Citation
An analysis of knowledge and skill needs of future law enforcement administrators as perceived by current law enforcement administrators

Material Information

Title:
An analysis of knowledge and skill needs of future law enforcement administrators as perceived by current law enforcement administrators
Creator:
Earle, James H ( James Hu )
Place of Publication:
Denver, Colo.
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xii, 205 leaves : forms ; 29 cm

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Doctor of Public Administration)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
School of Public Affairs, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Public Administration
Committee Chair:
Buechner, John C.
Committee Members:
Archibald, Kathleen A.
Gavin, William A.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Police administration -- United States ( lcsh )
Police administration ( fast )
United States ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 154-161).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Doctor of Public Administration, Graduate School of Public Affairs.
General Note:
School of Public Affairs
Statement of Responsibility:
by James H. Earle.

Record Information

Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
14080354 ( OCLC )
ocm14080354
Classification:
LD1190.P86 1984d .E27 ( lcc )

Full Text
AN ANALYSIS OF KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL NEEDS
OF FUTURE LAW ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATORS
AS PERCEIVED BY CURRENT LAW ENFORCEMENT
ADMINISTRATORS
by
James H. Earle
B.S., California State University at Fresno, 1960
M.A.E., InterAmerican University, 1973
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of Public Affairs of the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Public Administration
Graduate School of Public Affairs
1984


^opyri ght by
James H. Earle, 1984
All Rights Reserved
\


This these for the Doctor of Public Administration
degree by
James H. Earle
has been approved for the
Graduate School
of Public Affairs
by
William A. Gavin
Date


Earle, James H. Earle (D.P.A. Public Administration)
An Analysis of Knowledge and Skill Needs of Future Law Enforcement
Administrators as Perceived by Current Law Enforcement
Administrators
Thesis directed by Professor John C. Buechner
The traditional role of the Chief Law Enforcement
Administrator has been that of the "top cop." His primary task has
been to develop effective responses to law enforcement problems.
The needs of society in the 21st century, however, demand a
change in that role. Now the Chief Law Enforcement Administrator is
being asked to become a management specialist as well as a law
enforcement specialist and to expand his expertise to areas of long-
range planning and forecasting as well as administration. The need
for such an expanded and more sophisticated role is we11-documented
in the literature. The major problem of defining what future needs
must be addressed and what knowledge and skills will be required is
examined in this study.
Major city Police Chiefs and Sheriffs were surveyed by
questionnaire to determine what they defined as the major problems
they face today and what problems they anticipate facing within the
next decade. They were further questioned as to what knowledge and
skills they believe the law enforcement administrator of the future
should possess.
Participants identified the development and establishment of
policy and program priorities, financial administration, and human


relations as current administrative problems. They anticipated the
same problems would exist in the future, but with increasing
emphasis on financial administration.
Knowledge of legal responsibility, knowledge of political
climate and trends, knowledge of principles of budgeting were cited
as the major future knowledge and skills required by law enforcement
administrators.
These findings agree in substance with the findings of Watt
et al. in their study of perceptions of future problems by City
Managers.
Participants perceived the role of the future Chief Law
Enforcement Administrator to be complex; a role in which the
administrator will have to function in a public environment much
more demanding than in previous years. To allow the law enforcement
administrator to acquire the knowledge and skills required in a
demanding position a carefully planned development program must be
established which begins when the officer enters training and
systematically affords him opportunities to acquire and refine top-
management skills as he progresses in his career.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its
publication.
Signed
Faculty member in charge of thesis


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I wish to thank the faculty of the Graduate School of
Public Affairs for their assistance and encouragement, especially
Professors Lyle Sumek, Dale Neugarten, Nick Pijoan, and Phil
Burgess.
I wish to express my gratitude to the members of n\y
committee Professors John C. Buechner and Kathleen A. Archibald
of the Graduate School of Public Affairs, University of Colorado
and William A. Gavin, the practitioner member. Their suggestions
and encouragement was most helpful in the completion of this thesis
I wish to express my appreciation to Dr. Charles Steinmetz
and Mr. Edward Tulley of the F.B.I. Academy and Arthur G. Dill,
former Chief of Police, Denver, Colorado, for their guidance and
support.
I would also like to give special thanks to Betty Overfield
and Jeanie Urestti who provided valuable assistance in the typing
and proofing of this thesis.
Finally, I would like to express my thanks to my son, Mike,
for his support and encouragement.
April 1984
James H. Earle


VI 1
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION ............................................. 1
Purpose ................................................ 2
Need for Management Development of Law Enforcement
Administrators ........................................ 2
Watt et al Study of City Managers.......... 8
II. LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................... 12
The Need for Better Managers............... 13
The Specific Need for Police Administrators in
the Future............................................ 18
.The State of the Art: Existing Executive
Development Programs ............................... 24
The Need for Police Executive Training in the
Future.................................................33
Summary............................ ..................37
III. METHOD....................................................42
Population..............................................42
Survey Instrument .................... 44
Methods Used to Increase Response Rate.......45
Response Rate...........................................46
IV. DATA ANALYSIS............................................ 48
Introduction .......................................... 48
Demographic Data....................................... 51
Analysis of Current Administrative Problems i . . 60


VI 1 1
Analysis of Future Administrative Problems ........... 65
Analysis of Future Knowledge and Skill Needs .... 71
Analysis of Responses By Age of Chief Law
Enforcement Administrators ........................... 84
Analysis of Responses By Level of Education .... 93
Analysis of Responses By Size of Department .... 102
Analysis of Responses By Years of Experience
in Law Enforcement....................................Ill
Analysis of Responses by Geographic Location .... 119
Analysis of Responses By Police Chiefs and
Sheriffs........................................... 129
A Comparison of the Findings of This Study
With Those of Watt et al. and Kerrigan et al. . 137
V. CONCLUSIONS.............................................142
Current Administrative Problems ..................... 143
The Role of the Law Enforcement Administrator ... 144
Need for Future Knowledge and Skills..................145
Summary...............................................146
Recommendations ..................................... 146
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................ 154
APPENDIX......................................................162
A. POLICE AND SHERIFF'S DEPARTMENTS INCLUDED IN THE
STUDY SAMPLE.............................................163
B. QUESTIONNAIRE.......................................... 171
C. CODE BOOK OF RESPONSES..................................182
D. NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF RESPONSES BY IMPORTANCE ... 198


IX
TABLES
Table
I. Numbers and Percentages of Returns....................50
II. Numbers and Percentages of Returns by Agency ... 50
III. Location of Agency ...... ............. 52
IV. Years in Present Position ........................... 53
V. Years in Law Enforcement..............................53
VI. Age of Respondents....................................54
VII. Number of Personnel Supervised ............. 55
VIII. Level of Education....................................56
IX. Perception of Importance of Current Management
and Administrative Problems ....................... 61
X. Current Management/Administrative Problems .... 64
XI. Perception of Importance of Future Management
and Administrative Problems ....................... 68
XII. Future Management/Administrative Problems ........ 70
XIII. Perception of Improtance of Future Management
and Administrative Knowledge ............. 76
XIV. Perception of Importance of Future Management
and Administrative Skills ......................... 79
XV. Future Management/Administrative Knowledge .... 81
XVI. Future Management/Administrative Skills ......... 83
XVII. Current Management and Administrative Problems
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Chronological Age............................................86


X
Tables (continued)
XVIII. Future Management and Administrative Problems
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Chronological Age.............................................. 88
XIX. Future Management and. Administrative Skills
Perceived as Very Important Respondents
By Chronological Age........................................ 90
XX. Future Management and Administrative Knowledge
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Chronological Age.......................................... 92
XXI. Current Management and Administrative Problems
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Level of Education................................ 97
XXII. Future Management and Administrative Problems
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Level of Education................................. 98
XXIII. Future Management and Administrative Skills
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Level of Education ;............................... 99
XXIV. Future Management and Administrative Knowledge
Perceived as Very Important Respondents by
Level of Education.................................100
XXV. Current Management and Administrative Problems
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Size of Department...............................103
XXVI. Future Management and Administrative Problems
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Size of Department...............................106
XXVII. Future Management and Administrative Skills
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Size of Department...............................107
XXVIII. Future Management and Administrative Knowledge
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Size of Department...............................109
XXIX. Current Management and Administrative Problems
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Years of Experience..........................................113


xi
Tables (continued)
XXX. Future Management and Administrative Problems
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Years of Experience...............................114
XXXI. Future Management and Administrative Skills
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Years of Experience...............................117
XXXII. Future Management and Administrative Knowledge
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Years of Experience...............................118
XXXIII. Current Management and Administrative Problems
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Region.......................................................121
XXXIV. Future Management and Administrative Problems
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Region.......................................................123
XXXV. Future Management and Administrative Skills
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Region.............................................125
XXXVI. Future Management and Administrative Knowledge
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By -
Region........................................... 127
XXXVII. Current Management and Administrative Problems
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Chief of Police vs. Sheriff.......................132
XXXVIII. Future Management and Administrative Problems
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Chief of Police vs. Sheriff ..................... 133
XXXIX. Future Management and Administrative Skills.,
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Chief of Police vs. Sheriff........................134
XXXX. Future Management and Administrative Knowledge
Perceived as Very Important Respondents By
Chief of Police vs. Sheriff.......................135


xn
FIGURE
Figure
1. Demographic Data
59


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
i
In 207 years the United States has changed from a rural,
economically concentric society to a nation characterized by diverse
I
social, economic, and political units.
During this period of rapid economic growth and
technological change the once highly-visible bonding units of
closely-knit communities have become less identifiable as they have
i
been absorbed into a larger, less individualistic, societal
structure. Some of the institutions upon which society must depend
for order and continuity have riot been able to keep pace with the
changes. The law enforcement system is one of those struggling to
keep abreast of the present whi,le trying to identify the needs of
the future.
I
There is general agreement among analysts in the field of
l
law enforcement administration that tomorrow's law enforcement
administrator will be operating; in an even more complex environment
than he is today. Such factors; as increased population, rising
crime rates, more sophisticated1 crimes, and accelerated costs will
challenge the administrator to re-examine.traditional police
methodologies and management techniques. The law enforcement
administrator will be held accountable for increased efficiency,
effectiveness, and productivity.


2
The traditional role of the Chief Law Enforcement
Administrator has been to develop effective responses to law
enforcement problems. The needs of the nation in the 21st century
demand that he be a forecaster and long-range planner.
This dissertation examines the perceptions of current Chief
Law Enforcement Administrators as to the knowledge and skills the
Chief Law Enforcement Administrator will require a decade hence.
Purpose
Two major issues confront law enforcement organizations: To
determine what future problems law enforcement organizations will
face; and, to identify the knowledge and skills future law
enforcement administrators will need to solve these problems.
This dissertation addresses these issues by examining the
reports of current law enforcement administrators as to the nature
of existing problems, as well as recording their perceptions of what
future problems will need to be faced. Their assessment of the
general knowledge and specific skills needed to cope with the
problems of the future are alsoexamined. By determining what the
current Chief Law Enforcement Administrators predict tomorrow's
challenges will be, more effective preparation for future Chief Law
Enforcement Administrators can be devised.
Need for Management Development
of Law Enforcement Administrators
According to the findings of the Management Institute for
Police, Harvard University, an urgent need exists today to


3
strengthen the administration of law enforcement in large
metropolitan areas. With few exceptions, police departments are
finding that the struggle of coping with difficult problems through
existing resources and techniques is a losing battle.
Edward Tully, Executive Director of the National Executive
Institute,^- noted that the law enforcement administrator of tomorrow
will be deeply involved in dealing with complex societal problems
while simultaneously managing an organization more vastly divers-
ified than at any other time in the history of law enforcement. If
the law enforcement agency of the future is to fulfill its role in
making tomorrow's society liveable and safe, then certainly the
Chief Law Enforcement Administrator for the future must be developed
to the level whereby he can meet these challenges.
Brian Grossman, professor, McGill University, conducted
extensive research studies inthe U.S. and Canada on key police
executives and concluded:
Most Chiefs of Police have had no training or
education appropriate to the executive position
which they now hold. Attempts are now being made to
institute executive and leadership training courses
for police administrators. Whether such courses
will be successful in developing police leadership
poses a question which is, as yet, unanswered.
The executive of any organization is the individual
responsible for organizational goals. He determines major policy
plans and sets the organizational climate for effectiveness and
efficiency. The leadership skills demonstrated by this individual
more often than not determines whether the organization succeeds or
fails. In the public sector, and especially in the area of law
enforcement, the process of executive development will be a critical


4
issue over the next ten years. "Upgrading police leadership",
declared Egon Bittner of Brandeis University, is "a non-deferrable
necessity and every alternative to it is nothing short of the
betrayal of democratic ideals."5
Herman Goldstein, a leading authority on the subject of
police management, noted in 1977:
The common practice of restricting the choice of
police administrators to individuals with police
experience only in the agency for which the specific
choice is being made has perpetuated the insularity
of local police organizations.
Thomas J. Sweeney, Police Projects Director, Institute for
Criminal Justice of the Marshall Wythe School of Law, College of
William and Mary, agrees with Goldstein and Grossman. He suggests
several corrective measures might further the development of more
effective police organizations, including police leadership develop-
ment.5
One of the critical functions of top management in law
enforcement organizations must be to develop current and future
leadership within the organization. The successful law enforcement
organizations in the past have been those which possessed dynamic
and effective leadership. Effective leaders must be developed in
present organizations to insure they will meet the demands of the
future. Management skills for the future will require the law
enforcement administrator to be more efficient, more effective, more
responsive, and more accountable. This will intensify the need for
better executive development programs.
The issue of leadership development has received
considerable attention in the private as well as the public


sector. To forecast just what,skills and knowledge the future law
enforcement administrator will need is a difficult task. Henry
Mintzberg conducted an exhaustive study in an attempt to identify
behavioral patterns of leadership. Mintzberg identified eight areas
of leadership skill:
1. Peer skills the ability to establish and
maintain a network of contacts with equals.
2. Leadership skills the ability to deal with
subordinates and the kinds of complications
that are created by power, authority and
dependence.
3. Conflict-resolution skills the ability to
mediate conflict, to handle disturbances
under psychological stress.
4. Information-processing skills the ability
to build networks, extract and validate
information, and disseminate information
effectively.
5. Skills In unstructured decision making the
ability to find problems and solutions when
alternatives, information, and objectives
are ambiguous.
6. Resource-allocation skills the ability to
decide among alternative uses of time and
other scarce organizational resources.
7. Entrepreneurial skills the ability to take
sensible risks and implement innovations. 8
8. Skills of introspection the ability to
understand the position of a leader and his
impact on the organization.
Skill needs outlined by Mintzberg provide an excellent
framework upon which to build the skill and knowledge training of
the future law enforcement administrator. The changing environment
in which he will function will demand all of the aforementioned
skills.


6
In addressing the problem of developing the future law
enforcement administrator, the International City Management
Association in its series on Local Government Police Management^
pointed out that a critical need existed for competent police
leadership. This group calls for comprehensive action to upgrade
police leadership and administration. It challenges society to meet
the problem of developing future police administrators. Thomas J.
Sweeney states:
While the future forms of operation and
administration seem within our capacity to outline
if not to define, a major question remains
unanswered. The question is whether we, as a
nation, are willing to make the necessary policy
commitment to develop competent administrators and
leaders so that local policing may respond
effectively and innovatively to the needs of a
rapidly changing society.8 :
If law enforcement administrators are to become professional
managers, past experience as a police officer cannot be the sole
criterion for assignment to top law enforcement administrator
positions. A law enforcement administrator must, of necessity,
build on a foundation of experience, but must also acquire modern
public management knowledge and gain experience in current
managerial skills and techniques. The President's Commission on Law
Enforcement and Administration of Justice Report of 1967 cited
critical areas of competence managers should possess. These were
Management by Objectives, Planning, Programming and Budgeting
Systems, Operation Research, and Information Systems. This
knowledge was considered the minimal acceptable level of management
expertise for anyone assuming a key position in management.


7
Perhaps one of the most respected and creative individuals
in a key law enforcement management position is Thomas Reddin,
former Chief of Police of Los Angeles, California. Reddin, in
offering advice about the development of future law enforcement
administrators, depicts the challenges facing them in this
statement:
Times change and we must change with time. The
policeman of the future will be more effective and
will function at a more personal level than in the
past. He will be much more sociologist,
psychologist, and scientist than his present-day
counterpart. He will have many more scientific and
technological aids to assist him.
In short, he will utilize space-age techniques of
the physical sciences coupled with a type of police
work that draws upon the best lessons learned from
the social scientists.
Robert Wasserman and David Couper, both practitioners in the
field of police administration, deal with the issue of skill
requirements of police administrators. They state:
The skills required of the police manager are
even more complex than those required of the first-
line supervisor. And the types of skills required
of the police manager are far more distant from
those at police entrance levels than are those of
lower-level supervisors. There is, however, a
tendency for management-level police personnel to
continue to act as police officers, at worst, and
immediate supervisors, at best. Thus, there is a
need for management-level training to clarifynthe
management role and to provide vital skills.1U
Paul M. Whisenand and R. Fred Ferguson, having worked and
taught in the area of law enforcement, have attempted to provide a
multidimensional approach to effective police administration. They
state:
Leading in modern police organizations requires,
in addition to specific prerequisite skills and


8
experience a knowledge of modern management
theory. 1
The need to develop the skills and knowledge for the future
law enforcement administrator is best sunmarized by the Police Chief
Executive Report:
The job of the police chief executive is becoming
more complex and more demanding, while resources to
do the job are becoming more closely scrutinized.
New problems are emerging that have never before
confronted police chief executives . Concerned
governments, professional law enforcement
organizations, and educational institutions should
establish regional and national programs for the
intellectual enrichment and development of police
chief executives. The programs should be designed
to improve police chief executives' personal skills,
and to inform them of new legislation, improved
techniques and informative programs. 2
Identifying opportunities and methods for these
administrators to obtain managerial skills is a most significant
area of concern. If is, therefore, worthy of careful examination
and research.
Watt et al, Study of City Managers
In 1971j Graham Watt^ and his colleagues conducted a survey
of the leading City Managers in the United States. It was Watt's
belief that these individuals were trendsetters and would provide a
fresh, new approach to assessing the problems of the future and
identifying the knowledge and skills needed to solve them.
In this study, Watt and his colleagues sought to determine
what these officials predicted would be the major problems to be
faced in the future by City Managers and what knowledge and skills
would be necessary to meet these challenges. Watt's respondents


9
identified potential future problems and also defined the knowledge
and the skills the future City Manager would need to acquire and
develop. The work of Watt and his colleagues has provided a
framework upon which management development programs for City
Managers have been designed.
As Watt and others recognized and documented the need to
bring the managerial skill levels of City Managers up to standards
established for the private sector, so others recognized the need
for similar development of managerial skill among Chief Law Enforce-
ment Administrators. Egon Bittner pointed to this problem when he
said, "The police is the only large scale institution in our society
that has not benefited from the advances in the management craft and
i.14
science.
Perhaps that statement is somewhat harsh in light of the
efforts to bring police management into the twenty-first century yet
there is a great deal of truth to what Bittner observed and that is
the problem addressed by this dissertation.


NOTES CHAPTER I
^Edward Tully, Interview, Washington, D.C., June 18, 1980.
2
Brian A. Grossman, Police Command, Decisions and Discretion
(Toronto: Macmillan Company of Canada Ltd., 19'/S), p. 78.
3
Egon Bittner, The Functions of the Police in Modern
Society: A Review of the Background Factors, Current Practices and
Possible Role Models (Cambridge, Massachusetts: OaIgeschlarger,
Gunn & Hain, 1979), p. 60.
^Herman Goldstein, Po1icing a Free Society (Cambridge,
Massachusetts: Ballinger Publishing Company, 1977), pp. 225-256.
5
Thomas J. Sweeney, The Future of Police Service
(Washington, D.C.: Local Government Police Management International
City Management Association, 1977), pp. 497-518.
Henry Mintzberg, The Nature of Managerial Work (New York:
Harper & Row, 1973), p. 26IT !
^Institute for Training in Municipal Administration, Local
Government Police Management, ed. Bernard L. Garmire (Washington,
D.C.: International City Management Association, 1977), p. 97.
O
Thomas J. Sweeney, The Future of Police Service
(Washington, D.C.: Local Government Police Management International
City Management Association, 1977), p. 493.
Q
Thomas Reddin, "The Police, the People, the Future," Los
Angeles Times, 19 May 1968, Sec. G, p. 4. 12
^Robert Wasserman and David Couper, "Police Personnel
Administration," in Police Foundation, ed. 0. Glenn Stahl and
Richard A. Staufenburger (1974), Chapter V.
^Paul M. Whisenand and R. Fred Ferguson, The Managing of
Police Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey! Pretice-Hal1,
Inc., 1973), p. 229.
12
International Association of Chief of Police, Police Chief
Executive Report, A Report of the Police Chief Executive Committee
(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, May 1976).


11
13
Graham W. Watt, John K. Parker, and Robert R. Cantine,
Role of the Urban Administrator in the 1970's and the Knowledge and
Skills Required to Perform These Roles, Education for Urban
Administration, Monograph series no. 16 (Philadelphia: American
Academy of Political and Social Science, June 1973), p. 132.
^Egon Bittner, The Functions of the Police in Modern
Society: A Review of the Background Factors, Current Practices and
Possible Role Models (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Oalgeschlarger,
Gunn & Hain, 1979), p. 80.


12
CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
The literature concerning the role of the police administra-
tor either in its present state or anticipated future is somewhat
limited. This is particularly due to the fact that police adminis-
tration is still in the evolutionary state as a profession, and
secondly, that until perhaps the last ten years no serious attempts
were made to study the work of the police administrator in terms of
developing a framework in which the future police administrator
could be educated and developed.
Eli Glogow of the University of Southern California
addresses the issue of lack of literature in the area of police
administration. Glogow states:
There appears to be an absence of empirical
studies dealing with leadership from the perspective
of law enforcement. This finding is supported by
James Edgar of the National Criminal Justice
Service, National Institute of Law Enforcement and
Criminal Justice. The existing literature is based
upon work done with groups other than law enforce-
ment. In the case of law enforcement, the
1iterature1is primarily opinion based or descriptive
in nature.
Clarence Kelley, former Director of the Federal Bureau of
O
Investigation, stated in 1975.
Although praise worthy progress had distinguished
most areas of police training, there has long
existed in the United States a well-recognized but
heretofore unanswered need for an executive training


13
program of national scope, specifically designed to
serve the top ranks of our profession. Without
question, the police executive fulfills an extremely
important role in our criminal justice system . .
The crime problem in the United States cannot be eliminated
simply by creating a better police system. The problem is too com-
plex for any one institution to solve. Yet, the institution of the
police department has a primary role in attempting to reduce and
control the problem. Through developing a corps of more skilled
police administrators trained, among other things, to deal with
crime control in the future, the police institution can best serve
the society of tomorrow.
The literature reviewed in this study is divided topically
into four areas. The first deals with the need for more skilled
public managers in the future. The second section focuses on the
specific need for better police administrators. The current state
of the art in existing police executive development is then
examined. Finally, the need for future police executive development
is addressed.
The Need For Better Managers
The need for-,devel oping better police administrators can be
dealt with in the context of the development of more highly skilled
management,,-in both the private and the public sectors, a very real
and relevant issue. A number of individuals have conducted major
research in the area of management development and have concluded
that skill and ability of the executive in meeting the challenges of
tomorrow may be one of the most critical issues facing society in
the future. The environment which the future police administrator
i


14
will be called to function in will be more complex and demanding
than at any other period. Several critical factors will impact the
environment, such as:
1. Increased employee militancy.
2. Increased employee diversity.
3. Accountability Proposition 13 legislation.
4. Technological sophistication of crime.
5. Workers demand to participate in organiza-
tion.
Desatnick^ comments on the reasons for having management
development programs. He points out the demand for executive talent
will far exceed the supply in the future. He states that the infor-
mation revolution now occurring in society has created new
dimensions in managerial concepts and tasks. The problem of
executive obsolescence will become more acute in the future. This
is particularly true in law enforcement, where over 50 percent of
the major city chief executives are in their 50's and have been on
the job for over 25 years. Another area identified by Desatnick
involves the public pressure to be accountable for solving many of
society's problems. According to Desatnick, "the growing complexity
of the managers' job coupled with the critical shortage of executive
talent mandates development in every managerial position."
Graham Watt,^ a long-time city manager, has attempted to
identify the type, nature and importance of the knowledges and
skills required in enabling the urban administrator in the 1970's to
perform his task. Questionnaires, essays and workshops were
administered to more than 130 urban administrators examining their
attitudes toward their job and to identify the knowledge, skills and


15
needs of the future. Watt found that these practitioners were
keenly aware of the pressures which the future would hold and were
able to identify the major knowledge and skill needs which the
administrator of the future would need in order to cope. Knowledge
of individual and group behavior, political institutions and
processes, values motivating people, a better understanding of them-
selves and a deeper appreciation of the social, economic and
political philosophies which have impact on the shape our institu-
tions were the areas most frequently mentioned. Practitioners felt
that skill in the areas of bargaining and consensus building, devel-
oping people-sensitive skills, understanding community needs and
effective delegation of authority were some of the attributes which
would enable the future administrator to be successful and
effective.
Toffler describes a change occurring in society involving
bureaucracy and predicts the evolution of a new organization taking
the place of bureaucracy. Toffler points out that in order to deal
with change in the future, several key objectives must be achieved,
among which are the following:^
1. Recognize the sharp break with the past.
2. Allow for the accelerative thrust provided
by technology.
3. Account for a more rapid pace of life.
4. And in due regard for the above challenges,
keep in mind our human and institutional
limits of adaptability.
5. Finally, understand that the future (not the
past) determines the present.


16
Warren Bennis, noted educator, administrator and organiza-
tional theorist, discusses the future of the bureaucratic form of
government, contending that the bureaucratic form of government is
becoming more and more ineffective and that it is "out of joint"
with contemporary realities. He discusses work values, motivation,
organizations, and work goals and offers some possible adaptations
which could be made with in the bureaucratic form which would bring
it into line with today's style of organization.^
Bennis states that the executive in the future will have to
deal with bigger and more complex organization than ever before,
that the future executive will be involved with people both from
within and out side his organization. The media, according to
Bennis, will play an important part in the decision process within
the government. Decision making in the future will become more
difficult and specialized. He believes we are moving toward
"collective leadership" where executive teams will be formed to
address specific problems. Bennis states that the "first require-
ment for genuine leadership performance is that leaders at every
i
level must lead, not just manage."^ He concludes that the future
executive must be a social architect, a manager of differences, and
a change agent.
Peter Drucker, one of the nation's leading corporation
consultants,8 points out:
The most common cause of executive failure is
inability or unwillingness to change . The
executive who fails to understand this will suddenly
do the wrong things the wrong wayeven though he
does exactly what in his old job had been the right
things done the right way.


17
Drucker states that it is high time government move-away
from its concern regarding efficiency and strive to become
effective. It is his general feeling that developing effectiveness
in future executives is the key to the future. Mr. Drucker
concludes:
Self-development of the effective executive is
central to the development df the organization,
whether it be a business, a government agency, a
research laboratory, a hospital, or a military
service. It is the way toward improving performance
of the organization.- As executives work toward
becoming effective, they raise the performance level
of the whole organization. They raise the sights of
peopletheir own as well as Others. As a result,
the organization not only becomes capable of doing
better, it becomes capable of doing different things
and of aspiring to different goals.
Harlan Cleveland, noted public administrator, address the
issue of tomorrow's executive in his book, The Future Executive.^
He states that the future executive will operate in a more complex
system, where decisions will be influenced by factors from within
and outside the organization. Decisions will be made on a
horizontal level. The future executive will need skill in
listening, they will command by suggestion rather than force.
According to Cleveland, the future executive will provide momentum
to the organization; he will provide organizational direction. He
will need skill in understanding the public's purpose. Cleveland
concludes that the future executive will make the choices of who
forms organizations, will make things happen in the organization,
and will interpret the public interest.
It would appear that the authors reviewed in this section
agree that the future executive will have to function in a very
complex society, that the demands on the future executive will far


18
exceed any made in previous times. The development of more skilled
and qualified public managers is a major requirement of our society
if it is to meet the challenges of the.next ten years.
The Specific Need for Police Administrators
in the Future
Because of the complexity of the police functions, which has
come about as a result of rapid social, political, and technological
changes, the role of the future police administrator will be much
more demanding and require greater skill and knowledge than ever
before. In addition, because of the scarcity of resources within
society, all public agencies will be called upon to review their
services, reallocate functions, and produce a much more effective
system of service delivery. The police department and the police
administrator of the future will have to deal with these problems.
The police administrator of the future will have to be able to
successfully function in a much more demanding atmosphere.
In order to effectively utilize the human resources already
engaged in police work, we must begin to direct their efforts toward
providing the police administrator with the necessary skills to get
the job done.
Gerald Caiden, a professor of public administration, has
written extensively in the area of police administration. He
states
Tomorrow's police executives will be specially
prepared. They will be trained for the future.
Police leadership should no longer be left to
chance.


19
Caiden states that there has been a long- standing recognition in
police circles that the average police chief is an inadequate
administrator lacking the required skills, preparation and adminis-
trative support.
Patrick Murphy, president of the Police Foundation and
former head of the police departments of New York City, Detroit and
Washington, D.C., contends that leadership in the police departments
of this country is one of the most critical factors in determining
the effectiveness of these agencies. In discussing the complexity
of the problem, Murphy pointed out that the eradication of crime by
police departments is an impossible dream, but that society should
expect that police administrators manage their departments in such a
manner that the bottom line is the development of a more effective
and efficient system of crime control. He states:^
Future outlays for policing should not be
directly contingent upon crime reduction but should
be contingent upon the proper and effective utiliza-
tion of the resources we had made available to our
police agencies . .
In the United States, there is no police chief
school to prepare one for the job. The only school-
ing available it turns out is on-the-job training.
This gap in America's police educational system
probably adds not only to the crime control problem,
but also to the nation-wide police chief crisis, a
crisis in the visible heads of police agencies.
Murphy concludes by stating that if the future police
executive does not become a more effective and efficient manager,
his role in the organization will be replaced by the city manager or
other member of the public organization.
Donald F. Cawley, former Police Commissioner of the New York
City Police Department, has said:


20
In general, more police executives have
recognized and have responded to the need to acquire
higher levels of managerial skills. In the next
five years, chiefs of police must become skilled and
talented managers and administrators. They must
take the risks which are inherent in leadership;
they must question traditional philosophies,
policies, priorities, and methods; and they must
initiate changes in "old ways of doing things." In
short, they must become strong managers and leaders
of their organizations.
Kenneth R. McCreedy, professor of administration of justice
and public safety, addresses the changing nature of police manage-
ment. He indicates that the internal and external environment in
which the police executive operates will press this individual into
1 ?
changing managerial strategies. He says:
The turbulent nature of contemporary society
requires that police departments institutionalize
the capacity to change and innovate. This
necessitates a more open and flexible organizational
structure and an enlightened view of management
which features negotiating skills rather than strict
reliance on power and authority.
James Q. Wilson, professor of government at Harvard
University, has written several books dealing with police and police
organization. He analyzes the role of the police of the future.^
According to Wilson, several factors will have impact on the police
administrator and his department of the future. Significant among
these are a number of social structural changes involving legal,
organizational, personnel and political changes: decentralization
versus centralization; job enlargement versus job specialization;
and representative personnel systems. The dominant issue facing the
police administrator will be the need to redesign police organiza-
tions.


21
Paul M. Whisenand, Chairman of the Department of
Criminology, California State University, Long Beach, views the
current theory and practice employed in managing police organiza-
tions from a multidimensional approach. He discusses the structure
and functions of effective police management. According to
Whisenand the managerial responsibilities of the police adminis-
trator include planning communications, decision making, coordinat-
ing and leadership. The role of the police manager is examined by
Whisenand, who concludes that:^
The police manager is undoubtedly capable of
improving his organization so that it can accomplish
its particular goals and at the same time meet the
needs of its members.
Whisenand sees the role of the future police executive as
being involved in the change process, performing the function of
organizational change agent, developer of an organization team,
skilled in effective intergroup relations, a goal-setter and
planner, skilled in interpersonal competence (i.e., ability to cope
with conflict), problem-solving, understanding the process of change
and system diagnosis (i.e., enhancing analytical ability).
J. M. Jordan,a police administrator of considerable
experience, supports the notion that as local police agencies become
more complex and administrative problems require more background
understanding of public administrative skills, the need for well-
educated police chief executives becomes apparent. He states that
today's police executive is dealing with cultural and racial issues
unknown when he was a patrolman. The officers on his force are more
educated and less likely to accept traditional operating
procedures. Good management is essential in today's world of


22
budgetary restraints. Also, the police administrator deals with a
variety of other government agency heads, most of whom are well-
educated. Unless he, too, is educated, his credibility will suffer
in these intergovernment dealings.
The American Bar Association (1973)^ has adopted several
standards relating to the urban police function. This report
focuses on the various components of the police task and attempts to
compile standards which would ultimately lead to optimum police
effectiveness. According to this study, the standards and
qualifications for the police administrator should include a person
sensitive to the peculiar needs of policing in a free society;
committed to meeting the challenge of achieving order with the
restraints of the democratic process; the capacity to deal
effectively with the complicated and important issues involving the
decision making processes that affect police operations, and, the
overall ability to manage and direct the total resources of the
department.
Walter D. Farrell, former deputy inspector of the New York
City Police Department, discusses the vital need for the development
of better police executives.^8 He says:
Police Departments must take every possible step
to implement sound management policies that will
enhance effectiveness in the distribution and
utilization of men and material.
He points out that traditional police executives have been
brought up through the civil service ranks, their only qualification
being ability to pass a test which is often irrelevant to future
duties. Police executive development being accidental to a large
degree, he stresses the need for an executive development program


23
aimed at making the future police executive an effective and skilled
public manager.
Robert DiGrazia, former Commissioner of the Boston Police
Department'; '-strong ly suggests that current pel i ce admi n i strati on i s
very underdeveloped. He describes traditional police chiefs as "Pet
Rocks" who could not "move, grow, change or innovate." He raises
the following questions concerning the future managerial type police
leader:^
1. Are we trying to expand our horizons and
deepen our skills as leaders?
2. Are we accepting greater challenges,
satisfying our normal ambitions and enhanc-
ing our abilities?
3. Are we demanding of ourselves and fellow
police leaders in the department the
unsettling experience of confronting new
ideas ... or do we relaxively settle back
into the stereotypes and traditions we
learned as rookies?
Harman and Hendricks^0 examine the complexity of relation-
ships Which impact upon the management of law enforcement. They
contend that due to the complexity of these relationships,
consideration should be given to the management of law enforcement
as a science in itself. They based this idea on the ground that the
complex laws and procedures governing law enforcement management set
it apart from other municipal or public organizations. They
conclude that the successful police administrator must develop a
managerial style which will enable this individual to operate in
this complex society and with a leadership style which increases his
effectiveness.


24
As society moves toward the future, the complexity of the
problems facing law enforcement administrators is going to parallel
those of the society which they serve. In this regard, the police
administrator of the future cannot be allowed to evolve haphazardly.
Historically, police administrators have held that their
organizations were unique, having different problems and solutions
from other public organizations. Police executive development was
an ignored issue, and the practices of other public executives were
considered to be something that did not apply to the police
organization. Today this attitude is being challenged, and most
authorities in the field of police management agree that in the
future the police organization must adopt the practices and
principles of the public administrator. No longer can the police
executive view his organization as unique, but he must recognize the
universality of management functions, problems and skill needs. The
police executive of the next ten years must develop skill in effec-
tively leading his organization in meeting the needs of his
community, fulfill the role of police service, and develop skill in
addressing the wide range of management imperatives incumbent in his
position.
The State of the Art:
Existing Executive Development Programs
Herman Goldstein,^ of the University of Wisconsin, conduct-
ed a study of the British Police College at Bramshill, England. He
found that members of the British Police Service in management
attend the courses offered at Bramshill in several steps as they
progress in their police management career, ultimately completing


25
the Senior Command Course. Seven component areas are covered in the
Senior Command Course:
1. Command Responsibilities.
2. Police Power and Accountability.
3. Scientific and Technological Aids.
4. Finance, Budgeting and Government.
5. Responsibilities and Relationships of Cormiand.
6. Police Organization, Design, Monitoring, Evaluation.
7. Private Study and Research.
Goldstein notes:
There is not, in this country, any effort to provide as broad an education program for supervisory officers and to provide a sound fOunda
tion for understanding the police role in democracy.
Traditionally, police administrators have risen from the
ranks with very little training in management. Davis^ says that:
Frequently, chief executives will pick someone
who is a "good old boy." A "good old boy" is some-
one who will protect the executive's backside, not
compete with him; someone who will be loyal to him
and provide him with gossip about others in the
organization. But when I leave my organization, I
want my replacement to be chosen from assistant
chiefs who are the most eminently qualified men in
the country. I want them to be able to complete
very vigorously, so that my department will get the
type of leadership it will need in the future,
rather than the kind it might have if I had selected
a bunch of "good old boys."
Davis addresses the issue of change for the future by
comparing the "Mom and Pop" grocery store of his childhood and the
modern supermarket of today. He states:
Unlike the grocery business, many police depart-
ments are sill being run exactly the same way they
were run 50 years agoin the same buildings, in


26
many cases. They still have a night watch, a day
watch, and a morning watch. They also have a patrol
bureau, a traffic bureau, and a detective bureau.
They do everything about the same way; even their
policies haven't changed very much. If the grocery
business had-continued ,to..merchandise groceries the
way it did 50 years ago, it would be broke--or its
customers would. However, government organizations
can be absolutely incompetent and still remain in
business. It is really too bad that there isn't
some way of forcing change on them, instead of
having them exist into perpetuity in all their
glorious incompetence.
Bennis23 states:
Until police education measures up to the elemen-
tary standards that Abraham Flexner propounded for
medical schools in 1910, our law enforcement
officers will not be attending college but mediocre
high schools with ash trays.
He concludes that "we train'our police the way we train our hair-
dressers or auto mechanics but ask of them the professionalism of
doctors and lawyers."
Former New Haven, Connecticut, Chief of Police James E.
Ahern studied the problems facing law enforcement in the future. He
focuses specifically on the need for better management
on
development. He states.
Officers who have worked their way up through
police department ranks to become assistant chiefs,
chief inspectors, and captains find themselves in
the middle-management positions in multi-million-
dollar enterprises without the training, and often
without the inclination, to handle management and
planning problems. In most police departments rank-
ing officers have become clerks or petty bureaucrats
by default. Often the administrative structure is
cluttered with leftover paper figures from previous
political situations. The result is that the
bureaucracy runs itself, but little else.
The New York City Police Department, one of the largest in
the country, has broken down its management development program into
three specific areas: Basic and introductory management courses;


27
Advanced management and special area courses; and Executive seminars
and courses. In the area covered by the basic and introductory
management level courses, courses are offered in career develop-
ment, supervisory practices and techniques, management techniques
and principles of management. In the advance management and special
area level courses middle management, command conferences, adminis-
trative analysis, and effective1decision making are offered.
Executive seminar level courses are offered in command and control,
emergency planning, problems in urban police planning, basic
statistics for managers, and statistical concepts for managerial
decision making.
Programs such as the above are the beginning in an attempt
to develop a police executive who can effectively lead his organiza-
tion in successful completion of its mission. However, these
programs must be expanded to include all of the skill and knowledge
needed to bring the police executive up to the skill level of other
practitioners in the public administration field.
In the report entitled The Police Chief Executive,25 the
National Advisory Committee on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals
conducted a study into the role played by police chief executives.
The purpose of the study was to determine qualifications for police
chief executives and, secondly, to suggest means by which
communities can increase the effectiveness of their police chief
executive. The committee sent questionnaire to 2,546 police chief
executives. Police chief executives were asked to estimate the
percentage of time they spent in each of five duties: operational
field activities; internal management; public relations; interaction


28
with local officials; and interaction with criminal justice system
agencies. In addition to the survey questionnaire developed for the
police chief executive, a second survey instrument was sent to the
immediate superior of non-elected police chief executives. Finally,
a follow-up survey instrument was sent to those police chief
executives who responded to the first questionnaire.
The findings of this survey concluded that all of the
governmental, police organizations and educational institutions
should establish regional and national programs for the intellectual
enrichment and development of police chief executives. These
programs should be designed to improve police chief executives'
personal skills, and to inform them of new legislation, improved
techniques and innovative programs.
Kyyendall's study of police management training involving
the California Commission on Peace Officers Standards and Training
and San Jose State University examines an attempt to evaluate a
management development program.^ These programs were aimed at
bringing current management theory from the university to the
practitioners. The study was able to identify activities and skill
needed by current and future administrators. Kyyendall states that
skills involving personal effectiveness, planning, organizing,
establishing objectives, motivating, problem-solving and delegating
responsibility were clearly associated with effective management
needs. Programs were designed to develop personal competency on the
part of the police administrator and introduce him to modern
organizational theory applicable to his position.


29
In 1967, Harvard University conducted a Management Institute
for Police.^ The purpose of this program was to provide police
chief executives with tools, skills and understanding to assist in
better top-level administration. According to the researcher at the
Harvard University School of Government, there exists an urgent need
today to strengthen the administration of law enforcement in large
metropolitan areas. With few exceptions, metropolitan police forces
are finding that the struggle of coping with difficult problems
through existing resources and techniques is becoming greater. An
important and neglected element in the improvement of metropolitan
police efficiency is the development of the organizational and
executive skills of police officers and other public officials
involved in the direction of large urban law enforcement operations.
There are three areas in which greater efficiency and
increased understanding of problems can be of value to police
administrators: Many police chiefs are responsible for programs as
complex and budgets as large as those of some of our larger corpora-
tions and they have not been provided with the executive training
comparable to that of top-level business executives; the special
relationship of the police to the law, as those who enforce,
interpret, and develop the law, suggests a need among police
administrators for better understanding of legal concepts and
techniques; and the variety of contacts between police as public
officials and the community are becoming increasingly important and
time-consuming and require more effective training for police
administrators.


30
Programs such as this can provide the necessary dialogue and
linkage between the world of the police practitioner and the
theoretical world. The combining of these two areas will enable the
future police executive to build academic knowledge onto his experi-
ence learned on the job.
Michigan State University conducted an experimental training
program designed to train police chiefs to better cope with their
administrative responsibilities and to develop materials on the most
useful methods of instruction. Galvin,^ the researcher who
conducted the program, states that 31 police chiefs from ten states
participated in the three-week program. The program was designed to
stress self-development of management skills. Two areas were
emphasized: Or.e dealing with specific police administration
problems; and the other dealing with a variety of topics relating to
management techniques. Galvin states that the program was evaluated
by both the participants and staff with favorable results. Galvin
suggests that this method of training is a valid approach to
executive development.
This type of executive development program seems to have a
genuine appeal to the police practitioner. One of the major
concerns of this group is that they cannot afford to be away from
their jobs for extended periods of time. Designing mini-courses
over extended periods of time may be the way in which to gain
participation on the part of the police executive.
In March 1976 the first session of the National Executive
Institute (N.E.I.) was convened at the F.B.I. Academy, Quantico,
Virginia.^ This program was the result of a key recommendation


31
of the Police Chief Executives Report, which recommended that a
national executive program be established to provide advanced
instruction in a wide variety of courses for police chief
executives' enrichment and development.
The first session was attended by 25 major city chiefs and
two assistant directors of the F.B.I. In order to minimize the
amount of prolonged time the police executive would spend at each
session, the program was composed of four cycles, each bing four
days in duration. The curriculum covered a wide range of subjects
including management skills,, collective bargaining, media relations,
current and future social problems. The faculty for the program was
drawn from leading experts and prominent figures from throughout the
United States.
Specific topics included a detailed social analysis of the
United States during the period 1965-1975 by Herman Kohn of the
Hudson Institute. The impact of crime on the American society and
the effect of the news media to achieve a change in American
attitudes toward crime was discussed. Labor relations and affirma-
tive action were addressed. Police unions, police strikes and labor
management relations were debated and discussed. The future police
organizational structure and police finances were examined.
This program was designed to provide an educational experi-
ence to keep police executives abreast of change, to increase their
knowledge and sharpen their technical skills. Hopefully, the result
of this program will enable the police executive of the future to
meet the challenge and effectively lead their organizations.


32
Of)
Tu1ly states that a continuous monitoring and evaluation
of the National Executive Institute has shown that the attendees
feel the program has been extremely valuable and timely. There is a
current waiting list to attend future sessions, and interest in the
program has come from the entire United States. Attendees have
indicated that direct application resulting from this program has
occurred in a number of departments. Intangibly it is felt that the
mere participation in this intensive 16-day program has resulted in
tremendous mental expansion on the part of the attendees.
31
Dill in discussing his participation in the N.E.I.,
states that he has found a great deal of direct application of the
material gained through attendance at the N.E.I. He described the
program as a valuable approach to meeting future challenges facing
law enforcement administrators.
The Denver Division of the F.B.I. received numerous requests
from local law enforcement agencies to provide a similar program
aimed at the smaller municipal police agencies. After evaluating the
need and assessing the resources'available, the Denver Division of
the F.B.I. decided to initiate a program of executive development to
meet the needs of the smaller police and sheriff's departments
residing within the states of Colorado and Wyoming.
The law enforcement executive of the future will be very
much involved in attempting to deal with specific problems in
society, the organization of the future, and the specific operations
which will assure a viable future. The law enforcement executive
of the future must be prepared to fulfill a much more complex role
and solve much more complex problems than those which presently


33
exist. In order to meet these challenges of the future, it was felt
that an executive development program for police chief executives
was both timely and necessary.
The Rocky Mountain Law Enforcement Executives Institute
consisted of four three-day sessions which were designed to assist
the development of the executives from the smaller city and country
law enforcement agencies. Specifically, it was anticipated that
approximately 35 police chiefs and sheriffs from throughout the
states of Colorado and Wyoming would be invited to attend these
sessions. Each of the sessions dealt with a specific topic area and
included such general categories as the future, media relations,
organizational problem areas, and future police organizations and
problems. Each of the sessions was conducted by leading authorities
in the fields of the business community, the university system and
private consulting organizations. This program appears to have
enhanced the level of education and skill of those practitioners who
participated.
The Need for Police Executive Training
in the Future
State and local governments are challenged to provide more
effective police services at a time when the growing desire for
public safety is surpassed only by the increase in police costs.
One of the most expensive personal services utilized by any city is
usually the cost of policing. Police budgets account for between 20
percent and 40 percent of the total city budget. Traditionally,
police executives have received their budget requests without
question or a fight. However, recent trends have shown that the


34
future will require the police budget to be more competitive and
effective. No longer can the municipal police budget for the nation
increase in the scale it has in the past (e.g., from $2.1 billion in
1967 to $8 billion-plus in 1978).
Increased costs have forced communities to call for a more
effective utilization by the police department of the resources.
Police departments of the future must learn to use more effectively
the personnel and other resources currently available to them. It
is, therefore, timely for society to look at the issues involved in
developing the future police administrators so as to reduce costs
and increase effectiveness. We can no longer solve the problems of
law enforcement by increasing the budget of the police department
every year but must go beyond that and attempt to develop a corps of
police managers who will be able to operate police departments in a
more effective and efficient manner.
Because of the complexity of the police functions, arising
out of rapid social, political and technological changes, the role
of the future police administrator will be much more demanding and
require greater skill and knowledge on the part of this individual
than ever before. In addition, because of the scarcity of resources
within society, all public agencies will be called upon to review
their services, reallocate functions, and produce a much more
effective system of service delivery. The police department and the
police administrator of the future will have to deal with these
problems. The. police administrator of the future will have to be
able to operate in an atmosphere which will demand effective use of
manpower, money and relationships with all components of the


35
criminal justice system, as well as with legislators and other
social service personnel.
The issue has been examined carefully by the National
Advisory Committee on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals. The
committee reporting in 1976 its finding on standards for police
chief executives, states in Standard 3 that minimum requirements for
future police chief executives should consider such factors as law
enforcement experience, minimum supervisory and management training
and formal education, this standard being at least four years of
education, 120 semester units or a baccalaureate degree from an
accredited college or university. Standard 16 addresses the need
for regional and national executive enrichment and development for
police chief executives. The committee recommends that concerned
educational institutions should establish regional and national
programs for the intellectual enrichment and development of police
chief executives. These programs should be designed to improve
police chief executive's personal skills, and to inform them of new
legislation, improved techniques and innovative programs.
Shanahan^ suggested two major management strategies to be
adopted by "police managers":
Collegiality of Command:
This strategy stems from the complexities associated with the
functions of the police leader. Because of the enormous demands on
his time, his physical abilities, and intellectual capacity, a
police manager has to seek help from the staff. Under the concept
of collegial command, the police manager must be willing to share
his authority and power as well as his operational responsibility


36
and accountability. A self-actualized chief must provide the
opportunities for his qualified staff members to participate in the
decision making process and to grow through the challenges of their
position on the police force.
Political Statesmanship:
The effective police leader should be able to use his management
abilities to meet the test of the diplomat. He should be able to
conform, confront, compromise and collaborate in order to achieve
his objectives without, however, getting involved in illegal,
unethical, or immoral practices. While the concept may, admittedly,
prove too risky, if applied by insecure leaders, Shanahan suggests
that mature and effective managers should be able to practice
political statesmanship in an intangible manner "almost to the point
of being abstract."
In attempting to develop a profile of the future police
executive, Shanahan suggested the following management model:
Management by Objectives, which emphasizes a goal-oriented
philosophy and attitude. It focuses on results, with less concern
for method as long as it is within acceptable legal and moral
limits. It involves long-term planning and results in the
directions that police leaders rationally need and wish to pursue.
Proactive Management, by which the police leader would consider the
problem at hand unfettered by the risks (mainly political and
social) involved in the decision. The main ingredients of proactive
management are creativity and innovation. It is mostly carried out
by ad hoc committees of police researchers and outside consultants.


37
Anticipatory Management, which is based on intellectual enrichment,
selection of alternatives and a thorough evaluation of the
consequences of the decision both internally and externally.
Adaptive Management, which is simply the possession of enough flexi-
bility to adapt to the changing conditions in environment,
cormiunity, judicial rulings and organizational structure.
Reactive Management and crisis management which intelligently and
systematically respond to situations as they arise. Such responses
naturally vary in accordance with the situation, the mental prepara-
tion of the leader, and the options available to the leader at the
time of the crisis.
Summary
The review of the literature establishes the need for more
sophisticated management development programs for Chief Law Enforce-
ment Administrators.
The assessments of future needs of administrators has been
confirmed, in part, by the experiences of organizations which have
begun the process of formalized training through institutes,
seminars, and workshops.
The next step in law enforcement administrative development
is the establishment of regular, on-going, systematic educational
programs which provide constantly expanded training to facilitate
the orderly progression of law enforcement personnel from the entry
level position to the top administrative position.


38
By identifying the problems, knowledge, and skills deemed
most important by Chief Law Enforcement Administrators this study
can provide additional guidelines for persons designing law enforce-
ment educational programs in the future.


NOTES CHAPTER II
Eli Glogow, "The Successful Leader in Law Enforcement:
What Works," LAE Journal of the American Criminal Justice
Association, Vol. 42, Nos 1 and 2 (Winter/Spring 1979) pp. 71-77.
^Clarence Kelley, "Message From The Director," F.B.I. Law
Enforcement Bulletin (January 1975): 2.
^Robert L. Desatnick, A Concise Guide to Management
Development (American Management Association, 1970).
^Graham W. Watt, John K. Parker, and Robert R. Cantine, Role
of the Urban Administrator in the 1970's and the Knowledge and
Skills Required to Perform These Roles Education for Urban
Administration, Monograph series No. 16 (Philadelphia: American
Academy of Political and Social Science, June 1973).
^Alvin Toffler, Future Shock (New York City: Random House,
1971), p. 95.
Warren G. Bennis, The Unconscious Conspiracy (New York
City: AMACOM, 1976).
^Warren G. Bennis, The Unconscious Conspiracy (New York
City: AMACOM, 1976).
0
Peter F. Drucker, The Effective Executive (New York:
Harper and Row, 1967), p. 170.
^Harlan Cleveland, The Future Executive: A Guide for
Tomorrow's Managers (New Yorkl Harper and Row, 1972).
^Gerald E. Caiden, Police Revitalization (Lexington,
Mass.: Lexington Books, 1977]"!
^Patrick V. Murphy and Thomas Plate, Commissioner: A View
from the Top of American Law Enforcement (New York: Simon and
Schuster, 1977), p. 26.
1 9
-'-Donald F. Cawley, "Managers Can Make a Difference: Future
Directions," Alvin W. Cohn, Ed. The Future of Policing (Sage
Publications, 1978).


40
1 ?
Kenneth R. McCreedy, "The Changing Nature of Police
Management: Theory in Transition," in The Future of Policing, ed.
Alvin W. Cohn (Philadelphia: Sage Publications, 1978).
^James Q. Wilson, "The Future Policeman," a position paper,
American Justice Institute and California Department of Justice,
Commission on Peace Officers Standards and Training, March 2, 1972.
^Paul M. Whisenand and R. Fred Ferguson, The Managing of
Police Organizations (Enqlewood, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
1973), p. 448.
^J. M. Jordan, "Higher Education for the Police Chief
Executive," Police Chief, (August 1977): 26-27.
17
A/House of Delegates, American Bar Association, "Standard
Relating to the Urban Police Function," Police Chief, (May 1973).
1 ft
AOWalter D. Farrell, "The Need for Police Executive
Development," Police Chief, (February 1978).
^From former Boston Police Commissioner Robert DiGrazia's
address before the Annual Convention of the American Convention of
the American Academy for Professional Law Enforcement, Hartford,
Connecticut, May 27, 1976.
Of)
H. Harman and W. Hendricks, Modern Police Administration
(New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1974).
01
Herman Goldstein, "Report to the Ford Foundation on
European Police Departments" (unpublished, 1966), unpaged.
22Edward M. Davis, Staff One (Englewood Cliffs, New
Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1978).
^Warren Bennis, Ripping off the Police, Target published by
the International City Management Association, Vol. 8, Issue 2,
(March/April 1979).
^James E. Ahern, Police in Trouble: Our Frightening Crisis
in Law Enforcement (New York! Hawthorne Books, Inc., 1975).
^National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards
and Gols, The Police Chief Executive, Report of the Police Chief
Executive Committee of the International Association of Chiefs of
Police, Washington, D.C., 1976.
Jack L. Kyyendall, Donald E. Matthews, and Peter E.
Unsinger, "An Evaluation of Police Management Training," Police
Chief, (October 1977): 77.
p 7
A Report, Management Institute for Police (Cambridge,
Mass.; Harvard University, July 24-August 10, 1967).


41
pO
R. T. Galvin, Chief Police Executives Training Program,
Final Report on Management Phases, Michigan State University, East
Lansing, Michigan, 1968.
OQ
The F.B.I.'s National Executive Institute, "Educating Law
Enforcement's Top Level Managers," F.B.I. Law Enforcement Bulletin,
(September 1976): 3-8.
JUEdward J. Tully, Program Administrator, National Executive
Institute, Interview, Washington, D.C., June 18, 1980.
^Arthur G. Dill, Chief of Police, Denver, Colorado,
Interview, Denver, Colorado, April 10, 1980.
^Donald T. Shanahan, "The Changing Police Leadership," a
presentation made before the Tenth Interagency Workshop, Sam Houston
State University, the Institute of Contemporary Corrections and
Behavioral Sciences (Huntsville, Texas, 1975).


42
CHAPTER III
METHOD
This study has examined the role of the Chief Law Enforce-
ment Administrator utilizing the! variables of current administrative
problems, future administrative problems, and future knowledge and
skill needs. In formulating data major city police chiefs and
sheriffs were surveyed.
The findings and techniques of Watt et al. in his study of
City Managers was used as the basis for this parallel exploration in
law enforcement administration. Using the Watt et al. instrument as
a model, Chief Law Enforcement Administrators actively working in
the field were surveyed to determine:
1. What they define as the major problems they
face today.
2. What problems they anticipate facing within
the next decade.
3. What knowledge, and skills they believe the
law enforcement administrator of the future
should possess.
Date was gathered by mailing a questionnaire to subjects, and the
responses analyzed by appropriate statistical methodology.
Population
In selecting the target population the following factors
were considered important:


43
1. The community represented had to have
sufficient population to require multiple
law enforcement services.
2. The law enforcement agency had to have a
staff large enough to require the chief
administrator to have managerial skills in
the areas of planning, personnel, budget
control, and resource allocation, as well as
in the particular specialities of police
science.
3. The organizational governing structure of
the community had to be sufficiently complex
to require individual departmental
management but also to require inter-agency
cooperation in carrying out
responsibilities.
From the outset it was assumed that the target population would come
from the larger police agencies. They are the ones making the
greatest attempts to deal with the issues of tomorrow's law enforce-
ment organizations. Larger departments are already involved in
developing more sophisticated organizational structures and
systems. They have the manpower and the economic resources to do
the necessary analysis and planning.
Size alone, however, could not be the main criterion, for
even in some larger departments there are still monolithic, internal
management structures. A sample was sought which would be drawn
from community and police environments which already contained the
forces with which the future administrator would have to work.
A review of existing law enforcement departments revealed
numerous communities which would fit the criteria. It was obvious
that if the study were limited to communities of one million persons
or more the size of the sample would be seriously curtailed.
Conversely, opening the study to communities of under 250,000 would
increase the number of possible subjects to an unwieldy size without


44:
the assurance that the additional data obtained would increase the
re1i ab i1ity.
For these reasons, the target population for this survey was
defined as Chief Law Enforcement Administrators who headed agencies
which had 300 or more officers on staff and which served communities
with populations of 250,000 or more. The Uniform Crime Report of
1979 (FBI) identified 120 such agencies, including police and
sheriff's departments. The 120 administrators heading these
agencies were selected as subjects for the survey. (See App. A)
Survey1 Instrument
The instrument used in this survey (See App. B) was modeled
on a similar instrument developed by Graham Watt et al. for his
study of City Managers in 1971.^
The survey instrument was a 57 item self-administrated
questionnaire divided into six sections:
Section I Demographic Data.
Section II Current Management/Administrative
Problems.
Section III
Section IV
Section V
Section VI
Future Management/Administrative
Problems.
Future Management/Administrative
Skills.
Future Management/Administrative
Knowledge.
Additional Responses.
Sections I and VI were open-ended permitting individualized
responses. Sections II-V were multiple-choice questions requiring


45
ratings of items. Similar response categories were used following
the example of Watt et al.
Methods Used to Increase Response Rate
A low response rate to mail questionnaires is one of the
hazards of the survey technique. To determine whether a response
rate of at least 50% was obtainable the writer interviewed Chief Law
Enforcement Administrators to determine their willingness to
participate in the survey. Their responses clearly showed a strong
interest in the project and indicated an above average response
would be obtained.
To facilitate a prompt response the questionnaire was
designed in brochure format and the items were presented in columns
easily read and answered. Additionally, the questionnaire was sub-
mitted for review to a group of executive secretaries. These secre-
taries know from experience which types of materials were most
likely to be read by their superiors. They concluded that the ques-
tions were clear, the format easy to follow, and that apparently
very little time would be required to complete the entire question-
naire. They foresaw no difficulty in obtaining the cooperation of
their superiors in completing the survey and returning it.
A supportive letter from the Chief of the Denver, Colorado
Police Department, Arthur F. Dill, (now retired) was also included
with the questionnaire, as well as an explanatory letter from the
researcher and a stamped, self-addressed envelope.


46
Response Rate
Babbie^ states that fifty percent is an adequate response
rate for analysis and reporting. A sixty percent rate is considered
good, and a response rate of seventy percent or more is very good.
The minimal acceptable response for this questionnaire was set at
60%. 85 of the 120 administrators used in the study completed and
returned the questionnaires, a response rate of 70.8%.
It is interesting to note that despite the absence of a firm
deadline date the majority of the 85 respondents had returned the
completed instrument within three weeks of the date of mailing.


47
NOTES CHAPTER III
Graham W. Watt, John K: Parker, and Robert R. Catine,
Role of the Urban Administrator in the 1970's and the Knowledge
and Skills Required to Perform These Roles, Education for Urban
Administration, Monograph series No. 16 (Philadelphia: American
Academy of Political and Social Science, June 1973).
2
Earle R. Babbie, The Practice of Social Research (Belmont,
California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., 1979), p. 335.


48
CHAPTER IV
DATA ANALYSIS
The data obtained from the subjects in this survey will be
presented in two parts: (1) An' analysis of the group responses in
rank order, and (2) An analysis of the responses by variable.
Part one will include five sections: (1) Introduction,
(2) Analysis of demographic data of subjects, (3) Analysis of
current administrative problems, (4) Analysis of future adminis-
trative problems, and (5) Analysis of future knowledge and skill
needs.
Part two will include further analysis of the data in terms
of the independent variables, and will include seven sections:
(1) Responses by age group of subjects; (2) Responses by education
level; (3) Responses by size of department; (4) Responses by years
of experience in law enforcement;. (5) Responses by geographic
location: and (6) Responses by agency represented. This part will
also include a comparison of the findings of this study with those
of Watt et al.l and Kerrigan et al.^ (See Appendix C)
Introduction
Each subject was asked to respond to a 57-item, six-section
questionnaire. A five-point rating scale, ranging from very


49
important to not at all important was used, in sections 11-V.
Sections I and VI permitted open-end responses.
The initial analysis of the data was made by tabulating the
rating responses from sections II-V according to frequency of
response and transferring them to tables summarizing the frequency
distribution. The open-end responses, sections I and VI, were
edited and coded to permit tabulation. These tabulations were also
suimiarized according to frequency of response. The frequency of
response tables are presented by using percentile ratings. (See
Appendix D)
Frequency data was also converted to rank order form for the
variables by section. Three different methods of determining vari-
able rank order were tested. Numerical values for each of the three
highest response categories were assigned. Each response value was
multiplied by the total number of responses and a score tabulated.
A second method combined the percentages of the two highest
responses and, finally, the percentages of the highest responses
only were computed. Very little difference was noted in the results
by using the three methods so the percentage of highest response is
the one used in the rank order tables.
The frequency response and rank order tables are included in
this chapter and are also discussed in the chapter narrative.
The response to the questionnaire was very good according to
Babbie's standards.^ One hundred and twenty questionnaires were
mailed to subjects and eighty-five were returned for a response rate
of 70.8%. The 70.8% rate is also well above the 60% minimum accept-
able return rate established for this study. (See Table 1)


50
TABLE I
NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES OF RETURNS

Number of Questionnaires Mailed Number of Questionnaires Returned Percent of Returns Percent of No-Returns
120 85 70.8 29.2
Of the 120 questionnaires mailed out, 90 (75%) were sent to
Police Chiefs and 30 (25%) were sent to Sheriffs. The Police
Chiefs' response rate was 74.4%,, and the Sheriffs' response rate was
60%. (See Table II). |
TAfJLE II
NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES OF RETURNS BY AGENCY
Number of Numbers of Percent of
Questionnaires Returns Returns from Percent of
Agency Mailed to Agency From Agency (n) Agency (n) Returns of N (85)
Police Chief 90 67 74.4 78.8
Sheriff 30 i 18 60.0 21.2
In addition to the overall response rate being good, the
response rate to individual items within the section was very
high. Out of 46 items in section; II-V (sections focusing upon the
variables of current assessment and future predictions of problems,
and predictions of knowledge and skill needs) only four questions


51
evoked less than a 100% response rate and these rates were above the
92nd percentile level.
It is reasonable to conclude that the high level of response
represent a concern on the part of the subjects for the future of
t >
the law enforcement field and implies the items selected for the
study have relevance to the world of the law enforcement adminis-
trator.
Demographic Data
A review of the demographic data suggests there is a high
degree of similarity among the majority of respondents, particularly
in the area of experience in the law enforcement field. The
subjects represented two major law enforcement agencies, Police
Departments and Sheriffs' Departments.
Subjects responding represent a reasonable distribution
geographically. (See Table III) The highest response rates came
from the Western, Eastern, and Southern sections. This response
reflects the sectional distribution of the questionnaires and is not
unexpected because of the high population centers in these areas.
One figure which is lower than expected is the response rate of
16.5% from the Midwest. This rate, however, is not sufficiently low
to disturb the geographic balance in the results. There were no
unusual item responses to differentiate the perceptions of one group
of respondents from the others on a geographic basis.


52
TABLE III
LOCATION OF AGENCY
Location of Agency Number of Questionnaires Returned Percent of Total
East Conn., Dela., Penn., Wash, D.C., Mary., Mass., R.I., N.J., N.Y. 19 22.35
South Ala., Fla., Ga., Tenn., Ky., La., Miss., Mo., Va. 19 22.35
Midwest 111., Kan., Ind., Neb., Iowa, Mich., Minn., Ohio, Wise. ' 14 16.5
Southwest Colo., N.M., Tex., Okla. 11 12.9
West 1 Ariz., Calif., Nev., Utah, Ore., Wash., Hawaii 22 25.6
Collectively, the subjects are characterized by considerable
experience in the law enforcement field, a factor they deem highly
important. Inasmuch as some of the administrators, 63.6%, have been
in their current positions only one to five years and 35.3% have
been in chief administrative positions from five to fifteen years
this may appear to contradict the importance of experience cited
previously.
When the years of experience of these same Chief Law
Enforcement Administrators are considered, however, 96.4% of the
subjects have been engaged in law enforcement for more than 15


53
years, with 75.3% having at least twenty years experience. This
data confirms the literature findings that length of service is one
of the major factors in determining whether an individual reaches
the top levels in law enforcement administration. (See Tables IV
and V)
TABLE IV
YEARS IN PRESENT POSITION
1-5 Years 5-15 Years 15 Years or More
Number 64 18 3
Percent 63.6 35.3 1.1
TABLE V
YEARS IN LAW ENFORCEMENT
1-15 Years 15-20 Years 20 Years or More
Number 3 18 64
Percent 3.6 21.1 75.3
For the purposes of this study the factor of experience is
important in evaluating the responses. Administrators who have been
in their positions for a significant period of time have had the
opportunity to assess their current problems against a background of
practical experience and to make forecasts of the future situation
within their departments based upon the organizational wisdom they


54
although young in terms of his time in office, also builds upon a
strong law enforcement background. He has the advantage of being
able to take a fresh look at the administrative tasks facing him,
yet balance his impressions against the knowledge provided by his
experience. The responses suggest a high degree of unanimity among
the administrators, regardless of length of service, concerning the
issues under consideration in this study.
The age of the administrators will be an important factor
during the next decade. 90.6% of the subjects are over forty years
of age, with 44.7% over fifty years of age. (See Table VI) Given
the technical retirement age of 65, a considerable portion of this
group will not be in the field ten years from now. For the 55.3%
under the age of fifty, however, particularly those who have been
Chief Law Enforcement Administrators for five years or less, the
establishment of management development programs may prove the key
to their growth as true administrators rather than graduate
"cops." They will have the time to act upon the knowledge and
skills acquired from specialized training.
TABLE VI
AGE OF RESPONDENTS

Under 40 40-50 Over 50
Number 8 39 38
Percent
9.4
45.9
44.7


55
The subjects represent a wide range of command in terms of
personnel supervised. There are no significant differences reported
in the results in this study that can be attributed to departmental
size. Whether the departmental size factor becomes more important
in agencies which were outside the sample limits of this study is an
area to be considered for future study. (See Table VII)
TABLE VII
NUMBER OF PERSONNEL SUPERVISED
, 1
300-1000 1000-5000 Over 5000
Number 55 24 6
Percent 65 28 7
The level of formal education of the subjects is also
important in this study. 77.6% of the Chief Law Enforcement
Administrators had four years of college, with 42.3% having had
either some graduate work or having earned a graduate degrees. (See
Table VIII) Nearly one-fourth of the subjects held Master's degrees
and 10.6% had earned Doctoral degrees.


56
TABLE VIII
LEVEL OF EDUCATION
High School - 4 Years Graduate
2 Years College College School
Number 19 30 36
Percent 22.4 35.3 42.3
Inasmuch as experience has been reported to be considered
the most important factor in reaching top positions in law enforce-
ment agencies, the high percentage of college trained
administrators, plus those who acquired specialized training in NEI,
may appear to be a refutation of that concept. It is more probable,
however, that the newer administrators realize that they must have
special education and training if they are to remain in their
positions.
One factor which might serve to clarify this apparent
inconsistency is not available in the data the kinds of
educational background reflected by the degrees. A Master's degree
in Criminology, for example, may be of tremendous value to an
administrator in his relations with his staff, other agencies and
the corronunity. It may well be specifically relevant to some of his
assigned duties. It may also be of little help to him in terms of
specific managerial skills. One avenue of future research might be
an analysis of relationships between specific kinds of educational
background and attaining the position of Chief Law Enforcement
Administrator.


57-
In summary, the respondents are an experienced group of law
enforcement administrators although the majority are relatively new
to their positions as Chief Law Enforcement Administrators. All
have experience in managing fairly complex departments in large
cities. They are, however, as a group, an older population in terms
of chronological age. They do not show any significant differences
in terms of geographic location. The level of formal education
exceeded the expectations of the researcher. While it is tempting,
to conclude that this trend toward higher education would argue well
for support for the effort to establish managerial development
programs, this relationship has not been established by the data.
An analysis of the educational levels of administrators of small
departments would be necessary to determine whether this trend is
reflected at all agency levels or whether it is limited to the
larger departments.
It is not unreasonable to assume, however, that the
motivation to acquire formal education at the higher academic levels
in pursuit of additional competence, to say nothing of promotion,
would also carry over to the desire to acquire specialized knowledge
and skills in the managerial area.
Figure 1 summarizes the data presented in Tables I-VIII.
The analysis of the data thus far has been confined to the
demographic data obtained from the subjects. The remainder of the
data analysis will be drawn from the respondent's identification,
ranking and analysis of current management problems; their
prediction of future problems; and what future skill and knowledge


needs the respondent saw as important for the law enforcement
administrator in- the next decadei


FIGURE 1
SUMMARY OF DEMOGRAPHIC DATA
Police Chiefs Region of
vs. Sheriffs Respondents
Years In Years 1n Law
Present Enforcement
Position
Age of
Respondents
cn
vr>


60
Analysis of Current Administrative Problems
The Chief Law Enforcement Administrators were asked to
I
identify current management/administrative problems and to indicate
,1
the level of importance from their individual points of view within
their professional environments.
The subjects were asked to respond to eleven questions by
rating the importance of the item on a five-point scale from very
important to not at all important. Of the eleven items only three
had less than a 100% response and two of these were at the 99% level
and one at the 96% level. (See Table IX) Although no significance
is attached to these failures to; respond it is noted that each item
involves sensitive relationships: Working with appointed officials;
i
administering program in . politically sensitive situations;
and, negotiating with unions.
The five activities which currently command the most
attention of the law enforcement:administrator, in order of
declining importance, are: 1
1. Determining Policy and Program Priorities.
2. Administering the Budget.
3. Maintaining Effective Community Relations.
4. Developing Effective Relations with Elected
or Appointed Officials.
5. Personnel Management.
This rank order offers no unusual or surprising listings.
One minor factor which was not anticipated was the distance in
percentile ratings between items which would seem logically to be
closely related to each other. (See Table X)


TABLE IX
PERCEPTION OF IMPORTANCE OF CURRENT MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS, TOTAL SAMPLE*
Not at all Important No. % Not Important No. % Moderately Important No. % Important No. % Very Important No. % Total No. %
A. Administering the budget 0 0 1 8.2 2 2.4 28 32.9 48 56.5 85 100
B. Developing effective working relationships with elected or appointed officials (e.g. police commissions, city managers, city councils) 0 0 10 12.0 0 0 32 38.0 42 50.6 84 99
C. Determining organization structure 0 0 22 25.9 0 0 42 49.4 21 24.7 85 100
D. Determining policy and program priorities 0 0 3 3.5 0 0 29 34.1 53 62.4 85 100
E. Establishing and administering operating systems and procedures 0 0 25 29.4 0 0 39 45.9 21 24,7 85 100
CTl
*
The respondents were to indicate the relative degree of importance for each of these
current management and administrative problems.


Table IX (continued)
Not at all Not Moderately Very
Important Important Important Important Important Table
No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
F. Establishing and administering personnel systems and
procedures, including recruitment selection, training, and discipline of key employees 0 0 14 . 16.5 0 0 31 36.5 40 47.1 85 100
G. Directing and administering program operation under emergency conditions in politically sensitive situations 0 0 19 22.4 0 0 37 43.5 28 32.9 84 99
H. Developing cooperative relations with other law enforcement
agencies at Federal, State, and Local levels 0 0 23 27.1 0 0 44 51.8 18 21.2 85 100
I. Negotiating with employee unions and other employee groups 0 0 24 28.2 0 0 33 38.8 25 29.4 82 96
J. Maintaining effective relations with representatives of the media 0 0 23 27.1 0 0 37 43.5 25 29.4 85 100
K. Maintaining effective community relations 0 0 5 5.9 0 0 35 41.2 45 52.9 85 100


63
Inasmuch as the main problem facing administrators is, as
shown in Table X, Determining Policy and Program Priorities, a some-
I
what higher ranking of items 8 and 8a might be anticipated. 37.7
i
percentile points separate this top category from these two, which
bear identical percentile levels of 24.7% in the rank order scale.
It can be argued that in a law enforcement organization the
structure is usually "in place";and undergoes little change except
over a period of time, regardless of policy and program
priorities. It remains a matter of speculation, however, as to how
policy can be made and program priorities established if the
structure and systems that make :them work are not deemed highly
important. A possible explanation is found in the observation of
one Chief Law Enforcement Administrator. He offered the opinion
that "all of these items should be rated 'very important', but they
could receive a lesser rating because they would normally be assign-
ed to a lower administrative level." The relationships between the
tasks in Items 1 and 8 and 8a may be clear in the administrator's
I
mind but inasmuch as they were not a daily problem for him as a top
i
level executive, a much lower ranking was assigned.
Policy, systems, procedures, and fiscal management were the
main problems facing the Chief Law Enforcement Administrators,
closely followed by responsibilities which require the development
of sensitivity to others, within and outside of the law enforcement
department.


64
TABLE X
CURRENT MANAGEMENT/ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS
Rank Order Current Management/Administrati ve Problems Percentage
1. Determining policy and program priorities 62.4
2. Administering the budget 56.5
3. Maintaining effective community relations 52.9
4. Developing effective working relationships with elected or appointed public officials (e.g. police commissions, city managers, city councils) 50.0
5. Establishing and administering personnel systems and procedures, including recruitment selection, training and discipline of key employees 47.1
6. Directing and administering program operation under emergency conditions politically sensitive situations 32.9
7. Maintaining effective relations with representatives of the media 29.4
7a. Negotiating with employee unions and other employee [groups 29.4
8. Determining organization structure 24.7
8a. Establishing and administering operating systems and procedures 24.7
9. Developing cooperative relations with other law enforcement agencies at Federal, State, and Local levels 21.2


65
Analysis of Future Administrative Problems
The subjects were asked to respond to the same eleven
questions they were asked to rate as Current Managerial/Adminis-
trative Problems. In this section each item had a 10055 response
level. (See Table XI)
The five administrative;responsibilities which are
anticipated to pose the greatest problems in the future are:
1. Administering the Budget.
2. Maintaining Effective Community Relations.
i
3. Determining Policy and Program Priorities.
4. Developing Effective Relations with Elected
or Appointed Officials.
5. Negotiating with Employee Unions and Other
Employee Groups.
The first four items were also the first four listed as
current problems by administrators. (See Table XII) In the first
three items in the rank order, fiscal management is ranked first,
with effective community relations in second place. There is little
difference in their percentile ratings, 69.4% for budget adminis-
tration and 68.2% for maintaining effective community relations. A
strong case could be made for considering them of equal
importance. This would be a logical relationship, depending upon
the definition of effective community relations. If the term is
defined to mean building a base of community understanding and
support for all levels of law enforcement work then the relationship
to budget problems is close and real. As law enforcement budgets
are scrutinized more carefully, administrators can no. longer count
upon having their budget requests approved automatically. To


66
communicate the necessity for certain budget requests to the
community is essential. To establish clearly in the minds of the
public the results obtained is also critical to the law enforcement
administrator's level of credibility. Policy and program priorities
apparently will not be a greater problem in the future than they are
now but, according to the responses, they will not be less of one.
They received a 62.4% response as the most important current
problem. 62.4% of the subjects also view them as very important
problems in the future.
The fourth-ranked item did not move in the rank order
between the assessment of current problems and the predictions of
future problems. It was at the :50.0% percentile level on the
current problem table and at the 50.6 percentile level on the future
problems table. Developing effective relations with elected or
appointed officials is a problem now and apparently will continue to
remain one in the future. The development of a management training
program with strong emphasis on human relations knowledge and skills
t
might serve to ameliorate this situation.
The fifth item in the current problems list, personnel
systems administration, has been replaced by the labor relations
item, negotiating with employee unions and other employee groups.
This item is at the 50.6 percentile level on the future problems
scale whereas only 29.4% of the subjects viewed it as a current
problem. In fact, review of Table IX reveals that 28.2% rated the
item as not important as a current problem. The administrators
apparently view the problem of labor negotiations as one that will
assume greatly increased importance over the next decade.


67
All items in this section increased in percentile ratings in
comparison with the current problem percentile scale except two:
Determining policy and program priorities, which stayed at the same
percentile level; and establishing and administering personnel
systems, which decreased in percentile rating. The range of
responses, however, did not differ significantly. The range of the
future problems scale was 42.3 percentile points.
The rank order also changed somewhat beyond the five, top-
ranked items. (See Table XII) The personnel administration item
dropped into sixth place, primarily because it was replaced by the
closely related employee union negotiation question. Obviously, the
two items have much in common thus the slight shift in rank order
does not suggest lesser concern.
The remainder of the future problem section items has the
same rank order as items in the current problems section.
Apparently, administrators saw each of the problems they
were asked to consider as looming somewhat larger in the future,
with an increased concern for handling problems which could be
classified under the general term of labor relations. Fiscal
management and operational efficiency apparently will continue to be
major concerns. A current problem will persist in the future,
developing and maintaining effective community relations. This was
not only the second-ranked item in this section, but it also gained
15.3 percentile points in rank order table. The strong percentile
increases for each of the items pertaining to human relations,
within the department and among other groups, reflects an increasing
awareness of the growing importance of this factor.


TABLE XI
PERCEPTION OF IMPORTANCE OF FUTURE MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS*
Not at all Not Moderately Very
Important Important Important Important Important Total
No. % No. % No. %: No. % No. % No. %
A. Administering the budget 0 0 6 7.1 0 0 20 23.5 59 69.4 85 100
B. Developing effective working relationships with elected or appointed officials (e.g. police commissions, city managers, city
councils) 0 0 8 9.4 1 1.2 33 38.8 43 50.6 85 100
C. Determining organization structure 0 0 18 21.2 0 0 41 48.2 26 30.6 85 100
D. Determining policy and program priorities 0 0 2 2.4 0 0 30 35.3 53 62.4 85 100
E. Establishing and administering operating systems and procedures 0 0 24 28.2 0 0 38 44.7 23 27.1 85 100
*
The respondents were asked to indicate the relative degree of importance for each of these problems
that as an administrator would apply to future management and administrative problems.


Table XI (continued)
Not at all Not Moderately Very
Important Important Important Important Important Total
No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
F. Establishing and administering
personnel systems and
procedures, including
recruitment selection, training
and discipline of key employees 0 0 14 16.5 0 0 33 38.8 38 44.7 85 100
Directing and administering program operation under emergency conditions in politically sensitive situations 0 0 17 20.0 0 0. 35 41.2 33 .38.8 85- - 100
Developing cooperative relations with other law enforcement agencies at Federal, State, and Local levels 0 0 19 22.4 0 0 43 50.6 23 27.1 85 100
Negotiating with employee unions and other employee groups 0 0 20 23.5 0 0 22 25.9 43 50.6 85 100
Maintaining effective relations with representatives of the media 0 0 13 15.3 0 0 42 49.4 30 35.3 85 100
Maintaining effective community" relations 0 0 3 3.5 0 0 24 28.2 58 68.2 85 100


70
TABLE XII
FUTURE MANAGEMENT/ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS
Rank Order Future 1 Management/Admi ni strati ve Problems , Percentage
1. Administering the budget 69.4
2. Maintaining effective community relations 68.2
3. Determi ni ng policy and program priorities 62.4
4. Developing effective working relationships with elected or appointed officials (e.g. police commissions, city managers, city councils) 50.6
4a. Negotiating with employee unions and other employee groups 50.6
5. Establishing and administering personnel systems and procedures, including recruitment selection, training, and discipline of key employees 44.7
6. Directing and administering program operation under emergency conditions in politically sensitive situations 38.8
7. Maintaining effective relations with representatives of the media 35.3
8. Determining organization structure 30.6
9. Developing cooperative relations With other law enforcement agencies at Federal, State, Local levels 27.1
9a. Establishing and administering operating systems and procedures 27.1


71
Analysis of Future Knowledge and Skill Needs
Subjects responded to these two sections separately although
the results obtained are being considered as if they were one unit.
The Future Knowledge section contained thirteen questions
and the Future Skills section had eleven items. The subjects were
asked to rate the importance of the items on the same five-point
scale used in the preceding sections. Only one item received less
than a 100% response, and this received a 99% response. (See Tables
XIII & XIV)
The percentile ratings and subsequent rank order listing
were unusual in that the first-ranked response in the Future
Knowledge section was 14.1 percentile points higher than the second-
ranked response. (See Table XV) The numbers of administrators
rating the first three problems as very important in the preceding
two sections, however, was considerably higher than those who rated
legal responsibility as very important in this section. (See Tables
IX & XIII) The first three items in sections one and two were also
very close in strength. They had only a ten-point spread in the
rankings of current problems and a seven-point spread in the ratings
of future problems. The spread ranking in the Future Knowledge
section for the first three items was 14.1%.
It should be noted that from outset the questionnaire was
not designed to provide an orderly mental conduit from current
problem to future skills needed. It was designed to address the
issues as independent variables. It was hypothesized, however, that
there would be some relationship which would exist wherever clusters


72
of answers showed enough strength to garner high ratings. The
extension of strength from one section to the other did not occur on
an item-for item basis.
The closeness of ratings of the items in sections one and
two, with an implied relationship, did not carry over to the three
top-ranked items in the Future Knowledge section. It had been
assumed that there would be some direct carry-over between the
problems identified and the knowledge and skills needed to solve
them. To a certain extent this:has occurred. If the first-ranked
item is considered in isolationi because it has no direct question
counterpart in the preceding sections, the second, third, and fourth
ranked items come closer to maintaining the direction one would have
anticipated from the previous rank order in sections one and two.
(See Tables X and XII) Items 2, 2a, and 3 in Table XV bear a strong
relationship to the problems identified in the first two sections in
the top rankings.
The top-ranked Future Knowledge item, Legal Responsibility
with Regard to Criminal and Civil Liabilities, is relatively new.
Officials in the public sector are finding their actions scrutinized
more closely as demands for accountability increase. Inasmuch as
legal responsibility, per se, was not a choice in sections one and
two a direct pattern from definition of problems, to acquisitions of
knowledge and development of appropriate skills cannot be
established. What can be inferred, however, is a perceived
relationship among identified problems such as budget
administration, effective community relations, particularly with


73
minority groups, and procedures and systems management, with the
overall growing area of legal responsibility.
The strength of this item suggests a compelling need of
administrators, one which could be met, in part, by a special train-
ing sequence focusing solely on this problem.
There is little, direct, item-to-item relationship in the
rank order positions between knowledge and skills although there are
some groupings which are logically linked. Of the six, top-ranked
Future Knowledge items, four focus upon the human relations area of
knowledge. (See Table XV) The knowledge of the political climate,
the causes of urban problems, the management of labor relations and
an understanding of theories of human behavior are deemed very
important by over forty percent of the subjects. Despite lower
positions on the rank order scale, the knowledge of values
motivating urban behavior and the knowledge of social values of
urban areas were also rated very important by 30.6% of the respond-
ents. The importance of learning about why urban citizens behave as
they do in various situations is absolutely essential to the manage-
ment of an organization which must deal with that behavior.
In the Future Skills ranking, despite the absence of
parallel item strength, the human relations skills needed to
actually function on a day-to-day basis had the greatest strength.
The first-ranked item, Skill in Assessing Community Needs, and the
second-ranked item, Skill in Handling Interpersonal Relations,
reflect needs expressed in most of the top-ranked Future Knowledge
items. (See Table XVI) Other skill areas of importance involve
learning specific techniques in problem analysis, delegation of


74
authority and negotiation. Some questions arose as to whether some
of the factors represent knowledge or whether actually they are
skills, but this is difficult to differentiate because there are
very fine lines between some knowledge and skill areas. These fine
distinctions could be clarified during a curriculum preparation
process.
The lowest ranking skill items were those which were more
technical in nature: Job Analysis, Writing Reports and Policy
Statements, and Systems Design. Fewer than 25% of the respondents
feel these are very important. (See Table XVI) In the knowledge
area, the knowledge of inter-agency and inter-governmental relations
was considered of importance by only 28.2% and the knowledge of
techniques such as data processing was rated very important by only
17.6% of the respondents. (See Table XV)
Many of the lower-rated skills, however, were tasks that
could normally be assigned to a!subordinate department head or a
technical expert. Skill in the task would not be required of the
administrator; a general knowledge of the subject would be
sufficient.
In summary, future Chief Law Enforcement Administrators need
to acquire specific knowledge to help them establish the limits of
their legal responsibilities as public officials. They need to
understand theories of human behavior, particularly social behavior
in an urban setting, and to acquire the human relations skills to
manage complex, political, departmental, and community situations.
They will continue to need training in specialized areas such as


75
fiscal management, planning, and operations. These areas of future
need are also problem areas for the future.


TABLE XIII
PERCEPTION OF IMPORTANCE OF FUTURE MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE KNOWLEDGE*
Not at all Not Moderately Very
Important Important Important Important Important Total
No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
A. Knowledge of human relations,
i.e. theories of individual
and group behavior relevant to managing organizations 0 0 14 16.5 0 0 41 48.2 30 35.3 85 100
B. Knowledge of values motivating- the behavior of people in urban
problems 0 0 17 20.0 0 0 39 45.9 29 34.1 85 100
C. Knowledge of causes underlying major urban problems 0 0 21 24.7 0 0 29 34.1 35 41.2 85 100
D. Knowledge of social values as reflected by institutions and precesses of urban areas 0 0 27 31.8 0 0 32 37.6 26 30.6 85 100
E. Knowledge of concepts in personnel administration, including labor relations 0 0 11 12.9 0 0 39 45.9 35 41.2 85 100
* The respondents were asked to indicate the relative degree of importance that they as an
administrator placed on each of the areas as they would apply to future police administrators.


Table XIII (continued)
Not at all Not
Important Important
No. % No. %
F. Knowledge of organization principles and practices 0 0 14 16.5
G. Knowledge of principles and practices of governmental planning 0 0 12 14.1
H. Knowledge of various techniques, such as data processing, information
systems, etc. . 0 0 36 42.4
I. Knowledge of principles of budgeting and financial management 0 0 15 17.6
J. Knowledge of policy analysis and program evaluations 0 0 22 25.9
K. Knowledge of inter-agency and inter-governmental relations 0 0 19 22.4
L. Knowledge of political climate and trends (e.g. implications of Proposition 13 legislation 0 0 12 14.1
Moderately Very
Important Important Important Total
No. % No. % No. % No. &
0 0 4.1 48.2
0 0 46 54.1
0 .0 34 40.0
0 0 33 38.8
0 0 37 43.5
0 0 42 49.4
0 0 36 42.4
30 35.3 85 100
26 30.6 84 99
15 17.6 85 100
37 43.5 85 100
26 30.6 85 100
24 28.2 85 100
37 43.5 85 100


Table XIII (continued)
Not at all Not Moderately Very
Important Important Important Important Important
No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
M. Knowledge of legal responsibility
in regard to criminal and civil
liabilities
Total
No. %
0
0
9 10.6 0
0 27 31.8 49 57.6 85
100


TABLE XIV
PERCEPTION OF IMPORTANCE OF FUTURE MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE SKILLS*
Not at all Not Moderately Very
Important No. % Important No. % Important No. % Important No. % Important No. % Total No. %
A. Skill in bargaining, negotiating and other consensus-seeking techniques 0 0 19 22.4 0 0 32 37.6 34 40.0 85 100
B. Skill in handling
interpersonal relations 0 0 7 8.2 0 0 34 40.0 44 51.8 85 100
C. Skill in analytical thinking, problem solving and associated techniques of analysis including those employed in program evaluation 0 0 12 14.1 0 0 29 34.1 44 51.8 85 100
D. Skill in assessing community needs 0 0 10 11.8 0 0 26 30.6 49 57.6 85 100
E. Skill in the process of delegating authority and responsibility to subordinates 0 0 5 5.9 0 0 39 45.9 41 48.2 85 100
* The respondents were asked to indicate the relative degree of importance that they as an
administrator place on each of these skills as they apply to future police administrators.


Table XIV (continued)
Not at all Not Moderately Very
Important No. % Important No. % Important No. % Important No. % Important No. % . Tabl e No. %
F. Skill in relating to under- standing minority, disadvantaged, and other culturally distinctive groups 0 0 17 20.0 0 0 32 37.6 36 42.4 85 100
G. Skill in audience-oriented communications, i.e. speaking effectively 0 0 17 20.0 0 0 32 37.6 36 42.4 85 100
H. Skill in financial analysis 0 0 17 . .20.0. 0 0 40 47.1 28 _ -32.91 85 - 100
I. Skill in organizing and writing policy statements, reports, etc. 0 0 29 34.1 0 0 35 41.2 21 24.7 85 100
J. Skill in systems design and operations analysis 0 0 31 36.5 0 0 36 42.4 18 21.2 85 100
K. Skill in job analysis, i.e. assessing the requirements and responsibilities of positions 0 0 27 31.8 0 0 37 43.5 21 24.7 85 100


81
TABLE XV
FUTURE MANAGEMENT/ADMINISTRATIVE KNOWLEDGE
Rank Order Future Management/Admi ni strati ve Knowledge Percentage
1. Knowledge of legal responsibility in regard to criminal and civil liabilities 57.6
2. Knowledge of political climate and trends (e.g. implications of Proposition 13 legislation) 43.5
2a. Knowledge of principles of budgeting and financial management 43.5
3. Knowledge of causes underlying major urban problems 41.2
3a. Knowledge of concepts in personnel administration, including labor relations 41.2
4. Knowledge of human relations, i.e. theories of individual and group behavior relevant to managing organizations 35.3
4a. Knowledge or organization principles and practices 35.3
5. Knowledge of values motivating the behavior of people in urban problems 34.1
6. Knowledge of principles and practices of governmental planning 30.6
6a. Knowledge of policy analysis and program evaluations 30.6
6b. Knowledge of social values as reflected by institutions and precesses of urban areas 30.6


82
Table XV (continued)
Rank Order Future Management/Administrative Knowledge Percentage
7. Knowledge of inter-agency and inter-governmental relations 28.2
8. Knowledge of various techniques, such as data processing, information 17.6
systems, etc.
i


83
TABLE XVI
FUTURE MANAGEMENT/ADMINISTRATIVE SKILLS
Rank Order Future Management/Administrative Skills Percentage
1. Skill in assessing community needs 57.6
2. Skill in handling interpersonal relations 51.8
2a. Skill in analytical thinking, problem solving and associated techniques of analysis including those employed in program evaluation 51.8
3. Skill in the precess of delegating authority and responsibility to subordinates 48.2
4. Skill in relating to and under- standing minority, disadvantaged, and other culturally distinctive groups 42.4
5. Skill in bargaining, negotiating and other consensus-seeking techniques 40.0
6. Skill in audience-oriented communications, i.e. speaking effectively 32.9
7. Skill in financial analysis 31.8
8. Skill in organizing and writing policy statements, reports, etc. 24.7
8a. Skill in job analysis, i.e. assessing the requirements and responsibilities of positions 24.7
9. Skill in systems design and operations analysis 21.2


84
Analysis of Responses by Age
of Chief Law Enforcement Administrators
An analysis of the responses in terms of the age of the
respondent reveals that age differences were generally not a
significant factor.
The majority of the respondents clustered in two age
categories, the 40-45 age group and the 50-55 age group. An
analysis of the responses comparing these two groups showed that
both groups chose Determining Organization Structure as the number
one current problem they had to deal with, closely followed by
Administering the Budget. (See Table XVII) The youngest group, 35-
40, selected Maintaining Effective Community Relations as the main
problem and the oldest group, 55+, also listed budget administration
among its top three problems
Maintaining Effective Community Relations, however, was
chosen by the majority of subjects as a major future concern,
sharing first place with Administering the Budget. Determining
Policy and Priorities appeared to be a greater concern for the age
groups over 50 and of moderate concern to the 35-40 group. 9See
Table XVIII)
in the prediction of Future Skills, Assessing Community
Needs was overwhelmingly cited as the main skill required by Chief
Law Enforcement Administrators in the future. In general, the
youngest age group rated more individual skills as Very Important
than did their older colleagues, a factor of experience in all prob-
ability. (See Table XIX)


85
The knowledge of Legal Responsibilities, a relatively new
area, was deemed very important by three of the five age groups.
(See Table XX) In the youngest group, however, 100% of the respond-
i
ents chose Knowledge of Financial Management as their greatest need
for the future.
In general, the responses were not markedly different
between age groups and no startling variations by age were noted.
Those differences in perception of importance could, in all prob-
ability, be explained in terms of length of service and experience
in the position.


TABLE XVII
CURRENT MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS PERCEIVED AS VERY IMPORTANT
RESPONDENTS BY CHRONOLOGICAL AGE
Chronological Age of Respondents: 35-40______________40-45_____________45-50______________50-55_____________55 Plus_____________Total
Total Population By Chronological Age (N): 8 21 18 22 16 85
Number of Respondents Selecting Very Important Bv Chronological Age (n): n * of N n % of II n % of N n % of N n % Of H n '* Of N
PROBLEM AREAS:
Administering the budget 5 63 12 57 7 39 14 64 8 50 46 54
Developing effective working relationships with elected or appointed officials 4 50 11 52 5 28 12 55 10 63 42 49
Determining organization structure 3 38 13 62 11 61 14 64 11 69 52 61
Determining policy and program priorities 3 33 11 52 8 44 9 41 8 50 39 46
Establishing and administering operating systems and procedures 2 25 8 38 4 22 8 36 5 31 27 32
Establishing and administering personnel systems and procedures 3 33 11 52 8 44 9 41 8 50 39 46
Directing and administering program operation under emergency conditions 2 25 8 38 4 22 8 36 5 31 27 32
Developing cooperative relations with other law enforcement agencies 2 25 2 10 4 22 5 23 5 31 18 21


Table XVII (continued)
Chronological Age of Respondents: 35-40 40-45 45-50 50-55 55 Plus Total
Total Population By Chronological Age (rt): 8 21 18 22 16 85
Hunter of Respondents Selecting Very Imsortant By Chronological Aqe {nl: n 1 of N n I of II n X of N n X Of N n X of H n X Of N
Negotiating with employee unions Maintaining effective relations with 2 25 2 10 4 22 5 23 5 31 18 21
representatives of the media 4 50 5 24 5 28 4 18 6 38 24 28
Maintaining effective community relations 6 75 7 33 9 50 13 59 6 38 41 48


TABLE XVIII
FUTURE MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS PERCEIVED AS VERY IMPORTANT
RESPONDENTS BY CHRONOLOGICAL AGE
Chronological Age of Respondents: 35-40 40-45 45-50 50-55 55 Plus Total
Total Population By Chronological Age (N): 8 21 18 22 16 85
Number of Respondents Selecting Very Important Bv Chronoloaical Aoe (n): n % of N n 2 Of N n a Of N n % of N n i of N n Of N
PROBLEM AREAS:
Administering the budget 6 75 14 67 10 56 17 77 10 63 57 67
Develooing effective working relationships with elected or appointed officials 4 50 11 52 5 28 13 59 9 56 42 49
Determining organization structure 4 50 8 38 4 22 7 32 2 13 25 29
Determining policy and program priorities 3 38 12 57 10 56 17 77 10 63 52 61
Establishing administering operating systems and procedures 1 13 10 48 2 11 5 23 4 25 22 26
Establishing administering personnel systems and procedures 2 25 11 52 9 50 8 36 7 44 37 44
Directing and administering program operation under emergency conditions 1 13 9 43 7 39 8 36 7 44 32 38
Developing cooperative relations with other law enforcement agencies 4 40 4 19 3 17 5 23 7 44 23 27