Citation
Alienated and at-risk students

Material Information

Title:
Alienated and at-risk students alternative high school strategies that mediate
Creator:
Hall, Judy Ann
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
242 leaves : ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Evening and continuation school students -- Attitudes ( lcsh )
Underachievers -- Attitudes ( lcsh )
Underachievers -- Education (Secondary) -- Colorado ( lcsh )
Alternative schools -- Colorado ( lcsh )
Alienation (Social psychology) ( lcsh )
Dropout behavior, Prediction of ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 222-242).
General Note:
School of Education and Human Development
Statement of Responsibility:
by Judy Ann Hall.

Record Information

Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
47833151 ( OCLC )
ocm47833151
Classification:
LD1190.E3 2001d .H34 ( lcc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
ALIENATED AND AT-RISK STUDENTS:
ALTERNATIVE HIGH SCHOOL STRATEGIES THAT MEDIATE
by
Judy Ann Hall
B.S., University of Nebraska. 1970
M.A.. University of Colorado, 1989
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Educational Leadership and Innovation
2001


2001 by Judy Ann Hall
All rights reserved.


This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy
degree by
Judy Ann Hall
has been approved
by
|l3 ) 01
Date
Ai Ramirez


Hall. Judy Ann (Ph.D., Educational Leadership and Innovation)
Alienated And At-Risk Students:
Alternative High School Strategies That Mediate
Thesis directed by Associate Professor Nadyne Guzman
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze factors which at-risk
students perceive as contributing to their feelings of alienation toward school and any
factors in an alternative high school which mediate those feelings of alienation. Data
were collected within a single alternative high school in a suburban school district.
Semi-structured, informal interviews were conducted with 40 high school students, all
of whom had been identified as alienated from school. Observations and review of
documents from the schools archival records provided additional data. Analysis of the
data led to the formulation of themes. Students reported that prior to membership at the
alternative high school, they experienced (a) alienation from both adults and other
students at school, (b) alienation from the experience of learning, and (c) alienation
from the community of school. All interviewed students reported that their feelings of
alienation were at least partially mediated while they attended the alternative high
school. Interviews showed that after a semester or more at the alternative high school
the students reported (a) sense of connection with both adults and students at school,
(b) sense of belonging to the community of school, and (c) enjoyment of the experience
of learning. The research clearly indicates that factors within schools contribute to
feelings of alienation in certain students. The research is expected to assist educators as
they identify measures that might be implemented in school settings, traditional or
alternative, to decrease student alienation and reduce drop out rates.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis. I recommend
its publication.
Signed


DEDICATION
This dissertation is dedicated to our many students who, because of their feelings
of alienation toward school are at-risk of never graduating. I have witnessed their
efforts in an educational world that too often treats them with indifference. Their worth
helps me to continue hoping that the climate of our schools will change to meet the
unique needs of every student.
To Megan, who, wanting desperately to graduate in spite of and for her two
babies, will accomplish that dream this spring, two days after her 20th birthday. To
Nate, who once dreamed of big things following graduation but, needing far more
encouragement than he got, dropped out while he still occupied a desk in our classes.
To Noah, who, although he was true to the prediction that he would be incarcerated
long before finishing high school, made so many of us contemplate the potential power
of our connection with students. And finally, to all of the students of my districts
alternative high school who are still on their journey toward graduation. I appreciate
their participation in this study when the first spring days were calling them elsewhere.
Without their shared perceptions of past school experiences, my work could not have
been.
It is my hope that the shared insights of these students will inspire positive change
in those who work within our schools.
v



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
A significant share of the past two years of my life has been spent on the
dissertation portion of the doctoral journey. As I look back, it is obvious that many
people have walked by my side during that time. I wish to thank the following key
persons for the significant part they played during my journey.
Professor Nadyne Guzman, my advisor, who has been generous not only as an
advisor but also as a mentor and friend. Without her gentle and well-timed pressure to
finish, ongoing encouragement to speak with my own voice, and assistance in
organizing my thinking, I would not be nearing completion of this project.
Professor Rodney Muth, a true educator both in spirit and by example, whose
thoughtfulness was never limited. Without his help in realizing that my ideas were
important and worth sharing with others. I would never have begun.
Professors Margaret Bacon and A1 Ramirez, who so graciously served on my
dissertation committee, and who gave their commitment of time, helpful suggestions,
and constructive review of my work.
The students, teachers, and administrators who shared with me their concerns,
frustrations, insights, and feelings. I could not have done this study without their
willingness to spend time with me, patience when schedules were tight, and candor
about life as they perceived it in our schools. I owe them a tremendous emotional debt
because their victories, failures, and ongoing efforts inspire my work every day.
My wonderful family whose spoken recognition of the promise within always
sustained me. I recall their kind words along with the love they shared with me when I
most needed it. I appreciate their encouragement to go after what I want in life and their
constant support on that journey. Their knowing I could do it has kept me going.
vi


CONTENTS
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION...........................................I
Interviews............................................2
Documents.............................................2
Observations..........................................3
Pertinent Literature..................................4
Background......................................5
Purpose of the Study............................8
Significance of the Study............................10
Overview of the Study................................10
Limitations....................................11
2. STUDENTS AT RISK......................................14
Underlying Conditions of Students At-Risk............15
At-Risk and Alienated from School....................16
Effects of Alienated Students on Others........17
The Contribution of School to Alienation.......18
Who Is Responsible?............................20
The Path to Dropping Out.............................23
Misbehavior at School..........................26
Schools as Communities of Support ...................29


Personal Relationships with Teachers.............32
Alternative Schools as Interventions...................33
Characteristics of Effective Mentoring Programs........38
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.....................................46
Problem Focus..........................................46
Researchers Background and Focus......................47
Assumptions......................................47
Role of the Researcher...........................48
Setting................................................49
Subjects.........................................50
Permissions Required.............................51
Pre-Interviews...................................52
Research Plan .........................................53
Design of the Study..............................55
Pilot Procedures.................................55
Recording Interviews.............................56
Interview Guidelines ............................56
Observations.....................................59
Document Analysis................................60
Analysis of Data.................................61
4. DOCUMENT REVIEW..........................................64
Analysis...............................................65
Developing an Alternative High School..................66
Optimal School Structure.........................67
i
viii


Physical Appearance of the School................68
Staff.............................................69
Students.........................................70
No Exclusive Cliques..............................75
Summary.................................................90
5. STUDENT INTERVIEWS.......................................96
Data Analysis and Results...............................97
Emergent Themes.........................................98
Alienation from the People at School.............100
Alienation from the Experience of Learning.......109
Alienation from the Community of School..........118
Mediation of Alienation at the Alternative High School.124
Feeling Connected to the People at School........126
Sense of Belonging to the Community of School....134
Liking the Experience of Learning................139
Summary................................................149
Why Students Are Alienated.......................150
Contributing Experiences.......................152
Student Perceptions..............................153
Alienation and the Alternative High School.......154
Reason for Change................................155
6. OBSERVATIONS............................................159
Researchers Observation Scheme..................160
Positive Student Relationships...................161


Evidence of Friendship.............................162
Topics of Student Conversation............................165
Companionship Outside of School....................165
Activities Outside of School.......................165
Aspirations Following School.......................166
Membership at the Alternative High School.................167
Do Outcasts Exist at the Alternative School?.......168
Being Different....................................168
Student Concerns and Fears.........................171
Students Wants to Be Independent...................172
Discussion About Morality.................................174
Drug Usage.........................................174
Sexual Activity....................................175
Interaction With Family...................................176
Relationships With Parents.........................176
Observers Interaction With Teachers......................178
Reaction to Students Being Pulled From Class.......178
Teachers Approach to Students.....................179
Classroom Observations.............................180
Connections With Support Staff............................182
Librarian..........................................182
Secretarial Staff..................................182
Evidence of Conflict Within the School....................183
Student Complaints.................................184
x


i
i
!
I
i
7. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS..........188
Setting...........................................189
Subjects..........................................189
Research Base....................................190
! Data Collections and Analysis....................190
Interviews..................................190
Documents...................................191
Observations................................191
Data Analysis...............................192
Findings..........................................195
Why Students Are Alienated..................196
Contributing Experiences....................198
Student Perceptions.........................199
Mediating Factors...........................200
Alienation and the Alternative High School........201
Reason for Change...........................202
Recommendations.............................205
Concluding Remarks..........................207
APPENDIX
A. LETTER TO PARENT/GUARDIAN.....................211
B. STUDENT CONSENT FOR INTERVIEW.................214
C. PARENT CONSENT FOR INTERVIEW .................216
D. INTERVIEW QUESTIONS...........................218
REFERENCES...................................................222
I
XI


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
This study took place in an alternative high school of approximately 135 students
in a large, mostly white, middle-class, suburban school district. The alternative high
school was assigned the pseudonym, Falcon Ridge Alternative High School, in order
to assure anonymity and protect the confidentiality of the students and staff who made
up the school. The school's operating mission is as follows:
In order to provide all students with the opportunity to achieve their maximum
learning potential and prepare them for life in the 21st Century, the staff of
Falcon Ridge Alternative High School is committed to providing a unique
learning environment that is applicable for real-life situations and assistance to
students in realizing their goals of graduation, employment, and higher
education.
The focus of this research is:
1. To understand, by listening to at-risk high school students, the circumstances
which they perceive as contributing to their feelings of alienation toward school.
2. To determine if any factors exist at an alternative high school which mediate the
students' feelings of alienation.
The researcher discovered that the students at the alternative high school resisted
being stereotyped. They demonstrated a wide range of personal characteristics.
Records indicate that students came to Falcon Ridge Alternative High School with a
wide range of academic abilities. However, one characteristic that all 40 of the
interviewees shared was having endured school experiences which resulted in their
having feelings of alienation toward school. In order to study the nature of the
students alienation, both at their previous schools and at the alternative high school,
the researcher used an exploratory design for this study. It relied on three forms of data
1


collection: (a) interviews with students at the alternative high school, (b) observations
of students at the alternative high school, and (c) review of the schools archival
documents. Information was gathered through a series of semi-structured, face-to-face
interviews. I was also involved in informal discussion with students. Additional data
were obtained from direct observation of students and from the review of archival
documents associated with the school. These sources provided crucial empirical
evidence and the opportunity for triangulation of data.
Interviews
The student sample was made up of 20 males and 20 females, all of whom had
been in attendance at the alternative high school for at least one semester. The ages of
the interviewees ranged from 14 to 20 years of age. The students were in grades 9-12.
The researcher oriented the Falcon Ridge Alternative High School students on the
purpose of the study, obtained necessary permission slips, and interviewed the students
one at a time. Factual information was gathered by using semi-structured interviews.
By so doing, a rich description of the students* perspectives was obtained. The
interviews resulted in data which were compared and compiled across the students. Of
even more significance, the interviews also gave students a chance to share details and
examples.
Documents
Documents written by and about the people involved with Falcon Ridge
Alternative High School were reviewed and analyzed for factual details. In addition,
they were explored for a rich description of what the people who produced the
documents think about the alternative high school and at-risk students. The following
documents were analyzed: statements of philosophy, policy documents, planning
documents, program history, principals notes, descriptions of courses offered,
2


grading policies and records, and discipline policies and reports. Other documents that
were a part of the review were written records of staff meetings, school committee
minutes, past issues of the school newsletter, collected newspaper articles, annual
reports to the board of education, and paperwork submitted when the school was
applying for certification and for a variety of awards. I considered documents written
by people who were a part of the school to be especially important.
Observations
Field notes, both descriptive and reflective, were used to describe the situations
observed by the researcher. Descriptions of the physical environment, the people
within the school, and conversations were included in field notes based on
observations. In addition, my thoughts and reflection about what was being observed
were recorded. Conversations among students were scripted as much as possible so
that they could later be analyzed. Emergent themes were recorded along with ideas
regarding possible connections within the data.
Data obtained in this study were analyzed inductively. Analysis of data was
ongoing as I carried on data collection and analysis concurrently throughout the study.
The words of each interviewee and of observation field notes were examined for
themes. As I read through collected data, certain words, ways of thinking by students,
and types of events began to emerge as themes. Thus, the words of the students
created the various categories. A grid was established with the common themes which
emerged from the interview data serving as column headings. Each interview was
reviewed with the purpose of recording all responses that could be categorized under
the proper heading. This method of categorizing information was continued until all
possible interview information was categorized.
Next, 1 combined and arranged the previously established categories into themes.
By the time this process of analyzing and categorizing was complete, several themes
3


were identified. Likewise, direct on-site observations and document information were
organized in the same way using word searches. Data analysis revealed patterns,
differences, and relationships which might not be evident fro-m direct inspection of the
data. The analysis of data from interviews, observations, and document review
provides triangulation of data.
Pertinent Literature
Rose (1999) reminds us that too many of our students "move to adulthood without
having succeeded in school (p. 4). The number of American students dropping out
before they finish high school is a matter of serious concern (Hamby, 1989). In 1991,
the U.S. Congress Office of Technology and Assessment suggested that as many as 25
percent of American adolescents are at high risk for not succeeding in school.
Unfortunately, this is still the case today, 10-12 years later. IvfcMillen (1997) tells us
that one in eight students does not complete high school.
Therefore, I reviewed the literature on those students w-ho drop out of school.
This literature indicates that the school dropout problem is a threat to our countrys
social and economic systems. Early studies attempted to discover why some students
came to be dropouts while others remained in school (Wehlage, 1983; Wehlage, Rutter,
& Tumbaugh, 1987; Wehlage, Stone, & Kliebard, 1980). Wang and Reynolds (1995)
indicate that among the most significant of the immediate challenges facing educators is
the need to harness both resources and expertise to improve outcomes for at-risk
students. However, the American public has not traditionally supported spending
public school dollars for those students at risk of dropping out. Following this trend,
schools develop little ownership for these students or for trying to change their
behaviors. In fact, during the students early school years, such problems are usually
ignored or dealt with in such a way that academic and behavior problems are
exacerbated (Maag & Howell, 1991, p. 75).
4


1
Background
Chartrand and Rose (1996, p. 267) propose that students are at risk if they as a
result of social, economical, political, or cultural conditions, have limited access to
educational and occupational activities. According to Glasser (1969, p. xi), the child
who is successful in school has excellent chances for success in life, while the child
who fails during his educational career has greatly reduced chances for a successful
life. Common adult outcomes for these students are poor employment histories that
include rate of employment and lower earnings, marital difficulties, substance abuse,
incarceration, institutionalization for psychiatric services, and ongoing demands on
welfare services (Caspi, Elder, & Bern, 1987: Farrington, 1983; Huesmann, Eron,
Lefkowitz, & Walder, 1984; Robins & Ratcliff, 1979; Rumberger, 1987; Stem, Paik,
Catteral, & Nakala, 1989). Todays world is increasingly technological with little work
for school dropouts and unemployment or under-employment carry a definite social
stigma (Stevens, 1994, p. ix). Dropouts who were once able to find jobs in a
manufacturing economy, can no longer do so (Pianta & Walsh, 1996, p. 3). Thus, the
future of these students is especially dismal as their acting out behaviors lead to
economic vulnerability for a lifetime.
Slightly more than a decade ago, the half-million students who were leaving
school prior to graduation cost our nation fifty billion dollars in lost lifetime earning
(McDill, Natriello, & Pallas, 1989; OIneck, 1989); the dollar amount would no doubt
be significantly higher now. In addition, Fossey (1996) posits that while the
Department of Education has been encouraging regarding rates of school dropout, that
actual drop out rates are greater than are acknowledged. He also indicates that the
economy, social welfare, and political stability of the United States are threatened by
the failure to deal effectively with the rapidly growing number of students who are at
f

5


risk (Berliner & Biddle, 1995; Bracey, 1989). Considering the increasing numbers of
such children, educators who are concerned about their future are also worried with the
future of our entire society. The urgency of this matter was recognized by leading
educators when they agreed as a part of the Six National Goals of Education to attempt
to increase the high school graduation rate to ninety percent by the year 2000 (U.S.
Department of Education, 1990, pp. 4-5). Of course, this goal was not accomplished.
Such an initiative requires that educators be responsive to needs of students who
are at risk. Many of these students become alienated from school and have traditionally
fallen through the cracks (Fetro Sc Vitello, 1988; Madden, Slavin, Karweit, Dolan, Sc
Wasik, 1992). Bronfenbrenner (1986, p. 430) shares that being alienated is to lack a
sense of belonging, to feel cut off from family, friends, school or work. Too many
students are extremely at risk of becoming alienated from their schools, teachers, and
fellow students. Bronfenbrenner also reported that, of the students who have been
labeled at risk. 61 percent drop out before they have finished tenth grade.
Unfortunately, today's complex world with its multitude of changes and potential
problems for adolescents actually encourages adolescent alienation. This study will be
concerned with alienation of high school students from school.
Alienation from school has been studied in a variety of high school settings
(Firestone, Rosenblum, Sc Webb, 1987; Fontes, 1988). It is often the main reason
given for the problem of school dropouts (Bryk & Thum, 1989; Hedrix, Sederberg, Sc
Miller, 1990; Mau, 1989). In addition, feelings of alienation are almost always
involved in the process which students endure before dropping out (Finn, 1989;
Wehlage Sc Rutter, 1986). Many of these students spend years feeling alienated from
school with this attitude revealed in poor academic performance, truancy, and rebellion
(Mau, 1992). Therefore, a major challenge facing Americas educators is to reduce the
number of students who become culturally disenfranchised and alienated from school
and, as a result, reduce the number of students who fail to graduate from high school.
6


Early research indicated that family background was the almost exclusive
determiner of student achievement and attainment (Coleman and Campbell, et al. 1966;
Jencks, Smith, Acland, et al. 1972). However, more recent studies indicate that
schools do affect behavior, achievement, and attainment of students (Anderson, 1982;
Corcoran, 1985). Indeed, Bronfenbrenner (1986, p. 436) argues that schools have
become one of the most potent breeding grounds of alienation in American society
saying, "we are in danger of allowing our schools to become academies of alienation.
Newman (1981) delved extensively into existing literature on alienation and indicated
that the manner in which schools are structured and in which human relations within
them are organized actually contributes to students feelings of alienation. In addition,
unwelcome control placed on the lives of adolescents by rules and regulations of
schools makes their levels of alienation increase even more. It is not difficult to
ascertain the effects of this type of alienation within our schools. According to
Bronfenbrenner (1972), they include physical disabilities, emotional disabilities,
learning problems, and behavioral disturbances. In addition, the alienated student is
usually unmotivated when it comes to learning and often comes to see dropping out of
school as a feasible alternative (Wehlage, Rutter, Smith, Lesko, & Fernandez, 1989).
Schools are one of the few places where adults have an opportunity to reach this
at-risk population and to provide them with services needed in order to alter the
direction of their lives. However, little guidance exists about effective strategies that
have been proven to reduce the feelings of alienation that many high school students
experience (Seldin, 1989). In attempting to mitigate alienation, educators tumto the
idea that belonging at school is one means of meeting students needs (Wehlage,
Rutter, Smith, et al., 1989). In order to be successful, students need to see school as a
supportive community to which they can feel attached. They need to experience school
as a place that recognizes them as individuals and encourages their educational and
7


personal success (Bidwell, 1987; Coleman, 1987; Lightfoot, 1978; Wehlage, Rutter,
Smith, et al. 1989; Young, 1990).
According to Hillary Rodham Qinton (2000, p.4) although Americas teens are
full of promise and potential... they will tell you that what should be the best years of
their lives are too often filled with stress, alienation and confusion. For students who
are already at risk, the way in which a school responds to their need to belong is of
critical importance for school membership plays a central role in potential success
(Arhar, 1990). Middle school educators endorse the idea of relationship building as a
basic tenet of middle school philosophy and advocate practices which are directly linked
to a students need to belong (Alexander & George, 1981; Erb & Doda, 1990).
However, during these years, large numbers of adolescents do not experience a feeling
of belonging and instead become alienated from school, teachers, and peers. Thus, by
the time they are ready to enter high school and continuing during their high school
years, too many students are alienated and almost certainly destined for failure.
Although much recent literature supports the idea that the majority of students who
drop out before graduating from high school believe that factors embedded within our
schools are the primary cause, there is still little follow-up by researchers on how these
students experiences at school lead to their becoming alienated and dropping out.
Such students do not belong in high schools yet demonstrate their need for a feeling
of belonging. Educators must look to the experiences of these students if we are to
understand how to help them. It is this need that provided the impetus for this study.
Purpose of the Study
Alienated students come to be so at least in part because of what happens to them
in schools. In spite of the best efforts of educators, little understanding exists about
how to combat the circumstances that make these students feel alienated from school.
Too often, those who work in the schools are unsuccessful in intervening in this
8


process, and once promising students become school dropouts. Research indicates that
a feeling of community at alternative high schools has the potential to counteract
feelings of being alienated for students (Wehlage, Rutter. Smith, et aL, 1989).
Although young people are alienated from a variety of societal institutions and
alienation is considered to be fostered by many factors outside of the school setting,
this study concentrated on alienation of high school age students (Fontes, 1988). This
study follows the guidance provided for us by Orville Brim when he said that, "It is
time to let American children speak for themselves in order to find out what they are
thinking (Ross, 1979, p. 97). This study allows a few selected youth who come from
the population of alienated students an opportunity to be heard. The major purpose of
this study, as shared earlier, was:
1. To understand, by listening to at-risk high school students, the circumstances
which they perceive as contributing to their feelings of alienation from school.
2. To determine if any factors exist at an alternative high school which mediate the
students feelings of alienation.
In addition, the following questions which expand on the original purpose were
explored:
a. Can the beliefs and attitudes of the alternative high school staff members
regarding alienated students be determined by examining the archival documents of the
school?
b. Why are students who come to the alternative high school alienated?
c. How do students who come alienated to the alternative high school describe the
experiences that have resulted in their feelings of alienation?
d. What are the general perceptions of alienated students about the alternative
school?
e. What happens to feelings of alienation as students attend school at the
alternative high school?
9


f. Do students feelings of alienation from school change while they are at the
alternative school? If they change, why do they change?
Perceptions shared by these alienated students provide educators a better understanding
of the dropout problem.
Significance of the Study
Literature was reviewed regarding causes of and possible solutions to alienation
from school in at-risk students. Using this as background, I investigated documents,
interviewed students, and made observations at an alternative high school in an attempt
to determine which attributes of schools heighten the problem of alienation for students
and which school attributes assist the students in feeling less alienated. By developing
a credible frame of reference which includes the beliefs of alienated students and my
interpretation of those students perspectives of their past school experiences, strides
have been made toward solving the problem of what educators might do to prevent
school alienation in students. As a result, the number of students who eventually drop
out might be diminished.
Overview of the Study
Chapter One presents an introduction to the topic to include methods, background,
purpose of the study, and significance of the study. The remainder of the study is
organized as follows.
Chapter Two presents an overview of the literature related to at-risk students,
alienated students within the school setting, and the feelings of community which have
been presented as being necessary' if alienation is to be reduced. Information about
mentoring programs and other components of alternative high schools which provide
support for at-risk and alienated students are also presented.
10


Chapter Three presents the methods and procedures used to investigate the
students perceptions of circumstances that contribute to their feelings of alienation and
their perceptions of any factors that existed at an alternative high school which mediate
the feelings of alienation.
Chapter Four presents information gleaned from the analysis of the documents
which are a part of the archival records at the alternative high school.
Chapter Five presents information from the student interviews to include themes
and sub-themes identified by the students.
Chapter Six presents information derived from the researchers observations
within the school.
Chapter Seven presents the summary, conclusions, and recommendations of the
study.
Limitations
The following are acknowledged as possible limitations of this study.
1. The study was limited to one alternative high school; therefore, the Findings
cannot be generalized beyond that school. The findings may, however, prove useful to
other schools considering the implementation of alternative programs, mentoring
programs, or other interventions to support students who are at risk or who have
feelings of alienation from school.
2. Falcon Ridge Alternative High School is still a relatively new program, having
been in existence fewer than six years. Therefore, any results from data collected
regarding students alienation from school is somewhat tenuous and will need to be
substantiated over a period of more years.
3. Falcon Ridge Alternative High School was stringent in its attitude toward
confidentiality regarding its students. Not all records and files were available for
11


examination. Possibly, information which the researcher did not have access to would
contradict conclusions of this study.
4. Only students who returned the permission form and who were willing to
spend their time in an interview were included. Students who are out of school because
of disciplinary measures or who had not been successful at the alternative high school
were not among current students so could not be a part of the student sample. Because
the researcher was unable to include this population, the range of alienated students
may not be representative of the general population of the alternative high school.
5. Selection of a different type limits the interpretations that can be made based on
this research. A decision was made not to examine the effects of (a) students sex, (b)
whether or not a student was a special education student, and (c) the length of
membership at the alternative high school. The analysis would have been much more
involved if the effects of sex, whether or not a student was a special education student,
and students length of membership at the school were considered.
6. Data collected for the interviews conducted in this study were based in part on
students words telling how they perceived the attitudes and behaviors of
administrators, teachers and other students. The research did not validate interviewees
perceptions through interviews with administrators, teachers, or other students who
have been involved and who might have different perspectives.
7. The presence of the interviewer may have contributed to the limitations of this
study. Occasionally, a response to an interview question was very brief. Reluctance,
less than full disclosure, and/or lack of involvement of students due to embarrassment
or discomfort with the researcher may have existed.
The researchers awareness of the aforementioned limitations coupled with triangulation
of data sources combine so as to render the limitations insignificant in regard to this
study.
12


This chapter provides an introduction to the focus of the research. The methods
used to identify the perspectives of the alienated students toward school are presented
along with limitations of the study. Background about at-risk students supports the
importance of looking at feelings of alienation from school from the perspective of the
at-risk student. Chapter Two presents the review of literature in regard to at-risk
students to include possible means of mediating students feelings of alienation from
school.
13


CHAPTER 2
STUDENTS AT RISK
School should be a place where all students can be successful and make progress
toward becoming contributing members of society (Doll & Muth, 1995, p. 12).
However, many American students are not on their way to success. For example,
since 1990 student enrollment in the state of Colorado has grown by more than 26
percent. It is predicted that the number of students identified by their teachers as 'at-
risk has increased forty-six percent during the first half of this period of time alone
(Augenblick & Myers. 1996). Students described as at-risk are those students at
least 14 years of age who evidence poor grades, attendance patterns, or a general
disaffection with schooling and require modified instructional or other services which
are designed to retain the students in schools (Smith & Hester, 1985, p. ii). They are
in danger of failing to complete their education with an adequate level of skills (Slavin,
Karweit, & Madden, 1989, p. 5). In addition, they are vulnerable with their
probability of failure in life being unacceptably high (Pianta & Walsh, 1996).
As the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development (1989, p. 8) points out,
substantial numbers of American youth are at risk of reaching adulthood unable to
meet adequately the requirements of the work place, the commitments of relationships
in families and with friends, and the responsibilities of participation in a democratic
society. Approximately seven million young people are estimated to be extremely
vulnerable to school failure (Carnegie, 1989, p. 8). In addition, even more-one third
of the approximately 40 million public school students in Americamay be borderline at
risk (Mazerick, 1987).
Of even more concern is a prediction that, by the year 2020, the majority of
students in Americas public schools will live in circumstances traditionally regarded as
14


placing them at risk of educational failure (Berliner & Biddle, 1995; Natriello, McDill,
& Pallas, 1990). Wang (1996) goes so far as to assert that widespread academic failure
could cripple the next generation and that there is simply no justification for inaction
in the face of such serious deterioration in the lives of so many of our children and
youth (p. 1). Also encouraging modification is Doyle (1989) who contends that
American education is in a serious dilemma on account of schools have stayed the same
while the world has undergone unalterable change.
Underlying Conditions of Students At-Risk
Research (Eitzen, 1992; Frymier & Gansnede, 1989; Helge, 1989, 1990; Pianta
& Walsh, 1996; Reed & Sautter, 1990; Rossi, 1994; Slavin & Madden, 1989)
identifies an abundant variety of conditions underlying the behavior of at-risk students.
Included are poor achievement in general, retention in grade, poor school attendance,
boredom with academics, unrealistic life expectations, and poor communication skills.
Others are at risk due to poor self-esteem/self-respect, behavior problems, low
socioeconomic status, attendance at schools with large numbers of poor students, and
limited skills in conflict resolution and problem solving (Rogers & Wildenhaus, 1991,
p. 2).
More specifically, neglect, abuse (psychological, physical, and/or sexual), family
dysfunction, criminal behavior on the part of family members, and instability of home
environment often lead to the development of vulnerable children many of whom are
alienated (Walker, 1995). Children from all types of backgrounds come to school at
high risk for academic failure (Reed, McMillen, & Mcbee, 1995). The problem is
nation-wide and, according to Quinn (1988), cuts across racial, ethnic and
geographical lines (p. 74). Obviously, schools must deal with more demands than
they have ever faced in the past-demands that lead Bracey (1992) to posit that the true
15


crisis of education is that it is trying to function... in a time of social decline that
sometimes looks like collapse (p. 115).
At-Risk and Alienated from School
A substantially growing segment of the at-risk population is the students identified
as "antisocial, "disconnected, "acting-out, behaviorally impaired, "conduct
disordered. behaviorally disordered, maladaptive, "socially maladjusted,
"deficient in social skills, "deviant, oppositional-defiant, "culturally
disenfranchised, and/or "alienated (Cambone, 1990; Langenfeld & Cummings;
1996; Walker, 1995). The behavioral characteristics of these students frequently clash
with the demands of the school setting. Wehlage (1991) reports that students who are
weak school members almost always exhibit a variety of passive and/or disruptive
behaviors at school. Often, these students are disruptive, negative, and resistant to
social interactions. They are frequently aggressive and noncompliant about social
norms and rules of the school (Kazdin, 1987).
While some such students demonstrate emotional and behavioral problems that do
qualify them for special education services, many others do not meet the criteria. Such
students can have chronic behavior problems which do not fit any area of qualifying
disability (Colorado Department of Education, 1995). At the same time that many
students are demonstrating such behavior problems, promoting safety in our schools is
a priority (Grant, Van Acker, & Guerra, 1998). In addition to being at risk, todays
adolescents demonstrate increasingly more alienation from schools (Calabrese, 1989).
The alienation of these students from school and from the educational process is often
evidenced by inattention, low levels of effort, poor task persistence, and class-cutting,
(Ekstrom, Goertz, Pollack, & Rock, 1986; Finn, J., 1989). Reglin (1997) talks of the
correlation between truancy and poor achievement which frequently leads to the
students dropping out of school. Such characteristics result in the student being
16


isolated from school and disengaged from the school experience (Mandel & Marcus.
1988). The student comes To lack a sense of belonging, to feel cut off from family,
friends, school or work in short, the student feels alienated (Bronfenbrenner, 1986)_
As a result, these youth have fewer opportunities to establish and maintain lasting
relationships with adults (Flaxman, Ascher, & Harrington, 1988).
Effects of Alienated Students on Others
At-risk students frequently come to school unable to meet the demands that the
learning process places on them both in the areas of behavior and academics (Schorr,
1988). They are likely to experience major adjustment problems in both academic
achievement and peer social relations (Kazdin, 1987; Walker, Shinn, ONeill, &
Ramsey, 1987). Alienated students often find the academic demands of school to be
especially cumbersome and unrewarding. As a result, such children rarely obtain
positive recognition or praise from the teacher.
With little or no teacher praise for their efforts at classroom tasks, these students
stop caring about doing well in school (Natriello, 1989). Thus, a cyclical situation is
created in which less work is attempted and thus less praise is obtained, over and over_
As school activities fail to engender involvement... students drop out
psychologically (Wehlage, Rutter, Smith, et al., 1989). In addition, the current pushi
to raise academic standards will undoubtedly place even more students at risk (McDill,
Natriello, & Pallas, 1987).
Although educators are aware how greatly at risk for failure in life these students
are if they drop out or are excluded from school, this kind of student is very difficult to
have in the classroom. Many alienated students consistently break rules and defy
teachers. Considerable time is spent on nonacademic matters and, as a result, alienated
students are often academically deficient and below grade level in achievement
(Kauffman, 1993; Walker, Block-Pedego, Todis, & Severson, 1991). Consequently,,
17


they are among the least-liked and most difficult students that schools are charged with
educating (Walker, 1995, p. 25).
Such students present an ongoing challenge to schools because they consume an
inordinate amount of teacher time and attention. By reason of their disruptive behavior
at school, these students are a dramatically increasing concern for both educators and
parents. There is no question that school behavior problems are the biggest concern of
teachers and school staff (Larson, 1989a, 1989b). In addition, recent Gallup polls on
public opinion about education have identified discipline and acting-out behavior
problems as major concerns (Walker, 1995, p. 18).
As a result of the behavior of the alienated, acting-out population hindering the
education of other students and exasperating educators, most of the solutions educators
now attempt focus primarily on trying to control student behavior and protect others
(Nystrom & Anderson, 1990, p. 202). An abundance of existing policy provides
explicit guidelines on how school board members and administrators are to protect
staff, students, and teachers in their charge from the disruptions of acting-out students
(Noguera, 1995, p. 200). Students with behavior problems are often removed from
mainstream classes and sometimes even from their home schools and communities.
Some research indicates that removal of such students is often the result of a lack of
will or a lack of capacity by educators in supporting them in their original school
setting (Walker, Reavis, Rhode, & Jenson, 1984).
The Contribution of School to Alienation
Even though most educators strive to make school a good place for all students,
evidence exists that schools can actually inhibit personal growth for vulnerable
students, contributing to their feelings of alienation. Schools add to the failure of many
students by responding to them so inadequately as to stimulate hostility and
resentment toward the institution. In fact, researchers argue that the failure of these
students is, at least in part, a result of schools that are not responsive to the personal
18


conditions and problems of the students. Instead, the schools demand that students
adapt to established policies and practices. For many of these students, their cultural
disenfranchisement and their accompanying school failure both contribute to and result
from an increased sense of alienation from school as an institution (Wheelock &
Dorman, 1988, p. 13).
Some researchers posit that in order to keep students in school, we must provide
them with an institutional identification which almost always starts with a bond with
an individual staff member (Collaborating to Help, 1992, p. 4). Pianta and Walsh
(1996) go so far as to emphasize that a student who belongs at school knows what
her or his relationship is with everyone in the school... and ... knows that all those
relationships are supportive of her or him (p. 165). Often, alienated students never
experience the kind of attachment which takes place when a student feels that he or she
has social and emotional ties to a teacher or to other students (Wehlage, Rutter, Smith,
et al.. 1989). For many of them, a need for caring relationships with adults goes unmet
during this critical stage of their lives (Arhar, 1990). The process which leads to a
student eventually dropping out of school is cumulative in nature (Mann, 1986) but,
almost certainly, a lack of positive relationships between students and school personnel
increases the likelihood (Testerman, 1996).
School is not a warm, friendly place for the alienated student who is not
successful academically. Many such students who realize the academics expected of
them if they are to succeed, find it overwhelming to catch up or to master the basics
and often become discipline problems (Compton & Balzerman, 1991, p. 9).
Interestingly, although it is widely known that students who display disruptive
behaviors and demonstrate poor achievement may have feelings of alienation from
school, this possible root cause often goes unrecognized by educators (Newman,
1981). According to Bowditch, When students were inattentive or disruptive, or
when they failed exams or missed classes, most teachers did not question school policy
19


or their own teaching techniques and strategies; rather, they invoked the schools power
to coerce or punish students (1989, 173 174). These students get into trouble at
school with suspension, probation, and cutting classes occurring much more frequently
than with other students (Wehlage & Rutter, 1986).
Such consequences make school an even more unpleasant place and usually
indicate it is only a matter of time until the student drops out (Testerman, 1996, p.
364). If we listen to the words of the dropouts, they tell us they left school on account
of failure, boredom, and loss of self-esteem (Hamby, 1989; McMillen, M., 1993).
The same researcher who trusted their words tells educators that "to set standards for
young people, have them fail these standards, and then blame the failure entirely on
them, their families, or some other element outside of school is an abdication of our
roles (Hamby, 1989, p. 22). Langenfeld and Cumming indicate that the real
problem does not lie within the student but rather with a relationship that is
problematic between the student and the school (1996, p. 57).
These students often know that they have significant problems and need help
(Juarez, 1996). However, due to having been repeatedly labeled and treated as failures
by teachers, these students do not see school as their supporter in learning to change
behaviors. Instead, after repeated negative experiences and the lack of meaningful
intervention on the part of educators, these students come to perceive school as a hostile
environment (Ekstrom, Goertz. Pollack, & Rock, 1986). The most common reason
that at-risk students give for quitting school is that school was not right for them or that
they just didnt like school (Magyar, 1986).
Who Is Responsible?
Too often, alienated students end up sitting in the classroom with little or no
motivation, causing problems and keeping others from learning (Quinn, 1991, p.
148). Quinn also asserts that students who are chronic troublemakers demand too
20


much of the available time of teachers, counselors, and principals and thus place an
excessive and unjustifiable burden on the school (p. 150). Many educators and parents
agree with Quinns assessment and. as a result, many of these students are eventually
excluded from the public school system while others drop out. However, with such
situations in mind, Janko asks, "Arent we letting these kids down if we dont keep
them in school? (1988, p. 44).
Many researchers contend that American educators are failing this group of
children by excluding them from our schools. The school systems are currently highly
intolerant of accommodating acting-out students and so they are excluded; this
represents both conviction and sentence (Taylor, 1992). setting these students up for
almost certain failure. Suspensions and expulsions are two of the determining factors
for students who are likely to be school failures (Dryfoos, 1990, p. 201). This type of
consequence is almost always ineffective in bringing about any kind of positive change
(Kauffman, 1989); instead, it usually worsens the students long-term, life situation
and contributes to creating a self-perpetuating underclass (Pullis, 1989).
Wehlage and Rutter (1986) admonish schools for failure to answer the mandate to
provide all the schooling such children can profitably use for all students (p. 381).
Further, they declare that educators must be responsible for those students who are not
ideal academic performers as well as for those who are talented (p. 390). According to
Clayton, the school must educate children who are real, if not ideal; the children we
have, rather than the ones we wish we had (1989, p. 134).
Educators have long known and admitted that students labeled at-risk are
educationally vulnerable and not well served by our society and its schools (Pianta &
Walsh, 1996). Even more alarming is the fact that while our educational system has a
mandate to accommodate all children and youth, many students with behavioral
problems are being excluded from school and not served at all (Illback & Nelson,
1995, p. 5). Critics warn that our schools do have responsibility for these students in
i
i
i
21
t


spite of their behavior problems, saying continued failure to serve this population ...
will not be tolerated (Nelson, Center, Rutherford, & Walker, 1991, p. 78).
As early as 1956, Goodman warned his readers that social institutions, including
schools, create a feeling of alienation in young people. In 1960, Friedenberg described
in more detail many ways schools create alienation in students. Stinchcombe (1964)
argued that rebellious behavior on the part of alienated students was largely a reaction to
school. As early as 1969, Glasser refused to accept that young people failed by reason
of being products of a society that thwarts success; instead he looked to institutions
such as schools for the cause. Researchers in the early 1970s held schools directly
responsible for student alienation (Griego, 1970; Heath, 1970; Pulvino & Mickelson,
1972; Warner & Hansen, 1970).
Recent research continues to challenge a previous emphasis on student
characteristics which predicted school failure. Instead, the focus is now on school and
its expectation to be responsible for every student (Natriello, McDill, & Pallas, 1988;
Pallas &. Riehl, 1988; Polkinghom, Battles, & Levin, 1990; Wehlage & Rutter.
1986). Educators are admonished that they must identify ways of improving the
quality of education for young people at risk of failure because of their feelings of
alienation.
Students who have problems which keep them from performing to their potential
must not be turned away (Mills & Fries, 1995, p. 95). Alienated students, especially
those who act out, will be much more likely to remain in school if educators program
correctly for them (Walker, 1995, p. 406). In order to suitably accommodate such
students, educators must have a basic understanding of the unique demands and needs
of this group. Only then, can we identify the best strategies and resources for serving
them in our schools.
22


The Path to Dropping Out
While no large-scale studies of student alienation are available, indicators such as
truancy, vandalism, rebellion, violence, and poor student achievement have been
evidenced at school for many years (Brown, 1973; Mau, 1992; Stake & Easley,
1978). Even more frightening, eminent authors in the area of education
(Bronfenbrenner, 1986; Dobson, 1987; Glasser, 1986) all argue that those factors
which lead to student alienation are growing in magnitude and intensity. Several
studies revealed that students who eventually dropped out were more likely than others
to consider themselves alienated from school. Such students felt that teachers did not
care about them and indicated that no adult was available at school to turn to for help
(Wehlage & Rutter, 1986, p. 145).
Considering that Shearin (1981) tells of schools that are characterized by
"pessimism, mistrust, wariness, apprehension, and social distance it is not difficult to
understand why (1981, p. 12). Glasser (1986) argues that circumstances in which
students find themselves at school can, indeed, make them feel alienated. Nor is it
difficult to understand why such alienated students see school as "an impersonal
institution that serves as an often hostile holding pen for them during their growing
years (McPartland, 1994).
According to Hixson and Tinzmann (1990), the "doors to schools have been
opened but hanging above those doors are signs that say Enter at your own risk. You
may not belong here (p. 5). Some students even felt pushed out of school by what
they felt was a hostile and nonsupportive environment (Stevens, 1994, p. x). Such
students leave because they do not like school, do not have much success there
23


(Wehlage & Rutter, 1986), and cannot get along with their teachers (Wheelock &
Dorman, 1988). Many of these students become students who avoid school saying that
it is too demanding or too unpleasant. McGiboney (2001) talks of the significant
increase in truancy in public schools today and of the fact that not being in school
almost always leads to dropping out. It is not surprising that these students seek a
different environment. For the group of students who actually consider school
attendance painful, dropping out or frequent acting out which results in expulsion is a
rational response to an intolerable situation (Hammond & Howard, 1986, p. 55).
Students labeled as acting out cannot be expected to do well in spite of being
rejected by their peers and their teachers (Rhode, Jenson, & Reavis, 1995). Almost
two decades ago, Levinson (1979) argued that alienated students needed a different
approach than they were receiving in order to increase their interest in school.
Educators know that students need to feel that adults in their school are on their side
and ready to help in their efforts and ambitions as learners (Wehlage, Rutter, Smith, et
al., 1989). More specifically, since many of the at-risk population comes from homes
situations which are dysfunctional, adults at school may be the only people who are
competent and caring in these students lives (Hixson & Tinzmann, 1990).
Many of these students pass through our schools without ever having their
academic and behavioral problems addressed by any adult in the system (Kauffman.
1989). Well known educational writers argue that when such basic needs are ignored
by adults in schools, school becomes an alienating place (Glasser, 1990; Sarason,
1990; Wehlage, Rutter, Smith, et al., 1989). To complicate matters further, it is
difficult to help these students, many of whom do not trust adults including those in
schools (Bates, 1993). Unfortunately, our schools are ill-equipped to deal with the
impact of these conditions and usually do so only in a piecemeal fashion (Walker,
1995, p. 19). Seldom are educators able to live up to Compton & Balzermans
24


definition of an effective school as one that fulfills "students basic, deep-seated needs
(1991. p. 8) such as the need to belong.
The period in a students life that includes preadolescent through early adolescent
ages is often associated with high risk (Gutheinz-Pierce & Whoolery, 1995). In fact,
Santrock (1996) posits that many students find it emotionally difficult to move from
elementary to junior high or middle school. Research supports that the attitudes which
middle school students have toward school develop during their elementary school
years. These attitudes are often evidenced by "bad behavior during the years that
students spend in middle school (Weir, 1996). As students move from elementary
school to the middle school years, their acting out behaviors cause more problems as
the schools response becomes harsher and the "downward spiral of failure, alienation
and rejection also intensifies (Wheelock & Dorman, 1988, p. 14). This alienation is
believed to be intimately bound to the sense of being anonymous that many students
increasingly feel as they leave the elementary grades (Arhar, 1990, p. 34).
It is believed that behavior that leads to eventual dropping out is formed during the
middle school years (Reed, McMillan, & McBee, 1995). Therefore, students urgently
need close associations with and consistent guidance from adults during their early
adolescent years. Unfortunately, these are the very years that usually involve students
having six or more teachers each day. a circumstance which mitigates against students
getting the kind of sustained individual attention needed (Storen, 1968). Also, by the
middle school years, many students are discouraged due to the fact that they are behind
others academically and see themselves as "dumb.
Many of these students are distrustful and have begun to avoid adults at school
(Conrath, 1986). At-risk middle school students perceive educators as uncaring and
distrustful towards alienated students (Fontes, 1988). Manning (2000) talks of the
need to make middle schools "student friendly, suggesting that it would be beneficial
to help every student establish a meaningful relationship with at least one significant
25


adult (p. 24). Weir (1996) posits that efforts at intervening with at-risk students have
mostly focused on the high school setting but that educators should be focusing their
efforts regarding drop-out prevention at the middle school. By high school many of
these students reject school, believing that the institution has already rejected them
(Wehlage & Rutter, 1986, p. 35).
It is no surprise that the aforementioned problems frequently result in student
alienation from school (Ekstrom, Goertz, Pollack, & Rock, 1986; Natriello, McDill, 8c
Pallas, 1990; Newman, 1981). As determined by interviews with students who had
dropped out, were expelled, or were excluded from school, a major problem
confronted by at-risk students is their feeling of detachment, alienation, and
invisibility (Pigford, 1992, p. 156). Feelings of alienation have been connected to
declining achievement test scores, school vandalism, and an assortment of other
behaviors which cause problems in school (Bronfenbrenner, 1972). Furthermore,
research has indicated that the alienation experienced by these students often leads to
their loss of commitment to graduating from high school or pursuing more education
(Wehlage & Rutter, 1986). Bosk (1989) goes so far as to argue that our schools first
alienate and then exclude students who could not or would not organize their lives
around the school and its goals (p. vii).
Misbehavior at School
Many terms have been coined to refer to the attachment or lack of attachment that
students feel toward school. Those students who lack such attachment are referred to
as alienated, disenfranchised, or withdrawn. Those students who are attached to
school are referred to as being involved with, bonded to, affiliated with, and identified
with school. Speaking of such attachment to school, Wehlage, Rutter, Smith, et. al.
(1989) discuss what they call school membership. They posit that school
membership happens when a student becomes socially bonded to school in the areas of
26


attachment, commitment, involvement and belief. Social bonding is the positive
attachment to parents and other significant adults which leads to the commitment to
participate in the institution of society (Nasrallah, 1991).
High school students indicate they need caring teachers. In fact, Stanford
Universitys Center for Research on the Context of Secondary School Teaching
indicates that in their studies the number of student references to wanting caring
teachers is so great that we believe it speaks to the quiet desperation and loneliness of
many adolescents in todays society (Phelan, Davidson, & Cao, 1992). Many
alienated students are starved for social reinforcement.
Some researchers argue that difficult behaviors of these students are linked to what
is called social reinforcement deprivation (Rhode, Jenson, & Reavis, 1995, p. 35).
These students have come to know that attention from a teacher, even if its negative
can be an extremely powerful reinforcement. This population desires attention and
soon learns that it is easier to get it by being involved in disruptive, noncompliant
behavior than by behaving according to school rules. Such students, even those in the
earliest grades are ignored or subjected to cold, foreboding environments that are not
responsive to their needs (Montgomery & Rossi, 1994, p. 9).
Children who are at risk of failure demonstrate misbehavior that makes it even less
likely they will gain positive attention or praise from other students or from teachers
(Walker, 1995, p. 12). The set of behaviors that is adopted results in both teachers and
other students responding to the student in a negative way. The negative attention that
is focused on such children actually serves to maintain the behavior. In addition, this
population is almost always weak in those skills that build friendships. As a result,
they are often not part of appropriate social support groups that might help with their
problems (Walker, 1995, p. 395).
Other students usually find an acting-out childs social behavior to be aversive
which inevitably leads to her/his being socially isolated from peers (Patterson, Reid, &
27


Dishion, 1992). Research has established that substantial numbers of alienated children
are actually rejected by other students (McConnell & Odom, 1986). Rarely are
students bonded to school if they are not successful and these students are rarely
successful (Wehlage, Rutter, Smith, et al., 1989).
Colvin and Sugai (1989) advise that many of these children are actually rewarded
by their ability to irritate and upset their teachers. They seem to thrive on hostile
confrontations* with teachers and the subtle approval obtained from peers for such
behaviors (Walker, 1995, p. 38). Unfortunately, it seems that the best attempts of
educators to deal with such problem behaviors sometimes actually strengthen them,
making them more resistant to intervention (Walker, 1995, p. 23). These students need
additional staff support in order to succeed. They also need to be affiliated with and
respected by adults at school (Firestone & Rosenblum, 1988).
Interactions between alienated students who act out and their teachers often
become mutually hostile. In addition, research has established that teachers are slow to
get over the negative emotional reaction they feel toward such students (Colvin &
Sugai, 1989; Walker & Buckley, 1973). In Americas public schools, such children
are often identified early. Sometime a students reputation for being difficult to manage
follows her/him throughout all remaining school years. Unfortunately, instead of using
early identification advantageously, some teachers expect the child to be a behavior
problem from that day on and usually he/she fulfills their expectations (Hollinger,
1987).
Considered to be the most difficult population to teach (Algozzine, Ysseldyke,
Kauffman, & Landrum, 1991; Lauritzen & Friedman, 1991), acting-out students who
are alienated are not only difficult to manage in the classroom but also extremely
difficult to reach. They resist conforming to school rules and end up in disciplinary
situations. The variety of coping strategies adopted by students in such
circumstances ranged from silent behaviors to physical reactions (Callan, 1988, p. 18).
28


Teachers are involved in frequent and ongoing confrontations with these students as
they attempt to be in control of behaviors that are detrimental in a school situation.
Usually, teachers are unsuccessful in their efforts and end up resenting the time and
efforts wasted (Walker, 1995, p. 2). Often, by reason of their behaviors, these
students deviate too far from the teachability standard endorsed by the educator and
are not viewed as teachable (Gerber & Semmel, 1984). Not only do teachers believe
that such students are a drain on their resources, they sometimes fear them as being a
threat to regular students (Latus, 1989, p. 180).
As a result of such resentment and fears, many classroom teachers develop the
attitude that alienated students are not entitled to the same educational opportunities as
their well-behaved peers (Kauffman, 1989). Therefore, regular classroom teachers
often request that alienated students who act out be assigned to alternative settings for
those who demonstrate behavior problems. Acting-out students are among the first to
be excluded from regular school settings and among the last to be returned.
(Algozzine, Ysseldyke, Kauffman, & Landrum, 1991; Hersh & Walker, 1983; Pullis,
1989; Sarason & Doris, 1978). Often, once a difficult child is removed from the
regular classroom setting, teachers do not welcome that students return (Latus, 1989).
It seems that teachers do not like these children, and interestingly, surveys indicate that
youth who drop out, far more than their peers who stay to graduate from high school,
feel that teachers do not care about them (Orr, 1987).
Schools as Communities of Support
Calabrese (1987) presented that negative interaction between students and school
was one of the factors leading to eventual alienation. Once a student has become
alienated from school, he/she has also developed the main predictor of eventually
dropping out (Finn, C. E., 1987). Rumberger, Ghatak, Poulos, Ritter, and Dombusch
(1990) also indicated that the process of dropping out begins with a student being
29


disengaged from school. Wehlage's primary premise was that, by increasing the
alienation of students, schools contributed to eventual patterns of dropping out
(Wehlage & Rutter, 1986; Wehiage. Stone, & Kliebard, 1980). Many well known
researchers (Calabrese, 1987; Fetro & Vitello, 1988; Finn, J., 1989; Newman, 1981;
and Wehlage & Rutter, 1986) all propose that alienation from school, in view of the
huge numbers of students who are affected, should be a major concern.
With such theories in mind, it is argued that schools might lessen the risk of
students dropping out by refashioning schools as communities of support in order to
minimize students sense of alienation (Wiltrout, 1992). Wehlage, Rutter. Smith, et al.
(1989) argue that educators must begin their attack on the dropout problem with those
factors over which the system has direct influence those within the school (p. 26).
There is no question that school becomes the single place where alienated students can
have extended relationships with adults (Wiltrout, 1992, p. 25). Thus, emphasis is
placed on the need for staff members to establish and maintain a caring and supportive
relationship with at-risk students if they are to be successful (Uroff & Greene, 1991).
Teachers must be very familiar with the individual in order to make a positive difference
in that students school experience (Noguera, 1995, p. 202). Rhode, Jenson, and
Reavis (1995) emphasized that alienated students must be educated in positive
classroom environments saying unless basic positive approaches are used, we will
lose the majority of these students (p. 25).
Fine (1986) established that a major cause of students performing poorly in school
and eventually dropping out or being excluded is the lack of positive relationships while
there. At-risk students themselves reported an overall negative feeling toward the entire
school environment and said that it was due to their feeling that their teachers,
administrators and counselors didnt care about them (Britt, 1995). Although Walker
(1995) acknowledged that a students behavior pattern at school is a complex
interaction, he highlighted the relationship between child and teacher as being one thing
30


that could make a difference for these at-risk students (p. 20). Research supports that
students who have a personal, caring relationship with an adult at school have
improved achievement (Andrews & Stem, 1992). More specifically, Wehlage & Rutter
(1986) established through research that when such students perceived that a teacher
really knew them and felt concern for them, their attitudes about school improved and
they were more likely to graduate.
As the American educational system has been subjected to increased attention and
criticism, attempts to reach those students who are at-risk of dropping out of school
have increased (Feigiey, 1995). Much literature is filled with proposals, evaluations,
and counterproposals having to do with design, delivery, and effectiveness of
intervention programs for students who are at risk of failure at school ( Bates, 1993;
Braaten, Kauffman, Braaten, Polsgove, & Nelson, 1988; Fuchs & Fuchs, 1988;
Gartner & Lipsky, 1987; Karweit, 1988; McCauley, 1984; Orr, 1987; Perna, 1992;
Slavin & Madden, 1989; Stainback & Stainback, 1984; Testerman, 1996; Wang &
Walberg, 1985; Will, 1986). They vary from small alternative programs to the
implementation of strategies that restructured whole systems. Some were short term
and sparsely funded while others were long-range, comprehensive plans involving
huge financial expenditure (Bucci & Reitzemmer, 1992).
Many interventions directed at at-risk students have claimed some success and
appear, at least in the eyes of their creators, to have been successful. However, a
review of the research reveals that, in general, school-based intervention efforts have
not been effective for a large group of at risk students on account of the efforts have
been too little, too late for the majority of these students (Sklarz, 1989).
Newman (1981) insists that reduction of feelings of alienation is essential to
engaging at-risk students in learning and subsequently staying in school (p. 13).
Calabrese (1989) urges that schools must take responsibility for lessening student
alienation by focusing on psychological and safety needs of the adolescent (p. 7).
31


Rather than blaming the alienated student, we might "take a school-centered orientation
which addresses the inflexible and socially unaccommodating structure of the school
process" (Kittreil, 1991). However, the needs of this alienated population challenge
traditional ways of educating students.
If acting-out students are to have a chance of success in school, they must have
special attention (Brandt, 1993; Hahn, 1987). Such alienated students need teachers
who persist in their encouragement even when students are not behaving well
(Bowditch, 1989, p. 175). Educators institute a wide variety of educational reforms in
their efforts to make school a more supportive place and as they try to determine the
kind of special attention that really matters for these students (Conant, 1992).
Personal Relationships with Teachers
For many years, researchers have maintained that one of the few things that
schools can do to help at-risk learners is provide good teachers. Kozol (1991)
repeatedly argued that children at risk need the highest quality teachers. Chamberlain
and Carnot (1974) posited that good teachers are the first line of defense against
delinquency (p. 173).
Newman (1981), when making recommendations for helping alienated students,
suggested increasing the amount of extended time that students spend with individual
teachers. Also, he encouraged that alienated students engage in activities with
individual teachers in order to build trusting relationships (p. 553). Wheeler and
Finley (1980) argued the extreme importance of caring relationships if student
alienation from school was to be prevented. Wehlage, Rutter, Smith, et al. (1989)
emphasized that active efforts on the part of educators to create positive and respectful
relationships between adults and students is necessary if students are to develop a
feeling of belonging at school. Also, there must be communication by adults to
32


alienated students which says that they are concerned about and available to help with
student problems.
Many researchers support the idea that for things to go well for at-risk students,
the one thing which is almost always necessary is to strengthen their bonds with their
teachers (Bear, Schenk, & Buckner. 1992; Boyer. 1983; Brubaker, 1991; Conant,
1992; Curwin, 1994; Demaria, 1993; Levine & George, 1992; Pigford, 1992; Rossi &
Stringfield, 1995; Sroufe, 1983). Research has established that positive bonding can
make up for many disadvantages causing students to be alienated. Without doubt,
students who are bonded to their teachers are less likely to use drugs, commit crimes,
or drop out of school. Research by well-known educators (Beane, 1982; Chase, 1975;
Glasser, 1969; Purkey, 1970, 1984) support the idea of enhancement of self-concept
while at school through interpersonal relationships.
Glasser (1969) argued that if teachers got personally involved with students, most
school failure could be done away with. Wehlage and his colleagues (1989) advocated
creating a sense of school membership" into which at-risk students were welcomed
through successful teachers developing a close social bond with them. They stated that
when an alienated student formed close bonds with adults in school, attachment or
social emotional ties with both adults and peers improved. For those at-risk students
who have backgrounds of school failure and little support at home or in the community,
a strong sense of membership at school must exist if they are to persist (Arhar, 1990,
p. 32).
Alternative Schools as Interventions
Educators attempt to assist at-risk students in order to promote positive outcomes
(Johnson & Johnson, 1993). Alternative schools are one way of providing support for
at-risk students. Some researchers assert that the idea for alternative schools came from
the work of John Dewey and developments in the area of progressive education in the
33


1930s. Mintz (1994) tells us that the number of alternative schools increased each year
from the fifties through the late sixties and early seventies with a dramatic increase in
the number of new educational alternatives since then. In fact over 60% of alternative
school possibilities have come into existence since the early 1980s.
Researchers estimated that there were close to 5,000 alternative schools in the
United States by 1995 (Kellmayer, 1995b). Kellmayer (1995b) indicates that such
alternative programs have been designed to serve the at-risk population which has
resulted from the past two decades of social disintegration which left us with
chronically disruptive and chronically disaffected students (p. 5). Kellmayer also
states that it is the population of at-risk students that is most in need of real alternative
programs (p. 6).
Traditional school programs always include obstacles for alienated students. In
addition, research indicates that it is difficult for some schools to extend themselves
to certain students because of personal and background characteristics (Wehlage,
Rutter, Smith, et al., 1989, p. 121). Some researchers argue for the formulation of
alternative delivery models for students who need extra services to succeed in school
but who do not qualify for special education services (Ysseldyke, 1983; Ysseldyke &
Algozzine, 1983). Leone and Drakeford (1999) posit that alternative education should
be offered to students if their existing school situation is not a good fit. Thus, it is
necessary' that alternative programs exist in order to intervene and keep at-risk students
from dropping out (Adelman, 1992; Kellmayer, 1995a; Smink, 1990; U.S. Department
of Education, 1987; Wehlage, Rutter, Smith, et al., 1989; Wiltrout, 1992). Beck and
Muia (1980) took a strong stand that alternative programs were designed as
preventative measures and should be implemented before at-risk students dropped out.
Conant (1992) admonished that those students who are at risk of dropping out
before graduation need an alternative program of education. He argues that such a
program must be deliberately different from the traditional program that is failing these
34


students (p. 8). Neumann (1994) lists the common structures and processes that
contribute to success in alternative programs as:
... collaborative site-based management small school size, small class size,
extended roles for teachers that include student counseling and guidance,
cooperative roles for students, voluntary membership, student involvement in
governance, and absence or minimization of tracking, ability grouping, and
other forms of labeling (p. 548).
Extensive work in evaluating successful dropout prevention programs was done at
the National Center on Effective Secondary Schools at the University of Wisconsin in
Madison (Wehlage, 1983). Fourteen successful alternative programs were studied.
Findings indicated that successful alternative high schools have an attitude of "empathy,
sincerity, warmth, spontaneity, patience, calmness, and authenticity toward their
students along with environments that are non threatening, safe, trusting, a secure
atmosphere of acceptance and an abundance of positive regard, nonpossessive warmth,
and accurate empathic understanding (p. 9). Wehlage and his colleagues emphasize
the primary importance of positive interrelationships at school. Kellmayer (1995b)
tells us that there is mounting evidence that if an alternative school is to be effective, it
must create a sense of family (p. 72).
The existence of some degree of personal, as opposed to anonymous relationship
among students and their teachers is an important factor; its absence is reflected in
students feeling alienated from school life. Teacher concern, the presence of peer
esteem, and the environment convey important meanings to students that are all related
to their sense of personal wellbeing and their positive view of school environment
(Goodlad, 1983).
Similarly, Brendtro, Brokenleg, & Van Bockem (1990) posit that research
shows that the quality of human relationships in schools may be more influential than
the specific techniques or interventions employed (p. 58). Kellmayer (1995b) goes so
far as to state that place personnel who are unsuited to work with disruptive and
disaffected students in the classroom and youll create the potential for chaos and
35


!
disaster (p. 74). Calabrese (1989) argues that one thing that schools must do in order
to diminish the amount of alienation that students feel toward school is encourage
bonding.
Morley (1991) posits that at-risk students need a sense of community or bonding,
and need a consistent advocate and caring adult (p. 5). Alternative schools have been
proven able to provide for such needs and to react positively to such youth in spite of
attitudes and problems they bring to school (Wehlage, Rutter, Smith, et al., 1989). In
particular, alternative schools make it possible for students who have not been well
served in the past to get direct and personal attention (Speckhard. G. P., 1992;
Wehlage, 1991, p. 23).
We are told that even culturally disenfranchised students with "self-defeating
attitudes can do well in alternative schools because they recover qv: 'idy when they are
respected by teachers and other staff members as "individuals who have unique talents
and abilities (Black, 1997, p. 40). When at-risk students become members in
alternative schools, they demonstrate fewer behavioral problems, higher attendance
rates, and lower suspension and dropout rates (Blank, 1984; Kellmayer, 1995 #2).
Additional benefits include positive attitudes toward school, productivity in the
community after graduation,
increased parental involvement, and high satisfaction in the areas of social needs, self-
esteem, security, and self-actualization (Young, 1990).
In addition, research has supported a hypothesis that small schools are better able
to reduce alienation in at-risk students (Elovitz, 1981; London, 1992). Kaplan &
Owings (2000) posit that in order to promote a safe and successful education for
students at risk, schools must be personalized with small, structured, caring learning
environments (p. 25). Raywid and Oshiyama (2000, p. 444) indicate that students
behave better generally in schools where they are known and that schools that are big
enough to allow anonymity are also big enough to allow alienation thus creating a
36


dangerous situation. Raywid (1998) posits that students in small school are more apt to
be successful academically and be on track and on time for high school graduation.
Students who have the opportunity to be involved in small schools are less likely to
misbehave (Gottredson, 1985). Some researchers posit that in addition to a smaller
sized school, the expectation that teachers give students personal attention and serve as
counselors, getting involved in the problems of the students, is the key to student
success in alternative schools (Gregory & Smith, 1981). Interestingly, in a small
enough school situation, relationships between teachers and students resemble that of
mentoring even though no formal mentoring situation has been set up (Kittrell, 1991).
In addition, Morley (1991) indicates that successful alternative schools employ the
key concept of personal attention. According to research by Elovitz (1981), small
schools are more likely to employ positive interactions between school staff and
students as a result of greater opportunity for support. McPartland, Jordan, Legters,
and Balfanz (1997) tell of the division of a large high school into five academies in
order to assure personalization of education (p. 107). Gregory and Smith (1981)
present a strong argument for smaller schools, saying that smallness is necessary to
establish and maintain a sense of family and belonging or a sense of community (p.
18). Wheelock and Sweeney (1989) go so far as to say that the two essential elements
of successful alternative programs are smaller units of manageable size and each
student having at least one adult who is an advocate (p. 18).
Slavin and Madden (1989) indicate that we must provide additional resources as
necessary in order to take responsibility for the success of every student (p. II). Also,
educators are challenged to work together to help alienated students by reason of the
belief that ensuring their educational success is a shared responsibility (Hixson &
Tinzmann, 1990, p. 10). It is recommended that we organize and staff schools
differently and that resources be earmarked to promote a more expansive set of
possibilities than is usually found (p. 11).
37


Characteristics of Effective Mentoring Programs
The most successful of the alternative programs which are designed to prevent
students from dropping out of school have common characteristics. According to the
literature, these characteristics include: a belief on the part of the teacher that the at-risk
student can succeed in school, the inclusion of counseling and guidance of at-risk
students in the teachers role, limits on the number of students with which the teacher
has to work, and school support for attempting new ways of working with the at-risk
student (Cuban, 1989: Duke, 1992; Hodge, 1991: Wanat & Snell, 1980). In addition,
each of these programs has a component built on the premise that it is the student/
teacher relationship that can make a difference.
According to research, at-risk students report that when their relationships in
school are poor, hopelessness exists (Voices from the Inside, 1992, p. 13). With the
results of research indicating that students who had dropped out of school often cited a
primary reason for leaving school being the absence of even one person who cared, it
naturally followed that they had no attachment to teachers and weak attachment to
school (Hunter, 1994). This theme was so frequently stated and so interconnected with
all other themes about why students were alienated from school that researchers believe
that it is one of the two most central issues in solving the crisis inside our schools
(P- 13).
Whitney-Thomas and Moloney (2001) posit that it would be beneficial for at-risk
adolescents to be supported by individuals at school who are wanting to connect with
and provide advocacy for them. According to Gary Wehlage and his colleagues
(1989), schools that demonstrated unusual success with at-risk youth did so because
they were able to engage students. In many of these schools this effort at
engagement started by matching at-risk students with an adult mentor (Brodkin &
38


Coleman, 1996; George & Alexander, 1993; Shore, 1996; Taylor-Dunlop, 1995;
Wooly, 1994). Meyer (1997) talks of a one-on-one mentoring program where the
mentors nurture, serve as role models, and attempt to assist students in acquiring
positive skills, habits, outlooks, and goals (p. 315). Testerman (1996) shares a
study of a Florida high schools efforts to connect at-risk students with adult advisors.
Information about a program which connected 100 at-risk students with adult mentors
was promising because it helped to reduce discipline referrals and drop outs (Laabs,
1993). Another program in Florida combined mentoring and tutoring in a successful
effort to fight truancy (Reglin, 1997). A Nebraska school district instituted a program
to correct its most discouraged, at-risk students with individual mentors which they
believe to have been extremely successful (Zakariya, 2001b, p. 29). Another Arizona
school created a mentoring program to support students both socially and academically
(Zakariya. 2001a, p. 12). This program produced both increased attendance and
improved achievement tests.
For purposes of this paper, the word mentor means any caring person who
develops an on-going, one-on-one relationship with someone in need. A mentor
encourages, listens, gives advice, advocates, acts as a role model and shares
information and experience (Smink, 1990, p. 1). Mentoring itself is a supportive
relationship between a youth or young adult and someone more senior in age and
experience, who offers support, guidance, and concrete assistance as the younger
partner goes through a difficult period, enters a new area of experience, takes on an
important task, or corrects an earlier problem. Anderson and Shannon (1988) posit
that mentoring is composed of five separate but integrated processes to include (a) an
intentional process, (b) a nurturing process, (c) an insightful process, (d) a support
process, and (d) a role modeling process.
In general, during mentoring, students identify with, or form a strong
interpersonal attachment to their mentors (Flaxman, Ascher, & Harrington, 1988,
39


p. ii). Most programs which involve mentoring emphasize motivating students to
remain in school (Srruink, 1990). Interventions attempted by mentors include active
listening and supportEve feedback to students, adults advocating for students, adults
sharing relationship building experiences with students, role modeling, and advising
(Smink).
The concept of imentoring has received considerable attention in literature on at-
risk students during tJhe last decade. More specifically, research by the Office of
Juvenile Justice on Delinquency Prevention (2000) indicates mentoring shows great
promise as an effectiwe intervention for at-risk youth. This national publication says
As the body of knowledge grows, so does the enthusiasm for mentoring as a way of
making a positive anod lasting impact on Americas youth (p. 8). Mentoring is a
strategy recommended to improve attitudes toward school of those most alienated and
likely to drop out (Reed. McMillan, & McBee. 1995). Mentoring can be a valuable
resource for young p-eople at risk of dropping out of school (Smink, 1990).
Powerful documentation based on observation and specific anecdotes suggests
that at-risk young people can profit from a relationship with an adult mentor (Slicker &
Palmer, 1993). Hunter (1994) indicated that the relationship between a mentor and an
at-risk student can heslp a young person to face the many problems affecting her/his life
(p. 6). It has also been established that such a supportive relationship can help to
prevent outcomes such as behavior problems, psychopathology, academic failure, and
dropping out (Hambjy, 1989; Werner & Smith, 1982).
Mentors often s*erve as friends whose fundamental interest in the relationship is the
well-being and success of the youth. Indeed, a mentors most essential duty is
providing moral support and a sense of caring for that student (Slicker & Palmer,
1993). Along these Hines, one program supervisor describes a mentor as involving
herself/himself at am emotional level in order to nurture and strengthen the student
(Meixner, 1994, p. 332).
40


Flaxman, Ascher, and Harrington (1988) argue that at-risk youth, like many
adolescents, are confused by conflicting paths before them and need modeling and
assistance to reduce their confusion (p. 38). Many adults who teach junior high and
middle school students are amazed when they learn how important teacher approval is
to their pupils (Johnson, 1993). Novotney, Mertinko, Lange, and Baker (2000) posit
that an effective method of countering the steady stream of negative influences that
children face each day is to offer a caring and responsible adult role model who can
make a positive, lasting impression (p.l). Smink argues that this one caring adult can
make a significant difference in a young persons life (1990). Often, this is enough to
help a young person through a rough period in life (Duke, 1992, p. 31). Some
alienated youth are so lacking in meaningful contact with adults that special interest
demonstrated by a mentor can lead to profound results (Duke, p. 41).
Traditionally, young people have turned to parents and family members to fill the
mentoring role. However, more and more of our youth are growing up in single parent
families or in two earner families where a parent is not easily available. Still, it is
common for adolescents, even though they have willing, available parents, to turn to
adults other than their parents with whom to identify and imitate (Freedman, 1988) and
for these mentors from outside the family to promote the young persons growth.
Schools are quite isolated from the community of most adults, making it difficult for
students to connect with adults outside the school who might serve as mentors (Kittrell,
1991).
Occasionally there are adults within our schools who either formally or informally
connect with at-risk students. Kaplan and Owings (2000) indicate that when teachers
form caring and lasting relationships with students they often become informal
mentors for students at risk (p. 25). These adults are often able to relate to students in
ways parents and school staff typically do not. They do not have to serve as authority
figures, instead functioning as friends and advocates (Smink, 1990). Cooper (1985)
41


suggested that mentoring is effective in improving attitudes of at-risk youth toward
school and toward teachers, thus helping with the drop-out problem.
Many at-risk students feel that their teachers do not take the time to help them
overcome their problems, that the teachers do not care, and that the teachers do not like
them(Arhar, 1990, p. L19). He also establishes that strong student-teacher
relationships are especially important for these students. Flaxman, Erwin, and Asher
(1992) posit that mentors have the potential to serve as truancy prevention agents" (p.
320). Research indicates that strengthening their bond with teachers is one of the most
effective ways to reduce childrens risk of dropping out (Moyer, 1981). Kammoun
(1991) also argues that a key factor in a successful dropout prevention program was
restructuring the student-teacher relationship in order to provide more personalized
interaction and student support (p. 11).
Burrell, Wood, Pikes, and Holliday (2001) indicate that mentors should be: (a)
knowledgeable, (b) credible, (c) supportive, (d) facilitatory, (e) available, and (f)
empathetic. Mentoring, with the goal of preventing at-risk students from giving up and
dropping out, is a powerful way to provide encouraging adult contacts for youth who
are alienated from other adults in their world (Flaxman, Ascher, & Harrington, 1988,
p. 45). Within schools, the basic mission of mentoring relationships during the
adolescent years is to replace detrimental messages that the at-risk student has received
as a result of traditional school policies and practices (Wheelock & Dorman, 1988. p.
9). As a result, where mentoring is in place for all students, it often appears to have the
greatest impact on at-risk students due to the fact that they have a greater opportunity
for growth and change (Harrington, 1987).
Factors common in mentoring relationships, such as active listening, advising,
and provision of feedback, provide a supportive system for at-risk youth (Smink,
1990). Cooper (1985) advocates that when an adult mentor takes the time to establish a
positive relationship, and then listens, shares knowledge and experience, and advises,
42


it serves at-risk youth well. By respecting at-risk students, communicating with them,
and accepting them as worthy individuals (Conant, 1992, p. 10), educators are able to
allow them the opportunity to learn in a friendly environment. More specifically,
mentoring allows an adult within a school to provide a support system for a student
who is at risk (Smink. 1990). Such an experience can contribute to changes in student
perceptions and can even lead to a change in attitude (Hamby, 1989, p. 24). Reglin
(1995) argues that the things that mentors initially do for students empower them to
someday be self sufficient and do for themselves (p. 320).
Theoretically, through a relationship with a mentor, at-risk students are much
more likely to feel like at least one adult cares about them and that they belong at
school. Bucci and Reitzammer (1992) indicate that more than anything else which has
been studied, this type of one-on-one interaction is the most powerful influence on at-
risk students (p. 69). Raywid and Oshiyama (2000) also posit the need to make our
schools user-friendly places where all students become a part of the community and
where every student has at least one staff members who knows her/him well. It is
posited that, if such a relationship can be established, students are likely to establish
and maintain a strong bond with school, to continue to attend school regularly, and to
eventually graduate (Gottfredson, 1987). Mentors who provide such guidance and
support to at-risk students by acting as positive adult role models can be very influential
in keeping them in school (Bucci & Reitzemmer, 1992).
Kram (1985) suggests that many people do not fulfill their needs through just one
mentoring relationship; developing instead a variety of relationships which combine in
their mentoring functions. Particularly today, as involvement between youth and their
families has changed, school can play a significant role in the developmental
experiences of youth (Peck, 1987). Because students often spend eight or more hours
at school, five days a week, teachers hold a powerful potential to provide the stability,
direction, and guidance needed by at-risk or alienated students (Lynch, 1993, p. 4). If
43


being disconnected is the core of alienation, then the best way to overcome alienation is
through the provision of ways of being connected. (Nasrallah, 1991). Therefore,
having school staff serve as mentors for students has the potential of increasing the
value of in-school relationships (Letgers & McDiil, 1994).
An at-risk student must know that the teacher is personally interested in her/him
before a mentoring-type relationship with a teacher can be formed (Clark, 1987).
Then, the mentoring teacher may be able to help the student with problems
(McPartland, 1994, p. 271). In fact, a group of at-risk students who had mentors
reported that mentors helped them to stay in school, improve their attendance, achieve
academically, and improve their behavior (Docca, 1991).
A teacher who mentors provides the student with frequent and specific feedback
thus promoting behavioral change (Rumberger & Larson, 1994). Actually, the
expectations of the mentor often become internalized as the individual student defines
her or his own self-expectations and priorities (McPartland, 1994, p. 260). At-risk
students are able to accept responsibility for their own lives because of caring adults
who help them to create the conditions to do so (Brubaker, 1991).
Many teachers are able to effectively connect with alienated students. These are
teachers who can somehow get to these children, keep them in class and teach them to
read, write and do mathematics despite their behavioral and social difficulties (Paul,
1985). These are teachers who have been able to successfully integrate their
knowledge of teaching and psychology with their intuition about specific students.
Flaxman, Ascher, and Harrington (1988) suggest that, in natural situations like this,
when mentors and mentees choose or really connect with each other, mentoring is most
successful. Hillary Rodham Clinton, in her column in the December 2000 issue of
Juvenile Justice, says, What teens need ... is a connection. They need a relationship
with an adult who cares about them. She then goes on to acknowledge and quote the
words of psychologist Urie Bronfenbrenner, Somebodys got to be crazy about that
44


kid, and vice versa!" (p. 4). The extreme importance of contact and interaction between
Oshiyama, 2000). Walker (1995, p. 387) argues that we must find more such
teachers, teachers who are able to connect with alienated students, and give them an
opportunity to do so.
This chapter has presented pertinent research regarding the growing problem of
students at risk. Underlying conditions that contribute to students developing feelings
of alienation from school, a profile of the alienated student, the effects of alienated
students on others in the schools, and the question of who is responsible for alienated
students are all addressed. In addition, research on alternative high schools and adult
mentoring of at-risk students and their potential effect on alienated students are
presented. Chapter Three will present the research methodology used in an attempt:
1. To understand, by listening to at-risk high school students, the circumstances
which they perceive as contributing to their feelings of alienation from school.
2. To determine if any factors exist at an alternative high school which mediate the
students feelings of alienation.
45


CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Problem Focus
The purpose of this research was
1. To understand, by listening to at-risk high school students, the circumstances
which they perceive as contributing to their feelings of alienation from school.
2. To determine if any factors exist at an alternative high school which mediate the
students feelings of alienation.
In addition, the following questions which address the original purpose in depth
were explored:
a. Can the beliefs and attitudes of the alternative high school staff members
regarding alienated students be determined by examining the archival documents of the
school?
b. Why are students who come to the alternative high school alienated?
c. How do students who come alienated to the high school describe the
experiences that have resulted in their feelings of alienation?
d. What are the general perceptions of alienated students about the alternative
school?
e. What happens to feelings of alienation as students attend school at the
alternative high school?
f. Do students feelings of alienation from school change while they are at the
alternative school? If they change, why do they change?
46


Researchers Background and Focus
As a researchers experience and outlook influence any qualitative study (Lincoln
& Guba, 1985; Bogdan & Bikien, 1982), autobiographical information about the
researcher must be revealed. I bring to this project 18 years of experience in public
schools as a special education teacher, teacher in alternative school settings, behavior
specialist, and coordinator of behavior programs. Included in this experience was
engagement with students from preschool through high school graduation in both
traditional and alternative public school settings.
Throughout my experience, the words of many of these students demonstrated
intense feelings of alienation from school. Those students who succeeded in
graduating from high school did so against great odds and required extra assistance and
encouragement in order to do so. Unfortunately, many of the students did not remain
in a public school long enough to graduate from high school.
Assumptions
After reading extensive research on alienated students, assumptions which I bring
to this study include
1. Staying in school through high school graduation is a desirable goal of
education.
2. Those students who do not stay in school through high school graduation are
an increasing concern for educators.
3. The concept of student alienation is probably the result of a combination of
student characteristics and school characteristics.
4. Attitudes of teachers and administrators may affect student alienation.
47


5. The researcher and the students interviewed have the same understanding and
interpretation of the interviewer's questions and the students answers.
6. Those students who were interviewed gave candid and honest responses which
indicate their true thoughts and feelings.
7. If students at an alternative high school who were previously at serious risk for
dropping out are instead staying in school through graduation, something is influencing
this positive outcome.
8. By listening to students, the researcher might come to understand how the
components of an alternative high school contribute to the students being less alienated.
Role of the Researcher
In an attempt to understand more about the problem being contemplated, this study
was conducted during my tenure as coordinator of behavior programs for a large school
district. Understanding of the conceptual framework of the study evolved as the study
was undertaken. As anticipated, the emergence of new questions occurred as research
was undertaken (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982: Lincoln & Guba. 1985). This is appropriate
as, according to Bogdan and Biklen (1982), a researcher conducts a study, modifying
as he or she goes. In this study, I introduced myself to the students as an educator who
intended to investigate the experience of students in an alternative high school.
According to Nasrallah (1991), a researcher as the human instrument must have
extensive background and training, along with appropriate experiences in the field (p.
101). My recent studies in qualitative research coupled with eighteen years of
experience in the world of education, much of it with alienated students, enabled the
acquisition of the skills necessary to function as a strong investigator.
I endeavored to be a good communicator... (who) empathizes with
respondents, establishes rapport, asks good questions, and listens intendy
(Merriam, 1988, p. 39). I was previously acquainted with approximately 25% of the
48


students interviewed, having taught in schools where they had attended or having
monitored an after-school study program that many of them were involved in. This
previously established familiarity allowed the students to more easily communicate their
perceptions without as great a need to establish trust. In addition, many of the other
students to be interviewed, arrived with an announcement that they knew about the
researcher from John. Kate, or Sarah and that this would be cool.
Many of the students came to their interview with initial questions about the
purpose of the study, needing to clearly establish that what they were about to reveal
would not be held against them. I attempted to provide a safe environment where
students could reflect honestly on the past school experiences which had contributed to
their feelings of alienation. By so doing, I facilitated the students ability to speak
about those things which caused school alienation and those components of an
alternative high school that might improve the situation. A few of the students appeared
hesitant, reserved, or self-conscious at the beginning of their interview. However,
even those students seemed to quickly become comfortable and all of the students
expressed that they were willing, even excited about being interviewed. Their
responses are communicated in Chapter Six which shares themes drawn from the
interviews, using the words of the students.
Setting
This study took place in an alternative high school which is located in a suburban
community in a large city in a mountain state. Serving this area is a rapidly growing
school district which had 13,800 students at the time Falcon Ridge Alternative High
School originated in 1995. By the spring of 2000 when I conducted the interviews, the
districts population had grown to almost 17,000 students housed in 16 elementary
schools, 4 middle schools, and 5 high schools to include the alternative high school.
49


The school district encompasses 130 square miles in the northern portion of the
city. The area benefits from a diversified economic base with high tech manufacturing
and military employment being the two main industries. Mainly because of its
proximity to the military installations in the area, the districts mobility rate is
consistently about 25%. A large percentage of the adult residents of the district are
college graduates who work in professional and managerial positions. Therefore, the
socioeconomic level of the district is mostly middle to upper middle class.
Subjects
Subjects to be interviewed were selected from students, all of whom were
determined to have developed feelings of alienation from school during their previous
educational experience. AH of the students had chosen to attend an alternative high
school which includes grades nine through twelve. The study focused on 40 students,
20 males and 20 females, who had been in attendance at the alternative high school for
at least one semester. The ages of the interviewees ranged from 14 to 20 years of age.
Each grade level was represented by 25% of the students interviewed with half of the
students at each grade level being female and half being male.
The racial/ethnic composition of the students sampled, as designated in district
records, was 2.5% Asian, 2.5% Black, 7.5% Hispanic, 82.5% Caucasian, and 5%
other which in this case was Native American. In comparison, the racial/ethnic
composition of the alternative school at the time, as designated in district records, was
2% Asian, 3% Black, 8% Hispanic. 83% Caucasian, and 4% other. This
racial/ethnic composition can be compared to that of the school district as a whole
where the breakdown for the 1999-2000 school year was 3% Asian, 3% Black. 5%
Hispanic, 88% Caucasian, and 1% other. Therefore, only slight differences in
percentages existed when the racial/ethnic makeup of the sample population was
compared to the alternative school as a whole and to the school district as a whole.
50


Every effort was made to protect the anonymity of the 40 interviewees with each being
assigned a pseudonym.
Using part of the criteria established by Fontes (1988), students were identified as
alienated from school if their school records demonstrated three or more of the
following manifestations: (a) failure in two or more academic subjects during a school
year, (b) excessive absences/tardies from school which were not due to legitimate
reasons, (c) retention or official written threats of retention due to grades, absences, or
discipline during the students middle school years, (d) discipline problems at a rate of
10 or more per quarter, (e) frequent hostile and/or aggressive behavior to other
students or adults, and (f) little or no involvement with other students or adults while at
school. Many of the students interviewed demonstrated five of the six aforementioned
manifestations. In fact, every student participant who had already met the Falcon Ridge
Alternative High School criteria for admission would also meet this criteria.
Permissions Required
For completion of this study, it was essential to obtain and maintain access to
participating students and the research site. The school district requires that potential
researchers complete a research request form in order to gain access to a public school.
Therefore, I completed the request form to include indication of the number of students
to be interviewed, the research site, and a description of the researchers purpose,
involvement, and anticipated time line. Meetings were arranged with the superintendent
of the school district and the principal of the alternative high school. I explained the
nature of the study, possible ramifications, matters of confidentiality, and any possible
impact of the study on schooling for alienated youth.
Pre-Interviews
Next, I met with the principal of the alternative high school and made
arrangements for an orientation for all students who could possibly participate in the
51


study. During this conversation, the principal was called upon for information. Her
guidance was sought regarding the best location and timing for meetings, the best way
to schedule interviews, how to access archival documents for the school, and how to
obtain parent and student permissions.
All of the students who had attended the alternative high school for a semester or
longer were invited to attend a 15-minute orientation. This meeting was used to instruct
the potential participants about why the study was being conducted, its planned format,
confidentiality, and the request that they participate. An additional purpose of this
orientation was to acquaint further the potential interviewees with the researcher, to
establish what would be required of participants, and to discuss required permissions.
Students were encouraged to ask questions but did not have many.
Forty of the students who returned their permission forms were chosen to
participate. After sorting possible students by grade level and sex, so as to isolate
freshman females, freshman males, sophomore females, sophomore males, junior
females, junior males, senior females, and senior males, five names were chosen
randomly in each division. These students were given a written description of the
study. All of the students who planned to participate were required to sign a
permission form. In addition, the selected students who were younger than 18 years of
age were given a parent permission form which had to be returned before participation
in the interviews could begin. In case students or parents had questions, the letter also
included my telephone number. Each student knew that he/she would be given a candy
bar when the permission form was returned. In many cases, this was the obvious
motivation for returning the permission form in a timely manner.
In an effort to establish individual interview times, I telephoned and reminded
those students who had not yet done so to bring in their permission forms. These
forms were returned to a school secretary who held them for the researcher. Written
permission was obtained from a parent for each student below the age of 18 years
52


before interviews occurred. From the beginning of the study, participating students
were cognizant of the studys purpose, along with benefits, risks, and possible time
demands for them (Cornett, 1987). (See Appendix A for letter explaining research and
asking for student participation, Appendix B for the student permission form, and
Appendix C for the parent permission form.)
Research Plan
Most studies relating to school alienation have been quantitative in approach.
Although they provided an interesting foundation, they used questionnaires and
checklists which employed the vocabulary and terms of the adults who were doing the
research, giving accumulated data a false flavor. It is possible that these research tools
did not elicit true input from the students themselves. At any rate, even after reading
many, many summaries of such research, I did not know what the students really
thought.
Qualitative research is phenomenological and naturalistic in its orientation.
Therefore, I sought to understand alienated students at the alternative high school,
watching to see if the components of the school had a bearing on how they act, and
what they report thinking and feeling (Smith, 1987). Due to the descriptive nature of
qualitative research, the data gathered allows participating students to express, in their
own words, their understandings of their school situation, and their attitudes and
feelings about their experiences. According to Eisner (1997) schools increasingly want
to engender a sense of empathy for the lives of the people they wish us to know
(p. 8). I agree with Eisners position that understanding others and the situations they
face may well require human feelings, and that qualitative research can
lend particularity and dimensionality to a study thus helping it to be real. Also, the
productive ambiguity provided by using qualitative research methods results in data
53


that is more evocative than denotative, and in its evocation, it generates insight and
invites attention to complexity (Eisner, p. 8).
As expected, by using this methodology. I was able to increase the variety of
questions that were asked about the educational situations being studied. The research
provided a vehicle for pursuing in depth understanding of the problems of alienation. It
also provided a portrait of the students as people with experiences, attitudes, and
feelings in regard to alienationwhere one has to be to understand the real essence of
their experiences.
Yin (1989) and Bogan and Biklin (1982) support this approach, declaring that
case study design is preferred when the investigator has little control over events, and
when the focus is on a contemporary phenomenon within a real-life context (p. 13).
This research provides a variety of lenses through which to view those youth who are
alienated from school and the schooling provided for them (Richardson, Casanova,
Placier, & Guilfoyle, 1989, p. 9).
The experience of the student in school was examined in relationship to influences
from adult staff in the school environment. How one group of alienated students
perceived their educational experiences both before and after coming to the alternative
high school was explored. Initially, each student was considered as a unique case
within the overall study. A case study of the alternative high school as an organization
resulted because, according to Patton (1990), the case study is particularly valuable
when the evaluation aim is to capture ... unique variations from .. one program
experience to another (p. 54). By gathering such descriptive information, I attempted
to understand what the alienated students life at school was like before entering the
alternative high school. The students response to the alternative high school, and what
the students feelings of alienation were like following attendance at the alternative
school were also investigated. As Doll (1989) suggests, the case study presented a
usable way of organizing social data for the purpose of viewing reality.
54


Design of the Study
An exploratory design was used for this study. It relied on three forms of data
collection: a) semi-structured face-to-face interviews with students in the alternative
high school, b) observations of students within Falcon Ridge Alternative High School,
and c) review of the school's archival documents (Patton, 1990, p. 100) to determine
student perceptions and attitudes about teachers and school itself. Information was
gathered through a series of guided interview questions (Appendix D) capturing the
point of view of the individuals studied. In addition, informal discussion with and
comments from students during conversations other than the interviews were recorded
during the course of the study. Additional data were obtained from direct observation
of students and from the review of archival documents associated with the school.
These three sources provide the empirical evidence which is crucial for qualitative
research and the data needed for triangulation.
Pilot Procedures
Interview questions were subjected to preliminary piloting. Both student and
parent permissions were obtained to interview four counselor-identified alienated
students who were still eighth graders and thus not yet in the alternative high school
where the research was conducted. Each of these students was chosen on the basis of
having applied to attend the alternative high school when their high school career began
in August of the next school year. An attempt was made to determine whether the
students answers to the questions provided the type of data desired (Grosof & Sardy,
1985). The pilot case study was used to help refine planned data collection in regard to
both content and procedures (Yin, 1984, p. 80).
55


Recording Interviews
An audio cassette tape recorder was used during the interviews. Its use eliminated
the possibility of distraction to the students being interviewed because of the researcher
having to constantly take notes. Recording the interviews also permitted concentration
on the students. All interviews were audiotaped with the permission of the interviewee.
Verbatim transcriptions of recorded interviews were produced and used in order to
provide the best data base for analysis (Merriam, 1988. p. 82). Transcribed notes from
each interview were edited for accuracy by doing a second comparison to the words
from the audio cassette tape. Transcriptions were also compared to notes taken during
the interview in order to ensure accuracy. This is important as direct quotations from
students are an important part of the eventual report where excerpts from interviews
display the range and variety of views on each question (Hakim, 1986, p. 34).
Interview Guidelines
When speaking of alienated students, Callan (1988. p. 34) said "interviewing is a
highly useful technique to obtain information from an elusive group of student
subjects. With this in mind, I met with students for the purpose of interviews at
Falcon Ridge Alternative High School before school, after school, during a free period,
or during a class period which the teacher permitted the student to miss, between the
hours of 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. Interviews were conducted in the principals office,
the conference room, or an auxiliary office depending on availability.
The interviews lasted between 40-90 minutes. Students were asked to be
forthright and to take their time in deliberating on those situations, people, rules, and
the like about school which they felt caused them not to do well at school or not to like
school (Fontes, 1988, p. 58). Sufficient time was allocated so that each student had the
56


chance to answer the interview questions completely and with much consideration. I
took the time to communicate to each student both verbally and through unhurried body
language that the interview questions were important and it was okay to take as much
time as needed to answer the questions thoroughly. When an interview was not
completed by the end of an arranged period of time, the remaining questions were put
off until another interview time could be scheduled so as to avoid hurrying the process.
As it is critical that the differences in answers are attributable to differences in the
students rather than in how the interviews were conducted, the researcher planned
carefully for this conformation.
At the beginning of each interview, I explained the general purpose of the study
once again. The student was asked if he/she had any questions regarding the study.
Semi-structured, open-ended interview techniques were used in interviewing the
students. Each interview was directed and defined as a purposeful conversation
between two persons, guided by one person to obtain information, and concentrating
on a specific topic (Pape, 1988). A specific set of questions was posed to all students
interviewed. The written questions were used as an interview guide in order to be sure
that basically the same stimuli was given to all students and to keep data collection more
systematic for each student (Patton, 1990).
Students were asked a variety of questions composed by the researcher and
written down for use as an interview guide. By using this approach, basic questions
were answered by each interviewee including: (a) fact questions about background
information, (b) information questions about their knowledge and its sources,
(c) opinion/attitude questions about feelings, beliefs, values, predisposition to act,
ideas, opinions and preferences, and (d) behavior questions designed to obtain data on
the students perceptions of their own behavior and that of their teachers (Grosof &
Sardy, 1985). In addition to following specific interview guide questions, I
investigated, probed, and queried in order to reveal the feelings of students about
57


alienation, its perceived causes, and possible remedies (Patton. 1990). This basic
interactive format allowed the researcher to shape, frame, and revise better questions in
pursuit of leads offered by students (Nasrallah, 1991. p. 116).
Interpersonal aspects of the interview were managed carefully. For instance, I
encouraged students to avoid identification of people and schools in order to assure
anonymity and to encourage candid responses on the part of students. Students were
interviewed in sufficient detail so that results can be taken to be true, correct, complete,
and believable reports of their perceptions and experiences. As each interview was
completed, the student participant was thanked. Also, formal notes were mailed to the
students within ten days of the interview, thanking them for their time, effort, and
insights.
In both situations, the students were invited to get any other information they had
failed to share but wanted to include in their interviews to the researcher and were given
several means for doing so. Interestingly, five of the forty students thought of
additional information they wanted to add to their interviews after they were completed.
Two of the students wrote a note expressing the ideas and incidents they had failed to
share. One student told his mentoring teacher of an incident and asked the teacher to
tell the researcher about it. Two other students scheduled additional interview times
with the researcher so as to add to what they had already shared. I believe that these
five students demonstrated that they took the interview process very seriously. They
had continued to ponder the interview questions, valued the purpose of the study, and
had made an effort to have the information that the researcher gained from their
interviews be as accurate and complete as possible. I then translated, organized, and
analyzed the studys results.
Notes taken prior to and immediately after each interview session recorded
information such as perceived student mood, things happening at school, and the like
that might be relevant when it was time to analyze the words of the students.
58


Interviews proved to be a rich source of information on account of anything and
everything could be included. Interview questions were devised to extract perspectives
and illustrations and the students did an exceptional job of providing both (Nasrallah.
1991, p. 34). By gathering data in the students own words, I was able to gain
understanding of how the students interpret this segment of their world.
The detailed description which was provided lead to insights and suggested
hypotheses that might otherwise have been missed (Blum & Foos, 1986, p. 222). As
anticipated, the interviews were, as Lincoln and Guba (1985) say, a potent avenue for
learning how people perceive the circumstances in which they work or, in this case, go
to school. Also, the interviews provided descriptive information about a students
attitude toward school prior to attending the alternative high school, and the students
response to the alternative high school environment following attendance for at least a
semester.
Observations
Additional data were collected through observation of students during the time I
was at the school. Visitations were scheduled to provide opportunities to observe
teachers and students in as many situations as possible. Field notes were used to
record observations of students, teachers, classrooms, school events, interaction
between students or between staff and students, and conversations associated with
observations made at the alternative high school. A personal account of what was seen
and heard was included. Thus, field notes were made up of both reflective and
descriptive material.
Field notes were taken on a form that allows for observation notes, thoughts and
deliberations, and possible issues to be interpreted and cataloged later on. The form
also provided a place to put additional comments after reviewing field notes. The form
provided space for a running commentary on activities, interactions, and comments by
59


students (Cornett, 1987). Field notes were taken in this manner during and/or
following each observation and, by using this method, themes were recorded as they
began to emerge, eventually leading to patterns and connections of data (Doll, 1989, p.
70).
Document Analysis
The researcher spent a significant amount of time reviewing and recording notes
on the school's six years of archival records. Although I had very little first hand
knowledge of events at the alternative high school prior to reading the archival records
and being at the school as an observer/interviewer, access to organized reports
describing Falcon Ridge Alternative High School from its inception were made
available. Documents from the archives of the school were reviewed and analyzed for
factual details. They provided a rich description of how and what the people who
produced them think about students in the alternative high school and how the students
are being educated.
Archival records which were analyzed included planning documents, program
history, statements of philosophy, principal's notes, descriptions of courses offered,
policy documents, grading policies and records, and discipline policies and reports.
Other documents were written records of staff meetings, school committee minutes,
past issues of the school newsletter, collected newspaper articles, annual reports to the
board of education, and paperwork submitted when the school was applying for
certification and for a variety of awards. The records were in a rough semblance of
order but many of them were not dated and the authorship of others could not be
established. Nonetheless, information gleaned from the documents provided a well-
developed picture of Falcon Ridge Alternative High School and its many components.
60


Analysis of Data
Pape (1988) indicates that since data do not speak for themselves, the role of the
researcher includes the explanation of data. It is also said that analysis of data gathered
in qualitative research is best done intuitively. Therefore, data obtained in this study
were analyzed inductively. The process of data analysis was like a funnel with
concepts being more numerous and more open at the top and fewer and more specific at
the bottom (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982). Analysis of data was ongoing as I carried on
data collection and analysis concurrently throughout the study. This constant
comparative method of analysis, originally proposed by Glasser and Strauss (1967)
and also used by Cornett (1987), proved successful as I began to identify themes.
Once transcribed, each interview was read several times. The analysis was then
begun with the individual case studies (Patton, 1990). The words of each interview
were examined for themes (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982; Slavin, 1992). As I read through
collected data, certain words, ways of thinking by students, and types of events began
to emerge as themes (Callan, 1988). Thus, the words of the students created the
various categories. For instance, when several students used the same or similar
words, those words were placed in the same category. If a particular comment seemed
significant but did not fit in any existing category, a new one was created. By using
this method, categories were "student generated in order to understand student
experiences (Callan, 1988, p. 80).
A grid was established with the common themes which emerged from the
interview data serving as column headings. Each interview was reviewed with the
purpose of recording all responses that could be categorized under the proper heading.
When possible, responses included direct quotations from the interviewed student in
61


order to highlight anecdotal information. This method of categorizing information was
continued until all possible interview information was categorized.
Next, I combined and arranged the previously established categories into themes.
By the time this process of analyzing and categorizing was complete, several themes
were identified. Cross-case analysis, wherein the goal is to analyze the data from the
case study by building explanations about the case, was used (Yin. 1984) with each
question in the interview being analyzed (Patton, 1990). Likewise, direct on-site
observations and program document information was organized in the same way using
word searches. Data analysis was used in order to reveal patterns, differences, and
relationships which might not be evident from direct inspection of the data.
Using the computer, notes were assembled in a narrative form to be available for
later access. Data were consolidated, reduced, and to some extent, interpreted
(Merriam, 1988, p. 130). The computer was used for information retrieval and for
analysis of qualitative data by selectively retrieving and indexing text from interview
transcripts. Using both hand sorting and the computer's data analysis techniques, I
looked at the patterns reflected in the data with the possibility of uncovering unexpected
relationships (Grosof, & Sardy, 1985, p. 207).
After data were analyzed and final categories considered, the individual reports
which appear in Chapters Four, Five, and Six were written on the basis of information
gleaned from student interviews, document review, and observations. Specific
examples from the researchers interviews with the students and from field notes were
included. Findings were reported in narrative form, to include vignettes in each
category. This multiple case study design (Yin, 1989), with trianguiation among the
three data sources, provides powerful evidence that can be considered more convincing
than a single case study design. Chapter Four, Document Review, provides data and
analysis of data from the review of archival documents at Falcon Ridge Alternative
High School. This chapter explores the relationship between preexisting student
62


alienation and membership in an alternative high school. Pwlore specifically, information
from the review of documents which is shared in Chapter [Four addresses the question:
a. based on examination of the archival documents, vuvhat are the beliefs of the
Falcon Ridge Alternative High School staff members regarding alienated students?
Chapter Five, Student Interviews, provides data, to includ*e pertinent quotations from
student interviews, and analysis of data from the student interviews conducted at
Falcon Ridge Alternative High School. This chapter addreesses the specific research
questions:
b. Why are students who come to the alternative higtn school alienated?
c. How do students who come alienated to the alternative high school describe the
experiences that have resulted in their feelings of alienation?
d. What are the general perceptions of alienated studaents about the alternative
school?
e. What happens to feelings of alienation as students, attend school at the
alternative high school?
f. Do students' feelings of alienation from school chaange while they are at the
alternative school? If they change, why do they change?
Chapter Six, Observations, provides data and data analysiis from the observations
which the researcher conducted at Falcon Ridge Altematiwe High School. This chapter
provides additional support for the themes identified in Chaapter Five.
63


CHAPTER FOUR
DOCUMENT REVIEW
The material in this chapter comes mostly from the archival documents of Falcon
Ridge Alternative High School. Occasionally, data obtained from observation connects
so directly to that garnered from the archival documents that it is also presented here.
Documents were stored in locked filing cabinets in the storage area of the alternative
high school. During initial conversations about the study with the principal of the
alternative high school, I inquired about the most efficient way to access the schools
documents. The principal indicated that all available documents could be accessed
through the school secretary.
When it came time to access the archival records, I contacted the secretary to
arrange mutually convenient times to explore the documents. At the researchers
request, the secretary provided a variety of files having to do with school history,
planning materials, newsletters, annual accountability reports, various committees
within the school, different certification and awards, notes from meetings, various
communications from staff members to parents, media, student portfolios, student
learning styles, and newspaper coverage. The researcher did not have access to
information regarding staff members or to the cumulative files or counseling files for
students due to issues of confidentiality. Nor did the researcher access the schools
financial records.
Using an available work area at the school, I examined the materials in each file,
taking notes and beginning to establish categories. Depending on the nature of the
material, some documents could be copied and some could not. Documents that might
have been public such as newspaper articles, newsletters, and accountability reports
64


were copied. Items that were more personal to the school such as meeting notes,
principal notes, and internal communications were not copied. Instead, I made
extensive notes including words used in the documents, dates, and ideas about what
was included. I kept careful track of which files had been reviewed in each session in
order to pick up where I had left off at the next session. Files containing the documents
were returned to the secretary for safe keeping at the end of each session.
Analysis
When all available documents from the school's six years of archival records had
been considered, reviewed for pertinent content, and subjected to note taking, field
notes were put into the computer and organized in narrative form. Analysis of this data
was ongoing as the researcher carried on data collection and analysis concurrently
throughout the study, constantly sorting and comparing. The words of each document
were examined for themes using word searches. The grid of common themes
developed for use with the student interviews served as an organizing device for
categorizing information. This method was continued until all pertinent information
from documents was categorized.
Also, a computer word search of the fields notes was used in order to determine
patterns, differences, and relationships which might not be evident from direct
inspection of the data. The computer was also used for information retrieval and for
analysis of qualitative data by selectively retrieving and indexing text from documents.
Documents from a variety of files were the sources of bits and pieces of specific
information that fit together to make a category. After data were analyzed and final
categories considered, the narrative report which appears in this chapter was produced
in an effort to answer the previously introduced question. Can the beliefs of the
alternative high school staff members regarding alienated students be determined by
examining the archival documents of the school? Information gleaned from the
65


documents provided a well-developed picture of Falcon Ridge Alternative High School
and its many components. Categories and pertinent information from the file follow.
Developing an Alternative High School
A December 15,1994 article from an unidentified newspaper is the earliest
document that remains part of the school's archival records. The short article shares
that the school districts board of education approved the proposal for the alternative
high school which is designed to provide education for those students who arent
successful in the traditional high school setting. According to a March 17, 1995
article, again from an unidentified newspaper
The original concept for the school grew out of concern felt by the school board
in 1992 over rising numbers of dropouts and referrals to Special Education
programs. Other indicators that traditional high schools were not working for a
significant number of students included poor grades and poor attendance.
Initially, the people who envisioned Falcon Ridge Alternative High School
established their belief that all students can learn and achieve at high standards. From
these beliefs developed the mission of Falcon Ridge Alternative High School :
In order to provide all students with the opportunity to achieve their maximum
learning potential and to prepare them for life in the 21st Century, the staff of
Falcon Ridge Alternative High School is committed to providing a unique
learning environment that is applicable for real-life situations and assistance to
students in realizing their goals of graduation, employment, and higher
education.
Shortly after that vision was formulated, the belief that at-risk students need to establish
a positive relationship with adults in the learning environment in order to be successful
was spelled out.
The high schools literature repeatedly references graduation, employment, and
higher education as the three foundation pieces of the mission. Archival records
indicate that Falcon Ridge Alternative High Schools mission is frequently revisited
when decision-making about the program needs to occur. In fact, the words,
66


'Graduation. Employment, and Higher Education have been prominently displayed on
much of the Falcon Ridge Alternative High School literature, including programs
distributed at graduation ceremonies.
Optimal School Structure
According to information recorded in June 1999 as a part of a New American
High School Application, Falcon Ridge Alternative High School staff and
administration have, since its inception in 1995, been diligently working with students
and parents to create the optimal school situation for at risk students who would benefit
from a non-traditional learning environment. Having an alternative high school as a
choice represents a recent philosophy in education that their should be opportunities for
choices available within a school district for students and their parents. Oftentimes,
these same parents and students want more personal services than are traditionally
offered in our high schools.
A network of success plans removes many of the typical barriers to student
success. Utilizing community agencies, support groups, parent involvement,
individual learning plans, a work-study program, a mentor for each student, and
planner point cards leads to much of the schools success with students. The students
at Falcon Ridge Alternative High School are successful in the academic-based program
because the primary focus is on attendance, skill remediation, employability skills, and
academic rigor.
Principal notes from June 27, 1996, which are in the archival records address the
idea of eliminating student alienation, embracing Glassers notions of power, freedom,
and love for students, developing curriculum that fits the needs of students, offering
students various paths to success, aligning teaching and learning styles, and assessing
student success through performance and demonstration.
i
67


Physical Appearance of the School
My observations supported archival documents that stated the people who planned
Falcon Ridge Alternative High School thought carefully about how the alternative
school needed to be different from a traditional high school. First of all. the physical
makeup of the school building is unique. When it opened in January 1995. Falcon
Ridge Alternative High School was located in leased space in a professional building
within the school district while the current building was planned and constructed. The
current alternative high school building was built in 1997 and was intentionally
designed to be a small, highly personalized, and safe learning environment. It is a two-
story wooden structure which looks more like a large home than a traditional school
building. As students enter the school's lobby, they experience an open, spacious area
complete with a fountain. The students gather in this area to talk, study, eat, sleep, or
"hang out when they don't have a class. In addition, when students are not in class
but need access to a computer or to a quiet area for study, they frequently use the
library area. Classrooms, most office space, and the lobby all have spacious windows.
Hallways are short and well lit with natural light and do not feel closed in.
Dominant colors in the building are plum, navy and pale gray. Furniture does not
appear institutional and students do not have and are not expected to sit in traditional
desks. Instead, they make use of tables and comfortable cushioned chairs that rock and
swivel. The principal shared that the building's design, colors, and furnishings were
planned to make it welcoming, non-threatening, and non-traditional in appearance.
There are no student lockers. The trophy case which is in the lobby area boasts few
trophies but displays a constant rotation of student projects. While there is an intercom
system which is used for announcements, there are no bells to signal the beginning and
end of classes.
68


Staff
Falcon Ridge Alternative High School is staffed on a 1:15 ratio. The school
started out with an administrator, seven teachers, a secretary, a receptionist, a building
paraprofessional. a campus supervisor, and a guidance counselor. As the number of
students has grown from 85 to 135, staff has been increased proportionately. Ability to
relate well with students is of primary concern when employees are hired for Falcon
Ridge Alternative High School. In fact, the high school's archival literature addresses
the most important characteristic of Falcon Ridge Alternative High School teachers as
their ability to establish close, professional relationships with students.5' While the
school desires teachers who have expertise in their content areas, the belief is that
teachers can be trained in content but that if a person does not have the ability to care
about students it is almost impossible to train her/him to develop relationships.
Responsibilities of Teachers. There is much documentation in the schools
archival records that the principal and staff members at Falcon Ridge Alternative High
School profess to being committed to developing the finest alternative high school in
the nation. Teachers are expected to do whatever it takes to meet the schools mission.
Archival literature refers to a student-centered, rather than teacher-centered
environment where all staff have committed to do whatever it takes to assist students
to be successful. As much as possible, decisions are based on the students needs
rather than staff needs.
Falcon Ridge Alternative High School advertises that extra help is available to any
student who needs it. Teachers demonstrate that they believe being easily available to
students is important to student success. Many opportunities for extra help such as
during Puma Lab, during teachers planning or lunch periods, and before and after
school are made available to students.
69


Principars Frame of Reference. Review of archival literature creates an
understanding of the principals frame of reference for relating to and communicating
with the students, parents, and staff members at Falcon Ridge Alternative High School.
Encouraging words and verbal accolades are sometimes offered by the principal in
written communications. The first example of this is in a July 15. 1995 letter to the
staff members of Falcon Ridge Alternative High School from the principal. It is a
welcome back to school letter which mentions each staff member by name and refers to
personal experiences which all of the members have shared. The letter includes an
introductory mention of additional staff members who have been hired during the
summer and an invitation to a planned back to school barbecue at the principals house.
Another example of this supportive tone is an excerpt from the letter attached to the
Summer 1996 Annual Report: We have many reasons to be proud of the school, the
staff and the students and an expression of heartfelt thanks to the parents and staff
who had made this year so tremendously successful. Also, the principal frequently
signs letters to parents and committee members. 'Together we can make a difference
for our students. The December 1999 newsletter includes the following words from
the principal. Thank you for the wonderful blessing you and your children are to me.
Students
In an early but undated archival document labeled Selection Criteria, the
principal emphasizes that it is most important to remember that the planned alternative
school is not a program for students who have been bad or who have been turned out
of one of the other district high schools. In fact, it is spelled out that the program is not
available to students who are in the process of being expelled, are already expelled, or
are in the courts for felony crime. If a counselor, teacher, or administrator is aware of a
70


student who doesn't appear to be benefiting from a traditional environment for any
number of reasons, they are directed to three additional criteria for referring students to
the school: three or more failing grades on the report card, average daily school
attendance of less than 90%, and behavior and/or discipline concerns.
Once potential students are identified, student choice is established as the most
important criterion with further explanation that students are in the program because
they want to be and that all Falcon Ridge Alternative High School students have chosen
to come to the alternative high school. Additionally, the belief is expressed that if the
students choose to come to the alternative high school, they will agree to the parameters
under which they have made the choice. The idea of a fresh start is mentioned
frequently as a reason for students to make the choice to attend the alternative high
school. The literature also raises the belief of the schools planners that each student
must believe that the school has something important to offer her or him.
Essential characteristics of all students who are accepted as students at Falcon
Ridge Alternative High School are a willingness to make positive changes in their
lifestyle, to include giving up negative behaviors, a desire to finish high school, and the
need to make specific plans fora productive future. Falcon Ridge Alternative High
School is a school of choice and being accepted as a student there is viewed as a
privilege. Therefore, students who plan to attend the alternative high school must sign
a contract agreeing to behave appropriately.
Falcon Ridge Alternative High School takes students from all other high schools
in the school district, giving priority to upperclassmen. Next, if there are openings,
students who are freshmen wanting to enroll directly from middle schools are
considered- Finally, if there are still openings, students from other school districts are
enrolled as tuition students. Students are enrolled on a space available basis at the
beginning of each six-week grading period as students are not allowed to start mid-
hexter. Rank on the waiting list is established by the date the students application is
71


received at Falcon Ridge Alternative High School. Students are accepted according to
the plan to have no more than 15 students in a classroom at a time.
Student Population and Profile. Falcon Ridge Alternative High School is a
school of choice for students who benefit from a non-traditional learning environment.
The four-year high school opened in January 1995 with an enrollment of 85 students in
grades 9 through 12. It gradually grew to 135 students during the 1999-2000 school
year with 150 students being the eventual anticipated maximum number. Typically, the
alternative high school has had a mobile population as demonstrated by the turnover of
34% during the 1999-2000 school year. However, the archival literature reports that
the core population of the school tends to remain relatively stable purportedly because
the students who enroll there usually want to continue in the alternative high school
environment rather than return to a traditional comprehensive high school.
Most of the Falcon Ridge Alternative High School students come from single
parent families or families which are no longer intact, having experienced divorce in the
past. The 1997 Commissioners Challenger School application which is a part of
Falcon Ridge Alternative High School archival records indicates that:
Characteristics of the Falcon Ridge Alternative High School students would
include ADD/ADHD, bipolar disorder, oppositional defiant disorder,
depression, anti-social behavior, dysfunctional families, addiction of various
types, occasional need for hospitalization, conduct disorder and students who
are victims of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse.
Appropriately, after recognizing these complicating conditions, the same document
says, Falcon Ridge Alternative High School is designed as an intervention for students
in high risk situations. All of the students at Falcon Ridge Alternative High School are
high-risk students.
Student Appearance. My observations supported information contained in the
archival documents about Falcon Ridge Alternative High School Students. In
considering the interaction of the students, it was noted that their appearance varied
greatly. They sported a wide variety of dress. Attire observed included designer jeans
72


with name brand T-shirts, baggy pants with oversized sweatshirts, tailored khaki shorts
and polo shirts, dark pants and dress shirts, camouflage fatigue sets, coordinated skirt
and blouse outfits, and casual dresses. Occasionally students wore their work clothes
to school. In general, clothing was appropriate as far as covering bodies without
exposing an inappropriate amount of skin. Halter tops, tuibe tops, and short shirts
which exposed the tummy were almost non-existent. The few that were observed were
kept covered by shirts, sweatshirts, or light weight jackets.
I observed no clothing that had holes or showed inappropriate body parts and
there was no occasion of male underwear showing at the top of pants. Nor was there
clothing that was recognizable as being associated with a particular gang. Foot wear
represented wide variety with dress shoes, sandals, work shoes, and athletic shoes all
being worn. Interestingly, the students did not demonstrate the fixation on having
designer brand clothing, expensive footwear, or whatever was currently "in" that is
observed in the more traditional school setting. While an occasional student did sport
such attire, they did not cause commotion or receive mucin attention for same. Evidence
of previlege based on student dress is common at the traditional high schools. An
observer can separate the "haves from the "have nots silmply by sorting based on
clothing. Students who do not have the "with it clothing of the day are outsiders from
the beginning. At Falcon Ridge Alternative High School there was definitely much less
evidence of privilege based on student dress than in the traditional high schools.
Efforts to Know the Students. When reviewing Faicon Ridge Alternative High
Schools archival notes, it is obvious that there is a huge effort to understand and know
each student. In fact, the plan is to know enough about e;ach student before he or she
starts at Falcon Ridge Alternative High School to meet th.e students needs and to
provide an appropriate education from the very beginning. Based on individual student
interviews and applications, the principal generated mem-os for the staff members
regarding "new kids to include notes regarding each stuodent. Along with these notes
73


was the principals directive, "It is expected that each of you will review the folders of
your new mentees and begin to have a thorough understanding of their Individualized
Learning Plans and their backgrounds beyond what I tell you here.
These confidential memos included a brief description of each student,
accompanied by educational positives, concerns, and suggestions. Without exception,
the concerns portion of each student memo was longer than the positives section but
there were always positives listed. Examples of positive comments about the students
include: Lit up as he talked about recent camping trip to Yellowstone, interested in
driving a truck, very bright, great computer skills, aspires to get a doctorate in
psychology, and has been drug free for 10 months. Other positive comments were
excellent test scores, enthralled with theater, loves history, sets high goals for
himself and is committed to reaching them, and great potential. The principal also
shared says she has liked school in the past, already has a friend here at Falcon
Ridge, and says she can control her temper.
Examples of statements of concern about the new students include: hit Outward
Bound counselor while court-ordered to be there, school phobic, has used lots of
drugs, not currently in therapy, does not feel he can succeed. and refuses to take
medications for ADHD [Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder]. Additional
statements of concern included discouraged about how long its going to take her to
graduate, smokes pot, very, very hyper, unhappy that hes next to last in class
rank at CHS, unpredictable, irritable, and moody at times, is 17 years old and only
has 9 credits, wants to subvert the system, and handwriting is virtually illegible.
The principal also shared has demonstrated aggression in the school setting, stole a
gun and sold it for drugs, says she wont do homework, has been at a treatment
center, pregnant still considering abortion, has run away frequently in the past,
really needs counseling but is unwilling to get it, and possible abuse from Dad.
74


In addition, there was also at least one suggestion for each student. Examples
include: will need extended time to complete assignments, needs to be challenged,
will need some testing to determine gaps, needs to have depression checked out,
needs lots of limits, allow more time to take tests, and dont let her pull you into
power struggles. Other suggestions by the principal were give him lots of positive
strokes, needs curriculum which is relevant to his interests, needs vocational
exploration. needs a mentor who can really encourage him, and has never been in
high school since he has been home schooled since fourth grade will need to learn the
ropes. When finished reading the principals notes, I felt that the teacher would have
been given the foundation for being able to know each student well enough to get off to
a good start educationally.
No Exclusive Cliques
Archival literature shared that in addition to teachers knowing the students, careful
consideration had been given to assisting students in getting to know their teachers and
each other. My observations supported that the students really attempted to get to know
one another in spite of their differences. As stated earlier, students sported a wide
variety of clothing styles. This wide variety of dress, worn by students who were
sitting side by side in conversation, did seem discordant at first consideration.
Although I had not previously been aware, it was much more usual to see groups made
up of students who dressed similarly.
It did, in fact, seem unusual that a student who was dressed in western attire,
complete with cowboy boots, was conversing with a group of students, one of whom
was dressed in baggy blue jeans and a Denver Broncos T-shirt. Another was dressed
in khaki pants and a designer brand t-shirt, and the final student was wearing dark
dress pants and the required t-shirt from the fast food chain where he worked. The
students did not seem aware of or uncomfortable with this intermingling of different
75


styles of dress. Students were able to dress in a wide variety of styles without having
their clothing signify that they belonged to a certain group at the exclusion of others. In
fact, it seemed that student dress, while varied, did not indicate cliques as all students
were friendly and accepting of one another.
Individual Learning Plan. Students who have been accepted to attend Falcon
Ridge Alternative High School must meet with the principal to establish an Individual
Learning Plan upon enrollment. The Individualized Learning Plan is a signed contract
between the student, the parents, and the school which defines the students academic
program. An academic history is established for each student to include past
interventions and any necessary modifications. Other areas addressed in the
Individualized Learning Plan include educational strengths and weaknesses, discipline,
attendance, social, emotional, physical, and transition needs.
The individualized learning plan includes establishment of a Career Plan, starting
with the student's career goals, which is to be accomplished through the Individualized
Learning Plan. Specific vocational training, volunteering on the job, community
service, college courses to be taken, and possible apprenticeships are identified in order
to establish the best educational plan for accomplishing identified career goals. In
addition, all students must complete district wide graduation requirements. The
responsibility of the enrolling student and the students parent are established and the
plan is implemented as the student begins school.
Grading. Early archival literature documents establish that those who were
planning Falcon Ridge Alternative High School rejected the notion that students should
be graded on a bell curve. Instead, they gave credit when the student had mastered the
content or skill at 80% or better at preestablished periods of time. Students who need
extended learning time in order to meet the 80% goal are accommodated. Because
teachers do not lower curricular standards, the standardized test scores of the students
76


at Falcon Ridge Alternative High School are similar to the other high schools in the
school district.
Grade day, a full day of additional help, is available the last day of each hexter and
is used to make sure that the students have all work completed for the grading period
which is coming to an end. If a student wishes to complete the hexters work but does
not have sufficient time, he/she is given an incomplete for the grading period and given
additional time and help to get all possible credits. In addition. Falcon Ridge
Alternative High School students are able to take courses during the districts summer
school program, may get support with college courses from their Falcon Ridge
Alternative High School teachers, and can earn up to 2 credits by taking
correspondence courses from an accredited school.
A reward system is in place for students who have demonstrated out-of-class
work and who complete their work on time. Consequences of incomplete work are
mandatory attendance on grade day and the possibility of an incomplete or no credit
grade for the course. Because of the alternating day schedule, it is typical that students
take seven or eight credits per semester but it is possible for students to accomplish as
many as ten credits during a semester. Each semester is divided into three hexters, or
six hexters per year. Credit is awarded on the transcript each hexter so it takes three
hexters to receive one semester credit. The grading system is such that all students
must achieve at 80% or better mastery in order to receive credit for the hexter.
Mentoring Program. The previously mentioned hiring belief is essential to one of
the core concepts of the alternative high school, that of providing a mentor for each
student. The mentoring program has been an essential component since the school
opened in January 1995. Every teacher is responsible for mentoring 12-15 students,
remaining with a student during her/his entire time at Falcon Ridge Alternative High
School if possible. The mentors review the Individual Learning Plan with students and
parents as needed but no less often than at the end of each semester. Mentors never
77


have more than 15 students during Puma Lab, which is the 30 minute class period set
aside for daily mentoring activities. Thus, each student meets with her/his mentor
regularly and for at least 2 1/2 hours per week. During this time, the assigned mentor
monitors the students academic performance and work-related skills by reviewing the
planner, monitoring homework, assessing student progress, and discussing problems.
The mentor also acts as an advocate regarding school-related issues, serving as a
supportive network with the students peers as well as with other adults in the school
The Falcon Ridge Alternative High School staff supports the belief, stated in
planning documents, that "parents want to get to know the school better by having an
open house each fall and inviting parents to participate. In addition, mentors keep in
close communication with the students family, telephoning home at least every two
weeks to talk with parents about their students progress at school. Parents are
encouraged to communicate with mentors either by telephone, planner notes, or email
and it is not unusual for some parents to have contact with their students mentor on a
daily basis. Thus, mentors keep in the know regarding each students progress. In
fact, the mentor is expected to be the resident expert on their assigned students'
progress.
The Falcon Ridge Alternative High School staff professes to believe that they can
make a difference with at-risk students. In fact, it is generally agreed that if a staff
member does not share this belief, they are working in the wrong place. This attitude
coupled with the way teachers work cooperatively brings to mind Ashton and Webbs
(1986) assertion that teachers who work together to solve problems come to believe that
they can make a difference with even the most difficult students. An example of this is
that the entire Falcon Ridge Alternative High School staff meets on Thursday mornings
for one hour for what is called Kid Talk. Because of the small number of students in
the school, the entire staff knows the entire school population by name. The mentoring
teacher communicates with the rest of the Falcon Ridge Alternative High School staff at
78


the first signs of a student being at risk for failure. Once student concerns are
identified, an action plan for addressing identified problems is created and
implemented. Situations that require immediate attention or those that require parent
notification are addressed immediately.
In the school's archival record labeled Guidelines for Teachers Student
Summative Evaluation, it is directed that by the end of each students senior year,
mentors are to write a one to two page summative evaluation of the student. It is
expected that this evaluation will be a comprehensive picture of the student in general
terms based on the progress that has been made during time at Falcon Ridge Alternative
High School. This document which is placed in the comprehensive portfolio is similar
to a letter of recommendation that might be written about the student for a potential
employer or a college recruiter. It includes general trends or progress since the student
enrolled, academic strengths and weaknesses, discipline and attendance, social and
affective skills, SCANS skills achievement, and recommendations for continued study
or further improvement.
Curriculum. The curriculum at Falcon Ridge Alternative High School is similar to
that of all other high schools in the school district All courses offered in the school
have been approved by the Board of Education and all courses except the Discovery
class are currently in the curriculum at other high schools. The Discovery class is a
requirement for all students and addresses interpersonal communication, mediation, and
problem solving. In addition, in order to graduate, each student must obtain a library
card, demonstrate proficiency in gathering and using information electronically to create
a research project, demonstrate proficiency with computer multi-media software
programs, take classes in first aid and CPR, and register to vote once they are 18 years
of age.
There are additional requirements for personal growth and citizenship development
which are integral parts of the program. Service learning, computer technology (or the
79


demonstration of proficient computer skills), and 72 hours of volunteer work in the
community are required in order to graduate. The schools archival records include
accounts of the community service requirement in operation. Included are
complimentary words from a code enforcement officer explaining that many code
violations involve elderly or indigent individuals who cannot correct code violation
problems on their property and that Falcon Ridge Alternative High School students
have helped with many such situations.
In addition, Falcon Ridge Alternative High School students have performed many
tasks in the community such as cleaning neighborhood parks. The March 1999 school
newsletter tells of past involvement by Falcon Ridge Alternative High School students
who visited or assisted at the Police Department, the County Jail, the courthouse, City
Council, the Center for Domestic Violence, Goodwill, Job Services, Dale House, the
Marion House Soup Kitchen, the Red Cross Shelter, and many other community
resources.
Archival records make it clear that Falcon Ridge Alternative High School is not a
comprehensive high school and that they cannot offer all of the same opportunities in
the same way the traditional high schools do. Students are told that they may have to
make some choices. Interestingly, notes report that some students find some of the
things that are missing to be positive. For instance. Falcon Ridge Alternative High
School does not have the traditional classifications of freshmen, sophomore, junior, or
senior. Many students are relieved to hear this because they want the benefit of being
able to work at their own pace without having to worry about what grade they are in or
how they are classified.
The archival literature is also up front that, because Falcon Ridge Alternative High
School is a small school, the students may not be able to get all the courses they would
find in other schools. Examples given include that if you are at Falcon Ridge
Alternative High School, you may get business experience by working on the job rather
80


than through formal business courses. Students who need courses in foreign language
may have to take them through the post secondary option choice at the local community
college. It is emphasized that there is no marching band, instrumental music, or
competitive sports teams at Falcon Ridge Alternative High School. There are few
school-related clubs.
School Activities. Students are told that if they want to be involved in
extracurricular activities, they may participate at their home high school but are also
reminded that the daily schedule at the alternative high school makes this extremely
difficult. The archival literature directly addresses that the students will also find some
other things missing, such as unmotivated students and teachers and a large impartial
environment and that they may find the trade-off worth it. There is also mention of the
possibility of extracurricular and social activities at Falcon Ridge Alternative High
School which will be designed by the students for the students.
Learning Style Options. Learning style is established for each student so that
instruction might appropriately address the optimal way for the students to learn. As a
result, most instruction is hands-on, project based learning. Most of the activities that
students are required to participate in involve the students learning through cooperative
projects, teacher-generated activities, and technology. There are few basal textbooks
and even fewer classroom lectures. During class time the teacher acts as a facilitator to
provide direct instruction, monitor active participation, and support guided practice. In
addition to being involved in cooperative learning groups where the curriculum is
geared toward team projects, students can also take advantage of self-paced, hands on
lessons. Students are permitted to move around the classroom. Grading periods are
six weeks long instead of the traditional semester that stretches over 4 1/2 months.
Because the daily schedule rotates through an alternating day plan, there are four
core class periods of 90 minutes each day which permits a variety of activities to occur
during each class. Each block is designed to provide students time to begin homework
81


activities. Teachers have an opportunity to monitor students' work during the extended
class period with the teachers overseeing and correcting student practices. In order to
permit teacher time for such monitoring, there are never more than 15 students in a
class.
Portfolios/Homework. Each student must develop a portfolio. Included in the
portfolio is the student's career plan, resume, research paper, autobiography,
standardized test scores and selected samples of work from each class taken. Although
there is sometimes work to be done at home, there is a general agreement that teachers
will not assign "busy work" homework. In addition, teachers work to be flexible in
making homework assignments so that students are not overburdened with homework
beyond their requirements in the work study program and college classes. When
homework is not complete, the situation will be communicated to both the student and
the parent so that it can be corrected.
Work Study. Seventy percent of the course work required for graduation is in
the core areas. In addition, students must complete the Alternative Cooperative
Education program which includes a course in Career Foundations which supports
students in preparing resumes, learning interviewing skills, accomplishing career
interest inventories, and learning about appropriate work ethic. The Job Placement
course which follows includes a work study component where students are supervised
in a paid position. As another option, during a course designated Job Sampling,
students can volunteer to work in a variety of job situations which help them to leam
about their chosen career Field. Also, students must enroll in and pass two college
courses in order to graduate. The school district pays the tuition for these courses once
the student passes.
Through these classes and the use of planner point sheets, the four targeted
employability skills of attendance, teamwork, initiative, and responsibility are taught
and reinforced. Students are given points for their demonstration of the four skills
82


during each school day. The teacher for each course signs the student's planner,
awarding points for appropriate behavior. Students are then required to have their
parents sign their planner before returning to school the next day. Points are counted at
the end of each school week with the expectation being that each student will have 90%
or more of the possible planner points. Planner points are one method that is used to
monitor student progress.
Supports/Support Groups. There are a variety of voluntary supports available to
Falcon Ridge Alternative High School students and their families. These include
student support groups developed around a variety of needs. The After-Care Support
Group is for students who have been hospitalized or in treatment centers and are
returning to school. The Attention Deficit Disorder Support Group is for students
diagnosed with ADD/ADHD who need additional assistance with homework
completion. The Career Support Group serves students who need additional assistance
in meeting academic and career goals. A Parent Support Group assists parents who
want support in resolving conflicts with their students and finding ways of
communicating more effectively with them. In addition, formal peer mediation is
implemented as needed to deal with conflict between students and parents, students and
teachers, or students and students that might interfere with success in the educational
setting.
The school newsletter from May, 1999 includes an article entitled "Is Falcon
Ridge Alternative High School a Safe School? According to this article one of the
reasons Falcon Ridge Alternative High School works so well is that there is a general
feeling of acceptance of all students regardless of appearance, ethnicity, social interest,
sexual orientation, emotional development, or physical limitations." The article also
suggests there is rarely any bullying at the alternative high school.
Student Council. Being a part of the Falcon Ridge Alternative High School
Student Council is one way the school offers students leadership opportunities. School
83


records indicate that the student leaders are serious and responsible members of the
student body. Among other responsibilities, they assume control of the off-campus
smoking area, participate in district and community meetings, and work with the staff
to solve problems in the areas of school climate and staff morale. There is evidence in
the school's archival records that the Student Council makes a significant impact on the
life of the school. The group organized social events such as homecoming, dollar
dances, and prom. Also, students engaged in a variety of fund-raisers such as selling
healthy snacks in the morning and promoting Hat Week. Students enthusiastically
participated in community service projects such as collecting canned goods at
Christmas.
School Newsletter. There are many issues of the school newsletter in the schools
archival records. It is a small, internally generated communication which varies from
four to six, word processed, 8 inch by 10 inch pages. It is sent out at or near the
beginning of each hexter. The newsletter tends to have a friendly, informative tone.
Occasionally, if there has been an error in scheduling or communication, the newsletter
includes an apology. Often, it informs or explains to include articles about subjects
such as the following: plans to move to the new school, the purpose of Terra Nova
testing, the need to give student names to military recruiters, an explanation of the
purpose of Grade Day, plans for snow days, late start days, or when school is
canceled. Other articles which inform and/or explain include those on school fees,
October count procedures, changes in discipline policy, the senior breakfast, clothing
for graduation, the school schedule, the planned holiday lunch for kids, drama night,
District budget problems, masquerade ball, homecoming dance, and the powder puff
football game.
It also shares information about changes in the current smoking policy, staff email
addresses, community service day, FRHS annual reports to the Board of Education,
free programs for teens regarding safe driving, an updated calendar of school events,
84


drug prevention efforts including use of drug dogs. The newsletter also serves as a
reminder to students and their parents regarding such things as: senior pictures,
attendance and what's excused and what's not, return of library books, signing student
planners daily and the benefit for their student, federal cards, and prearranging
absences. There were additional reminders regarding College Financial Aid Night, a
workshop that is planned, the monthly Parent Support Group meeting, class rings and
graduation announcements, yearbook purchase, and available scholarships.
Occasionally, the newsletter contains appeals for volunteers or for parental
support, as in the following: appeals for involvement on the accountability committee,
the Parent Advisory Committee, as a mentor group representative, on the School
Improvement Committee, and for assistance with a community service project. The
newsletter frequently congratulates and encourages students, teachers, and parents as in
the following examples: introductions of new staff members, welcoming new students
who have transferred, spirit week and the positive results it brought to the school,
students who had all A's the previous helter, students who have received scholarships,
and students who are graduating.
Media Coverage. The archival literature makes it obvious that the staff at Falcon
Ridge Alternative High School works hard to accomplish positive marketing of their
school with their potential students, parents, and the community. There are
documented ongoing efforts to improve the public image of the alternative high school.
A March 17, 1995, newspaper article called the Falcon Ridge Alternative High School
dedication "a joyful and optimistic ceremony and reception." Media coverage has
varied widely in tone. A March 1996 article painted local homeowners as being fearful
of the prospect of the alternative high school moving into their neighborhood, charging
that property values would decrease, and that crime and traffic would increase if the
school was moved to the site being considered. However, in recent years media
coverage has been mostly positive including prominent attention in a feature article on
85


graduation, a human interest story on an 11th graderfrom Falcon Ridge Alternative
High School who participated in a televised United States Senate Candidate Forum, a
TV spot on the school's climbing wall, and extremely supportive coverage when an
Falcon Ridge Alternative High School teacher was murdered. Interestingly, at this
difficult time for the school, a parental letter to the editor said:
... the behavior problem we are experiencing in our school system is the result
of students who see no reason to try, because they have experienced failure
after failure. This is an educator who was willing to acknowledge there is more
than one, right way to teach, who respected students as individuals instead of
as as student body, who was confident enough in himself as an educator to
explore non-traditional teaching strategies.
The parent believed that this teacher was making a difference for at-risk youth
Graduation. School archives contain documentation of the senior breakfast that is
held each year as the official kick off to the graduation celebration. It is obvious that
this is a time of celebration with each student being recognized individually and being
given small, meaningful gifts by the Falcon Ridge Alternative High School faculty.
The principal and all staff members traditionally attend the graduation ceremony at the
end of the school year. In addition, it is heavily attended by other District
administrators
The ceremony is extremely traditional to include display of the school colors,
mascot, and flower, a processional and recessional, pledge of allegiance, introductions,
a speech by a graduating senior, remarks by the superintendent and a Board of
Education member, presentation of the senior class, scholarship awards, and the
conferring of diplomas. An example of the principals sentiments on this day, taken
from an archival note to parents is "we rejoice with you and celebrate their success. It
is obviously a day that is extremely important to the students and to the parents and
staff members who have supported these students, all of whom were at risk for not
graduating from high school and who have made It.
86


Excerpts from the 1996 student graduation speech include the following words
about one student's experiences at Falcon Ridge Alternative High School: "It was like
God was giving me a second chance to do something with my life" and "Falcon Ridge
Alternative High School gave me a chance to see that I could make more of my life."
Also,.. for the first time in my life I really enjoyed being in school" and "I would
like to thank the staff at Falcon Ridge Alternative High School for helping us to achieve
our goals and for caring. Finally, "To our teachers: I want to thank you for defending
us ... for taking your 90 minutes of planning time to work with us ... for getting to
know us as individuals and for finding the uniqueness in all of us."
Improving the School. There is frequent mention in the school's planning
literature and in the school newsletter of the Falcon Ridge Alternative High School
Improvement Committee. This is an organized group of senior citizens, community
business representatives, school faculty, parents, and, occasionally, students who meet
once per month to discuss, establish, and plan for implementation of school goals.
Improving the average daily attendance rate, increasing the graduation rate, helping
students to make healthy choices regarding tobacco, alcohol, drugs and sex,
demonstrating improved student achievement, school policies, budget priorities, and
the ongoing school improvement plan are among the topics of discussion according to
notes in the school's archival records.
The principal and staff of Falcon Ridge Alternative High School are accountable
to the School Improvement Committee for all that goes on at the alternative high school.
In addition, Falcon Ridge Alternative High School must submit a report which is
prepared by its School Improvement Committee to the School District's Accountability
Committee at the end of each school year.
Ongoing Change. An undated Accountability Committee document in the archival
literature posits that this "will be a program of change, evaluation, adjustment and
reconfiguration. Change is not necessarily done because we made a mistake, but rather
87


I
because we see a new and better way to do things." A review of the records makes it
obvious that change is instituted only after much thoughtful discussion when it seems
that there is a better way to meet students' needs.
An example of an area that has changed is that Falcon Ridge Alternative High
School started out with four week grading periods but changed to six week grading
periods when it seemed that would serve the students better. Another example Is that
there has been much experimentation with the beginning and ending time of the school
day. Another possible change is that study for the GED was not offered originally but
has recently been considered. A possible plan is to attempt a self-funded program that
would take place outside the regular school day based on the belief that there is a need
for such a program in the northern end of the city.
Another ongoing discussion considers the wisdom of permitting first semester
freshmen to attend the alternative high school. Upperclassmen believe that because the
freshmen have not had an experience at a traditional high school, they do not appreciate
the opportunities available at Falcon Ridge Alternative High School.
Problems and Solutions. Much evidence exists in the archival literature of
problems which have been solved or that continue to exist and demand attention.
Significant initial struggles with the school board is evidenced in a May 10, 1995,
memo to the superintendent from the Falcon Ridge Alternative High School
principal. First, the school district wanted to consider the possible benefits of putting
students at the alternative high school in lieu of expulsion. Second, there was much
discussion regarding the issues of alternative education versus traditional education and
obvious difficulty coming up with a model that was acceptable to both the Board of
Education and the community and that truly offered an alternative program. Third,
there was heated debate about who was going to direct the focus of the programthe
Accountability Committee or the Board of Education.
88


I
Among the many difficulties with the Board of Education were that major changes
were demanded just two months before Falcon Ridge Alternative High School was
scheduled to open. It was believed that Board members had supported the study
committee but didn't really understand the philosophy of the alternative high school.
Later, after the school was already operating, there was a huge Board of Education
discussion about the school's grading policy. The school uses ratings of competency,
mastery, and excellence for the evaluation levels in each academic area instead of the
standard A, B, C, D, and F for grades. Anything else is an incomplete. All students
have a GPA based on this. Two board members were adamantly opposed to his
system long after it had been approved and was already in use.
There is evidence that occasionally teachers were hired who were not good
matches for the Falcon Ridge Alternative High School philosophy. These teachers did
not stay around long, sometimes not even until the end of the school year. In addition,
the archival records sometimes provide evidence of staff frustration that there is too
much time spent in meetings and not enough accomplished. There is also occasional
evidence that teaching at Falcon Ridge Alternative High School might consume an
inordinate amount of a teacher's time. There is one documented instance in which the
principal lets the staff know that they will be doing an extra planning day before the
start of the school year and offers to pay them S65 (substitute pay) for the day.
Interestingly, staff members are told that this money can be taken from their department
budget or that they can choose to work that day without pay and keep the money in
their department budget. Another interesting bit of archival documentation is an appeal
from the principal at the August 15, 1996 staff meeting to a hesitant, if not slightly
reluctant, staff to be "willing to try the model agreed on and make modifications to
make it better.
Evidence of Success. Falcon Ridge Alternative High School has been accredited
by the North Central Association Commission on Schools since March of 1996.
89


Full Text

PAGE 1

6??-@?A 6B/C/4/6C/? D"/ & $)"' <2E8 )"4$<2;2 )"4?) (# ?." 6) >88<

PAGE 2

G>88<"D"/ #)

PAGE 3

?." #" D"/ ) "C* <<7-7 <8 ?

PAGE 4

/ D"+. ? $6), -'A )/## "."C* &4 "%""*%-' )##% )#%# ? %%#)# -$)%%%:8#$ % ))% H)) )#$"!+, $+,!#$+, )%# %"%")# )%%)# +,%$ +,##"$+,I"! # "% # ""##$ )$ "H # )

PAGE 5

??4 "%$# %-')## )% %% % #%# ()" #$%$%#"#% $%#$%">8" $%##%##$# ##$%' $%$#%% ###$"% % "$"H )#%I"%# "%#"%#% J!$"%') "#%)# %%'%

PAGE 6

4@J6?C #%"" I" ''$)" )%'""# %'%#'" #""#"I" ."C*$")$%#" ) J#%$###'%"%)$ #*#"'#$%#I ."$"!$% #%) J*#"% %#% %))# .#&<*$%#")" $%#)$##$ ))%"%' $$%%$ $#$# )"% %#%$%%#$ ") % )$$##"%')"" "%"%'#%%" '%#%)"%% ##%% I" '%#'## K

PAGE 7

= 4 4/. < ?4 )% > ? > ) 7 .6 : &'# = ." ; #" <8 ))%" <8 6 << > ?@ <: "#4-' <= -' <0 8 .?# >7 ) >0 4 >2 K)

PAGE 8

.% 7> )) 77 4)#.# 7; 7 4//?6CM :0 :0 H&'# :E :E :; # :2 I =8 .( =< .-)% => =7 ?#" == .. == #)% =0 )%C =0 ) =2 ?" 08 "? 0< : ?4BJ 0: 0= ?)#)/# 00 0E )

PAGE 9

= ." 0; 02 E8 !)4( E= 28 ?BJ 20 ?" 2E # 2; <88 !6# <82 4" <<; )/# <>: #4. <>0 &##4" <7: 6'#!6# <72 <:2 J" <=8 4#! <=> <=7 )/# <=: 4# <== &B <=2 H) <08 .) <0<

PAGE 10

) 4) 4 ) %# )/# ?!)L <&#? 4 J& ?" ?## !)" J" J. )HJ &#.4 H 4) 4J 6 )4J N4 K K I

PAGE 11

E M$446$?4?<;; # <;2 I <;2 & <28 ?4" <28 )% <28 ? <2< ) <2< ?" <2> # <2O J" <20 4#! <2; <22 # >88 )/# >8< 4# >8> >8= 4#' >8E ..?P 6.QC? ><< & ?4BJ ><: 4 .4BJ ><0 ? BJ5 ><; 4 >>>

PAGE 12

K 4/. ?4 "')#!"<7= #$"%$-$ )# %#"$#)/#$ """% R#%A )%")! #><4"$ #)/#)#( #)*###$"$# A < $"#-'#$ %")##% > "!)#% R# ))# #" "%# #)/#% %# /%)$:8 )%%)#!% )##% H$))#$ !"#"

PAGE 13

A+,)%%)#$+,) )#$+,)%H) %##-$-)% %))% %))%) % ) )"# )% %>8>8$% )# # )%#<:>8"# %#2-<> #)/# "$"$)% %#"#-)% &"#$S)% )%%% )#$)%#) ? ?%"))%# )/#%)%"* $ "%!%% ')#-' %# %"*A"$"$# $#"$H$$

PAGE 14

##$ %)%%%#$ $%$%$ $%'%% "#)"% % "%%" ) $))$% )" ?")$ %$)% ) $"#%%#) % 4)#% ""* #%#% ##% ?"%"*)" "% ##""#" %)%)%! #$%$%"'#"$ ")## $% )# #%%% #)%)## )%% )%%##* # #*#% )%%#* !$<#)"# &""*##*#%$)

PAGE 15

< % 6'%$-)% #*%"#% ?")$ $%#)")%$)$)% )# .6 +<222,"1)% )#3+ :, # "#+/"$<2;2, <22<$ 4##"##">= #'# "$"$<8-<>" )+<22E, ## $)%%"H ")%" %+J#$<2;7NJ#$$ T#$<2;ENJ#$$T@$<2;8, J#"+<22=, #### !)-' /%)$"# '# %#$ )%"## ) $#H""$" #%%") !+#T/%$<22<$ E=,

PAGE 16

&'# 4+<220$ >0E,'"U $$$$) ) 3#C+<202$ !,$ %!$% %##" 4" "%#$$$ $*")$## %)+4$$T&$<2;EA#$<2;7N/$$ 6'%*$TJ$<2;:NT$<2E2N#$<2;EN$.'$ 4$ '$<2;2, "H%#"#%%' "-"" V#+)$<22:$ !, ?%%I #"$#+.TJ$<220$ 7, $ "#) )" #"#$-%%)# #"# +?$$T.$<2;2N'$<2;2,N% N#"#% $"+<220,% ?####$ V #'%# / "$%$"" )"%"#%#% V=

PAGE 17

'+&T&$<22=N&"$<2;2, 4## $%%% #"%#*"# %"#!C ##""">888+ ?$<228$ :-=, $#% )()% ")" #'+ B$<2;;N$)$@%$?$T J'$<22>, &+<2;0$ :78,#U' ##$"$$%' 3" !"'#$$ % &$%) 0<")# "$"R!%%# "# "% %# )"## +$$ J$<2;EN$<2;;, #)+&"'T$<2;2N/!$#$ $<228N$<2;2, $#%" ))%#+$<2;2N J# $<2;0, ""# %)$"$ +$<22>, $I##H %" $$%##

PAGE 18

""'#%!) )+44$ <200N D'$$$ <2E>, /%)$ )$)$+$<2;>N 4$<2;=, $&+<2;0$ :70,#) ##" "#$U%#%# 3 %+<2;<,)!)"!# %%% #*"H# $ %)"# ')) "% # &+<2E>,$""$$ #$) $ ")%## )+J#$$$6'$T*$<2;2, %%)" -')%) ) /%)$#!)# ))#"# !+$<2;2, ##$ ###H+J#$ $$ $<2;2, $ )"%" "! #*)#

PAGE 19

+&%$<2;EN4$<2;EN6#$<2E;NJ#$$ $ <2;2NM#$<228, #/"4+>888$ :,#UH "%"%" )%$ 3% "'$%"%# U3" +$<228, # ")%"' H#+!TC#$<2;
PAGE 20

$# #")# ##+J#$ $6$<2;2, #"#)" ""#$ "##+$<2;;, "%#)")&%$1 ')%" '#3+$<2E2$ 2E, "%%"% I "$$%A < $"#-'#$ %")## > "!)#% H# $%#(%!#% !A 4)# ##"!#) L J"%)#L /%%)# !)#L J#) L J# )#L

PAGE 21

?H##%" )L"#$%""#L .")# #" 6%)%## -' #'#$)#$ )%$))# %# %# &")# %" H)!$ )%)#%#) $%)" # ))%" 4$'#$ "$#" #*% 4%))%-'$ %#$#"%) #"R ##)#%) -' K K V

PAGE 22

4)# H# "!)#% # 4#" %))# 4))% -" 4!)H) % 4)"$$ 6 %#'%#" < "%)#N$# #*" #"$%)$) #)#$# #$)%'%) # > #)/#)"%#$)# !%!" $" ##H%% )" 7 #)/#%#% "## %)

PAGE 23

! ."$%)% : "%%%%# )%% % "%)# %# & %$# ")#)# = %!+,H!$+, %%$+,# )# "%) ))!$%%$ H#% 0 ?)%"% H%#%")) $ ))%H #)%%$$% )))%#)) E )%") "$)%(%)" $ $Q')) %")! H%%# ##

PAGE 24

) ")% #%" &'#-' '##) -' 4%)%#-' ## <7 V

PAGE 25

4/.> ?@ %'# %##"+?T$<22=$ <>, /%)$"%" !$ <2284#%">0 "RW'3"-!# +#'T" <220, U-'3HH <:"#%)#$$# %#()% #3+T/$<2;=$ ##%()'+)$ @%$T$<2;2$ =, $")% "#U"#3+.TJ$<220, 4#4?)+<2;2$ ;,$ U"'# ("(%'$ %$ 3!")"#!" )+4#$<2;2$ ;, $)!":8X" '+*'$<2;E, )$"">8>8$I" KH%)"# K V<: K <

PAGE 26

#'+&T&$<22=N$?$ T.$<228, J#+<220,#% U!#3U"I )" 3+ <, ##?"+<2;2,% )" %%## "#4-' +*$<22>N"TC$<2;2N/#$<2;2$<228N. TJ$<220NT$<228N$<22:N)T$<2;2, )""#)-' )#$#$$ %$!$' '-Q-$)$% $%#$ ')#+#TJ$<22<$ >, "$#$+"#$"$Q!,$" "$)"$" )))"% +J'$<22=, 4"'# #'+$$T$<22=, -%$#5+<2;;,$U$ ##3+ E:, )"$% "))X&"+<22>,1 <=

PAGE 27

"# ''3+ <<=, -' "#%##-' U$3U$3U#-$3U)"$3U 3U)"$3U)$3U"I$ U'$3U)$3U-$3U" $3QU3+4$<228N6#T4#N <220NJ'$<22=, )(" %# J#+<22<,% %'%"!)")Q) ) $)$#)$ "("##) +@*$<2;E, J) (")$" ))%"("# "+4?$<22=, #)$#" "+C$B'$TC$<22;, #'$" #"+4$<2;2, )"$%)$'$-#$ +'$C*$.'$T'$<2;0N$D $<2;2, #+<22E,' %")%(" # # <0 K

PAGE 28

##!+T <2;;, W'##$"$ $%'3X$+&$<2;0,F $")%# %+!$$T/#$<2;;, -'(" #)+$ <2;;, "'"!II )+@*$<2;ENJ'$$H$T "$<2;E, "%# $" )# J'$ ##%+$<2;2, $" %%'$))F )U#)) "#"3+J#$$$ $<2;2, $ %")'+?$ $T.$<2;E, #%%#"' "!$')" ) ""'" 4$$ "%#)) +@$<227NJ'$&'-.#$$T)$<22<, 4("$$
PAGE 29

"U#-'#% #3+J'$<22=$ >=, ###" &")) $"# ()## +6$<2;2$<2;2, $C )#-) I+J'$<22=$ <;, )$#-# !#$ %""#) +"T$<228$ >8>, !#") !#% $$##+#$<22=$ >88, %)) ) )WR' %3U'"3"## #+J'$)$$TD$<2;:, + 4 )#)'#$ )!"#%) $## "#("U" 3% $# $$) <;

PAGE 30

$ "$ "#U 3+J' ?$<2;;$ <7, '$%) %U3%%"%% )+4#/$<22>$ :, .J +<220,#*%U#3U'%% %)" '% )3+ <0=, $) !'%'% +J#$$$ <2;2, "$#%# ##)+$<228, % )"#)+$<2;0,$ "$')% '+$<220, %$"% "%*! "$)%#U3 +4T&*$<22<$ 2, #"$#%"'%%") ))")# $##*"+%$ <2;<, #&%$UJ%))$ %"!$(" <2

PAGE 31

K %#(#N$")'H% +<2;2$>, 6#4#U 3%% %+<220$ =E, '%")# +D*$<220, /%)$)#" "$## ) $#)!'# )$) )+'$C* .'$T'$<2;0, -'#)(#%# "IH'+#"$<2;0, JL $U#% )$#'##3+5$<22<$ <:;, 5%U'3

PAGE 32

)$$ !)I+ <=8, #%5H $")" !"% /%)$% $D''$1H%#'%%H' L3+<2;;$ ::, "## "!# ""#" ##-"!N U)3+"$<22>, # !%# %'"+?"$<228$ >8<, (%")##"' # +@$<2;2,N$"%H#-$ #-#+.$<2;2, J#+<2;0,% U)#"3+ 7;<, $"U% %%+ 728, # 4"$U%$N% )$%%%3+<2;2$ <7:, )#'%U-'3 ")%)""+. J$<220, )#%" "$"%) #!)+'T$ <22=$ =, 4%)"

PAGE 33

)$"#U) %3+$4$$TJ'$<22<$ E;, "<2=0$C%$# $#"# <208$# "%" +<20:, #)%#" "<202$C"#" #"%N' "<2E8" +C#$<2E8N/$<2E8N.)T'$ <2E>NJT/$<2E8, #) % $% !)"+$?$T.$<2;;N .T$<2;;N.'#$&$T6)$<228NJ#T <2;0, ""%")# (""#'# %)%'# %"+T$<22=$ 2=, $" %$%'"# "+J'$<22=$ :80, $)#( # "$%"#)#

PAGE 34

.?# J#-)$ "$)$$)$)) )""+&%$<2E7N$<22>N'T"$ <2E;, )##$ +&$<2;0N?$<2;ENC$<2;0,# %#%##" ) )%)"%'" ) %) +J#T$<2;0$ <:=, 4#+<2;<,*" 1$$%$$3 %"+<2;<$ <>, C+<2;0,#% )$$' %"1 )###%# "3+.$<22:, #/!*+<228,$1) ##)#"W"%' M "#H3+ =, )U3"% "%U))3+)$<22:$ !, )"'$) >7

PAGE 35

+J#T$<2;0,$##%+J'T ?$<2;;, "%)"# C"+>88<,'# ""# %"# #' ) #%" $#(#%! U3+/T/%$<2;0$ ==, U#3!%# I"+$D$T)$<22=, %#$6)+<2E2,# "%)# '% "+J#$$$ $<2;2, "$"-' %"$""% #H)+/!T*$<228, "#%))# )"""+@ <2;2, J'%%#%# "$#+C$<228N$ <228NJ#$$$ $<2;2, $ $"%# +&$<227, "$-(% ""13+J'$ <22=$ <2, )4T&*H >:

PAGE 36

)UH$-3 +<22< ;,# H#" Y%#'+C*-.TJ"$<22=, $ '+<220,"") "I# % )%)#" )"U)3#" +J$<220, )" "$#) HU%%$ I3+J'T?$<2;;$ <:, )"#"" #"")"#+$<228$ 7:, )))## "+$$T&$<22=, $#" %##" "$)""")) )#!" %## Z[')+$<20;, $" G "$"#" ")U 3 ")#) +4$<2;0, -')# %+$<2;;, #+>888,' 'U"$3###% )"U#%# >=

PAGE 37

3+ >:, J+<220,)#%-') "### ##-) &"#" I$)#"I +J#T$<2;0$ 7=, (" +'$C*$.'$T'$<2;0N$?$T .$<228N%$<2;<, ")%%% $%!$%!$I "-'#U$$ )"3+.#$<22>$ <=0, #) #)$)$ )%+&$<2E>, $ !" #### +J#T$<2;0, &'+<2;2,## !%U%#*) #3+ ), ) ")' % %' $$%% % #))%$$%$ % '#$J#$$$ +<2;2,%"U3 %" >0

PAGE 38

$$)) #U) #% "+$<22<, /#"# $ )"H44!"# U%## #%)'( ""H"3+.$?)$T4$<22>, ) #)'% U)U+$D$T)$<22=$ 7=, )'%$)H#) !"% #"#)))$ )")## $) ##IU$#3) )+#"T$<22:$ 2, 4%')') '""%#) +J'$<22=$ <>, ) ##)%" #) ")) $ %"%'' $ "##% +J'$<22=$ 72=, "#-H))) %)"Q#"+.$$T >E

PAGE 39

?$<22>, "I"+4T$<2;0, "" +J#$$$ $<2;2, 4)#+<2;2,)""% "" ")U HS%) )+J'$<22=$ 7;, "$ %)"#$ '#)+J'$<22=$ >7, "% "+T$<2;;, %% $% #)#)"%+4)T #$<2;2NJ'T&'"$<2E7, H$ H## %Q##" "$# ")#"$!) ""Q!+/#$ <2;E, 4+#**$M"'$ @$T6$<22
PAGE 40

))(##% ") "$# %+J'$<22=$ >, $")$ )U"3" )%+CT$<2;:, ") $"# #+6$<2;2$ <;8, $") %-)+@$<2;2, $# (%#)# %) #-# !### +#**$M"'$@$T6$<222

PAGE 41

## J#R"%$"# $)# +J#T$<2;0NJ# $T@$<2;8, "%'% +4$<2;ENTB$<2;;N$D $<2;2N%$<2;, J#$ $ +<2;2,##'U% )%"-%3+ >0, (#% )!%+J$<22>$ >=, $ #) %-'"+TC$<22<, )"%)') H!+#$<22=$ >8>, $D$ )+<22=,*) )"#U)$%% I"3+ >=, +<2;0,I#" )"##!')% -'))#)#% )%#$ H+&$<22=, #J' +<22=,'%#H)! $##%## 78

PAGE 42

'-'+ >8, N%)$#%) ))+%T$<22>, "$J#T +<2;0,#%) "'%$) "%'"# "I $%-'# )+#"$<22=, %$)$ )#%#$)"$) )#%'+&$<227N &$@$&$.#)$T$<2;;NT$<2;;N CT6'"$<2;EN@%$<2;;N4"$<2;:N$<2;EN.$<22>N K)T$<2;2N'T'$<2;:N$<220NJ#T J#$<2;=NJ$<2;0, ")")# #%" % "%%#-#$)))# #!+&T*$<22>, ")-') $"$) /%)$ )%)$#$-)) K)##') U$1HI"+'*$<2;2, %+<2;<,# A###-'#(""#+ <7, I4+<2;2,#'"# "#"#"+ E, 7<

PAGE 43

#$%#1'%U!"# 1+@$<22<, /%)$# %"# #-)$") +&$<227N/$<2;E, %#)%)#% +&%$<2;2$ , .% ""$)%# -')# @*+<22<, "#'#(" 4 4+<2E:,U## ("3+

PAGE 44

%"")% "##%-'$ #%%""#% +&$'$T&' <22>N&" <2;7N&'$<22N4%$<22:N?$<227N6)TC#$<22>N.#$<22>NT #$<22=N$<2;7, )# '")## J$ %'"#$$ "%-'%+&$<2;>N4$<2E=A C$<202N.'"$<2E8$<2;:,%# C+<202,##"))%$ %"% J##+<2;2,) #UH1%-'%% #)#% %%$ %) -' %)'#"$ #!"+$<228$ 7>, )) -') +DTD$<227, )%")# -' ) %'D?%")#) V77

PAGE 45

<278 *+<22:,)" #!")%U3 %) )08\) )!"<2;8 %=$888) "<22=+@"$<22=, @"+<22=, )#)#)-'% %U#3%% U")"3+ =, @" U-') #3+ 0, #%" $U!)H '#+J#$ $$ $<2;2$ <><, # ))"%!) %(")+M"'$<2;7NM"'T #**$<2;7, 6?'+<222,) !## $ ")#!)'-' #+$<22>N@"$<22=N'$<228N ? $<2;ENJ#$$$ $<2;2NJ$<22>, &' +<2;8,'#)#%# ))-' 4+<22>,%'# #)# /# #U"## 7:

PAGE 46

3+ ;, +<22:, )#A )-#*$*$ !##$ )$)"$)) #)$*'#$"##$ #+ =:;, !)%')#)#% 4)")"J +J#$<2;7, )#% #)#)1"$ "$%$"$$$"3% #%)U#$$#$ )#$)%$ #3+ 2, J##* ") @"+<22=, #)))$ U"3+ E>, !#$" #N H# $ $))"# %#))%) +C$<2;7, "$&$&'#$TB&'+<228,U %("" ()"3+ =;, @"+<22=,# U%%'%) "H K I V7=

PAGE 47

3+ E:, 4+<2;2,## %# # "+<22<,-'U"#$ )#3+ =, )) )))"" "#+J#$$$ $<2;2, $)'%)% )#+'$C $<22>N J#$<22<$ >7, J)"%1-# 3%)")(R'"%" "1)%)( 3+&'$<22E$ :8, J-' )$"%)$# $%+&'$<2;:N@"$<22=]>, )%$)" "#$ ))$#$^ $"$-*+M#$<228, $" -'+)*$<2;, @T %#+>888, '$*%U$$## )3+ >=, "%"+>888$ :::, U)#"%"'%3# #%""##%# 70

PAGE 48

# "%+<22;, "'## %)"))'" )+C$<2;=, *$!#)) $##))$'" )+C#"T$<2;<, #"$ #$% #)##+@$<22<, $"+<22<,)" '" #")*+<2;<,$ '"")% #" .$D$6#$ &*+<22E,)##)U3 *+ <8E, C#"+<2;<, ##$"#U" "##"3+ <;, J'%"+<2;2,#"% )#U#*3U )#%)3+ <;, )+<2;2,%) "'")"+ $ #%'#" U#"3+/!T *$<228$ <8, %#* "'!) "+ <<,

PAGE 49

K 4)#.# )#%#) #) # $A-' $##-' H$%% %'$#%%"%'#%-' +4$<2;2A?'$<22>N/#$<22$ <7, J #% ")##)%$ "%"%' +/$<22:, %("% %"%) %)# +.-<7, J"-"+>88<,%-' ")%%#% ))" #C"J## +<2;2,$%-'" "%U##3 ##"#-'%+&'T 7;

PAGE 50

4$<220NC#T!$<227N$<220N"-?$<22=N J"$<22:, "+<22E,'--##% $)$(# U)'$$'$#3+ 7<=, +<220, "#H-'%) #%<88-'% %#+6$ <227, ### #"+#$<22E, '# U#$3-'%)%" ))!"+9'"$>88<$ >2, ##"" +9'" >88<$ <>, # )) $%U"#% )-##$--% #$$#))$)$ !3+'$<228$ <, #U) %""## !$%$#$"# ##$%!$' '$ 3+<2;;, #)#+, $+,#$+,#$+, $+,# #$##$"%$# +!$$T/#$<2;;$ 72

PAGE 51

, #%))#*)# +'$<228, )") #)'$)#$ ##!%$#$)# +', #)'# "$" D)D?(".)+>888,#%# %)-'" U"'%##%$#%" '#)#H"3+ ;, # #")% '"+ $T& <22=, #) "#-'#+'$<228, .%)## -'"#%+'T .$<227, /+<22:,% -'"#"#Q + 0, ) )_)$"#"$$ #+/I"$<2;2NJT$<2;>, S)% %-#" $H" )##+'T.$ <227, #/$#)))# QU)3U#3 +!$<22:$ 77>,

PAGE 52

!$$/#+<2;;,#-'"$'" `$"U#3# + 7;, "%I# *%"%) +D$<227, )"$'$6#$&'+>888, )#U"#) "3U#% A')$#3+ <, '## '#"#H+<228, $# "###+?'$<22>$ 7<, "'##% "+?'$ :<, "$"#)" # /%)$"#%## %%") $ $)#")%#$)$ %%"+$<2;;, ""#H#% ("$'# %%#)+@$ K<22<, "%%"" %-' @%#+>888,% A##%"U 3'+ >=, %""" "))" #$#)+'$<228, 4+<2;=, D :<

PAGE 53

###))#-'"% %$#%"-'U' )$$' 3+$<228$ 6<2, /#" !$%$ +<22>,))U")#H1+ 7>8, ##% )%"H'#+"$<2;<, @ +<22<,#'")#% U#-)* 3+ <<, &$J$.'$/"+>88<,A+, '%#$+,$+,)$+,"$+,)$+, #$%#)#-'#)# #$%%")##"% %+!$$T/#$<2;;$ :=, J$## "#-') +J'T?$<2;; 2, $%#$) #-'")#" #%#+/#$<2;E, #$)#$)#$ )'$))"-'"+'$ <228, 4+<2;=,)%' )$$'%#!$)$

PAGE 54

)-'"% &"#-'$#%$ #%")+4$<22>$ <8,$ %"") "$ #%%)" %'+' <228, !# )#+/"$<2;2$ >:, # +<22=,##"% "U)3+ 7>8, "$#%$-' '"'"# &*+<22>,"#% $"--1W%'+ 02, "%"+>888,' -"%" %)"%'%Q% $$'" #%$#"$ )"#+C$<2;E, %)# -'"#))" '#+&T*$<22>, @+<2;=,##"#I #N)#)"% # .""$))%" #$"#) !"+.'$<2;E, &# $)"%'$%)"$ $#"-'+6"$<227$ :, V:7 K K

PAGE 55

#$%") #)%"# +$<22<, $ )#)# )-+6#T?$<22:, -''%"Q #-"%+4'$<2;E, $#"% +.$<22:$ >E<, $#-'% "$)$) "$))+?$<22<, %)%(' #)#+#T6$<22:, "$ !U*) %-!3+.$<22:$ >08, -' "%)# %+&'$<22<, ")"% HH%%#$' $%)3+.$ <2;=, %)"# '%##"#"% !$$/#+<2;;,##$'$ %"%$# /"4$?>888 D)D$"$UJ %% 3#'%#( %"#&$U"H#*" ::

PAGE 56

'$))K1+ :, !% "$>888, J'+<22=$ 7;E,#% $%%$#) ###%# "#)## $$ $(% $)# #-' 4%#"A < $"#-'#$ %")## > "!)#% H# :=

PAGE 57

4/.7 4//?6CM % < $"#-'#$ %")## > "!)#% H# $%#(%# %!A 4)# ##"!#) L J"%)#L /%%# !)#L J#) L J# )#L ?H##%" )L"#$%""#L :0

PAGE 58

H&'# H!'"()"+6 TC$<2;=N&# &'$<2;>,$# ) #I<;"! $)#$) $)# !% ##%### )# #"!$%" # % #####(! # "$" #### #!)$%# < "##### > %"### # 7 : :E

PAGE 59

= )%)# )%R(H% 0 %%)%#)% ## E )#%%)"' #"###$## ) ; &"#$#% )## #$" %#")## #%'"))" %' $#%( %'+&#T&'$62;>A6TC <2;=, $#&#&'+<2;>,$"$"# # "$"% )#!)# #+<22<,$13) U!)'##$#%!3+ <8<, "()%#" !%$%$ ('"#)# )U# +%,*% $$'#($"3 +$<2;;$ 72, %)"(%!">=\ :;

PAGE 60

)%$)##%")# -"#"%)) )""%" %# $" )%$)%"'% D @$U% 3 ")%%( "$#"%"%) %# ))% "!% # &"#$H"' #% )##) % $)$-##)% /%)$ )('" !"%%#$)!#)% 4!%% )%$#% # "')#% "#" )#"#%# %<7$;88#)/# #<22= &"#>888%)%$ H#%
PAGE 61

<78( )%## ""#% !""$H" ">=\ ## ##%%'# $ )" I I)%%$%% ))##) /)# %##%) ":8$ >8>8$%)# #)%#<:>8"# #)%">=\)%% #)## Q$# $%> =\$> =\&'$E =\/$;> =\4$=\ WW3%%) $Q )$#$% >\$7\&'$;\/ ;7\4$:\U 3 Q% %'%<222->888"%7\$7\&' =\ N/$;;\4$<\U 3$"# #!%Q'% )%% I K=8 K

PAGE 62

I)"%"":8)%%# #" #"+<2;;,$% %#A+,%I# "$+,!)Q%%# $+,%#$$ #H"$+, <8($+,(Q##)) $+,))%% ")%)! $)"%"# )/#% .( "$% # ( (# $( )%$$H$ ))$ #%#% )# "$$"$" "#" .-)% !$%)# #%" =<

PAGE 63

" ?#)$% / #%#####$%" )%$%)$% %)# #%)<=#% %""%#$$ "$(" %()%%$ %%($( %#'()" "%% #"#)!$ N$$$$I $I$$$)% ") %#)% %%(# $%%"#<;" #%#)% )%# ($ '%Q%#)" %% "$%) )#" ))%$ %"# %"% J %%#<;" => V V

PAGE 64

)% ##"$# %#*"H$#%$'$ +4$<2;E, +!!# '#$!&$ !4 #)() #")#$"( '%")"%%# $#)#) ) "$)# "$"$'%%" # 5)# $#)#$ %##%"$ %"'##+$<2;E, ?) ()$#%#!$ %%$#$ #! #+<22E,#"% U#")"%'%3 + ;, #%H#" "%(#$() U"3"3"#U 3$ U)#"3)"#()

PAGE 65

I W1)))$)$## )!"3+$ ;, !$"##" %)" (%'# ))## )%!$$ ##X% M+<2;2,&#&'+<2;>,$# "#%U)#))$ %"%-!3+ <7, ))"#%)%"% #)+$4)$ .$TC"$<2;2$ 2, !%! ) /%# )!#) #%! "$%( %)" ")##* $#.+<228,$"U") %) () # !3+ =:, &"##)$ %H%'# )# H)#$% H#%'%#) %)# ?+<2;2,##$" %"#*#)%#" =:

PAGE 66

?#" !"#%" A,---)%%) #$,)%#)/#$ ,)%R)+.$<228$ <88, % ###)%(+!?,# )%) $% #))%% #" %) )%)% ))%() # .. )%(%I"# & %)%%%##")# %% % )#)#%## #!" %% H%()"+CT"$ <2;=, "%# +M$<2;:$ ;8, ==

PAGE 67

#)% %#)% "#)% )#"' #)% )%%%)% B)%% )"+$<2;; ;>, )%%""#% %'# )%" ( )%!)% "#)")%(+/'$<2;0$ 7:, )%C J'#$4+<2;; 7:,1)%# #"()# I 3J$%)% #)/#$$#$ #%$% ;A88 :A88 )%%H$ $!"#)" K)%%:8-28 %' #'#$$$ '%"%' +$<2;;$ =;, %

PAGE 68

%)%("% ')"#" ##)%(%%'"' %(#" J)%% "#$#(% )%)"# % %)%%$ )%$!#" # %'Q"(##" -$-)%(%)%# )%%) %%$#"$# +.$<2;;, (% )% %(%)%# "%#)' "+.$<228, %')"(" %%)%# &"#$( %%")%#A+,('# $+,('%#$ +,Q(RW#$$)$$ $$3+,)(# H%)+CT "$<2;=, %#)%#($ )#$$()# =E

PAGE 69

$)$+. <228, )%$$)( "+$<22< <<0, )%%#" $ #) ""# % )%'$$$ )! )%% $%' $% %")%$'#$$ # $%)#"" %)%%#) )# #"$)"# "%)%"% %%!#" #' %)% %%"" ) )"')%)"" )%($)"$ )# )% $#*$ "*"H '")% )$##$' #)%%"*% =;

PAGE 70

)%)"# )"# )%(%)!) !I)#+ <22<$ 7:, &"##H%%$%# #%#% %%)### "#%)+&T$<2;0$ >>>, $)%%$6C+<2;=,"$) #%)%"%'$$# $)%)) %#)#$ )#)%# ) %#)# % B%)) % )$$$)$ %%$)% ))# %% % $%) ) %'%)$# $# ))%# )#")$$" =2

PAGE 71

+4$<2;E, %'#Q %#)$"#$%" ##$)"#+?$<2;2$ E8, ?" #)%## R!") #)" '%#))##) #)Q)%$#* ##)/#% ) ?)%)%"* ")%%% ')#% # )%%"*#$# "$"$R$$ "$##$ %%#$$ %$%$ $%'%%"# )"% %# "% $#)%)#)/#" 08

PAGE 72

"? .+<2;;,')$ "# ())" $" %"*)" "%'% #% +&#T&'$<2;>, "%## ""#" )"$#""C+<20E, "4+<2;E,$)#" $)%%) "% #%)+.$<228, %)% %!+&#T&'$<2;>N)$<22>, # $%$%"'#"$")# #+4$<2;;, $% )# $%) %$%%#" #"!##"$%% &"# $#%1# !3+4$<2;;$ ;8, #%%%# )%)## )%%)%% ##*# J$()% 0<

PAGE 73

## #*#% )%%#* !$#)"# &""*##*#%$) % 4-"$%#"* ""#!$%+M <2;:,% ()%#"*+.$<228, 6'%$)#%#*%"# % ?"%)$$ %#) #$%)) ?%U$$!$3 +$<2;;$ <78, %) "()")")#!#!)% ##R"($ '%")#! +C$T"$<2;=$ >8E, %"*#$) %4$)$!%% #)%$)%$) !H)%%% #%)$)# #" "#+M$<2;2,$%## $)%))# #"# 4$?)%$) ")%)#) /# !%!# 0>

PAGE 74

)# .%"$ )%%4a(A !)$)) #)/###L 4)$)%$)$S( )%$")% #)/# (A J"%)#L /%%)# !)#L J#) L J#$ )#L ?R##%" )L"#$%""#L 4!$)$)") %#%/# )4) 07

PAGE 75

4/. ?4BJ ") #)/# "$) "#) ?%'##) # ?#)"% )#$(%" ) #" J)$" #")! H ($"))")#%"$ #$%$"$) %$%$#$) $$$ #"$%)# ) ##)# #)%'$!$ '#### ?# $ ?# )%$%$" 0:

PAGE 76

% %#$ $% $ !)#%$$% % ''%)% '%! # %"'# J)R!") $)%$I'#$ %#*) %##"" #"$"## % %!#% # )%)%)#*#) #*# % %#* $%% $$%#) %) "()")")#!#! ?)"% #'#" %"* #$)%% %)"( 4 )###" !#)L# I0= D K I

PAGE 77

Y K)%-)#)/# 4#% ?)#)/# ?<=$<22:% ) H)) #%1#)% ## 3#)# # #%%'# ## "$%)#)/# )# )#)/#A )%")! #><4"$ #)/#)#( #)*###$"$# ")%$-' )%#) % #H"#$"$ # ) #)/#H(") V%-'## $%$

PAGE 78

RWC$"$/#3)"" #)/#$## # #D<222% /#$#)/# )$<22=$#"%'#% '%% -#) /)#)# )% $ %)" # %')"" *#"#$#$))$ )#$%'-"#$$ H% #)/#-# "$'$""'$ # .D>E$<220$%) #$#CH%$$ )$)#$# )$####"$# # 0E

PAGE 79

." "))% #)/##"%) # '#( JD"<22= #)/#%# %%#% )##%<22E%" #$#"*$#) %"%%''# # R"$"!$ % #'$"$$$ 1W#3%"R) $% ("$"(" 4$$")%% /%"%%# ?#$)"#" )! $"'' %) #R#$$#% '%#$-#$' "%"% "I J "%$###

PAGE 80

S I #)/#
PAGE 81

D .H )%) #H## %$$#)/# ##%)" % !D"<= <22= #)/# %'%" !%) "%)# )'H !)! <220AUJ)"$ 3!U' %"" 3$(" # U#%' 3?<222%%#% U'"%#"" 3 ")U4$3 *) %)%) # $# )%#!$"!$ $$% E8

PAGE 82

%R#)" $"# A##$)#" 28\$)Q $ %!# "%#)/#) )# "$! )#$"%# %") U3 ("')# H )# % #)/#%#')# "$#)##))$#$ ') #)/# #)% )# $%)## ##)" #)/#'# $#)#" !$#$ %%#" "$#$ ) ##!-%'##%! '%#" E<

PAGE 83

)#)/# # )<= .. #)/# %-#) -"#D"<22=%;= #2#<> #"#%<7=#<222->888 "%<=8#)! ""$ )#") 7:\#<222->888" /%)$) )"" %"%)# ))# #)/## %#$)#!) <22E4H4#% #)/#)A 4#)/#% ??Q?/?$$$ $-)$"$) "$*$% )"$!$ "$#*##$ "$1#)/##) #' #)/# #-' 3 ") )#)/# #$%) #" "%)" )#I

PAGE 84

%-$##"%)*%$'' $'$##$' $ "%%' #$#%)#% !#' /$$ %!"%-! %%)% ')"$%$#%#I' )#%" %%%# % #%#*#%## % %)"%$$%'$ #% #"$!)# ##$!)%$%)%"11 )# J $") ) )## )1)31)3""# # %)1%3#" ## #)/#%" ))## @% J)%#D#)/# R)$)#'% $'%#N #)/#H ))"## &) )%$#b ##1%'3##_ #% E7

PAGE 85

%H)$U!"%)% "%#)##)* 6#.H'#"%" 3 $ ")$$## J!$ %#) %%") !) AU6'#M%$3U )#'$1)"#$3U#'$3U# "#"$3U#<8 3)% U!$3U%$3U)"$3U## #$3U# U"'$11" #$3U" 3 !%A1% &%-$3U$ #$3U""$31$' ?/?a?/")"?c U#%###' #$3U'$3U)"$)""$3U"! '4/$3U$$"$3U
PAGE 86

$%## AU%!#$3U#$3 U%##$3U)'$3 U$3U%'$3UH" %## 3##"%U#)) '$3U%)$3U) 3U%"#$31) ##-% 3J#H$%) #)#'%%## #" !)4( )'%#$ #)###'% ")"#'% $% )"#" %)"$%"%% #")$ #)"%$%# %" $$%%%$ %%"$%)#%#$% %##"I?)&% ''#-$%%#' (-%%' %%## E=

PAGE 87

" %%)""%)# ##""##! $$%)$( %"# )6#. %) #)/#%) 6#. )*6#.# %$$%H # )"" )*6#.#%'$$ $$$"$ )*#4.$# %R#$%#)* 6#. )#$)#I$" )$#'$ ## $%#( "#H # C# ")%% ##)/#I #) $"#)% ';8\ % !#;8\# & %$*

PAGE 88

#)/## C"$"$)"! ')%'## %# %!H%' )$Q#)###) # # )/#'#H #$"#%## )/#$>"'# %"%)-%'%%' 4(%' "#"" # &#"$" ')# "# )!$ !!" 4%!' !) ##" );8\")! #.# )"# )#$)# ## D"<22= )"#<>-<=$ #%#Q#)/# )%)6#.% )

PAGE 89

)<=#.6$%78 "#) $%Q #">%' ?#$# H%'-'")%# $#%'$##$# )##-$)# )%'%H%% #)/#$ #$1%#'%3")# )# $' %H"$#)"% %''%H# #%"$$ )%H $''%##R# $!U!3#R # #)/#)" '%-' $#"# $"%'#%# %%"%')"#JH +<2;0,%%'#)) "'%) #)/#"# %1@' 3& $'%" # %#)/# E;

PAGE 90

##' $# (( R)UC))3$"H"$ %%#)) !)%)# ###) /# %) #% "# ## $#%'$$ )'$4')$" ) 4 #)/# # ))"&!?)" "# ?)" ($$ )# $#$" $"###" I$"%-% #$'4.$#)"<;" # (#%*) %## )#$#"+ E2

PAGE 91

',$E>)%' "(# H) ")( "%!#" )))"#)%) "#)/# )%" $#)/#)" '"##' <222 %))"#)/# %).?$4"D$$4" 4$4?B C%$D)$?/$ /@$4$"" )'#)/# )#" %"# "") #"$ ##) #)/# )$$I$ ")"%# %'%%)#%"%#" %" )$#)/# $"#"% !#)"# )/#$""#!"%'#I ;8

PAGE 92

# %### ")'#"" # *#$$ )#)/# % ) "%)) !)$""# ")#'!" )"% ##$)# )""-% "!)#)/# %%#" 6#" 6#" #"%" $-$I# ) ())##) I$-#)$#" %!' )% ?# )$)$# #)))##% #%I$')#-$ ) C# !%'#): &"##"$ 28"%)") # '#)#%' ;<

PAGE 93

) )"R%'#! %)## #$)<= .Q/%' ) R$$$#"$ *%'' # %'$## %#1"%'1%' $%'! '#%'#)%%' "(%'"## J %'$% J'" )"%'(# $)4) #%4% #$#)%#'$# )$#%' D. %%%'"%) $##D#$ )%')"I% $%# # #$# ""'$%'$)$"# #)' ;>

PAGE 94

#" #R$ %#) () ##!" %'%!#%)28\ # QC )")") #)/# #))" -4 C%)* # ??C #%??Q?/?%%%' 4C)% ## .C% %)#%#%" #)"% $ %%$ $#% # %"$<2221 #)/#L1# #)/#%'%# ##$"$$ !$)$" 1 ##"""#)# 4 &##)/# 4%" ;7

PAGE 95

" #$"'#$"#$%'% ) ) R)4'# ##*)#$ $ $##)"-# "'##/J' ")I## 4 % "%R ) $"#%) !$%$;"<8# ##! %)"$) "$#$% #" $!I %#A)%$) #$#)"$! C?"$%"$"$% %Q!$ $#"$'$# #$$"'$#$ ?#$($#$% # #'#"$ $")"$/&$ ###)#$)$

PAGE 96

#)### %) ###A$ %R!%R$"'$## "$$## %##4##$ %'$".C#$# #$"'$) "$%) $%#A))"$ .)"4$#)$ )4$%")I %("##$$ %#!A%$%#% %)$%')#$ %R)$%))$ %## 4)# )') #)/#%')'# %$$" ##)#)#
PAGE 97

#$"<<##) /#%)4$ BR#%$!"))#% #)/#% #"$ $A )%!#" %"$")! %%%#'%# $R#R%"$%) "$%%# !-## )%'#-'" C )' "''# ) %##*)"# #)$##"#)/#" "#" $)""? "!""$ $%$$##$$ "##$'"& $$%$ # !R"$' )1%I%" )""!" %)$%%' ###%)

PAGE 98

!<220#%#% R!#)/#A1%' C%#)##%"11# )/##)'" 1 $ 1 ""I"#11% ''#)/##) ## 3"$1A%'"# '#"28#%'% ## '%)#( 1 )# (R# %#)/# )4 #*#*$" )$"$$$"$% $$# )#)#"$##$# '"##$$#!$ #))$ $#$ ##)## R) #)/# )4#)# $#)/#% ")4?R" 4" ##4# "4) 1%##$)$I # 4#"%'$ ;E

PAGE 99

%%%"# 1)%' )#"#% %"R !##)/# %%'###!%'## %%) !%### #"C?%#" -# %'#" #" ##%# )# ) )!#$" )#)/# )!) %))! ###%)"<8$<22=$ #)/# $%# )#! $% ##)) )"#%%& "")# $ %%%###X "4&

PAGE 100

#"%&%I# %I%#)/#% %)&" R"")# 6$%"#$%#& R##" #"$ "$!)) $&$4$?$# "# )C. %%" "#)%" )"%%%# #)/#" "#$)" $ ))) ## )##)/## R % '%"%#!#" ""0=+"," #"$"' #"%'"%"'" # #) #<=$<220#$#" $1%#"#' ) #)/# "44<220 ;2

PAGE 101

"4# I ### )/#$" ) #)/# %% )<22=@% #B".')" I#1())) 1?# R<220-2E"$)4)# #)/#)#4 4.#! #%#* )# # )/#))4)# ###$"$# <22E$#)/#%%D %%##4#"? %%$ )$#####" # ?#<22;-22"$? I%&%! %)# #"$#)/# %"#)%#<22;-22 V" V"%#!%!# K)# "$ V28 V K <

PAGE 102

)% )% )"#%(%! # %)#)/# "% )#%%%'#)$ %%%'%' "%" 4#%)% ##%A < %')#$%$ %%)# ")"%"' "%'% ")" '%-' > %')#) %'$%)R #$)# 7 %')#)-' )%# ) J$"'%$ #% : %')#) $ '%#"$))6#. $## = %')#)## ##" ?'# 2<

PAGE 103

%#"%)' 0 %')#) # $")## "' E %')#) "#!" ")(#! % ; %')#)( % "%))# )"%%'") 2 %')#)# %##X"Q# %" J$"$ %'$)$" <8 %')#) #")*#!( #$$)#$'$ '$$4. "#"$ *#$##)$E>" )$%# ))# '"-')# )# (A4) ###"!# )L6'#'# 2>

PAGE 104

)%$%#$## %#) #)/#) )# )# )/##% -')## ")%) ##)!$ "$%)%# %%'%)" )11"# $%#)/## )X'#)" -' #)/#)$ $-##%)' &"$#)/#) %"$R #" '%####" %" #)/#) %"#### %% ")'" %'% """ % #)/#) !#( J ##$)'"# 27

PAGE 105

"%#R "' #)/#) %-') %# ")%( ") )!$")I#) $"" ) $# %# # )/#)")-% "-%"# ##$"$# #)/#)% ')## ))##)/# ))""#) /#$%$"R !## "R N#*I$# )""%#('%# #)/#)# ### ")I' "#)' % %'#)/# # )" 2:

PAGE 106

R#))) ""( %"$)#% "$4# )/#)"'%-' "#" )")R) % %")"% )) ##-'$$ #)/# )#" 4)$%% )%$%A < $"#-'#$ %")## > "!)#% H# %"") #)$%)# 2=

PAGE 107

4/.B ?BJ "" B )%)" $)%%)%) "% #"!#%)% 4%$%d" '#"$")## $ %)%$%% #" #" !##"$%% % )# #%%%# )%)## )%%#)%%) ##* # J$()% ## #*# %)%%#*S &" "*##*#%$)N% $"%)$$ %%) %))$ I?%:8))%%# V#)/# %>88 V>8 )%) %)#)# < #

PAGE 108

)" #)%#<:>8 "# Q$# $%> =\$> =\&'$E =\/$;> =\4$=\ 11%%) Q %%'%<222>888"%7\$7\&'$=\/$;;\4$<\ 1 1#)%">=\)%$% #)## )" %"":8)%%# #"" )%-)%(%" -) )%:828 #% &%# # "Q! ""#%$ #)$R 4%R# #)#!#)# %#%! ?" )%%" #)/# ## )%# %4)$%%)% #)/#)$%#(

PAGE 109

4)# ##"!#) L 4##($ )#%% R# %#)"(A J"%)#L /%%# !)#L %#R !)# #)"(A J#) L J# )#L J"R##%" )L ( # AI%"-# ##)%%#)/# ### K%#-%' 2;

PAGE 110

6 > !6# > #?J' > #*? > .4#) 7 4" 7 6)) 7 &#J )#*#%'# #)%%( -##!" )%!" ####) $7;:8)% I#% %#-%">8:8)% (""%1# 1%%%"" $1#!#$1" 22

PAGE 111

$1#" 1 #"#)# $!%"% #)" $ $%#) J# )%$! %)% R7E:8$ "%"%"#$" "1R11R1 $#" $7>:8)%$%%#" %"%)$"1 $11%"$1%'"$1 1%#% 1J% $"%"%"%%# # ")%!## $%"%#) ) #)%$R ##!"1$1 !"1IR"$11"R$1 "!"1%#"%%X"' 1)"$%## %# $# $ <88

PAGE 112

%"7E:8$#)" I $ R) .$% #$'" $")#"I"%"#"'" # %)"%" /%)$ "'%%I##" %#! )%%$#)#! "#'%A R)'%""!/#"R '% "%%%" ""R'% H)'# '" /%/#$"'%%#"$1J "%'L1"#' % !/#I" "%R)'" (""% )1'# %$11#)$11# 1 R"1#"$11# '$11# I)"#' 1!A J$")"'% # "R##%'%$ ## % "R'% %( R'% "%R %R)$# $%%'"# %R))# H)#* <8<

PAGE 113

"$)%% "%%A % ""'%"%) %")"%%' "'%" "'% ."")#'% %)# '##"-# $""%"'%" %"%# % :8)%$7> "$"%# !A "R)%)"#" '' "IR "$"$ $'% %"% /' IR"' IR'%#% $I%%#" "%"%%# %"#"R" "## '"""I R #")% ") %" %## %Q$%)A MR"'"R"A1J$)"" M$I% 1"%R "RI"$1? % 1$"R""%" R"% ##$# MR')"R "% "H" "R" "R" "%'$1J"" %R%"'#"'$1" %)"%I'$1&" 1

PAGE 114

")##" %R#-' % #%%)%$ #'%"%$)$#" ) "1#1 1#1'#%" %)%#)) %"# '%" ## $"$'$ #"$%"%"# /%)$ %##)%" #1111" #%$#)"%"# )" !R #'#)A %R' %# %'# R% #(# R#$"$#%### I'%%% %""## # "%"#')"#" "%"$R%' R# "R"%'"##"$ 1JR##L1#" #"! %#"%"" "%%" %#"$"#'"%#%#" "!" #%"" %"%### J%% "'%%%"%##"" <87

PAGE 115

"#$"R"# "H" "I#R#"# %%)%)1I#1 1'%%'%%% 1 $$1J"'"L1$ 7::8##" )#1$1 1%I#'$11%#'$11%##$11%$11 %'$11%%'$11%# '$11% 1"%1I# "11'% 1")1%R ""R)11%')# 1 1''"R'$1 1'"R'%###$11'"R$11' "R' 1 ")"%%"#% ##% #"$$'#"% "$"1I1" 1I 1/%)$$1I)R#$1# %%#%''" % "" !A "'"%$R %"R### ""H% J %$% %''$#%$#$ ##"# "%R! )# "'% "#% "R%'%' <8:

PAGE 116

$"R'%#%"R' ##% "IR''# J %'$%"% #))%' ')' I '"'% #)% "))1#$1 1#$11)# 1M ))1#%'$11## %%#'$11#$11I# 1 %#()%A ""#% "#%#'"! /#"R'%R)"#%" "% "R'""%%R)# '%%)" '"%%#)X%H "'%"(' %# /ac'%%#$ %'% (' # %)"#%% "%I' 1# 1 ##$'%$%$ '%"% "%%'" I' %"%% "%"$%I# % "$)%$#$R $#)"##"X '%$$ #$'A <8=

PAGE 117

I"' "R### %#"$%"-'$% "R$%" R)# '%' "R "R# %"# "'"R "R'#""R ##% #-%%# $ -%) 1(11# 1"#")" A1$11$11$11##$11$11#" #$11$11'$11I' 1% 1I"R) %#%"( %($"R"% )% $%"$"#R % "%%# %###%#$% "%""##$ %")"" $7::8)% 1$11$11$11$11 1 )%%)"" )")6' #) $1%$11U$11% "X")'# 1R"## #$# )%'#)(% ) ""#! <80

PAGE 118

1(11#1%)"A1#$11# '#$11#$3U#$11#" 1""#$1R% 1"$ !)A )"(" "R($"I ) R)" %/#$R)# I%" %$"# "%% "" $H"%#'"$I' HI$"R##$ #R'" %'%' % %'Q' %'$'$# # %I %R %"#$1/"$R# 1R '#"%"%##% )%(R##% ( "% #!"%# $" ))(%1#$3U'# $11#%#$11"#I% 1!#A !/#$%##### %# "%H#$"%## "%'" )"" $R'"##$"'% MR% #$"R## R'$''$% "LJ"L "("R"( M ") "%R($ ""R %'"#()""I '''1% 1 <8E

PAGE 119

("(# "(%## ( %"#)'#( )%%A %'%"$#$"%R' ""# 6')%%) )# J%) # J%R)) "'""!%# "R# #$"R"# I''$"" &#$R R I# R%# ##")R" '"%1I$11$1 $11 1%1R# 1J' !$"("% !$)"$ J' #!$$1R' )"# %I$'$ 1)% #"A $"#%%$ ")""' ##%" %'X D##% M'%$"R $% %$ )% %"#%' "#' ##"$#"$#"$#"$# %"$'"$# "R "#"$'%"" M# '%#"# # #%R%'%%"R # "R'$1$'#" 1/#' %I' #"$1 'R'1 $R#"I'#"' # )

PAGE 120

#"## ') ")%'" "#%' #" %I)#'% # %I# % "1#"11"1 R%) I #$1$% $##$% # %)%# %)%# '%' %R' %I# "%'$1$R' JR' R #% 1"% ""I'' "#%"I'% % J''$RI'$1C$R)% 1 .I'%% "I" !6# #"$" !## #*I%R# #)! "#"""1R%'1 !$ #)"%$70:8)%$" #"%"1#$11'# '$11#'#%"1%R#%" %'#% (#!%" ##"$"7::8 $%"#*R %1#1$%1"1$ #1"$1)$"% %'%(") )% <82

PAGE 121

%#) $ Q#! $77:8 )%$#)#$" ## $)% ##"Q%11 1%"1"%)## #?J' '# ")$"#"%1$3 U$11' 11$11 1 ("#')" "%#%$" '#$"#%'% "$%"# %# %#%H )%#%"% A '"/%/#$"I%I$$ $" "'#%"" "R #)#'% %%" %XI%"%# #$# I#%# %"$%" # )"#%# 6 ?"%' )"%### )"# %""#%%" R' #'%## <<8

PAGE 122

%")(!" "#%'#%" "(""')# $)#%'%" )"%'$%'"%"#$ %'"%(" $>E:8 )%$Q"%#%'%% #' R %'A I#$ %'%"R$'' R %' R''I'%"$ 1#$'
PAGE 123

#H" N## R##%'A 6%'("#"R %#"%' R'( R#'% "'% "R#' R'%##%%R##$ % R'#R#R# $"! "#$"'% "R$ M"%"% R)' (%'%"%I%'$ "'%$!"R$#' M"'()""' ( $"%%#"# #$"%' %I"( % R## %'###%($ ##!%) "'1"R#"11"H) #" 3#" #! """#! "%' %)"%%% %%#%# %)" '%"#) )## ")## !##%'%' %## !R ##!A

PAGE 124

%!#' %'"%#%)# #"%%##" %I""'% "% '$1J$ 1$"H'$1J$"# "% 1$%")'%%"%## #%"%R### "! $"R)"%'R )""#"!/#H# ""R M %"# )%#" % ""1I%R1)"R ##")%' "#"%"# "R'' $"" #R''#( )"" %'"1R 1)""%')#%I' # #''%)) )"""RI)" % MR #*? ) ##*) %") %#*%'%%#$ %#$%#1$1%'( %#%) ""'%% $"%%A 1J%H#%H%"R% 3"RI #)"%$')# 1# 1"%#"" %""'% <<7

PAGE 125

## A '"/%/#%# %R'"%) 6'%I """%"% I'%' "## A M'%$##"' IR' '"/%/#$""'"R)' %"$%'# #) ")%' %#A %78:8 J%$%I "$"' )" %"# R%"?? #"R##$R# ##"# )%"$ R%"$"## %7<# R %" "I# ##$" )%)#%% % 4%A %""%" "% # "R) "$ %%$""% <<:

PAGE 126

%"'$%""' %=8' M""' ($ I%R# %"' ") (") ""%## %" %% #(% %' A !/#" ) )' !/#$ %R#%" %"""IR## %I# R##" )%)%") %"11) $ %%"# $)%' )%" $$## RA )"'''# R"' "%' R "I$H%' IRI RI"# MR)" "R'%"% )""%I'##( IH )?/?a?/")"?cR% (# %!/# I'% #" M M" MR) #)# < <<=

PAGE 127

)%%'%"" # /%'A%" %))## %' S"' )#%' ()%%)# #ID"%'# %"%' #)%$%%' ##A %# A 6'#%#" %"%' )"%' R"%' R#<888\ R## RI%)$)"%' #%' )%!R" IR'" %' "%##)e#%%' %" %#'%e) /%'$#" )"e#$%I%' J % $)%) $ %%%R&" $ ##%"%#$"#I%R# %' #I$## %'# 4#) "$ )%e# ##'#)$ #! %A1< %)##'"$11R"#%R#"## "%"$3U'%%R##$11%'%%R## 1'"#$"#$ 1R'%##'"$11R'R' <<0

PAGE 128

%#$11'%#%R)'"# 1"A1%")%R ##"%$11%RR$I%R)## 1"%!# )A '%%R)'"/%/# % /%'%))## I'%%R)R '##$$ %%" %###% %R##$$%"% # $ "%### %' %##%'## M'%$%# % ## %R## #%" "% "% "%% '% %R##'"" "! /#$%R))#" %) "%%>< R) "%R &%R %##'# M'%%) "?R# %' ##" %'# %R"# "$R"% L $)%'%) $"#### % A1%R)# %)$3U'% R#$11R%"%)"#$1'% %##$H)## 1" A1%##"$11%) %<0$11I#R#"C? 1?# ##$"## %)% <
PAGE 129

'#%$'#"'# %"" /$1##" 1 ## #%)## "A % %" %R) ### I%R## # %R##%)##% )"# "%R###" I "%R### %# '#' %'"%## %"##'"/%/# R%"%)$%"$ %)'!"# %R) R)'R"#' #%%" )"#%%"%### '%%## )/#$%## I%%'# 4" /)##"%")" %#77:8)% #)$#"% )) %# %""$RR $'"#$%" )### $""## # $)%#% ") <<;

PAGE 130

##""$ %"78:8"%#% %) ""!1$1 U$3U"$11#)1' $#$>>:8" %1#"#$1%1$1%("1 #%$1%1'' 3U!$11'1 ) 6)) )%R% %%"%""') )% #%" "("%) "' ""## #'$R$# 6$)#""# %#$## "$'#$("'## $'##"$'# "$'##"" %"# %"%%" '$"#$1?#")#"$%08$R $3U#""$$<7> !1$1<:0!$"$ I "$"" 1 #))"'#$1 <<2

PAGE 131

%)$11#'$11$HWW $11IR%#$3U%$11R ## 1))%"%)# ')#1''1)1! 1""%##%##' %#!)% #R### #A ## %"' #" ''" R'%## "'"" R'')!" M'%$"'$ I ?"'%%L'%))# R I#"#& %%)% J" ?'%$"$1M 1 #$%#' %'$%%'$)%' R%"R #"%')## $"# %R# &"##"%'$%% R %#" $!/#$R) # R# $R)"'# ## R'" R% ? %#' "%#%'#$% '$1R% 1%I%' %I"" '$)"$I### % "R'% )"$ # ')""$" %#' ""%)'

PAGE 132

I < )%%')#$% #)#))) ()%%%##)) #'' "##)## (%%)#% )#" "'%#( "$ (%#%# 4%#!A )'#"#$1&"$R # 6R#%R## 1&"R "#'"" $R ##R'") #'"% %R # %"I &#(K('#R' R" M'%$%'# %%'RI#"% "%%I" #"R# "R)"" R#%""# MR) "$'%%" '%'%% '# R'""# <'%)#%"!/# %'#$%R)' %R)" &$#$#%" % "R'%"R"# ($#%" $%%)%"" )) ))% 6#))

PAGE 133

!)$$ ) )#) #"$""$%#! RA R"#'"/%/# H'% #### %) #R%' M'%") "#### %%R# # %) %R)% #%% "RR 'R") R)%"')#%## ## %%"%"' $"'%$%'R"# % "##%R## %)#))"" "#%"# "))% ""H)# R## R)%# # )%)) "$%))% 'R '%" "#%#$ "R"" IH'#" &#J )! ")"%#% ?#)%$7< :8)#!1#)11#) %1%")" $ 1'"I"$3U""'%" "'"%R$11I' "% 1"$1%%$ %'$UJ%$?%R3%"$1a c# 1%)" <>>

PAGE 134

1$31$11$11$"$" 1% )%))#R ." $#$ '# !$ %#!#I %"A "%" /1% 1J## /# #% $R"%I %I#"#"% /$1MR) "1% #$($R %I## $""$$ %$1MR#LJ"##L@ "#"##L1$ "%$ac')"" '"( "##$"R#% % I''#( %'$ 1/R1)""%###R )"%%'# "$I$1R## %$R'%%"H'# 1# #"%!) )#" ) I%# "#$ %"%# (" %%'##% 4%#!" R)%A <>7

PAGE 135

'%%'"R%" "#)#%%#" #%##'"R% ""I ##"% /# /'%R%R##% "R% /" )## %R I')R"# )" %"#4%4' /#%$$%# )/# ## %'%%## #4%4'/#% %R #$$1"%'1"%%#### ""%% $")"%1''L ) #R"# ###!$"%"" #'")" )" "# !%A '##"# )/# /#)%'"/%/# 6'"$%R'R' %'#" M##)/# $%'"'' %/#R#' "%%% %#' )/# I%"-# ##)%%#)/# ##)#$% #")#$%"# <>:

PAGE 136

#%") %#-A : #4. : 4 : 4 = &##4" = ))) = &#JJ 0 #6'#!6# 0 #J& 0 #*J& 0 .)) )#*#%' #)%%(A J)L J# )#L J"R##%" )L -##!" )I")%!" #)#$% #"))# <>=

PAGE 137

$%"##%)# $7=:8)% $#) %-% ">8:8)% (""%%)%# !#)/#%# # $### "$$#'#! #$%)""(%77:8 #"%)# #4. J#)/#$! %%# )%$$% %1)$3U)$3U#$"R)$1 1#X"'% 1:8)% "#)/# $7E:8%%)%" %!## %)")%!# %H# $ "%1# 11'#$1 1#%1%")) ) )"$%

PAGE 138

%-## %##$# # $% "70:8$#)"I 4 '# %" /%)$###" "%)" "H"##" # $!$ )# I" %1' 1$$1 '""# 1"$ #1%"R)#"$11 "$3U%$11%($3U$11)' )%"%" 1)%)" )$$" %"%#$'#) ))# #R % %#!)%#) !RA $"'%)"#R##%" I' "R" ""%" /)#'R%"#" '#R#)"## '%' 'ac"$1J$ 6R'%# M#) 1$$ #%" R' M)#" '#$1J"#L")#L1 <>E

PAGE 139

/R"# R) R"" %R%" )$' # #"H' %" '""R" I'' %" "%' (%"# #)/#""## #%%'%)# $" )%"R1( 1# (%1$11$1WW$3 1#$11!$11)##%' 1" "%#(A1#$3U# $3U)%$11"$1 U%#"'"$11")%'## # 3"'%) # "%##) /#$%# !A $'")#" $"""#%)#' '$'""#%" #$##'"R# I R ##%$' %)!"R## )'%' "%R ) "%%"'$ %"#' $%' M'% %RI#'%) / '%"#%)"' / /

PAGE 140

( / /'$ /R '""# R##)/# ($" %)##"%R )#'% J )%%)'% A1"R'$11"$11 #"$11)""'%" 1 $#AR1""$11""% "$3U"' 11"""$11"R)' "#'% 3("$ #11 R%1#%" R3%#! RA #)/#$6I##%" '""%%$'"-%# /$I' R JR "'% R'"/%/# /$ '" #%#%" #%" "'%"$R '%) ##%'#) /#%' /%"$"" R)"R' $ "" M")--% R'# ##'% R%'# J'$' # '%R)' )%" "R M #'% @%#"'% M"% R'6'#%" I <>2

PAGE 141

'# "%"' #)% #)/##"%% %" # #"%!"R#%)"$ $$$$( # "1%R%" "$11'##"'##$11 #"% 1!##% )"")A '#)(<%R)# "% %# "" # "R'%)"#R## #' %) "/ ""'% '% $H%#I"# $%%' !#$"'R ""%"H # '%$%##)" $$)%" ""%$""% X" R# R'#"R'$1$R# #1"#"#'%$ RI$'%"R) ## #)"%$"' #)/#"$"#1' %R)%$3W1"')#"$11 ')%## 1$1"'") <78

PAGE 142

%"R)#$11"'%$)"#$"' "%"$11%R)$"R)%"%##) 1)##% "%))I $#%"##)/# %#)$" 1%11%"1"#" $'##'1) 11)#1) /%)$" '#") )%R"##!"' ##% "% )%"%R#!"%%% #A M'%$%"R! R"#) "'"%" '#% ''" '%$"R)#) "' RIR%"#"%# '""#%""$ "%"%H# I%" R''"%" "$"'% '%%'#"" "' RI#"'%"% ""% "R#%%"$"R I#" 6''# M' '"%'# R)'I'" HI I# R## "R""%$#$"R"R "#" "'"%" %

PAGE 143

<22;$H)% &)%" R "#)#%# "# I%#) R)"%# 6 %"'" "%" Q) #1'H#' 1"1' R#$11'%%R#$11")$11 '%"R#) 1" 1"$11$11! 1%"!# "%)"##)/#$ A # J"R%R '%""%"" RI%"%# %' "%# %'$% ""' R R)% )%) ""'R'" R R'%#$"$ #% M$##%# # #$%)$"RI% "R '% "'R#' 4 -## %)%H% %"7>:8)% ##"-%R %($!"#$#)/# J'#'($1)""H "# 1##% (!$"#1)""$11)""##% )""$3U%"R$11 <7>

PAGE 144

I"%"$11"I%)" 1)"%''($)# !"#%## )% ()$"#1( 1% JR )%###%A '%"" R( J' %)""%R'"" M%"""%R( M I#%"" JR#( JR ""# /$R'I)"#"%R' %#%"$ ## /RI"#$% "#I##% /$ H#" M"" 6'$ %"$RI#""'$"R %" MH)'"# /$R J)#)")"" )"" ## MR)"# R I##$I##$ I#%%H" %"#$ ###"%L"##"L" '%LJ))"$)" #)/#$"'% R)" #"%R" ##"-# R") #)/# """ ##%" %$1) <78$3UR"#'% 3UR%)" $3U"$11'$1 <77

PAGE 145

1R'#"" 1)%R%### %)A J "%## J%%R%" M I" $"'%$R) ""$"R##"R## "I# "R %""$%""' "R"# %"$%"$' "R" "'%R"%R J##% J% %R#)") $"# JR)#%%'% RI% .")"## '#'%#)""# RI) / )""'%)"" '" %"" ##4/# 4%"#% / %'4/#%1 )"1%)" /%"$1MR$ R'#" 1/%## #A 6'%4% %R R%' %) '# )"' # "I%R) &##4" #)/#") ###) "!% "%))) #)"%$7> <7:

PAGE 146

K :8)%') %% "% "#$)" '## %% "%% %#%%# #)"%" %#! () -#)#### "$"7<:8)%$% )"%%#)/# )%"#! "'% )# "$))%' %%"# %"'#% /%)$)"%# %##$%)" ))) ###"% R"-##) /# $)I"% %")$#) V)# %' #%#"# V)# #"# V"(# "$ <7=

PAGE 147

%'#!#)/# %%!%( %%%"% R"# %! )# "$)"A R" R%% R## %RR##'#"%' "%R%$"R#("R "#"H'" #R#%"R MR"' J$""%R#" "H"%" "R" "R# R% %#%"%'#%' '"R'#''!%' % R%#'' R #) ')"(!)" %))#)/# J%!$ )%1! 1" )("%))%" )"#"# %% #)/##%'%" (%# "A "%%"%( H) (!" '#%#$'# ?#" )"" %) )#) R))" R# # % !(A <70

PAGE 148

%'#$)#'%'#$)#) I$#'%)"%" R# R )) 6!(<'R# 'R#))# %R) # )"%")$'R #%"# "")$"' "I'#"R '# '!(## #" "$R'## %" %I"%! &$%)% '%%! '#%"# "% ")!"%)! ()" R')## "%' !($)%)"$ ( ))%$"$) ) %)#) (##))"1R$3U%R )##$1"1%R# 1 /%)$#)")" #)/#A /$) RR M ")"%R)#%#%# "$#)R" %%#" MR"# #%))" R ##R%"%% MR") #"<88<>88 %%' %) R''" /%/#%"'"#"R <7E <

PAGE 149

R)))"# ))%" R'"R##%% %"H'% !(# %R)!#'" /%/#"%)%"# #"'##" %'#<%% #% #) % %" %$% )1MR J"# 1 &#JJ )%# #%%)# ) %$$"%# %!# "# )/#$$'% "% #)%! $#"$ )%'##%#)/# "#)% $%# A /$""# "'")"" !" "## )%" % H#"I"# %%%% '%"# '"%# %' %' %'#%#%H# "R"##'!"#"C? "))##'# %"'$#$! "%H%R '" %"""% "# '%%"% % "'#R)#$"% $"R!# I## <7;

PAGE 150

%">E:8%%)% ###)/#" %"# )%%#) #)% # "$A "#"%' "#)"" R "%"R)$"#" R # J$"R'" "%R" "R "%"%""R# 6' 1 $ M'%" MR# M # 1## "R#" % M'%R"" "#R))!# R%# #%$"R## # I /)%$"R$R" "R%#") """' %"H#') "%'# "%"R%#"#'' "%$")"'" #" $"R'#)"#% #"##'"R %" 6'#!6# ##)/# %##!# /%)$ #$7=:8"' !#)# #)"%$ ')#)/# %"#%"# 4#"#$ <72

PAGE 151

'#1#$111 I$1'##1#) %%$"%" %"#$%# "#)) %-#'# !#)# $") )%' #)"#"%"' (#%($!%")$ #)/#%'"% ) -% #*% #$#%% $)##$)#$# )#$)#)##" #& "'#$ ))%%)#" )#% !)% "A J$'%$#" 6' )##)# # R RI# D$R"#'%' %#$%#$R)#) #)/# "$H# # V<:8

PAGE 152

$)"# -#")# %' ') ##)"#"( "% %" K%' "" %) 1#)/#1 %" REU%'%%R# 1 1I)#ac!$%#$11 '%%%'' 1"$A /)"$"RI ")%"#$' $$$"'# $' '#)#!% # R%"I'#'# M# %"$%" $%) J % '%%R# $%'%" %'%$R#)"! 6' R"$'"$%"$"R##'%% %"'" %%)%# %#)/#) %%"'(#%( N% $7<:8)%% )$#'# %#A V <:< &

PAGE 153

JR)(R"# R) ##$%) )")$#$"#$# '" '#( $%$"R '('"%"#$% ""#%""# MR) %"##'" "'""'( M%"#(")% M# %" /$#( M' "#"%"%# # "" )%%"#! #)/# "% !") %##%"#1#$1 1$11#"I" 1( %A1%R$"%"#!$11"R %)"R#"$11%%" '#"% 1'##!A R-"$"$ R" /)! ""' ($"R%#%"$%" %'%""$ /"""" 6'$"##%#$"R #)%""R##$"RI" % "##%"!"% ''%#%#'%#%$R'%% ##% ""%#% !" /"I'""$"R#' "'" "$"R)' M$""$1"$ 1 <:>

PAGE 154

""$1J"H%'%R#%" ##" )%%' '# %')#)"%' %%## '## )%% %'"#)/# %#)" ##%')#A 8 /R'$$%%$""#)""%' RI"%' M%"'" R "R#)"%'I#)"%'$ #$'%%"" )'# JR)%' R'%R ## %R#%'$ R'$R'%$I' %%)%%"% R)#" """ )#)"#) )%)# I" ")R%#)" ##"#'## "$ A "R%)"R#" "R')"# V%" "R""%"%'" RI % I'%'% # "%'%" <:7 V <

PAGE 155

")#'"R! # "R "R%I' "R#)I) I%)""$"#) $" )$%%#%%I %'""R#" #*J& )#*#)/# ")# #*)% ")# %")%% 1'%%"##R%' 1 'A R" MI#'%)"" &# $R#%)""" '%%)"" "'%%! # I%R R M#'% $%"#$ ""'%R#"# MRI #% $###)/#'##' %'%" '%)""#"$# "%"'%#'" %''% "#$R #)"R #*$ '##<= #)" % )A /R!) JR):8' )""%) <::

PAGE 156

)!# )"" *'#")-" R% $)# #)" ''%" "#)/#' )##2A88$% # /%)$##"% )""><:8)% % $"##)# "%'# $1?#'%"$11RI %)%'$3U"R)#" $11R%)'" 1 %#A J## R'R % J%#$% # !/#EA<= J2A88 '# # M# MR)%'% M")#% # /)#2A88# )%)"# )/## # %#% "$A ##%"" <:=

PAGE 157

' R' H# %) '#") "#)/# )#1#)!$11H)%#1 )# )"A H)$"$" H) )H)"# )$I## ##)%I #"'%)# '%"'# $" $"$% %' M'%$R #)I" "'#'% #)/# ) )*'''#A J)#%# %) '# &%#"#")#$ '# J'% '! #"#'' )### ))")% %#)# ) )")#' ")" "A %)#' %%H%'# <:0

PAGE 158

/"R#$"$" %' M M M) )%%%)##" #)/# "'#" ))##" )##"A J)!"!%' )"!$% )#" M'"#"R# #" M""))"#$"H# R%' '##"$"'%$&$$# # # '"%" R% ##"# ")C.# .)) -# '#!#%"%% "%$"%)%)"# % "$#### )"#### ))" RA J"##$R R# M' #"%' $%R#R##' R"R#%" I' %'#%"'#### I")"##% %H## $R)I$R# R## %)% )I R%'#:8%'%$ )#")) ""%!# ")# %R <:E

PAGE 159

"%"%'# ")) "## "'%"%## A )%# '% 'R ## %'%$R ## R%% !""# R'#"###" H'#$) R'# #"# P-"#/ RP-"#%" R#4#" % R'%%#R # M'%$R)'##$R'' # ##)/# )$7=:8)% )"%## %"'C?""%1## # 1#%$$"# "%1"1##% "###A %%"# R" R"%"## ")$)# )%## J#$%### # "RD% $R" '#)/#" M'%$ C")'## <:;

PAGE 160

K"#"R'" R6' "# "R##%$"R### 4$# )/#)"H# $)%% "##)# ##$)#" 28\$)Q $##$%%" %I% %#A+,% I#"$+,!)Q%% #$+,% #$$#R"$+, ($+,(Q##) )$+8))% %+ <2;;, %#)/# $>< :8=0$<0:8:0$ 7:870 &)$ "1))% % 1/%)$" I#)% /)#)%%%(1 $1 J"%)#L I I V<:2

PAGE 161

J" 4%#(AJ"% )#L@# %#))$!H )%( %#R )%!# )/# $ )R)" # "'"#%)$) %" )#$"%' "$%#$%## !%$%$% )#*) # ) %##%%%"% #"%R # %# #$) #))%#"% ?)" #"R)A < "'% `> %"%# K7 # f V<=8 V

PAGE 162

: I#%" = ""## 0 #)#) E #% ; %)I# 2 %# #"%% R# J%"%#"$ %" #$ "R ? )"#"R A < )(%) > "R# #"%)#* R# #"%)"%##">8 #)% #$'" #*%# #$")%X$$ $%%# 1"1% ## ?)" #"RA < 4"#%' > %'(#%( <=< V <

PAGE 163

7 %#! : %# = %# 0 E 6")!%# 6'$"#)$% 2 /%'% #$"$% 4 4#! /%!# L!% %%%!# )%%1$11#"$11$11$11$ 1 1"#)!#) ") "$" """ "###"' $#! %#)%% #!$$$ "') #"$ ""%1#1% "! J'#$$1%%$1 1"$11%$"$"$11I%R# $11#$%$"$ '$R" 1#11) <=>

PAGE 164

I "%'#! "%"#)) ) )"" 1$11$111"$# #)/#$%# J#)L J!$)%R## )/#%) )"%! %$A1)$11%%" "$11R#)$11$ R$" 3""%1!$11$11 "$11 1"' $"#1%R'#$"" 3 ("#1' $11#'' 1# )/#%) )%$72:8$#)$" "%")# '% #$%%#%'$ #)/#1#1 )%%%# )# )% ") % )# )%%%

PAGE 165

!##) ) ")1 )"#""$11"R### %"##$11%#)<8\$"R 28\'%% 3 )/# J#) #L#)/#)"% #%"" %)# %A1R)"# J$)R#)' #% 1A1' R)#%$11 $)###$11"$R #$R# 1 J'"%")# $""%1#" 1$1"$'#" %$11R#R "$1R"28\)% 1 J%"%##$" $%%"#$%'" )# !)# ) "# %#%%"##%" %###)/# I" <=:

PAGE 166

"%#'#$"% !"%" )"%#)# 4# J"R##%" )L"%"R# #%"%#)/# !%$%$ %)#*% )") ") !## )%## #"%% R# %## #$ )$$$) #%)# "))% )## ?)"#" A < #% > '% 7 #"%" : = #' <==

PAGE 167

0 ### E "%# #"%# R##) J%" ##"$%" #$%"" $ 'I"#)##%) ?)"#" RA < "%))!( > "%" #"%)#* %# ) '%)"# #" /%)$%">8 #)% #$%%)%' #*%# "*%#)/# ") )#%#"#) ? )"#"R A < #)")# > %"'(#%( 7 %"#! : /)#%'# = '%#R)" <=0

PAGE 168

0 % E % ; 6% 2 #) <8 .)%# << )##" 4)-%# )%%#)/# ) "%$!#$ "! )%# )%#% "%")# #$)###" $)##'#!#)# %#(A J"%)#L /%%)# !)#A J#) L J# )#L J"H##%" )L 4!)%# )/#$##

PAGE 169

##%%%)%%" #)% ( < <=;

PAGE 170

4/.P &B &#")% %("$" #)/#)" % # )#)#$" #)/# ?## % "%##$%"$$H $#$ )% )%$'"%$$ $ $%") ?*)H$ '##)%%'% /%)$%' %#% !% %%%)%%## %'" $)##$ ##)) )%%%$$!$ ### ()"+$<22<$ <<0, $)% %)% %##)#" )%H) <=2

PAGE 171

%##) #)/# /%)$ "!#-$# %%#)% R) ("" J$ )(#"%%' %("# "#" ) #%'"%# %%)%% ##%" $ "#% % $#*###$%Q* ) !"))#"# # %""#U'# 3 %!!) %")($% )) ))"'U%$ "% 3$H)) ### )"$) "#"$'#'% J )$$UJ$%H''"#

PAGE 172

'$L3'$W1"##L3"" #%'%"#$ ##)# J%#!)% )"%$# )#)# )"-$ "#""' % )" %#)/# J ()LJ #"'L4"L?"# ""L#"$%" "%# %") .) #)))#%(" ##%)%I) 6$"$I'"#%%%% %) H)#"% #"" 6#)!% V####<:-"-'#%>8-")#)/# %%#$% %#$#$)#% V%' I V V<0< S

PAGE 173

!))%%!#)" ##)$#%U##3 %# #%)"##)# $$e#)/# ### R$" IH#)) #%% )$I ) %)'% !%%") )%" N"$##"% ) ?##)/# % #" $U) 3%#)%%-#) (" %)!"%#AU"H)#"$ #"#$3U"%"" H##"%L3U#"" "'$3U"I)%$3UH## %'$3$1H##% "' 3 #% $) '#%%#% B %##$#g)#**$ %$*$#$"$'

PAGE 174

$$$#%$ I'$ %(#$ $ $%)# I# JJ1"?% 1" #"%" "$)%%"#$"#1" "#I% 1 ?## !## %) .")"% $%'$ $# #'%" %# #' %#)/#% #%'##" "-!## %)%%")"" "%""%1")"' 3 $%$$ ""# %%%)# %) )$$# $% %%'####"#$ "#$1$$#31#%"%# '"L3##%)$)" !$# <07

PAGE 175

)"#%#%" ?" )" Q" % #!%%)#% ")#%%% %)# %%'"## %#%') $##) /#%' $% ""*% ) $%% !%%"#('#$ %%#%%'##$%% ##"'##"$ %"U)3$% I%###)H ?" #$#% %"%#) %")#%"$# %##%W13% % ")%'"I )#! !"%"# -$ ##"% #Q"

PAGE 176

4) %%"$ %U##3#' %#%)%# 4 5)%%##U##3 %' #"$ "##$#$)$%' %###%"% $U"H#%" "#" #$#%'$'"" HI 3#)/# ###"% #%' %%% $U)) / 3)-# $"$## ) 4)#%## %( )") #%))"# !) '#$#$'#$%'#)$##$ <0=

PAGE 177

##$)##$##%$ "#$##)""$## )"1%'3%"%' #$"#$###"$%'# %$#" U## 3$U#3$#$#$#%$ $"Q# %$' %'% #$)N# ) % $I#))%$#%$# %# %$)'# %" #" # HI% ) $ %%'# ) "%IU)#"#I$3U)I"'$3U"%# %'%%$3U%%%' %'# 3)% !$"' ##"$$###$'# $#)') )U)/%$3U'' '"?<2E0$3U#'$3U"##$3 KU" 3) a I <00 K

PAGE 178

%##-) ) ### #) )/# &##)/# ## )%# #%#)# #%-' ?!)L )"#)/# U3$ %"% %)"%) %"%$#)% % %" "$% "$"#)$#$'#$%'## /%)$$"%%%%### #" %%%"% % $%(" %" /%)$#$"$%#$ "" ##)/# "$#)%$U3 ) %("'# "$%%'%%'$

PAGE 179

'#$###%%( )#) %#"$#X##% "## J%#) /##$% /# /#)%'# J" #)/# ))"# (") ##""#$3/"$$%##L3 $-)")%$ '%$%$%I#% %% '$'"' "% "$#% "%"%% )$%"$$ %)"# ) )-#%% #)/#" &#? /)#I%%)"# )/#$R ))%'"# V!"%')" "$ V

PAGE 180

%)#%U'%" 3UIH%#')"3% /%)$)#!A %'##"%# "%#%# ")%'% "%I" %") J'% #4?"#$ /%"$U'%"H" #"## /ac%)I 3%$ I#"I# J'%'$$U "3 $$UMH## )''" )"" H)'#' '%H"%'" 3 #) )) !H%#U3)) $$%%#"# %%"'% )# %## %$H" "#H")$$ #%" %%' '%#))$""%"# "$"# $%# <02

PAGE 181

$$U"H#% H) D H'$H'" 3 6)$$U')" %H)" 3 >8-'## "$#)#$)# ")#% $"")% /%)$ %" )%#%#### #)/#%%% '%#" !%#'%% '%)$%%#$"$ $!)%# #$ )#! '%'' '%##" !%%## %7-:%' #)/# %!%1"#$%"6!#3% 1I'I'" 3'# #'#% %##%"$U'%H# IH#$"# 3)'# V#%#'K$"###" VI###Q$ V V
PAGE 182

#"$$# $" '# $"I#U3) %#)/# 4 )% )"$%"#"%R##) %' %"%H## )%'%$$)#" %#%)'# !"*# %% #%#! 4!#"" #"##)/# %)%"#'# # % #)/#%U## 3? #%#%' %#)/#%) "#U#3" )%H1##" %"###31#I ##C?3)#%%'## /%)$) #)")$ ##'%#)/# $$%
PAGE 183

##% #!#)/# '%$$% J& ?##%$U3U3 %(## $) %'##"%'# #""%'##%U#%3 U3" )))% )#%)#" /% )"""#A%'$UJH'L3 "#'#%U# '#)3-%#"% )#%%"! /#) !%#'$#N$% # /)"" %H'"H /% H)U3$%"U3$ "HI"##K$'#$# #$ "#$%U"H $3"" U 3 )$S##% ))#% /%)$ "%%)%("

PAGE 184

R'"#"'%%% )%% )# $' #)/#) "%"" /"I)'% /%<22:)%UH U 3%%# )/# "' #"$)"# "'#I' $U")""'" MR)"")" 3 ##"%%%'#>=-78 %''#h<7 88R" $UI'""H)"' 3 R"%$%" #I$#))%"% "# >8-"-%)#**#%'%*%# /%)$ ##$# / 'I#U# '$#%" 3/# ##%#)%% !'#'#%#$ )#)$)#%$)#I$'#)
PAGE 185

-)) %%"# )'%%#%"% ?" %$)##" $$" U3U 3 ?## %##H* "# #)/# )")"%%## #$#%$! # % )#"$ %%$%(%$ %"#)## !I" U#)#$')I 3U#"## 3#%$ "$)#% %##' UI 3/%% K###)/##$%UI' 3/ K$U"H'"" 3 V)#%"
PAGE 186

!###) /# %)$%# "))))# !)" )#%"!)"% ?# %%%#$)# '% '#"#)/# %"U3ac#)#!% '%%H)#%%1) 31""'# 3 "%!##!#%%% )#%##1% )'%%"%3" #%"))%I ) J#%-I#$% #"%H)#$%R) 78J)LH1)#"% ##%)#31#"IH% %3" #$) !)"H"% )## )'%# ##)#%" # -#""H### !)"#)))
PAGE 187

$!" ##)/# J" ""%(" ) ##%% J. $U%#R" R HI% 3 %)%%U3% "% J) "#HI$ %%% "#### %% "%%%%" %"#%$% )")# #$" ""H%$###" % %'H% $%) $%"#!"") K?"$)#$#"$ ##$%I #%'U"H 3%
PAGE 188

##%$U"H'"'% #H) 3 $##H% % $"H%U)3$"H%I$"H#)##$ "HUH#)3$H #U#3#'##(" /# "%)" %#$% $) )##"%%%'#%I "%)"# ')#)#% U"H)#""# 3 )")%# #)/# %##) /#%) % %#"%##') )# #%#% # "H# %AU#%3$ U"##3$H## "#3$UH"$"H")## 3(#)%%#% %H###)/# % ###)/#)
PAGE 189

%%%%$"$ UH####%R $3UH#)%QHUH## "#%a#'c"H)'# "## "$-#%% % )HJ ")%% #)/#) /%)$"% &#.4 #)/#() %('"" )RI %( )%))#%) )"# # '#H# $( J% #%'LJ"%#)#L J%)#L/)#)#L JL/%'%#) /#LJ%H%D@L !) !AUH"
PAGE 190

'"%#)"3$U* %"3$U ####% 3 #!"%H## )#Q%' # %)"$" #)S ##$#%$ N#*% H %)"%" "%% "#$$# %) %"%%) $I'%) %"# % %%Q# M$%% %) %### ()$)"# %)#H$$# $#$ )# "%"" %(""%'$U" V
PAGE 191

"L3/"%UH)"" 1$ ##!" #*%H%% )%UJ%L3 )) $ %I#)%%) $ ""U#3$"% -"A$ #%%$##* 4) ")%% /%)$% (") %%# ('#)) .")%% )"%'% )"% %%)) )%#%U3 (" ))%%)# #$%%" )#$ #$)# % #H)

PAGE 192

I U%H#3U3%" ")%#) $# 'Q %( )"' $##) #%) "%)" %%#'"") $% )%# ")%'% # % 1 3%%%)###I ?#)$%"'% ( /%)$"%!'"# #!%'# ) $%#% %%%'# $H ))!"$#"% # )')"# )"#) %!N$%! # #" -#% #*%%"# %% V

PAGE 193

4% #$"'% %"% #)/#-%1#)3 #)/#!%' '%## 6 )!)#R "'%#"%' "'% '"') %I" %'% "$)'%) '%I"## ''" $% %'##$$") R" #)/#'% %$ %%)%% I)% #%%")% UH""$3UH"$3UH

PAGE 194

)#" "#%%% 3A URI#H#'$3UH"" ####'$3U%! I#'$%" 3 #)%%" %##) H) ""'%$'$ #)/###%% )4J J%#) /#%"#$%) %%)%"))#)"% % ## I$#$ "% %#" #%' )" %% )" $#% /%%%)$# #%"# !#)$'%"# %####$#'% %)%) H K V K<;7 K

PAGE 195

"%$U'"$'"$'" 1 $))""$#)# -#%'# %)$# ###%)('" #"$Q))"U3% #)/# H% () %%" % %"'%% ()% $"'% %'%'%%% $# $)%#) %" #"%" #""###)#( /%)$%") )#$#$)#$### )# #"$ %#"$U#$" )($H## &$"H" $)"# M# 3-" )A#%% 4 %!# )%%#" %

PAGE 196

Q < )%'Q #%"# #)/#%I(# .Q.. %% )) %### #)% $)%$ "U $3U 3U"$3$("%$UI# 3#)$ %"!#### "'## ( "%<;-"%!##% H##" "#'%H ##'%H"$'## )" H)"' I$U$%H##'# HI%" # 3M'%$"'"'"H H "H)'' J%##)##%" )(##$ M'%%H)' H' ##)/# %% ) ''"$"%" "'#)$%"$# H%#')##" #4Q? H%%) H)# %"#%" JH"H' "##)'%%'L (%)) H"%))# <;=

PAGE 197

%#"' #)/#" .)"$) #$)$"# )# "#%"# %)###%' $ (#)#""# ) $" #)/#"%)" !# "'% ##"#) !)"#" AR""!## "H'#'"$ '% 1$UI'"H)## #"IH#)/# 3!$SS ")%' =A78## ")#"%)# # $%1 $1 'I%""#I'% H'"H )HI' 3 #"$#% ')"# %-#) )) %%#") #)/# $"# )#%%"%%) I<;0

PAGE 198

>0#%% H#)#%) )" ##"$#$ ##"$#'#! #$% -A+,$+, #%%$+,) ) "*#% #)/#)# '% $ ))#)" !##) )) )'# 4)"" 4%) "%)# <;E <

PAGE 199

4/.B M$446$ ?4? )%"$$#" ?)%$)$) )%$*$ %)#%# )% R) "# 4#'")% "%A < $"#-'#$ %")## > "!)#% H# "!-' %))#! !# %)%% %#(%$$#"A 4)# "!#)L N J"%)#L /%%# I!)#L J#) VL K V <;; K

PAGE 200

J# )#L ?H##%" )L"#$%""#L # "')#!"<7= %" %) 8>8$% )# #)% #<:>8"# #)%">=\ )%$ Q $#$%> =\$> =\&'$ E =\/$;> =\4$=\U3%%) <;2

PAGE 201

"##!% Q'%) %% & ("%-' $$"%"# ") #-'% $ )##) ))-' #)/#" # ?4" ?%#)%)$) %#$)% % '#)%$)$)% $ #%" )% #)/# "" ?# <222->888"$)%:8)"#^ )% &"#$H)% )%%% <28

PAGE 202

)%#) ? ?%"))%# )/#%)%"* "* "$"$#$# "$H$$## $ %% )%%%#$$ %$%$ $%'%%"# )"% )%! %%#-' %%'%)# %"%%" ) $))$% )" ?")$ %$))% ) $"#%%#) % 4)#% #%#% % <2<

PAGE 203

?" ?"%"*)" "%## ""#" % )%)) %!%%#)# &" #"$%% #$# #)" # $"))%%#*%"# % "#() $$%#) ) ")%$ )$)%)# #"" 4%$ 4") #)/# (A4 )# "!#)L? "%# < %')#$%$ %%)# ")"%"' <2>

PAGE 204

"%'% ")" '%-' "')" > %')#) %'$%)R #$)# 7 %')#)-' )%# ) J$"'%$ #% : %')#) $ '%#"$))6#. $## = %')#)## ##" ?'# %#"%)' 0 %')#) #) $")# #"' E %')#) "#!" ")(#! % <27

PAGE 205

K ; %')#)( % "%))# )"%%'") 2 %')#)# %##X"Q# $%" J$"$ %'$)$" <8 %')#) #")*#!( #$$)#$'$ '$$4. "#"$ *#$##)$E>" )$%# ))# '"-')## )")# 4# )/#)"'%-' "#" )")R )% %")" %)) ##-'$$ #)/# )#" 4)")% "$) <2:

PAGE 206

% R #%#-A < > !6# > #?J' > #*? > .4#) 7 4" 7 6)) 7 &#J # 4)!" %#)% H #A < X:8)%+<88\, # > ##X72:8)%+2E =\, ### 7 "X7;:8)% +2=\,#" <2=

PAGE 207

)%)% (%"%A J) /)#)"# $%#(AJ"% )#L@# %#))$! R)%( %'R )%!# )/# $ )R)" ) %##%%%"% #"%H # %# #$) #))%#"% ?)" #"R)A < "'% > %"%# 7 # : I#%" = ""## 0 #)#) E #% <20

PAGE 208

; %)I# 2 %# #"%% H# J"%#"$ %" #$ "R ? )"#"R A < )(%) > "R# #"%)#* R# #"%)"R%##">8 #)% #$'" #*%# #$")%X$$ $%%# 1"1% ## ?)" #"RA < 4"#%' > %'(#%( 7 %#! : %# = %# 0 <2E

PAGE 209

E 6")!%# ; 6'$"#)$% 2 /%'% 4#! ?)%#) %#(A/% !#L !%%% %!# )%%1$11#" 1 1$11$11$11 1"#) !#)") "$"""" "###"'$#! %#)%%# !$$$"' ) #"$ ""%1#1%" J'#$ 1%%$1 1"$11%$"$"$11I%R# $11#$%$"$ '$R" 1#11) "%'#! "%"#)) ) )"" <2;

PAGE 210

1$11$111"$# #)/#$%# %%)%)# *#" '" %"(AJ# )LJ!$)% R##)/#% ) )"%!%$ A1)$11%%""$11R#) $11 R$" 1" "%1!$11$11"$11 3"'$"#1%H' #$"" ("#1' $11#'' 1# )/#%) )%$72 $#)$" "%")#$"'%% #$%%#%'$ #)/#1#1 )%%%# )# )% ") N% K)# )%%% V<22 K

PAGE 211

!##) ) ")1 )"#""$11"R### %"##$11%R#)<8\$"R 28\'%% 1 # #)/#%) #"-'X##### )%# )/## &)%$%#%A : #4. : 4 : 4 = &##4" = ))) = &#JJ 0 #6'#!6# 0 #J& 0 #*J& 0 .))

PAGE 212

4)!# )#$"#$H# % %#A : #X:8)% +<88\,##) /# = &##"X:8 )%+28\,###" #)/# 0 #'#!#X:8)% +;E =\,#)))#! #)/# #$)%)) %#(%#" %A )/# )##)%% )#$%% AJ# )#L#)/#)" %#%" "%)# %A1R) "#" J$)R# )'" #% 1 A1' R)#%$11

PAGE 213

)###$11" $R#$R# 1 J'"%")# $""%1#" 1$1"$'#" %$11R#H "$1R"28\)% 1 J%"%##$" $%%"#$%'" )# !)# ) "# %#%%"##%" %###)/# I" "%#'#$"% !"%" )"%#)# 4# "!"#)% %#(AJ"R# #%")L"%" R##%"% #)/# !%$ %$%)#* %)") )!#

PAGE 214

# )%# # #"%% R# %## #$ )$$$) #%)# "))% )## ?)"#" A < #% > '% 7 #"%" : = #' 0 ### E "%# #"%# R##) J" !#"$%" #$%"" $ 'I"#)##%) ?)"#" RA < "%))!( > "%" >87

PAGE 215

& #"%)#* %# ) '%)"# #" /%)$%">8 #)% #$%%)%' #*%# "*%#)/# ") )#%#"#) ? )"#"R A < #)")# > %"'(#%( 7 %"#! : /)#%'# = '%#R)" 0 % E % ; 6% 2 #) <8 .)%# << )##" 4)-%#)% %#)/# )"% $!#$ "! K)%# K>8:

PAGE 216

)%#% "%")# #$)###" $)##'#!#)# #)/#) #-'%%#S ")##%' )%#" )# $)%#) %)" -' %#A %%)%")$ $%")% ") ## '%"%'D% #$$ "') ")% )%)'""#$ ) "#) )%)'# -#)%%'% %# $ H# >8=

PAGE 217

"*"##-') ## %"#* $#)" R#% /%)$# "#'"%% ##"R # $' %#) )##'A < .)##$$ #-' > %)-' /%)$' "" %' ) %# #"" 7 #*##)-' "$$#) : #-' 4)# )-'Q A < 4()%-"%)# #)/## I) %))# K V>80

PAGE 218

'##) > 4##)' %#%-'%) # "%)%'# ##)Q# 7 4-%-% )#* # 4#' ?#)%$('")-'$ %) "%U'$EH U$REU*"$3U$3U" EE$"%% "#)" "")%)"!" $"$%#' %##) U% 3""$%% "%'"% "%#) )" %'#"$'%%% #-' $ "$) "%U' EE)"%" %"%"" >8E

PAGE 219

" #%"#% # #$#)%$ #"%"#"# )# ))%##)% %%#) % #"#) % ##"%" #"%# #%" $#%#% %%"# %)%" %)$ #$%"% $ !!%" %-' %%' %###$)$ #))$#%#$ %"$"$'#)$" %#$-' 4#$'"%# #%### " $' %"')-'$ %"# #$

PAGE 220

"!) %# $))#%# #H#%! ?" %#"H%")! %"%!%$ $#%)# 6# %")-' %"# #% %!# '")"$# #%%' )-'"% $%$!# J %% #)/#$%##$ #! :8%%)% %")# %"%)# "% "# ) "") &"#%%' #)/#$)"## #" % ##-' #% "%")" ##"-' >82

PAGE 221

)")## ) #%##))"% %"## %)""##% ))

PAGE 222

..?P 6.QC? ><<

PAGE 223

)**+,-) 888 ?FFFFFFFFFFF+R,Q#A )"4?) (" "")) #%" "$%"'H' )H#"H' %#%%' H#% #%#% ""#)) FFFFFFFFFFFFFF+H,$")" )%) )#%))# %')%"#)/# ))(')%'%78-=8$ %!"" %#)%)"" '%# )"%" H)% %%$$ "% "# $ %R###)/# %")%%" )%%""(%# /"$" %"?$>888$% I M"$4 ?)&#E88$+787,==0->==8$")(

PAGE 224

$" ")" %% $"%'" %$%# .+ ,#) 1&3H"' J) "$%'#)% '"#%" D" / +E<2,>08-0088$!>=2 ><7

PAGE 225

..?P& ?4BJ ><:

PAGE 226

)**+,-. /0,1+,2304,2+45+6 +", #)")%"D"/" #)%" "# "% #.? .H4"94 +,FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF.H/ !"# $ "#

PAGE 227

..?P4 .4BJ ><0

PAGE 228

)**+,-/ /0,1+,2304,2+45+6 +"HQ#, % #)"FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF+H, )%"D"/"# )%""# "% #.QC? .QC4"94 +,FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF.H/ & !"# $ >
PAGE 229

..?P? BJ5

PAGE 230

..?P? A/ $%"%"#)% #$H)%" "$H)%"' H'$)H #"H' "'% #%%'' H# "%"#%H# "%""#)) !' #%# #%$%H"%" ? ")"(L'"$H# < J/4/66@ML)%A .A?"'%# #LJ"%"L ?")L C)! > 66&M4/6?M.AJ"L JL J"'L ><2

PAGE 231

J"'L J"L J"L "))" )LL?L /%"" L 7 J/M4/6@L .AJ"'L J"'L 'L/%L /%"L : J/J6?/BM&4/ M&6@L = J/?M4//@ &ML .A/%""'%L /)#"%"L #%L 0 66&M46A .AJ"'L J")LJ"L J"'LJ"L

PAGE 232

K < J"'" '"L ?"## L+")! JL"#L E /M/C/M6 J6?&.66L K

PAGE 233

4 +<22>, H-'"A )# ?$ .$A." $ J# ?4NJ$ $')$? +? ) ?7==7>;, !$J $TC#$. +<2;<, !" 4#A/ $TJ #**$& $M"'$D $@ D $T6$ +<22<, <228%)$ .)# 7=+>, 0-<8 $4 +<2;>, A)% )% =>+7, 70;-:>8 $T +<2;;, %*# D$72$7;-:> %$& $T$D +<22>, )"#XK D >:+<, 72-:< D +<228, "## ) )" 4 $. $TJ$ +<2;0, '#AH" ) %M'A6# #' D $T" D +<220, <220 4 ?)A4? &$D +<227, .) <:+7,$>8->: V&$D +<2;>, 6 72+E, =8:-=80 I&$ $'$ $T&'$6 +<22>, #) 6 =8+:, :>-:E

PAGE 234

&'$6 $T$D +<2;8, #"A# /#D 0:+<, 0=-E> &$? 4-$T&$& D +<22=, A"$$ 'R %M'A-J" &%$4 +<2;E, #* / + ,$ #* %M'A. &'$ +<22E, &D <;:+=, :8-:> &' +<2;:, #(" .?@ 00+:, >E8->E> &$ 6 $T$. J +<2;0, ?##A! %M'A/T% &#$ $T&'$ +<2;>, 5)A &$A"& &'$4 +<2;2, #)A## 4#A )"4#. &% 4 +<2;2, *#A& I-"# $ )".") &"$6 +<2;7, /#A" % M'A/% &$ $@$D $&$& $.#)$6 $T$4 +<2;;, #)A.) !4 $$ ><->E &"$C J +<2;2, )## .?@ E8+=, :8E-:<8 &"$C J +<22>, &" .?@ E7+>, <8:-<>7

PAGE 235

&$. +<22=, C)#)'A-" %'# )" &' $T4$ +<220, /H% <8=+E, <;->< &$ +<2E>, ) /$6A ?". & +<2;0, % .? @ 0E+0,$:78-:70&% & + ,+<2E7, "A %M'AC%-/ &' ? +<22<, '#)%-' .& E=+=7;,$=2-00 &"'$ $T M +<2;2, ##* #A!")# D$>0 7=7-7;7 & D T*$ +<22>, ) =E+<, 07-E8 &$& $J$ D $.'$ $T/"$4 +>88<, ### #!4 77+7, >:->2 4$ 6 +<2;E, A#%) >> 2>2-27; 4$ 6 +<2;2, ) ?# =:+2,$E-2 4$ +<2;;,A-'H) $/))" 4$D +<228, )%" 5"#$/))"$C 4#4?)+<2;2, #A.#" ><" %M'A4#4%M' >>:

PAGE 236

4$ $$C / $T& ? D +<2;E, )##%A6 !) ?)."#" >7 78;-7<7 4$6 B $T4$D & +<2E:, )# #$6A 4 D $T +<220, 4)-'A ##) 4?)5" ::$7:<-7=7 4$6 +<2E=, C)% 6A$ 4' +<2;E, .)#AJL4&4 5" E+:,$<-; 4" 4 +<2;2, 4)AJ >:2+:, <7>-<7= 4 / +>888, '#) D)D E+7,$: 4$D +<2;E, <0 7>-7; 4$D $4$ $/$4 .$D $$ $J$ $T M'$ +<200, ("" J#$?4A C).# 4##-' +<22>, A4' 4"4#$4"D4#$ J#$?4$@##$&4' 4?+<22=, 4% ?) 4A 4) C $T#$C +<2;2, ###) ) &)$. 8 &!=78+<,$;-<< 4$6 +<22>, 4)#) +?) ?7:0:><, 4$D +<2;0, "A/'# %%'%''# C# /$JAD 4 >>= K

PAGE 237

4$4 4 +<2;=, )'""%" D # $!%& <<=-<<0 4$ +<2;=, )" #!A )'+ E<-2E, J#$?4A ? 4$D J +<2;E, A"" $)" 4$6 +<2;2, J-' 6 =:+2,$7-0 4% +<22:, #-'% ?# 08+>,$<<-<= ?$4 +<227, $' BD 02+=, 7>-7: ? D 4 +<2;E, 6)A&##%# .$A. ? D +<22<,"## )')# $C#J#)" ?$& $T$ +<22=, .""A" .# $ 4 ?$ +<2;2, #"-'A/ ##+/6., $ @)" ?"$? +<2;2$>8, #A4 &J'$ ; ?"$D C +<228, 'A.)) %M'A !)". ?'$? 6 +<22>, /%)-' 6 =8+:,$>;-77 $ +<22E, ) >0+0, :-2 >>0

PAGE 238

*$? +<22>, .A .?@ E7+;,$=;:-=28 '$ & $C*$ -$.' D $T'$? +<2;0, J #%"L#" 4# ;E+<7, 7=0-7E7 )*$6 / +<2;<, "%#* $4)" 4# $ $T?$ +<228, #*A.X J#$?4A #$? +<2;7, #<8>="# @ B? T '+ ,$.)("+ > $D ? +<2;2, J%# )%$ =2+>,$< $J $T$ +<2;;, &## )."" <8+:, >;=->22 $J $$ $TJ$ +<2;E, &## A!""# .$.A& !$ $$4 $T/#$4 +<2;;, ## A" %M'A "$4#$4)" >>E

PAGE 239

!$ % 6 $T 4 +<22>, #A #%M'4" +?) ? 7=:>2<, $4 8 +<2;;, ()"R ##A4)) $&)" "$ +<220, A%"##%L. ?@ E;+>, <:8-<:: $ +<2;;, .#%A-'" .A.Q.)B #$ 9 +<208, )# &A&. "$D $TC$& +<2;2, .?@"' .?@ E<+>, <:>-<:0 $? T 6 +<2;;, ))#) !4 == <<=-<>E C$ $T6'"$? +<2;E, &"A%(" /))% =E$70E-72= C#$. T! J +<227, !" $ 6A/&D))4-#. C$ $T$ +<2;:, A *# ."# <2+7,$ <7E-<:; C & T +<20E, f)"#"A# () 4#$6AQ C$J +<202, % %M'A / T% C J +<2;0, 4" %M'A / T% C$J +<228, ("A##% % M'A/% C$? +<2;=, &$?A4 #*$D/')" C$D +<2;7, A. /#%$DA C%-/&'4 >>>;

PAGE 240

C$. +<2=0, C%#A."#* %M'AB#&' C$C ? +<2;E, A(" "H ?( 0+>, =-E8 C $B'$ $TC$ +<22;, #))) #-'# .)# :>+7,$ <><-<>E C#"$ $T C +<2;<, ) "$ 4 B = &#$A)" C#$ +<2E8, H" )"% C$ $T"$/ +<2;=, ) %M'A. C*-.$? $TJ"$@ +<22=, ""A #%%'%# DO >0$0<-0: /$ +<2;E, #HAJL.? @ 02+:,$>=0->07 /'$4 +<2;0, #A## 6AT% /"$D B +<2;2, /%#") 6 :0+=, ><->; /$ $T/% D +<2;0$, ?#%R!"A $+>,$=7-E< /#$4 +<2;E, .%"A(F !"% 4#$ %M'A" $4#.$4)" / ? / +<2E8, )%$E;+:,$=<==>; >>2

PAGE 241

/!$B $#$4-$T$B +<228, 4Q ## D?) # <>2-<7= /#$? +<2;2, RU-'3X") 5" <8+<, 7-<0 /#$? +<228, "##-' &#$JA JJ#)" ?) /$ / $TJ'$/ +<2;7, C!A'# ) .")% >+]<, <:E-<;; /!$D $T*$ & +<228, J1-'3<228L a,) #QQQF"Q (" /#$ +<22<, )-'") + ?) ?772E0:, /#$D +<2;E, ')" #A"$% ;<:, E /$6 $$6 ? $6'%*$ $TJ$6 +<2;:, ##)# ?)."#" >8 <<>8-<<7: /$? +<22:, .$$ ##-$) $J")"$?$ # D $T$4 +<22=, -#)#A %)))""% )+&?, D '4 + ,$ ##-%) A)#+ <-0, %M'A /%. D' +<2;;, A !) @P=, :: D'$4 $$ $$/ $&$ $C$? $/"$& $T$ +<2E>, ("A"# %M'A&&' >78

PAGE 242

D$C $TD$D +<227, -A# ))."#" "! >==->E7 D* +<220, J" 6 =7+=, 78-7< @$& +<22<, /##A .& E=+=7;, 2-<: @$6 $ %#$J +>888, /#'$)$ ?#$00+7, >:->; @%$ +<2;;, )"#-' .# % 6 @$D +<2;2, 4H)+: 4$/A @$D +<227, 4) %M'A @*$ +<2;E, 4 6A# @"$D +<22=, #")# .& E2+=0E, ;>-;E @"$D +<22=, /%) '$ 4A4%. @$C +<22<, # )%' $C#)"$$C# @*$D +<22<, )#( %M'A4% @$@ +<2;=, #%'A?)#* C)%$6A$ 6$D +<227, I D E>+7, =E-=2 6#$ $T4#$& +<220, /## ("! >2+<, =0-08

PAGE 243

V 6$@ +<2;2$, ""I-' #-' .# $ 6$@ +<2;2, .)###) #-'"# <8$+=,$7>-:7 6$ +<2;2, H#" 5"#$/))" C 6*$. $T$ +<22<, %Q )AR##L.)# 7=+>, <<-<= 6 T?'$J +<222, )U3 ) 4#/$E7+>, ;0-;; 6#$ $T?$ 6 +<22:, ##A### #"' D + ,$'+ >7-:E, %M'A4#. 6) $TC#$. +<22>, D >7+:, 78-7> 6)$ +<2E2, # X%$-#$#$ ### $%M')" 6#$ 6 +<2E;, JA% %M'A&&' 6 M $TC C +<2;=, (" &)"/$4A #. 6$ +<22>$D, ) .<< #4"4#C $/#$M+4?) ? 70E8=7, 6"$& +<227, $))) "## $@ )" $@ #$D J T/%$@ J +<22<, )#""L !4 =;+<,$E:-E0 >7>

PAGE 244

$ $)$ @%$ ?$6 $TJ'$& +<22>, .?@ E>+;, =27-=22 #"$6 +<2;0, )# 6/#' 4 +4? ) ?>E80;8, $/ $T$ +<2;;, "#")A # %M'AJ" ? +<2;0, ?)AC#%' & E8+:;2, 00-E7 #$ 6 +>888, &'-" ?# 00+>, ><->= M +<2;2, :>+<,$; $ M +<22>, )")A >E+<8E, E7<-E:< *'$D +<2;E$D">8, )-#%# ?$ :-= 4"$ +<2;:, )##) D C'+ ,$.))" !)) )+ ;2-<<7, +4?) ?>:20E8, 4$ $T$ +<2;0, A.. $ C'$T/ J' + ,$4H)A?)$ + ><=->E=, %M'A ?$ 6 $$C $T.$ +<2;E, 'A. (# C + A.+ <80-<:E, %M'A 4#. ? 6 $$C $T.$ +<2;2, ## )#A4 <;+=, <0->> C"$C +>88<, % &D$ <;;+7, :7-:= >77

PAGE 245

+<22E, ? J# ?4A 4 ) ?+AQQ #)QQ2= Q $ +<227 #, ?#A<2;><22> 4+?, J#$?4 .$D +<22:, ?)" D + '+ >==->E0, %M'A 4#. .$D $D$J $6# T&*$ +<22E, #" 6 ==+>, <:-+<,$7> $ +<2;;, 4"A() AD"-& "$J +<22E, %%-' .?@$ E2+:,$7<>-7<0 $/ T$? +<22=, -'# & E2+=0;, 27-2= *$D + +<22:, ') %M'A #"$ $T$ D +<22:, &#'H D + ,$'A4! %')#+ 7->>, %M'A4#. "$. +<22<, ) 4 4A? .)4 "$ +<2;<, )#$)$ )I#'-' /)" $6 C +<22<, #-'A() $)"4 $C +<2;2, ) ) + ,$#*+ >>E->:0, /$DA 6% >7:

PAGE 246

C-$?$ 6 $T.$ +<2;;, A# )# %M'A4?) C-$?$ 6 $T.$ +<228, #)# A## %M'A4#. 4 $4 ? & $ & $D TJ'$/ +<22<, )#""A"#/% !4 =;+<, EE-E2 $ +<22:, >74 ) .?@ E=+E, =:E-=:2 %$ J +<2;<, ##A /))% =<+:, =:0-=0: #$. +<22=, .)##)A" ) /))% 0=+>, <;2-><> )"$6 4 $' $6#$D $T&'$ @ +>888$, D)#.#A.#)% D)D& "$D T$? +<228, %)" <<<+>, >8>->8E '$ +<2;2, /#SA #" 0>+7, <27->8E $ +<2;E, @# #) )#) AD"-& .$ $T$4 D +<2;;, 4##A ##%M'4") ) .# $% .$ 6 +<2;;, '#A) $)" .$C $$D & $T?$ D +<22>, ) #$ A4. .$ 5 +<228, 5))+> &)" /$4A# .$D +<2;=, J%"L &)? <8 <:=-<=< >7=

PAGE 247

.'$ +<2;E, A4"'# %M'A T .$ 4 +<22>, .A -7 %-') .& E0+=::,$<80-<8E .$. ?)$ T4 / +<22>, '#AH) .?@ E7+E, 02=-E8: 4 $TJ$? D +<220, /#-'A4# # %M'A# .#$ & +<22>, )#-'A/"' 4#/ 0=+7,$<=0-<=; 78 9 &$? $T6) / +<228, A(" # #$& .$ +<2;2, J)L HD C$@ $TD &+ ,)" + E-<=, $PA&)6#4 .)$4 $T' ? +<2E>, #F ) D 0=+=,$ ><0-><; .'"$J +<2E8, -) #%4$DA .-/$ 5$. +<22<, ?H) .&$ E=+=7;,$<:;-<=8 5$ +<2;;, .& E=+=7;, E7-;7 "%$ +<22;, A%' 6$ ==+:,$7:-72 "%$ $T6 "$6 +>888, #%'4AJ L.?@ ;<+0, :::-::0$::;-::2 $? i$D / $T&$ / +<22=, ?"#A #'% D$ >E+<,$7-<8 >70 <

PAGE 248

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

PAGE 249

'$D J +<220, A+0 $JA &%T&' $ +<228, A D"-& $ $T?$D +<2E;, #A?$$ 4 "4 A## $BA4!4 $6 +<2;;, JA&'#")# %M'A ?" $4 +<2;2, #A## .& E7+=<:< EE-;: $J / D +<2;<, %! "##" $ ( 4$4/ +<220, .*AJR'#)# .?@ EE+=, 70>-707 '*$? +<2;2, @-'"'## ) &D , /#$A" T& ) $@% 6 T + +<2;2, )# /#$A"T& )$ $T$ +<2;2, RJ%''A 6$:0+=,$:-< '$ @ $T.$? D +<227, R#-'#A )-# 4 :8+=, 7>E-77: '$D +<228, ##g-'" 4$4A ?.).# $ 6 +<2;E, .#() D >:+>, 7;

PAGE 250

'$C +<22>, #)# -' +4?) ? 7=<-:88, $6 +<2;7, -#) A .+ ""#"$) <0+ :<-;7, /$DA6% J $ ) '$ +<2;:, # # !4 =< <8>-<<< '$ $T"$D +<2E;, 4 J#$?4A $? $.'$ $4$D T' M +<2;2, 6'! #%%# )% ;$>77->:0 ) +<22:, % D + ,$' + !-!, %M'A4#. $ 6 +<20:, # 4#A5# &' / +<20;, )#"A)# %M'AC%-/"$. +<22>, #! <;8+0, <<= "-?$@ +<22=, '#A ))-'#$$ $ $4)" 4# D +<220, /#-'A-.? @ EE+=, 70:-70= $ $TC$& +<22<, %-'#-' & E=+=7;, =8-=; 4##" +<22<, A +B <,""+. -/-:0;, J#$?4A C).# ? +<2;E, ?#%A H J#$?4A >72 K

PAGE 251

? +<228,# J#$ ?4A BA# +<22>, 4$4A$4 C J'$/ +<22=, #6#$4AJ J'$/ &'-.#$ $$& $T)$/ +<22<, )+,AH# 6#$4AJ J' / $T&'"$ @ +<2E7, )A)" !4 = =-<< J'$/ $)$/ @ $$C $TD$J +<2;:, )"))) # / &$T @*$+ ,$/' )"%+ E88-E:<, J' / $$ H$ $T"$ +<2;E, # ))"A$ #"" ;+:, E-<0$>E J$D $T$ +<2;8, 4))A A/%$(") )# #$6A J#$ 4 +<220, ##' .<8:# ."# $$4$#2-<7 J#$ 4 $T"$ 4 + +<22=, '# '$4A4% J#$ 4 $TJ#$/ D +<2;=, #) &'"$4A4 J$ $T/$D +<2E8, "-H' CD :;+0, ::7-::; J#$C C +<2;7, )### &#$A.?@ >:8

PAGE 252

J# C C +<22<, -' ("!$ >=+<,$<=->: J#$C C $T$ +<2;0, ?#A/% L4#$;E+7, 7E:-72> J#$C C $$ $$C $6'$ T* +<2;2, #'A .A J#$C $ $T#$ +<2;E, #-'# 6$::+0,$E8-E7 J#$C $$4 $T@$/ +<2;8, ?A4 $ $JA)"J$ C)H"# J$ +<220, : ; )-'# 4#/$ E8+<,$:;-=< J$ $T +<2;>, B) %M'AJ" J$6 $T"$D +<2;8, .!A.! /#? J'$ $T?$C +<2;;, ?)#A ")"44" 4$4A/.#) J'$ $T%"$ +<2;2, )A) 4##$, J-/$ +<227, 28 ## 6 =<+7, E0-E; J"D $T"$ +>88<, UJ%%3A R-## !4$0E+7,$ 7E=-7;2 J$ 4 +<2;0, #%#A " J#$?4A ? J$? +<22>, 4)#-H ####-'"#%! $)"J>:<

PAGE 253

J"$ 6 +<22:, #"-' 4)/ $ )".") M$ @ +<2;:, 4"A?# &)"/$4A # M$ @ +<2;2, 4"A?# ) %" .'$4A# M#$ +<228, .)A"H %M'A4#. M"' D +<2;7, 4'#"# )%6#? < 7<-7E M"'$D T#**$& +<2;7, 6?6?AH( )%6#?$< >0->; 9'" +>88<, # #%>88< ;;+:, <> 9'"$ +>88<, ## #%>88< ;;+:,$>2 >:>