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Tangled up in who

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Title:
Tangled up in who dual selfhood and abandonment in Bob Dylan's lyric
Creator:
Bonner, Lauren Moore
Place of Publication:
Denver, Colo.
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
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Language:
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Rock musician -- United States ( lcsh )
Popular music -- United States ( lcsh )
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theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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UMI no.: 1440824.
General Note:
A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of master of arts in English Literature, 2006.
General Note:
Department of English
Statement of Responsibility:
by Lauren Moore Bonner.

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|University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
271587735 ( OCLC )
ocn271587735
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782.42164092 ( ddc )

Full Text
TANGLED UP IN WHO:
DUAL SELFHOOD AND ABANDONMENT IN
BOB DYLAN'S LYRIC
by
Lauren Moore Bonner
B.S., Auburn University, 2002
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
Of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Arts
in English Literature
2006


This thesis for the Master of Arts
degree by
Lauren Moore Bonner
has been approved

Date


Bonner, Lauren Moore (M. A., English Literature)
Tangled Up in Who: Double Consciousness, Multiplicity of Self, and the Seeing I in
Bob Dylans Lyric
Thesis directed by Associate Professor Jake York
In much of popular music, an alteration in point of view indicates a direct and literal
change of subject. In the compressed phraseology and quickly related stories of the
popular song lyric, we are rarely provoked to a level of interpretation that would have
us thinking about the possibility of overlapping, intertwining, changing, and returning
point of view of single selves / narrators / characters that, within the space of a few
verses, seem to rethink their own role in the song. The lyrics of Bob Dylan are an
exception to this. Pronouns and their referents are often frustratingly ambiguous. I
is sometimes jettisoned midsong and seemingly substituted with he," as though the
narrator has suddenly become uncomfortable with the idea of relating his story as
personal experience, and prefers to mask his identity in a third-person pronoun.
Furthermore, characters may often be read as having a multiplicity of consciousness,
or as representing the narrators own duality of self. The following pages will explore
such duality, engaging with the poetic consequences of consciousness-play in
Dylans lyrics, and assessing the loss and abandonment that seem to accompany
duality.
This abstract accurately represents the con
recommend its publication.
ABSTRACT
Signed
Jake York


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Many thanks to my advisor, Jake York, for his patience and his support of my
endeavors. Thanks are also due to my committee for their valuable participation and
insights. I hope that each of you has enjoyed this conversation as much as I have.


DEDICATION
To Ernest Moore.


CONTENTS
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION..................................... 1
2. THE LANDSCAPE OF DUALITY...........................5
3. CHANGING TIMES, DIVIDED SELF......................12
4. THE BACK PAGES OF CONSCIOUSNESS...................18
5. DUAULITY TURNED INWARDS: COMPLICATING THE
PRONOUN............................................23
6. DIVISION WITHIN SELF: DUAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN
ISIS AND I AND I...............................31
7. CONCLUSION........................................41
APPENDIX
A. NORTH COUNTRY BLUES.............................45
B. THE TIMES THEY ARE A-CHANGIN LYRICS............47
C. MY BACK PAGES LYRICS............................49
D. SUBTERRANEAN HOMESICK BLUES LYRICS..............51
E. TANGLED UP IN BLUE: A JUXTAPOSITION
OF DIFFERING LYRICS................................53
F. ISIS LYRICS.....................................56
G. I AND I LYRICS..................................58
WORKS CITED...............................................60
vi


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Complicating the Self
Popular song is historically rich with dramatis personae. Singers-cum-
storytellers adopt the lyrical guises of heroes, devils, lovers, and oppressed workers,
to name a few. By combining just the right rhetoric with just the right sounds, an
artist can convincingly transform his voice into that of a different entity altogether.
For the duration of Sympathy for the Devil, for instance, Mick Jagger becomes the
Devil. Much of the poignancy of his adopted persona, however, results from his
never even once uttering the word "Devil.1 By omitting any direct reference to the
narrators identity, Jagger teases his listeners with an identity puzzle. Each time the
chorus rolls around, he challenges us: Cant you guess my name?2 The song thus
becomes a guessing game of identity, throughout which we are given clues to the
dark and troubling nature of the narrators deeds, until, after however many listens,
we recognize Jaggers voice as that of the Devil. If we listen well, we might know
from the songs opening that identity will play an important role: "Please allow me to
introduce myself / Im a man of wealth and fame (Sympathy for the Devil 1-2).
Furthermore, the most emphasized syllables in these two lines include me,
myself, and Im, the veritable trinity of self-identifying terms. But although the
'Unless one considers the use of the synonym Lucifer.
1


song asserts itself as a puzzle of identity, it is nevertheless a puzzle that asks
begsus to determine the identity of a single being, a single voice. Sympathy for
the Devil is essentially a fun and clever game of charades.
There is another heavyweight of popular song who similarly plays games of
identity in his lyrics, but who takes the game to new levels of complexity. This
songster, now known as Bob Dylan, has been able to construct a multiplicity of
identities in his lyrics that is perhaps unparalleled in modern song. As with the
Rolling Stones lyrics above, the character adopted by the first-person T in the
popular song lyric often casts a powerful but unambiguous spell, easily convincing
the listener that the vocalist is, indeed, say, the Devil. Some of Dylans songs take
little effort on the part of the listener to understand the narrators identity. The song
Moonshiner," for example, leaves no doubt that the narrator is an alcoholic (and
does so without mentioning any such term). But there is a persistent pattern in some
of Dylans lyrics that will cause a listener further doubt and pain than most songs in
determining any consistency of identity. Perhaps the most ear-catching complication
of the lyric I in Dylans work surfaces in the 1974 song Tangled Up in Blue."
Where the song on the album (Ill call this Version A) presents a readily apparent
bifurcation of the first and second persons, another recording (Version B) of the song
alters the pronouns, creating what seems to be a trio of characters, most apparent in
the final two verses:
Tangled Up in Blue, Version A
by Bob Dylan
{Blood on the Tracks version)
(electric) I
I lived with them on Montague Street
Tangled Up in Blue, Version B
by Bob Dylan
{Blood on the Tracks outtake)
(acoustic)
He was always in a hurry
2


In a basement down the stairs,
There was music in the cafes at night
And revolution in the air.
Then he started into dealing with slaves
And something inside of him died.
She had to sell everything she owned
And froze up inside.
And when finally the bottom fell out
I became withdrawn,
The only thing I knew how to do
Was to keep on keepin' on like a bird that flew,
Tangled up in blue.
Too busy or too stoned
And everything she ever planned
Just had to be postponed.
He thought they were successful
She thought they were blessed
With objects and material things
But I never was impressed.
And when it all came crashing down
I became withdrawn
The only thing I knew how to do
Was to keep on keepin on like a bird that flew
Tangled up in blue.
So now Im goin back again
I got to get to her somehow.
All the people we used to know
Theyre an illusion to me now.
Some are mathematicians
Some are carpenter's wives
Dont know how it all got started,
I dont know what theyre doin' with their lives.
But me, I'm still on the road
Headinfor another joint.
We always did feel the same,
We just saw it from a different point of view,
Tangled up in blue. (66-91)
So now Im goin back again
I got to get to her somehow.
All the people we used to know
Theyre an illusion to me now.
Some are mathematicians
Some are doctors wives
Dont know how it all got started,
Dont know what theyre doin with their lives.
But me, Im still on the road
Headin for another joint.
We always did feel the same,
We just saw it from a different point of view,
Tangled up in blue. (66-91)
Once Dylan begins to complicate the matter of the pronouns in the song, it follows
that the listeners notion of the songs characters and thus the storyline are also
complicated. In verses 1-3 of Version B, there are, as in Version A, two characters.
But verse four introduces a third character, a lyric I whose precise involvement with
the he and she of the song is unclear. Furthermore, who is we in Version B?
Does it include the couple, or the couple as well as the narrator, or does it include
multiple people ambiguously involved with one another? And if the lyric I could be
so complicated, could we include two different versions of a self?
Once this puzzle became apparent to me, I began to see it surface in other
Dylan lyrics. Often, the self seems to be manifest in two separate characters,
sometimes quite obviously, as in I and I, and sometimes allegorically, as in Isis.
3


This puzzle began to evolve into what I now see as a curious poetic question: Why
does Dylan repeatedly complicate the role of the self in his lyrics, often evincing a
schizoid state in the process?
The answer could have something to do with loss and grief. In addition to the
dual selfhood exhibited by so many of Dylans lyrics, there is a pattern of loss and/or
abandonment that frequently accompanies it. Sometimes, this comes in the form of
lost love, as in Tangled Up in Blue, in which two lovers split up on a dark, sad night
/ Both agreein it was best (20-21); sometimes in the form of a loss of innocence in
relation to the cruel ways of the world, as in The Times They Are A-Changin;
sometimes in the form of a lost or abandoned past, as in My Back Pages;
sometimes in the form of loss of one self in exchange for another, as in Isis. The
reasons that the twoness of Dylans narrators seems to go hand in hand with loss
and abandonment differ from song to song, as does the brand of loss itself:
sometimes the loss is difficult and painful, and sometimes it comes more in the form
of a riddance of something unnecessary or burdensome. But perhaps the
fundamental reason for the coexistence of loss and the schizoid state in Dylans
lyrics has to do with the split that abandonment brings. In some lyrics, the narrator
reflects upon some external abandonment; in others, the narrator is the abandoned
one; in still others, he abandons himself. Whether the expression of splitness and
dual selfhood is a coping mechanism for loss or just another attendant manifestation
of the split that characterizes loss, it is difficult to say. Nevertheless, the two
continually accompany one another in Dylans work, and provide for a fascinating
study.
4


CHAPTER 2
THE LANDSCAPE OF DUALITY
Mapping Early Developments of Dylans Multiple Selves
In 1963, Dylan would compose a song that reflected the fragmentation and
abandonment of the mining life. North Country Blues, an acoustic piece in the
haunting key of C minor, tells of the decline of a mining town, evoking numerous
times the dualities caused by fragmentation and abandonment. The first verse offers
a binary of gathering and scattering, and one of plenty and empty:
Come gather round friends
And Ill tell you a tale
Of when the red iron pits ran plenty
But the cardboard filled windows
And old men on the benches
Tell you now that the whole town is empty. 5
From the start, the narrator offers listeners a town whose identity is split and
complicated by the binaries that arise, respectively, from the boom and bust of a
mining community. In verse four, however, we are to learn something that
complicatesperhaps for the first time in all of Dylans lyricsthe identity not only of
a place but also of the narrator: And my schooling was cut / As I quit in the spring /
To marry John Thomas, a miner (22-24). Although the first three verses do not ask
us to challenge the male voice that comes through the speakers, we are now asked
5


to change our understanding of the speakers sexual identity. This hard-knock life
weve been hearing about is not that of a miner; in fact, our narrator here is not likely
to have ever seen the inside of a mine. But the conversion of our understanding of
the narrators sex does more than create a clever identity twist: by the revelation that
the narrator is female, Dylan conveys that the vicissitudes that accompany mining
culture are not predicated upon sexnor upon whether a person ever handles a
pickaxe. Furthermore, Dylans messagethat (male) miners are not the only ones
familiar with the troubled mining lifeis perhaps more powerfully conveyed by this
identity twist; without the male voice to fool us, the matter of who would not have
been as poignant.
Dylans continually shifting notion of self in relation to others (or self in
relation to self) was perhaps affected by circumstances that long preceded his entry
into songwriting circles. Before he escaped from Hibbing, Minnesota, and began to
establish a reputation for slippery identity as a poet-songster in Minneapolis and,
eventually, New York, Dylan was surrounded by geographic and social identities that
embodied fragmentation and duality. This might be thought to have begun with
Duluth, his birthplace, and a town that served as a shipping point for the iron that
was mined in the nearby Mesabi Iron Range (Gray 192). Although Dylan, born
Robert Allen Zimmerman, only lived in the town until he was six, he still carries
strong memories of it. In Chronicles he writes:
Duluth, even though its two thousand miles from the nearest ocean,
was as international seaport. Ships from South America, Asia and
Europe came and went all the time, and the heavy rumble of the
foghorns dragged you out of your senses by the neck. Even thought
you couldnt see the ships through the fog, you knew they were there
6


by the heavy outbursts of thunder.... Foghorns sounded like great
announcements. The big boats came and went, iron monsters from
the deep.... As a child, slight, introverted and asthma stricken, the
sound was so loud, so enveloping, I could feel it in my whole body
and it made me feel hollow. Something out there could swallow me
up. (Chronicles 273-274)
From an early age Dylan was aware of a bigger, crueler world, a world outside
Duluth, where indigenous raw materials would be shaped, finished. What would
become a distinct conceptualization of here versus out there had already begun to
take hold of him. Later, in his poetry, the duality of the geographic here and there
would overflow into similar dualities, such as the here and there that can be made
of time, memory, and point of view.
If reading duality and split consciousness into the landscape of Dylans
childhood is useful, his years in Hibbing have even more to offer. When Dylan was
six, the Zimmerman family moved 75 miles northwest to Hibbing, a town that served
not as a mere sending-off place for the raw material of the Mesabi Iron Range, but
which was itself a mining town. There, the young Dylan would spend the remainder
of his school years. Critic Michael Gray writes of the town that as the surrounding
Iron Range turns into Winter Wonderland, Hibbing, cocooned inside it... shines
and twinkles like the set for an old Perry Como Christmas Special.... Deep in snow,
but easy to move around in, it epitomises pleasant, old-fashioned small-town life
(Gray 312). Grays description of Hibbing as the quintessence of small-town
America makes us believe that it would be a welcome antidote to the cold, industrial
winds of Duluth. Indeed, Dylans family lived a comfortable, middle-class life: his
father had held a managerial position at Standard Oil, the family was surrounded by
7


a small but cohesive Jewish community, and the prosperity that Hibbing had known
as a mining town was evinced in the aesthetic magnificence of Hibbing High School.2
I write of this setting not to provide a biographical interlude, but to cast it as
an informative backdrop for an impressionable and soon-to-be poetic mind and as a
strange territory of duality and fragmentation. The town of Hibbing can be perceived
as a jewel in the rough of the Iron Range, but Dylan was no less conscious of the
rough country just outside its thin shell. But what is especially notable about
Hibbingand particularly informative in reference to Dylan as a poet of split selfis
the duality of the towns identity. Because Hibbing was located atop such valuable
land, The Oliver Company, the regions most powerful mining operation, convinced
the city to move so that its land could be mined. In 1919, the city began what would
become a two-year-long project of moving as many of Hibbings buildings as
possible one mile to the south, where the new town of Hibbing would be located
(Hibbing: Timeline). Although the town was moved and many of the buildings in the
old town demolished before Dylan was born, Hibbing and North Hibbing were to form
a duality of which the young Dylan was keenly aware, and of which he wrote in his
poem 11 Outlined Epitaphs:
the town I grew up in is the one
that has left me with my legacy visions
it was not a rich town
2 Michael Gray writes of the institution that it was a school of palatial grandeur that cost four million
dollars in 1920-23, with a sanitised medieval castle exterior in brick and Indiana limestone, hand-
moulded ceilings, a 75-foot-long oil painting in the library, marble steps with solid brass handrails and,
in the 1,825-seater auditorium, six Belgian crystal chandeliers now worth a quarter of a million each
and a stage that can hold the Minnesota Symphony Orchestra (312).
8


my parents were not rich
it was not a poor town
an my parents were not poor
it was a dyin town
(it was a dyin town)
a train line cuts the ground
showin where the fathers an mothers
of me an my friends had picked
up an moved from
north Hibbing
t south Hibbing
old north Hibbing ...
deserted
already dead
with its [sic] old stone courthouse
decayin in the wind
long abandoned
an there was no sound except for the wind
blowin thru the high grass
an the bricks that fell back
t the dirt with a slight stab
of the breeze ... it was as tho
9


the rains of wartime had
left the land bombed out and shattered
south Hibbing
is where everybody came t start their
town again, but the winds of the
north came followin an grew fiercer
as the years went by (86-105; 119-130)
The Epitaphs furthermore reveal Dylans awareness that (in his lifetime) South
Hibbingthe new townno longer knew the prosperity that it once had; his
architecturally opulent high school did not reflect the "dyin town that he knew
surrounded him. After all, the metaphorical winds from the norththose that had
set into motion the abandonment of North Hibbing"came followin, casting a
similarly portentous spell on the new town. Thus, from the binaries of rich and poor,
and north and south, and from the implied dualities of life and death, here and there,
and same and different, we can see that Dylan himself reads a split-ness into the
town of his upbringing, viewing it as something called by the same name, and with
some of the same buildings, but which both is and is not the same place. Hibbing,
though it carried to the South its citizens and some of its buildings, had abandoned
itself, one might say. Dylans hometown, much like his own developing notion of self,
had a slippery identity, and a split one. Little did Dylan know that the duality that
haunted his memories of Hibbing would imbue his work for years to come.
10


From questions of what makes a towngeographic location? buildings?
people?Dylan seems to have gathered the impetus to further challenge seemingly
hard and fast identity, such as that of the narrator. Taking clues from the landscape
of his Minnesota youth, Dylan starts to complicate the identity of place, and then
allows these complications to spill over into his role as narrator. But perhaps most
important, the duality represented by Hibbing, Minnesota, and in North Country
Blues seem to take their root in abandonment. By describing his poetry as
epitaphs, Dylan, in some manner, mourns for the ghost town of Hibbing, carving out
a literary space for its loss.
11


CHAPTER 3
CHANGING TIMES, DIVIDED SELF
Constructing a Rhetoric of Multiple Consciousness
Even before he began shaping a complex poetic identity via the craft of
songwriting, Dylan began to complicate the matter of his very name, and thus the
matter of his identity. Dylan, born Robert Allen Zimmerman, claimed in his 2004
memoir Chronicles that, upon leaving his parents home (or upon leaving the
Midwest altogether), he thought to merely drop his surname, and call himself Robert
Allen (Dylan 78).4 At this juncture, Dylan spotted the name Allyn" in a newspaper,
and was drawn to it because the use of the y looked more exotic, more inscrutable
(78). But then, unexpectedly, Dylan writes,
Id seen some poems by Dylan Thomas. Dylan and Allyn sounded
similar. Robert Dylan. Robert Allen. I couldnt decidethe letter D
came on stronger. But Robert Dylan didnt sound as good as Robert
Allyn. People had always called me either Robert or Bobby, but
Bobby Dylan sounded too skittish to me and besides, there already
was a Bobby Darin, a Bobby Vee, a Bobby Rydell, a Bobby Neely and
a lot of other Bobbys. Bob Dylan looked and sounded better than Bob
Allyn. The first time I was asked my name in the Twin Cities, I
instinctively and automatically without thinking simply said, Bob
Dylan (78-79).
At the tender age of 18, Dylan was already beginning to formulate an identity fraught
with the weight, however lightheartedly stolen, of poetic precedence. The mere act
of introducing himself to his brave, new world as Bob Dylan was in itself an act of
poetic construction, if not a formal proclamation of himself as poet.
12


But the construction of Dylan as we know him, and of his persistently
multifaceted or split consciousness, was a process shaped not only by his past in the
Midwestern mining country, his escape from it, and by the poetic shaping of his
name. Dylan the poet of duality and of multiple selves was forged likewise in the
heady cultural, social, and musical climate of the 1960s. Exactly what pressures the
radical times had on the presence of multiple selves and split identity in Dylan's work
is difficult to discuss concretely. What answers do exist are sometimes abstract, but
nonetheless useful in thinking about the beginnings of a career characterized by
multiplicity of self and the frequent reconstruction of identity. First, we might consider
the generation gap. Dylan was of a generation whose parents were survivors of the
Great Depression. He and his peers came of age unacquainted with the economic
hardship of their parents earlier years, and innocent of the attendant and
unspeakable suffering those hardships caused. Such economic differences, in part,
facilitated a cultural rift between the two generations, marked by
a conflict of interests between parents, on the one hand, deprived during their
youth of material security, who ferociously strove for it in their adult years,
and their children, on the other hand, secure materially throughout their
childhood who firmly rejected the values that led their parents to accumulate
money and goods (Cohen 74).
This accumulation of money and goods by the older generation would allow Dylan
and his peers the luxury to study, observe, and think about their world (74).
Moreover, with this time and money, Dylan and his contemporaries began to develop
an acute insight into the emptiness of consumer society (74). They were at the
same time a part of it and conscious of its evils, and would have understandably felt
13


a pull in two divergent social and psychological directions: that of the previous
generation on one side, and that of the emergent 1960s counterculture on the other.
The psychological schism that had been spawned by the generation gap took
a strong hold of the young Dylan. First manifested in the rejection of his family name
and the composition of a new one, a quality of splitness soon began to surface in his
lyrical compositions. The Times They Are a Changin, in fact, might be thought of
as the very anthem of the generation gap. Using a rhythm that recalls a government-
commissioned march, he proclaims with the self-assuredness of a political speech
(and perhaps it is one) that The line it is drawn / The curse it is cast (Times 45-
46). This line would come to represent a weighty separation between those who
were called to effect a shift in consciousness and those who were not. In Times,
Dylan calls on a number of listeners belonging to the previous generation,
particularly those with political, parental, and literary power, to either take part in the
changin times, or to make way for those who will.
If the doubleness of Dylans generation consists of: a) an awareness of
oneself as a member of humanity and a citizen of the world, and b) an awareness of
oneself as different, as one struggling against that world, then The Times They Are
A-Changin is, indeed, a hymn of doubleness.3 In the first verse, Dylan addresses
the world at large: Come gather round people / Wherever you roam / And admit that
the waters / Around you have grown" (1-4). Here, Dylan demonstrates his
3 In his book Tomorrow Never Knows (University of Chicago, 2000), Nick Bromell refers to this
doubleness as a brand of Du Boisian double-consciousness, but I find that the similarities end there.
Unlike African-Americans, Dylans generation seemed to avidly seek out the condition that would
differentiate them from others and thus facilitate a feeling of separation or doubleness.
14


consciousness of the broader world of which he is a part. His invitation is extended
to all of us, wherever we might roam, and he calls for us to gatherto come together
as one group, one community. But following this general invitation to his listening
public, Dylan proceeds to address them as factions. First, he addresses the literati:
Come writers and critics / Who prophesize with your pen / And keep your eyes wide
/ The chance wont come again (12-15). In the following verse, he addresses the
politicians: Come senators, congressmen / Please heed the call / Dont stand in the
doorway / Dont block up the hall / For he that gets hurt will be he who has stalled
(23-28). These two addresses take an admonishing tone, and they also begin to
break the oneness of this gathering of humanity that Dylan has called together. If
the loser now / Will be later to win, this could usurp the desired order of the world
the order desired by the writers, critics, senators, and congressmen, that is; to Dylan,
this usurpation would be a step forwards, a step towards actualizing the Biblical
beatitudes that the line evokes: Blessed are the meek, / for they will inherit the
earth.... Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, / for they will
be filled (New International Version, Matt. 5.3,6). His singing tone, however, which
contains a somewhat preachy note, seems to doubt that his addressees want what
the changing times will bring. Yet, at the same time, these verses of the song that
call on the literary and political subsets still allow for the possibility that senators and
congressmen will heed the call, that the writers and critics will keep their eyes wide.
If soif the people indeed gather, and if they heed the callthey might somehow
manage to maintain their oneness by working together as the times change.
15


But then comes verse four. The tone of admonishment increases as Dylan
addresses the parents:
Come mothers and fathers
Throughout the land
And dont criticize
What you can't understand
Your sons and your daughters
Are beyond your command
Your old road is rapidly agin
Please get out of the new one
If you cant lend your hand
For the times they are a-changin. (34-43)
Rather than offering encouragement to the parents, perhaps by asking them to lend
a hand, the tone of the lyric almost implies that they will not. Besides, their sons and
their daughters are already beyond their command, and their old road is "rapidly
agin. In this verse, Dylan seems to have fully developed the consciousness of a
split world: in spite of the oneness of humankind, he now seems fully aware of the
division within it. The oneness of his gathering is bound to be broken, and to
crumble alongside the pavement of the old road. In spite of Dylans initial vocation
as gatherer, he seems, by the end of the song, to have reinforced the divisive
qualities of humankind. The gathering, the order, is rapidly fadin (51-52). To
boot, he touches once again on the beatitudes, telling us that the slow will be fast
and the first will be last (47-48; 53-54), reinforcing the binaries inherent in human
16


stratification and warning of their inversion, thus further reminding us of the divisions
within the whole, of a split consciousness that craves oneness while feeling its near
impossibility.
17


CHAPTER 4
THE BACK PAGES OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Still Double, but Different
The 1964 album Another Side of Bob Dylan included some pieces, such as
Chimes of Freedom, that still might be labeled as protest songs, but one song in
particular, My Back Pages, marks the beginning of what was to become a change,
perhaps a backlash, in light of his folk/protest reputation, especially since the album
directly followed The Times They Are A Changin. The song uses rich, almost
overwrought imagery to examine the narrators own dogmatic past:
Crimson flames tied through my ears
Rollin' high and mighty traps
Pounced with fire on flaming roads
Using ideas as my maps
"We'll meet on edges, soon," said I
Proud'neath heated brow. (1-6) .
And then, at the end of each verse, pronounces himself as changed: Ah, but I was
so much older then / Im younger than that now" (7-8). Rather than taking on the
guise of another as he did in North Country Blues, or as Mick Jagger does in
Sympathy for the Devil, the narrator splits his life into past and present, indicating
that he has been two selves in one person. While in most of the song he points to
his older self as preachy and self-important, verse three admits that Girls' faces
18


formed the forward path / From phony jealousy (17-18), a confession that would
disappoint his folkie fans, who would have concluded that progressive thought and
social justice formed his "forward path from phony jealousy. So not only is Dylan
offering self-criticism that demeans his protest years, but he is also confessing a
former self led forward by women, a self at which his fans would likely be surprised,
and one which they likely didnt know existed. At the tender age of 23, Dylan had
already formed a double self, one that had embraced a dogmatic approach to song
that attempted to speak beyond his years, and another that was cognizant of that self
as a former one. Like the generation that came of age in the 60s, which was
conscious of itself as purveyor of radical thought and at the same time as part of a
world that did not think so radically, Dylan casts himself in a similarly double light: as
a self that includes the past self, and a self that is also different from it.
With the debut of his next album, Bringing It All Back Home (1965), not only
was Dylan undergoing a change of identity from folk icon to something different; he
was also beginning to move from a consciousness of more external splits (as with
the generation gap in The Times They Are A-Changin) to a consciousness of
internal realities and multiplicities. He does this by starting to speak in less linear
terms, and by changing his rhetoric from one of definitive statements to one that asks
listeners to explore the darker comers of consciousness. The first song,
Subterranean Homesick Blues, exhibits a dreamlike quality that convinces listeners
that Dylan is now profoundly aware of a self-within-self, a complex multiple
consciousness with sometimes piecemeal thoughts that are somehow just as worthy
of contemplation as grand social gestures:
19


Look out kid
You're gonna get hit
But users, cheaters
Six-time losers
Hang around the theaters
Girl by the whirlpool
Lookin' for a new fool
Don't follow leaders
Watch the parkin' meters (45-53)
Several songs on the album, Maggies Farm included, can be qualified as
protest songs, but instead of using the direct speech of social protest or the topical
song genre, Dylan speaks in language richer in imagery than any he has used
before. Its Alright, Ma (Im Only Bleeding) begins with Darkness at the break of
noon which shatters even the silver spoon (1-2), and yet contains keywords that
point directly to (albeit indirect) social protests, silver spoon (2), advertising signs
that con" (47), and societys pliers (84) amongst them. Also, the album cover
oozes with a complexity which had been heretofore nonexistent on the front of his
records. While the cover of Times depicts a troubled Dylan, brow furrowed, sporting
a Woody Guthrie-esque work shirt (the collar of which could quite possibly be blue),
Bringing It All Back Home presents a photo with a melee of socially relevant objects:
magazines, portraits, and something or other with a fallout shelter sign printed on it.
Furthermore, the cover photo has some graphic interference around the edges,
adding a touch of the surreal and complicating what we see, an outward implication
20


of what we are to hear when the needle drops. With Bringing It All Back Home, one
might say that, internally speaking, Dylan had truly started to feel out a self-
consciousness rather than just a social conscience or an outwardly split state of
things.
As the early 1960s progressed, Dylan, much to the chagrin of his adoring
fans, began to think of his role as folk icon (one given him by the listening public, not
one he sought out himself) as a sort of dissemblance. His art was becoming broader
than folk. And yet, it was still to retain that doubleness or multiplicity of the self that
had begun to characterize or inform his work. Even folk music itself had begun to
take on a more complex definitiona kind of doubleness. In an article he wrote for
the New Yorker in 1964, Nat Hentoff explains that
The term folk in the term folk music used to connote a rural,
homogeneous community that carried on a tradition of anonymously
created music. No one person composed a piece; it evolved through
generations of communal care. In recent years, however, folk music
has increasingly become the quite personaland copyrighted
product of specific creators. (Cott 14)
Hentoff proceeds to place Dylan in this category of loose folksters. But Dylan was
already kicking against this category by composing fewer songs about plighted
people and more about individuals. Of the 1964 album Another Side of Bob Dylan,
Dylan said,
There arent any finger-pointing songs in here, either. Those records
Ive already made, Ill stand behind them; but some of that was
jumping into the scene to be heard and a lot of it was because I didnt
see anybody else doing that kind of thing. Now a lot of people are
doing finger-pointing songs. You knowpointing to all the things that
are wrong. Me, I dont want to write for people anymore. You know
be a spokesman. Like I once wrote about Emmett Till in the first
21


person, pretending I was him. From now on, I want to write from
inside me ... (Hentoff 16)
To Dylan, doubling as Emmett Till was something that, although ingenuous at the
time, would now be forced, almost disingenuous. Whatever doubling Dylan was
doing now would be more inwardly focused. The narrator of The Times They Are A-
Changin (1963) can be thought of as qualified by doubleness because he is a
member of a universal collective while also conscious that that collective wont share
his progressive views, and that it might even work against them. But now Dylan was
working with a new kind of multiple consciousness. Rather than a predication upon
the world without and the split identities of outward landscapes such as Hibbing and
the generation gap, it was quickly evolving into a multiplicity within the self. One
further difference is that Dylan seems to cut his loss of the former self rather than to
mourn it. This is an identity that he can afford to leave behind.
22


CHAPTER 5
FURTHER DUALITY TURNED INWARDS:
COMPLICATING THE PRONOUN
The application of multiple consciousness to Dylans early work and to the
condition of the generation gap that he articulated in The Times They Are A-
Changin has a similarly revelatory effect when applied to some of his later works.
One of the most intense examples of dual selfhood occurs on the 1974 album Blood
on the Tracks. A narrator whom we think we have come to understand as being
above and outside the action of the lyric will suddenly insert himself into it,
sometimes taking on the role of someone previously referred to as he." The album
as a whole as well as its individual tracks becomes, at times, a veritable three-ring
circus of pronouns and referents. Several songs, much like Sympathy for the Devil,"
become guessing games, but, unlike the Stoness song, Dylan's songs do not always
offer a precise answer. In his book Hard Rain, critic Tim Riley articulates this shift
well, stating that a Dylan story is
often the act of a narrator turning over an idea, or trying out varying
points of view on a character, a theme, or a situation .... Later, the
narrative viewpoint shifts dramatically between verses, to the point
where the linear direction of action is completely discarded in favor of
an impressionistic blurring of characters and setting. (Riley 8)
One of the most poetically interesting instances of this shifting viewpoint
occurs in the song Tangled Up in Blue. While the album version gives listeners a
rather linear version of a breakup story, other recordings of the song arent so
simple. In fact, the initial recording (the one Dylan decided not to use on the actual
23


album) complicated the matter of who in a way that the released version did not.4 (I
will hereafter refer to these lyrics as Version B.)5 Version A (the album track) offers
listeners a linear story in which a man reflects on a lost lover, their lives together,
the painful separation that has ensued, and a later chance encounter. In Version B,
the version with the most dramatic shift in point of view, the first three verses are
written from the point of view of a seemingly omniscient narrator/storyteller. He
opens his song by describing the inner reflections of the main, male character, who
awakens one early morning thinking of his lost lover, of how their relationship began,
and of how, as they parted, she predicted that they would meet again one day on
the avenue" (Version B 25). The third verse tells of how the man thinks of his
departed lover as he rambles around the country from one job to another, and, at the
end, with the use of the word grew," gives increase to the condition of being tangled
up in blue (38-39). Furthermore, as is the case with most recordings of the song,
special emphasis is placed on the word grew, both by the syllabic stress and the
holding out of the note for a full four beats. Tim Riley touches on the use of the
word, stating that
theres something sly about how Dylan chooses the word grew,
instead of what might be expectedflewfor the signers impulse to
escape. Grew implies, if only for an instant, that his journey is
headed towards a linear conclusion, something the song subverts on
every possible level. But the tag line pulls the meaning back inthe
4 Refer to pages 2-4,1 have juxtaposed the two sets of lyrics. I have placed a line at the major points of
departure (or lack thereof) in point of view.
5 Although Version B was recorded several months before Version A (the track used on the album), I
will refer to it as such because it was not released to the listening public until 1997, and because it is
therefore lesser known.
24


singers growth has only become more ironic, and the pangs for his
ex-lover travel as constant an orbit as the songs title. (234)
Rileys description of the songs orbit is an apt articulation of how, after the word
grew, the song cycles back into the description of entanglement that ends every
verse, Tangled up in blue (65). As Riley indicates, the word grew gives listeners a
moments hope that the character is, indeed, growing, whether growing away from
his ex-lover, growing towards self-fulfillment, or growing less entangled in his
thoughts about his partner. Furthermore, the verb grow is so frequently used in a
positive context that one can almost hope the character is growing towards
something good. But the next line proves this to be wrong. We are now told that the
growing being done is only a growing entanglement.
Almost as if this increasethis growingin entanglement sparks an increase
in confusion in the narrators understanding of who is who, at verse four we have the
first shift in point of view. The narrator is now, it seems, tangled up in who, as verse
four brings him into the action as a character, and has him describing what seems to
be the chance run-in of the former loversone of whom is now the narratorthat
was predicted by the female character in verse 2. But if this is the predicted reunion,
why has the narrator suddenly become the I, where before he was only telling
someone elses story?
The effects are dramatic and complex, and answers are but speculative. One
possibility is that the narrator has trouble placing himself in the action of the first four
verses, and conveys this hesitation by leaving himself out of the action, or, more
appropriately, referring to himself as in the third person in the first three verses. This
25


might indicate that while he feels removed from what has happened in the pastthe
relationship, the breakup, etc.and from the past version of his self, he feels more
comfortable placing himself in the scene of reunion, however awkward that scene is
for the former couple. This creates a highly effective temporal distance between the
he and she" story of verses 1-3 and the chance meeting of she and I" in the bar in
verse 4. Verse five moves the reunion from the bar setting to what seems to be her
dwelling place. There, the two share a pipe and a poem, the latter from the
thirteenth century" (57-60), and frequently purported by critics and writers to be
Dantes Divine Comedy.6 This being a reasonable guess, the narrators travels
through a personal hell, purgatory, and paradise are an appropriate parallel to the
situation described by the lover-narrator in Dylans song. Furthermore, the presence
of Dante in Dylan serves as a fitting metaphor for the personal hell through which
Dylans narrator seems to be traveling, particularly in verses four and five.
In verse six, the singer returns to the third person point of view. One might
attribute this second change to the fact that, in verse six, the song resumes reflecting
on the pastthat is, the time during which his relationship crumbled, as opposed to
the more recent past of the run-in narrated in verses four and five. In the seventh
and final verse, the narrator returns once again to the first person, indicating that
these final lines include content more immediate in chronological terms: So now I'm
goin back again /1 got to get to her somehow. / All the people we used to know /
Theyre an illusion to me now (79-82). Noting that the narrator switches from he" to
6 One work that points to Dante as the poet in question is A Simple Twist of Fate (Gill and Odegard
147).
26


I" in order to indicate events closer to the present, we can conclude that I in this
song points to an immediacy of self, to the narrators condition of self as it is in the
present, and that he" is an indication of the narrators past self, a self from which he
feels a distance at the time he sings the song. So, in Version B, where Dylan fails
miserably at adhering to the classical concept of the unity of time, he creates a
brilliantly complex narrative in which the narrator slips in and out as a character when
he pleases, or when he feels that by some rule of distancing, he must.
What, then, of Version A? Although more linear than Version B, these lyrics
are still wholly clear as to pronoun referents. The surprise, or, perhaps, the
confusion, comes in verse 5, in which the relationship between the two lovers is
extended to something of a love triangle, in which the three characters live together,
a he, a she, and an I. He started into dealing with slaves / And something inside of
him died (Version A 70-71); she "had to sell everything she owned / And froze up
inside" (72-73); / became withdrawn (75). Without having heard Version B, and
without the suspicion that I and he are actually the same person in two different
phases of his life (love and post-love), we might think of the Version A triangle in a
linear mannerthat is, as three people who live together in Montague Street, at least
two of which have been lovers. Instead, since we have begun, in the paragraphs
above, to think of the he and I as two versions of a self, we might see the three
characters in verse six of Version A as being 1) the female, 2) the past version of the
male (our narrator as lover), and 3) the present, unattached male (our narrator as
former lover). The triangle, then, is not three separate human entities, but rather
two, one of which is divided into multiple selves.
27


To add to this, Dylan himself (himselves?) has made clashing comments on
the song. The jacket notes to The Bootleg Series Volumes l-lll quote Dylan as once
having said, .. theres a code in the lyrics, and theres also no sense of time (35).
Later, Dylan revises his view of the song, saying,
I was just trying to make it like a painting where you can see the
different parts, but then you also see the whole of it. With that
particular song, thats what I was trying to do . with the concept of
time, and the way the characters change from first person to third
person, and youre never quite sure if the third person is talking or the
first person is talking. But as you look at the whole thing, it really
doesnt matter. (35)
And yet, poetically, it does matter, because it divides selves according to time,
creating dramatic, temporal shifts which ultimately point to the problem of split self,
or, perhaps, multiple-consciousness. Writers Gill and Odegard describe the results
as follows:
The effect is something like an out-of-body experience, with the
listener, led by protagonist, floating above events as they transpire,
glancing this way and that from scene to scene, back and forth in
time, observing from several different aspects as the situationwhich
is, of course, the heros emotional developmentunfolds. Its an
aesthetic experience akin to the fanciful, evocative paintings of Marc
Chagall, particularly the famous depiction of two lovers floating across
the sky above a little town: Theres exactly the same sense of
detachment from reality leading to a deeper insight into that reality.
(148-149).
Via the mechanism of changing point of view, the narrator of Tangled Up in Blue is
able to rise out of his heartbreaking experience, and to tell the story of that
experience by allowing both the partnered self and the unpartnered self to speak.
In the final verse of the song (consistent from Version A to Version B), the
narrator offers two seemingly opposing actions. At first, he tells us, So now Im goin
28


back again /1 got to get to her somehow (79-80). Several lines later, he changes
direction: But me, Im still on the road / Headin for another joint (87-88) Now that
weve seen that the point of view in the song shifts according to the variations of the
narrators self, we should begin to wonder if the disparate directions in the final verse
indicate two Is: one that travels back to his lover and his past with her, and one that
rambles forth alone. If so, then the pronoun we at the end of the verse takes on
altogether new meaning; referring, not to the man and the woman, but to the two
selves of the narrator himself. As with a Choose Your Own Adventure story, we are
left with two possible conclusions, where our consciousness of the existence of the
conclusion we dont choose forces us to question just how conclusive our choice
actually is.
The question then follows: how does double-consciousness as Bromell
describes it speak from the lines of Tangled Up in Blue? Double-consciousness in
The Times They Are A-Changin can be thought to concern the generation gap, or,
as I concluded above, the consciousness of oneself as a member of a united world
as well as an autonomous individual in opposition to it. In Tangled Up in Blue, the
split consciousness becomes reflected inward: in these lines, the narrator is
conscious of his former self as having been a part of a partnership, as well as of his
temporally more recent self as alienated from it. Gill and Odegard take the
doubleness a step further, asserting that the inward dual consciousness is, in turn, a
reflection of the outward state of things:
With the aspect constantly shifting between first person and third
person (indeed, such distinctions seem endlessly fluid: Even between
the New York and Minneapolis sessions [a matter of three months],
29


the protagonists first appearance had switched from he" to I), this
isnt just Dylans journey; its the one undertaken, in one form or
another, by an entire generation. (146)
If so, one could conclude that the doubleness of self present in Tangled Up in Blue
and that present in The Times They Are A-Changin' both reflect the schism that
qualified the generation gap and the broader phenomenon known as the 1960s. The
end of the 1960s, and the end in 1975 of the war that had largely characterized that
decade, can be seen as the end of an era, or as the end of a struggle that had
evolved from an outwardly-directed culture war to an inwardly-directed battle within
the self.
30


CHAPTER 6
DIVISION WITHIN SELF: DUAL CONSCIOUSNESS
IN ISIS AND I AND I
In Dylans work, the inward battle raged on. The 1976 album Desire gave
listeners even more to think about in the way of complex viewpoint. Much like Blood
on the Tracks, the album as a whole almost forces us to think about the depth of
consciousness, if not the multiplicity thereof, present in the narration of the stories.
One song, Isis, demonstrates an especially interesting division-within-self. Unlike
Tangled Up in Blue, however, Isis does not demand that the listener decipher a
code of unclear pronouns and referents. The narrator consistently refers to himself
as I, and to the two other characters in the song as he" and she. The song does,
however, tell a tale whose meaning would hardly be complete without giving thought
to the possibility of multiple consciousness. From the beginning, the song sets up a
powerful rhetoric of division, separation, and cutting off. In the first verse, the
narrator briefly relates the circumstances surrounding his marriage to the title
character: I married Isis on the fifth day of May / But I could not hold on to her very
long (Isis 1-2). That the narrators short-lived marriage began on Mexican
Independence Day, commonly known as Cinco de Mayo, is no coincidence. Next,
the narrator departs: So I cut off my hair and I rode straight away / For the wild
unknown country where I could not go wrong (3-4). In the first four lines of the song,
we are given 1) Union, and the foreshadowing of independence: a wedding vow,
ironically taken on a day that celebrates the self-government of a country and its
31


separation from colonial power; 2) Dissolution: the dissolution of a marriage bond
that seems to have been doomed by its timing; 3) Cutting: the cutting off of the
narrators hair; and 4) Departure: the physical departure of the narrator to a wild,
unknown country. Already, the poem has become loaded with the imagery of
broken two-ness: the two-ness of marriage, the two-ness of the human body and
what is cut off from it (if only hair), the two-ness of here and there, where the
destination of a traveler becomes, upon arrival, the new here.
In verse two, the sense of duality in the song becomes even stronger:
I came to a high place of darkness and light
A dividing line ran through the center of town
I hitched up my pony to a post on the right
I went into a laundry to wash my clothes down (5-8).
It seems the narrator has reached some kind of ridge, but instead of using landscape
imagery to continue his rhetoric of division, he speaks of a dividing line that runs
through the center of the town, and of darkness and light. This very direct reference
to division conjures up images of a community at war (or cold war) with itself,
perhaps an outer reflection of the narrators own struggle of consciousnessa
struggle which is set up by archetypal oppositions .. between life and death, light
and darkness, heterosexual love, and homosocial adventure (Gezari 490).
The third verse introduces us to the narrators traveling companion. The
images of dirty laundry mix with a man in the corner," who asks the narrator if hes
looking for something easy to catch" (9, 11). Initially, the scene evokes an urban
underworld, a place where money can be exchanged for less-than-lawful deeds, a
32


place where one could easily find someone who knows a guy. But this interlocutor
is not ordinary: he wants no money for the nameless adventure he proposes, and
verse five has the narrator sharing a blanket in exchange for his traveling partners
word that they will return by the fourth, an indication that the narrator is thinking
about the date of his betrothal to the one he has left behind. As the mens adventure
gets underway, the narrator thinks more about Isis, about how she thought I was so
reckless, and about the possibility of remarriage if I could only hang on and just be
her friend (20, 22, 23). Verses seven through ten describe the nature of the
adventure. By the line When I saw that my partner was just bein friendly, we could
guess that the stranger had not been aware that someone would have beaten him to
the grave he planned to rob. Whats more, he succumbs to the harsh conditions,
and the narrator conveniently buries him in the pyramid, which, it so happens, had
likely been the grave of a pharaoh.
The story that has been related to us is, in essence, one of a man who
mistakes himself for marriage material, takes leave from his female counterpart, and
embarks on a homosocial adventure with a male counterpart. One can assert,
however, that this adventure is, on an allegorical level, a mans adventure with
another, darker side of his own consciousness, a side that only the wild unknown
country could accommodate. Although the first verse is beset with divisive terms,
and although the narrator cannot hold onto his wife, he cannot keep her out of his
thoughts for long. In fact, it seems that their very separationthe absence of the
female that must almost necessarily occur for a fulfilling homosocial adventureis
exactly what draws his thoughts back to her in verses five and six:
33


I was thinkin' about turquoise, I was thinkin' about gold,
I was thinkin' about diamonds and the world's biggest necklace.
As we rode through the canyons, through the devilish cold,
I was thinkin' about Isis, how she thought I was so reckless.
How she told me that one day we would meet up again,
And things would be different the next time we wed,
If I only could hang on and just be her friend.
I still can't remember all the best things she said. (17-24)
The alignment of thoughts of riches and thoughts of Isis not only indicate that the
narrator may be thinking of sharing with her the spoils of his adventure, but also that
he thinks of her as a jewel, and not so much in an objectifying manner, but rather a
metaphorical one. She is amongst the jewels of his thoughts, and her criticism of his
male recklessness haunts him; he cannot undertake the adventurethe trip into his
own, independent, male consciousnesswithout being conscious of his desire for
the presence of the female, ever more sharply felt in Isiss absence and in the
disappointing results of his emprise.
The double self that Isis" has to offer is of its own brand, but is present no
less than in The Times They Are A-Changiri and Tangled Up in Blue. Time in
Isis is much more linear than in Tangled Up in Blue, and pronoun referents are
clear. Here, the double-consciousness rests not in the puzzle of who is who, but
rather in the allegorical presence of a double self: a man who is conscious of his
desire for the fulfillment that a female partner will bring, but who is, until the end of
the song, still allured by masculine quest, either within himself or with another male.
34


He is conscious of himself as part of a world where humans crave the partnership of
another, but he is also conscious of himself as an adventuresome and free-spirited
individual. The narrators doubleness is further complicatedeven more doubled,
one might sayby the fact that his presence on one side makes him ever more
conscious of the other. As he rides along with his male companion, he thinks of Isis,
and of how things would be different the next time we wed (22), and of the best
things she said, not all of which he can remember (24). Following the burial of his
companion, he rides back to find Isis just to tell her I love her," and yet, upon
approaching her, he curses her. It seems that our protagonist cannot be happy on
either side of his split self, especially since choosing one side implies loss of the
other. The only satisfaction he has is at the close of the unsuccessful quest, and the
opening of the next chapter of his partnership with Isis. The difference in his word
choice and his tone in their ensuing exchange further emphasizes his frustration of
having to sacrifice one thing for another:
She said, Where ya been?" I said, No place special.
She said, You loqk different." I said, Well, I guess.
She said, You been gone. I said, Its only natural.
She said, You gonna stay?" I said, If you want me to, yes!" (45-48)
Here, his seeming indifference gives way to a frustrated but emphatic yes!, which
gives his words the weight they need to have if they are to serve as a tender of love
(Gezari 490). Yet, we can sense no less frustration in his voicelikely the frustration
with what Gezari describes as archetypal opposition (490), the oppositions in life
35


that wont always allow one to inhabit both sides of a double-sided consciousness at
once.
Isis can be considered a kind of allegory of the schizoid state, one in which
the narrator is pulled in two different directionsone by a character who represents
his male independence and another by his lover. Later songs in Dylans repertoire
similarly represent a split self, but are less susceptible to allegorical interpretation.
The 1983 song I and I is one example of this. This is not to say that the story we
are told in Isis is not enigmatic on its own terms, but the almost-storyline offered by
I and I is less linear, and is punctuated by a chorus that at first seems impertinent to
the verses themselves. The narrator opens with a bedroom setting, almost fooling
us into thinking that this might be a love song:
Been so long since a strange woman has slept in my bed.
Look hOw sweet she sleeps, how free must be her dreams.
In another lifetime she must have owned the world, or been faithfully
wed.
To some righteous king who wrote psalms beside moonlit streams.
(1-4)
Then follows the chorus:
I and I
In creation where one's nature neither honors nor forgives.
I and I
One says to the other, no man sees my face and lives. (5-8)
36


Where many songs offer a chorus that highlights a thematic thread for the listener,
this one leaves us wondering. Why does Dylan move from a cliche, new-woman-in-
my-bed opening into a chorus that presents the eponymous schizoid phrase I and
I? In order to relate verse one with the chorus, we might try to apply the concept of
dual selfhood to the woman: where, in this situation and in this life, she is "strange to
her male companion, he speculates that in another she might have had a simpler,
more idyllic relationship, one in which she might have been faithfully wed / To some
righteous king who wrote psalms beside moonlit streams" (3-4). The narrator seems
to be reading a split identity into his peacefully sleeping bedmate, which is reflective
of the reading of himself revealed in the chorusI and I.
Verse two has the narrator going for a walk, and, if nothing else, expresses
his need for separation from.his former self:
Think I'll go out and go for a walk,
Not much happenin' here, nothin' ever does.
Besides, if she wakes up now, she'll just want me to talk
I got nothin' to say, 'specially about whatever was. (9-12)
Bookended by the chorus, this verse points to a present self who has nothin to say"
about whatever was, or whatever may have pertained to the past self, once again
underscoring a two-sided division of self, as well as another who may share
knowledge of that vision, and who may want to talk about it. Verse three moves from
the present to the past, indicating that the narrator, having taken a road less traveled,
has learned a thing or two about justice:
37


Took an untrodden path once, where the swift don't win the race,
It goes to the worthy, who can divide the word of truth.
Took a stranger to teach me, to look into justice's beautiful face
And to see an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. (17-20)
Although its difficult to read the duality of self into this portion of the lyric, perhaps
the most phonetically interesting part of the song occurs here: an eye for an eye is
the phonetic equivalent of an I for an I. In biblical terms, the eye-for-an-eye ethic
entailed punishing a criminal in a manner similar to that by which he had
transgressed, thus involving the taking of an eye from one who has taken an eye.7
By this rule, if one were to injure or remove an I, ones other I would be
compromised, harkening back to the character in Isis" who must choose one self at
a time, thus leaving the other behind.
Verse four offers an image of two men waiting on a train that seems to
represent springtime, then follows with another thought of the woman in the
narrators bed:
Outside of two men on a train platform theres nobody in sight,
They're waiting for spring to come, smoking down the track.
The world could come to an end tonight, but that's all right.
She should still be there sleepin' when I get back. (25-28)
The two men are quite possibly I and I," each of them waiting for some symbolic
springtime, likely that which will bring the next love. Where the narrator seems to be
7 Exodus 21: 23-27
38


talking about his own two selves, he also seems to stand above or outside of those
two selves, describing them from a distance. While I and I" wait for the springtime to
come smoking down the track, our narrator is also assured of the presence of some
temporary partner when he gets back, perhaps indicating his knowledge that while
two parts of him (I and I) wait for the next true love, another part knows that strange
women are not difficult to coax into bed, and sometimes not easily gotten rid of. His
patient side tells him that this one will still be there sleeping (28), and, in verse five,
this patience carries over to noontime, when the narrator is still walking:
Noontime, and I'm still pushin' myself along the road, the darkest part,
Into the narrow lanes, I can't stumble or stay put.
Someone else is speakin' with my mouth, but I'm listening only to my
heart.
I've made shoes for everyone, even you, while I still go barefoot. (33-
36)
He speaks of himself as one person until the third line, at which point he once again
recognizes his twoness. This time, the twoness surfaces in the disparate results of
speaking and feeling. While the narrator claims to be listening only to his heart, he
still cannot claim the words spoken by his mouth, which someone else seems to be
using.
The final line of verse five, Ive made shoes for everyone, even you, while I
still go barefoot" (36), points to the thread of loss and abandonment that ever
surfaces in Dylans schizoid state. Where in Isis, the narrator was forced to
reluctantly choose between homosocial adventure and heterosexual love, and the
39


loss of one or the other was necessary but predicated upon choice, the loss in I and
I does not seem to be a matter of choice. The narrator doesnt choose to walk
without shoes; it just seems to be in the selfish nature of the others around him that
they keep him from having any. As for any loss involved in one I coming out on top
of the other, he doesnt seem to mourn this or be so affected by it as the narrator in
Isis. In these lyrics, in creation where ones nature neither honors nor forgives,
one self wins out not because of some conscious choice the narrator has made, but
rather due to some unforgiving law of nature that rules his choices in a way over
which he has no control. If there is any loss in this ruling, it is the loss of free will or
self-control.
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CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSION
Doubleness and Forms of Abandonment and Loss
For almost five decades, Dylan has continued to complicate the self in his
lyrics, offering reader-listeners enigmas that go beyond mere name-guessing. Often
inspired by matters of social or autobiographical loss and abandonment, these
moments take on a poignancy perhaps unrivaled in modern song. In these final
pages, Id like to take a closer look at the loss or abandonment that appears to be so
closely linked with the doubleness in each song, perhaps revealing what makes this
schizoid state so complimentary to loss.
The question of what comes firstthe loss/abandonment or the
doublenessor of whether they occur simultaneously is difficult to answer. Perhaps
this depends on the conditions surrounding the lyric. Early on in his work, Dylan
seems to have been strongly influenced by the geography and industry of his home
state, particularly by the mining culture that created two Hibbings. North Country
Blues, in which the lyric I is revealed to be female, is full of imagery implying loss
and splitness. One split is geographic: In the north end of town / My own children
have grown / But I was raised on the other (7-9). Other splits have to do with
leaving, the cause of which is ambiguous, possibly having to do with death in a mine
41


or, more simply, an individuals choice to abandon family: 'Til one day my brother /
Failed to come home / The same as my father before him (10-12). In verse four, the
narrators schooling was cut (22); in verse five, "The work was cut down / to half a
days shift with no reason (29-30); and in verse six, The shaft was soon shut and
even more work was cut (31-32). This song, full of cutting, shutting, and leaving,
seems to set up loss and splitness as synonymous to one another, if not one and the
same. Aside from the phenomenon of hearing a male voice speak for a female
narrator, North Country Blues does not complicate the matter of selfhood as does
Isis or Version B of Tangled Up in Blue. Yet, every image of lossof jobs, of
family, of schoolingconjures a separateness of this and that, and of having and
having not. In North Country Blues, loss inherently implies doubleness.
The Times They Are A-Changin, however, seems to do something different.
The state of mind that accompanied the generation gap had a double quality to it,
but, unlike the mining family in North Country Blues that experiences the
doubleness as a part of loss, the Dylans generation found the doubleness to be
different: it was not only a loss,, but a gain as well. As the 1960s gap between
parents and their children widened, the latter were becoming more aware of what
might be wrong with the world (segregation, corrupt politics, etc.), and thus began to
lose their innocence to all this. But if things were to be as Dylan (and the Bible)
prophesied, this loser of innocence would be later to win (21). Although Dylan does
not specify what would be won, he impliesas he asks senators and congressmen
to please heed the call (23-24)that he is somehow onto their case: for the
42


innocence his generation has lost, it has also gained a new knowledge of the world
in its place.
Similarly, as Dylan began to give up his folk/protest persona and adopt one
more in touch with his personal state of mind, a gain is made. Where his fans may
have considered his folk-to-rock conversion a loss, Dylan embraced it. In "My Back
Pages, when he considers his former self and his abandonment of it, he seems
pleased that he is no longer one who had something to protect (44). While he must
claim the back pages as his own, he is also proud of himself for abandoning the role
that he played in them. This time, the split identity of the narrator has more to do
with purposeful abandonment than personal loss.
In Version B of Tangled Up in Blue," however, the condition is quite the
opposite. The narrator is abandoned by his lover, and, as a result, divides himself
into multiple characters, possibly one self that was a part of what seemed to be a
fantastic relationship, and another self that knows he must let go of it. After all, the
he that was in the relationship thought they were successful, but the I (eye?) that
looks back on the relationship (and which therefore has a more objective view of it)
never was impressed" (70, 73). By the latter judgment, the narrator may be
attempting to cope with his loss, to place it in the more objective context of hindsight
and judge it from that viewpoint as a loss that can perhaps be cut. Just as much as
the he in the song clings to the relationship, the I may be attempting to begin a
healing process by admitting that conditions were not what they seemed to the he.
In this manner, by splitting himself in two, the narrator starts to break away, and,
therefore, to heal.
43


In Isis," the allegorical duality of the narrator does not seem to be a part of
the healing process. Instead, the narrator realizes that he must make a choice
between his independence from a female partner and his union with her, and out of
this choice grows his doubleness. He seems to be frustrated by having to choose
between one and the other. When he finally approaches Isis at the end of the song,
she asks him, You gonna stay?' his yes is accompanied by If you want me to,
revealing the half-heartedness of his choice. His dual selfhood works not to assuage
his loss but to define what it is he is losing by returning to Isis: his independence, and
perhaps the intensity of the male companionships he has had.
Finally, with I and I, Dylans narrator seems to give up on the idea that he
has a choice in the matter of loss. He moves in a creation where ones nature
neither honors nor forgives," indicating that I" and T cant but help be broken into
two selves. While the narrator can admit to his duality by pluralizing himself in the
lyrics, he has no power over the nature that determines this plurality. When he loses
one state of I by inhabiting another, he doesnt seem to have any choice in the
matter.
Whether by choice or not, Dylans abandonment of certain states of mind and
being as well as his own experience of being abandoned constantly work their way
into his lyrics. Many critics begin to recognize Dylans doubleness as well as that of
his narrators, sometimes connecting it with loss or abandonment, but an account of
why the two are linked remains to be conceived. And these pages have only
brushed the surface.
44


APPENDIX A
North Country Blues
by Bob Dylan
Come gather 'round friends
And I'll tell you a tale
Of when the red iron pits ran plenty.
But the cardboard filled windows
And old men on the benches
Tell you now that the whole town is empty.
In the north end of town,
My own children are grown
But I was raised on the other.
In the wee hours of youth,
My mother took sick
And I was brought up by my brother.
The iron ore poured
As the years passed the door,
The drag lines an' the shovels they was a-humming.
'Til one day my brother
Failed to come home
The same as my father before him.
Well a long winter's wait,
From the window I watched.
My friends they couldn't have been kinder.
And my schooling was cut
As I quit in the spring
To marry John Thomas, a miner.
Oh the years passed again
And the givin' was good,
With the lunch bucket filled every season.
What with three babies born,
The work was cut down
To a half a day's shift with no reason.
Then the shaft was soon shut
And more work was cut,
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20
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And the fire in the air, it felt frozen.
Til a man come to speak
And he said in one week
That number eleven was closin'.
They complained in the East,
They are paying too high.
They say that your ore ain't worth digging.
That it's much cheaper down
In the South American towns
Where the miners work almost for nothing.
So the mining gates locked
And the red iron rotted
And the room smelled heavy from drinking.
Where the sad, silent song
Made the hour twice as long
As I waited for the sun to go sinking.
I lived by the window
As he talked to himself,
This silence of tongues it was building.
Then one morning's wake,
The bed it was bare,
And I's left alone with three children.
The summer is gone,
The ground's turning cold,
The stores one by one they're a-foldin'.
My children will go
As soon as they grow.
Well, there ain't nothing here now to hold them.
35
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45
50
55
60
46


APPENDIX B
The Times They Are A-Changin
by Bob Dylan
Come gather 'round people
Wherever you roam
And admit that the waters
Around you have grown
And accept it that soon
You'll be drenched to the bone.
If your time to you
Is worth savin'
Then you better start swimmin'
Or you'll sink like a stone
For the times they are a-changin'.
Come writers and critics
Who prophesize with your pen
And keep your eyes wide
The chance won't come again
And don't speak too soon
For the wheel's still in spin
And there's no tellin' who
That it's namin'.
For the loser now
Will be later to win
For the times they are a-changin'.
Come senators, congressmen
Please heed the call
Don't stand in the doorway
Don't block up the hall
For he that gets hurt
Will be he who has stalled
There's a battle outside
And it is ragin'.
It'll soon shake your windows
And rattle your walls
For the times they are a-changin'.
Come mothers and fathers
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15
20
25
30
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Throughout the land
And don't criticize
What you can't understand
Your sons and your daughters
Are beyond your command
Your old road is
Rapidly agin'.
Please get out of the new one
If you can't lend your hand
For the times they are a-changin'.
The line it is drawn
The curse it is cast
The slow one now
Will later be fast
As the present now
Will later be past
The order is
Rapidly fadin'.
And the first one now
Will later be last
For the times they are a-changin'.
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45
50
55
48


APPENDIX C
My Back Pages
by Bob Dylan
Crimson flames tied through my ears
Rollin' high and mighty traps
Pounced with fire on flaming roads
Using ideas as my maps
"We'll meet on edges, soon," said I
Proud 'neath heated brow.
Ah, but I was so much older then,
I'm younger than that now.
Half-wracked prejudice leaped forth
"Rip down all hate," I screamed
Lies that life is black and white
Spoke from my skull. I dreamed
Romantic facts of musketeers
Foundationed deep, somehow.
Ah, but I was so much older then,
I'm younger than that now.
Girls' faces formed the forward path
From phony jealousy
To memorizing politics
Of ancient history
Flung down by corpse evangelists
Unthought of, though, somehow.
Ah, but I was so much older then,
I'm younger than that now.
A self-ordained professor's tongue
Too serious to fool
Spouted out that liberty
Is just equality in school
"Equality," I spoke the word
As if a wedding vow.
Ah, but I was so much older then,
I'm younger than that now.
In a soldier's stance, I aimed my hand
5
10
15
20
25
30
49


35
At the mongrel dogs who teach
Fearing not that I'd become my enemy
In the instant that I preach
My pathway led by confusion boats
Mutiny from stern to bow.
Ah, but I was so much older then,
I'm younger than that now. 40
Yes, my guard stood hard when abstract threats
Too noble to neglect
Deceived me into thinking
I had something to protect
Good and bad, I define these terms 45
Quite clear, no doubt, somehow.
Ah, but I was so much older then,
I'm younger than that now.
50


APPENDIX D
Subterranean Homesick Blues
by Bob Dylan
Johnny's in the basement
Mixing up the medicine
I'm on the pavement
Thinking about the government
The man in the trench coat
Badge out, laid off
Says he's got a bad cough
Wants to get it paid off
Look out kid
It's somethin' you did
God knows when
But you're doin' it again
You better duck down the alley way
Lookin' for a new friend
The man in the coon-skin cap
In the big pen
Wants eleven dollar bills
You only got ten
Maggie comes fleet foot
Face full of black soot
Talkin' that the heat put
Plants in the bed but
The phone's tapped anyway
Maggie says that many say
They must bust in early May
Orders from the D. A.
Look out kid
Don't matter what you did
Walk on your tip toes
Don't try No Doz
Better stay away from those
That carry around a fire hose
Keep a clean nose
Watch the plain clothes
You don't need a weather man
To know which way the wind blows
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15
20
25
30
35
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Get sick, get well
Hang around a ink well
Ring bell, hard to tell
If anything is goin' to sell
Try hard, get barred
Get back, write braille
Get jailed, jump bail
Join the army, if you fail
Look out kid
You're gonna get hit
But users, cheaters
Six-time losers
Hang around the theaters
Girl by the whirlpool
Lookin' for a new fool
Don't follow leaders
Watch the parkin' meters
Ah get born, keep warm
Short pants, romance, learn to dance
Get dressed, get blessed
Try to be a success
Please her, please him, buy gifts
Don't steal, don't lift
Twenty years of schoolin'
And they put you on the day shift
Look out kid
They keep it all hid
Better jump down a manhole
Light yourself a candle
Don't wear sandals
Try to avoid the scandals
Don't wanna be a bum
You better chew gum
The pump don't work
'Cause the vandals took the handles
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
52


APPENDIX E
TANGLED UP IN BLUE: A JUXTAPOSITION OF
DIFFERING LYRICS
Tangled Up in Blue, Version A
by Bob Dylan
(Blood on the Tracks version)
(electric)
Early one mornin the sun was shinin
I was layin' in bed
Wondrin if shed changed at all
If her hair was still red.
Fler folks they said our lives together
Sure was gonna be rough
They never did like Mama's homemade dress
Papas bankbook wasnt big enough.
And I was standin on the side of the road
Rain failin on my shoes
Heading out for the East Coast
Lord knows Ive paid some dues gettin through,
Tangled up in blue.
She was married when we first met
Soon to be divorced
I helped her out of a jam, I guess,
But I used a little too much force.
We drove that car as far as we could
Abandoned it out West
Splitting up on a dark, sad night
Both agreeing it was best
She turned around to look at me
As I was walkin' away
I heard her say over my shoulder,
"Well meet again someday on the avenue,
Tangled up in blue.
Tangled Up in Blue, Version B
by Bob Dylan
(Blood on the Tracks outtake)
(acoustic)
Early one momin the sun was shinin
He was lyin in bed
Wondrin if shed changed at all
If her hair was still red.
Her folks they said their lives together 5
Sure was gonna be rough
They never did like Mamas homemade dress
Papas bankbook wasnt big enough.
And he was standin on the side of the road
Rain failinon his shoes 10
Heading out for the old East Coast
Lord knows he's paid some dues gettin through,
Tangled up in blue.
She was married when they first met
Soon to be divorced 15
He helped her out of a jam, I guess,
But he used a little too much force.
And they drove that car as far as they could
Abandoned it out West
And split up on a dark, sad night 20
Both agreein it was best
And she turned around to look at him
As he was walkin' away
She said, This cant be the end
Well meet on another day on the avenue, 25
Tangled up in blue.
I had a job in the great north woods
Working as a cook for a spell
But I never did like it all that much
He had a job in the old north woods
Workin' as a cook for a spell
But he never did like it all that much
And one day the ax just fell.
So I drifted down to New Orleans
Where I happened to be employed
Workin for a while on a fishing boat
Right outside of Delacroix.
And one day the ax just fell. 30
He drifted down to L.A.
Where he reckoned to try his luck
Workin' for a while in an airplane plant
Loading cargo onto a truck.
But all the while I was alone But all the while he was alone 35
The past was close behind, The past was close behind,
53


1 seen a lot of women But she never escaped my mind, and 1 just grew Tangled up in blue. He seen a lot of women But she never escaped his mind, and he just grew Tangled up in blue.
She was workin in a topless place And 1 stopped in for a beer, 1 just kept lookin at the side of her face In the spotlight so clear. And later on as the crowd thinned out I's just about to do the same, She was standin there in back of my chair Said to me, Dont 1 know your name? 1 muttered somethin underneath my breath, She studied the lines on my face. 1 must admit 1 felt a little uneasy When she bent down to tie the laces of my shoe, Tangled up in blue. She was workin' in a topless place 40 And 1 stopped in for a beer, 1 just kept lookin at the side of her face In the spotlight so clear. And later on as the crowd thinned out Is about to do the same, 45 She was standin there in back of my chair Said, Tell me, whats your name? 1 muttered somethin underneath my breath, She studied the lines on my face. 1 must admit 1 felt a little uneasy 50 When she bent down to tie the laces of my shoe, Tangled up in blue.
She lit a burner on the stove And offered me a pipe 1 thought youd never say hello, she said, You look like the silent type. Then she opened up a book of poems And handed it to me Written by an Italian poet From the thirteenth century And every one of them words rang true And glowed like burnin coal, Pourin off of every page Like it was written in my soul from me to you, Tangled up in blue. She lit a burner on the stove And offered me a pipe 1 thought youd never say hello, she said, 55 You look like the silent type. Then she opened up a book of poems And handed it to me Written by an Italian poet From the thirteenth century 60 And every one of them words rang true And glowed like burnin coal, Pourin off of every page Like it was written in my soul from me to you, Tangled up in blue. 65
1 lived with them on Montague Street In a basement down the stairs, There was music in the cafes at night And revolution in the air. Then he started into dealing with slaves And something inside of him died. She had to sell everything she owned And froze up inside. And when finally the bottom fell out 1 became withdrawn, The only thing 1 knew how to do Was to keep on keepin on like a bird that flew, Tangled up in blue. He was always in a hurry Too busy or too stoned And everything she ever planned Just had to be postponed. He thought they were successful 70 She thought they were blessed With objects and material things But 1 never was impressed. And when it all came crashing down 1 became withdrawn 75 The only thing 1 knew how to do Was to keep on keepin on like a bird that flew Tangled up in blue.
So now Im goin back again 1 got to get to her somehow. So now Im goin back again 1 got to get to her somehow. 80
54


All the people we used to know
They're an illusion to me now.
Some are mathematicians
Some are carpenters wives
Dont know how it all got started,
I dont know what theyre doin with their lives.
But me, Im still on the road
Headin for another joint.
We always did feel the same,
We just saw it from a different point of view,
Tangled up in blue.
All the people we used to know
Theyre an illusion to me now.
Some are mathematicians
Some are doctors wives
Dont know how it all got started, 85
Don't know what theyre doin with their lives.
But me, Im still on the road
Headin' for another joint.
We always did feel the same,
We just saw it from a different point of view, 90
Tangled up in blue.
55


APPENDIX F
Isis
by Bob Dylan and Jacques Levy
I married Isis on the fifth day of May,
But I could not hold on to her very long
So I cut off my hair and I rode straight away
For the wild unknown country where I could not go wrong.
I came to a high place of darkness and light.
The dividing line ran through the center of town.
I hitched up my pony to a post on the right,
Went in to a laundry to wash my clothes down.
A man in the corner approached me for a match.
I knew right away he was not ordinary.
He said, "Are you lookin' for somethin' easy to catch?"
I said, "I got no money." He said, "That ain't necessary."
We set out that night for the cold in the North.
I gave him my blanket, he gave me his word.
I said, "Where are we goin'?" He said we'd be back by the fourth.
I said, "That's the best news that I've ever heard."
I was thinkin' about turquoise, I was thinkin' about gold,
I was thinkin' about diamonds and the world's biggest necklace.
As we rode through the canyons, through the devilish cold,
I was thinkin' about Isis, how she thought I was so reckless.
How she told me that one day we would meet up again,
And things would be different the next time we wed,
If I only could hang on and just be her friend.
I still can't remember all the best things she said.
We came to the pyramids all embedded in ice.
He said, "There's a body I'm tryin' to find.
If I carry it out it'll bring a good price."
'Twas then that I knew what he had on his mind.
The wind it was howlin' and the snow was outrageous.
We chopped through the night and we chopped through the dawn.
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20
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30
56


When he died I was hopin' that it wasn't contagious,
But I made up my mind that I had to go on.
I broke into the tomb, but the casket was empty.
There was no jewels, no nothin', I felt I'd been had.
When I saw that my partner was just bein' friendly,
When I took up his offer I must-a been mad.
I picked up his body and I dragged him inside,
Threw him down in the hole and I put back the cover.
I said a quick prayer and I felt satisfied.
Then I rode back to find Isis just to tell her I love her.
She was there in the meadow where the creek used to rise.
Blinded by sleep and in need of a bed,
I came in from the East with the sun in my eyes.
I cursed her one time then I rode on ahead.
She said, "Where ya been?" I said, "No place special."
She said, "You look different." I said, 'Well, I guess."
She said, "You been gone." I said, "That's only natural."
She said, "You gonna stay?" I said, "If you want me to, yes."
Isis, oh, Isis, you mystical child.
What drives me to you is what drives me insane.
I still can remember the way that you smiled
On the fifth day of May in the drizzlin' rain.
35
40
45
50
57


APPENDIX G
I and I
by Bob Dylan
Been so long since a strange woman has slept in my bed.
Look how sweet she sleeps, how free must be her dreams.
In another lifetime she must have owned the world, or been faithfully wed
To some righteous king who wrote psalms beside moonlit streams.
I and I
In creation where one's nature neither honors nor forgives.
I and I
One says to the other, no man sees my face and lives.
Think I'll go out and go for a walk,
Not much happenin' here, nothin' ever does.
Besides, if she wakes up now, she'll just want me to talk
I got nothin' to say, 'specially about whatever was.
I and I
In creation where one's nature neither honors nor forgives.
I and I
One says to the other, no man sees my face and lives.
Took an untrodden path once, where the swift don't win the race,
It goes to the worthy, who can divide the word of truth.
Took a stranger to teach me, to look into justice's beautiful face
And to see an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.
I and I
In creation where one's nature neither honors nor forgives.
I and I
One says to the other, no man sees my face and lives.
Outside of two men on a train platform there's nobody in sight,
They're waiting for spring to come, smoking down the track.
The world could come to an end tonight, but that's all right.
She should still be there sleepin' when I get back.
I and I
In creation where one's nature neither honors nor forgives.
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20
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30
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I and I
One says to the other, no man sees my face and lives.
Noontime, and I'm still pushin' myself along the road, the darkest part,
Into the narrow lanes, I can't stumble or stay put.
Someone else is speakin' with my mouth, but I'm listening only to my heart. 35
I've made shoes for everyone, even you, while I still go barefoot.
I and I
In creation where ones nature neither honors nor forgives.
I and I
One says to the other, no man sees my face and lives. 40
59


WORKS CITED
Bauldie, John. The Bootleg Series, Volumes /-///, liner notes. New York: Columbia
Records, 1991.
Cohen, Robert. Bob Dylan: His Generation and His Protest. Les Langues
Modernes 66 (1972): 73-77.
DuBois, W. E. B. The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Dover, 1994.
Dylan, Bob. 11 Outlined Epitaphs. The Times They Are A-Changin, liner notes.
New York: Columbia Records, 1964.
. North Country Blues. The Times They Are A-Changin. New York: Columbia
Records, 1964.
----. The Times They Are A-Changin. The Times They Are A-Changin.
New York: Columbia Records, 1964.
. My Back Pages. Another Side of Bob Dylan. New York: Columbia Records,
1964.
. Its Alright, Ma (Im Only Bleeding)." Bringing It All Back Home. New York:
Columbia Records, 1964.
----. Subterranean Homesick Blues. Bringing It All Back Home. New York:
Columbia Records, 1965.
. Tangled Up in Blue. Blood on the Tracks. New York: Columbia Records,
1974.
. Isis. Desire. New York: Columbia Records, 1975.
. I and I." Infidels. New York: Columbia Records, 1983.
----. Chronicles, Volume One. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004.
Gezari, Janet. Bob Dylan and the Tone Behind the Language. Southwest Review
86.4 (2001): 481-499.
Gill, Andy, and Kevin Odegard. A Simple Twist of Fate. Cambridge: Da Capo Press,
2004.
60


Gray, Michael. The Bob Dylan Encyclopedia. New York: Continuum, 2006.
Hentoff, Nat. The Crackin, Shakin, Breakin, Sounds. The New Yorker. 24 Oct.
1964. 13-28. Rpt. in Bob Dylan: The Essential Interviews. New York:
Wenner, 2006.
Hibbing: Timeline." Minnesota Historical Society. 2006. Minnesota Historical
Society. 1 Nov 2006 communities/index.html>.
Riley, Tim. Hard Rain. New York: Da Capo Press, 1999.
The Student Bible, New International Version. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1992.
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