep their jobs and survive in
teaching. Jackson described good sense in teaching as the
skill and ability to know when to use teaching methods and to
adjust teaching behavior to given classroom situations. Sense
implied the know-how aspect of teaching. This sense needed to
be used in the complex environment of the classroom, and used
in light of institutional restraints of the physical environment
of the classroom setting and with school policy and tradition
(Jackson, 1968). Classrooms were described as milieus where


social systems exist, where diverse reactions to instruction
took place, and where maintaining student interest were
perennial problems (Smith & Geoffrey, 1968).
64
Teaching as a Profession
Educators and researchers (Darling-Hammond, 1985, 1986,
1988, 1989, 1990; Darling-Hammond & Wise, 1981, 1985; Darling-
Hammond, Wise, & Pease, 1983; Lieberman, 1988; Lieberman 6c
Miller, 1984, 1990; Wise, 1979, 1986, 1990), who viewed good
teaching as a profession, have deemed that the tasks of
teaching and the demands of the classroom were so complex that
the ability to adapt standard curriculum was insufficient for
successful education of students.
Professional judgment has been the key to the professional
view of teaching. Darling-Hammond (1985) expressed this opinion
eloquently.
Studies have made it clear that professional judgment is a
prerequisite for effective teaching, because unless
students are treated according to their particular learning
needs, they will be mistreated. Standardized practice is,
in effect, malpractice. Unless we prepare teachers to
exercise professional judgment, and then allow them to do
so, we will have little hope of improving educational
quality, (p. 211)
In the view of teaching as a profession, the following
conditions were proposed by researchers who believed that good
teaching was a professional occupation.
1. Teachers demonstrated commitment to service and ethical
practice through their ability to assess the effects of teaching


65
on students' intellectual and emotional well-being (Covert,
1989; Darling-Hammond, 1985; Elmore & McLaughlin, 1988).
2. Teachers as a professional group held authority in
determining practice in teaching (Darling-Hammond, 1985;
Shavelson & Stern, 1981).
3. Teachers participated in collegial and collaborative
work arrangements (Darling-Hammond, 1990; Keiny & Drefus, 1989;
Little, 1990).
4. Teachers use a process of critical judgment in imple-
menting instruction (Shavelson & Stern, 1981) .
Lieberman (1988) presented teaching as a professional
occupation in which leadership by teachers was vital. According
to her, professional teacher leadership was expressed when
(a) educators developed collegial relationships, (b) teachers
participated in school policy making, (c) teachers shared a
common professional culture which included sharing values and
information, (d) teachers acted in ways that promoted teacher
autonomy through individual responsibility for professional
development, and (d) teachers pursued active approaches to
knowledge, inquiry and ownership of their work.
Teaching as an Art
Educators and researchers (Bird, 1989; Eisner, 1983;
Hansen, 1987; Lessinger, 1970, 1979; Lessinger & Gillis, 1976;
Ohanian, 1986; Rubin, 1985; Smith, 1986; Stephens, 1976) who
viewed good teaching as an art relied on ideas of appreciation,


66
sensitivity, intuition, and creativity to describe their view.
They believed that attempts to routinize, to standardize, to
encourage predictability in teaching methodology, or to
understand theory were not of great importance in quality
teaching. What was important was that the teacher expressed or
encouraged creativity.
In viewing teaching as an art, artistic personal qualities
were deemed as the critical element of effective teaching.
Good teachers were individuals who had natural talent. Artistic
teachers were creative and innovative, and relied on intuition
rather than deliberate reason to encourage students to learn.
Artistic teachers were individuals who got results by the nature
of their individual teaching style. Jackson (1986), in the
following statement, made the point which held that formal
training in pedagogy was not necessary for effective teaching:
Teachers who have been accorded the highest status
positions in education; college professors, teachers in
elite private schools, the stars of the teaching
profession, the world's most distinguished lecturers from
Socrates forward have rarely studied the process of
teaching in any formal sense, (p. 6)
Jackson (1986) further emphasized his belief when he quoted
an opinion of John Dewey which was recorded by Archambault
(1964)
Some teachers violate every law known to and laid down by
pedagogical science . they are themselves so full of
the science of inquiry, so sensitive to every sign of its
presence and absence, that no matter what they do, nor how
they do it, they succeed in awakening and inspiring alert
and intense mental activity in those with whom they come
into contact. (Jackson, p. 89)


67
Wise (1979) outlined Stephens' (1976) spontaneous theory of
education which reflected the artistic view of teaching where
the personal qualities of a teacher were believed to be of
primary importance in quality teaching. Stephens believed that
effective schooling was less dependent on deliberate, rational
decisions, than on the spontaneous tendencies possessed in
varying degrees by all human beings.
The natural urge of human beings is to manipulate their
environment in ways that have little immediate survival
value, to take things they know, to applaud or to condemn
some performances and to disprove and correct other
performances, to supply an answer which alludes
someone else. (Wise, p. 18)
Stephens (1976) strongly advocated the belief that
spontaneous tendencies of individuals inevitably bring about
motivation, practice, reinforcement, guidance, and the enhance-
ment of insight.
Innovation and creativity in teaching methodology were
also hallmarks of the artistic approach in teaching. Eisner
(1983) described art in teaching as the willingness and ability
to create new forms of teaching "moves" that were actions that
were not originally part of one's existing repertoire of
behavior. Lessinger (1970) supported measures to use tech-
nology in innovative ways. He proposed that education could be
improved by using the same ingenuity, craft, and realism that
got Americans to the moon. He supported contracting of talent
from the private sector to research, develop, and implement
instructional programs. These innovators were to be rewarded


68
for creating products that delivered positive educational
results.
The pedagogy of the performing arts in theater has been a
methodology which has been used by educators as one way to
describe and to develop artistic teaching (Baughman, 1979;
Lessinger, 1979; Lessinger & Gillis, 1976; Rives, 1979). The
metaphor has been considered the language of critique and
meaning in artistic approaches to defining teaching. Lessinger
and Gillis (1976) named the experience of learning as the
celebrative experience. They proposed that the teacher was
like an actor who was aware of the importance of settings,
props, and supporting cast to his success.
Lessinger and Gillis (1976) used terminology from the
performing arts to describe their view of teaching as an art.
Their terms were:
1. Style and Modes of Behavior The variety of
presentational forms ranging from solo performance to group
artistry. Style connoted individuality of personal method.
Mode meant manner of performance.
2. Performance Literature The material, written and
improvised, in use by a performer while in the act of per-
forming. (This was the lesson or information the teacher
teaches.)
3. Performance Arena The place in which a performance
occurred. (This was usually the classroom.)


69
4. The Instrument of Performance The device or method
employed by performers through which the performance was
enabled. (The teacher was the device.)
5. The Audience Those individuals, collectively or
singly, for whom the performance was designed. (The audience
was the students.)
6. Adaptivity The process of modifying or changing
existing materials for use in performance. (The ability of
the teacher to modify instruction when necessary to meet
students' instructional needs.)
7. Structured Forms Those materials required to be
performed in the style or mode dictated by their creator.
8. Improvisation Spontaneous creation of performance
materials, the mode or style which related to the indi-
viduality of the performer.
9. Arts Pedagogy The principle of the teaching-learning
experience based on a one-to-one relationship plus ensemble
performance.
Rubin (1985) described teaching as an art in a process-
oriented manner. In his view, artistry in teaching included
the elements of creativity, artistic attitude, perception, and
intuition. He also presented the classroom as a theater where
instruction occurred as dramatic episodes. The teacher was an
actor, the classroom was where lessons are staged. In regard
to the nature of artistry, he stated:


70
The characteristics associated with artistry come readily
to mind--skill, originality, flair, dexterity, ingenuity,
virtuosity, and similar qualities which, together, engender
exceptional performance. One might argue that artistry
consists of the master craftsmanship through which tasks
conceived, planned, and executed with unusual imagination
and brilliance . unusual cleverness . greatly
superior to conventional practice, (pp. 15-16)
Rubin (1985) proposed that artistry in teaching was the
result of innate ability or effort of individuals to develop
talent by learning from those who have natural gifts. Artistry
in teaching was held to involve the choice of educational aims
that have high worth, the use of imaginative and innovative
ways to achieve these aims, and the pursuit of their achieve-
ment with great skill and dexterity.
The creative process was proposed to be the critical
element in teaching as an art. Rubin (1985) outlined the
schemata that was developed by Wallas (1926) as an example of
that process. This creative process included: (a) a period
of preparation; the identification of the problem, collecting
information, and considering alternative actions; (b) a period
of incubation on the conscious level, the problem is set
aside; (c) a time of illumination when a solution or course of
action becomes a conscious reality; and (d) a period of
verification, when the solution is tested to see if it solves
the problem.
In Rubin's (1985) view, artistic perception was a critical
element in quality teaching and he defined it as sensitivity
to idiosyncratic needs of individual children which implies


71
the ability to respond with different kinds of teaching
methods. He described intuition as a process of reaching
decisions quickly, based on the teacher's perception and
knowledge of students.
Teachers' sensitivity to students' needs and teachers'
engagement with teaching were strong values in the artistic
view of teaching.
Smith (1986) believed that the creative environment was
one in which everyone had an opportunity to learn. He believed
that students and teachers should be members of the reading
and writing club; that both, teacher and student, should
participate in reading and writing in the classroom.
He wrote, "Sensitive and imaginative teachers inspire
learning of lasting depth and complexity--a love of learning
itself--in students with all kinds of interests and abilities"
(Smith, 1986, p. x).
Bird (1989), a teacher who had espoused the methodology
of the whole language approach to teaching literacy, employed
the child-centered emphasis of the artistic approach. She
described the children as the curricular planning. Teaching
to her was "an art, a creative process of revision" (Bird,
1989, p. 17). The job of the artistic teacher was to respond
to students' needs as they emerged in a natural environment of
reading and writing. Learning came from the fulfillment of
the individual's interests and inclinations. Bird (1989) cited


.72
Donaldson's (1978) statement which described the essence of an
artistic approach to teaching: According to Donaldson (1978),
"The essence of the teacher's art lies in deciding what help
is needed at any given instance and how this help may be
offered" (p. 15).
Instructional Supervision
Historical Background of
Supervision
Differing views of supervision have affected educational
practice since the appearance of a formal education system in
the United States. Originally, the overseeing and monitoring
of schools was conducted by selected community members who
were considered to have authority in local matters due to their
high economic and social status in the community. Members of
the clergy and other educated laymen supervised school opera-
tions, student progress, curriculum, instruction, and teacher
behavior through close inspection. Burnham's (1976) reference
to Dicky (cited by Mattes, 1983) described supervision in early
American schools. ^
There were three primary approaches to supervision which
dominated early schools. . These are (a) authority and
autocratic rule, (b) emphasis upon inspection and weeding
out of weak teachers, and (c) conformity to standards
prescribed by the committee of laymen, (p. 302)
Colonial law was the base of lay authority and provided for the
commissioning of select men as educational inspectors who could
test children's ability. The spelling bee was an example of


73
the type of activity that was used to demonstrate student
learning (Butts, 1953).
In the 1800s, lay inspection of schools became complicated
by sheer numbers of people who were involved in the activity.
Katz (1987) gave the example of the Boston Public School System
where, in 1850, primary education was overseen by The Primary
School Committee, a group comprised of 18 men who were able to
act independently. By 1860, membership had grown to 118.
In the late 1800s, school organizations became complex
systems which served an ever-increasing population of students.
Not only did numbers increase, but the needs of the students,
who were mostly the children of poor immigrants, included a
need for basic literacy and a means for being acculturated into
their adopted country. In order to respond to these needs and
to changing societal conditions, the schools began to change
their organizational system. Hence, the first graded primary
schools appeared. There was also specialization within the
teaching force. Music, art, physical education, military drill,
French, German, and sewing became specialized areas of instruc-
tion. Differentiation and a development of a hierarchy and
ranking of teachers became the norm. A person's level of
appointment to a teaching position depended on formal exami-
nation, and the candidates were awarded different classes of
certificates according to their performance on these tests
(Katz, 1987).


74
The move to the professional management of schools
developed concurrently with trends in education and the larger
society. Women were needed as an inexpensive source of teachers
to make up the primary school teaching force. Grammar school
masters became headmasters and were given authority over the
primary schools. Businessmen were hired as superintendents and
in time these men were able to convince the school community
that more help was needed to run the schools effectively and
efficiently. Their influence resulted in the adding of other
support personnel in management and supervisory positions.
Katz (1987) described the intensity in which school managers
conceived public education as a business which should be modeled
after bureaucratic industrialization.
As an idealized standard, schoolmen used the example of
industry that over and over again formed the basis of their
justifications of superintending. Quite often they
described their school systems as factories and used the
metaphors based on the corporation and the machine. Modern
industry, they could see had developed its remarkable
capacity through a rational organization that stressed
hierarchy, the division of labor, and intensive profes-
sional supervision. . Schoolmen pointed out that a
professionally supervised school system based on the
division of labor should be based on an elaborate
hierarchy and explicit chain of command necessary to keep
each member working at his or her particular task in a
responsible and coordinated fashion. At the head of the
hierarchy should be one "vested with sufficient authority"
to devise plans in general and detail and to "keep
subordinates in their proper places and at their assigned
tasks." . The great danger according to Payne, was
"disintegration," whose chief cause was "non-conformity,"
something not to be tolerated in either pupils or
teachers. (pp. 68-69)


75
Over time, public school systems became increasingly
bureaucratic. By the early 1900s, the headmaster or principal
teacher in each school building had taken on increasing power
and responsibility. Principal teachers became building princi-
pals and assumed the duties of inspecting the work of teachers,
making sure that teachers followed rules and adhered to rigidly
prescribed courses of study, and also made "suggestions" about
teaching methodology (Mattes, 1983). Scientific management
was an extremely rule-bound method. Teachers were viewed as
"appendages" of management and were expected to carry out
prescribed duties determined by their superiors. Prescription
and compliance were the predominant behaviors expected of
administrator-teacher working relationships (Sergiovanni &
Starratt, 1979). Efficiency in planning and the application of
the scientific method were the primary means of trying to
control teacher behavior (Alfonso, Firth, & Neville, 1975). In
this situation, classroom teachers had very little influence
over their work.
In the early 1900s, traditional scientific supervision
continued to be strong, but other societal trends began to
mediate its effects. A renewed concern with the continued
development and preservation of democratic processes and ideals
in American society began to emerge. This phenomenon affected
school relationships among students, teachers, administrators,
and the local community. In general, views about how each


76
member in the school system was to be treated became more con-
cerned with promoting and protecting the dignity of the
individual and the values of justice and freedom. Pragmatic
thought in education was strong. Dewey championed democratic
education in a democratic society. Ozmon and Craver (1981)
summarized the views of William Heard Kilpatrick, a student of
Dewey, in explaining that the aims of education were to teach
children how to live. They wrote: "This is accomplished in
three steps: (a) provision of opportunity to live,
(b) provision of learning experiences, and (c) provision of
conditions for character development" (p. 98). In order to do
this in a democratic manner, it was considered important that
the institution of education reflected democratic ideals.
The concern that a more democratic environment would be
established in schools was demonstrated by some rethinking about
the conditions of teaching and treatment of teachers as workers.
Democratic participation of teachers in the educational process
and decision making in schools were strongly supported by the
American Federation of Teachers. This thought slowly affected
teacher-administrator relationships and influenced the
development of democratic supervision where teacher satisfac-
tion, being kind to teachers, and treating teachers more as
individuals were considered important aspects of supervisory
practice (Wiles & Lovell, 1975). Concern with human relations
created a form of supervision in which cooperation, group


77
decision making, and individual responsibility were the central
themes (Alfonso et al., 1975; Wiles, 1967).
Human relations supervision continued to be accepted until
the 1950s. The launching of Sputnik, in 1957, by the Russians
affected the way Americans saw themselves. One result was dis-
enchantment with the way educational institutions were perform-
ing. Public sentiment created pressure on schools to reform
the approach to the way in which they were operating. Human
relations supervision lost favor and was considered inadequate
to meet the needs of school reform of this time. A preoccupa-
tion with maintaining superiority as a world power, and with
being able to protect American interest in the world affected
the way Americans viewed education. Better education was seen
necessary if Americans were to be able to compete in the space
race.
The fear caused by the Russian Sputnik event was shortly
followed by the urban crises of the 1960s. In American cities,
minority reaction to poverty and discrimination, plus university
student militant responses to the Vietnam Conflict, created a
turbulence which had long-range effects on education. Equity
of opportunity, social change, competition in the world market,
and desire for guaranteed educational outcomes became the themes
which have driven much educational practice in following years.
During the Vietnam era, Americans enjoyed the boom from a
war economy. This money was used to finance President Lyndon


78
Johnson's War on Poverty. Part of the War on Poverty was the
movement to find ways in which to educate children better
through the development of more successful methods in curriculum
and instruction. The science of education was reborn.
Supervision in schools became concerned not only with main-
taining a satisfactory work climate, but also with managing
the operation in schools and with monitoring processes. A major
task of supervision became the improvement of instruction
(Glatthorn, 1984; Harris, 1985; Krajewski, 1977).
In the 1960s, the role of the supervisor became that of a
change agent who monitored the implementation of instructional
innovations and who was expected to promote the adoption of the
new methods and programs. Alfonso et al. (1975) and Redd
(1972) described the role of the supervisor, in the '70s, as
that of a systems manager who analyzed, diagnosed, designed,
and developed instructional systems. This time was the
beginning of the concept of the professional supervisor, of the
curriculum worker and of the consultant.
Wisdom was gained from observations of successful and
unsuccessful implementation of innovations of the '60s and '70s.
Stake's (1983) observations of the outcomes from attempts to
introduce and institutionalize innovations in the previous two
decades found that the success of innovations most often
depended on the stakeholders' interest in the program. Stake-
holders were participants who were affected. These included


79
teachers, parents, students, administrators and local community
members. Supervision for the improvement of instruction as an
innovation was also forced to address the needs of different
participants who were involved in the educational process.
Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, issues regarding efficiency
in regard to expenditures of money and time, effectiveness of
schools, school programs, and instruction; and being accountable
to communities, state agencies, federal agencies, private
funding agencies, and to those they supervise continued to
affect supervisory practice. Supervision practices which
addressed efficiency concerns of the public emphasized what
Sergiovanni and Starratt (1979) referred to as neoscientific
management. Practices which emphasize competencies, behavioral
objectives, and cost benefit analysis served the needs of
outside agencies and were not generally accepted by teachers
(Wolcott, 1977). Methods which did not consider the human
element in teaching performance were negatively viewed by many
theorists and practitioners of instructional supervision. Cogan
(1973), Garman (1990), Glatthorn (1984), Glickman (1985),
Goldhammer, Anderson and Krajewski (1980), Harris (1985), and
Sergiovanni and Starratt (1971, 1979) described the process of
supervision in terms which reflected the importance of
supervision as a person-oriented endeavor as well as a
methodological endeavor. Differing beliefs about the human
element in supervision and instruction, the purpose, and


80
underlying assumptions about quality teaching can be inferred
by studying how supervision is defined and how methods of
supervision are described.
Different approaches to supervision have reflected
different attitudes toward teachers and teaching. Various
practices have emphasized some methods which are more task
oriented than person oriented; some have demonstrated more
appreciation for creativity than for standardization of
practice; some have been more analytically oriented than
prescriptive; and some have been more individualistic than
collegial. Definitions of instructional supervision and
descriptions of most current methods have expressed the
perceived function and purpose of supervision to be the
improvement of instruction. Although this perception has been
the commonality, different perceptions about supervision have
emphasized differences about the desired nature of the process
itself and beliefs about the nature of quality teaching. The
following is a description of alternative views of supervision
based on differentiation of practice and conceptualizations of
the meaning and purposes of supervision.
Current Definitions
of Supervision
The following list has been developed to document the major
definitions and stated purposes of supervision which have been
reflected in current thought.


81
1. The Dictionary of Education defined supervision as:
All efforts of the designated school officials directed
toward providing leadership to teachers and other
educational workers in the improvement of instruction. It
involves the stimulation of professional growth and
development of teachers, the selection and revision of
educational objectives, materials, instruction, methods of
teaching, and evaluation of instruction. (Good, 1959, p.
539)
2. Harris (1975, 1985) defined supervision as, "What
school
personnel do with adults to maintain or change the school
operations in ways that directly influence the teaching process
employed to promote pupil learning." Supervision is highly
instruction-related but not highly pupil-related. Supervision
is a major function of the school operation, not a task or
specific job or set of techniques. Supervision of instruction
is directed toward both maintaining and improving the teaching-
learning processes of the school (pp. 10-11).
3. Glatthorn (1984) stated the following:
Supervision is a process of facilitating the professional
growth of a teacher, primarily by giving the teacher
feedback about classroom interactions and helping the
teacher make use of that feedback in order to make
teaching more effective, (p. 2)
4. Stoller (1978) believed the following:
Supervision as the improvement of instruction is concerned
with -overseeing, directing, guiding, conducting,
regulating, controlling, moving toward a goal, etc. . .
workers (teachers), who give or teach knowledge or
information ... -in such a manner that there is a
resulting "increase in value or excellence of quality or
condition, (pp. 7-8)


82
5. Lortie (1975) held that supervision was also the
process of self-supervision and was the act of teachers' self-
monitoring of instruction.
Themes which have occurred in these definitions were: (a)
the purpose of supervision was the improvement of instruction,
(b) supervision should facilitate teachers' professional growth,
(c) supervision involved monitoring and feedback, (d) super-
vision involved people: the designated school officials, adults,
school personnel, teachers, and (e) the focus of supervision
was on what adults do in the classroom, rather than what
students do.
Theories of Supervision
Common themes in research have included that the purpose
of supervision was instructional improvement, it involved
people, it was concerned with growth, and it involved reflective
practice. How supervision was done in practice has varied.
Differences in theory and methodology have demonstrated
different beliefs about individuals' expected roles in super-
vision, about teachers' growth needs, and about the appropriate-
ness of different techniques of supervision to meet these needs.
The following portion of this review describes the major prac-
tices and theories which have become currently popularized.
Current ideas about sound supervisory practice have used
eclectic ideas derived from traditional lines of research in
educational administration and also from research in the fields


83
of personality and adult development. Researchers such as
Erickson (1950), Glickman (1981, 1985), Harvey (1967) and
Kolberg (1969) are examples of these researchers. Supervision
systems which have taken account of individual differences and
growth needs have recommended the following.
Sergiovanni (1987) described the contingency view of
supervision in which good supervision is a supervisory program
which gives teachers options. The differentiated model of
supervision (Glatthorn, 1984) is one supervision model which
has included many options to meet this criterion.
Glatthorn's (1984) differentiated supervision system has
been used in this study as an organizing structure to outline
and describe the different methods and philosophical views of
supervision which have been used in professional practice today.
The original four rubrics of supervision practice defined by
Glatthorn (1984) have been presented as described by their
author. These methodological presentations have also been
expanded in this review to include related methodologies which
have been developed by other researchers and theoreticians.
Glatthorn's (1984) four rubrics of supervision included:
1. Clinical supervision is described as a method directed
at improving instruction where (a) the supervisor and teacher
met and conferred on lesson planning, (b) the supervisor
observed the lesson, (c) the supervisor then analyzed the


Full Text

PAGE 1

TEACHERS' PERCEPTIONS CONCERNING CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING WORK AND DIFFERENTIATED SUPERVISION by Catherine Patricia Cecelia Kielty B.A., University of Cincinnati, 1971 M.Ed., University of Cincinnati, 1977 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy School of Education 1991

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by Catherine Patricia Cecelia Kielty All rights reserved.

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This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy degree by Catherine Patricia Cecelia Kielty has been approved for the School of Education by /99/

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Kielty, Catherine Patricia Cecelia (Ph.D., Education) Teachers' Perceptions Concerning Conceptions of Teaching Work and Differentiated Supervision Thesis directed by Professor Bob L. Taylor The purposes of this research were to study how a group of elementary teachers perceived teaching in the context of Mitchell and Kerchner's (1983) conceptions of teaching work model which defined teaching in terms of labor, craft, profession, and art; and to study "how satisfactory" teachers perceived Glatthorn's (1984) differentiated supervision practices were for promoting quality instruction. These practices were administrative monitoring, artistic supervision, clinical supervision, learning-centered supervision, selfdirected development, teacher behavior observations, and cooperative professional development. A non-random sample of elementary teacher volunteers, predominantly from Jefferson County Public Schools, was used in this study. The data collection method was a survey titled "Conceptions of Teaching Work and Differentiated Supervision Questionnaire" which was developed by the researcher. Two statistical hypotheses related to how teachers perceived teaching and supervision were tested. The statistical methods that were used to test these hypotheses were the ANOVA,

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v the Newman-Keuls Comparison of Means procedure, Chi-square Tests of Association and the Chi-square Goodness of Fit tests. Both null hypotheses were rejected. Six subgroups of elementary teachers who fitted patterns of perceptions which were classified according to the conceptions of teaching work model were identified. These subgroups were the craft subgroup, the profession subgroup, the art subgroup, the craft-profession subgroup, the craft-art subgroup, and the profession-art subgroup. It concluded that the ways teachers perceived teaching were linked to ways they perceived supervision. The subgroups were found to perceive less directive forms of super-vision more satisfactorily. The subgroups were found to perceive two methods of supervision, cooperative professional development and teacher behavior rating scales, significantly different. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Signed

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DEDICATION This thesis is dedicated to the memory of three women who taught me the meaning of good works--Ms. Westendorph, Mrs. Connie Madsen and Mrs. Betty Adams.

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CONTENTS Tables xiii Chapter I. INTRODUCTION. 1 The Problem 1 Purpose of This Research. 1 Problem Statement 1 Sample. 2 Research Questions Posed by the Study 2 Hypotheses. . 3 Limiting Factors. 4 Delimitations 5 Assumptions 6 Background and Significance of the Problem. 6 Supporting Research 10 Theoretical Framework 11 Definitions 13 The Conceptions of Teaching Work Model-Description . . . . . . 17 Labor, Craft, Profession and Art Conceptions of Teaching Work. . . . . 20 Differentiated Supervision, Model Description 24

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II. REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE ..... Overview of the Development of Conceptual Orientation to Teaching as an Occupation in the Social and Historical Context of American Society viii 28 28 Religious and Secular Control in Education. 29 Bureaucratic Organizational Development and American Schools. . . . 31 The Effects of Industrialization on the Occupation of Teaching. . . 34 Educators' Occupational Identity and Unionism. . . . . . 39 Research on Collective Bargaining 46 Views of Teaching 51 Knowledge and Its Application in Teaching 54 How the Concept of Method, Knowledge and the Characteristics of Rules Apply to Conceptualization of Teaching 55 Teaching as Technology. 58 Teaching as Labor 59 Teaching as a Craft 59 Teaching as a Profession. 64 Teaching as an Art. 65 Instructional Supervision 72 Historical Background of Supervision. 72 Current Definitions of Supervision. 80 Theories of Supervision . . . 82 Clinical Supervision and Related Theory and Practice ............ 85

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Methods of Clinical Supervision . . Forms of Artistic Supervision, Related Theory and Practice . . . . Cooperative Professional Development and Related Theory and Practice . Self-Directed Development and Related Theory and Practice . . . Administrative Monitoring and Related Theory and Practice . Related Research -Differentiated Supervision Research on the Relationship of Different Supervision Methods to Conceptions of 86 90 92 93 97 98 Teaching Work 100 Conclusion. 101 III. RESEARCH DESIGN 103 Problem Statement 104 Description of the Instrument 104 Description of the Demographic Information Checklist . . . . . . . 105 Description of Part Two, Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements. . . . 106 Part Three, the Differentiated Supervision Statements. . . . . 109 Development of the Questionnaire. 111 Stage One -Operationalization and Validation of Constructs Used as a Basis for Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements 111 Stage Two -Development, Validation and Addition to the Questionnaire of Statements Describing Differentiated Supervision Practices . . . . 113 Stage Three -Revision of Second Version ix

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Methods of Clinical Supervision . . Forms of Artistic Supervision, Related Theory and Practice . . . . Cooperative Professional Development and Related Theory and Practice . Self-Directed Development and Related Theory and Practice . . . Administrative Monitoring and Related Theory and Practice . Related Research -Differentiated Supervision Research on the Relationship of Different Supervision Methods to Conceptions of 86 90 92 93 97 98 Teaching Work 100 Conclusion. 101 III. RESEARCH DESIGN 103 Problem Statement 104 Description of the Instrument 104 Description of the Demographic Information Checklist . . . . . . 105 Description of Part Two, Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements. . . . 106 Part Three, the Differentiated Supervision Statements. . . . . 109 Development of the Questionnaire. 111 Stage One -Operationalization and Validation of Constructs Used as a Basis for Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements 111 Stage Two -Development, Validation and Addition to the Questionnaire of Statements Describing Differentiated Supervision Practices . . . . 113 X

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Stage Three -Revision of Second Version of Questionnaire and Transmittal to Panel of Experts for Review . . . 115 Stage Four -Piloting and Reorganization of Third Version of the Questionnaire with Contextual Lead Statements 116 The Sample. . 119 Research Methods. 121 Procedure for Gathering Data. 121 Methods of Analysis and Description of Data 124 Methods of Scoring Items and Categorizing Data. 127 IV. ANALYSES OF DATA AND FINDINGS 137 Demographic Information . 139 Teachers' Personal Characteristics. 140 Teachers' Professional Characteristics. 140 Analysis of Teachers' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements and the Differentiated Supervision Statements. . . . . . . . 141 Analysis of Teachers' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements 143 Elements of the Conceptions of Teaching Work That Were Perceived Consistently as Ideal Circumstances in Teaching. 148 Analysis and Findings of the Total Group's Responses to Differentiated Supervision Statements. . . . . . . 151 Findings Concerning the Chi-square Goodness of Fit Test. . . . 154 The Subgroups Identification Process. 155 Categorization of Teachers into the Conceptions of Teaching Work Subgroupings .. 156 xi

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xii Analysis of Subgroups' Responses to the Conception of Teaching Work Statements. 157 Brief Overview of Subgroups' Responses to the Conception of Teaching Work Statements. . . . . . . . 161 Analysis and Findings Concerning Conceptions of Teaching Work, Set One -Teacher Qualifications Statements . . . . 165 Analysis Concerning Conceptions of Teaching Work, Set Two -Implementation of Instruction Statements. . . . . 175 Analysis Concerning Conceptions of Teaching Work, Set Three -Classroom Management Statements .... Analysis Concerning Conceptions of Teaching Work, Set Four -Values and Ethos of the 182 Teaching Occupation Statements. . . 191 Analysis Concerning Conceptions of Teaching Work, Set Five -Occupational Satisfaction in Teaching Statements. . . . . 200 .Analysis for Subgroups' Perceptions Concerning How Satisfactory Differentiated Supervision Practices Were Rated. . 208 Findings Concerning Analyses of Variance Among Subgroups' Responses to Differentiated Supervision Statements. . . . 208 Results of Newman-Keuls Comparison of Means Procedures for the Supervision Practice Cooperative Professional Development . . . . . . 209 Results of Newman-Keuls Comparison of Means Procedure for the Supervision Practice Teacher Behavior Rating Scales 210

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Results of Chi-square Tests of Association with Respect to Subgroups' Low Satisfactory Ratings, Medium Satisfactory Ratings, and High Satisfactory Ratings for the Differentiated Supervision xiii Practices . . . . . . . 210 Findings for Subgroups' Responses to Cooperative Professional Development Supervision Practice. . . . 212 Findings for Teacher Behavior Rating Scales Supervision Practice Findings for Subgroups' Responses to Clinical Supervision Practice Findings for Subgroups' Responses to Administrative Monitoring Supervision Practice .............. .Findings for Self-directed Development Supervision Practice ..... Findings for Subgroups' Responses to Artistic Supervision Practice Findings for Subgroups' Responses to 216 221 224 228 231 Learning-centered Supervision Practice. 235 Findings Based on the Research Questions Studied in This Thesis. . . 238 Findings with Respect to Hypotheses Studied in This Thesis. . . 242 V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 244 The Problem 244 Design of the Study 245 Description of the Instrument and Data Collection. . 245 Problems, Hypotheses, and Research Questions. 245 Major Findings. 247 Conclusions . 254

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xiv Implications. 258 Recommendations 263 REFERENCES 264 APPENDIX A. QUESTIONNAIRE BASED ON ESTABLISHING FACE VALIDITY. . . . . . 278 B. DEMOGRAPHIC AND COMPARISON TABLES 285 C. LETTER TO PRINCIPALS REQUESTING ASSISTANCE. 289 D. HUMAN RESEARCH COMMITTEE REVIEW . . . 291 E. CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING WORK AND DIFFERENTIATED SUPERVISION QUESTIONNAIRE . . . . . 296

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TABLES Table 1. Lists of Possible Major Subgroups by Points and Percentage Conversion. 2. Lists of Possible Split Subgroups by Points and Percentage Conversion. 3. Means and Standard Deviations Comparison Table for Total Group's Responses to the 130 130 Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements. 144 4. Frequency Distributions of Perceived-as-moretrue Responses and Perceived-as-less-true Responses by Percents and Numbers for Total Group's Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements. . . . 145 5. Total Elementary Teachers Group's Responses for Supervision Practices--Means, Standard Deviations, Percentages, and Frequencies of Responses . . . . . 152 6. Comparison Table for First Choice Responses by Numbers and Percentages for the Conceptions of Teaching Work Subgrouping 158 7. Comparison Table for Chi-square Tests of Association for the Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements. . . 162 8. Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements, Set One -Teacher 9. 10. Qualifications . . . . . . 168 Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements, Set Two -Implementation of Instruction . . Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements, Set Three -Classroom Management . . . . . 176 184

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11. Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements, Set.Four -Values and Ethos of the Teaching 12. Occupation . Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements, Set Five -Occupational Satisfaction. 13. Results of the One-Way ANOVA for the Supervision Statements . 14. Chi-square Tests of Association Results for Low Satisfactory, Medium Satisfactory, and High Satisfactory Ratings for the xvi 193 201 209 Differentiated Supervision Practices 211 15. Cooperative Professional Development Means, Standard Deviations, Percents, Frequencies, and Newman-Keuls Comparison of Means, Results for Subgroups' Responses 213 16. Teacher Behavior Rating Scales Means, Standard Deviations, Percents, Frequencies, ANOVA, Chi-square, and Newman-Keuls Comparison of Means Results for Subgroups' Responses. . . . . . . 217 17. Clinical Supervision Statement -Means, Standard Deviation, ANOVA, Percents, Frequencies, Chi-square and Newman-Keuls Results for Subgroups' Responses . . 222 18. Administrative Monitoring Means, Standard Deviations, Percents, and Frequencies, ANOVA, Newman-Keuls and Chi-square, Summary Table . 225 19. Self-directed Development Supervision Statement Means, Standard Deviation, Percents, Frequencies, ANOVA, Chi-square, Newman-Keuls Results for Subgroups' Responses . . . . . . . . . 229 20. Artistic Supervision Statement Means, Standard Deviations, Percents, Frequencies, ANOVA, Chi-square Results for Subgroups' Responses. . . . . . . . . 232

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21. Learning-centered Supervision Means, Standard Deviations, Percents, Frequencies, ANOVA, Chi-square, and Newman-Keuls Comparison of Means Results for Subgroups' Responses ................ xvii 236

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The Problem Purpose of This Research The purpose of this research was to study how a group of elementary teachers perceived teaching in the context of the conceptions of teaching work model (Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983) and to study "how satisfactory" teachers perceived Glatthorn's (1984) differentiated supervision practices were for promoting quality instruction. Problem Statement The problem of this study was threefold: (a) to describe ways in which teachers perceived teaching in terms of the labor, craft, profession, and art conceptions of teaching work, (b) to identify teachers' perceptions regarding how satisfactory different instructional supervision practices were in promoting quality instruction, and (c) to determine if there were any differences between the ways teachers perceived teaching work and how they perceived different types of instructional supervision practices.

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Sample The volunteer sample was comprised of approximately 250 volunteer elementary teachers in Jefferson County Public Schools. The sample was dependent on individual schools and self-selection for participation. Sampling techniques included quota sampling and purposive sampling. Information concerning participants' demographic characteristics was included in this study. These characteristics were gender, age group, level of training, number of years teaching, grade level of teaching, area of specialization, marital status, and responsibility for dependent children. The sample had the characteristics of a population. Results were interpreted as indicators of the participants' perceptions and not used as indicators of perceptions of elementary teachers in general. Research Questions Posed by the Study The research questions posed by this study were: 1. Did this group of elementary teachers' perceptions of teaching fit patterns which could be categorized as a labor, craft, profession, or art conception of teaching? 2. Were these categories pure categories? 2 3. Were some elements in the conception of teaching work perceived more consistently as an ideal circumstance in teaching than others? These elements involved how teachers perceived (a) the abilities and knowledge that the most qualified teacher

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3 possessed, (b) conditions related to implementation of instruction in which teaching is most successful, (c) good classroom management, (d) values and ethos of the teaching occupation in terms of teaching itself being valued, and (3) occupational satisfaction in terms of the most important sources of satisfaction in teaching. 4. Were some methods of supervision perceived as more satisfactory than others? Hypotheses The following hypotheses were designed to answer questions regarding teachers' perceptions about teaching and their perceptions about supervision. 1. Null hypothesis one was: There were no significant differences (at alpha .10) in the ways teachers perceived teaching with respect to a labor conception of teaching work, a craft conception of teaching work, a profession conception of teaching work, or an art conception of teaching work. 2. Null hypothesis two was: There were no significant differences (at alpha .10) in the ways teachers perceived teaching with respect to a labor conception of teaching work, a craft conception of teaching work, a profession conception of teaching work, or an art conception of teaching work and how satisfactory they perceived different supervisory practices were in promoting quality instruction. The supervision prac-

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tices were administrative monitoring, artistic supervision, clinical supervision, learning centered supervision, selfdirected development, teacher behavior observations, and cooperative professional development. Limiting Factors This study was limited in terms of generalizing the findings and conclusions by the following conditions: 4 1. This study was based on teachers' perceptions. It did not concern actual overt behaviors or make judgments about the inherent or demonstrated value of any described practice. 2. The study was an exploratory study. Its purpose was to describe and not to prescribe behavior or practice. 3. The sample was numerically limited and was based on voluntary self-selection. It did not conform to strict statistical standards necessary to describe a universal population. 4. The language used in the labor conception of teaching work statements could have affected the participants' responses. The labor conception of teaching work, as described by Mitchell and Kerchner (1983) did not present ideal occupational values associated with elementary teaching.

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Delimitations The study was delimited by the following factors: 1. The conception of teaching work model was the one heuristic device being used to study the nature of teaching work. Each conception was an ideal type and elements of each conception exist in some part in the occupation of teaching. 2. The supervisory practices used in this study were defined as pure practices. Elements of each practice often exist in the everyday work of supervisors. 5 3. Participants in the study were asked to respond to each supervisory practice based on their knowledge of the described practice. Knowledge and degree of experience of each practice varied with the individuals surveyed. 4. This study surveyed perceptions. There was no attempt to assess the degree of congruence between belief and practice. 5. This study was not intended to make judgments or draw conclusions about the effectiveness of specific supervisory practices. 6. This study was not intended to make judgments or draw conclusions about the inherent value of one conception of teaching work as compared to another. 7. This study did draw conclusions or make generalizations about all educators. The findings are limited to those who fit the demographic profile of the participants.

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6 8. The majority of subjects in the sample were from one school district. Assumptions The following assumptions were operant in this study: 1. All participants accurately and truthfully completed the survey. 2. The survey items adequately represented each conception of teaching work. 3. Items intended to describe supervisory practice described each practice adequately. 4. Participants had adequate knowledge and ability to make sound judgments in expressing their opinions in survey items. Background and Significance of the Problem The quality of education which American students received has been a continuous concern with the American public. This concern has been aired in the political arena and has been defined as a national imperative. Studies and publications such as A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Education Reform (National Commission on Excellence in Education,l983), A Place Called School (Goodlad, 1984), and A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the 21st Century (Task Force on Teaching as a Profession, 1986) have pointed to the desire for improvement in

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American education. National movements concerned with accountability, instructional success, effective schools, and excellence in education have added impetus for reforms in current educational practice. Although it has been generally agreed that change is needed, agreement on what is to be done and how to do it has been multifaceted (Elmore & McLaughlin, 1988; Sergiovanni & Moore, 1989). The goals of education have become vast and complex in comparison to when the first schools were instituted in the colonies, with the primary goal of teaching biblical reading skills. How to define quality education and how to improve education have continued to be central issues with many questions and possible answers. Complex conditions in society and the multiplicity of goals for education have made decision making in educational policy and practice a difficult task. Gaining consensus, maintaining trust, commitment and organizational stability have been continuing problems for school systems to solve. Mitchell and Kerchner (1983) cited Meyer and Rowan (1978) in stating that the call for school reform has added stress to the work relationships of teachers and administrators. Traditional relationships where teachers and administrators have assumed that each other was performing effectively has been questioned. Public sentiments have identified the improvement of teacher quality rather than changing school 7

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8 structure or curriculum as the key educational reform (DarlingHammond, Wise, & Pease, 1983). Improving teacher quality was the most frequent response to a 1979 Gallop poll question concerned with what public schools could do to earn an "A" (Gallop, 1979). Researchers (Cronin, 1983; Kerr, 1982) documented several means for improving the quality of teachers which have been nationally implemented in varying degrees. These measures included: 1.' Attempts to increase pre-service standards for teacher preparation through the review of national accreditation agencies. 2. Extending pre-service teacher preparation to include a fifth year of professional studies and apprenticeship requirements. 3. More extensive screening of pre-service teachers through state-mandated teacher competency testing for certification. 4. Competency testing for the recertification of veteran teachers. 5. State-mandated programs of systematic teacher evaluation and formal performance appraisal of all certificated personnel. 6. Development of effective instructional supervisory programs for instructional improvement.

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9 Improving teacher preparation programs to ensure that teachers had the needed prerequisite skills to teach competently and employing rigorous evaluation programs to eliminate individuals who were unable to teach competently have been viewed as necessary but insufficient means in order to improve teacher quality (Darling-Hammond & Wise, 1985; Wise, 1990; Wise & Darling-Hammond, 1984-1985). Educators and researchers (Glatthorn, 1984; Glickman, 1981; Odden, 1985; Wise & Darling-Hammond, 1984-2985) have proposed that instructional supervision systems need to be instituted in order to promote teacher renewal and improvement in teaching. The nature of these systems was considered to be important. Odden (1985) believed that the methods used for instructional improvement should be compatible with teachers' beliefs about the nature of teaching work. Glatthorn (1984); Glatthorn & Shields (1983); and Glickman (1981) stressed the importance for instructional supervision to meet teachers' needs for improvement in a way that was congruent with their professional needs. Lightfoot (1983) noted, in her summary of the 1981 Survey on "The Status of the American Teacher," that most members of the teaching force were not neophytes. The report showed that: the average public school teacher was older (i.e., thirty nine years old), had spent more time in college, was relatively less well paid, and was far less likely to choose teaching as a career if given a second chance than was the case in 1976. School staffs, once relatively mobile, are becoming static, and teachers are having to cope with the pressures of a demanding and unchanging

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.10 environment. There is minimal opportunity for criticism and renewal from new colleagues. (pp. 157-158) Given that a majority of teachers were experienced and that there has been a lack of opportunity for renewal from new colleagues, the occupation has been left with the option of looking within for the resources of renewal. Insight concerning teachers' opinions regarding quality in teaching has been considered a valuable tool in educational reform (Fieman-Nemser & Floden, 1986). Supporting Research Teachers and the work of teaching have been of continued interest to educators, social scientists and philosophers. What was the nature of teaching and what made a good teacher have been perennial questions which have been most affected by historical and social conditions. In order to gain understand-ing into what made a good teacher, studies have focused on trait analysis, intellectual ability, moral character, descrip-tions of personal lives, sentiments, political affiliation, and elements of social and occupational status of teachers. This interest in teachers and teaching has developed into a strong line of inquiry where knowledge of teaching as an occupation has been important. In order to understand more about the nature of quality teaching, teaching has been compared to a mission (Nelson, 1983), a vocation, a calling (Adler, 1984; Butts, 1953; Harris, 1982); a craft (Adler,

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11 1984; Allen, 1987; Broudy, 1956; Dreeben, 1973; Eisner, 1983; Greene, 1986; Jackson, 1968; Kohl, 1976; Lortie, 1975); a profession (Adler, 1984; Covert, 1989; Darling-Hammond, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1990; Darling-Hammond & Wise, 1981, 1985; Duke, 1984; Darling-Hammond, Wise & Pease, 1983; Etzioni, 1969; Lieberman, 1988; Little, 1986, 1990; Katz, 1987; Shuleman & Sykes, 1983; Wise, 1979, 1986, 1990); and an art (Barth, 1986; Bird, 1989; Eisner, 1983; Goodman, Goodman, & Hood 1989; Hansen, 1987; Lessinger & Gillis, 1976; Rubin, 1983a, 1983b, 1985; Smyth, 1986; Stenhouse, 1984). Theoretical Framework The coming of the scientific method, the formalization of teacher training, and the increased bureaucratization of the contemporary work place have all contributed to rethinking the nature of good teaching. Up to the present, the dominant themes concerning the nature of teaching have emphasized a technical-craft view, a professional view, and a talentartistic view. Recently a view which has incorporated the perceived effects of increased rationalization and routinization of modern occupations has been formulated. A labor conception of teaching work was proposed to describe a situation where intensive standardization of practice was the critical element. This standardization-was based on the routinization of teaching practice which limited teachers'

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12 responsibility to contractual agreement (Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983). The conceptions of teaching work model, first devised by Mitchell and Kerchner (1983), and the differentiated supervision model developed by Glatthorn (1984) have provided the framework of this study. Mitchell's version of the conceptions of teaching work model was chosen because it provided a comprehensive and pragmatic outline of ways of conceptualizing teaching work in the contemporary context of the teacher as an employee in modern society. This model provided a descriptive device in which to delineate traditional and modern views of teaching and inferred the philosophical implications of holding particular conceptions about the nature of teaching. Glatthorn's (1984) differentiated supervision was chosen because it provided the most complimentary description of a system of instructional supervision practice which fitted the various oversight mechanisms noted by Mitchell and Kerchner (1983). In this study, teaching was approached as an occupation which emphasized instruction as its primary mode of production. Teaching was considered in terms of its task definition, values and occupational ethos, and also its oversight and quality control mechanisms. The task definition of teaching was defined by teachers' perceptions concerning (a) the preparation, skill, knowledge and abilities needed to be a qualified

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13 teacher, (b) the means of implementing instruction for successful teaching, and (c) the nature of good classroom management systems. Occupational ethos was presented in terms of the values the teacher placed on the occupation of teaching, with respect to ownership and responsibility for the work. Oversight and quality control mechanisms were defined as instructional supervision practices. Definitions The following definitions of terms were used in this study. They have been listed in order to clarify their theoretical meanings. 1. Conceptions of Teaching Work The conceptions of teaching work are the ways in which teaching was viewed as an occupation and defined as a labor craft, profession and art as presented by Mitchell and Kerchner (1983). 2. Art Conception of Teaching The conception of teaching which defined teaching as an art emphasized work that required creativity and a personal approach to instruction. Good teachers are expected to be innovative and develop original curriculum (Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983). 3. Craft Conception of Teaching Work The conception of teaching defined as a craft occupation emphasized work that required specialized skill. The role of the teacher was to know and choose the appropriate techniques that would ensure

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14 that students reach specified instructional objectives. Competency in the performance of instructional technique and methodology is determined as the most important factor to assess teacher effectiveness (Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983). 4. Labor Conception of Teaching Work The conception of teaching defined as a labor occupation emphasized work that was highly predictable. Instruction and all related teaching activities were regulated into specific tasks. Teachers needed only to follow regulations set by superiors in order to be effective (Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983). 5. Profession Conception of Teaching Work The conception of teaching defined as a professional occupation emphasized work that required not only specialized skills but included theoretical knowledge, dedication to service, individual judgment, and personal ethical responsibility for the educational well-being of students (Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983). 6. Instructional Supervision -Instructional supervision was defined as a process of facilitating the professional growth of a teacher, primarily by giving the teacher feedback about classroom inter-actions and helping the teacher make use of that feedback in order to make teaching more effective (Glatthorn, 1984, p. 2). 7. Administrative Monitoring-Administrative monitoring was defined as the supervision method in which the supervisor was to conduct brief drop-in visits, monitor lesson plans and

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15 use of methods and materials, check that reports were acceptable and tell the teacher if a performance problem was evident or make positive comments (Glatthorn, 1984). 8. Artistic Supervision Artistic supervision was defined as the method in which the supervisor observed classrooms and shared with the teacher impressions and feelings about climate, student involvement in learning, and student-teacher relationships. The supervisor assumed the role of an artistic critic of an instructional performance. Professional growth of teachers was enhanced by increased understanding and awareness of teaching from the supervisor's description (Glatthorn, 1984). 9. Clinical Supervision Clinical supervision was defined as the method in which the supervisor engaged in the following procedures: (a) conferred with teachers on lesson planning, (b) observed the lesson, (c) analyzed the collected data, (d) gave the teacher feedback about the observation, (e) then the supervisor and teacher developed an appropriate professional growth plan. This procedure could be repeated many times (Glatthorn, 1984). 10. Cooperative Professional Development Cooperative professional development was defined as the method in which the supervisor arranged time for small groups of individual teachers to observe, to provide feedback to each other, and to share professional concerns in order to promote mutual growth (Glatthorn, 1984).

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16 11. Learning Centered Supervision -Learning centered supervision was defined as the method in which the teacher and supervisor conferred in order to identify any immediate problems that needed attention, shared views about professional issues and developed a supervisory contract. The supervisor observed the class to gather specific information that would identify teacher strengths and weaknesses. The teacher and the supervisor met for a feedback and problem-solving conference to assess what happened in the past and plan strategies of what should happen in the future. Learning centered supervision was a method of clinical supervision that Glatthorn (1984) developed. 12. Self-Directed Development -Self-directed development has been defined as the method in which the supervisor assumed that the individual teacher was responsible for his or her professional growth. The teachers determined their own professional growth needs and the supervisor acted as a facilitator and provided resources and information to meet these needs (Glatthorn, 1984). 13. Teacher Behavior Rating Scales -Teacher behavior rating scales have been defined as the method in which the supervisor observed a lesson and completed a checklist or scale that rated the teacher on evidence of predetermined skills and teaching behaviors. Strengths and weaknesses were noted, and recommendations in the form of goals and objectives were

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17 developed into an improvement plan. This information is shared with the teacher. This form of supervision was directive in nature and also could be considered a formal type of administrative monitoring. This method was often associated with inspection and evaluation modes of practice (Glanz, 1990). 14. Perception The term "perception" in this study was defined as the act of perceiving. Perception is used in this study as a derivative of the word "percept" which was defined by Webster II (1984) as "an impression in the mind of something perceived by the senses, viewed as a basic component in the formation of concepts" (p. 72). The Conceptions of Teaching Work Model Description The conceptions of teaching work model proposed by Mitchell and Kerchner (1983) was based on a theoretical framework comprising four conceptual ways of looking at teaching work. The conceptual views were defined into constructs called con-ceptions of teaching work. These constructs included the following: the conception of teaching work as labor, the conception of teaching work as a craft, the conception of teaching work as a profession, and the conception of teaching as an art. The model delineated three major traditional views of teaching, and it developed the conceptualization of teaching as labor. This conceptual construct was developed in order to articulate the factors of increased rationalization in the

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18 contemporary work place. This conceptual model was developed in order to introduce the view that work arrangements and contractual agreements affect the nature of classroom teaching and types of supervision used to promote quality in instruction (Darling-Hammond, Wise, & Pease, 1983; Mitchell & Kershner, 1983). Each conception was developed according to positions and assumptions about the degree of task complexity attributed to the work of teaching. The positions were developed in somewhat polar terms of identifying teaching as a work which required adaptability or work which was routine in nature. The belief about predictability and complexity of the task of providing quality instruction results in perceptions about the nature of teaching. Assumptions concerning the expertise, competencies, or type of qualifications needed by teachers; assumptions about the role of teachers in educational decision making, assumptions about teachers' responsibility for instruction and curriculum development, assumptions regarding educational quality control, and the reciprocal role responsibility of the supervisor or administrator were all related to perceptions of how complex the work of teaching was thought to be. Inherent in each conception were opinions about the nature of quality teaching, how quality teaching should be judged, and opinions about what was considered the most important and valued in the occupation.

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19 The labor, craft, profession, and art conceptions of the Mitchell and Kerchner model (1983) are related to points on the continuum of the nomothetic-ideographic view of education that has been described by several researchers (Harris, 1982; Silver, 1983; von Wright, 1971; Windelband, 1894). According to Harris (1982), the nomothetic view of education held that rules for teaching could be discovered and formulated in order to guarantee successful teaching. The ideographic view of education held that variability and nonpredictability were inherent in teaching and that creativity and adaptability were essential in successful teaching. The labor, craft, profession, and art conceptions of the Mitchell and Kerchner model were built on assumptions based on beliefs about the degree of complexity of the tasks of providing quality instruction. In theory, the labor and craft conceptions of teaching work can be defined as more congruent with a nomothetic view of education. Best practice in these views consisted of instructional activities which were based on prescriptive or established practice rather than on idiosyncratic technique. The labor and craft conceptions of teaching have relied heavily on the belief that educational quality was guaranteed through the discovery and development of guiding rules to rationalize educational practice. Precitability, respectability, and replicability of successful techniques have been the foundations of this thinking.

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20 The profession conception and the art conception of teaching work can be defined as more congruent with the idiographic view of education. The profession and art concep-tions of teaching work were based on the belief that quality teaching was best guaranteed through the promotion of indi-vidual responsibility and creativity. Teaching in these conceptions has been defined as a very complex task in which the teacher must respond to nonpredictable factors in the educational environment. Labor. Craft. Profession and Art Conceptions of Teaching Work Mitchell and Kerchner's (1983) descriptions of teaching work as labor, craft, profession, and art are presented in the following summary. In Mitchell and Kerchner's (1983) definition of the labor conception of teaching work, the tasks of education were viewed as a highly predictable endeavor. A tight bureaucratic organizational system was seen as the best form of an educational system. Power was to be vested in a strong hierarchical system. Teaching activities were to be rationally planned, programmatically organized and routinized in the form of standard operating procedures by superiors. Instruction and all related teaching activities were to be regulated into specific tasks. Teachers needed only to follow regulations set

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21 by superiors in order to be considered fulfilling expectations. Insubordination was seen as unacceptable in any circumstance. In this conception, teaching was not seen as an occupation which required particular expertise. Teachers were not expected to make instructional or curricular decisions. Decisions of what to do and when were already prescribed. Educational quality control was to be the sole responsibility of administration. It was the administrator who decided which practices were of value. The administrator also took full responsibility for the success or failure of educational programs. The preferred role of the school administrator was that of an inspector. The primary value of a teacher was loyalty to the organization and was demonstrated through compliance to rules and regulations. In the framework which viewed teaching work as a craft, teaching was seen as an occupation that required specialized skill and knowledge. Teachers were expected to be able to apply general rules of instruction in order to choose the best method to reach specified objectives. Teachers made instructional decisions concerning methodology. Decisions concerning instructional goals and students' needs were to be made exclusively by the state and local school boards and articulated by administrative personnel. In viewing teaching as a craft, teaching tasks, including instruction, were believed to be generally predictable. Tech-

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22 niques were to be chosen because they had been proven through practice to work best in ensuring instructional outcomes. The goal of curriculum development in a craft conception was to standardized practice based on the past proven techniques. Teachers were to be evaluated on the bases of technical skill performances and resultant outcomes. The role of the school administrator was defined as manager whose job it was to hold teachers to general performance standards. The administrator was to be charged with overseeing teachers to make sure that a reasonable degree of standard practice was followed and instructional objectives were reached. Lack of technical skill and lack of knowledge of when to apply skill appropriately were considered the greatest faults a teacher could demonstrate. In the conception of teaching as a profession, teaching was seen as an adaptive and complex task. Instructional outcomes were not seen as always predictable. The teacher needed to be able to draw from a broad base of theoretical knowledge and specialized skill in order to ensure quality educational practice. Teachers were to make decisions concerning goals and objectives for educational practice. Teachers were also expected to diagnose students' learning needs and choose the means to meet these needs. Teachers were held responsible for the students' educational well-being and were bound by ethical practice.

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23 Peer review was considered to be the primary mode of evaluating teaching performance. Work relationships were to be collegial relationships. The role of the school administrator was to ensure that teachers had the resources necessary to carry out their work in a quality manner. The administrator was expected to act as a colleague in decision-making processes. Lack of discretion in instructional decision-making and lack of commitment to service were considered as malpractice. In the conception of teaching as an art, the tasks of teaching were considered to be very complex and dependent on the teacher's ability to adapt to the unforeseen. Teaching as an art required specialized skill but emphasized creativity and innovation. Practice was not based primarily on a body of theoretical knowledge but on personal expression. Education was seen as an experience. Teachers were expected to develop original curriculum. The process of evaluation was to be concerned with appreciation and understanding of the teacherlearner relationship. Teaching was considered a talent that could be improved through educational criticism. In the conception of teaching work as an art, the teacher owned her or his work and received recognition for it. Qualities associated with the arts, such as talent, dynamic performance, personal expression, insight, intuition, and taste were considered the important elements which comprised the art position of teaching work. Evidence of frivolity, lack of

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24 commitment, and lack of meaning were deemed to be the most negative elements that could be noted in evaluating teaching practice. The role of the administrator was to act as a leader whose work it was to encourage teachers' efforts and to offer constructive educational criticism (Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983, pp. 214-237). Differentiated Supervision Model Description Glatthorn's (1984) differentiated supervision model has been chosen as the primary structure for the part of this study which has been concerned with operationally defining the oversight mechanism associated with supervising instruction. In education at this time, the purpose and goal of quality control measures and oversight mechanisms have not been limited to maintenance behaviors but have been defined as major functions of the school organization. Improvement of teacher quality has been actualized into improving instruction. The essential purpose of the differentiated model of supervision has been seen as the improvement of instruction through super-vision compatible with teachers' needs. The major approaches Glatthorn (1984) proposed were: 1. Clinical supervision, which was an intensive process designed to improve instruction by conferring with the teacher on lesson planning, observing the lesson, analyzing the

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25 observational data, and giving the teacher feedback about the observation. Glatthorn (1984) cited Cogan's (1973), Eisner's (1982), McNeil's (1971) and Russell and Hunter's (1980) versions of supervision in this context. 2. Cooperative professional development, which was a collegial process in which small groups of teachers agreed to work together for their own professional growth. 3. Self-directed development, which was a process in which the individual teacher worked independently on professional growth concerns. The supervisor acted as a resource. 4. Administrative monitoring, which was the process in which the administrator monitored the work of the staff, making brief and unannounced visits simply to ensure that the teachers were carrying out assignments and responsibilities in a professional manner (Glatthorn, 1984, pp. 4-6). The model had been chosen as a theoretical basis for a number of reasons. 1. The model clearly articulated and described the major components and methods of supervision in practice today. 2. Each of the practices, theoretic underpinnings, and assumptions could be extrapolated and philosophically deduced. 3. The model defined options in supervision which in field tests indicated using alternative forms of supervision was practical and suggested positive effects on those who participated (Glatthorn, 1984, p. vii).

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4. One of the desired outcomes of this research was to identify methods of instructional supervision that teachers perceived to be appropriate in terms of their professional needs. 26 5. The model was developed in order to give teachers a choice of the supervision method in which they were to participate. The model was developed to promote instructional improvement of the already responsible and competent teacher. The model was not designed as a systematic evaluation system, nor as a system of remediation for marginal teachers. 6. The model was congruous with the oversight and quality control mechanisms outlined in Mitchell and Kerchner's (1983) conceptions of teaching work model (i.e., inspection, direct oversight, peer review, critical review and methods of analysis. 7. The differentiated system offered alternatives to clinical supervision and traditional practices. Glatthorn's (1984) rationale for developing this system concluded that: 1. Standard practices of supervision were inadequate, ineffective, and potentially dangerous. 2. Clinical supervision was neither feasible nor needed by all teachers. It is time consuming for administra-tors. 3. Teachers had different growth needs and learning styles. Teachers differed on their preference for directive

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27 and indirective styles of supervision. Some teachers preferred helping relationships with supervisors while others preferred a collegial relationship.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE Three major areas of related literature are included in this review. The first is historical literature which includes a description of the development of secularism, bureaucratization, industrialization and unionism. The second review describes teaching practice in terms of labor, craft, professional and artistic views of teaching. The third area of literature includes a description of the historical development of the practice of school supervision, a description of instructional supervisory methods and a review of research related to these supervisory practices. Overview of the Development of Conceptual Orientation to Teaching as an Occupation in the Social and Historical Context of American Society The interaction of major societal developments has provided the context in which beliefs and values have been born and nurtured. Different conceptual orientations regarding the nature of teaching as an occupation have resulted from different perspectives affected by societal changes associated with secularism, bureaucratization, industrialization, and unionism.

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Religious and Secular Control in Education Early education in America was closely tied to the cultural-religious Reformation in Europe. People who settled the colonies were concerned with religious freedom in terms of establishing their own community based on their particular religious beliefs. Within this community the prevailing, and usually only, religious sect established both community standards of behavior and also educational practices which promoted the well being of the creed. The goals of education were to maintain and promote a learned ministry, who were able 29 to work productively, who were able to read, and who understood colonial law (Butts, 1953). Colonial education was primarily under the control of the local religious authority, but secular control began to develop slowly. Legislation educational practice appeared as early as the mid-1600s. The first compulsory education law was the Massachusetts Act of 1642 (Knight, 1951). This law stated that parents could be fined if children were not taught a trade, could not read, and did not understand colony law. The children who were required to be educated at this time were sons of land owners. Female education was the responsibility of the home and included learning housekeeping skills and biblical reading (Butts, 1953; Knight, 1951, p. 100). America, in the 1700s, began to change from strictly agricultural to a nation based on commerce and trade. The rise

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30 of merchant capitalism developed a stronger monetary system and communities began to invest financially in schools. Individual families paid for educational services through rate bills to church or municipal schools, and tuition to dame schools or private tutors. There was some concern to educate those children who were unable to pay; this was evident through money, land donation, and other gifts to support charity schools. Charity schools were organized on the monitorial system and were the responsibility of private parties (Katz, 1987, p. 16). The occupational status of teachers was heavily influenced by religious and community moral standards. Teachers' social status was higher than their wages. Appointment to teaching positions was based on political agreements with the community. Men who were college educated and waiting for a position in a higher paid profession dominated formal teaching positions. Adler (1984) stated that teaching at this time was viewed as a "calling in which the teacher could adequately instruct himself. Character, a sense of discipline and dedication, not specific skills or practices, was seen as the key to good teaching" (p. 5). The school teacher was respected for his education and held authority based on his association with the local religion. Most formal community or religious schools required that students have rudimentary skills before being admitted. The education of young children was undertaken in the home. Women

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31 offered instruction in the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic in dame schools and kitchen schools. The educational preparation of these women varied, but most had minimal formal training (Butts, 1953). Industrialization, the growth of city life, massive emigra-tion, migration from rural areas, the development of wage-labor arrangements, and changes in the nature of institutions during the 1800s had the most dramatic influence on the American education as we know it today. During this time the dominance of church influence had eroded and a growing concern for political freedom and economic opportunity increased rapidly. Teaching as an occupation became more formalized and individuals were required to have training in order to teach. The lyceum movement was instituted and resulted in the development of pedagogy which became increasingly associated with teaching technique. Teaching could not only be moral, but also could be technical (Adler, 1984). Women were officially admitted into the occupation. Schools became institutions which were often considered an extension of the home (Katz, 1987). Bureaucratic Organizational Development and American Schools One social development which had an overwhelming effect on education as we see it today was the bureaucratization of American institutions. Weber (1947) described bureaucratization as a highly complex form of administrative machinery which was

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based on an extensive market economy. He described these features as peculiar phenomena of western society. Although Weber concentrated on economic theory, his ideas had pervasive effects on common views of how school systems should operate. 32 Silver (1983) summarized the main points of Weber's theory. Bureaucracy was a form of organization that achieved the epitome of efficiency and rationality while at the same time rested on a bedrock of legitimacy. Authority of the organization was primarily derived from legal agreements and contracts. Characteristics of a bureaucracy included a hierarchy of offices, rules and regulations, specialization of tasks, impersonality, written records, salaried personnel, and control of resources. The principles of rationality and of efficiency were defined as key elements of pure bureaucratic organization. Rationality refers to the goal directedness in an organization. Efficiency referred to the cost effectiveness of an organization, which included the expenditure of time, money, energy and other organizational resources (Silver, 1983). Katz (1987) wrote that bureaucratization and the emergence of institutions as surrogate families were critical social and organizational developments of the first three quarters of the nineteenth century which led to the formation of schools as we know them today.

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33 For the latter part of the nineteenth century the organization, scope, and role of schooling had been transformed. In place of a.few casual schools dotted about town and country, in most cities there existed true educational systems; carefully articulated, age graded, hierarchically structured grouping of schools, primarily free and often compulsory, .administered by full-time experts and progressively taught by specially trained staff. (p. 6) Katz (1987) cited Friedrich's (1950) description of the characteristics of bureaucratic systems which appeared in American schools. Six elements of a bureaucracy were presented in two groups. One set ordered relationship of members of the organization to one another and included centralization of control and supervision, differentiation of function, and determination for qualifications of office. The other set included rules for defining desirable habit or behavior patterns of all members of such an organization, namely, objectivity, precision and consistency, and discretion. Whether Weber or Friedrich were used as the main source of analysis, the core views concerning production and the exercise of authority are common. Meyers (1972) wrote that bureaucratic theory is based on the assumption that a specific, identifiable, uniform final product or service were both possible and desirable. Work arrangements were to be based on rational structuring which assumed that all steps in the pro-duction process could be identified, separated into specific production tasks, routinized, and assigned to individual employees. Once identified, these steps could be routinized

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34 to produce the final desired product. Supervision, in this context, was to be designed to assure uniformity in performance .. and to make sure that production tasks were performed in the prescribed manner. Supervision was to ensure compliance with behaviors determined to be desirable for each person in the production process. The Effects of Industrialization on the Occupation of Teaching Concurrent with changes from traditional organization structure of cottage-type industries to bureaucratic structure in American institutions, the role of the worker in emerging industrial society also underwent changes. Status of occu-pational relationships was renegotiated. Those who needed to earn a living not only needed a source of income, but the conditions under which people worked were a central area of concern. The onset of industrialization and market economy created a situation where individuals traded their time, effort, skills, knowledge, and expertise for monetary com-pensation. The range of trade spanned the efforts of the unskilled laborer to the ministrations of those who were the educated elite. Occupations began to develop formal associations in orderto influence the conditions in which they worked, to raise the power and status of the group, and to set internal standards and values and for some to control or own the work itself.

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35 Lieberman (1956) described the concern of occupations regarding the desire for prestige among its neighbors. He wrote, The importance of occupational status is heightened by the belief that individual talent and character determine occupation. If occupational status were only a matter of what others thought, it would not be nearly so important. But one's self-evaluation, job satisfaction and outlook on life are closely tied to the opinions of others on these same matters, that is, the status of one's occupation. It is this fact which explains certain occupational trends. The janitor becomes a custodian, the streetcleaner becomes a sanitary technician, and the junk man a dealer in waste materials. Typing and shorthand become a secretarial science. These are a few of the many attempts to abandon an occupational symbol of low prestige in favor of a new higher one of higher prestige. (p. 454) According to Lieberman (1956), the opinions of others regarding the worth of an occupation were a focus for concentration for the working class laborer as well as for the educated of higher means. For trade, the laborer had his effort, the craftsman his technical skill, the professional his science and service, and the artist his art. Each had to negotiate his way in industrial society. Each formed collective associations, sometimes referred to as labor unions, craft unions, professional associations, and art guilds, in order to promote mutual well-being. Cresswell and Murphy (1980) cited Webb and Webb (1920) and defined these associations generally as unions. A union is a continuous association of wage earners for the purpose of maintaining and improving conditions of their work lives. Unions maintained and improved their position in the following manner. Occupational unions formulate their own rules regarding conditions of

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36 employment, specify terms under which employment would be accepted, control entrance into a skilled work group, and restrict the availability of certain types of work to members of the association. The methods of enforcing these conditions include collective bargaining, the process of joint determination of work rules between employer and employee; and persuading governmental legalization of rules which protect the interest of the occupation. The American Medical Association and the American Bar Association are prime examples of the latter method. (Cresswell & Murphy, pp. 54-55) The various occupations differed according to the members' knowledge, skill, degree of control over the work itself and conditions of employment. In the context of the developing labor movement, the professionalizing of some occupations, and increasing technological development, school people had to negotiate their occupational identities. Weber (1947) described work in terms of dichotomous relationships. "Human services for economic purposes may be distinguished as (a) 'managerial,' or (b) oriented to the instructions of a managerial agency" (p. 219). The latter form of human service he described as labor which, in the bureaucratic mode, demanded obedience. Weber described this nature of obedience as the action of the person obeying follows in essentials such as the course that the content of the command may be taken to have become the basis of action for its own sake. Furthermore, the fact that it is taken is referable only to formal obligation, without regard to the actor's own attitude to the value or lack of value of the content of command as such. (p. 327) The unskilled worker had to negotiate a wage-effort agreement which specified duties and obligations in terms of

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compliance and obedience to work specifications of managers. Laborers gained little control over the work itself, but were able to influence the conditions in which they worked by collectively withholding their labor. 37 The skilled worker was able to modify the obligations associated with Weberian obedience. The skilled were able to negotiate some control over their work by nature of possessing a degree of technical knowledge and practical know how. Skill implied that the worker knew how to do the job and took some degree of personal responsibility in performing the tasks competently. Skilled workers negotiated compensation for time, effort, knowledge, and skill. These workers learned their trade or craft through apprenticeship, practice, and experience. The occupations which claimed professional status negotiated for control over the work itself, whether it be in the role of the medical practitioner, academician, minister, or manager. The work of a professional was seen to be so complex that it could only be performed by those who were formally educated in the particular field. Evaluation of the work was subject only to the members of the occupation and was not to be directed from without. Lieberman (1956) described the classic characteristics which define occupations as professions: 1. A profession provided a unique and definite essential service.

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2. A profession emphasized intellectual techniques in performing its services. 3. A profession required a long period of specialized training. 38 4. A profession allowed a broad range of autonomy for both the individual practitioners and the occupational group as a whole. Autonomy referred to the extent that practitioners are able to exercise their best judgment in terms of confronting a wide variety of problems. 5. A profession supposed the acceptance by the practitioners of broad personal responsibility for judgments made and acts performed within the scope of professional autonomy. 6. A profession emphasized the importance of the service rendered, rather than the economic gain to the practitioners, as the basis for the organization and performance of the social service delegated to the occupational group. 7. A profession had a comprehensive self-governing organi zation of practitioners. Professions regulated and set their own standards (pp. 1-5). Many occupations sought professional status through the development of expertise based on technical and theoretical knowledge and also sought control over the product and conditions in which they were to perform. Professions often

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used the life or death criteria to define their work as an essential social service. Educators' Occupational Identity and Unionism School people, along with other Americans, engaged in occupational efforts which have included labor relations and 39 professional modes of behavior. The development of the National Educational Association and the American Federation of Teachers demonstrated concern with the establishment of an occupational identity, with occupational status, and with work condition issues. The following summary describes the organization, development, and central issues specific to the national Education Association and the American Federation of Teachers as researched by Cresswell and Murphy (1980). The National Education Association. According to Cresswell and Murphy (1980), for the first half of the 1800s educational associations were chiefly state organizations. In the summer of 1857, 43 educators gathered in Philadelphia. These people represented 10 state organizations and called themselves the National Teachers Organization. The members of this group were college presidents and school administrators. The organization changed its name to the National Education Association in the late 1800s when it merged with the National Association of School Superintendents. In the early years of the organization, classroom teachers were encouraged to be members. Although

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classroom teachers were allowed membership, they did not have much influence until the mid-1900s. 40 Cresswell and Murphy (1980) wrote that the NEA upheld conservative ideals. The goal of the NEA in the 1800s was to professionalize school administration. The NEA looked to business for bureaucratic principles of organization and control. The metaphor of the factory was used to describe the one best system for schools. NEA's mission was to reform educational practice by replacing political control with expert, elitist control. The members believed that the prestige and financial conditions of teachers and school people would improve after education was improved through scientific knowledge. Speeches, given from 1858 through 1890, by William T. Harris, a prominent superintendent from St. Louis, reflected the predominant concerns at that time. His topics included theory, psychology, high schools, colleges, manual and technical schools, course of study, kindergarten, primary grades, music education, moral and religious instruction, and the philosophy of methods. Cresswell and Murphy (1980) cited Sayre's (1958) writings which documented that the NEA had developed a body of doctrine or myths which could be described as four propositions which had directed organizational behavior. They were as follows: 1. There was unity of interest among educators; administrators' and teachers' concerns were the same;

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2. Gains for education would follow increases in the quality of educational practice; 3. Education institutions should be organized equivalent to corporations in the private sector; and 41 4. Educational decisions should be protected from partisan interest and should be non-political. These beliefs controlled the NEA direction for several decades and resulted in strong orientation toward consensus decision making in the organization. NEA's approach to solving education problems and tasks was based on persuasion by expertise rather than by advocacy. The NEA commitment to professionalism and style was also demonstrated by the high quality of research efforts which began in the 1930s. This information was used to influence key decision makers such as school boards and state departments which had direct financial influence over school systems (Cresswell & Murphy, 1980). The American Federation of Teachers. According to Murphy and Cresswell (1980), the American Federation of Teachers, from its inception in 1916 through the social upheaval of the 1960s, marked a decisive divergence of intent and philosophy from the NEA. The American Federation of Teachers was associated with organized labor and the social reconstructionist movement. The AFT grew out of classroom teacher discontent with the NEA's approach and policy toward educational change and the concern that teachers did not benefit from the economic growth of the

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42 period 1870 through 1910. Margaret Hai1y, a Chicago classroom teacher, helped found the AFT with the financial and organizing support of the American Federation of labor. The AFT and the AFL shared common interests in improving work conditions of teachers and of supporting free public education. By 1920 the AFT had developed a platform of 11 principles which demonstrated the core of AFT beliefs and concerns. The organization believed in the right of teachers to (a) organize and affiliate with labor, (b) receive warning and have a hearing before separation of service (the forerunner of due process rights), and (c) have freedom to work all avenues of citizenship. (Public employees were limited in their political activity.) The AFT also believed that (a) the control of the teaching staff should be in the hands of a professional, the superintendent, not the local school board, (b) a democratic form of administration should exist whereby teachers had a voice in decision making, (c) the application of the merit principle of civil service should be applied rather than that of political appointment, (d) financial recognition should be commensurate with the importance of educational services to the community, (e) a unit system of vocational education, (f) popular election of the school board should be encouraged, (g) free text books should be provided, and (h) pensions for retired teachers should be provided (Cresswell & Murphy, 1980, pp. 74-75).

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43 In the 1920s and 1930s the AFT continued its aggressive activities of pursuing teacher welfare and keeping concern with social issues. Although the AFT maintained minority status, it was the AFT that, in the 1930s depression, forced banks and city councils to meet teacher payrolls. In the 1940s it was the AFT which wrestled internally with conflict over bread and butter unionism versus spending its energy fighting racial discrimination and promoting women's rights. Members of the AFT included educational thinkers such as John Dewey, George Counts, John Child, Bruce Ramp, Goodwin Watson, and Jessie Newland. These men affected teaching in not only bread and butter ways, but had significant effect on philosophy in education (Cresswell & Murphy, 1980). During the mid 1930s through the 1940s, the AFT became a strong and effective organization. In 1935, the Wagner Act, which gave organized labor the right to free collective bargaining was passed. By 1944, the first collective bargaining contract with the AFT and the Board of Education was signed in Cicero, Illinois. The contract provided for a single salary scale, pay for extra classes, a sabbatical leave program, a grievance procedure, the AFT local as the exclusive bargaining agent, and procedures for revision and renewal of the contract (Cresswell & Murphy, 1980). In the early 1960s, the AFT, the American Federation of Labor, the Committee for Industrial Organization of Labor (the

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branch of trade-craft union base of the AFL) and the New York United Federation of Teachers collaborated and staged two strikes which were to have decisive effects on teachers' work relationships in school systems. The first strike, which took place in New York City's Public Schools on November 7, 1960, 44 won the UFT the right to hold elections to determine whether teachers wanted the right to bargain collectively. In June of 1961, the teachers voted to participate in collective bargaining and chose the UFT as their exclusive bargaining agent. Contract negotiations began, but broke down in March of 1962. The teachers struck on April 11th. The strike only lasted one day. The teachers were able to win an increase in salary, reduction in class loads, increases in specialized services, and guarantees against overly large classes (Cresswell & Murphy, 1980, pp. 84-85). Collective bargaining: The National Education Association and The American Federation of Teachers. 1960 to present. Cresswell and Murphy (1980) held that by using industrial labor methods, the AFT and UFT were able to demonstrate that aggressive means, the strike, arbitration and collective bargaining could affect the outcomes of teacher-school district agreements. The success of these measures and threat of nonsurvival caused the NEA to rethink its policies and position concerning teacher welfare issues. In its early years, NEA administrators encouraged classroom teachers to join NEA rather

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45 than to join other organizations. Throughout NEA's life, administrators continued to be the most influential members of the organization, but over time the number of active teacher members increased considerably. Concerns about teacher welfare issues were strong with these members and have continued to affect the organization's outlook (Cresswell & Murphy, 1980). Prior to trends toward teacher militarism demonstrated in the early 1960s, the NEA held that professional group action regarding salary proposals should be in the form of democratic persuasion. The organization provided support for salary committees to study local salary schedules and financial conditions. Changes within the occupation of teaching and the successful example of the AFT led NEA to recognize a process called professional negotiations, which was described as democratic participation in the determination of policies of common concern and other conditions of professional service. Profes sional negotiations meant that industrial methods of mediation and arbitration were found to be acceptable as part of NEA organizational behavior. Sanctions were considered to be an appropriate means in which to influence work conditions within school districts. The prohibition against strikes as a norm of acceptable professional behavior was terminated. Participation in grievance procedures and withdrawal of services were also considered acceptable activities of members if such means were deemed necessary by the organization (Cresswell & Murphy, 1980).

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46 In response to urban school crises of the 1960s, the NEA Urban Project allowed the NEA to work directly with local associations. By 1970, reform in NEA developed into the Uniserv program, which sought to provide one professional staff member for every 1,200 members. Teachers had to be members of local, state and national levels of the organization (Cresswell & Murphy, 1980). During the last two decades, the NEA and the AFT have become similar in attitude and in organizational aims. Both unions have championed bread and butter issues for teachers and improvement of work conditions, and also have attempted to influence policy issues which affected teaching practice. By the 1980s, approximately 91% of all teachers belonged to a union and 89% of all school districts with more than 1,000 students had participated in collective bargaining (Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983, p. 214). Research on Collective Bargaining The effects of collective bargaining and the effects of contract negotiations on teaching practice and school organization relationships have been areas of interest to researchers and policy analysts (Bacharach, Shed & Conley, 1989; DarlingHammond, 1990; Elmore, 1987; F1oden et al., 1988; Shed, 1988). The contract has been viewed as a document which could cause stagnation in schools through limiting teacher responsibility to routine practices (Kerchner, 1986; Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983;

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47 Mitchell, Kerchner, Erck & Pryor, 1981). Some recent examples of expanded contracts have indicated that teachers' responsibility for participation and educational decision making could be successfully expanded (Routh, 1990; Watts & McClure, 1990). How the contract has been applied and affected work relationship in districts has varied. Some districts have continued to use a labor mode of application, but others have moved toward a more professional mode (Kerchner, 1988; Shed, 1988). Effects and implications of traditional collective bargaining and contract negotiation. The research of Cresswell and Murphy (1980), Mitchell, Erck and Pryor (1981) and Mitchell and Kerchner (1983) has substantial bearings on conceptions of teaching in terms of the labor conception of teaching work. The following summary presents these researchers' views. Collective bargaining and contract negotiations which were completed since the 1960s have resulted in increased standardization of policy and practice in the treatment of school personnel. Equity of treatment, due process, and other guards against favoritism and discrimination have limited the flexibility of the teacher-principal relationship (Cresswell & Murphy, 1980). The contract, which has been the result of the collective bargaining agreement, has become the explicit framework of the agreements and procedures which define the relationships between administrators and school workers. Traditionally in

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48 the labor-management relations mode, the scope of the contract focused on wage, benefits, workloads and duties, evaluation procedure, and the maintenance of standards had related to teacher welfare and work conditions. By the 1970s the scope of subjects that were considered in agreements included issues such as (a) teacher participation in educational policy decision making, (b) teacher participation in curriculum and textbook decisions, and (c) teacher protection for responsibility in pupil discipline. Language in contracts has ranged from being highly specific concerning proscribed behavior to language which is general and allows more leeway in interpretation based on local situations. Mitchell and his colleagues (Mitchell, Kerchner, Erck, & Pryor, 1981; Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983) expressed the concern that negative effects of uniformity on the process of teaching could result from adherence to proscriptive behavior detailed in contracts which emphasized insistence on conformity by teachers and administrators. Mitchell and Kerchner (1983) argued that intensive labor relations negotiations which strictly defined and limited teaching activities, including classroom management and instruction, would be strictly predetermined by management and subject to close inspection. They indirectly counseled readers to reflect on their values and beliefs, and to consider alternate conceptualizations of teaching by suggesting the implications of the effects that a

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labor conception of teaching would have on educational policy and practice. 49 Kerchner (1980) maintained that school systems are open systems in which relationships of trust, harmony, conflict, and cooperation all change over time. He held that schools were sensitive to their environments, that participants were changeable and that the nature of labor process was always unfinished. He described labor impacts in relation to three decision-making modes. These modes included (a) the bureaucratic professional --the supervision function of administration, (b) the political mode--which involved participants' needs and preferences; and (c) the labor relations mode--in which a threat of disturbance affected how decisions were made. He proposed that the combining of these decision modes, along with other existing modes of governance (e.g., national, state, and local legitimate power in governance) and also with collective bargaining, has significantly impacted ways in which managers approach their jobs. The most common representation of the impact of unionization is that there are new rules to follow via the contract and policy. The locus of control in decision making is more strongly based on contract adiDinistration which usually places great reliance on uniformity. Standardization of teaching practice is one critical way in which uniformity could be achieved. Although trends in educational practice have appeared to be becoming more standardized, the degree of standardization

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varies. In practice, the process of standardizing through formal means has been mitigated by normative values. FeimanNemser and Floden (1986) reviewed research concerning norms of the informal system of exchange that teachers and school principals traditionally have engaged in before and after the institutionalization of formal negotiated agreements in school districts. They found: so 1. Teachers wanted little interference in daily classroom events, and particularly have not wanted interference with classroom decisions concerning curriculum and instruction. 2. Teachers have also continued to want administrators to act as a buffer between the outside pressures from parents, community, and other teachers. Principals have been expected to continue to maintain student discipline, establish schoolwide policies, and back teachers in their classroom discipline. 3. Districts differ in the degree that teachers have held to the specifications of contracts in their work relationships with principals. A general trend toward an informal system of exchange was still evident. Teachers have continued to depend on the good will of the principal for many services while a principal also has continued to depend on the good will of the teachers to provide high educational standards (p. 509).

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51 Views of Teaching The following section presents an overview of different views of teaching in terms of (a) beliefs about ways authority is practiced in schools, (b) values and preferences of teaching styles, (c) beliefs about the role of technology in education, and (d) beliefs about knowledge and skills needed to teach successfully. This section presents examples of research and literature which have described ways of conceptualizing teaching. The bureaucratic model of organization has continued to operate in some degree in most major American institutions. The school is one in which authority has functioned in hierarchical and lateral manners. Formal authority vested in the state has been dispersed in a chain of command and has been exercised by the local school board. Permission to act then has been passed through the superintendent, to central administrative personnel, to building administrators, and last to teachers. Parents, community members, and various teacher organizations and interest groups have demonstrated influence through personal and political means. Statute and formal school policy and contract language have mediated and defined work roles, relationships, and responsibilities in school organizations. In addition to the formal specifications of modern interwork relationships, other traditional, cultural, and personal factors have formed undercurrents and have affected

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52 how school systems operate. Bureaucratic theory has assumed that there is consensus of goals, objectives, agreement about means of production, and compliance with rules and standards set by the organization. In the bureaucratic mode, it has been assumed that all members have specific tasks to do; these tasks have been defined, and outcomes have been predictable. The organization works like a well maintained machine. Individuality and expression of personality were not to be encouraged. The place of bureaucratic values in teaching practice has been an area of discussion for educational theorists and practitioners. The premise that bureaucratic organization has been the only system that could have operated in schools has not been universally accepted (Katz, 1987). Strict hierarchical structuring of school organizations has been questioned by Weick (1982), who described school systems as loosely coupled organizations in which teachers and administrators meet on occasion to interact, but where classroom events of instruction and management have remained the domain of the teachers. Wolcott (1977) viewed teachers and administrators as members of separate social-work groups who have reciprocal responsibilities but hold different values and expectations in their organizational roles. He described teachers as teachers, but described administrators and researchers as technocrats. He compared the teachers' and technocrats' relationship to the moiety system used in

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53 anthropology. Each group was described as part of a dual group system that interacted in four distinct ways. The types of interactions have included complementary behavior, reciprocity, conceptual antithesis, and rivalry. Both Wolcott (1977) and Weick (1982) presented factors which have mitigated organizational processes which sought to promote the rationalization of educational practice in schools. Sarason (1983) developed a profile of significant educators and researchers who have attempted to search for and develop laws or rules which would guarantee educational outcomes through scientific inquiry. They are presented in the following listing: 1. Itard, a French physician of the late 1700s, was noted for attempting to educate a handicapped adolescent named Victor, who was known as the Wild Boy of Aveyron. Victor was a boy who had been abandoned in the French countryside and had lived on his own by scavenging. Victor also did not have any developed language abilities. Itard believed in Rousseau's concept of the noble savage and believed that science would one day lead to the perfectability of man. He attempted to develop an educational program that would teach Victor to be normal. 2. Dewey, an American educational philosopher and psychologist (Heidbreder, 1933), was recognized for establishing the Laboratory School in Chicago. This school was founded in order to develop a program of psychology related to education.

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54 Dewey established a place where ideas about children, classrooms, and teaching strategies could be tested and studied. 3. Binet, a French psychologist of the early 1900s, was recognized for his contributions to the development of experimental pedagogy. Sarason (1983) described Binet's interest in education as a major quest to discover how to translate knowledge about teaching and learning to tactics and strategies that were appropriate to the needs and characters of children and to the nature and the constraints of the classroom. These men's works have influenced educational thinking with the belief that strong and direct cause and effect relation-ships between specific techniques used by teachers and students' learning could be discovered through research. Other results of this pursuit of knowledge have been the development of a range of methodologies and educational practices which have included highly prescriptive rule-based teaching practices to highly idiosyncratic teaching practices. Knowledge and Its Application in Teaching How scientific knowledge and other types of personal and practical knowledge were to be applied in educational practice were reflected in differing nomothetic philosophy and ideographic philosophy of education. The nomothetic philosophy held that practice should be directed by rules which were determined to be correct practice because they were validated

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55 by science and bureaucratic authority. The ideographic philosophy of education viewed scientific information, personal knowledge, and practical knowledge as the factors which should guide teaching practice (Harris, 1982). How instructional methodology based on experimental scientific method was implemented in practice has been a major defining factor in the development of general_conceptions of teaching. These definitions of teaching conceptions have included (a) the technical-labor fashion of using methodology where methodology was used strictly according to prescrip-tion, with no teacher discretion; (b) a craft fashion, the methodology was modified to allow for contextual circumstances of the classroom; (c) a profession fashion, the methodology was used in a highly discretionary manner, where implementation of the method has been subject to critical review by the teacher; and (d) in an artistic fashion, where methodology which was based on scientific research was not considered as being of primary importance in instruction. Art approaches used methodology in a highly idiosyncratic manner. How the Concept of Method, Knowledge and the Characteristics of Rules Apply to Conceptualization of Teaching Harris (1982) developed a scheme to demonstrate the relationship of method, rules, knowledge and conceptual orientations toward educational practice and teaching. Harris

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(1982) used Buchler's (1961) conception of method and Oakeshott's (1962) conception of knowledge; Scheffler's (1960) characteristic of rules and actions have been provided to delineate critical attributes of different conceptions of teaching and educational practice. 56 According to Harris (1982), Buchler (1961) defined method as the repeatable elements in practice, as distinguishable from mere random events. Buchler's (1961) premises were: 1. Whoever acted methodically (a) chose a mode of conduct, (b) to be directed in a given way, (c) to a particular set of circumstances, (d) for the attainment of a result. 2. The mode of conduct adopted may have consisted of (a) established practice, or (b) established practice modified by idiosyncratic technique, or (c) essentially idiosyncratic private practice. 3. Whatever procedure was adopted may be utilized (a) strictly in accordance with prescription, or (b) loosely variably with discretionary relationship to prescription, or (c) uniquely in consequence of predominant reliance on insight. 4. Circumstances under which the procedure was utilized may (a) have been definitely classifiable circumstances, or (b) ranged from the expected and classified down to the minimal circumstances that would allow for the procedure. 5. Results toward which the activity aims may have been (a) an envisaged or familiar type of result, or (b) an

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57 indefinite result accepted as such in terms of desirability, or (c) a relatively novel result (Harris, 1982, pp. 32-33). Buchler (1961) believed that all methods could be formulated in some way. According to him, all methodology could be articulated. Whether this articulation was expressed by written codification in the form of rules, directives, or written in expressive, descriptive narrative was based on views about the nature of knowledge, the characteristic of rules, and how knowledge and rules related to the work of instruction and managing a classroom. The nature or type of knowledge considered to have been needed in teaching was significant in relation to approaches to conceptualizing the nature of teaching. Harris (1982) described Oakeshott's (1962) definitions of technical knowledge and practical knowledge. Technical knowledge was that information which could be precisely formulated. Technical knowledge could be codified. Practical knowledge existed only in use and was a customary or traditional way of doing things. Practical know ledge or know-how could be learned but not directly taught. The master-apprentice relationship was the means of this passing of knowledge. Harris (1982) summarized Scheffler's (1960) description of the characteristics of rules in the following manner. Rules could be formulated for activities in a complete set of rules which guaranteed success or an incomplete set of rules which

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58 were helpful but did not guarantee success. Translated into educational language, methodologies which included a complete set of rules would most likely be highly prescriptive, hierarchical, demand the establishment of a highly structured classroom environment, and would have implied a diminished role of the teacher as an instructional decision maker. Teaching as Technology Harris (1982) cited Bereiter and Engelmann's (1968) methods as another example of teaching as technology. The methodology of instruction prescribed by these curriculum developers included scripted lessons of reading instruction for teachers to follow. The teachers were also admonished to stay close to the recipes in order to avoid failure. The teacher was to implement a program in which all the decisions had been made by the instructional programs' developers. In essence, the teacher was to manage a product developed by an expert. This mode of teaching fitted Harris' (1982) descrip-tion of teaching as technology. Instruction was seen purely as the management of prescribed technological procedure. The methods of instruction used were based on established practice, used in strict accordance with prescriptions, practiced in definitely classifiable circumstances, and were aimed toward an envisaged or familiar type of result.

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59 Teaching as Labor Teaching as technology has been related to the labor conception of teaching. A view of teaching, in which teaching has been seen as a highly predictable endeavor where rules, routinization, and strict prescription dominated the work of teachers has been compared to a labor conception of teaching. Sarason (1977) eloquently described what it means to labor. When we say that a person labors, we refer to an activity the end product of which in no way bears the doer's personal stamp. It is an activity so structured, ordinarily so predetermined, that there is no room for the product to reflect something distinctive about its maker. So, when we say someone is a laborer or occupies a certain place on an assembly line, what gets conjured up in our minds is an impersonal relationship between person and product, i.e., the product is independent of its maker. One can substitute for another but one would never know by looking at the product. The activity, of course, has meaning for the person but whatever that meaning may be, it is supposed to remain internal and not to affect the product. It is so to speak, a mindless activity. (pp. 116-117) Teaching as a Craft Harris (1982) proposed that good teaching was a craft and not to be limited to implementing technologies. She used Buchler's (1961) terms to express her views. Craft teaching used established practice which was modified by idiosyncratic technique. Teaching methods were performed in a discretionary manner in relationship to prescribed practice. Craft teaching involved using instructional methodologies in a variety of circumstances and toward indefinite results.

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60 Harris (1982) argued that teaching should be treated as a craft because it was not a task which was completely predictable and amenable to strict rules of a technology. She believed that teachers should implement curriculum and educational innovations in a way that methodology was applied according to the teachers' judgments about appropriateness of the procedures in a given instructional situation. Several theoreticians and researchers (Greene, 1986; Jackson, 1968, 1986; Kohl, 1976; Lortie, 1975; Smith & Geoffrey, 1968) have developed the conceptual view of teaching as craft. Lortie (1975) conducted extensive survey research in the Dade County Public School System in Florida during the 1960s and found teachers' perceptions of teaching to be in line with craft occupational configuration of work. Other researchers have developed the craft conception of teaching work through their personal-professional experiences and reflection upon teaching. Lortie (1975) has been credited by and Floden (1986) for his classic analysis of the teachingoccupation in terms of.identifying teachers' "sentiments" which were defined as teachers' beliefs, preoccupations, and preferences. He emphasized the endemic uncertainties in which the teacher must work, the importance of adapting methodology, the values teachers placed on their work and their preferences concerning work conditions. He stated:

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61 In thinking about teachers it is useful to conceive of the occupation as engaged in a craft; we can compare the conditions affecting this craft with those of other crafts. All craftsmen must adjust and readjust their actions in line with hoped-for outcomes; they must monitor their steps and make corrections as they proceed. Monitoring of this kind is particularly important when the outcome is remote in time; mistaken assessments can deflect movement toward the goal and prove extremely costly when the proof comes in. (p. 135) Lortie's (1975) data, collected in the early 1960s, outlined seven findings which comprised his observations of teaching as a craft occupation. 1. Teachers believed that students' moods strongly affect instruction and that these moods are often whimsical. 2. Experience improved performance over time. 3. Teachers were the essential catalyst for student achievement. 4. Teacher prestige and dignity were subject to the good will of administrators and others for and with whom they work. Teachers were vulnerable in their work. 5. Psychic rewards, the good feeling that comes with seeing students learn, were the most rewarding aspects of teaching, and were rated above salary or social prestige. 6. If granted ideal work conditions, teachers would choose (a) autonomy, in terms of getting away from other people (adults), (b) more time to teach, smaller classes, less inert task (those activities which did not directly relate to instructional activities), and (c) better educated administrators who did not emphasize rules as much.

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62 7. Teachers expressed little concern with developing a common technical culture or having a great amount of influence over general school policy. The central theme of a craft view of teaching has been the need for teachers to adapt established curriculum and teaching methods to students' needs and interests in a way that teacher behavior operated as a flexible response system to the oppor-tunities and constraints of the classroom. Kohl (1976) contrasted craft teaching with traditional teaching. Teaching involves different skills in different school settings. In a traditional classroom teaching well consists of being able to manage a large number of students who are required to master a preset and inflexible curriculum. To do this a teacher must be able to control the students with a minimum of conflict and keep them moving through a standard text or work book. . One must learn how to control the day .... traditional teachers need not know much about the subject ... the text and teacher's manual tell you all you need to know, ... the basic skills traditional teachers must have are the mastery of body, space, and time .... The ability of teachers to manage students and avoid major discipline problems are the most important qualities in which teachers are judged by administrators .... Teaching from my perspective involves the skill and ingenuity to reconstruct the curriculum, redesign the environment and change one's behavior so that students will have the experiences, resources, and support they need to develop their sensitivity, compassion and intelligence. Teachers need to be responsive to students rather than to preset curriculum. It takes time and experience to observe and to respond well to young people .... As with any craft, it takes time and experience to feel comfortable and build up enough resources to deal with problems which arise unexpectedly. (pp. 29-30) Kohl's (1976) resources were primarily materials and methods that were practical ways of doing and teaching. His suggestions emphasized practical knowledge, the know-how of

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teaching in which the teacher builds up a repertoire of skill based on personal experimentation of working with students. 63 His resources included listings of methods and techniques that other teachers have found to be successful in practice. He also described games, crafts, and activities such as map making, toy making, drawing, cooking, woodworking, and photography as examples of teaching activities which help teach and interest students. Jackson (1986) described the knowledge needed for good teaching as common sense and good sense. Common sense was defined as knowledge and awareness of cultural constraints, sanctions, and social exchange in the school and community. This kind of knowledge was the practical knowledge that individuals needed in order to survive in society. Waller (1932) proposed that knowledge of social relationships and of expectations for teachers was necessary for beginning teachers to understand in order to keep their jobs and survive in teaching. Jackson described good sense in teaching as the skill and ability to know when to use teaching methods and to adjust teaching behavior to given classroom situations. Sense implied the know-how aspect of teaching. This sense needed to be used in the complex environment of the classroom, and used in light of institutional restraints of the physical environment of the classroom setting and with school policy and tradition (Jackson, 1968). Classrooms were described as milieus where

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64 social systems exist, where diverse reactions to instruction took place, and where maintaining student interest were perennial problems (Smith & Geoffrey, 1968). Teaching as a Profession Educators and researchers (Darling-Hammond, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1990; Darling-Hammond & Wise, 1981, 1985; Darling-Hammond, Wise, & Pease, 1983; Lieberman, 1988; Lieberman & Miller, 1984, 1990; Wise, 1979, 1986, 1990), who viewed good teaching as a profession, have deemed that the tasks of teaching and the demands of the classroom were so complex that the ability to adapt standard curriculum was insufficient for successful education of students. Professional judgment has been the key to the professional view of teaching. Darling-Hammond (1985) expressed this opinion eloquently. Studies have made it clear that professional judgment is a prerequisite for effective teaching, because unless students are treated according to their particular learning needs, they will be mistreated. Standardized practice is, in effect, malpractice. Unless we prepare teachers to exercise professional judgment, and then allow them to do so, we will have little hope of improving educational quality. (p. 211) In the view of teaching as a profession, the following conditions were proposed by researchers who believed that good teaching was a professional occupation. 1. Teachers demonstrated commitment to service and ethical practice through their ability to assess the effects of teaching

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on students' intellectual and emotional well-being (Covert, 1989; Darling-Hammond, 1985; Elmore & McLaughlin, 1988). 2. Teachers as a professional group held authority in determining practice in teaching (Darling-Hammond, 1985; Shavelson & Stern, 1981). 65 3. Teachers participated in collegial and collaborative work arrangements (Darling-Hammond, 1990; Keiny & Drefus, 1989; Little, 1990). 4. Teachers use a process of critical judgment in implementing instruction (Shavelson & Stern, 1981). Lieberman (1988) presented teaching as a professional occupation in which leadership by teachers was vital. According to her, professional teacher leadership was expressed when (a) educators developed collegial relationships, (b) teachers participated in school policy making, (c) teachers shared a common professional culture which included sharing values and information, (d) teachers acted in ways that promoted teacher autonomy through individual responsibility for professional development, and (d) teachers pursued active approaches to knowledge, inquiry and ownership of their work. TeachinE as an Art Educators and researchers (Bird, 1989; Eisner, 1983; Hansen, 1987; Lessinger, 1970, 1979; Lessinger & Gillis, 1976; Ohanian, 1986; Rubin, 1985; Smith, 1986; Stephens, 1976) who viewed good teaching as an art relied on ideas of appreciation,

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66 sensitivity, intuition, and creativity to describe their view. They believed that attempts to routinize, to standardize, to encourage predictability in teaching methodology, or to understand theory were not of great importance in quality teaching. What was important was that the teacher expressed or encouraged creativity. In viewing teaching as an art, artistic personal qualities were deemed as the critical element of effective teaching. Good teachers were individuals who had natural talent. Artistic teachers were creative and innovative, and relied on intuition rather than deliberate reason to encourage students to learn. Artistic teachers were individuals who got results by the nature of their individual teaching style. Jackson (1986), in the following statement, made the point which held that formal training in pedagogy was not necessary for effective teaching: Teachers who have been accorded the highest status positions in education; college professors, teachers in elite private schools, the stars of the teaching profession, the world's most distinguished lecturers from Socrates forward have rarely studied the process of teaching in any formal sense. (p. 6) Jackson (1986) further emphasized his belief when he quoted an opinion of John Dewey which was recorded by Archambault (1964) Some teachers violate every law known to and laid down by pedagogical science . they are themselves so full of the science of inquiry, so sensitive to every sign of its presence and absence, that no matter what they do, nor how they do it, they succeed in awakening and inspiring alert and intense mental activity in those with whom they come into contact. (Jackson, P: 89)

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67 Wise (1979) outlined Stephens' (1976) spontaneous theory of education which reflected the artistic view of teaching where the personal qualities of a teacher were believed to be of primary importance in quality teaching. Stephens believed that effective schooling was less dependent on deliberate, rational decisions, than on the spontaneous tendencies possessed in varying degrees by all human beings. The natural urge of human beings is to manipulate their environment in ways that have little immediate survival value, to take things they know, to applaud or to condemn some performances and to disprove and correct other performances, to supply an answer which alludes someone else. (Wise, p. 18) Stephens (1976) strongly advocated the belief that spontaneous tendencies of individuals inevitably bring about motivation, practice, reinforcement, guidance, and the enhance-ment of insight. Innovation and creativity in teaching methodology were also hallmarks of the artistic approach in teaching. Eisner (1983) described art in teaching as the willingness and ability to create new forms of teaching "moves" that were actions that were not originally part of one's existing repertoire of behavior .. Lessinger (1970) supported measures to use tech-nology in innovative ways. He proposed that education could be improved by using the same ingenuity, craft, and realism that got Americans to the moon. He supported contracting of talent from the private sector to research, develop, and implement instructional programs. These innovators were to be rewarded )

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for creating products that delivered positive educational results. 68 The pedagogy of the performing arts in theater has been a methodology which has been used by educators as one way to describe and to develop artistic teaching (Baughman, 1979; Lessinger, 1979; Lessinger & Gillis, 1976; Rives, 1979). The metaphor has been considered the language of critique and meaning in artistic approaches to defining teaching. Lessinger and Gillis (1976) named the experience of learning as the celebrative experience. They proposed that the teacher was like an actor who was aware of the importance of settings, props, and supporting cast to his success. Lessinger and Gillis (1976) used terminology from the performing arts to describe their view of teaching as an art. Their terms were: 1. Style and Modes of Behavior The variety of presentational forms ranging from solo performance to group artistry. Style connoted individuality of personal method. Mode meant manner of performance. 2. Performance Literature The material, written and improvised, in use by a performer while in the act of performing. (This was the lesson or information the teacher teaches.) 3. Performance Arena The place in which a performance occurred. (This was usually the classroom.)

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4. The Instrument of Performance The device or method employed by performers through which the performance was enabled. (The teacher was the device.) 5. The Audience Those individuals, collectively or singly, for whom the performance was designed. (The audience was the students.) 6. Adaptivity The process of modifying or changing existing materials for use in performance. (The ability of the teacher to modify instruction when necessary to meet students' instructional needs.) 7. Structured Forms -Those materials required to be performed in the style or mode dictated by their creator. 8. Improvisation -Spontaneous creation of performance materials, the mode or style which related to the individuality of the performer. 69 9. Arts Pedagogy The principle of the teaching-learning experience based on a one-to-one relationship plus ensemble performance. Rubin (1985) described teaching as an art in a processoriented manner. In his view, artistry in teaching included the elements of creativity, artistic attitude, perception, and intuition. He also presented the classroom as a theater where instruction occurred as dramatic episodes. The teacher was an actor, the classroom was where lessons are staged. In regard to the nature of artistry, he stated:

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70 The characteristics associated with artistry come readily to mind--skill, originality, flair, dexterity, ingenuity, virtuosity, and similar qualities which, together, engender exceptional performance. One might argue that artistry consists of the master craftsmanship through which tasks conceived, planned, and executed with unusual imagination and brilliance . unusual cleverness . greatly superior to conventional practice. (pp. 15-16) Rubin (1985) proposed that artistry in teaching was the result of innate ability or effort of individuals to develop talent by learning from those who have natural gifts. Artistry in teaching was held to involve the choice of educational aims that have high worth, the use of imaginative and innovative ways to achieve these aims, and the pursuit of their achieve-ment with great skill and dexterity. The creative process was proposed to be the critical element in teaching as an art. Rubin (1985) outlined the schemata that was developed by Wallas (1926) as an example of that process. This creative process included: (a) a period of preparation; the identification of the problem, collecting information, and considering alternative actions; (b) a period of incubation on the conscious level, the problem is set aside; (c) a time of illumination when a solution or course of action becomes a conscious reality; and (d) a period of verification, when the solution is tested to see if it solves the problem. In Rubin's (1985) view, artistic perception was a critical element in quality teaching and he defined it as sensitivity to idiosyncratic needs of individual children which implies

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the ability to respond with different kinds of teaching methods. He described intuition as a process of reaching decisions quickly, based on the teacher's perception and knowledge of students. Teachers' sensitivity to students' needs and teachers' engagement with teaching were strong values in the artistic view of teaching. 71 Smith (1986) believed that the creative environment was one in which everyone had an opportunity to learn. He believed that students and teachers should be members of the reading and writing club; that both, teacher and student, should participate in reading and writing in the classroom. He wrote, "Sensitive and imaginative teachers inspire learning of lasting depth and complexity--a love of learning itself--in students with all kinds of interests and abilities" (Smith, 1986, p. x). Bird (1989), a teacher who had espoused the methodology of the whole language approach to literacy, employed the child-centered emphasis of the artistic approach. She described the children as the curricular planning. Teaching to her was "an art, a creative process of revision" (Bird, 1989, p. 17). The job of the artistic teacher was to respond to students' needs as they emerged in a natural environment of reading and writing. Learning carne from the fulfillment of the individual's interests and inclinations. Bird (1989) cited

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.72 Donaldson's (1978) statement which described the essence of an artistic approach to teaching: According to Donaldson (1978), "The essence of the teacher's art lies in deciding what help is needed at any given instance and how this help may be offered" (p. 15). Instructional Supervision Historical Background of Supervision Differing views of supervision have affected educational practice since the appearance of a formal education system in the United States. Originally, the overseeing and monitoring of schools was conducted by selected community members who were considered to have authority in local matters due to their high economic and social status in the community. Members of the clergy and other educated laymen supervised school opera-tions, student progress, curriculum, instruction, and teacher behavior through close inspection. Burnham's (1976) reference to Dicky (cited by Mattes, 1983) described supervision in early American schools. There were three primary approaches to supervision which dominated early schools ... These are (a) authority and autocratic rule, (b) emphasis upon inspection and weeding out of weak teachers, and (c) conformity to standards prescribed by the committee of laymen. (p. 302) Colonial law was the base of lay authority and provided for the commissioning of select men as educational inspectors who could test children's ability. The spelling bee was an example of

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the type of activity that was used to demonstrate student learning (Butts, 1953). 73 In the 1800s, lay inspection of schools became complicated by sheer numbers of people who were involved in the activity. Katz (1987) gave the example of the Boston Public School System where, in 1850, primary education was overseen by The Primary School Committee, a group comprised of 18 men who were able to act independently. By 1860, membership had grown to 118. In the late 1800s, school organizations became complex systems which served an ever-increasing population of students. Not only did numbers increase, but the needs of the students, who were mostly the children of poor immigrants, included a need for basic literacy and a means for being acculturated into their adopted country. In order to respond to these needs and to changing societal conditions, the schools began to change their organizational system. Hence, the first graded primary schools appeared. There was also specialization within the teaching force. Music, art, physical education, military drill, French, German, and sewing became specialized areas of instruction. Differentiation and a development of a hierarchy and ranking of teachers became the norm. A person's level of appointment to a teaching position depended on formal exami nation, and the candidates were awarded different classes of certificates according to their performance on these tests (Katz, 1987).

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74 The move to the professional management of schools developed concurrently with trends in education and the larger society. Women were needed as an inexpensive source of teachers to make up the primary school teaching force. Grammar school masters became headmasters and were given authority over the primary schools. Businessmen were hired as superintendents and in time these men were able to convince the school community that more help was needed to run the schools effectively and efficiently. Their influence resulted in the adding of other support personnel in management and supervisory positions. Katz (1987) described the intensity in which school managers conceived public education as a business which should be modeled after bureaucratic industrialization. As an idealized standard, schoolmen used the example of industry that over and over again formed the basis of their justifications of superintending. Quite often they described their school systems as factories and used the metaphors based on the corporation and the machine. Modern industry, they could see had developed its remarkable capacity through a rational organization that stressed hierarchy, the division of labor, and intensive professional supervision. . Schoolmen pointed out that a professionally supervised school system based on the division of labor should be based on an elaborate hierarchy and explicit chain of command necessary to keep each member working at his or her particular task in a responsible and coordinated fashion. At the head of the hierarchy should be one "vested with sufficient authority" to devise plans in general and detail and to "keep subordinates in their proper places and at their assigned tasks." ... The great danger according to Payne, was "disintegration," whose chief cause was "non-conformity," something not to be tolerated in either pupils or teachers. (pp. 68-69)

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75 Over time, public school systems became increasingly bureaucratic. By the early 1900s, the headmaster or principal teacher in each school building had taken on increasing power and responsibility. Principal teachers became building principals and assumed the duties of inspecting the work of teachers, making sure that teachers followed rules and adhered to rigidly prescribed courses of study, and also made "suggestions" about teaching methodology (Mattes, 1983). Scientific management was an extremely rule-bound method. Teachers were viewed as "appendages" of management and were expected to carry out prescribed duties determined by their superiors. Prescription and compliance were the predominant behaviors expected of administrator-teacher working relationships (Sergiovanni & Starratt, 1979). Efficiency in planning and the application of the scientific method were the primary means of trying to control teacher behavior (Alfonso, Firth, & Neville, 1975). In this situation, classroom teachers had very little influence over their work. In the early 1900s, traditional scientific supervision continued to be strong, but other societal trends began to mediate its effects. A renewed concern with the continued development and preservation of democratic processes and ideals in American society began to emerge. This phenomenon affected school relationships among students, teachers, administrators, and the local community. In general, views about how each

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member in the school system was to be treated became more con cerned with promoting and protecting the dignity of the individual and the values of justice and freedom. Pragmatic thought in education was strong. Dewey championed democratic education in a democratic society. Ozmon and Craver (1981) summarized the views of William Heard Kilpatrick, a student of Dewey, in explaining that the aims of education were to teach children how to live. They wrote: "This is accomplished in three steps: (a) provision of opportunity to live, (b) provision of learning experiences, and (c) provision of conditions for character development" (p. 98). In order to do this in a democratic manner, it was considered important that the institution of education reflected democratic ideals. 76 The concern that a more democratic environment would be established in schools was demonstrated by some rethinking about the conditions of teaching and treatment of teachers as workers. Democratic participation of teachers in the educational process and decision making in schools were strongly supported by the American Federation of Teachers. This thought slowly affected teacher-administrator relationships and influenced the development of democratic supervision where teacher satisfaction, being kind to teachers, and treating teachers more as individuals were considered important aspects of supervisory practice (Wiles & Lovell, 1975). Concern with human relations created a form of supervision in which cooperation, group

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77 decision making, and individual responsibility were the central themes (Alfonso et al., 1975; Wiles, 1967). Human relations supervision continued to be accepted until the 1950s. The launching of Sputnik, in 1957, by the Russians affected the way Americans saw themselves. One result was disenchantment with the way educational institutions were performing. Public sentiment created pressure on schools to reform the approach to the way in which they were operating. Human relations supervision lost favor and was considered inadequate to meet the needs of school reform of this time. A preoccupation with maintaining superiority as a world power, and with being able to protect American interest in the world affected the way Americans viewed education. Better education was seen necessary if Americans were to be able to compete in the space race. The fear caused by the Russian Sputnik event was shortly followed by the urban crises of the 1960s. In American cities, minority reaction to poverty and discrimination, plus university student militant responses to the Vietnam Conflict, created a turbulence which had long-range effects on education. Equity of opportunity, social change, competition in the world market, and desire for guaranteed educational outcomes became the themes which have driven much educational practice in following years. During the Vietnam era, Americans enjoyed the boom from a war economy. This money was used to finance President Lyndon

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78 Johnson's War on Poverty. Part of the War on Poverty was the movement to find ways in which to educate children better through the development of more successful methods in curriculum and instruction. The science of education was reborn. Supervision in schools became concerned not only with maintaining a satisfactory work climate, but also with managing the operation in schools and with monitoring processes. A major task of supervision became the improvement of instruction (Glatthorn, 1984; Harris, 1985; Krajewski, 1977). In the 1960s, the role of the supervisor became that of a change agent who monitored the implementation of instructional innovations and who was expected to promote the adoption of the new methods and programs. Alfonso et al. (1975) and Redd (1972) described the role of the supervisor, in the '70s, as that of a systems manager who analyzed, diagnosed, designed, and developed instructional systems. This time was the beginning of the concept of the professional supervisor, of the curriculum worker and of the consultant. Wisdom was gained from observations of successful and unsuccessful implementation of innovations of the '60s and '70s. Stake's (1983) observations of the outcomes from attempts to introduce and institutionalize innovations in the previous two decades found that the success of innovations most often depended on the stakeholders' interest in the program. Stake holders were participants who were affected. These included

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79 teachers, parents, students, administrators and local community members. Supervision for the improvement of instruction as an innovation was also forced to address the needs of different participants who were involved in the educational process. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, issues regarding efficiency in regard to expenditures of money and time, effectiveness of schools, school programs, and instruction; and being accountable to communities, state agencies, federal agencies, private funding agencies, and to those they supervise continued to affect supervisory practice. Supervision practices which addressed efficiency concerns of the public emphasized what Sergiovanni and Starratt (1979) referred to as neoscientific management. Practices which emphasize competencies, behavioral objectives, and cost benefit analysis served the needs of outside agencies and were not generally accepted by teachers (Wolcott, 1977). Methods which did not consider the human element in teaching performance were negatively viewed by many theorists and practitioners of instructional supervision. Cogan (1973), Garman (1990), Glatthorn (1984), Glickman (1985), Goldhammer, Anderson and Krajewski (1980), Harris (1985), and Sergiovanni and Starratt (1971, 1979) described the process of supervision in terms which reflected the importance of supervision as a person-oriented endeavor as well as a methodological endeavor. Differing beliefs about the human element in supervision and instruction, the purpose, and

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underlying assumptions about quality teaching can be inferred by studying how supervision is defined and how methods of supervision are described. Different approaches to supervision have reflected different attitudes toward teachers and teaching. Various practices have emphasized some methods which are more task oriented than person oriented; some have demonstrated more appreciation for creativity than for standardization of practice; some have been more analytically oriented than prescriptive; and some have been more individualistic than collegial. Definitions of instructional supervision and descriptions of most current methods have expressed the perceived function and purpose of supervision to be the improvement of instruction. Although this perception has been the commonality, different perceptions about supervision have emphasized differences about the desired nature of the process itself and beliefs about the nature of quality teaching. The following is a description of alternative views of supervision based on differentiation of practice and conceptualizations of the meaning and purposes of supervision. Current Definitions of Supervision 80 The following list has been developed to document the major definitions and stated purposes of supervision which have been reflected in current thought.

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81 1. The Dictionary of Education defined supervision as: All efforts of the designated school officials directed toward providing leadership to teachers and other educatfonal workers in the improvement of instruction. It involves the stimulation of professional growth and development of teachers, the selection and revision of educational objectives, materials, instruction, methods of teaching, and evaluation of instruction. (Good, 1959, p. 539) 2. Harris (1975, 1985) defined supervision as, "What school personnel do with adults to maintain or change the school operations in ways that directly influence the teaching process employed to promote pupil learning." Supervision is highly instruction-related but not highly pupil-related. Supervision is a major function of the school operation, not a task or specific job or set of techniques. Supervision of instruction is directed toward both maintaining and improving the teaching-learning processes of the school (pp. 10-11). 3. Glatthorn (1984) stated the following: Supervision is a process of facilitating the professional growth of a teacher, primarily by giving the teacher feedback about classroom interactions and helping the teacher make use of that feedback in order to make teaching more effective. (p. 2) 4. Stoller (1978) believed the following: Supervision as the improvement of instruction is concerned with -overseeing, directing, guiding, conducting, regulating, controlling, moving toward a goal, etc. workers (teachers), who give or teach knowledge or information ... -in such a manner that there is a resulting "increase in value or excellence of quality or condition. (pp. 7-8)

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5. Lortie (1975) held that supervision was also the process of self-supervision and was the act of teachers' selfmonitoring of instruction. 82 Themes which have occurred in these definitions were: (a) the purpose of supervision was the improvement of instruction, (b) supervision should facilitate teachers' professional growth, (c) supervision involved monitoring and feedback, (d) supervision involved people: the designated school officials, adults, school personnel, teachers, and (e) the focus of supervision was on what adults do in the classroom, rather than what students do. Theories of Supervision Common themes in research have included that the purpose of supervision was instructional improvement, it involved people, it was concerned with growth, and it involved reflective practice. How supervision was done in practice has varied. Differences in theory and methodology have demonstrated different beliefs about individuals' expected roles in supervision, about teachers' growth needs, and about the appropriateness of different techniques of supervision to meet these needs. The following portion of this review describes the major prac tices and theories which have become currently popularized. Current ideas about sound supervisory practice have used eclectic ideas derived from traditional lines of research in educational administration and also from research in the fields

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of personality and adult development. Researchers such as Erickson (1950), Glickman (1981, 1985), Harvey (1967) and 83 Kolberg (1969) are examples of these researchers. Supervision systems which have taken account of individual differences and growth needs have recommended the following. Sergiovanni (1987) described the contingency view of supervision in which good supervision is a supervisory program which gives teachers options. The differentiated model of supervision (Glatthorn, 1984) is one supervision model which has included many options to meet this criterion. Glatthorn's (1984) differentiated supervision system has been used in this study as an organizing structure to outline and describe the different methods and philosophical views of supervision which have been used in professional practice today. The original four rubrics of supervision practice defined by Glatthorn (1984) have been presented as described by their author. These methodological presentations have also been expanded in this review to include related methodologies which have been developed by other researchers and theoreticians. Glatthorn's (1984) four rubrics of supervision included: 1. Clinical supervision is described as a method directed at improving instruction where (a) the supervisor and teacher met and conferred on lesson planning, (b) the supervisor observed the lesson, (c) the supervisor then analyzed the

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lesson, (d) the supervisor then met with the teacher and gave him or her feedback about the lesson. 84 Cogan (1973), Goldhammer, Anderson and Krajewski (1980) and Russell and Hunter (1980) are associated with this approach. Artistic supervision (Eisner, 1982) and developmental supervision (Glickman, 1981, 1985) included in this genre of supervision (Glatthorn, 1984). 2. Cooperative professional development is described as a collegial process in which small groups of teachers agreed to work for their own professional growth. Peer supervision, peer coaching (Berman & McLaughlin, 1978; Sergiovanni, 1987; Showers, 1983) and joint work concepts (Little, 1986, 1990) are related to this type of supervision. 3. Self-directed development is described as a process where the individual teacher worked independently on professional growth concerns and the supervisor acted as a resource (Glatthorn, 1984). Programs which have used Individual Professional Development Plans (Sergiovanni, 1987), self-supervision models as described by Allen (1970) and Stoller (1978) and individual professional accountability measures (Darling-Hammond, 1990) are practices which are related to self-directed development. 4. Administrative monitoring is described as a method in which the administrator monitored the work of the staff, made brief and unannounced visits to the classroom to ensure that

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teachers were carrying out assignments and responsibility in a professional manner (Glatthorn, 1984). 85 Informal supervision (Sergiovanni, 1987), management by wandering around (Peters & Waterman, 1982) and supervision which has ratings of teachers (Glanz, 1990) have been related to monitoring of teachers by supervisors. Clinical Supervisionand Related Theory and Practice Clinical supervision has been based on the assumption that instruction could be improved through the process where instruction was observed and analyzed by knowledgeable professionals. Theoretical underpinnings of this approach have included the values that supervision was to be a collaborative endeavor, based on consensual interaction between supervisor and supervisee, that information gathered on observations was reliable and stable data and that conferences were real work sessions rather than rituals (Garmen, 1990). The works of Cogan (1973), Glickman (1981, 1985), Goldhammer, Anderson, & Krajewski 1980) and Russell and Hunter (1980) have formed the foundation of theory and practice regarding clinical supervision. Cogan (1973) and Goldhammer, Anderson, & Krajewski (1980) stressed the process of developing collegial, helping relationships and of developing the ability to analyze instruction. Glickman (1981, 1985) concentrated on under-standing the process of teacher professional growth and

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86 development in terms of the individual's commitment and his or her level of cognitive complexity. Russell & Hunter (1980) developed a practical system which promoted a shared technical language, and described how to analyze direct instruction based on mastery learning methodology. Methods of Clinical Supervision Cogan (1973) stated: Clinical supervision . takes its principle data from the events of the classroom. The analysis of these data and the relationship between the teachers and the supervisors form the basi.s of the program,. procedures and strategies designed to improve student's [sic] learning by improving the teachers[sic] classroom behavior. (p. 9) Glatthorn (1984) summarized the essence of the methods which he believed met the definition of clinical supervision. According to him, the clinical supervision approach implied a face-to-face relationship between the teacher and supervisor, detailed observational data, analysis of the data, a focus on teacher behavior in the classroom, and the effects of teachers' behavior on learning. Cogan's (1973) original model of clinical supervision was developed for teacher preparation and involved an eight-phase cycle in the supervisory process. The supervisor was the teacher of teachers and helped the teacher learn how to instruct and manage classrooms. The method involved the establishment of a teacher-supervisor relationship, (b) plan-ning with the teacher, (c) planning the strategy of observa-

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tion, (d) observation of instruction, (e) analysis of the teaching-learning process, (f) planning the strategy of the conference, (g) conferencing, and (h) renewed planning. Goldhammer, Anderson, and Krajewski (1980) developed a model which was intended to be used with practicing teachers. This model had five stages which included (a) the preobservation conference in which the supervisor began to develop a trusting and nurturing relationship with the teacher, (b) the observation which was comprised of gathering data about the classroom and instruction, (c) the analysis and strategy process in which the supervisor assessed the information and planned ways of sharing the information and suggestions for possible changes in teacher behavior, (d) the supervision conference in which the supervisor shared the information with the teacher, and (e) the post-conference analysis in which the supervisor reviewed the process. Glickman (1981, 1985) developed a clinical model of supervision which he termed developmental supervision. He believed that it was necessary to consider the teacher's level of abstraction, that is, the individual's intellectual ability and flexibility. He also believed that the teacher's level of commitment was important in assessing the needs of the teacher for professional growth. He set up a system of categorization based on these two dynamics. This system has been used in many situations. 87

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88 Glickman (1981, 1985) described teachers as (a) Analytical Observers--teachers who were capable of higher levels of abstraction but low in work commitment, (b) Teacher Dropouts-teachers who were low in ability and low in commitment, (c) Unfocused Workers--teachers who were low in ability but high commitment, and (d) Professionals--teachers who were capable of high levels of abstraction and high levels of commitment. Glickman (1981, 1985) also developed guidelines in which the supervisor was advised to take a directive approach to supervision with teachers who were low in commitment and ability to think analytically about instruction and the effects of teacher behavior. He advised a collaborative or nondirective approach with others, depending on how the supervisor assessed their individual growth needs. Glickman (1981, 1985) maintained that the purpose of superVision was to recognize teachers' levels of development and assist them in becoming professional. Glatthorn (1984) described Hunter's (Russell & Hunter, 1980) model of clinical supervision as scientific supervision. Hunter's system of supervision was derived from her review of research on effective teaching and learning methods which were based on direct instruction. Methods of clinical supervision which were identified included: diagnoses of student's learning needs, specifying objectives, creating an anticipatory

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set, expressing a perceived purpose, providing learning opportunities, modeling the activities, checking for understanding, and providing guided and independent practice activities in order that students could master the skill taught. These components were designed to serve as the basis for analyzing instruction. Glatthorn (1984) described different techniques which 89 were used in observational data gathering in clinical supervision practice. One technique involved using teacher behavior observation scales and check lists. He gave the example of a form constructed by Minton (1982). This form defined clinical teaching behaviors in terms of the-teacher demonstrating modeling, checking for understanding, providing guided practice, and providing independent practice. Glatthorn suggested that using checklists or scales, which described predetermined teaching behaviors, was valuable in that a basis for shared discussion of teaching was established, but there were limitations. He believed that checklists were often based on one form of teaching, the direct instruction model, and were not appropriate for all kinds of instruction. Glatthorn (1984) developed his own forms for clinical supervision which he called the Teacher Centered Observation Form and the learning Centered Observation Form. Glatthorn's (1984) techniques were a form of systematic anecdotal record

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90 keeping which are often associated with ethnographic techniques. Teacher behavior rating scales have been used as formative clinical methods of supervision, but also have been used as forms of One example of this application has been the Teacher Performance Evaluative Assessment Scale which was compiled by Conley (1986). The research on the application of clinical forms of supervision have found: 1. Clinical supervision has been viewed more positively than traditional supervision by teachers. (Mattes, 1983). 2. Career teachers have functioned successfully in clinical supervisor rules when supervising novice teachers. (Hart, 1985) 3. Teachers find clinical in the form of peer supervision to be valuable even in the face of limited budgets, time constraints, and loss of individual members. (Heller, 1988). 4. Clinical supervision in the form of collegialpeer configuration has been promoted as a way to empower teachers and has been recommenced as a means in which democracy in schools could be facilitated. (Smyth, 1986) Forms of Artistic Supervision. Related Theory and Practice Artistic supervision, as described by Eisner (1982) has been a method which has used the metaphorical-expressive mode of analyzing what happens in classrooms as a form of instructional supervision.

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Eisner (1982) defined artistic supervision as an approach to supervision that relied on sensitivity, perceptivity, and knowledge of the supervisor as a way of appreciating the significant subtleties in the classroom. Artistic supervision exploited the expressive, the poetic, and often the metaphorical potential of language to convey to the teachers or to others whose decisions affect what goes on in schools, what had been observed. "Connoisseur" was defined as a critical skill of the artistic supervisor. Artistic supervision has used the concept of reflective practice as a primary means for improving instruction. The research literature related to artistic methods of supervision has proposed that: 1. Good supervision was creative and provided an opportunity for educators to remake their images. Tech-91 niques of reflective practice would help teachers to understand their own beliefs and intentions (Oberg, 1989). 2. Individuals could self-monitor their own actions through reflective practice and could use that knowledge to anticipate the consequences of different lines of action (Grimmett, 1989). 3. Reflective practice was guided by communication with other human beings, those of the past and present, and has been considered an essential element to the development of more democratic and helping supervision (Henderson, 1990).

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Cooperative Professional Development and Related Theory and Practice 92 The practices related to cooperative professional develop-ment were based on the assumptions that teachers have the knowledge and capability to promote mutual professional growth. The process implied that there is a willingness and commitment to work in a collegial manner in order to improve instruction. Glatthorn (1984) described the following elements as necessary for supervision programs to be considered as forms of cooperative professional development: (a) teachers form relationships that are formalized and institutionalized for the purpose of mutual improvement of instruction; (b) teachers spend time observing and analyzing each other's instruction and confer in order to give feedback, and (c) the relationship was nonevaluative in the formal sense and was not meant to take the place of formal institutionalized evaluation practices. Methods of cooperative professional development. Peer supervision and peer coaching are related methods which have emphasized collegial support in order to improve instruction. These methods have included peer observation, conferring, 'modeling of instructional techniques, on-site coaching and inservice training by fellow teachers. Authority relationships are lateral among teachers. Administrators act as facilitators and managers of resources to provide teachers

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the support they need in order to carry out the program (Hart, 1985; Heller, 1988; Smyth, 1986). The research of Berman and McLaughlin (1978) and Showers demonstrated that peer coaching contributed significantly to the transferring of learning new teaching methods and to institutionalizing of instructional innova-tions. Sergiovanni (1987) cited Haller (1968) and Keenan (1974) to show that "evidence exists that teachers learn a great deal from one another and learn and trust one another as sources of new ideas and sharers of problems that they face" (p. 198). Self-Directed Development and Related Theory and Practice The practice of self-directed development has been based on the premise that a teacher was capable of self-analysis of professional growth needs and required little direction in developing or following a program to meet these needs. This approach allowed for individualization of professional growth plans and relied on individual responsibility in their imple-mentation. Glatthorn (1984) listed four characteristics of a program which could be considered self-directed development. They were: 1. The individual worked independently on a program of professional growth. 93

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94 2. The individual developed and followed a goal-oriented program of professional development. 3. The individual had access to a variety of resources in working toward these goals. These could include workshops, v university courses, feedback from students, and video taping. 4. The results of the self-directed program were not to be used in evaluating teacher performance (pp. 49-50). Self-directed developmental methodology was related to Management by Objective Techniques and to self-appraisal systems. Management by objective techniques set organiza-tional goals as the source or criteria to be used in developing individual plans. Self-appraisal systems have allowed for personal professional goals to be the primary emphasis of improvement. Glatthorn (1984) listed six steps involved in management by objective systems which were: 1. Administrators set district and school goals for the year and shared them with their staff. 2. Each staff member completed a self-evaluation and has set individual targets which related to school or district goals. 3. Each staff member developed an appraisal contract, which included objectives, methods, and means of evaluation.

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4. Staff members conferred with their administrator to review the contract and to make adjustments as deemed necessary. 5. Each staff member and the evaluator met periodically to monitor progress. 6. A summative conference was held which assessed progress and made plans for a new cycle. Sergiovanni (1987) suggested strategies to implement Individual Professional Development Plans. His guide-95 lines were developed according to criteria which were closer to individual teachers' professional experience. Sergiovanni's guidelines included the following steps: 1. Target-Setting -Teachers selected goals based on assessments from the previous year's supervisory information. Information from clinical supervision episodes may have comprised the baseline data. 2. Target-Setting Review The supervisor reviewed the teacher's plan and responded in writing. A conference could also be scheduled for discussion of the plan. 3. Target-Setting Conference The teacher and principal agreed on a plan, and in writing outlined the targets, timelines. 4. The Appraisal Process The teachers developed a portfolio of evidence that demonstrated achievement of the goals.

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96 5. Summary Appraisal The teacher and principal reviewed the portfolio and planned for a new cycle of IPD (pp. 199-200). This approach met some of the criteria outlined by Glatthorn (1984) but added a stronger element of formal accountability of teachers in the improvement of the teaching process. The teacher was responsible for collecting data as evidence of target attainment and was responsible to the administrator in supplying the evidence. The approach assumed that the teacher had the knowledge and skill to identify professional needs but also has added an element of close formal monitoring in the process. Other sources of self appraisal have come from selfmonitoring of teaching, one's own judgment of effectiveness of instruction, and personal assessment of one's own success and capabilities. Stoller (1978) developed a system of 222 supporting principles of instruction which were taken from the work of Blair, Stewart, & Simpsori (1968), Bugelski (1971), Hilgard and Bower (1966), Kuethe (1968), and Seago (1961, 1970) for teachers to use as a guide for self-supervision and monitoring of instructional effectiveness. The principles included ways in which to control stimulus in the classroom, to pace lessons, to make instruction meaningful, and to guide and correct student response, and to judge if learning has occurred.

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97 Allen (1970) described self-assessment techniques much like micro-teaching methods. He described ways that individual teachers could collect objective data. He suggested that teachers be allowed to video tape themselves teaching to assess their own competencies. Techniques by which to judge one's own delivery of instruction and questioning techniques were included. Allen (1970) maintained that the information should only be available to the teacher to improve instruction, and that it should not be used for other purposes without the teacher's express permission. Administrative Monitoring and Related Theory and Practice Administrative monitoring was described by Glatthorn (1984) as drop-in supervision. This form of supervision is performed by brief and informal visits to classrooms by the supervisor. Successful administrative monitoring is characterized by openness, planning, learning centeredness, and providing communication with teachers. Sergiovanni (1987) used the term "informal supervision" and also has used Management by Wandering Around as a descriptor similar to administrative monitoring. He believed that teachers should not have a choice regarding this practice. Informal supervision, monitoring, is viewed as a quality control mechanism and a means of letting teachers know that administrators consider their work important.

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Related Research -Differentiated Supervision Glatthorn (1984) reviewed the research on clinical supervision and found that: 1. Teachers favored a supervisor who is close and supportive (Gordon, 1976). 2. Most teachers and administrators agreed with basic assumptions of clinical supervision (Eaker, 1972). 3. Clinical supervision was preferred to traditional supervision (Reavis, 1977; Shinn, 1976). 4. Clinical supervision could change teachers' behavior in the direction desired (Garmen, 1971; Kerr, 1976; Krajewski, 1976; Shuma, 1973). 5. Supervisors who used a clinical approach seem more open in post-observational conferences (Reavis, 1977). 6. Teachers differed in the style of supervision interaction they preferred; experienced teachers preferred non-directive approaches; beginning teachers seemed to prefer more directive supervision (Copeland, 1980). Glatthorn's (1984) review of research on cooperative professional development demonstrated that success of cooperative professional development method depended on (a) the attitude of the administrator, (b) the attitude of the teacher association, (c) the prevailing school climate, (d) the extent to which the program is monitored, and (e) the 98

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resources available (Ball, 1981; Beck, 1982; Chalker, 1979; Cooper, 1983; Shapiro, 1978; Shields, 1982) (pp. 44-45). Glatthorn's (1984) review of research on self-directed development demonstrated that: 1. Teachers did not seem to make reliable appraisals of their own teaching (Carroll, 1981). 2. Teachers' report of their classroom behaviors tended not to correspond with the reports of observers (Hook & Rosenshine, 1979). 3. Feedback from videotaping was more effective when a second observer was involved (Fuller & Manning, 1973). 4. Teachers could learn as well from self-instruction materials as they could from supervisors or course instructors (Edwards, 1975). 5. Individualized staff development programs were more effective (Lawrence, 1974, pp. 54-55). 99 Glatthorn (1984) also cited the research of Squires, Huitt and Segar's (1981) finding that effective schools had highly visible principals. The differentiated model of supervision has also been demonstrated as an effective model of supervision for training practicing administrators (Robbins & Gerritz, 1986). Differentiated supervision has been used successfully in Catholic schools which have emphasized a special Christian view of education (Glatthorn & Shields, 1983). Differentiated

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supervision has also provided a successful groundwork for formative evaluation (Glatthorn & Holler, 1987). Research on The Relationship of Different Supervision Methods to Conceptions of Teaching Work 100 Odden (1985) stated: "Different approaches to supervision reflect different philosophies about teaching and learning and about the roles of teachers and administrators" (p. 87). How research findings were used demonstrated views about teaching. If teaching was seen as labor, a rule-bound endeavor, research findings were expected to be used in a highly prescriptive manner. Where teaching was seen as a craft, teachers used recipes, standardization in using research findings would be the expected norm. When teaching was viewed as a profession, where teachers were seen as critical decision makers, or when teaching was seen as an art, where teachers were innovators and performers, research findings were expected to be used in a highly selective manner. According to Odden (1985), supervision of labor teaching involved assisting teachers in knowing what to do according to preset prescriptive curriculum. Supervision of craft teaching involved assisting teachers in the application of methodology in circumstances in which a good degree of generalizability could be expected. Supervision of professional teaching emphasized assisting the teachers in analyzing classroom events, and the effects of teacher behavior on students.

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101 Supervision of teaching, viewed as an art, involved assisting teachers in improving instruction through metaphorical language and highly descriptive accounts of classroom events. Odden (1985) proposed that some types of supervision were congruent with particular views on teaching and some were not. She used the labor, craft, profession, and art views of teaching and compared each with management, performance-based, instructional technological, instructional clinical, instructional artistic, and counseling views of supervision. Odden (1985) also proposed that: (a) a labor or craft view of teaching was congruent with management, performancebased, and instructional technological views of supervision, and (b) a profession or art view of teaching was congruent with instructional clinical, instructional artistic, and counseling views of supervision. Conclusion From the review of the research on conceptions of teaching and on instructional supervision, the following generalized conclusions have been identified concerning the relationship teachers would perceive among the discussed views of teaching and superVision. 1. Teachers who held a labor view of teaching would more likely favor administrative monitoring and highly directive

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forms of supervision as more satisfactory than other approaches. 102 2. Teachers who had a craft view of teaching would favor approaches which concentrated on applied methodology more favorably. Directive clinical approaches, formal administrative monitoring (performance-based approaches), and informal administrative monitoring would be perceived as more satisfactory than other approaches. 3. Teachers who held professional views of teaching would favor approaches which were less directive or prescriptive and would favor collegial-analytical forms of supervision such as instructional clinical, cooperative professional development, and self-directed development as more satisfactory than other approaches. 4. Teachers who held artistic views of teaching would favor approaches which emphasized the unique and would rate artistic supervision as more satisfactory.

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH DESIGN The purpose of this research was to study how a group of elementary teachers perceived teaching in the context of the conceptions of teaching work model (Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983) and to study "how satisfactory" teachers perceived Glatthorn's (1984) differentiated supervision practices were for promoting quality instruction. Teachers' perceptions concerning the labor conception of teaching work, the craft conception of teaching work, the profession conception of teaching work, and the art conception of teaching work were examined, analyzed, and described. Relationships were compared among factors which included this group of teachers' positions concerning the conceptions of teaching work and their perceptions about "how satisfactory" they believed different supervisory practices were in promoting quality instruction. The teachers' positions on the conceptions of teaching work were considered the independent variables. Teachers' perceptions concerning supervision were considered the dependent variables. Demographic data were included in the study to describe the personal and professional characteristics of the sample of teachers who participated.

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104 Problem Statement The problem of this study was threefold: (a) to describe ways in which teachers perceived teaching in terms of the labor, craft, profession, and art conceptions of teaching work; (b) to identify teachers' perceptions regarding how satisfactory different instructional supervision practices were in promoting quality instruction; and (c) to determine if there were any differences between the ways teachers perceived teaching work and how they perceived different types of instructional supervision practices. Mitchell and Kerchner's (1983) conceptions of teaching work model and Glatthorn's (1984) differentiated supervision model served as the organizing framework of this study. Description of the Instrument The data collection method for this study was the survey procedure. The instrument used was named Conceptions of Teaching Work and Differentiated Supervision Questionnaire. It was a self-report questionnaire and had three parts. A description of the demographic checklist, the conception of teaching work statements, and the supervision statements used in the questionnaire follow.

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Description of the Demographic Information Checklist 105 Part One of the instrument was a checklist consisting of items designed to identify demographic variables. The information requested included identification of gender, age group, level of training, number of years teaching, grade level taught, marital status, and whether or not the participant had responsibility for dependent children. Part Two consisted of five sets of statements concerned with beliefs and perceptions about (a) the credentials, knowledge and abilities needed by a teacher in order to perform quality instruction, (b) how instruction should be implemented, (c) how classrooms should be managed in order for teaching to be considered successful, (d) how teaching was _valued as an occupation, and (e) what the sources of satisfaction were in teaching. Each statement, in each set, was designed to reflect a theoretical position based on factors of a labor position, of a craft position, of a professional position or of an art position. These positions were operationalized in such a way as to reflect activities, responsibilities, and views that related directly to concrete experiences of teachers in their daily work. Participants in the study were asked to rank each set of statements by indicating their first choice to their last choice according to their values and beliefs about what comprised ideal circumstances in teaching.

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Description of Part Two, Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements 106 The following section presents Part Two of the Conceptions of Teaching Work and Differentiated Supervision Questionnaire which consisted of the sets of conceptions of teaching work statements that were used in the study. It also included code labels of each statement as they appeared in subsequent tables and descriptions of the conceptions of teaching work statements. The letters and numbers that appeared with each statement indi-cated the set position of the statement as it appeared in the questionnaire .. The letters L, C, P, A are code initials which indicated whether the statement reflects a labor, craft, profes-sion, or art position in terms of the conceptions of teaching work model. The statements which were in the questionnaire are pre-sented in the following section. The statements are listed in the order of a labor statement, a craft statement, a profession statement, and last an art statement, In the survey instrument, the statements were in random order within their sets. Set One -Teachers' Qualifications In my opinion, the most qualified teachers possess: 1. Labor Statement -the instruction as prescribed (Teacher Qualifications: ability to manage and implement by the adopted curriculum. Manage Prescribed Curriculum lC) 2. Craft Statement -knowledge of successful established practice and the ability to perform these techniques with care and precision. (Teacher Qualifications: Knowledge of Established Practice lA)

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3. Profession Statement -thorough understanding of educational theory, practice, and research, plus the ability to put this information into practice. (Teacher Qualifications: Understanding Theory lB) 4. Art Statement -talent, intuition, originality and a strong personal approach to instruction. (Teacher Qualifications: Talent, Intuition, Creativity lD) Set Two -Implementation of Instruction In my opinion, teaching is most successful when: 1. Labor Statement -curriculum is prescribed and includes specifications regarding teaching objectives, methods, materials and instructional time lines. (Implementation of Instruction: Prescribed Curriculum 2D) 107 2. Craft Statement -standards for student learning are established universally. Teachers share general rules of instruction, which have been proven successful in practice in order to choose appropriate techniques to reach learning objectives. (Implementation of Instruction: Universal Standards 2A) 3. Profession Statement -teachers have the responsibility to diagnose students' learning needs, to prescribe methods to meet these needs, and to see that instruction was successfully carried through. (Implementation of Instruction: Diagnosis of Learners' Needs 2B) 4. Art Statement -instruction consists of learning activities which were designed to teach multiple goals and allows for maximum freedom in student learning. (Implementation of Instruction: Multiple Goals for Learning 2C) Set Three -Classroom Management In my opinion, good classroom management: 1. Labor Statement -is highly structured. Teachers specify classroom rules to control student behavior and see that these rules are followed. Order and predictability guarantee student learning. (Good Classroom Management: Highly Structured, Rules 3A)

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when: 108 2. Craft Statement -is highly developed through trial and error of personally tested practice. Often methods are influenced by teachers whom individuals have had during their own schooling. (Good Classroom Management: Trial and Error 3B) 3. Profession Statement -is the result of refinement of valid principles of and solid professional judgment. (Good Classroom Management: Professional Judgment 3D) 4. Art Statement -allows students to pursue their own individual interest and allows for spontaneity. (Good Classroom Management: Individual Interest and Spontaneity 3C) Set Four -Values and Ethos of the Teaching Occupation In my opinion, teaching as an occupation is most valued 1. Labor Statement -teachers demonstrate high levels of effort and loyalty in promoting local district goals for education. (Values and Ethos: Effort and Loyalty 4C) 2. Craft Statement -teachers choose strategies, methods, and materials with care and precision in order to perform instruction competently. (Values and Ethos: Care and Precision in Instruction 40) 3. Profession Statement -teachers exercise autonomy and demonstrate the responsibility to act on ethical principles in educational practice. (Values and Ethos: Autonomy and Ethical Principles 4B) 4. Art Statement -individual teachers are encouraged to develop original curriculum, to use innovative teaching techniques, and be recognized and rewarded. (Values and Ethos: Original Curriculum, Personal Innovation 4A) Set Five -Occupational Satisfaction in Teaching In my opinion, the most important source of satisfaction in teaching is:

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109 1. Labor Statement the satisfaction of being fairly compensated for the effort and time spent in performing teaching duties. (Occupational Satisfaction in Teaching: Fair Compensation SD) 2. Craft Statement knowing that students have learned and have achieved mastery of what I had intended to teach. (Occupational Satisfaction in Teaching: Student Mastery SC) 3. Profession Statement prestige and satisfaction derived from providing an important service in society. (Occupational Satisfaction in Teaching: Prestige of an Important Service SA) 4. Art Statement the intrinsic satisfaction of sharing meaningful learning experiences with students. (Occupa tional Satisfaction in Teaching: Sharing Meaningful Learning Experiences SB) Part Three. the Differentiated Supervision Statements Part Three of the Conceptions of Teaching Work and Differentiated Supervision Questionnaire consisted of seven short descriptions of different types of supervisory practice as described by Glatthorn (1984) and as described in artistic supervision literature (Eisner, 1982) and scientific supervision literature (Alfonso, Firth, & Neville, 1975; Mattes, 1983; Sergiovanni & Starratt, 1979). Participants were asked to rate each described practice on a scale of 1 through 10, according to their opinion as to how satisfactory they perceived the stated method was in promoting quality instruction. The statements that were used in the questionnaire were:

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110 1. The supervisor arranges for small groups or individual teachers to observe, provide feedback to each other, and share professional concerns in order to promote mutual growth. (Cooperative Professional Development) 2. The supervisor engages in the following procedure: confers with teachers on lesson planning, observes the lesson, analyzes the collected data, and gives the teacher feedback about the observation. The supervisor and teacher develop an appropriate professional growth plan. (This procedure can be repeated many times.) (Clinical Supervision) 3. The supervisor conducts brief drop-in visits, monitors lesson plans, use of methods and materials, checks that reports are acceptable and tells the teacher if a performance problem is evident or makes positive comments. (Administrative Monitoring) 4. The supervisor observes a lesson and completes a checklist or scale that rates the teacher on evidence of predetermined skills and teaching behaviors. Strengths and weaknesses are noted, and recommendations in form of goals and objectives are developed into an improvement plan. This information is shared with the teacher. (Teacher Behavior Rating Scales a Form of Administrative Monitoring) 5. The supervisor assumes that the individual teacher was responsible for his or her professional growth. The teacher determines professional growth needs and the supervisor acts as a facilitator and provides resources and information to meet these needs. (Self-Directed Development) 6. The supervisor observes classrooms and shares with the teacher impressions and feelings about climate, student involvement in learning, student-teacher relationships. The supervisor assumes the role of an artistic critic of an instructional performance. Professional growth of teachers is enhanced by increased understanding and awareness from the supervisor's description. (Artistic Supervision) 7. The teacher and supervisor confer in order to identify any immediate problems that need attention, share views about professional issues and develop a supervisory contract. The supervisor observes the class to gather specific information that will identify strengths and weaknesses. The teacher and the supervisor meet for a feedback

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111 and problem-solving conference to assess what happened in the past and plan strategies of what should happen in the future. (Learning Centered Supervision/a form of Clinical Supervision) Development of the Questionnaire The instrument used in this study was the Conceptions of Teaching Work and Differentiated Supervision Questionnaire which was developed by the researcher. It was a questionnaire that was piloted three times and revised four times over a three-year period in order to assess its credibility, value, theoretical relevance of items, clarity of items, and time for completion. The instrument underwent several stages of develop-ment and several procedures were used. The following summary describes the stages of the instrument's development. Stage One -Operationalization and Validation of Constructs Used as a Basis for Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements The first stage in the development of the instrument was to identify discrete components for the conceptions of teaching work model which could be operationalized into the form of position statements to be used for the questionnaire items. After reviewing the literature related to conceptions of teaching, an outline of each position was developed in order to assess the logical continuity and face validity of each position. A copy for comment and review was given to three educational administrators, each of whom had a doctoral degree

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112 and who had an extensive background and knowledge of teaching and instructional supervision. Feedback was given by all three. One outline was returned with written comments, the other two responses involved feedback conferences. This information was used to further define the constructs used to develop the statements for the conceptions of teaching work statements. The constructs which were considered to be valid representations of the labor, craft, profession, and art conceptions were written as position statements, put into the questionnaire, and administered to a pilot group of 19 educational administration graduate students. Critiques of the intended study and instrument were requested. Suggestions from the pilot group included the need to (a) clarify specific statements and (b) make the statements more definitive in terms of discriminating between choices. A major criticism was that the statements described educational techniques in such a way that most practices could be considered acceptable in many situations. The questionnaire was also considered too lengthy. It was composed of 40 questions and did not include the demographic nor supervision portions of the study. The first pilot study was statistically analyzed, means and standard deviations were computed. A positive skew was noted in the data toward higher means for profession and art statements.

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113 During the first pilot, a major difficulty in analyzing the data collected through the conceptions of teaching work statements was discovered. Although the statements could be analyzed to give an overall score, it was difficult to compare teachers' positions according to the content criteria. The Likert rating scale of values 1 through 5 had been used. This scale allowed participants to rate theoretically different positions equally. The scale did not provide data in strong definitive patterns which could be used to describe the teachers' perceptions. The information gained from the first pilot group was used to redesign the conceptions of teaching statements for the second draft of the questionnaire. Statements were reworded to correct weaknesses in describing a position. Some statements were combined in order to shorten the questionnaire. Stage Two -Development. Validation and Addition to the Questionnaire of Statements Describing Differentiated Supervision Practices The second stage in the development of the instrument involved (a) writing the statements by which teachers were to be questioned as to their perceptions regarding "how helpful" different supervision practices were in promoting improvement in instruction, (b) rewriting the introduction to better inform participants about the theoretical basis and intent of the study, (c) rewriting the directions for the completion of the

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114 questionnaire, and (d) organizing the questionnaire to include the revised conceptions of teaching work statements and the supervision statements. The introduction and directions were rewritten in order to add clarity and to better inform participants about the theoretical basis and intent of the study. This version of the question-naire was administered to a pilot group of 24 graduate students in a graduate-school curriculum class. This additional feedback was used to refine weaknesses of the instrument. This second questionnaire was subjected to a statistical analysis using the LERTAP program--A Test, Survey, and General Data Analysis System for Small Computers--(Nelson, 1986).1 Positive correlations and distinct patterns of responses were detectable from this analysis. Additional adjustments were deemed necessary to increase the power of the instrument. The instrument needed to be more powerful in eliciting responses that were clearly indicative of a specific position regarding the labor, craft, profession, and art conceptions of teaching. The amount of time required for completion of the instrument was still a problem which needed to be corrected. lAssistance in learning this method was provided by Dr. Kenneth Hopkins and Zoe Barley, a doctoral student in research at the University of Colorado, Boulder.

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Sta&e Three -Revision of Second Version of Questionnaire and Transmittal to Panel of Experts for Review The third stage in the development of the questionnaire 115 involved having a panel of experts review the statements. In order to strengthen the response quality and to verify the ability of the instrument to identify constructs through its statements, the questionnaire was given to four university professors to review. These professors were asked to identify (a) each of the conceptions of teaching work statements as a labor statement, a craft statement, a profession statement or an art statement, and (b) each of the seven supervision statements as cooperative professional development, clinical supervision, administrative monitoring, teacher behavior rating scales, self-directed development, or learning-centered supervision. The experts' comments included statements which indicated (a) if the meaning of the statements was clear and (b) if the statements appeared logical according to the perceived intent of the items. A copy of the questionnaire that was given to the professors is presented in Appendix A. The results of the review of the supervision statements were that (a) the supervision descriptors were found to be logical and valid descriptors of supervisory practice and (b) all supervision statements were rated consistently among the raters. These statements were kept intact for the question-naire.

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116 The results of the review of the conception statements were that statements identified as unclear or in which there were expressed disagreements as to their meaning were rewritten according to the experts' suggestions or dropped. Stage Four Piloting and Reorganization of Third Version of the Questionnaire with Contextual .Lead Statements Stage Four in the development of the questionnaire involved the following. The third version of the questionnaire was given to a pilot group of 30 graduate students in educational administration and supervision. The results were analyzed by using LERTAP 3, A Test, Survey and General Data Analysis System for Small Computers (Nelson, 1986), which provided a method for processing affective test items that gave global composite scores for groupings of conceptions of the teaching work statements. Several procedures were used in conducting this analysis, and are as follows: 1. Teachers' responses were analyzed according to how they rated the labor, craft, profession, and art statements. Responses to labor, craft, profession, and art statements were treated as composite subtests. 2. Statements used for each conception of teaching work subtests were reviewed to check for positive correlations within the subtests. One statement having to do with a professional conception of teacher evaluation demonstrated consistent negative correlations with other professional statements. The

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set of statements having to do with evaluation was dropped because of the inconsistency of teacher responses with theoretical logic and also because the difference between evaluation and supervision has sometimes been confused. 117 3. Composite scores of the conceptions of teaching work statements for the group were analyzed and compared, by using a correlation method, with the means of the supervision statements. Small but positive correlations were noted between composite scores on the conception statements and various supervision statements. 4. Individual test scores on the composite subtests were reviewed. These results indicated that individual teachers did respond to statements in patterns which indicated a more favorable rating toward particular conceptions. Although the instrument was acceptable with respect to its theoretical authenticity, the researcher had concerns about (a) how a general group of practicing elementary teachers would respond to a mix of highly theoretical statements, and (b) how people had responded to the words "helpful" and "degree of benefit" which had been used in previous pilot studies to describe perceptions about supervision. Concerns about the conceptions of teaching work statements were centered on the format used and the presentation of the statements. The statements were highly theoretical and the researcher believed that the statements would elect responses

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118 that better described teachers' perceptions if they were presented in a more pragmatic context. The number of statements were also a concern. There were 40 which took between 30 and 40 minutes to answer. At this stage, the reoccurring problems relating to the format of the conceptions of teaching work were also addressed. A Likert scale was still being used. The use of this technique demonstrated the same results as was shown in previous pilots. Respondents were able to rate statements of opposing views of teaching the same. The result was the loss of valuable information which could have been used to describe more fully teachers' conceptions of teaching. Using the Likert technique produced evidence of trends and correlations, but more information was desired with respect to what positions were more favored when teachers had to make a choice among conceptions of teaching. The solution to these concerns about the conceptions of teaching work statements format was to reformat the statements and use lead statements to introduce sets of statements in which teachers had to rank order their responses. Teachers were asked to rank the statements in order of those they perceived were most true of their beliefs about teaching. This technique was more efficient and discriminated among teachers' .perceptions in terms of preferences among conceptions of teaching.

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119 After the concerns with the format of the conceptions of teaching work statements were solved, concerns about the supervision statements were addressed. In the first two forms of the piloted questionnaire, the words "beneficial" and "helpful" were used as the evaluative term teachers were to use when rating the different methods of supervision. Feedback from participants in the pilot studies indicated that these terms had different connotations. The term "satisfactory" was substituted in the final version of the questionnaire. The idea of satisfaction was employed because it denoted a more general positive affective concept than the other terms used. It also was used in order to keep ownership for the response with the individual. The intent of the study was to elicit teachers' perceptions concerning beliefs about themselves rather than a view of what they thought might work for, or be helpful to, teachers in general. A scale of 1 through 10 was incorporated to allow for maximum flexibility for comparing the supervision statements. The Sample The sampling techniques used in this study were purposive sampling and quota sampling. The sample in this study was comprised of elementary school teachers from Jefferson County Schools, Jefferson County, Colorado. At the time of this research, Jefferson County Public

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120 School District R-1 encompassed 747 square miles and was divided into four administrative areas: North Area, South Area, Central Area, and West Area. The district included urban, suburban, and mountain communities. It was one of the 30 largest school districts in the nation. The district employed approximately 4,000 teachers, of whom, in 1990, 1,673 were elementary school teachers. There were 85 elementary schools. Each school had an average of 19.9 teachers per school. This district was chosen as the site for this research because it was believed that the sample drawn from this group would contain an acceptable level of homogeneity needed to test theoretical constructs. The quality of homogeneity was based on (a) the common experiences shared by the teachers in following a common curriculum and (b) the consistency, stability, and longevity of membership in the teacher group. The district was known for retaining teachers throughout their careers. The sample was composed of volunteer subjects. A target of 250 elementary school teachers was sought. A total of 256 individuals responded. Of those who did respond, 221 of these responses were usable. The 35 responses that were rejected for use in the study were those that were incomplete questionnaires, demonstrated random responses, or demonstrated that the respondent did not follow directions. A possible reason for this phenomenon was that these particular teachers were

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121 expressing general negative feelings reflective of the district school climate at that time. The school district was experiencing severe financial difficulty, school operating budgets had been cut, and a reduction in force was in process. The original plan for data collection in this study was the following. Participation in the study was to be on a voluntary basis and at least three to five schools in each administrative area were to be surveyed. A target was set for participation of 250 individual elementary school teachers. The sample was to represent the perceptions of volunteering elementary school teachers in this district and was not meant to represent all elementary teachers or represent the view of teachers in this district. Research Methods Procedure for Gathering Data The process for gaining access to the elementary teachers and gathering data through the County School System is presented here. The Program Evaluation and Testing Office was petitioned to grant permission to do research in the school district. A description of the research pian was submitted. Access to three to five schools in each of the four administrative areas was requested. After the study was approved, it was planned to have the researcher approach area superintendents and ask each

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122 administrator to suggest schools which they believed would be appropriate and receptive to the study. It was planned to petition the principals, of the schools identified, to accept the study. In schools which agreed to participate in the research, a teacher volunteer was to be recruited to distribute, collect, and return the questionnaires. An 80 percent return of the questionnaires was sought. During the data gathering process the logistics of distributing the survey to teachers and collecting the information had to be modified to conform with the formal and informal constraints of the school systems administrative organization and individual school prerogatives. Access to school sites was grated by the school district under the condition that the district's Program Evaluation and Testing Office would disseminate to the principals the requests for volunteer schools for the study. Copies of the research petition, description of the study, and a copy of the questionnaire were sent to individual schools by the Program Evaluation and Testing Office. Approximately 15 schools were petitioned at a time with a two-week response time set for each school to respond. Over a three-month period, February through April 1990, 80 schools were invited to participate. During this time the request for 80 percent participation of all faculty members of a school had to be modified in order to get enough participants

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123 for the study. Feedback from principals indicated that they were willing to ask their teachers to participate, but they needed more flexibility than the condition in which 80% of the school had to participate. By allowing principals to use discretionary judgment in disseminating the questionnaire and by allowing teachers to return the questionnaire directly to the researcher through the district's inter-departmental mailing system, a total of 186 teachers responded to the survey. Twenty-five schools participated. Of these schools, five schools participated as a unit and accounted for 70 of the responses. A second method of gathering data was used in order to increase the number of elementary school teacher respondents. This method included: 1. The researcher enlisted the help of a private school for volunteers. As a result, a parochial school in Jefferson County participated in the study. A total of seven teachers participated from that school. 2. The researcher directly asked sympathetic Jefferson County elementary teachers to solicit colleagues to participate in the study. Using this approach added 63 more teachers who participated in the study for the total of 256.

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Methods of Analysis and Description of Data 124 Several methods were used to analyze and describe the data in this study. Parametric and non-parametric statistics were used to test the hypotheses. Parametric techniques included descriptive statistics, ANOVA statistical tests and the Newman-Keuls Comparison of Means procedure. Parametric statistics were used to test the hypothesis related to supervision. Non-parametric techniques (the Chi-square Goodness of Fit test and the Chi-square Test of Association) were used to test the hypothesis related to the conceptions of teaching work model. Since this study was exploratory in nature, an item analysis of each statement based on aggregated data of the nominal categories as used in the Chi-square analysis and based on means of subgroup responses was conducted and described qualitatively. Tables which listed numbers, percentages and means of subgroup responses to each statement were the foundations of this analysis. Non-parametric methods were used to analyze the responses to the conceptions of teaching work statements. The Chi-square Goodness of Fit Test was used to test the theoretical feasibility of the conceptions of teaching work model by testing the conception of teaching work statements with regard to each statement's ability to elicit responses that were true indicators of teachers' responses and not chance happenings.

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125 The Chi-square Test of Association was used to test Null Hypothesis I, There were no significant differences (at alpha .10) in the way teachers perceived teaching with respect to a labor conception of teaching work, a craft conception of teaching work, a profession conception of teaching work, or an art conception of teaching work. Null Hypothesis I was to be rejected if at least half of the elements, as described by the conceptions of teaching work statements, were responded to in significantly different ways by any of the subgroups. Parametric methods which included the ANOVA statistical test and Newman-Keuls comparison of means were used to test Null Hypothesis II, There were no significant differences (at alpha .10) in the ways teachers perceived teaching with respect to a labor conception of teaching work, a craft conception of teaching work, a profession conception of teaching work, and an art conception of teaching work, and how they perceived supervision practices with respect to how satisfactory each practice was rated. Null Hypothesis II was to be rejected if any of the supervision practices were responded to in significantly different ways by any of the subgroups. The ANOVA statistical tests were used to assess statistical differences among teachers' subgroup ratings of supervision practices. The Newman-Keuls method of multiple comparison of means was used to identify which means of the supervision statements were significantly different. Statistical operations were performed by using scores of the subgroups which were

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126 identified as the craft subgroup (N=l9), the profession subgroup (N=32), the art subgroup (N=77), the craft-profession subgroup (N=l9), the craft-art subgroup (N=l4), and the professional-art subgroup (N=28). No labor subgroup was identified. Descriptive statistics, frequency counts and percentage distributions were also used to further organize the data and address questions posed by this study. These questions included: 1. Were some elements in the conception of teaching work perceived more consistently as ideal circumstances in teaching than others? These elements involved how teachers perceived (a) the abilities and knowledge that the most qualified teacher possessed, (b) conditions related to implementation of instruction in which teaching is most successful, (c) good classroom arrangement, (d) values and ethos of the teaching occupation in terms of teaching itself being valued, and (e) occupational satisfaction in terms of the most important sources of satisfaction in teaching. 2. Were some methods of supervision perceived as more satisfactory than others? Techniques which were used to address these questions were the following. Means and standard deviations were used to describe total group and subgroup ratings of conceptions of teaching work statements and supervision statements. Means for the conceptions of teaching

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127 work statement were classified as most true, more true, less true, and least true. Means for the supervision statements were classified as high satisfactory, medium satisfactory, and low satisfactory. Nominal categories were used to describe teachers' total group and subgroup responses to the conceptions of teaching work statements. These categories were identified as (a) perceived as the more true response category and (b) perceived as the less true category. Frequency and percentage distributions of total group and subgroup responses were presented in table form and discussed in order to describe this information. Nominal categories also were used to describe teachers' total group and subgroup responses to the supervision statements. Nominal categories were designated as perceived as high satisfactory, perceived as medium satisfactory, and perceived as low satisfactory. Frequency and percentage distributions of total group and subgroup responses were presented in table form and discussed in order to describe this information. Methods of Scoring Items and Categorizing Data Several methods were used to score items from the Conceptions of Teaching Work and Differentiated Supervision Questionnaire. Different methods of scoring were used to

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128 (a) describe demographic information, (b) identify and construct subgroups based on the conceptions of teaching work model, (c) compute descriptive statistics for the conception of teaching work statements, (d) describe the percentage proportions of responses with regard to how subgroups rated the positions described by the conceptions of teaching work statements, (e) compute descriptive statistics, ANOVAs, and Newman-Keuls Comparison of Means analysis for the supervision statements, and (f) describe the proportions of responses regarding how satisfactory different practices of instructional supervision for promoting quality instruction were perceived to be. These methods are described in the following summary. Methods of scoring and describing demographic information. Demographic information was scored by tabulating the number of responses for each item in the demographic check list of the questionnaire. These frequency counts were used as total numbers and converted to percentages to describe the demographic composition of the sample. Factors which were described were gender, age range, level of training, number of years teaching, level or area of teaching, marital status, and if the respondent had responsibility for dependent children. Methods of scoring the conceptions of teaching work statements for identification of subgroups. The scoring method that was used to identify subgroups, based on the conceptions

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129 of a teaching work model, involved assigning point values to teachers' first choices among the five sets of the conception of teaching work statements. Teachers were categorized into subgroups of (a) a labor conception subgroup, (b) a craft conception subgroup, (c) a profession conception subgroup, (d) an art conception subgroup, or (e) split category subgroups based on these choices. A point value of one was assigned to each first choice in the five sets of statements. Each respondent could have a maximum of five points. Point values for each subject were tallied according to the conception of teaching work statement chosen. These points were converted into percentages. A subject had to have at least 60% of their first choice responses in one conception category in order to be categorized into one of the following subgroups: labor, craft, profession, or art. Subjects whose responses were split into a 40%, 40%, 20% pattern were categorized according to split groupings. The split groupings were labeled as craft-profession subgroup, craft-art subgroup, and profession-art subgroup. A list of possible subgroup categories based on the point system and percentage conversions of the 60% criterion and the 40/40/20% criterion are displayed in Tables 1 and 2. Patterns of choices which did not fit the 60% criterion or the 40/40/20% criterion were not considered to be true subgroups. The following tables present lists of all possible combinations of subgroups which fit the 60% and

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Table 1 Lists of Possible Major Subgroups by Points and Percentage Conversion Categories 100 Labor (L) Ls;oo Craft (C) Cs;oo Profession (P) Ps;oo Art (A) As;oo Percentages 80 Points L4/lo c4/lo p4/10 A4/lo 80 L3/2o c3/2o P3/20 A3/2o Superscript letters L, C, P, A are used to denote major categories. 130 The subscript letter o denotes choices in other categories. Numbers denote the number of first choices made in the category. Table 2 Lists of Possible Split Subgroups by Points and Percentage Conversion Categories Labor/Craft Labor/Profession Labor/Art Craft/Profession Craft/Art Profession/Craft Profession/Art 40 Percents 40 Points c2 p2 A2 p2 A2 c2 A2 20 The letters L, C, P, A were used to denote categories of assignment. Subscript numbers denote the number of first choices made in the category.

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131 40/40/20% criteria for identifying and constructing subgroups which could be used for subgroup analysis. Methods of scoring the conception of teaching work statements--descriptive statistics. Scores for descriptive statistics--means and standard deviations--for the conceptions of teaching work statements were calculated by using the number values that respondents had assigned to each conception of teaching work statements. Respondents were asked to rank each set of statements in the order of the positions which were from most likely to reflect their perceptions to the least likely to reflect their perception of what they believed was true in each area. The number one was the respondents' first choice, two was the second choice, three was the third choice, and four was the fourth choice. Based on this system, each conception of teaching statement was given a number of 1, 2, 3, or 4, depending on how the subjects ranked the item. These numbers were the values used for calculating the statistics. Scores were calculated for total group responses and for subgroup responses. Means of the conceptions of teaching work statements were used to describe how true the subgroups had rated each statement. The range of means for all conceptions of teaching work scores was 1.1 through 3.89. The range was divided into quartiles and each quartile was labeled as a rating. Means

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132 of 1.0 through 1.7 were classified as perceived as most true ratings. Means of 1.8 through 2.5 were classified as perceived as more true ratings. Means of 2.6 through 3.1 were classified as perceived as less true ratings. Means of 3.2 through 4.0 were classified as perceived as least true ratings. These intervals were constructed on quartile intervals based on the range of the highest and lowest range score of the entire set of means of the conception of teaching work statements. Methods of scoring conception of teaching work statements with regard to subgroup ratings. The number of perceived as more true responses and perceived as less true responses from each conception of teaching work statement for all identified subgroups were tallied. The tally was converted into percentage scores. The range of scores possible was 0% through 100%. This range was divided into thirds. Subgroup scores which ranged from 0% through 33.5% were interpreted as having a small percentage of subgroup members who regarded the position as perceived as more true or perceived as less true. Subgroup scores which ranged from 33.6% through 66.5% were interpreted as having a moderate percentage of subgroup members who regarded the position as perceived as more true or perceived as less true. Subgroup scores which ranged from 66.6% through 100% were interpreted as having a large percentage of subgroup members who regarded the position as perceived as more true or perceived as less true.

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133 Methods of scoring the conceptions of teaching work statements for Chi-square operations. In order that Chi-square tests could be performed to compare subgroups' responses to the conceptions of teaching work positions, data were coded into two nominal categories. Teachers' responses to each conception of teaching work statement were classified as perceived as more true responses or as perceived as less true responses. Statements that had been given a ranking of 1 or 2 were classified as perceived as more true responses. Statements that had been given numerical rankings of 3 or 4 were classified as perceived as less true responses. Methods of scoring the supervision statements for descriptive statistics. ANOVA, and Newman-Keuls comparison of means analysis. Scores for the descriptive statistics--means, standard deviations, and variances--for the supervision statements were calculated by using the number values that respondents had assigned to each of the supervision statements. Respondents were asked to rate each instructional supervision practice that was described by the statement in terms of how satisfactory they considered the practice to be in promoting quality instruction. The scale which was used included the numbers 1 through 10. The number 1 was considered the most satisfactory rating. The values that the respondents assigned to the statements were used as numbers to calculate the statistics. Scores were.calculated for the total group of

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teacher responses and for each subgroup that was identified within the total group. These subgroups' means were used in narrative descriptions of total and subgroups' responses and for the Newman-Keuls Comparison of Means procedure. 134 Means from the supervision statements were described as (a) most satisfactory, (b) more satisfactory, (c) neutral or medium satisfactory, (d) less satisfactory, and (e) least satisfactory in terms of rating the stated practice as satisfactory in promoting quality instruction. Means of 9.0 through 10.0 were interpreted as the most satisfactory ratings. Means of 7.0 through 8.9 were interpreted as more satisfactory ratings. Means of 5.0 through 6.9 were interpreted as medium or neutral ratings. Means of 3.0 through 4.9 were interpreted as less satisfactory ratings. Means of 1.0 through 2.9 were interpreted as least satisfactory ratings. Means within the 1.0 through 4.9 range were considered to be low scores in rating the stated practice as satisfactory in promoting quality instruction. Means of 5.0 through 6.9 range were considered to be neutral or medium ratings. Means within the 7.0 through 10.0 range were interpreted as high scores .in rating the stated practice as satisfactory in promoting quality instruction. Standard deviations were calculated for each of the means. Standard deviations which were within one standard deviation of the mean were interpreted to indicate that variability in

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135 teachers' responses was not a significant factor for describing the data. Variance scores were calculated for each mean and the variance results were used for the ANOVA procedure. Methods of scoring supervision statements regarding satisfaction with instructional supervision. Frequency counts were conducted for the total group and for each identified subgroup to calculate the proportion of respondents who rated each supervision practice as high, medium, or low with respect to how satisfactory they perceived the practice to be in promoting quality instruction. The frequency of each response was tallied and also converted into percentages. Response ratings of 7, 8, 9, or 10 were classified as high ratings and were listed as high satisfactory responses. Response ratings of 5 or 6 were considered neutral ratings and responses were listed as medium satisfactory responses. Response ratings of 1, 2, 3, or 4 were classified as low ratings and were listed as low satisfactory responses. The number of responses for each identified subgroup were tallied and converted into percentages. The range of scores possible was 0% through 100%. This range was divided into thirds. Subgroups' scores which ranged from 0% through 33.5% were interpreted as having a small percentage of subgroup members who regarded the practice as low satisfactory, medium satisfactory, or high satisfactory. Subgroups' scores which

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136 ranged from 33.6% through 66.5% were interpreted as having a moderate percentage of subgroup members who regarded the practice as low satisfactory, medium satisfactory, or high satisfactory. Subgroups' scores which ranged from 66.6% through 100% were interpreted as having a large percentage of subgroup members who regarded the practice as low satisfactory, medium satisfactory, or high satisfactory.

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CHAPTER IV ANALYSES OF DATA AND FINDINGS The purposes of this research were to study how a group of elementary teachers perceived teaching in the context of the conceptions of teaching work model (Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983) and to study "how satisfactory" teachers perceived Glatthorn's (1984) differentiated supervision practices were for promoting quality instruction. The problem was three-fold: (a) to describe ways in which teachers perceived teaching in terms of the labor, craft, profession, and art conceptions of teaching work, (b) to identify teachers' perceptions regarding how satisfactory different instructional supervision practices were in promoting quality instruction, and (c) to determine if there were any differences among the ways teachers perceived teaching work and how they perceived different types of instructional supervision practices. The research questions studied in this dissertation were: 1. Did the perceptions of teaching of the group of elementary teachers fit patterns which could be categorized as a labor, craft, profession, or art conception of teaching? 2. Were these categories pure categories?

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138 3. Were some elements in the conceptions of teaching work perceived more consistently as an ideal circumstance in teaching than others? 4. Were some methods of supervision perceived as more satisfactory than others? Two null hypotheses were addressed in the analyses of data. They were: 1. Null Hypothesis I -There were no significant differences (at alpha .10) in the way teachers perceived teaching with respect to a labor conception of teaching work, a craft conception of teaching work, a profession conception of teaching work, or an art conception of teaching work. 2. Null Hypothesis II -There were no significant differences (at alpha .10) in the way teachers perceived teaching with respect to a labor conception of teaching work, a craft conception of teaching work, a profession conception of teaching work, or an art conception of teaching work and how satisfactory they perceived different supervisory practices were in promoting quality instruction. The supervision practices were administrative monitoring, artistic supervision, clinical supervision, learning-centered supervision, selfdirected development, teacher behavior observations, and cooperative professional development. The analyses of data and subsequent findings have been organized into five sections:

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139 1. The first section describes the demographic information and describes the personal and professional characteristics of the sample. 2. The second section addresses the research questions 1, 3, and 4 which were related to how the teachers as a total group perceived teaching and supervision. This section addresses the findings with respect to testing Null Hypothesis I through the Chi-square Goodness of Fit Test. 3. The third section also relates to the research questions 1 and 2. It presents the subgroups' identification process. 4. The fourth section addresses research questions 1, 2, and 3 with respect to how the subgroups in this study perceived teaching. The findings for Null Hypothesis I are presented with respect to the subgroups' perceptions toward the conceptions of teaching work statements. 5. The fifth section of analysis and findings presents the results of tests of Null Hypothesis II and addresses research question 4 with respect to the conceptions of teaching work subgroups' perceptions of differentiated supervision. Demographic Information This first section describes the demographic characteristic of the 221 elementary teachers who participated in this study. The teachers' personal demographic

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140 characteristics are presented first. Their professional characteristics follow. Teachers' Personal Characteristics The teachers were predominantly female (86%) and over half were married (63%). The dominant age group was between 35 and 54 years of age (81%) and a little more than a half (55%) of the teachers had responsibility for dependent children of their own. Table B.l (Appendix B) summarizes the data with respect to the teachers' personal characteristics. Teachers' Professional Characteristics Overall, these teachers greatly exceeded the baccalaureate requirement for teacher education. More than half (61%) had completed a master degree program in education and almost half (48.5%) continued their preparation past the masters degree program. These teachers had completed 15 or more hours of additional training. Five had completed an advanced degree. Of the teachers who did not hold a masters degree, 28% had completed a bachelor degree plus an additional 15 or more credit hours of preparation. One teacher had a doctorate and one teacher had no college degree. Teachers in this study were veteran teachers. Sixty-nine percent had 11 or more years of teaching experience. The majority (76%) of the teacher respondents taught in self-contained, general education classrooms. The remaining 24%

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141 were specialized instruction teachers, or art, music, or physical education teachers. Table B.2 (Appendix B) summarizes the data with respect to the teachers' professional character-istics. Analysis of Teachers' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements and the Differentiated Supervision Statements This second section presents the analyses and findings concerning how the total group of elementary teachers responded to the conceptions of teaching work statements and the differentiated supervision statements. It addresses research question 1, 3, and 4 plus Null Hypothesis I. Research question 1 was: "Did the perceptions of teaching of the group of elementary teachers fit patterns which could be categorized as a labor, craft, profession, or art conception of teaching?" Research question 1 was addressed by analyzing the total group of teachers' responses to the conceptions of teaching work statements and to the differentiated supervision statements. The findings with respect to the total group of teachers' responses to the conceptions of teaching work statements are presented first. Tables which describe means and the distributions of perceived-as-more-true and perceived-as-less-true responses of each conception of teaching work statement are included. An analysis of the tables is presented in terms of describing teachers' responses to the labor

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142 conception of teaching work, the craft conception of teaching work, the profession conception of teaching work, and the art conception of teaching work. Research question 3 was, "Were some elements in the conceptions of teaching work perceived more consistently as ideal circumstances in teaching than others?" A summary of the statements which received the largest number of perceived-as-more-true responses and the largest number of perceived-as-less-true responses for the total group of teachers addresses this research question. Research question 4 was, "Were some of the methods of supervision perceived as more satisfactory than others?" This research question was addressed by an analysis of findings with respect to total group of teachers' responses to the super-vision statements. Means and standard deviations are presented and analyzed to compare teachers' responses to each supervision statement. Data are also presented to show proportions of teachers' responses to each supervision statement in order to describe low, medium, and high satisfactory response patterns. Null Hypothesis I was, There were no significant differences (at alpha .10) in the ways teachers perceived teaching with respect to a labor conception of teaching work, a craft conception of teaching work, a profession conception of teaching work, or an art conception of teaching work.

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143 Chi-square Goodness of Fit results are presented to address this hypothesis with respect to the total group's responses to the conceptions of teaching work statements. Analysis of Teachers' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements The total group of teachers' responses to the conceptions of teaching work statements in terms of means, standard devi-ations, and percentages of perceived-as-more-true responses and perceived-as-less-true responses are summarized in Tables 3 and 4. Analysis of teachers' responses to the labor conception of teaching work statements. Elementary teachers in this study rated the labor conceptions of teaching work lowest in terms of having been most likely to reflect their views of quality teaching. Means ranged from 3.54 to 3.01. The teachers did not support the labor conception of teaching. All means were in the perceived as least true range of responses. Only a small percentage of teachers rated the labor state-ments as perceived as more true. The perceived-as-more-true responses ranged from a 9.06% through 30.77%. The ability to implement instruction as prescribed by the adopted curriculum received a 25.34% of the perceived-as-more-true responses. Classroom management that was highly structured with specified classroom rules, order and predictability to guarantee student

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144 Table 3 Means and Standard Deviations Comparison Table for Total Group's Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements Set One Teacher Qualifications Manage prescribed curriculum (L) lC Knowledge of established practice (C) 1A Understanding of theory (P) 1B Talent, intuition, creativity (A) 1D Set Two Implementation of instruction (successful teaching) Prescribed curriculum (L) 2D Universal standards (C) 2A Diagnoses of learners' needs (P) 2B Multiple goals for learning (A) 2C Set Three Good Classroom Management Highly structures, rules (L) 3A) Trial and error (C) 3B Professional judgment (P) 3D Individual interest and spontaneity (A) 3C Set Four Values and Ethos Effort and loyalty (L) 4C Care and precision in instruction (C) 4D Autonomy and ethical principles (P) 4B) Original curriculum, personal innovation (A) 4A Set Five Occupational Satisfaction in Teaching Fair compensation (L) SD Student mastery (C) SC Prestige of an important service (P) SA Sharing meaningful learning Means 3.15 2.43 2.85 1. 56 3.36 3.14 1.62 1.8 3.31 2.86 1. 56 2.53 3.01 1. 80 2.07 2.19 3.54 1.88 3.07 Standard Deviations .91 .94 1. 63 .85 .76 .89 .82 .82 1.05 .92 .83 1.03 .88 .89 .99 1.08 .74 .78 .74 experiences (A) SB 1.49 .69 Key: L = labor statement; C craft statement P = profession statement; A = art statement The number and letters listed behind the set statement indicate the position of the statement in the Conceptions of Teaching Work and Differentiated Supervision Questionnaire.

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145 Table 4 Frequency Distributions of Perceived-as-more-true Responses and Perceived-as-less-true Responses by Percents and Numbers for Total Group's Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching York Statements (N 216-221) Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements Set One Teacher Qualifications Manage prescribed curriculum (L) lC Knowledge of established practice (C) lA Understanding of theory (P) lB Talent, intuition, creativity (A) lD Set Two Implementation of instruction (successful teaching) Prescribed curriculum (L) 2D Universal standards (C) 2A Diagnoses of learners' needs (P) 28 Multiple goals for learning (A) 2C Set Three Good Classroom Management Highly structured, rules (L) JA Trial and .error (C) 38 Professional judgment (P) 3D Individual interest and spontaneity (A) 3C Set Four Values and Ethos Effort and Loyalty (L) 4C Care and precision in instruction (C) 4D Autonomy and ethical principles (P) 48 Original curriculum, personal innovation (A) 4A t Perceived as More True 25.34 52.03 37.1 85.97 9.59 18.72 86.3 85.46 30.77 33.64 85.97 50.00 18.98 78.24 38.88 63.89 Set Five Occupational Satisfaction in Teaching Fair compensation (L) SD 9.06 Student mastery (C) 5C 81.00 Prestige of an important service (P) 5A 17.65 Sharing meaningful learning experiences (A) 58 Key: L -labor statement C -craft statement P -profession statement A -art statement N 56 115 82 190 21 41 189 188 68 74 190 110 41 169 84 138 20 179 39 204 t Perceived as Less True 74.66 47.96 62.9 14.02 90.41 81.28 13.7 14.54 69.24 66.36 14.03 50.00 81.02 21.76 61.12 36.11 90.94 19.00 82.35 7.69 N 16S 106 139 31 198 178 30 32 153 146 31 110 175 47 132 78 201 42 182 17 The numbers and letters listed behind the set statement indicate the position of the statement in the Conceptions of Teaching Vork and Differentiated Supervision Questionnaire.

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learning received 30.77% of the perceived-as-more-true responses. 146 Analysis of teachers' responses to the craft conception of teaching work statements. Elementary teachers' means for the craft conception statements of teaching work ranged from 1.80 through 3.14. Teachers differed as to how strongly they supported different elements of the craft conception of teaching work. Perceived-as-more-true responses to the craft statements ranged from 18.72% to 81.00%. The statement with respect to 11the establishment of universal standards and sharing of general rules of instruction as a means of promoting successful instruction,. received the smallest percentage of perceived as true responses. The statement with respect to 11teachers choosing strategies, methods, and materials with care and precision in order to perform instruction competently,. received a large percentage (78.24%) of the perceived-as-more-true responses. The statement with respect to "satisfaction in teaching through knowing that students had mastered the intended lesson11 also had a large percentage (81%) of teachers who rated the statements as perceived more true. Analysis of teachers' responses to the profession conception of teaching work statements. Elementary teachers in this study rated the profession conception statements of teaching work with means of 1.56 through 3.07. Teachers differed as to how strongly they supported different elements

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147 of the profession conception of teaching. Perceived-as-moretrue responses for the profession statements ranged from a 17.65% through 86.3%. The statement that "an important source of satisfaction in teaching was from prestige derived from providing an important service in society" received the lowest rating in terms of being perceived as true. The profession statement regarding the teachers' responsibility to "diagnose students' needs and to use professional judgment in classroom management" received the highest percentage of perceived-asmore-true responses. Analysis of teachers' responses to the art conception of teaching work. Elementary teachers in this study rated the art conception of teaching work statements highest in terms of being more true of their perceptions than the labor, the craft, and the profession conceptions of teaching. Means for the art conception statements ranged from 1.49 to 2.53. Teachers were favorable with respect to their perceptions of elements of the art conception of teaching work. Perceived-as-more-true responses for art statements ranged from 50% to 92.31%. The statement concerning "satisfaction in teaching through sharing meaningful learning experiences with students" received the largest percentage of perceived-as-more-true responses.

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Elements of the Conceptions of Teaching Work That Were Perceived Consistently As Ideal Circumstances in Teaching Research question 3 was "Were some elements in the 148 conception of teaching work perceived more consistently as an ideal circumstance in teaching than others?" An analysis of the frequencies and percentages of the perceived as more true and perceived as less true response patterns for Total Group's Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements identified elements which were rated consistently ideal conditions in teaching. The analysis also identified those elements that were not perceived as ideal by large percentages of teachers. Large percentages of more true responses were interpreted as meaning the element was perceived to be an ideal circumstance in teaching. Large percentages of less true responses were interpreted as meaning the element was perceived to be a less than ideal circumstance in teaching. The elements were teachers' perceptions concerning teacher qualifications, implementation of instruction, classroom management, values and ethos, and occupational satisfaction in teaching. Table 4 summarizes teachers' responses to the Conception of Teaching Work Statement. With respect to teachers' qualifi-cations, one element was identified most consistently as ideal. The art statement concerning talent, intuition, originality, and a strong personal approach as important teacher

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qualifications was rated as more true by 85.97% of the total group of teachers. 149 With respect to implementation of instruction, two elements were identified most consistently as ideal circumstances. The art position which held that successful teaching consisted of learning activities which were designed to teach multiple goals and to allow maximum freedom for students was rated as more true by 85.46% of the total group of teachers. The profession position in which teaching was perceived as most successful when teachers had the responsibility to diagnose students' learning needs, to prescribe methods, to see that instruction was successfully carried through was rated as more true by 86.3% of the total group of teachers. With respect to good classroom management, the profession position where good classroom management was the result of the refinement of valid principles of instruction and professional judgment was rated as more true by 85.97% of the total group of teachers. With respect to values and ethos in teaching, the craft position that teaching was valued when teachers choose strategies, methods and materials and when teachers taught with precision, competence and care was rated as more true by 78.24% of the total group of teachers. With respect to occupational satisfaction in teaching, the art position that the most important source of satisfaction in

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150 teaching was the intrinsic satisfaction of sharing meaningful learning experiences with students was rated as more true by 92.31% of the total group of teachers. Research question 3 which was "Were some elements in the conception of teaching work perceived more consistently as an ideal circumstance in teaching than others?" The alternate side of research question #3 was to identify those elements which were not rated as more true by a large percentage of teachers. An analysis of the frequencies and percentages of the perceived as less true response patterns for the total group responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements identi fied elements which were rated consistently not ideal conditions in teaching by a majority of the teachers. The following elements from the conceptions of teaching work statements received the largest percentage of perceivedas-less-true responses from elementary teachers in this study. All labor position statements which included (a) ability to implement prescribed instruction as an important teacher qualification, (b) prescribed curriculum as a means of successful instruction, (c) order and rules as a means for guaranteeing successful instruction, (d ) effort and loyalty as basis of occupational value and ethos, and (e) compensation as a source of satisfaction in teaching. With respect to satisfaction in teaching, the profession position that prestige came from providing an important service

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151 in society was rated as less true by 82.35% of the total group of teachers. With respect to implementation of instruction, the craft position that standards for student learning were set universally and teachers shared general rules of instruction, which have been proven successful in practice as the basis of successful instruction, was rated as less true by 81.28% of the total group of teachers. With respect to good classroom management, the craft position that good classroom management was developed through trial and error of personally tested practice and that methods were influenced by teachers whom individuals have had during their own schooling was rated as less true by 66.36% of the total group of teachers. Analysis and Findings of the Total Group's Responses to Differentiated Supervision Statements Research question 4 was, "Were some methods of supervision perceived as more satisfactory than others?" Analysis of the total group responses indicated that these teachers did perceive supervision practices differently with respect to how satisfactory they were and that there was a diversity among these teachers' perceptions. Table 5 lists the total group of elementary teachers' responses to the differentiated supervision statements in terms of means, standard deviations, percentages and frequencies of more true and less true responses.

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Table 5 Total Elementary Teachers Group's Responses for Supervision Practices--Means, Standard Deviations, Percentages, and Frequencies of Responses. Differentiated Supervision Practices Cooperative Professional Means Development 7. 77 Clinical Supervision 6.38 Administrative Monitoring 5.69 Teacher Behavior Rating Scales 5.01 Self-Directed Development 7.66 Artistic Supervision 7.28 Learning Centered Supervision 7 .13 Percentases and Frequency of Responses Satisfactory Ratings Low *(1-4) Differentiated Supervision N Practices Cooperative Professional 13.12 (29) Development Clinical Supervision 26.03 (57) Administrative Monitoring 35.00 (77) Teacher Behavior Rating Scales 43.18 (95) Self-Directed Development 11.93 (26) Artistic Supervision 13.76 (30) Learning Centered Supervision 13.70 (30) Key Rating Scales *Range (1) Means 1.0.9 -least satisfactory 3 .0-4.9 -less satisfactory 5.0-6.9 -medium/neutral satisfactory 7.0-8.9more satisfactory 9.0.0 most satisfactory Standard Deviations 2.50 2.60 2.57 2 .70 2.30 2.44 2.43 Medium (5-6) N 10.41 (23) 21.92 (48) 25.91 (57) 25.00 (55) 13.76 (30) 14.22 (31) 21.00 (46) Percentages N 221 219 220 220 218 218 219 High (7-10) N .H 76.47 (169) 221 52.05 (114) 219 39.09 (86) 220 31.82 (70) 220 74.31 (162) 218 72.02 (157) 218 65.30 (143) 219 0\-33.5\ -small moderate 66.6\-100\ -large 152

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153 Means ranged from 5.01 through 7.77. Teacher behavior rating scales (5.01) and administrative monitoring (5.69), both of which could be highly administrator-directive forms of supervision, received the lowest means. Cooperative professional development (7.77) and self-directed development (7.66), both teacher-directed forms of supervision, received the highest means. Standard deviations for the supervision practices ranged from 2.3 to 2.70. Table 5 also lists total group elementary teachers' responses to the differentiated supervision statements in terms of how satisfactory teachers perceived the practice to be for promoting quality instruction. Teacher responses were tabulated by frequency of responses to each supervision statement. Ratings of 1, 2, 3, 4 were considered low satisfactory ratings. Ratings of 5 and 6 were considered medium satisfactory ratings. Ratings of 7, 8, 9, and 10 were considered high satisfactory ratings. Frequencies were then converted into percentages. Low satisfactory ratings for the supervision statements ranged from 11.93% through 43.18%. Medium satisfactory ratings ranged from 10.41% through 25.91%. High satisfactory ratings ranged from 31.82% through 76.47%. Cooperative professional development (76.47%), selfdirected development (74.31%) and learning centered supervision (65.30%) received the largest percentage of perceived as high

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154 satisfactory responses. Administrative monitoring (39.09%) and teacher behavior rating scales (31.82%) received the least number of responses classified as perceived as high satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. Findings the Chi-square Goodness of Fit Test The total group of teachers' responses to the conceptions of teaching work statements were analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that there were no significant differences (at alpha .10) in the way teachers perceived teaching with respect to a labor conception of teaching work, a craft conception of teaching work, a profession conception of teaching work, or an art conception of teaching work. The following procedure was used. The Chi-square Goodness of Fit Test was used to test the theoretical feasibility of using the teachers' responses to the conceptions of teaching work statement as indicators that teachers perceived teaching differently. These results were used to determine if teachers' response patterns were due to chance or indicated preferences toward certain positions. The conceptions of teaching work statements were found to be theoretically viable descriptions to identify and discriminate among teachers' perceptions regarding teaching. Teachers' responses were significantly different from chance (at alpha .10) for every statement.

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155 Chi-square Goodness of Fit Tests were used to determine if teachers' responses to the conceptions of teaching work statements differed significantly from chance. Chance was based on the event that each conception of teaching statement received 25% of all possible first choice responses for its domain. The actual frequency of responses to each conception of teaching statement, in terms of first choices, was compared against theoretically expected numbers which ranged from 54.00 to 55.25, depending on the number of total responses there were for each statement. Results demonstrated that teachers' responses were significantly different from the expected values of 54.00 or 55.25 for every statement. Table B.3 (Appendix B) summarizes the Chi-square Goodness of Fit results and significance levels for each statement. The Subgroups Identification Process This third section of analysis and findings relates to answering research questions 1, "Did this group of elementary teachers' perceptions of teaching fit patterns which could be categorized as labor, craft, profession or art conceptions of teaching?" and 2, "Were these categories pure categories?" The analyses of data and subsequent findings involved the identification and construction of subgroups which were used for comparing teachers' responses in terms of the labor, craft, profession, and art conceptions of teaching.

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156 After it had been established, through the Chi-square Goodness of Fit Tests, that the differences which existed in the way the total group of teachers responded to the con-ceptions of teaching work statements were not due to chance, the teachers were categorized into subgroups based on patterns of their first choices from among the conceptions of teaching work statements. Categorization of Teachers into the Conceptions of Teaching Work Sub groupings Based on each subject's first choices among the conceptions of teaching work statements, six subgroups were identified for analysis and comparison for this study. Three subgroups were identified as primary groups of craft (N=l9), profession (N=32), and art (N=77). Subjects in these groups identified their positions by choosing either craft, profession, or art as their first choice at least 60% of the time. Three split subgroups, the craft-profession subgroup (N=l9), the craft-art subgroup (N=l4), and the profession-art (N=28) subgroup, were identified. These subjects chose a combination of first choices that were either 40% craft and 40% profession, 40% craft and 40% art, or 40% profession and 40% art. Only one person was identified as having a labor conception of teaching work perception of teaching; therefore, a labor subgroup was not used in the analysis.

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157 Table 6 lists the major subgroupings that were identified through tabulating each subject's first choice responses. The subjects were placed into a labor, craft, profession, art, or a split group category on the basis of the ratios of their first choices of the conceptions statements. Three split subgroups were identified as the craft-profession subgroup, the craft-art subgroup, and the profession-art subgroup. The ratios were defined in percentage form Analysis of Subgroups' Responses to the Conception of Teaching Work Statements This fourth section presents an analysis of the six identified subgroups' responses to the conceptions of teaching work statements. The subgroups were the craft subgroup, the profession subgroup, the art subgroup, the craft-profession subgroup, the craft-art subgroup, and the profession-art subgroup. A labor subgroup was not identified. This section presents how each subgroup perceived good teaching through analyses of their responses to each conception of teaching work statement. Research questions 1, 2, and 3 are addressed with respect to the subgroups' perceptions of teaching. Findings are presented with respect to the Null Hypothesis I which was, There were no significant differences (at alpha .10) in the way teachers perceived teaching with respect to a labor conception of teaching work, a craft conception of teaching work, a profession conception of teaching work, or an art conception of teaching work.

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Table 6 Comparison Table for First Choice Responses by Numbers and Percentages for the Conceptions of Teaching Work Subgrouping Conceptions of Teaching Subgroups Labor 60% Labor 40% Total Labor Craft Subgroup Craft Craft Craft Craft Craft Craft Total Craft Profession Profession Profession Profession Profession Profession 80% 60% 60% 60% 60% 60% Subgroup 80% 60% 60% 60% 60% Total Profession Art Subgroup Art 100% Art 80% Art 80% Art 60% Art 60% Art 60% Art 60% Art 60% Art 60% Total Art Split Sub groupings Labor Labor Craft Craft Craft Craft 40% 40% 40% 40% 40% 40% Other 40% Other 60% Profession 20% Profession 40% Art 40% Labor 20% Labor 20% Profession 20% Art 20% Craft 40% Art 40% Craft 20% Art 20% Craft 20% Profession 20% Craft 40% Profession 40% Labor 20% Labor 20% Craft 20% Profession 20% Craft 40% Profession 40% Profession 40% Profession 40% Art 40% Art 40% Profession 20% Art 20% Art 20% Art 20% Missing 20% Craft 20% Profession 20% Profession 20% Missing 20% Art 20% Art 20% Labor 20% Art 20% Labor 20% Profession 20% N 1 1 2. 1 2 3 6 1 6 19 1 4 13 13 1 32 10 5 12 5 16 2 3 23 1 77 2 1 4 15 3 11 158

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Table 6 (contd.) Split Subgroupings (contd.) Profession 40% Profession 40% Profession 40% Total Split Eclectic Subgroups Craft 40% Profession 40% Art 40% Total Eclectic (N=221) Art 40% Art 40% Art 40% Other 60% Other 60% Other 60% Labor 20% Craft 20% missing 20% Results and findings of the analysis of teachers 2 25 1 64 10 8 9 27 subgroups' responses have been organized in the following manner. Teachers subgroups' responses to the five sets of conceptions of teaching work statements, which involved five separate domains (a) teacher qualifications, (b) implementa-159 tion of instruction, (c) classroom management, (d) values and ethos within the occupation, and (e) sources of satisfaction in teaching have been analyzed and presented: Each set of the conceptions of teaching work statements was analyzed by using the Chi-square Test of Association to determine if there were significant differences among subgroups' perceptions of teaching. The means were not only used as quantitative descriptors but were treated as qualitative descriptors in order to communicate comparisons among subgroups' responses to the conceptions of teaching work statements. Means were defined

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160 with respect to their scores as a perceived-as-most-true rating, a perceived as more true rating, a perceived as less true rating, or a perceived-as-least-true rating. Means of 1.0 through 1.7 were classified as perceived-as-most-true ratings. Means of 1.8 through 2.5 were classified as more-true ratings. Means of 2.6 through 3.1 were classified as perceived as less-true ratings. Means of 3.2 through 4.0 were classified as least-true ratings. Conceptions of teaching work statements that received ratings which were between 1.0 through 2.5 reflected the respondents' perception of that which was perceived as good, successful, valued, or a source of satisfaction in teaching. Standard deviations associated with subgroups' means were included in the presentation. Frequency counts and percentage ratings of perceived-asmore-true responses and perceived-as-less-true responses of each subgroup for each conception of teaching work statement were compared and described. Ratings of 1 and 2 were classified as the perceived-as-more-true responses. Ratings of 3 or 4 were classified as the perceived-as-less-true responses. Sub groups were described according to the proportion of members who rated each statement as perceived as more true. A small percentage rating for a subgroup was 0% to 33.5%. A moderate percentage rating for a subgroup was 33.6% through 66.5%. A large percentage rating of a subgroup was 66.6% through 100%.

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This information was presented in narrative explanations and tables. Brief Overview of Subgroups' Responses to the Conception of Teaching Work Statements 161 Table 7 presents a brief overview of subgroups' responses to the positions expressed in the conceptions of teaching work 'statements. Teachers differed significantly in their percep-tions on 12 conceptions of teaching work positions. Within the first set of position statements differences centered on (a) the craft position that knowledge of established practice was a requisite for the "most qualified teacher," (b) the profession position that the understanding of theory was a requisite for "most qualified teacher,11 and (c) the art position that talent, intuition, creativity and a personal approach to teaching were the requisites for "the most qualified teacher.11 The second set of position statements was concerned with defining teachers' perceptions regarding the nature of the task of teaching. This factor was defined in terms of implementing instruction, as teachers perceived as necessary for successful teaching. Significant differences among subgroups' perceptions were found in two out of four statements. Subgroups differed in their perceptions of how instruction should be implemented in order for teaching to be successful in two out of the four position statements. These differences involved perceptions

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Table 7 Comparison Table for Chi-square Tests of Association for the Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements Evaluation Method Chi-square Test of Association Set One Teacher Qualifications Managed prescribed curriculum (L) 1C Knowledge of established practice (C) lA Understanding of theory (P)lB Talent, intuition, creativity (A)lD Set Two Implementation of Instruction (successful teaching) Prescribed curriculum (L) 2D Universal standards (C) 2A Diagnoses of learners' needs (P) 2B Multiple goals for learning (A) 2C Set Three Good Classroom Management Highly structured, rules (L)3A Trial and error (C) 3B Professional judgment (P)3D Individual interest and spontaneity (A) 3C Set Four Values and Ethos Effort and loyalty (L) 4C Care and precision in instruction (C) 4D Autonomy and ethical principles (P) 4B Original curriculum, personal innovation (A) 4A 2.28 23.55 24.22 12.32 6.96 7.79 9.52 17.03 8.92 4.81 10.10 18.04 11.88 15.50 15.23 20.44 Significance Level not .01 .01 .01 not not .10 .01 not not .10 .01 .05 .01 .01 .01 162

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Table 7 (contd.) Evaluation Method Chi-square Test of Association Set Five Occupational Satis-faction in Teaching Fair compensation (L) SD Student mastery (C) SC Prestige of an important service (P) SA Sharing meaningful learning experiences (A) SB df=S xz* 9.03 6.8 10.5 8.29 Significance Level not not .10 not Results are based on comparison of total frequencies of perceived-as-more-true responses and perceived-asless-true responses for each subgroup. toward (a) the profession position in which teaching was recognized as a highly complex task, where with respect to instruction, teachers had the responsibility to diagnose and prescribe for learner needs, and (b) the art position where 163 teaching was regarded as a highly personal-non-routine task in which multiple goals and freedom in learning were requisites for successful teaching. The third set of position statements was also concerned with defining teachers' perceptions regarding the nature of the task of teaching. This factor was defined in terms of good classroom management as teachers perceived it necessary for successful teaching. Significant differences were found among subgroups' perceptions toward two out of four position statements. Subgroups differed in their perceptions of (a) the

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164 profession position which emphasized that good classroom management was a complex task in which teacher judgment in refining and applying validated principles of instruction was important, and (b) the art position in which good classroom management was defined as a highly non-routinized and personal task which should allow students to pursue their own interests and allow for spontaneity. The fourth set of position statements was concerned with defining teachers' perceptions regarding the nature of the occupational values and ethos in teaching, in terms of control and responsibility for the work itself. Significant differences were found among subgroups' perceptions toward all four ments. Subgroups differed in their perceptions toward: 1. The labor position where effort and loyalty were considered the primary values. In this position the teacher was not responsible for the work itself--that is, the teacher was not responsible for what should be taught or the effects of teaching. 2. The profession position where teacher autonomy and responsibility to act on ethical principles were the primary values. The teacher was responsible for the work itself and for the effects on students. 3. The craft position where the teacher was responsible for the work in terms of seeing that it was done competently.

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165 4. The art position where the teacher owned the works of teaching, developed original curriculum and was rewarded when innovations were valued and recognized. The fifth set of position statements was concerned with defining teachers' perceptions regarding the nature of occupational satisfaction in teaching in terms of the rewards derived from teaching. Subgroups' perceptions toward occupational satisfaction were significantly different in one out of the four position statements. Subgroups differed in their perceptions toward the profession position that regards "prestige and the belief that one is providing a service that is considered important in society" as a source of occupational satisfaction in teaching. Analysis and Findings Concerning Conceptions of Teaching Work, Set One -Teacher Qualifications Statements Analysis of subgroups' responses to the Set One Teacher Qualifications of conceptions of teaching work statements which concerned perceptions regarding the "types of abilities and knowledge which the most qualified teachers possessed" found that subgroups differed at the .01 level of significance in three out of four positions. Teacher subgroups' perceptions differed regarding the importance of the "most qualified teacher" (a) possessing knowledge of successful established practice (craft position), (b) understanding educational theory (profession position), and (c) having talent, intuition, plus

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166 creativity and a personal approach to instruction (art position). No significant differences among perceptions were found in subgroups' responses to the importance of the "most qualified teachers" possessing the ability to manage prescribed curriculum. The labor position was not supported by any of the subgroups. The following section analyzes and presents findings with respect to teachers subgroups' responses toward the teacher qualifications set of conceptions of teaching work statements in terms of means, standard deviations, frequencies and percentages of responses, and chi-square results. Table 8 summarizes the findings for the Set 1 Teacher Qualifications statements. Labor statement: Manage prescribed curriculum. Table 8 compares subgroups' responses in terms of mean and standard deviations of their perceptions of the labor statement that "the most qualified teachers possess the ability to manage and implement instruction as prescribed by adopted curriculum." The means ranged from 3.11 through 3.38. All subgroups' means were in the perceived as least true category of responses. Six out of seven subgroups' responses were within one standard deviation of the mean, one was marginally outside of that parameter. Variability within subgroups was not a concern. The means for this statement indicated that the labor quality, of "ability to manage prescribed curriculum," was not

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perceived as a highly valued ability for the most qualified teachers to possess. Table 8 compares the percents and frequency counts of perceived as more true and perceived-as-less-true responses 167 by subgroups for the labor statement regarding the importance of teachers' "ability to manage prescribed curriculum" as an ability that "the most qualified teacher possessed." The percents of perceived-as-more-true responses ranged from 10.53% through 26.32%. The percents of perceived-as-less--true responses ranged from 73.32% through 89.47%. Table 8 cites chi-square tests of significance results. The chi-square results indicated that teacher subgroups did not differ significantly in their perceptions of this statement. The labor position on teacher qualifications was rejected by all the subgroups. Analysis of findings indicated that a small percentage of respondents in all subgroups perceived this statement as more true of their opinions. The percentages of perceived-as-less-true responses for this labor statement indicated that the labor quality, the "ability to manage prescribed curriculum" was not perceived by these subgroups as a highly valued ability that "the most qualified teachers possessed." The abilities to manage routinized and rationalized work, in the form of a prescribed curriculum, associated with a labor conception were not supported by any of the subgroups who participated in the study.

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Table 8 Subgroups Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements. Set One -Teacher Qualifications 8 Conceptions of Teaching Vork Statement Subfroupa Cra t (N-19) Profession (N-32 Art (N-77) (N-1 ) Craft-art (N-14) Profession-art (N-28) Craft Profesalon Art Craft-profession Craft-art Profesalon-art Total Labor Manage Preacrlbed Curriculua Kean SD 3.21 .63 3.38 .83 3.22 .82 3.11 1.05 3.21 .eo 3.36 .78 Kore/Leu True N 10.53/89.47 2/17 21.88/78.12 7/25 24.68/75.32 19/58 26.32/73.68 5/14 21.43/78.57 3/11 17.86/82.14 5/23 41/148 Craft Knowledge of Establlahed Mean SD 1.26 .73 2.81 .80 2.60 .77 1.90 .99 2.36 .93 2.61 .79 KorejLeaa True N 94.74/5.26 18.1 28.12/71.88 9/23 49.35/50.65 38/39 68.42/31.58 13/6 50.00/50.00 7/7 50.00/50.00 14/14 99/90 Profession Understanding of Theory Mean SD. 3.32 .82 1. 78 1.04 3.08 .89 3.00 1.20 3.00 .96 2.68 1.02 Kore/Leaa True N 21.05/78.95 4/15 75.00/25.00 24/8 29.87/70.13 23/54 26.32/73.61 5/14 42.86/57.14 6/8 42.86/57.14 12/16 74/115 Art Talent Intuition Creativity Mean SD 2.21 .85 1.94 .95 1.10 .42 2.00 .67 1.43 .94 1.36 .87 Korefl.ess True N 73.68/26.32 14/5 78.12/21.88 25/7 96.10/3.90 74/3 71.95/21.05 15/4 85.71/14.29 12/2 89.29/10,71 25/3 165/24 Chi-square (5 ,N-189)-2.28 (5 ,N-189)-23. 55--(S,N-189)-24. 22 (5,N-l89)-12. 32 p < .01 p < .01 p < .OS Keya: Hui11 l.0-1. 7 Koat true 2.6-3.1 Lesa true PerCePts 0-;;--33.5----s.urr percentage 1.8-2.5 More true 3.2-4.0 Least true 33.6-66.5 Moderate percentage 66.6-100. Large percentage ..... 0\ 00

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169 In this labor conception of teaching work, teaching is defined as standard practice which was standardized because it was rule bound and not because it was necessarily proven to be technically successful. Craft statement: Knowledge of established practice. Table 8 compares subgroups' responses in terms of means and standard deviations of their perceptions of the craft statement "that knowledge of established practice was a quality that the most qualified teachers possessed." The means ranged from 1.26 through 2.88 and indicated subgroups differed considerably in how they perceived this position. The craft subgroup strongly supported this statement and rated it in the perceived-as-most true range. The craft-profession subgroup perceived the statement as more true. The craft-art, art, profession-art, and profession subgroup perceived the statement as less true. Standard deviations of each subgroup ranged from .73 through .99. All means were within one standard deviation of the mean which indicated that variability was not an issue in terms of response patterns within the subgroups. Table 8 compares the percents and frequency counts of perceived as more true and perceived-as-less-true responses to the craft statement regarding the role of "knowledge of established practice and care and precision in instruction" as qualities that "the most qualified teachers possess." The percents of perceived-as-more-true responses ranged from 28.12%

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through 94.74%. The percents of perceived-as-less-true responses ranged from 5.26% through 71.88%. 170 Table 8 cites chi-square tests of significance results for the subgroups. Teacher subgroups differed significantly (at the .01 level) in how they rated this statement. Teacher subgroups varied considerably in their perceptions of craft position of teaching work which emphasized technical competency and standardized work as an ideal condition in teaching. How important having knowledge of successful established practice and having technical ability which was executed with care and precision were perceived quite differently by teacher subgroups. A large percentage of the craft subgroup and the craft-profession subgroup rated this statement as more true in reflecting how they perceived the kinds of ability and knowledge important for teaching. A moderate percentage of the art, craft-art, and profession-art subgroups rated this statement as perceived as more true in reflecting their perceptions. Only a small percentage of the profession subgroup rated this statement as perceived as more true in reflecting how they perceived craft abilities and knowledge as being important for teaching. The craft and the craft-profession subgroups strongly supported the craft position on teacher qualifications. Moderate support was given by the art, craft-art, and profession

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171 subgroups. The profession subgroup rejected the craft position on teacher qualifications. Profession statement: Teacher qualifications-understanding of theory. Table 8 compares subgroups with respect to mean ratings of their opinions to the profession statement that "the most qualified teachers possessed a thorough understanding of educational theory, practice and research, plus the ability to put this information into practice." Means ranged from 1.78 through 3.32. The profession subgroup was the only subgroup who supported this position. They rated the statement in the perceived as more true range with a mean of 1.78. The art subgroup, the craft-profession subgroup, the craft-art subgroup and the profession-art subgroup rated this statement in the perceived as least true range. Three out of seven subgroups' responses were within one standard deviation of the mean. The other four subgroups had subgroup responses which were marginally outside this parameter. Variability was not a concern. Table 8 compares the percents and the frequency counts of perseived as more true and perceived-as-less-true responses by subgroups for the profession statement regarding the abilities and knowledge that "the most qualified teachers possess." The ability to understand theory and research and the ability to apply these understandings in practice as important qualifications for teachers was perceived differently by the teacher

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172 subgroups. The percents of perceived-as-more-true responses raged from 21.05% through 75%. The percents of perceived-asless-true responses ranged from 25% through 78.95%. Table 8 cites chi-square tests of significance results. Teacher subgroups' responses differed at a .01 level of significance in their ratings of this statement. Only the profession subgroup gave strong support to the profession position on teacher qualifications. A moderate percentage of the craft-art and the profession-art subgroups supported this position. A small percentage of the craft, art, and craft-profession subgroups supported the profession position on teacher qualifications. The profession subgroup responded consistently with what would be expected theoretically with a traditional professional conception of the kind of knowledge that was important for teaching if it were to be a professionalized occupation. In the profession conception of teaching, the tasks of teaching are not seen as easily rationalized and routinized. In addition to having skill, a broader understanding is necessary in order to make decisions about what practice is appropriate, when the practice is appropriate, and if a line of action should be implemented. Art statement: Teacher qualifications: Talent. intuition. creativity. Table 8 compares subgroups with respect to mean ratings of their opinion of the art statement that the

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173 "most qualified teachers possessed talent, intuition, originality and a strong personal approach to instruction." Means ranged from 1.1 through 2.21. The art subgroup, the craft-art subgroup and the profession-art subgroup supported this position most strongly and rated this statement in the perceived-as-most-true range. The profession subgroup, the craft subgroup, and the craft-profession subgroup supported the art position and rated this statement in the perceived-as-moretrue range. All subgroups' responses were within one standard deviation of the mean. A point of importance was that the art subgroup not only rated this statement the strongest in terms of a perceived-as-most-true statement, their responses which were within .42 standard deviations of the mean indicated that there was a strong consensus of opinion regarding how important they perceived talent, intuition, and creativity in teaching. Table 8 compares the percents and the frequency counts of perceived as more true and perceived-as-less-true responses to the art statement regarding "talent, intuition, and creativity" as the qualities that the "most qualified teachers possess." The percents of perceived-as-more-true responses ranged from 73.68% through 96.1%. The percents of perceived-as-less-true responses ranged from 3.9% through 26.32%. Table 8 cites chi-square tests of significance results for subgroups. Teacher subgroups differed at a .05 level of

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significance in their perception of this art conception of teaching work statement. This difference was due to how strongly the subgroups supported this art conception. 174 The art position on teacher qualifications was strongly supported by all the subgroups. Almost all the members of the art subgroup rated this statement as more true. The craft subgroup differed the most from the art subgroup with its lesser support for this statement. In the art conception of teaching, the tasks of teaching are perceived as not predictable and more dependent on personal spontaneity and talent. The abilities and knowledge which support teaching in this style are creativity, intuition, originality, and a strong personal approach to teaching. The art subgroup's responses were consistent with theoretical expectations of the conceptions of teaching work model. The differences between the art subgroup, the art-influenced subgroups (craft-art and profession-art subgroups) and the profession and craft subgroups were also consistent with theory, but it appears that in these subgroups positive support for creativity in teaching coexist regardless of the individuals' perceptions or beliefs about the importance of other abilities and knowledge that are associated with teaching.

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Analysis Concerning Conceptions of Teaching Work. Set Two -Implementation of Instruction Statements 175 Analysis of subgroups' responses to the Set Two Implemen-tation of Instruction conceptions of teaching work statements concerning subgroups' perceptions regarding "how instruction was to be implemented in order for teaching to be successful" determined that subgroups differed significantly in two out of four areas. Subgroups' perceptions differed as to the importance of teachers' responsibility to (a) "diagnose learners needs" at the .10 level of significance (profession position), and (b) to design instruction with "multiple goals for learning" at the .01 level of significance (art position), No signifi-cant differences were found in subgroups' perceptions towards (a) implementing a prescribed curriculum (labor position) or (b) using general rules of instruction which were proven in practice as ways of teaching successfully (craft position). The following section presents an analysis of findings with respect to subgroups' responses toward the implementation of instruction set of conceptions of teaching work statements. Means, standard deviations, frequencies and percentages of perceived-as-more-true responses, and perceived as less true responses, plus Chi-square Tests of Association results, are presented in Table 9. Implementation of instruction-labor statement: Manage prescribed curriculum. Table 9 compares subgroups with respect

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Table 9 Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements. Set Two -Implementation of Instruction 9 Conceptions Labor Craft Profession Art Prescribe Universal Diagnose Multiple Curriculum Standards Learners' Goals for General Rules Needs Learning Subgroups Means SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Craft (Nl9) 3.05 .91 2.89 1.33 1.89 .94 2.16 .90 Profession (N-32) 3.41 .71 3.10 .78 1.16 .63 2.25 .62 Art (N-76-77) 3.43 .60 3.33 .72 1.86 .76 1.38 .59 Craft-rrofeaalon 3.63 .60 2.90 .94 1.37 .68 2.11 .74 (Nl ) Craft-art (N-14) 3.21 .70 3.14 1.03 2.14 1.67 1.50 .52 Profession-art 3.54 .51 3.18 .82 1.21 .50 2.07 .72 (N-28) More/Less More/Less More/Less More/Less True True True True N N N N Craft 15.79/84.21 3/16 36.84/63.16 7/12 73.68/26.32 14/5 73.68/26.32 14/5 Profession 12.50/87.50 4/28 15.62/84.38 5/27 93.75/6.25 30/2 78.12/21.88 25/7 Art 5.26/94.74 4/72 11.84/88.16 9/67 85.53/14.47 65/11 97.40/2.60 75/2 Craft-profession 5.26/94.74 1/18 26.32/73.68 5/14 89.47/10.53 17/2 78.95/21.05 15/4 Craft-art 14.29/85.71 2/12 14.29/85.71 2/12 71.43/28.57 10/4 100. /0 14/0 Profession-art 0/100 0/28 17.86/82.14 5/23 96.43/3.57 27/1 85.71/14.29 24.4 Total 14/174 33/155 163/25 167/22 Chi-square 1s-; 9-o--\>.1.;181)-T. 7r-(5,1-189)-17 .03 not significant not slgnlflcant p<.lO. p<.01 Keys: Bi!Jla 1. 0-l. 7 Host true 2.!=3 .1 Less true Te[ceotit 0 33. 5 Small percentage 1. 8-2. 5 More true 3.-2-4.0 Leaat true 33. 6-66. 5 Moderate percentar;e 66.6-100. Large percentage I-" ....... 0\

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177 to means and standard deviations of their responses to the labor statement that "teaching was most successful when curriculum was prescribed and included specifications regarding teaching objectives, methods, materials and instructional time lines." The means of subgroups ranged from 3.05 through 3.63. The labor position was not supported by any of the subgroups. All subgroups rated this item as perceived as least true of their perceptions. All responses were within one standard deviation of the mean. Variability of responses within the subgroups was not a factor. Table 9 compares the percents and frequency counts of perceived as more true and perceived-as-less-true responses by subgroups for the labor statement regarding the perception that "a prescribed curriculum was important to successful teaching." A small percentage of teachers in all subgroups rated this conception of teaching work statement as more true. The percents of perceived-as-more-true responses ranged from 0% to 15.79%. The percents of perceived-as-less-true responses ranged from 100% through 84.21%. Also, Table 9 cites chi-square tests of significance results. Teacher subgroups did not differ significantly in their perception of this statement Craft statement -universal standards. rules. Table 9 compares subgroups with respect to means and standard

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178 deviations of their responses to the craft statement that teaching was most successful when standards for student learning were established universally. Teachers share general rules of instruction, which have been proven successful in practice in order to choose appropriate techniques to reach learning objectives. The means ranged from 2.89 through 3.33. The subgroups did not support the craft position on implementation of instructor. All subgroups except one, the craft subgroup, rated this statement as perceived as least true. Means, for this position, indicated that teachers in this study did not perceive teaching as defined as a standardized task to be a condition in which teaching was most successful. Other, less standardized forms of teaching, were perceived more favorably. Table 9 compares the percents and frequency counts of perceived-as-more-true responses and perceived-as-less-true responses for the subgroups to the craft statement regarding the importance of universal standards for successful teaching. The percents of perceived-as-more-true responses ranged from 11.84% through 36.84%. The craft subgroup had the largest percentage of perceived-as-more-true responses. The percents of perceived as less true ranged from 63.16% through 88.16%. The art subgroup teachers demonstrated the most difference from the craft subgroup. Also, Table 9 cites chi-square tests of significance results. Results were not significant.

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179 Teachers in this study did not support the craft position on implementation of instruction. Analysis of findings indicated that only a small percentage of respondents in all subgroups, except the craft subgroup, perceived this craft position statement on implementation of instruction as more true of their perceptions. A moderate percentage of members of the craft subgroup indicated that universal standards and general rules of instruction were considered important for successful instruction. No subgroup had a large percentage of members who rated this craft statement as perceived as more true. Implementation of instruction-profession statement diagnoses of learners' needs. Table 9 compares subgroups with respect to means and standard deviations of their responses to the profession statement that teaching was most successful when teachers have the responsibility to diagnose students' learning needs, to prescribe methods to meet these needs, and see that instruction was successfully carried through. The means ranged from 1.16 through 2.14. The profession position on implementation of instruction was supported by all the subgroups. The subgroups of profession, craft-profession, and profession-art rated this statement as perceived as most true of their opinions. The subgroups of craft, craft-art, and art rated this statement as perceived as more true of their perceptions.

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Six out of seven subgroups' responses were within one standard deviation of the mean. 180 Table 9 compares the percents and frequency counts of perceived as more true and perceived-as-less-true responses and results for subgroups to the profession statement regarding the importance of teachers diagnosing students' needs for successful teaching. The percents of perceived-as-more-true responses ranged from 71.43% through 96.43%. The percents of perceived-as-lesstrue responses ranged from 3.57% through 28.57%. All subgroups had a large percentage of respondents who perceived the profession statement on implementation of instruction as more true of their perceptions. Also, Table 9 cites chi-square tests of significance. Teacher subgroups' perceptions differed at a .10 level of significance. Differences were due to the relative proportion of respondents who rated this statement as more true. The greatest differences were between the profession-related subgroups and the craft subgroup. All the subgroups gave strong support to the profession position's implementation of instruction. The profession and profession-art subgroups gave significantly stronger support than the other subgroups. These findings were consistent with the theoretical expectations of the conceptions of teaching work model. The profession-related subgroups supported the

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181 profession position in which teaching was perceived as a complex task where conditions such as learners' needs were variable and successful teaching depended on diagnosing these needs. The craft subgroup's responses were also consistent with theoretical expectations in that their support for the profession position on implementation of instruction was the least strong of all subgroups. Implementation of instruction-art statement: Multiple goals for learning. Table 9 compares subgroups with respect to means and standard deviations of their responses to the art statement that "teaching was most successful when instruction consisted of learning activities which were designed to teach multiple goals and allowed for maximum freedom in student learning." The subgroups' means ranged from 1.38 through and indicated that teachers supported the art position on implementation of instruction but differed in the strength of their support as subgroups. The subgroups art and craft-art rated this statement as perceived as most true of their perceptions of teaching. The craft, profession, craftprofession, profession-art subgroups rated this art statement as perceived as more true of their perceptions of teaching .. All responses were within one standard deviation of the mean. Variability of responses within the subgroups was not a factor.

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182 Table 9 compares the percents and frequency counts of perceived-as-more-true responses and perceived-as-less-true responses for subgroups to the art statement regarding the "importance of multiple goals" for successful teaching. The percents of perceived-as-more-true responses ranged from 73.68% to 100%. The percents of perceived-as-less-true responses ranged from 0% through 26.32%. The art portion in teachers' qualifications was strongly supported by all the subgroups. Table 9 cites chi-square tests of significance results. Teacher subgroups differed at the .01 level of significance in their perceptions regarding this statement. This difference was due to the differences in relative strength among the subgroups in their ratings of this statement as perceived as more true. The craft-art and the art subgroup had more than 97% of their members rate the art position regarding imple-mentation of instruction as perceived as more true. The craft subgroup had 73.68% of its members rate their position as more true. Analysis Concerning Conceptions of Teaching Work. Set Three -Classroom Mana&ement Statements Analysis of subgroups' responses to the Set Three Classroom Management conceptions of teaching work statements which concerned perceptions regarding conditions which were considered as "good classroom management" found that these subgroups

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183 differed significantly with respect to two out of four statements. Their perceptions differed in defining good classroom management as management which (a) was based on professional judgment at the .10 level of significance (profession position) and (b) allowed for individual interests and spontaneity at the .01 level of significance (art position). No significant differences were found with respect to perceptions of good classroom management as management (a) based on personal trial and error of, and using methods learned from, former teachers whom present teachers had had as role models (craft position), or (b) based on specification of rules to control student behavior and to guarantee learning through order and predictability (labor position). Table 10, Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements, Set Three Classroom Management, presents statistical data which included means, standard deviations, percents, frequencies, and chi-square results for the subgroups' responses to the third set of statements from the Conceptions of Teaching Work and Differentiated Supervision Questionnaire. This table will be referred to throughout the discussion of Set Three subgroups' responses. Good classroom management -labor statement: Highly structured rules. Table 10 compares subgroups with respect to means and standard deviations of their responses to the labor statement that "good classroom management is highly

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Table 10 Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements. Set three Classroom Management 10 -Conceptions of Teaching llork Statements Craft (N) Profession (N-32) Art (N-76-77) (Nl ) Craft-art (N-14) Profasaion-art (N-28) Craft Profeselon Art Craft-Profeesion Craft-art Profession-art Totals Labor Craft Profession Art Hl&}lly Trlal Professional Indlvldual Structured and .Judpent Interest Rules Error Spontaneity Mean SD Mean 2.74 1.15 2.42 3.03 .93 3.03 3 49 .79 2 .7.S 2.95 .97 3.16 2.79 1.25 2.86 3 04 .sa 2 93 More/Less True N 36.84/63.16 7/12 28.12/71.88 9/23 15.58/84.42 12/65 36.84/63.16 7/12 42.86/57.14 6/8 28.57/71.43 8/20 49/140 SD Mean 1.12 1.89 .82 1.16 .88 1. 79 .90 1.21 1.10 1. 79 .86 1.18 Mora/Less True N 52.61/47.37 10/9 31.25/68.75 10/22 32.89/67.11 25/51 21.05/78.95 4/15 35.11/64.29 5/9 39.29/60.71 11/17 6.S/123 SD Kaan SD 1.05 2.95 .97 63 2 .78 .83 82 1.93 1.05 .71 2.68 .75 .80 2.57 1.09 .61 2.86 .93 More/Lesa True N 73.68/26.32 14/5 93.75/6.25 30/2 80.52/19.48 62/15 94.74/5.26 18/1 78.57/21.41 11/3 96.43/3.57 27/1 162/27 More/Lass True N 36.84/63. 16 7/12 46 .88/53.12 15/17 72 .37/27.63 55/21 47 .37/52.63 9/10 42.86/57.14 6/8 35 .71/64.29 10/18 102/86 Chi-square (S, H-189)-8.92 (S,H-188)=4.81 (5,U-189)-1o.lo (S,H-188)-18.04 not significant not algnlflcant p<.lO p<.Ol Keys: HUU1. :T Host true 2. 6-3.1 Less true Percents 0 percentage 1.8-2.5 Mora true 3.2-4. 0 Least true 33.6-66.5 Moderate percentage ...... CD

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185 structured." Teachers specify classroom rules to control student behavior and see that these rules are followed. Order and predictability guarantee student learning. The means ranged from 2.74 through 3.49. The teachers did not support the labor position on classroom management. Five out of six subgroups rated this statement as perceived as less true. One subgroup, the art subgroup, rated this statement as perceived as least true. Four of six subgroups' responses were within one standard deviation of the mean. Two subgroups' responses were marginally outside of one standard deviation of the mean. Variation of responses within the subgroups was not a factor. Table 10 compares the percents and frequency counts of the perceived-as-more-true responses and the perceived-as-less-true responses by subgroups to the labor statement regarding classroom management which was based on specification of rules to control student behavior and to guarantee learning through order and predictability. The percents of perceived-as-moretrue responses ranged from 15.58% through 42.86%. The percents of perceived-as-less-true responses ranged from 57.14% through 71.88%. Also, Table 10 cites chi-square results. There was no significant difference in the ways that the subgroups perceived the labor position on classroom management.

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186 Analysis of findings indicated that a small percentage of respondents in the profession subgroup, the art subgroup and the profession-art subgroup perceived this labor statement as true of their perceptions. A moderate percentage of respondents in the craft subgroup, the craft-profession subgroup, the craftart subgroup rated this labor statement as more true of their perceptions. The craft-related subgroups gave moderate support to the labor position on classroom management where good classroom management was perceived as highly rationalized and routinized and was based on the specification of rules to control student behavior and to guarantee learning through order and predictability. The art subgroup responded consistently with theoretical expectations congruent with the conceptions of teaching work model. This group gave the least support to the labor position which characterized good classroom management as control and rule oriented. Good classroom management--craft statement: Trial and Table 10 compares subgroups with respect to mean and standard deviations of their responses to the craft statement that ... good classroom management was developed through trial and error of personally tested practice. Often methods were influenced by teachers whom individuals have had during their own schooling." The subgroups' means ranged from 2.42 through 3.16. Only the craft subgroup supported the craft position on

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187 good classroom management. One mean, the craft subgroup mean was in the perceived as more true range. All other means were in the perceived as less true range,. Four subgroups' responses were within one standard deviation of the mean. Two subgroups' responses, the craft subgroup and the craft-art subgroup, varied slightly more than one standard deviation from the mean and indicated that there was more variation of perceptions in these groups. Table 10 compares the percents and frequency counts of perceived-as-more-true responses and perceived-as-less-true responses by subgroups to the craft statement trial and error. Teacher subgroups did not differ significantly in their perceptions of this craft statement. The percents of perceivedas-more-true responses ranged from 21.05% through 52.63%. The percents of perceived-as-less-true responses ranged from 47.37% through 78.95%. Also, Table 10 cites chi-square results. There was no significant difference in the ways that the subgroups perceived the craft position on classroom management. The craft subgroup was the only subgroup who had more of its members rate the craft position of classroom management as perceived as more true. Although the craft subgroup only gave moderate support to the craft position, the support was higher than that of any of the other subgroups. The craft subgroup's responses were congruent with theoretical expectations defined

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by the conceptions of teaching work model when compared with the other subgroups' responses. Good classroom management -professional statement: 188 Professional judgment. Table 10 compares subgroups with respect to means and standard deviations of their responses to the profession statement that "good classroom management is the result of refinement of valid principles of instruction and solid professional judgment." The means ranged from 1.16 through 1.89. Teacher subgroups' responses indicated that all the subgroups supported the profession position on classroom management. There was a statistical difference in the strength of support among the subgroups. Five out of six subgroups rated this profession statement as most true of their perceptions. The craft subgroup rated this statement as more true of their perceptions. Table 10 compares the percents and frequency counts of perceived-as-more-true responses and perceived-as-less-true responses and by subgroups to the profession statement on professional judgment in classroom management. The percents of perceived-as-more-true responses ranged from 73.68% through 96.43%. The percents of perceived-as-less-true responses ranged from 3.57% through 26.32%. Also, Table 10 cites chi-square results. Teacher subgroups' perceptions differed at the .10 level of significance for this statement. The profession subgroup, craft-profession

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189 subgroup, and the profession-art subgroup had the greatest number of members who rated the profession statement as more true of their perceptions. The craft subgroup had the least number of members who rated the profession statement as more true of their perceptions. Statistical differences indicated that the differences among the subgroups were based on the degree of support with respect to the number of members in each subgroup who rated the profession position of classroom management as more true of their perceptions. The profession-related subgroups, as expected by the theoretical expectations of the conceptions of teaching work model, rated "professional judgment as the bases of good classroom management" the strongest. The level of positive support by all subgroups indicated that the characteristics defined by the profession position on good classroom management were perceived as ideal circumstances by all the subgroups. Good classroom management -art statement: Individual interest, spontaneity. Table 10 compares subgroups with respect to means and standard deviations of their responses to the art statement that "good classroom management allows students to pursue their own individual interests and allows for spontaneity." The means which ranged from 1.93 through 2.95 indicated that teachers differed considerably as to how they perceived the art statement on classroom management. The art subgroup gave the strongest support to the art position on

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190 classroom management. All of the other subgroups demonstrated moderate support. The differences among the subgroups were statistically significant. The art subgroup responded consistently with the theoretical expectations defined by the conceptions of teaching work model. Table 10 compares the percents and frequency counts of perceived-as-more-true responses and perceived-as-less-true responses by subgroups to the art statement on individual interest and spontaneity in classroom management. The percents of perceived-as-more-true responses ranged from 35.71% through 72.37%. The percents of perceived-as-less-true responses ranged from 27.63% through 64.29%. The greatest difference was between the art subgroup and all the other subgroups. Also, Table 10 cites chi-square results. Teacher subgroups' perceptions differed significantly at the .01 level with the art statement on classroom management statement. Analysis of the frequencies of responses indicated that a moderate percentage of respondents from the craft, profession, craft-profession, craft-art, and profession-art subgroups perceived the art statement on classroom management as more true of their perceptions. A large percentage of respondents from the art subgroup indicated that this art statement was more true of their perceptions. Clear differences in how subgroups perceived the art position of classroom management were evident from the strong

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191 support that the art subgroup gave to this position when compared to the moderate support given by all other subgroups. All subgroups, except the art subgroup, were nearly split in half, with most strength in the perceived as less true category. The art characteristics of classroom management which (a) included spontaneity rather than predictability and (b) valued allowing students to pursue their individual interests rather than to follow a prescribed course of study received only moderate support. The art subgroup rated this art position on classroom management more strongly than the other subgroups, but the subgroup did not rate it as strongly as it had rated the profession position on classroom management. Analysis Concerning Conceptions of Teaching Work. Set Four -Values and Ethos of the Teaching Occupation Statements Analysis of subgroups' responses to Set Four Values and Ethos of the Teaching Occupation statements which concerned subgroups' perceptions regarding values and ethos in teaching found that these teacher subgroups differed significantly on all positions. Their perceptions differed with regard to the statement that teaching as an occupation is valued when teachers demonstrate (a) effort and loyalty in promoting local district goals at the .05 level (labor position), (b) care and precision in choosing strategies for teaching at the .01 level (craft position), (c) autonomy and act on ethical principles at the

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192 .01 level (profession position), and (d) innovation and original curriculum in teaching at the .01 level (art position). Table 11, Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements, Set Four Values and Ethos, presents statistical data which includes means, standard deviations, frequencies and percents, and Chi-square Test of Association results for the subgroups' responses to the fourth set of statements from the Conceptions of Teaching Work and Differentiated Supervision Questionnaire. Values and ethos -labor statement: Effort and loyalty. Table 11 compares subgroups with respect to means and standard deviations of their responses to the labor statement that "teaching as an occupation is valued when teachers demonstrate high levels of effort and loyalty in promoting local district goals for education." The means ranged from 2.95 through 3.72. The labor position on values and ethos in teaching was not supported by any of the subgroups. The craft subgroup and the profession-art subgroup rated this statement as less true of their perceptions. All other subgroups rated this statement as least true of their perceptions. Extreme variability of responses within the subgroups was not demonstrated. Table 11 compares the percents and frequency counts of perceived-as-more-true responses and perceived as less true responses by subgroups to the labor statement concerning effort

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Table 11 Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements. Set Four -Values and Ethos of the Teaching Occupation 11 Conceptiona Labor Craft Profeaaion Art of Effort Care and Autonoll}' and Original Teaching Vork and Precision ln Ethical Curriculum Stateanta Loyalty Inatructlon Prlnclplea Peraonal Innovation Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Craft (N-19) 2.95 1.03 1.26 .73 3.11 .74 2.68 .95 Profeaalon (N-31) 3.65 .66 2.10 .91 1.87 1 02 2.42 .96 Art (N) 3.39 .15 2.13 .84 2.84 .98 1.63 .92 3.42 .77 1.26 .56 2.68 .89 2.63 1.01 (lf-1 ) Craft-art(N-14-16) 3.72 .61 1.29 .73 2.86 .66 2.14 .77 Profeaalon-art 3.16 .83 1. 74 .90 2.74 1.02 2.33 1.21 (N-27) MorefLea llorefLeaa HorefLe811 llorafLen True Trua True True N If N N Craft 42 .11/57.89 8/11 94.74/5.26 18/1 21.05/78.95 4/15 42.11/57.89 8/11 Profeaalon 9.68/90.32 3/28 61.29/38.71 19/12 67.74/32.26 21/10 58.06/41.94 18/13 Art 13.16/86.84 10/66 68. 42/31. 58 52/24 35.53/64.47 27/49 82.89/17.11 63/U Creft-profeaalon 15.79/84.21 3/16 94.74/5.26 18/1 36.84/63.16 7/12 52.63/47.37 10/9 Craft-art 7.14/92.86 1/13 85.11/14.29 12/2 25.00/75.00 4/12 71.57/21.43 11/3 Profeaalon-art 18.52/11.48 5/22 85.19/14.81 23/4 44.44/55.56 12/15 51.85/48.15 14/13 To tale 30/156 142/44 75/113 124/62 Chl-aquare (5, g-Iah-11.88 (5 ,K-186>-15. s < s .H-188)-B. 23 (5,11-186>-22 .U p<. 5 p<.01 p< .01 p<. 01 Keya: --ai&aa l O-l-.7 Moat true 2.6-3. 1 [iii tru --PerCenta 0 --33.5 s .. 11 percentaae 1.1-2.5 More true 3.2-4.0 Laaat true 33.6-66.5 Moderate percantaae 66.6-100. Large pereentaae \0 w

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194 and loyalty to district goals as an important element in teaching. The percents of perceived-as-more-true responses ranged from 7.14% through 42.11%. The percents of perceivedas-less-true responses ranged from 57.89% through 92.86%. The percents of more true responses from all the subgroups indicated that overall the subgroups did not support the labor position where effort and loyalty to district objectives were considered the most important values within the teaching occupation. Also, Table 11 cites chi-square results. Teacher subgroups differed at the .05 level of significance in how they perceived this position, The labor position was not supported by any of the subgroups. Analysis of findings indicated that a small percentage of profession, craft-profession, craft-art, and profession perceived this labor statement as more true of their perceptions. The craft subgroup differed from the other subgroups in that a moderate percentage of the craft subgroup perceived this labor statement on values and ethos as more true of their perceptions. Values and ethos -craft statement: Care and precision in instruction. Table 11 compares subgroups with respect to means and standard deviations of their responses to the craft statement that "teaching as an occupation is valued when teachers choose strategies, methods, and materials with care and precision in order to perform instruction competently."

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195 The means ranged from 1.26 through 2.13. All the subgroups supported the craft position on values and ethos of the teaching occupation. The craft, craft-profession, craft-art and the profession-art subgroups rated the craft statement on values and ethos as perceived as most true of their perceptions. The profession and theart sub-groups rated this statement as more true of their perceptions. Subgroups' responses were within one standard deviation of the mean. Variability of responses within the subgroups was not demonstrated. Table 11 compares the percents and frequency counts of perceived-as-more-true responses and perceived as less true responses by subgroups to the craft statement concerning care and precision in instruction. The percents of perceived-asmore-true responses ranged from 61.29% through 94.74%. The percents of perceived as less true ranged from 5.26% through 38.71%. Also, Table 11 cites chi-square results. Teacher subgroups differed at the .01 level of significance. Strong support for the craft position on values and ethos of the teaching occupation was demonstrated by a majority of the subgroups. Analysis of findings indicated that a large percentage of respondents in five out of six subgroups perceived this craft statement on values and ethos in teaching as more true of their

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196 perceptions. A moderate percentage of respondents from the profession subgroup indicated that this statement was more true of their perceptions. The greatest difference in the way that subgroups rated this craft position was between the craft subgroup and the profession subgroup. This finding was congruent with the theoretical expectations of the conceptions of teaching work model in which the craft subgroup would have the strongest support for the values which emphasized technical competency. according to the conceptions of teaching work model, the profession subgroup would support technical competency but would also demonstrate considerable support to expand the scope of teacher responsibility to include judgment with respect to ethical responsibility and autonomy based on this responsibility. Values and ethos -profession statement: Autonomy and ethical principles. Table 11 compares subgroups with respect to means and standard deviations of their responses to the profession statement that "teaching as an occupation is .valued when teachers exercise autonomy and demonstrate the responsibility to act on ethical principles in educational practice." The means ranged from 1.87 through 3.11. The profession subgroup rated this statement perceived as more true. All other

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subgroups rated this statement as perceived as less true of their perceptions. 197 The findings, in terms of means, indicated that only one subgroup, the profession subgroup, supported the profession position in which the ethos and value of teaching emphasized teacher autonomy and responsibility for ethical practice in teaching. The profession subgroup responded in a congruent manner with the theoretical expectations of the conceptions of teaching work model. Table 11 compares the percents and frequency counts of perceived-as-more-true responses and perceived-as-less-true responses for subgroups to the profession statement concerning "autonomy and ethical principles in teaching." The percents of perceived-as-more-true responses ranged from 21.05% through 67.74%. The percents of perceived as less true ranged from 32.26% through 78.95%. Also, Table 11 cites chi-square results. Teacher subgroups' responses differed at the .01 level of significance to this statement. The profession subgroup strongly supported the profession position on values and ethos in teaching. The other subgroups demonstrated moderate support. Analysis indicated that a small percentage of respondents from the craft and craft-art sub groups perceived the profession statement on ethos and values in teaching as more true of their perceptions. A moderate

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198 percentage of respondents from the art, craft-profession, and profession-art subgroups rated this profession statement as more true of their perceptions. A large percentage of the profession subgroup rated this profession statement as more true of their perceptions. The greatest difference in subgroup ratings was between the profession subgroup and the craft subgroup. Values and ethos -art statement: Original curriculum. personal innovation. Table 11 compares subgroups with respect to means and standard deviations of their responses on the art statement that "teaching as an occupation is valued when individual teachers are encouraged to develop original curriculum, to use innovative teaching techniques, and be recognized and rewarded." The means ranged from 1.63 through 2.68. The art subgroup demonstrated the strongest support for the art position on values and ethos in the teaching occupation. The subgroups varied significantly in their responses. The greatest difference in subgroup ratings was between the profession subgroup and the craft subgroup. The art subgroup rated this art statement on values and ethos in teaching as perceived as most true. The profession, the craft-art and the profession-art subgroups rated this art statement in the perceived as more true range. The craft and the craft-profession subgroups rated the art statement as less

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true of their perceptions. The greatest difference in means was between the art subgroup and the craft subgroup. 199 Table 11 compares the percents and frequency counts of perceived-as-more-true responses and perceived-as-less-true responses by subgroups to the art statement concerning values and ethos in teaching as demonstrated by teacher responsibility for developing original curriculum, using innovative teaching techniques with the results that teachers are rewarded for their creativity. The percents of perceived-as-more-true responses ranged from 42.11% through 82.89%. The percents of perceived as less true ranged from 17.11 through 57.89. Also Table 11 cites chi-square results. Teacher subgroups differed at the .01 level of significance in their perceptions of this art statement. The art and craft-art subgroups demonstrated the strongest support for the art position on values and ethos in teaching. A large percentage of respondents from the art and craft-art subgroups rated this art statement as more true of their perceptions. The greatest difference in support of the art position where creativity and personal innovation in teaching were perceived as an occupation value was between the art subgroup and the craft subgroup. The other subgroups demonstrated moderate support for this position.

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Analysis Concerning Conceptions of Teaching Work. Set Five Occupational Satisfaction in Teaching Statements 200 Analysis of subgroups' responses to the Set Five Occupationa! Satisfaction conceptions of teaching work statements concerning subgroups' perceptions with respect to the nature of "the most important source of occupational satisfaction in teaching" found that these subgroups of teachers differed significantly on one position. chi-square analysis determined that subgroups' perceptions differed with respect to the profession conception of teaching work position that "occupational satisfaction was derived from the prestige of providing an important service in society" at the .10 level of significance. No significant differences were found in subgroups' perceptions concerning occupational satisfaction as derived from (a) knowing that students had learned and had mastered what the teacher had intended to teach (craft and position), (b) sharing meaningful learning experiences with students (art position), or (c) being fair compensation for the time and effort spent performing teaching duties (labor position). Table 12, Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements, Set Five Occupational Satisfaction in Teaching, presents statistical data which include means, standard deviations, frequencies and percentages of perceived-

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Table 12 Subgroups' Responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Work Statements, Set Five -Occupational Satisfaction 12 Conc:eptl
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202 as-more-true responses, perceived-as-less-true responses, and Chi-square Tests of Association results. The following section describes findings with respect to subgroups' responses to the labor, craft, profession, and art conceptions of teaching work positions on occupational satisfaction. Occupational satisfaction -labor statement: Fair compensation. Table 12 compares subgroups with respect to means and standard deviations of their responses to the labor statement that "the most important source of satisfaction in teaching was the satisfaction of being fairly compensated for the effort and time spent in performing teaching duties." The means ranged from 3.42 through 3.86. None of the subgroups supported the labor position on occupational satisfaction. All subgroups' means were in the perceived-as-least-true range. All subgroups' responses were within one standard deviation of the mean. Extreme variability of responses within the subgroups was not a factor. Table 12 compares the percents and frequency counts of perceived-as-more-true responses and perceived-as-less-true responses by subgroups to the labor statement concerning occupational satisfaction as derived from being "fairly compensated for teaching duties." The percents of perceived-as-more-true responses ranged from 0% through 21.05%. The percents of perceived-as-less-true responses ranged from

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203 78.95% through 100%. A small percentage of members in all subgroups rated this statement as more true. The craft subgroup had the greatest percentage of members who supported the labor position as being true of their perceptions. Also, Table 12 cites chi-square results. Teacher subgroups did not differ significantly in their perceptions of this statement. Analysis of findings indicated that none of the subgroup supported the labor position for "fair compensation for effort and time" as an important source of satisfaction in teaching when compared to other possible sources of occupational satisfaction. Occupational satisfaction-craft statement: Student mastery. Table 12 compares subgroups with respect to means and standard deviations of their responses to the craft statement concerning occupational satisfaction in teaching that "the most important source of satisfaction in teaching was knowing that students have learned and have achieved mastery of what the teacher had intended to teach." The means ranged from 1.26 through 2.16. All the subgroups supported the craft position on occupational satisfaction. The craft, the craft-profession, the craft-art, and the profession-art subgroups rated this statement as perceived as most true of their perceptions. The profession subgroup and the art subgroup rated this statement as perceived as more true of their perceptions.

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204 All subgroups' responses were well within one standard deviation of the mean. Extreme variability of responses within the subgroups was not a factor. Table 12 compares the percents and frequency counts of perceived-as-more-true responses and perceived-as-less-true responses by subgroups to the craft statement concerning occupational satisfaction in teaching. This statement was "the most important source of satisfaction in teaching was knowing that students have learned and have achieved mastery of what the teacher had intended to teach." The percents of perceivedas-more-true responses ranged from 76.62% through 92.86%. The percentages of perceived-as-less-true responses ranged from 7.14% through 10.53%. Also, Table 12 cites chi-square results showing that Teacher subgroups did not differ significantly in their perceptions of this craft statement. The craft position on occupational satisfaction was strongly supported. Analysis of findings indicated that a large percentage of members in all subgroups rated this statement as more true. Findings indicated that the craft-related subgroups and the profession-art subgroup gave the most support to the craft position that successful outcomes were a source of satisfaction in craft work. The responses of the art and profession subgroups indicated that these subgroups also regarded

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205 outcomes in terms of student mastery as an important source of occupational satisfaction. Occupational satisfaction -profession statement: Prestige of an important service. Table 12 compares subgroups with respect to means and standard deviations of their responses to the profession statement that "the most important source of satisfaction in teaching was the prestige and satisfaction derived from providing an important service in society." The means ranged from 2.81 through 3.29. The subgroups did not support the profession position on occupational satisfaction in teaching. The craft, the craft-profession, and the professionart subgroups rated this statement as perceived as least true of their perceptions. The profession, the art, and the craftart subgroups rated this statement as perceived as less true of their perceptions. All subgroups' responses were within one standard deviation of the mean. Extreme variability of responses within the subgroups was not a factor. Table 12 compares the percents and frequency counts of perceived-as-more-true responses and perceived-as-less-true responses by subgroups to the profession statement regarding "prestige of providing an important service as a source of satisfaction in teaching." The percents of perceived-as-moretrue responses ranged from 7.14% through 31.25%. The percents

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206 of perceived-as-less-true responses ranged from 68.75% through 92.86%. Also, Table 12 cites chi-square results. Teacher subgroups differed in their perceptions of this statement at the .10 level of significance. The profession position on occupational satisfaction was not strongly supported by any of the subgroups. Only a small percentage of members in all subgroups perceived prestige as an important source of satisfaction in teaching when compared to the other options presented. The profession subgroup had the largest number of respondents who supported the profession position. The profession subgroup appeared to differ from all the other subgroups on this position. Occupational satisfaction -art statement: Sharing meaningful learning experiences. Table 12 compares subgroups with respect to means and standard deviations of their responses to the art statement that "the most important source of satisfaction in teaching was the intrinsic satisfaction of sharing meaningful learning experiences with students." The means ranged from 1.23 through 2.05. The subgroups supported the art position on occupational satisfaction in teaching. All subgroups, except the craft subgroup, rated this statement as perceived as most true of their opinions. The craft subgroup rated this statement in the perceived-as-more-true range.

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207 All subgroups' responses were within one standard deviation of the mean. Extreme variability of responses within the subgroups was not a factor. Table 12 compares the percents and frequency counts of perceived-as-more-true responses and perceived-as-less-true responses for subgroups to the art statement regarding sharing meaningful learning experiences with students as a source of satisfaction in teaching. The percents of perceived-as-moretrue responses ranged from 78.94% through 100%. The percents of perceived-as-less-true responses ranged from 0% through 21.05%. A small percentage of members in all subgroups perceived this statement as more true of their perceptions. Also Table 12 cites chi-square results. Teacher sub groups did not differ significantly in their perceptions of this statement. Analysis of findings indicated that the art position where engagement with work is a value and a source of satisfaction was supported by all the subgroups. The art subgroup's mean was the highest in terms of rating "sharing meaningful learning experiences with students" as an important source of satisfaction in teaching. This finding is congruent with theoretical expectation defined by the conceptions of teaching work model.

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Analysis for Sub&roups' Perceptions Concernin& How Satisfactory Differentiated Supervision Practices Were Rated The fifth section presents the results and findings 208 concerning the six subgroups' (craft, profession, art, craft-profession, craft-art, and profession-art) perceptions with respect to Null Hypothesis II and the research question #4, "Were some methods of supervision perceived as more satisfactory than others?" Findin&s Concernin& Analyses of Variance Amon& Sub&roups' Responses to Differentiated Supervision Statements Null Hypothesis II was: there are no significant differences (at alpha .10) in the way teachers perceive teaching with respect to a labor conception of teaching work, a craft conception of teaching work, a profession conception of teaching work, or an art conception of teaching work and how satisfactory they perceive different supervisory practices to be in promoting quality instruction" It was rejected at the .01 level and the .OS level as the result of ANOVA procedures. Significant differences in perceptions were found with regard to how satisfactory subgroups perceived two out of seven supervision practices. The responses of the teachers' subgroups differed with respect to the supervision practice of cooperative professional development at the .OS level of significance. The responses of the teacher subgroups differed with respect to the supervision practice of using teacher behavior rating scales as

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209 a means of promoting quality instruction at the .01 level of significance. Table 13 summarizes the results of the ANOVA tests of significance involving teachers subgroups' responses to each of the differentiated supervision practices used in this study. Results of Newman-Keuls Comparison of Means Procedures for the Supervision Practice Cooperative Professional Development The Newman-Keuls Comparison of Means method was used to identify which subgroups' means with respect to the supervision practice of cooperative professional were statistically different. The comparison of means procedure identified statistical differences between (a) the mean of the art subgroup and the mean of the profession subgroup (significant at the .OS Table 13 Results of the One-Yay ANOVA for the Supervision Statements Evaluation Methods Differentiated Supervision Practices Cooperative Professional Development Clinical Supervision Administrative Monitoring Teacher Behavior Rating Scales Self-directed Development Artistic Supervision Learning-centered Supervision F Test* 2.S06 .6S8 1.741 3.70S .97S .673 .759 Significance Level .OS not not .01 not not not Results are based on the six subgroups' responses to the differentiated supervision practices.

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210 level) and (b) the mean of the art subgroup and the mean of the craft subgroup (significant at the .10 level). Results of Newrnan-Keuls Comparison of Means Procedure for the Supervision Practice Teacher Behavior Rating Scales The comparison of means using the Newrnan-Keuls method identified statistical differences between (a) the mean of the craft subgroup and the means of the art subgroup and profession subgroup (significant at the .05 level) and (b) the mean of the craft subgroup and the means of the art subgroup, the profession subgroup, and the profession-art subgroup, the craft-profession subgroup, and the craft-art subgroup (significant at the .10 level). Results of Chi-square Tests of Association with Respect to Subgroups' Low Satisfactory Ratings, Medium Satisfactory Ratings, and High Satisfactory Ratings for the Differentiated Supervision Practices Similar results to the ANOVA tests involving the supervision practices were found by analyzing the data with non-parametric tests. Table 14 presents the results of Chi-square Tests of Association to the six subgroups' responses in terms of satisfactory levels defined as low satisfactory, medium satisfactory, and high satisfactory which were used to rate the seven differentiated supervision practices presented in this study. Two supervisory practices, cooperative professional development and teacher behavior ratings scales, were found

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211 to be rated significantly different. Subgroups' perceptions were found significantly different toward cooperative professional development at the .01 level of significance. Subgroups' perceptions were found to be statistically different toward teacher behavior rating scales at the .10 level of sig-nificance. These results were congruous with the ANOVA findings. The following analysis addresses the research question #4, "Were some methods of supervision perceived as more satisfactory than others?" Further analyses are made of the data related to the Null Hypothesis II, Table 14 Chi-square Tests of Association Results for Low Satisfactory. Medium Satisfactory. and High Satisfactory Ratings for the Differentiated Supervision Practices Evaluation Methods Differentiated Supervision Practices Cooperative Professional Development Clinical Supervision Administrative Monitoring Teacher Behavior rating Scales Self-directed Development Artistic Supervision Learning-centered Supervision Chi square 27.65 6.47 12.52 17.51 11.48 5.59 13.12 Significance Level* .01 not not .10 not not not (DF=5) Results are based on the six subgroups' responses to the differentiated supervision practices.

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212 There are no significant differences (at alpha .10) in the way teachers perceive teaching with respect to a labor conception of teaching work, a craft conception of teaching work, a profession conception of teaching work, or an art conception of teaching work and how satisfactory they perceive different supervisory practices to be in promoting quality instruction. Analysis for the supervision practices, cooperative professional development and teacher behavior rating scales, which were demonstrated to have significant differences among the ways the subgroups perceived the practice, are examined. Also, the findings with respect to subgroups' responses for clinical supervision, administrative monitoring, self-directed development, artistic supervision, and learning-centered super-vision are presented. Findings for Subgroups' Responses to Cooperative Professional Development Supervision Practice Table 15 presents an analysis of the results of the subgroups' responses to cooperative professional development in terms of means, standard deviations, frequencies, percentage of responses, ANOVA, chi-square and Newman-Keuls results. Table 15 presents teachers subgroups' responses with respect to means, standard deviations, frequencies, percents, chi-square arid ANOVA results as to how satisfactory they found the practice of cooperative professional development to be in promoting quality of instruction. The means ranged from 6.69 through 8.51. Cooperative professional development was supported as a satisfactory method of instructional supervision

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Table 15 Cooperative Professional Development Means, Standard Deviations. Percents. Frequencies. and Newman-Keuls Comparison of Means. Results for Responses Subgroups Craft (N=l9) Profession (N-32) Art (N=77) Craft-profession (N=l9) Craft-art (N=l4) Profession-art (N=28) Means 6.69** 7.06* 8.51* ** 8.00 7.93 7.36 Standard Deviations 2.89 2.64 2.01 2.19 2.13 3.06 Newman-Keuls/Based on comparison of the Art subgroup. Significant at p < .05. ** Significant at p < .10. Percent and Frequencies of Responses Satisfactory Low Medium High Rating (1-4) (5-6) (7 -9) % N % N % Craft 26.32 5 0. 0 73.68 Profession 18.75 6 12.5 4 68.75 Art 5.19 4 10.39 8 84.42 Craft-profession 10.53 2 0. 0 89.47 Craft-art 0 0 35.71 5 64.29 Profession-art 21.43 6 3.57 1 75.00 213 N 14 22 65 17 9 21 Totals 23 18 148 Chi-square (5, N-189) = 27.65 p < .01 Key Rating Scales *(1-10) Means 1.0-2.9 = least satisfactory 3.0-4.9 less satisfactory 5.0-6.9 = medium/neutral satisfactory 7.0-8.9 =more satisfactory 9.0-10.0 =most satisfactory Percents 0%-33.5 = small 33.6%-66.5% = moderate 66.6%-100% = large

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214 by the subgroups. All subgroups, except the craft subgroup, rated this practice of supervision as more satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. The craft subgroup rated cooperative professional development as medium satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. The art subgroup had the highest mean for rating cooperative professional development and this mean was significantly higher than all the other subgroups. The Newman-Keuls Comparison of Means identified statistical differences between (a) the art subgroup's mean and the profession subgroup at the .OS level of significance, and (b) between the art subgroup and the craft subgroup at the .10 level of significance, with respect to how they perceived cooperative professional development to be in promoting quality instruction. Standard deviations range from 2.01 through 3.06; hence, consensus within these subgroups was not strong. When analyzed according to frequencies of responses in satisfactory categories, findings were consistent. A majority of teachers in each subgroup found cooperative professional development to be a strongly satisfactory method of supervision. The art subgroup gave the strongest support to cooperative professional development. The art subgroups' level of support was significantly stronger than the profession and the profession-art subgroups' support. Table 15 compares subgroups' responses in terms of frequency and percentage distributions of low, medium and high

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satisfactory responses for the cooperative professional development practice of supervision. 215 Low satisfactory percentages for cooperative professional development ranged from 0% through 26.32%. A small percentage of members in all subgroups rated cooperative professional development as low satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. Medium satisfactory percentage scores for cooperative professional development ranged from 0% through 35.71%. All subgroup members, except the craft-art subgroup had a small percentage of their members who rated cooperative professional development as medium satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. The craft-art subgroup had a moderate percentage of its members who rated cooperative professional development as medium satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. The craft and the craft-profession subgroups had no members who rated cooperative professional development as medium satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. High satisfactory percentage scores for cooperative professional development ranged from 64.29% through 89.47%. All subgroups, except the craft-art subgroup, had a large percentage of their members who rated cooperative professional development as high satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. The craft-art subgroup had a moderate percentage

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216 of its members who rated cooperative professional development as high satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. Also, Table 15 reports chi-square results. Subgroups' ratings of cooperative professional development were statistically different at the .01 level of significance. These results support the ANOVA results. Findings for Teacher Behavior Rating Scales Supervision Practice Table 16 presents an analysis of the results of the subgroups' responses to teacher behavior rating scales. The subgroups' responses are presented in terms of means, standard deviations, frequencies, percentages of responses, ANOVA, chi-square and Newman-Keuls to teacher behavior rating scales. Analysis of findings indicated that the craft subgroup was the most supportive of teacher behavior rating scales as being satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. This support was significantly different from all the other subgroups except the craft-profession subgroup. Overall findings indicated that teacher behavior rating scales were not supported by the members of the other teacher subgroups. This point was demonstrated by the means and by the percentages of respondents who rated teachers' behavior rating scales as low satisfactory.

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Table 16 Teacher Behavior Rating Scales Means. Standard Deviations. Percents. Frequencies. ANOVA. Chi-square. and Newman Keuls Comparison of Means Results for Subgroups' Responses Subgroups Craft (N=l9) Profession (N=32) Art (N=l7) Craft-profession (N=l9) Craft-art (N=l3) Profession-art (N=28) ANOVA = F=3.705 p < .01 Means 6.84* ** 4.94 ** 4.17* ** 5. 11** 5.69** 5.00** Standard Deviations 2.73 2.50 2.51 2.79 2.56 2.54 Newman-Keuls -based on comparison of the craft mean p < .05 ** p < .10 217 -----------------------------j._ ------------------------------Percents and Frequenci of Responses Satisfactory Low Medium High Rating *(1-4) (5-6) (7-10) Subgroups % N % N % N Craft 26.32 5 15.79 3 57.89 11 Profession 43.75 14 28.12 9 28.12 9 Art 55.84 43 24.68 19 19.48 15 Craft-profession 47.37 9 15.79 3 36.84 7 Craft-art 23.08 3 38.46 5 38.46 5 Profession-art 35.71 10 35.71 10 28.58 8 Totals 84 49 55 Chi-square (5.N=188)=17.51 p < .10 Key Rating Scales *(1-10) Percents 0%-33.5 = small 33.6%-66.5% ... Means 1.0-2.9 least satisfactory 3.0-4.9 = less satisfactory moderate 5.0-6.9 =medium/neutral satisfactory 7.0-8.9 more satisfactory 9.0-10.0 = most satisfactory 66.6%-100% = large

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218 Table 16 compares teachers' subgroups with respect to means of their responses as to how satisfactory they found the practice of using teacher behavior rating scales to be in promoting quality instruction. Teacher subgroups' responses differed significantly. The comparison of means using the Newman-Keuls method identified statistical differences between (a) the mean of the craft subgroup and the mean of the art subgroup at the .OS level of significance and (b) the mean of the craft subgroup and the means of the art subgroup, the profession subgroup, the profession-art, the craft-art subgroup and craft-professional at the .10 level of significance. The means of "teacher behavior rating scales" ranged from 4.17 through 6.84. The subgroups demonstrated medium to low support for teacher behavior rating scales. The craft, the craft-profession, the craft-art, and the profession-art subgroups' means for teacher behavior rating scales were in the medium satisfactory range for promoting quality instruction. The profession subgroup's and the art subgroup's mean for teacher behavior rating scales were in the less satisfactory range for promoting quality instruction. The craft subgroup had the highest mean of all the subgroups. When compared with all other subgroups, the craft subgroup rated teacher behavior rating scales most favorably as a method for promoting quality in instruction. The craft mean

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219 was 6.84. According to the conceptions of teaching work model, these findings are theoretically logical. Teacher behavior rating scales involve a type of supervision which emphasized observation of teachers for evidence of teaching skills which had been predetermined to be effective teaching Teacher behavior rating scales was also a form of supervision which emphasized recommendations in terms of specified outcomes in the form of goals and objectives. Both of these factors are congruent with the craft conception of teaching work where knowledge of established practice, skill and technical expertise have been characteristics of craft work. Subgroups' standard deviations ranged from 2.5 through 2.79; hence, variability was evident within subgroups' responses. Table 16 also compares subgroups' responses in terms of frequency and percentage distributions of low, medium and high satisfactory responses to the practice of using teacher behavior rating scales as a form of supervision. Low satisfactory percentage scores for teacher behavior rating scales ranged from 23.08% through 55.84%. The craft subgroup and the craft art subgroup had a small percentage of their members who rated teacher behavior rating scales as low satisfactory in promoting quality instruction. The profession, the art, the craft profession, and the profession-art subgroups had a moderate

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220 percentage of their members who rated teacher behavior rating scales as low satisfactory in promoting quality instruction. Medium satisfactory percentage scores for this practice ranged from 15.79% through 35.71%. The craft, the profession, the art, and the craft-profession subgroups all had a small percentage of their members who rated teacher behavior rating scales medium satisfactory in promoting quality instruction. The craft-art subgroup and the profession-art subgroup had a moderate percentage of their members who rated teacher behavior rating scales as medium satisfactory in promoting quality instruction. High satisfactory percentage scores for teacher behavior rating scales ranged from 19.48% through 57.89%. The craft, the craft-profession, and the craft-art subgroups all had a moderate percentage of their members who rated teacher behavior rating scales as high satisfactory in promoting quality instruction. The profession, the art, and the profession-art subgroups all had a small percentage of members who rated this practice as high satisfactory. No subgroup had a large percentage of members who rated teacher behavior rating scales as high satisfactory. Also, Table 16 presents Chi-square Tests of Association results. The finding with respect to subgroups' responses to teacher behavior rating scales, in terms of low satisfactory, medium satisfactory, and high satisfactory ratings for promoting

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221 quality instruction was statistically different at the .10 level of significance. chi-square results support the ANOVA results. The craft-related subgroups gave moderate support to teacher behavior rating scales. The profession, the art and the profession-art subgroups rejected teacher behavior rating scales as being satisfactory. Findings for Subgroups' Responses to Clinical Supervision Practice Table 17 presents an analysis of the results of the subgroups' responses to clinical supervision in terms of means, standard deviations, frequencies, percentages of responses, ANOVA, chi-square and Newman-Keuls results. The results are also analyzed in terms of the conceptions of teaching work model. All the subgroups responded to clinical supervision with medium and moderate satisfactory ratings. According to the conceptions of teaching work model, the craft subgroup would have been expected to rate clinical supervision more positively. This is based on the premise that the practice emphasizes methodology and technique. The profession subgroup would also be expected to rate clinical supervision more positively because it has a theoretical basis; however, the findings indicated that this was not the case.

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Table 17 Clinical Supervision Statement Means. Standard Deviation. ANOVA. Percents. Frequencies. Chi-square and Newman-Keuls Results for Subgroups' Responses Subgroups Craft (N=l9) Profession (N=32) Art (N=77) Craft-profession (N=l9) Craft-art (N-13) Profession-art (N=27) ANOVA F=.658 Not significant Means 6.74 6.31 6.08 5.58 6.23 6:78 Percent and Frequency of Responses Satisfactory Low Medium Rating *(1-4) (S-6) Subgroups % N % Craft 21.05 4 26.32 Profession 31.25 10 12.5 Art 32.47 25 19.48 Craft-profession 36.84 7 21.05 Craft-art 30.77 4 15.38 Profession-art 14.81 4 29.63 Totals 54 Chi-square= (5.N=l87 = 6.47 not significant Key Rating Scales *(1-10) N 5 4 15 4 2 8 38 Standard Deviations 2.70 2.93 2.61 2.41 2.74 2.41 High (7-10) % 52.63 56.25 48.05 42.11 53.85 55.56 222 N 10 18 37 8 7 15 95 Percents 0%-33.5 = small 33.6%-66.5% = Means 1.0-2.9 least satisfactory 3.0-4.9 = less satisfactory moderate 5.0-6.9 =medium/neutral satisfactory 7.0-8.9 =more satisfactory 9.0-10.0 =most satisfactory 66.6%-100% = large

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223 Table 17 compares teachers' subgroups with respect to means of the subgroups' responses as to how satisfactory they found the practice of clinical supervision to be for promoting quality in instruction. No statistical differences were found among the subgroups' responses. The means ranged from 5.58 through 6.78. The subgroups demonstrated moderate support for clinical supervision. All subgroups' means for clinical supervision were in the medium satisfactory range in terms of being satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. Subgroups' standard deviations varied with a range of 2.41 through 2.93. Consensus within these subgroups was not strong. Table 17 compares subgroups' responses in terms of frequency and percentage distributions of low, medium and high satisfactory responses to the clinical supervision. Findings indicated that a slight majority of the members in each subgroup supported clinical supervision as a method for promoting quality instruction, but this support was not strong. No statistical differences were found among the subgroups' responses. Low satisfactory percentage scores for clinical supervision ranged from 14.81% through 36.84%. Medium satisfactory percentage scores for clinical supervision ranged from 12.5% through 29.63%. High satisfactory percentage scores for clinical supervision ranged from 42.11% through 56.25%.

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224 All subgroups, except the craft-profession subgroup, had a small percentage of members who rated clinical supervision as low satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. All sub-groups had a small percentage of members who rated clinical supervision as medium satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. All subgroups had a moderate percentage of members who rated clinical supervision as high satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. The responses' patterns of the profession, the art, the craft-profession and the craft-art subgroups indicated that these subgroups were split in their support of clinical supervision. Also, Table 17 presents ANOVA and chi-square results. There were no significant differences found using these procedures. The subgroups gave moderate support to clinical super-vision; and the craft subgroup demonstrated the most support. Findings for Subgroups' Responses to Administrative Monitoring Supervision Practice Table 18 presents an analysis of the results with respect to the subgroups' responses to administrative monitoring in terms of means, standard deviations, frequencies, percentages of responses, ANOVA, chi-square and Newman-Keuls results. The results are also analyzed in terms of the conceptions of teaching work model.

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Table 18 Administrative Monitoring Means, Standard Deviations. Percents, and Frequencies, ANOVA. Newman-Keuls and Chisquare, Summary Table Subgroups Craft (N=l9) Profession (N=32) Art (N=77) Craft-profession (N=l9) Craft-art (N=l3) Profession-art (N=28) F test=.658 not significant Means 5.47 5.56 5.17 6.84 6.31 6.07 Percent and Frequencies of Responses Satisfactory Low Medium Rating (*1-4) (5-6) Subgroups % N % Craft 42.11 8 36.84 Profession 37.5 12 18.75 Art 41.56 32 29.87 Craft-profession 15.79 3 31.59 Craft-art 23.08 3 23.08 Profession-art 35.71 10 17.86 Totals 68 Chi-square=(S,N-188) 12.52 not significant Key Rating Scales *(1-10) N 7 6 23 6 3 5 so Standard Deviations 2.06 2.53 2.64 2.32 2.63 2.68 High (7-10) % 21.05 43.75 28.57 52.63 53.85 46.43 225 N 4 14 22 10 7 13 70 Means 1.0-2.9 least satisfactory 3.0-4.9 = less satisfactory Percents 0%-33.5 = small 33.6%-66.5% 5.0-6.9 =medium/neutral satisfactory 7.0-8.9 =more satisfactory 9.0-10.0 =most satisfactory moderate 66.6%-100% = large

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226 Analysis of findings indicated that the subgroups did not strongly support administrative monitoring as being satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. Most responses were in the medium and moderate ranges. The craft subgroup responses in terms of the small percentage of members who rated administrative monitoring as high satisfactory for promoting quality instruction were consistent with the conceptions of teaching work model. In the craft conception of teaching work, craft workers were expected to complete their work without close supervision of the actual work. Table 18 compares teachers' subgroups with respect to the means of their responses as to how satisfactory they found the practice of administrative monitoring to be in promoting quality instruction. The subgroups' means ranged from 5.17 through 6.84. The subgroups demonstrated moderate support for administrative monitoring. All subgroups' means were in the medium satisfactory range with respect to how satisfactory statistical differences were found among the subgroups' responses. Subgroups' standard deviations ranged from 2.06 through 2.68. Variability was evident within subgroups' responses. Table 18 also compares subgroups' responses in terms of frequency and percentage distributions of low, medium and high satisfactory responses to the administrative monitoring practice

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of supervision. No statistical differences were found among the subgroups' responses. 227 Low satisfactory percentage scores for administrative monitoring ranged from 15.79% through 42.11%. The craftprofession subgroup and the craft-art subgroup had a small percentage of their members who rated this practice as low satisfactory in terms of promoting quality instruction. The craft subgroup, the profession subgroup, the art subgroup, and the profession-art subgroup had a moderate percentage of their members who rated administrative monitoring as medium satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. Medium satisfactory percentage scores for administrative monitoring ranged from 17.86% through 36.84%. All subgroups, except the craft subgroup, had a small percentage of their members who rated administrative monitoring as medium satisfactory in promoting instructional quality. The craft subgroup had a moderate percentage of their members who rated administrative monitoring as medium satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. High satisfactory percentage scores for this administrative monitoring ranged from 21.05% through 52.63%. The craft and the art subgroups had a small percentage of their members who rated administrative monitoring as high satisfactory in terms of promoting quality instruction. The profession, the

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228. craft-profession, the craft-art, and the profession-art subgroups had a moderate percentage of their members who rated administrative monitoring as being high satisfactory. No subgroup had a large percentage of members who rated administrative monitoring as being high satisfactory in promoting quality instruction. Also, Table 18 presents ANOVA and chi-square results. There were no significant differences found using these procedures. The subgroups demonstrated moderate support for administrative monitoring. The craft and art subgroups demonstrated the least support for this practice. The subgroups were split with respect to their perceptions of administrative monitoring. Findings for Self-directed Development Supervision Practice Table 19 presents an analysis of results of the subgroups' responses to self-directed developmental supervision in terms of means, standard deviations, frequencies, percentages of responses, ANOVA, chi-square and Newman-Keuls results to self-directed development supervision. Analysis of findings indicated that self-directed development was strongly supported by all subgroups as a

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229 Table 19 Self-directed Development Supervision Statement Means. Standard Deviation. Percents. Frequencies. ANOVA. Chi-square. Newman-Keuls Results for Subgroups' Responses Subgroups Craft (N=l9) Profession (N=32) Art (N=75) Craft-profession (N=l9) Craft-art (N=l4) Profession-art (N=27) ANOVA = F=.975 not significant Mean 7.95 7.09 8.05 7.95 7.50 7.33 Standard Deviations 1. 58 2.86 2.19 2.27 2. 71 2.57 Percents and Frequencies of Responses Satisfactory Low Medium High Rating Subgroups % N % N % N Craft 0 0 21.05 4 78.95 15 Profession 21.88 7 18.75 6 59.38 19 Art 8.00 6 10.67 8 81.33 61 Craft-profession 10.53 2 15.79 3 73.68 14 Craft-art 21.43 3 7.14 1 71.43 10 Profession-art 11.11 3 18.52 5 70.37 19 Totals 21 27 138 Chi-square=(5.N=l86)-11.48 not significant Key Rating Scales *(1-10) Means 1.0-2.9 least satisfactory 3.0-4.9 = less satisfactory 5.0-6.9 medium/neutral satisfactory 7.0-8.9 more satisfactory 9.0-10.0 =most satisfactory Percents 0%-33.5 = small 33.6%-66.5% = moderate 66.6%-100% = large

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230 satisfactory method of promoting quality instruction. The art subgroup demonstrated the strongest support for self-directed development. The finding in which the profession subgroup has the lowest percentage of members who rate self-directed development as high satisfactory was not congruent with the theoretical expectations described by the conceptions of teaching work model. In the profession conception of work, individuals in a professional occupation are expected to exercise autonomy and self-control; being responsible for one's own professional growth was implied in these conditions. Table 19 compares teachers' subgroups with respect to means of their responses as to how satisfactory they found the practice of self-directed development to be in promoting quality instruction. The means ranged from 7.09 through 8.05. All means were in the more satisfactory range for promoting quality instruction. Subgroups' standard deviations ranged from 1.58 through 2.71. Variability was evident within subgroups' responses. The craft subgroup demonstrated the least amount of variability. Table 19 compares subgroups' responses in terms of frequency and percentage distributions of low, medium and high satisfactory responses for the self-directed development practice of supervision. Low satisfactory percentage scores for self-directed development ranged from 0% through 21.88%. All subgroups had a small percentage of members who rated self-

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231 directed development as low satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. Medium satisfactory percentage scores for self-directed development ranged from 7.14% through 21.05%. All subgroups had a small percentage of members who rated self-directed development as medium satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. High satisfactory percentage scores for self-directed development ranged from 59.38% through 81.33%. All subgroups, except the profession subgroup, had a large percentage of members who rated self-directed development as high satis-factory for promoting quality instruction. Also, Table 19 cites ANOVA and chi-square results. No statistical, significant differences were found among the means or frequencies of the subgroups' responses. All the subgroups gave strong support to self-directed development. The art subgroup gave the strongest support for this practice. The profession subgroup demonstrated the least support. Findings for Subgroups' Responses to Artistic Supervision Practice Table 20 presents an analysis of the results of the subgroups' responses to artistic supervision. The responses are presented in terms of means, standard deviations,

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232 Table 20 Artistic Supervision Statement Means. Standard Deviations. Percents. Frequencies. ANOVA. Chi-square Results for Responses Subgroups Craft (N=l9) Profession (N=32) Art (N=76) Craft-profession (N=l9) Craft-art (N=l3) Profession-art (N=27) Means 7.11 7.06 7.57 6.84 6.92 7.78 ANOVA (F=.673) not significant Percents and Frequencies Satisfactory Low Rating *(1-4) Subgroups % N Craft 21.05 4 Profession 12.50 4 Art 10.53 8 Craft-profession 15.79 3 Craft-art 23.08 3 Profession-art 7.41 2 Totals 24 Medium (5-6) T N 10.53 2 18.75 6 11.84 9 21.05 4 15.38 2 14.81 4 27 Standard Deviations 2.40 2.42 2.42 2. 71 2.29 2.19 High (7-10) % 68.42 68.75 77.63 63.16 61.54 77.78 N 13 22 59 12 8 21 135 Chi-square=(5,N=l86)=5.59 not significant Key Rating Scales *(1-10) Means 1.0-2.9 least satisfactory 3.0-4.9 = less satisfactory 5.0-6.9 =medium/neutral satisfactory 7.0-8.9 =more satisfactory 9.0-10.0 =most satisfactory Percents 0%-33.5 = small 33.6%-66.5% = moderate 66.6%-100% = large

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frequencies, percentages of responses, ANOVA, chi-square and Newman-Keuls results. 233 Analysis of findings indicated that all the subgroups supported artistic supervision as a satisfactory practice for promoting quality instruction. Artistic supervision was supported strongest by the art subgroup and the profession-art subgroup. These findings were congruent with the theoretical expectations of the conceptions of teaching work model where in art the sharing of feelings and impressions and the concerns with relationships have been more salient than a strong focus on methodology. The craft and the profession subgroups' patterns of responses were more alike in their support of artistic supervision than the art and profession-art sub groups. The least support for the artistic supervision practice was from the craft-related subgroups. These findings were congruent with the theoretical expectations of the conceptions of teaching work model where people who conceptualized teaching as (a) an art would be expected to support methods which emphasized sharing impressions and feelings more strongly, and (b) as a craft or profession would be expected to support methods which emphasized sharing impressions and feelings less strongly. Table 20 compares teachers subgroups with respect to means of their responses as to how satisfactory they found the practice of artistic supervision to be in promoting quality in

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234 instruction. The means for subgroups' responses for artistic supervision ranged from 6.84 through 7.78. The craft, the profession, the art, and the profession-art subgroups all had means which were in the more satisfactory range for promoting quality instruction. The craft-profession subgroup and the craft-art subgroup had means which were in the medium satisfactory range for promoting quality instruction. Subgroups' standard deviations ranged from 2.19 through 2.71. Variability was evident within subgroups' responses. Table 20 compares subgroups' responses in terms of frequency and percentage distributions of low, medium and high satisfactory responses to artistic supervision. Low satisfactory percentage scores for artistic supervision ranged from 7.41% through 23.08%. All subgroups had a small percentage of their members who rated this practice as low satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. Medium satisfactory percentage scores for artistic supervision practice ranged from 10.53% through 21.05%. All subgroups had a small percentage of their members who rated this practice as medium satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. High satisfactory percentage scores for artistic supervision ranged from 61.54% through 77.78%. Four out of six subgroups had a large percentage of their members who rated this practice as high satisfactory for promoting quality

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235 instruction. The craft-profession subgroup and the craft-art subgroup had a moderate percentage of their members who rated artistic supervision as high satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. Also, Table 20 presents ANOVA and chi-square results. There were no significant differences found using these procedures. A majority of the subgroups demonstrated strong support for artistic supervision. The art and profession-art subgroups demonstrated the strongest support. The craft-profession and craft-art demonstrated moderate support. Findings for Subgroups' Responses to Learning-centered Supervision Practice Table 21 presents an analysis of results of the subgroups' responses to learning-centered supervision in terms of means, standard deviations, frequencies, percentages of responses, ANOVA, chi-square and Newman-Keuls results. Analysis of findings indicated that learning-centered supervision was supported by all the subgroups with respect to being satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. The craft-profession subgroup demonstrated the most support for learning-centered supervision. These findings were congruent with the theoretical expectations of the conceptions of teaching work model. Learning-centered supervision has been defined as

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236 Table 21 Learning-centered Supervision Means. Standard Deviations. Percents. Frequencies. ANOVA, Chi-square. and Newman-Keuls Comparison of Means Results for Subgroups' Responses Subgroups Means Standard Deviations Craft (N-19) Profession (N=32) Art (N=76) Craft-profession (N=l9) Craft-art (N=l4) Profession-art (N=27) ANOVA=F=.759 not significant Percents and Frequencies Satisfactory Low Rating *(1-4) Subgroups % Craft 0.00 Profession 18.75 Art 11.84 Craft-profession 15.79 Craft-art 21.43 Profession-art 11.11 Totals N 0 6 9 3 3 3 24 7.68 7.06 7 12 7.89 6.57 6.96 Medium (5-6) % 31.58 12.50 23.68 0.00 21.43 29.63 N 6 4 18 0 3 8 39 1.83 2 72 2.24 2.49 2. 77 2.46 High (7 -10) % 68.42 68.75 64.47 84.21 57.14 59.26 N 13 22 49 16 8 16 124 Chi-sguare=(5.N=l87) = 13.12 not significant Key Rating Scales *(1-10) Means 1.0-2.9 = least satisfactory 3.0-4.9 = less satisfactory 5.0-6.9 =medium/neutral satisfactory 7.0-8.9 =more satisfactory 9.0-10.0 =most satisfactory Percents 0%-33.5 = small 33.6%-66.5% = moderate 66.6%-100% = large

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237 a practice that emphasized problem solving and planning based on observation of methodology used by teachers and sharing views about professional issues. These strategies were congruent with craft, profession, and art conceptions of teaching. Table 21 compares teachers' subgroups with respect to means of their responses as to how satisfactory they found the practice of learning-centered supervision to be in promoting quality in instruction. The means ranged from 6.57 through 7.89. The craft, the profession, the art, and the craftprofession subgroups all had means which were rated in the more satisfactory range for promoting quality instruction. The craft-art subgroup and the profession-art subgroup had means that were rated in the medium satisfactory range for promoting quality instruction. Subgroups' standard deviations ranged 1.83 through 2.77; hence, variability was evident within subgroups' responses. Table 21 compares subgroups' responses in terms of frequency and percentage distributions of low, medium and high satisfactory responses to the learning-centered supervision. Low satisfaction percentage scores for learning-centered supervision ranged from 0% through 21.43%. All subgroups had a small percentage of their members who rated this practice as low satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. Medium satisfaction percentage scores for learning-centered supervision ranged from 0% through 31.58%. All subgroups had a

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238 small percentage of their members who rated this practice as medium satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. High satisfactory percentage scores for learning-centered supervision ranged from 57.14% through 84.21%. The craft, profession, and craft-profession subgroups had a large percentage of their members rate learning-centered super-vision as high satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. The art, craft-art, and profession-art subgroups had a moderate percentage of members who rated learning-centered supervision as high satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. Also, Table 21 presents ANOVA and chi-square results. There were no significant differences found using these procedures. The craft, profession, and craft-profession subgroups gave strong support to learning-centered supervision. The craft-art, profession-art and art subgroups demonstrated moderate support. Findings Based on the Research Questions Studied in This Thesis The following summary presents the major findings with respect to hypotheses and questions posed by this study. These findings emphasize descriptive information with respect to how the subgroups perceived teaching and supervision. 1. Question #l was: "Did this group of elementary teachers' perceptions of teaching fit patterns which could be

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239 categorized as a labor, craft, profession, or art conception of teaching?" Data analyses supported a positive response to question #l. Findings were that six subgroups were identified. These subgroups were based on individual teachers' first choice responses among the conceptions of teaching work statements. These subgroups were the craft subgroup, the profession subgroup, the art subgroup, the craft-profession subgroup, the craft-art subgroup, and the profession-art subgroup. 2. Question #2 was, "Were these categories pure categories?" In response to question #2 the findings indicated that these categories were not pure categories. Only one group, the art subgroup, had 10 members who identified their first choice in each set of statements as art statements. All other subgroups identified at least one alternative conception statement as more true. 3. Question #3 was, "Were some elements in the conception of teaching work perceived more consistently as an ideal circumstance in teaching than others?" These elements involved how teachers perceived (a) the abilities and knowledge that the most qualified teacher possessed, (b) conditions related to implementation of instruction in which teaching is most successful, (c) good classroom management, (d) values and ethos of the teaching as

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an occupation, and (e) occupational satisfaction in terms of the most important sources of satisfaction in teaching. 240 The findings indicated that the responses were basically positive. All the subgroups rated the following seven statements highest in more true responses. The statements isncluded (a) three art statements having to do with teacher qualifications, implementation of instruction, and occupational satisfaction, (b) two profession statements having to do with implementation of instruction and classroom management, and (c) two craft statements having to do with values and ethos in the teaching occupation and occupational satisfaction. The statements and range percentages of subgroups perceived as more true responses were as follows: -Teacher Qualifications -Art statement: "The most qualified teachers possessed talent, intuition, originality" (73.68% through 96.10%). -Implementation of Instruction -Profession Statement: Diagnoses of Learners' Needs. "Teaching is most successful when teachers have the responsibility to meet these needs, and to see that instruction is successfully carried through" (71.43% through 96.43%) -Implementation of Instruction -Art Statement: Multiple Goals for learning. "Teaching is most successful when instruction consists of learning activities which are

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designed to teach multiple goals and allows for maximum freedom in student learning" (73.68% through 100%). -Classroom Management -Profession Statement: Professional Judgment: "Good classroom management is the result of refinement of valid principles of instruction and solid professional judgment" (73.68% through 96.43%) 241 Values and Ethos -Craft Statement: Care and Precision in Instruction. "Teaching as an occupation is most valued when teachers choose strategies, methods, and materials with care and precision in order to perform instruction competently" (61.29% through 94.74%). Occupational Satisfaction in Teaching -Craft Statement: Student mastery. "The most important source of satisfaction in teaching is knowing that students have learned and have achieved mastery of what I had intended to teach" (76.62% through 92. 86%). -Occupational Satisfaction -Art Statement: Sharing Meaningful Learning Experiences. "The most important source of satisfaction in teaching is the intrinsic satisfaction of sharing meaningful learning experiences with students" (78.94% through 100%). 4. Question #4 was, "Were some methods of supervision perceived as more satisfactory than others?" The findings indicated that the responses to question #4 were positive. Research findings indicated that some of the

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242 differentiated supervision practices were rated with consistently higher percentages of high satisfactory responses for promoting quality instruction than others. The supervision practices and the range of high satisfactory scores are as follows: -Cooperative Professional Development--64.29% through 89.47% range of high satisfactory responses. -Self-directed Development--59.38% through 81.33% range of high satisfactory responses. Five scores were at or above 70.37%. -Learning-centered through 84.21% range of high satisfactory re-sponses. Four scores were at or above 64.47%. -Artistic Supervision--61.54% through 77.78% range of high satisfactory responses. Four percentage scores were at or above 68.42%. Findings with Respect to Hypotheses Studied in This Thesis The following hypotheses were tested in order to clarify questions regarding teachers' perceptions about teaching and their perceptions about supervision. Null Hypothesis I was: There were no significant differences (at alpha .10) in the way teachers perceived teaching with respect to a labor conception of teaching work, a craft conception of teaching work, a profession conception of teaching work, or an art conception of teaching work. Null Hypothesis II was:

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243 There were no significant differences (at alpha .10) in the way teachers teaching with respect to a labor conception of teaching work, a craft conception of teaching work, a profession conception of teaching work, or an art conception of teaching work and how. satisfactory they perceived different supervisory practices were in promoting quality instruction. The supervision practices studied were administrative monitoring, artistic supervision, clinical supervision, learning-centered supervision, selfdirected development, teacher behavior rating scales, and cooperative professional development. Both of these hypotheses were rejected. Significant dif-ferences were found in how teacher subgroups perceived teaching in 12 out of 20 conceptions of teaching work statements. Teacher subgroups differed with respect to the roles of (a) knowledge of established practice, (b) understanding theory, (c) talent, intuition, creativity, (d) diagnoses of learners' needs, (e) multiple goals for learning, (f) professional judgment, (g) individual interest and spontaneity, (h) effort and loyalty to the district's goals, (i) care and precision in instruction, (j) original curriculum and innovation, and (k) prestige as important factor in quality teaching. Significant statistical differences were also found in the way subgroups perceived two supervision practices for promoting quality instruction. Teachers strongly supported cooperative professional development and rejected teacher behavior rating scales.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The following chapter presents a summation of the research problem, the research design, the main findings, the conclusions, and the recommendations of this study. The Problem The problem of this dissertation was to study how a group of elementary teachers perceived teaching in the context of the conceptions of teaching work model (Mitchell & Kerchner, 1983) and to study "how satisfactory" these teachers perceived Glatthorn's (1984) differentiated supervision practices were for.promoting quality instruction. The problem was threefold: (a) to describe ways in which teachers perceived teaching in terms of the labor, the craft, the profession, and the art conceptions of teaching work; (b) to identify teachers' perceptions regarding how satisfactory different instructional supervision practices were in promoting quality instruction; and (c) to determine if there were any differences among the ways teachers perceived teaching work and how they perceived different types of instructional supervision practices.

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245 Design of the Study A non-random sample of 221 elementary, volunteer subjects predominately from Jefferson County Public Schools was used in the study. The subgroups consisted of 189 participants. The total group consisted of 221 participants. Description of the Instrument and Data Collection The data collection method for this study was the survey procedure. The instrument was a self-report questionnaire named the Conceptions of Teaching Work and Differentiated Supervision Questionnaire which was developed by the researcher. Problems. Hypotheses, and Research Questions The problem in this study was how do teachers perceive teaching in terms of the labor, craft, profession, and art conceptions of teaching work. One null hypothesis and four research questions were associated with this problem. Null Hypothesis I was: There were no significant differences (at alpha .10) in the way teachers perceived teaching with respect to a labor conception of teaching work, a craft conception of teaching work, a profession conception of teaching work, or an art conception of teaching work. The research questions were: 1. Did this group of elementary teachers' perceptions of teaching fit patterns which could be categorized as a labor, craft, profession, or art conception of teaching?

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246 2. Were these categories pure categories? 3. Were some elements in the conception of teaching work perceived more consistently as an ideal circumstance in teaching than others? These elements involved how teachers perceived (a) the abilities and knowledge that most qualified teachers possessed, (b) conditions related to implementation of instruction in which teaching is most successful, (c) good classroom management, (d) values and ethos of the teaching occupation in terms of teaching itself being valued, and (e) occupational satisfaction in terms of the most important sources of satisfaction in teaching. The second part of the research problem was to identify teachers' perceptions regarding how satisfactory different supervision practices were in promoting quality instruction and to determine if there were any differences among the ways teachers perceived teaching and how they perceived different types of instructional supervision practices. Glatthorn's differentiated supervision model was used as the basis to define the practices. The supervision practices were (a) cooperative professional development, (b) clinical supervision, (c) administrative monitoring, (d) teacher behavior rating scales, (e) self-directed development, (f) artistic supervision, and (g) learning-centered supervision. One question and one null hypothesis were addressed in studying the second part of the research problem. Question #4

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247 was concerned with the description of the teachers' perceptions of the differentiated supervision practices studied in this research. Question #4 was, "'Were some methods of supervision perceived as more satisfactory than others?" Null Hypothesis II was used to determine if differences in teachers' perceptions were statistically significant. This hypothesis was: There were no significant differences (at alpha .10) in the way teachers perceived teaching with respect to a labor conception of teaching work, a craft conception of teaching work, a profession conception of teaching work, or an art conception of teaching work and how satisfactory they perceived different supervisory practices were in promoting quality instruction. The supervision practices were administrative monitoring, artistic supervision, clinical supervision, learning-centered supervision, self-directed development, teacher behavior observations, and cooperative professional development. Major Findings Based on the literature review, analyses of the teachers' responses to the conceptions of teaching work and differentiated supervision, the following are the major findings of this study. 1. Teachers in this study perceived teaching and super-vision differently, based on the elements defined in the con-ceptions of teaching work and differentiated supervision models. 2. Six subgroups were identified, based on teachers' first choices among the conceptions of teaching work statements. The subgroups were craft (N=l9), profession (N=32), art (N=77), craft-profession (N=l9), craft-art (N=l4), and profession-art

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(N=28). The subgroups were not pure categories. No labor subgroup was identified. 248 3. Significant differences were found among the subgroups in how they perceived two different methods of supervision, cooperative professional development and teacher behavior rating scales. Cooperative professional development was perceived as significantly different by three subgroups. It was perceived as significantly different by (a) the art and the profession subgroups and (b) the art and the craft subgroups. The differences were a matter of strength of positive support for this practice. The art subgroup rated cooperative professional development substantially more positive than the other subgroups. Teacher behavior rating scales were perceived as significantly different by the craft subgroup and the art, profession, craft-profession, profession-art and craft-art subgroups. The craft subgroup was the only subgroup who demonstrated much support for this practice. 4. Ideal circumstances in teaching which were identified consistently by all the subgroups were (a) the art position on teacher qualifications--talent, intuition, and originality, (b) the profession position on implementation of instruction-diagnoses of learners' needs and multiple goals for learning; (c) the profession position on good classroom management--

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249 professional judgment, {d) the craft position on values and ethos--care and precision in instruction, (e) the craft and art positions on occupational satisfaction--student mastery and sharing meaningful learning experiences with students. 5. According to the teachers in the subgroups' perceptions, highly satisfactory forms of supervision were cooperative professional development, learning-centered supervision, artistic supervision and self-directed development. 6. According to the teachers in the subgroups' perceptions, lesser satisfactory forms of supervision were clinical supervision, administrative monitoring and teacher behavior rating scales. 7. The craft subgroup strongly supported the craft conception of teaching work on the craft positions of teacher qualifications, values and ethos of the teaching occupation, and occupational satisfaction. 8. The teacher craft subgroup was more eclectic in their perceptions with respect to implementation of instruction. The craft subgroup supported the profession position (diagnoses of learners' needs) and art position (multiple goals in instruction). 9. The teacher craft subgroup was more eclectic in their perceptions with respect to classroom management. The craft subgroup moderately supported the craft position (trial and

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error). It strongly supported the profession position (professional judgment and refined principles). 250 10. The teacher profession subgroup strongly supported the profession conception of teaching work on the profession positions on (a) teacher qualifications--understanding of theory, (b) implementation of instruction--diagnosis of learners' needs, (c) good classroom management--professional judgment, and (d) the values of autonomy and responsibility to act on ethical principles. 11. The teacher profession subgroup gave the most support of the subgroups to prestige as a source of occupational satisfaction; but it clearly preferred the art position which defined sharing meaningful learning experiences with students as the most important source of satisfaction in teaching. 12. The teacher profession subgroup also demonstrated strong support for the art positions on (a) teacher qualifications--talent, intuition, and originality, and (b) implementation of instruction--multiple goals for learning and maximum freedom in student learning. 13. The teacher profession subgroup was the only subgroup who demonstrated strong support for the profession position of values and ethos of the teaching occupation (teacher responsibility to exercise autonomy and to act on ethical principles in educational practice).

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251 14. For the most part, all the subgroups rejected prestige as a source of occupational satisfaction. 15. The teacher profession subgroup strongly supported the craft position on values and ethos of the teaching occupation--technical competency. 16. The teacher profession subgroup rejected the craft positions on teacher qualifications, implementation of instruction, and classroom management. Knowledge of established practice, general rules of instruction and trial and error learning of classroom management were not supported as ideal conditions of teaching by the profession subgroup. 17. The art conception of teaching work was the conception of teaching that was most supported by the teachers in this study. 18. The teacher art subgroup strongly supported the art conception of teaching work on the positions of (a) teacher qualifications--talent, intuition and originality, (b) implementation of instruction--multiple goals .for learning, (c) good classroom management--pursuit of individual interest, (d) values and ethos of the occupation--original curriculum, and (e) occupational satisfaction--intrinsic satisfaction of sharing meaningful learning experiences. 19. The teacher art subgroup demonstrated strong support for the profession positions on (a) implementation of

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instruction--diagnosis of learners' needs, and (b) classroom management--professional judgment. 252 20. The teacher art subgroup demonstrated strong support for the craft position (a) on values and ethos of the teaching occupation--competency, care and precision and (b) occupational satisfaction in teaching--knowing that students had learned what the teacher had intended to teach. 21. The teacher art subgroup rejected the profession positions on teacher qualifications and occupational satisfaction. Theory was not perceived to be an important understanding for teachers. Prestige was not perceived to be an important source of occupational satisfaction. 22. The statistically significant differences that were found among the subgroups were a matter of degree of positive support for the practice of cooperative professional development. 23. The teacher art subgroup demonstrated the most positive support, in terms of its mean, for cooperative professional development. 24. The responses of the teacher craft subgroup to teacher behavior rating scales were significantly different from all the other subgroups. The teacher craft subgroup was the only subgroup which demonstrated positive support for teacher behavior rating scales as a supervisory method which promoted quality instruction.

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253 25. The teacher craft, the teacher craft-profession, the teacher craft-art, the teacher profession-art subgroups gave moderate support, with respect to high satisfactory ratings, to teacher behavior rating scales. 26. The teacher profession subgroup and the teacher craft subgroup perceived teacher behavior rating scales as less satisfactory for promoting quality instruction. 27. The teacher craft subgroup demonstrated the strongest support of clinical supervision. 28. Teacher subgroups' response patterns demonstrated high variability within the subgroups with respect to their perceptions of administrative monitoring. 29. The teacher craft subgroup (21.05%) and the teacher art subgroup (28.05%) demonstrated the least support for administrative monitoring for promoting quality instruction. 30. The teacher profession subgroup had a near even split response pattern between high satisfactory ratings and low satisfactory ratings for administrative monitoring. 31. The teacher art subgroup gave the strongest support to self-directed development with respect to promoting quality instruction. 32. The teacher profession subgroup's support of selfdirected development was less strong than the other groups. 33. The teacher art subgroup and the profession-art subgroup gave the strongest support to artistic supervision.

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254 34. The teacher craft subgroup and the profession subgroup had similar patterns of responses toward artistic supervision. High satisfactory ratings were 68.42% for the craft subgroup and 68.42% for the profession subgroup. 35. The teacher craft-profession subgroup gave the strongest support to learning-centered supervision. 36. The teacher craft and teacher profession subgroups had similar response patterns to learning-centered supervision. 37. The teacher art-related subgroups demonstrated the least support for learning-centered supervision. Conclusions Based on the literature review, analyses of the teachers' responses to the conceptions of teaching work and differentiated supervision, the following conclusions are warranted. 1. The teachers in this study perceived teaching in different ways which fit patterns related to the craft, profession, and art conceptions of teaching. The labor conception of teaching was not supported by these teachers. The craft, profession and the art conceptions were supported, but individual teachers and subgroups were more eclectic in their perceptions than would be expected by the definitions in the conceptions of teaching work model.

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255 2. The labor conception of teaching was not supported by the subjects in this study. Possible reasons for this were that the labor conception of teaching implied that all activities related to one's job were to be prescribed and compensated. This research was voluntary and provided no direct compensation to the individuals who chose to participate. Another possible reason that the labor conception was not supported is that the labor task definition is much more restrictive than these teachers perceived their work. Teaching according_ to the labor conception is highly prescribed, routinized work where the supervisor is responsible for the outcomes. Teaching which was highly routine and rule bound was not perceived as an ideal circumstance for good teaching. 3. The craft conception of teaching work was supported by the limited numbers of subjects in the craft-related subgroups. Teaching conceptualized as a craft where standard practice is a key component was not perceived as an ideal circumstance for good teaching by this sample of teachers. Two elements from the craft conception of teaching, care and precision in instruction and outcomes in the form of student mastery, were perceived positively by a majority of teachers in the study. 4. The art conception of teaching work and the profession conception of teaching work were the conceptions most strongly supported by the subjects in this study

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256 5. Teachers strongly supported the profession conception of teaching work with respect to the task definitions of teaching. Teaching conceptualized as a profession in which the tasks of teaching were perceived as complex was perceived as an ideal circumstance for good teaching by this sample of teachers. The profession positions on professional judgment in implementation of instruction and classroom management were supported by a majority of teachers in all the subgroups. The values of prestige, professional responsibility to exercise autonomy and to act on ethical principles in educational practice were not perceived to be highly important by these teachers. Only the profession subgroup gave moderate support to this position. 6. The profession subgroup rejected the conceptions of teaching work which emphasized good teaching in terms of standardized and routinized practice. The profession subgroup rejected the labor conception of teaching work. They also rejected the craft positions on teacher qualifications (knowledge of established practice), implementation of instruction (general rules), and classroom management (trial and error). Standard practice and trial and error learning of classroom management were not supported as ideal conditions of teaching by this subgroup. 7. The art conception of teaching work was the conception of teaching that was most supported by the teachers in this

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257 study. The art subgroup was the largest subgroup and the most consistent in supporting the art positions. The art positions on (a) teacher qualifications--talent, intuition, and originality, (b) implementation of instruction--individual interest, and (c) occupational satisfaction were perceived positively by a majority of the teachers in this study. 8. The art subgroup rejected the conceptions of teaching work which emphasized good teaching in terms of standardized and routinized practice. It differed the most from the craft subgroup on all five sets of the conceptions of teaching work statements. 9. The subgroups were most differentiated by their responses toward the values artd ethos positions than by their responses toward the tasks--complexity of implementation of instruction and classroom management. Teachers' perceptions with respect to the types of related responsibilities that teachers had to the instructional process were more significant. 10. This research concluded teachers perceived the nondirective, differentiated supervision practices more favorably. Teachers preferred supervision practices where the supervisor acted as a resource in order to support teachers in promoting quality instruction. These practices were cooperative professional development, self-directed development, artistic supervision, and learning-centered supervision.

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258 11. Teachers in this study perceived supervision practices that were highly supervisor directive less positively than those which emphasized teacher responsibility. These practices were clinical supervision, administrative monitoring, and teacher behavior rating scales. 12. It was concluded that the ways in which teachers perceived teaching were linked to the ways they perceived supervision. The subgroups differed significantly with respect to their perceptions regarding cooperative professional development. The art subgroup demonstrated substantially more support than the craft and profession subgroups. The craft subgroup's perceptions of teacher behavior rating scales were more positive than all the other subgroups. The art and profession subgroups were similar in their perceptions. Generally the subgroups did not perceive teachers' behavior rating scales as very satisfactory. Implications The conceptions of teaching work model developed by Mitchell and Kerchner (1983) proposed that the way people perceived work had implications for the types of oversight (methods) that would be appropriate. They used this idea and applied it to teaching. Mitchell and Kerchner (1983) proposed that the appropriateness of particular types of

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259 supervision were related to the predominant way an organization perceived good teaching. This way of perceiving teaching was defined as a conception of teaching work. The four conceptions of teaching work were: the labor conception of teaching work, the craft conception of teaching work, the profession conception of teaching work, and the art conception of teaching work. Mitchell and Kerchner (1983) used these definitions as theoretical constructs with which to understand teaching. They qualified their use by writing that in reality all teaching was a combination of labor, craft, profession, and art but that the essential work could be characterized by one of the conceptions of teaching work. The findings and conclusions of this study indicated that the way teachers perceived teaching could be classified according to the conceptions of the teaching work model. Also, it was concluded that teachers' conceptions of teaching were linked to the way they perceived supervision. The findings and conclusions of this study differed from the proposed conceptions of teaching work of the theorists in that teachers were found to differ with respect to essential positions within the paradigms of the conceptions of teaching work. The study found that teachers' perceptions of teaching followed patterns. While most teachers' perceptions of teaching demonstrated a predominant view with respect to the conceptions of teaching work, their ways of conceptualizing teaching were more eclectic than

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260 what the theoretical model proposed. The pattern of responses appeared to indicate that teachers responded more in a dichotomous pattern rather than according to a continuum. The main focus of the conceptions of teaching work model was defining teaching according to its task complexity. The most important underlying principle in this theoretical model involved whether teaching was conceived as a routine task or was conceived as an adaptive task. The labor and craft conceptions of teaching were defined as the more routine and rationalized forms of teaching. Rationalized teaching was preplanned, based on standard operating procedures, and more subjecd to the specifications of management. The profession and art conceptions of teaching were defined as teaching which required adaptability. These forms required more intellectual and technical dexterity by the teacher. Mitchell and Kerchner (1983) proposed that work structures could be instituted in organizations in order to promote a particular conception of teaching work. Also, Mitchell and Kerchner (1983) implied that although all actual teaching involved some aspects of routine tasks of labor and craft work, the essential tasks could be defined according to labor, craft, profession, and art conceptions of teaching. In addition, the theorists implied that there was consistency within the way individuals perceived the underlying principles which composed each conception of teaching work.

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261 This research found that teachers who volunteered for this study did not perceive teaching in ways that were predominantly differentiated by their perceptions of tasks of teaching, which were defined as implementation of instruction and classroom management, which were perceived by a strong majority of the teachers in all the subgroups as complex tasks. The profession and art positions which were identified as diagnosing of learners' needs, having multiple goals for learning, and following valid principles of instruction in classroom management, were the most supported task aspects of teaching. Statistical differences were found in the way the subgroups responded to these positions, but the differences were due to the strength of support in the number of subgroups' members. This research found that teachers who volunteered for this study were more differentiated by their perceptions of occupational ethos and values associated with specific conceptions of the conceptions of teaching work model. These values were related to the task definition of teaching but emphasized the quality and types of decisions that teachers make with respect to teaching. Statistical differences were found in how the teachers' subgroups responded to all the positions. The labor position involved teachers' decisions which emphasized loyalty to the district as an important occupational value. The craft position emphasized teachers' responsibility to make technical decisions. The profession

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262 position emphasized teachers' responsibility to make ethical decisions with respect to teaching. The art position emphasized teachers' responsibility to make creative decisions with respect to the development of curriculum. The findings that teachers did not strongly support the profession positions on prestige and ethical practice has implications for the traditional definition of professionalism. These teachers supported more pragmatic values in teaching rather than those associated with abstract values. Technical skills and outcomes were perceived as more important by these teachers. Although these teachers differed in the ways they perceived teaching and although these differences were associated with the ways they perceived instructional supervision, as a group, these teachers preferred non-directive forms of supervision. Preferences for non-directive styles of supervision may be the results of teacher socialization or related to personal characteristics of those who go into teaching. A general set of teachers' responses to the degree of directiveness of instructional supervision may affect the effectiveness and outcomes of supervision efforts to help improve teaching.

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Recommendations The results of the study supported these recommendations. 1. This study used a sample of elementary teachers who were predominantly from one suburban school district. Using other types of school districts, other groups of teachers' conceptions of teaching work should be studied. 263 2. This study included only elementary teachers. Teachers from other academic levels and teaching specialties should be studied using the conceptions of teaching model. 3. Additional research as to the reasons why teachers responded to the positions within the conceptions of teaching work model would be beneficial to understanding more about how teachers perceived teaching. 4. Administrators should be studied using the conceptions of teaching work model. The question, "Do administrators have similar or different perceptions of teaching than teachers?" should be addressed.

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Silver, P. (1983). Educational administration: Theoretical perspectives on practice and research. New York: Harper and Row. Smith, F. (1986). Insult to intelligence: The bureaucratic invasions of our classrooms. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Smith, L. M., & Geoffrey, W. (1968). The complexities of an urban classroom. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Smyth, J. W. (1986, April). Peer and clinical superv1s1on as 'empowerment' versus delivery of service. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA, April 16-20. Soukharov, A. H., & Ellis, K. (eds.). (1984). Webster's New York: II: New riverside university dictionary. Houghton Mifflin. Squires, D. A., Huitt, W. G., & Segars, J. K. (1981, December). Improving classrooms and schools: What's important? Educational Leadership, 39, 174-179. Stake, R. E. (1983). Stakeholders' influence in the evaluation of inner-city schools. In A. S. Bryk (Ed.), Stakeholder-based evaluation (pp. 15-30). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Stenhouse, L. (1984). Artistry and teaching: The teacher as focus of research and development. Alternative perspectives on school improvement. London: The Falmer Press. Stephens, J. M. (1976). The process of schooling. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Stoller, N. (1978). Supervision and the improvement of instruction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Task Force on Teaching as a Profession. (1986). A nation prepared: Teachers for a 21st century. New York: Carnegie Forum. Van Hoose, J., & Huit, R. E. (1979, Fall). artist dimension in effective teaching. Education, 51, 36-39. The performing Contemporary von Wright, H. (1971). Explanation and understanding. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 276

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Wallace, G. (1926). The Art of thought. New York: Harcourt, Brace. Waller, W. (1932). The sociology of teaching. New York: Russell & Russell. Watts, G. D., & McClure, R. M. (1990, June). Expanding the contract to revolutionize school renewal. Phi Delta Kappan, 71(10), 765-774. Webb, S., & Webb, B. (1920). History of trade unionism. New York: Gruen. Weber, M. (1947). Social and economic organizations (A.M. Henderson & T. Parsons, Trans.). New York: Oxford University Press. Weick, K. E. (1982). Administering education in loosely coupled schools." Phi Delta Kappan, 27(2), 673-676. Wiles, K. (1967). Supervision for better schools (3d ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice -Hall. Wiles, K., & Lovell, J. T. (1975). Supervision for better schools (4th ed.). Englewood, Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Windelband, W. (1894). Geschichte und naturwissenshaft. Reprinted in Praludien (1907) (3d ed.). Tubingen, J. C. B. Mohr. Wise, A. E. (1979). Legislated learning. Berkeley: University of California Press. Wise, A. E. (1986). Graduate teacher education and teacher professionalism. Journal of Teacher Education, 37(5), 36-40. Wise, A. E. (1990). Six steps to teacher professionalism. Educational Leadership, 47(7), 57-60. Wise, A. E., & Darling-Hammond, L. (1984, December -1985, January). Teacher evaluation and teacher professionalism. Educational Leadership. 42(4), 28-33. Wolcott, H. (1977). Teachers vs. technocrats. Eugene, OR: Center for Policy and Management. 277

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APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED ON ESTABLISHING FACE VALIDITY

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CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING STATEMENTS The following statements are proposed indicators of the "Conceptions of Teaching Work Model" developed by Douglas E. Mitchell, Charles T. Kerchner, Linda Darling-Hammond, Arthur Wise, and Sara Pease. Please mark the following statements according to how each best fits the category or concept of teaching as labor, craft, profession, or art. Definitions: Teaching defined as labor is rationally planned and routine work. Teaching defined as a craft is work requiring specialized skill. Teaching defined as a profession is defined as work that requires skill and judgement. Teaching defined as an art is work that is highly personal and creative. STATEMENTS: 1. Knowledge and ability to perform the instructional techniques that have been demonstrated as effective are the most important factors in effective instruction. Labor Craft Profession Art 279 2. Individual teachers should be encouraged to develop original curriculum. to use innovative teaching techniques, and be rewarded accordingly. Labor Craft Profession Art 3. The school administrator should be the primary determiner of the validity and value of all teaching practices Labor Craft Profession Art 4. In order for a person to be granted a teaching position, that person should have completed a formal college or university program which has provided a thorough understanding of educational theory, practice and research. Labor Craft Profession Art

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280 2. 5. For any given academic area, there are general rules of instruction, which have been proven effective, that teachers should use in order to choose appropriate teaching techniques to reach a particular instructional goal. Labor Craft Profession Art 6. Teachers have the responsibility to act on ethical principles in educational practice. Labor Craft Profession Art 7. The primary basis of teacher evaluation should be the demonstration of use of the particular methodologies and techniques that are designed to reach specific learning objectives within the context of the classroom. Labor Craft Profession Art 8. Curriculum should be planned and designed by administrative personnel. It should include specifications of methods, materials, strategies, and instructional time lines to be implemented by teachers. Teachers should be closely monitored for compliance. Labor Craft Profession Art 9. Teachers have the responsibility to diagnose student learning needs to prescribe the methods and strategies necessary to meet these needs. and see that instruction is successfully carried through. Labor Craft Profession Art 10. The best instruction consist of learning activities which are designed to teach multiple goals and allow for maximum freedom in student learning. Labor Craft Profession Art

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3. 11. The results of most instructional tasks are highly predictable ; therefore instruction should consist of predetermined routine sets of sequential steps that have little chance of variation. Labor Craft Profession Art 12. The evaluation of teaching performance should be the function of practicing teachers. Labor Craft Profession Art 13. Teaching is a creative performance. Sensitivity, originality, and a strong personal approach to learning are the most desirable traits of a teacher. Labor Craft Profession Art 14. It is the responsibility of the school administrator to establish the overall objectives for education in the school. Teachers have the responsibility choose and use methods with care and precision in order to perform instruction competently. Labor Craft Profession Art 15. The school's administrator has the responsibility to make the important decisions and rules which govern the school. Teachers should be judged according to the degree of loyalty and effort they demonstrate in complying with these decisions. Labor Craft Profession Art 16. Evaluation is the process of personally valuing something. It should be primarily concerned with discovering and describing important events in the classroom in order to increase understanding and appreciation about teaching and learning. Labor Craft Profession Art 281

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282 4. SECTION II. TI"PES OF SUPERVISION Please identify which type of supervision you consider the statement to be most indicative of and comment on whlch concept of teaching work you think that type of supervision is most compatible with. Numbers which correspond to the types of supervision are provided after each statement. Types of models used: 1. Administrative Monitoring 2. Goal Setting 3. Peer Supervision/Cooperative Professional Development 4. Artistic Supervision Learning Centered Supervision 6. Self Directed Development 7. Clinical Supervision STATEMENTS: 1. The supervisor arranges time for small groups or individual teachers to observe, provide feedback to each other, and share professional concerns in order to promote mutual growth. 2 3 s 6 7 Comments ___________________ 2. The supervisor engages in the following procedure: confers with teachers on lesson planning, observes the lesson, analyzes the collected data, and gives the teacher feedback about the observation. The supervisor and teacher develop an appropriate professional growth plan. (This procedure can be repeated many times. ) 2 3 5 6 7 Comments'-----------------------

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283 5. 3. The supervisor conducts brief drop in visits, monitors lesson plans, use of methods and materials, checks that reports are aceeptable and tells the teacher if a performance problem is evident or may make positive comments. 2 3 5 6 7 Comments, ___________________ "i. The supervisor observes a lesson and completes a checklist or scale that rates the teacher on evidence of predetermined skills and teaching behaviors. Strengths and weaknesses are noted, and recommendations in form of goals and objectives are developed into an improvement plan. This information is shared with the teacher. 2 3 5 6 7 Comments------------,.---------5. The supervisor assumes that the individual teacher is responsible for his or her professional grO'\\,.th. The teacher determines professional growth needs and the supervisor acts as a facilitator and provides resources and information to meet these needs. 2 3 5 6 7 Comments ___________________ 6. The supervisor observes classrooms and shares with th,e teacher impressions and feelings about climate, student involvement in learning. student-teacher relationships. The supervisor assumes the role of an "artistic critic" of an instructional performance. Professional growth of teachers is enhanced by increased understanding and awareness from the supervisor's description. 2 3 5 6 7 Comment.._ ___________________

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284 6. 7. The teacher and supervisor confer in order to identify any immediate problems that need attention. share views about professional issues and develop a supervisory contract. The supervisor observes the class to gather specific information that will identify strengths and weaknesses. The teacher and the supervisor meet for a feed back and problem solving conference to assess what happened in the past and plan strategies of what should happen in the future. 2 3 5 6 7 Comments ___________________

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APPENDIX B DEMOGRAPHIC AND COMPARISON TABLES

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Table B.l Demographic Information -Personal Characteristics Characteristic Gender Age Range Marital Status Female Male Total 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ No response Total Percent 86 14 100 3 6 6 17 23 22 19 2 1 0 1 100 Single 17 Married 63 Separated/Divorced 17 Widowed 0 No response 3 Total 100 Family Responsibilities No Responsible for Dependent Children 55 Not responsible for Dependent Children 45 Total 100 Number 189 32 221 6 13 13 39 51 47 42 4 3 0 3 221 38 139 38 0 6 221 Yes 121 100 221 286

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Table B.2 Demographic Information -Professional Characteristics Characteristics Level of Training No degree Bachelor Degree Bachelor Degree, plus 1-14 hours Bachelor Degree, plus lS-30 hours Master Degree Master Degree, plus 1-14 hours Master Degree, plus lS or more hours Specialist Degree Doctorate Degree Total Number of Years Teaching 1-3 4-7 8-10 11-lS 16-20 21+ No response Total Level or Area of Teaching Grades K -3 Grades 4 -6 Special Education Art, Music, Physical Educ. Total Percent 4 6 28 s 8 46 2 100 13 10 8 24 23 22 .OS .OS less than 1 100 43 33 15 9 100 Number 1 9 14 61 11 18 102 4 1 221 28 22 17 54 50 49 1 221 98 73 31 19 221 287

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288 Teaching Work Statements Chi-square Goodness of Fit Conceptions of Teaching Significance Level Set One Teacher Qualifications Manage prescribed curriculum (L) Knowledge of established practice (C) Understanding of theory (P) Talent, intuition, creativity (A) 75.34 32.3 56.67 179.78 Set Two Implementation of Instruction (successful teaching) Prescribed curriculum (L) Universal standards (C)l Diagnoses of learners' needs (P) Multiple goals for learning (A) Set Three Good Classroom Management Highly structured, rules (L) Trial and error (C) Professional judgment (P) Individual interest and spontaneity (A) Set Four Values and Ethos Effort and loyalty (L) Care and precision in instruction (C) Autonomy and ethical principles (P) Original curriculum, personal innovation (A) 146.24 86.59 142.41 123.75 57.35 40.33 79.78 9.45 119.44 85.74 22.41 17.93 Set Five Occupational Satisfaction in Teaching .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .OS .01 .01 .01 .01 Fair compensation (L) 223.72 .01 Student mastery (C) 99.63 .01 Prestige of an important service (P) 126.57 01 Sharing meaningful learning learning experiences (A) 193.75 .01 (DF = 3 N -216-221) Expected values = 54-55.25

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APPENDIX C LETTER TO PRINCIPALS REQUESTING ASSISTANCE

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of Colorado at Den\'er Schoal or F.ducalion 12011 Larim-2717 Dear Elementary Principal, Oberon High School 7300 Quail Street Arvada, CO 80005 February 13, 1990 290 The purpose of this letter is to reQuest your assistance ir. a doctoral study which is being conducted to explore elementary teachers' perceptions r-esar-o:! i n'
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APPENDIX D HUMAN RESEARCH COMMITTEE REVIEW

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292 06/16/89 HUMAN RESEARCH COMMITIEE REVIEW (NOTE: If exemption or expedited review is requested, please enclose of this form. If full review of the resclU"cb is requested please enclose m of this form. Forms .should be sent to: Gal)' s. Stc:rll, Depanment or Psychol ogy, CU-Denver, Box 173.) 1. PROJECfDffiECTOR Dr. Bob Taylor Ext.: 556-2717 Department: Administration, Supervision + Curric:uluiiome phone: 494-6388 (if a student project, thesis, or dissertation) Faculty Advisor Dr. Bob Taylor Ext: 556-2717 PROJECfmLE: Teachers' Perceptions Concerp1ne Concepr1ops of Teaching Work and Differentiated Supervision 2. Project description as it relates tp hyman beines Please descn'be the project briefly, includ ing subject population and recruitment, and procedures to be used; att2ch questicnm::ire or interview questions if appropriate. 3. Consent forms: please attach a copy of the consent form you will be using. The following points must be included in a consent form: a) a clear explanation of the procedures to be followed and their purposes, including iden tification of any experimental procedures. b) a clear description of any discomfort or risks reasonably to be expected. c) an offer to answer any questions regarding the research, both during and after there search is completed. d) an instruction that the person is free to withdraw his/her consent and discontinue par ticipation at any time without predjudice. e) an instruction that questions concerning rights as a subject may be directed to the Of fice of Research Administration, CU-Denver, Box 123, 80204, telephone 556-2770. f) signature of subject. (For subjects below the age of 18, or for mentally ill or retarded persons, signature of parents or guardian is required. For children betY.een 12 and 18, both child and parents should sign the consent form.) You are reminded that consent forms are privileged records and must be protected for con fidentiality. 4. Signature of principal investigator (J. XJ2 ateanei. Kiel ty(r A'n of Human Research Committee, CU-Denver: __ approved as exempt or expedited research __ approved as fully reviewed research __ approved with conditions; lappended letter __ disapproved; see appended letter cu:oenveruman Research Committee 1/-17-?5 Date

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To: Gary Sterns, Chair Human Research Committee From: Catherine Kielty Doctoral Candidate Administration, Supervision and Curriculum Program Unlverstly of Colorado-Denver 13970 W. 72nd Place B Arvada. Co, 60005 telephone 421-6776 (work) 422-4015 (home) Dale: November 15, 1969. Project Description 293 Dissertation Tille: Teachers Perception Concerning Conceptions of Teaching Work and Differentiated Supervision. The project which I Intend to do Is doctoral research which Is part of lhe reQuirement for lhe Ph. D. sel by lhe School of Graduate Education's program In Administration, Supervision, and Curriculum allhe University of Colorado at Denver. The research foci are: I. A group of elementary teachers' perception of leaching as an occupation based on lhe conception of teaching work model proposed by Douglas E. Mitchell and Charles T. Kerchner in 1983. 2. This group of elementary teachers' perception concerning how satisfactory seven types of Instructional supervisory practice are in helping to promote Quality In Instruction. The practices are based on lhe differentiated supervision model developed by Allan Glatlhorn In 1964. 3. To whet are these teachers views regarding teaching, based on their reactions to the conception of leaching work statements, associated wilh lhelr ratings of perceived satisfaction regarding each type of Instructional supervision. The research design Is comprised of an study In which two theoretical models are used in order to esserlllin If any patterns emerge which link end Clf satisfaction regarding different types of Instructional supervision. This study Is based on personal perceptions of one group of teachers and does not intend to make judgements or draw conclusions about the value or any conception of teaching or instructional SUPervision practice. The data is to be gained through an opinion Questionnaire which consists of three parts: Part 1 is e checklist which contains demographic Questions. The Information from this section will be used to describe lhe subjects as a population. Part 2 consists of five sets of statements which renect the four Ideal positions of conceptions of teaching work model. The conceptions are; (a) leaching Is labor, a job in which routine is empasized, (b) teaching Is a craft In which the Importance of techniQue Is emphasized. (c) teaching is a profession In which service, responsibility, and theoretical understanding are emphasized, (d) taaching is an art in which personal creativity Is emphasized.

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C&iesltons which support gaining this Information ask views concerning successful classroom management and instruction. teacher qualifications. the values or teaching as an occupation. and sources of satisfaction in leaching. 294 Part 3 Is composed or statements which describe seven types of instructional supervision pracltces which are currently receiving the most attenlfon In theory and practice. They are clinical supervision, administrative monitoring, teacher bel'lavior rating scales, self directed development, artistic supervision, and learning centered supervision. Teachers are asked to rate each or these statements on a scale or I through 10 to demonstrate how satisfactory they believe the practice to be. The conception of leaching work model is a heuristic device by which to understand views or leaching. In practice, labor, craft, professionalism. and art ere all mh
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295 CONSENT FORM The purpose or this questionnaire Is to gather data concerning a group or elementary teachers' lal perceptions of teaching based on the conceptions of teaching work model of Mitchell and Kerchner and, (b) perceptions regardmg Instructional supervision. as described by Allen 61atlhorn's differentiated supervision model. In order to explore how these two theoretical models are related. The questionnaire is self report end also asks for Information concerning participants demographic characteristics. In this study: I. Participation Is voluntary. You ere free to withdraw consent or discontinue participation at any lime without predjudlce. 2. Your responses will be l:epl confidential. Information gathered from participants will not be Identified with the Individual, the school, or the area in which the participants work. 3. None or the Items In the questionnaire will put you at any psychological or other risk. Date gathered represents views or e group of elementary teachers and Is D2!. deemed to represent Jefferson County Public School teachers or teachers in general. 4. If you hiM any questions regarding this study, please contact me at Oberon Junior High School, telephone 4126776 or at home 422-4015. 5. Any questions you have concerning your rights as a subject may be direct to; Office of Research Administration. Co-Denver. 8oxl23. 80204, telephone 556-2770. Your signature Indicates that you hM read and understood the above. Signature _________ Dale ___ Catherine Kielty Doctoral Candidate University of Colorado Denver

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APPENDIX E CONCEPTIONS OF TEACHING WORK AND DIFFERENTIATED SUPERVISION QUESTIONNAIRE

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Conceptions of Teaching Work and Differentiated SUPervision Questionnaire Introduction The following survey is designed to Identify teachers perceptions or as an occupation end to Identify l)ractices of supervision which are perceived as helpful In supporling teachers In improving instruction. The survey is iro three parts. Part I Demographic Information provides a checklist describing participants demographic characteristics You will be ask.ed to check. lhe items which most accurately dc,crlbe' you. Part 2 Conceplion of Teaching Statements provides sets of statements which renect posilions concerning the nature or leaching as labor, crafl. profession and arl. You will be asked to the items in order of statements which most reflect your perception of what is true to those which are representative or yocr opinion. Part 3 Differentiated Supervision Statements provides a list of statements concerning supervlsor_y practice. You will be asked to rate each practice In terms or you opinioro about how satisfactory you perceive the practice to be iro providing tc teachers for instruction. 297

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Part I Demographic Information Please check lhe Information which best describes your life situation. 1. Gender __ Female __ Male 2. Age Range __ 20-24 __ 25-29 __ 30-34 __ 35-39 __ 40-44 3. Level of Training __ NoDegree __ Bachelor Dearee __ 63cheior Degree, plus 1 14 hours __ Bachelor Degree. plus 15-30 hours __ Master Degree __ Master Degree, plus 1 14 hours __ Master Degree, plus 15 or more hours __ Specialist Degree __ Doctorate 4. llum!:.er of Years --1-3 __ 4-7 __ 6-10 __ ll-15 __ 16-20 __ 21+ 5. Level or Are21 of Teaching __ Grades !<'. 3 __ Grades 4 6 __ Speciill Educalion __ Arl, Music, Physical Educalior. 6. M3rila1 Slalus __ Smgle ___Married __ Separated/Divorced 7. Dependent child or childrer ? __ Ves __ 45-49 __ so-ss __ 56-60 __ f.1-65 __ 66+ __ Nil 298

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Part 2 Conceptions or Teaching Worl: Statements Directions The following statements are ebout issues In education concerning teacher Implementation or in:;truction, classroom m11nagement, Le11ching as a valued occupation, and sources of satisfaction in teaching You are asked to rank each set of statements In the order of the positions which are most likely to renect your perception to the position least likely to ;our of what you believe is true in each aru. The numbers 1 through 4 are to be used. FIP.Sl CHCiCE 2 3 4 L.l.Sl CHCiCE The number 1 Indicates your first choice, the statement to reflect your perception of what Is true. The number 2 Is your second choice, 3 is your third choice 11nd 4 indicates 5tatemenl h:asl1ike1y to to renec:l your opinion. 299

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Conceptions of TeachiM Set One Teacher Qualifications In my opinion, the most qualified teachers possess, A. ___ knowledge of successful established practice and the ability to perform these techniques v1ith care and precision. B. __ a thorough understanding of educational theory, practice, and research, the ability to put this information Into practice. C. __ the ability to manage and implement instruction as prescribed by adopted curriculum. D. ___ talent, intuition, originality 11nd 11 strong personal approach lo instruction. Set Two Implementation or Instruction In rny opinion, leaching is most sJccessful wtoen, A. ___ standards for student learning are established universally. Teachers share general" rules of instruction, v.hich have been proven successful in practice in order to choose 11ppropri21te to reach learning objectives. B. ___ teachers have the responsibility to diagnose students' learning needL to prescribe methods to meet these needs, znd see ltoat instrur.lioro is successfully through. C. ___ instruction consist of learning acliJiUes v1hich are deslgr.r:d to le3cto goals and allows for maximum freedom in student learning. D. --curriculum is prescribed and specifications reg0\rdin9 teathir.g objectives, methods. and instrur.tlonaltlme lines. 300

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Set Three CJao;sroom M11nagemenl In my opinion, good classroom management, A. __ should be highly structured. Teachers need to specify classroom rules to control :student behavior end :see thetlhe:se rule:s 11re followed. Or-der and predict11bility guarantees student learning. B. __ Is developed through trial and error or personally tested practice. Orten methods are innuenced by the past teachers the present teachers during their ovm schooling. C. __ allows students Lo pursue their own Individual lnterestand allows for sponlane it y. D. __ is the result of refinement or valid principles or instruction and solid professional judgemer.t. Set Four Values and Elho:; of the Te3ching Occuoalion In my opiroion, Leaching as an occupation is most V3lued when, A. __ individual teachers are encouraged to de.,elop original curriculum, to use innovalive Leaching techniques, and be recognized and rewarded. B. __ teachers exerci5e autonomy and derr.onstrate the respcnsibilitt to act oro eltolcal principals in educational practice. c.--teachers demonstrate high levels or effort and loyrolty in promoting locl!l district goals for educalion. 0. __ Le11chers choll!e slr11Legle:s, melho:ls, en:l materials v1lth c:sre and J)reciston ir. order to perforrn inslruclioro competently. 301

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Set Five Occupational Satisfaction In Teachlno In my opinion, the most important source of satisfaction in teaching Is, A. __ the prestige and sallsfacllon derived from providing an important service in :society. B. __ the Intrinsic salisfaction of sharing meaningful learning eKperiences with studenls. C. __ knowing that students have learned and have achieved l'll3stery of whall had intended to leach. 0. __ the satisfaction or being fairly compensated for the effort and time spent ir. performing duties. Parl 3 Differentiated Slalemer.ts The following slaterner.ts describe several types of irstruclional supervisior. practice. Please rate each item according to your opinion or how s.1lisfactory you consider the described practice to be In promoting Quality ir.slruclion Scelr. 2 3 4 5 7 e 9 10 LEAST SATISFACTORY MOST SATISFACTORY Circle the number lhal renects your opinion most closely. 302

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Supervision Statements 1. The supervisor arranges lime for small groups or Individual teachers observe, provide feedback lo each other. and share professional concerns In order lo promote mulual growlh. 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9 10 2. The supervisor enoages in lhe following procedure: confers with teachers on lesson planning. observes lhe lesson. analyzes the collected data, and gives lhe Leach!r about the observation. The supervisor and teacher develop an appropriate professional growth plan. ( This procedure can be repeated many Umes.) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I(J 3. The supervisor conducts brief drop in \'is it;, monitors lesson plans, use of methods end m3lerials, checks th&l reports 3re acceptable end tells the if a problem is evident or may make positive comments 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 4. The supervisor observes a lesson end completes a checklist or scale that rates the teacher on evidence or predetermined skills and leaching behaviors. Strengths and weaknesses 11r1: noted. and recommendations in fcrm of 9oals and objectives are developed into an improvement plan. This information is sh;:sred with the le;:scher. 2 3 4 5 6 7 & 9 10 303

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.5. The supervisor assumes that the Individual teecher is responsible for his or her professional growth. The teacher determines professional 9rowth needs and lhe supervisor acts as a facilitator and provides resources and information lo meet these needs. 2 3 5 6 7 B 9 10 6. Ttoe supervisor observes cl3ssrooms and shares wilh the teacher Impressions and feelings about climate. student involvement lr. learning, sludenl-leacher relationships. The supervisor assumes the role of an "erlislic critic" of an Instructional performence. Professional growth of teachers is enhanced by increased understanding and awareness from lhe supervisor's description. 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9 10 7. The teacher ar.d !>upervisor confer in order to identify any immediate problems that need attention, share views about professional issues and develop a supervisory ccmlracl. The supervisor observes the class lo gather specific information tr.at will Identify strengths and weaknesses. The teacher and the supervisor meet for a feed back end problem solving conference to assess what happened in lhe past and plan strategies of what should happen iro the future. 2 5 6 7 e 9 10 304