Citation
A comparison of the values of professional managers and graduate students in public administration, business administration and nonprofit management

Material Information

Title:
A comparison of the values of professional managers and graduate students in public administration, business administration and nonprofit management
Creator:
Raughton, Jimmie Leonard
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xi, 180 leaves : illustrations ; 29 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Executives -- Attitudes ( lcsh )
Graduate students -- Attitudes ( lcsh )
Values ( lcsh )
Corporate culture ( lcsh )
Corporate culture ( fast )
Executives -- Attitudes ( fast )
Graduate students -- Attitudes ( fast )
Values ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 175-180).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Public Administration.
General Note:
School of Public Affairs
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jimmie Leonard Raughton.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
36376944 ( OCLC )
ocm36376944
Classification:
HD38.2 .R244 1993a ( lcc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
A COMPARISON OF THE VALUES OF
PROFESSIONAL MANAGERS AND GRADUATE STUDENTS IN
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
AND NONPROFIT MANAGEMENT
by
Jimmie Leonard Raughton
A. A., Community College of Denver, 1969
B. A., University of Northern Colorado, 1973
M.A., University of Northern Colorado, 1976
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Public Administration
1993


This thesis for the Doctor of Public Administration
degree by
Jimmie Leonard Raughton
has been approved for the
Graduate School of Public Affairs
by
John Parr, J.D.
Date
ii


Raughton, Jimmie Leonard (Ph.D., in Public Administration)
A Comparison of the Values of Professional Managers and Graduate
Students in Public Administration, Business Administration and
Nonprofit Management
Thesis directed by Professor E. Samuel Overman.
ABSTRACT
This research identified the differences and similarities in the
terminal and instrumental values of graduate students and practicing
professionals in the fields of public administration, business
administration and nonprofit management.
Based upon the assumption that managerial culture is, in part, a
product of the shared values held by the individuals within a field, it was
anticipated that the findings from this research would represent a set of
indicators of the cultural differences which may exist among the
management of the public, private and nonprofit sectors of our
economy. It was also anticipated that shifts in values would emerge
within a sector over time as indicated by the comparison of graduate
students and practicing professionals.
The study was exploratory in nature. Tests were administered
utilizing human values theories for adults as developed by Milton
iii


Rokeach. The same set of tests was applied to both graduate students
in programs of study in 1) Public Administration (MPA), 2) Business
Administration (MBA), and 3) Nonprofit Management (NPM), as well as
a selected group of practicing professionals in each of these three fields.
Questions that were addressed included:
1. Are there distinct value differences among graduate students in
public administration, business administration and nonprofit
management programs?
2. Are there distinct terminal and instrumental value differences
among practicing professional managers in the public, private
and nonprofit sectors?
3. Are the value differences between graduate students and
practicing professionals statistically significant?
4. Are value differences significantly different due to other factors,
i.e., age, gender or ethnicity?
A quantitative analysis of the value differences within and among
groups was completed. Other variables of age, gender, or ethnicity
were also analyzed for relationships to group values.
The findings demonstrated far more similarities than dissimilarities
among the cohorts tested suggesting that the value based argument
regarding difference among sectors of the economy are largely
IV


unfounded and that the differences that do exist should be explained at
other levels of culture, i.e. language rituals, legends, or myths.
When professional managers come together in public, private
partnership to address the complex issues confronting our society, the
first agenda item is often the assumed culture clash that exists among
the three sectors.
The underlying assumption that values differ among the sectors
appears to be inaccurate. It may be that the similarities among
managers is a product of an administrative value system developed as
a product of their socialization and separation from other groups. While
there may be differences in attitudes and even behavior, the values that
are associated with each sector are not significantly different when
comparing practicing professional managers or graduate students.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis.
I recommend its publication.
Signed______________________
E. Samuel Overman
v


Acknowledgements
1 wish to thank the following people who have been directly
involved in the completion of this study.
The members of my doctoral committee, Sam Overman, Ph.D.;
John Buechner, Ph.D.; John Parr, J.D., Franklin James, Ph.D., and Ted
Kauss, Ph.D. who have persisted, guided and assisted me throughout
this study.
In addition to my committee, the encouragement and help of
Jerry Wartgow, Ph.D., the President of the Colorado Community College
and Occupational Education System, has been inestimable.


CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION ............................................ 1
The Nature of the Problem............................... 1
The Nature of the Current Research ..................... 2
Research Question ...................................... 5
Statement of the Problem................................ 5
Significance of the Study .............................. 7
Definition of Terms..................................... 9
Limitations of the Study .............................. 11
Contribution .......................................... 12
II. VALUES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE
CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY AND THE
INDIVIDUAL IN THE LITERATURE ...........................14
The Concept of Culture .................................16
Organization Culture..............................19
Level of Culture..................................21
Proverbs Regarding Organizational Culture ........23
Organizational Theories and Values......................26
Organizational Theory Reflects Societal Values..........28
Traditional/Scientific Management School .........30
Behavioral/Human Relations School ................31
vii


Management Process/Qualitative School...............34
Values Related to Other Components of Culture .............35
Behavioral Norms and Values.........................35
Rituals and Values..................................36
Ceremonies and Values...............................36
Legends and Values .................................36
Myths and Values ...................................37
Language and Values.................................38
Attitudes and Values ...............................38
Needs and Values....................................39
Education as a Socialization Device for a Culture..........40
Value Change Through Education .....................40
Value Change Through Persuasion in a Culture .... 46
Corporate Culture Change and Values.................51
Value Education in Complex Decision Making .........55
Models of Values and the Individual .......................57
Experiential Learning Theory........................61
Human Values........................................64
Rokeach Value Survey................................66
Other Human Factors and Their Relationship to Values .... 76
Professional Education....................................79
viii


Stages of Individual Development and Value
Development.........................................80
Intelligence and Value Development .................85
Conclusion of Literature Review ................87
III. METHODOLOGY...............................................90
Research Design.....................................90
Procedures..........................................90
Method..............................................93
Strategy for Sample Selection ...............93
Sample.......................................94
Group 1 - Graduate Students in Public
Administration...................95
Group 2 Practicing Professionals in
Public Administration............96
Group 3 Graduate Students in
Business Administration..........98
Group 4 Practicing Professionals
in Business Administration.......98
Group 5 Graduate Students in
Nonprofit Administration ........99
Group 6 Practicing Professionals
in Nonprofit Administration......99
The Instruments.............................102
Data Collection and Analyses ...............102
ix


IV.
FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
106
Research Question One Differences Among
Students by Sector............................107
Comparison of Value Profiles for
Graduate Students......................110
Research Question Two Differences Among
Practicing Professionals by Sector ...........112
Comparison of Value Profile for
Practicing Professionals ..............118
Research Question Three Statistically
Significant Value Differences
Between Graduate Students and
Practicing Professionals ............................122
Value Profiles for Graduate Students
Compared to Practicing
Professionals.................................127
Research Question Four Are Value
Differences Due to Other Factors..............135
Comparison of Values by Demographic Factors ... 135
Significant Results by Gender ................137
Significant Results by Ethnic Status..........139
Significant Results by Age Interval...........141
Correlation of Age with Value Scores.........146
Value Differentiation as a Hierarchy..........148
Group Average Score Comparison ...............152
x


V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
158
Educators......................................160
Practicing Professionals ......................161
Cooperation Among Sectors......................163
Recommendations for Future Studies ............165
Methodological Issues .........................165
Conceptual Issues..............................167
APPENDIX
A. Rokeach Value Survey...........................168
B. Demographic Survey ............................172
C. Sample Letters Requesting Survey ..............173
BIBLIOGRAPHY
175


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The Nature of the Problem
The purpose of this study is to investigate the similarities and
dissimilarities among values of selected graduate students and
practicing professionals in each of three United States economic
sectors: public administration, business administration and nonprofit
management. The differences among the values within these six
groups (three graduate and three practicing professionals) are
explored. The primary instrument used is Milton Rokeachs test of
instrumental and terminal human values. Adult human values theories
are applied to management by utilizing the perspective of
organizational culture.
Based upon the assumption that managerial culture is, in part,
a product of the shared values held by the individuals within a sector,
it is anticipated that the findings from this research will measure value
and cultural differences at the management level among the three
sectors. It is also anticipated that within a sector, values, as
represented by graduate students and practicing professionals, will
change and converge over time. That is, graduate student values will


differ from those of practicing professionals within the three sectors.
For example, graduate students in Business Administration may be
inculcated with values that support a profit motive for a business. At
the same time after years of career growth, business managers may
take on a more "service" oriented values set. Similarly, students in
public administration could shift from service-oriented values to more
profit-oriented values after years of professional experience. Other
questions could be asked: Do Nonprofit Management students
values shift from a desire for recognition to a need for family security
after several years of work experience in the field? Do minimal value
differences exist between Business Administration, Public
Administration and Nonprofit Management groups?
The Nature of the Current Research
Because extensive research has not been conducted on
identifying and defining differences in value sets among the public,
private and nonprofit sectors for our economy, this research was
placed in the context of well established theories and research. The
first of these theoretical approaches was the concept of culture as
defined by anthropology, sociology and ethnography.
2


The second approach is a review of the literature as it relates
to organizational theory values. Included in this review is a discussion
of values as they are described specifically in business administration,
public administration and nonprofit administration. Also discussed in
literature is the proposition that administrative values, independent of
the sector, may represent a value set. This view suggests that
behavior of administrators is either above or below the level of values
specific to a sector and tied to a broader culture. The literature
further suggests that some identifiable aspect of a sectors culture
(behavioral norms) are a product of the general culture and would not
be distinct among sectors. By definition a sectors culture falls
between the specialized language of a corporate culture and the
generalized behavior of the entire culture.
The third approach is a review of values as they relate to the
individual. This approach suggests that individual behavior is rooted
in values. Individual values are discussed as both an enduring belief
system and a mode of guiding conducted on a daily basis.
Generally, research investigating the values within culture can
be classified under one of these three approaches.
The Concept of culture focuses on culture in a society as
developed in anthropology, sociology and ethnography. These
3


scientific approaches emphasize the integration of learned
behavior patterns that are characteristic of the group but not
inherited. The study of culture within these disciplines requires
methods and interpretive procedures which include, among
other approaches, observation and reporting of common
values.
The theory of organizational culture reflects societys culture
through time. The theorys contribution to the effectiveness
and efficiency of an organization is, in part, a product of the
cultural context in which the theory evolved. Organizational
cultures are also shaped by other cultural factors including
behavioral norms, rituals, ceremonies, legends, myths and
language. These factors in combination form the basis of the
socialization processes embodied in graduate management
education.
Models of values and the individual seek to explain differences
in individual behavior through an understanding of human
values. Values are viewed as enduring belief systems that
guide modes of conduct and desired end states of existence.
These three approaches provide a framework for the literature
review and underlie the research conducted in this thesis.
4


Research Question
The issues central to this thesis lie in the answers to the
following key questions:
1. Are there distinct value differences among graduate students in
public administration, business administration and nonprofit
management programs?
2. Are there distinct terminal and instrumental value differences
among practicing professional managers in the public, private
and nonprofit sectors?
3. Are the value differences between graduate students and
practicing professionals statistically significant?
4. Are value differences significantly different due to other factors,
i.e., age, gender, or ethnicity?
Statement of the Problem
The intent of the study is to measure the value differences
among selected practicing professionals in public administration,
business administration and nonprofit management and the value
differences among selected graduate students who expect to work in
the respective fields. Through a comparison of value systems
among the various cohorts of graduate students and practicing
5


professionals indications of value differences among the groups will
be identified.
Selected factors drawn from the concept of culture,
organizational culture and human values theories will provide the
framework for examining graduate students and practicing
professionals. In addressing this research, certain assumptions are
agreed upon. Organizational culture is real and can be defined in the
public, private and nonprofit sectors in terms of shared values, shared
beliefs, shared attitudes, shared norms and shared expectations
(Sathe, 1985). Values are fundamental to the beliefs, attitudes and
expectations of an individual (Schein, 1992). Values can be identified
in terms of terminal and instrumental value sets (Rokeach, 1973).
Graduate educational programs represent a significant aspect of the
strategy of each form of management to extend and enhance its
culture (Van Maanen, 1983). Graduate students have been through a
process of socialization which has contributed to their mastery of the
values, beliefs, attitudes, behavior and expectations of their
management culture (Siehl & Martin, 1984). Values are as important
as are the other unique sets of conceptual components of an
organizational culture (Deal & Kennedy, 1982, p. 15). The generally
recognized components, in addition to values, include, but are not
6


limited to, symbols (Pettigrew, 1985), artifacts, language, myths,
heroes (Martin & Siehl, 1983) and ceremonies and patterns of
behavior including rites and rituals (Deal & Kennedy, 1982, p. 15).
Significance of the Study
It is probably true that no two individuals hold exactly the same
value systems; nevertheless, humans within a culture develop
remarkably similar values. To a large extent this common system of
values allows people to communicate, to work together and to live
together. It forms the basis for organizations and when it is shared
by enough people, a value system becomes a distinguishing
characteristic for a sector of our societys culture. The relative
importance of specific value statements constitutes an element of
what makes a sector unique.
When professional managers come together in public, private
partnership to address the complex issues confronting our society,
the first agenda item is often the assumed culture clash that exists
among the three sectors. The underlying assumption is that the
public sector, the private sector and the nonprofit sector have strict
differences that are a product of the culture. There are built-in biases
based on the basic values associated with each culture (Gold, 1982).
\
7


Milton Rokeach provides a systematic values approach to the
study of culture. His approach is one that affords a unique point of
emphasis (e.g., the principal focus is on values rather than attitudes,
beliefs or behavior). The approach takes into consideration long- and
short-term values defined as terminal and instrumental. The
assessment of values is a product of the individual respondents
hierarchical arrangement of the terminal and instrumental values.
Subjects rank order 18 alphabetically listed values in each set along a
dimension of the relative importance of each. The instrument is
designed to describe the similarities and differences among various
cohorts of American society through the calculation of the average
score placed on each value by the tested cohort.
This study contends that value systems defined by Rokeach
and identified as associated with specific cohorts of graduate students
and practicing professionals can be used to identify substantive
differences among the cohorts and thereby, differences among the
public, private and nonprofit sectors of our American society.
The results of the study will provide insight about the extent to
which graduate students in management schools hold values similar
to individuals working in the targeted professions. The degree of
congruence or divergence of values may have implications for the
8


respective graduate schools role in the process of inculcation of
students for the sectors culture. The study may disclose similarities
between the values of the sectors of our economy thereby suggesting
values are not a product of the selected sector management culture.
Definition of Terms
1. Values that which is more or less desirable, important, worthy
of esteem or the degree of worth, an enduring belief that a
specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is
preferable to an alternate mode of conduct or end-state of
existence.
2. Value System an enduring organization of beliefs concerning
preferable modes of conduct or end states of existence along
a continuum of relative importance.
3. Instrumental Values a mode of conduct, a means to ends;
instrumental value can be described in terms of moral values
and self-actualization values.
a. Self-actualization values have a personal focus;
violation leads to a feeling of shame about personal
adequacy. Behaving logically and intelligently leads
one to believe one is behaving competently.
9


b. Moral Values represent a narrower concept of
instrumental values that has an interpersonal focus,
which when violated arouses feelings of guilt for wrong
doing; behaving honestly leads one to feel one is
behaving morally.
Terminal Values an end-state of existence. Terminal values
can be self-centered or society-centered, intrapersonal or
interpersonal in focus. End states such as salvation and peace
of mind are intrapersonal, while world peace and brotherhood
are interpersonal.
Culture shared values, beliefs, attitudes, norms, and
institutions of a given people at a given period.
Organization Culture a unified group for a specific purpose
within a society defined by a pattern of basic assumptions.
Rokeach Values Survey a survey of values based upon a
scheme of values consisting of 18 terminal values and 18
instrumental values by which individuals assign relative
importance to individual value statements.


Limitations of the Study
This research, as is the case with all studies of organization
culture, has several limitations on the validity of the findings. These
limitations preclude generalizations of findings from this study to other
situations.
Validity, as with all descriptive research inference about the
data collected, is a product of attitudes at the time of the
administration of the instrument, not about responses that may be
collected prior to or after that time. This requires limitations on the
interpretation of the results of the study.
The ability to generalize findings from this study is restricted to
individuals who have selected studies and/or the practice of
management in the public, private, or nonprofit sectors of the United
States culture. External validity is constrained due to the limits
created by the self-selection process of individuals entering
management as a field.
Much of the empirical weight of this study is dependent on the
instruments ability to measure values. Indeed, even if there are not
significant differences measured in values among groups, there may
be differences not measured due to the limitations of the instrument.
11


It is important to note here, values are not being tested. That which
is being tested is the difference in hierarchy of values among groups.
The assumption that the graduate school programs are
inculcating values is not being tested. It very well may be that
students choose a graduate school based on their knowledge of a
pre-existing system of values.
Contribution
This study focuses on the value systems of individuals within
the public, private and nonprofit sectors of the Untied States. The
differences among the value systems have been examined through
the calculation of the average score placed on each value by the
tested cohorts.
The administration of the Rokeach Value Survey in combination
with demographic information will test the degree of similarity and
differences that exist among value systems of the cohorts tested.
The examination of this data reveals differences attributable to age
groups, ethnicity and gender within the sectors of our economy. The
significance of these differences as a value system and in terms of
individual values is discussed. The relative similarities compared to
the number of differences provides a basis for discussion of the
12


possibility of developing a theory of an administrative culture which
can be distinguished from a general population. The findings are also
relevant to those individuals interested in cooperation among the
sectors of our economy in an attempt to deal with the problems
facing society that require partnerships among the public, private and
nonprofit sectors.
13


CHAPTER II
VALUES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE
CONCEPT OF CULTURE, ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY
AND THE INDIVIDUAL IN THE LITERATURE
Most studies of organizational culture have excluded the
specific cultural aspects of the public, private, and nonprofit sectors of
our economy. There have been extensive contributions to the
writings on organization culture in general by Schein (1991), Ott
(1986), McCoy (1985), Pettigrew (1985), Boham and Deal (1984),
Davis (1984), Blake and Mouton (1981), Selznick (1957), Hayakawa
(1953). While extensive in their scope, these studies have not
described the cultural differences among the three economic sectors
of the U.S. society. There do exist, however, generalizations about
the nature of individuals within these sectors, as well as generaliza-
tions about their attitudes, behavior and values that will be discussed
later as proverbs regarding culture.
Edgar H. Schein, a distinguished clinical psychologist, wrote
that organizational culture provides a sense of "what ought to be as
distinct from what is" (Schein, 1991, p. 15). H. Ross Perots 1992
candidacy for president of the United States is a prime example of
14


Scheins observation, as Candidate Perot puzzled through the
complicated issues of the public sector, utilizing his experience in the
private sector to explain what ought to be ("The Math and Morals of
Ross Perot," 1992). As a presidential candidate, Perot was always
"on record" and did not have the luxury of explaining, rationalizing and
justifying his position on what ought to be. Sathe (1985) could argue
that Perot could not "make sense" to many people because his beliefs
and values were a product of his culture and thereby created the
language he used to explain his position.
The language of Ross Perot the candidate was laden with the
values that guided his decisions. His words connoted his values both
espoused and enacted (Argyris & Schon, 1978). His espoused value
took the form of his aspirations to be president and his announced
commitment to reform the public sector within our society (e.g.,
terminal values). Perots enacted values were represented by his
daily action including his temporary withdrawal from the campaign.
His enacted values were the means he utilized as he pursued the
good he desired to achieve as a life long goal, (e.g., instrumental
values).
This research contends that values shared within a culture can
be measured. The initial portion of the literature review deals with the
role of values within culture and introduces other component parts of


a culture, i.e., behavioral norms, rituals, ceremonies, legends, myths
and language. The relationship of organization theories and values
are then reviewed with specific examples from private, public and
nonprofit administration. In the final portion of the literature review,
individual values are discussed as they relate to adult development.
The Concept of Culture
Going beyond management theory, the concept of a "culture"
in a society is a well-established concept. It has developed through a
number of disciplines including anthropology, sociology, and
ethnography.
Anthropology contributed to the concept of culture in
identifying an integrated system of learned behavior patterns that are
characteristic of the members of a group and are not biologically
inherited (Keesing, 1974).
Education is a cultural process. Each new
member of a society or a group must learn to act
appropriately as a member and contribute to its
maintenance and, occasionally, to its improvement. It is
also an instrument for adaptation and change (Spindler
& Spindler, 1971).
Anthropologists speculate that every separate group has a
distinctive culture. The consequence of these cultures is that the
characteristic values and behaviors of the members are in some ways
16


significantly different from the characteristic values and behaviors of
the members of other groups. Given this assumption, it was
hypothesized for the purpose of this study that distinctly different
value systems, as defined by Rokeach, would be found in
representative groups of graduate students and practicing
professionals of each economic sector.
The foundation of the study of culture in anthropology is
ethnography, meaning "to write about people." As practiced by
anthropologists, ethnography requires methodological and interpretive
procedures, which, according to Keesing are based on a process of
1) direct observation of patterns of behavior within the culture, or 2)
observation of individual common beliefs, knowledge, ideas and
values. However, basic ethnography can be traced as far back as
Herodotus, a Greek ethnographer who wrote about the variety and
uniqueness he saw in other cultures. Keesing suggests that todays
cultural anthropology is guided by an image of the ethnographer
entering the culture prepared for a long period of observation. Franz
Boas and Margaret Mead developed the form of ethnographic
fieldwork which effectively established the fieldwork approach for
American academic anthropology (Keesing, 1974).
17


Ethnographers have concluded that, in the case of cultural
ethnographic study as conducted by Mead and Boas, there is usually
a minimum period of observation required. Many management
theorists, like the cultural ethnographers, also believe one must
immerse oneself in the organization while attempting to not disrupt its
normal process. Then, by carefully classifying the "stuff" of the
organization, its language, legends, and myths, one can qualitatively
describe its values (Sathe, 1985).
The key component of many sociology and management
studies of organization culture is observation. Keesing points out,
other tools can be employed depending on the problem, access to
data, and theoretical orientation. They may range from key-informant
interviewing, collection of life histories, structured interviews, and
questionnaire administration. The method of data collection for this
study centered on the administration of the Rokeach Value Survey in
combination with a demographic questionnaire, approximating the
observation/interview/ reporting sequence of ethnographic research.
Having selected the Rokeach Value Survey as a method of
conducting the study, the interpretation of the data requires an
approach that minimally distorts the findings. Sanday suggests that
the study of a culture through ethnographic approaches is at its
18


essence a way to hold a mirror up the culture, thereby, always
partially distorting the image. She notes that no matter how careful
the investigation, the image may be "science, art, journalism or even
fiction" (Sanday, 1985). This study does not suggest that values
define a culture but that when they are taken as a whole provide an
insight into the differences that may exist between cultures.
Organization Culture
In reviewing his personal experience, Edgar H. Schein found it
important to distinguish the ethnographers work as focused on
culture groups that have no particular stake in the issues that
motivated the study. In contrast, he maintained that organizational
culture studies are often undertaken from a "clinical perspective"
where the contract is one of client and helper, completely different
from the researcher-subject relationship of the ethnographer (Schein,
1991).
Schein concurs with Sanday in his assertion that organizational
culture can be analyzed at several different levels: artifacts, values
and basic assumptions. At the level of artifacts and creations he calls
for the interpretation of a groups stories, orientation materials,
charters and public documents (Schein, 1991). He notes that while
19


we can describe how a group constructs its environment, we often
cannot understand the logic for the behavior. To analyze why
members of a group behave the way they do, he directs us to
investigate the values that govern behavior. Scheins emphasis on
basic assumptions (e.g., taken for granted values) is a primary tenet
of this study which is implemented utilizing the Rokeach Value Survey.
Schein points out the difficulty in observing values in
ethnographic techniques and suggests that they can be inferred
through interviews with key members of the organization or through
content analysis of artifacts, such as documents. He notes that a
possible hazard of interviews and observations of values is that one
will find the rationalization for behavior, i.e., what individuals say, is
the reason for their behavior or "what ought to be." Schein (1991)
maintains that to truly understand a culture one must address values
in two forms:
1. "Ultimate nondebatable, taken-for-granted values for which the
term assumptions is appropriate.
2. Debatable, overt, expressed values for which the term values
is more applicable."
20


The distinction between assumptions and values closely parallel the
terminal and instrumental values developed by Milton Rokeach and
will be described later.
Level of Organizational Culture and Their Interaction
Visible
t
Greater level
of awareness
T l
t
Taken for granted
Basic Assumptions (Values)
Nature of reality, time and space
Nature of human nature
Nature of human activity
Nature of human relationships
Artifacts and Creations
Art
Visible and audible behavior patterns
____________t____________i__________
Values (Debatable Overt)
Testable in the physical environment
or by social consensus
Source: Adopted from Schein, 1991.
E. H. Scheins defines organizational culture as
"the pattern of basic assumptions that a given group has
invented, discovered or developed in learning to cope
with its problems of external adaptations and internal
integration and that have worked well enough to be
considered valued, and therefore to be taught to new
members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel
in relation to those problems" (1991, p. 9).
21


The literature describing organizational culture has provided a
useful strategy for guiding research as it relates to measurement of
management (Schein, 1991). The definition of values within a culture
will be limited to that which is measured by the Rokeach Value
Survey, which has been utilized by researchers in its current form
since 1967 (Rokeach, 1973). Argyris and Downs have suggested that
a culture can only be examined when values, beliefs, and
expectations are compared with similar cultures (Argyris, 1964;
Downs, 1967). Consistent with Argyris and Downs, this study
compares the value systems among graduate students within various
management programs with each other and with practicing
professionals within their fields of study.
Schein maintains that the concept of culture is applied to social
units of any size. The sole prerequisite is that the unit has had the
opportunity to learn and stabilize its view of itself and the context in
which it operates. He maintains that the levels of culture can be
delineated as:
1) Civilization: referring to Western or Eastern cultures.
2) Countries: commonalities sufficient to speak in terms of an
American" culture or "Mexican" culture. Schein notes that


within any country ethnic groups exist to which differences in
culture are attributed.
3) Occupational communities: professions or stable employment
units with shared histories of experience.
4) Organizations: groups that share a significant number of
important experiences which is in constant interaction with its
environment and consists of sub groups, occupational units
and hierarchical layers (Schein, 1991, p. 85).
The concept of an occupational community (item 3) suggests
the existence of a sector, i.e., public, private and nonprofit.
Proverbs Regarding Organizational Culture
Often the generalization or truths about a sector are more
quotable than accurate. Herbert Simon (1976), in his study of admin-
istrative decision making, refuted many "truths" in management as
"proverbs" i.e., popular ideas that are considered truths. Simons
work on decision making crossed into the area of organizational
culture as well. He assumed that the primary function of
administrative organizations is to provide a framework for rational
decision making. He described the individuals human capacity as
too limited to provide all the data and insight necessary to make the
23


complex decisions involved in running a large organization. His
theory established the necessity of an organizational culture as a
means to provide individuals with the value premises necessary to
make choices within limited alternatives.
Herbert Kaufman (1960), anticipating criticism and popular
ideas regarding the public sector employees, notes that government
personnel are given the blame for the red tape of government
because of a view of public employees as "stupid" and "lazy."
It is equally plausible that official stupidity and
laziness might be responsible for the crazy quilt of
provisions and procedures in government. Dull, slothful
public servants would have to be furnished with specific,
minutely detailed rules for every conceivable situation
because, lacking intelligence or initiative, they could not
be trusted to devise sensible responses on their own.
They would be likely to formulate unsuitable and
pointless rules and decisions either because they lacked
the understanding to recognize irrelevancy and
inappropriateness or because they were not industrious
enough to check all the facts or trace all the effects of
what they do. They would cling to familiar courses of
action long after those methods ceased to be
appropriate. Wanting in the wisdom to invent responses
quickly or adhering slavishly to established procedures
and rote recitation of published regulations (the most
imaginative behavior of which such people would be
capable and certainly the safest), they would take
forever to arrive at solutions to problems. (Kaufman, p.
110)
This description of public employees extends beyond the
obvious derogatory exaggeration to a partial picture of the public
24


sector culture. Kaufmans description of the public sector fulfills all
the requirements of a culture as defined by several authors:
...Values, heroes, and rituals, and communications...a
system of informal rules that spells out how people are
to behave most of the time.
(Deal & Kennedy, 1982, p. 73)
or:
Patterns of interactions, values and attitudes, which are
derived from traditions, precedents and past practices.
(Blake & Mouton, 1981, p. 27)
Similar generalizations are also held about the private and non-
profit sectors of our economy. The private sector is often generalized
as composed of capitalists who are in quest of the "all-mighty dollar,"
lost in their striving for personal gain, with little or no regard for the
needs of others (Baida, 1990). The nonprofit sector has been
frequently described as the "do gooder," world of lackluster
entrepreneurs who are motivated by the quest for tax incentives
rather than real service (Bakal, 1980).
Thus, examples of proverbs implying value systems
continuously arise in the literature as evidence to support virtually
every generalization regarding a sector of our economy. How any of
25


these proverbs is "enforced" by values is the core of many
management theories.
Organizational Theories and Values
The nature of organizational theories evolution is such that
each antecedent theory contributes to the refinement of the next.
This is due, in part, to the sequencing of the primary contributions of
the respective theories based upon the culture in which the
contribution is made by the advocates for the theory. A sequential
approach, while not accurate in detail, represents a means of under-
standing the relationship that exists among the various organizational
theories and the values that influenced their development.
In many cases, the evolution of an organizational theory is due
to the rejection of an element of an existing or preceding theory
(Kuhn, 1970). At the same time, organizational theories can be
viewed as refinements of preceding theories, each theory drawing fine
distinctions or discriminating between concepts of the preceding
theory.
Formal efforts to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of
organizations through their management have contributed to the
evolution of a number of theories that are the foundations of graduate
26


studies in management for the public, private and nonprofit sectors of
our economy. Coincidental with the development of a common
language and theories, there has been a parallel diversification of the
study of management in graduate programs in private, public and,
more recently, nonprofit administration in part justified by the value
difference believed to exist among these sectors. As each program
has evolved within a university, it has met with the challenge that
management is in large part a generic study (Fottler, 1981). While
there are common areas of study in graduate programs of
management, fundamental differences in the values, beliefs and
expectations may exist in the program cores. Thus, content may be
similar, but value inculcation and thereby learning is different. There-
fore, these core values, beliefs and expectations represent a form of
management culture that may be a product of the graduate
programs sector. Perhaps the best examples of these differences
can be seen in what Vijay Sathe (1985) described as the "stuff" of an
organization culture: norms, rituals, ceremonies, legends, myths,
language, heroes and symbols.
In each form of graduate education, different heroes are
identified or are viewed from different perspectives. The stories told
about the same historical events (e.g., the Roosevelt Work Progress
27


Administration programs effect on management) have very different
morals depending on the sectors perspective. Stories connote
meaning greater than the historical facts; they embody subjective
attitudes about the role of government and the other sectors.
Symbols are invested with meanings that are specific to the
sector. A symbol may be a picture of a chief executive, corporate
seal, flag or building. Architecture in the public, private and nonprofit
sectors clearly expresses symbolic meaning-for example, the
efficiency of the high rise glass edifices of a downtown business
district compared to the historically stable public edifices that are at
the center of most city, state and federal complexes. The nonprofit
sectors gothic church personifies its aspirations of service and
connection to lofty values. No matter what the image, it may become
the base material for symbol when a sector of people invest it with
meaning (Morgan, Forst, & Pondy, 1983).
Organizational Theory Reflects Societal Values
Claude S. George in his book The History of Management
Thought suggests there are three significant schools of management
thought:
Traditional School: Scientific Management
28


Behavioral School: Human Relations
Management Process School: Quantitative School
This perspective, while not the only categorization of schools of
management thought, provides a basis for reviewing management
theory as it relates to human values.
Organizational theories parallel the development of a societys
culture. The cultural context in which a theory evolves defines its
assumptions, and the contributions made by each theory are in part,
a product of the context in which it evolves. The industrial revolution,
the populist movement of the 30s and the computer information
society all substantially influenced the development of organizational
theory.
The development of concepts that delineate organizational
culture cannot be focused on a single point in management literature.
The evolution of the theory must include all of the elements of the
three major schools: 1) Traditional School: people engineered into a
machine-like organization (Weber, 1922; Fayol, 1916; Taylor, 1911),
2) Behavioral/Human Relations School: a people focus contributes to
the organizations prosperity (Blake & Mouton, 1981; Argyris, 1964;
McGregor, 1960) and 3) Management Process/Quantitative School:
models for decision making, quantitative analysis and information
29


systems provide a means of measuring the effectiveness of an
organization (Boham & Deal, 1984; Katz & Kahn, 1978).
Traditional/Scientific Management School
The industrial revolution can be described as having the
scientific management school. The industrial workers of the Western
World were viewed as an integral part of a grand industrial scheme.
Antagonism between management and workers was a kind of friction
that would render the machine less efficient. Scientific management is
grounded on the basic beliefs that workers and employers can work
"together" forming a partnership. "Turn their action toward increasing
the size of the surplus until it...is large enough for an increase in
wages for the workman and an equally large increase in profits for the
manager" (Taylor, 1911, pp. 40-41).
This efficiency would be achieved by breaking jobs down into
the smallest specialization, coordinating each job and gathering data
on each stage of the production process. The managemtns function
becomes the systemization of these relationships between labor and
capital. The system defined the relationship among individuals and
thereby their value and the organizational culture.
30


The culture that included management and labor during the
period of time that Taylor was developing his theory was, at best,
described as attempting to reach optimum efficiency. Labor was
abundant and recognized as such. While the purpose of Taylors
school of scientific management was to raise productivity. Labor was
to Taylor a factor of production and should be maximized for the
benefit of society and, in turn, the individual.
Behavioral/Human Relations School
Out of Taylors value system evolved a response developed in
the 1930 writings of Mary Parker Follett and Elton Mayor. At the core
of their values was a belief that management has an obligation to
society and, specifically, to the labor employed in its industry. Their
school came to be known as the Human-Relations School.
The father of the Human-Relations School is Elton Mayo.
Mayo, then a professor of industrial research at the Harvard Business
School, was concerned with the lack of association with a culture of
the industrial worker. Since first studying industry in Europe in 1903,
he had been looking for a way to reconcile what he perceived as a
significant value placed on belongingness with the conflicting values
of the organizational culture in which the worker finds himself.
31


For Mayo, the significant insight came as the result of what
started to be a very modest experiment. In 1927, some of Mayos
colleagues began the now-celebrated study at the Hawthorne, Illinois,
plant of Western Electric. The company interest in improved
efficiency presented a challenging problem to them. For years the
company had been attempting to measure how much more telephone
equipment the workers would produce as lighting was improved in
the work environment. In the test environment, they isolated a group
of women assemblers from others doing the same work and one by
one introduced changes beginning with the physical environment but
also including the norms, the codes, and economic incentives. Sathe
would suggest they tampered with the "stuff" of the organizational
culture. According to the commonly accepted "scientific management
principles" earlier advanced by Frederick Taylor, these changes in
physical conditions and, most particularly, the introduction of
incentives would make the test group more productive than the other.
They didnt. As experiment followed experiment (the research was to
continue until 1932) it became clear that physical changes to the
worker station were not the key. As in the earlier experiments, output
did increase when conditions were changed, but output also
increased when no changes had been made.
32


The researchers came to the conclusion that output shot up in
both groups because in both groups the workers participation had
been solicited in the experiment and this involvement, clearly, had
placed a higher value on the workers role in the organizational
culture which in turn outweighed physical conditions in the
environment. The workers were an organizational culture; the system
was informal, but it influenced the workers attitude toward the job.
This culture could contribute to the reduction of productivity, but if the
managers placed a higher value on the participation and association
of the individual within the culture the system could work for improved
productivity.
In the literature of human relations, the Hawthorne experiment
is customarily regarded as a discovery. In large part it dramatized,
more than any other event, the inadequacy of the purely economic
view of man. The Human-Relations School that flowed from the
experiment, however, was a good bit more than a statement of
objective fact for Mayo, and his group were advocates as well as
researchers. The Hawthorne experiments conclusions have proved to
be a powerful manifesto.
Mayo never pretended that he was free from values. He
presents an argument that the culture of an organization is based on
33


"Mans desire to be continuously associated in work with his fellows,
which is the strongest, human characteristic" (Mayo, 1933, p. 67).
Management Process/Quantitative School
The Quantitative School of management suggests that the
understanding of complex relationships among variables within the
organizations should be used to optimize decisions (Thompson,
1967). The Quantitative School includes inputs, processes, outputs,
feedback loops and the environment (culture) in which the
organization operates similar to the earlier Management Process
School of Henri Fayol.
The Management Process School, competed with the work of
Fredrick Taylor maintaining that the study of all public, private or
nonprofit management would best be approached from the
perspective of the following functions: 1) forecasting, or planning,
which was critical to avoiding hesitation, untimely action and possible
demise; 2) organizing, which included both material and, human
resources; 3) commanding and coordinating; and 4) controlling,
which provides a check on the total system (Fayol, 1916).
34


Values Related to Other Components of Culture
The following reviews values as they relate to other
components of organizational culture. Vijay Sathe (1985) described
the "stuff" of organization culture as consisting of components from
many levels of the organization. The level of the component is not
important until one needs to select a method for measuring the
difference among cultures. The following review provides a
discussion of the relative importance of values to other components
of culture.
Behavioral Norms and Values
Cultures also embody behavioral norms that stabilize the group
and reflect its value system. These norms represent blueprints,
scripts and role definitions that guide an individual through the
organization. The norms are the common expectations that are
enforced by the organization. Behavioral norms are among the most
important "stuff" of the organizational culture (Sathe, 1985). They are
derived from the values that draw individuals to the sector and
ultimately to an organization.
35


Rituals and Values
Rituals are those human interactions that at their core are
based in values but are routinized by repeated application to
situations common to the organization. An individuals function and
control within an organization can be identified through the observa-
tion of the rituals in which he or she participates. For example, the
opening and closing of a seminar is reserved for specific authority of
the profession. In the absence of the appropriate authority figures,
the considerable resources represented in the students may fade into
disjointed conversations without focus.
Ceremonies and Values
Ceremonies represent formalized rituals that convey meaning
to individuals both inside and outside the organization. They provide
a means of recognizing the accomplishments of organizational heroes
or celebrating new levels of service. Ceremonies provide a means of
displaying values for all to admire.
Legends and Values
Legends provide useful information about a culture, including
the culture of a sector. Often legends are built on stories of two
sectors coming together at a common issue. An example is the story
36


of the city manager of Boulder, Colorado, who halted a ground
breaking by handing the shovel back to the IBM executive who had
asked for a review of certain municipal fees.
This story provides insight into the Boulder, Colorado,
municipal governments values at that time as they relate to corporate
expansion. The ideas communicated were clear. Boulder was willing
to welcome employers and their associated growth but only in the
terms prescribed by the city. The city managers action sent a
message to all involved in development in public and private sectors
of the economy.
The city managers actions were considered heroic; he could
be described as a hero of the culture. He personified the values and
strengths of the Boulder city government, and reinforced the cultural
values by being a role model.
Myths and Values
Had the story been embellished with events alleged to have
happened but not factual, the city managers action could have taken
on the role of a myth within the culture. Organizational myths may be
entirely composed of illusiosn and imagination. Accepting them as
fictitious, the metaphors communicate key information regarding the
37


values of the organization and thereby become instructional in the
socialization of new members (Blake & Mouton, 1981).
Language and Values
Language is that "stuff" of the organization that shades and
details the understanding of events. While at its roots language may
be an extension of the technology in which the culture is embodied,
i.e., public, private or nonprofit unique words, phrases and jargon
have developed in part to provide identity to all who are included in
the culture. It is as if one is included in the nonprofit sector if he or
she uses or recognizes a "501-(C)-(3) organization." Outsiders are
easily segregated by their inability to cope with acronyms. Language
both maintains and defines the culture. Reality, or that which details
the understanding of an event within a sector of the economy is
inseparable from the language used to describe it (Greenfield, 1984).
Attitudes and Values
Values are commonly confused with or considered part of atti-
tudes. A value differs from an attitude in that an attitude refers to an
organization of several beliefs around a specific object or situation
(Rokeach, 1979). Values and attitudes differ in a number of important
ways: a value is a single belief; an attitude is an organization of
38


several beliefs all focused on a given situation. A value transcends
situations; an attitude is focused on a specific situation. A person has
as many attitudes as direct or indirect encounters he or she has had
with specific situations. Values occupy a more central position than
attitudes within ones personality and they are therefore determinants
of attitudes as well as of behavior (Rokeach, 1973).
Needs and Values
This confusion between values and needs is easily disclaimed
by means of Rokeachs argument that man is the only animal that
can be meaningfully described as having values (Rokeach, 1973). If
values and needs are indeed equivalent, then it could be said that
even rats have values. If this is the case, it would be difficult to
account for the fact that values constitute a major study of those
determined to understand human behavior, while the study of animal
behavior rarely includes the study of values, and since we know rats
have needs, this suggests that values and needs are not ultimately
identical or equivalent. It is the presence of values and value systems
that is a major characteristic in distinguishing humans from
nonhumans.
39


Education as a Socialization Device for a Culture
Graduate education programs are socialization devices and
thereby, create in students a set of distinct identifiable behaviors and
attitudes (Van Maanen, 1983). From this socialization, it is possible to
identify differences in the basic value systems of each sector, given
the assumptions described earlier, by evaluating the differences in
responses to questionnaires completed by graduate students of
representative programs of study. At the same time, a comparison of
responses from professionals in the field will provide insight into the
evolution of values over time and a further comparison among the
individuals in those sectors.
Value Change Through Education
The primary methodological approach in this study consists of
extensive utilization of a comparison of values as an indication of the
differences in culture. The success of an organization is dependent
upon "development of shared meaning through a coherent system of
beliefs and guiding values" by its individuals (Siehl & Martin, 1984).
Sieh! and Martin undertook a study to determine how
managers can effectively transmit organizational culture. Their study
addressed two issues that are important to furthering knowledge of
40


how managers can transmit and reinforce values: 1) how can
managers transmit core values in a credible manner, and 2) can
managers use a strategy such as formal training programs to
reinforce core values? To provide a framework for their study Siehl
and Martin define culture as consisting of:
1. Content The core values of an organization.
The basic philosophy and goals of an
organization.
2. Cultural forms The medium through which the
content (core values) of an organization is
transmitted such as special terminology and
jargon, organizational stories, rituals, dress,
humor and role modeling.
3. Strategies The means that managers use to
reinforce the content of a culture. Strategies
teach, support and instill values that are desired
by the organizations leaders, and can include
recruiting policies, promotional structures,
training programs and other management
techniques.
(Siehl and Martin, 1984, p. 228)
Siehl and Martin believe that strong organizational culture is
important to a corporations success and conclude that there are five
functional aspects:
1. Members share a common interpretation of the
organizations beliefs and thus know in what
manner they should behave.
41


2. Members find an aura of excitement and
inspiration created by culture, and find they are
working for something they believe in because of
their commitment to the corporate philosophy.
3. Boundaries are created: in- versus out-groups
are created and maintained which help members
know what is appropriate behavior.
4. Other control mechanisms are maintained which
formally define certain actions as prohibited and
strictly against the rules.
5. Strong humanistic cultural values have been
found to increase productivity and profitability
within an organization.
(Siehl & Martin, 1984, p. 229)
Siehi and Martin next present hypotheses concerning the two
issues addressed in their study. First, although managers could
communicate values in explicit forms such as policy statements, rules
and procedures to provide an unambiguous picture of corporate
philosophy, they predicted that leaders will credibly transmit values in
an implicit manner. Implicit forms of communication would include all
of the cultural forms, that is, behavioral norms, rituals, ceremonies,
legends, myths, language, attitudes and role modeling. Because core
values tend to be basic assumptions, Siehl and Martin contend that
abstract (implicit) forms of communication would enable members to
comprehend and absorb the organizational culture. Without implicit
42


communication through cultural forms, members would regard core
values as propaganda and superficial. Second, Siehl and Martin
predicted that despite previous research to the contrary, a cultural
strategy that utilizes formal training programs to instill and reinforce
core values will be more effective than a strategy of job interaction.
They believe that because the employees attention is focused on
core values and isolated from the learning demands of a new job,
formal training programs should be a powerful corporate
management strategy. Having stated their definitions and
hypotheses, Siehl and Martin designed and carried out a controlled
study to investigate their questions.
A high technology corporation which consciously attempted to
direct its organizational culture was selected. Two weeks of study
were dedicated to determining the character of the corporate culture
through qualitative methods such as indepth interviews, corporate
achievement events, group sessions, and other corporate and social
events. This part of the study involved managers from all levels of the
corporation. During these two weeks, Siehl and Martin learned a
great deal about the corporations values, organizational stories,
jargon, rituals, dress, and humor. In short, they learned in detail the
43


"stuff" of the corporate culture of the corporation. This learning period
was referred to as Stage 1 (Siehl & Martin, 1984, p. 255).
Stage 2 was eight weeks long and consisted of quasi-
experimental interactions and study of a group of newly hired sales
trainees. Using the qualitative data gathered in Stage 1, Siehl and
Martin designed a series of similar questionnaires that would
accurately measure the new employees relative alignment to the
corporate core values. After the first questionnaire was administered,
all new employees studied marketing and cultural material for six
weeks, a standard corporate procedure. Then, after a one-day
orientation session involving transmission of corporate values through
cultural forms, the new employees completed the second
questionnaire. Examination of the survey proved that all of the new
salespeople had advanced to a relatively equal position relative to
identifying with the corporate core values. Siehl and Martin then split
the employees into two equally sized groups. One group continued
studying marketing material in their home offices, while the other
group participated in a ten-day training session.
The training session involved high-density cultural training
using implicit communication through all of the previously identified
cultural forms. The program, which was monitored by Siehl, involved
44


first-line managers and guest speakers from higher management.
Siehi was able to record the credibility of communication using
cultural forms by observing the session. At the end of the training
period, both groups of employees filled out a third questionnaire and
an analysis was conducted.
On the basis of the apparent success in communication of the
cultural content during the orientation session and training session
observed, Siehi and Martin concluded that their original predictions
concerning communication of cultural content were accurate. They
confirmed their belief that cultural values could be credibly commun-
icated through the various cultural forms.
To prove that formal training programs are better than on-the-
job interaction, Siehi and Martin relied on the conclusive evidence
revealed by comparing the third questionnaires from each group of
employees. A comparison showed that while the group that did not
participate in the training sessions had advanced relatively little in the
corporate value identification between the second and third
questionnaires, the group that did participate in the training session
advanced substantially. That group showed similarities to the
corporations managers in appropriate values relating to corporate
goals and personnel importance; the non-trained group of new
45


employees showed little change in these areas at the end of the six-
week period (Siehl & Martin, 1984, p. 237).
Because culture is a powerful entity and plays an important
role in organizational success, managers need to know: (1) when
and where different cultural forms are more appropriate and effective
in communicating cultural content, (2) what other strategies could be
employed to promote a widely shared system of beliefs (culture), and
(3) how these new strategies could be designed. Siehl and Martin
recognize that although their study produced substantial positive
verification that cultural forms and formal training programs are
excellent facets of cultural training, there is still much to be learned in
that field. Their closing remarks are: It would be useful if managers
could know how to recognize,...control,...and change culture" (Siehl &
Martin, 1984, p. 239).
Value Change Through Persuasion in a Culture
Edgar Schein suggested that persuasion is a process to be
found wherever an organization is teaching new values to incoming
members" (Schein, 1963, p. 3). Persuasion is a method of one group
making an intentional effort to try to change values of individuals.
Schein states "Particularly with respect to new members coming into
46


the organization, it is essential that they be taught the organizations
goals, values, and preferred ways of dealing with problems" (Schein,
1963, p. 6).
To attempt to answer his question on persuasion, Schein
launched a study of graduates of the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology School of Management. His study had several specific
objectives, which, in combination, were designed to answer the larger
question.
1. The first objective was to determine whether the attitudes and
values of the graduates would change during their first year in
industry, and, if so, to determine the nature of these changes.
2. A second objective was to determine whether observed
changes could be accounted for by organizational attitudes
and values, that is, were the changes a product of organization
influence or merely change?
3. A third objective was to determine what sorts of early job
experiences or induction experiences each graduate had been
exposed to and the amount of influence the organization had
on him or her.
Sheins plan was to determine changes in attitudes, beliefs and values
in 45 graduates of the M.l.T. Masters Degree Program in Industrial
47


Management after they were employed for one year, and more
importantly to him, what caused these changes, and to what degree
persuasion was involved.
In his study Schein gathered through a questionnaire a wide
variety of data prior to any subjects entry into an organization and, in
fact, prior to any job decision. The data were gathered in the spring
prior to students graduation. Through his questionnaire, he
"attempted to obtain information about all beliefs, attitudes, and values
which bore any relationship to the managerial role and which one
might expect to change in any way as a result of joining an
organization" (Schein, 1963, p. 12).
After each graduate had taken a job, Schein asked him or her
to fill in another questionnaire giving answers that the student thought
a typical member of the organization would give. The purpose of this
step was to determine to what extent the subject would accurately
predict the attitudes and values he or she would find in the
organization, and the degree to which he or she perceived him or
herself already to have acquired such attitudes (Schein, 1963).
The cohort members were then told that the study called for a
three-day reunion of the entire group of graduates at the end of one
48


year. Thus, a means was established to compare the baseline data
with the graduate values after a year in the field.
'The next problem was to obtain data on the attitudes, and
values held in the organizations to which the graduates went"
(Schein, 1963, p. 13). To do this, Schein asked each individuals
immediate superior and one or more peer to fill out the same
questionnaire. With this data, Schein could define organizational
attitudes in an average, between the bosses answers and the peers
responses.
The final data collection step occurred one year after the
students graduated. Each group of 15 students returned to M.l.T.
and the final questionnaires were administered. On each separate
question, change was determined by comparing the response given
during the reunion with the one given before leaving M.l.T.
Scheins results demonstrate that a process of inculcation had
occurred. The first changes were evident upon examination of the
attitude scales of each group of 15 members. In only a few items of
the questionnaire did the groups change consistently. Another
change in the first analysis was that on random sample questions, the
movement of the members was away from the faculty members atti-
tudes and toward the business community attitudes, especially in
49


questions pertaining to ideology of business. "It is around the
assumptions of how a business should be organized and how human
effort should be managed that we observed some of the greatest
conflict between the academic and the practitioner, and also where
the greatest changes appear to occur in people" (Schein, 1992, p.
12). Attempting to determine influence, Schein examined individual
answers on the survey and determined on how many answers the
subject moved in the direction of his immediate superior. On the
basis of answers showing a definite movement toward or away from
the superiors answers, Schein was able to identify a few subjects
who were clearly influenced more than others.
Scheins study showed that change in attitudes, beliefs and
values did in fact occur. "Both the interview and objective data
indicate large individual differences in values, attitudes, and general
outlook" (Schein, 1963, p. 11). Why and/or how these changes
occurred was not fully revealed in the study, mostly because "the
measurement of organizational attitudes and values is at best a
touchy business" (Schein, 1963, p. 8).
Perhaps Scheins most significant discovery was that the group
level results were remarkably stable over one year even though
individuals changed considerably, which further underlines the
50


importance of studying the aspects of change in peoples attitudes,
beliefs and values "longitudinally rather than in terms of cross sections
of people" (Schein, 1963, p. 13).
Corporate Culture Change and Values
That a strong organizational culture is an important factor to an
organizations success is not unknown to the corporate world.
Popular books, such as Theory Z. the Art of Japanese Management.
Corporate Cultures and In Search of Excellence, assert that compan-
ies with outstanding success have strong organizational cultures. Bro
Uttal presented evidence of how some consulting firms are capi-
talizing on and helping the culturally distressed in his October 17,
1983, article in Fortune Magazine. "The Corporate Culture Vultures."
Uttal cites examples of several consulting firms that research a
corporation to find current cultural content, question the leaders and
observe corporation subtleties to determine desirable cultural content,
and then set into motion a strategy that would effect the cultural
transition.
The research Uttal cites is much the same as used by Siehl
and Martin in their previously mentioned study. Questionnaires,
indepth interviews with employees and top executives, observation of
51


day-to-day activities, are used to gain insight on the cultural formation
and what the future formation should be. A method is then designed
to bring about the desired changes. The method of cultural change
includes leader role modeling, hiring and promotion of employees
who closely identify with the new culture, and internal public relations.
Although several consulting firms are successfully marketing the
cultural change concept, some are skeptical about the new wisdom.
A review of the evidence suggests that anybody who
tries to unearth a corporations culture, much less
change it, is in for a rough time. The values and beliefs
people espouse frequently have little to do with the ones
they really hold; these tend to be half hidden and
elusive.
(Uttal, 1983, p. 57)
Uttal suggests that it may be easier to change the people than
the culture: "In the long term...the key to culture is whom you hire
and promote. People often get jobs and move up more for the
degree to which they fit prevailing norms than for any other objective
reason" (Uttal, 1983, p. 59). Culture is changed by bringing in people
with the right values.
Uttal concludes that organizational corporate culture exists, is
of extreme importance and is hard to change: "If you must meddle
52


with culture directly, tread carefully and with modest expectations"
(Uttal, 1983, p. 62).
An example of a large corporation with a lionized organizational
culture is the International Business Machine corporation (IBM). The
Wall Street Journal examined IBMs organizational culture in a series
of articles beginning in its April 7, 1985, issue.
IBM was described as the largest computer manufacturer in
the world; which was developed based upon a strong system of
values. Thomas Watson founded IBM in 1914 and instilled three
basic values which today saturate every facet of IBMs existence:
1. give the best service of any company in the world
2. strive for superior performance
3. respect the individual
(Marcomb, 1985, p. 19)
Watsons philosophies of superior service and performance are today
what are directly responsible for IBMs history and growth, although
early success was a result of IBMs sales force and its forceful entry
to the computer market.
It is generally recognized that the goal of IBM and the private
sector is to make profit i.e., "the bottom line. The ethics involved in
business appear to change as managers assert their own values and
53


move away from the generalizations regarding their role in society
(McCoy, 1985).
Businesses in this country appear to be changing their ethical
perspectives from "God helps those who help themselves" to
"Honesty is the best policy" (Wakin, 1985). Louis Gawthrop maintains
the preeminate purpose of public management is the enhancement of
an ethical perspective that facilitates the "integration and convergence
of social values" (Gawthrop, 1984). A survey of Harvard Business
Review readers revealed that media coverage and public reaction
were the "most potent forces" for improving ethical standards among
managers. Wakin believes the fact that managers are not willing to
practice ethics not congruent with their own values, as the key
reasons for this shift. As evidence of change in values Wakin quotes
Borg-Warners Chief Executive Officer, James Bere, who argues
values and profits are inseparable" (1985, p. 25).
Recognizing and delineating the fine lines between "what ought
to be" and "what is" when dealing with complex relationships which
require value judgments, has led to the development of codes of
ethics in each sector of the economy. Howe and Kaufman maintain
that while sometimes controversial, the norms that govern the actions
of professionals are to be found in codes of ethics and professional
54


literature (Howe & Kaufman, 1982). These formal doctrines provide a
means of distinguishing one group from another and are often the
basis for distinguishing those identified as professionals. The study of
management in the public, private or nonprofit sector is by definition
the mastery of knowledge, values or special skills associated with the
profession. This role of declaring, professing or avowing the truth
regarding a profession is at the heart of the graduate schools role of
extending, enhancing and supporting the values of the profession
(Van Maanen, 1983).
Value Education in Complex Decision Making
Managers must meet problems involving varying mixtures of
values. Chester I. Barnard has described moral behavior as
"governed by beliefs or feelings of what is right or wrong regardless
of self-interest or immediate consequences of a decision" (Barnard,
1958, p. 105).
The difficulty in framing questions in terms of moral behavior is
that varying standards may be used. A number of values as defined
by Rokeach such as happiness, inner harmony, an exciting life and
pleasure, may in some situations conflict with one another. For
example, a manager who places a high value on an exciting life and
55


pleasure may devalue inner harmony as it relates to relationships
within his office.
Wayne A. R. Leys suggests that the moral conflict faced by
managers within an organization can be summarized as an action
taken between conflicting values such as:
Inner harmony may conflict with survival in the
organization or integrity conflicting with loyalty.
(Leyo, 1962, p. 53)
Though there are usually no direct orders from superiors to act
unethically, many times there is no order not to do so. This has put
the manager in a "grey area of business ethics" (Wakin, 1985), forcing
him to weigh personal values, organization culture, and
generalizations regarding practices in his sector. After such
deliberation, the course of action recommended stems from the kinds
of consideration voiced in a recent Harvard Business Review survey,
"Would I want my family, friends, and employer to hear about this
decision and its consequences on television" (Wakin, 1985).
The concern for values has also reached the academic level
and has led to the development and teaching of courses focused on
values and ethics in schools of management. A survey by the Center
for Business Ethics at Bentley College revealed 317 courses on busi-
56


ness ethics, five times as many as existed 10 years previously (Wakin,
1985).
The increasing focus on ethics in the private sector represents
a change in the proverbs of and about the private sector. It indicates
that a regard for the needs of others is held by experienced
leadership of the private sector.
Models of Values and the Individual
This portion of the review of the literature concerns the process
of adult development during graduate education and in a
postgraduate professional life. Growth and development of values
tend to take place in stages that involve the completion of tasks and
the resolution of conflicting values (Kolb, 1984).
It has been suggested that learning is a cyclical process on a
continuum of development (Kolb, 1984). Development is related to
age and intelligence, but these factors, while important, do not
prevent the continued evolution of values as one proceeds through a
career. Individuals, no matter what their age or intelligence, move
forward and backward in response to cultural demands for change
and stability, movement and adaptation. Each individual within a
culture is unique in his or her development. Each individuals values
57


and responses to opportunities for development will be determined in
large measure by how he or she perceives and make judgments
about his or her culture.
To further the understanding of the difference among indi-
viduals, Carl Jung developed a theory of the psychology of types
(Jung, 1923). Jungs personality types are also developmental in
character.
One comes into life, according to Jung, with an innate
movement toward "introversion" or "extroversion." The extrovert
moves out into the world. The introvert moves in an inward direction.
These are not static states of being, but evolve over time with value
development. The human personality in a way that very much
paralleled current notions about the evolution of the universe,
expands and contracts. Jung asserted, If one is, for example, more
extroverted during the first half of ones life, it is likely that one will
tend to be more introverted during the second half.
Jung believed that the values contained within a personality
were in constant balance with other aspects of the personality,
namely sensation, thinking, and intuition. The actions of an individual
are responses to one of these four "functional compasses." These
four functional compasses are the means by which the individual
58


obtains the orientation to his or her culture. A closer examination of
the four-stage learning model indicates that learning requires abilities
that are polar opposites, and that the learner, as a result, must
continually choose which set of learning abilities to bring to bear on
various learning tasks. More specifically, there are two primary
dimensions to the learning process. The first dimension represents
the concrete experiencing of events at one end, and abstract
conceptualization at the other. The other dimension has active
experimentation at one extreme and reflective observation at the
other. Thus, in the processes of learning, one moves in varying
degrees from actor to observer, from specific involvement to general
analytic detachment (Kolb, 1984).
Kolb reviews the work of other psychologists who have
identified the polarities of concrete and abstract, noting that the
movement along the continuum is "the primary dimension on which
growth can occur" (Kolb, 1984, p. 16). He suggests that a greater
propensity for abstract conceptualization allows one to develop the
following abilities.
1. To detach ones ego from the outer world or from inner
experience.
2. To assume a mental set.
59


3. To account for acts to oneself; to verbalize the account.
4. To shift reflectively from one aspect of the situation to another.
5. To hold various aspects in mind simultaneously.
6. To grasp the essential of a given whole; to break up a given
into parts to isolate and to synthesize them.
7. To abstract common properties reflectively; to form hierarchic
concepts.
8. To play ahead ideationally, to assume an attitude toward the
more possible, and to think or perform symbolically.
Kolb stresses the circular and developmental aspect of learning
the need to balance the value conflicts that develop. He makes the
following three observations:
1. The learning cycle is continuously recurring.
2. The direction learning takes is governed by ones
felt needs and goals.
3. Learning styles become highly individual in both
direction and process
(Kolb, 1984, p. 37)
An important theoretical strand to weave into the complex
tapestry of culture is the role learning plays on value development
and change. Underlying everything that has been developed on
culture is that it is learned and can be understood in the context of a
60


dynamic learning model. The learning process is complex when
viewed from the perspective of the individual let alone the group.
Because group members are capable of experiencing learning at
many levels, a culture evolves from one of two learning mechanisms.
1. Positive probiem solving: situations which lead to positive
reinforcement of individuals in the group if the attempted
solutions works (Schein, 1991, p. 175).
2. Anxiety avoidance and situations which produce individual
positive reinforcement if the anxiety is reduced (Schein, 1992,
p. 177).
Culture is in part a product of group learning. As the group faces a
problem and works to a solution or avoidance of a negative outcome
the basic situation for cultural formation exists. The insights provided
by learning theories are basic to understanding how culture came into
existence and evolved over time.
Experiential Learning Theory
The Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI) is based on a definition
of learning as a developmental process. It is consistent with Piagets
formulation of assimilation, accommodation, convergence, and
divergence in human cognitive development. The model is also
61


consistent with stage theory of human development as discussed
earlier.
Kolb calls his theory experiential for two reasons: first, it
includes the theory to the social psychology; second, it emphasizes
the important role that experience plays in the learning process and
the maturing of value systems.
At the core of the model is a simple description of the learning
cycle. The process entails translating experience into concepts that
guide individuals in the development of values that aid in the choice of
new experiences. Learning is conceived as a four-stage cycle.
Immediate concrete experience is the basis for observation and
reflection. An individual uses these observations to build an idea,
generalization or theory from which new implications for action can be
deduced. These implications or hypotheses then serve as guides in
creating new experiences. Tne learners, if they are to be effective,
need four different kinds of abilities: Concrete Experience abilities
(CE), Reflective Observation abilities (RO), Abstract Conceptualization
abilities (AC) and Active Experimentation abilities (AE). That is, they
must be able to involve themselves fully, openly and without bias in
new experiences (CE); they must be able to observe and reflect on
these experiences from many perspectives (RO); they must be able to
62


create concepts that integrate their observations into logically sound
theories (AC); and they must be able to use these theories to make
decisions and solve problems (AE).
Kolb presents a useful schema for integrating experiential
learning and stage theory discussed earlier. The human growth
process is divided into three broad developmental stages:
The first stage, "Acquisition," extends from birth to
adolescence and marks the acquisition of basic learning
abilities and cognitive structures. The second stage,
"Specialization," extends through formal education or
career training and the early experiences of adulthood in
work and personal life. In this stage, development
primarily follows paths that accentuate a particular
learning style. Individuals shaped by social,
educational, and organizational socialization forces
develop increased competence in a specialized mode of
adaptation that enables them to master the particular life
tasks they encounter in their chosen career path. This
stage, in our thinking, terminates at mid-career although
the specific chronology of the transition to the third
stage will vary widely from person to person and from
one career path to another.
The third stage, "Integration," is marked by the
reassertion and expression of the nondominant adaptive
modes or learning styles. Means of adapting to the
world that have been suppressed or have lain fallow
during development of the more highly rewarded
dominant learning style now find expression in the form
of new career interests, changes in life-styles, or new
creativity in ones chosen career.
(Kolb, 1984, p. 54)
63


Human Values
At the core of all studies of culture, attitudes and behavior lies
the concept of human values. This concept of the nature of human
values must follow strict criteria if it is to be scientific in basis. The
concept must be clearly definable. It must be distinguished from
other concepts with which it might be confused-concepts such as
attitude, social norm and needs.
Rokeachs conception of human values was formulated on the
basis of the five following assumptions about the nature of human
values:
1. the total number of values that a person possesses is
relatively small;
2. all humans everywhere possess the same values in
different degrees;
3. values are organized into value systems;
4. the antecedents of human values can be related to
culture, society and its institutions, and personality;
5. the consequences of human values will be manifested in
virtually all phenomena that social scientists might
consider worth investigating and understanding
(Rokeach, 1973, p. 176).
64


Rokeach maintained that these assumptions can be found in all areas
of social science-anthropology, education, economics, history,
management, political science, psychiatry, psychology and sociology.
The concept of human values occupies a central position as an
intervening variable in the diverse sciences concerned with human
behavior.
Rokeach adopted the following definitions of what is meant by
the terms value and value systems.
"A value is an enduring belief that a specific mode of
conduct or end-state of existence is personally or
socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of
conduct or end-state of existence. A value system is an
enduring organization of beliefs concerning preferable
modes of conduct or end states of existence along a
continuum of relative importance" (Williams, 1968, p.
112).
Rokeach argued if values were completely stable, individual
and social change would be impossible. If values were completely
negotiable, continuity of human personality and organizations would
be impossible. To be scientifically acceptable, any conception of
human values must be able to account for the enduring character of
values as well as for their changing character.
Edgar Schein believed that cultures form an evolve as product
of learning processes. He maintained that culture is in fact the
I
I
65


outcome of group learning, as the culture adapts to its environment
and a number of individuals simultaneously face a problem and work
out a solution together. The culture defines itself and clarifies its
relative values. The process requires a shared vision of a problem
and a shared recognition that the solution actually worked. This
process continued over time creates the culture which will one day be
defined sufficiently to be distinguished from other organizational
groups or sectors.
Rokeach Value Survey
Milton Rokeach suggests that "the enduring quality of values
arises mainly from the fact that they are initially taught and learned in
an absolute manner in relation to other values. A mode of behavior
or end-state, we are taught, is always desirable" (Rokeach, 1973, p.
101). We are not taught, for instance, that it is desirable to be a little
bit logical. We are not taught that such modes or end-states are
sometimes desirable and sometimes not. It is this isolation and
absolute learning of values that assures their endurance and stability.
Rokeach maintains that a mode or end-state is sometimes
desirable and sometimes not and is challenged more as a person
grows and matures. Social situations become more complex and
66


several values compete with one another, and a decision must be
made as to which value is more important and relevant at the time.
Each constituent of each value must carefully be weighed. Gradually,
after many experiences, integration of the isolated, absolute values
occurs wherein each value is ordered in priority or importance relative
to all other values.
When we say that a person has a value, we have in mind
either his or her beliefs concerning desirable end-states of existence
or desirable modes of conduct. These two distinct value concepts
are referred to as terminal and instrumental values, respectively. This
distinction of the two types of values is important in our theoretical
thinking and in the attempts of measuring them.
"It is the rare and limiting case, if and when a persons
behavior is guided over a considerable period of time by one and
only one value," writes Robin Williams, "more often particular acts or
sequences of acts are steered by multiple and changing clusters of
values" (Williams, 1988, p. 115). These clusters have been identified
and labeled as systems. After a value is learned it becomes inte-
grated into an organized system of values by its placement in order of
its relative priority. Peoples values change through a reordering of
value priority. The total value system, however, is unstable enough to
67


permit rearrangements of value priorities as a result of changes in cul-
ture and personal experience.
As already stated, the number of values human beings
possess is assumed to be relatively small and, if small enough, it
should be possible to identify and measure them. Rokeach estimates
that the total number of terminal values that an adult possesses is 18
and that the total number of instrumental values is several times this
number, perhaps as many as 72 (Rokeach, 1973).
It seems that there are just so many end-states to strive for
and just so many modes of behavior that are instrumental in their
attainment. Rokeach maintains that this number could not possibly
run into hundreds, and, whatever the actual number is, it also seems
evident that human beings possess fewer terminal than instrumental
values.
Getting closer to an approximation, the total number of values
is roughly equal to or limited by human beings biological and social
makeup and, most importantly, by human needs. Looking to the
theorists for help in answering the question of how many needs man
possesses, Rokeach found that Freud proposed two, Maslow five and
Murray 28. These researchers suggest that total number of terminal
68


values range from two to 28, and that the number of instrumental
values was several times this number.
A value system is learned with rules derived from the culture to
help one choose between alternatives, resolve conflicts and make
decisions. Since a given situation will usually not activate a single
value but several values, it is suggested by Rokeach that the called-
on behavior will be equally compatible with several values. This is not
to suggest that a persons total value system is ever fully activated in
a given situation. Value systems are a mental reference, and only
that part in the reference that is immediately relevant is consulted and
the rest ignored for the moment. Different subsets from the
references are activated in different situations.
The immediate functions of values and value systems are to
guide human action in daily situations. The long-term function of
values and value systems is to attain and fulfill basic human needs. A
component of values and value systems that has the strongest effect
on an individual is the goal to attain and fulfill needs. Terminal values
are motivating. They represent those goals beyond the immediate.
Unlike the more immediate goals, terminal values represent ultimate
goals we forever strive for.
69


Rokeach has developed a way to measure values by means of
two independent lists. One list includes 18 terminal values; the other,
18 instrumental values. The terms are arranged alphabetically and
the subject is asked to rank them "in order of importance" to himself.
The list of 18 terminal values is distilled from a list of several
hundred, gathered from a review of the literature. Some values,
considered more or less synonymous with others, were eliminated
(e.g., Brotherhood of Man and Equality; Peace of Mind and inner
Harmony). Others were eliminated because they did not represent
end-states of existence. Education, for example, is a means to an
end, whereas, wisdom is considered an end-state.
The 18 instrumental values were selected by a somewhat
different procedure. From an early compilation of about 18,000 trait
names, another list was compiled of 555 words that designated
personality traits and for which positive and negative value ratings
were made. The 555 traits were then reduced to about 200 positively
evaluated trait names and, from this smaller list, the 18 instrumental
values were finally selected.
Rokeach provides an instrument to measure values that enjoys
the virtue of being simple and economical and can be utilized to
describe the values, individuals and groups in the American culture.
70


The methodological advantage of limiting the number of values to 36
allows the description to be converted to quantitative terms and to be
statistically compared and contrasted.
Thus efficiency does not imply that other variations on the
instrument and other value statements might not also provide
indicators of the aspirations and adaptations of a culture. The value
statements of Rokeach have been modified and refined over time, i.e.,
the inclusion of Health and the deletion of Happiness as a value
statement.
Rokeachs underlying assumption is that there exist a
functional relationship among values within a system of values. The
hierarchical arrangement of a list that is considered inclusive of a
range of values and small in number provides an efficiency but does
not exclude the possibility of many other value statements such as
Service or Personal Security.
The initial selection of the value statements are described as a
process of refining lists to the 36 terms listed. They are not described
as a complete value system but as indicators of the value system of
an individual or group. The rank ordering has been described as
having predictive validity. When an individual ranks salvation highly it
71


predicts church attendance and was highly correlated with
professionals, ministers and individuals attending religious colleges.
It would appear that the significance of the value statement is
more important as standard benchmarks among value systems rather
than the specific statements themselves. The consistent use of other
statements could also reflect variations among value systems.
Because all 36 of the values are socially desirable, the task of
ranking seems difficult for most respondents. The rank ordering that
the individual imposes on the two sets of value lists comes primarily
from within himself or herself and is not inherent in the structure of
the material itself.
Rokeachs value lists have been employed in a number of
studies. Among them was a large-scale administration to 1,400
Americans over 21 years of age by the National Opinion Research
Center. Various publications describe the results of investigations
with these measures, their reliability and validity, and their meanings in
terms of various reference groups. Both the terminal and
instrumental scales are presented in Table 1.
72


Table 1
Rokeach Value List
Instrumental Values Terminal Values
Ambitious (hard-working, aspiring) Broadminded (open-minded) Capable (icompetent, effective) Cheerttil (lighthearted, joyful) Clean (neat, tidy) Courageous (standing up for your beliefs) Forgiving (willing to pardon others) Helpful (working for the welfare of others) Honest (sincere, truthful) Imaginative (daring, creative) Independent (self-reliant, self-sufficient) Intellectual (intelligent, reflective) Logical (consistent, rational) Loving (affectionate, tender) Obedient (dutiful, respectful) Polite (courteous, well-mannered) Responsible (dependable, reliable) Self-Controlled (restrained, self-disciplined) A Comfortable Life (a prosperous life) Equality (brotherhood, equal opportunity for all) An Exciting Life (a stimulating, active life) Family Security (taking care of loved ones) Freedom (independence, free choice) Happiness (contentedness) Inner Harmony (freedom from inner conflict) Mature Love (sexual and spiritual intimacy) National Security (protection from attack) Pleasure (an enjoyable, leisurely life) Salvation (being saved, eternal life) Self-Respect (self-esteem) A Sense of Accomplishment (lasting contribution) Social Recognition (respect, admiration) True Friendship (close companionship) Wisdom (a mature understanding of life) A World at Peace (free of war and conflict) A World of Beauty (beauty of nature and the arts)
73


The number of theoretically possible variations in value
systems is enormous, far more than needed to account for the differ-
ences that may exist among cultures, and even among individual
personalities. It is possible that the similarities in organizational
culture will sharply reduce the total number of possible variations to a
smaller number, shaping the value systems of large numbers of
people in more or less similar ways.
An individuals value is an enduring prescriptive that a specific
mode of behavior or end-state of existence is preferred to an
alternative mode of behavior or end-state. This belief transcends
attitudes toward situations. It is a standard that guides and
determines actions, attitudes, situations, ideology, presentations of
self to others, evaluations, judgments, justifications, comparisons of
self with others and attempts to influence others (Rokeach, 1979).
Values can be viewed as central to culture and individual
behavior as such they can be described as dependent variables.
They are a result of all the cultural, institutional, and organization
forces that act upon a person throughout his or her lifetime.
74


Other Human Factors and Their Relationship to Values
This section of the literature review discusses the relationship
of values to other intervening variables such as adult development,
professional education, individual development and intelligence.
Understanding the role of adult value development is a
significant part of understanding the development of culture. An
important assumption underlying this study is that values are
definable. Measurements of adult values have been well established
in psychology (Rokeach, 1973; Kohlberg, 1970). The Rokeach
scheme defines values as an enduring belief that a specific mode of
conduct or an end state of existence is preferable to an array of
alternatives (Rokeach, 1973). Rokeach offers a theory in which
human values constitute the core concept of all studies of culture and
thereby provides a paradigm for describing differences that may exist
among disciplines, organizations, professions and schools.
The Rokeach Value Survey is composed of two key elements.
The first component of the value survey measures desirable "end
states of existence" or "terminal values." The second is the measure
of an individuals beliefs concerning desirable "modes of conduct" and
is referred to as a set of "instrumental values." Rokeach maintains
that both kinds of individual value preferences grow from the degree
75


of internalization of cultural values, as well as from factors such as
sex roles, age, professional affiliation, and education. In this study, a
demographic questionnaire will isolate possible differences in values
due to gender, age or ethnicity.
The role of values in management, whether in public
administration, private or nonprofit management, has long been
agreed upon as significant to the effectiveness of an organizations
culture (Pettigrew, 1985). The utility of the concept changes across
a broad spectrum of management responsibilities including
effectiveness and efficiency, both of which can be addressed from a
perspective of the organization culture.
The fact that measures of effectiveness and efficiency, as well
as the other factors listed, vary among the public, private and
nonprofit sectors suggests that the values held by the managers
entering these careers will vary in both dimensions defined by
Rokeach, i.e., terminal values and instrumental values. Rokeach has
already established that significant differences in values exist and has
experiential data on the following cultural groups:
76


American adults (control group)
Academicians
Police
Catholic priests
Businessmen
Small entrepreneurs and salesmen
(Rokeach, 1973).
The difference in values among these professions implies a
difference in the sectors they represent. Just as individuals in a
group show similarities in their values, so may groups within a sector
display similar values.
It is generally accepted that the aim of management education
is to prepare an individual to enter a sectors professional culture
(Van Maanen, 1983; Bernstein, 1975). This seems clear until
consideration is given to what constitutes preparation for the
purposes of this study, which is defined as the extension and
enhancement of a sectors culture in an individual. For example, in
Harvard MBA programs, candidates routinely study case histories of
key corporate decisions and, in so doing, assimilate the values
implied in those decisions; thus, the development of so-called "IBM
Type" in navy-blue suit (Wall Street Journal. 1986, p. 23). The
effectiveness of a graduate management program could be measured
in terms of the degree to which the program extends, enhances or
77


develops the culture of the management sector it represents. When
appropriate values are not in place in the graduate program, Peters
and Waterman note, business leaders often complain that "the
business schools are doing us in"; their graduates lack the "right
perspective, they dont identify with their organization..." (Peters &
Waterman, 1981, p. 122). Peters and Waterman also suggest that a
symbiotic relationship exists between education and excellence in a
company. They maintain that while they could not "conclude with
finality that excellent companies are far above the norm in the amount
of time they spend in training activities... there are enough signs of
training intensity to suggest that might be the case" (Peters &
Waterman, 1981, p. 123). They point to formal programs such as
Disney University, Dana University, McDonalds Hamburger University
as well as programs at IBM, Catapillar, Hewlett-Packard, Proctor &
Gamble, Bechtel and General Motors as examples of organizations
utilizing education and training as an integral part of developing
appropriate values for the organization.
They support this argument for investment in developing
appropriate attitudes, beliefs and values of employees by quoting
Philip Selznick, who originally developed the concept of organizational
culture in the 50s:
78


I
I
{

}
i
I
The inbuilding of purpose is a challenge to creativity
because it involves transforming men and groups from
neutral technical units into participants who have a
particular stamp, sensitivity and commitment. This is
ultimately an educational process. It has been well said
that the effective leader must know the meaning and
master the technique of the educator... (Selznick, 1957,
p. 53).
The assumption underlying this study is that values exist within a
sectors culture and are extended and enhanced through graduate
education in management.
Professional Education
The importance of specific graduate training in refining an
organizational culture can be seen in the research conducted by
Herbert Kaufman in his study of the United States Forest Service. It
was clear that this agencys determination to maintain a specific value
system led to policies that selected new employees who possessed
the prescribed values. This attitude had the Forest Service utilizing a
few specific colleges of forestry. This form of presocialization has
been described as "anticipatory socialization" (Merton, 1957) and is
an effective way of preserving a culture. This process is believed to
moderate the normal anxiety individuals experience when adjusting to
joining a new group. Furthermore, Merton believes it helps a person
79


to be accepted by the culture he or she aspires to join (Merton,
1957).
Stages of Individual Development and Value Development
The process for learning and refining values has been
described as a developmental path. This path is characterized by
successful completion of tasks, as in the case of graduate education,
resolution of conflicting values and, finally, the integration of values
and movement on to subsequent developmental steps.
Human growth and development has, since Freud, been
conceived of as a longitudinal process in which the individual
proceeds from place to place. Piaget (1970) established that
cognitive development, learning and values development proceed with
cognitive growth in a parallel fashion. Erikson (1963) and Levinson
(1978) and a group of psychologists known as stage theorists
developed a vision of individual development that proceeds sequen-
tially through age-related transitions. Another group, including Piaget
(1970), Kohlberg (1969), and Rokeach (1973), describe a view of
intellectual and value development that requires the achievement of
specific competencies or skills before one moves to a more advanced
stage of development.
80


In both schools of thought, each stage of the development is
characterized by successful completion of tasks. Generally, the stage
theorists view the successful mastery of a task or a satisfactory
resolution of apparent conflicts as a prerequisite to advancing to the
next stage of development.
Increased interest in adult development has altered the strict
sequential description (Knox, 1981). Adults have been described as
having periods of stability and periods of change (Chickering, 1981).
Studies of adult graduate education have pointed out that not all
developmental tasks are progressive and that strict adherence to
stage theory produces apparent "backward movement" during
graduate education stages (Barber, 1981).
According to Barber, developmental tasks may be
"idiosyncratically sequenced or paced." She suggests that, given
individual cultural differences and unique histories, each person will
complete developmental tasks in an uneven manner. She presents
the following summary of the major developmental tasks for an
individual.
Intimacv/lnterpersonal Relations:
Intimacy; tolerance; sexual identity/relations; family/love/marriage;
interpersonal relations.
81


Competence/Work
initiative, industry; relativism; sublimation through work; forming and
modifying occupation; deepening interest, competence and sense of
efficacy.
Autonomy:
integrating masculine; feminine, attachment/separation; self-
fulfillment; self-limitation.
Identity:
commitment; forming and modifying the dream, integration of
polarities; self-concept; stabilizing ego identity; establishment of inner
order, self-fulfillment.
Integrity:
commitment; values; humanizing values.
Generativitv:
caring for others; mentoring; creative expansion.
(Barber, 1981, p. 72)
Another construct, which emphasizes the interrelationship
among age, experience and culture in the development of individual
values, is provided by Alan Knox (1981) in the "transactional model."
The central focus of the model is upon the development of the
individual in response to forces generated within the individuals
culture. In his review of the work of Maddi (1982) Knox summarizes
the basic concepts of the transactional model as follows:
There is a great force toward human fulfillment through
the enhancement of life beyond survival, in which a
varied and satisfying life results from striving to achieve
the twin goals of (a) actualization inherent in personal
potential for successful individual living, and (b) striving
82


toward ideals for successful group living and improvement of
the quality of life in the society
(Knox, 1981, p. 322).
Knox offers the following generalization about the individual
development that is pertinent to graduate educational process and
professional stages of life. Given the fact that graduate education
programs often attract adult students, age is not a barrier in normal
learning processes. "Psychological growth seems to be just as
possible, as real, and as satisfying to the student who has left forty
well behind as to the student in his twenties" (Knox, 352).
Nevitt Sanford presents an analysis of what causes adult
development to take place. In his view there are two ways in which
development occurs: challenge, and self-insight (Sanford, 1980).
Change in personal values takes place through the interaction of
these factors. He maintains that changes in values are preceded by
behavioral change which occurs as a product of cultural challenge.
He describes "appropriate and effective challenge" as that which is
sufficient to upset equilibrium, but not so extreme as to go beyond
the limits of the individuals adaptive capacity. He maintains that in
early life, childhood and adolescence there are abundant challenges,
but in adult life effective challenge requires a change in an individuals
83


social role situation, relationships and responsibilities. Returning to a
professional graduate education as an adult, certainly entails all of
these factors.
Sanford views personality and values as a "vast and intricate
architecture." His is a holistic view of an individual growth and
development which does not truncate the process somewhere prior
to middle age.
In spite of evidence to the contrary, middle-aged learners often
suffer from heavily incorporated negative views of their ability to
continue development. In general, adolescents and young adults are
perceived as active, energetic and outgoing; middle-aged adults are
seen as understanding, mature, restrained and controlled. (Harris,
1975; Neugarden, 1968).
Profiles of outstanding achievement within five professional
fields presents evidence that tends to invalidate these cultural
stereotypes. The peak for athletes predictably occurs in the early 20s
and declines sharply before 30. The peak for chemists also begins in
the 20s but does not decline until the late 70s. In social science,
outstanding achievement occurs in the 30s and remains well through
the 50s. Among philosophers and writers, peak achievement is less
84


frequent before 35, but continues well into the 70s and the 80s
(Lehman, 1953).
Evidence of this kind should be good news for managers in all
three sectors who are steeped in social science and regularly
confront the task of relating disparate aspects of the values of
individual and organizational cultures.
Intelligence and Value Development
Cross-sectional studies of intelligence scores over the life span
of individuals reveals a high degree of stability during adulthood
(Sprott, 1980).
To review the role of intelligence in ones ability to adapt to
culture, one must analyze the nature of intelligence itself. Intelligence
can be differentiated as "fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence"
(Horn & Cattwell, 1966). Fluid intelligence consists of 1) abilities to
perceive complex relationships, 2) short-term memory, and 3)
abstract reasoning. Fluid intelligence functioning is physical in nature.
Crystallized intelligence consists of the ability to perceive relationships
and to engage in formal reasoning based upon the intellectual and
cultural heritage of society. Crystallized intelligence is based on the
85


culture, including formal education. It is the active mixing of
information gathered through fluid intelligence and cultural knowledge.
Both fluid and crystallized intelligence increase during
childhood and early adolescence. With the slowing of the maturing
process, fluid intelligence peaks in adolescence and declines
gradually during adulthood (Jarvik, 1973; Fozard & Nuttal, 1971). In
contrast, crystallized intelligence continues to increase throughout life.
When untimed tests were used in longitudinal studies, the scores
related to crystallized intelligence were the same or higher in the 50s
as in the 20s (Horn & Catwell, 1966). The relationship between
values evolution and intelligence is real; however, the nature of
intelligence is such that ones ability to refine individual values is not
limited but, in fact, matures as the individual matures.
The importance of values as described in moral codes was
argued by the management theorist Chester I. Barnard when he
pointed out the executives responsibility to infuse a value system into
his organization. Barnard suggests that the individuals role within an
organization is directed by values "which tend to inhibit, control or
modify inconsistent desires, impulses or interests." At the same time,
these values would direct the individual to act in a way that is
consistent with the values of the organization. This view makes ones
86


1
values a critical part of an organizations ability to achieve its
purposes.
Barnard further maintains that morals could be attributed to
professions, as well as to organizations. He maintains that individual
members of a sector are "likely to have a code or codes derived from
it." The role of graduate educators in providing the "influences and
habitual practice" that results in adopting a value set, is clearly a part
of their role (Barnard, 1986).
Conclusion of Literature Review
This literature review has placed in the context of well
established research and theories the value sets among the public,
private and nonprofit sectors of our economy. The first of these
theoretical sets provided a framework for values within culture and
discussion of other variables that define a culture. It was established
that values not only distinguish human behavior but can also provide
insight into the nature of the organization sector and culture in which
they operate.
The second portion of the review of literature related to
organizational theory and values. Included in this review was a
discussion of values as they are described in business administration,
87


public administration and nonprofit administration. This review
contributed to the understanding that generalizations regarding values
exist within a sector of the American economy and the function of
graduate education programs in management in each of these
sectors includes a responsibility to inculcate, i.e. extend and enhance
the culture of the public, private and nonprofit sectors.
The research investigating the values within a culture can be
classified under one of the following approaches.
The concept of culture focuses on culture in a society as
developed in anthropology, sociology and ethnography. These
scientific approaches emphasize the integration of learned
behavior patterns that are characteristic of the group but not
inherited. The study of culture within these disciplines requires
methods and interpretive procedures which include, among
other approaches, investigations of the common values shared
by the group.
The theory of organizational culture reflects societys culture
through time. The theorys contribution to the effectiveness
and efficiency of an organization is, in part, a product of the
cultural context in which the theory evolved. Organizational
cultures are also shaped by other cultural factors including
88


behavioral norms, rituals, ceremonies, legends, myths and
language. These factors in combination form the basis of the
socialization processes embodied in graduate student
education.
Models of values and the individual seek to explain differences
in individual behavior through an understanding of human
values. Values are viewed as enduring belief systems that
guide modes of conduct and desired end states of existence.
The issues addressed in this dissertation lie in the answers to
the following key questions:
1. Are there distinct value differences among students
representing the culture we know as public administration,
business administration and nonprofit management?
2. Are there distinct terminal and instrumental value differences
among practicing professional managers representing the
cultures in the public, private and nonprofit sectors?
3. Are the value differences between graduate students and
practicing professionals statistically significant?
4. Are value differences significantly different due to other factors,
i.e., age, gender or ethnicity?
89


Full Text

PAGE 1

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 2

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 3

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 4

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 5

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 6

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 7

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 8

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 9

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 10

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 11

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 12

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 13

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 14

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 15

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 16

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 17

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 18

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 19

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 20

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 21

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 22

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 23

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 24

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 25

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 26

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 27

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 28

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 29

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 30

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 31

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 32

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 33

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 34

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 35

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 36

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 37

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 38

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 39

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 40

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 41

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 42

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 43

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 44

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 45

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 46

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 47

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 48

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 49

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 50

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 51

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 52

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 53

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 54

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 55

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 56

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 57

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 58

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 59

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 60

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 61

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 62

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 63

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 64

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 65

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 66

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 67

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 68

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 69

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 70

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 71

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 72

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 73

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 74

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 75

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 76

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 77

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 78

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 79

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 80

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 81

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 82

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 83

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 84

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 85

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 86

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 87

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 88

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 89

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 90

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 91

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 92

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 93

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 94

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 95

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 96

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 97

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 98

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 99

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 100

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 101

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 102

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 103

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 104

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 105

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 106

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 107

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 108

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 109

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 110

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 111

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 112

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 113

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 114

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 115

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 116

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 117

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 118

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 119

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 120

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 121

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 122

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 123

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 124

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 125

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 126

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 127

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 128

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 129

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 130

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 131

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 132

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 133

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 134

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 135

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 136

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 137

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 138

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 139

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 140

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 141

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 142

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 143

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 144

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 145

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 146

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 147

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 148

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 149

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 150

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 151

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 152

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 153

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 154

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 155

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 156

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 157

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 158

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 159

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 160

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 161

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 162

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 163

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 164

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 165

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 166

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 167

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 168

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 169

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 170

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 171

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 172

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 173

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 174

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 175

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 176

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 177

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 178

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 179

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 180

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 181

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 182

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 183

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 184

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 185

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 186

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 187

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 188

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 189

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 190

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

PAGE 191

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.