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Inquiry-rich classroom cultures

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Title:
Inquiry-rich classroom cultures three case-studies in the primary grades
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McWilliams, Margaret Susan
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441 leaves : illustrations ; 28 cm

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Education, Elementary -- Curricula -- Case studies -- Colorado ( lcsh )
Elementary school teaching -- Case studies -- Colorado ( lcsh )
Classroom environment -- Case studies -- Colorado ( lcsh )
Classroom environment ( fast )
Education, Elementary -- Curricula ( fast )
Elementary school teaching ( fast )
Colorado ( fast )
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Case studies. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Case studies ( fast )

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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 423-441).
General Note:
School of Education and Human Development
Statement of Responsibility:
by Margaret Susan McWilliams.

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University of Colorado Denver
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ocm47814945
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Full Text
INQUIRY-RICH CLASSROOM CULTURES:
THREE CASE STUDIES IN THE PRIMARY GRADES
by
Margaret Susan McWilliams
B. S., University of Missouri, 1977
M. A., University of Colorado at Denver, 1996
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Educational Leadership and Innovation
2001


2001 by Margaret Susan McWilliams
All rights reserved.


This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy
degree by
Margaret Susan McWilliams
has been approved
by
~yu^c@~gLtPl Vw ^
Michael P. Marlow

William L. Goodwin

William
uraschek
y-2-\ o'
Date


McWilliams, M. Susan (Ph.D., Educational Leadership and Innovation)
Inquiry-Rich Classroom Cultures: Three Case Studies in the Primary Grades
Thesis directed by Associate Professor Michael P. Marlow
ABSTRACT
This case study research examined the question: How do the core indicators
and patterns associated with inquiry curriculum appear in three primary-grade
inquiry-rich classroom cultures during an inquiry project? The research question was
based on the premise that teachers who created inquiry-rich classroom cultures would
serve to inform constructivist educators, particularly in: (a) implementation of
inquiry curriculum, (b) teacher beliefs in such cultures, (c) evidences of learning, and
(d) kinds of knowledge demonstrated. In each case, one predominant indicator of
inquiry curriculum identified the culture under study, providing an underlying
structure for inquiry enactments. The two most predominant core indicators of
inquiry curriculum across the cases were the ubiquitous presence of literacy and
opportunities for exploration.
Across the cases, the findings revealed the following main themes: (a)
indicators of inquiry curriculum were subjectively interpreted by the teachers and
idiosyncratically employed in the cultures; (b) teaching was enacted in accordance
with carefully considered belief systems stemming from developmental
IV


theory, the work of the historical educators, and the constructivist literature; (c)
learning occurred across cases in an elaborative way, promoting application and
understanding; (d) conceptual understanding was demonstrated during experiences
and in response to why and what do you mean questions, while procedural
knowledge was demonstrated during application phases of the inquiry project.
Implications from the findings consistently point to direct conflicts between
inquiry curriculum as enacted across the cases and curriculum that aligns with high-
stakes assessments. In particular, direct conflict was noted in the following: (a) the
process orientation and experiential nature of inquiry curriculum; (b) the participating
teachers beliefs based on developmental theory, historic educators, and constructivist
literature; (c) the employment of developmental assessments incorporating
observation, project work, and documentation of students work across time; (d) the
focus on building knowledge through elaboration; and (e) a curriculum centering on
conceptual and procedural knowledge, as well as factual knowledge. Because these
conflicts are not compromise oriented, teachers who are implementing inquiry
curriculum in high-stakes assessment environments, such as in Colorado, are at great
risk for losing their rights to teach according to their beliefs.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis. I recommend
its publication.
Signed
Michael P. Marlow
v


DEDICATION
I dedicate this dissertation to the 91 children and four teachers who
participated in this study.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I have come to the conclusion that completing a program of study and thesis
requires a supportive family, mentoring professors, and a wise Committee. I wish to
thank them all for nurturing me along the way.
My husband, Steve, and my children, Sarah and John, encouraged and
supported this process from start to finish. They are a great team and in many ways,
this dissertation is a celebration of their love and generosity. My parents. Bill and
Billy Lewis, are nurturers of possibilities and I thank them for always believing in my
potential to go beyond the imaginable.
I thank my advising professor, Mike Marlow, whose patience, sense of
wonder, and good council make him an incredible asset to the University and his
students lives. His generosity of professional opportunities, learning experiences,
and time is matchless. Bill Goodwins willingness to share his vast knowledge of
early childhood education and research was of incredible support. Bill Juraschek told
me I could do hard stuff when 1 got discouraged. I appreciate his ceaseless
inspiration and wisdom. Anyone who knows Marie Wirsing understands the
awakenings she initiates in peoples lives and mine certainly is no exception. I thank
her for thoughtful and provoking conversations throughout my graduate work. David
Livingston spent hours reading my lengthy manuscript in a very short timeframe. I
am deeply grateful for his encouraging advice near the end of this part of my journey.


CONTENTS
Figures......................................................... xvii
Tables.......................................................... xix
CHAPTER
1. THE RESEARCH PROBLEM........................................... 1
Introduction............................................... 1
Nurturing Inquiry and Teaching Skills in the Primary
Grades................................................ 2
The Statement of the Problem.......................... 7
Perspectives of Inquiry...................................... 9
The Advocates for Inquiry............................ 10
Definitions of Inquiry............................... 13
Inquiry as a Disposition............................. 17
Conceptual Framework........................................ 20
Toward a Conceptualization of Inquiry in
the Classroom Culture..................................................... 25
The Research Questions...................................... 27
Statement of the Research Questions.................. 28
Significance of the Study............................ 29
The Case Study Research Design.............................. 29
vrn


Structure of the Dissertation
31
2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE......................................... 34
Introduction.................................................. 34
Perspectives from Educational History......................... 35
Progressive Experiments in Education................... 38
Indicators of Inquiry Curriculum..................... 41
Endings and Beginnings................................. 48
Images from the Reggio Emilia Literature...................... 49
Indicators of Inquiry Curriculum....................... 50
Teacher Beliefs: An Indicator of Inquiry Curriculum........... 56
Why Dont Teachers Practice According to
Beliefs?.................................................................... 57
What Might Happen if Teachers Practiced
According to Beliefs?....................................................... 60
How Does a Study of Teacher Beliefs and
Practice Relate to the Present Study?....................................... 62
Nurturing Inquiry............................................. 63
Doing Everything To Promote Inquiry.................... 64
Addressing Misconceptions in Different Ways............ 67
Awareness of Childrens Intellectual
Development................................................................. 68
Does Awareness of Development Hinder Inquiry?........ 69
Children Choosing at School............................ 70
IX


Assessment in the Inquiry-Rich Classroom Culture...... 72
In Search of the Essence of Inquiry...................... 75
Nurturing Inquiry: Indicators of Inquiry Curriculum... 76
Childrens Expressions in the Inquiry-Rich Classroom Culture. 84
Expressions of Dissonance................................ 84
Childrens Questions..................................... 85
Multiple Ways of Demonstrating Learning.................. 86
Typology of Knowledge.................................... 88
Childrens Expressions: Indicators of Inquiry
Curriculum.................................................................... 89
The Inquiry-Rich Physical Environment...................... 95
Physical Environment: Indicators of Inquiry
Curriculum.................................................................... 96
The Inquiry-Rich Psychological Culture..................... 100
Why Psychological Environment is Important.............. 100
Inquiry and Caring...................................... 101
Psychological Culture: Indicators of Inquiry
Curriculum................................................................... 103
Review of the Dissertation Research and the Research
Methods...................................................................... 108
The Dissertation Research............................... 108
Review of the Research Methods.......................... 115
Summary' of the Literature Review.............................. 118
x


3. RESEARCH METHODS................................................ 120
Introduction................................................. 120
The Case Study Research Strategy............................. 121
The Nature of Case Study Research..................... 122
The Research Sites and Participants.......................... 123
Ethical Considerations................................ 125
Obtrusiveness of the Researcher....................... 126
Description of the Sites.............................. 127
Description of the Participants....................... 129
Methods of Data Collection................................... 131
Observation........................................... 134
Interview Protocol.................................... 137
Artifact Collection................................... 139
Instrumentation....................................... 140
Data Management....................................... 142
Terms................................................. 143
Data Analysis................................................ 143
Data Reduction........................................ 144
Data Display.......................................... 145
Conclusion Drawing and Verification................... 152
xi


Cross-Case Analysis................................... 153
Limitations and Trustworthiness of the Study................. 154
Dissemination of the Research to Participants................ 157
4. CASE STUDY OF THE INSECTS PROJECT.............................. 158
Introduction to the Case..................................... 158
The Culture.................................................. 158
A Culture of Relationship Building and Citizenship... 159
The Schedule.......................................... 162
The Flow of the Inquiry Project....................... 164
The Appearance of the Core Indicators of Inquiry Curriculum. 166
Using Fictional Text.................................. 166
Incorporating Nonfiction Literature................... 168
Teaching With Questions............................... 175
Encouraging Students Questions....................... 177
Supporting Expressions of Inquiry..................... 180
Planning and Carrying Out Ideas....................... 186
Summary of the Core Indicators of Inquiry Curriculum. 188
Teachers Beliefs............................................ 191
Evidences of Learning........................................ 198
Demonstrations of Kinds of Knowledge......................... 202
Factual Knowledge..................................... 204
xii


Conceptual Knowledge................................. 207
Procedural Knowledge.................................. 210
Summary of Kinds of Knowledge Demonstrated............ 211
Summary of the Case Study................................... 212
5. CASE STUDY OF THE FIVE SENSES PROJECT........................... 216
Introduction to the Case.................................... 216
The Culture................................................. 216
A Culture of Respect for Childrens Interests......... 217
The Schedule.......................................... 225
The Flow of the Project............................... 226
The Appearance of the Core Indicators of Inquiry Curriculum. 229
Incorporating Resources............................... 229
Making Time for Questions............................. 235
Providing Time for Exploration........................ 239
Encouraging Observation............................... 240
Investigating Phenomena............................... 246
Communicating Ideas................................... 251
Summary of the Core Indicators of InquiryCurriculum.... 253
Teacher Beliefs............................................. 256
Evidences of Learning................................... 263
xin


Demonstrations of Kinds of Knowledge....................... 269
Factual Knowledge..................................... 269
Conceptual Knowledge.................................. 272
Procedural Knowledge.................................. 275
Summary of Kinds of Knowledge Demonstrated............ 276
Summary of the Case Study................................... 277
6. CASE STUDY OF THE STORYTELLING PROJECT.......................... 281
Introduction to the Case.................................... 281
The Culture................................................. 281
A Culture of Literacy................................. 282
The Schedule.......................................... 284
Flow of the Project................................... 285
The Appearance of the Core Indicators of Inquiry Curriculum. 288
Exploring, Observing, and Analyzing................... 288
Experimenting and Reflecting.......................... 305
Formulating and Testing Theories...................... 314
Summary of the Core Indicators of Inquiry Curriculum.... 315
Teacher Beliefs............................................. 319
Evidences of Learning....................................... 325
Evidence that Experience Enhances Language
for Explanation........................................................... 330
xiv


Evidence that Interest Can Motivate Working
Beyond Proposed Goals................................................... 333
Summary of Evidences of Learning.................... 336
Demonstrations of Kinds of Knowledge...................... 337
Factual Knowledge................................... 337
Conceptual Knowledge................................ 338
Procedural Knowledge................................ 347
Summary of Kinds of Knowledge Demonstrated.......... 347
Summary of the Case Study................................. 348
7. CROSS-CASE ANALYSIS, DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS......................................................... 352
Introduction to the Cross Case Analysis, Discussion, and
Implications............................................................ 352
The Appearance of the Predominant Indicators of Inquiry
Curriculum Across the Cases............................................. 354
Appearance of Indicators: Within-Case Occurrence...... 354
Appearance of Indicators: Bi-Case Occurrence........ 356
Appearance of Indicators: Cross-Case Occurrence....... 356
Authentic Literacy as a Core Indicator of Inquiry
Curriculum.............................................................. 360
Exploration as a Core Indicator of Inquiry Curriculum. 366
Subjectivity Without Standardization................ 368
Central Themes Among Primary-Grade Teachers
Pedagogical Beliefs..................................................... 377
xv


Coherence Between Belief and Practice: Fueled by
Constructivist Theory and a Respect for the Culture of Childhood.. 380
Evidences of Learning in the Three Cultures........... 387
Elaborative Learning Experience................. 387
Students Misconceptions........................ 390
Lessons Learned About the Types of Learning
Demonstrated Across the Cases...................................... 391
Factual Knowledge.............................. 391
Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge............. 392
Summary of the Findings, Discussion, and Implications. 394
Recommendations for Further Research.................. 395
APPENDIX
A. HUMAN SUBJECTS PROTOCOL................................. 399
B. DATA COLLECTION PROTOCOL................................ 405
C. DATA ANALYSIS........................................... 413
REFERENCES......................................................... 423
xvi


FIGURES
Figure
1.1 A Conceptualization of Inquiry Related to the Study................. 26
4.1 Example of Habitats Writing and Illustration........................ 171
4.2 Pamelas Drawing of the Leaf Bug Katydid............................. 175
4.3 Samples of Wonder Questions Related to the Insect Project.............. 179
4.4 Example of a Graphic Organizer Collaboratively Created
During the Insect Project.............................................. 183
4.5 Insect Project Flow.................................................... 190
4.6 Examples of Misconceptions at Beginning of the Insect Project.......... 199
4.7 Lanes Exit Interview and Illustration................................. 201
4.8 A Demonstration of Factual Knowledge Without Conceptual
Understanding.......................................................... 204
4.9 Examples of Factual Knowledge.......................................... 206
4.10 Amys Field Notes Taken During the Hike................................ 210
4.11 A Conceptualization of Inquiry Related to the Case..................... 215
5.1 Examples of the Listening Walk Observations Recorded by Students.... 243
5.2 Hypotheses About Scents................................................ 249
5.3 Five Senses Project Flow............................................... 255
5.4 Jareds Depictions of the Eye.......................................... 268
xvii


5.5 Demonstrations of Factual Knowledge............................... 271
5.6 Demonstrations of Conceptual Knowledge............................... 274
5.7 Demonstrations of Procedural Knowledge............................... 276
5.8 A Conceptualization of Inquiry Related to the Case................... 280
6.1 Brads Illustration of a Story....................................... 296
6.2 Carys Reflection Journal Samples.................................... 308
6.3 Martins Storyboard.................................................. 310
6.4 Storytelling Project Flow............................................ 318
6.5 Allens Conception of Story as It Relates to Rock Climbing........... 332
6.6 Evidences of Rickys Interest in His Story Topic..................... 334
6.7 Rickys Storyboard................................................... 336
6.8 Demonstration of Early Developmental Levels of
Components of a Story............................................... 340
6.9 Demonstration of Emerging Developmental Levels
Of Components of a Story............................................ 342
6.10 Demonstration of Mature Developmental Levels of
Components of a Story............................................... 344
6.11 Demonstration of Conceptual Knowledge of Storytellers
and Storytelling.................................................... 346
6.12 A Conceptualization of Inquiry Related to the Case.................. 351
7.1 A Conceptualization of Inquiry Across the Cases...................... 359
XVUl


TABLES
Table
1.1 Advocates for Inquiry and Their Positions............................ 12
2.1 Nurturing Inquiry: Indicators of Inquiry Curriculum.................. 78
2.2 Childrens Expressions: Indicators of Inquiry
Curriculum........................................................... 90
2.3 Physical Environment: Indicators of Inquiry
Curriculum........................................................... 97
2.4 Psychological Culture: Indicators of Inquiry
Curriculum.......................................................... 105
3.1 Overview of the School Sites........................................ 128
3.2 School Mission Statements........................................... 129
3.3 Overview of the Participants........................................ 130
3.4 Research Purpose and Primary Methods Used in the Study.............. 131
3.5 Data Planning Matrix................................................ 133
3.6 Summary of Observations Across Sites................................ 137
3.7 Summary of Teacher Interview Sessions Across Sites.................. 138
3.8 Summary of StudentsArtifects Collected Across Sites................ 139
3.9 Calendar of Core Events for John Dewey Schools
Insect Project...................................................... 147
3.10 Calendar of Summarized Events for Livingston
Schools Five Senses Inquiry Project................................ 149
xix


3.11 Thematic Conceptual Matrix for Journey Schools Storytelling
Inquiry Project.................................................... 151
4.1 Demographics of John Dewey School.................................... 159
4.2 Typical Schedule and Cultural Vocabulary............................. 163
4.3 Calendar of Core Events for John Dewey
Schools Insect Project.............................................. 165
4.4 Sally and Maggies Beliefs and Practice.............................. 196
4.5 Pre- and Post-Inquiry Project Interview Data: What is an
Insect?.............................................................. 200
5.1 Demographics of Livingston School.................................... 217
5.2 Typical Schedule and Cultural Vocabulaiy............................. 226
5.3 Calendar of Core Events for Livingston Schools Five Senses
Project.............................................................. 228
5.4 Lindas Beliefs and Practice......................................... 261
5.5 Pre- and Post-Inquiry Project Interview Data: What Are the
Five Senses?......................................................... 263
5.6 Examples of Learning in the Interview Data........................... 265
6.1 Demographics of Journey School....................................... 282
6.2 Typical Schedule and Cultural Vocabulary............................. 285
6.3 Calendar of Core Events for Journey Schools Storytelling
Project.............................................................. 287
6.4 Pedagogical Questions: Moving from Observation to Analysis
of Story and Storytelling Techniques................................. 302
6.5 Storytelling Critique................................................ 312
xx


6.6 Kathys Beliefs and Practice............................................ 324
6.7 Pre- and Post-Inquiry Project Interview Data: What is a Story?........... 327
6.8 Pre- And Post-Inquiry Project Interview Data: What is
Storytelling? What Makes a Storyteller a Good Storyteller?............. 329
7.1 Cultural Identity: Most Predominant Indicators of Inquiry
Curriculum at Each Site................................................. 355
7.2 Indicators: Within-Case Occurrence....................................... 355
7.3 Indicators: Bi-Case Occurrence........................................... 356
7.4 An Overview of Inquiry Transactions in Three Case Studies................ 357
7.5 Exploration as an Indicator: Enactments.................................. 367
7.6 Summary of Teachers Beliefs............................................. 377
C.l Artifacts Content Matrix: John Dewey School.............................. 418
C.2 Types of Artifacts: Insects Project Student Artifacts Breakdown........ 420
C.3 Descriptions of Inquiry in National Standards Documents.................. 421
xxi


CHAPTER 1
THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Introduction
Among scholars in education, the predominantly accepted views of the
meaning of knowing have made a shift, expanding from being able to repeat and
remember information to understanding how to find and use information (J.
Anderson, 1999, p. 5; Bredekamp & Copple, 1997; Dow, 2000). Likewise,
educational goals for our nations children have been extended from goals centered
on skills and content toward more complex goals of promoting understanding,
developing intellectual strategies, and fostering higher levels of thinking (American
Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 1993,1998; J. Anderson,
1999; Bredekamp & Copple, 1997; International Reading Association [IRA] &
National Association for the Education of Young Children [NAEYC], 1998; National
Council for the Social Studies [NCSS], 1994; National Council of Teachers of
Mathematics [NCTM], 1991, 1998; National Research Council [NRC], 1996). The
movement toward high-level goals for educating children underlies the shift toward a
more complex and multifaceted pedagogy, such as inquiry. Inquiry is essential for
participating in a complex and information-rich culture (AAAS, 1993, 1998;
1


Bredekamp & Copple, 1997; Geography Education Standards Project [GESP], 1994;
NRC, 1996, 2000).
Including inquiiy in the education of young children poses several paradoxes
that often create dilemmas for primary grade teachers. These paradoxes are
frequently described as unresolved differencesa perceived either/or dichotomy in
goals and values for young children. One good illustration of this conflict is found in
the continuum of early childhood education practices described by the NAEYC as
Developmentally Appropriate Practice on one end and Developmentally
Inappropriate Practice on the other (Bredekamp & Copple, 1997). The NAEYC
description of dichotomies in goals and values for children is simply one current
interpretation of differences carried from times past.
Nurturing Inquiry and Teaching Skills in the Primary Grades
In this section, I will describe the pedagogical paradox in the primary grades
by first suggesting that in elementary schools, goals for skills development are
perceived as incongruent with goals for inquiry learning. Next, I propose that key
behaviors fueling childrens inquiries are also perceived as in direct conflict with
behaviors typically valued in skills-oriented school cultures. Finally, I suggest that
the inquiry research literature presents a puzzling message of support for teachers of
the primary grades.
2


The Knowledge Goals Paradox. Incorporating inquiry in the primary grades
and addressing the additional aforementioned shifts toward high-level goals for
children relies on firm foundations in the skills, tools, and concepts of oldreading,
writing, and arithmetic competencies in education. Primary grade teachers, although
supported by the educational literature to teach inquiry (Bourne, 2000; Chancer &
Rester-Zodrow, 1997; deBoo 1999; Hall, 1998; Lindfors, 1999; Short, Harste, &
Burke, 1996; Whitin & Whitin, 1997), are bound within their own realities to
teaching children the skills, tools, and concepts that enable reading, writing, and
understanding math. The first pedagogical paradox is found in the assumed disparity
in goals for teaching in the primary grades, with inquiry on one end of the teaching
goals spectrum, while skills, tools and concepts are situated on the other.
This is not to say that hues of each, from inquiry learning to skills acquisition
do not exist within the spectrum between extremes. Being centered is the foundation
of the call for balance, as the literacy and science professions widely suggest
(Freppon & Dahl, 1998; Rankin, 2000). It is, however, one more expression of the
classic teaching continuuma simplistic explanation of the non-ceasing conflict
between extremes, usually expressed in teaching as traditional versus
constructivist (R. Anderson, 1999). Rather than assume both goals can exist
together and complement each other in the primary grades or, even better, transcend
3


each and become a third point outside the teaching continuum1, an oft-perceived way
of explaining pedagogy is that goals are either in one extremity or the other.
Research shows that in spite of new conceptions of knowledge and goals for
education, content-level knowledge characterized by facts and skills is what schools
predominantly address (Tishman, Perkins, & Jay, 1995). Considering the recent
thrust of educational accountability legislation in the direction of traditional
education, this should come as no surprise.
The Educational Values Paradox. Most young children are already naturally
curiousthey typically come to school as competent observers, asking why or
how questions and holding a desire to find out (Ashcraft, 1999; NRC, 1996,2000).
Recent research demonstrates that young children are also capable of constructing
knowledge through exploration, experience, and facilitation from a more
knowledgeable person (J. Anderson, 1999; Ashcraft, 1999; Bredekamp & Copple,
1997). Using the pedagogy of inquiry demands a value in childrens rights to
curiosity, exploration, and experience.
Although valued in the early childhood profession and supported in the
literature, inquiry is typically laid aside by teachers in the primary grades and often
sacrificed for the more pressing values inherent in a pedagogy of efficiency and
accountability. In the business of learning, this often translates into the pedagogy of
1 Similarly, with regard to reading, Joyce suggested a multidimensional program (as) the best option,
rather than a balance created by synthesizing extreme positions or giving equal attention to them
(1999, p. 670).
4


transmitting information (Bredekamp & Copple, 1987, 1997). Learning, then,
becomes a passive enterprisein direct conflict with the active process described in
the previous paragraph. The case for efficiency in teaching and learning is
particularly more likely in a high-stakes assessment environment (Wardle, 1999;
Weinert & Helmke, 1995). In this scenario, teachers in the primary grades in effect
educate children to forgo the curiosities of childhood and to stop asking questions of
interest since their questions are not typically on the educational agenda.
To validate the existence of the aforementioned scenario and to illustrate the
conflict further, a review of the literature on curiosity and motivation reveals that this
body of work separates into two major themespreservation and exhumation.
Interestingly, the literature that correlates with the theme of preserving and nurturing
curiosity focuses on studies of young children (Chukovsky, 1963; Doris, 1991,1992;
Duckworth, 1996; Isaacs, 1930/1966). Recent research in the early childhood field
substantiates that young children possess a powerful and driving curiosity that fuels
language development, understanding the world, making hypotheses, and
constructing knowledge (Ashcraft, 1999). On the other hand, literature examining the
theme of exhuming curiositysparking it and increasing itcenters on older
students (Newton, 1997; Lowenstein, 1994; Tower, 2000). This literature poses the
question: what happens to curiosity and the desire to find out while children grow
older and become (one would assume) more sophisticated students?
5


Children appear to come to school with inquiry-oriented abilities when they
are young, yet as they grow older (and habituate or conform or become educated or
for whatever reason), they ask fewer questions and demonstrate less curiosity at
school. Maslow (1954/1987) wrote, Children do not have to be taught to be curious.
But they may be taught, as by institutionalization, not to be curious (p. 25, italics by
Maslow). Interestingly, Einstein suggested something similar It is nothing short of a
miracle that the modem methods of instruction have not entirely strangled the holy
curiosity of enquiry (Bernstein, 1973, p. 69).
It would appear, then, that inquiry is recognized and valued as desired in
young children. Yet, in a cursory overview, it looks as though inquiry becomes
sacrificed in the primary grades for the sake of skills, literacy acquisition, and
acculturation. In addition, young children typically demonstrate that they use inquiry
to help make sense of the world, but as evidenced in the literature, older children
must be rehabilitated in the lost disposition of inquiiy. To illustrate further, Weiss
(1997) analyzed results of the 1994 National Assessment of Educational Progress
(NAEP) teacher questionnaire and found that the majority of teachers agreed with the
professional science associations goals of inquiry implementation in theory, but a
majority of teachers also reported that they did not incorporate inquiry in their
practice. The educational values paradox arises when teachers believe they should
nurture inquiry, yet feel forced to teach in the traditional model, since efficiency is
paramount in a high-stakes culture.
6


The Research Paradox. Sophisticated educational goals such as teaching and
fostering inquiry demand a more sophisticated pedagogy than one described as
transmitting prescribed curriculum. The literature is rife with theories, ideas,
suggestions, images, and vignettes on inquiry in the early grades. On the one hand,
experts generously provide opinions of how one should carry forth inquiry in the
classroom. On the other hand, research that explores actual inquiry occurring in
primarv-grade classrooms is relatively sparse.
Again, the paradox is illustrated in another state of conflict found within the
literature: the clear message of what should be situates on one end, while the
paucity of what exists is on the other. This presents further puzzling complications
for implementing inquiry-oriented pedagogy in the primary grades. With regard to
inquiry in the primary grades, the bridge linking theory with practicebinding what
should be with the realities of what exists in the classroom, is very weak.
The Statement of the Problem
The purpose of this study was to explore and identify how indicators of
inquiry curriculum appeared in three inquiry-rich cultures in the primary grades.
Explorative case studies of such cultures serve to inform others interested in inquiry
curriculum and address the research paradox: a paucity of research describing
inquiry-rich classroom cultures in the primary grades.
7


This is not to say the research doesnt exist at all. Doris (1991). de Boo
(1999), and Hall (1998) each wrote highly informative research-based books
addressing inquiry in the primary grades. Harlens (1985) writings are based on his
research on inquiry in the elementary grades. Likewise, the National Science
Foundation, in conjunction with the staff of the Exploratorium Institute for Inquiry,
produced a monograph delineating thoughts, views, and strategies on inquiry
(Division of Elementary, Secondary, and Informal education, Directorate of
Education and Human Resources, NSF, 2000, p. 1). This document contains several
accounts of inquiry research in the primary grades. Each of these works is addressed
in the review of the literature section in Chapter Two.
The relatively sparse amount of research literature is further demonstrated by
searching the ERIC database. In an all-inclusive search, only six documents emerged
pertaining to inquiry, primary grades, and research. Of those, two were
teacher-action research, three described inquiry curriculum, and one was a study of a
school in 1988.
Likewise, although research addresses teacher beliefs in relationship to
practice and factors contributing to teaching or not teaching as one believes
(Goldstein, 1997; Wien, 1995), the literature insufficiently describes goals and values
of teachers who embrace and support inquiry in the primary grades. Teachers who
are interested in the implementation of both the pedagogy of inquiry and skills have
few real-world examples to draw from that are specific to their cohort-primary-
8


grade teachers and children. The general problem lies in the scarcity of literature
exploring and identifying what actually exists in inquiry-rich classroom cultures in
the primary grades. The problem under study in this dissertation research addresses
how the indicators of inquiry curriculum appear in three primary-grade inquiry-rich
classroom cultures.
To explore the general research problem in more detail, I provide a
background of perspectives on inquiry from scholars and professional educational
associations. These perspectives lead to a definition of inquiry for the purpose of this
study. Next, the conceptual framework justifying inquiry as desirable for primary
grade students is identified. I formulate the research questions based on the
aforementioned general problemexploring and identifying the pedagogy of inquiry
in the primary gradesand suggest the studys significance. I address the qualitative
research design and end this chapter by providing an overview of the structure of the
remainder of the dissertation.
Perspectives of Inquiry
In this section, I argue for the importance of inquiry in the primary grades by
briefly identifying its advocates and summarizing their support in the literature. Next,
I cite various definitions of inquiry to demonstrate its conceptual elasticity. I end this
section by characterizing inquiry as a cultivated teaching and learning disposition.
9


The Advocates for Inquiry
The call for inquiry in education is found in the professional associations
descriptions of educational goals (GESP, 1994; IRA & NAEYC, 1998; NCSS, 1994;
NCTM, 1991,1998; NRC, 1996,2000), position statements (Bredekamp & Copple,
1997; Consortium for Interdisciplinary Teaching and Learning, 1995), and related
literature (de B6o, 1999; Hall, 1998; Lindfors, 1999; Tishman, Perkins, & Jay, 1995;
Whiten & Whiten, 1997). These research-supported opinions advocating inquiry in
education range from holistic positions to discipline-related stands.
In the holistic arena, Tishman, Perkins, and Jay (1995) indicated that higher-
order knowledge composed of problem solving, finding evidence and explanation,
and inquiry are crucial for genuine understanding in the discipline areas (pp. 128-
130). Bredekamp and Copple (1997) suggested the same by indicating that young
children need to ...learn the key concepts and tools of inquiry of discipline areas in
ways that are meaningful and accessible for their developmental level (p. 170).
On the discipline-related level, interest groups promoting inquiry outlined
their positions as educational goals. For example, the Geography Education
Standards Project (1994) began an overview of their goals with the following.
Geography is not a collection of arcane information... Geography has much more to
do with asking questions and solving problems than it does with rote memorization of
isolated facts (p. 18). Another example is found in the science goals. The National
10


Research Council (1996) wrote, The Standards call for more than science as
process, in which students learn such skills as observing, inferring, and
experimenting. Inquiry is central to science learning (p. 2). The NRC determined
that science as inquiry was the first of ten content standards for student learning (p.
121). Table 1.1 provides additional highlights of key advocacy-related statements
about inquiry from selected professional goals.
11


Table 1.1
Advocates for Inquiry and Their Positions
Publication Key Statements
Geography for Life: National Geography Standards (GESP, 1994) Geography is not a collection of arcane information.... Geography has much more to do with asking questions and solving problems than it does with rote memorization of isolated facts (p. 18) Critical thinking skills... have applications to all levels of geographic inquiry and constitute the bases on which students can build competencies in applying geographic skills to geographic inquiry (p. 45).
Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) The Standards call for more than science as process, in which students learn such skills as observing, inferring, and experimenting. Inquiry is central to science learning (p. 2)
Standards for the English Language Arts (NCTE & IRA, 1996) It is essential that students acquire a wide range of abilities and tools for raising questions, investigating concerns, and solving problems. In school, research is the name commonly given to the processes of addressing such concerns... Perhaps the idea of research is best considered in terms of inquiry (p. 38).
Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, Draft (NCTM, 1998) Classrooms must promote the abilities of students to initiate and sustain inquiry by becoming mathematical communities where students exchange ideas and deepen conceptual understanding (p. 35).
Developmentally Appropriate Practice, Revised Edition. (Bredekamp & Copple, 1997) The curriculum is designed to help children acquire important skills like literacy and numeracy and learn the key concepts and tools of inquiry of discipline areas in ways that are meaningful and accessible for their developmental level (p. 170).
Expectations of Excellence: Curriculum Standards for Social Studies (NCSS, 1994) An awareness of the relationship among social studies content, skills, and learning context can help us establish criteria for developing reflective social inquiry (p. 7). Teachers model seriousness of purpose and a thoughtful approach to inquiry and use instructional strategies designed to elicit and support similar qualities from students (p. 12).
Position Statement on Interdisciplinary Learning, Pre-K-Grade 4 (Consortium for Interdisciplinary Teaching and Learning, 1995) It is important for students to develop familiarity with the knowledge, assumptions, and methods of inquiry used in many subject-matter areas in order to be able to select that which is most appropriate for any given situation (p. 1).
The Thinking Classroom: Learning and Teaching in a Culture of Thinking. (Tishman, Perkins, & Jay, 1995) Higher order knowledge looks beyond the factual knowledge of a subject matter and focuses on knowledge and know-how about the ways of solving problems, using evidence, and doing inquiry in a discipline (p. 3). Higher order knowledge holds keys to a genuine understanding of and involvement in a discipline (p. 130).
12


Whether the position held is holistic or specific to a discipline, the message is
the same: inquiry is a sound way of teaching and learning in the classroom culture.
To embrace inquiry within the classroom culture is to agree with national goals and
developmentally appropriate practice for young children; it is to concur with appeals
for teaching skills, procedures, and concepts; and it is to believe in constructivism,
authentic learning, and cognitive development theories. To embrace inquiry within
the classroom culture is to understand the existence of the pedagogical paradox in the
primary grades: how to nurture inquiry and teach skills and concepts. It is not that
children need food or water; they need both (Bredekamp & Copple, 1997, p. 23).
An analysis of inquiry definitions informs attempts to bind the concept of inquiry for
the purpose of this study.
Definitions of Inquiry
Definitions of inquiry in education fill the literature. They range from the
straightforward to the complex. As a term of educational significance, interpretations
of inquiry represent differences among settings, people, and times.
Wheeler (2000) most accurately suggested, inquiry is an elastic word,
stretched and twisted to fit peoples differing worldviews (p. 14). Wheelers
statement reflects the conflict found among inquiry proponents. On one extreme are
those who translate inquiry within the classroom culture as being expert-created
curriculum, containing scripted and teacher-directed hands-on experiments, such as
13


commercially prepared textbook curriculum. In this scenario, teachers follow
directions and children learn pre-determined outcomes. On the other extreme are
those who propose that curriculum are emergent or negotiated with the child
(Forman & Fife, 1997, p. 239), and describe pedagogy as improvisational (AAAS,
1998, p. 106). Under this description, teachers provoke inquiry by honing-in on
childrens interests. They create experiences by drawing upon many resources and
the outside community. Typically this form of inquiry is carried forth through
projects that hold open-ended and undetermined outcomes.
Thus, interpretations of the definitions of inquiry shape and reshape according
to the basic philosophies inherent within interpreters. Wheelers description of
elasticity in inquiry conceptualizations requires a definition and a position that can
bind the parameters of this research. Following is a brief summary of predominant
general definitions of inquiry, interpreted through my world-view. A more detailed
review of the indicators of inquiry curriculum drawn from the literature will follow in
Chapter Two.
From the Straightforward to the Complex. Straightforwardly defined, inquiry
is a language act in which one attempts to elicit anothers help in going beyond his
or her own present understanding (Lindfors, 1999, p. ix). Not surprisingly,
Lindfors definition mirrors her career focus in the language arts profession and her
emphasis on interaction in education. By audio taping language interactions between
children and adults, Lindfors identified the inquiry episode, a language event
14


behavioraUy demonstrating her inquiry definition and describing the outcomes from
such interactions.
Moving toward a more complex definition of inquiry, de Boo (1999) indicated
that inquiry describes a situation where there is curiosity and a desire to find
something out by exploration, investigation and research (p. 2). De Boos definition
of inquiry reflected her science interests. Although de Boos work with inquiry
focused on science, she demonstrated in her book that inquiry was an
interdisciplinary endeavor.
Dewey (1910/1997) expounded upon the concept of inquiry in his writings
and his work. He identified reflective thinking as a critical aspect of inquiryin fact,
he calls the inquiry process reflective thinking (1910/1997). Dewey (Winn, 1959)
stated that inquiry is a process for resolving the unknown to reach satisfaction or
wholeness.
Inquiry is the controlled or directed transformation of an indeterminate
situation into one that is so determinate in its constituent distinctions and
relations as to convert the elements of the original situation into a unified
whole (p. 62).
According to Wirth (1966), Dewey believed that effort was related to interest and
both played roles in transforming the old ideas into the new. He aligned his position
on employing interest in education away from that of playing to the whims of
children. Dewey believed that master teachers knew how to effectively use childrens
interest to efficiently foster understanding and knowledge. Inquiry incorporates
15


childrens interests to promote effort and motivation to leam. More is written on
Dewey in the Conceptual Framework in this chapter and in Chapter Two.
The National Research Council provided the most overt and succinct
definition of inquiry (1996,2000). Full inquiry involves asking a simple question,
completing an investigation, answering the question, and presenting the results to
others (1996, p. 123). Pages of elaboration follow their concise definition of
inquiry. I draw upon this definition as a general guide for defining and understanding
inquiry in the classroom culture, across disciplines since it holds the same
components as additional definitions of inquiry (GESP, 1994; IRA, NCTE, 1996;
Short, Harste, & Burke, 1996).
Defining inquiry so succinctly opens gaps in addressing its complexity. To
illustrate, Gravess description of the writer-scientist (1999, p. 3) provides further
insight into the complexity of inquiry.
There is little difference between the thinking of the writer and scientist. Both
observe phenomena and formulate hypotheses to connect the meanings of
events. They are fascinated by data that do not fit the norm. Exception is the
root of wonder; the unexplained, the source of further inquiry, and unease is a
sign of further exploration into the unknown. (Graves, 1999, p. 4)
His elaboration on this type of thinking lends credence to inquiry being integral to the
search for understanding. Like Dewey, Graves implied that inquiry is a way of
thinking.
What is clear from the literature is that inquiry is described in two ways: it is
an approach for teaching and it is a process for learning (Bybee, 2000; NRC, 1996,
16


2000). In addition, inquiry in the primaiy grades from interdisciplinary and
developmentally appropriate perspectives incorporates skills, such as reading,
writing, and mathematics, in childrens authentic searches for understanding
(Bredekamp & Copple, 1997; Short, Harste, & Burke, 1996; Short, Schroeder, Laird,
Kauffman, Ferguson, & Crawford, 1996). Finally, inquiry is valued as a means for
higher-order knowledge (Tishman, Perkins, & Jay, 1995). In the next section, I
propose that when inquiry is a pattern of behavior, it becomes even more than a
method for teaching or an approach to learning.
Inquiry as a Disposition
Knowledge, according to Dewey, develops not by learning isolated facts or
memorizing information, but by a disposition of mind (Dewey, 1910/1997, p. 125).
For Dewey, a disposition was a way of thinking or habit of mind, much like Graves
(1999) described the thinking of writers and scientists. Dewey also stated that this
should also characterize an approach to pedagogy. Deweys articulation of the
scientific attitude of mind suggests inquiiy as a pedagogical and learning disposition.
Dewey indicated why even the youngest of students would flourish under such a
curriculum.
.. .the native and unspoiled attitude of childhood, marked by ardent curiosity,
fertile imagination, and love of experimental inquiry, is near, very near, to the
attitude of the scientific mind. (Dewey, 1910/1997, p. vii)
17


More recently, research supports the development of teaching dispositions in
professional development (Katz & Raths, 1985; Ritchhart, 1998, 2000). This
conception of disposition carries an observable characteristic in its definition.
Because implementing inquiry in the classroom culture involves both thinking and
doing, I suggest that the term inquiry for the purpose of this study, be extended to
an observable conception ofdisposition.
Inquiry as a Pedagogical Disposition. Disposition in teaching was described
as an attributed characteristic of a teacher, one that summarizes the trend of a
teachers actions in particular contexts (Katz & Raths, 1985, p. 301). According to
Katz and Raths, the goals of teacher education programs should include a class of
outcomes we call professional dispositions (p. 301, italics by Katz and Raths).
Although they dont identify inquiry as a professional disposition, their ideas lay the
groundwork for considering inquiry as a pedagogical disposition. Inquiry becomes a
teaching disposition if it appropriately describes the pattern or trend in a teachers
actions and interactions within the classroom culture.
Inquiry as a Learning Disposition. The concept of dispositions for learning,
explored by Katz and Chard (1989), Tishman, Perkins, and Jay (1995), and Ritchhart,
(2000), for example, is rationale for considering inquiry as a learning disposition.
Dispositions for learning are typically defined as inclinations and habits of mind
(Bredekamp & Copple, 1997, p. 157; Katz & Chard, 1989, pp. 30-32; Ritchhart,
2000; Tishman, Perkins, & Jay, 1995, p. 37). Rather than suggest inquiry as a
18


disposition, Tishman, Perkins, & Jay suggest several inquiry-related descriptors for
what they call thinking dispositions: being curious and questioning, thinking
broadly and adventurously, reasoning clearly and carefully, organizing ones
thinking, and giving thinking time (pp. 41-42). Bredekamp & Copple (1997) treat
this similarly by suggesting that curiosity is a disposition for spontaneously
incorporating the use of skills and concepts in the search for understanding and
problem solving.
If teachers demonstrate an inquiry disposition in their teaching, then students
have opportunities to learn through inquiry and develop their own inquiry
dispositions. Inquiry becomes a learning disposition if it appropriately describes the
trend in children's learning inclinations, shown through actions, throughout the day.
Summary of the Definition. For the purpose of this study, a disposition is
defined as a trend in a pattern of behaviors, exhibited by an individual or a group. In
this research project, an inquiry disposition is considered from two perspectives
teaching and learning. To exhibit an inquiry disposition in teaching requires that a
teacher predominantly display a pattern of using inquiry in her own behavior. To
exhibit an inquiry disposition in learning requires that students predominantly display
a pattern of using inquiry in their behavior, as indications of inclinations or habits of
mind. In the primary grades, it is expected that observed learning dispositions are
either self-initiated or teacher/peer facilitated.
19


Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework justifies inquiry as a means for teaching and
learning in the primary grade classroom culture. It is grounded in the assumption
that teachers who incorporate inquiry believe it is a predominant means for educating
young children. These teachers include inquiry in the classroom because it is
congruent with their own philosophical and theoretical beliefs about how children
Ieam.
Cognitive interactionist theories formulate the basis of constructivism. The
child is an active participant in the learning process through interaction with people
and the environment (Brooks & Brooks, 1993, 1999) and knowledge, from this
perspective, is subjectively created. The cognitive-interactionist family of learning
theories is in direct opposition to the stimulus-response conditioning theories in the
neobehavioristic family, for example, that view the child as an isolated and passive
receptor of knowledge (Bigge & Shermis, 1999, p. 44, Brooks & Brooks, 1993), with
knowledge considered as an objective and measurable entity. Oversimplifying the
conceptualization of the learner as either passive or active once again presents an
extreme view of learning, just as an either-or paradigm of pedagogy suggests a
similar view of teaching. Some skills, such as learning the alphabet or how to count,
need to be memorized rather than constructed, so children need both ways of learning
20


to a degree. The cognitive interactionist theories not only justify inquiry in the
classroom culture, but also present my own bias and subjectivity: children are active
participants in constructing their learning through transaction. The theories of
Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky, and Erikson present differences in focus areas and
perspectives, but together they formulate a strong justification for incorporating
inquiry in the primary grade classroom.
Dewey identified a process that guided the pedagogy of inquirythe
scientific attitude of mindas reflective thinking (1910/1997, pp. vii, 72,203).
Dewey believed that teachers needed to create and facilitate the educational
situation (1902) and teach within the child's abilities (1910/1997). This initial step
guided teachers in directing the inquiry within childrens abilities and facilitated
students in their inquiry transactions2 (Geiger, 1955). Dewey noted that reflective
thinking or the inquiry process began when the child felt a difficulty or perceived
uncertainty (1910/1997, p. 72). Then, the child basically identified the problem
through observation, what Dewey referred to as location and definition (1910/1997,
2Dewey indicated that transaction was a better word than interaction (Rosenblatt, 1988, p. 2). The
word transaction suggested that relationships caused change to occur through interactions involving a
three-way interplay between the knower, the object or person of concern, and the environment. In
Deweys analysis, the term interaction was inadequate because it simply implied separate objects
acting upon one another, not necessarily creating change (Rosenblatt, 1988, p. 2). Louise Rosenblatt
created an innovative and highly influential theory of reading, based on Deweys conception of
transaction: the transactional theory of the literary work (Rosenblatt, 1938, 1978). It assumes a
three-way interplay (transaction) between the reader (prior schema), the text, and the environment,
creating new meaning the poem, which in a reflective sense goes back to the reader... How one
transacts with the text also depends on purpose (informational reading vs. reading for enjoyment, for
example). Further, the meaning drawn from one reader transacts with those drawn from other
readers through social dialogue, thereby formulating a newer and more sophisticated understanding,
transcending the individual poem. I provide this simple version of a complex theory to demonstrate
one example of Deweys conception of transaction placed in the context of reading theory.
21


pp. 72-73). Next, the child suggested a hypothesis and explored that avenue of
inquiry (p. 75). After that, reasoning was formulated. Finally, Dewey suggested that
further observation and experimentation led to acceptance or rejection of the new
idea. Dewey believed the educational process was continuous and never ending, the
ultimate goal of which was consciousness, a term he described as an expanding
realization of meanings (Dewey, 1916/1966, pp. 359-360).
Of Piagets vast body of literature regarding genetic epistemology, I briefly
summarize only one: his concept of adaptation related to intellectual development.
Piaget suggested that when a basic scheme came into contact with the unknown, it
met with disequilibrium and the desire to know more. The new knowledge was
assimilated into the existing scheme and became modifiedit holds new concepts
that may not be accurate. What adults view as mistakes along the way are really
not mistakes in the mind of the child, but approximations (Piaget, 1973, p. 22).
Additional experiences caused schema to transform to accommodate more
sophisticated understandings (Piaget, 1952/1963). Intellectual adaptation occurred
when assimilation and accommodation came into equilibrium. Intellectual
adaptation, then, is a change in behaviorlearning (Piaget, 1952/1963). According
to Piaget, children were active participants of intellectual adaptation. Through
experiencing the environment and experimenting with newly formulated schemas,
children learned. Understanding mistakes as approximations in learning presents
teachers with opportunities for ongoing assessment through observation.
22


The predominance Vygotsky placed on social interaction is in contrast to
Piagets emphasis on individual interaction with concrete materials (Bedrova &
Leong, 1996; Smith, 1996). Central to Vygotskys theory is that learning is
influenced by social interactions. Therefore, Vygotsky believed that the role of
teachers was to provide instruction within an area he termed the zone of proximal
development (Vygotsky, 1934/1986).
The zone of proximal development is the distance between the actual
developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the
level of potential development as determined through problem solving under
adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers, (p. 86)
The zone of proximal development embodies a concept of readiness to learn
that emphasizes upper levels of competence. These upper boundaries are not
immutable, however, but constantly changing with the learners increasing
independent competence, (p. 86)
Like Dewey and Piaget, Vygotsky believed that learning was an on-going process.
Vygotskys sociohistorical theory acknowledges that cognitive development is a
product of social interaction and experience influenced by culture.
Eriksons work centered on emotional needs for developing an identity. He
believed that culture and history gave childhood meaning (Mitchell & Black, 1995).
Erikson (1950/1985) outlined eight stages, Eight Ages of Man, in his psychosocial
theory of development and described them as conflicting issues in need of resolution
(pp. 247-274). What resulted was a psychological adaptation, the result of which was
the creation of identity. Identity formation was an ongoing process, constantly
reformulated through social experiences. Eriksons theory presents implications for
23


all classrooms since they,provide life experiences. Childrens responses to
psychological conflicts when dealing with trust, autonomy, initiative, and industry
identity issues are affected by the over-riding psychological culture in the
classroom. It should be noted, however, that the literature relating to both
constructivism as a way of learning for children and developmentally appropriate
practice promote trust, autonomy, initiative, and industry by allowing children to
make choices, ask questions, search for information, synthesize, and share
(Bredekamp & Copple, 1997; Brooks & Brooks, 1993).
In summary, the larger works of Dewey, Piaget, and Vygotsky, comprise the
foundation of constructivism (Brooks & Brooks, 1993). Each emphasize the
importance of an active process of interaction by participants within the culture, as
opposed to a conception of learning as being passive or taking in knowledge, such as
that of the neobehaviorists (Bigge & Shermis, 1999). Piagets work makes it
possible for us to understand the childs way of knowing so we can effectively teach.
Vygotsky further revealed that effective teaching occurred within the zone of
proximal development. Erikson provided reason for us to attend to the psychological
culturethe very identity of the child is cultivated in classroom cultures. The
theorists serve to illuminate Deweys following remark.
It is part of the educators responsibility to see equally to two things: First,
that the problem grows out of the conditions of the experience being had in the
present, and that it is within the range of the capacity of the students; and,
secondly, that it is such that it arouses in the learner an active quest for
24


information andfor the production of new ideas. (Dewey, 1938/1997, p. 79;
my italics added for emphasis)
Toward a Conreptnalization of Inquiry in the Classroom Culture
The work of the theorists identified in the conceptual framework hold a
common theme: a new level of intellectual and psychological development occurs as
the result of an active and dynamic interplay between conflicting paradigms, whether
it be the known in opposition to the unknown, an independent level against that which
one can only do with assistance, or the identity issues of industry versus inferiority,
for example. Fostering that interplay is what goes on in the classroom culture. A
pedagogy of inquiry supports the active processes necessary to formulate identity,
intellectual development, and learning within the range of abilities.
I suggest a conceptualization for inquiry learning in Figure 1.1. Played out in
the classroom culture, the child enters the educational experience and meets with the
uncertainty that comes when facing the unknown or that which is not fiilly
understood. This provokes inquiry transactions within the classroom cultural
experience. The inquiry transaction is the three-way interplay between the child,
cultural members, and environment (psychological and physical) producing change or
learning. Chapter Two outlines the indicators of inquiry curriculum coloring these
transactions.
25


An epistemological necessity in the primary grades, inquiry presupposes an
inquiry-rich culture for its development and growth. Without such a culture, inquiry
learning moves from covert to languishing.
Figure 1.1
A Conceptualization of Inquiry Related to the Study
Developing the Inquiry Disposition in Learning
Person enters the Experience and
1
The Known meets with < < The Problem of Knowledge
i
discontinuity or uncertainty or disequilibrium
l
provoking
_______________i__________________
Classroom Cultural Experiences
Through
Inquiry Transactions*
l
promoting
i
Resolution
(Continuity or
Equilibrium)
l
New Knowledge
*The Inquiry Transaction is the three-way interplay between the child, cultural members, and
environment (psychological and physical) producing change or learning. Chapter Two outlines the
indicators of inquiry curriculum coloring these transactions.
26


The Research Questions
An explorative study of the inquiry-rich classroom culture provides a means
for considering the feasibility and implications of its implementation with both
teachers and children. By first asking what the general education literature says about
constructivism and inquiry, I compiled a list of descriptors of what could or perhaps
even should be present as indicators of an inquiry-rich classroom culture. Indicators
of inquiry curriculum were organized according to themes that emerged from the
literature in four general constructs: nurturing inquiry, childrens expressions of
learning, physical environmental descriptors, and psychological environmental
factors. These indicators of inquiry curriculum served to inform the selection process
and the study, rather than limit the researcher, as noted in Chapter Two.
The list of indicators naturally posed problems. First, such lists taken from
the literature lend a rather utopian, ivory tower, and untested view of the inquiry-rich
classroom culture. The review of the literature presents, perhaps, too many factors
for one classroom to contain. On the other hand, the review of the literature begs the
question-wbal is omitted? Is there something that hasnt been associated with inquiry
in the reviewed opinions, research, and dialogue? Then, one wonders how teachers
incorporate the indicators of inquiry curriculum within their pedagogy. In other
words, if primary grade teachers are involving children in exploration, for example,
then how is that process carried out within an educational setting? What conclusions
27


about the inquiry process can be drawn from an analysis of three inquiry-rich
classroom cultures? What are the most important or predominant themes found
among the inquiry-rich classroom cultures?
To compile a list from the literature and consider it a fairly good portrait of
what experts say should be in the inquiry-rich classroom culture is one task. It is
quite another to see what actually exists and how it is orchestrated. Flowing from the
indicators of constructivism and inquiry drawn from the literature is the natural
emergence of the research problem: an exploration and identification of how
indicators of inquiry curriculum appear in three inquiry-rich classroom cultures in the
primary grades.
Statement of the Research Questions
Research questions addressed in this study were the following.
1. How do the core indicators and patterns associated with inquiry curriculum
appear in three primary-grade inquiry-rich classroom cultures during an
inquiry project?
2. What do teachers who design and implement inquiry-rich classroom cultures
believe about how children learn, their role as a teacher, goals for children,
assessment and inquiry?
3. Is there evidence of student learning during the inquiry project?
4. What kinds of knowledge are demonstrated?
28


Significance of the Study
Significance of exploring the inquiry-rich classroom culture lies in informing
those who are interested in inquiry situated within the complexities of the primary-
grade setting. Since teacher beliefs influence practice (R. Anderson, 1999; Bigge &
Shermis, 1999; Eisner, 1994; Kneller, 1971; Morris & Pai, 1994), the study also
addresses the beliefs of those who create inquiry-rich classroom cultures.
Professional groups across disciplines promote inquiry as an essential tool for
learning and understanding. The research adds to the growing body of literature
pertaining to professional goals in education.
The Case Study Research Design
The research, an explorative and descriptive study of the inquiry-rich
classroom culture, demands a case study research design. Its purpose is to describe
cultures by identifying predominant themes and patterns among its participants
(LeCompte & Preissle, 1993). Contrasted with quantitative research that gives a
statistical analysis of quantifiable results typically through analyzing trends and
patterns among test scores, a case study approach is a study of the transactions among
people, beliefs, and environments.
To ascertain core themes inherent in the inquiry-rich classroom culture
through a case study research design, I first had to find classroom cultures
29


incorporating inquiry on a regular basis. In his book Actual Minds. Possible Worlds.
Bruner (1986) quotes William James, who in 1902 said that to study religion one
should study the most religious man at his most religious moment (p. 71). Using the
same argument, to really study inquiry-rich classroom cultures in the primary grades,
I sought out the most inquiry-rich classroom cultures I could find in the Denver area.
Although this method of site selection held the risk of studying only classrooms
outside of mainstream schooling, the site selection method held potential for the
closest enactments of the indicators drawn from the literature and delineated in
Chapter Two. Chapter Three provides further details about the site selection process.
One common criticism of qualitative research is that it is biased or bound
within the framework of the individual researchers own beliefs. One way to deal
with this criticism is to reveal the underlying philosophic and theoretical biases of the
researcher. Another means of addressing subjectivity is in explicit documentation of
data collection methods and analysis.
Framing this research is the fundamental underlying assumption that the
young child learns through active involvement in authentic experiences. Inquiry is
one legitimate means for active experiential learning. Implications from this position
suggest that physical environment, socio-cultural context, and teacher facilitation play
critical roles in educating the child. A case-study research design supports the
purpose of this study. Drawing on the work of Dewey (1910/1997, 1916/1966,
1934/1980, 1938/1997), Piaget (1952/1963,1973), Vygotsky (1934/1986), and
30


Erikson (1950/1985), the conceptual framework of this study lends philosophic and
theoretical coherence rationale with case study research in the inquiry-rich classroom
culture. Reviews of case study research methods and applicable dissertations follow
near the end of Chapter Two. A comprehensive summary of the present research
design and analysis is found in Chapter Three.
Structure of the Dissertation
In Chapter One, I described the primary grades as a complex culture typically
composed of capable children and conscientious teachers, who recognize the power
inquiry plays in the education of young children, yet are tom by the compelling
concern for emphasizing skills in mathematics and literacy. I addressed the purpose
of the study. To explore the general research problem in more detail I presented a
background of perspectives on inquiry from the literature. This led to a definition of
inquiry as a teaching and learning disposition, for the purpose of this study. After
this, I briefly identified the conceptual framework that justified inquiry as desirable
for primary grade students. Next, I formulated the research questions based on the
aforementioned general problem, and suggested the studys significance in early
childhood (K-2) education. Finally, I rationalized why a qualitative research design
was incorporated in this study.
In the Review of the Literature in Chapter Two, I briefly outline relevant
historical people, ideas, and experiments that were influential in shaping current ideas
31


about constructivism and inquiry in education. Following, I provide a summary of
the indicators of inquiry by reviewing the literature. Next, I summarize the
dissertation research applicable to the study and I note relevant methods incorporated
in past case study research. I end the chapter by defining the inquiry-rich classroom
culture and revisiting the purpose of the study.
In Chapter Three, Research Methods, I begin by describing the case study
design and its consistency with the goals for the study. Next, I report the procedures
for site selection and ethical considerations. Then, I address the methods of data
collection. Following, I describe the methods used in data analysis. I end with
addressing the limitations of the study and how the research was disseminated to the
participants.
In Chapters Four, Five, and Six, I provide the data and findings from the
study. Each chapter centers on one of the three research sites. In these chapters, I
give descriptive accounts regarding how the indicators of inquiry curriculum are
enacted in each of the three cases.
Chapter Seven provides the cross-case analysis, discussion, implications, and
recommendations. In this chapter, I note the core indicators of inquiry curriculum
across the cases. After analyzing how they appeared across the cases, I suggest
implications from the research.
32


The Appendixes follow and provide samples of instruments, human subject
committee requirements, and the paper trail. Bibliographic information regarding
literature cited in the study is found in the Reference Section.
33


CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Introduction
The research question driving this study focused on how the core indicators of
inquiry curriculum appeared in three inquiry-rich, primary-grade classroom cultures.
The indicators of inquiry curriculum were delineated and defined by conducting a
review of the literature on inquiry in teaching and learning. The review of the
literature also addressed the research questions pertaining to teacher beliefs,
evidences of students learning, and kinds of knowledge demonstrated in inquiry-
oriented classrooms.
In this chapter, I begin by briefly outlining the historic people, ideas, and
experiments that were influential in shaping current though about constructivism and
inquiry in education. Because the site selection process focused on finding inquiry-
rich classroom cultures, sites participating in the present study held historical and
theoretical connections with inquiry-oriented schools of the past. A historic overview
of the literature deepens the research context and serves as a bridge from the past to
the present. Next, I provide a summary of the indicators of inquiry curriculum by
reviewing the research and constructivist literature. This portion of the review of the
literature is organized thematically according to teacher beliefs and pedagogy that
34


orchestrate inquiry by attending to: teacher facilitation, childrens expressions,
physical environment, and psychological environment. Following, I summarize the
relevant dissertation research and I note methods incorporated in past studies. I end
the chapter by defining the inquiry-rich classroom culture and revisiting the purpose
of the study.
Perspectives from Educational History
The teaching disposition that embraced inquiry as an educative vehicle for
fostering students learning began in America with the work of Francis W. Parker
(1837-1902) and continued and was promoted by John Dewey (1859-1952) and his
successors (Cordasco, 1976). This educational movement was known by several
names: progressivism, experimentalism, and pragmatism.
Cremin (1961) credits a young New York pediatrician named Joseph Mayer
Rice in 1892-1893 for sparking the pragmatist movement. The editor of The Forum,
a New York monthly (Cremin, 1961, pp. 3-4) charged Rice, who had previously
studied pedagogy and published his opinions about education, with studying schools
in 36 cities across the country from early January through late June to appraise
education in the United States. Rice observed classrooms, talked with 1,200 teachers,
and wrote his findings for The Forum. Cremin stated the following.
With alarming frequency the story was the same: political hacks hiring
untrained teachers who blindly led their innocent charges in singsong drill,
rote repetition, and meaningless verbiage....
35


But the picture was not uniformly black; here and there Rice found
encouraging departures from the depressing rule. ...At Francis Parkers world
famous Cook County Normal School, one of the most progressive as well as
one of the most suggestive schools he had seen, Rice found examples par
excellence of the all-side education of children: nature study, art, social
activities, and the three Rs all taught by an enthusiastic staff, (p. 5)
Cremin indicated that Rices articles brought educational issues and the progressivism
movement to the forefront of public interest. Rices last article in the June 1893
edition of The Forum was, apparently, a plea for action. All citizens could have the
life and warmth of the progressive school for their children (Cremin, 1961, p. 5).
According to Cordasco (1976), additional notable people in this education
movement were William H. Kilpatrick (1871-1965) and Harold O. Rugg (1866-
1960). Considered typically an American philosophical invention, pragmatism drew
its roots from preceding European educators, as documented in the historical
accounts.
Early evidence of pedagogy that shared various features of pragmatism is
found in the work of Quintilian in 68-86 AD, who, for example, created special
concrete math manipulatives so his students could better understand math concepts
(Cole, 1950). In addition, DaFeltre (1423-1446) worked to make his school a humane
place, where health, socio-emotional growth, and physical activity were promoted
along with intellectual competence (Cole, 1950). From Rousseaus Emile written in
1762, we draw at the very least, the importance of an individualized teaching and
learning experience in his romantic-naturalism perspective of education (Boyd,
36


1956). Cremin (1956) indicated the following about Rousseaus Emile and its
influence in education.
Its influence has been prodigious; and even such an unrelenting critic as
William T. Harris, who once referred to Rousseaus teaching as the greatest
heresy in educational doctrine, felt impelled to remark that apart from the
Emile, there could be no understanding Pestalozzi, Froebel, Basedow, or for
that matter any other great educator of the nineteenth century. (1956, Forward,
no page number.)
It should come as no surprise, then, that the contributions of the Swiss
educator, Pestalozzi (1746-1827) also played into the philosophy and practice of
pragmatism in education. Pestalozzi recognized the importance of early childhood by
educating young children, writing books for mothers (How Gertrude Raised Her
Children!, and designing schools as active communities for living and learning
(Braun & Edwards, 1972; Cole, 1950). Froebel (1782-1852), who was heavily
influenced by Pestalozzi and Rousseau, invented the kindergarten and the concepts of
playing with blocks, gathering in circles, educating women to become teachers, and
developing the individual (Braun & Edwards, 1972; Brosterman, 1997; Cole, 1950;
Ross, 1976).
Perhaps one of the more interesting educators before the onset of American
pragmatism was the Moravian Bishop John Amos Comenius, who created the first
picture book for children called Orbus Sensualium Pictus1 in 1657 (Bardeens,
1887/1968). Comenius stated the following in The Great Didactic (1657/1910/1967).
1 Today, Comeniuss work is honored by the National Council of Teachers of English when they issue
the annual Orbis Pictus Award for the best nonfiction literature for children
37


As far as possible, (children must) be taught to become wise by studying the
heavens, the earth, oaks, and beeches, but not by studying books; that is to
say, they must leam to know and investigate the things themselves, and not
the observations that other people have made about the things, (p. 150)
Only when real objects were not available, Comenius believed teachers should forego
observation and resort to the next best thing: pictures, books, and explanation (Cole,
1950; Cordasco, 1976; Keatinge, 1910/1967; Piaget, 1957).
Thus, the ideas that promoted a humane education and honored childrens
ways of knowing and learning through concrete experiences were not really new
during Deweys time. Dewey credited Froebel, among George Mead, William James,
Francis Parker, and others, for influencing his work (Cremin, 1961; Tanner, 1997;
Ross, 1976). The ideas of the classroom as an embryonic community, enmeshed in
purposeful and relevant experiences that focused on approaching teaching and
learning through a disposition of mind like that of a scientist, however, was wholly
American. It was like the invention of Jazza totally American innovation derived
out of the works from the pastand Dewey was the Louis Armstrong of the
movement.
Progressive Experiments in Education
In January 1896, Dewey opened a Laboratory School at the University of
Chicago with one teacher, one assistant, and 16 students between the ages of six and
nine years (Cremin, 1961; Tanner, 1997). In 1904, when Dewey resigned, the
38


enrollment was 140 students with 23 teachers and 10 assistants and considered highly
successful (Cremin, 1961; Tanner, 1997).
The school was purely experimentalthe sole purpose of which was to put
theory and philosophy into practice in its purest state. At the Laboratory School in
Chicago, Deweys ideas about education were tested through research on how
children constructed knowledge and how pedagogy coalesced with childrens ways of
knowing. In Deweys laboratory school, students lived in an embryonic
community. Through purposeful experiences, they solved problems and made
inquiries. Resulting from this experiment, were some of Deweys most important
books such as How We Think (Dewey, 1910/1997).
The education conducted in Deweys Laboratoiy School was documented and
studied by Dewey and his contemporaries. Tanner (1997) reported that Deweys
lectures in pedagogy centered on the documentations and findings flowing out of the
Laboratory School. His courses were in such demand; one could take them through
correspondence with written accounts of the Laboratory School findings enclosed
alongside Deweys lecture notes. In 1936, Mayhew and Edwards wrote an account of
his schools. More recently, Tanner (1997) immersed herself in the Laboratory School
archives and Mayhew and Edwardss historical writings and wrote about the school
through meticulous ethno-historical research. Tanners final analysis was that todays
constructivist movements are but fragmented pieces of Deweys work at his
39


laboratory school and because of the fragmentation, constructivist efforts are
distorted, ineffective, and lose sight of a unifying goal or aim (Tanner, 1997).
The bulk of the data recorded at the Laboratory School in Chicago were
composed of teachers plans and written reflections. Archival records reported by
Tanner (1997) demonstrated that teachers specifically addressed how children
developed and learned within the context of inquiry. Tanner effectively cited
teachers reflections and Deweys writings in concert as she offered evidences of
pedagogical efficacy and coherency at the Laboratory School.
According to Cordasco (1976) and Cremin (1961), various experiments
resulted from Deweys work (p. 140). Several of these were Laboratory Schools at
universities, such as the University of Missouri and Columbia University. Public
schools additionally experimented with Deweys brand of progressivism. Cremin
reported that outcomes and anecdotes drawn from these experiments were featured in
Deweys Schools of To-Morrow publication (Cremin, 1961, p. 153). Cremin also
indicated a general success with these early experimental movements.
Between the years of 1930-1938, a comprehensive study of progressive
education was conducted to assess the efficacy of the approach. The Eight-Year
Study (Aiken, 1942) was conducted in high schools across the country, including
Denver, and compared the outcomes of high-school students participating in
traditional educational methods with those exposed to progressive approaches. Aiken
reported that high-school students participating in progressive schools exhibited
40


superior performance over those participating in traditional schools, both as high
school students, then as college students (Aiken, 1942; Cordasco, 1976; Cremin,
1961; Irwin, 1991).
The historical documentation and accounts of experiments in progressive
education are relevant to this study of the inquiry-rich classroom culture because the
movement shared common features with the current constructivist movement. From
the overview of the historic literature, I draw only the pronounced key themes
repeated throughout the accounts of Deweys Laboratory School and subsequent
Dewey-inspired schools. Tanner (1997) offered 25 features drawn from her ethno-
historical study, ranging from the children are happy to close relationship with a
university (pp. 177-178).
Indicators of Inquiry Curriculum
The most pronounced themes drawn from the historic literature that are
relevant to this study of the inquiry-rich classroom culture are: (a) including
purposeful and directed experiences; (b) presenting problems in the context of
experiences; (c) incorporating reflection; (d) interweaving theory, knowledge of the
child, and pedagogy; (e) building community and relationships; and (f) designing
curriculum of relevance and interest (Cremin, 1961; Dewey, 1910/1997, 1938/1997;
Puckett, 1989; Tanner, 1997).
41


Experience. To experience is to do or to undergo something. For Dewey, the
experience was an active, purposeful, and holistic process. The teachers role was to
orchestrate the intellectual development among the disciplines within the context of
the meaningful experience. According to Dewey (1938/1997), experience and
education were inseparable.
Dewey (1938/1997) was adamant that teachers have knowledge of subjects
they taught and carry an understanding of where their teachings fit within the scheme
of the whole education of the child (Tanner, 1997; Puckett, 1989). Dewey articulated
the need for a coherent curriculum in the following statement.
I have been forced to speak in general and often abstract language. But what
has been said is organically connected with the requirement that experiences
in order to be educative must lead out into an expanding world of subject-
matter, a subject-matter of facts or information and of ideas. This condition is
satisfied only as the educator views teaching and learning as a continuous
process of reconstruction of experience. (Dewey, 1938/1997, p. 87)
Dewey believed that the present learning experience linked to those of the past, and
through planning, the present experience connected to the upcoming experience. He
suggested, The process is a continuous spiral (Dewey, 1938/1997, p. 79). He
further stated that in order for an experience to be truly educative, the experience
must attend to knowledge of facts, nurture more ideas, and support intellectual
organization (Dewey, 1938/1997).
42


Problems. The pragmatists believed that learning occurred through the
process of resolving conflicts that were posed in the learning culture. According to
Dewey, a difficulty or problem sparked inquiry and a reflective-thinking process.
The following was stated in Chapter One and I restate it here for emphasis.
.. .It is part of the educators responsibility to see equally to two things: First,
that the problem grows out of the conditions of the experience being had in
the present, and that it is within the range of the capacity of students; and,
secondly, that it is such that it arouses in the learner an active quest for
information and for production of new ideas. (Dewey, 1938/1997, p. 79)
Thus, problems were posed within the context of the experience, they were
developmentally appropriate, and they sparked inquiry. The inquiry process led to
understandings.
Reflection. Reflective thinking, according to Dewey (1910/1997), was
synonymous with the inquiry process. Dewey enlarged the reflective thinking
concept by imbedding the inquiry process within it. Reflective thinking, Dewey
indicated, guided inquiry and understanding. It would appear that reflection and
inquiry were inseparable in Deweys vocabulary. But Dewey also defined the word
reflect outside the context of inquiry in the following.
To reflect is to look back over what has been done so as to extract the net
meanings which are the capital stock for intelligent dealing with further
experiences. It is the heart of intellectual organization and of the disciplined
mind. (Dewey, 1938/1997, p. 87).
43


Reflective thinking, in todays sense of the word is an iterative looking back and
looking forward process of thinking. For the purpose of this study, I separate
reflection out of Deweys concept of inquiry in order to draw attention to it as an
indicator of inquiry curriculum.
Interweaving Theory. Knowledge of the Child, and Pedagogy. Tanner (1997)
offered teacher reflections from the Laboratory School in one section, followed by
Deweys reflection regarding the problem of encouraging intellectual responsibility
in teacher education (quoted in Tanner, 1997, p. 72). He was deeply committed that
theory, development, and practice were interwoven. He was further compelled to see
that teachers could articulate the aims and principles of their actions. Tanner placed
Deweys wisdom in the context of her own words in the following passage (Deweys
remarks came from his work at the Laboratory School and were written for the
National Society for the Scientific Study of Education).
The effort must be to make teachers thoughtful and alert students[s] of
education whose knowledge of the subject field, and psychological and
ethical philosophy of education have become incorporated into their working
power. Dewey warned that only when such things have become incorporated
in mental habit, have become part of the working tendencies of observation,
insight, and reflection, will these principles work automatically,
unconsciously and hence promptly and effectively. (Tanner, 1997, p. 72)
The above passage demonstrates one of Deweys driving concerns for
teaching and learning. Initial teacher preparation and subsequent development in the
field centered on the development of a disposition of inquiry that wove childrens
44


development with disciplinary knowledge and pedagogical application. In this
regard, his goals and Piagets goals were very similar.
From Deweys work at the laboratory school of Chicago, it is evident that a
disposition of inquiry teaching includes observing children, understanding their
needsdevelopmental^ and cognitively, and applying pedagogy in an individualized
manner. Therefore, one indicator of inquiry curriculum stemming from the historic
literature is that teachers interweave theory, knowledge of the child, and pedagogy.
In todays terms, this is known as developmentallv appropriate practice (Bredekamp
& Copple, 1997).
Community and Relationships. Another illustration of an outcome of the
mission and purpose of the progressivism movement, demonstrated more effectively
in Tanners (1997) analysis of archival documentation than in Deweys literature,
centers on the outcomes of his and Parkers (Cremin, 1961) notion of the embryonic
community. According to Tanner, by participating in an active community life,
children were introduced to creative endeavors of the past as well as those of various
cultures. In this regard, students were offered problems in the context of learning
such things as the crafts of weaving or metal making, as well as more sophisticated
intellectual ideassuch as the economics of industry, for example. In so doing,
students achieved two goals: they were solving authentic problems of interest,
thereby developing a reflective-thinking disposition of mind; and they were learning
45


to live as a pluralistic democratic community by actually participating in one rather
than reading or hearing about it.
The participatory nature of active learning accompanied by facilitative and
purposeful pedagogy led children to develop a way of thinking that transferred to all
areas of learning while connecting and respecting the human condition. Tanner
(1997) noted that Deweys embryonic community not only provided experiences
that fostered inquiry, but also addressed multicultural education in a manner that was
characterized as unifying rather than divisive.
Deweys response to education through progressivism was fueled over his
concern for democracy and his metaphysical belief that nothing remained the same
all was in a state of constant flux. Dewey proactively set out to make a difference for
the common goodto influence the changing nature of the culturethrough
education. He was alarmed by the changes that industrialization created in America.
Others, including Jane Addams, also shared Deweys alarm. Addams and
Dewey were contemporaries who shared similar progressive ideals for education.
According to Cremin (1961), Addams believed that the real curse of industrialism
lay not so much in its physical blight as in its shattering of historic human
associations (p. 60). Her work at Hull-House incorporated community and
relationship building through education. Addams applied education as a tool for
social reform (Irwin, 1991).
46


A Curriculum of Relevance and Interest. Addams2, a Nobel Peace Prize co-
winner in 1931, is known for her social work, research, pacifism, advocacy for
womens and childrens labor reform laws, and educational endeavors with
immigrants. Among her accomplishments, Addams created one of the early nursery
schools and kindergartens in Chicago (Addams, 1923; Cremin, 1961). Like Dewey,
her educational endeavors were centered on offering a curriculum that was of interest
and relevance to the student. One illustration of this comes from her account of
diverse adult educational opportunities for immigrants, democratically conceived and
carried out at Hull-House.
The residents of Hull-House feel increasingly that the educational efforts of a
Settlement should not be directed primarily to reproduce the college type of a
culture, but to work out a method and an ideal adapted to the immediate
situation. They feel that they should promote a culture which will not set its
possessor aside in a class with others like himself, but which will, on the
contrary, connect him with all sorts of people by his ability to understand
them as well as by his power to supplement their present surroundings with
the historic background. (Addams, 1923, pp. 435-436)
In this regard, progressive educators in the past taught to the interest, needs, and
relevance of the student, young and old.
2 The Jane Addams Peace Association, a division of the Women's League for International Peace and
Freedom, sponsors the Jane Addams Book Award for children's literature. The award is given for
exemplary childrens books that address multiculturalism and diversity.
47


Endings and Beginnings
The opposition to progressive education typically stemmed out of the very
issues Dewey fought. Through superficial and biased understandings of the
intricacies of the educational aims progressive educators promoted, among other
reasons, teachers poorly implemented progressivism in their classrooms. Experiences
were not purposeful, nor were they vertical, horizontal, or spiral. The opposition to
progressive education seized every opportunity to promote the method as anti-
educational (Cordasco, 1976, p. 140; Cremin, 1961). A cult of efficiency became
the dominating paradigm in education (Callahan, 1962).
Although Cremin (1961) marked the end of the progressive movement in
America as between 1955-1957 with the death of the Progressive Education
Association ... and the passing of its journal (p. vii), progressivism was still found in
its fractured state in various implementations of recent educational innovations
(Tanner, 1997), and in its evolutionary state in such movements as The English
Infant Schools (Hawkins, 1993, p. xvii) and the Reggio Emilia system of early
childhood education (Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1993). Additionally, Stone
(1991) documented a 110-year history, from 1880-1990, of the movement and
various experiments with progressivism through a bibliography of the literature.
About the time Cremin (1961) announced the death of the progressive
education movement in America, Dewey-inspired approaches, such as the English
48


Infant School movement in England and Reggio Emilia approach in Italy, were in full
swing. Both approaches attached additional roots in psychological theories derived
from Piagets work, among others (Hawkins, 1993). These movements held that
disciplinary knowledge, educational theory, and knowledge of the child formulated
the basis of pedagogy. The scholarly work promoting constructivism today is further
proof that were still listening to Deweys music.
Images from the Reggio Emilia Literature
In this section, I highlight the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood
education because of its international recognition,3 close association with Deweys
work, and promotion of inquiry through projects. From the review of the Reggio
Emilia literature, I extracted additional indicators of inquiry curriculum.
Although known for preschool education, the Reggio Emilia system found its
way in variations or extensions to preschools and primary grade classrooms in
America (Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1998; B. Mitchell, personal communication,
September 30,1999). The Reggio Emilia system (Edwards, Gandini, & Forman,
1993) is now considered an approach to education based on relationship and
participation (p. 59), honoring the culture of childhood (p. 72).
All of the core indicators of inquiry curriculum drawn from the historic
literature are found as predominant themes in the Reggio Emilia approach to early
3 Newsweek. December 2,1991 issue, recognized the Reggio Emilia preschools as (Hie of the best
systems of education in the world (Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1993).
49


childhood education. The approach incorporated: supporting an inquiry disposition,
fostering a sense of community, including experiential projects designed to the
interests of the child, offering problems within the context of experience, and
incorporating reflection. Like the Dewey-inspired schools of the past, supporters of
the Reggio Emilia approach are heavily immersed in theory, knowledge of the child,
and responsive pedagogy. They know what they are doing and why (New, 1997, p.
261).
Indicators of Inquiry Curriculum
From the literature about the Reggio Emilia approach, additional core
indicators of the inquiry-rich classroom culture emerged, many of which existed in
the historic literature as well. These additional indicators are central to the Reggio
Emilia approach: (a) documentation; (b) multiple expressions of learning; (c)
participatory nature of parents and community members; (d) the physical
environment as a living, learning, and explorative space; (e) the community as an
extended classroom; and (f) projects as a way of facilitating learning.
Documentation. In some respects, the Reggio Emilia approach extended some
of Deweys ideas, an impression partly due to the more observable characteristic of
having the schools in the here and now. Since we have access to their literature, then-
teachers, the schools, the disseminators of the approach, and their conferences, its
easy to attribute the successes of documentation to the Reggio Emilia approach rather
50


than to Dewey. We know, however, from Tanners (1997) work and Deweys
writings that Dewey supported the documentation process for assessment, reflection,
and research at the University of Chicago Laboratory School.
Like the Dewey-inspired schools of the past, children and teachers in the
Reggio Emilia schools incorporated reflection as part of the learning process. To
support reflection, teachers at Reggio Emilia documented students learning journeys
and created panels depicting the process. The Reggio Emilia documentation panel
combined Deweys concept of reflection with his ideas about documentation and
provided an innovative concrete medium for extending the learning experience for
children, teachers, and parents.
Throughout the school the walls are used as spaces for both temporary and
permanent exhibits of what the children and teachers have created: Our walls
speak and document. (Malaguzzi, 1993, p. 57)
The Reggio Emilia documentation panel is composed of photographs,
students work, and transcriptions of key interactions demonstrating the process
involved in constructivist learning. These documentation panels depict learning
experiences through photographs. They include students observations by depicting
their carefully detailed illustrations. The panels provide a demonstration of changes
in learning through additional representations of phenomenon. Finally, by including
transcripts of key interactions among participants, the panels depict how children are
taught in this environmentby nurturing interests within the zone of proximal
development.
51


The success of the documentation panel spurred a lengthy world tour of the
Reggio Emilia documentation panels and numerous publications regarding the
process and power of Reggio-inspired documentation (Carter & Curtis, 1996;
Filippini & Vecchi, 1997). Generally considered a concrete tool used to foster young
childrens reflections, the documentation panel also acted as a reflective support
system for teachers, and provided a communicative function between the school and
parents.
Multiple Wavs of Expressing Learning. Supporters of the approach advocate
that art is perceived as a window into the young childs mind (Forman, 1993).
Artistic expression is considered a vehicle for viewing the essence of consciousness
and a medium for communication and language developmentthus a mode for
teachers to ascertain and extend knowledge. Art is a means for recording
observations and studying the world. It is a way for making meaning and gaining
insight. As a result, art teachers are given a central collaborative role in this
approach. The signature of the Reggio Emilia approach, however, is found in the
honoring of the many wavs of expression, what its founder Malaguzzi called the
hundred languages of children (Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1993, 1998). Because
they recognize the many ways of knowing and expressing, the approach aligns with
Gardners (1983/1993) workanother theorist recognized by Eisner (1994) as
coherent with Deweys ideas.
52


Participatory Nature of Parents and Community Members. In the Reggio
Emilia system in Italy, parents participate in supporting the transition from home to
school by spending time with the child at the school (Gandini, 1993). The school is
considered an extended family (Katz, 1993) and in many regards, it is. In Italy,
parents: assist in making decisions about curriculum, support the documentation
process, help in the school where needed, and participate in the projects (Spaggiari,
1998; Fontanesi, Gialdini, & Soncini, 1998; Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1993,
1997). Community members participate in providing information and experiences to
children. Parents have a vested interest in the school. They believe and trust in the
teachers and what they are doing. They choose these schools for educating their
children.
The Environment. The Reggio Emilia movement offered a healthy
perspective of the classroom as a place for care and beauty, as well as provocation.
The physical environments differ across schools in the Italian systemreflecting the
differences among the communities the schools serve. All, however, value
aesthetically pleasing physical environments, with more emphasis on the extended
family concept, rather than the typical institutional environments found in most
schools. The environment also serves as a teacher, provoking the child to a problem
and experience. To illustrate the power of the environment, Malaguzzi (1997)
provided an aquarium analogy.
53


It has been said that the environment should act as a kind of aquarium which
reflects the ideas, ethics, attitudes and culture of the people who live in it. (p.
40).
Branzi (1997) elaborated on the aquarium analogy in the following.
It is a space of experiences that are lived in the manner of a total immersion in
a continuous fluid, in an aquarium full of information, (p. 42).
Thus, the function of the environment was: psychologicala place for nurturing
relationships, belonging to a group, and caring for others and materials; physicalan
area for exploring materials, expressing learning, and enjoying lifes beauty; and
intellectuala space for immersing in the learning experience.
The Community as an Extended Classroom. The outside culturethe local
communityconnected to the learning experiences and interests of the child.
Teachers used the outside community to extend the project learning experiences by
visiting related venues such as poppy fields, the city in the rain, and vineyards, for
example (Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1993,1998; Filippini & Vecchi, 1997). In
an inquiry-rich classroom culture, the community is viewed as an extension of the
classroom. It is a place of relevance and interest to the children because they belong
there. It is a place where learning experiences are relevant, purposeful, and
interesting to the child.
Projects. The project occupied an extended amount of time, was revisited
from different perspectives, and encouraged multiple ways of representation (Forman,
1993). Like Deweys concept of experience, the project posed a problem. In the
54


Reggio Emilia approach, the project emerges from the interests of children. The
project typically began with hypothesis making, usually in the form of illustrating
initial concepts of phenomenon. In this way, teachers accessed students current
understandings or schema by talking about their initial illustrations. Next, the project
moved toward observation and exploration. Representation followed, with a
reiterative process of teacher facilitated reflection, instruction, observation,
exploration, and re-representation, and so onall of which involved active
experiencing and doing.
Summary of the Indicators. The Reggio Emilia literature provided a bridge
between the work of Dewey and his contemporaries to the present-day scholarly work
focusing on constructivism from highly specialized, discipline-oriented perspectives.
Because the Reggio Emilia approach is holistic, completely integrated, and
developmentally appropriate, it offers one of the closest modern-day innovations on
Deweys work. From the literature focusing on the Reggio Emilia approach,
additional core indicators of the inquiry-rich classroom were drawn: (a)
documentation; (b) multiple expressions of learning; (c) participatory nature of
parents and community members; (d) the physical environment as a living, learning,
and explorative space; (e) the community as an extended classroom; and (f) projects
as a way of facilitating learning.
In the following section, I continue the delineation of the indicators of inquiry
curriculum by proposing that although the general constructivist literature seldom
55


addresses the topic of epistemological assumptions in teachers, teacher-held beliefs
are indeed a crucial component of inquiry curriculum (R. Anderson, 1999; McMullan,
1999; Powell, 1999).
Teacher Beliefs: An Indicator of Inquiry Curriculum
There is a significant body of research on teacher beliefs and pedagogy,
offering a range of themes and findings. Some of the research centered on the role
that beliefs played in undermining constructivist aims (R. Anderson, 2000; Wien,
1995). Another body of research focused on outside forces that undermined teacher
beliefs that were coherent with constructivist aims (Connelly & Clandinin, 1999;
Goldstein, 1997). Other studies identified professional development techniques
designed to transform teacher perspectives toward constructivist aims (Haney &
Lump, 1995; Shapiro & Kilbey, 1990). Yet, another body of the research focused on
teacher-belief survey instruments designed to be predictors of constructivist-oriented
or traditional-oriented practice (Buchanan, Burts, Bidner, White, & Charlesworth,
1998; Lenski, Wham, & Griffey, 1998; Smith, 1993). In this section, I focus my
review of the teacher beliefs literature predominantly on studies that pertain to teacher
belief and practice in the education of young children. I begin with two notable
studies of developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood education
(Goldstein, 1997; Wien, 1995).
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Why Dont Teachers Practice According to Beliefs?
Goldstein (1997) conducted a case study on one primary grade teacher who
believed in developmentally appropriate practice and was committed to incorporating
it in her multi-age classroom. The primary-grade teacher kept a journal of her
reflections for Goldstein, who would in trim, read and respond with questions and
comments. Goldstein also scheduled visits in the classroom during the course of the
year for observing and recording field notes.
Goldstein (1997) reported that as they year progressed, the teacher became
more discouraged and frustrated with demands placed on her by administration and
parents, demands that conflicted with principles of developmentally appropriate
practice. Rather than use a more experiential and developmentally appropriate
approach, parents preferred having more traditional evidence of students grade-level
performance. In the final analysis, this primary-grade teacher moved away from
developmentally appropriate practice and closer to a more teacher-centered practice.
Through inductive analysis, Goldstein concluded that constraints, both real and
imagined were at the root of this teachers frustration and behavior.
Wien (1995) studied five early childhood teachers in different child-care
centers over the course of one year and focused on the coherence between their stated
beliefs in developmentally appropriate practice and their actual practice. Wien
categorized teachers practice and stated beliefs by using a teaching continuum
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framework ranging between the traditional model of teacher-dominated classroom
interaction and the constructivist model of child-centered interaction. She took field
notes and videotaped class sessions, interviewed teachers, and kept journals. By
beginning with categorizing each transcript by themes per teacher, categorizing data
again, checking relationships and patterns, then repeating this process in an iterative
manner, Wien created labels for predominant themes in her findings.
Wien (1995) found that no two teachers were alike. Each worked from a
different point on the teaching continuum, from developmentally appropriate practice
to the teacher-centered traditional model. Beliefs did not always match practice.
From an inductive analysis of the results, Wien explained her results. First, her
findings were due to teachers holding several paradigms for practice. Next, Wien
provided an imbedded prior practice explanationteachers, when they were children,
learned how to teach from their own teachers who were traditionally oriented. Then.
Wien offered that constraints imposed in the school culture affected practice. Finally,
Wien proposed that contributing to her results were teacher-held misconceptions
about the components of developmentally appropriate practice.
Holding further relevance to this discussion of teacher beliefs and practice is a
study by Powell and Skoog (2000). Although their study of epistemologies and
pedagogies focused on professional development and teachers in the middle school,
their results should be noted.
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Powell and Skoog (2000) studied 29 teachers from various grade levels in
Texas, but focused their report on a subgroup of middle school teachers. By
interviewing teachers about their views of knowing and learning, the researchers
determined general defining themes with regard to epistemologies. The researchers
determined that middle school teachers generally held a set of traditionally aligned
beliefsnot surprising since they were teaching in traditionally oriented schools.
Next, teachers participated in a constructivist-oriented course focused on integrated
learning across the disciplines in the middle school. The staff-development course
incorporated learning experiences, field trips, and projects in an integrated manner,
producing a high level of teacher activity and participation. After completing the
constructivist-oriented course, teacher participants were observed in their classrooms.
The researchers concluded that traditionally aligned beliefs coupled with the high-
stakes assessment environment in Texas made constructivist-aligned professional
development virtually nontransferable to the classroom culture. Admittedly,
fragments of the professional development course were noted as demonstrated in the
framework of traditionally held pedagogical paradigms. It was as though the teachers
were demonstrating Piagets assimilation phase of learning.
Even when teachers believe in inquiry as an educational goal for teaching and
learning, they dont always practice what they believe. The professional science
associations (NRC, 1996,2000; AAAS, 1998) support inquiry as a way of teaching
and learning and fund research into this phenomenoa Weiss (1997) analyzed results
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of the 1994 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) elementary teacher
questionnaire in science education and documented that although the majority of
elementary teachers agreed with the professional science associations goals for
inquiry implementation in theory, they also reported not incorporating inquiry in their
practice.
Summation: Whv Dont Teachers Practice According to Beliefs? The
aforementioned studies (Goldstein, 1997; Powel & Skoog, 2000; Wien, 1995) suggest
that constructivist aims for reform are undermined by: incompatible teacher-held
epistemologies; constraints, both real and imagined; immature understandings of
constructivism; imbedded prior practice; and a high-stakes testing environment.
Their work raises questions about what teachers who are participating in this
dissertation study actually believe about teaching and learning, whether they practice
according to their beliefs, and why they are able to create inquiry-rich classroom
cultures within the larger context of a high-stakes assessment environment. One of
Wiens messages about her findings included the following.
If teacher educators, supervisors, and administrators want teachers in early
childhood to think about what they are doing, to engage in a conscious
practice, whether teacher-centered or developmentally appropriate, they must
provide adequate time for reflective discussion and documentation, and they
must reduce systemic constraints that intensify work beyond the bearable.
(Wien, 1995, p. 138)
What Might Happen if Teachers Practiced According to Beliefs?
To further this discussion on teacher beliefs, I tap into another genre of the
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research literature: what the literature says about coherence between beliefs and
practice. Two notable studies have relevance to the present studys focus on teacher
beliefs as an indicator of inquiry curriculum.
First, Deiro (1996) studied teachers who were known for their caring spirit in
the classroom cultureefficacy in caring. Deiro conducted a qualitative study of six
teachers considered by peers, students, administrators and the community as caring.
Deiro delineated characteristics of nurturing teachers. Interestingly, Deiro could not
correlate nurturing teachers with any one method or educational philosophy. All the
teachers, however, did hold similar characteristics. These characteristics were first,
genuineness and authenticityteaching in accordance with beliefs. In other words,
efficacy in teaching with caring was most contingent on being able to practice
according to ones beliefs.
Another study by Clark, Davis, Rhodes, and Baker (1996) centered on
academic efficacy and teacher beliefs. The researchers collected data from 32
classrooms. Of the thirty-two, eight were deemed effective in teaching literacy to
minority students. Three of these effective classrooms were studied further, each
representing varying positions on the literacy teaching continuum. Results from this
study indicated that the shared common variables among the effective teachers were
(a) coherence between each individual teachers practice and beliefs and (b) each
teacher held moral purpose in her work.
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How Does a Study of Teacher Beliefs and Practice Relate
to the Present Study?
From this brief review of the research, it became apparent that teacher-held
beliefs played in important role in pedagogy. R. Anderson (1999) conducted a meta-
analysis on the research pertaining to professional science reform efforts and teacher
beliefs. He determined that the barriers and dilemmas experienced in putting inquiry
teaching into practice are closely related to teachers basic values and beliefs about
teaching and learning (p. 17). A study of developmental^ appropriate practice in
primary grade teachers by McMullen (1999) corroborates Andersons findings and
adds that characteristics of self-efficacy and internal locus of control also influence
teaching according to ones beliefs.
The literature pointed to contamination of beliefs from the following:
incompatible teacher-held epistemologies; constraints, both real and imagined;
immature understandings of constructivism; imbedded prior practice; and a high-
stakes testing environment (Goldstein, 1997; Powell & Skoog, 2000; Wien, 1995).
On the other hand, the literature also noted the potential for efficacy that could result
from teaching in accordance with ones beliefs (Clark, et al., 1996; Deiro, 1996)
teaching with integrity.
Although the aforementioned studies are only a small sample of the vast
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body of research on teacher beliefs4, the brief review of the teacher-held beliefs
literature provided impetus for considering pedagogical beliefs as indicators of
inquiry curriculum.
In the next section, I extend the delineation of inquiry indicators by first
addressing the pedagogy of inquiry. Next I offer a summary of how teachers provide
opportunities for children to express learning in inquiry-rich classroom cultures.
Then I note how teachers create physical environments conducive to inquiry. I end
the descriptions of the indicators of inquiry curriculum by suggesting what teachers
do to promote psychological cultures that foster inquiry learning.
Nurturing Inquiry
Most of the research on inquiry in teaching and learning is drawn from the
science profession. Professional associations in science education outlined inquiry
teaching in an all-encompassing manner (AAAS, 1998; NRC, 1996, 2000). The NRC
stated the following.
Although the Standards emphasize inquiry, this should not be interpreted as
recommending a single approach to science teaching. Teachers should use
different strategies to develop the knowledge, understandings, and abilities...
Conducting hands-on science activities does not guarantee inquiry, nor is
reading about science incompatible with inquiry. (1996, p. 23)
A study by Fradd and Lee (1999) challenged the NRC (1996) statement above
to be even more inclusive. By interviewing, observing, and implementing
4 Epsteins (1981) study, fcr example, demonstrated that the me common characteristic of master
teachers shared across the diverse methods and approaches described in the book was a deeply-held
passion for ones topic of study.
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professional development with teachers who worked with minority populations,
typically Spanish-speaking children in Miami, Fradd and Lee surmised that
multitudinous approaches meeting the needs of various populations should be
encompassed in the conception of inquiry teaching and learning. In other words,
inquiry may take on a more teacher-directed role when the needs of the students
require it. In this section, I address what teachers do to specifically nurture inquiry
dispositions in their students.
Doing Everything To Promote Inquiry
Several books regarding the pedagogy of inquiry address concepts involved in
the teaching of inquiry. Some are comprehensive and focus specifically on science
(de Boo, 1999; Doris, 1991; Duckworth, 1996; Hall 1998; Pearce, 1999; Whitin &
Whitin, 1997). Some are equally comprehensive, but focus on components or
indicators, such as: inquiry and dialogue (Lindfors. 1999; Lindfors & Townsend,
1999); childrens literature and inquiry (Cerullo, 1997; Duthie,1996); reading, writing
and inquiry (Bourne, 2000; Graves, 1999; Harvey, 1998; Short, Harste, & Burke,
1996; Short, Schroeder, Laird, Kauflman, Ferguson, & Crawford, 1996); and multiple
ways of learning and expressing inquiry (Chancer & Rester-Zodrow, 1997; Gallas,
1994,1995).
An Example of Just Everything. De Boo (1999) wrote a comprehensive book
based on her research about inquiry teaching and learning and addressed the
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following major topics: (a) skills of observing and questioning; (b) planning,
predicting, and testing skills; (c) inquisitive thinking through classification, drawing
conclusions, and reflecting; (d) searching for knowledge through exploring,
investigating, and questioning; (e) communicating ideas, and (f) problem solving.
Over a two-year period, de Boo studied six classrooms containing 70 children in
England. De Boo outlined key factors in the pedagogy of inquiry, including the
recognition of how children learn constructively. She provided examples from her
qualitative research and offers an experimental study to show the efficacy of asking
open-ended questions to students. She identified pedagogy that fostered inquiry and
effectively connected it to the literature, providing examples of her own experimental
and qualitative research.
In her book, de Boo (1999) outlined the value of questioning by providing a
synopsis of her experimental study with three subgroups of eight children (one
control group and two experimental groups). Through her experimental research, de
Boo showed that children, when exposed to neutral questions and open-ended
questions, elaborated and provided more dialogue about the phenomenon.
Although thorough and comprehensive, de B6os (1999) work did not address
teacher beliefs in this context. In addition, although she experimented with questions
and showed the value of asking particular types, she did not analyze the kinds of
knowledge demonstrated by students. De Boos work, however, offers a
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comprehensive foundation for considering what actually exists in inquiry-rich
classroom cultures in the primary grades.
Another Example. Hall (1998) demonstrated how teachers can organize
wonder and conduct meaningful inquiry experiences with children through her work
in professional development with elementary school teachers. Hall organized
wonder in seven steps:
Step One: Identify key ideas and experiences on a topic.
Step Two: Search for activities with potential for investigation.
Step Three: Reshape sourcebook activities into explorations.
Step Four: Introduce a series of explorations.
Step Five: Transform childrens ideas and questions into questions for
investigation.
Step Six: Analyze problem for fair-testing potential.
Step Seven: Ask children to plan, carry out, and interpret investigation. (Hall,
1998, p. 29)
Halls book demonstrated that teachers who were interested in participating in
professional development in organizing wonder successfully collaborated with each
other and Hall. They also successfully implemented Halls seven-step plan in their
classrooms and reflected about the implementations in the last half of the book.
Halls work is similar to others in her genre: professional development aimed
at creating a recipe in extreme cases, a loose model in others, for inquiry
implementation in the classroom culture (Pearce, 1999; Whit in & Whitin, 1997).
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Addressing Misconceptions in Different Wavs
Two studies (Abell, Anderson, & Chezam, 2000; Vosniadou, 1997) on inquiry
in the classroom culture noted the pulling issue of how to address students
misconceptions at the culmination of inquiry projects.
To Illustrate. In a quasi-experimental case study of sound in the third grade,
Abell, Anderson, and Chezem (2000) investigated the effect of a collaboratively
designed inquiry curriculum on Andersons classroom in the spring, then Chezems
classroom the following fall. Part of their curriculum included opportunities for
children to express theories and have time for argument and explanation, in the
authors viewpoint, important phases of inquiry learning (p. 68). They found that
after exposure to the curriculum, between one-third and one-half of the students still
held misconceptions about sound and vibration. Their concluding remarks were we
continue to learn how to accept our students ideas, trusting that those ideas represent
what makes sense to students at a given point in the development of their scientific
thinking (p. 77). Interestingly the teacher and researchers, rather than re-address
misconceptions through additional experiences went on to another topic.
Abell and her colleagues (2000) approach to misconceptions paint a sharp
contrast to Vosniadous (1997) work. Vosniadou studied childrens conceptions of
the earth by interviewing them. Like Abell, Anderson, and Chezem (2000),
Vosniadou found developmental rationale for childrens ensuing misconceptions.
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Unlike Abell and her colleagues, Vosniadou suggested that childrens misconceptions
should be addressed when they are revealed using developmentally appropriate
means, such as concrete models for concrete thinkers.
The contrasting opinions raise questions with regard to what teachers in
inquiry-rich classroom cultures do to address misconceptions in childrens thinking
when they arise. When approached from the perspective outlined in the conceptual
framework, misconceptions are really approximations displayed on the path of
intellectual adaptation (Piaget, 1973, p. 22). When considered in light of Deweys
work (1910/1997, 1938/1997), misconceptions would again be faced intellectually
through incorporating a spiral, vertical, and horizontal curriculum. When addressed
in the context of assessment (Harien, 2000; Marlow, 1999), misconceptions are dealt
with during formative or performance assessments, prior to the culmination of the
project.
Awareness of Childrens Intellectual Development
In a case study of a yearlong project based on apples in the first grade, Lehrer,
Carpenter, Schauble, and Putz (2000) found several themes. First, inquiry-based
learning was fueled by the creation of a learning environment. Next, although the
teacher introduced the initial project, childrens questions guided the curriculum. The
teacher acted as facilitator, constantly raising the ante and challenging their thinking.
The idea of a test or argument emerged. Children observed phenomena and moved to
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inscription or recording observations (p. 83). From this, the authors concluded that
teachers who are aware of childrens thinking have a considerable advantage in
crafting instruction that is tuned to childrens understanding (p. 84).
Doris (1991) offered her penchant for teaching to childrens interests and
developmental levels in her book about science and young children. Her focus in
inquiiy teaching and learning began with observing and exploring and moved to
investigating and recording. Interests played a central role in curriculum design.
Certain things strike me as particularly interesting for different ages. For
sevenswho love those tiny worldsI might choose a cricket, or dragonfly,
or colorful caterpillar; for fives and sixessomething familiara pet, a
garden vegetable; for tens or elevenssomething mysterious, or partly
mysterious, so that a little looking and research will be required to discern its
identity, (p. 35)
In the above passage taken from her book, Doris not only displayed her knowledge of
young childrens interests at different ages, but she provided a view into how she
begins a project in the environment.
Does Awareness of Development Hinder Inquiry?
One study by Metz (2000) challenged designing inquiry curriculum according
to Piagets genetic epistemological stage theory. Metz believed that doing so actually
limited inquiry experiences for elementary students. Her research centered mainly on
older elementary students, those that fell at the upper end of Piagets concrete
operational stage, but did include some second grade groups.
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Metz (2000) conducted research testing the efficacy of curriculum she
designed specifically to support students knowledge of subject matter and inquiry
method in science. After exposure to curriculum, Metz reported that students
designed and carried out their own inquiry projects. Metz indicated that contrary to
implications from Piagetian theory, each group including the youngest second-grade
students were able to design controlled experiments and make inferences and
hypothesis based on results.
It should be noted, however, that Metzs (2000) curriculum provided a
template (p. 387-388) for second-grade students to follow. Her accounts of
researcher and students interactions in the classroom context, what she called
scaffolding could also be interpreted as pre-determined leading, thereby leaving
questions about the credibility of her recommendation to ignore Piagetian theory
when planning inquiry experiences in elementary school, particularly in the case of
the second grade students.
Children Choosing at School
Another genre of the teacher beliefs research that applies to the pedagogy of
inquiry is the idea of offering choice to children. It is, in a sense, a study of one facet
of constructivismwhat Tanner (1997) would call one of Deweys fragments.
Because constructivist and inquiry curriculum typically includes a role for choice in
the classroom culture (Brooks & Brooks, 1993), a study conducted by Flowerday and
70


Schraw (2000) is particularly relevant to this dissertation focus.
Flowerday and Schraw (2000) selected and interviewed 36 practicing teachers
in grades K-12 on the criterion that they were providing opportunities for choice for
their students. A previous pilot study on eight teachers informed the interview
protocolquestions were designed according to themes that emerged from the pilot
study data. Flowerday and Schraw interviewed participants, transcribed tapes, coded
data in accordance to the question theme, and then coded data according to
identifying factors. They generated profiles for each teacher and interviewed them
once more regarding the profiles.
Through this lengthy, iterative analysis process, Flowerday and Schraw
(2000) determined that the majority of teachers believed that choice should be offered
in all grades, but the older that students became, the more choice they should have.
Only four of the thirty-six teachers believed that young students needed just as much
choice as older students.
Teachers believed that choice should be used in a variety of settings, on
different tasks and for academic as well as the social aspects of learning. In addition,
teachers participating in the study believed that choice should be incorporated in
simple tasks to begin with and move toward more complex choices later in the year.
Teachers also expressed their belief that younger students should be given choices as
a team before being given choices individually. Teachers believed that providing an
opportunity for students to choose helped motivate students to learn because it
71


increased interest. They reported that students became autonomous and increase self-
reliance when given opportunities to choose.
Flowerday and Schraws (2000) study suggests several implications. When
teachers incorporate choice in instructional and social activities, it is purposefully
employed to enhance interest, increase learning, and offer development of
autonomous behavior. Although Flowerday and Schraws study does not address the
academic efficacy of choice (the authors assume it citing previous research), the
authors offer one of the main contributing factor in the employment of choice in the
classroom culture: teacher beliefs.
Assessment in the Inquiry-Rich Classroom Culture
The literature focusing on assessment in the inquiry-rich classroom culture
fells in two broad categories: formative and summative. The purpose of formative
assessment is to support the ongoing teaching and learning processes in inquiry-
oriented classrooms. Summative assessments provide information about where a
students intellectual development is at a certain point in timeusually at the end of a
study.
In both types of assessments, teachers gather information by observing, asking
questions, noting students work, and assigning tasks (Harlen, 2000). Harlen further
stated that the processes and attitudes of inquiry are intended outcomes in inquiry-
oriented classroom cultures and should be assessed when considering progression in
72


learning. He suggested documenting the development of students process skills such
as: observing, explaining, predicting, raising questions, planning and conducting
investigations, interpreting evidence and communicating. Developing attitudes of
inquiry, according to Harlen, should also be documented and include: respect for
evidence, flexibility, and critical reflection. Harlen additionally suggested areas of
content understanding for assessment in science education.
Collecting evidences of students demonstrations of skills, types of
knowledge, and changes in learning offer data for both formative and summative
assessments. Observing, keeping running records, recording anecdotal notes, and
maintaining checklists are assessment techniques used to inform pedagogy, but also
used for documenting the learning process and supporting summative assessments.
Gallas (1995) offered that open-ended Science Talks provided a means for
her to explore her students ongoing understandings of phenomenon (p. 1).
Following the science talks, Gallas often asked her students to illustrate ideas and
conceptions. The illustrations offered one means for documenting childrens
understandings.
Portfolios also provide documentation for formative and summative
assessments in inquiry-oriented cultures (Harlen, 2000). In portfolio assessment,
students work and documentations of processes (such as, photographs, videotapes,
and transcriptions of interactions) are kept at the school in an organized filing system.
Although systems vary, often students participate in decision-making regarding what
73


goes into the portfolio. Typically, the means forjudging the quality of students
work are criteria for quality designed specifically for the project under study (NRC,
2000, p. 82).
In the inquiry-rich classroom culture, if it is developmentally appropriate,
children are assessed as developing individuals. A working knowledge of individual
learning and development plays a significant role in assessment. The NAEYC
position statement on assessment states the following.
Accurate assessment of young children is difficult because their development
and learning are rapid, uneven, episodic, and embedded within specific
cultural and linguistic contexts. Too often, inaccurate and inappropriate
assessment measures have been used to label, track, or otherwise harm young
children. (Bredekamp & Copple, 1997)
Results of assessments are used for improving pedagogy and fostering learning. In
developmentally appropriate practice, retention is discouraged.
Efforts are made to avoid grade retention of children who fail to make
expected progress, because retention generally does not improve achievement
and harmfully alters childrens attitude toward school. (Bredekamp & Copple,
1997, p. 176)
Bredekamp and Copple (1997) further state eight basic guidelines for assessing
childrens learning and development. Appropriate assessment strategies for young
children: are purposeful, are authentic, are appropriate to development, are tailored,
include multiple sources, offer considerations for special learning and development
needs, respect individual variations, and value collaborative endeavors. The eight
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guidelines are found at the end of Table 2.1, and address the indicators of assessment
in inquiry curriculum.
In Search of the Essence of Inquiry
One study addressed what exists in inquiry teaching and learning by
focusing on a high-school group of students and their teacher (Crawford, 2000).
Although the study examined inquiry in the context of a high school science class,
Crawfords work demands attention due to the lack of this type of research with
primary grade students and its close connections to the purpose of this dissertation
research. I tapped into Crawfords methodology to guide my research methods, as
noted in the review of the methods section at the end of this chapter.
Crawford (2000) described her research as descriptive of beliefs and practices
in a high school biology teacher who successfully implemented inquiry curriculum in
his classroom. Unlike the present study that drew upon a literature review focusing
on indicators of inquiry curriculum, Crawford stated that her study had no set of
predetermined categories of inquiry-based instruction (p. 917). She does, however,
list 11 pedagogical categories of inquiry from the National Science Education
Standards (NRC, 1996) in her methods section (Crawford, 2000, p. 920).
Through qualitative analysis, Crawford (2000) determined the following
characteristics, what she called a model of collaborative inquiry that emerged from
75


the study, defining the pedagogy of inquiry for this high-school biology teacher.
They are the following.
1. Instruction situated in authentic problems
2. Focus on grappling with data
3. Collaboration of students and teacher
4. Connections with society
5. Teacher modeling behaviors of a scientist
6. Development of student ownership (p. 933)
Among implications Crawford (2000) drew from her study was to challenge
the teaching continuum toward revision. Her thesis rested on observations of
teacher involvement: inquiry teaching (high involvement) should rightfully be
situated on one end of the teaching continuum while discovery learning (low
involvement) should be placed on the opposite end. She believed that traditional
teaching (medium involvement) should fell between the two. Of her three
recommendations for further research, Crawford suggested one that is particularly
relevant to the present study: Do the characteristics of this teachers classroom
translate to other scientific areas, schools, and grade levels? (p. 935).
Nurturing Inquiry: Indicators of Inquiry Curriculum
The indicators of inquiry curriculum are taken from the wider body of
literature related to inquiry, constructivism, integrated learning, and developmentally
appropriate practice. The following table is one of four designed to inform the
present study, particularly the data collection and analysis phases of the research.
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From the review of the literature, I surmise that an inquiry-rich classroom
culture is an interaction-rich culture. Interaction between teachers and students,
students with students, and the inside classroom culture with the resources from the
outside culture characterize the culture as being transactive, as previously noted in
the Conceptual Framework in Chapter One. Table 2.1 offers the first of four tables in
the review of the literature and provides a thematic summary of the indicators of
inquiry curriculum.
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Table 2.1
Nurturing Inquiry: Indicators of Inquiry Curriculum
Constroct: Nurturing Inquiry
Indicator Conceptual Definition Operational Definition
Holding pedagogical beliefs that inquiry fosters understanding and process skills. (Anderson, 1999; McMullen, 1999) Holds beliefs that align with developmentally appropriate practice (Bredekamp & Copple, 1997), inquiry (Anderson, 1999), and constructivism (Brooks & Brooks, 1993). Stated beliefs and observed practice align with what the literature says about inquiry teaching & learning.
Honoring student- generated auestions (Bullock, 1992; Harvey, 1998; Lindfors, 1999; Perry & Rivkin, 1992; Peturson, 1995) A auestion seeks information or response. Allowing and encouraging students to ask questions. Lindfors (1999) suggests that purpose delineates inquiry from other questions. 1 have identified the following types of questions, based on purpose, which may be part of the inquiry experience: (a) information gathering, (b) procedural, (c) playful, (d) expressing a problem.
Offering students the Dursuit of interest and a curriculum of relevancy (Bullock, 1992; Duckworth, 1996; Noddings, 1984; Perry & Rivkin, 1992; Peturson, 1995) Interest denotes engagement in something that piques curiosity, attention, or concern, thereby indicating a subjective importance. Something the child shows or indicates is important or relevant. Holds the child's attention. Opportunities are provided for children to pursue their concerns, through investigation, exploration, or discussion. Relevant to the child and holds mystery, noted by engagement.
Providing choice (Flowerday & Schraw, 2000) Developing ownership (Crawford, 2000) Opportunities to determine a learning path, course of events, selection of activity or direction of thinking. Opportunities to pursue learning interests within the context of the inquiry experience, either as a team, whole class or individually. Times of the day may be allocated for children to choose an open-ended center.
Also noted in the tables depicting Psychological Environment
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Table 2.1 (cont.)
Construct: Nurturing Inquiry
Indicator Conceptual Definition Operational Definition
Offering investigation (Ash & Kluger-Bell, 2000) To examine the details or to search the phenomenon so that the unique aspects and patterns may be discerned. To gain understanding about the complexities by researching and making inquiries. Students are provided opportunities to develop their own pursuits of understandings by asking their own questions, making their own explorations, and answering their questions within the context of the inquiry project.
For the purpose of this research, investigation is differentiated from inquiry in that it is a subset of inquiry. It could also be considered a small inquiry into one aspect of the phenomenon under study. A group-wide attempt at understanding a phenomenon or aspect of a phenomenon. For example, if students are immersed in an inquiry cm fish, an investigation into how fish breathe provides further understanding to the large-scale inquiry project.
Posing orobleras. auestions. riddles, nuzzles (de Boo, 1999; Dewey, 1910/1997, 1938/1997; Lowen stein, 1994; Reeve, 1996). (a) Creating inquiry experiences by oosine a problem. Cbl Using auestions to foster inauirv. [a) Setting up discrepant events of interest to the child. (b) Facilitating elaboration, further inquiry, or piquing interest through questions.
Including problem solving (Dewey, 1910/1997, 1938/1997) Recognition of a problem that has occurredposing a question or a problem, searching for the solution formulating a strategy, carrying forth the strategy, and reformulating another strategy until resolution has been reached. 1 Problem solving may be observed in any setting : (a) the child perceiving a need or an issue and setting forth to find a solution; (b) the teacher poses an issue, need, or question of relevance to children that captures their interests and fosters their desires to search for the answer.
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PAGE 7

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PAGE 10

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PAGE 12

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PAGE 14

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