School climate factors in four public high schools in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan

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School climate factors in four public high schools in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan perceptions of students and teachersadministrators
Hattler, Jean Anne Shelton
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xiii, 162 leaves : illustrations, forms ; 29 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
High schools -- Case studies -- Japan -- Yamagata ( lcsh )
High schools -- Psychological aspects -- Japan -- Yamagata ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Doctor of Philosophy, School of Education and Human Development.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jean Anne Shelton Hattler.

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Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
24765880 ( OCLC )
LD1190.E3 1991d .H377 ( lcc )

Full Text
School Climate Factors in four Public High Schools
in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan:
Perceptions of Students and Teachers/Administrators
Jean Anne Shelton Hattler
B.S., Oklahoma State University, 1969
M.A., University of Colorado, 1979
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
School of Education

1991 by Jean Anne Shelton Hattler.
All rights reserved.

This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy
degree by
Jean Anne Shelton Hattler
has been approved for the
School of
tyu* it. mi

Hattler, Jean Anne Shelton (Ph. D., Education)
School Climate Factors in Four Public High Schools in Yamagata
Prefecture, Japan: Perceptions of Students and
Teachers / Administrators
Thesis Directed by Professor Richard P. Koeppe
The problem of this study was to compare school climate, as
measured by the general climate factors on the CFK Ltd. School Climate
Profile (CFK Profile) and the Student Attitude Profile (SAP), in four
selected public high schools in Japan. School climate is the social,
emotional and psychological environment within which students,
teachers, and administrators function. The study sought to determine
whether there were differences in climate in male academic, female
academic, coeducational agricultural, and coeducational commercial
high schools, as perceived by students and teachers/administrators. It
compared the rank order of the general factors of climate as perceived
by students and teachers/administrators to determine whether their
perceptions of the relative occurrence of the general factors of climate
were similar or different. The study also compared differences in the
students' and teachers'/administrators' perceptions in two types of
schools: academic and vocational.
The data were collected from 362 students, 161 teachers and eight
administrators in four selected schools, representing two types of high
schools in Japan. Responses were statistically analyzed by Statistical
Package for the Social Sciences (SPSSX) using one way analysis of

variance (ANOVA) and the Scheffe' procedure to determine whether
there were significant differences (p < .05) in students and
teachers/administrators' perceptions of climate among schools.
The study found that climate as perceived by students in the four
schools was different. Composite climate mean scores were
significantly different among all schools except female academic and
coeducational commercial with male academic being perceived the
most positive. Mean scores for teachers'/administrators' indicated that
the teachers/administrators in the coeducational agricultural high
school did not perceive climate in their school as positively as either
the male or female academic high school teachers/administrators. The
relative ordering of the frequency of occurrence of school climate
factors for students' and teachers'/administrators' perceptions were
Both students' and teachers'/administrators' composite mean
scores for the academic high schools were higher than were the
students' and teachers'/administrators' composite mean scores for the
vocational high schools. Thus, academic school climate was perceived
more positively than was climate in the vocational schools.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its

All discipline for the moment seems not to be joyful, but
sorrowful; yet to those who have been trained by it,
afterwards it yields the peaceful fruit of righteousness.
Hebrews 12:11

This study provided me with a much broader cross-cultural
experience than I initially anticipated. Originally conceptualized in
Colorado, this research project was transported across the Pacific for
collection of data in Yamagata, Japan. Subsequent to a family move,
the study was priority shipped to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where the
analysis was conducted. As a result, numerous persons were
instrumental to the success of this endeavor. To each, I owe my
profound gratitude.
During the 1970s I spent four years living in Japan, teaching for
the Department of Defense Overseas Schools System. During those
years, I acquired a deep appreciation, respect and love for the people
and culture of Japan, an interest in Japan's educational system and a
working knowledge of the Japanese language. Since returning to the
United States, I have continued my interest in Japan by taking courses
as well as an intensive summer language institute at Middlebury
College. Thus, this study enriched me professionally and personally.
My first thanks are to the Japanese educators, students, teachers,
support staff, and administrators whose whole-hearted cooperation
and participation in this study helped me to better understand school
climate in their high schools.

This study could not have been conducted without the assistance
of Dr. Noboru Oba who provided access to the schools for the study, the
gracious hospitality and dormitory life offered me by Kocho-sensei
Masatoshi Tomizawa at Johoku Girls School, and translators and
backtranslators Mr. Shiguemi Kobayashi, Professor Tsuneo Yamaguchi
and others too numerous to mention.
Heartfelt appreciation goes to my doctoral committee members,
Dr. Dick Koeppe, Dr. Bob Taylor, and Dr. Myrle Hemenway, for the
interest, helpful guidance and support each has shown.
My gratitude is also extended to Dr. Carol Baker, director of
Office of Measurement and Evaluation of Teaching at the University of
Pittsburgh. Her expertise, knowledge, and availability were invaluable
to the data analysis and interpretation.
Special appreciation is given to my friend and fellow graduate
student, Susan Showalter, for the magic she performs with the
Macintosh and her ability to help me keep a sense of humor.
Sincere thanks to my family and friends for their unswerving
encouragement during this study.
Most importantly, my appreciation goes to my husband, Brack,
who endured my graveyard-shift hours during the stressful times of
completing this work, and was a constant source of joy and support.

I. INTRODUCTION......................................... 1
Statement of the Problem...............;...........7
Need for Current Study..............................8
Definition of Terms................................10
Organization of the Study..........................13
n. REVIEW OF LITERATURE...................................15
Characteristics of Japanese Education..............16
Cultural Influences upon Achievement in Japan......24
Japanese High Schools..............................28
Dissatisfaction with Education in Japan............32
Cross-Cultural Studies with Japan in Education.....37
School Climate.....................................40
Summary.......................................... 56

El. DESIGN OF THE STUDY......................... .59
The Setting................................60
The Instruments............................65
The Pilot Study............................70
Data Gathering Procedures..................71
Analysis and Treatment of Data........... 73
Findings Related to Research Questions.....76
Follow-up Interviews.......................95
Summary of Findings........................98
Conclusions............................. 107
Recommendations ........................ 110
A. ESSAYS ON SCHOOL CLIMATE.................... 123
TO STUDENTS.................................152
E. PANEL OF TRANSLATORS.........................161

2.1 Structure of the Japanese Educational System........31
2.2 School Climate Goals................................51
2.3 School Climate Factors and Determinants.............54

4.1 Means and Standard Deviations for Responses
of Students on the Student Attitude Profile............77
4.2 ANOVA Summary for Student Attitude Profile.............78
4.3 Comparison of School Climate Factors for
Student Attitude Profile Using the Scheffe' Procedure..79
4.4 Means and Standard Deviations for Responses
of Teachers/Administrators on the
CFK Ltd. School Climate Profile........................82
4.5 ANOVA Summary for Teachers'/Administrators' Responses
on the CFK Ltd. School Climate Profile.................83
4.6 Comparison of School Climate Factors from Responses
of Teachers/Administrators on the CFK Ltd. School
Climate Profile Using the Scheffe" Procedure...........84
4.7 Student Means and Scheffe" Post Hoc
Comparisons of the Academic and
Vocational Schools Means...............................87
4.8 Teachers'/Administrators' Means and Scheffe"
Post Hoc Comparisons of the Academic
and Vocational Schools Means...........................89
4.9 Rank Order of School Climate Factors by
School for Students' Responses to
Student Attitude Profile...............................91
4.10 Spearman Rank-Order Correlations of Factor
Ranks for Students' Perceptions of Climate.............91

4.11 Rank Order of Climate Factors by
School for Teachers'/Administrators'
Responses to CFK Ltd. School Climate Profile............92
4.12 Spearman Rank Order Correlations of Factor
Ranks for Teachers'/Administrators'
Perceptions of Climate..................................93
4.13 Spearman Rank-Order Correlations Comparing
Student and Teacher/Administrator Ranks.................94
4.14 Responses to "What is the best thing in your
school that contributes to good school climate?"........98

The quality of a citizenry is the product of a number of
basic institutions, most notably the family, religion and
schools. Of these, schools are the most accessible, the most
comparable across cultures, and the most responsive to
public policy. High schools occupy a particular place. ...
Students stand at the threshold of adulthood, reflecting
the work of parents, teachers and schools. ...High schools
illustrate the manner and the intensity of the educational
effort, and the outcome of that effort is reflected in the
conduct of high school students. (Rohlen, 1983, p. 2).
Today the educational systems in both Japan and the United
States are undergoing reform. In fact, a cooperative undertaking by
Japan and the United States to study education in each other's country
was one outcome of a meeting in 1983 held between former Prime
Minister Yusuhiro Nakasone and then-President Ronald Reagan. This .
endeavor arose from the firm belief that each country could benefit
from the experience of the other. By investigating educational
perspectives, approaches and achievements, this cooperative activity
toward mutual understanding in education offered new information
to educators, political leaders and parents in both countries. While
packaged solutions for cross-national import or export are probably not
realistic, the results could offer valuable ideas and approaches each'

nation could share and learn from the other which would help with its
own reform needs.
This mutual study began in 1984 with the Japanese Ministry of
Education, Science and Culture (Monbusho) studying the American
system of education and the U.S. Department of Education examining
education in Japan. Each side developed its own approach for studying
the other's educational system, facilitating the work of the other. The
report from the U.S. study of education in Japan, Japan Education
Today, was published in 1987. Findings from the study will be
described throughout this paper, especially in Chapter II in the review
of the literature.
The fact that this extensive, collaborative study has occurred
demonstrates that there is serious interest by both Americans and
Japanese in each other's educational systems. This current study,
however, provides yet another dimension of education that has not
been considered in previous studies of Japanese education. It is school
climate, the social, emotional and psychological qualities as perceived
by students, teachers, and administrators in their work environment.
During the past few years the United States has shown a great
interest in Japanese education because of the outstanding performance
by Japanese students on international tests of academic achievement
and because Japan's educational system has been a significant influence
on Japan's economic success. Japan has a highly motivated and

adaptable work force and boasts one of the highest literacy rates in the
world. Less than one percent of the Japanese population is illiterate,
compared to 20 percent illiteracy in the United States (Christopher,
1983; White, 1987).
Besides an impressive literacy rate, other outcomes of Japanese
education are "a highly sophisticated general population, well-
socialized and committed work force" (White, 1987, p. 2). Outcomes of
the uniform effects of education are found in the high level of
reporting on ordinary television news broadcasts and in the factory
worker who both understands graphs and charts and is able to work
with complex mathematical formulas.
Perhaps other motivations for "taking lessons" from Japan's
educational system came from the findings of the National
Commission on Excellence in Education's 1983 report, A Nation at
Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform (later referred to as
Nation at Risk). That report has many recommendations for
improving the United States' educational system, which, if
implemented, would result in putting into effect many practices and
policies already existing in Japan.
According to the findings in Nation at Risk, students in the
United States complete high school and enter college without
disciplined and systematic study habits. Japanese high schools stress
development of disciplined behavior and healthy work as central to

students' academic behavior. The commission recommended a longer
school year and more homework. Further, the commissioners urged
that educators increase the intensity and sense of purpose of
schoolwork by adopting "more rigorous and measurable standards, and
higher expectations, for academic performance and student conduct ...
[which] will help students do their best educationally with challenging
materials in an environment that supports learning and authentic
accomplishment" (U.S. Department of Education, 1983).
Published in April, 1983, Nation at Risk indicated that student
achievement in United States' schools was a concern. Perhaps these
findings provided the impetus for our country's decision later that year
to undertake the cooperative study with Japan, since Japanese students
had superior performance on international standardized tests of
achievement. According to Rohlen (1983), on international tests of
both science and math, Japanese mean scores were higher than those in
any other country. "The degree of variation in ability among Japanese
is also shown to be very low, meaning the equality of achievement is
notable" (Rohlen, 1983, p. 3). Sociologist William Cummings (1980)
concluded that Japanese education is commendable on many accounts,
including the high standards achieved in basic education and the
equality of opportunity established by the compulsory school system.
However, before American educators jump onto the "Japanese
bandwagon" and begin emulating their educational system, it should
be noted that despite the impressive academic achievement by their

students, the Japanese system is not perfect. There are costs to the
choices that they make which contribute to achievement (Iga, 1986;
Master, 1987; Mata, 1986). The Japanese know this and, consequently,
have undertaken a serious reform effort.
One issue that needs to be addressed is that of school climate.
What is the social, emotional, and psychological climate in schools in
Japan? In the United States school, climate has been a topic of interest
to educators for the past two decades and, based on the
recommendations made by Japan's National Council on Educational
Reform, it deserves attention in Japan today.
In August 1984, in response to changing social circumstances,
Japan's national government decided to establish the Ad Hoc Council
on Educational Reform, directly under the Prime Minister's Office
(Kazuo, 1989). The Council, later called NCER, submitted four sets of
recommendations in compliance with the prime ministers request
that he be advised on "basic strategies for necessary reforms ... so as to
secure such education as will be compatible with the social changes and
cultural development of our countries" (Monbusho, 1986). On June
26, 1985, the Council submitted to its Prime Minister the First Report
on Educational Reform. The Council identified eight basic principles
for educational reform: "the putting of emphasis on individuality; the
emphasis on fundamentals; cultivation of creativity, thinking ability
and power of expression; expansion of opportunities for choices;
humanization of the educational environment; transition to lifelong

learning system; coping with internationalization; and coping with the
information age" (Monbusho, 1986, p. 23).
Comments from Chairman of the Council, Dr. Okamoto Michio
Of these basic principles and concepts, the principle of
putting emphasis on individuality was identified as the
first and most important, to be emphasized through all
aspects of the coming educational reform (First Report on
Educational Reform, NCER, Government of Japan, June
26,1985, p. 76).
In order to carry out this principle, the most important thing in
the reform of education is to "do away with the roots of educational ills
in Japan i.e., uniformity, inflexibility, and lack of openness and
internationalization" (Monbusho, 1986, p. 27). Shifting the emphasis
from uniformity to individuality is a revolutionary proposal in Japan,
where group harmony and consensus have historically and
traditionally been the guiding principles.
The Council then identified major issues to be considered-
during the next few years and worked out a number of specific
proposals. Nakasone's Cabinet decided to pay due regard to the
recommendations and "set up a Ministerial Conference for the
Implementation of Educational Reform, as well as the Head Office for
Implementation of Educational Reform within the Monbusho "
(Kazuo, 1989, p. 29). Another proposal of the Council was "to improve

the evaluation system so that it will not be too biased to cognitive
factors" (p. 29).
Because several of the issues of interest for educational reform
relate to school climate, this study investigated factors that constitute
school climate in selected Japanese high schools to determine what
kind of climate existed. Also, how was climate perceived by students
and teachers /administrators in different kinds of public high schools in
Japan? The findings from this study will help to identify factors which
may be addressed by the educational reform movement in Japan.
Statement of the Problem
The problem of this study was to compare school climate, as
measured by the general climate factors on the CFK Ltd. School Climate
Profile (CFK Profile) and the Student Attitude Profile (SAP), in four
selected Japanese high schools. It sought to answer these research
1. Are there differences in the eight general factors of climate and
in the composite climate score as perceived by students in four
selected schools in Japan: male academic, female academic,
coeducational agricultural, and coeducational commercial?
2. Are there differences in the eight general factors of climate and
in the composite climate score as perceived by

teachers/administrators in each of these four selected schools in
3. Are there differences in climate as perceived by students in the
academic and vocational schools?
4. Are there differences in climate as perceived by the
teachers/administrators in the academic and vocational high
5. What is the rank order of the general factors of climate as
perceived by students in these four schools?
6. What is the rank order of the general factors of climate as
perceived by teachers/administrators in these four schools?
7. Do the students and teachers/administrators in each type of
school perceive the relative occurrence of the general factors of
climate similarly?
Need for the Current Study
This current study should help Japanese and American
educators since both are currently involved in educational reform and
improvement in their respective countries, while seeking to learn
from the other.
Japan has been recognized for outstanding performance on
international tests of academic achievement. Yet, there is rising

dissatisfaction with education in Japan. Vandalism, the dropout rate,
school violence, school phobia, and suicide related to school problems
have risen in the past few years (Beauchamp, 1982; Masler, 1987;
Suguro, 1986; Vogel, 1979). Also, the examinations cause stress,
medical problems and other deleterious effects such as pressure on
teachers to teach to the test with such rapidity that individual needs
cannot be met due to time constraints. Perhaps these have all
contributed to the students', teachers' and parents' dissatisfaction with
school. The factors of school climate appear to hold promise as
variables worthy of investigation since they are indicators of whether
the students, teachers, and administrators are feeling positively or
negatively toward school.
This current study should help Japanese educators by offering a
new perspective on schools. Previous research revealed that cognitive
learning in Japan was emphasized at the expense of affective and
socialization concerns (Beauchamp, 1982). This perspective on a non-
cognitive aspect of education, school climate, provided data other than
test scores in assessing Japanese education.
American educators, too, will benefit by the study which
investigated school climate factors in Japanese high schools. A better
understanding of education in Japan offers insight on how Japan has
achieved its excellence. Many Americans advocate emulation of
Japan's educational system; hence it should be important to know how

school climate, as American educators have defined it, was perceived
by students and teachers/administrators in high schools in Japan.
Definition of Terms
The following are terms used in the study:
School (or organizational) Climate. This refers to the learning
environment as perceived by students, teachers and administrators in a
school. Eight factors, as defined by Fox & Bois, et al. (1974), which
"comprise the school's climate and determine its quality" are respect,
trust, high morale, opportunities for input, continuous academic and
social growth, cohesiveness, school renewal and caring. These
"reinforce participant satisfaction and productivity" (Fox & Bois, et al.,
1974). For the purposes of this study, climate was measured by the
Student Attitude Profile (SAP) for students and the CFK Ltd. School
Climate Profile (CFK Profile) for teachers and administrators; climate,
then, was defined as the scores which were generated from these
Vocational High School in Japan. This non-college preparatory
upper secondary school (grades 10-12) offers an academic program the
first year. During a student's second and third years, one-third of the
time is devoted to vocational education and the rest is spent on
standard academics. It is career oriented, but not job specific. Since
there are no university examinations to study for, the incentive to
study was not great (U.S. Department of Education, 1987). Admission to

the vocational school is determined by a student's interest and
ability, as based on scores from an achievement test given at the end of
junior high school. In this study, the vocational high school was
represented by the coeducational agricultural high school and the
coeducational commercial high school.
Academic High School in Japan. A college-preparatory
curriculum is offered to the upper secondary school students (grades
10-12) who qualify to attend this type of school by achieving the highest
scores on academic tests. The strongest students can achieve the
distinction of entering the best local high school (U.S. Dept, of
Education, 1987). In this study, it is represented by the male academic
school and the female academic school.
Findings of this study should be considered within the limits of
the population and procedures inherent in this investigation. The
population from which the samples were taken for this study consisted
of students, teachers and administrators in Yamagata Prefecture in
Japan. Yamagata is situated in the northeastern region of Japan, the
Tohoku District. It is a mountainous, rural area and any
generalizations about climate in schools to all schools in Japan would
depend upon geographic and ethnographic similarities.

This was not truly a representative sample. Rather, it was a
selected sample of schools in Yamagata Prefecture. The researcher was
invited to study four high schools in Yamagata Prefecture which
represent different types of schools to compare factors of school climate
among the schools. These schools included a male academic high
school, a female academic high school, a coeducational agricultural
high school and a coeducational commercial high school. In the male
academic, female academic, and coeducational commercial high
schools, the students surveyed were seniors. In the coeducational
agricultural school, the students were sophomores and juniors.
A basic assumption made in regard to this study was that
students, teachers, and administrators would cooperate by being honest
and objective in answering the questions on the climate instruments.
.It was assumed that the Japanese translation of the instruments would
be appropriate for use in Japanese high schools.
If what we know for American high schools can be generalized
to schools in Japan, then we can expect to find similar factors of climate
in Japanese high schools. The factors of school climate are not culture
dependent. The same determinants of climate which are associated
with high satisfaction and productivity in high schools in America
should similarly affect satisfaction in Japanese high schools (Ouchi,

1981). .Based on the process that was used for the translations and
validation of the instruments, it was assumed that the instruments
would be valid for Japanese schools. Chapter III, section on The
Instruments details translation and backtranslation process; English
and Japanese versions of the instruments are included in Appendix C
(CFK Profile for teachers/administrators) and Appendix D (SAP for
Organization of the Study
The study is organized into the following chapters:
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION: Statement of the Problem, Need
for the Study, Definition of Terms, Delimitations,
Limitations, Assumptions and Organization of the
Japanese Education, Cultural Influences upon
Achievement in Japan, Japanese High Schools,
Dissatisfaction with Education in Japan, Cross-
cultural Studies in Education with Japan, School
Climate, and Summary.

Instruments, The Pilot Study, Data Gathering
Procedures, and Analysis and Treatment of Data.
Findings Related to Research Questions, Follow-up
Interviews, and Summary of Findings.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Summary, Conclusions,
and Recommendations.

It was necessary to explore several areas of knowledge pertinent
to Japanese education and school climate to support the premises of
this study. A search of the literature using "Japanese education"
(including secondary education, specifically), "school climate," "cross-
cultural studies in education," "school achievement" and "non-
cognitive education in Japan," as key words was conducted utilizing
ERIC, the education index, dissertation abstracts, psychological abstracts,
sociological abstracts, government documents, periodicals and
newspapers, as well as contemporary books published in the United
States and Japan. While there was ample research material available
on cognitive learning in Japan, there was a dearth of research on the
non-cognitive dimensions of education. The following literature
review explored both the research on Japanese education and the
sparse research available on non-cognitive aspects of Japanese
education, in relation to how it influenced school climate as American
researchers understand climate in American high schools. Cross-
cultural studies in education pertaining to Japan were also reviewed.

Therefore, the review of the literature was organized to present
information in the following areas: 1) Characteristics of Japanese
Education, 2) Cultural Influences upon Achievement in Japan,
3) Japanese High Schools 4) Dissatisfaction with Education in Japan,
5) Cross-Cultural Studies in Education pertaining to Japan, and
6) School Climate.
Characteristics of Japanese Education
As mentioned in Chapter I, two studies have been conducted
under the general sponsorship of the United States Japan Conference
on Cultural and Educational Interchange. In October, 1984, the Japan
Ministry of Education Science and Culture and the United States
Department of Education each began examinations of the other's
education system. The culmination of the project was Japan Education
Today, a 95-page document published by the United States Department
of Education in 1987. This report included an in-depth examination of
schooling from pre-elementary through higher education in Japan, as
well as an analysis of Japanese society. This document and other
sources detailed in the literature review identified several important
characteristics of Japanese education. These characteristics provide a
basis for describing the historical, cultural, and societal influences on
Japanese education today.
Environment and early training
Historically, environment and early training were considered
among the basic ingredients for educational success (Dore, 1965;

Kojima, 1985; U.S. Department of Education, 1987; White, 1987). As
early as the 1600s in Tokugawa Japan, "most explicit discussions on the
question of the relative importance of nature and nurture come down
heavily on the side of nurture" (Dore, 1965, p. 187). Tokugawa
educators made the argument of the "superior importance of
environment to emphasize the need and the efficacy of earnest study"
(p. 187). Two Japanese proverbs reinforce this value: "water takes the
form of the vessel," and "it is upbringing, not pedigree that makes the
man" (p. 1987). Today, the truism that environment is more
important than heredity is still salient.
More than 90 percent of Japanese four- and five-year olds attend
private, parent-financed pre-elementary schools. These schools receive
varied amounts of subsidy from the government (U.S. Department of
Education, p. 22). At these pre-elementary schools, not only do
children learn language skills, but they are taught the importance of
group interaction, orderly behavior and respect for the school as an
institution, and the cultural concept and practice of group harmony
known in Japan as zva.
Teachers at Japanese pre-schools spend much time attempting to
establish habits and attitudes which they consider not only conducive
to educability, but essential prerequisites. These include early training
of concentration and motivation and learning basic routines (Kojima,

Uniquely Japanese values: Wa (harmony) and gambaru (to persist)
Wa, or harmony, is the Japanese ideal of "unity, team play and
no heroes" (Whiting, 1979). Wa includes many values: the goal of life,
people's role in life, and expectations one has of others in society. A
person is a part of a larger group, and "the group" in Japan is based
upon the concept of ideal family integration which follows Confucian
family-centered values (Christopher, 1983; Reischauer, 1982;
Shimahara, 1986). The family unit, chosen because it is the most basic
and naturally formed association among people, is reflected in various
organizations in Japan, including schools and businesses. In Japan,
kojinshugi, the term meaning individualism, is almost a dirty word.
In fact, instead of encouraging people to do their own thing, the
Japanese have a proverb: "The nail that sticks out gets banged down."
(Reischauer, 1982, p. 135). Harmony is achieved by a subtle process of
mutual understanding where decisions- are derived through
Gambaru (to persist) is a very important concept to the Japanese.
In contrast to Americans' emphasis on ability as an explanation for
student achievement, gambaru can be described as a principle of
"persisting, hanging on, doing one's best" and as "a critical cultural
assumption that distinguishes a contemporary Japanese theory of
learning" (Singleton, 1989, p.10). Teachers routinely admonish
students: "Moo sukoshi gambaru hoo ga ii to omoimasu which
translates, "I think a little more persistence would be good" (p.10). The

Japanese believe that effort is the secret to success in educational
achievement (Lebra, 1976; Shimahara, 1986).
Kuro (suffering; hardship) is believed to have a beneficial effect
on the self, deepening and maturing it, and removing self-
centeredness. "Without having experienced kuro a person cannot be
said to have grown up" (White, 1987, p. 29).
Parental involvement
The educational experience of a child in Japan is typically
characterized by parental involvement. Japanese mothers are actively
involved with their children's schooling, supervising homework,
communicating frequently with teachers via notes back and forth and
reinforcing ethical values and study habits taught at school. The
phenomenon of kyoiku mama (education mama) is a very important
aspect of Japanese society and the educational system (Londer, 1986;
Simons, 1987). Kyoiku mamas assume the responsibility for their
children's academic achievement. They make sure that their children
study hard by drilling them on lessons, designing special education
programs, and prodding them when necessary. Sometimes mothers
will enroll in "mother's classes" which teach them how to help with
homework (Simons, 1987). The mother becomes the emotional source
of unconditional love and care. This deep maternal engagement was
referred to by White as the "motivating bond" (1987, p. 98).

White (1987) maintained that this interdependent relationship
between mother and child is the central human relationship in
Japanese culture. This relationship is created through amae. Japanese
psychiatrist Takeo Doi has defined amae as, "the desire to be passively
loved," a psychological concept that is valued in relationships between
people of all ages in Japan (Doi, 1973, p. 7).
Behind every high-achieving Japanese student stands a
supportive mother, aggressively involved in her child's schooling.
The concept of kyoiku mama (education mama), however, can be
expanded to "education family." It is not uncommon for families to
allot 20-40% of their income for their children's schooling, including
costs of cram schools for examination preparation and juku, after-
school schools (Simons, 1987; Wotjen, 1984). Clearly, the success of the
educational system is a family matter (Kojima, 1985; White, 1987;
Wotjen, 1984).
Juku (after-school schools)
Juku (after-school schools), where students are offered
individualized remedial or accelerated help, extra lessons and exam
preparations in a much smaller classroom setting than the typical
Japanese classroom, are attended by some 4.5 million students (Korn,
1987). According to responses to a survey by the Ministry of Education,
one in six primary school pupils and half of all junior high students in
Japan were attending juku lessons (Korn, 1987). Many parents are

willing to send their children to juku several times per week, especially
by the junior high years.
The 36,000 jukus are privately owned profit-making ventures
which constitute an almost $6 billion-a-year industry in Japan
(Jameson, 1986; Korn, 1987; Simons, 1987; U.S. Department of
Education, 1987). They provide accelerated and remedial tutoring,
exam preparations, and cram sessions, none of which are available in
the public schools. The nationally controlled and uniform curriculum
does not provide for individualized instruction. Jukus are attended by
more than 16 percent of the primary school children and 45 percent of
the junior high students and generally cost well over $200 a month
(Simons, 1987). Their growth in the past two decades has paralleled
that of secondary education; 70% of today's jukus were founded since
1976, nearly half of them since 1981 (U.S. Department of Education,
School calendar and use of class time
Most schools in Japan are in session 240 days annually, with the
first day of the school year on April 1 and the last day on March 31 of
the following year. Comparing this with the typical 180-day school year
in the United States, this means that the Japanese are in school about
25% longer each year. However, researchers conclude that the more
profound difference rests in the use of class time. Japanese schools are
more effective in the use of time than schools in the United States.
Japanese students spend about one-third more time learning during

each class period than U.S. students do because discipline and order
prevail in the Japanese classrooms (Seligmann, 1987). Also, because
Japanese high schools offer very few of the nonacademic electives that
are offered in the curriculum in U.S. schools, more time is spent on
academic tasks (Christopher, 1983; Cogan, 1984; Kirst, 1981; Rohlen, 1983;
White, 1987).
Anthropologist Rohlen (1983) attributed the high academic
achievement of the Japanese students to the rigors and intensity of
Japanese curriculum. Rohlen believed that "a Japanese high school
diploma is the equivalent of an average American bachelor's degree"
(p. 160). Rosenberg (1983) stated that a person with a high school
education in Japan is equivalent to an American college sophomore.
High status of teachers
Teaching attracts superior candidates in Japan because teaching is
a highly prestigious profession with pay comparing favorably to that of
many jobs in the private sector. Japanese teachers seem to be revered,
as indicated by the word sensei (born ahead) which indicates a position
of honor. Teachers are expected to be more than "mere conveyers of
knowledge; they should also be role models respected by students as
well as by parents" (Kazuo, 1989, p. 18). Their role extends well beyond
the mere imparting of information; rather, a sensei's judgment in
personal and professional, matters is sought and heeded (Christopher,
1983; Kazuo, 1989). Senseis have a wider sense of responsibility for

helping the student outside classroom hours, typically being available
at school on many days when class is not in session.
Although there were no data reported in the past few years
which compared prestige of the teaching profession to other
professions and occupations in Japan, the U.S. Department of
Education (1987) reported a 1975 Japanese survey which states that
"elementary principals and teachers ranked ninth and eighteenth in
public esteem out of 82 occupations" (p. 19).
Further, the U.S. Department of Education (1987) report stated
that the economic status of Japanese teachers is "comparatively high,
and the monetary rewards provide a strong incentive to pursue a
teaching career" (p. 19). Indeed, "by 1984, the beginning salary of a
Japanese high school teacher with a bachelor's degree was 15 percent
higher than the starting salary of a white collar employee with an
equivalent degree in a private company, and 12 percent higher than the
starting salary of an engineer with a bachelor's degree" (p. 19). Further,
there is an incentive to stay in education because of the respect given
teachers by the public and professional security in generous retirement
benefits and seniority (Cogan, 1984).
Entry into high school
Because Japanese students must compete for entry into high
school, this critical juncture points up major differences in ability.

Japanese high schools are ranked in a hierarchical order according to
the achievement level of students (Kojima, 1985).
The ranking of the school is closely related to future
employment and career paths. "At the local level, which high school a
person attends carries lifetime significance, and the finely etched
stereotypes of student character associated with each high school
become an indelible part of individual identity" (Rohlen, 1983, p. 122).
Thus, in most school districts in Japan, there are five or more schools
which are known to vary in quality. The best students are given the
first chance to enter the best schools and the weaker students end up in
lower quality schools (Rohlen, 1983; Stocking & Curry, 1986). In most
districts the ranking is clear and unquestioned. There is rarely any
change in the ranking from decade to decade.
Cultural Influences upon Achievement in Japan
Nobuo K. Shimahara (1986), a professor of anthropology of
education in the Graduate School of Education at Rutgers University,
and a senior associate at the National Institute of Education in
Washington, D. C., has written extensively about how Japanese culture
provides a rationale for the underlying premises of achievement in
Japan. In his words, "culture provides a general design for
exerts a powerful and ubiquitous influence on the ways individual
members act to solve their problems" (p. 173).

Shimahara (1986) believed that student achievement in Japan is
a reflection of Japanese cultural orientation which is manifested in a
common approach to problems. The common approach focuses upon
the process, rather than the results. Therefore, he concluded the
Japanese concentrate on the process of education, namely enhancing
student's motivation toward learning and work habits by 1) creating a
learning environment, 2) maintaining an indigenous Japanese
psychological view of ability, and 3) promoting orientation to the
group, all of which are explained in the following paragraphs.
Learning environment
Japanese teachers, parents and schools consistently and
constantly assess the importance of the social learning environment.
Schools deliberately and energetically try to structure educational
environments conducive to learning. Vogel (1979) suggested that the
motivation for achievement through examinations is increased by the
tight-knit membership in a variety of groups. Families, in a sense,
compete with other families in that their child's success in
examinations is viewed as a direct reflection on the family. Further,
there is intense competition between schools in relation to the
placement of students. Schools strive to get a high share of their
graduates admitted to the best schools at the next higher level.
Teachers, responsible for their students' personal and professional
lives as well as classroom behavior, also feel a part of their students'

successes. Thus, teachers, parents and schools all reinforce the system
in creating a learning environment that promotes achievement.
Indigenous Japanese psychology
The Japanese believe that all normal children can develop the
ability to learn well (Shimahara, 1986). Achievement is attributed to
effort rather than to innate ability.. In Hayamizu and Hasegawa's study
(1979) examining four attributes of achievement (effort, ability, luck
and teacher), the effort factor was the dominant one, with ability
playing a part in athletics and the arts, while luck and teacher were not
"highly thought of" (p. 205). Lebra's (1976) research supported the
premise that effort is important. Seventy-two percent of the
respondents surveyed attributed success to effort and endurance.
Believing that differences in achievement are consequences of a
student's diligence and discipline, educators avoid ability grouping in
schools and ignore IQ as a criterion for assessing student performance.
Group orientation and concentration
Group orientation and concentration are stressed in Japanese
schools. Wa (harmony) was explained earlier as an important
characteristic of education in Japan. This cultural value also impacts
achievement such that when group harmony exists, two relevant
attributes appear: homogeneity and inclusiveness. "Collective
pressure is consciously and patiently applied to group members, so that
they internalise the group's expectations...represents the homogenising

process of group orientation .. [individuals] expect to be treated on an
inclusive basis, which protects them" (Shimahara, 1986, p. 177).
This group mentality is not a new phenomena; rather one that
has been perceived as instrumental to Japan's success. In a televised
program on education in March, 1986, former Prime Minister
Nakasone urged education authorities and families to concentrate on
chikara o awasu, the concept of building strength together (Suguro,
1986). "This is the way the prewar generation built a strong Japan," said
the prime minister. "The strength of the individual is not important;
it cannot match a group's efforts," he added (p. 12). Concentration, too,
is usually accomplished in group settings. It is viewed as central to
student achievement and success in other spheres of activity.
While cultural factors are often cited as the reason for Japan's
productivity and commitment, Sony's Morita maintains that the
Japanese approach is not a cultural eccentricity applicable only in Japan
Further, Japan's rise to superiority in production was a result of
involving their people on all levels in problem solving and decision
making (Chapey, 1983).
Torrance (1982) encouraged educators to learn from the concept
of "quality circles" in Japanese education, where all students actively
participate in the challenges and accomplishments of the school.
Through helping to keep the school and grounds clean, being

responsible for their classmates behavior, creatively solving problems,
the students gain a feeling of pride, value and identity (p. 14).
Japanese High Schools
Most of the country's 47 prefectures (governmental units similar
to states) have high schools that are either formally or informally
ranked according to academic quality, with better students going to the
more academic schools. Theoretically, the simple track system
imposed by postwar reforms assured equality of educational
opportunity in Japan. After compulsory schooling, which encompasses
the six-year elementary and three year lower secondary school,
educational uniformity diminishes. According to public perception,
each institution at the three year upper secondary education level fits
into a hierarchy.
Academic achievement, confirmed by an entrance examination,
will determine which high school a student will attend.. In theory, the
Japanese educational system is a meritocracy that offers equal
educational opportunity, based on an individual's ability or merit
exhibited in entrance examinations. Thus, the high school experience
is shaped by entrance competitions which involve virtually the entire
youth population. "The educational tracks into which students are
shunted at this stage are both more diverse and fundamental than at
the college stage to the overall structure of society" (Rohlen, 1983, p.
121). Tracking is essential to the structure and functioning of the

schools. This ranking order is part of Japanese society as seen in the
rigid seniority system which dominates industry (Nakane, 1970).
All students enroll in upper secondary level schools either in an
academic or vocational program, although course work is the same for
all students during the first year. The academic program is college
preparatory; in the second and third years, students can specialize in
either literature or science. In the vocational school, during the second
and third years, about one-third of the student's time is devoted to
vocational programs. Today, about 49 percent of the upper secondary
schools provide an academic program; 23 percent offer vocational
programs; 28 percent are comprehensive, offering both programs. This
study examined climate factors at both male and female academic high
schools and coeducational vocational high schools.
In the hierarchy of Japanese high schools, vocational and private
secondary schools rank low (Kojima, 1985). In general, vocational
schools are considered at the bottom of the hierarchy (Stocking &
Curry, 1986). Today, there are three vocational high school students for
every seven academic high school students (Ranbom, 1985c).
Although private schools are rare at the elementary and lower
secondary levels (grades 7-9), 24 percent of the upper secondary schools
(grades 10-12) are private (U.S. Department of Education, 1987). There
are pronounced differences in the roles of private schools in Japan and
in the United States. In Japan, the private schools are generally viewed

negatively, while in the United States they are viewed positively
(Stocking & Curry, 1986). This is because in Japan private schools are
often an option explored only after a student has not been accepted into
the public high school of his choice.
After high school graduation, almost 30% of the students will go
to a four-year college or university, junior college or an advanced
secondary course (U. S. Department of Education, 1987). Of the
students who go to a four-year college or university, only 23% of them
are women. Women, despite high ability levels, often attend colleges
that are not academically rigorous because it is considered unseemly for
a man to marry a woman who attended a college or university with a
better reputation than the one which he attended (Beauchamp, 1982).
Consequently, 90% of the students who attend a-junior college are
women where they often specialize in "women's subjects" such as
home economics which are taken to enhance their marriageability
(Christopher, 1983). Sixty percent of the students at the special training
colleges are women.
Much as Japanese parents clearly cherish their daughters, a
prevailing attitude is shown through the words of one Japanese father
who said, "Of course, as a girl, it doesnt matter quite so much what
school she attends" (Christopher, 1983, p. 84). The women in Japan
simply do not have the same educational opportunities that men have
(Christopher, 1983; Cogan, 1984; Lebra, 1984; Rohlen, 1983). Figure 2.1
on page 31 shows the structure of the educational system.

I Preschool l
j Ages 3-5 j
Ages 1-5
Figure 2.1. Structure of the Japanese Educational System, from U.S.
Department of Education, Japan Education Today, Government
Printing Office, 1987, p. 6.

Dissatisfaction with Education in Japan
A noteworthy finding from the literature review was the
existence of a strong undercurrent of dissatisfaction with education in
Japan (Bjerner, 1987; Cummings & Kobayashi, 1985; Leigh, 1987; White,
1987). There were complaints that the Japanese education system is
rigid, has excessive uniformity and absence of diversity (Seligmann,
1987). Even in Japan, what has been accomplished through their
education system is not much appreciated in the general population.
Most Japanese find strong reasons to complain.
Teachers advocate reform in the "structure and content of
education... reduced pressure from examinations, safety in schools, and
other changes that might contribute to a better atmosphere for teaching
and teachers" (White, 1987, p. 176). Nikkyoso, the powerful leftist
teachers' union, views education as creating inequality and serving the
interests of the establishment.
Physical and psychological violence in the form of bullying the-
students by the teachers, though only occasionally publicized, is
another source of dissatisfaction. A group of academics and lawyers are
studying the use of corporal punishment in Japan's schools. Professor
Yamazaki, one of the members, explains the reason for the teachers'
violence: "Japan's educational system never did ask what would be
best for the children. Instead its primary concern is the exclusive needs
of the nation's economy" (Bjerner, 1987, p. 26).

Both Japanese parents and educators, however, do continually
debate over what is good for children. Education is the primary topic of
concern in public polls across Japan (White, 1987). Parents complain
that their children work too hard and worry too much about passing
entrance exams. In fact, many foreign observers have cited a litany of
complaints about how exam pressures are responsible for the high
suicide rates, nervous disorders, and even delinquency (Rohlen, 1983).
Shiken jigoku (examination hell) is the vernacular for the multi-
layered stress that competing for college admission exerts on students
and their families. In fact, Japan leads the world in school-related
suicides in the 15-19 year old age group (Ranbom, 1985c).
Rohlen (1983) noted a crucial point: "that the juvenile suicide
rate dropped rapidly at the same time as matriculation rates to Japanese
high schools and universities were rising" (p. 328). Another significant
point Rohlen made was that in 1973, the suicide rate for Japanese
females remained highest among industrial nations. In the book, The
Thorn in the Chrysanthemum, Professor Iga (1986) explained that the
high suicide rate in Japan is an aspect of the educational system that
cannot be overlooked.
The Japanese business sector is especially concerned with the
current educational system. Having formerly praised Japan's
education, today's corporations are expressing concern. Manager for
recruitment and development of Mitsubishi Corporation, Japan's
largest diversified trading company, Mr. Hikida stated, "today's

workers are unstable, exhausted and jumpy from always preparing for
exams . system has caused a loss of communication and cooperation
because of excessive emphasis on testing. Teachers, obsessed with
transferring test knowledge, slight the intangibles that build the group
ethic" (Ranbom, 1985b, p. 20).
This is why so many businessmen like Mr. Hikida support the
government educational line which calls for creativity and diversity in
the educational process. Keio University business professor Noritake
Kobayashi stated, "we want creative minds who think independently"
(Ranbom, 1985c, p. 14). What is actually sought is nothing less than a
new approach to learning, one that minimizes the opportunity "to
retain mountains of facts for entrance exams and maximizes the
opportunity to stand out in the academic crowd" (p. 17).
The Japanese are alarmed by what they perceive as a growing
sense of student disaffection with the education system (U.S.
Department of Education, 1987). The three prevailing problems appear
to be student violence, school dropouts and juvenile delinquency
(Cummings & Kobayashi, 1985). Though the incidence of these
problems are miniscule by American standards, they signal the
emergence within a highly valued school environment of traits and
attitudes completely alien to the culture: lack of discipline, loss of
respect for authority, antipathy to group values and weakened moral
fiber (Ranbom, 1985c).

Ijime (students' bullying and teasing each other) is particularly
upsetting in a society that prizes order, predictability and harmony; In
1985, nearly 2,000 ijime cases were reported to the National Police
Agency (Suguro, 1986). Most cases involve junior high students. In
fact, Ministry of Education statistics show that in junior high, violence
has doubled since 1978. But, they also indicate that at the non-
compulsory high school level (grades 10-12), where motivation to
study is much greater, the number of serious behavior problems has
grown steadily as well. Another concern is the steady increase in the
number of high school dropouts, a phenomenon that was once
extremely rare.
The 39-member panel of sociologists, educators and
psychologists assembled by the National Institute for Education
Research (N.I.E.R.) to report on the causes and possible cures for school
violence, attribute the new problems "to the increasing number of
'maladjusted children' . one consequence of an educational system
that offers the 'traditional philosophy of uniformism' while also
pushing students to be 'upwardly mobile' by besting their peers in
competition (Ranbom, 1985b, p. 25)." Deputy director, Takehide Yokoo,
stated in the final report issued in the fall of 1984, "we must admit that
the school has failed to transform itself in accordance with the changes
in society. And the time has come to add more individualistic factors
into education" (Ranbom, 1985b, p. 25). Added committee member Mr.
Yasuhara, "As good soil brings forth good crops, good educational soil,

including family, school and community, brings along good adults.
Today, there is something wrong with the educational soil" (Ranbom,
1985b, p. 26).
Another example of public dissatisfaction with education could
be deduced by the incredible success of a book, Totto-chan: Little Girl at
the Window. Set prior to World War II, this book by Japan's most
popular TV personality Tetsuko Kuroyanagi, tells the story of a little
girl who had been expelled from first grade because of her
"uncharacteristic behavior" (Kuroyanagi, 1982). The girl's mother then
enrolled her daughter into a very atypical progressive school where
love and care were lavished upon Totto-chan. In this "free school," the
principal "valued naturalness and wanted to let childrens characters
develop as naturally as possible" (p. 11). Perhaps this best-seller's
popularity suggests a longing by Japanese for some alternatives to the
traditional system of education. Or, as the International Herald
Tribune wrote of the book, Totto-chan has reminded millions of
Japanese what children think education should be.
Sociologist Cummings (1980), senior fellow at America's East-
West Center, and others who have studied Japan's education
maintained that to bring Japan to the next stage of growth the school
will have to evolve in "new, uncharted ways; ... to continue to prosper
Japan now must become the producer of ideas, a world leader in
innovation" (page 121).

Cross-Cultural Studies with Japan in Education
A search in the literature for studies in the non-cognitive
attributes and behaviors of Japanese society revealed very few research
studies. While popular articles (Abiko & George, 1986; Chapey, 1983;
Ranbom, 1985; Schiller & Walberg, 1982) and valuable books
(Cummings, 1980; Rohlen, 1983; White, 1987) were available, there
were very few empirical cross-cultural studies done with Japan on the
non-cognitive domain of education. Data are usually from Japanese
governmental reports of juvenile delinquency, social and family
relationships, and suicides. Generally, educators in the United States
write about non-cognitive attributes from their observations of
Japanese culture and society or from their own experiences and
interpretations from having spent time in Japan. The following
review will report on empirical data.
A longitudinal study begun in the early 1970s by Hess, Azuma,
and Hakuta (1986), was a collaborative/parallel study focusing on
cognitive socialization and development, dealing primarily with
family influences on children's behaviors rather than cognitive
characteristics of children per se. Data collection began on 58 Japanese
and 67 American mother-child pairs in 1972 with children ages 4, 5,
and 6 and was completed when the children were 11 and 12 years old.
The measures used at various points in the study shifted from a focus,
on cognitive functioning, to school readiness, to IQ scores, to scholastic

achievement. The significance of this study as collaborative/parallel
rather than comparative was due to the differences in test instruments
between Japan and the United States.
Despite the difficulty of this collaborative/parallel study due to
the lack of comparability of their measures, there were intriguing
differences between cognitive patterns of development between Japan
and the United States. Reports by Hess et al. (1986) stressed the role of
the mother in the cognitive socialization and cross-cultural differences
in that role. Differences were found between Japan and the United
States in maternal teaching styles, strategies of behavior control,
expectations for mastery of development skills, and causal attributions
for performance. Further, the maternal characteristics were related to
school readiness and later cognitive performance, but differed across
The results suggested that in both Japanese and American
cultures, there existed a unique pattern of association among the three
variables: treatment of children, children's characteristics, and school
achievement by children. Also, beyond the differences in the
substantial characteristics of these three variables, there existed in all
cultures a common functional relationship among the variables: good
environment, good children, high achievement by children. In other
words, in both Japan and America, when children with highly valued
characteristics were supported by a good environment as defined by
their culture, they tend to achieve better.

This study reinforces other writing (Shimahara, 1986; White,
1987) which points out that the foundation for cognitive performance
is established through family influences on behavior and
When American students are compared with Asian students,
the research by Stevenson, Stigler, Lee and Kitamura (1978), showed
that U.S. students fall further behind Asian students the longer they
are in school. Stevenson and his colleagues maintained that Asian
students work harder largely because they share a greater belief than do
Americans in the efficacy of hard work and the malleability of human
However, results from a later study by Stevenson, Stigler, Lee,
Lucker, Kitamura, and Hsu (1985), would challenge Stevenson's et al.
(1978) earlier findings asserting that Japanese outperform students in
the United States. In an extensive comparative longitudinal study of
achievement differences between Japan, Taiwan and the U.S. during
the elementary school years, these researchers gathered data through
parental interviews, classroom observations and cognitive measures.
They found the the Japanese showed strength in mathematics;
however, the data regarding cognitive abilities and reading
performance were more balanced, slightly showing an overall
advantage to the U.S. students. Thus, this study challenged some
notions about Japanese performance and reinforces others.

In another cross-cultural study with Japan, United States and
Australia, researchers Kato, Hukagawa and Ito (1986) found "a great
disparity between American and Japanese views on education" (p. 84).
Japan named "character building" as the first goal of education, while
educators in the United States named "acquisition of knowledge and
information. The Australians and Americans held a pragmatic view of
education, thinking that education should give students knowledge
and information. The Japanese, believing that school education is
more important than home and social education, believed that
education should build character.
School Climate
The preceding sections reviewing the dissatisfaction with
education and the education reform in Japan may relate to and impact
school climate because climate, the social, psychological and emotional
environment in which learning takes place, is the way a person feels
about himself at school (Howard, 1981). A person's feelings, or
perceptions, are a result of cultural, value, knowledge and experience
Therefore, if both the family and society have a high regard for
learning, a school could be viewed as a good place to be and this could
result in a positive attitude toward school, for both the teachers and the
students. On the other hand, if the high school is one which is ranked
at the bottom of the hierarchy, the teachers and students may not feel

very good about themselves in that environment. The climate could
be negative if the teachers and students considered themselves not
good enough for another school. How does the ranking and
competition in secondary high schools in Japan impact climate? The
writer believes that an investigation of school climate in high schools
could offer a new and insightful perspective with potential for Japan's
educational reform.
Researchers have defined school climate as more than the
feeling you get when you walk into a building (Halpin, 1966; Hoy &
Miskel, 1987; Silver, 1983). Rather, climate is defined as the tone or
atmosphere resulting from interaction among teachers, students, and
administrators and other staff, consisting of attitudes, beliefs and
norms (Hoy & Miskel, 1987). It is the general work environment as
perceived by students, teachers, administrators and support staff.
Climate, the internal characteristics of a school, influences how
students, teachers, administrators and support staff behave and
distinguishes one school from another school (Hoy & Miskel, 1987).
Essays on school climate are included in Appendix A.
A positive school climate which facilitates achievement has
values and norms which esteem academics, hold high expectations for
achievement, provide an orderly and disciplined atmosphere and
emphasize the positive (Hoy & Miskel, 1987; Howard, 1981). Climate
has been described as the "tone, ambience, or atmosphere of an

organization, the sense that a place has a quality uniquely its own"
(Silver, 1983, p. 180).
Over the past two decades much work has been done by
educators in the United States in developing a profile of desirable
school climate, techniques for assessment, evaluation and
recommendations for improvement of school climate. Interest in
individuals' work environment in a social context was stimulated by
Kurt Lewins work in the 1930s and 1940s. He maintained that
"Human behavior was a function of the individual's personality or
needs in interaction with the social and psychological forces in that
individual's environment" (Silver, 1983, p. 177). His classic
formulation, "B = f (P E): Behavior is a function of Personality in
interaction with the Environment" (p. 366).
The concept of "organizational climate was conceived by Argyris
in 1957 in an attempt to order the complex reciprocal network of
variables that compromise organizations ... to add a meaningful
pattern for the variables resulting from the interaction of individuals,
and formal and informal levels of analysis" (Tunney & Jenkins, 1975,
p. 17).
The school climate movement began largely as a reaction to
pressure to de-emphasize standards in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Perhaps the impetus for attention to school climate was a result of a
reform movement that was generated by the Viet Nam War. "This

national tragedy had many very important effects on the nation's
schools, including an expanded curriculum and a relaxation of
standards in society, particularly secondary schools and higher
education" (Brainard, 1985, p. 3). Efforts to improve school climate,
therefore, were a response by educators to the reform movement. The
concept of school climate does not de-emphasize skills and knowledge
students gain through academics; rather, that the most efficient and
effective learning occurs in schools with a positive climate. This was
based on the realization that satisfaction and productivity are related, a
concept validated by studies which indicated that student satisfaction in
education enhances productivity. (Miller, 1981; Rutter, 1979).
Early research by Brookover et al. (1978) showed a positive
relationship between school achievement and school social climate.
Results from a study conducted in Australia (Fraser & Fisher, 1982)
examining the relationships between students' learning outcomes and
their perceptions of classroom environment yielded more support for
the positive relationship between achievement and positive school
Conceptual frameworks
Andrew Halpin (1966), a social psychologist, wrote that schools
differ from each other in their "feel," from a school where there is
"brooding discontent of teachers and incompetence of a principal" to a
school with a "zestful and confident faculty and principal" to a school
somewhere in between which is marked by "neither joy or despair, but

by hollow ritual (p. 131)." He called this feel the organizational climate.
"Analogously, personality is to the individual what organizational
climate is to the organization" (p. 131).
Probably the most well-known conceptualization and
measurement of climate in schools was done by Andrew Halpin and
Don Croft, recognized pioneers in the field of school climate (Hoy &
Miskel, 1987). In their descriptive climate framework, they conceived
of school climate as a blend of two important dimensions of
interpersonal interaction: a principal's leadership and the teachers'
interactions. They maintained that schools "feel" differently and that
the concept of morale does not adequately explain this. Furthermore,
even an "ideal" principal can be immobilized by a faculty if he is
assigned to a school where improvement is needed. Halpin and Croft
also believed that the topic of organizational climate was interesting to
educators (Hoy & Miskel, 1987).
These observations and their interest in climate led Halpin and
Croft to construct the Organizational Climate Description
Questionnaire (OCDQ), a 64 Likert-type item survey which principals
and teachers answer. From these responses, a profile or psycograph,
can be constructed based on the scores and an estimate of the quality of
the climate can be made. Halpin and Croft identified six distinctive
climates in schools and suggested that they could be arranged along a
continuum defined at one end by an open climate and at the other end,
by a closed climate, referring to how open or closed the channels of

communications in a school were (Hoy & Miskel, 1987, p. 227). These
six climates were defined by the analysis of the behavior that was
described through the administration of the eight subtests, four of
which referred to teacher behavior and four of which referred to
principal behavior.
Characteristics of Faculty Behavior:
1. Hindrance refers to the teachers' feeling that the
principal burdens them with unnecessary busywork,
2. Intimacy refers to the teachers' enjoyment of warm,
friendly personal relations with one another,
3. Disengagement refers to the teachers tendency "to go
through the motions" without an actual commitment
to the task at hand,
4. Esprit refers to morale growing out of a sense of both
task accomplishment and social needs satisfaction (Hoy
& Miskel, 1987, p. 227).
Principal behavior subtests include:
1. Production emphasis refers to close supervisory
behavior on the part of the principal; highly directive
and not sensitive to faculty feedback,
2. Aloofness refers to formal and impersonal principal
behavior (principal "goes by the book") which
maintains social distance from the staff,
3. Consideration refers to warm, friendly behavior by the
principal; he tries to be helpful to the faculty when he
or she can,
4. Thrust refers to the dynamic principal behavior in
which an attempt to "move the organization" is made
through the example which the principal sets for the
teachers (Hoy & Miskel. 1987, p. 227).

Using the OCDQ, respondents replied to what extent a statement
characterized their school. The responses were scaled along a four-
point Likert scale from rarely occurs, to sometimes occurs, to often
occurs, and to frequently occurs. Based on the responses by the teachers
and principals on the eight subtests, a profile yielded six distinctive
climates that could be arrayed along a continuum from open to closed:
open, autonomous, controlled, familiar, paternal, closed. In using the
terms open and closed, Halpin and Croft also related the notion of
openness/closed,ness to authenticity or genuineness in interpersonal
The distinctive feature of the open climate is its high degree of
thrust and esprit and low disengagement; behavior of the principal,
teachers and support staff is authentic. The closed climate, on the other
hand, is virtually the antithesis of the open climate. Thrust and esprit
are low and disengagement is high; the principal, teachers, and support
staff seem to go through the motion and their behavior does not
appear genuine.
Even though the usefulness and validity of the continuum of
climate has been questioned, the behavioral pictures drawn by the two
extremes offer a basis from which further analysis of school climate has
been drawn. The weakness of the open to closed continuum seemed to
be found in the middle climates; thus, most researchers, including
Halpin and Croft, relied mostly on an index to determine openness or
closedness of school climate: Openness Index = Thrust Score + Esprit

Score Disengagement Score. The higher the index, the more open the
climate of the school (Hoy & Miskel, 1987, p. 228).
Andrew Hayes, questioning the validity and reliability of the
items in the subtests OCDQ, urged that the questionnaire be revised. A
team at Rutgers University, consisting of Wayne Hoy, Robert
Kottkamp, Sharon Clover, John Feldman and John Mulhern,
introduced new and simplified versions of the OCDQ, the OCDQ-RE
for elementary schools and the OCDQ-RS for secondary schools (Hoy &
Miskel, 1987, p. 230).
Other instruments for classroom environment assessment
developed in the 1970s which also utilized a concept of openness were
the Classroom Environment Scale (CES), developed by Moos and
Trickett, and the Individualized Classroom Environment
Questionnaire (ICEQ) (Fraser & Fisher, 1982).
The CES considers nine scales which include:
1. Involvement students have attentive interest,
participate in discussions, do additional work and
enjoy the class,
2. Affiliation students help each other, get to know each
other easily, and enjoy working together,
3. Teacher support teacher helps, befriends, trusts and is
interested in students,
4. Task orientation it is important to complete activities
planned and to stay on the subject matter,

5. Competition students compete with each other for
grades and recognition,
6. Order and organization there is emphasis on
students behaving in an orderly, quiet, and polite
manner, and on the overall organization of classroom
7. Rule clarity rules are clear, students know the
consequence of breaking rules, and the teacher deals
consistently with students who break rules,
8. Teacher control rules are enforced and rule
infractions are punished,
9. Innovation the teacher plans new, unusual, and
varying techniques, and encourages students to
contribute to classroom planning and to think
creatively (Fraser & Fisher, 1982, p. 503).
The ICEQ measures high school students' perceptions of five
dimensions that distinguish conventional classrooms from
individualized or open ones (Fraser & Fisher, 1982). The 50 items are
scored on a 5-point scale with responses of "almost never, seldom,
sometimes, often and very often."
Dimensions include:
1. Personalization emphasis on opportunities for
individual students to interact with the teacher and on
concern for the personal welfare and social growth of
the individual,
2. Participation students are encouraged to participate,
rather than to be passive listeners,
3. Independence students are allowed to make decisions
and have control over their own learning and

4. Investigation emphasis on the skills and processes of
inquiry and their use in problem-solving and
5. Differentiation emphasis on the selective treatment
of students on the basis of ability, learning style,
interests and rate of working (Fraser & Fisher, 1982).
Another model of climate was conceptualized by Getzels and
Guba. This model showed the dimensions and relationships between
three classes of behavioral phenomena: 1) the normative
(nomothetic), which includes the roles and expectations that will fulfill
the goals of the system; 2) the personal (ideographic) which includes
the personalities and need-dispositions of the individual within the
institution; and 3) culture, which includes the ethos and values of the
individuals, the institution and the institution's environment
(Getzels, Lipham, & Campbell, 1968).
According to Getzels and Guba, a person's behavior stems from
both the normative and personal dimensions simultaneously and the
culture dimension (organizational climate) results from the interaction
of the first two as a person attempts to satisfy organizational goals and
personal needs. This model considers the roles and needs of people as
strongly as it considers productivity.
The Getzels-Guba model provides the theoretical framework
underlying the instruments, the CFK Ltd. School Climate Profile (CFK
Profile) and the Student Attitude Profile (SAP) which were used in this
study. These instruments were chosen because of the underlying

philosophy which guided their development. Also, they have been
used successfully in previous climate studies in assessing how
students, as well as teachers, support staff and administrators perceived
climate in schools (Brainard, 1985; Dennis, 1979; DeRosia, 1975;
Howard, 1981; Tunney & Jenkins, 1975; Van Howe; 1980).
A great deal of work went into the organization and
development of a philosophy of school climate before the instruments
were developed. In 1967, Charles F. Kettering II founded CFK, Ltd., a
philanthropic foundation, dedicated to improving the learning climate
of elementary and secondary schools and for improving administrative
leadership. In 1973 a CFK Ltd. task force described three major goals of
school climate :
1. To provide throughout the school a wholesome,
stimulating, and productive learning environment
conducive to academic achievement and personal
growth of youth at different levels of development.
2. To provide a pleasant and satisfying school situation
within which young people can live and work.
3 To provide a stimulating and productive
environment for the adults (the faculty, principal,
other staff members, and parents) of the school
community (Fox & Bois, et al., 1974, p. 5).
In summary, school climate, can be defined as encompassing the
satisfaction and productivity attained by both faculty and students in
the school environment. (See Figure 2.2 on page 51.)

of Students and Educators
Achieving basic skills
Developing constructive attitudes
Developing and expanding an adequate
knowledge base
Clarifying values and purposes
Utilizing inquiry and problem-
solving processes
on the part of Students and Educators
Gaining a sense of personal worth
Enjoying school as a pleasant
place to live and work
Gaining rewards from participation
in worthwhile activities
Figure 2.2. School Climate Goals, from Fox & Bois, et al., School
climate improvement: A challenge to the school administrator, 1974,

In developing the CFK Ltd. School Climate Profile (CFK Profile).
the CFK Task Force described eight general factors that were important
in a desirable climate: respect, trust, high morale, opportunities for
input, continuous academic and social growth, cohesiveness, school
renewal, and caring.
These factors result from an interaction of the schools
programs, processes and physical conditions (See Figure 2.3 on page 54).
According to the Task Force, ideally, there is evidence of the following:
Respect. Students should see themselves as persons of
worth, believing that they have ideas, and that those ideas
are listened to and make a difference. Teachers and
administrators should feel the same way. School should
be a place where there are self-respecting individuals.
Respect is also due to others. In a positive climate there
are no put-downs.
Trust. Trust is reflected in one's confidence that others
can be counted on to behave in a way that is honest. They
will do what they say they will do. There is also an
element of believing others will not let you down.
High Morale. People with high morale feel good about
what is happening.
Opportunities for Input. Not all persons can be involved
in making the important decisions. Not always can each
person be as influential as he might like to be on the
many aspects of the schools programs and processes that
affect him. But every person cherishes the opportunities
to contribute his or her ideas, and know they have been
considered. A feeling of a lack of voice is
counterproductive to self-esteem and deprives the school
of that person's resources.

Continuous Academic and Social Growth. Each student
needs to develop additional academic, social and physical
skills, knowledge, and attitudes. (Many educators have
described the growth process as achieving "developmental
tasks.") Educators, too, desire to improve their skills,
knowledge, and attitudes in regard to their particular
assignments within the school district and as cooperative
members of a team.
Cohesiveness. This quality is measured by the person's
feeling toward the school. Members should feel a part of
the school. They want to stay with it and have a chance to
exert their influence on it in collaboration with others.
School Renewal. The school as an institution should
develop improvement projects. It should be self-
renewing in that it is growing, developing, and changing
rather than following routines, repeating previously
accepted procedures, and striving for conformity. If there
is renewal, difference is seen as interesting, to be
cherished. Diversity and pluralism are valued. New
conditions are faced with poise. Adjustments are worked
out as needed The "new" is not seen as threatening, but
as something to be examined, weighed, and its value or
relevance determined. The school should be able to
organize improvement projects rapidly and efficiently,
with an absence of stress and conflict.
Caring. Every individual in the school should feel that
some other person or persons are concerned about him as
a human being. Each knows it will make a difference to
someone else if he is happy or sad, healthy or ill.
(Teachers should feel that the principal cares about them
even when they make mistakes or disagree. And the
principal should know that the teachers at least most of
them understand the pressures under which he or she is
working and will help if they can.) (Fox & Bois, et al., 1974,
pp. 7-9)

Determinants of School Climate
Program Determinants Process Determinants Material Determinants
for active Problem Solving Adequate Resources
Learning Ability
Individualized Improvement of SupDortive and
Performance School Goals Efficient
Expectations Logistical System
Varied Learning Identifying and Suitability of
Environments working with Conflicts School Plant
'Flexible Curriculum Effective'
and Extracurricular Activities Communications
Support and Structure Involvement in
Appropriate to Learner's Decision Making
Varied Reward System Effective Teaching- Learning Strategies Ability to Plan for the Future
Figure 2.3. School Climate Factors and Determinants, from Fox &
Bois, et al., School climate improvement: A challenge to the school
administrator, 1974, pp. 10,12.

Three major categories of determinants contribute to a school's
climate. They include program determinants (opportunities for active
living, individualized performance expectations, varied learning
environments, flexible curriculum and extracurricular activities,
support and structure appropriate to learner's maturity and varied
reward systems), process determinants (problem solving ability,
improvement of school goals identifying and working with conflicts,
effective communications, involvement in decision making, effective
teaching-learning strategies and ability to plan for the future) and
material determinants (adequate resources, supportive and efficient
logistical system and suitability of school plant). The goals or
outgrowths of climate are productivity and satisfaction (CADRE
Journal, 1985). A profile, designed to measure the extent to which a
school has a positive climate and to provide a basis for diagnosis and
improvement and offer activities which lead to positive climate was
published in 1974 as part of a book, School Climate Improvement: A
Challenge to the School Administrator. It was written by members of
the CFK Ltd. Foundation (Fox & Bois, et al., 1974), who sought input
from 200 administrators throughout the nation and carefully
researched the literature before developing the instrument. Copies of
the CFK Profile are included in Appendix C.
In 1980 the Student Attitude Profile (SAP) was developed,
following carefully the CFK Profile model (Van Howe, 1980). An
attempt was made to develop items which measure students'

perceptions of their school environment in terms which are readily
understandable to them ... particular attention was paid to the
indicators and pool of items suggested by Fox & Bois, et al.,1974 (Van
Howe, p. 70). The SAP was found to be valid and reliable in Van
Howe's study. The significance, then, of his study was in the SAP's
"practicability and applicability to the learning environments of
schools as perceived by the learners themselves" (p. 10). Copies of the
SAP are in Appendix C.
In 1974 the CFK associates completed their work and the
Collegial Association for the Development and Renewal of Educators
(CADRE) took over. CADRE accepted the challenge started by Kettering
in providing leadership in school climate improvement through the
development and refinement of school climate activities. Today
CADRE is located in Aurora, Colorado.
This review of the literature and recent research focused upon
the historical, societal and cultural influences on Japanese education
and achievement. In Japanese education, it was found that: 1)
Environment and early training are very important in educational
success. 2) With true effort the student can succeed, that the key to
success is persistence. 3) Parents are committed to a child's educational
experience. Mothers are particularly involved and assume the
responsibility for their children's academic achievement. 4) Many

students attend after school sessions for individualized remedial or
accelerated help or to prepare for exam examinations. 5) Japanese
schools are demanding. The school calendar is longer than the
American calendar and the curriculum is more challenging. 6)
Japanese teachers enjoy prestige and security in their work. 7) Entry
into high school is a critical juncture in a student's life. 8) Harmony,
group orientation, and concentration are viewed as central to student
achievement and success in other spheres of activity. These unique
characteristics provided a background for a better understanding of
secondary high schools in Japan.
In the discussion of Japanese high schools, these facts emerged:
1) High schools in Japan are ranked according to academic quality. The
hierarchy of schools is common knowledge in a community and rarely
changes through the years. 2) An entrance examination determines
which school a student will attend. 3) Curriculum is uniform
throughout Japanese schools and is prescribed by the Ministry of
Education. 4) Japanese girls do not have the same educational-
opportunities that boys do.
' The review of literature cited dissatisfaction with the
educational system expressed by various sectors in Japanese society.
1) The strong and powerful teachers' union advocates reform in
content, better atmosphere, and less pressure to teach a curriculum
geared to entrance examinations. 2) There are complaints by many in
Japanese society, including businessmen and professionals, that the

rigidity imposed by and the emphasis on entrance examinations result
in rote learning and "teaching to the test" rather than instilling in
students a love of learning. 3) Parents and teachers want less pressure
on the students, especially that caused by "examination hell." 4) Other
concerns which were discussed in this review were the psychological
and physical violence, vandalism and school phobia, all of which have
increased over the past few years in Japan. Many of the dissatisfactions
with education in Japan relate to the emotional or psychological well-
being of students and teachers/ administrators.
The literature reviewed studies in the non-cognitive attributes
and behaviors of Japanese society. The search revealed a few empirical
cross-cultural studies done with Japan on the non-cognitive domain of
education, and these were reviewed.
Finally, the review sought to explore the area of school climate.
In studies in the United States, academic achievement by students has
been shown to be strongest when the climate of the school was
positive. Leading conceptual frameworks and the factors that have
been found to be important were described. Instruments for climate
assessment, including the instruments which will be used to assess
climate in this study, were discussed.
This review provided a basis for research on climate in selected
secondary schools in Japan which may offer a new and insightful
perspective of an important aspect of Japan's educational system.

This study examined school climate factors, as measured by the
CFK Ltd. School Climate Profile and the Student Attitude Profile, in
four selected public high schools in Yamagata Prefecture in Japan. This
study investigated whether there were differences in climate in these
four high schools as perceived by students and teachers/administrators.
It compared the perceptions of school climate in male academic, female
academic, coeducational agricultural and coeducational commercial
high schools as perceived by students and teachers/administrators and
compared academic to vocational/agricultural schools for both
students' and teachers'/administrators' perceptions. The study used
paper and pencil inventories and interviews to compare climate in
these four selected high schools in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan.
Specifically, the research was designed to answer these questions:
1. Are there differences in the eight general factors of climate and
in the composite climate score as perceived by students in four
selected schools in Japan: male academic, female academic,
coeducational agricultural and coeducational commercial?

2. Are there differences in the eight general factors of climate and
in the composite climate score as perceived by
teachers/administrators in each of these four selected schools in
3. Are there differences in climate as perceived by students in the
academic and vocational schools?
4. Are there differences in climate as perceived by
teachers/administrators in the academic and vocational schools?
5. What is the rank order of the general factors of climate as
perceived by students in these four schools?
6. What is the rank order of the general factors of climate as
perceived by teachers/administrators in these four schools?
7. Do the students and teachers/administrators in each type of
school perceive the relative occurrence of the general factors of
climate similarly?
The Setting
The target population included nine classrooms in four public
high schools (male academic, female academic, coeducational
agricultural and coeducational commercial) in Yamagata City,
Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Yamagata, Colorado's sister-state since
1986, is one of 47 regional prefectures of Japan. Located 300 miles

northwest of Tokyo, Yamagata City has a population of 250,000 and is
the seat of the regional government.
Yamagata City was chosen as the study site because of contacts
the researchers school district had there. In October, 1986, Dr. Richard
P. Koeppe, then the superintendent of Colorado's Cherry Creek School
District, visited Yamagata City. In discussions there, Board of Education
members and educators revealed an interest in Yamagata and Colorado
working cooperatively in educational exchanges of information and
knowledge. At that time the writer, an educator in Cherry Creek
School District, had a great interest in Japanese education as a result of
teaching experiences in Japan with the Department of Defense
Overseas Schools System in the 1970s. She discussed her interest in
this research study with Dr. Koeppe who suggested some people to
contact in Yamagata, Japan. Appendix B contains copies of
correspondence to the Japanese educators and notes from telephone
conversations, as well as news coverage of the study.
The population of interest to this study were teachers,
administrators and the sophomores/ juniors and seniors in four types
of schools: male and female academic schools with college-preparatory
curriculums, coeducational agricultural and commercial/vocational
schools with programs preparing students for work immediately after
graduation from high school. One school of each type was chosen for
this study. The sample of 362 students was drawn from intact
classrooms with approximately 90 students in each of the types of

schools, resulting in a total of nine classrooms from four high schools.
Although the selection was determined by the principal at each school,
the researcher requested that it be a random sample of the classrooms.
The 161 teachers who were present on the day the instrument was
completed and eight administrators participated in the study.
The schools
Minami-ko, or South High School. Minami-ko was a male
academic high school with 976 students. Over 90% of them begin
college and/or a university following graduation. The schools all
male faculty of 46 offered two courses of study: 1) scientific studies
program for boys who were interested in science, medicine, technology
and 2) literary studies program for boys who were interested in
education, economics, business and law. Minami-ko's motto and aims
To make a man with a creative mind;
To make a very strong and healthy man;
To make a kind and gentle man; and
To make a man who has a broad point of view who can act
for himself.
At Minami-ko the writer surveyed two classrooms: one with 43
students and the other with 40 students. Forty-two teachers, and two
administrators participated in the study.

Nishi-Ko, or West High School. Nishi-Ko, a female academic
high school with 945 students, had a faculty of 29 women and 13 men
who taught two programs of study: 1) math, science and law, and 2)
economics and literature. These programs were college-preparatory;
about 45% of the students begin a four-year college and/or university
following graduation and another 25% begin a junior college. Of the
remaining 30%, about 10% begin work and the other 20% continue to
study to pass the examination for a specific college.
Nishi-ko had as its educational motto and goals:
Let us have our own definite goals in school life and do what
we can with enthusiasm;
Let us have a regard for the harmony of our school and
encourage each other to work hard;
Let us act with sound judgment and make the best of our
At Nishi-ko the writer surveyed two classrooms: one with 47
students and the other with 49- students. Thirty-five of the teachers
participated in the study and two administrators.
Kaminoyama No-Gyo, or Kaminoyama Agricultural High
School. Kaminoyama No-Gyo, set among pine trees, flowers and rock
gardens, was an agricultural high school with a faculty of 48 who
offered its 313 boys and 173 girls five programs: gardening, agriculture,

horticulture, home living and liberal studies. After graduation from
this school, 70% of the students work. About 3-5% begin college; about
10% begin junior college, and the remainder continue study in another
school or at home in preparation for a college examination.
The school's motto was: "We also find our way of life by
inspiring sweat, not just from books." Kaminoyama No-gyo's written
objectives include:
To nurture a spirit of loving nature and iabor,
To foster a warm heart to offer people the spirit of friendship
and cooperation,
To develop adaptability to society by studying culture, and
To bring up a healthy man in both body and soul so that he
may contribute to society.
At Kaminoyama No-Gyo the writer surveyed three classrooms:
one with 34 students, another with 22 students, and another with 43
students. Thirty-seven of the teachers and two administrators
participated in the study.
Yamagata Sho-Gyo, or Yamagata Commercial High School.
Yamagata Sho-Gyo was a commercial high school with 614 girls and
592 boys. At Yamagata Sho-Gyo all the juniors and seniors were
enrolled in a commercial program; the sophomores, however, were

divided into commercial and economic courses. The students in the
economic course took college-preparatory courses. Approximately 70%
of the students begin work immediately following graduation;
approximately 10-15% enter a college or university and the remaining
10-15% begin a junior college.
Yamagata Sho-gyo's educational aims were:
Faithfulness and sincerity are our fundamental spirit;
We love truth and justice;
We respect humanity and labor and responsibility;
We expect to bring up the students to be sound mentally and
physically in order that they earn trust from other people.
At Yamagata Sho-Gyo the writer surveyed two classrooms: one
with 44 students and the other with 41 students. Forty-nine teachers
and 2 administrators participated by completing the instrument.
The Instruments
The research instruments used were the CFK Ltd. School
Climate Profile (CFK Profile) for measuring teachers' and
administrators' perceptions of climate, the Student Attitude Profile
(SAP) for measuring students' perception of climate and a researcher
developed interview schedule. The CFK Profile measures the extent
to which a school has a positive climate, provides a basis for diagnosis

and improvement, and offers activities which lead to positive climate.
It was published in 1974 as part of a book, School Climate
Improvement: A Challenge to the School Administrator (Fox & Bois,
et al., 1974). It was written by a task force of the CFK Ltd. Foundation, a
philanthropic foundation dedicated to improving administrative
leadership and the learning climate in schools.
The CFK Profile has been used in a number of research studies
on school climate. Tunney and Jenkins' research showed content
validity (1975). In Dennis' study (1979), the profile demonstrated
construct validity for adult perceptions of climate. However, her study,
as well as earlier research by Tunney and Jenkins (1975), questioned
whether the instrument measured student perceptions of school
climate with the same degree of validity that it measured adult
perceptions. As a result, in Van Howe's study (1980), "an attempt was
made to develop items which measure students' perceptions of their
school environment in terms which are readily understandable to
them . particular attention was paid to the indicators and pool of
items suggested by Fox et al." (Van Howe, p. 70). The Student Attitude
Profile (SAP), which measures secondary school students' perceptions
of their school environment, was found to be reliable (r=.98) and valid
(Van Howe, p. 95).
Both of these instruments have four sections, each dealing with
a different aspect of climate. In this study the researcher used the first
section, which measures the eight general climate factors. Section I,

translated into Japanese, was used in its entirety. Questions were
answered on a four-point rating scale from "almost always" to "almost
never." Appendices C and D contain copies of the instruments in
Japanese and English, as well as a copy of the researcher's introductory
The remaining three sections of both the CFK and the SAP
(Section II: Program Determinants, Section III: Process Determinants,
and Section IV: Material Determinants) were not used in this study.
The Japanese educators who assisted with the research advised against
using those sections, stating that many of the questions were not
applicable or appropriate for Japans educational system. In Japan, the
Ministry of Education (Monbusho) prescribes the curriculum with
required textbooks, guides arid daily lesson plans for the entire country,
and lessons must be implemented in exactly the same manner and on
the same day in all classrooms by classroom teachers. There is no time
nor opportunity for teachers to "use a variety of methods" nor do
students "have a chance to study with students in other grades"
(Program determinants' questions) because the Ministry of Education
decides how schools are run.
Further, many of the questions in the process determinants
section were not applicable because in Japan there is a
superordinate/subordinate relationship between teacher and student
which is consistent with a hierarchy that is fundamental and pervasive
in all relationships. Hierarchical relations are those in which people

are ranked one above or below another (Reischauer, 1982). The person
in the lower position is expected to honor those persons who are above
him. Therefore, process determinants' questions such as "students
help to evaluate this school's program,"teachers or students can
arrange to deviate from the prescribed program," and "students feel
free to disagree with teachers" would not be appropriate (Fox & Bois, et
al.7 1974, pp. 63-66).
Finally, in considering material determinants, the Japanese
educators stated that the questions like "the library has enough
materials to meet my needs" and "my classes are small enough to
permit me to participate" are not based on a key Japanese value, zva,
which is concerned with the unity and harmony of the group and its
needs and welfare (CFK and SAP, Section IV).
Because the instruments were originally written in English for
use in American schools, it was important that they be evaluated by
persons who were bilingual in Japanese and English. The persons
chosen were not only excellent linguists, but they also were
knowledgeable educators who could judge the feasibility and
appropriateness of the surveys for use in Japanese high schools.
Appendix E lists the persons and qualifications of the translators.
The panel of translators were asked to evaluate the instruments
in terms of their appropriateness with respect to Japanese education,
values and culture as well as the instruments' ability to provide

accurate responses to the questions posed by the study to the Japanese.
The instruments were translated into Japanese by some of the panel
and then back-translated into English by others to verify the accuracy of
the translations. Appropriate suggestions and improvements in Kanji
(Chinese characters used in the Japanese language) and wording were
incorporated into the final design of the Japanese version of the
surveys. All of the Japanese educators assured the researcher that the
same factors and principles for climate do exist in Japan.
The interviews
The data used to answer the research questions in this study
were obtained through self-report scales. In addition to these
instruments, an interview schedule was developed for a randomly
selected subsample of 40 students and 40 teachers/administrators. In
order to assure that the students and teachers/administrators were
randomly chosen and representative of the population, every tenth
instrument was marked and those who received it were interviewed.
The instruments were passed out in such a fashion that it was by
chance that the students and teachers/administrators who were to be
interviewed received the marked instrument. Data were summarized
from these follow-up interviews. The questions were open-ended and
allowed the interviewee total freedom of response. Appendices C and
D contain interview questions.
Initial questions asked by the researcher in Japanese were
concerned with biographical information related to the interviewee.

For the students, these included questions about age and class in
school. For the teachers and administrators, the questions concerned
educational background, number of years of teaching experience, and
number of years at present school. Interviewees were then asked to
share their impressions and thoughts about the instruments, whether
they understood the questions, if there were any specific questions
which were unclear, and if they thought the instrument was
appropriate for their Japanese high schools. Two final questions were
asked in order to elicit information which might expand an
understanding of school climate in Japan and illuminate respondents
subjective perceptions of climate in their respective schools. These
questions were:
"Is there something which you think contributes to good
school climate that was not asked in this survey?"
"What is the best thing in your school that contributes to
good school climate?"
The Pilot Study
In addition to the panel of experts' assistance in translating, back-
translating and adapting the instruments for use in Japan, the survey
was pilot tested at a private school, Johoku Girls' Senior High School,
in Yamagata, Japan. The purpose of the pilot study was to make sure
that the directions were clear and that the Japanese would be
comfortable in completing such an instrument. Forty-six students and

ten teachers were randomly selected at Johoku Girls' Senior High
School and asked to complete the instrument and make suggestions for
improvement. Their suggestions and comments were considered by
the panel of experts and incorporated, when appropriate, into the final
design of the instruments.
In my discussion with Dr. Oba after the pilot study, he said, "the
instruments have become better and better. They now are very good;
they are natural Japanese. They are pretty direct, but you can get by
with it because you are an American. A Japanese may cause a
sensation if she had such a direct survey; but I believe that the
respondents will not be shy because it is confidential. Also, the public
high school teachers are more free to speak their own opinion." Then,
"you passed the hard test when you piloted at Johoku. It'll be easier
Data Gathering Procedures
This research study utilized a survey research methodology to
examine climate in four selected public high schools in Yamagata
Prefecture in Japan. The instruments included an explanation of the
purpose of the data and an assurance of the respondents' anonymity.
This method was selected for its efficiency in obtaining needed
information from a large number of students, teachers and
administrators, and for its capacity to provide anonymity to the

Dr. Noboru Oba, the teachers' consultant to the Board of
Education of Yamagata Prefecture, assisted the researcher in gaining
access into schools in Yamagata City. Two academic and two
vocational schools were the focus in this study. Dr. Oba contacted the
principals in each of the schools and asked if they would be willing to
participate in the study. With affirmative responses from the four
school principals, Dr. Oba then set up meetings for the researcher with
each principal in order that she might explain the purpose and
procedures for conducting the study.
In each school approximately 90 students were surveyed for the
study. Though the principal made the selection, he was asked to
choose randomly from the junior and senior classes. The researcher
was introduced to the class as a Colorado educator interested in
learning about Japanese high schools. Then, speaking in Japanese, she
explained that in the United States there is an interest in learning more
about education in Japan. In order to understand more about high
schools in Japan, she would appreciate the students' help by their
completing an instrument on school climate. Explaining that
educators in the United States have found school climate to be an
important consideration in schools, she said that she was interested in
how Japanese felt about the climate in their schools. She assured them
that their answers would be confidential and would not be seen by any
of their classmates or teachers. Finally, she expressed her appreciation
for their participation in the study. Appendix C and D includes copies

of the instruments in Japanese and English, as well as a copy of the
researcher's introductory comments.
The researcher then handed out the Student Attitude Profile to
the students. The instruments had a brief explanation of how the data
might be helpful to the school and to the researcher. It reiterated the
fact that participation was voluntary but very much appreciated and
that their responses would remain anonymous. As much time as
needed was allowed to answer the questions on the eight general
climate factors; however, it rarely exceeded 20 minutes. Ten students at
each school were randomly chosen and asked to be interviewed. All
agreed and the follow-up interviews were conducted in a classroom at
the end of the school day.
The same data gathering procedures used with the students were
followed with the teachers and administrators in a faculty meeting
following the school day. They, however, were given the CFK Ltd.
School Climate Profile. Nine teachers and one administrator at each
school were randomly chosen to be interviewed. All agreed and the
follow-up interviews were conducted following the faculty meeting.
Analysis and Treatment of Data
The data were statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for
the Social Sciences (SPSSX). A one way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
was conducted on each of the eight general factors of school climate
and the composite score to determine whether there were significant

differences (p < .05) in students' perceptions of climate among schools.
Two types of post hoc comparisons, using the Scheffe' procedure, were
done when the ANOVAS were significant. A pairwise comparison
was done to determine where the differences were among the four
high schools, and a complex comparison was used to examine
differences between academic and vocational schools. The Scheffe'
procedure was chosen for three reasons: 1) It can be used when N's are
unequal, and the schools' sample sizes were different. 2) It allows
complex, as well as pairwise comparisons, and this was necessary to
compare academic and vocational schools. 3) The Scheffe' procedure is
based on the F distribution, as is the ANOVA; thus, there was
consistency in data treatment.
Data for the teachers/administrators were treated in the same
manner. A one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted on
each of the eight general factors of school climate and the composite
score to determine whether there were significant differences (p < .05)
in teachers/administrators perceptions of climate between schools.
Post hoc tests, using the Scheffe' procedure, were then carried out to
determine where the significance occurred between schools.
The means for the eight general factors of climate were ranked
by type of school for students and teachers/administrators in order to
determine the relative occurrence of their perceptions of climate factors
within each of the four schools. The degree of similarity among
students' perceptions across schools was described by means of

Spearman rank correlations as was the degree of similarity among
teachers'/administrators' perceptions across schools Additionally, the
Spearman rank correlational test was used to describe the degree of
similarity among students' and teacher'/administrators' perceptions of
relative occurrence of climate factors within each type of school.

The problem of this study was to compare school climate, as
measured by the general climate factors on the CFK Ltd. School Climate
Profile (CFK Profile) and the Student Attitude Profile (SAP), in four
selected high schools in Japan: male academic, female academic,
coeducational agricultural and coeducational commercial. The
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSSX) was used in the data
Findings Related to Research Questions
Research question 1
Are there differences in the eight general factors of climate and
in the composite score as perceived by students in four selected schools
in Japan: male academic, female academic, coeducational agricultural
and coeducational commercial? .To compare the differences in school
climate as perceived by students in four selected schools in Japan: male
academic, female academic, coeducational agricultural, and
coeducational commercial, a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
was conducted on each of the eight general factors of school climate
and the composite score.

Table 4.1 shows the means and standard deviations for the
students' factor scores. The means indicate the degree to which the
respondents perceived the school climate factors to occur.
Table 4.1. Means and Standard Deviations for Responses of Students
on the Student Attitude Profile.
School 1 School 2 School 3 School 4
Factor Male Female Coed Coed
Academic Academic Agricultural. Commercial
(N=83) (N=96) (N=98) (N=85)
Respect Mean 261 270 228 258
SD .67 .63 .74 .64
Trust Mean 289 276 232 273
SD .71 .67 .79 .66
High Morale Mean 298 275 234 253
SD .62 .55 .67 .65
Opportunity for Mean 273 208 213 227
Input SD .63 .64 .67 .60
Academic & Social Mean 3.06 3.14 239 249
Growth SD .58 .60 - .68 .71
Cohesiveness Mean 283 241 202 253
SD .56 .63 .70 . .62
School Renewal Mean 243 1.95 1.95 1.90
SD .61 .66 .65 .51
Caring Mean 289 285 255 295
SD .61 .61 .73 .64
Composite Mean 280 258 225 250
SD .41 46 .54 .43
1 = almost never
2 = occasionally
3 = frequently
4 = almost always
Table 4.2 summarizes the nine one-way ANOVAS performed on
each of the factors of school climate and the composite to determine if a

statistically significant difference existed among schools. For each of
the tests, the F ratio was based on three and 358 degrees of freedom.
Table 4.2. ANOVA Summary for Student Attitude Profile.
Factor Mean Square Between Mean Square Within F3,358
Respect 3.18 0.45 7.04*
Trust 5.48 0.51 10.82*
High Morale 6.79 0.39 17.48*
Opportunity for Input 7.62 0.41 18.69*
Growth 13.78 0.42 32.92*
Cohesiveness 10.35 0.40 25.85*
School Renewal 5.12 0.38 13.53*
Caring 3.04 0.43 7.12*
Composite 4.75 0.22 21.91*
*p < .05
df = 3 and 358
Table 4.2 indicates that there were significant differences at the
.05 level among the groups on all factors of school climate and on the
composite scores. Post hoc tests, using the Scheffe' procedure, were
then carried out to determine where the significance occurred between
schools. Table 4.3 summarizes the comparisons of how the school

climate factors were perceived by students on the Student Attitude
Profile in each of the four types of schools. In other words, which
schools were significantly different with respect to each of the climate
factors? In Table 4.3, the asterisks indicate a statistically significant
difference between the means of one school and another for each of the
factors and for the composite score of school climate.
Table 4.3. Comparison of School Climate Factors for Student
Attitude Profile Using the Scheffe' Procedure
Factor Schools Schools Schools Schools Schools Schools
1 & 2 1 & 3 1 & 4 2 & 3 2 & 4 3 & 4
Respect * * *
Trust * * *
Morale * * *
Input * * *
Growth * * * *
Cohesiveness * * *
Renewal * * *
Caring * *
Composite * * * * *
*p < .05
School l = Male Academic
School 2 = Female Academic
School 3 = Coeducational Agricultural
School 4 = Coeducational Commercial
By referring to Tables 4.1 and 4.3, one can conclude that the
students in the male academic school (School 1) had significantly
higher means than those in the coeducational agricultural school

(School 3) for all factors and for the composite score. The means for the
female academic (School 2) and the coeducational commercial (School
4) were significantly different only on the factor of continuous
academic and social growth, with the female academic students
perceiving growth as occurring more often.
For the composite means there were significant differences
among all schools, with the exception of the female academic and the
coeducational commercial high schools. Examination of the means for
the male and female academic school students showed that the
significant difference in the composite score was largely accounted for
by the differences in the three factors of opportunity for input,
cohesiveness, and school renewal, with the scores for the male
academic school students being higher on all factors. Examination of
the coeducational agricultural high school students' mean scores
compared to the coeducational commercial high school students' mean
scores indicated that the significant difference in the composite score
was largely accounted for by the differences in the four factors of-
respect, trust, cohesiveness and caring, with the coeducational
commercial high school students' mean score being significantly
higher than the mean scores for the coeducational agricultural high
school students' mean score.
The data indicate that school climate was perceived by the
students in the coeducational agricultural high school to be less
positive than in the three other schools. The composite mean scores

differed significantly from the means in all three other schools;
however, an examination of the means indicated the difference
between the coeducational commercial high school students' mean
scores and coeducational agricultural high school students' mean
scores was not as large.
Research question 2
Are there differences in the eight general factors of climate and
in the composite climate score as perceived by teachers/administrators
in these four selected schools in Japan? To compare the differences in
school climate as perceived by teachers/administrators in the schools,
ANOVAS were conducted on the general factors and the composite of
school climate as detailed in Table 4.4 on page 82.
Table 4.5 on page 83 summarizes the ANOVAS performed on
the factors of school climate to determine if a statistically significant
difference, existed among schools for teachers'/administrators'
responses to the CFK Ltd. School Climate Profile. For each of the tests,
the F ratio was based on three and 168 degrees of freedom. The data in
Table 4.5 indicate that statistically significant differences were found
among schools for the factors of trust, high morale, continuous
academic and social growth and cohesiveness. Statistically significant
differences were not found among schools for the factors of respect,
opportunity for input, school renewal and caring. Post hoc tests, using
the Scheffe' procedure, were then carried out to determine where the
significance occurred between schools.

Table 4.4. Means and Standard Deviations for Responses of
Teachers/Administrators on the CFK Ltd. School Climate Profile.
Factor School 1 Male Academic (N=44) School 2 Female Academic (N=37) School 3 Coed Agricultural (N=39) School 4 Coed Commercial (N=49)
Respect Mean 3.52 3.46 3.39 3.46
SD .56 .55 .48 .57
Trust Mean 296 299 246 265
SD .41 .58 .54 .52
High Morale Mean 3.45 3.64 269 3.10
SD .52 .32 .70 .59
Opportunity for Mean 297 282 256 291
Input SD .59 .80 .71 .75
Academic & Social Mean 3.07 3.14 250 270
Growth SD .53 .65 .57 .59
Cohesiveness Mean 3.41 3.22 264 290
SD .58 .55 .61 .57
School Renewal Mean 3.28 3.07 292 298
SD .51 .68 .74 .70
Caring Mean 3.27 3.27 3.04 3.04
SD .67 .65 .65 .77
Composite Mean 3.24 3.21 2 77 297
SD .43 .52 .51 .52
1 = almost never
2 = occasionally
3 = frequently
4 = almost always

Table 4.5. ANOVA Summary for Teachers'/Administrators'
Responses on the CFK Ltd. School Climate Profile.
Factor Mean Square Between Mean Square Within F3,168
Respect 0.11 0.30 0.38
Trust 2.59 0.26 9.93*
High Morale 6.79 0.31 22.10*
Opportunity for Input 1,33 0.51 2.62
Growth 3.71 0.34 10.88*
Cohesiveness 4.82 0.33 14.44*
School Renewal 1.02 0.43 2.35
Caring .75 0.48 1.57
Composite 1.94 0.25 7.88*
*p < .05
if = 3 and 168
Table 4.6 summarizes the post hoc comparisons of the school
climate factor means for teachers/administrators on the CFK Profile
across the four types of schools. An asterisk indicates that the means
for the schools were significantly different.

Table 4.6. Comparison of School Climate Factors from Responses of
Teachers/Administrators on the CFK Ltd. School Climate Profile Using
the Scheffe' Procedure.
Factor Schools 1 & 2 Schools 1 & 3 Schools 1 & 4 Schools 2&3 Schools 2&4 Schools 3 & 4
Trust * 4 if 4
Morale 4 4 4 4 4
Growth 4 4 * 4
Cohesiveness 4 *
Composite * 4
*p < .05
School l =
School 2 =
School 3 =
School 4 =
Male Academic
Female Academic
Coeducational Agricultural
Coeducational Commercial
As illustrated by Tables 4.4 and 4.6, for the composite means
there were significant differences between the male and female
academic schools and the coeducational agricultural school, with the
academic schools being higher. The male academic and female
academic school teachers/administrators on the average perceived a
more positive school climate in their schools than did the
teachers/administrators in the coeducational agricultural school. In
the comparisons of the teachers' /administrators responses of climate
perceptions at the female academic school (School 2) and the

coeducational commercial school (School 4), significant differences in
the factors of trust, high morale and continuous academic and social
growth were found. The female academic school
teachers/administrators had mean scores that were significantly higher
than the mean scores for the coeducational commercial school
teachers/administrators, indicating that the female academic school
teachers/administrators perceived climate (as measured by these
factors) in their school as more positive than do the
teachers/administrators in the coeducational commercial school.
The perceptions of the teachers/administrators in the
coeducational agricultural school (School 3) and the coeducational
commercial school (School 4) were more similar than different. There
was a significant difference only on the factor of high morale, with the
mean for the coeducational commercial school being significantly
higher than the mean for the coeducational agricultural school.
There were no statistically significant differences in any of the
school climate factors between the male and female academic schools
(Schools 1 & 2); thus, it can be concluded that the male and female
academic school teachers/administrators perceived the climates in
their schools similarly. Since the composite means were 3.24 (male
academic) and 3.21 (female academic) on a 4.0 scale, both the male and
female academic school teachers/administrators perceived their
schools as having a positive climate.

Table 4.6 also shows that on the factors of trust, high morale,
continuous academic and social growth, and cohesiveness, the male
academic school teachers/administrators had significantly higher
means than were the means for the teachers/administrators in the
coeducational agricultural school and the coeducational commercial
school. On these same factors (trust, high morale, continuous
academic and social growth, and cohesiveness), the means for the
female academic schools were significantly higher than those for the
coeducational agricultural school.
Research question 3
Are there differences in climate as perceived by students in the
academic and vocational high schools? To examine differences in
school climate as perceived by students in academic versus vocational
high schools, the means for the male academic and female academic
schools were collapsed and the means for the coeducational
agricultural and the coeducational commercial schools were collapsed.
This was done in order to compare two types of high schools in Japan,
academic and vocational, since the male and female high schools were
academic and the coeducational schools were vocational. The means
for the academic type of school were derived by averaging general
climate factor and composite means for the male and female academic
schools. This same procedure was carried out to determine the means
for the vocational type of school.

Complex Scheffe' post hoc comparisons were then conducted on
the general factors of school climate and composite to examine
whether the averages for academic and vocational high schools
differed significantly. Table 4.7 shows the students' perceptions of
school climate factors and composite means for the academic and
vocational schools and the results of the Scheffe" post hoc comparisons.
Table 4.7. Student Means and Scheffe' Post Hoc Comparisons of the
Academic and Vocational Schools' Means.
Factor ACADEMIC (N=179 ) Mean VOCATIONAL (N=183 ) Mean Scheffe' result
Respect 2.65 2.43 *
Trust 2.82 2.52 4
High Morale 2.86 2.44 4
Input 2.41 2.20 4
Acad. & Social Growth 3.10 2.44 4
Cohesiveness 2.62 2.27 4
Renewal 2.19 1.93 4
Caring 2.87 2.75 n.s.
Composite 2.69 2.37 4
*p < .05
In all factors except caring, the mean for the academic schools
was significantly higher than the mean for the vocational schools for
that factor, thus indicating that the academic school students perceived
a more positive climate in their schools than did the students in the