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The adult mentoring relationship

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Title:
The adult mentoring relationship a philosophic inquiry
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Lambright, Terry Lee
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English
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xii, 101 leaves : illustrations ; 28 cm

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Mentoring ( lcsh )
Counseling ( lcsh )
Counseling ( fast )
Mentoring ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 94-100).
General Note:
School of Education and Human Development
Statement of Responsibility:
by Terry Lee Lambright.

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|University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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ocm42618275
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Full Text
THE ADULT MENTORING RELATIONSHIP:
A PHILOSOPHIC INQUIRY
by
Terry Lee Lambright
B.A., Olivet Nazarene University, 1970
M.M., Illinois State University, 1978
M.A., University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, 1993
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Educational Leadership and Innovation
1999


1999 by Terry Lee Lambright
All rights reserved.


This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy
degree by
Terry L. Lambright
has been approved
by
Rodney Muth
nyder
Bevl
11 sm
)ate


Lambright, Terry Lee (Ph.D., Educational Leadership and Innovation)
The Adult Mentoring Relationship: A Philosophic Inquiry
Thesis directed by Professor Nadyne Guzman
ABSTRACT
This study is a philosophic inquiry into the adult mentoring relationship.
Two questions provide foci for the research: First, do theoretical constructs in
cognitive, behavioral, and affective counseling and educational psychology validate
the three mentoring relationships (teacher, role model, and nurturing caregiver) in
Stratton and Owens Mentoring Model? Second, from this study, what, if any, new
definition of mentoring emerges?
The research design followed a three-path process: Inquiry of the Literatures,
Integration of the Themes into Patterns, and Interpretation of the Model and New
Definition. Each of these three paths, with its theoretical framework and set of
objectives, is explained in the text and graphically portrayed. A new model for
philosophic inquiry has been created for future researchers.
This methodology allowed for identifying, explaining, and integrating themes
and patterns found in the literatures on mentoring and the three major approaches to
counseling and educational psychology. The first set of themes identified were the
mentoring relationships: the mentor as teacher, role model, and nurturing caregiver.
IV


The second set of themes identified were the major approaches to counseling and
educational psychology: cognitive, behavioral, and affective. Once identified, the
two sets of themes were integrated into patterns as connections were established in
the literatures between the mentoring relationship themes and the counseling and
educational psychology approach themes. Consequently, the teacher relationship
was linked with the cognitive approach, the role model relationship was linked with
the behavioral approach, and the nurturing caregiver relationship was linked with the
affective approach. As a result, the three mentoring relationships in Stratton and
Owens Mentoring Model were validated in that they were shown to have support in
cognitive, behavioral, and affective counseling and educational psychology theories.
The new definition of mentoring that emerged is grounded in counseling and
educational psychology theories and clearly conceptualizes the phenomenon. It
takes into account the essence of the word in the light of its etymological and
historical derivation. Drawing upon Bubers concept of I-Thou, this classical
definition differentiates the comprehensive, caring mentoring relationship from other
more nominal role-based alliances with which it is often confused.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis. I
recommend its publication.
Signed
Nadyne Gi


DEDICATION
This dissertation is dedicated to my mentees: Dominic Carlow, Jeff Fletcher, Todd
Gorrill, Jeff Griffith, Paul Hobbs, Ray Klein, Roger Kressley, Jimm McCord, Eric
McHugh, and Jeff Moore. Thank you. Coram Deo!


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I am especially indebted to Nadyne Guzman, my professor, dissertation advisor, and
friend, for her enlightened eye. She has been for me an instrument of God in His
continuing act of creation.
I appreciate Jimm McCord for his consistent encouragement and many hours of
technical assistance in writing this dissertation.


CONTENTS
Figures..........................................................xii
CHAPTER
1. MENTORING IN CONTEXT...........................................1
Origins of the Phenomenon...................................1
Current Issues..............................................4
2. DEFINITIONS OF MENTORING.......................................6
Mentoring in Business.......................................6
Mentoring in Spirituality...................................8
Mentoring in Developmental Psychology.......................8
Mentoring in Education......................................9
Conclusion.................................................11
3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS............................................14
Stratton and Owens' Mentoring Model........................17
Mentoring Dispositions..................................17
Areas of Mentoring......................................18
Functions of Mentoring..................................18
Mentoring Relationships.................................19
viii


4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS INQUIRY......................................21
5. PHILOSOPHICAL INQUIRY: A THREE-PATH PROCESS.......................24
Inquiry of the Literatures....................................29
Theoretical Framework......................................29
Objectives.................................................31
Integration of the Themes into Patterns.......................32
Theoretical Framework......................................33
Objectives.................................................33
Interpretation of the Model and New Definition................34
Theoretical Framework......................................35
Objectives.................................................36
6. INQUIRY OF THE LITERATURES........................................38
Mentoring Theories............................................38
Mentor as Teacher..........................................39
Mentor as Role Model.......................................40
Mentor as Nurturing Caregiver..............................40
Counseling Psychology Theories................................42
Cognitive Counseling Theories..............................42
Behavioral Counseling Theories.............................43
Affective (Humanistic) Counseling Theories.................44
ix


Educational Psychology Theories..............................45
Cognitive Learning Theories...............................45
Behavioral Learning Theories..............................46
Affective (Humanistic) Learning Theories..................48
Conclusion...................................................50
7. THE MENTOR-MENTEE RELATIONSHIP..................................52
The I-Thou Relationship......................................53
The I-Thou Relationship in Education.........................55
The I-Thou Relationship in Mentoring.........................56
The Mentoring Relationhip Distinguished from
Other Relationships..........................................57
Mentoring Compared to Other Love Relationships............58
Mentoring Compared to More Nominal Role Relationships.....59
8. PHASES OF THE MENTORING RELATIONSHIP:
TWO DEVELOPMENTAL MODELS........................................66
Kram's Model.................................................66
Cohen's Model................................................69
9. ANSWERS TO THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS...............................72
Interpretations of the Mentoring Relationships
in Stratton and Owens' Model.................................73
Analysis of the New Definition of Mentoring..................75
Conclusion...................................................86
x


10. SUMMARY OF THE INQUIRY..............................88
Recommendations for Future Inquiries...............90
Concluding Reflections.............................92
REFERENCES................................................94
xi


FIGURES
Figure
3.1 Stephen P. Stratton and James R. Owens' Mentoring Model...........16
5.1 Philosophic Inquiry: A Three-path Process.........................27
5.2 Philosophic Inquiry Model.........................................28
9.1 Literature-based Analysis of the New Definition of Mentoring......76
xii


CHAPTER 1
MENTORING IN CONTEXT
Every great story involves a quest.... The Sacred Romance involves for every soul
a journey of heroic proportions. And while it may require for some a change of
geography, for every soul it means a journey of the heart.
Brent Curtis and John Eldredge (1997, p. 143)
Origins of the Phenomenon
The concept of mentoring is not a recent phenomenon. It finds its origins in
ancient Greek mythology. In his epic poem, The Odvssev. Homer (trans. 1937)
chronicles that around 1200 B.C. the adventurer Odysseus set sail on his epic voyage
to fight in the Trojan War. However, before bidding farewell, the warrior entrusted
his son, Telemachus, to Odysseuss friend, Mentor, who was to guide the lad in the
passage from boyhood to manhood. As the story unfolds, Athena, goddess of
wisdom, manifests herself to him in the form of Mentor:
Mentor is an Ithacan elder whom Athena, the Greek goddess of war, wisdom,
and craft, has chosen as her vessel so that she herself can oversee
Telemachus's upbringing. When Athena speaks through him, Mentor
possesses the goddesss glorious qualities. Therefore, as he mentors
Odysseuss son, he is wisdom personified. (Galbraith & Cohen, 1995a, p. 1)
For the next ten years, Mentor served faithfully as teacher, advisor, friend, and
surrogate father to Telemachus (Murray, 1991) and helped the youth achieve his
manhood and confirm his identity in an adult world (Daloz, 1986).
1


This classic account of Mentor helps define the activity that bears his name.
Anderson and Shannon (1988) draw several conclusions about mentoring based on
this ancient myth. First, mentoring is an intentional process. In the story, Mentor
intentionally carried out his responsibilities for Telemachus. Second, mentoring is a
nurturing process. Mentors responsibility to his mentee was to foster growth and
development in Telemachus in order to bring forth his full potential. Third,
mentoring is an insightful process. The young man was to acquire and apply
understanding from Mentor, who was the very essence of wisdom. Fourth,
mentoring is a supportive, protective process. Mentor was assigned the role of
keeping Telemachus safe on his journey to manhood. Fifth, mentoring is a process
that includes role modeling. Mentors make themselves available to proteges as role
models, understanding how their modeling can stimulate perspective, style, and a
sense of empowerment within the protege. In the story, Mentor provided
Telemachus with a standard and style of behavior which he could understand and
follow. Thus, the etymology of the word mentor derives from the image of a faithful
guide who serves as a teacher, role model, and nurturing caregiver. Stratton and
Owens (1993) conclude that todays mentor plays much the same roles as did this
mythical Greek counterpart and have produced a holistic model that shows these
three relationships.
Homers mythical figure was undoubtedly drawn from real life relationships
of his time because mentors have existed since mankind began. Centuries ago,
2


youngsters learned to hunt, gather and prepare food, and fight their enemies under
the guidance of older members of their family, tribe, or clan (Acting as a Mentor,
1995). Mentoring was taken for granted as an accepted part of transmitting values,
skills, and character qualities from one generation to the next (Davis, 1991;
Engstrom, 1991).
In making their case for a comprehensive mentoring model, Stratton and
Owens (1993) assert that, in the past, mentoring was a natural occurrence in societies
because the occupational training and educational systems were based upon
apprenticeships and scholarships, respectively:
A young person was taught a trade or was educated by a family member or
by working alongside a craftsman or scholar. During this period, more was
taught than simply occupational or educational skills.... Beliefs, values, and
mores were transmitted from craftsman to apprentice and from scholar to
student. The occupational and educational skills attained in this training
period could not be divorced from the lessons of life that were learned
through the mentor-protege relationship, (p. 92-93)
However, the practice of mentoring appears to have drifted away with the coming of
urbanization and industrialization. Families broke into smaller units as their
members moved from rural to urban areas. Further, mass production became reality;
therefore, craftsmen and scholars could not be produced quickly enough using the
less efficient, time-consuming method of one-on-one mentoring. Whereas in the
past mentoring had been taken for granted, it now required more intentional time and
effort in education and occupational training (Stratton & Owens, 1993, p. 9).
3


Current Issues
Though the concept of mentoring has its roots in Homers epic poem,
renewed interest in the phenomenon has emerged as an intriguing topic in the fields
of business, education, and developmental psychology (Engstrom, 1989; Merriam,
1983). However, in her critical review of the literature on mentoring, Merriam
(1983) presents four troubling issues. First, she found no precise operational
definition of mentoring, leading to confusion as to just what is being measured or
offered as an ingredient in success (p. 169). Apparently, its meaning is determined
by the scope of a research investigation or by the context in which it occurs. Second,
she is particularly critical of the literature from a research design perspective, calling
it relatively unsophisticated (p. 169). Researchers have tended to use interviews
and surveys with low respondent rates and have often based conclusions on
percentages rather than statistical significance. Third, not enough focus has been
given to the potential drawbacks or dangers of a mentoring relationship (p. 169).
Fourth, Merriam suggests an extensive evaluation of formal mentoring programs in
order to establish their value. Studies in business and academia point to the limited
value of the forced matching of mentors and mentees because they ignore a
characteristic crucial to the more intense mentor relationshipsthat the two people
involved are attracted to each other and wish to work together (p. 171). Based on
her findings, Merriam recommends clarifying what is meant by mentoring and
establishing better means of studying it. Then, research could focus on the dynamics
4


of the mentor-mentee relationship, motivations behind the formation of the
partnership, as well as positive and negative outcomes associated with it.
In another review of the mentoring literature, Jacobi (1991) also found the
absence of a widely accepted definition of mentoring. She comments on this
definitional vagueness:
The literature offers numerous definitions, some of which conflict, so that
empirical research about mentoring subsumes several distinct kinds of
interpersonal relationships. Further, descriptions of mentoring programs are
so diverse that one wonders if they have anything at all in common beyond a
sincere desire to help students succeed. The result of this... is a continued
lack of clarity about the antecedents, outcomes, characteristics, and mediators
of mentoring relationships despite a growing body of empirical research.
(p. 505)
She points out the paucity of empirical studies that link mentoring and academic
outcomes and that the published research tends to have methodological weaknesses
which limit the studies internal and external validity.
5


CHAPTER 2
DEFINITIONS OF MENTORING
The mentor relationship is one of the most complex, and developmental^
important, a man can have in early adulthood_Mentoring is best understood as a
form of love relationship.
Daniel J. Levinson (1978, p. 100)
Definitions of mentoring in the literature are diverse. A review of definitions
in the literature supports Merriams (1983), Jacobis (1991), and others contentions
that the mentoring phenomenon is not clearly conceptualized (Anderson & Shannon,
1988; Galbraith & Cohen, 1995b; Healy & Welchert, 1990; Rodriguez, 1995;
Stratton & Owens, 1993). The idea of mentoring differs somewhat depending on the
lens through which one views it. Various contexts for studying mentoring include
those of business, organizational development, spirituality, academia, and
developmental psychology.
Mentoring in Business
The business literature has addressed the issue of mentoring from the
perspective of career development. For example, in order to survey a common
understanding of mentoring, Roche (1979) defined it for top executives by asking,
At any stage of your career, have you had a relationship with a person who took a
6


personal interest in your career and who guided or sponsored you? (p. 15). Kram
(1985) also defines mentoring in the workplace:
The name implies a relationship between a young adult and an older, more
experienced adult that helps the younger individual learn to navigate in the
adult world and the world of work. A mentor supports, guides, and counsels
the young adult as he or she accomplishes this important task. (p. 2)
She distinguishes between primary and secondary mentors in the business setting.
Primary mentors provide both career and psychosocial functions: those aspects of
the relationship that enhance career advancement as well as those that enhance a
sense of competence, identity, and effectiveness in a professional role. Psychosocial
functions include role modeling, acceptance and confirmation, counseling, and
friendship. However, secondary mentors serve mainly as sponsors in an exchange
that benefits both individuals career advancement. They provide career
advancement functions such as visibility, coaching, and challenging assignments. ,
Murray (1991) describes facilitated mentoring programs for audiences such
as planners, managers, administrators, and human-resource professionals in any type
of industrial, government, health care, nonprofit, or educational organization. He
contends mentoring is a deliberate pairing of a more skilled or experienced person
with a lesser skilled or experienced one, with the agreed-upon goal of having the
lesser skilled person grow and develop specific competencies (p. xiv).
7


Mentoring in Spirituality
Other writers describe spiritual mentoring as yet another form of the
phenomenon. Sellner (1990) defines mentoring in spiritual terms:
[It] may be characterized by greater depth and may be explicitly concerned
with our vocation and relationship with God, but... it cannot be totally
removed from more ordinary forms, since they are so closely intertwined....
It depends more on mutuality, reciprocity and friendship than direction given
from the top down or on a relationship with someone who supposedly has
all the answers while the other is only a passive recipient of such wisdom....
Whether ordinary or spiritual, however, mentoring in its most
fundamental sense is about transformation, helping someone else encounter
his or her own deeper self, which Jung calls the larger and greater
personality maturing within. (pp. 9-10)
Stanley and Clinton (1992) believe that mentoring is a relational experience through
which one person empowers another by sharing God-given resources. The resources
vary. Mentoring is a positive dynamic that enables people to develop potential
(p. 12).
Mentoring in Developmental Psychology
No one has placed mentoring within the framework of developmental
psychology more directly than Levinson in Seasons of a Mans Life (19781. In
Levinsons developmental stage theory, the mentor serves as a significant figure in
the Early Adult Transition period (ages 17-22) to facilitate successful movement to
Early Adulthood (ages 22-40):
The mentor relationship is one of the most complex, developmentally
important, a man can have in early adulthood. The mentor is ordinarily
8


several years older, a person of greater experience and seniority in the world
the young man is entering.... Mentoring is defined not in terms of formal
roles but in terms of the character of the relationship and the functions it
serves, (pp. 97-98)
Those functions include teacher, sponsor, host, guide, exemplar, counselor, moral
support, and the one most crucial to development: to support and facilitate the
realization of the Dream of the future (p. 98). This includes helping the mentee
with the developmental task of giving it [the Dream] greater definition and finding
ways to live h out (p. 91), as well as helping to define the newly emerging self in
its newly discovered world (p. 99).
Mentoring in Education
In academic settings, mentoring is viewed as a means to enhance learning. In
this regard, Galbraith and Zelenak (1991) define mentoring as an educational tool:
[It is a] powerful emotional and passionate interaction whereby the mentor
and protege experience personal, professional, and intellectual growth and
development. It is a unique one-to-one teaching and learning method that
incorporates the basic elements of the transactional processcollaboration,
challenge, critical reflection, and praxis, (p. 126)
For Cohen (1995a), mentoring adult learners refers to the one-to-one relationship
that evolves through reasonably distinct phases between the mentor and the adult
learner who is 18 years of age or older and who enters into this relationship to
develop, separately or in combination, his or her personal, educational, or career
potential (p. 2).
9


Daloz (1986), himself an educator, mediates between the academic and
developmental psychology perspectives. For him, developmental theory offers a
means of understanding adult learners and improving the quality of their educational
experience. He describes the teaching mentor of adult learners who believes the
aim of education is the development of the whole person and that the central
element of good teaching becomes the provision of care rather than use of teaching
skills or transmission of knowledge (p. xvii):
Education is something we neither give nor do to our students. Rather, it
is a way we stand in relation to them. The nature of that relationship is best
grasped through the metaphor of a journey in which the teacher serves as
guide, (p. xv)
Mentors, then, are master teachers who are on a transformational journey with their
students as trusted guides rather than tour directors (Daloz, 1986).
Finally, the issue to be addressed by adult educators and researchers is how
mentoring relates to learning and adult development (Cohen, 1995a, 1995b; Daloz,
1986, 1990; Galbraith & Zelenak, 1991; Levinson, 1978; Marinelli, 1991; Merriam,
1983; Merriam & Caffarella, 1991). Adult development theorists conceptualize the
life-cycle as having a predictable series of stages, each with its own tasks to
complete. Each of these stages contains teachable moments, a readiness to learn. As
adults move through these critical life stages, mentors facilitate the transition to the
next phase of personal development (Schulz, 1995).
10


Most researchers have defined mentoring by the roles played by the mentor
and the functions provided by the mentor in the life of the mentee (Jacobi, 1991).
Because these roles and functions are so contextual, no single operational definition
of mentoring emerges in the literature. Merriam (1983) says the phenomenon begs
for clarification, and better means of assessing its importance need to be developed
(p. 171).
Conclusion
Though no single definition of mentoring exists, Galbraith & Cohen (1995b)
suggest several components of mentoring about which they believe literature shows
strong agreement:
1. Mentoring is a process within a contextual setting.
2. Mentoring involves a relationship of a more knowledgeable individual
with a less experienced individual.
3. Mentoring provides professional networking, counseling, guiding,
instructing, modeling, and sponsoring.
4. Mentoring is a developmental mechanism: personal, professional, and
psychological.
5. Mentoring is a socialization and reciprocal relationship.
6. Mentoring provides an identity transformation for both mentor and
mentee.
11


In addition, Jacobi (1991) lists several common definitional themes which
she says run through the literature on mentoring:
1. Mentoring relationships are helping relationships usually focused on
achievement.
2. Mentoring includes any or all of three broad components: emotional and
psychological support, direct assistance with career and professional development,
and role modeling.
3. Mentoring relationships are reciprocal relationships.
4. Mentoring relationships are personal. They require direct interaction
between the mentor and protege.
5. Mentoring relationships involve a person (mentor) with greater
experience, influence, and achievement helping one with less (mentee).
Todays adult mentoring relationship is a transformational (Daloz, 1986),
dynamic interaction (Cohen, 1995) in which the mentor is teacher, role model, and
nurturing caregiver (Stratton & Owens, 1993). Having a developmental perspective
gives the mentor of adult students a means for interpreting the unique position of
each student, thus improving the quality of education (Daloz, 1986). The aim of
effective mentoring, contends Daloz (1990), is to promote the development of the
learner (p. 206). He believes such development to include increased ability to
perceive and hold complexity; tolerate ambiguity; experience ones own and others
12


feelings more richly; see oneself and others in a broader context; and make
wholehearted commitments in a complex, tentative, and interdependent world.
13


CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Throughout the centuries, there were men who took first steps down new roads
armed with nothing but their own vision. Their goals differed, but they all had this
in common: that the step was first, the road new, the vision unborrowed, and the
response they receivedhatred. The great creatorsthe thinkers, the artists, the
scientists, the inventorsstood alone against the men of their time. Every great new
thought was opposed. Every great new invention was denounced.... But the men of
unborrowed vision went ahead. They fought, they suffered and they paid. But they
won.
Ayn Rand (1943, p. 710)
For the purpose of conducting a philosophic inquiry into the adult mentoring
relationship, this study has linked the three defining relationships outlined in Stratton
and Owens Mentoring Model (1993) (Figure 3.1)teacher, role model, and
nurturing caregiverand the three major approaches to counseling and educational
psychologycognitive, behavioral, and affective. Stratton and Owens model was
chosen because it appears to reveal a holistic portrayal of mentoring: its
relationships, areas, and functions. However, because this inquiry deals specifically
with the relationship between the mentor and mentee, only that component of the
model was selected for study.
Using the three major approaches to counseling and educational psychology
as a conceptual framework, this philosophic inquiry has investigated two research
questions: First, do theoretical constructs in cognitive, behavioral, and affective
14


counseling and educational psychology validate the three mentoring relationships in
Stratton and Owens Mentoring Model (1993)? Second, from this study, what, if
any, new definition of mentoring emerges?
Stratton and Owens (1993) posit, A mentor is to some degree a teacher, role
model, and nurturing caregiver. If one of these roles is removed, it ceases to be
mentoring (p. 96). As a teacher, the mentor asks for reflection of meaning and
offers new cognitive maps (Brookfield, 1987). As a role model (Bass, 1985), the
mentor selectively reinforces behaviors (Daloz, 1986) and is an exemplar (Gardner,
1990). As a nurturing caregiver, the mentor communicates emotional support by
sharing and encouraging the students dream for the future. Moreover, the mentor
assists in defining the emerging sense of self that is built around that dream
(Levinson, 1978). Such a nurturing environment increases the likelihood that the
mentee will consider the mentors teaching and modeling (Stratton & Owens, 1993).
15


FIGURE 3.1
Stephen P. Stratton and James R. Owens
Mentoring Model

Mentoring Relationship
Role Model
Teacher
Nurturing Care Giver
T
Areas of Mentoring
Personal/Social
Career
Spiritual
T
Functions of Mentoring



Tutoring: Sponsor: Encourage: Counsel: Befriend:
model protect affirm listen accept
inform support inspire probe relate
confirm promote challenge clarify
prescribe ^question A advise
L
CARE &
16


Stratton and Owens Mentoring Model
Stephen P. Stratton and James R. Owens (1993) Mentoring Model (Figure
3.1) explains, in a holistic manner, the developmental process of mentoring. It has
been the focus of this studys primary research question: Do theoretical constructs in
cognitive, behavioral, and affective counseling and educational psychology validate
the three mentoring relationships in Stratton and Owens Mentoring Model? In an
effort to explain information they garnered from unstructured interviews and surveys
while researching mentoring at Asbury College, the authors, building upon the work
of Anderson and Shannon (1988), generated a schematic that captures the essence of
mentoring and its basic components. Their model portrays four aspects of
mentoring: Mentoring Dispositions, Areas of Mentoring, Functions of Mentoring,
and Mentoring Relationships.
Mentoring Dispositions
Stratton and Owens (1993) contend that three dispositions are essential to the
concept of mentoring: opening ourselves, expressing care and concern, and leading
incrementally. The entire mentoring process is styled by a set of dispositions
displayed by the mentor. A mentoring disposition is an attributed characteristic of a
mentor, one that summarizes the trend of the mentor's actions in particular contexts.
Dispositions are broader than skills and denote recurring patterns of behavior
(Anderson & Shannon, p. 41). In sum, the roles and functions of mentors are
17


4
founded on the openness of a caring and concerned mentor who can recognize
where a protege is in his or her development and lead a step at a time (Stratton &
Owens, p. 101).
Areas of Mentoring
Stratton and Owens (1993) assert that, with these underlying dispositions,
mentor-mentee relationships are lived out in three areas of living: personal/social,
career, and spiritual. Personal/social mentoring involves aspects of life that have to
do with ones identity and relationships. Career mentoring emphasizes issues of life
which are associated with the mentees occupational choices. Spiritual mentoring
focuses on the development of ones spiritual formation.
Functions of Mentoring
The model delineates five mentoring behaviors (functions) that the authors
believe are present in a comprehensive model of mentoring: Tutoring (Teaching),
Sponsoring, Encouraging, Counseling, and Befriending. In their interviews, Stratton
and Owens (1993) discovered that tutoring activities included assisting students in
planning goals and objectives, modeling appropriate attitudes and behaviors toward a
chosen field, acting as a resource, and helping students to manage time. Sponsoring
activities included taking a student to professional conferences or on trips, going
18


with students to difficult meetings, exposing students to various areas of their
discipline, and creating strategies for students navigating the system.
Encouraging activities included giving positive reinforcement, being willing
not to dictate, supporting campus activities, and being present at events important to
students. Counseling activities included responding to questions and listening,
sharing ideas and attitudes, advising, giving guidance without intrusion, sharing
relevant personal experiences, assisting in major and graduate school selection, and
holding informal talks with students regarding personal issues and career choices.
Finally, befriending activities included being non-judgmental, sharing and caring,
including students in family activities, being willing to talk about personal matters,
visiting dorm rooms, having meals with students, and taking students shopping.
Mentoring Relationships
To present the Mentoring Relationship aspect of their model, the authors list
Teacher, Role Model, and Nurturing Caregiver. Stratton and Owens (1993) found
that mentors were teachers because they were able to communicate their knowledge
and experience in personal/social, career, and spiritual areas of living to the protege
in a manner that challenged but also supported (p. 99). In addition, mentors were
role models in that they were perceived as having greater knowledge and experience
in the personal/social, career, and spiritual areas of life. In the interviews, it was as
if proteges saw aspects of the mentor that they too wanted to develop. Their mentors
19


provided them with a sense of what they could become (p. 98). Finally, mentors
were nurturing caregivers who encouraged a process of growth:
In a manner not unlike tough love, they provided the environment of caring
accountability in which proteges could develop toward more mature standing
in the personal/social, career, and/or spiritual areas. Much like formers in a
garden, mentors seemed most effective when they operated from a
perspective that the person being nurtured has a capacity to develop into
fuller maturity (Anderson & Shannon, 1988 p. 40), and they produced a
harvest by encouraging that natural process, (p. 100)
According to Stratton and Owens, these three defining mentoring relationships are
irreducible minimums. They contend that if one of these roles is removed, it ceases
to be mentoring (p. 96).
20


CHAPTER 4
SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS INQUIRY
Somewhere I heard a story about Michelangelos pushing a huge piece of rock
down a street. A curious neighbor sitting lazily on the porch of his house called to
him and inquired why he labored so over an old piece of stone. Michelangelo is
reported to have answered, Because there is an angel in that rock that wants to come
out
Elizabeth OConnor (1971, p. 13)
This study, which links the mentoring of adults to theoretical constructs in
cognitive, behavioral, and affective counseling and educational psychology, is
significant because it validates the three mentoring relationships in Stratton and
Owens model (1993) and produces a new, holistic definition of mentoring.
1. The new definition of mentoring satisfies several deficits, at least three of
which are cited in literature. First, the new definition, rather than being vague and
ambiguous, clearly conceptualizes the phenomenon (Anderson & Shannon, 1988;
Galbraith & Cohen, 1995; Healy & Welchert, 1990; Jacobi, 1991; Merriam, 1983;
Rodriguez, 1995; Stratton & Owens, 1993). Second, the definition takes into
account the essence of the word in the light of its etymological and historical
derivation (Anderson & Shannon, 1988; Stratton & Owens, 1993). Third, the
definition is based on a theoretical framework for organizing the various mentoring
functions and behaviors found within the definition (Anderson & Shannon, 1988;
Stratton & Owens, 1993). Fourth, it takes into account the findings of this
21


philosophical inquiry which has validated the relationships in Stratton and Owens
Mentoring Model (1993). This study shows that connections do exist between the
three defining mentor relationships in the modelteacher, role model, and nurturing
caregiverand the three major approaches to counseling and educational
psychologycognitive, behavioral, and affective. Therefore, the definition is holistic
because it includes the cognitive, behavioral, and affective development of the
protege. Fifth, it differentiates the comprehensive, caring mentoring relationship
from other more nominal role-based relationships with which it is often confused.
Drawing upon Bubers notion of I-Thou, the definition presents a classical
conceptualization of mentoring.
2. Both Merriam (1983) and Jacobi (1991), in their critical reviews of the
literature, declare the absence of a widely accepted definition of mentoring. This
study has produced an operational definition of classical mentoring with a strong
conceptual framework that is applicable to the various fields of education,
spirituality, business, organizational development, and psychology. It can be used in
surveys and interviews to investigate mentoring in these various contexts. Doing so
will eliminate confusion as to just what is being measured.
3. The validated mentoring relationships in Stratton and Owens model
(1993), along with the new definition of mentoring generated by this study, will
contribute to the improvement of organizational mentoring programs (Cohen, 1995a;
Daloz & Edelson, 1992; Johnson & Sullivan, 1995; Kerr, Schulze, & Woodward,
22


1995; Murray, 1991) and to curricula for training mentors, teachers, and counselors.
For example, colleges are recognizing the potential of mentoring as a remedy for
attrition. Increasingly, they are organizing formal, college-sponsored mentoring
programs which bring faculty and students together in one-to-one relationships
outside the classroom (Cohen, 1993; Cohen & Galbraith, 1995; Jacobi, 1991; Kerr,
Schulze, & Woodward, 1995; Lester & Johnson, 1981; Merriam, 1983; Terrell,
Hassell, & Duggar, 1992). Expanded educational mentoring relationships may well
affect an increase in student retention (Marinelli, 1991). Informal student-faculty
contact has been shown to be a significant predictor of college persistence among
college freshmen, even after controlling for variables such as sex, academic aptitude,
and personality attributes. This appears to be especially true of nonclassroom,
interpersonal, faculty-student contacts which focus on intellectual matters and career
concerns (Pascarella & Terenzini, 1977).
4. Finally, improved mentoring profits society at large through the
enhancement of values development. The mentor-protege partnership in which the
mentor serves as a teacher, role model, and nurturing caregiver creates a positive
climate for such growth:
In this environment, values are transmitted naturally and emphatically. They
are lived out in front of the protege in an informal manner. Presented this
way, values are not offensively introduced or dogmatically imposed. They
are chosen, much as the mentor is chosen, because they are needed and
wanted. (Stratton & Owens, 1993, p. 101)
23


CHAPTER 5
PHILOSOPHICAL INQUIRY:
A THREE-PATH PROCESS
Mentoring is a philosophical vision as well as a pragmatic approach to guiding
adults through one-to-one learning.
Norman H. Cohen and Michael W. Galbraith (1995, p. 13)
Using the literatures on mentoring and the three major approaches to
counseling and educational psychology as a conceptual framework, this study has
investigated two research questions: First, do theoretical constructs in cognitive,
behavioral, and affective counseling and educational psychology validate the three
mentoring relationships in Stratton and Owens Mentoring Model (1993)? Second,
from this study, what, if any, new definition of mentoring emerges?
The research design for studying these questions was a philosophic inquiry
(Phenix, 1986, p. 253). Such a design was justified because of this studys need to
analyze, evaluate, and synthesize a vast amount of literature in educational and
counseling psychology in order to interpret the meanings of themes and patterns
discovered there. Further, this approach was justified because, while the function of
other disciplines is the expression of meanings, the distinct function of philosophy is
the interpretation of meanings. Thus, contends Phenix, the meanings expressed
in philosophy are meanings of meanings, or what might be termed meta-meanings
(p. 253):
24


The concept of [philosophic] meaning is intended to encompass all the realms
of meaning [in other disciplines] within a common conceptual framework,
and the principle that each field may be characterized by a distinctive mode
of symbolic expression provides for comparison and contrast of fields and
thus for synoptic philosophic interpretation, (p. 256)
The methodology for this philosophic inquiry followed a three-path process:
Inquiry of the Literatures, Integration of the Themes into Patterns, and Interpretation
of the Model and New Definition (Figure 5.1, Figure 5.2). Each of these three paths,
with its theoretical framework and set of objectives, is described below. The theories
supporting this inquiry have overlapping concepts. Therefore, this philosophic
investigation was not a linear process in which a path always followed another one
consecutively. Rather, the paths often ran parallel to one another simultaneously;
and, at times, they converged and became one. For example, throughout the process,
a continual inquiry of the literatures took place that involved identifying, analyzing,
explaining, integrating, and synthesizing information. Further, linking the mentoring
relationship themes with the counseling and educational psychology themes and
forming patterns did not happen only on the integration path. This action also
occurred on the Inquiry path as well as the Interpretation path because creative
synthesis and interpretation was a necessary procedure throughout this philosophic
inquiry. Likewise, interpreting the meanings of the teacher, role model, and
nurturing caregiver relationships in Stratton and Owens Mentoring Model (1993)
was evident on each leg of this methodological journey.
25


This same sense of confluence is true of the trails (facets) inside each of the
three main paths. Though the methodology is explained in linear fashion, in
actuality, the processes involved on each path often happened simultaneously. For
example, on the Inquiry path, the stages of immersing oneself in the literatures often
were simultaneous with periods of incubation and illumination; and all overlapped
with the need to explicate and synthesize information. Similarly, on the Integration
path, identifying themes and patterns was, at times, equivalent to explaining them.
Last, on the Interpretation path, analysis, which established the meaning of the three
relationships in Stratton and Owens model (1993) and the new definition of
mentoring, was occasionally convergent with evaluation, which established their
validity. Moreover, both analysis and evaluation was part of the synthesis procedure
that made connections in order to form a single, comprehensive model and definition
of mentoring.
26


FIGURE 5.1
Philosophic Inquiry:
A Three-path Process
Path Theoretical Framework Process Objectives and Outcomes
Inquiry of the Literatures Phenomenological Analysis (Douglass & Mouslakas, 1984 Mouslakas, 1990; Patton, 1990) Five-facet, Heuristic Process: Immersion, Incubation, Illumination, Explication, Creative Synthesis Identification and Explanation of Themes: Mentoring Relationships: Teacher, Role Model, Caregiver Counseling and Educational Psychology Approaches: Cognitive, Behavioral, Affective
Integration of Themes into Patterns Pattern Model of Explanation (Kaplan, 1964) Identification and Explanation of Patterns Linking ofThemes into Patterns: Teacher Relationship Linked to Cognitive Approach Role Model Relationship Linked to Behavioral Approach Caregiver Relationship Linked to Affective Approach
Interpretation of Model and New Definition Philosophic Inquiry Design (Phenix, 1986) Three-facet Process: Analysis, Evaluation, Synthesis Validation and Interpretation of Stratton and Owens Model and a New Definition of Mentoring
This philosophic inquiry has three paths: Inquiry of the Literatures, Integration of the Themes into Patterns, and Interpretation of the
Model and New Definition. It is not a linear process in which a path always follows another one consecutively. Rather, the paths often
run parallel to one another simultaneously; and, at times, they converge and become one. This same sense of confluence is true of the
trails (facets and phases) inside each of the three main paths.


FIGURE 5.2
Philosophic Inquiry Model
Inquiry of the Literatures
Interpretation of Model Integration of Themes
and New Definition into Patterns
28


Inquiry of the Literatures
The theoretical framework for an inquiry of the literatures on mentoring and
the three major approaches to counseling and educational psychology was a
phenomenological analysis of them using a five-phase, heuristic process:
immersion, incubation, illumination, explication, and creative synthesis (Moustakas,
1990; Patton, 1990).
Theoretical Framework
Essentially, this study was a qualitative one in which the literatures were the
data to be investigated. The literatures themselves became a phenomenon in a
shared experience between reader and writer, generating a literature-based
conversation (Golden-Biddle & Locke, 1997, p. 24). Therefore, using a
phenomenological perspective for studying these literatures was justified because
phenomenology assumes that there is an essence or essences to shared experience
and that essences are the core meanings mutually understood through a
phenomenon commonly experienced (Patton, 1990, p. 70). It is a philosophical
approach that deals with how people describe, explicate, and interpret things and
experience them through their senses. As Patton contends, Interpretation is
essential to an understanding of experience and the experience includes the
interpretation (p. 69).
29


This research project was not only a phenomenological inquiry, but a
heuristic one as well. A heuristic approach to studying the literatures on mentoring
and the three major approaches to counseling and educational psychology was
justified because of the highly personal relationship that exists between the mentor
and mentee. Though derived from phenomenology, heuristics differs from it in four
major ways (Douglass & Moustakas, 1984):
1. Heuristics emphasizes connectedness and relationship rather than
detachment in analyzing an experience.
2. Heuristics leads to depictions of essential meanings rather than merely
definitive descriptions of the structure of experience.
3. Heuristics concludes with a creative synthesis that allows for the
researchers intuition and tacit understandings rather than only a distillation of the
structures of experience.
4. Finally, heuristics retains the essence of the person in experience rather
than losing the person in the process of descriptive analysis.
Though not a strictly linear process, this highly personal heuristic design of
phenomenological analysis followed five phases: immersion, incubation,
illumination, explication, and creative synthesis (Moustakas, 1990; Patton, 1990).
Immersion is the stage of steeping oneself in the literature. The researcher becomes
totally involved in the world of the experience, questioning, mediating, dialoguing,
daydreaming, and indwelling (Patton, 1990, p. 409). In the incubation phase, the
30


researcher deliberately withdraws and waits, allowing space for awareness, intuitive
or tacit insights, and understanding (p. 409) which leads the way toward the next
phase: illumination. This is a state of expanding awareness and deepening meaning
that brings about new clarity of knowing. Themes and patterns emerge, forming
clusters and parallels. New life and new vision appear along with new discoveries
(p. 410).
During the fourth stage, explication, the experience unfolds so that these
emergent themes and patterns are refined. New connections are made through
further explorations into universal elements and primary themes of the experience
(p. 410). The researcher is now ready to communicate findings in a creative
synthesis. Rather than a mere distillation of facts, this final phase is the bringing
together of the pieces which includes the researchers intuition and tacit
understandings. It points the way for new perspectives and meanings, a new vision
of the experience (p. 410).
Objectives
A heuristic inquiry of the literatures on mentoring and the three major
approaches to counseling and educational psychology has provided a conceptual
framework for investigating the two research questions of this study: Do theoretical
constructs in cognitive, behavioral, and affective counseling and educational
psychology validate the three mentoring relationships in Stratton and Owens
31


Mentoring Model (1993)? Also, from this study, what, if any, new definition of
mentoring emerges?
To answer the research questions, a thorough inquiry of these literatures
identified the mentoring relationships in Stratton and Owens model-teacher, role
model, and nurturing caregiverand the three major approaches to counseling and
educational psychologycognitive, behavioral, and affective. Once identified, these
mentoring relationships and these counseling and educational approaches were
illuminated and explicated: meanings were revealed, themes were discovered, and
patterns were refined. Finally, in a creative synthesis, new connections were
established between these mentoring relationships and these counseling and
educational psychology approaches: The teacher relationship was linked with the
cognitive approach, the role model relationship was linked with the behavioral
approach, and the nurturing caregiver relationship was linked with the affective
approach.
Integration of the Themes into Patterns
Kaplans Pattern Model (1964) was the theoretical framework for identifying,
explaining, and integrating thematic patterns.
32


Theoretical Framework
In this model, an element (theme) is explained by being shown to occupy the
place it occupies in the pattern. For Kaplan (1964), relationships are fundamental, as
are the concepts of wholeness, unity, and integration. He clarifies his model of
explanation with its notion of gestalt:
According to the pattern model, then, something is explained when it is so
related to a set of other elements that together they constitute a unified
system. We understand something by identifying it as a specific part in an
organized whole, (p. 333)
Explanation and integration of elements (themes) is made by instituting or
discovering relations which constitute a pattern.
Objectives
Identification, explanation, and integration of the themes found in the
literatures on mentoring and the three major approaches to counseling and
educational psychology were necessary for investigating the two research questions
of this study: Do theoretical constructs in cognitive, behavioral, and affective
counseling and educational psychology validate the three mentoring relationships in
Stratton and Owens Mentoring Model (1993)? Also, from this study, what, if any,
new definition of mentoring emerges?
First, in this study, the individual themes were identified. The first set of
themes identified were the mentoring relationships: the mentor as teacher, role
33


model, and nurturing caregiver. The second set of themes identified were the major
counseling and educational psychology theories: cognitive, behavioral, and
affective.
Second, once the individual elements in these two sets were identified, they
were integrated into patterns. Integration took place throughout this three-path
process as connections were established between the mentoring relationship themes
and the counseling and educational psychology approach themes in the literatures.
Consequently, the teacher relationship was linked with the cognitive approach, the
role model relationship was linked with the behavioral approach, and the nurturing
caregiver relationship was linked with the affective approach. As a result, the three
mentoring relationships in Stratton and Owens Mentoring Model (1993) were
validated in that they were shown to have support in cognitive, behavioral, and
affective counseling and educational psychology theories. In addition, a new,
holistic definition of mentoring emerged.
Interpretation of the Model and New Definition
The theoretical framework for interpreting the validated model and new
definition of mentoring was a philosophic one. It followed the three facets Phenix
(1986) outlines: analysis, evaluation, and synthesis. Each of these components
addressed an interpretive query. Again, this strategy, outlined below, was not a
strictly linear process.
34


Theoretical Framework
First, analysis answers, What does this expression mean? Analysis involves
exploring and describing key concepts, definitions, theories, and models under
investigation. Further, this component makes distinctions between various possible
meanings of concepts and between the various ways meanings are expressed.
Second, evaluation answers, How may the validity of this expression be
established? In this study, evaluation was carried out through three norms of
validation as outlined by Kaplan (1964): correspondence, coherence, and pragmatic.
Correspondence is a semantical validation which asks, Does the model/definition fit
into its own set of facts and presuppositions? Coherence is a syntactical validation
which asks, Does the model/definition fit into an already established body of
knowledge, and how does it relate to other accepted theories? Pragmatic is a
functional validation which asks, How may the model/definition be applied, in what
situation does it work, and what new research questions does it generate?
Third, synthesis answers, How can connections among meanings be
established in order to form a single comprehensive theory of meaning in which the
possible types of meaning may be distinguished and the relationships among them
may be exhibited (Phenix, 1986, p. 257)? How can connections among the
thematic patterns be established in order to form a single, comprehensive
model/definition?
35


Objectives
The objectives of this path were to interpret the validated Stratton and
Owens Mentoring Model (1993) and the new, holistic definition of mentoring
through analysis, evaluation, and synthesis.
The analysis facet of interpretation entailed identifying and describing the
theories which have supported the model and definitioa An investigation of the
literature on mentoring theories revealed mentoring relationships which tended to
fall into three definitive patterns: the mentor as teacher, role model, and nurturing
caregiver. Further, a study of the literature on the major counseling and educational
psychology theories showed them gathered into three broad patterns: cognitive,
behavioral, and affective. These theories were analyzed in order to answer, What
does this model and definition of mentoring mean?
The evaluation facet of interpretation consisted of three components:
correspondence, coherence, and pragmatic. This three-part process was meant to
answer, How may the validity of this model and definition of mentoring be
established? First, the correspondence part was semantical, verifying that the model
and definition do fit into their own sets of facts and presuppositions as revealed in
their supporting theories. Second, the coherence ingredient determined the model
and definition are syntactically appropriate. This was accomplished by discovering
that they do fit into an already established body of knowledge. Third, the pragmatic
factor substantiated the functional aspects of the model and definition. This dealt
36


with how they may be applied and in what situations they would work. Also, the
pragmatic part considered what new research questions the model and definition
bring forth.
The synthesis facet of interpretation constituted bringing together the
thematic patterns found in the literatures on mentoring and the three major
approaches to counseling and educational psychology in order to validate a model
and form a new definition of mentoring. This synthesis procedure answered, How
can these connections be established? It involved linking the mentors roles as
teacher, role model, and nurturing caregiver with the cognitive, behavioral, and
affective theories of counseling and educational psychology. As these connections
were accomplished, they validated the three mentoring relationships in Stratton and
Owens Mentoring Model (1993). They also revealed a new, holistic definition of
mentoring.
37


CHAPTER 6
INQUIRY OF THE LITERATURES
When John Keats writes, I know nothing but the holiness of the Hearts affections
and the Truth of the Imagination, he opens our own eyes to see the workings of
creative perception in human affairs. His phrase provides the transhuman ground for
the art of mentoring. Mentoring begins when your imagination can fall in love with
the fantasy of another.
James Hillman (1996, p. 121)
The following literature review provides a conceptual framework and a
vocabulary for describing, interpreting, and explaining the links between mentoring
theories and cognitive, behavioral, and affective counseling and educational
psychology theories.
Mentoring Theories
The adult mentoring relationship is a transformational (Daloz, 1986),
dynamic interaction (Cohen, 1995a) in which the mentor is teacher, role model, and
nurturing caregiver (Stratton & Owens, 1993). Having a developmental perspective
gives the mentor of adults a means for interpreting the unique position of each
student, thus improving the quality of education (Daloz, 1986). The aim of
effective mentoring, contends Daloz (1990), is to promote the development of the
learner (p. 206). He believes such development to include increased ability to
perceive and hold complexity; tolerate ambiguity; experience ones own and others
38


feelings more richly; see oneself and others in a broader context; and make
wholehearted commitments in a complex, tentative, and interdependent world.
Mentor as Teacher
As a teacher, the mentors art lies in the ability to communicate knowledge
and experience to the mentee in a challenging but supportive manner., especially in
personal, social, career, and spiritual areas of living (Stratton & Owens, 1993).
Enriched instruction for the adult learner involves teaching subjects from a range of
different perspectives, providing contexts for those subjects, and allowing the student
ample opportunity for discussion (Daloz, 1986). Also, the mentor as a teacher leads
the student to the discovery of new information through assigned tasks which may
include homework, field research (Daloz, 1990), reflective journaling (McAlpine,
1992), and experientially acquired knowledge (Mitchell & Chesteen, 1995).
Mentoring should assist the learner in developing as a critical thinker (Daloz,
1990). To this end, the mentor may provide new ways of thinking about the world
by suggesting the use of new conceptual language, such as metaphors, and by
serving as a mirror which helps the mentee see his or her actions from an alternative
viewpoint (Daloz, 1986). In so doing, the mentor offers new cognitive maps which
allow for imagining alternatives and questioning underlying assumptions
(Brookfield, 1987). This process of developing critical thinking enables the student
to leave what Daloz (1986) asserts is the shell of absolute certainty (p. 228). He
39


believes the movement from either-or choices to polarities is a common preparation
for transformation to dialectical thinking.
Mentor as Role Model
In addition to serving as a teacher, the mentor is a role model who, though
not perfect in performance, exemplifies the values he or she teaches (Stratton &
Owens, 1993). The mentor serves as a role model because he or she is perceived to
have knowledge, skills, and proficiencies desired by the mentee. As a result,
influence is by observation, but not from a distance (Cohen, 1995a). Daloz (1986)
calls this sharing ourselves (p. 220). Mentors become participant role models by
sharing appropriate life experiences. Such self-disclosures, when related to the
mentees present circumstances, personalize and enrich the relationship. This
provides an opportunity for a special kind of individualized learning between the
adult learner and the educator, one with the potential to be a positive motivational
influence (Cohen, 1995a). Furthermore, Daloz (1986) suggests that the mentor is
providing a transformational vision by modeling the person the mentee wants to
become.
Mentor as Nurturing Caregiver
Along with functioning as a teacher and role model, the mentor fulfills the
role of nurturing caregiver by encouraging a process of growth (Stratton & Owens,
40


1993) which results in reliable self images (Fowler & Keen, 1978) and development
of identity (Daloz, 1986; Levinson, 1978)). The mentor is a transitional figure in the
development of the mentees life, believing in her or him., facilitating and sharing the
mentees dream of the future, and helping to define the newly emerging self in its
newly discovered world (Levinson, 1978, p. 98). As the mentor communicates
concern and caring, a nurturing environment evolves that fosters receptivity to
teaching and openness to influence by an esteemed model (Stratton & Owens, 1993).
Levinson (1978) declares, Mentoring is best understood as a form of love
relationship (p. 100). Daloz (1986) observes the mentor as a metaphorical
gatekeeper and guide on a transformational journey who challenges, supports, and
provides vision. As an anamchara. the mentor is a soul friend who is mature,
compassionate, respectful of others, able to keep confidentiality, willing to self-
disclose, able to reflect on personal questions and experiences, and able to discern
the heart (Sellner, 1990).
Finally, the adult mentoring relationship is a transformational (Daloz, 1986),
dynamic interaction (Cohen, 1995a) in which the mentor is teacher, role model, and
nurturing caregiver (Stratton & Owens, 1993). These three defining roles of the
mentor are irreducible minimums. Stratton and Owens (1993) contend that if one
of these roles is removed, it ceases to be mentoring (p. 96).
41


Counseling Psychology Theories
The primary psychological counseling theories fall within three broad
categories. They are the cognitive, behavioral, and affective (humanistic)
approaches to therapy (Corey, 1986).
Cognitive Counseling Theories
The underlying assumption of cognitive counseling psychology is that
maladjustments occur due to faulty thinking. Therefore, cognitive therapy focuses
on ones thought patterns with the therapist as a teacher. To this end, transactional
analysis, originated by Eric Berne, looks at the potential of choice to re-decide
decisions based on early childhood messages (Corey, 1986). The client is
encouraged to analyze her or his life script and transactions with others (Harris,
1969). Also, Albert Ellis rational-emotive therapy seeks to uncover and dispute
irrational beliefs which lead to negative views of oneself^ the world, and the future
(Lefton, 1994). He asserts it is not what happens to a person, but ones belief about
the event, that causes emotional distress.
Another cognitive approach is William Glassers reality therapy in which the
client is asked to evaluate her or his behavior by answering the following questions:
Is what youre doing taking you where you want to go in life? If not, then why are
you still doing it? Glasser looks at whether or not the client has a success or failure
identity. These three didactic, directive therapies are likely to use confrontation,
42


contracts, and cognitive homework as techniques for changing ones belief system
(Corey, 1986).
Behavioral Counseling Theories
Behavioral counseling psychology is founded on the philosophy that
symptomatic behaviors stem from faulty learning and that the symptom is the
problem. Also, humans are the products as well as the producers of the environment.
The client is expected to participate in defining and clarifying goals for treatment.
However, the therapist is directive and functions as a teacher-trainer to help the
client leam more effective behaviors. Techniques to accomplish this include
reinforcement, cognitive restructuring, self-management programs, behavior
rehearsal, coaching, and social skills training (Corey, 1986).
According to Albert Banduras social learning theory, through observational
learning the client can leam to perform desired behaviors based on watching and
emulating models. He posits that modeling is effective in three areas: learning new
behaviors, eliminating fears, and increasing existing behaviors (Lefton, 1994). At
least three types of models can be used in therapeutic situations. A live model can
teach appropriate behaviors, influence attitudes and values, and teach social skills.
The therapist is one such model. Another type is the symbolic model: films,
videotapes, and other recording devices. Finally, multiple models, as are found in
43


group therapy, offer the advantage of showing a variety of appropriate styles of
behavior (Corey, 1986).
Affective fHuinanistict Counseling Theories
The key tenets of humanistic counseling psychology emphasize the
uniqueness of the human experience. Less directive than cognitive and behavioral
therapists, humanistic counselors are guides who tend to believe human beings are
conscious, creative, and bom with an innate desire to fulfill themselves. Pathology
reflects an incongruity between the real self and the potential, desired self and an
over-dependence on others for self-esteem (Lefton, 1994). In therapy, the client-
counselor relationship is itself therapeutic as the therapist communicates
genuineness, warmth, accurate empathy, respect, and permissiveness. This human-
to-human, I-Thou encounter in existential therapy focuses on self-awareness,
freedom of choice, personal responsibility, anxiety as a basic element of life, the
search for meaning, being alone as well as in relations with others, and acceptance of
finiteness and death (Corey, 1986; Frankl, 1965; May, 1953).
Growing out of this existential tradition, Carl Rogers person-centered
therapy and Frederick Peris gestalt therapy are experiential and relationship-
oriented. Rogers views the aim of therapy as not merely solving problems but
assisting the client in a growth process. He asserts that increasingly self-actualized
persons have an openness to experience, trust in self, an internal source of
44


evaluation, and a willingness to continue growing (Corey, 1986). In addition, Peris
has aptly named his counseling theory using the German word gestalt, which means
a whole which is more than the sum of its parts. He believes that people often
develop false lives rather than being in touch with their real selves. Therapy goals
include living in the here and now, getting in touch with real feelings, and taking
care of past unfinished business in order to live an integrated and whole (gestalt) life
(Lefton, 1994; Peris, 1973; Peris, Hefferline, & Goodman, 1951).
Educational Psychology Theories
The major educational psychology theories fall within three broad categories
which coincide with the three primary approaches to psychological counseling.
They are the cognitive, behavioral, and affective (humanistic) approaches to learning
theory (Barlow, 1985).
Cognitive Learning Theories
The cognitive approach to learning defines learning as the active
restructuring of perceptions and concepts. Emphasis is placed on the unique abilities
of human beings to conceptualize and use language to mediate learning, to build
bridges between any two or more items to relate them in a meaningful fashion. This
focus on subjective perceptions of patterns and relationships in learning comes from
the Gestalt school of psychology as reaction to strict behavioralism. From this
45


background, several principles emerge that inform the cognitive learning theory:
Meaningful configurations are greater than the mere sum of their parts; perceptions
are influenced by the arrangement of stimuli; learning is by insight, by perceiving
relationships; and learning is a matter of reorganizing the individuals world of
experience (Barlow, 1985).
In the context of adult learning, Merriam and Caffarella (1991) cite research
showing how, within the Piagetian framework, diverse explanations appear for adult
cognitive development over the life span. Also, evidence is sufficient to question
Piagets view that this development ends with the formal operational stage. They
point out that researchers are positing new patterns of thinking which are
developmentally beyond his final stage. As an example, dialectic thinking goes
beyond looking for fixed realities to allowing for acceptance of alternative truths,
inherent contradictions, and ambiguities. In summary, cognitivists believe the locus
of control over learning lies with the individual learners particular mental processes.
By contrast, behaviorists hold that it lies in the environment (Berger, 1988; Merriam
& Caffarella, 1991).
Behavioral T.earning Theories
Although learning has various definitions, most would include the concept of
change in behavior. The purpose of education, therefore, from the behavioralists
viewpoint, is to change behavior in a desired direction (Merriam & Caffarella, 1991).
46


One of the most influential behavioral learning theorists, Edward Thorndike,
formulated three primary laws of learningreadiness, exercise, and effectwhich,
though modified, are still applied widely in educational settings: A student will learn
more quickly if he or she is ready to learn; the more a student practices a certain
response (behavior), the more apt he or she is to retain it; and a response (behavior)
is strengthened if it is followed by reward. Thorndikes concept of using rewards to
strengthen behaviors was a forerunner of B. F. Skinners reinforcement theory
(Barlow, 1985). Positive reinforcers may be tangible (grades, high test scores,
academic rewards), or they may be social (approval, affection). Research in adult
learning and work continues to support their effective use (Wlodkowski, 1985, p.
57).
Another learning approach that has particular relevance to adult students is
Albert Banduras social learning theory which emphasizes how a persons behaviors
are changed by the modeling of others. His is a three-way interactive concept:
Behaviors are changed by the student interacting with and observing others in a
social context. The student then influences the environment, which in turn
influences the way he or she behaves (Merriam & Cafifarella, 1991). Banduras
experimental studies show that the models people tend to pattern after are those they
see as being important, the same sex, and similar to themselves in age and social
status (Barlow, 1985). Social learning theory contributes to adult learning by
47


highlighting the importance of social context and explicating the processes of
modeling and mentoring (Merriam & Caffarella, 1991, p. 139).
Affective (Humanistic! Teaming Theories
While behaviorists concentrate on observable behaviors which are shaped by
the environment and cognitivists focus on the learners mental processing of
information, the humanists consider learning from the perspective of the human
potential for growth (Merriam & Caffarella, 1991). The two major contributors to
educational humanism are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, both of whom agree
on the need for educators to facilitate the self-actualization of students: the
discovery and development of their highest potential. In so doing, students become
frilly functioning human beings (Barlow, 1985). Maslow posits that humans are
motivated intrinsically to learn. Moreover, though he believes the primary goal of
learning is self-actualization, Maslow defines other goals as well (Merriam &
Caffarella, 1991, p. 133):
1. The discovery of a vocation or destiny
2. The knowledge or acquisition of a set of values
3. The realization of life as precious
4. The acquisition of peak experiences
5. A sense of accomplishment
6. The satisfaction of psychological needs
48


7. An awareness of the beauty and wonder of life
8. The control of impulses
9. The grappling with critical existential problems of life
10. Learning to choose judiciously
As a contemporary of Maslow, Rogers, in education as well as in therapy, is
concerned with significant learning that leads to personal growth and development.
He claims such learning has the following characteristics (Merriam & Caffarella,
1991, p. 133):
1. Personal involvement: The affective and cognitive aspects of a person
should be involved in the learning event.
2. Self-initiated: A sense of discovery must come from within.
3. Pervasive: The learning makes a difference in the behaviors, the
attitudes, and, perhaps, even in the personality of the learner.
4. Evaluated by the learner: The learner can best determine whether the
experience is meeting a need.
5. Essence is meaning: When experiential learning takes place, its meaning
to the learner becomes incorporated into the total experience.
The humanistic principles of Maslow and Rogers have been integrated into
much of adult learning theory. One such theory is Knowles andragogy, a model
based on five assumptions which are characteristics of adult learners (Merriam &
Caffarella, 1991, p. 249):
49


1. As a person matures, her or his self-concept moves from that of a
dependent personality toward one of a self-directing human being.
2. An adult accumulates a growing reservoir of experience, which is a rich
resource for learning.
3. The readiness of an adult to learn is closely related to the developmental
tasks of her or his social role.
4. As an adult matures, he or she has a change in time perspective from
future application to immediacy of application. Thus, an adult is more problem-
centered than subject-centered in learning.
5. An adult is motivated to leam by internal factors rather than external
ones.
Conclusion
This inquiry of the literatures on mentoring and the three major approaches to
counseling and educational psychology has established that connections do exist
between the three defining mentor relationships which Stratton and Owens (1993)
outlineteacher, role model, and nurturing caregiverand the three major approaches
to counseling and educational psychologycognitive, behavioral, and affective.
Further, it is a conceptual framework for investigating the two research questions in
this study: Do theoretical constructs in cognitive, behavioral, and affective
counseling and educational psychology validate the three mentoring relationships in
50


Stratton and Owens Mentoring Model (1993)? Second, from this study, what, if
any, new definition of mentoring emerges?
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CHAPTER 7
THE MENTOR-MENTEE RELATIONSHIP
There was a time, there were times, when there neither was nor needed to be any
specific calling of educator or teacher. There was a master, a philosopher or a
coppersmith, whose journeymen and apprentices lived with him and learned, by
being allowed to share in it, what he had to teach them of his handiwork or
brainwork. But they also learned, without either their or his being concerned with it,
they learned, without noticing that they did, the mystery of personal life: They
received the spirit.
Martin Buber (1965a, pp. 89-90)
In the beginning is relation. This declaration by Martin Buber in his work,
I and Thou (1923/1958, p. 18), helps one explain the significance of the word
relationship as a descriptor of the mentoring phenomenon. Bubers idea of the I-
Thou relationship is an encounter between individuals that is mutual, non-possessive,
non-manipulative, and one in which each person is authentic, trusting, and self-
revealing (Buber, 1923/1958, 1965a, 1965b). Ideally, overtime, the mentor and
protege form an interpersonal alliance in which I-Thou moments can occur.
Consequently, personal development is a by-product of the I-Thou relationship
(Gehrke, 1988). Powell believes the true encounter is absolutely essential for
growth as a person (1969, p. 42).
Buber goes on to say, The relation in education is one of pure dialogue
(1965a, p. 98). In genuine dialogueno matter whether spoken or silenteach of
the participants really has in mind the other or others in their present and particular
52


being and turns to them with the intention of establishing a living mutual relation
between himself and them (p. 19). As opposed to monologue, dialogue is about
experiencing from the other side (p. 101) of the relationship what the student is
feeling. This act of mutuality or inclusion (p. 97) allows the teacher to meet and
know the other person in her or his uniqueness.
The I-Thou Relationship
The work of Martin Buber, twentieth-century social philosopher of the
dialogic school of philosophy, informs the conception of holistic mentoring
described in this study. He contends for the existence of two primal relationships: I-
Thou and I-It. Bubers position, inspired by Kierkegaard, the existential philosopher,
distinguishes between the subject-object relationship (I-It), in which the persons
involved remain as isolated subjects and mere objects to each other, and the person
to person encounter (I-Thou), in which each individual is present to the other in an
authentic relationship (Buber, 1923/1958,1965a).
In the more typical of the two modes, the I-It relationship, human beings
respond to others as objects (the It), manipulating each other in utilitarian ways for
their own purposes. In seeing others as objects, we (the I) present ourselves in
certain ways designed to get others to respond to us as we want them to (Gehrke,
1988, p. 44). Accordingly, the subject-object relationship is characterized by
detachment: We may have a purely I-It knowledge of another person. We may
53


observe him like any other object, we get information about him, we list his
characteristics, and we put him into the appropriate category (Hordern, 1968, p.
121). I-It knowledge is objective knowledge of an object as a thing outside oneself.
Because the knower is detached and has no vital concern with the object,
communion is absent between the two. An example of I-It knowledge is the scientist
who stands outside of his experiment, controlling and manipulating it in detachment
from it (Hordern).
As an alternative, the rarer, more powerful mode is the I-Thou relationship
in which we abandon the objectifying mode, the pretense and manipulation, and
enter into an authentic relationship (Gehrke, 1988, p. 44):
We each offer ourselves as we really are, and seek and accept the other
person as he or she is. We do this, not so the other person will be useful to
us, but to understand the other person and be understood by her or him.
When this happens, what goes on between us confirms each of our
existences, our worth, and, most important, our potential. We are both
enhanced by what happens between us. Neither of us, however, can will the
event alone; it must be mutual, (p. 44)
In the I-Thou relationship, the other person ceases to be an It and becomes a Thou.
The relationship is mutual, non-possessive, and one in which each is trusting and
self-revealing (Buber, 1923/1958, 1965a):
He reveals not information about himself but his very self, and we give of
ourselves in return. An I-Thou relation has replaced the objective
relationship in which we were as two things feeing each other. There is now
communion. No longer is one an onlooker who may be enlarged by more
information. Instead, he is changed to the very core of his being because he
knows and gives himself to the other. (Hordern, 1968, p. 122)
54


When this existential encounter between two persons happens, communion has been
achieved:
The other person becomes, in some mysterious and almost undefmable way,
a special being in my eyes, a part of my world, and a part of my self. Insofar
as it is possible, I enter into the world of the others reality and he or she
enters into the world of my reality. There has been some kind of fusion, even
though each of us always remains a distinct self. (Powell, 1969, p. 41)
The I-Thou Relationship in Education
The mentor of adults in higher education is engaged in a one-to-one
developmental relationship between teacher and student. In this interaction, the
uniquenesses of both individuals as human beings are shared and appreciated as part
of the educational process (Daloz, 1986; DeCoster & Brown, 1982; Lester &
Johnson, 1981). Macdonald (1995) concurs by insisting that the teaching-learning
situation has to do with a relatedness that may well determine the direction of
personal development. His description of this relationship parallels that of Bubers I
Thou encounter:
To facilitate pupil growth,... the teacher must meet his pupils face-to-face,
not status-to-person.... When teachers hide behind status, pupils do not
reveal themselves, and consequently their potential for growth is limited, for
they are closed to avenues of development. The teacher who is genuine
provides the pupil with the possibility of an authentic or direct, unmediated
contact with reality through a relationship. The teacher who is otherwise
raises defenses within the learner, (p. 31)
Indeed, the aim of education for the mentoring teacher is the development of the
whole person. Therefore, the mentor is involved in the profoundly human provision
55


of care as well as the use of teaching skills and the transmission of knowledge
(Daloz, 1986). This partnership of teacher and student is what finally determines
the value of an education. And in the nurture of that partnership lies the mentor's
art (Daloz, 1986, p. 244).
Such a broadened concept of education suggests that to be educated is to be
humanized rather than to be merely instructed (Macdonald, 1995, p.31). As Daloz
(1986) puts it, Education is something we neither give nor do to our students.
Rather, it is a way we stand in relation to them (p. xv). This echoes Bubers
(1965a) idea that the true teacher is not the one who pours information into the
students head as through a funnel. Nor is it the one who regards all potentialities as
already existing within the students head and needing only to be pumped up.
Rather, the true teacher is the one who fosters genuine mutual contact and mutual
trust, who experiences the other side of the relationship, and who helps his pupils
realize, through the selection of the effective world, what it means to be a man (an I).
Here, again, the relationship is of utmost importance. Buber (1965a) contends that
one becomes an I through connection with the other self. Further, one becomes more
fully human by moving from separateness to the more mature I-Thou relationship.
The I-Thou Relationship in Mentoring
Buber (1965b; Gehrke, 1988) further argues that in helping relationships,
such as between psychotherapist and client, teacher and student, or mentor and
56


protege, the helper should serve as a role model for the other by reaching out to her
or Him with the subjective I. In classical mentoring (Gehrke, 1988, p. 43), a
caring relationship exists that nurtures the I-Thou encounter. Though unable to make
it happen, the mentor can influence the mentee to be authentically present and can be
in readiness when the other is finally able to engage in it.
As one of the most complex and developmentally important relationships,
mentoring is best understood as a form of love relationship (Levinson, 1978, p.
100). Classical mentbring is characterized by mutuality, comprehensiveness,
abiding affection, and regard (Gehrke, 1988, p. 43). Buber (1965b) acknowledges
that even in such relationships, individuals will often relate to each other as I-Its.
Apparently, all loving relationships experience I-Thou in varying degrees. However,
the I-Thou moments do occur, and these precious times are the primary sources of
individual development of each person as human beings. Self-development is a by-
product of the I-Thou relationshipthe stretching to be more because someone
believes in your potential (Gehrke, 1988 p. 44).
The Mentoring Relationship Distinguished from Other Relationships
Certainly, the mentor-protege relationship, with its I-Thou encounters and its
elements of mutuality, comprehensiveness, abiding affection, and regard, has much
in common with other loving relationships, such as friendship, romantic love, and
parental love. However, differences between these relationships and mentoring do
57


exist, particularly in areas of equity, passion, and length of association (Gehrke,
1988; Stratton & Owens, 1993). In addition, distinctions can be drawn between the
holistic, interpersonal, caring relationship that has characterized classical
mentoring (Gehrke, 1988 p. 43) and the other more nominal role relationships with
which it is often confused (Gehrke, 1988; Hardcastle, 1988; Kram, 1988; Lester &
Johnson, 1981; Stratton & Owens, 1993).
Mentoring Compared to Other Love Relationships
Mentoring has characteristics of friendship, but it is not typically an equal
relationship (Gehrke, 1988; Stratton & Owens, 1993). Though friendship is a
psychosocial function of mentoring, it has limits (Kram, 1988). The mentor is
usually looked upon as an older, more experienced, and more knowledgeable person
from whom the mentee desires to learn. Stratton and Owens (1993) point out, It is a
rare friendship that can deal effectively with the relational inequality over a long
period of time (p. 97). However, as the mentor-protege relationship progresses
through developmental phases, the relationship becomes more equal (Levinson,
1978), and, in the final Redefinition Phase, it may take on attributes of a friendship
or peer status (Kram, 1988).
Mentoring has characteristics of romantic love, but it is not sexual (Gehrke,
1988; Stratton & Owens, 1993). In fact, it may be the similarity to romantic love
that results in the unfortunate intrusion of sexuality in the mentoring relationship
58


(Stratton & Owens, 1993): It is not overstating the issue to assert that any
combination of sexuality and mentoring are incompatible. Because of the
differential power exhibited in the non-mutual [unequal] mentoring relationship, it
can only be viewed as abuse (p. 97). However, since it is a form of love
relationship, the mentor-mentee association can provide a model of adult intimacy
that is nonsexual (Sellner, 1990).
Mentoring has characteristics of parental love, but it does not have the long,
mutual history (Gehrke, 1988; Stratton & Owens, 1993). Instead, the mentor,
representing a mixture of parent and peer, serves as a transitional figure in the
development of the mentee. Like a good parent, the mentor believes in the protege,
shares and encourages the proteges dream for the future, and assists in defining the
emerging self built around the dream (Levinson, 1978). However, Levinson (1978)
found that if the mentor is too parental, both the mentor and mentee may have
difficulty overcoming the generational differences and moving toward a non-
hierarchical, collegial relationship that is one aim of mentoring.
Mentoring Compared to More Nominal Role Relationships
Bubers conceptions of I-Thou and I-It are helpful in differentiating the
holistic mentoring relationship described in this study from the more nominal role
relationships with which it is often confused. Since the mid-1970s, the term
mentoring has increasingly been used to describe a variety of functions in various
59


vocational fields (Anderson & Shannon, 1988). Noting the lack of potency in much
of what is thought of as mentoring, Hardcastle (1988) comments:
A descriptive word is needed in order to distinguish these intimate, long-
lasting, authentic, and life changing mentor-protege relationships from the
variety of... experiences that are currently labeled mentorships, (p. 201)
Sharing this concern, Anderson and Shannon (1988) insist that most
definitions do not provide what we believe to be the essence of mentoring in light of
its etymological and historical derivation (p. 40). They draw several conclusions
about mentoring based on the relationship between Mentor and Telemachus
described in Homers Odvssev (trans. 1937). First, mentoring is an intentional
process. In the story, Mentor intentionally carried out his responsibilities for
Telemachus. Second, mentoring is a nurturing process. Mentors responsibility to
his mentee was to foster growth and development in Telemachus in order to bring
forth his frill potential. Third, mentoring is an insightful process. The young protege
in Homers epic poem was to acquire and apply understanding from Mentor, who
was the very essence of wisdom. Fourth, mentoring is a supportive, protective
process. Mentor was assigned the role of keeping Telemachus safe on his journey to
manhood. Fifth, and finally, mentoring is a process that includes role modeling.
Mentors make themselves available to proteges as role models, understanding how
their modeling can stimulate perspective, style, and a sense of empowerment within
the protege. In the story, Mentor provided Telemachus with a standard and style of
behavior which he could understand and follow.
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Because of this necessity to differentiate historically-based mentor-protege
relationships from other more nominal helping roles, several researchers have
offered descriptors for these powerful alliances. These authors describe the
interpersonal, caring mentor-protege relationship as classical (Gehrke, 1988),
significant (Hardcastle, 1988), complete (Lester & Johnson, 1981), and intentional
(Stratton & Owens, 1993). Moreover, the characteristics they use to define
mentoring are conceptually grounded in the terms etymological derivation, as well
as Bubers notions of I-Thou.
Gehrke (1988) takes the position that classical mentoring is one kind of love
relationship (p. 43) and that it is characterized by mutuality, comprehensiveness,
abiding affection, and regard. The relationship is mutually desired by both the
mentor and the mentee rather than being one-sided. Also, because of the all-
encompassing nature of the relationship, it is comprehensive, involving the proteges
total life. Further, the protege feels admiration, respect, appreciation, gratitude, and
even love for the mentor. Gehrke pleads for classical mentoring which is based upon
Bubers philosophy:
Too frequently we appear to be substituting the I-It relationship for the more
difficult but ultimately more beneficial I-Thou human relationship. Often we
feel small because, in part, we have not found the intimacy, the
betweenness, once signified by the terms mentor and protege; we have not
discovered the relationships that help us become human, (p. 45)
Hardcastle (1988), also wanting to differentiate between nominal helping
roles and those mentorships that more closely resemble the original mentor-protege
61


relationship (p. 201) described in Homers Odvssev (trans. 1937), titles them
significant mentorships. She refers to them as comprehensive, mutual, interactive,
and enduring, as well as intimate, authentic, and life-changing. Because all facets of
a mentees world contribute to the wholeness of her or his life, they are of concern to
the mentor. Also, the alliance is chosen, valued, and warmly regarded by both
individuals. Finally, Hardcastle (1988) contends, Significant mentorships are not
brief formal, one-way exchanges. They take time to develop and evolve through
mutual interaction and according to the personal styles of the two individuals
(p. 202).
Lester and Johnson (1981) discuss complete mentoring in the context of
academics and note that mentoring is perhaps the oldest form of developmental
instruction. They believe mentoring is a basic form of education for human
development because it provides a holistic, individualized approach to teaching and
learning (p. 51). The mentoring teacher cares enough about the student to take time
to teach, show, challenge, support, and to measure the students resources and
dreams. He or she also serves as a role model for personal and professional growth.
Key to Lester and Johnsons idea of complete mentoring is the assessing, planning,
acting, evaluating dialogue that occurs naturally when an experienced person is
guiding a less experienced person over an extended period of time (p. 52).
Finally, Stratton and Owens (1993), like the researchers above, recognize an
imperative to return to a historically-based, holistic model of what may be termed
62


intentional mentoring. It too contains the I-Thou qualities that Bubers espouses.
The authors maintain that in the past the activities of mentoring were an integral part
of societys occupational training programs and educational systems because an
individual was taught a trade or was educated by working alongside a craftsman or
scholar. Beliefs, values, and mores were transmitted from craftsman to apprentice
and from scholar to student (p. 93). Consequently, the skills acquired in this
training period were integrated with the lessons of life that were learned through the
mentor-protege relationship. However, the practice of mentoring appears to have
drifted away with the coming of urbanization and industrialization. As mass
production became reality, craftsmen and scholars could not be produced quickly
enough using the less efficient, time-consuming method of one-on-one mentoring.
Whereas in the past mentoring had been taken for granted, it now required more
intentional time and effort in education and occupational training (Stratton &
Owens, 1993, p. 93).
Aware that mentoring requires an intentional expenditure of time and effort,
Stratton and Owens (1993) view it as a phenomenon that enhances values
development. In their model (Figure 3.1), Stratton and Owens focus on three
essential mentoring relationships: teacher, role model, and nurturing caregiver. As a
teacher, the mentor is more than a knowledgeable, well-researched information
disseminator (p. 95). He or she is involved in instruction that moves beyond
teaching students to be intelligent, but also to act responsibly and morally. In
63


addition to teaching values, the mentor encourages values development by living
them. Serving as a role model promotes the mentees internalization of those values
that the mentor regards as important. However, rather than communicating these
values from an emotional distance, the mentor does so in a close connection to the
protege. The authors contend, It is easy to understand that students are more
influenced by esteemed models who appear to care for them and for whom they
care (p. 96). Therefore, the mentor not only teaches and models values, but also
communicates concern for the mentee. A nurturing environment increases the
probability that the mentors teaching and modeling will be adopted.
These three essential mentoring relationships are founded on the openness
of a caring and concerned mentor who can recognize where a protege is in his or her
development and lead a step at a time (Stratton & Owens, 1993, p. 101). The
authors agree with Gehrke (1988) that this is a loving relationship with
characteristics similar to friendship, romantic love, and parental love: mutuality,
comprehensiveness, affection, and regard. Therefore, in this environment, values
are transmitted naturally and emphatically. They are lived out in front of the protege
in an influential manner.... They are chosen, much as the mentor is chosen, because
they are needed and wanted (p. 101). As a result, personal growth occurs.
In Stratton and Owens (1993) notion of mentoring, the mentor of adults in
higher education forms an intentional I-Thou relationship with the protege. It is an
encounter between two individuals that is mutual, non-possessive, non-manipulative,
64


and one in which each person is authentic, trusting, and self-revealing (Buber,
1923/1958, 1965a, 1965b). In order to educate the whole person, the mentor
interacts with the mentee as a role model, teacher, and nurturing caregiver for the
students cognitive, behavioral, and affective development (Stratton & Owens). As a
consequence of this relationship, the protege gains more than a skill or trade, he or
she learns the mystery of personal life (Buber, 1965 p. 90).
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CHAPTER 8
PHASES OF THE MENTORING RELATIONSHIP:
TWO DEVELOPMENTAL MODELS
We guide by calling to mind men and women in whom the Great Vision becomes
visible: people with whom we can identify, yet people who have broken out of the
constraints of their time and place and have moved into unknown fields with great
courage and confidence.
Henri J. M. Nouwen (1977, p. 65)
The literature on mentoring reveals the phenomenon to be an interaction
between two individuals involved in life span development issues (Levinson, 1978;
Alleman, 1982; Merriam, 1983; Daloz, 1987; Wright & Wright, 1987; Kram, 1988;
Jacobi, 1991; Cohen, 1993, 1995a; Schulz, 1995). However, Kram (1988) and
Cohen (1993, 1995a) have studied the developmental aspects of the relationship
itself. They have formulated models which show how the interaction is an
evolutionary process that moves through reasonably distinct phases.
Krams Model
Krams (1988) study of mentoring is about relationships in organizations.
Specifically, she is concerned with the various forms of developmental relationships
that can exist in work settings. Her consideration of mentoring deals with its
functions as well as its phases. From her review of the literature, Kram sees two
broad categories of functions emerge: career functions and psychosocial functions.
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Career functions are those aspects of the relationship that enhance learning the
ropes and preparing for advancement in an organization, while psychosocial
functions are those aspects of a relationship that enhance a sense of competence,
clarity of identity, and effectiveness in a professional role (p. 22). The five career
functions that are instrumental for advancement up the hierarchy of an organization
include sponsorship, exposure and visibility, coaching, protection, and challenging
work assignments. The four psychosocial functions, which involve support and
guidance for the individual on a personal level, are role modeling, acceptance and
confirmation, counseling, and friendship. However, Kram is careful to admit to the
dynamic character of the phenomenon:
A description that includes only these mentoring functions is... static and
incomplete. Developmental relationships... are characterized by an
evolutionary process; the functions provided, individual experiences, and the
quality of interactions vary with time. (p. 47-48)
With this dynamic perspective that deals with the changes in the mentor-
mentee relationship over time, Kram (1988) describes four phases: initiation,
cultivation, separation, and redefinition. She derives these from interviews with
eighteen pairs of managers who were involved in hierarchical developmental
relationships that provided a range of mentoring functions. Each phase is defined
with examples of the most frequently observed psychological and organizational
factors, turning points (p. 49), that cause movement into the next phase. From her
research, Kram posits that developmental tasks, personal and professional concerns
67


of both individuals, and the organizational context influence the quality of the
interaction between the two individuals.
The Initiation Phase lasts from six to twelve months as the relationship
begins and becomes important to both individuals. Each is looking for something in
the other as a fantasy emerges (Kram, 1988, p. 51). The mentee admires the
potential mentor as a respected support and guide and an object for positive
identification. The senior manager sees someone who is teachable, enjoyable to
work with, and a means of carrying on her or his values and perspectives.
Confirming events transform initial fantasies into concrete positive expectations
(p. 52).
These positive expectations are tested against reality during the Cultivation
Phase, which lasts from two to five years. At this stage, both individuals discover
the real value of relating to each other. The career and psychosocial functions
provided during this phase vary due to differences in individual developmental
needs, individual capacities to engage in trusting relationships, mutuality, and
intimacy, as well as organizational features (Kram, 1988, p. 53). However, the
mentoring functions tend to peak in the Cultivation Phase. The mentee develops a
sense of competence, self-worth, and mastery; and the mentor feels the satisfaction
of knowing he or she has positively influenced an individuals development.
Changes in career and psychosocial needs and organizational circumstances
disrupt the equilibrium of the Cultivation Phase, and the relationship enters a
68


Separation Phase. This stage begins after about two to five years into the
relationship. At times, the separation happens due to a structural change in the
organization. Often, the mentee simply desires new independence and autonomy.
Kram (1988) argues, If the separation is untimely for either individual, feelings of
abandonment, anger, or resentment dominate the experience during this phase (p.
57). Regardless of the reason, the relationship is redefined as the mentee loses the
direct support of the mentor and the mentor loses significant influence over the
mentee.
Last, the Redefinition Phase evolves after an indefinite period of time
following the Separation Phase. Since the mentor relationship is no longer needed in
its previous form, it takes on a new meaning. At times, the relationship ends;
sometimes, it takes on attributes of a friendship or peer status.
Cohens Model
Cohen (1993) considers the mentoring relationship in education to be a
process of phases. His research is grounded in transactional learning theory and
adult counseling models. In developing the Principle of Adult Mentoring Scale, the
blend of specific mentor behavioral competencies essential for the nurturing of a
mentoring relationship was viewed as occurring in a developmental process evolving
through reasonably distinct phases (p. 86-87). Six mentor functionsrelationship,
information, facilitation, confrontation, mentor modeling, and student visionare
69


presented as occurring during Early, Middle, Later, and Last Phases of mentoring
adult students. The following are the definitions and purposes of the mentor
functions appropriate to each phase as Cohen views them
In the Early Phase, the faculty mentor emphasizes the relationship behaviors.
This relationship emphasis conveys, through active, empathetic listening, a genuine
understanding and acceptance of the students feelings. Its purpose is to create a
psychological climate of trust which allows students to honestly share and reflect
upon their personal experiences as adult students.
In the Middle Phase, the faculty mentor emphasizes the information function.
Here, the mentor directly requests detailed information from and offers specific
suggestions to students about their current career plans and progress in achieving
personal, academic, and career goals. Its purpose is to ensure that advice offered is
based on accurate and sufficient knowledge of individual differences.
In the Later Phase, the faculty mentor emphasizes the facilitative and
confrontive dimensions. The facilitative focus guides students through a reasonably
in-depth review and explanation of their interests, abilities, ideas, and beliefs. Its
purpose is to assist students in considering alternative views while reaching then-
own decisions about attainable personal, academic, and career objectives. The
confrontive capacity respectfully challenges students explanations for or avoidance
of decisions and actions relevant to their development as adult learners. Its purpose
70


is to help students attain insight into counter-productive behaviors and to evaluate
their need and capacity to change.
In the Last Phase, the faculty mentor emphasizes the mentor model and
student vision functions. The mentor model capacity allows the mentor to share
appropriate life experiences and feelings as a role model to students in order to
personalize and enrich the relationship. Its purpose is to motivate students to take
necessary risks and to continue to overcome difficulties in their own journey toward
academic and career goals. The student vision function stimulates students critical
thinking with regard to envisioning their own future and to developing personal and
professional potential Its purpose is to encourage students as they manage personal
change to take initiatives in their transitions through life as independent learners.
Cohens (1993) mentoring model with its developmental phases, is meant to
point out objectives which are generally typical of each stage. Furthermore, the
model can recommend the mentor behaviors often considered the most appropriate
for each phase of the relationship. However, it is not meant to suggest a rigid
sequence which would limit mentoring interaction to prescribed behaviors within a
specific phase (p. 85).
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CHAPTER 9
ANSWERS TO THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Mentors are growers, good farmers rather than inventors or mechanics. Growers
have to accept that the main ingredients and processes with which they work are not
under their own control. They are in a patient partnership with nature, with an eye to
the weather and a feeling for cultivation. A recognition that seeds sometimes fall on
barren ground, a willingness to keep trying, a concern for the growing thing,
patience-such are the virtues of the grower. And the mentor.
John W. Gardner (1990, pp. 169-170)
This study investigated the phenomenon of mentoring adults through the foci
of two research questions: First, do theoretical constructs in cognitive, behavioral,
and affective counseling and educational psychology validate the three mentoring
relationships in Stratton and Owens Mentoring Model (1993)? Second, from this
study, what, if any, new definition of mentoring emerges? The procedure for
determining the answers to these questions was a three-path philosophic inquiry:
Inquiry of the Literatures, Integration of the Themes into Patterns, and Interpretation
of the Model and New Definition (Figure 5.1, Figure 5.2). This was not a linear
process in which a path always followed another one consecutively. Rather, the
paths often ran parallel to one another simultaneously; and, at times, they converged
and became one.
Based on this three-path philosophic inquiry, the two research questions were
answered. First, the study concluded that theoretical constructs in cognitive,
72


behavioral, and affective counseling and educational psychology do validate the
three mentoring relationships in Stratton and Owens Mentoring Model (1993).
Second, the study concluded that a new definition of mentoring did emerge.
Interpretation of the Mentoring Relationships
in Stratton and Owens Model
Stratton and Owens model (1993) (Figure 3.1) was chosen for this
philosophic inquiry into the adult mentoring relationship because of its holistic
portrayal of mentoring: its relationships, areas, and functions. However, because
this study deals specifically with the relationship between the mentor and mentee,
only that component of the model was selected for validation- The theoretical
framework for interpreting the mentoring relationships in Stratton and Owens model
was a philosophic one that followed the three facets Phenix (1986) outlines:
analysis, evaluation, and synthesis. Each of these components addressed an
interpretive query.
First, analysis answered, What does this expression (model) mean? This
facet of interpretation entailed identifying and describing the theories which support
the teacher, role model, and nurturing caregiver relationships in Stratton and Owens
Mentoring Model (1993). An analysis of the literature on mentoring theories
revealed that mentoring relationships tend to fall into three definitive patterns: the
mentor as teacher, role model, and nurturing caregiver. Further, an analysis of the
73


literature on the major counseling and educational psychology theories showed that
they gather into three broad patterns: cognitive, behavioral, and affective.
Second, evaluation answered, How may the validity of this egression
(model) be established? In this study, evaluation was carried out through three
norms of validation as outlined by Kaplan (1964): correspondence, coherence, and
pragmatic. The correspondence component verified that the relationships in Stratton
and Owens Mentoring Model (1993) are semantical. They do fit into their own sets
of facts and presuppositions. This support is revealed through analyses of mentoring
theories as well as counseling and educational psychology theories. Also, the
coherence component determined that the models relationships are syntactical.
Clearly, they do fit into already established bodies of knowledge. This validation
was accomplished by analyses of the supporting theories mentioned above. Finally,
the pragmatic component substantiated that the models relationships are functional.
This facet dealt with how the relationships may be applied and in what situations
they would work. It is explained in the Significance of This Study section. Also,
the pragmatic component considered what new research questions the study of these
relationships brings forth. This component is explained in the Recommendations
for Future Inquiries section.
Third, synthesis answered, How can connections among the thematic patterns
be established in order to form a single, comprehensive model? This facet of
interpretation constituted identifying, explaining, and integrating the thematic
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patterns found in the literatures on mentoring and the three major approaches to
counseling and educational psychology. It involved linking the mentoring
relationshipsteacher, role model, and nurturing caregiverwith the cognitive,
behavioral, and affective approaches to counseling and educational psychology. The
teacher relationship was linked to the cognitive approach, the role model relationship
was linked to the behavior approach, and the nurturing caregiver relationship was
linked to the affective approach. As these connections were accomplished, they
validated the three mentoring relationships in Stratton and Owens Mentoring Model
(1993). These linkages also supported the creation of a new, holistic definition of
mentoring: Mentoring is a mutual love relationship in which a person, as teacher,
role model, and nurturing caregiver, invests her or his life in another toward that
persons comprehensive development.
Analysis of the New Definition of Mentoring
This new, holistic definition of mentoring is grounded in mentoring theories,
as well as counseling and educational psychology theories. It includes the three
mentoring relationships in Stratton and Owens model (1993) which were validated
in this study. The terms used in the definition were carefully selected and analyzed
for precision of meaning. Figure 9.1 lists these terms and the literature that supports
each one.
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FIGURE 9.1
Literature-based Analysis of the
New Definition of Mentoring
Mentoring is a mutual love relationship in which a person, as teacher, role model,
and nurturing caregiver, invests her or his life in another toward that persons
comprehensive development.
Term/Phrase Supporting literature
Mutual Buber, 1958,1965a; Clawson, 1980; Cohen £ Galbraith, 1995; Gehrke, 1988; Hardcastle, 1988; Healy £ Welchert, 1990; Jacobi, 1991
Love Anderson £ Shannon, 1988; Biehl, 1996; Buber, 1923/1958; Davis, 1991; Gehrke, 1988; Hillman, 1996; Levinson, 1978; Meniam, 1983; Sellner, 1990; Stratton & Owens, 1993
Teacher Alleman, 1989; Anderson £ Shannon, 1988; Bass, 1990; Cohen, 1993,1995a, 1995b; Daloz, 1986,1990; Daloz & Edelson, 1992; Galbraith £ Cohen, 1995b; Hawkey, 1997; Lester £ Johnson, 1981; Levinson, 1978; Stratton £ Owens, 1993; Zey, 1991
Role model Anderson £ Shannon, 1988; Bass, 1990; Biehl, 1996; Cohen 1993,1995a, 1995b; Daloz, 1986, 1990; DeCoster £ Brown, 1982; Galbraith £ Cohen, 1995b; Hawkey, 1997; Kaufinann, Hanoi, Milam, Woolverton, £ Miller, 1986; Lester & Johnson, 1981; Levinson, 1978; Stratton & Owens, 1993
Nurturing Anderson £ Shannon, 1988; Biehl, 1996; Cohen 1993,1995a, 1995b; Daloz, 1986,1990;
caregiver Davis, 1991; DeCoster £ Brown, 1982; Galbraith £ Cohen, 1995b; Hawkey, 1997; Kaufinann, Hanel, Milam, Woolverton, £ Miller, 1986; Lester £ Johnson, 1981; Levinson, 1978; Sellner, 1990; Stratton £ Owens, 1993; Wright £ Wright, 1987
Invests her or his Biehl, 1996; Davis, 1991; Schulz, 1995; Zey, 1991. Reciprocity Acting as a Mentor, 1995;
life in another Bova £ Phillips, 1984; Coben £ Galbraith, 1995; Daloz, 1990; Davis, 1991; DeCoster £ Brown, 1982; Galbraith £ Cohen, 1995b; Healy £ Welchert, 1990; Lester £ Johnson, 1981; Levinson, 1978; Schulz, 1995; Sellner, 1990; Stratton £ Owens, 1993; Terrell, Hassell, £ Duggar, 1992; Wright £ Wright, 1987; Zey, 1991
Comprehensive Anderson £ Shannon, 1988; Clawson, 1980; DeCoster £ Brown, 1982; Gehrke, 1988; Hardcastle, 1988; Jacobi, 1991; Lester 7 Johnson, 1981, Stratton £ Owens, 1993
Development Anderson £ Shannon, 1988; Bloom, 1995; Bova £ Phillips, 1984; Cohen, 1993; Cohen, 1995a, 1995b; Cohen £ Galbraith, 1995; Daloz, 1986,1990; Daloz £ Edelson, 1992; DeCoster £ Brown, 1982; Galbraith £ Cohen, 1995b; Gehrke, 1988; Golian, 1995; Hawkey, 1997,1998; Healy £ Welchert, 1990; Kratn, 1988; Lester £ Johnson, 1981; Meniam, 1983; Powell, 1969; Schulz, 1995; Sellner, 1990; Stratton £ Owens, 1993; Wright £ Wright, 1987
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The following word-by-word analysis supports the terms that make up the
new definition: Mentoring is a mutual love relationship in which a person, as
teacher, role model, and nurturing caregiver, invests her or his life in another toward
that persons comprehensive development.
Mutual. The degree of mutuality in a mentoring relationship helps define its
level of intensity and intimacy. Thus, the higher level of mutuality in the mentor-
protege relationship distinguishes it from other helping alliances (Clawson, 1980).
The mentoring relationship cannot be one-sided. Rather, it must be chosen, valued,
and warmly regarded by both the mentor and the mentee. Healy and Welchert
(1990) view mutual exchange as a sine qua non of mentoring (p. 18). Clawson,
reflecting on the etymology of mentoring, asserts that the first mentor-protege
relationship had high levels of mutual respect, trust, and affectionall of which
contributed to the mutual commitment to the relationship (p. 146).
Love. Levinson (1978) contends that mentoring is best understood as a
form of love relationship (p. 100). The English language has but one word for
expressing the concept of love. Given various culturally-based connotations of the
word love, this fact may limit its acceptance in a definition of adult mentoring. The
ancient Greek language, on the other hand, provides at least four words for love
which may broaden ones understanding of its application here: storge. philos. eros.
and agape. Storge communicates the idea of family love or affection. Philos
signifies a warm love in connection with friendship. Eros indicates physical love; it
77


requires merit of the one loved and desires to possess. Agape, however, is a self-
giving love that is not merited, nor does it want to possess. In contrasting these
latter two forms of love, Elwell suggests that although eras does not always have a
bad connotation, certainly agape is far more lofty in that it seeks the highest good in
the one loved, even though that one may be undeserving (1984, p. 657).
The mentor-protege relationship, with its I-Thou encounters and its elements
of mutuality, comprehensiveness, abiding affection, unconditional love, and
acceptance has much in common with other loving relationships, such as friendship,
romantic love, and parental love (Gehrke, 1988). As such, it offers a model of adult
intimacy that is nonsexual (Sellner, 1990)). Biehl (1996) describes the alliance as a
bonding of hearts (p. 22) and encourages the mentor to see the protege as family
and to make a heart commitment to stay deep friends for the long term (p. 123).
He encourages the mentor to grab on and hold on to this young person even when
things dont go so well. Choose someone you can imagine yourself still committed
to [until] the day you die (p. 123).
Teacher. The function of the teacher relationship in mentoring is the
cognitive development of the mentee: acquisition of knowledge and intellectual
competence. The mentor as teacher assists the learner in developing as a critical
thinker (Daloz, 1990). To this end, the mentor may provide new ways of thinking
about the world by suggesting the use of new conceptual language such as metaphors
and by serving as a mirror which helps the mentee see his or her actions from an
78


alternative viewpoint (Daloz, 1986). In so doing, the mentor offers new cognitive
maps which allow for imagining alternatives and questioning underlying
assumptions (Brookfield, 1987).
This process of developing critical thinking enables the student to leave what
Daloz (1986) asserts is the shell of absolute certainty (p. 228). He believes the
movement from either-or choices to polarities is a common preparation for
transformation to dialectical thinking. As a teacher, the mentors art lies in the
ability to communicate knowledge and experience to the protege in a challenging but
supportive manner, especially in personal, social, career, and spiritual areas of living
(Stratton & Owens, 1993).
Role model. In addition to being a teacher, the mentor serves as a role model
for the proteges behavioral development. Though not perfect in performance, the
mentor exemplifies the values he or she teaches. The mentor is an exemplar because
he or she is perceived to have knowledge, skills, and proficiencies in the
personal/social, career, and spiritual areas of life which are desired by the mentee
(Stratton & Owens, 1993).
As a result, influence is by observation, but not from a distance (Cohen,
1995a). Daloz (1986) calls this sharing ourselves (p. 220). Mentors become
participant role models by sharing appropriate life experiences. Such self-
disclosures, when related to the mentees present circumstances, personalize and
enrich the relationship. This provides an opportunity for a special kind of
79


individualized learning, one with the potential to be a positive motivational influence
(Cohen, 1995a). Furthermore, Daloz (1986) suggests that the mentor is providing a
transformational vision by modeling the person the mentee wants to become.
Nurturing caregiver. Besides being involved in the mentees cognitive and
behavioral development as teacher and role model, respectively, the mentor relates
with the mentee on an affective level as a nurturing caregiver. As an anamchara. the
mentor is a soul friend who is mature, compassionate, respectful of others, able to
keep confidentiality, willing to self-disclose, able to reflect on personal questions and
experiences, and able to discern the heart (Sellner, 1990). As a metaphorical
gatekeeper and guide on a transformational journey, the mentor not only challenges
and provides vision but gives support (Daloz, 1986). He or she also demonstrates
unconditional love and acceptance and offers empathy and encouragement (Davis,
1991).
The mentor is a transitional figure in the development of the mentees life,
believing in her or him, facilitating and sharing the mentees dream of the future, and
helping to define the newly emerging self in its newly discovered world (Levinson,
1978, p. 98). Such an interpersonal relationship cultivates the development of
identity (Daloz, 1986; Levinson, 1978) and a reliable self-image (Fowler & Keen,
1978) for the protege. Finally, as the mentor communicates concern and caring, a
nurturing environment evolves that fosters receptivity to teaching and openness to
influence by an esteemed model (Stratton & Owens, 1993).
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Invests her or his life in another. When considering who would be an ideal
potential protege, one should look for a person worthy of the investment of your life
energy (Biehl, 1996, p. 122). A mentor, declares Davis (1991), is one who
pours his life into others, and is willing even to pour his life out for others....
Mentoring is the process of investing our lives in those who come after us (p. 203).
In his Hierarchy of Mentoring, Zey (1991) recognizes four levels of mentoring
activities, each with its own investment and risk. The higher the level of mentoring,
and the greater its concomitant benefits, the greater the investment of the mentor
(p. 9).
The activity at Level 1 is teaching. Here, the foremost investment is the time
that the instruction requires. Level 2 involves the mentor investing personal support
or psychological counseling for the protege. At this level, the mentor is not only
giving time, but is offering herself or himself emotionally as well. Level 3 commits
the mentor to intercede on behalf of the mentee, to run interference for her or him
where needed. At this level, the mentors judgement and reputation can be at
formidable risk. Finally, the largest investment, and, therefore, the greatest risk
occurs at Level 4 in which the mentor goes so far as to sponsor the mentee. Now,
because of established belief in the protege, the mentor may become something of a
patron and guarantor. On this plane, more than at any of the three lower levels, the
mentor places her or his lifes reputation and career on the line.
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The word invests suggests the reciprocal aspect of mentoring in which both
the mentor and the mentee profit from this interpersonal alliance. Such a notion of
reciprocity is strongly supported and described throughout the literature on
mentoring (Acting as a Mentor, 1995; Bova & Phillips, 1984; Cohen & Galbraith,
1995; Daloz, 1990; Davis, 1991; DeCoster & Brown, 1982; Galbraith & Cohen,
1995b; Healy & Welchert, 1990; Lester & Johnson, 1981; Levinson, 1978; Schulz,
1995; Sellner, 1990; Stratton & Owens, 1993; Terrell, Hassell, & Duggar, 1992;
Wright & Wright, 1987; Zey, 1991). Schulz (1995) believes that a synergism exists
in the mentor relationship.
Benefits of mentorship for the protege have been documented in this study.
The mentee, in partnership with a mentor who serves as teacher, role model, and
nurturing caregiver gains cognitive, behavioral, and affective development. This
growth occurs in personal, social, career, and spiritual areas of life because the
protege has the mentor as a one-to-one private tutor.
Through the mentoring relationship, the mentor also receives benefits.
Sellner (1990) contends, One of the greatest awarenesses that comes to those who
mentor is the recognition of how much we receive from those who have sought us
out (p. 138). The principal rewards for the mentor may have their basis in Eriksons
(1968) stage theory of life development. Individuals in their mid thirties and beyond
need to experience a sense of personal generativity that amounts to a concern for
establishing and guiding the next generation (p. 138). The alternative to
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generativity is stagnation. Apparently, this need can be achieved through helping
relationships such as parent-child, master-apprentice, and teacher-student, as well as
through the classic mentoring role (Acting as a Mentor, 1995; Bova & Phillips,
1984; DeCoster & Brown, 1982; Lester & Johnson, 1981; Levinson, 1978; Schultz,
1995; Wright & Wright, 1987). The mentoring relationship affords the mentor an
opportunity to experience the intrinsic value of contributing to the proteges progress
toward her or his goals. Through this, the mentor achieves a sense of
accomplishment by influencing the next generation. Without some way to make a
meaningful contribution to society, mature adults experience stagnation and loss
(Schultz, 1995, p. 60). Finally, Schultz (1995) summarizes the mutual investment
and benefits that both mentor and protege receive:
For there to be a mentoring relationship, there must be a shared initiative and
a willingness of both people to invest their time, energy, emotions, and
themselves. Two people have to agree to work together. It should not be
surprising that the results would be shared personal enhancement, growth,
and satisfaction.... (Schultz, p. 58)
Comprehensive. Like mutuality, the degree of comprehensiveness in a
mentoring relationship helps define its level of intensity and intimacy. Thus, the
higher level of comprehensiveness in the mentor-protege relationship distinguishes it
from other helping alliances (Clawson, 1980). Hardcastle (1988) elaborates on this
characteristic of significant mentorships:
Mentors regard for their proteges is not confined to a single dimension of
their proteges lives-their work, intellectual development, personal lives, or
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spiritual growth- All aspects and the interplay between them contribute to the
wholeness of the proteges and thus are of concern to their mentors, (p. 202)
This refers to the all-encompassing nature of the relationship that involves the
mentor in the proteges total life, helping her or him to establish a whole life vision
(Gehrke, 1988, p. 45).
Development. Development of the protege is the characteristic of mentoring
that is most often mentioned in the literature. For examples, Levinson (1978) argues
that the mentor relationship is one of the most developmentally important
relationships a person can have in early adulthood (p. 97), and Daloz (1990)
contends that the aim of effective mentorship is to promote the development of the
learner (p. 206). In this regard, Daloz and Edelson (1992) point out three
dimensions that they believe define development. First, development has to do with
the interaction of internal and external forces. It is not only maturation from within
or response to stimuli from without; both nature and nurture are involved. Second,
individuals, as they develop, become increasingly complex and differentiated. They
move from relatively simple, monolithic forms given to global, generalized
responses, toward the growth of more highly distinct yet integrated parts and
functions (p. 30). Thus, they acquire a capacity for appropriate responses to the
environment. Third, developing individuals have an increasing capacity to act
collaboratively in the interest of the whole. They grow less and less self-centered as
they come to interact more fully in a complex world (p. 30). In sum,
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comprehensive development of the mentee may be said to include cognitive,
behavioral, and affective growth:
[It is] an increase in the ability to perceive and hold complexity, to tolerate
ambiguity, to experience ones own and others feeling more richly, to see
oneself and others in a broader context, and to make wholehearted
commitment in a complex, tentative, and interdependent world. (Daloz, 1990,
p. 206)
In addition, as a means of guiding a holistic approach for mentor-student
relationships, the Student Development Mentoring-Transcript Project at the
University of Nebraska has outlined six major facets that define comprehensive
development of the protege (DeCoster & Brown, 1982, p. 10):
1. Personal identity and lifestyle: sense of purpose, personal value systems,
career planning, self-assessment and goal-setting skills, decision-making and
problem-solving skills.
2. Interpersonal competencies and relationships: communication skills,
ability to understand and empathize, capacity to assist and provide emotional
support, group work, leadership skills.
3. Academic skills and intellectual competencies: ability to participate in
independent learning, use successful study skills, attain cognitive growth through
structured learning experiences, master specific vocational skills.
4. Aesthetic awareness: appreciation of the arts, including music, art, and
literature; sense of personal competency and participation in the arts.
5. Health, physical fitness, and recreation: knowledge of health, fitness,
85


and nutritional information; recreational, athletic, and leisure skills.
6. Multicultural awareness: sensitivity and understanding of the diversity of
values, perspectives, and lifestyles of different cultures; ability to interact effectively
in a pluralistic society.
Conclusion
This new definition benefits the conceptualization of the adult mentoring
relationship in several ways:
1. It takes into account the findings of this philosophical inquiry and
includes the validated relationships in Stratton and Owens Mentoring Model
(1993). This study has shown that theoretical constructs in cognitive, behavioral,
and affective counseling and educational psychology validate the three mentoring
relationships in Stratton and Owens model: teacher, role model, and nurturing
caregiver. By including these mentoring relationships, this definition holistically
promotes the cognitive, behavioral, and affective development of the protege.
2. It clearly conceptualizes the phenomenon rather than being vague and
ambiguous (Anderson & Shannon, 1988; Galbraith & Cohen, 1995; Healy &
Welchert, 1990; Jacobi, 1991; Merriam, 1983; Rodriguez, 1995; Stratton & Owens,
1993). In clarifying what is meant by the phenomenon, research can distinguish it
from other alliances, focus on the dynamics of the mentor-mentee relationship,
86


discern motivations behind the formation of the partnership, and study positive and
negative outcomes associated with it.
3. It takes into account the essence of the word in the light of its
etymological and historical derivation (Anderson & Shannon, 1988; Stratton &
Owens, 1993).
4. It is based on a theoretical framework for organizing the various
mentoring functions and behaviors found within the definition (Anderson &
Shannon, 1988; Stratton & Owens, 1993).
5. It differentiates the comprehensive, caring mentoring relationship from
other more nominal role-based relationships with which it is often confused.
Drawing upon Bubers notion of I-Thou, the definition presents a classical
conceptualization of mentoring.
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CHAPTER 10
SUMMARY OF THE INQUIRY
I say to the world, I will be an instrument of God in the continuing act of
creation, and the world fulfills in me its side of the covenant. It brings forth in me
the new creation. In the end, we have to say that the exercising of gifts has to do
with love, which is a reciprocal relationship. We are addressed by love, and we
love.
Elizabeth OConnor (1971, p. 10)
This study was conducted as a philosophic inquiry into the adult mentoring
relationship. Two questions provided foci for the research: First, do theoretical
constructs in cognitive, behavioral, and affective counseling and educational
psychology validate the three mentoring relationships in Stratton and Owens
Mentoring Model (1993)? Second, from this study, what, if any, new definition of
mentoring emerges?
The research design followed a three-path process: Inquiry of the Literatures,
Integration of the Themes into Patterns, and Interpretation of the Model and New
Definition. It was not a linear process in which a path always followed another one
consecutively. Rather, the paths often ran parallel to one another simultaneously;
and, at times, they converged and became one. This same sense of confluence was
true of the trails (facets and phases) inside each of the three main paths.
The Inquiry of the Literatures was a phenomenological analysis of the
literatures on mentoring and those on counseling and educational psychology. This
88