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Assessing the relationship between participation in the performing arts in schools and communication apprehension

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Assessing the relationship between participation in the performing arts in schools and communication apprehension
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Bigelow, L. Ira
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English
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xiv, 123 leaves : forms ; 29 cm

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Communication -- Psychological aspects ( lcsh )
Drama in education ( lcsh )
Communication -- Psychological aspects ( fast )
Drama in education ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 115-123).
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Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Doctor of Philosophy, Educational Leadership and Innovation.
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School of Education and Human Development
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by L. Ira Bigelow.

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University of Colorado Denver
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ocm37296558
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Full Text
ASSESSING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
PARTICIPATION IN THE PERFORMING ARTS IN SCHOOLS AND
COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION
by
L. Ira Bigelow
B.A., Metropolitan State College, 1986
M.A., University of Colorado, 1989
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Educational Leadership and Innovation
1996


1996 by L. Ira Bigelow
All rights reserved.


i
i
i
i
This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy
degree by
L. Ira Bigelow
has been approved
by
\l,-c\ ~c\Le
Date


Bigelow, L. Ira (Ph.D., Educational Leadership and Innovation)
Assessing the Relationship Between Participation in the
Performing Arts in Schools and Communication
Apprehension
Thesis directed by Professor Sharon Ford
ABSTRACT
The desire to communicate varies from person to person.
Many people, however, desire to communicate but are unable to
express themselves because of the fear or anxiety associated with
verbal exchange. Providing students with positive communication
opportunities during their years in school may assist in reducing
future communication apprehension (CA).
The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship
between participation in the performing arts within school
curricula and levels of communication apprehension. Two groups
of freshmen entering two high schools were surveyed to
determine levels of communication apprehension students
expressed. Surveys were given in a pre- and post-test format.
Students were also asked to supply information regarding gender,
IV


ethnic background, and previous years experience in the
performing arts. The treatment group consisted of students
enrolled in at least one performing arts class (dance, drama, vocal
or instrumental music). The control group consisted of students
who were not currently enrolled in any performing arts classes.
Students enrolled in performing arts classes showed
significantly lower levels of total communication apprehension,
but this was not true in specific communication contexts such as
meetings, groups, dyads, or public speaking. No significant
difference in CA was shown in post-test scores between any of the
various performing arts classes or between classes that rely more
on oral skills vs. classes that rely less on oral skills. General
demographic data showed that more females than males enrolled
in the performing arts and that as many Anglos enrolled in the
performing arts as did all other ethnic groups combined.
Study recommendations include a.) providing risk-free
communication opportunities where students can safely
experiment with verbal interaction with other students, b.)
providing curricula which encourages males to enroll and
participate in the performing arts, c.) providing students with
opportunities which would encourage ethnic minorities to enroll
v


and participate in the performing arts, and d.) replicating the
study on a larger scale following students over a period of several
years.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's
thesis. I recommend its publication
Sig'l
Sharon Ford


DEDICATION
This dissertation is dedicated to:
Members of my family, far and near, for their love, which
makes all things possible.
Dr. Sharon Ford, my advisor, for her support,
encouragement, and belief in my ability to complete this project.
Parents and members of the educational community who
believe that we can create what we want.


CONTENTS
CHAPTER
1. NATURE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY...............................1
Purpose of the Study..................................4
Research Hypotheses...................................4
Conceptual Framework..................................5
Significance of the Study.............................7
Limitations of the Study..............................8
Definition of Terms...................................9
Communication...................................9
Communication Apprehension.....................10
State Apprehension.............................10
Trait Apprrehension............................10
Performing Arts................................11
2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE....................................12
The Performing Arts and Schools......................12
Specific Performing Arts Curriculum............14
Integration of the Performing Arts Into
the School Curriculum..........................19
viii


The Performing Arts and Educational
Reform.........................................22
Educational Leadership and
School Curricula...............................23
Communication Apprehension...........................28
State and Trait Apprehension...................34
Communication........................................35
Communicating in Groups........................36
Communicating in Meetings......................37
Interpersonal Communication....................38
Public Speaking................................39
3. METHODOLOGY................................................41
Purpose of Study and Research Hypotheses.............41
Survey Instrument....................................42
Pilot Study of the Survey Instrument.................44
Population and Sample................................45
Curricula of the Study Groups........................46
Distribution of Survey Instruments...................47
Evaluation of Data...................................48
4. ANALYSIS OF DATA...........................................51
Overview.............................................51
Data Analysis........................................53
ix


Summary of Data for Hypothesis 1.............53
Summary of Data for Hypothesis 2.............68
Summary of General Demographic Data..........72
5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS................87
Summary............................................87
Conclusions.............................................88
Research Hypothesis #1.......................89
Research Hypothesis #2.......................91
General Demographic Data.....................92
Recommendations....................................95
APPENDIX
A. Approval Document: University.....................100
B. Approval Document: School District................104
C Research Study Consent Form.......................106
D. Survey Instrument.................................108
E Scoring Formula...................................Ill
F. Addendum to Post-Test.............................113
REFERENCES...................................................115
x


!
FIGURES
Figure
4.1 Intercepts and Slopes of Final ANCOVA Model.....................68
I
XI


TABLES
Table
4.1 Means and Standard Deviations of the Pre-Test
Scores in General and Specific Communication
Contexts for Control and Treatment Groups...............55
4.2 Means and Standard Deviations of the Post-Test
Scores in General and Specific Communication
Contexts for Control and Treatment Groups...............56
4.3 Means and Standard Deviations of the Pre-Test CA
Scores for Control Group in General and Specific
Communication Contexts by Gender...........................58
4.4 Means and Standard Deviations of the Post-Test CA
Scores for Control Group in General and Specific
Communication Contexts by Gender..........................59
4.5 Means and Standard Deviations of the Pre-Test CA
Scores for Treatment Group in General and Specific
Communication Contexts by Gender...........................60
4.6 Means and Standard Deviations of the Post-Test CA
Scores for Treatment Group in General and Specific
Communication Contexts by Gender...........................61
4.7 ANCOVA Table of Total Post-Test Scores for Control
vs. Treatment Groups.......................................66
4.8 ANCOVA Intercepts and Slopes for Total CA of
Control and Treatment Groups...............................66
Xll


Table
4.9 ANCOVA CA Comparisons of Control vs.
Treatment Groups Post-Test Scores at Specific
Pre-Test Scores...........................................67
4.10 Average Pre- and Post-Test Mean Scores
Measuring Total Communication Apprehension in
the Various Performing Arts...............................70
4.11 Treatment Group Performing Arts
Participation Breakdown....................................71
4.12 ANCOVA Table Comparing CA Between Performing
Arts Classes...............................................72
4.13 Frequencies and Percentages of Gender Breakdown
for Control and Treatment Groups...........................73
4.14 Approximate Percentages of Total Ethnic
Enrollment for Schools Alpha and Omega.....................74
4.15 Means and Standard Deviations of the Pre-Test
CA Scores for Control Group in General and Specific
Communication Context by Ethnic Background...............77
4.16 Means and Standard Deviations of the Post-Test
CA Scores for Control Group in General and Specific
Communication Context by Ethnic Background...............78
4.17 Means and Standard Deviations of the Pre-Test
CA Scores for Treatment Group in General and Specific
Communication Context by Ethnic Background...............79
xm


Table
4.18 Means and Standard Deviations of the Post-Test
CA Scores for Treatment Group in General and Specific
Communication Context by Ethnic Background...............80
4.19 Frequencies and Percentages of Average Number of
Years Prior Experience in Performing Arts for
Control and Treatment Group Students.....................81
4.20 Approximate Ages During Which Control Group
Students Actively Engaged in the Performing Arts.........83
4.21 Approximate Ages During Which Treatment Group
Students Actively Engaged in the Performing Arts.........84


CHAPTER 1
NATURE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The desire to communicate varies from person to person.
Personality traits that affect communicative effectiveness
include tolerance for ambiguity, self-control, adventurousness,
emotional maturity, self-esteem, innovativeness, and tolerance
for disagreement (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992). Many people,
however, desire to communicate but are unable to express
themselves because of the fear or anxiety associated with
verbal exchanges. These people may experience speech
disruptions in a variety of contexts, including public speaking,
talking in small groups, speaking at meetings, and talking in
dyads (McCrosky, Beatty, Kearney & Plax, 1985). They may
also exhibit low scores on language facility or have low
academic achievement (Freimuth, 1976). Providing students
with positive communication opportunities during their
formative years may assist in reducing future communication
anxiety (McCrosky, 1977a).
The development of oral language is important as a
foundation for reading, writing, and thinking (Williams, 1987).
It is also important in the development of interpersonal
1


relationships and perceptions. The more a person talks, the
more positively that person will be perceived; quiet people are
often viewed as being less competent and less intelligent than
talkative people (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992).
Communication apprehension is clearly a severe personal
problem and can have negative impact on learning. While
communication apprehension is not related to intelligence, it
has been associated with lower grade point average (Frymier,
1993). Students who are fearful about communicating may be
less motivated to study or participate out of fear of being
criticized for making a mistake (Frymier, 1993). Students
suffering from communication apprehension will often seek to
avoid or fail to complete assignments in classes where oral
participation is required (McCrosky, 1977a).
Much attention has been focused on the impact of a
person's fear or anxiety about communication on that persons
communication behavior. For more than forty years, scholars
have been observing that some people display more
communication apprehension than other people and that this
apprehension negatively affects many aspects of their lives
(McCrosky, 1977b).
Test scores in areas such as mathematics, language, and
reading can be enhanced by encouraging students to
participate in classroom communication (Comadena & Prusank,
1988). Also, people who are less afraid of communicating tend
2


I
to be more calm, more composed, and more in control in
general (McCrosky & Richmond, 1982). It would appear that
lowering oral communication apprehension in individuals can
assist in the raising of self-esteem which directly affects
attitudes, behaviors, and cognitive processes (McCrosky, Daly,
Richmond, & Falcione, 1977).
In order to ensure that students receive a quality
education, they must be given opportunities to develop
communication skills. If communication skills are reinforced,
communication behaviors will increase while behaviors that
are not reinforced will decline (McCrosky & Richmond, 1982).
Reflective administrators make pragmatic decisions as they
attempt to create something of practical utility and "must give
far more attention to expressive and moral reasons for
determining courses of action" (Sergiovanni, 1991, p. 249).
Educational policy makers are currently generating standards
which outline "what students should know and be able to do"
(Massell, 1994, p. 84) as they strive to prepare students to
become fully functioning individuals who operate
constructively within our society.
Educational leaders have a responsibility of providing
opportunities for student-need satisfaction. As schools teach
students in ways that satisfy their needs, while diminishing
focus on test scores, discipline problems diminish as the efforts
to do well in school increase (Glasser, 1993). Since it has been
3


suggested that communication anxiety keeps students from
achieving academic success (Comadena & Prusank, 1988), then
schools should provide an educational climate that can enhance
communication skills. One such curricular avenue may be
through the performing arts. Responsible educators should
then seek to identify and advocate curricular avenues which
offer opportunities for students to develop communication
abilities and reduce communication apprehension.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship
between a.) participation in the performing arts within school
curricula and b.) levels of communication apprehension.
Research Hypotheses
In order to examine the relationship between students'
participation in performing arts curricula in schools and the
degree of communication apprehension students feel, this
study investigates the following hypotheses:
1. Students who participate in the performing arts in
schools will have lower levels of communication apprehension
in general and in specific communication contexts than
students who do not participate in performing arts in schools.
4


2. Students in performing arts classes that rely more
on oral skills will have lower levels of communication
apprehension than students who are in classes that rely less on
oral communication skills.
The specific communication contexts referred to in the
first hypothesis are 1.) groups, 2.) meetings, 3.) interpersonal
(dyads), and 4.) public speaking. The second hypothesis refers
to performing arts classes that rely on varying degrees of oral
skills. For the purpose of this study, those that rely more on
oral skills are drama and vocal music. Those that rely less on
oral skills are instrumental music and dance.
Conceptual Framework
The impact of fear or anxiety on a persons ability to
communicate may vary according to the level of
communication apprehension (CA) the individual experiences.
Two types of CA have been identified and are known as "trait"
and "state" apprehension (Spielberger. 1966). State
apprehension is considered a normal condition experienced by
most people when faced with specific communication
challenges such as giving a speech to strangers or interviewing
for a new job. Trait apprehension is a fear or anxiety beyond
what is considered normal in communication encounters.
5


Communication researchers have developed a variety of
strategies for overcoming communication apprehension. Three
widely used approaches include Systematic Desensitization,
Cognitive Modification, and Skills Training (McCrosky &
Richmond, 1982). Systematic Desensitization teaches people to
recognize tension in their bodies and to relax that tension.
Once this step is learned, the relaxation process is extended to
occur in the presence of stimuli that previously produced
tension. Cognitive Modification allows people to think about
themselves in a positive light rather than in a negative one.
Skill training involves identifying deficient skills, identifying
appropriate remediation behaviors, and identifying the practice
needed to overcome the deficient skills.
Student success and achievement may be advanced by
providing positive communication opportunities which can
assist in reducing communication apprehension. The processes
of identifying and addressing tension, increasing positive
affirmation, and reducing deficient skills are commonly found
in many disciplines and content areas which include vocal and
instrumental music, dance, and drama. These performing arts
may assist students in the reduction of communication
apprehension.
6


Significance of the Study
A certain degree of low-state CA is considered normal for
the greater part of the population. However, up to 20 percent
of the students in public schools, major universities, as well as
adult population and senior citizens may be labeled as high-
trait CA (McCrosky, 1992). A negative relationship has been
found between high-trait communication apprehension and
communication effectiveness: As CA increases, communication
effectiveness decreases (Freimuth, 1976). A negative
relationship has also been found between communication
apprehension and self-esteem (McCrosky, Daly, Richmond, &
Falcione, 1977). Comadena and Prusank (1988) suggest that a
significant negative relationship exists between communication
apprehension and academic achievement: As CA increases,
academic achievement decreases.
The significance of the study becomes relevant to
educational leaders as they create the best possible learning
environment for their students. Schools need to focus on the
things that will help students succeed academically as they
prepare for life beyond compulsory education. It becomes a
leadership responsibility, then, to become knowledgeable about
the anxiety associated with verbal communication and to
7


provide educational opportunities for students which will help
reduce communication apprehension.
Limitations of the Study
The contextual considerations outlined in the survey
instrument used in the study are built upon common
communication situations which correspond to the larger
communication domain and are not presumed to be exhaustive.
Other categories which might be considered as part of the
larger domain include: superior-subordinate communication,
situations involving intercultural encounters, situations
involving interviews, and situations requiring assertiveness
(McCrosky et al., 1985). These categories of communication are
not included in this study.
This study measures communication apprehension among
entering freshmen students for only one semester. It measures
two different groups that may not be statistically equal with
respect to one or more variables. Also, this study does not
examine other conditions which may relate to communication
apprehension. This includes factors such as cultural
background, family expectations/experiences, possible heredity
considerations, and health and physical conditions.
In that this study is not longitudinal, there is no measure
of CA for study participants prior to their first enrollment in
8


performing arts classes in schools. It is not known whether
students' CA levels increased, decreased, or remained the same
following at least one semester of involvement in the
performing arts in school.
Sample population size for this study is limited due to the
availability of only one school with a major focus on
performing arts in the urban area serving as the setting for this
study. It is felt that this school offered a population of
students whose lives are impacted differently by the
performing arts than are those of students in a regular
secondary school.
Definition of Terms
Communication
Communication is the dynamic process of interaction,
sharing, and exchange between two or more people (McCall &
Cousins, 1990). Communication is an important feature in
interviewing, conflict management, relationship initiation and
maintenance, public speaking, and social conversation
(Spitzberg & Cupach, 1984) and is integral to an individual's
quality of life as it has been shown to facilitate educational
success, social effectiveness, and personal growth (Spitzberg &
9


Cupach, 1984). This study focuses on verbal communication, as
opposed to other types of communication.
Communication Apprehension
The "fear or anxiety associated with either real or
anticipated communication with another person or persons"
(McCrosky & Richmond, 1982, p. 9). Characteristics associated
with communication apprehension (CA) include quietness,
shyness, or the inability to speak out or state an opinion.
State Apprehension
"State" apprehension (McCrosky, 1977b) has been used
to describe communication anxiety as a normal experience and
becomes evident in a specific oral communication situation.
Such situations include those that would make most people
anxious, such as giving speeches to groups of strangers or
interviewing for a new job.
Trait Apprehension
Trait apprehension is the form of communication anxiety
exhibited by individuals who see most communication
encounters as threatening. People who experience high levels
10


of anxiety about almost all oral communication encounters are
considered to suffer from "trait" apprehension (McCrosky,
1977b).
Performing Arts
The practice of creating and interpreting perceptible
forms of expressive human feeling to an audience. Performing
arts in school curricula include instrumental and vocal music,
drama, and dance.


CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The Performing Arts and Schools
The present movement toward educational reform
offers us a ripe opportunity to further the cause of
the arts and humanities in the public schools.
(Williams, 1991, p.10)
The Oxford American Dictionary defines performing arts
as "those arts, such as drama etc., that require public
performance" (1982, p. 663). The true essence of the
performing arts, however, may not be found in this sketchy
definition. Oxford defines perform as the following: "to carry
into effect, to accomplish ... to function" and the word
performance as "a notable action or achievement" (p. 663). Art
may be perceived differently by any number of people. It may
be associated with beauty or skill, but can be generally
associated with "the practice of creating perceptible forms
expressive of human feeling" (Langer, 1964). For this study,
then, the definition for the performing arts is the practice of
creating and interpreting perceptible forms of expressive
human feeling to an audience.


The arts are a basic and central medium of human
communication and understanding. The arts are how
we talk to each other. They are the language of
civilization past and present through which we
express our anxieties, our hungers, our hopes and our
discoveries. They are our means of listening to our
dreams of expressing our imagination and feeling.
(Williams, 1991, p.l)
One of the educational goals that Goodlad supports is that
of personal fulfillment (1979). Schools need to provide
opportunities wherein students can acquire the skills and
attitudes important to the development of fully functioning
human beings. Fundamental to the education process, then, are
elements of such value to the educated person that should not
be eliminated from school programs without serious
deprivation in adulthood.
Karafelis (1995) defines a successful school as one that
teaches the basics well and provides opportunities for students
to develop skills that are needed to be productive and content
that is needed in the real world. He contends that the
separation of reading, math, science, and social studies is not
basic and that integrating these disciplines is essential.
The arts are the disciplines that pull all knowledge
together. The arts afford children the opportunity to
express who they are to the school community and to
express what they think is important to the school
13


community. Our teachers take their expressions in
writing, music, art, theater, dance and bend the
curriculum to meet that expression. In doing so, our
children believe that we value them because we let
them express themselves, and we assign importance
to their expression by adapting the curriculum. We
validate and celebrate children through the arts.
(Karafelis, 1995, p. 36)
The arts provide elements of value and are "a basic
component of the curriculum, deserving parity with all other
elements," and are "fundamental to the entire learning process"
(Karafelis, 1995, p. 5). An Art Education Advocacy Statement
prepared by the Pennsylvania Art Education Association
suggests that arts education prepares students for life-long
learning and is a basic component for all students in
educational programs (1992). Smith-Bidstrup (1992, p. 54)
echoes this sentiment by stating that "a course of study that
includes music, art, dance and drama improves student
performance and keeps kids in school."
Specific Performing Arts Curriculum
Many benefits have been afforded students who
participate in various arts activities. Dance education, for
example, provides students avenues to explore, sense,
concentrate, focus, project, and commit (Purcell, 1994).
As students participate in various forms of dance,
they extend their range of movement possibilities
1 4


and develop a fuller understanding of their movement
potential. They gain a greater confidence in their
ability to use dance for expression and communication
in academic or social settings, (p. 21)
An effective way people learn is by doing, and all
learning in dance is manifested through action which can be
considered part of the complete learning process (Gray, 1989).
"Children before the age of 10 tend to copy and to learn
activities that they think are fun", and "they learn dance by
imitation first and then later by recognizing the muscular
states and body alignments" (Gray, 1989, p. 68). Releasing the
inner flow of emotions may be learned through body
movement. Laban (1974) states that dance allows students to
release feelings in a risk-free environment by expressing
emotional actions through movements such as: turning away
brusquely from danger with a feeling of fright; twisting the
body in anger or attack; raising the body in a floating
movement to imitate a peaceful or detached inner mood; or
stiffening to attention in an expression of pride. "Experience
proves that we are able to express innumerable shadings of
feelings and attitudes towards human values through
combinations and sequences of movements" (Laban, 1974, p.
60).
Participation in theater assists students in many ways, as
well, by offering safe outlets for self-expression, self-
development, self-understanding, self-esteem, self-discipline,
15


analytical skills, feeling skills, human understanding, and
competition (Grover, 1994). Heinig (1992) states that
"dramatizing literature in the classroom provides students with
an effective and pleasurable way of exploring both the world
and themselves" (p. vii). He continues by saying that drama
offers students ways to think creatively and effectively and to
explore the world and themselves.
Starratt (1990) speaks to how people engage stage
themselves in the presence of others. He states that people
need to learn how to act in specific settings in order to elicit
expected outcomes and that inadvertent actions may contradict
intended messages. Starratt continues, saying that children can
build self-esteem and become socialized through drama by
encouraging and reinforcing independence in a variety of
nuanced settings.
Students involved in theater are called upon to "focus on
the words and actions provided by a playwright as the basis
for their self-expression" (Grover, 1994, p. 27). A variety of
approaches can be used in the theater classroom to assist
students toward self-expression, the gaining of confidence, and
the development of creativity. The playing of theater games
can help students polish their performance skills, develop
imagination, and more easily project themselves into
unfamiliar situations (Spolin, 1986). Role-play can be used to
help generate personal skills and explore various social


encounters (Hornbrook, 1991). Through participation in
"fictional family" scenarios, students can explore such resources
as the voice, body, the senses, imagination, and intellect as an
aid to personal growth (Gold, 1991). Through drama, children
can gain an understanding of themselves, gain confidence,
function collaboratively, and explore human feeling in a variety
of social situations and moral dilemmas (Hornbrook, 1991).
Stewig & Buege (1994) state that the art of drama and
oral language are closely connected. They continue saying that
oral language is the most important element of language and is
the basis for reading and writing. They support including
drama as a part of classroom culture as it helps students
master the art of oral communication. "The process of making
drama is a highly motivating method for bringing oral language
learning into the classroom" (Stewig & Buege, 1994, p. vii).
Music education assists students at risk by inspiring and
lifting the human spirit, and by bringing a "culturally diverse
population together through the unique harmony of the music
of all our people" (Glenn, 1992, p. 2). Through music education,
students gain a sense of discipline, self-esteem, and pride.
Music students tend to excel in teamwork, cooperation,
problem solving, leadership, and creative thinking. McCarthy
(1990) suggests that students who study music may be more
motivated to complete school work.


Wentz (1985) states that music has been a means for
storytelling and folklore before printed books were available
and can help students learn self-discipline and cooperation. He
describes music with the following: "Music-a universal
language, a unique expression of the soul, a taskmaster which
teaches dedication, responsibility, self-discipline, and self-
esteem as it develops the mind, the body, and the personality"
(Wentz, 1985, p. 1). Swanson (1982) talks of creating an
atmosphere of interpersonal communication by analyzing and
evaluating the lyrics of popular songs. The student can develop
a basis for concepts about human relationships such as
increasing an awareness of "complementary versus
symmetrical relationships, passive versus active participation,"
and "emotional reacting to relationships versus cognitive
reacting" (p. 225).
Music also emphasizes elements of behavior that can
instill confidence in speech delivery. Singing, for example, is
affected by many of the same psychological and physiological
speech factors. The development of language and music skills
require experience and training, and talent has little to do with
the development of our musical or linguistic abilities
(Roehmann, 1991). Vocal quality can be influenced by a
person's self-image and self-concept and is usually reflected in
good posture and confident speech (Bunch, 1993). Anxiety can
be displayed through shallow-rapid breathing and muscular
1 8


constriction which can be antagonistic to effective speaking and
singing. By contrast, confidence in speech and singing can be
displayed through breathing which is deep and even. Students
of voice become familiar with the elements of vocal production
so that a balance of delivery and emotion are achieved. "It is
important for a speaker or singer to understand the choice of
sounds available in his own voice so that he will not create a
double message with unintended qualities or inflections which
appear to negate the words" (Bunch, 1993 p. 11).
Integration of the Performing Arts Into the School Curriculum
Howard Gardner (1993) states that our culture has
defined human intelligence too narrowly and suggests the
existence of seven basic intelligences. He contends that the
assessment of abilities has centered on the linguistic and
logical-mathematical intelligences through traditional paper-
and-pencil tests which serve as good indicators of how people
will do in school in the short run.
Creating effective assessment tasks requires thinking
through curriculum content to establish learning
outcomes, then designing performance activities that
will allow students to demonstrate their achievement
of those outcomes, and specifying criteria by which
they will be evaluated. (Cohen, 1995, p. 1)
19


Gardner suggests that students who don't do well on IQ tests
may be labeled as not very smart, will be treated accordingly
by his/her teachers, and will end up on societys scrap heap.
The seven intelligences or categories of human
capabilities as described by Gardner are:
1. Linguistic Intelligence, the capacity to effectively use
words orally or in writing.
2. Logical-mathematical Intelligence, the capacity to use
numbers and logic.
3. Spatial Intelligence, the ability to perceive and perform
transformations based on visual-spatial relationships.
4. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence, the ability to use one's
body to express ideas and feelings.
5. Musical Intelligence, the ability to express self through
music.
6. Interpersonal Intelligence, the capacity to perceive and
make distinctions in the moods and feelings of other people.
7. Intrapersonal Intelligence, the self-knowledge and
ability to act on that knowledge.
Although Gardner identifies seven different intelligences,
they are constantly interacting with each other, and none exist
by themselves in real life. The multiple intelligence theory
includes the rationale that every individual has capacities in all
seven intelligences. These intelligences may function together
in unique ways specific to each person (Armstrong, 1994).
20


Some individuals appear to function well in most or many of
the intelligences, while others lack all but the most basic of
competencies. Most people seem to be highly developed in
some intelligences, moderately developed in others, and
underdeveloped in the rest (Armstrong, 1994). Appropriate
encouragement and instruction can improve performance in all
seven intelligences (Gardner, 1993).
Educational leaders who make a commitment to provide a
comprehensive learning environment find compelling reasons
to support arts education in schools. "The inclusion and
integration of arts activities into the curriculum offers a viable
strategy for student motivation and success" (Barry, 1992, p.
5). Successful lifelong learners have developed dexterity,
cognitive thinking, appreciation for diversity, understanding of
self, and creative expression through the study of and
discipline in arts education. Fuller (1994) states that the arts
deserve an integral place in schools because:
1) The arts can provide positive outlets for individuality
in an environment where such outlets are clearly needed.
2) The arts can help young people learn to think and to
use language with precision.
3) The arts have intrinsic educational value (pp. 1-3).
Fuller continues saying that the arts offer opportunities for a
"healthy blend of intellectual challenge and emotional release
and encourage uniqueness, individuality, spontaneity, and


authenticity" (p. 6). A recent study (Barry, 1992) concludes
that "the inclusion and integration of arts activities into the
curriculum offer a viable strategy for student motivation and
success" (p. 5). Wright (1994) states that the performing arts
"provide students with a rich environment within which to
create and grow" and "facilitate learning by requiring students
to think, not just to memorize" (p. 41). Wright also suggests
that the performing arts teach discipline, perseverance, self
respect, and the value of cooperation.
The Performing Arts and Educational Reform
Arts education has been in jeopardy and has been
reduced or eliminated in many school districts throughout the
United States as the result of budget cuts. "The arts are being
systematically eliminated from school budgets and from the
school experience itself" (Smith-Bidstrup, 1992). In the Denver
Public Schools, for example, art and music instruction has been
sharply reduced for students in regular schools (Hernandez &
Broderick, 1995). "Only three of 72 elementary schools have
art teachers. About 6,710 elementary students have no
exposure to art and music specialists. Less than a third of high
school students take any art classes" (p. 28A). The back-to-
basics movement also has resulted in the reduction of arts
programs. The trend to reduce or eliminate arts programs "can
22


only be interpreted as a certain sign that in most places the
arts are still regarded as peripheral" (Grover, 1994, p. 26).
The newly developed National Standards for the Arts,
however, have outlined what all students should know and be
able to do in music, dance, theater, and visual arts. The
National Standards for Education in the Arts provide a
foundation for what students should know and be able to do
and have emerged as part of the education reform movement
of the past decade. They are important for two key reasons: 1)
They help define what a good education in the arts should
provide, and 2) They take a stand for rigor (National Standards
for the Arts, 1993). The Standards therefore, are outlined in
broad statements designed to provide a template for local
needs. They offer a "vision of both competence and educational
effectiveness, but without creating a mold into which all
programs must fit" (National Standards for the Arts, 1993. p.
8).
Educational Leadership and School Curricula
If schools are to meet the challenges of the future,
leaders must be knowledgeable, persistent, and passionate
about their purposes. Providing a meaningful curriculum and
nurturing learning environment are essential to improving the
quality and productivity of the students in their charge.
23


Glasser (1993) suggests that if schools begin providing
meaningful opportunities and teaching in ways that satisfy
student needs, students will begin to experience joy in doing
well in school. A nurturing school environment should allow
students to learn in an atmosphere of support and respect
where goals are attainable and pertinent to future aspirations
(Glickman, 1993).
One fundamental task of leadership, then, is to create,
develop, refine, and mold universally accepted visions within
school structures (Schlechty, 1990). Glickman (1993) suggests
that it makes little difference if 100 percent of our students
graduate, or if SAT scores rise 20 points if they have not
learned how to "identify, analyze, and solve the problems that
face their immediate and larger communities" (p. 9). Goodlad
(1984) states that classroom activity should present an
"opportunity for students to become engaged with knowledge
so as to employ their full range of intellectual abilities" (p.
231). Gardner (1993) continues by stating that it is important
that we recognize and nurture all of the varied human
intelligences, and all of the combinations of intelligences.
Successful schools, as defined by Sergiovanni (1987), are
characterized by a commitment to multiple goals where
students demonstrate intellectual values, academic attainment,
responsible citizenship, moral and ethical character, aesthetic
expression, and emotional and physical well-being. "A
24


I
multidimensional goal attainment approach to determining
school success requires that equal attention be given as well to
social, affective, and psychomotor goals, purposes and
objectives (p. 37).
Educational leaders need to be knowledgeable about the
benefits and rewards that specific curricula offer. While most
school districts have a set of goals which focus on the outcomes
expected from students, educational leaders may find difficulty
in prioritizing areas for student development. Glatthorn (1987)
suggests looking at the areas that represent the greatest need
for students and areas that will likely elicit the greatest teacher
support. The next step includes deciding which subject areas
or disciplines will be included in the curriculum. Some
academic disciplines may be required, such as English, social
studies, science, and mathematics. Including elective courses
may nurture other kinds of intelligences which can assist in the
development of fully-functioning individuals. Considerations
regarding the curriculum may include the following: Does it
provide ways in which students perceive and interpret the
world around them? Does it offer students opportunities to
learn about language and vocabulary and the coordination
skills necessary for reading, writing, and thinking? Does the
curriculum offer safe avenues of opportunity for students to
explore and develop oral communication skills?
25


Curricular educational policy is becoming more
performance based as the gap between academic performance
and future economic, political, and social needs widens (Elmore
& Fuhrman, 1994). The significance of offering ways in which
students can explore their value as individuals to society
through a performance-based criteria is becoming of greater
concern to the educational community. The sensory, formal,
technical, expressive, and symbolic properties (Smith, 1993),
as well as enhancing the meaningfulness and impact of
instruction, should not be dismissed lightly (Ackerman, 1989)
as curricular integration is developed.
Jacobs (1989) states that effective inter-disciplinary
programs should be included in curricula design and that they
contain "a cognitive taxonomy to encourage thinking skills,
behavioral indicators of attitudinal change, and a solid
evaluation scheme (p. 2). Baker (1993) believes that increasing
each student's expression through language, increasing
participation in and understanding of the lesson plan, building
self-esteem, and instilling a love of the learning process come
from integrating Sensory Learning in the delivery of curricular
material. His educational philosophy focuses on developing the
student's creativity and highlighting the interrelation of all
knowledge by using each individuals' natural sensory abilities.
Baker continues with the following "Sensory Learning"
philosophy, stating that:
26


i
1. People learn only through the five senses (sight, sound,
touch, smell, and taste).
2. Art education taught by art specialists is an
indispensable resource to implement Sensory Learning.
3. The artist contributes to the basic curriculum and daily
lesson plans (Baker, 1993, p. 107).
Principals are key players in making sure that the arts
remain part of the school's educational plan. "Specifically they
must foster the development of the arts program's goals in
relation to the schools mission and goals" (Seidel, 1994, p. 11).
Using the arts as a tool to integrate the curriculum must be a
planned process, and the attitudes, educational philosophy and
objectives of the educational leader are fundamental to the
success of the integration process. "The principal is in a central
position to look objectively at the total picture and make
decisions that allow all the pieces of the complicated puzzle
called curriculum to fit together" (Slay & Pendergast, 1993, p.
35).
Educational leaders constantly face decreasing resources
and increasing demands when making choices and setting
priorities. Sautter (1994) contends that the arts should be
treated as more than merely pleasant diversions from core
academics. "Those are the traditional ways of viewing arts
education, and they limit the purpose of the classroom arts and
diminish their potency to develop the thinking and imaginative
27


ability of students as they explore and learn about their world"
(p. 433). The value that arts education offers students with
regard to learning and skills development needs to be
considered before curricular decisions are made. Questions to
consider might include:
1. Is instruction in the arts necessary to the education of
students?
2) Do the arts help students in school?
3. Do the arts help prepare students for the world of
work?
4. Do the benefits that arts education offer students
justify the cost, and are the resources well spent?
Communication Apprehension
The condition known as communication apprehension is
defined as the "fear or anxiety associated with either real or
anticipated communication with another person or persons"
(McCrosky & Richmond, 1982, p. 9). Characteristics associated
with communication apprehension (CA) include quietness,
shyness, or the inability to speak out or state an opinion.
Communication apprehension is associated with other terms
such as stage fright, speech anxiety and reticence (Freimuth,
1976) and audience sensitivity (Paivio, 1964). The term
communication apprehension is used to include all the above as
28


it "more broadly represents the total of the fears and anxieties"
associated with communication (McCrosky, 1977b, p. 78).
The fear and anxiety about oral communication has been
identified with a variety of other terms, namely stage fright
(Clevenger, 1959), reticence, audience sensitivity, shyness, and
communication apprehension (McCrosky, 1992). Research
conducted under a variety of labels may be integrated within
the context of one underlying theory. The term communication
apprehension (CA) is used in this study because it broadly
represents the total of the fears and anxieties listed above and
is defined as "an individual's level of fear or anxiety associated
with either real or anticipated communication with another
person or persons" (McCrosky, 1977b, p. 78).
Communication apprehension and its effect on student
learning, self-esteem, and motivation have been studied at
length. The negative consequences resulting from CA can be
severe and can affect the development of interpersonal
relationships and perceptions. Because of the tendency to
avoid communication, people who suffer from CA can produce
negative perceptions in the minds of others.
The impact of shyness, apprehension, and a generally low
willingness to communicate can affect people in a variety of
ways. People who communicate very little are perceived to be
more anxious about communication than talkative people.
"Although not all quiet people are apprehensive about
29


communication, a large proportion are, which causes others to
stereotype all quiet people a stereotype that is shared even
by quiet people themselves when reporting their perceptions
of other quiet people" (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992, p. 69).
Several domains of behavior have been considered when
examining the effects of communication apprehension,
including the cognitive, affective, and behavioral (Freimuth,
1976). People who report experiencing high apprehension in a
communication situation are often viewed as having reactions
unlike those with low apprehension. This problem is seen as
part of the cognitive processing context rather than a
behavioral one, as the problem is seen as being all in one's
mind (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992). Baker (1964) suggests
that verbal behavior be examined as a behavioral measure of
CA. This approach has concentrated almost exclusively in
looking at variables such as speech disruptions and silence
(Freimuth, 1976). Critical to the development of
communication competence is a person's affective orientation
toward communication. Developing behavioral and cognitive
skills will not make a person an effective communicator if s/he
does not want to communicate (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992).
Much of the recent research in the area of communication
apprehension has been done by James C. McCrosky. His
findings have indicated that people with a "high desire to
communicate will attempt more communication and often will
30


work hard to make that communication effective" and that
people with a low desire to communicate make fewer attempts
(1982, p. 3).
Richmond and McCrosky (1992) state that heredity
appears to contribute to traitlike CA. They claim that people
are born with certain personality dispositions, including
sociability. The way sociability is treated by parents and
others will determine whether an individual will develop
communication apprehension. "How and when the child is
reinforced for communication will determine to some extent
whether the child will develop high CA or an inclination toward
quietness" (p. 63). Many people learn helplessness because of
inconsistent punishments and rewards for communication.
Others may develop anxiety because of a specific
communication situation, such as interviewing for a job or
giving a speech (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992).
Although traitlike communication apprehension is
considered to be a fairly enduring trait, changes can be made
with effort on the part of the individual. "Traitlike personality
variables, such as CA, extroversion, and dogmatism are highly
resistant to change, but this does not mean that they cannot be
changed" (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992, p. 43). Three
commonly employed methods for treating CA are systematic
desensitization, cognitive restructuring, and skills training.
Systematic desensitization (SD) involves teaching individuals'


deep muscle relaxation and visualization. Cognitive
restructuring focuses on helping the individual formulate new
belief systems. Skills training programs vary from a complete
course on communication skills to training someone to ask a
person for a date (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992).
Research into the effects that communication
apprehension has on self-esteem has received increased
attention in recent years. Stacks and Stone (1984) discussed
the relationship that exists between self-concept and
communication apprehension. McCrosky, Daly, Richmond, and
Falcione (1977) suggest that people derive feeling of self
through their interactions with others. In a study of three
widely divergent subject populations, a remarkably consistent
relationship was found between oral communication
apprehension and self-esteem (McCrosky et al., 1977). "People
with low self-esteem tend to have higher levels of
communication apprehension; people with high self-esteem
tend to have lower levels of communication apprehension"
(Richmond & McCrosky, 1992, p. 52). These research findings
seem to indicate that feelings about self may be derived from
interactions with others.
Research conducted in the area of self-esteem has
suggested that individuals identified with low self regard
suffer from a variety of maladjusted and neurotic behaviors
(Brownfain, 1952) leading to a consensus among researchers
32


that "self concept is related to other indices of social
adjustment (McCandless, 1970, p. 456). "When individuals are
free to pursue legitimate developmental needs, such as
becoming competent or gaining control over their environment,
cognitive processes act both as the clarifier and servant of self-
expression" (Covington, 1992, p. 73). Such research has
established the conclusion that the perceptions one has of self
significantly affect attitudes, behaviors, and cognitive processes
(McCrosky et al., 1977).
People with low self-esteem tend to feel that they are
not worthwhile, that they are more likely to fail than
to succeed, and that they are less competent than other
people around them. In contrast, people with high self-
esteem see themselves as valuable members of society
and as winners who are competent and likely to be
successful. (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992, p. 52)
The development of a sense of self should be a major goal
of education, as it is essential in advancing "levels of
achievement, ability to adjust to the demands of environment,
and general state of well being" (Battle, 1982, p. 12). Many
educators recognize that self-esteem and achievement are
related (McCrosky et al., 1977). And Battle (1982) states that
both self-esteem and achievement are essential variables in
the educational process. As schools provide outlets and
students are encouraged to engage in cognitive modification
33


and skills enhancement, communication abilities and self-
concept will improve ((Stacks & Stone, 1984).
State and Trait Apprehension
Communication apprehension is a broad-based term
which describes oral anxiety experienced within a variety of
intensity levels. A distinction has been made between what
may be considered characteristic of normal, well-adjusted
communication anxiety and excessive apprehension associated
with a variety of communication encounters. "State" anxiety
(McCrosky, 1977b) is a term which has been used to describe
communication apprehension as a normal experience and
becomes evident in a specific oral communication situation.
Such situations include those that would make most people
anxious, such as giving speeches to groups of strangers or
interviewing for a new job.
People who experience high levels of anxiety about
almost all oral communication encounters are considered to
suffer from "trait" apprehension (McCrosky, 1977b). The
majority of those with high trait CA have no problems with
basic speech skills, although some may display articulation or
speech disorders such as stuttering (McCrosky, 1977b). People
suffering from this form of apprehension often see most
communication encounters as threatening. The percentage of
34


the general population affected by high trait CA may be fairly
high. Approximately 20 percent of student populations in
public schools and colleges have been described as having high
trait CA (McCrosky, 1970).
Communication
We know intuitively that different ways of
communicating are necessary for different situations.
A schoolmaster speaks in one way to his students in
class, in another way on the sports field and yet
another during a fire drill. Similarly, a manager speaks
to his subordinates in one way in a business situation,
in a different way in a social situation and in a different
way again in an emergency. (McCall & Cousins, 1990,
p. 54)
All people communicate, bringing meaning to the things
they do. As people communicate with each other, a sharing of
meaning is established between them (McCall & Cousins, 1990).
Communication is an important feature in interviewing, conflict
management, relationship initiation and maintenance, public
speaking, and social conversation (Spitzberg & Cupach, 1984).
The ability to communicate competently is integral to an
individual's quality of life as it has been shown to facilitate
educational success, social effectiveness, and personal growth
(Spitzberg & Cupach, 1984).
One of the skills children develop in their early teens is to
establish bonds of intimacy by communicating with others
35


(Fogel, 1993). People use conversation for the exchange of
social information, to influence, and to achieve various social
goals (Wyer & Srull, 1984). Communication is the most
important interactional tool people can use to be persuasive,
present a good impression, and achieve general goals for
interaction (Wyer & Srull, 1984).
Social situations present different characteristics which
may affect what happens to people when they are called upon
to speak (McCall & Cousins, 1990). A special kind of language
may be required if the person being addressed is a superior,
subordinate or peer, or whether the conversation is formal or
informal, routine or emergency (McCall & Cousins 1990).
Communicating in Groups
Groups meet for a variety of reasons which include the
solving of problems and the gathering and exchanging of
information (Reuss & Silvis, 1981). Group discussion is a
"systematic form of speech in which two or more persons meet
face to face and interact orally to accomplish a particular task"
(Verderber, 1991, p. 363). Communicating in groups allows for
the sharing of more knowledge and thinking in a greater
variety of ways (Kayser, 1990). The quality of personal
interaction, however, may vary with group size. As group size
increases, inhibition levels among group members appear to
36


decrease as aggressive members participate more and quiet
ones participate less (Patton & Giffin, 1978). Quiet individuals
who participate in large group discussions (more than 5
members) may have less time to talk and feel less pressure to
express feelings and ideas and even withdraw from the group
discussion without loss of face (Patton & Giffin, 1978).
Communicating in Meetings
People meet to cooperate, process information, and to
achieve specific goals (Kayser, 1990). Meetings allow more
knowledge, experience, and variety of thinking to come
together to accomplish specific tasks (Kayser, 1990). In
addition, those who participate in meetings are more inclined
to offer stronger commitments to ideas if they are involved in
producing them (Reuss & Silvis, 1981).
"Communications are the essence of a meeting. If there is
a breakdown in communications, you don't have a meeting at
all" (McMahon, 1990, p. 22). Employing effective
communication skills is basic to managing potential conflict in
meetings (Shelton & Bauer, 1994). Shelton & Bauer (1994)
have identified three skills related to effective communication
skills used in meetings: disarming, empathy, and inquiry.
Disarming is listening for "something to agree with in what the
other person is saying" (p. 32). Empathy requires that you "put
37


yourself in the other person's shoes . identifying with his or
her feelings" (p. 32). Inquiry "allows you to ask gentle, probing
questions to determine what is going on" (p. 32).
Interpersonal Communication
An interpersonal encounter involves the exchange of
verbal and nonverbal messages between a sender and a
receiver (Gamble & Gamble, 1982). During an interpersonal
exchange, the sending and receiving process is constantly being
reversed and causes some effect on both participants which can
be physical, cognitive, or emotional (Gamble & Gamble, 1982).
Interpersonal contact can elicit feelings of joy, anger, or
sadness and cause individuals to "fight, argue, become
apathetic ... or lead to new insights, increased knowledge, the
formation or reconsideration of opinions, silence, or confusion"
(Gamble & Gamble, 1982, p. 16).
Interpersonal communication is the fundamental
resource for the articulation of identity, values, friendships,
and social integration (Rawlins, 1992). "Communication
processes are central to the initiation, development,
maintenance, and ending of interpersonal relationships"
(Kalbfleisch, 1993, p. 281). Interactional adeptness, then,
requires "striving for intimacy with friends . and achieving
recognition by peers" constituting ongoing "communicative
38


challenges" (Rawlins, 1992, p. 78). Individuals who are unable
to communicate competently will not be able to fulfill the
"general need of all humans to control their environment" and
"interface with other people" (Spitzberg & Cupach, 1984, pp.
11-12).
Public Speaking
Various communication transactions take place in a
variety of specific contexts. One such context is the oral
presentation or public speech, "usually given without
interruption, and delivered to entertain, to help people to
understand, to help people to form or alter beliefs, or to move
people to action" (Verderber, 1991, p. 4). The process of public
speaking is said to be a "stimulus-and response process", where
a speaker "offers a stimulus (message) and the audience
responds (feedback)" (Peterson, 1992. p. 30).
A common reaction to public speaking by speakers is
apprehension or stage fright (McCrosky & Richmond, 1982).
Speakers may experience anxiety or uneasiness by being the
focus of attention which may be displayed by the speakers
facial expressions, gestures, and tone of voice (Verderber,
1991). This anxiety may not be the fear of speaking but rather
"the consequences of it, particularly the possibility of a
negative reaction from the audience" (White, 1978, p.7). In
39


addition, an audience will develop a perception of the speaker's
credibility based on the verbal and nonverbal cues which affect
the message an audience receives (Verderber, 1991). "The
more credible the audience perceives the source to be, the
more likely that its members will trust or have confidence in
the accuracy of the information the speaker presents"
(Verderber, 1991, p. 8).
40


CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
This chapter discusses the research methodology. It
examines why the survey instrument for this study was
selected, how the population and sample were determined, the
process of survey distribution, and the evaluation of the
results.
Purpose of Study and Research Hypotheses
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship
between participation in the performing arts within school
curricula and levels of communication apprehension. In order
to examine this relationship, this study investigated the
following hypotheses:
1. Students who participate in the performing arts in
schools will have lower levels of communication apprehension
in general and specific communication contexts than students
who do not participate in performing arts in schools.
2. Students in performing arts classes that rely more
on oral skills will have lower levels of communication


apprehension than students who are in classes that rely less on
oral communication skills.
Survey Instrument
To measure the presence of communication apprehension
for the purpose of this study, the Personal Report of
Communication Apprehension-24 (PRCA-24) was used
(Richmond & McCrosky, 1992). The PRCA-24 (Appendix D) is
the best available measure of traitlike communication
apprehension and can predict general feelings people have
about communicating in specific communication situations
(Richmond & McCrosky, 1992).
McCrosky (1978) states that a strong case has been
established for the reliability of the original PRCA instrument
which was introduced in 1970. Results of a series of studies
have indicated that the PRCA is able to predict "communication
behaviors that would be expected on the basis of the theory
underlying the construct of communication apprehension"
(McCroskey, 1978, p. 196). Reports documenting the PRCA's
cross-situational consistency have also been reported
(McCroskey & Beatty, 1984; McCroskey & Richmond, 1982).
The more recent version of the survey instrument (PRCA-24)
has been investigated, resulting in strong support of the
4 2


content validity of the items used in the instrument
(McCroskey et al., 1985).
The PRCA-24 is composed of twenty-four statements
concerning people's feelings about communicating with other
people in four categories or communication contexts which
include group discussions, meetings, interpersonal
conversations (dyads), and public speaking. The total score for
the PRCA-24 ranges between 24 and 120. Between 60 and 70
percent of the people who have taken the PRCA score between
55 and 83 (McCrosky & Richmond, 1982). These scores are
referred to as the normal range and serve to determine the
following scoring breakdown: Subjects scoring above 65
generally experience above-average anxiety about
communicating with others; scores above 80 indicate a very
high level of communication anxiety; and subjects scoring
below 50 indicate low levels of communication apprehension
(Richmond & McCroskey, 1992). Subjects scoring very low, for
example, experience anxiety in situations in which individuals
would most likely experience anxiety, while those scoring very
high experience anxiety in communication situations where it
would not be normal to experience anxiety.
The PRCA-24 instrument is copywritten by James C.
McCrosky and may be reprinted and used for research and
instructional purposes without additional authorization
(McCrosky et al., 1985).


Pilot Study of the Survey Instrument
The pilot study of the survey instrument was carried out
at a middle school in a large urban school district. The first
phase of the pilot process involved the researcher contacting
the school principal to inform him of the study and to submit a
copy of the instrument for his perusal. The second phase of the
process was to obtain permission from the school principal and
fulfill any district requirements necessary to continue the
experimental testing. As the focus of the pilot testing centered
on determining subjects' understanding of the instrument and
not on the data collected, the district required no formal
student permission process.
During the third phase of the pilot study, the PRCA-24
survey instrument was administered to fifty-two 8th grade
students of the pilot middle school under the direct supervision
of the school principal and 8th grade teachers. The school
principal read the survey instructions to the students before
they were allowed to complete the survey, and any questions
students had during their participation were fielded and noted
by participating teachers.
After the pilot survey was completed, the instruments
and written comments from teachers about student concerns
were returned to the researcher. Pilot students found
44


difficulty responding to the statements referring to meetings;
this was a communication context not often experienced by the
pilot subjects. Minor format revisions were made in the survey
instrument reflecting clarification of instructions, and a final
copy was prepared for use in the study.
Population and Sample
The sample for the study consisted of two groups of
freshmen entering two high schools in a large urban school
district. One group of students was selected because they were
enrolled in the school-sponsored performing arts classes
(treatment group). The other group of students was selected
because the students were not enrolled in school-sponsored
performing arts classes (control group).
The two schools chosen for the study were selected
because of the performing arts courses offered (or not offered)
and a willingness of the school administrations, teaching staffs,
and students to participate in the study. School Alpha was
selected because of its commitment to aesthetic education. This
school currently serves as an arts magnet for the school
district. Enrollment at this school is competitive and is based
on the quality of student generated arts portfolios and ethnic
quotas resulting in the following racial breakdown: 50% Anglo;
25% African American; 15% Hispanic; and 10% Asian, American


Indian, and others. School Alpha had a total student population
of roughly 400 students with approximately 70 entering
freshmen at the time of the study. A total of 35 freshmen at
school Alpha returned signed Research Study Consent Forms
(Appendix C) allowing participation in the study.
School Omega was selected because the performing arts
courses offered at this school had been dramatically reduced?
resulting in limited participation in performing arts disciplines
by the student body. Omega bused many of its students to
achieve racial integration as required by court order which
resulted in the following racial breakdown: 40% African
American; 30% Anglo; 20% Hispanic; and 10% Asian, American
Indian, and others. School Omega had a total student
population of roughly 950 students with approximately 290
entering freshmen at the time of the study. A total of 33
entering freshmen at school Omega returned signed Research
Study Consent Forms allowing participation in the study.
Curricula of the Study Groups
The subjects participating in the study consisted of two
groups of freshmen entering two high schools of the same
urban school district. The school district had spent several
years in the process of curriculum development, resulting in a
school board approved curriculum for core and elective content
46


areas. The curriculum was designed to provide a foundation
for what students in the district should be taught as well as
ideas and assistance to enable teachers to deliver the
curriculum in a comprehensive manner. District curricula
guidelines for all content areas provide a scope and sequence,
i.e., what the students will be taught, suggested activities,
extensions, assessments, and teacher resources.
Control group participants (entering high school
freshmen) were enrolled and participated in district approved
core and elective classes, but not performing arts classes (vocal
or instrumental music, dance, or drama), for one semester.
Treatment group participants (entering high school freshmen)
were enrolled and participated in district approved core and
elective classes, and also participated in one major performing
arts course (vocal or instrumental music, dance, or drama).
Some of the curricular activities the treatment group
encountered include interdisciplinary learnings with other
content areas, establishing conceptual and interpretive skills,
and participating in performance opportunities in the various
performing arts.
Distribution of Survey Instruments
The survey instruments were delivered and administered
by the researcher at both school sites on two different


occasions; once as a pre-test at the beginning of the school year
in September and again as a post-test at the end of the
semester. The school principal and/or assistant principal
accompanied the researcher at each school site and assisted in
the distribution of the surveys. The survey directions were
verbally read by the researcher before the students were
allowed to begin. Although students in the pilot study found
difficulty responding to the statements referring to meetings,
the communication context was included in the study. Verbal
examples of student participation in meetings were shared
with students before the survey instruments were completed.
Such examples included student council meetings, back-to-
school nights, and student-parent-teacher conferences. As the
students finished, surveys were collected by the school
principal and/or assistant principal and researcher.
Evaluation of Data
The PRCA-24 is designed to allow computation of a total
communication apprehension score and four sub-scores
representing each of four different communication contexts;
groups, meetings, interpersonal (dyads), and public speaking.
The total score for the PRCA-24 is obtained by adding the four
sub-scores together and ranges between 24 and 120. Scores on
each of the four contexts can range from 6 (low) to 30 (high).
48


Scores were computed using the formula found in Appendix E
(Richmond & McCroskey, 1992, p. 126). Scores between 18 and
24 in an individual context area indicate some degree of
communication apprehension. Scores in this range in the public
speaking context are not uncommon for most people (Richmond
& McCroskey, 1992).
Total CA and subgroup scores for the pre- and post-tests
were computed for all participating students. Scores from
students enrolled in performing arts were then compared to
students not enrolled in the performing arts. This was done
with an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in order to somewhat
statistically equate the two groups and to determine if
participation in the performing arts within school curricula is
related to communication apprehension.
Total CA scores were computed for students participating
in each performing art. A statistical analysis compared the
total CA scores of students in each performing art. Analysis of
covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine if students in
performing arts classes that rely more on oral skills have lower
levels of CA than students who are in classes that rely less on
oral communication skills.
An addendum to the post-test was given to students
enrolled in the performing arts to determine gender, ethnic
background, and the number of years and approximate ages


they were actively engaged in the performing arts (Appendix
F). This information was used for discussion in chapter 4.
50


CHAPTER 4
ANALYSIS OF DATA
Overview
The purpose of this study was to determine if
participation in the performing arts within school curricula is
related to communication apprehension. Two research
hypotheses were stated for this relationship. One stated that
students who participate in the performing arts in schools will
have lower levels of communication apprehension in general
and specific communication contexts than students who do not
participate in performing arts in schools. The other hypothesis
stated that students in performing arts classes that rely more
on oral skills (vocal music and drama) will have lower levels of
communication apprehension than students who are in classes
that rely less on oral communication skills (instrumental music
and dance).
In order to examine the levels of communication
apprehension experienced by the control and treatment groups
selected for the study, the PRCA-24 survey instrument was
given in a pre- and post-test format. A total of 33 subjects in


the control group completed both the pre- and post-test survey
instruments. The control group represents students who are
not enrolled in performing arts classes. A total of 35 subjects
in the treatment group completed both the pre- and post-test
survey instruments. The treatment group represents students
who are enrolled in performing arts classes, including 10
students enrolled in vocal music, 12 students enrolled in
instrumental music, 8 students enrolled in drama, and 5
students enrolled in dance.
The PRCA-24 is composed of twenty-four statements
concerning feelings about communicating with others in four
categories or communication contexts; group discussions,
meetings, interpersonal conversations (dyads), and public
speaking. The total score for the PRCA-24 ranges between 24
and 120 (Richmond & McCroskey, 1992). Between 60 and 70
percent of the people who have taken the PRCA score between
55 and 83 (McCrosky & Richmond, 1982). These scores are
referred to as the normal range and serve to determine the
following scoring breakdown: Subjects scoring above 65
generally experience above-average anxiety about
communicating with others, scores above 80 indicate a very
high level of communication anxiety, and subjects scoring
below 50 indicate low levels of communication apprehension
(Richmond & McCroskey, 1992).
52


Data Analysis
Summary of Data for Research Hypothesis 1
Research Hypothesis 1: Students who participate in the
performing arts in schools will have lower levels of
communication apprehension in general and in specific
communication contexts than students who do not participate
in performing arts in schools.
Pre- and post-test mean scores measuring total
communication apprehension and CA in specific communication
contexts were calculated for the control and treatment groups.
The specific communication contexts measured include
communicating in groups, meetings, dyads, and public
speaking. The pre-test scores for the control and treatment
groups are reported in Table 4.1 and the post-test scores for
the control and treatment groups are reported in Table 4.2.
Total mean scores for communication apprehension
measured 5.7 points higher for the pre-test control group than
for the pre-test treatment group. The control group scored
higher than the treatment group in the pre-test sub scores as
well; a difference of 0.9 for the group score, 1.9 for the meeting
score, 2.1 for the dyad score, and 1.0 for public speaking.
These scores indicate that the treatment group is exhibiting
less communication apprehension in general and in specific
53


contexts than the control group. These scores suggest that the
control and treatment groups may not be equal with respect to
one or more variables, such as having similar previous
experiences in the performing arts.
Total mean scores for communication apprehension
measured 4.6 points higher for the post-test control group than
for the post-test treatment group, indicating that the control
group had higher general CA at the mid-point in the school
year. The control group scored higher than the treatment
group in the post-test sub scores with a difference as follows:
1.0 for groups, 1.4 for meetings, and 1.4 for public speaking;
the dyads score was greater in the post-test treatment score by
0.2 points. These scores indicate that the control group also
had higher CA related to specific communication contexts than
the treatment group in the middle of the school year.
54


Table 4.1
Means and Standard Deviations of the Pre-Test Scores in
General and Specific Communication Contexts for Control and
Treatment Groups
Communication Mean Standard
Context Deviation
Control (n=33) Treatment (n=35) Control (n=33) Treatment (n=35)
Total 67.8 62.1 18.5 14.6
Group 15.4 14.5 5.0 4.6
Meetings 16.9 15.0 5.2 4.5
Dyads 16.8 14.7 6.3 4.0
Public 18.8 17.8 5.4 4.5
55


Table 4.2
Means and Standard Deviations of the Post-Test Scores in
General and Soecific Communication Contexts for Control and
Treatment Groups
Communication Mean Standard
Context Deviation
Control Treatment Control Treatment
(n=33) (n=35) (n=33) (n=35)
Total 63.8 59.2 14.0 15.3
Group 14.8 13.8 3.5 4.2
Meetings 15.9 14.5 4.3 4.2
Dyads 14.5 14.7 4.0 4.3
Public 17.7 16.3 4.6 5.0
Mean pre- and post-test CA scores for the control and
treatment groups in general and specific contexts ; by gender
were calculated and are reported in Tables 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, and
4.6. Pre-test scores for the control group in general and all
specific communication contexts were higher for males than
females. Post-test scores in general and all specific
communication contexts except communicating in dyads were
higher for the control group females than for the control group
males. The pre-test CA scores for control group males are
higher than the post-test scores for control group males in
general and all specific communication contexts. The CA scores
for control group females were mixed; higher pre-test scores
56


for groups and public speaking and higher post-test scores in
meetings, dyads, and in total CA. Average pre-test CA scores
were higher for the treatment group males in groups, dyads,
and in general than for the treatment group females. Mean
post-test CA scores in groups, meetings, and in general were
higher for the treatment group males than for the treatment
group females. These scores indicate that the treatment group
males experienced a higher level of communication
apprehension than the treatment group females in groups,
dyads, and in general in the pre-test, and that the control
group males reported experiencing lower levels of post-test
communication apprehension than the control group females in
dyads and in public while experiencing higher levels of
communication apprehension in groups, meetings, and in
general.
Post-test CA scores for control group males were higher
than post-test CA scores for treatment group males in public
and in general, while post-test CA scores for control group
females were higher than post-test CA scores for treatment
group females in all communication contexts. These data
indicate that control group males may experience higher levels
of CA than treatment group males in public and in general
while control group females may experience higher levels of CA
in all communication contexts.
57


Table 4.3
Means and Standard Deviations of the Pre-Test CA Scores for
Control GrouD in General and SDecific Communication Contexts
bv Gender
Communication Mean Standard
Context Deviation
Male (n= 18) Female (n=15) Male (n=18) Female (n=15)
Total 70.8 64.2 17.8 19.4
Group 15.6 15.1 5.2 4.8
Meetings 17.2 16.5 5.0 5.6
Dyads 18.9 14.3 6.4 5.4
Public 19.2 18.3 5.0 6.0
58


Table 4.4
Means and Standard Deviations of the Post-Test CA Scores for
Control GrouD in General and Soecific Communication Contexts
bv Gender
Communication Context Mean Standard Deviation
Male Female Male Female
(n=18) (n=15) (n=18) (n=15)
Total 62.9 64.8 15.4 12.7
Group 14.6 15.0 4.1 2.9
Meetings 14.8 17.3 4.6 3.7
Dyads 14.6 14.5 4.6 3.3
Public 17.4 18.0 4.1 5.3
59


Table 4.5
Means and Standard Deviations of the Pre-Test CA Scores for
Treatment GrouD in General and Soecific Communication
Contexts bv Gender
Communication Context Mean Standard Deviation
Male (n=12) Female (n=23) Male (n=12) Female (n=23)
Total 63.7 61.3 15.5 14.4
Group 14.6 14.5 4.2 4.9
Meetings 15.0 15.1 4.1 4.8
Dyads 16.4 13.8 5.1 3.2
Public 17.7 17.9 4.5 4.6
60


Table 4.6
Means and Standard Deviations of the Post-Test CA Scores for
Treatment Grouo in General and Soecific Communication
Contexts bv Gender
Communication Mean Standard
Context Deviation
Male Female Male Female
(n=12) (n=23) (n=12) (n=23)
Total 60.9 58.3 11.6 17.0
Group 14.8 13.3 3.4 4.5
Meetings 15.3 14.0 3.1 4.6
Dyads 15.3 14.4 3.4 4.7
Public 15.5 16.7 4.7 5.2
The variations in pre-test data stated above have
indicated that the control and treatment groups may not have
been equal with respect to one or more variables. In order to
increase statistical power and reduce some of the selection bias,
the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method of statistical
analysis was selected. Covariance analysis adjusts post-test
data for variations in pre-test data, evaluating post-test results
as if both pre-test groups were equal.
Analysis of variance procedures make four assumptions.
The first assumption is that samples are randomly drawn. The
second assumption is homogeneity of variance, where


variances on each variable are the same for each group
measured. The third assumption is that the distributions of the
variables in the analysis are normal, and the last assumption is
that observations are independent (Taylor & Innocenti, 1993).
Analysis of covariance procedures make four additional
assumptions. First, it is assumed that a linear relationship
exists between the dependent variable and the covariate.
Second, group regression lines are assumed to be parallel.
Third, it is assumed that the covariate is measured without
error, and the last assumption of ANCOVA is that the co variate
is independent of treatment (Taylor & Innocenti, 1993).
The first step in ANCOVA is to test for equal slopes
(parallel lines). If the slopes are not significantly different, the
lines can be assumed to be parallel. Traditional ANCOVA
techniques involve comparing the distance between the two
parallel lines to determine if there is a significant difference
between the two treatment groups (control and experimental).
Many statistics textbooks stress the importance of the equal
slope assumption and warn that unequal slopes render
ANCOVA invalid. A few statisticians, however, have challenged
this approach and have demonstrated methods for comparing
treatment groups when the assumption of equal regression
slopes is not met. Some authors refer to these techniques as
ANCOVA with nonparallel regression lines while other authors
omit the reference to ANCOVA. Cohen and Cohen (1975) stress
62


the importance of the assumption of equal population slopes
and warn that unequal slopes render ANCOVA invalid. Rogosa
(1980) challenges this by stating "ANCOVA provides certain
information about the treatment effect even when significant
differences in the slopes are detected" (p. 320). The Johnson-
Neyman technique (1936) is a procedure for the statistical
comparison of nonparallel regression lines. Comparing
nonparallel regression lines using the Johnson-Neyman
procedure is supported by Jennings (1987) and Frigon and
Laurencelle (1993) as a useful analytic approach to examine
data with heterogeneous regression slopes.
The ANCOVA was performed using the Johnson-Neyman
technique because of its power allowing testing of treatment
effects on all levels of the covariate (Frigon & Laurencelle,
1993). This approach involves the calculation of a
nonsignificance region which will identify values of the
covariate that are associated with nonsignificant or significant
group differences on the dependent variable (Frigon &
Laurencelle, 1993). "The Johnson-Neyman technique is
analogous to partitioning significant interaction effects into
simple main effects in factorial ANCOVA designs (Frigon &
Laurencelle, 1992, p. 14). The initial model compared post-test
scores for treatment vs. control group adjusting for pre-test
scores, gender, race, and years of prior experience. Of the non-
significant variables, years of experience had the highest p -
63


value and was therefore eliminated from the model. The
backward procedure involves repeating this process until all
remaining variables are significant. In addition to years of
experience, gender and race were also eliminated, leaving pre-
test score as the only covariate (p = .0001).
The most commonly chosen value of risk (alpha) was set
at .05 (Glass & Hopkins, 1984, p. 205). If the probability Ip-
value) associated with the hypothesis test comparing scores for
treatment and control groups is .05 or smaller, then the two
groups would be considered significantly different.
The ANCOVA table to test for equal slopes is reported in
Table 4.7. The third line of the table (pre-test x trt/control)
tests for equal slopes. The p-value of .0276 indicates that the
hypothesis of equal slopes should be rejected. The intercepts
and slopes for the control and treatment groups are reported in
Table 4.8. Figure 4.1 shows the graphical representation of the
two groups.
With nonparallel lines, it is not appropriate to make an
overall statement that the two groups are significantly
different or are not significantly different. Instead, the two
groups should be compared at several values of the covariate.
Table 4.9 provides comparisons between control and treatment
for pre-test scores of 20, 30, . 120. The p-values indicate
that the control and treatment post-test scores are different for
very low pre-test scores (20, 30, 40) and for very high pre-test
64


scores (120). The comparison at pre-test of 120, however,
involves extrapolation for the treatment group; the highest
treatment group pre-test score was 102. Therefore, differences
between control and treatment at the high pre-test scores
should be considered with reservations. The control and
treatment post-test scores are not different for pre-test scores
50 110.
Of the students with little CA at the beginning of the
semester, those in the treatment group had less apprehension
than those in the control group by the end of the semester.
Interestingly, both treatment and control groups appear to
show more apprehension at the end of the semester than at the
beginning of the semester. For middle and high pre-test scores
there is either no or questionable difference between control
and treatment groups.
The ANCOVA results from 4 specific communication
contexts between post-test control versus treatment groups,
adjusting for pre-test scores, were as follows: groups, p = .243
(no significant difference); meetings, p = .092 (no significant
difference at a = .05); dyads, p = .065 (no significant difference
at a = .05); and public speaking, p = .609 (no significant
difference). Thus, a significant difference existed for the total
CA scores (p = .0233) between post-test control versus
treatment groups but not for any of the specific communication
contexts.
65


Table 4.7
ANCOVA Table of Total Post-Test Scores for Control vs.
Treatment Groups
df SS MS F p-value
Treatment/Control l 726.12 726.12 5.40 .0233
Pre-Test Total 1 5502.34 5502.34 40.90 .0001
Pre-Test x Trt/Control 1 683.63 683.63 5.08 .0276
Error 64 8609.10 134.52 - -
Total 67 14586.76 217.71 - -
Table 4.8
ANCOVA Intercepts and Slopes for Total CA of Control and
Treatment Groups
Test Control Group Treatment Group
Intercept 39.13 12.04
Slope 0.36 0.76
66


Table 4.9
ANCOVA CA Comparisons of Control vs. Treatment Group Post-
Test Scores at Specific Pre-Test Scores
Pre-Test Scores P Values Testing for
Difference Between Control
and Treatment at Specified
Pre-Test Score
20 .0241
30 .0261
40 .0324
50 .0600
60 .2625
70 .8398
80 .2524
90 .1142
100 .0739
110 .0575
120 .0491
67


Figure 4.1
Intercepts and Slopes of Final ANCOVA Model
Pre-Test
CA Total
Summary of Data for Research Hypothesis 2
Research Hypothesis 2: Students in performing arts
classes that rely more on oral skills will have lower levels of
communication apprehension than students who are in classes
that rely less on oral communication skills.
Average pre- and post-test mean scores measuring total
communication apprehension were calculated for students
enrolled in various performing arts classes (treatment group),
including dance, drama, instrumental music and vocal music.
The average total communication apprehension
68


experienced by students in the various performing arts is
reported in Table 4.10. The highest average total
communication apprehension scores for pre- and post-tests
were reported in dance, a class which relies less on oral skills
than other performing arts classes. The lowest average total
CA pre-test scores were reported in vocal music and drama,
classes which rely more on oral skills. These data indicate that
students enrolled in dance experience higher levels of
communication apprehension than students enrolled in other
performing arts, while students enrolled in performing arts
classes which rely more on oral skills experience lower levels
of CA.
69


Table 4.10
Average Pre- and Post-Test Mean Scores Measuring Total
Communication Apprehension in the Various Performing Arts
Performing Art Average Total CA Pre-Test Score Average Total CA Post-Test Score
Vocal Music 52.6 53.8
Instrumental Music 62.9 58.1
Drama 60.8 64.4
Dance 71.6 64.6
A total of 35 students participated as treatment subjects
in the study. These students were enrolled and actively
participated in performing arts classes at the time the study
was conducted, including dance, drama, instrumental music and
vocal music. Category frequencies and percentage scores are
shown in Table 4.11. These data indicate that a larger
percentage of students in the treatment group participated in
instrumental and vocal music than any other performing art,
while a smaller percentage of students in the treatment group
participated in dance and theater.
70


Table 4.11
Treatment Group Performing Arts Participation Breakdown
Performing Art Frequency Percent
Dance 5 15%
Theater 8 23%
Instrumental Music 12 33%
Vocal Music 10 29%
Total 35 100%
An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed
which compared the total communication apprehension scores
of students in each performing art. In this case, the test for
equal slopes was not rejected (p = .6797). The results of the
equal slope ANCOVA models are reported in Table 4.12. The
ANCOVA for total communication apprehension resulted in no
significant difference among performing arts post-tests,
adjusting for pre-test scores (p = .3292). Further, the ANCOVA
model comparing vocal music and drama CA scores (classes
that rely on oral skills) with instrumental music and dance
scores (classes that rely less on oral skills) resulted in no
significant difference (p = .3393). These results indicate no
71


significant difference in CA post-test scores among any of the
various performing arts classes or between classes that rely
more on oral skills vs. classes that rely less on oral skills.
Table 4.12
ANCOVA Table Comparing CA Between Performing Arts Classes
(adjusting for pre-test scores!
df SS MS F p-value
3 400.48 133.49 1.19 .3292
1 4170.62 4170.62 37.27 .0001
30 3357.06 111.90
d f SS MS F p-value
Oral/non-Oral 1 107.27 107.27 0.94 .3393
Pre-Test Total 1 4258.22 4258.22 37.33 .0001
Error 32 3650.28 114.07
Summary of General Demographic Data
A total of 68 control and treatment group subjects
participated in the study. Category frequency and percentage
scores for gender are shown in Table 4.13. These data indicate
that a slightly larger percentage of control group males than
Performing Art
Pre-Test Total
Error
72


control group females participated in the study; a larger
percentage of treatment group females than treatment group
males also participated.
Table 4.13
Frequencies and Percentages of Gender Breakdown for Control
and Treatment Groups
Gender Control Group Frequency Percentage Treatment Group Frequency Percentage
Male l 8 55% 12 34%
Female 1 5 45% 23 66%
Total 33 100% 35 100%
The population for the study consisted of two groups of
freshmen entering two high schools. The treatment group was
enrolled in a school that serves as an arts magnet (School
Alpha). The control group was enrolled in a school where
performing arts course offerings had been reduced (School
Omega). Approximate percentages of total ethnic enrollment
for Schools Alpha (control group) and Omega (treatment group)
are reported in Table 4.14.
73


The ethnic enrollment at School Alpha (treatment group)
was highest among Anglos at 50%, followed by 25% for African
Americans, 15% for Hispanics, and 10% Other. The ethnic
enrollment at School Omega (control group) was highest for
African-Americans at 40%, followed by Anglos at 30%,
Hispanics at 20%, and Others at 10%. These data indicate that a
small percentage of Hispanic, African-American, and Other
students enrolled in the performing arts, and that as many
Anglo students enrolled in performing arts classes as did all
other ethnic groups combined.
Table 4.14
Approximate Percentages of Total Ethnic Enrollment for Schools
Alpha (Control Group) and Omega (Treatment Group)
Ethnic Group School Alpha (Treatment Group) School Omega (Control Group)
Anglo 50% 30%
African- 25% 40%
American
Hispanic 15% 20%
Other 10% 10%
Total
100%
100%


The mean pre- and post-test communication
apprehension scores for the control and treatment groups in
general and specific communication contexts were calculated
by ethnic background and are reported in Tables 4.15, 4.16,
4.17, and 4.18. Mean pre-test scores for the control group in
general and all specific communication contexts were higher for
Hispanics than any other ethnic group except in public, where
students designated as Other scored higher: average post-test
scores in general and all specific communication contexts for
the control group were higher for Asians than any other ethnic
control group except in public, where students designated as
Other scored higher. Mean pre-test CA scores in groups, dyads,
and in general were lower for control group students
designated as Other; average post-test CA scores for control
group Anglos improved in general and all specific
communication contexts, while average post-test scores for
control group African-Americans improved in all
communication contexts except in public, where the score
remained the same. These scores indicate that pre-test control
group Hispanics experience a higher level of communication
apprehension in general and all specific communication
contexts except in public, while control group Asians
experience higher levels of CA in all communication contexts
except in public.


Treatment group African-American students reported
higher mean post-test CA scores than in the pre-test in all
communication contexts except in dyads; treatment group
Anglo students reported lower mean post-test CA scores than
in the pre-test in all communication contexts except groups;
treatment group Hispanic students reported higher mean post-
test CA scores than in the pre-test in dyads; and treatment
group students designated as Other reported lower mean post-
test CA scores than in the pre-test in general and all specific
communication contexts. All post-test scores for treatment
group students designated as Other were lower in all
communication contexts than for any other ethnic treatment
group. These data indicate that treatment group African-
American, Anglo, Asian, and Hispanic students experienced
higher communication apprehension in various communication
contexts at the end of the study, while the treatment group
students designated as Other experienced lower CA at the end
of the study more than any other ethnic treatment group.
African-American control group students reported higher
post-test CA scores in meetings and in public speaking than did
post-test treatment group African-Americans; Anglo control
group students reported higher post-test CA scores in dyads,
public, and in general than did post-test treatment group
Anglos; Hispanic control group students reported higher post-
test CA scores in groups and in general than did post-test


treatment group Hispanics; treatment group students
designated as Other reported lower post-test CA scores than
any other ethnic group. These data indicate that African-
American control group students experience higher levels of
communication apprehension than African-American treatment
students in meetings and public speaking; that Anglo control
group students experience higher levels of CA than Anglo
treatment group students in dyads, public, and in general; that
Hispanic control group students experience higher levels of CA
than Hispanic treatment group students in groups and in
general; and treatment students designated as Other experience
lower levels of CA than any other ethnic group.
Table 4.15
Means and Standard Deviations of the Pre-Test CA Scores for
Control Group in General and Specific Communication Contexts
by Ethnic Background
Communication Mean Standard
Context Deviation
Black Anglo Asian Hispanic Other Black Anglo Asian Hispanic Other
N = (12) (8) (2) (9) (2) (12) (8) (2) (9) (2)
Total 64.1 64.3 70.5 76.3 63.5 21.1 14.3 19.1 19.6 16.3
Group 14.9 14.3 16.5 17.1 13.5 6.0 4.5 2.1 4.8 4.9
Meetings 16.2 15.4 17.5 19.0 17.5 6.1 00 rn 6.4 5.3 3.5
Dyads 14.9 17.1 18.5 20.2 10.0 5.7 6.6 6.4 6.3 0.0
Public 18.1 17.8 18.0 20.0 22.5 6.4 4.5 4.2 5.2 7.8
77


Table 4.16
Means and Standard Deviations of the Post-Test CA Scores for
Control Group in General and Specific Communication Contexts
bv Ethnic Background
Communication Mean Standard
Context Deviation
Black Anglo Asian Hispanic Other Black Anglo Asian Hispanic Other
N = (12) (8) (2) (9) (2) (12) (8) (2) (9) (2)
Total 62.0 56.4 84.5 66.4 71.5 10.2 15.9 6.4 14.6 12.0
Group 14.4 13.3 18.0 15.4 16.5 2.9 4.2 0.0 3.7 4.9
Meetings 16.0 14.9 19.5 15.7 17.5 2.7 5.8 2.1 5.2 4.9
Dyads 13.5 13.3 18.5 16.3 14.0 3.5 4.0 0.7 4.7 1.4
Public 18.1 15.0 19.5 17.9 23.5 4.4 3.3 4.9 5.2 3.5
78


Table 4.17
Means and Standard Deviations of the Pre-Test CA Scores for
Treatment Group in General and Specific Communication
Contexts by Ethnic Background
Communication Mean Standard
Context Deviation
N = Black (7) Anglo (15) Asian (1) Hispanic (8) Other (4) Black Anglo (7) (15) Asian (1) Hispanic (8) Other (4)
Total 61.7 59.0 72.0 68.8 59.0 20.5 14.2 - 12.3 8.3
Group 14.9 12.7 18.0 17.8 13.5 4.9 4.4 - 4.2 2.6
Meetings 14.1 14.3 18.0 17.5 13.8 5.7 3.8 - 5.2 3.8
Dyads 16.1 14.0 18.0 14.8 14.0 6.4 3.1 - 4.0 2.8
Public 16.6 17.8 18.0 18.9 17.8 6.1 4.7 4.0 2.6
79


Table 4.18
Means and Standard Deviations of the Post-Test CA Scores for
Treatment Group in General and Specific Communication
Contexts by Ethnic Background
Communication Mean Standard
Context Deviation
N = Black Anglo (7) (15) Asian (1) Hispanic (8) Other (4) Black Anglo (7) (15) Asian 0) Hispanic (8) Other (4)
Total 62.4 56.5 68.0 66.0 48.3 12.2 16.2 - 11.7 20.9
Group 15.4 13.0 14.0 14.9 11.8 4.3 4.3 - 4.1 4.6
Meetings 14.9 13.5 18.0 16.6 12.0 3.3 4.5 - 3.2 5.2
Dyads 15.4 13.9 18.0 16.8 11.5 4.1 4.4 - 3.5 4.7
Public 16.7 16.0 18.0 17.8 13.0 4.6 5.8 2.4 7.0
Study subjects were asked to document how many years
experience they had participated in the performing arts prior
to the study. Years of experience in the performing arts by the
control and treatment groups are reported in Table 4.19.
Forty-two percent of the treatment group students and 28
percent of the control group students reported having 5 or
more years previous experience in the performing arts. Fifteen
percent of the control group students and 2 percent of the
treatment group students reported having no previous
80


experience in the performing arts. These data indicate that the
average years of prior experience in the performing arts is
higher among treatment group students than among control
group students.
Table 4.19
Frequencies and Percentages of Average Number of Years Prior
Experience in Performing Arts for Control and Treatment Group
Students
Years of Prior Experience Control Group Frequency Percentage Treatment Group Frequency Percentage
5 or more 9 28% 15 42%
4 3 9% 4 11%
3 5 15% 4 11%
2 7 21% 5 14%
1 4 12% 6 17%
0 5 15% 1 2%
total 33 100% 35 100%
Students in the control and treatment groups were
requested to give the approximate ages during which they
were actively engaged in the performing arts. Active
engagement data is reported in Tables 4.20 and 4.21. The


responses from the control group are as follows: 1 response
indicated only one year of active engagement in the performing
arts at age 6; 5 responses indicated only one year of
engagement at age 12; 2 responses indicated engagement from
ages 4 to 7; 6 responses indicated engagement from ages 10 to
11; 6 responses indicated engagement from ages 13 to 14; 8
responses indicated engagement from ages 8 to 14; and 4
surveys indicated no response. The responses from the
treatment group are as follows: 1 response indicated only one
year of active engagement in the performing arts at age 7; 2
responses indicated engagement at age 11; 2 responses
indicated engagement at age-12; 7-responses indicated
engagement at age 14; 1 response indicated engagement from
ages 13 to 14; 5 responses indicated engagement from ages 13
to 15; 5 indicated engagement from ages 11 to 14; 1 indicated
engagement from ages 9 to 14; 6 indicated engagement from
ages 6 to 14; and 5 indicated engagement from ages 3 to 14.
These responses indicate that students in the treatment group
were generally engaged in the performing arts more than the
students in the control group; that in general, students in the
treatment group engaged in the performing arts at an earlier
age; and that students in the treatment group engaged in the
performing arts for longer periods at a time (consecutive years)
than students in the control group.
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Table 4.20
Approximate Ages During Which Control Group Students
Actively Engaged in the Performing Arts
Approximate Ages Number of Students
6 1
1 2 5
4-7 2
10-11 6
13-14 6
8-14 8
Blank Responses 4
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Table 4.21
Approximate Ages During Which Treatment Group Students
Actively Engaged in the Performing Arts
Approximate Ages Number of Students
7 1
1 1 2
1 2 2
14 7
13-14 1
13-15 5
11-14 5
9-14 1
6-14 6
3-14 5
Students in the control and treatment groups were
requested to give a brief description of their background in the
performing arts, including private and public school
experiences. These were designed to be open-ended responses
allowing students to describe their experiences in their own
words. Many of the responses from the control group stated
some kind of vocal music experience in school. These
84


responses include the following examples: "Just singing choir."
"Choir." "Sang in school choirs in elementary (school)." "Singing
class." "Sing for choir." Other responses were more detailed,
such as the following: "Voice classes since age ten; piano from
11-13, choir age 9-15, drama from 10, all in public schools."
"In elementary school was in instrumental music, played the
clarinet and in jr. high I was in choir for two years." Several
students stated having played a musical instrument, or
performing in the band or orchestra. Ten control group
surveys were returned with this question unanswered. These
responses indicate that many of the control group students had
some previous experience in the performing arts, primarily
vocal and instrumental music classes.
The responses from the treatment group were generally
more detailed and descriptive. Several students responded
with a wide variety of performing arts experiences such as the
following: "I was a model from 2 to now. Ive been in theater
basically since I was born and singing just came to me
naturally. I was in theater for 3 years and vocal for 4." "Vocal
music performances, instrumental performances, solos in both,
private lessons for 1 year." 'Tve played with Colorado Youth
Pops and various groups throughout Denver and started getting
into the arts by creative writing. I was in jazz band-I decided
to go to instrumental music." "Ballet lessons-2 years including
pointe. Private piano lessons 5 years. Some private violin
85


lessons. Private drawing lessons." Other responses described
experiences related to the performing arts such as creative
writing, costuming and technical theater: "I work with light,
sound, design costumes." "I've been in creative writing since
6th grade." "Dancing, writing, costumes, playing piano." 3
treatment group surveys were returned with this question
unanswered. These responses indicate that most of the
treatment students had exposure to private and public school
performing arts and related performing arts experiences prior
to their participation in the study.
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Full Text

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ASSESSING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARTICIPATION IN THE PERFORMING ARTS IN SCHOOLS AND COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION by L. Ira Bigelow B.A., Metropolitan State College, 1986 M.A., University of Colorado, 1989 A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Educational Leadership and Innovation 1996

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1996 by L. Ira Bigelow All rights reserved.

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This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy degree by L. Ira Bigelow has been approved by Date

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Bigelow, L. Ira (Ph.D., Educational Leadership and Innovation) Assessing the Relationship Between Participation in the Performing Arts in Schools and Communication Apprehension Thesis directed by Professor Sharon Ford ABSTRACf The desire to communicate varies from person to person. Many people, however, desire to communicate but are unable to express themselves because of the fear or anxiety associated with verbal exchange. Providing students with positive communication opportunities during their years in school may assist in reducing future communication apprehension (CA). The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between participation in the performing arts within school curricula and levels of communication apprehension. Two groups of freshmen entering two high schools were surveyed to determine levels of communication apprehension students expressed. Surveys were given in a preand post-test format. Students were also asked to supply information regarding gender, lV

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ethnic background, and previous years experience m the performing arts. The treatment group consisted of students enrolled in at least one performing arts class (dance, drama, vocal or instrumental music). The control group consisted of students who were not currently enrolled in any performing arts classes. Students enrolled in performing arts classes showed significantly lower levels of total communication apprehension, but this was not true in specific communication contexts such as meetings, groups, dyads, or public speaking. No significant difference in CA was shown in post-test scores between any of the vanous performing arts classes or between classes that rely more on oral skills vs. classes that rely less on oral skills. General demographic data showed that more females than males enrolled in the performing arts and that as many Anglos enrolled in the performing arts as did all other ethnic groups combined. Study recommendations include a.) providing risk-free communication opportunities where students can safely experiment with verbal interaction with other students, b.) providing curricula which encourages males to enroll and participate in the performing arts, c.) providing students with opportunities which would encourage ethnic minorities to enroll v

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and participate m the performing arts, and d.) replicating the study on a larger scale following students over a period of several years. This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I recommend its publication Sharon Ford vi

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DEDICATION This dissertation 1s dedicated to: Members of my family, far and near, for their love, which makes all things possible. Dr. Sharon Ford, my advisor, for her support, encouragement, and belief in my ability to complete this project. Parents and members of the educational community who believe that we can create what we want.

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CONfENTS CHAPTER l NATURE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY ................................. .................. l Purpose of the Study .............. .......................... .. .. ......... .. .. .. ..... 4 Research Hypotheses ................ ..... ............................................... 4 Conceptual Framework ................................. ... . .. .. ...................... 5 Significance of the Study ............................................................ ? Limitations of the Study ........... ................................................. 8 Definition of Terms ................... .................................................... 9 Communication .... .. ......... ... ... ............ .. ........ ............. .. .. ..... 9 Communication Apprehension ....... ...................... ... 1 0 State Apprehension ....... ...................... .. ..................... .. 1 0 Trait Apprrehension ...................................................... 1 0 Performing Arts ................................. .. .. ......................... 11 2. REVIEW OF TfiE LITERA TUR ............................... . .... ................ ...... 12 The Performing Arts and Schools .......... . .... ...... ................. 12 Specific Performing Arts Curriculum .............. ...... 14 Integration of the Performing Arts Into the School Curriculum ................................................... 19 viii

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The Performing Arts and Educational Refonn ................................................................................. 22 Educational Leadership and School Curricula ............................................................... 23 Communication Apprehension .............................................. 28 State and Trait Apprehension ................................... 34 Communication ............................................................................. 35 Communicating in Groups ............................................ 36 Communicating in Meetings ....................................... 37 Interpersonal Communication ................................... 38 Public Speaking ................................................................ 39 3. METHODOLOGY .......................................................................................... 41 Purpose of Study and Research Hypotheses .................. .41 Survey Instrument. .................................................................... 42 Pilot Study of the Survey Instrument ............................... 44 Population and Sample ............................................................ .45 Curricula of the Study Groups .............................................. .46 Distribution of Survey Instruments ................................... .47 Evaluation of Data ....................................................................... 48 4. ANALYSIS OF DATA ............................................................................... 51 Overview ......................................................................................... 51 Data Analysis ................................................................................ 53 ix

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Summary of Data for Hypothesis 1. ........................ 53 Summary of Data for Hypothesis 2 ......................... 68 Summary of General Demographic Data ................ 72 5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............. 87 Summary ........................................................................................ 87 Conclusions ................................................................................................. 88 Research Hypothesis #1 ............................................... 89 Research Hypothesis #2 ............................................... 91 General Demographic Data .......................................... 92 Recommendations ....................................................................... 95 APPENDIX A. Approval Document: University ......................................... 100 B. Approval Document: School District ................................. 104 C Research Study Consent Form ............................................. 106 D. Survey Instrument .................................................................. 1 08 E. Scoring Formula ........................................................................ 111 F. Addendum to PostTest ......................................................... 113 REFERENCES ......................................................................................................... 115 X

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FIGURES Figure 4. 1 Intercepts and Slopes of Final AN COY A Model.. ........................ 68 xi

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TABLES Table 4.1 Means and Standard Deviations of the Pre-Test Scores in General and Specific Communication Contexts for Control and Treatment Groups ................................ 55 4.2 Means and Standard Deviations of the Post-Test Scores in General and Specific Communication Contexts for Control and Treatment Groups ................................ 56 4.3 Means and Standard Deviations of the Pre-Test CA Scores for Control Group in General and Specific Communication Contexts by Gender ............................................... 58 4.4 Means and Standard Deviations of the Post-Test CA Scores for Control Group in General and Specific Communication Contexts by Gender .............................................. 59 4.5 Means and Standard Deviations of the PreTest CA Scores for Treatment Group in General and Specific Communication Contexts by Gender ............................................... 60 4.6 Means and Standard Deviations of the Post-Test CA Scores for Treatment Group in General and Specific Communication Contexts by Gender ............................................... 61 4. 7 ANCOV A Table of Total PostTest Scores for Control vs. Treatment Groups ............................................................................ 66 4. 8 ANCOV A Intercepts and Slopes for Total CA of Control and Treatment Groups .......................................................... 66 xii

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Table 4. 9 ANCOV A CA Comparisons of Control vs. Treatment Groups Post-Test Scores at Specific PreTest Scores ........................................................................................ 67 4.10 Average Preand Post-Test Mean Scores Measuring Total Communication Apprehension in the Various Performing Arts ............................................................. 70 4. 1 1 Treatment Group Performing Arts Participation Breakdown ..................................................................... 71 4.12 ANCOVA Table Comparing CA Between Performing Arts Classes ................................................................................................ 72 4.13 Frequencies and Percentages of Gender Breakdown for Control and Treatment Groups ................................................... 73 4.14 Approximate Percentages of Total Ethnic Enrollment for Schools Alpha and Omega .................................... 74 4.15 Means and Standard Deviations of the Pre-Test CA Scores for Control Group in General and Specific Communication Context by Ethnic Background .......................... 77 4.16 Means and Standard Deviations of the Post-Test CA Scores for Control Group in General and Specific Communication Context by Ethnic Background .......................... 78 4.17 Means and Standard Deviations of the Pre-Test CA Scores for Treatment Group in General and Specific Communication Context by Ethnic Background .......................... 79 xiii

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Table 4.18 Means and Standard Deviations of the Post-Test CA Scores for Treatment Group in General and Specific Communication Context by Ethnic Background .......................... 80 4.19 Frequencies and Percentages of Average Number of Years Prior Experience in Performing Arts for Control and Treatment Group Students ......................................... 81 4. 2 0 Approximate Ages During Which Control Group Students Actively Engaged in the Performing Arts ................. 83 4. 2 1 Approximate Ages During Which Treatment Group Students Actively Engaged in the Performing Arts ................. 84 xiv

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CHAPTER 1 NATUREANDSCOPEOFTHESTUDY The desire to communicate varies from person to person. Personality traits that affect communicative effectiveness include tolerance for ambiguity, self-control, adventurousness, emotional maturity, self-esteem, innovativeness, and tolerance for disagreement (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992). Many people, however, desire to communicate but are unable to express themselves because of the fear or anxiety associated with verbal exchanges. These people may experience speech disruptions in a variety of contexts, including public speaking, talking in small groups, speaking at meetings, and talking in dyads (McCrosky, Beatty, Kearney & Plax, 1985). They may also exhibit low scores on language facility or have low academic achievement (Freimuth, 1976). Providing students with positive communication opportunities during their formative years may assist in reducing future communication anxiety (McCrosky, 1977a). The development of oral language is important as a foundation for reading, writing, and thinking (Williams, 1987). It is also important in the development of interpersonal 1

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relationships and perceptions. The more a person talks, the more positively that person will be perceived; quiet people are often viewed as being less competent and less intelligent than talkative people (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992). Communication apprehension is clearly a severe personal problem and can have negative impact on learning. While communication apprehension is not related to intelligence, it has been associated with lower grade point average (Frymier, l993). Students who are fearful about communicating may be less motivated to study or participate out of fear of being criticized for making a mistake (Frymier, 1993). Students suffering from communication apprehension will often seek to avoid or fail to complete assignments in classes where oral participation is required (McCrosky, 1977a). Much attention has been focused on the impact of a person's fear or anxiety about communication on that person's communication behavior. For more than forty years, scholars have been observing that some people display more communication apprehension than other people and that this apprehension negatively affects many aspects of their lives (McCrosky, 1977b). Test scores in areas such as mathematics, language, and reading can be enhanced by encouraging students to participate in classroom communication (Comadena & Prusank, 1988). Also, people who are less afraid of communicating tend 2

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to be more calm, more composed, and more in control in general (McCrosky & Richmond, 1982). It would appear that lowering oral communication apprehension in individuals can assist in the raising of self-esteem which directly affects attitudes, behaviors, and cognitive processes (McCrosky, Daly, Richmond, & Falcione, 1977). In order to ensure that students receive a quality education, they must be given opportunities to develop communication skills. If communication skills are reinforced, communication behaviors will increase while behaviors that : 1 are not reinforced will decline (McCrosky & Richmond, 1982). Reflective administrators make pragmatic decisions as they attempt to create something of practical utility and "must gtve far more attention to expressive and moral reasons for determining courses of action" (Sergiovanni, 1991, p. 249). Educational policy makers are currently generating standards which outline "what students should know and be able to do" (Massell, 1994, p. 84) as they strive to prepare students to become fully functioning individuals who operate constructively within our society. Educational leaders have a responsibility of providing opportunities for student-need satisfaction. As schools teach students in ways that satisfy their needs, while diminishing focus on test scores, discipline problems diminish as the efforts to do well in school increase (Glasser, 1993 ). Since it has been 3

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suggested that communication anxiety keeps students from achieving academic success (Comadena & Prusank, 1988), then schools should provide an educational climate that can enhance communication skills. One such curricular avenue may be through the performing arts. Responsible educators should then seek to identify and advocate curricular avenues which offer opportunities for students to develop communication abilities and reduce communication apprehension. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study Is to examme the relationship between a.) participation in the performing arts within school curricula and b.) levels of communication apprehension. Research Hypotheses In order to examine the relationship between students' participation in performing arts curricula in schools and the degree of communication apprehension students feel, this study investigates the following hypotheses: 1. Students who participate in the performing arts m schools will have lower levels of communication apprehension in general and in specific communication contexts than students who do not participate in performing arts in schools. 4

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2. Students in performing arts classes that rely more on oral skills will have lower levels of communication apprehension than students who are in classes that rely less on oral communication skills. The specific communication contexts referred to in the first hypothesis are 1.) groups, 2.) meetings, 3.) interpersonal (dyads), and 4.) public speaking. The second hypothesis refers to performing arts classes that rely on varying degrees of oral skills. For the purpose of this study, those that rely more on oral skills are drama and vocal music. Those that rely less on oral skills are instrumental music and dance. Conceptual Framework The impact of fear or anxiety on a person's ability to communicate may vary according to the level of communication apprehension (CA) the individual expenences. Two types of CA have been identified and are known as "trait" and "state" apprehension (Spielberger. 1966). State apprehension is considered a normal condition experienced by most people when faced with specific communication challenges such as giving a speech to strangers or interviewing for a new job. Trait apprehension is a fear or anxiety beyond what is considered normal in communication encounters. 5

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I Communication researchers have developed a variety of strategies for overcoming communication apprehension. Three widely used approaches include Systematic Desensitization, Cognitive Modification, and Skills Training (McCrosky & Richmond, 1982). Systematic Desensitization teaches people to recognize tension in their bodies and to relax that tension. Once this step is learned, the relaxation process IS extended to occur in the presence of stimuli that previously produced tension. Cognitive Modification allows people to think about themselves in a positive light rather than in a negative one. Skill training involves identifying deficient skills, identifying appropriate remediation behaviors, and identifying the practice needed to overcome the deficient skills. Student success and achievement may be advanced by providing positive communication opportunities which can assist in reducing communication apprehension. The processes of identifying and addressing tension. increasing positive affirmation, and reducing deficient skills are commonly found in many disciplines and content areas which include vocal and instrumental music, dance, and drama. These performing arts may assist students in the reduction of communication apprehension. 6

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Significance of the Study A certain degree of low-state CA is considered normal for the greater part of the population. However, up to 20 percent of the students in public schools, major universities, as well as adult population and semor citizens may be labeled as high trait CA (McCrosky, 1992). A negative relationship has been found between high-trait communication apprehension and communication effectiveness: As CA increases, communication effectiveness decreases (Freimuth, 1976). A negative relationship has also been found between communication apprehension and self-esteem (McCrosky, Daly, Richmond, & Falcione, 1977). Comadena and Prusank (1988) suggest that a significant negative relationship exists between communication apprehension and academic achievement: As CA increases, academic achievement decreases. The significance of the study becomes relevant to educational leaders as they create the best possible learning environment for their students. Schools need to focus on the things that will help students succeed academically as they prepare for life beyond compulsory education. It becomes a leadership responsibility, then, to become knowledgeable about the anxiety associated with verbal communication and to 7

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provide educational opportunities for students which will help reduce communication apprehension. Limitations of the Study The contextual considerations outlined in the survey instrument used in the study are built upon common communication situations which correspond to the larger communication domain and are not presumed to be exhaustive. Other categories which might be considered as part of the larger domain include: superior-subordinate communication, situations involving intercultural encounters. situations involving interviews, and situations requiring assertiveness (McCrosky et al., 1985). These categories of communication are not included in this study. This study measures communication apprehension among entering freshmen students for only one semester. It measures two different groups that may not be statistically equal with respect to one or more variables. Also, this study does not examine other conditions which may relate to communication apprehension. This includes factors such as cultural background, family expectations/experiences, possible heredity considerations, and health and physical conditions. In that this study is not longitudinal, there is no measure of CA for study participants prior to their first enrollment in 8

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performing arts classes in schools. It is not known whether students' CA levels increased decreased, or remained the same following at least one semester of involvement in the performing arts in school. Sample population size for this study is limited due to the availability of only one school with a major focus on performing arts in the urban area serving as the setting for this study. It is felt that this school offered a population of students whose lives are impacted differently by the performing arts than are those of students in a regular secondary school. Definition of Terms Communication Communication is the dynamic process of interaction. sharing, and exchange between two or more people (McCall & Cousins, 1990). Communication is an important feature in interviewing, conflict management, relationship initiation and maintenance, public speaking, and social conversation (Spitzberg & Cupach, 1984) and is integral to an individual's quality of life as it has been shown to facilitate educational success, social effectiveness, and personal growth (Spitzberg & 9

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Cupach, 1984 ) This study focuses on verbal communication, as opposed to other types of communication. Communication Apprehension The "fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons" (McCrosky & Richmond, 1982. p. 9). Characteristics associated with communication apprehension (CA) include quietness, shyness, or the inability to speak out or state an opinion. State Apprehension "State" apprehension (McCrosky, 1977b) has been used to describe communication anxiety as a normal experience and becomes evident in a specific oral communication situation. Such situations include those that would make most people anxious, such as giving speeches to groups of strangers or interviewing for a new job. Trait Apprehension Trait apprehension is the form of communication anxiety exhibited by individuals who see most communication encounters as threatening. People who experience high levels 1 0

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of anxiety about almost all oral communication encounters are considered to suffer from "trait" apprehension (McCrosky, 1977b). Performing Arts The practice of creating and interpreting perceptible forms of expressive human feeling to an audience. Performing arts in school curricula include instrumental and vocal music, drama, and dance. 1 1

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CHAPTER2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The Performing Arts and Schools The present movement toward educational reform offers us a ripe opportunity to further the cause of the arts and humanities in the public schools. (Williams, 1991, p.lO) The Oxford American Dictionary defines performing arts as "those arts, such as drama etc., that require public performance" (1982, p. 663). The true essence of the performing arts, however, may not be found in this sketchy definition. Oxford defines perform as the following: "to carry into effect, to accomplish ... to function" and the word performance as "a notable action or achievement" (p. 663). Art may be perceived differently by any number of people. It may be associated with beauty or skill, but can be generally associated with "the practice of creating perceptible forms expressive of human feeling" (Langer, 1964). For this study, then, the definition for the performing arts is the practice of creating and interpreting perceptible forms of expressive human feeling to an audience. 1 2

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The arts are a basic and central medium of human communication and understanding. The arts are how we talk to each other. They are the language of civilization past and present through which we express our anxieties, our hungers, our hopes and our discoveries. They are our means of listening to our dreams -of expressing our imagination and feeling. (Williams, 1991, p.l) One of the educational goals that Goodlad supports is that of personal fulfillment ( 1979). Schools need to provide opportunities wherein students can acquire the skills and attitudes important to the development of fully functioning human beings. Fundamental to the education process, then, are elements of such value to the educated person that should not be eliminated from school programs without serious deprivation in adulthood. Karafelis (1995) defines a successful school as one that teaches the basics well and provides opportunities for students to develop skills that are needed to be productive and content that is needed in the real world. He contends that the separation of reading, math, science, and social studies is not basic and that integrating these disciplines is essential. The arts are the disciplines that pull all knowledge together. The arts afford children the opportunity to express who they are to the school community and to express what they think is important to the school 1 3

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. I community. Our teachers take their expressions m writing, music, art, theater, dance and bend the curriculum to meet that expression. In doing so, our children believe that we value them because we let them express themselves, and we assign importance to their expression by adapting the curriculum. We validate and celebrate children through the arts. (Karafelis, 1995, p. 36) The arts provide elements of value and are "a basic component of the curriculum, deserving parity with all other elements," and are "fundamental to the entire learning process" (Karafelis, 1995, p. 5). An Art Education Advocacy Statement prepared by the Pennsylvania Art Education Association suggests that arts education prepares students for life-long learning and is a basic component for all students in educational programs ( 1992). Smith-Bidstrup (1992, p 54) echoes this sentiment by stating that "a course of study that includes music, art, dance and drama improves student performance and keeps kids in school." Specific Performing Arts Curriculum Many benefits have been afforded students who participate in various arts activities. Dance education, for example, provides students avenues to explore, sense, concentrate, focus, project, and commit (Purcell, 1994 ). As students participate in various forms of dance, they extend their range of movement possibilities 1 4

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and develop a fuller understanding of their movement potential. They gain a greater confidence in their ability to use dance for expression and communication in academic or social settings. (p. 21) An effective way people learn is by doing, and all learning in dance is manifested through action which can be considered part of the complete learning process (Gray, 1989). "Children before the age of 10 tend to copy and to learn activities that they think are fun'', and "they learn dance by imitation first and then later by recognizing the muscular states and body alignments" (Gray, 1989, p. 68). Releasing the inner flow of emotions may be learned through body movement. Laban ( 1974) states that dance allows students to release feelings in a risk-free environment by expressing emotional actions through movements such as: turning away brusquely from danger with a feeling of fright; twisting the body in anger or attack: raising the body in a floating movement to imitate a peaceful or detached inner mood; or stiffening to attention in an expression of pride. "Experience proves that we are able to express innumerable shadings of feelings and attitudes towards human values through combinations and sequences of movements" (Laban, 1974, p. 60). Participation in theater assists students in many ways, as well, by offering safe outlets for self-expression, selfdevelopment, self-understanding, self-esteem, self-discipline, 1 5

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analytical skills, feeling skills, human understanding, and competition (Grover, 1994 ). Heinig ( 1992) states that "dramatizing literature in the classroom provides students with an effective and pleasurable way of exploring both the world and themselves" (p. vii). He continues by saying that drama offers students ways to think creatively and effectively and to explore the world and themselves. Starratt ( 1990) speaks to how people engage stage themselves in the presence of others. He states that people need to learn how to act in specific settings in order to elicit expected outcomes and that inadvertent actions may contradict intended messages. Starratt continues, saying that children can build self-esteem and become socialized through drama by encouraging and reinforcing independence in a variety of nuanced settings. Students involved m theater are called upon to "focus on the words and actions provided by a playwright as the basis for their self-expression" (Grover, 1994. p. 27). A variety of approaches can be used in the theater classroom to assist students toward self-expression, the gammg of confidence, and the development of creativity. The playing of theater games can help students polish their performance skills, develop imagination, and more easily project themselves into unfamiliar situations (Spolin, 1986). Role-play can be used to help generate personal skills and explore various social 1 6

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encounters (Hornbrook. 1991 }. Through participation m "fictional family" scenarios, students can explore such resources as the voice, body, the senses, imagination, and intellect as an aid to personal growth (Gold, 1991 ). Through drama, children can gain an understanding of themselves, gain confidence, function collaboratively, and explore human feeling in a variety of social situations and moral dilemmas (Hornbrook, 1991). Stewig & Buege (1994) state that the art of drama and oral language are closely connected. They continue saying that oral language is the most important element of language and 1s the basis for reading and writing. They support including drama as a part of classroom culture as it helps students master the art of oral communication. "The process of making drama is a highly motivating method for bringing oral language learning into the classroom" (Stewig & Buege, 1994, p. vii). Music education assists students at risk by inspiring and lifting the human spirit, and by bringing a "culturally diverse population together through the unique harmony of the music of all our people" (Glenn, 1992, p. 2). Through music education, students gain a sense of discipline, self-esteem, and pride. Music students tend to excel in teamwork, cooperation, problem solving, leadership, and creative thinking. McCarthy ( 1990) suggests that students who study music may be more motivated to complete school work. 1 7

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Wentz ( 1985) states that music has been a means for storytelling and folklore before printed books were available and can help students learn self-discipline and cooperation. He describes music with the following: "Music-a universal language, a umque expression of the soul, a taskmaster which teaches dedication, responsibility, self-discipline, and self esteem as it develops the mind, the body, and the personality" (Wentz, 1985, p. 1). Swanson (1982) talks of creating an atmosphere of interpersonal communication by analyzing and evaluating the lyrics of popular songs. The student can develop a basis for concepts about human relationships such as increasing an awareness of "complementary versus symmetrical relationships, passive versus active participation," and "emotional reacting to relationships versus cognitive reacting" (p. 225) Music also emphasizes elements of behavior that can instill confidence in speech delivery. Singing, for example, is affected by many of the same psychological and physiological speech factors. The development of language and music skills require experience and training, and talent has little to do with the development of our musical or linguistic abilities (Roehmann, 1991) Vocal quality can be influenced by a person's self-image and self-concept and is usually reflected m good posture and confident speech (Bunch, 1993). Anxiety can be displayed through shallow-rapid breathing and muscular 1 8

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constriction which can be antagonistic to effective speaking and singing. By contrast, confidence in speech and singing can be displayed through breathing which is deep and even. Students of voice become familiar with the elements of vocal production so that a balance of delivery and emotion are achieved. "It is important for a speaker or singer to understand the choice of sounds available in his own voice so that he will not create a double message with unintended qualities or inflections which appear to negate the words" (Bunch, 1993 p. ll ). Integration of the Performing Arts Into the School Curriculum Howard Gardner ( 1993) states that our culture has defined human intelligence too narrowly and suggests the existence of seven basic intelligences. He contends that the assessment of abilities has centered on the linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences through traditional paper and-pencil tests which serve as good indicators of how people will do in school in the short run. Creating effective assessment tasks requires thinking through curriculum content to establish learning outcomes, then designing performance activities that will allow students to demonstrate their achievement of those outcomes, and specifying criteria by which they will be evaluated. (Cohen, 1995, p. 1) 1 9

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Gardner suggests that students who don't do well on IQ tests may be labeled as not very smart, will be treated accordingly by his/her teachers, and will end up on society's scrap heap. The seven intelligences or categories of human capabilities as described by Gardner are: 1. Linguistic Intelligence, the capacity to effectively use words orally or in writing. 2. Logical-mathematical Intelligence, the capacity to use numbers and logic. 3. Spatial Intelligence, the ability to perceive and perform transformations based on visual-spatial relationships. 4. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence, the ability to use one's body to express ideas and feelings. 5. 1\tlusical Intelligence, the ability to express self through mUSlC. 6. Interpersonal Intelligence, the capacity to perceive and rfiake distinctions in the moods and feelings of other people. 7. Intrapersonal Intelligence, the self-knowledge and ability to act on that knowledge. Although Gardner identifies seven different intelligences, they are constantly interacting with each other, and none exist by themselves in real life. The multiple intelligence theory includes the rationale that every individual has capacities in all seven intelligences. These intelligences may function together in unique ways specific to each person (Armstrong, 1994 ). 20

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Some individuals appear to function well in most or many of the intelligences, while others lack all but the most basic of competencies. Most people seem to be highly developed m some intelligences, moderately developed in others, and underdeveloped in the rest (Armstrong, 1994 ). Appropriate encouragement and instruction can improve performance in all seven intelligences (Gardner, 1993 ). Educational leaders who make a commitment to provide a comprehensive learning environment find compelling reasons to support arts education in schools. "The inclusion and integration of arts activities into the curriculum offers a viable strategy for student motivation and success" (Barry, 1992, p. 5). Successful lifelong learners have developed dexterity, cognitive thinking, appreciation for diversity, understanding of self, and creative expression through the study of and discipline in arts education. Fuller ( 1994) states that the arts deserve an integral place in schools because: 1) The arts can provide positive outlets for individuality m an environment where such outlets are clearly needed. 2) The arts can help young people learn to think and to use language with precision. 3) The arts have intrinsic educational value (pp. 1-3). Fuller continues saying that the arts offer opportunities for a "healthy blend of intellectual challenge and emotional release and encourage uniqueness, individuality, spontaneity, and 2 1

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authenticity" (p. 6). A recent study (Barry, 1992) concludes that "the inclusion and integration of arts activities into the curriculum offer a viable strategy for student motivation and success" (p. 5). Wright (1994) states that the performing arts "provide students with a rich environment within which to create and grow" and "facilitate learning by requiring students to think, not just to memorize" (p. 41). Wright also suggests that the performing arts teach discipline, perseverance, self respect, and the value of cooperation. The Performing Arts and Educational Reform Arts education has been in jeopardy and has been reduced or eliminated in many school districts throughout the United States as the result of budget cuts. "The arts are being systematically eliminated from school budgets and from the school experience itself" (Smith-Bidstrup, 1992). In the Denver 1 Public Schools, for example. art and music instruction has been sharply reduced for students in regular schools (Hernandez & Broderick, 1995). "Only three of 72 elementary schools have art teachers. About 6, 710 elementary students have no exposure to art and music specialists. Less than a third of high school students take any art classes" (p. 28A). The back-to basics movement also has resulted in the reduction of arts programs. The trend to reduce or eliminate arts programs "can 22

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only be interpreted as a certain sign that in most places the arts are still regarded as peripheral" (Grover, 1994, p. 26). The newly developed National Standards for the Arts, however, have outlined what all students should know and be able to do in music, dance, theater, and visual arts. The National Standards for Education in the Arts provide a foundation for what students should know and be able to do and have emerged as part of the education reform movement of the past decade. They are important for two key reasons: 1) They help define what a good education in the arts should provide, and 2) They take a stand for rigor (National Standards for the Arts, 1993). The Standards therefore, are outlined m broad statements designed to provide a template for local needs. They offer a "vision of both competence and educational effectiveness, but without creating a mold into which all programs must fit" (National Standards for the Arts, 1993. p. 8). Educational Leadership and School Curricula If schools are to meet the challenges of the future, leaders must be knowledgeable, persistent, and passionate about their purposes. Providing a meaningful curriculum and nurturing learning environment are essential to improving the quality and productivity of the students in their charge. 23

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Glasser ( 1993) suggests that if schools begin providing meaningful opportunities and teaching in ways that satisfy student needs, students will begin to experience joy in doing well in school. A nurturing school environment should allow students to learn in an atmosphere of support and respect where goals are attainable and pertinent to future aspirations (Glickman, 1993). One fundamental task of leadership, then, 1s to create, develop, refine, and mold universally accepted visions within school structures (Schlechty, 1990). Glickman (1993) suggests that it makes little difference if 100 percent of our students graduate, or if SAT scores rise 20 points if they have not learned how to "identify, analyze, and solve the problems that face their immediate and larger communities" (p. 9). Goodlad (1984) states that classroom activity should present an "opportunity for students to become engaged with knowledge so as to employ their full range of intellectual abilities" (p. 231). Gardner (1993) continues by stating that it is important that we recognize and nurture all of the varied human intelligences, and all of the combinations of intelligences. Successful schools, as defined by Sergiovanni ( 1987), are characterized by a commitment to multiple goals where students demonstrate intellectual values, academic attainment, responsible citizenship, moral and ethical character, aesthetic expression, and emotional and physical well-being. "A 24

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multidimensional goal attainment approach to determining school success requires that equal attention be given as well to social, affective, and psychomotor goals. purposes and objectives (p. 37). Educational leaders need to be knowledgeable about the benefits and rewards that specific curricula offer. While most school districts have a set of goals which focus on the outcomes expected from students, educational leaders may find difficulty in prioritizing areas for student development. Glatthorn ( 1987) suggests looking at the areas that represent the greatest need for students and areas that will likely elicit the greatest teacher support. The next step includes deciding which subject areas or disciplines will be included in the curriculum. Some academic disciplines may be required, such as English, social studies, science, and mathematics. Including elective courses may nurture other kinds of intelligences which can assist in the development of fully-functioning individuals. Considerations regarding the curriculum may include the following: Does it provide ways in which students perceive and interpret the world around them? Does it offer students opportunities to learn about language and vocabulary and the coordination skills necessary for reading, writing, and thinking? Does the curriculum offer safe avenues of opportunity for students to explore and develop oral communication skills? 25

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Curricular educational policy is becoming more performance based as the gap between academic performance and future economic, political, and social needs widens (Elmore & Fuhrman, 1994 ). The significance of offering ways in which students can explore their value as individuals to society through a performance-based criteria is becoming of greater concern to the educational community. The sensory, formal, technical, expressive, and symbolic properties (Smith, 1993), as well as enhancing the meaningfulness and impact of instruction, should not be dismissed lightly (Ackerman, 1989) as curricular integration is developed. Jacobs (1989) states that effective inter-disciplinary programs should be included in curricula design and that they contain "a cognitive taxonomy to encourage thinking skills, behavioral indicators of attitudinal change, and a solid evaluation scheme (p. 2). Baker (1993) believes that increasing each student's expression through language, increasing participation in and understanding of the lesson plan, building self-esteem, and instilling a love of the learning process come ; I from integrating Sensory Learning in the delivery of curricular material. His educational philosophy focuses on developing the student's creativity and highlighting the interrelation of all knowledge by using each individuals' natural sensory abilities. Baker continues with the following "Sensory Learning" philosophy, stating that: 26

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l. People learn only through the five senses (sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste). 2. Art education taught by art specialists is an indispensable resource to implement Sensory Learning. 3. The artist contributes to the basic curriculum and daily lesson plans (Baker, 1993, p. 107). Principals are key players in making sure that the arts remain part of the school's educational plan. "Specifically they must foster the development of the arts program's goals in relation to the school's mission and goals" (Seidel, 1994, p. 11). Using the arts as a tool to integrate the curriculum must be a planned process, and the attitudes, educational philosophy and objectives of the educational leader are fundamental to the success of the integration process. "The principal is in a central position to look objectively at the total picture and make decisions that allow all the pieces of the complicated puzzle called curriculum to fit together" (Slay & Pendergast, 1993, p. 35). Educational leaders constantly face decreasing resources and increasing demands when making choices and setting priorities. Sautter ( 1994) contends that the arts should be treated as more than merely pleasant diversions from core academics. "Those are the traditional ways of viewing arts education, and they limit the purpose of the classroom arts and diminish their potency to develop the thinking and imaginative 27

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I ability of students as they explore and learn about their world" (p. 433). The value that arts education offers students with regard to learning and skills development needs to be considered before curricular decisions are made. Questions to consider might include: 1. Is instruction in the arts necessary to the education of students? 2) Do the arts help students in school? 3. Do the arts help prepare students for the world of work? 4. Do the benefits that arts education offer students justify the cost, and are the resources well spent? Communication Apprehension The condition known as communication apprehension is defined as the "fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons" (McCrosky & Richmond, 1982, p. 9). Characteristics associated with communication apprehension (CA) include quietness, shyness, or the inability to speak out or state an opinion. Communication apprehension is associated with other terms such as stage fright, speech anxiety and reticence (Freimuth, 1976) and audience sensitivity (Paivio, 1964). The term communication apprehension is used to include all the above as 28

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it "more broadly represents the total of the fears and anxieties" associated with communication (McCrosky, 1977b, p. 78). The fear and anxiety about oral communication has been identified with a variety of other terms, namely stage fright (Clevenger, 1959), reticence, audience sensitivity, shyness, and communication apprehension (McCrosky, 1992). Research conducted under a variety of labels may be integrated within the context of one underlying theory. The term communication apprehension (CA) is used in this study because it broadly represents the total of the fears and anxieties listed above and is defined as "an individual's level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons" (McCrosky, 1977b, p. 78). Communication apprehension and its effect on student learning, self-esteem, and motivation have been studied at length. The negative consequences resulting from CA can be severe and can affect the development of interpersonal relationships and perceptions. Because of the tendency to avoid communication, people who suffer from CA can produce negative perceptions in the minds of others. The impact of shyness, apprehension, and a generally low willingness to communicate can affect people in a variety of ways. People who communicate very little are perceived to be more anxious about communication than talkative people. "Although not all quiet people are apprehensive about 29

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communication, a large proportion are, which causes others to stereotype all quiet people -a stereotype that is shared even by quiet people themselves when reporting their perceptions of other quiet people" (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992, p. 69). Several domains of behavior have been considered when examining the effects of communication apprehension, including the cognitive, affective, and behavioral (Freimuth, 1976). People who report experiencing high apprehension in a communication situation are often viewed as having reactions unlike those with low apprehension. This problem is seen as part of the cognitive processing context rather than a behavioral one, as the problem is seen as being all in one's mind (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992). Baker (1964) suggests that verbal behavior be examined as a behavioral measure of CA. This approach has concentrated almost exclusively in looking at variables such as speech disruptions and silence (Freimuth, 1976). Critical to the development of communication competence is a person's affective orientation toward communication. Developing behavioral and cognitive skills will not make a person an effective communicator if s/he does not want to communicate (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992). Much of the recent research in the area of communication apprehension has been done by James C. McCrosky. His findings have indicated that people with a "high desire to communicate will attempt more communication and often will 30

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work hard to make that communication effective" and that people with a low desire to communicate make fewer attempts (1982, p. 3). Richmond and McCrosky ( 1992) state that heredity appears to contribute to traitlike CA. They claim that people are born with certain personality dispositions, including sociability. The way sociability is treated by parents and others will determine whether an individual will develop communication apprehension. "How and when the child is reinforced for communication will determine to some extent whether the child will develop high CA or an inclination toward quietness" (p. 63). Many people learn helplessness because of inconsistent punishments and rewards for communication. Others may develop anxiety because of a specific communication situation, such as interviewing for a job or giving a speech (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992). Although traitlike communication apprehension 1s considered to be a fairly enduring trait, changes can be made with effort on the part of the individual. "Traitlike personality variables, such as CA, extroversion, and dogmatism are highly resistant to change, but this does not mean that they cannot be changed" (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992, p. 43). Three commonly employed methods for treating CA are systematic desensitization, cognitive restructuring, and skills training. Systematic desensitization (SD) involves teaching individuals' 3 1

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deep muscle relaxation and visualization. Cognitive restructuring focuses on helping the individual formulate new belief systems. Skills training programs vary from a complete course on communication skills to training someone to ask a person for a date (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992). Research into the effects that communication apprehension has on self-esteem has received increased attention in recent years. Stacks and Stone (1984) discussed the relationship that exists between self-concept and communication apprehension. McCrosky, Daly, Richmond, and Falcione (1977) suggest that people derive feeling of self through their interactions with others. In a study of three widely divergent subject populations, a remarkably consistent relationship was found between oral communication apprehension and self-esteem (McCrosky et al., 1977). "People with low self-esteem tend to have higher levels of communication apprehension; people with high self-esteem tend to have lower levels of communication apprehension" (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992, p. 52). These research findings seem to indicate that feelings about self may be derived from interactions with others. I Research conducted m the area of self-esteem has suggested that individuals identified with low self regard suffer from a variety of maladjusted and neurotic behaviors (Brownfain, 1952) leading to a consensus among researchers 32

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that "self concept is related to other indices of social adjustment (McCandless, 1970, p. 456). "When individuals are free to pursue legitimate developmental needs, such as becoming competent or gaining control over their environment, cognitive processes act both as the clarifier and servant of self expression" (Covington, 1992, p. 73). Such research has established the conclusion that the perceptions one has of self significantly affect attitudes, behaviors, and cognitive processes (McCrosky et al., 1977). People with low self-esteem tend to feel that they are not worthwhile, that they are more likely to fail than to succeed, and that they are less competent than other people around them. In contrast, people with high self esteem see themselves as valuable members of society and as winners who are competent and likely to be successful. (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992, p. 52) The development of a sense of self should be a major goal of education, as it is essential in advancing "levels of achievement, ability to adjust to the demands of environment, and general state of well being" (Battle, 1982, p. 12). Many educators recognize that self-esteem and achievement are related (McCrosky et al., 1977). And Battle (1982) states that both self-esteem and achievement are essential variables m the educational process. As schools provide outlets and students are encouraged to engage in cognitive modification 33

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and skills enhancement, communication abilities and self concept will improve ((Stacks & Stone, 1984). State and Trait Apprehension Communication apprehension is a broad-based term which describes oral anxiety experienced within a variety of intensity levels. A distinction has been made between what may be considered characteristic of normal, well-adjusted communication anxiety and excessive apprehension associated with a variety of communication encounters. "State" anxiety (McCrosky, 1977b) is a term which has been used to describe communication apprehension as a normal experience and becomes evident in a specific oral communication situation. Such situations include those that would make most people anxious, such as giving speeches to groups of strangers or interviewing for a new job. People who experience high levels of anxiety about almost all oral communication encounters are considered to suffer from "trait" apprehension (McCrosky, 1977b). The majority of those with high trait CA have no problems with basic speech skills, although some may display articulation or speech disorders such as stuttering (McCrosky, 1977b). People suffering from this form of apprehension often see most communication encounters as threatening. The percentage of 34

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the general population affected by high trait CA may be fairly high. Approximately 20 percent of student populations in public schools and colleges have been described as having high trait CA (McCrosky, 1970). Communication We know intuitively that different ways of communicating are necessary for different situations. A schoolmaster speaks in one way to his students in class, in another way on the sports field and yet another during a fire drill. Similarly, a manager speaks to his subordinates in one way in a business situation, in a different way in a social situation and in a different way again in an emergency. (McCall & Cousins, 1990, p. 54) All people communicate, bringing meaning to the things they do. As people communicate with each other, a sharing of meaning is established between them (McCall & Cousins, 1990). Communication is an important feature in interviewing, conflict management, relationship initiation and maintenance, public speaking, and social conversation (Spitzberg & Cupach, 1984 ). The ability to communicate competently is integral to an individual's quality of life as it has been shown to facilitate educational success, social effectiveness, and personal growth (Spitzberg & Cupach, 1984 ) One of the skills children develop in their early teens is to establish bonds of intimacy by communicating with others 35

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I (Fogel, 1993). People use conversation for the exchange of social information, to influence, and to achieve various social goals (Wyer & Srull, 1984). Communication is the most important interactional tool people can use to be persuasive, present a good impression, and achieve general goals for interaction (Wyer & Srull, 1984). Social situations present different characteristics which may affect what happens to people when they are called upon to speak (McCall & Cousins, 1990) A special kind of language may be required if the person being addressed is a supenor, subordinate or peer, or whether the conversation is formal or informal, routine or emergency (McCall & Cousins 1990). Communicating m Groups Groups meet for a variety of reasons which include the solving of problems and the gathering and exchanging of information (Reuss & Silvis, 1981 ). Group discussion is a "systematic form of speech in which two or more persons meet face to face and interact orally to accomplish a particular task" (Verderber, 1991, p. 363). Communicating in groups allows for the sharing of more knowledge and thinking in a greater variety of ways (Kayser, 1990). The quality of personal interaction, however, may vary with group size. As group stze increases, inhibition levels among group members appear to 36

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decrease as aggressive members participate more and quiet ones participate less (Patton & Giffin, 1978). Quiet individuals who participate in large group discussions (more than 5 members) may have less time to talk and feel less pressure to express feelings and ideas and even withdraw from the group discussion without loss of face (Patton & Giffin, 1978). Communicating m Meetings People meet to cooperate, process information, and to achieve specific goals (Kayser, 1990). Meetings allow more knowledge, experience, and variety of thinking to come together to accomplish specific tasks (Kayser, 1990). In addition, those who participate in meetings are more inclined to offer stronger commitments to ideas if they are involved in producing them (Reuss & Silvis, 1981 ). "Communications are the essence of a meeting. If there is a breakdown in communications, you don't have a meeting at all" (McMahon, 1990, p. 22) Employing effective communication skills is basic to managing potential conflict m meetings (Shelton & Bauer, 1994). Shelton & Bauer (1994) have identified three skills related to effective communication skills used in meetings: disarming, empathy, and inquiry. Disarming is listening for "something to agree with in what the other person is saying" (p. 32). Empathy requires that you "put 37

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yourself in the other person's shoes ... identifying with his or her feelings" (p. 32). Inquiry "allows you to ask gentle, probing questions to determine what is going on" (p. 32). Interpersonal Communication An interpersonal encounter involves the exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages between a sender and a receiver (Gamble & Gamble, 1982). During an interpersonal exchange, the sending and receiving process is constantly being reversed and causes some effect on both participants which can be physical. cognitive, or emotional (Gamble & Gamble, 1982). Interpersonal contact can elicit feelings of joy, anger, or sadness and cause individuals to "fight, argue, become apathetic ... or lead to new insights, increased knowledge, the formation or reconsideration of opinions. silence, or confusion" (Gamble & Gamble, 1982, p. 16) Interpersonal communication is the fundamental resource for the articulation of identity, values, friendships, and social integration (Rawlins 1992) "Communication processes are central to the initiation, development, maintenance, and ending of interpersonal relationships" (Kalbfleisch, 1993, p. 281 ). Interactional adeptness, then requires "striving for intimacy with friends . and achieving recognition by peers" constituting ongoing "communicative 38

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challenges" (Rawlins. 1992, p. 78). Individuals who are unable to communicate competently will not be able to fulfill the "general need of all humans to control their environment" and "interface with other people" (Spitzberg & Cupach, 1984, pp. 11-12). Public Speaking Various communication transactions take place in a variety of specific contexts. One such context is the oral presentation or public speech, "usually gtven without interruption, and delivered to entertain, to help people to understand, to help people to form or alter beliefs, or to move people to action" (Verderber, 1991, p. 4). The process of public speaking is said to be a "stimulus-and response process", where a speaker "offers a stimulus (message) and the audience responds (feedback)" (Peterson. 1992. p. 30). A common reaction to public speaking by speakers is apprehension or stage fright (McCrosky & Richmond, 1982). Speakers may experience anxiety or uneasiness by being the focus of attention which may be displayed by the speakers facial expressions, gestures, and tone of voice (Verderber, 1991 ). This anxiety may not be the fear of speaking but rather "the consequences of it, particularly the possibility of a negative reaction from the audience" (White, 1978, p.7). In 39

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addition, an audience will develop a perception of the speaker's credibility based on the verbal and nonverbal cues which affect the message an audience receives (Verderber, 1991). "The more credible the audience perceives the source to be, the more likely that its members will trust or have confidence in the accuracy of the information the speaker presents" (Verderber, 1991, p. 8). 40

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CHAPTER3 MEIHOOOLOGY This chapter discusses the research methodology. It examines why the survey instrument for this study was selected, how the population and sample were determined. the process of survey distribution, and the evaluation of the results. Purpose of Study and Research Hypotheses The purpose of this study is to examme the relationship between participation in the performing arts within school curricula and levels of communication apprehension. In order to examine this relationship, this study investigated the following hypotheses: I. Students who participate m the performing arts in schools will have lower levels of communication apprehension in general and specific communication contexts than students who do not participate in performing arts in schools. 2. Students in performing arts classes that rely more on oral skills will have lower levels of communication 4 1

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apprehension than students who are in classes that rely less on oral communication skills. Survey Instrument To measure the presence of communication apprehension for the purpose of this study, the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24 (PRCA-24) was used (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992). The PRCA-24 (Appendix D) 1s the best available measure of traitlike communication apprehension and can predict general feelings people have about communicating in specific communication situations (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992). McCrosky ( 1978) states that a strong case has been established for the reliability of the original PRCA instrument which was introduced in 1970. Results of a series of studies have indicated that the PRCA is able to predict "communication behaviors that would be expected on the basis of the theory underlying the construct of communication apprehension" (McCroskey, 1978, p. 196). Reports documenting the PRCA's cross-situational consistency have also been reported (McCroskey & Beatty, 1984; McCroskey & Richmond, 1982). The more recent version of the survey instrument (PRCA-24) has been investigated, resulting in strong support of the 42

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content validity of the items used m the instrument (McCroskey et al.. 1985). The PRCA-24 is composed of twenty-four statements concerning people's feelings about communicating with other people in four categories or communication contexts which include group discussions, meetings, interpersonal conversations (dyads), and public speaking. The total score for the PRCA-24 ranges between 24 and 120. Between 60 and 70 percent of the people who have taken the PRCA score between 55 and 83 (McCrosky & Richmond, 1982). These scores are referred to as the normal range and serve to determine the following scoring breakdown: Subjects scoring above 65 generally experience above-average anxiety about communicating with others; scores above 80 indicate a very high level of communication anxiety; and subjects scoring below 50 indicate low levels of communication apprehension (Richmond & McCroskey, 1992). Subjects scoring very low, for example, experience anxiety in situations in which individuals would most likely experience anxiety, while those scoring very high experience anxiety in communication situations where it would not be normal to experience anxiety. The PRCA-24 instrument is copywritten by James C. McCrosky and may be reprinted and used for research and instructional purposes without additional authorization (McCrosky et al., 1985). 43

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Pilot Study of the Survey Instrument The pilot study of the survey instrument was carried out at a middle school in a large urban school district. The first phase of the pilot process involved the researcher contacting the school principal to inform him of the study and to submit a copy of the instrument for his perusal. The second phase of the process was to obtain permission from the school principal and fulfill any district requirements necessary to continue the experimental testing. As the focus of the pilot testing centered on determining subjects' understanding of the instrument and not on the data collected, the district required no formal student permission process. During the third phase of the pilot study, the PRCA-24 survey instrument was administered to fifty-two 8th grade students of the pilot middle school under the direct supervision of the school principal and 8th grade teachers. The school principal read the survey instructions to the students before they were allowed to complete the survey, and any questions students had during their participation were fielded and noted by participating teachers. After the pilot survey was completed, the instruments and written comments from teachers about student concerns were returned to the researcher. Pilot students found 44

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difficulty responding to the statements referring to meetings; this was a communication context not often experienced by the pilot subjects. Minor format revisions were made in the survey instrument reflecting clarification of instructions, and a final copy was prepared for use in the study. Population and Sample The sample for the study consisted of two groups of freshmen entering two high schools in a large urban school district. One group of students was selected because they were enrolled in the school-sponsored performing arts classes (treatment group). The other group of students was selected because the students were not enrolled in school-sponsored performing arts classes (control group). The two schools chosen for the study were selected because of the performing arts courses offered (or not offered) and a willingness of the school administrations, teaching staffs, and students to participate in the study. School Alpha was selected because of its commitment to aesthetic education. This school currently serves as an arts magnet for the school district. Enrollment at this school is competitive and is based on the quality of student generated arts portfolios and ethnic quotas resulting in the following racial breakdown: 50% Anglo; 25% African American; 15% Hispanic; and 10% Asian, American 45

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Indian, and others. School Alpha had a total student population of roughly 400 students with approximately 70 entering freshmen at the time of the study. A total of 35 freshmen at school Alpha returned signed Research Study Consent Forms (Appendix C) allowing participation in the study. School Omega was selected because the performing arts courses offered at this school had been dramatically resulting in limited participation in performing arts disciplines by the student body. Omega bused many of its students to achieve racial integration as required by court order which resulted in the following racial breakdown: 40% African American; 30% Anglo; 20% Hispanic; and 10% Asian, American Indian, and others. School Omega had a total student population of roughly 950 students with approximately 290 entering freshmen at the time of the study. A total of 33 entering freshmen at school Omega returned signed Research Study Consent Forms allowing participation in the study. Curricula of the Study Groups The subjects participating m the study consisted of two groups of freshmen entering two high schools of the same urban school district. The school district had spent several years in the process of curriculum development, resulting in a school board approved curriculum for core and elective content 46

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areas. The curriculum was designed to provide a foundation for what students in the district should be taught as well as ideas and assistance to enable teachers to deliver the curriculum in a comprehensive manner. District curricula guidelines for all content areas provide a scope and sequence, i.e., what the students will be taught, suggested activities, extensions, assessments, and teacher resources. Control group participants (entering high school freshmen) were enrolled and participated in district approved core and elective classes, but not performing arts classes (vocal or instrumental music, dance, or drama), for one semester. Treatment group participants (entering high school freshmen) were enrolled and participated in district approved core and elective classes, and also participated in one major performing arts course (vocal or instrumental music, dance, or drama). Some of the curricular activities the treatment group encountered include interdisciplinary learnings with other content areas, establishing conceptual and interpretive skills, and participating in performance opportunities in the various performing arts. Distribution of Survey Instruments The survey instruments were delivered and administered by the researcher at both school sites on two different 47

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occasions; once as a pre-test at the beginning of the school year in September and again as a post-test at the end of the semester. The school principal and/or assistant principal accompanied the researcher at each school site and assisted m the distribution of the surveys. The survey directions were verbally read by the researcher before the students were allowed to begin. Although students in the pilot study found difficulty responding to the statements referring to meetings, the communication context was included in the study. Verbal examples of student participation in meetings were shared with students before the survey instruments were completed. Such examples included student council meetings, back-to school nights, and student-parent-teacher conferences. As the students finished, surveys were collected by the school principal and/or assistant principal and researcher. Evaluation of Data The PRCA-24 is designed to allow computation of a total communication apprehension score and four sub-scores representing each of four different communication contexts; groups, meetings, interpersonal (dyads), and public speaking. The total score for the PRCA-24 is obtained by adding the four sub-scores together and ranges between 24 and 120. Scores on each of the four contexts can range from 6 (low) to 30 (high). 48

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Scores were computed usmg the formula found in Appendix E (Richmond & McCroskey, 1992, p. 126). Scores between 18 and 24 in an individual context area indicate some degree of communication apprehension. Scores in this range in the public speaking context are not uncommon for most people (Richmond & McCroskey, 1992). Total CA and subgroup scores for the preand post-tests were computed for all participating students. Scores from students enrolled in performing arts were then compared to students not enrolled in the performing arts. This was done with an analysis of covariance (ANCOV A) in order to somewhat statistically equate the two groups and to determine if participation in the performing arts within school curricula IS related to communication apprehension. Total CA scores were computed for students participating m each performing art. A statistical analysis compared the total CA scores of students in each performing art. Analysis of covariance (ANCOV A) was used to determine if students in performing arts classes that rely more on oral skills have lower levels of CA than students who are in classes that rely less on oral communication skills. An addendum to the post-test was gtven to students enrolled in the performing arts to determine gender, ethnic background, and the number of years and approximate ages 49

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they were actively engaged in the performing arts (Appendix F). This information was used for discussion in chapter 4. 50

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CHAPTER4 ANALYSIS OF DATA Overview The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in the performing arts within school curricula 1s related to communication apprehension. Two research hypotheses were stated for this relationship. One stated that students who participate in the performing arts in schools will have lower levels of communication apprehension in general and specific communication contexts than students who do not participate in performing arts in schools. The other hypothesis stated that students in performing arts classes that rely more on oral skills (vocal music and drama) will have lower levels of communication apprehension than students who are in classes that rely less on oral communication skills (instrumental music and dance). In order to examme the levels of communication apprehension experienced by the control and treatment groups selected for the study, the PRCA-24 survey instrument was given in a preand post-test format. A total of 33 subjects in 51

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the control group completed both the preand post-test survey instruments. The control group represents students who are not enrolled in performing arts classes. A total of 35 subjects in the treatment group completed both the preand post-test survey instruments. The treatment group represents students who are enrolled in performing arts classes, including 10 students enrolled in vocal music, 12 students enrolled m instrumental music, 8 students enrolled in drama, and 5 students enrolled in dance. The PRCA-24 is composed of twenty-four statements concerning feelings about communicating with others in four categories or communication contexts; group discussions, meetings, interpersonal conversations (dyads), and public speaking. The total score for the PRCA-24 ranges between 24 and 120 (Richmond & McCroskey, 1992). Between 60 and 70 percent of the people who have taken the PRCA score between 55 and 83 (McCrosky & Richmond, 1982). These scores are referred to as the normal range and serve to determine the following scoring breakdown: Subjects scoring above 65 generally experience above-average anxiety about communicating with others, scores above 80 indicate a very high level of communication anxiety, and subjects scoring below 50 indicate low levels of communication apprehension (Richmond & McCroskey, 1992). 52

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Data Analysis Summary of Data for Research Hypothesis 1 Research Hypothesis 1: Students who participate m the performing arts in schools will have lower levels of communication apprehension in general and in specific communication contexts than students who do not participate m performing arts in schools. Preand post-test mean scores measuring total communication apprehension and CA in specific communication contexts were calculated for the control and treatment groups. The specific communication contexts measured include communicating in groups, meetings, dyads, and public speaking. The pre-test scores for the control and treatment groups are reported in Table 4.1 and the post-test scores for the control and treatment groups are reported in Table 4.2. Total mean scores for communication apprehension measured 5. 7 points higher for the pre-test control group than for the pre-test treatment group. The control group scored higher than the treatment group in the pre-test sub scores as well; a difference of 0.9 for the group score, 1.9 for the meeting score, 2.1 for the dyad score, and 1.0 for public speaking. These scores indicate that the treatment group is exhibiting less communication apprehension in general and in specific 53

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contexts than the control group. These scores suggest that the control and treatment groups may not be equal with respect to one or more variables, such as having similar previous experiences in the performing arts. Total mean scores for communication apprehension measured 4.6 points higher for the post-test control group than for the post-test treatment group, indicating that the control group had higher general CA at the mid-point in the school year. The control group scored higher than the treatment group in the post-test sub scores with a difference as follows: 1.0 for groups, 1.4 for meetings, and 1.4 for public speaking; the dyads score was greater in the post-test treatment score by 0.2 points. These scores indicate that the control group also had higher CA related to specific communication contexts than the treatment group in the middle of the school year. 54

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Table 4.1 Means and Standard Deviations of the PreTest Scores in General and Specific Communication Contexts for Control and Treatment Groups Communication Mean Standard Context Deviation Control Treatment Control Treatment (n=33) (n=35) (n=33) (n=35) Total 67.8 62.1 18.5 14.6 Group 15.4 14.5 5.0 4.6 Meetings 16.9 15.0 5.2 4.5 Dyads 16.8 14.7 6.3 4.0 Public 18.8 17.8 5.4 4.5 55

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Table 4.2 Means and Standard Deviations of the PostTest Scores in General and Specific Communication Contexts for Control and Treatment Groups Communication Context Total Group Meetings Dyads Public Mean Control Treatment (n=33) (n=35) 63.8 59.2 14.8 13.8 15.9 14.5 14.5 14.7 17.7 16.3 Standard Deviation Control Treatment (n=33) (n=35) 14.0 15.3 3.5 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.0 4.3 4.6 5.0 Mean preand post-test CA scores for the control and treatment groups in general and specific contexts by gender were calculated and are reported m Tables 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, and 4.6. Pre-test scores for the control group in general and all specific communication contexts were higher for males than females. Post-test scores in general and all specific communication contexts except communicating in dyads were higher for the control group females than for the control group males. The pre-test CA scores for control group males are higher than the post-test scores for control group males in general and all specific communication contexts. The CA scores for control group females were mixed; higher pre-test scores 56

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for groups and public speaking and higher post-test scores m meetings, dyads and in total CA. Average pre-test CA scores were higher for the treatment group males m groups, dyads and in general than for the treatment group females. Mean post-test CA scores in groups, meetings, and in general were higher for the treatment group males than for the treatment group females. These scores indicate that the treatment group males experienced a higher level of communication apprehension than the treatment group females in groups dyads, and in general in the pre-test, and that the control group males reported experiencing lower levels of post-test communication apprehension than the control group females m dyads and in public while experiencing higher levels of communication apprehension in groups, meetings, and in general. Post-test CA scores for control group males were higher than post-test CA scores for treatment group males in public and in general, while post-test CA scores for control group females were higher than post-test CA scores for treatment group females in all communication contexts. These data indicate that control group males may experience higher levels of CA than treatment group males in public and in general while control group females may expenence higher levels of CA in all communication contexts 57

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Table 4.3 Means and Standard Deviations of the PreTest CA Scores for Control Group in General and Specific Communication Contexts by Gender Communication Mean Standard Context Deviation Male Female Male Female (n=18) (n=15) (n=l8) (n=15) Total 70.8 64.2 17.8 19.4 Group 15.6 15.1 5.2 4.8 Meetings 17.2 16.5 5.0 5.6 Dyads 18.9 14.3 6.4 5.4 Public 19.2 18.3 5.0 6.0 58

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Table 4.4 Means and Standard Deviations of the PostTest CA Scores for Control Grou12 in General and S12ecific Communication Contexts b:t Gender Communication Mean Standard Context Deviation Male Female Male Female (n=18) (n=15) (n=18) (n=15) Total 62.9 64.8 15.4 12.7 Group 14.6 15.0 4.1 2.9 Meetings 14.8 17.3 4.6 3.7 Dyads 14.6 14.5 4.6 3.3 Public 17.4 18.0 4.1 5.3 59

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Table 4.5 Means and Standard Deviations of the PreTest CA for Treatment Group in General and Specific Communication Contexts by Gender Communication Mean Standard Context Deviation Male Female Male Female (n=l2) (n=23) (n=l2) (n=23) Total 63.7 61.3 15.5 14.4 Group 14.6 14.5 4.2 4.9 Meetings 15.0 15.1 4.1 4.8 Dyads 16.4 13.8 5.1 3.2 Public 17.7 17.9 4.5 4.6 60

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Table 4.6 Means and Standard Deviations of the PostTest CA Scores for Treatment Groug in General and Sgecific Communication Contexts by Gender Communication Mean Standard Context Deviation Male Female Male Female (n=12) (n=23) (n=12) (n=23) Total 60.9 58.3 11.6 17.0 Group 14.8 13.3 3.4 4.5 Meetings 15.3 14.0 3.1 4.6 Dyads 15.3 14.4 3.4 4.7 Public 15.5 16.7 4.7 5.2 The variations m pre-test data stated above have indicated that the control and treatment groups may not have been equal with respect to one or more variables. In order to increase statistical power and reduce some of the selection bias, the analysis of covariance (ANCOV A) method of statistical analysis was selected. Covariance analysis adjusts post-test data for variations in pre-test data, evaluating post-test results as if both pre-test groups were equal. Analysis of variance procedures make four assumptions. The first assumption is that samples are randomly drawn. The second assumption is homogeneity of variance, where 6 1

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variances on each variable are the same for each group measured. The third assumption is that the distributions of the variables in the analysis are normal, and the last assumption is that observations are independent (Taylor & Innocenti, 1993 ). Analysis of covariance procedures make four additional assumptions. First, it is assumed that a linear relationship exists between the dependent variable and the covariate. Second, group regression lines are assumed to be parallel. Third, it is assumed that the covariate is measured without error, and the last assumption of ANCOV A is that the covariate is independent of treatment (Taylor & Innocenti, 1993). The first step in ANCOV A is to test for equal slopes (parallel lines). If the slopes are not significantly different, the lines can be assumed to be parallel. Traditional ANCOV A techniques involve comparing the distance between the two parallel lines to determine if there is a significant difference between the two treatment groups (control and experimental). Many statistics textbooks stress the importance of the equal slope assumption and warn that unequal slopes render ANCOVA invalid. A few statisticians, however, have challenged this approach and have demonstrated methods for comparing treatment groups when the assumption of equal regression slopes is not met. Some authors refer to these techniques as ANCOVA with nonparallel regression lines while other authors omit the reference to ANCOV A. Cohen and Cohen ( 1975) stress 62

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the importance of the assumption of equal population slopes and warn that unequal slopes render ANCOV A invalid. Rogosa ( 1980) challenges this by stating "ANCOV A provides certain information about the treatment effect even when significant differences in the slopes are detected" (p. 320). The Johnson Neyman technique ( 1936) 1s a procedure for the statistical comparison of nonparallel regression lines. Comparing nonparallel regression lines using the Johnson-Neyman procedure is supported by Jennings (1987) and Frigon and Laurencelle ( 1993) as a useful analytic approach to examine data with heterogeneous regression slopes. The ANCOV A was performed using the JohnsonNeyman technique because of its power allowing testing of treatment effects on all levels of the covariate (Frigon & Laurencelle, 1993). This approach involves the calculation of a nonsignificance region which will identify values of the covariate that are associated with nonsignificant or significant group differences on the dependent variable (Frigon & Laurencelle, 1993). "The JohnsonNeyman technique is analogous to partitioning significant interaction effects into simple main effects in factorial ANCOV A designs (Frigon & Laurencelle, 1992, p. 14). The initial model compared post-test scores for treatment vs. control group adjusting for pre-test scores, gender, race, and years of prior experience. Of the non significant variables, years of experience had the highest p -63

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value and was therefore eliminated from the model. The backward procedure involves repeating this process until all remaining variables are significant. In addition to years of experience, gender and race were also eliminated, leaving pre test score as the only covariate (p = .0001 ). The most commonly chosen value of risk (alpha) was set at .05 (Glass & Hopkins, 1984, p. 205). If the probability (p value) associated with the hypothesis test comparing scores for treatment and control groups is .05 or smaller, then the two groups would be considered significantly different. The ANCOV A table to test for equal slopes is reported m Table 4. 7. The third line of the table (pre-test x trt/control) tests for equal slopes. The p-value of .0276 indicates that the hypothesis of equal slopes should be rejected. The intercepts and slopes for the control and treatment groups are reported in Table 4.8. Figure 4.1 shows the graphical representation of the two groups. With nonparallel lines, it 1s not appropriate to make an overall statement that the two groups are significantly different or are not significantly different. Instead, the two groups should be compared at several values of the covariate. Table 4. 9 provides comparisons between control and treatment for pre-test scores of 20, 30, ... 120. The p-values indicate that the control and treatment post-test scores are different for very low pre-test scores (20, 30, 40) and for very high pre-test 64

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scores (120). The comparison at pre-test of 120, however, involves extrapolation for the treatment group; the highest treatment group pre-test score was 102. Therefore, differences between control and treatment at the high pre-test scores should be considered with reservations. The control and treatment post-test scores are not different for pre-test scores 50 110. Of the students with little CA at the beginning of the semester, those in the treatment group had less apprehension than those in the control group by the end of the semester. Interestingly, both treatment and control groups appear to show more apprehension at the end of the semester than at the beginning of the semester. For middle and high pre-test scores there is either no or questionable difference between control and treatment groups. The ANCOV A results from 4 specific communication contexts between post-test control versus treatment groups, adjusting for pre-test scores, were as follows: groups, p = .243 (no significant difference); meetings, p = .092 (no significant difference at a = .05); dyads, p = .065 (no significant difference at a = .05); and public speaking, p = .609 (no significant difference). Thus, a significant difference existed for the total CA scores (p = .0233) between post-test control versus treatment groups but not for any of the specific communication contexts. 65

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Table 4.7 ANCOV A Table of Total PostTest Scores for Control vs. Treatment Grouns df ss MS F p-value Treatment/Contro 1 726.12 726.12 5.40 .0233 Pre-Test Total 5502.34 5502.34 40.90 .0001 Pre-Test x Trt/Control 683.63 683.63 5.08 .0276 Error 64 8609.10 134.52 Total 67 14586.76 217.71 Table 4.8 ANCOV A Intercents and Slones for Total CA of Control and Treatment Grouns Test Intercept Slope Control Group 39.13 0.36 66 Treatment Group 12.04 0.76

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Table 4.9 ANCOV A CA Comparisons of Control vs. Treatment Group Post Test Scores at Specific PreTest Scores PreTest Scores 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 10 120 67 P Values Testing for Difference Between Control and Treatment at Specified PreTest Score .0241 .0261 .0324 .0600 .2625 .8398 .2524 .1142 .0739 .0575 .0491

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Figure 4.1 Intercepts and Slopes of Final ANCOVA Model 100 90 80 70 Post-Test 60 CA Total so -10 30 20 10 0 Conuol Treaunen1 0 20 60 Pre-Test CA Total Summary of Data for Research Hypothesis 2 80 100 Research Hypothesis 2: Students in performing arts classes that rely more on oral skills will have lower levels of communication apprehension than students who are in classes that rely less on oral communication skills. Average preand post-test mean scores rneasunng total communication apprehension were calculated for students enrolled in various performing arts classes (treatment group), including dance, drama, instrumental music and vocal music. The average total communication apprehension 68 120

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experienced by students m the various performing arts 1s reported in Table 4.1 0. The highest average total communication apprehension scores for preand post-tests were reported in dance, a class which relies less on oral skills than other performing arts classes. The lowest average total CA pre-test scores were reported in vocal music and drama, classes which rely more on oral skills. These data indicate that students enrolled in dance experience higher levels of communication apprehension than students enrolled in other performing arts, while students enrolled in performing arts classes which rely more on oral skills experience lower levels of CA. 69

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Table 4.10 Preand PostTest Mean Scores Measuring Total Communication Apprehension in the Various Performing Arts Performing Art Vocal Music Instrumental Music Drama Dance Average Total CA PreTest Score 52.6 62.9 60.8 71.6 Average Total CA PostTest Score 53.8 58.1 64.4 64.6 A total of 35 students participated as treatment subjects m the study. These students were enrolled and actively participated in performing arts classes at the time the study was conducted, including dance, drama, instrumental music and vocal music. Category frequencies and percentage scores are shown in Table 4.11. These data indicate that a larger percentage of students in the treatment group participated m instrumental and vocal music than any other performing art, while a smaller percentage of students in the treatment group participated in dance and theater. 70

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Table 4.11 Treatment Group Performing Arts Participation Breakdown Performing Art Frequency Dance 5 Theater 8 Instrumental Music 12 Vocal Music 10 Total 35 Percent 15% 23% 33% 29% 100% An analysis of covariance (ANCOV A) was performed which compared the total communication apprehension scores of students in each performing art. In this case, the test for equal slopes was not rejected (p = .6797). The results of the equal slope ANCOV A models are reported in Table 4.12. The ANCOV A for total communication apprehension resulted m no significant difference among performing arts post-tests, adjusting for pre-test scores (p = .3292). Further, the ANCOV A model comparing vocal music and drama CA scores (classes that rely on oral skills) with instrumental music and dance scores (classes that rely less on oral skills) resulted in no significant difference (p = .3393). These results indicate no 71

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significant difference in CA post-test scores among any of the various performing arts classes or between classes that rely more on oral skills vs. classes that rely less on oral skills. Table 4.12 ANCOV A Table CA Between Performing Arts Classes (adjusting for scores) df ss MS F p-value Performing Art 3 400.48 133.49 1.19 .3292 Pre-Test Total 4170.62 4170.62 37.27 .0001 Error 30 3357.06 111.90 df ss MS F p-value Oral/non-Oral 107.27 107.27 0.94 .3393 PreTest Total 4258.22 4258.22 37.33 .0001 Error 32 3650.28 114.07 Summary of General Data A total of 68 control and treatment group subjects participated in the study. Category frequency and percentage scores for gender are shown in Table 4.13. These data indicate that a slightly larger percentage of control group males than 72

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control group females participated in the study; a larger percentage of treatment group females than treatment group males also participated. Table 4.13 Frequencies and Percentages of Gender Breakdown for Control and Treatment Groups Gender Male Female Total Control Group Frequency Percentage 1 8 1 5 33 55% 45% 100% Treatment Group Frequency Percentage 12 23 35 34% 66% 100% The population for the study consisted of two groups of freshmen entering two high schools. The treatment group was enrolled in a school that serves as an arts magnet (School Alpha). The control group was enrolled in a school where performing arts course offerings had been reduced (School Omega). Approximate percentages of total ethnic enrollment for Schools Alpha (control group) and Omega (treatment group) are reported in Table 4.14. 73

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The ethnic enrollment at School Alpha (treatment group) was highest among Anglos at 50%, followed by 25% for African Americans, 15% for Hispanics, and 10% Other. The ethnic enrollment at School Omega (control group) was highest for Mrican-Americans at 40%, followed by Anglos at 30%, Hispanics at 20%, and Others at 10%. These data indicate that a small percentage of Hispanic. African-American, and Other students enrolled m the performing arts, and that as many Anglo students enrolled in performing arts classes as did all other ethnic groups combined. Table 4.14 Approximate Percentages of Total Ethnic Enrollment for Schools Alpha (Control Group) and Omega (Treatment Group) Ethnic School Alpha School Omega Group (Treatment Group) (Control Group) Anglo 50% 30% African-25% 40% American Hispanic 15% 20% Other 10% 10% Total 100% 100% 74

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The mean preand post-test communication apprehension scores for the control and treatment groups m general and specific communication contexts were calculated by ethnic background and are reported in Tables 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, and 4.18. Mean pre-test scores for the control group in general and all specific communication contexts were higher for Hispanics than any other ethnic group except in public, where students designated as Other scored higher: average post-test scores in general and all specific communication contexts for the control group were higher for Asians than any other ethnic control group except in public, where students designated as Other scored higher. Mean pre-test CA scores in groups, dyads, and in general were lower for control group students designated as Other; average post-test CA scores for control group Anglos improved in general and all specific communication contexts, while average post-test scores for control group African-Americans improved in all communication contexts except in public, where the score remained the same. These scores indicate that pre-test control group Hispanics experience a higher level of communication apprehension in general and all specific communication contexts except in public, while control group Asians experience higher levels of CA in all communication contexts except in public. 75

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Treatment group African-American students reported higher mean post-test CA scores than in the pre-test in all communication contexts except in dyads; treatment group Anglo students reported lower mean post-test CA scores than in the pre-test in all communication contexts except groups; treatment group Hispanic students reported higher mean post test CA scores than in the pre-test in dyads; and treatment group students designated as Other reported lower mean post test CA scores than in the pre-test in general and all specific communication contexts. All post-test scores for treatment group students designated as Other were lower in all communication contexts than for any other ethnic treatment group. These data indicate that treatment group African American, Anglo, Asian, and Hispanic students experienced higher communication apprehension in various communication contexts at the end of the study, while the treatment group students designated as Other experienced lower CA at the end of the study more than any other ethnic treatment group. African-American control group students reported higher post-test CA scores in meetings and in public speaking than did post-test treatment group African-Americans; Anglo control group students reported higher post-test CA scores in dyads, public, and in general than did post-test treatment group Anglos; Hispanic control group students reported higher post test CA scores in groups and in general than did post-test 76

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treatment group Hispanics; treatment group students designated as Other reported lower post-test CA scores than any other ethnic group. These data indicate that African American control group students experience higher levels of communication apprehension than African-American treatment students in meetings and public speaking; that Anglo control group students experience higher levels of CA than Anglo treatment group students in dyads, public. and in general; that Hispanic control group students experience higher levels of CA than Hispanic treatment group students in groups and in general; and treatment students designated as Other experience lower levels of CA than any other ethnic group. Table 4.15 Means and Standard Deviations of the PreTest CA Scores for Control Groull in General and Specific Communication Contexts Ethnic Background Communication Mean Standard Context Deviation Black Anglo Asian Hispanic Other Black Anglo Asian Hispanic Other N = (12) (8) (2) (9) (2) (12) (8) (2) (9) (2) Total 64.1 64.3 70.5 76.3 63.5 2l.l 14.3 19.1 19.6 16.3 Group 14.9 14.3 16.5 17.1 13.5 6.0 4-.5 2.1 4.8 4.9 Meetings 16.2 15.4 17.5 19.0 17.5 6.1 3.8 6.4 5.3 3.5 Dyads 14.9 17.1 18.5 20.2 10.0 5.7 6.6 6.4 6.3 0.0 Public 18.1 17.8 18.0 20.0 22.5 6.4 4.5 4.2 5.2 7.8 77

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Table 4.16 and Standard Deviations of the PostTest CA Scores for Control Groun in General and Snecific Communication Contexts Ethnic Backiround Communication Mean Standard Context Deviation Black Anglo Asian Hispanic Other Black Anglo Asian Hispanic Other N = (12) (8) (2) (9) (2) (12) (8) (2) (9) (2) Total 62.0 56.4 84.5 66.4 71.5 10.2 15.9 6.4 14.6 12.0 Group 14.4 13.3 18.0 15.4 16.5 2.9 4.2 0.0 3.7 4.9 Meetings 16.0 14.9 19.5 15.7 17.5 2.7 5.8 2.1 5.2 4.9 Dyads 13.5 13.3 18.5 16.3 14.0 3.5 4.0 0.7 4.7 1.4 Public 18.1 15.0 19.5 17.9 23.5 4.4 3.3 4.9 5.2 3.5 78

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Table 4.17 Means and Standard Deviations of the PreTest CA Scores for Treatment Group in General and Specific Communication Contexts by Ethnic Background Communication Mean Standard Context Deviation Black Anglo Asian Hispanic Other Black Anglo Asian Hispanic Other N = (7) (15) (l) (8) (4) (7) (15) (l) (8) (4) Total 61.7 59.0 72.0 68.8 59.0 20.5 14.2 12.3 8.3 Group 14.9 12.7 18.0 17.8 13.5 4.9 4.4 4.2 2.6 Meetings 14.1 14.3 18.0 17.5 13.8 5.1 3.8 5.2 3.8 Dyads 16.1 14.0 18.0 14.8 14.0 6.4 3.1 4.0 2.8 Public 16.6 17.8 18.0 18.9 17.8 6.1 4.7 4.0 2.6 79

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Table 4.18 Means and Standard Deviations of the PostTest CA Scores for Treatment Grou12 In General and S12ecific Communication Contexts Ethnic Communication Mean Standard Context Deviation Black Anglo Asian Hispanic Other Black Anglo Asian Hispanic Other N = (7) (15) (1) (8) (4) (7) (15) (l) (8) (4) Total 62.4 56.5 68.0 66.0 48.3 12.2 16.2 11.7 20.9 Group 15.4 13.0 14.0 14.9 11.8 4.3 4.3 4.1 4.6 Meetings 14.9 13.5 18.0 16.6 12.0 3.3 4.5 3.2 5.2 Dyads 15.4 13.9 18.0 16.8 11.5 4.1 4.4 3.5 4.7 Public 16.7 16.0 18.0 17.8 13.0 4.6 5.8 2.4 7.0 Study subjects were asked to document how many years experience they had participated in the performing arts pnor to the study. Years of experience in the performing arts by the control and treatment groups are reported in Table 4.19. Forty-two percent of the treatment group students and 28 percent of the control group students reported having 5 or more years previous experience in the performing arts. Fifteen percent of the control group students and 2 percent of the treatment group students reported having no previous 80

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experience m the performing arts. These data indicate that the average years of prior experience in the performing arts is higher among treatment group students than among control group students. Table 4.19 Frequencies and Percentages of Average Number of Years Prior Experience in Performing Arts for Control and Treatment Group Students Years of Prior Control Group Treatment Group Experience Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage 5 or more 9 28% 15 42% 4 3 9% 4 11% 3 5 15% 4 11% 2 7 21% 5 14% 1 4 12% 6 17% 0 5 15% 1 2% total 33 100% 35 100% Students in the control and treatment groups were requested to give the approximate ages during which they were actively engaged in the performing arts. Active engagement data is reported in Tables 4.20 and 4.21. The 8 1

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responses from the control group are as follows: 1 response indicated only one year of active engagement in the performing arts at age 6; 5 responses indicated only one year of engagement at age 12; 2 responses indicated engagement from ages 4 to 7; 6 responses indicated engagement from ages 10 to 11; 6 responses indicated engagement from ages 13 to 14; 8 responses indicated engagement from ages 8 to 14; and 4 surveys indicated no response. The responses from the treatment group are as follows: 1 response indicated only one year of active engagement in the performing arts at age 7; 2 responses indicated engagement at age 11; 2 responses indicated engagement at age 12; 7 -re&f}onses indicated engagement at age 14; 1 response indicated engagement from ages 13 to 14; 5 responses indicated engagement from ages 13 to 15; 5 indicated engagement from ages 11 to 14; 1 indicated engagement from ages 9 to 14; 6 indicated engagement from ages 6 to 14; and 5 indicated engagement from ages 3 to 14. These responses indicate that students in the treatment group were generally engaged in the performing arts more than the students in the control group; that in general, students in the treatment group engaged in the performing arts at an earlier age; and that students in the treatment group engaged 1n the performing arts for longer periods at a time (consecutive years) than students in the control group. 82

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Table 4.20 Approximate Ages During Which Control Group Students Actively Engaged in the Performing Arts Approximate Ages Number of Students 6 1 l 2 5 4-7 2 10-11 6 13-14 6 8-14 8 Blank Responses 4 83

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Table 4.21 Approximate Ages Which Treatment Group Students Actively Engaged in the Performing Arts Approximate Ages Number of Students 7 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 14 7 13-14 1 13-15 5 11-14 5 9-14 1 6-14 6 3-14 5 Students in the control and treatment groups were requested to give a brief description of their background m the performing arts, including private and public school experiences. These were designed to be open-ended responses allowing students to describe their experiences in their own words. Many of the responses from the control group stated some kind of vocal music experience in school. These 84

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responses include the following examples: "Just singing choir.'' "Choir." "Sang in school choirs in elementary (school)." "Singing class.'' "Sing for choir.'' Other responses were more detailed, such as the following: "Voice classes since age ten; piano from 11-13, choir age 9-15, drama from 10, all in public schools.'' "In elementary school was in instrumental music, played the clarinet and in jr. high I was in choir for two years." Several students stated having played a musical instrument, or performing in the band or orchestra. Ten control group surveys were returned with this question unanswered. These responses indicate that many of the control group students had some previous experience in the performing arts, primarily vocal and instrumental music classes. The responses from the treatment group were generally more detailed and descriptive. Several students responded with a wide variety of performing arts experiences such as the following: "I was a model from 2 to now. I've been in theater basically since I was born and singing just came to me naturally. I was in theater for 3 years and vocal for 4.'' "Vocal music performances, instrumental performances, solos in both, private lessons for 1 year.'' "I've played with Colorado Youth Pops and various groups throughout Denver and started getting into the arts by creative writing. I was in jazz band-! decided to go to instrumental music." "Ballet lessons-2 years including pointe. Private piano lessons 5 years. Some private violin 85

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lessons. Private drawing lessons." Other responses described experiences related to the performing arts such as creative writing, costuming and technical theater: "I work with light, sound, design costumes." "I've been in creative writing since 6th grade." "Dancing, writing, costumes, playing piano." 3 treatment group surveys were returned with this question unanswered. These responses indicate that most of the treatment students had exposure to private and public school performing arts and related performing arts experiences prior to their participation in the study. 86

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CHAPTERS SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND Summary Chapter l identified communication apprehension as a potentially severe problem affecting communication effectiveness and as having a negative impact on emotional maturity, self esteem, and learning. Communication apprehension was discussed in relation to student-need satisfaction and the identification of ways to enhance communication skills through school curricula. The purpose of this study was stated to be one of examining the relationship between participation m the performing arts within school curricula and communication apprehension. Research hypotheses were then stated and definitions of terms given. Chapter 2 reviewed the relevant literature relating the performing arts in schools and communication apprehension. Theories of reducing communication apprehension through participation in school curricula which rely on oral communication were discussed. The unique attributes of 87

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communication apprehension related to specific communication contexts were discussed as well as information regarding the benefits afforded individuals who participate in a variety of performing arts curricula. Chapter 3 described the design of the survey instrument and methodology for gathering data used in the study. The process for piloting and distributing the survey instrument was explained. as was the process of data evaluation. The population and sample of test subjects were also described. Chapter 4 described all analyses of the data. The total mean scores, frequencies, and the results of the analysis of covariance (ANCOV A) were reported, and open-ended responses to survey questions were summarized, giving examples of student responses as they related to each research hypothesis. An analysis of findings was reported through the use of tables and related discussion. Conclusions Conclusions are discussed here as they relate to the two research hypotheses and general demographic data of the study. 88

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Research Hypothesis #I Students who participate in the performing arts in schools will have lower levels of communication apprehension in general and specific communication contexts than students who do not participate in performing arts in schools. The analysis of data led to the following conclusions concerning research hypothesis 1: 1. Students enrolled m performing arts classes demonstrate significantly reduced total communication apprehension, but not in specific communication contexts, as compared to students not enrolled in performing arts classes. This indicates that students enrolled in the performing arts are better able to reduce their overall apprehension or anxiety associated with general oral communication, but not in any specific context such as in meetings, groups, dyads, or public speaking. 2. Students not enrolled in performing arts classes have higher communication apprehension in general and in specific communication contexts than students enrolled in the performing arts. These data indicate that students not enrolled m the performing arts generally experience more apprehension or anxiety associated with total oral communication and CA in groups, meetings, dyads, and in public. 89

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A possible explanation may be that students who generally experience greater levels of communication anxiety may be apprehensive about enrolling in classes that require creating and interpreting of perceptible forms of expressive human feeling. These students would not be inclined to enroll m performing arts classes. 3. Males not enrolled m the performing arts may experience higher levels of CA than treatment group males in all communication contexts while females not enrolled in the performing arts may experience higher levels of CA in all communication contexts except in groups and dyads. The data suggest that males enrolled in performing arts classes experience a lower level of communication apprehension than females enrolled in performing arts classes in meetings while experiencing a higher level of communication apprehension m groups, dyads, public speaking, and in general. A slightly larger percentage of males to females not enrolled in the performing arts participated in the study, and a larger percentage of females to males enrolled in the performing arts also participated. The data also suggest that females in general have lower communication apprehension than males in all areas except where people meet to cooperate, process information, and to achieve specific goals (Kayser, 1990). Females also seem more comfortable communicating in contexts where they can gather and exchange information 90

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(Ruess & Silvis, 1981 ), cause some effect which can be physical. cognitive, or emotional (Gamble & Gamble, 1982), or entertain, help people to understand, or move people to action (Verderber, 1991). The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between gender with respect to communication apprehension. Research Hypothesis # 2 Students in performing arts classes that rely more on oral skills will have lower levels of communication apprehension than students who are in classes that rely less on oral communication skills. The analysis of data led to the following conclusions concerning research hypothesis 2: l. No significant difference in communication apprehension was found in students enrolled in any of the various performing arts classes or between classes that rely on oral skills and classes that rely less on oral skills. Hypothesis 2 is rejected: Performing arts classes that rely more on oral skills do not appear to have students with lower levels of communication apprehension. One would assume that students with lower levels of CA would be drawn to performing arts classes that allow more opportunity for oral expression. However, results of this study did not bear this out. 91

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2. Females enrolled in vocal mus1c, drama, and dance appear to experience a higher level of general communication apprehension but lower CA in instrumental music than do males enrolled in the same classes. Females expenencmg higher levels of communication apprehension may be intimidated in classes that rely more on oral communication skills (such as vocal music and drama) and less anxious in classes that rely less on oral communication skills (such as instrumental music). The statistical analysis, however, showed no significant difference between genders with respect to communication apprehension between performing arts classes. General Demographic Data Students enrolled in performing arts classes are generally engaged in the performing arts more than students not enrolled m the performing arts, and in general, students enrolled in the performing arts engage in the performing arts at an earlier age and for longer periods at a time (consecutive years) than students not enrolled in the performing arts. This supports the notion that prior experience in the performing arts could act as a catalyst for students to enroll in similar classes. Most students enrolled in performing arts classes have had more previous exposure to private and public school 92

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performing arts classes and related experiences than students not enrolled in performing arts classes. This may indicate that the amount of previous experience in the performing arts can affect students' choosing performing arts classes in school. Many students not enrolled in the performing arts have had some previous experience in the performing arts, primarily in vocal and instrumental music classes. This would indicate that prior experience in the performing arts does not appear to necessarily encourage students to enroll in similar classes. Some students may have had negative experiences in performing arts classes, based on a variety of variables including communication encounters, causing them to avoid similar experiences in the future. The study showed that a larger percentage of female students were enrolled in the performing arts than were males. Also, as many Anglo students enrolled in the performing arts as all other ethnic groups combined. More females and Anglos enroll in performing arts classes for a variety of reasons. lt can be assumed that males might perceive a dance class as being less masculine and would be less inclined to enroll or participate in such a class. Also, the dramatic voice changes that occur in males at puberty may not encourage them to enroll in classes such as vocal music. Performing arts classes that rely heavily on European or western attitudes may not attract students of ethnic minority as these students may not 93

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perceive these approaches to the arts significant to their particular cultural background. The data suggest that a.) Asian and Hispanic students not enrolled in performing arts classes may experience higher levels of communication apprehension in most communication contexts than other ethnic groups of students not enrolled in performing arts classes, b.) African-American students not enrolled in performing arts classes experience lower communication apprehension than Asians or Hispanics not enrolled m performing arts classes, and c.) Anglo students not enrolled m performing arts classes experience lower levels of CA than all other ethnic groups not enrolled in performing arts classes for all communication contexts except dyads. Since both schools used in the study have a higher Anglo population than other ethnic groups, it could be that Anglo students are surrounded predominantly by other students whom they see as being like themselves. This factor could create a comfort level which contributes to lower CA among Anglo students. These data also indicate that a.) African-American students not enrolled in the performing arts experience higher levels of communication apprehension than African-American students enrolled in the performing arts in meetings and public speaking, b.) Anglo students not enrolled in the performing arts experience higher levels of CA than Anglo students enrolled in the performing arts in groups, meetings, and in general, c.) 94

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Hispanic students not enrolled in the performing arts experience higher levels of CA than Hispanic students enrolled in the performing arts in public speaking, and d.) students enrolled in the performing arts designated as Other experience lower levels of CA than any other ethnic group. The higher Anglo population in this case seems to have little effect on the communication apprehension of students enrolled in the performing arts with an ethnic designation of Other. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference on ethnicity with respect to communication apprehension. Recommendations Study results indicate that a relationship exists between participation in the performing arts in schools and levels of total communication apprehension. Schools should look at ways in which this relationship can be more clearly understood. To accomplish this, the following are recommended: A. Expand research into the effects of communication apprehension on learning, self-esteem, sociability, and success m school. B. Extend research assessmg the transfer qualities that performing arts curricula provide students, especially in the areas of self-esteem and academic success. 95

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C Expand research assessing the relationship between communication apprehension and performance-based curricula. D. Replicate this study on a larger scale following students over a period of several years. Study results indicate that more females than males enroll in the performing arts. Schools should look at ways to encourage more males to enroll in the performing arts, including the following: A. Design performing arts curricula which encourages male enrollment, especially in dance and vocal music. B. Invite male and female performing artists to teach and perform for students in schools. C Provide information for students m school counseling centers making male and female students aware of career opportunities available in the performing arts and of the life-long skills they can learn by enrolling and participating in performing arts classes. Study results indicate that more Anglos than any other ethnic group enroll in performing arts classes. Schools should look at ways to encourage more ethnic minorities to enroll in the performing arts, including the following: A. Design performing arts curricula to include arts contributions from Africa, Asia, South America and Mexico, as 96

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well as from other geographic areas and cultures around the world. B. Provide multi-cultural performing arts expenences m schools presented by ethnic minority teachers and performing artists. C Make students aware of the contributions made by ethnic minorities in the performing arts around the world and through the ages. The literature indicates that schools need to provide opportunities for students which will encourage the development of communication skills. People who speak competently are perceived to be less apprehensive about communicating (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992), and experience higher self-esteem (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992), as well as enjoy greater educational success, social effectiveness, and personal growth (Spitzberg & Cupach. 1984 ). To accomplish this, it is recommended that schools: A. Enhance risk-free communication opportunities where students can safely experiment with verbal interaction with other students and teachers. B. Provide classroom situations where students can develop verbal skills to communicate more effectively and competently. 97

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C Promote oral communication away from school by asstgnmg homework requiring the development of verbal skills. D. Provide opportunities for students to demonstrate proficiency of content material through oral exams or reports. E Encourage more classroom participation through oral discourse and less from paper/pencil activities. F. Create specific criteria tasks and performance activities that will allow students to demonstrate their achievement. The literature indicates that schools should recogmze and nurture all of the varied combinations of the human intelligence (Gardner, 1993) and focus on individuals' natural sensory learning abilities (Baker, 1993 ). A. Examine more closely different ways that students can more effectively learn. B. Provide opportunities where individuals can utilize their personal strengths to enhance their creative and intellectual growth. C Expand the definition of intelligence beyond the intelligence quotient (IQ) to include a full range of intellectual abilities. D. Provide educational opportunities where students can develop a sense of self and advance levels of achievement and well being. 98

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Educators should redefine what is basic in a basic education and become more knowledgeable about the benefits, rewards, and transfer qualities that specific curricula offer. Arts education should be considered a central component of the educational process which deserves equal treatment with respect to all other educational elements (Karafelis, 1995). Keeping kids in school and improving student performance may also provide incentive for the inclusion of arts education in a basic curriculum (Smith-Bidstrup, 1992). A. Define arts education as a basic component of public school education. B. Expand performing arts opportunities m all grades, kindergarten through grade 12. C Integrate performing arts activities more effectively and comprehensively with all other curriculums. D. Provide students with equal access to performing arts curricula throughout their public school training. 99

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APPENDIX A APPROVAL DOCUMENT: UNIVERSITY 100

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HUMAN RESEARCH COMMITTEE REVIEW l 0/9 2 (NOTE: If exemption or expedited review is requested, please enclose three copies of this form. If full review of the research is requested. please enclose six copies of this form. Forms should be sent to: Mark Yarborough, Department of Philosophy, CU-Denver, Box 179, 1050 9th Street.) l. PROJECT D IRECTOR: __ .... Io"'w"---------Ex t: ___ Department: Educational Administration Home Phone: 4 77-461 0 (if a student project. thesis. or dissertation) Faculty Advisor: ____ PROJECT TITLE: the Arts as a Communication Apprehension Reduction 2. Project description as it relates to human Please describe the project briefly, including subject population. recruitment. and procedures to be used: attach questionnaire or interview questions if appropriate. 3. Consent forms. Please attach a copy of the consent form you will be using. 4. The following points must be included in a consent form: a) A clear explanation of the procedures to be followed and their purposes. including identification of any experimental procedures. b) A clear description of any discomfort or risks reasonably to be expected. c) An offer to answer any questions regarding the research. both during and after their research is completed. d) An instruction that the person is free to withdraw his/her consent and discontinue participation at any time without prejudice. e) An instruction that questions concerning rights as a subject may be directed to the Office of Sponsored Programs, CU-Denver. Campus Box 123. P.O. Box 173364. Denver, CO 80217-3364. telephone 556-2771. f) Signature of subject. (For subjects below the age of 18, or for mentally ill or retarded persons. signature of parents of guardian is required. For children between 12 and 18. both child and parents should sign the consent form.) You are reminded that consent forms are privileged protected for confidentiality. be Signature of principal / / X approved with conditions; see appended CU-Denver Human Research Committee I 0/8/94 / 101

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University of Colorado at Denver Department of Psychology Campus Box I 73 P.O. Box 173364 Denver. Colorado 80217-3364 Phone: (303) 556-8565 Fax: (303) 556-3520 October 7, 1994 ro. FROM: RE: Ira Bigelow/Sharon Ford Jo-Anne Bachorowski. Ph.D.. Human Research Committee "Assessing the Performing Arts as a Communication Apprehension Reduction Strategy" The HRC has reviewed and approved your proposal, subject to the following conditions (the conditions all revolve around amending the consent form and won't be that tedious): l. Wording suggesting that CU-Denver is sponsoring the study should be deleted from any consent and information forms; in fact, the whole first paragraph of the consent form could be deleted. 2. The consent form needs to be re-worded to a lower reading level that encompasses the population of interest. For example, after the word "confidential." the word "private" should be included in parentheses. 3. Students should be informed that they can ask questions after the study is complete (as well as during the study). 4. The consent form must describe that teachers will rate subjects on their interactions with peers and teachers. [f this is not feasible given the study design, the consent form, at a minimum, must state that teachers will complete a rating form about students participating in the study. 5. The consent form needs to describe exactly who will have access to the data and how the data will be storied (i.e.. describe how confidentiality is being protected). 6. A more complete description of the study must be provided. This would ideally go at the beginning of the consent form. A statement of the purpose of the study, saying something about the nature of the research, and a list of exactly what will be expected of participants must be included. 102

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7. Statements describing any potential benefits and risks must be included. Benefits might include experience learning about being a research participant. Parents should be informed how much class time their child will miss as a result of participation. Risks must include a statement saying that some of the questions asked on the questionnaire or survey forms might be mildly upsetting because of a person's own unique experiences. 8. Since all the subjects will be younger than 18, parent or guardian signatures will always be required. Therefore, the phrase "For subjects below the age of 18 ... should be deleted. 9. A signature line is required for the researcher Upon revision of the consent form, please send one copy to Mark Yarborough, Box 179. and one copy to Vicki Spencer. Box 123. with an attached copy of the signed Committee Review Form. If you have any questions about these recommendations, please give me a call at x2687 103

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APPENDIXB APPROVAL DOCUMENT: SCHOOL DISTRlCf 104

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September 23, 1994 Mr. Xra Bigelow 3610 Vallejo Street Denver, CO 80211 Dear Mr. Bigelow: Your research project has been reviewed and is approved upon the following conditions: that participation by any school is voluntary and subject to the approval of the principal that the voluntary nature of the study be made clear to all potential participants that signed parent permission be obtained prior to the involvement of any student in the study. Michael Bautista has agreed to coordinate your project. Please contact hm at 296-8421 to discuss how to proceed. Please feel free to call me at 764-3802 if you have any questions. Sinc:erely, (. / /)./ '\.vaZ D. Eckerling Elecutive Director WDE:jtf 105

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APPENDIXC RESEARCH STUDY CONSENT FORM 106

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RESEARCH STUDY CONSENT FORM The following is a consent form for participation in a research study The purpose of the study is to measure how students feel about communicating with other people. A survey measuring communication apprehension (reticence) has been prepared which will be given at the beginning and the end of a school semester. Teachers will complete a rating form about students participating in the study. Participating subjects are expected to complete the survey on both occasions (two times). Potential benefits of the study may include showing how schools can better motivate students to communicate more effectively. Some of the questions on the survey might be mildly upsetting because of a person's own unique experiences. The survey should not take more than ten minutes of class time to complete 1. Focus of the study is on feelings about communication with other people. Subjects are free to ask questions regarding the experimental procedures at any time during or after the study. 2. Subjects selected for the study will be asked to complete a survey at the beginning of the school year and again at the end of the semester. 3. All information gathered in this study will remain confidential (private). Names of participating subjects are not included in the study. No subject identification will be made. and no individual feedback regarding performance can be given. 4. All subjects selected for the study may choose to withdraw his/her consent and discontinue participation at any time. Consent forms are privileged records and will be protected for confidentiality. 5. Questions concerning rights as a subject may be directed to the Office of Sponsored Programs. CU-Denver. Campus Box 123. P.O Box 173364. Denver. CO 80217-3364, telephone 556-2771. A signature of parents or guardian is required. For children between the ages of 12 and 18, both child and parents/guardian should sign the consent form Signature of Parent or Guardian Date Signature of Student (Subject) Date Signature of Researcher Date 107

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APPENDIXD SURVEY INSTRUMENT 108

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PERSONAL REPORT OF COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION Code# Directions This instrument is composed of 24 statements concerning your feelings about communication with other people. Please indicate the degree to which each statement applies to you by circling one of the following: (l) Strongly Agree, (2) Agree. (3) Are Undecided. (4) Disagree, or (5) Strongly Disagree. Example: I enjoy doing homework. 2 3 4 5 There are no right or wrong answers. Many of the statements are similar to other statements. Do not be concerned about this. Work quickly, just record your first impression. ALL INFORMATION GATHERED IN THIS STUDY Wll..L REMAIN CONFIDENTIAL. Circle One Number For Each Statement (1) Strongly Agree (2) Agree (3) Are Undecided (4) Disagree (5) Strongly Disagree l. I dislike participating in group discussions. 2 3 4 5 2. Generally. I am comfortable while participating in a group discussion. 2 3 4 5 3. I am tense and nervous while participating in group discussions. 2 3 4 5 4. I like to get involved in group discussions .., 3 4 5 5. Engaging in a group discussion with new people makes me tense and nervous. 2 3 4 5 6. I am calm and relaxed while participating in group discussions. 2 3 4 5 7. Generally, I am nervous when I have to participate in a meeting. 2 3 4 5 8. Usually, I am calm and relaxed while participating 10 meetings. 2 3 4 5 (over) 109

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Circle One Number For Each Statement (l) Strongly Agree (2) Agree (3) Are Undecided (4} Disagree (5) Strongly Disagree 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. I am very calm and relaxed when I am called upon to express an opinion at a meeting. I am afraid to express myself at meetings. Communicating at meetings usually makes me uncomfortable. I am very relaxed when answering questions at a meeting. While participating in a conversation with a new acquaintance, I feel very nervous. 14. I have no fear speaking up in conversations. 15. Ordinarily, I am very tense and nervous in conversations. 16. Ordinarily, I am very calm and relaxed in conversations. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. While conversing with a new acquaintance. I feel very relaxed. I'm afraid to speak up in conversations. I have no fear of giving a speech. Certain parts of my body feel very tense and rigid while giving a speech. I feel relaxed while giving a speech. My thoughts become confused and jumbled when I am giving a speech. I face the prospect of giving a speech with confidence. While giving a speech I get so nervous, I forget facts I really know. 11 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5

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APPENDIXE SCORING FORMULA 1 11

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PRCA Scoring Formula Sub-score Desired Scoring Formula Group Discussion 18 + scores for items 2. 4, and 6; scores for items 1, 3, and 5. Meetings 18 + scores for items 8, 9, and 12; scores for items 7, 10, and 11. Interpersonal Conversations 18 + scores for items 14, 16, and 17; scores for items 13, 15, and 18. Public Speaking 18 + scores for items 19, 21, and 23; scores for items 20, 22. and 24. (Richmond & McCrosky, 1992. p. 126) Mean scores for the total PRCA-24 and each communication context are as follows: Total PRCA-24 Score: Group: Meetings: Dyads: Public: 1 1 2 65.6 15.4 16.4 14.5 19.3 (p. 126)

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APPENDIXF ADDENDUM TO POST-TEST 1 13

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ADDENDUM TO POSTTEST Directions Please answer the following questions by circling appropriate responses and writing in the spaces provided. ALL INFORMATION GATHERED IN THIS STUDY WILL REMAIN CONFIDENTIAL. GENDER: Male Female ETHNIC BACKGROUND: AfricanAmerican Anglo Asian Hispanic Other BACKGROUND IN THE PERFORMING ARTS (circle as many as apply): Dance Drama Music Other None NUMBER OF YEARS ACTIVELY ENGAGED IN THE PERFORMING ARTS: None One Two Three Four Five or More APPROXIMATE AGES DURING WHICH YOU WERE ACTIVELY ENGAGED IN THE PERFORMING ARTS: GIVE A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF YOUR BACKGROUND IN THE PERFORMING ARTS, INCLUDING PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SCHOOL EXPERIENCES: 114

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