Human trafficking

Material Information

Human trafficking children or commodity? international and domestic child sex trafficking
Dunn, Kathleen
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
67 leaves : ; 28 cm

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Master's ( Master of Arts)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
Department of Sociology, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:


Subjects / Keywords:
Human trafficking ( lcsh )
Sexually abused children ( lcsh )
Child prostitution ( lcsh )
Child prostitution ( fast )
Human trafficking ( fast )
Sexually abused children ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 61-67).
General Note:
Department of Sociology
Statement of Responsibility:
by Kathleen Dunn.

Record Information

Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
166254163 ( OCLC )
LD1193.L66 2007m D86 ( lcc )

Full Text
Human Trafficking: Children or Commodity?
International and Domestic Child Sex
Kathleen Dunn
B.G.S, University of Kansas, 2003
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver/Health Sciences Center
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Arts
Liberal Arts and Science, Sociology,

2007 by Kathleen Dunn
All rights reserved.

This thesis for the Masters of Arts in Sociology
degree by
Kathleen Dunn
has been approved
Leigh Ingram

Dunn, Kathleen, Masters of Arts in Sociology
Human Trafficking: Children or Commodity? International and Domestic Child Sex
Thesis directed by Associate Professor Candan Duran-Aydintug
An estimated 600,000 to 800,000 men, women and children will be trafficked across
international borders each year, approximately 80 percent are women and girls, and up to
50 percent are minors.1 2 The exploration of child sex trafficking with the use of secondary
data set, this study will explore the effect that poverty has on commercial sexual
exploitation of children in the United States, with the use of data from Estes, Richard J.,
and Neil Alan Weiner, "The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of children in the U.S.,
Canada and Mexico" (Full Report), Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania School
of Social Work, Center for the Study of Youth Policy, September 18, 2001} With the
use of this data, I will also look at the effect that resources and education of Non-
governmental Organizations have on victims of sexual exploitation if these victims will
report there victimization. The data that is used is all reported crimes of Sexual
exploitation of children. Victims are often wary of law enforcement and psychologically
dependent on their traffickers. Child victims are denied educational access, which
1 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/. 6
2 Estes (2001)

reinforces the cycle of poverty and illiteracy.3 Can people really buy and sell women and
children and get away with it? 4 Using Trauma and Conflict theory to further support my
data and many other supporting documents on child sex trafficking, this question will not
only be fully answered, but with new data manipulation will help pave the way for future
research and help to end human trafficking and sexual exploitation of children. Poverty
has shown to have a significant cause on the sex trafficking of children. This data will
outline what factors contribute to the individuals that are the primary targets of human
trafficking. In studying the effects and causations of human trafficking, researchers and
NGO, non-governmental, organizations will be able to stop or at the least learn to lessen
the likelihood of child sex trafficking.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis. I recommend its
3 .htm
4 Hughes, 9

I dedicate this thesis to my family, when all others failed to support me, and
questioned my ability to complete my masters you were always there for me with a
helping hand or supportive words. Thanks for your love and support. I could not ask for
a better family, I love you all. I would also like to dedicate this to the memory of my
uncle and godfather; thank you for helping me remember what is really important in life,
your love and support will be missed.

I would like to thank and acknowledge Estes, Richard J., and Neil Alan Weiner
for the use of the data set on the: "The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of children in the
U.S., Canada and Mexico" Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania School of Social
Work, Center for the Study of Youth Policy, September 18, 2001. Without this research
data I would have never have been able to complete and contribute to the research of
human trafficking. I would also like to acknowledge the children that have been rescued
and are now safe from human trafficking and for these children under control and forced
to engage in inhuman action. I acknowledge their bravery and condemn those that have
them captive. May these children all find support and peace within themselves.

Table 1 Case processing summary...............................................53
Table 2 Cross tabulation of Variance of victims involved in prostitution to survive by
the number of cases influenced by poverty.....................................53
Table 3 Chi-Square Tests.....................................................54
Table 4 Symmetric Measures (phi).............................................54

List of Tables..........................................................8
1. INTRODUCTION.........................................................11
2. LITERATURE REVIEW....................................................18
Defining the Problem...............................................19
Defining Trafficking...............................................21
Defining Sex Trafficking...........................................25
Defining Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children................27
Difference Between Trafficking and Smuggling.......................29
Who is being Trafficked/What makes them Vulnerable.................31
Domestic Human Sex Trafficking.....................................33
International Human Sex Trafficking................................34
Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking.........................35
Background of Victims..............................................36
Background of Traffickers..........................................38
3. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE..............................................41
Conflict Theory....................................................42
Trauma theory......................................................44
4. METHODS............................................................. 46

Data Sampling used.................................................47
5. RESULTS..............................................................50
Statistical Outcome................................................51
Statistical Tables.................................................53
6. CONCULSION...........................................................55
Further Research...................................................58
7. BIBLIOGRAPHY.........................................................60
Journal Articles...................................................62
Web Sights.........................................................66
Data Set...........................................................68

Traffickers violate the basic human rights of victims to be free from sexual abuse,
exploitation and slavery. The sexual servitude experienced by those trafficked for
prostitution intrudes into and violates a humans privacy and personal integrity.
-President of the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, the Hon. John von
Doussa QC

Human Trafficking is modem day slavery. Trafficking in human beings
involved moving persons for any type of forced or coerced labor, for the profit of the
trafficker.1 2 3 People being sold, raped, and made to work for no or little pay is just
some of the harsh and difficult lives that these individuals must face. The 13th
Amendment to the constitution states that no person shall suffer slavery or involuntary
servitude on American soil. Human Trafficking is modem day slavery and a crime
that has been being committed for tens of hundreds of years. There are many people
that are not only enslaved, but too many children that are sold by their own family in
hopes of a better life when in fact there children are actually sold into a sex ring. The
promise of a life in the United States and the American Dream are often used to lure
of victims of trafficking. It is estimated that there are 12.3 million people enslaved in
forced labor, bonded labor, forced child labor, sexual servitude, and involuntary
servitude at any given time. There are many indicators for detecting human
trafficking. To pursue any type of voluntary life. The victims are rarely if ever left
alone, the victims live in or work near the same areas, the victims are moved
frequently by traffickers, they have a limited knowledge of their sounding area, many
times they can not speak the language, and do not know the area they are living in.
These are just a few of the many indicators of trafficking.
1 Haynes, 223
2 http://www. state, gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2005/. 9
3 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprDt/2005/. 7

There are an unconscionable number of people being trafficked, and the
numbers of victims are increasing yearly. The trafficking in persons report in 2001
stated that an estimated 45,000 to 50,000 people were trafficked in that annual year.4
Just five years latter, in 2006, it was estimated that nearly 450,000 more persons
would be trafficked in the year 2006. This is astonishing. In nearly five years 1000%
more people would become a victim of human trafficking. If these statistics are even
somewhat accurate, this crime is increasing faster than any other crime, with no
indication of this crime being stopped. These numbers need to start decreasing, not
increasing, in order to spare the lives of a number of young women and children.
Human Trafficking is a very lucrative business, much more than any other
organized crime. The profit continues until the commodity, the person and most often
the child, dies, buys their way out or is sold to another trafficker. Women and children
are the most commonly trafficked people and most often the easiest to influence and
manipulate in order to get them involved in trafficking. The lure of a better life, fame
and most often a job in the United States, are used to manipulate the victims. The
United States is one of the most trafficked counties in the world; this could be due to
the abundance of perceived opportunity, it astonishing that with the large and growing
number of trafficked individuals, that there is not more knowledge and media
coverage given to this atrocity. In many countries there are billboards to stop human
trafficking and notify people where to contact and report victims of trafficking. There
4 http://www.state, gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2001 /. 3

are also articles in the paper informing people where to go if they are a victim and also
what to do if a person sees this crime being committed. This does not happen in the
U.S. Without educating the public, this issue and tragedy that surround human
trafficking will continue to grow.
The supply of victims seems endless. With technology and the commonality
of the internet and personal computers, there are seemingly endless supplies of
traffickers to travel across national borders with their cargo. The availability of
victims is endless and constantly growing. Computer technologies also have enabled
the increased volume and complexity of international financial transactions, increasing
opportunities for transnational crime and decreasing the probability of detection.5 As
with any crime, the criminals seem to be one step ahead of the authorities in figuring
out ways to break the law and the internet has been gas on this flame. Criminals are
finding it easier to buy and sell people without even being in the same state or country.
The money is paid to a non-traceable account and the child is now at the mercy of
another criminal making it harder to trace the criminals and the money. Like fast
food, name-brand soft drinks, and sporting goods, fast sex has taken full advantage
of the nature of our cyber-world to market womens and childrens sexual services by
generating a supply of women, generally from economically disadvantaged countries,
who work illegally in foreign countries to meet this demand.6 Even when trafficked
women are identified, often brothel owners will move them between brothels in order
5 Hughes, 10
6 Cwikel, 307

to avoid police intervention and to meet the demand for new and exotic women among
the other prostitution outlets under their control.7
Growth of the internet has provided new methods of recruiting, procuring, and
supporting this clandestine movement of people and expanding the demand for exotic
or foreign woman for exhale services.8 The use of the internet has also brought an
increase of mail order brides, who often are not of legal age, at times the woman will
lie to latter be used as personal sex slaves. This method of recruitment is marriage
agencies, something called mail-order bride agencies or international introduction
services. 9 There are many ways that children are trafficked, and there will be
discussed later, but is the question of supply and demand is at the forefront of
trafficking. Are the children chosen for a particular reason, and what are different
nations doing to stop and prohibit trafficking? How can we encourage more people to
come forward with reporting this crime? Human trafficking needs to be stopped. The
issue becomes how to stop this steadily growing crime, and how do we protect and
save the persons already involved in this crime?
Considering these words from Maria an 18 year old girl from Mexico that was
trafficked to the United States for sex trafficking: We worked six days a week and
twelve-hour days. We mostly had to serve 32-35 clients a day. If anyone refused to be
with a customer, we were beaten. If we adamantly refused, the pimps would show us
7 Cwikel, 307
8 Cwikel, 306
9 Hughes, 11

a lesson by raping us.10 This story is not unique to just this one girl. This is the same
story of many men, woman and children experience in the life of a victim of human
trafficking, being forced to work and try and live in worse conditions than a person
could begin to imagine, but why would someone want to imagine this type of life.
Human trafficking is a new field of study in the discipline of Sociology and
Criminology. Although slavery has been around for hundreds of years, human
trafficking has not been studied in abundance. It is difficult to stop something that
people do not know anything about. In 1910, the Mann Act, also called the White
Slave Traffic Act, prohibited traveling across state lines to commit immoral act.11 12
It is important to know that although human trafficking has for many years been
referred to as white slavery, human trafficking happens to people of all color, creed,
and race. Trafficking is usually conceived of a white slavery of forced prostitution,
but trafficking occurs in all industries, including agriculture, construction,
manufacturing, and domestic work, as well as the sex industry.
The law, Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 being
passed on October 28, 2000 in order to give rights and protection to victims of human
trafficking, and to combat trafficking in person, a contemporary manifestation of
slavery whose victims are predominantly woman and children.13 This law was
enacted to give rights and a voice to especially women and children to fight trafficking
11 Ditmore, 26
12 Ditmore, 26
13 Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000

and to prevent further violence against women and children. This was the first step in
a long line of events that need to take place for trafficking to no longer exist.
Although the United States has made the first steps to ending trafficking; it is still a
long way away from abolishing human trafficking altogether. Alongside the
traditional types of forced labor, new forms of trafficking persons are emerging
everyday. It has always been amazing the many new ways people can find to torture
fellow human being, especially children. All forms of forced labor involve the
exertion of compulsion and the denial of individuals freedom.14 Forced laborers
could be childhood workers, sex workers, and many other jobs that primarily children
are forced to do for little or no pay.
Children are the silent victims, they will not talk, or tell on their assailant and
they can be easily manipulated and influenced both physically and emotionally. It is
difficult to know how many children have been trafficked for sexual exploitation. The
involvement and the exploitation of a person for the use of sex trafficking is the
primary reasoning behind human trafficking. It is a very lucrative business and there
is an endless supply of both victims and perpetrators. The public needs to not only
look at the problem but the reasoning behind this crime taking place. Researchers and
law enforcement needs to addressed, who is doing the trafficking, who is paying for
this crime and what is the future research and law going to do to stop these crimes
from escalating further.
14 Braun, 50

We say that slavery has vanished from European civilization, but this is not true. Slavery
still exists, but now it applies only to women and its name is prostitution.
-Hugo, Victor on Prostitution

Defining the Problem
Slave traders prey on the vulnerable. Of all forms of slavery, sex slavery is
one of the most exploitative and lucrative with some 200,000 sex slaves worldwide
bring in their slaveholders an annual profit of $10.5 billion.15 When a business is this
lucrative, simple criminal charges are not going to stop the criminal from engaging in
this industry. This highly profitable trade poses a relatively low risk of capture or
conviction compared with trades in drugs and arms.16 The traffickers have a contently
regenerating commodity, the human body is very resilient in what it is able to
withstand, as far as pain and torture. Their targets are often children and young
women, and their ploys are creative and ruthless, designed to trick, coerce, and win the
confidence of potential victims.17 Analyzed as any money making operation, human
trafficking includes both supply and demand services.
On the supply side, poverty, corruption, lack of education, and the eternal
human desire for improving ones life make people vulnerable to the lures of
trafficking. We are, and must continue, making significant efforts to address these
push factors.18 If these social and economic factors are not addressed first, human
15 Leuchtag, 10
16 Hughes, 9
17 httD:// 14
18 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2005/. 8

trafficking does not have a chance of being stopped. After the 2004 tsunami, some
feared that criminal gangs would take advantage of the chaos in Sumatras by
whisking orphaned children into trafficking networks, possibly selling them into
forced labor or even sexual slavery. This fear did come true but it has happened with
many other disasters being used as smoke screen to shield the crime that is being
committed. The government has since banned Acehnese children under the age of 16
from leaving Indonesia.19 20 Many natural disasters have been seen as a contributing
factor to further crime. Looting is common occurrence, and human trafficking has
become quite common when other crimes are happening. The police are distracted by
the crisis at hand and are not able to control another crime is being perpetrating on
many people.
Trafficking is not a one person operation, as there are many people that are
needed and that contribute to the operation of trafficking. Owned by an investment
club whose members are business and professional mengovernment bureaucrats
and local politiciansthe brothel is extremely profitable. In a typical thirty-day
period it nets its investors $88,000.2 On the supply side, the conditions that drive
trafficking must be dealt with though programs that alert communities to the dangers
of trafficking, improve and expand educational and economic opportunities to
vulnerable groups, promote equal access to education, educate people regarding their
19 17
20Leuchtag, 10

legal rights, and create better and broader life opportunities. With the change of
communities, the notification of commonality and education of victims, and making
contact with victims, though radio, billboards, newspaper, namely with proactive
measures human trafficking can not be reduced and idealistically, eventually
Defining Trafficking
Human Trafficking, although not a new problem, is seen as a rising concern for
law enforcement, political officials, and immigration. Trafficking is the recruitment,
harboring, transporting, providing or obtaining, by any means, any person for labor or
services involving forced labor, slavery or servitude in any industry, such as forced or
coerced participation in agriculture, prostitution, manufacturing, or other industrial or
in domestic service or marriage.21 22 In the United States, one million legal and 300,000
unauthorized foreigners arrive every year. Illegal aliens currently number more than 5
million. The U.S. Department of Justice estimates that, every year, 700,000 woman
and children are trafficked across the countrys borders, including 175,000 from the
former Soviet countries.23 Even with this type of an astonishing number, there are still
many people that do not know the magnitude and danger that this type of crime
21 20
22 handbook, 2
23 Migration World, 8

With the increase of community awareness, I would predict that this type of
crime would begin to diminish. In the United States, we hear about the number of sex
assaults and murders that happen even though I have never heard of anyone being
arrested for trafficking, and with the numbers mentioned above, I have to think that it
is happening more than other crimes. Awareness is the first step to stopping human
trafficking. According to the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, human trafficking
generates an estimated $9.5 billion in annual revenue.24 25 Drastic measures need to be
taken in order to stop this crime.
To combat human trafficking effectively, a widespread, global approach must
be developed. Such a strategy should involve methods for preventing woman and
children from being drawn into criminal schemes, investigating and prosecuting the
crimes effectively, and protecting the victims of crimes, who frequently end up in
foreign countries as illegal aliens without rights. The use of T-Visa and other ways
to protect victims of human trafficking once in the United States, but what about other
countries, what is happening to Americans that fall victim to human trafficking. Are
they protecting in other countries? Because there are illegal immigrant working in
prostitution, trafficked women continue to be responded to primarily as criminals
rather than given their due victim status.26 This is something that the U.S.
government is attempting to change with the Human Trafficking Act. This does not
24 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2005/. 14
25 Stoecher 136
26 Goodey, 427

change that fact that when a brothel or any other location where victims are being
house is raided, the police will transport and removed these victims in handcuffs. Is
this the best way to show the victims they are safe and protected? For example, when
children or adults give evidence in sexual assault cases, provision is often made for the
use of screens to shield these vulnerable witnesses in open court, or, where available,
use is made of live video-links between the courtroom and another room where the
witness testifies. The victims are still seen to be on trial.
Human trafficking is one of the most difficult subjects to find documented
literature, and statistics to defend the thoughts and arguments pertaining to human
trafficking. With the use of, Estes, Richard J., and Neil Alan Weiner. "The
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of children in the U.S., Canada and Mexico" (Full
Report). Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania School of Social Work, Center
for the Study of Youth Policy, September 18, 200127 28, using this data set I will attempt
to determine if poverty is an indicator for the likelihood of children being
commercially sexually exploited. I will also address the effect and influence that
resources of NGO organizations have on whether or not a child that is a victim of
Commercial Sexual Exploitation will self report the crime he or she has been victim
of. I hope that my extrapolation and examination of this data will help to encourage
others to do further research in human trafficking, but primarily this research will help
to put a stop to human trafficking.
27 Goodey, 427
28 Estes, 1

Although past research has studied the most come types of human trafficking
crimes committed, crimes against women and children, we do not know the profile of
the perpetrator committing these crimes. This is a very important tool to help stop
future trafficking. Without knowledge of who is doing the trafficking and how they
are luring the victims, this crime will never be stopped. Very little research has been
conducted on the perpetrator of human trafficking; this is the type of research that
would be very beneficial to conduct in the future. Human trafficking and modern-day
slavery is the third largest criminal industry in the world, after drugs and arms dealing,
and it is the fastest growing, with annual profits in the billions. [U.S. Department of
State] Instead of helping the traffickers by turning a blind eye to these practices,
researchers, government agents, and common civilians can all do their part to stop
human trafficking. Street children, as young as two years old, are trafficked into
metropolitan centers throughout India, where they are force to beg for money. Child
begging is considered a form of human trafficking.29 30 There are many ways that
children are lured and brought into trafficking, the way to stop trafficking and protect
todays and tomorrows children is with knowledge, the more we know about this
crime the less likely it will happen.
30 Trafficking persons report 2006

Defining Sex Trafficking
Sex Trafficking is that, in which a commercial sex act is induced for force,
fraud or coercion or in which the person induced to perform such act in under 18.31 32 33
When a minor is trafficked for commercial sex acts, one does not have to show force,
fraud, or coercion. Many of the individuals that are trafficked are under age. What is
the desire for the individuals buying theses girls? Six out of ten child domestic
workers are put up for sale, trafficking of live-in child domestic workers is for real. At
an age where they should be buying dolls and toys, they are sold like one. All we ask
of you is to treat them like children, because thats that they are. Children are seen
as the perfect silent victim. These young girls do not have control over their lives and
are frequently sold by parents, with no consent. If the child is sold at a very young
age, the child may not know that this is not normal, that not all children are used as
sexual slaves.
The traffickers pray on this ignorance, and keep them from learning otherwise
by not letting them outside to talk with other children. Some women who have been
trafficked may eventually begin to define themselves as sex workers. Once again
placing blame on themselves not on others. The crime is fueled by weak law
31 handbook, 2
32 http://www.state.gOv/g/tiD/rls/tiprpt/2006/. 10
33 Butcher, 1983

enforcement, the Internet, ease of travel, and poverty.34 Prostitution and its related
actives, including pimping, pandering, and patronizing or maintaining brothels,
contributes to trafficking in person by serving as a front behind which traffickers for
sexual exploitation operate.35 36 37 38 The traffickers are very smart and will have others run
the day to day operations while the head of the operation sits back and collects
thousand of dollars everyday. The victims know that if they run or try and escape they
could be killed or possibly worse, they will not be believed and charged as criminals
themselves. Until recently, victims of sex trafficking were unduly punished for their
status as illegal immigrant involved in the criminal underworld of prostitution.
Sex Tourism and child pornography have become worldwide industries,
facilitated by technologies such as the Internet, which vastly expand choices available
to consumers and permit instant and nearly undetectable transactions. In 1996 nearly
five million sex tourists from the United States, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan
visited Thailand. These transactions brought in about $26.2 billionthirteen times
more than Thailand earned by building and exporting computers. With this type of
revenue that this industry is able to prosper. Many agency and all countries need to
band together to stop trafficking, although with this amount of money people will
always be able to be bought off and trafficking will always be around. It is preferable
34 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2004/. 11
35 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2004/. 15
36 Goodey, 428
37 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2004/. 20
38 http://www. state, gov/ g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/. 13

to have trafficking in the open where we have knowledge of this industry than
underground where it has been for many years difficult to understand and monitor.
Defining Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children
Street children, as young as two years old, are trafficked into metropolitan
centers throughout India, where they are forced to bag for money. A child begging is
considered a form of human trafficking. Many times children that are initially
recruited to beg or sell candy on the street do so in the beginning, and then they are
moved to selling themselves to make money for their traffickers. Because prostitution
as a system of organized sexual exploitation depends on continuous supply of new
recruits, trafficking is essential to its continued existence. 39 40 Then the pool of
available women and girls dries up, new women must be procured. The commercial
sexual exploitation of children affects millions of children each year, in countries on
every continent.41
Trafficking of children violates the inherent right of a child to grow up in a
protective environment and the right to be free from all forms of abuse and
exploitation. 42 In one of Madagascars tourist destinations, a 15 year-old girls
parents push her to engage in prostitution with older male tourists as a source of
income for her family, while also hoping that she will find marriage, education, on a
39 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/. 5
40 Leuchtag, 13
41 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2004/. 11
42 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/. 13

job abroad.43 This is common for many parents to push their child into this type of life
style. They remember hearing a story of how it worked for one girl and dont think
about all the many awful things that could happen to their child. In many countries,
such at China, girls are not wanted so they are sold to trafficking operation to enable
the family to try and have a boy. Unaccompanied minors (UAMs) can be lured from
their counties of origin under false pretenses or might fall victims to exploitation after
they arrive in a foreign country; their victimization is an important piece in the global
trafficking picture.44 Coercion means threats of serious harm to or physical restraint
against any person, any schema, plan or pattern intended to cause a person to believe
that failure to perform an act would result in serious harm to or physical restraint
against any person, or the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process.45 U.S.
Government policy on children (under the age of 18) used for commercial sex is
unambiguous: They must be removed for exploitation as soon as they are found. The
use of children in the commercial sex trade is prohibited under both U.S. and
international law. There can be no exceptions, no cultural or socio-economic
rationalizations that prevent the rescuer of children from sexual servitude.46
Challenged by corruption, limited resources, and, in some places, tolerance for the
commercial sex trade, Southeast Asia is one of the worlds top destinations for
pedophiles seeking sex with children.47 Although the law states that there is zero
43 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/. 10
44 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/. 18
45 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/. 25
46 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/. 41
47 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/. 54

tolerance to these actions, fake IDs and documents are often used to trick officials,
crating further problems for stopping this crime.
Each year more than a million children are exploited in the global commercial
sex trade. Child sex tourism (CST) involves people who travel from their own country
to another and engage in commercial sex acts with children. CST is a shameful
assault on the dignity of children and a form of violent child abuse. The sexual
exploitation of children has devastating consequences.48 In 2003, the United States
strengthened its abilities to fight child sex tourism by passing the Prosecutorial
Remedies and other Tools to end the Exploitation of Children Today (PROTECT) Act
and The Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act. 49 There are still many
things that need to change and happen to protect the children of today and the adult of
tomorrow. We need to stop the chain of violence to stop this from continuing for
many years. Comparable to many types of organized crime, the victims can not just
leave once they have been trafficking. They can buy their way out with handing over
other woman and children, they can die or they can continue in the organization, to
eventually becoming a recruiter themselves.
Difference between Trafficking and Smuggling
There are many differences between Human trafficking and Human smuggling,
and these differences are important in studying the exploitation of children and woman
in sex trafficking. If the person is under 18 and induced to perform a commercial sex
48 http://www. state. gov/ g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2005/. 22
49 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2004/. 54

act, then it is considered trafficking, regardless of whether or not fraud, force or
coercion is involved.50 In some counties, particularly transit countries, it is difficult to
distinguish between alien smuggling and trafficking. The mere facilitation of illegal
entry into a country is not considered trafficking, unless it meets the Acts definition,
for example because it involves force, fraud, or coercion.51 52
Smuggling is an offense against the integrity of the U. S. borders. To be
charged with smuggling it is required that illegal crossing of U.S. borders has to take
place. Smuggling is for the most part voluntary; a person agrees to be transported
across borders, for a particular price. The relationship between the smuggler and the
smuggled typically ends when they cross the border. The smuggler is paid for their
services and the relationship ends then. A smuggling case can change into a
trafficking case if labor or services are provided after the border crossing takes place.
Smuggling on the other hand has to possess the following characteristics: the person
that is being smuggled is generally cooperative, there is not actual or implied coercion,
smuggling always crosses an international border, and generally these people are not
considered victims, but violators of the law themselves.
Whereas trafficking may include a complete organization of contacts,
smuggling refers solely to unlawful border-crossing services. Trafficking in person in
particular involves violations of a number of international conventions. This applies
51 http://www. state, gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2001/. 2

to people who are victims at the moment of departure, transit and arrival in the county
of destination. This is not the same with trafficking. Trafficking is not voluntary: a
person is lied too, tricked and made with force to cross the border. The relationship
continues even after the border is crossed. Requirements of labor or services are
forced on the victim to repay their debt for the transportation across borders. The
relationship between the trafficker and the victim will continue indefinitely. The
trafficked is forced to work off her debt, and threats, harm; coercion is used against
persons to keep them working and under the control of the trafficker. Trafficking
must possess the following components: this must contain an element of force, person
must involve labor/services, or commercial sex acts, the person must be enslaved,
subject to limited movement or isolation, or had documents confiscated.53 54
Who is being Trafficked/What makes them Vulnerable
Usually victims for human trafficking are woman and children that are
generally more vulnerable, the individuals are typically poor, and frequently have
disabilities. The victims can either be very young or old, they have poor literacy
skills, with a lower education level, and these individuals can not speak English or the
countries language they are being trafficked to. Individuals that are homeless,
runaways, or have a substance abuse problem, are also more vulnerable to lured away
with the hope of a better life. These individuals vulnerability makes them more likely
to be victims. These are people that generally go unnoticed. This is what makes them
53 Tomasi, 4

good victims when they disappear. Economic and political instability greatly
increases the likeihood that a country will become a source of trafficking victims.55
The profits from human trafficking fuel other criminal activities. According to the
U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, human trafficking generates an estimated $9.5
billion in annual revenue.56 Unlike drug smuggling or organ trafficking, the human
victims are products that constantly regenerating itself. A trafficker can make
continuous money off one commodity.
Victims of sex trafficking will suffer multiple victimizations at the hand of
their traffickers and those the traffickers allows to abuse and use the victim, usually
the trafficker is not discriminating to whom can abuse the victim. The assaults that
occur are not only sexual, but also domestic and psychological. Not only are people
able to make a lot of money with this type of work, it is also run in a small group with
a closely connected group of people. It is now a multi-billion dollar industry run by
individuals and small and large organized criminal networks.57 One of the difficulties
in studying human trafficking is the lack of statistics; this is in many ways doing to the
fear of the victims in reporting this crime. They have been brain washed about what
will happen to them if they report it, in many times the police have been their
customer or boss so many time they do not have anyone they feel they can report this
to that is safe.
55 httD:// 1
56 Trafficking persons report 2006
57 Jordan, 28

The vulnerability of the victims is affected by many things: the conditions of
the victims county, the economic conditions, poverty, the political conductions, police
conditions, and other effects and contributors. Women are lured by promised of
employment as shopkeepers, maids, seamstress, nannies, or waitresses, but than find
themselves forced into prostitution upon arrival to their destination. Traffickers often
move victims from their home communities to other areas within their country or to
foreign countries, where the victim is isolated and may be unable to speak the
language or be unfamiliar with the culture. In many case, the victims do not have
immigration documents or they have fraudulent documents provided by the traffickers.
Most importantly, the victims lose their support network of family and friends, thus
making them more vulnerable to the traffickers demands the threats.58 59 The lack and
condition that woman are treated in their country is another primary contributor to the
luring of the victim of sex trafficking. The trauma, poverty, and disability affect the
conditions of their country. Market demand, especially from male sex buyers, creates
a strong profit incentive for traffickers to entrap more victims, fueling the growth of
trafficking in persons.60
Domestic Child Sex Trafficking
If victims are freed from a brothel by an organization or individual, the
traffickers can, using the proceeds from the sale, find new victims to perform the same
58 http://www.state.gOv/g/tiD/rls/tiprpt/2003/. 16
59 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2002/. 1
60 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2005/. 8

service.61 Even though one victim was saved, the money that was used to rescue the
child enables the traffickers to buy many more victims. The United States
strengthened its ability to fight child sex tourism last year through passage of the
Trafficking Victim Protection Reauthorization Act and the PROTECT Act.62 This act
is very important, although why this act is just now being enacted is unexplained, for it
will it truly stop trafficking. Forcing children to work 8 to 10 hour per day at an early
age denies them access to education and reinforces the cycle of poverty and illiteracy
that stunts nations development.63 Governments and international governmental
organizations such as the United Nations are also now focusing on this issue from
local and global perspectives.64 People will continue to seek the thrill of no
commitment sex from prostitutes, regardless of its legal status, and unregulated
protection increases the risk of spreading diseases like HIV.65
International Child Sex Trafficking
Western men are known to visit destinations in Southeast Asia, such as
Pattaya, Thailand, the center of the sex tourism industry. In Southeast Asia alone it is
estimated that up to 225,000 women and children are being trafficked annually for
sexual and labor exploitation. Australia will continue to work in partnership with
61 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2004/. 7
62 http://www. state, gov/ g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2004/. 11
63 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2004/. 15
64 Mameli, 67
65 Flatt, 25

countries, especially in the Asia Pacific region, to tackle this ongoing problem.66
Many of these girls are underage and therefore incapable of providing meaningful
consent to what these men do to them.67 68 Billboards advertising brothers are rampant
thought Japan. Tolerance of the commercial sex industry has made Japan one of the
words top destinations for sex trafficking of foreign woman. Sex tourism draws
men from wealthy countries to less developed countries where they can take
advantage of economically vulnerable women and children and weak criminal justice
systems.69 The international scope of trafficking and commoditization of women in
the sex trade is seen through this sign, outside a Hong Kong club, which reads:
Young, fresh Hong Kong girls; White, clean Malaysian girls; Beijing woman;
Luxurious Ghost Girls form Russia.70 Most families and victims are unaware of the
dangers of trafficking because of the success stores, displays of wealth, or
remittances back to villages for relatives working abroad or in urban areas that provide
powerful incentives for other to migrate for work.71 Human trafficking happens all
over the world, trafficker will set up shop on any continent in any country, no country
is immune from this terrible crime.
Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking
The protection act of 2000, enacted in 2000, was put into place to protect the lives
of the victim of human trafficking. There were three main purposes of this law;
66 Minister for Foreign Affairs, Alexander Downer media release, 19 June 2003
67 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/. 6
68 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/. 10
69 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2005/. 8
70 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2005/. 10
71 http://www.state, gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2003/. 7

prosecution of traffickers under federal law, protection for trafficked victims, and
prevention of trafficking. Under this Act traffickers will fall under the same law
covering perpetrators of a hate crime. The crime punishment will be for stringent and
they will have to serve there time in a federal prison. The victims also received
federal protection, make T-Visas or U-Visas, government protection, citizenship and
other non-government agencies to help protect and assist in the protection of victims
of trafficking. The protection of the victims includes immigration relief, access to
refugee benefits, including work permits and other requirements.
Background of Victims
There is a problem of not speaking the language. A majority of the time the
victims are first moved to a country and town that they do not know anyone and do not
know the language. This is another manipulation technique for the traffickers. The
victims can be citizens, illegal aliens, homeless, or any combination of this.
Trafficking is a clandestine activity, and most cases probably go unreported because
victims are reluctant to go to the authorities, or are unable to do so because of
intimidation and fear of reprisals.72 From a law and order perspective, police and
immigration authorities are often critical of those trafficked personal who are hostile
victims or uncooperative witnesses.73 This also contributes to the fear and trauma that
affects the victim. Not only are they experiencing the trauma, but for many there is
the real possible of threats in the future. Many victims also come from countries
Laczko, 12
Lee, 7

where the governments are very corrupt, where women do not have any rights, and
where the cultural attributes are used as a form of manipulation. With all of these
things going against the victim, it is no wonder that victims do not report this
miserable crime.
These victims are often invisible; many times they are illegal and fearful of
deportation. The experiences that the victims have to endure are those that no person
would want to imagine, better yet experience. In order to secure their silence and
compliance, traffickers threaten, beat, rape, drug, and deprive their victims of
legitimate immigration or work.74 Street children use drugs to escape the pain of
sexual exploitation, hunger, and violence. Children as young as seven and eight years
are seen sniffing or snorting toxic substances, and using drugs suck as marijuana and
heroin.75 76 77 Many traffickers get there victims addicted to drugs as another control tactic,
both for the drug, but also to make them work harder for the money the drugs cost.
Rape and sexual assault are one of the most underreported crimes in the
world, so why should sex trafficking be any different, and it is not. Few victims are
willing to identify themselves upon initial contact with law enforcement. The
violence (physical and psychological) and intimidation that marks involuntary
servitude means that victims are often reluctant to identify themselves as victims.
74 Haynes, 226
75 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/. 9
76 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/. 12
77 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/. 40

Trafficking is the result, in part, of actions by victims who sensibly seek a better life
for themselves and their families in another country. It is also a response to needs in
the labor market in countries of destination.78 They suffer real illness and experience
real pain from circumstances often forced on them.79 80 They work in an industry which
means they live in fear that their actives will be reported and, even worse, that their
children will be taken. The pain and manipulation that these children experience is
beyond anything a person could imagine, just envision it happening to a child you
Background of Traffickers
Traffickers are powerful and influential; they are often the victims neighbors,
friends, family members, or members of organized crime. Perpetrators of the same
ethnicity and nationality will traffic and victimize people of the same background as
themselves. Human trafficking is typically kept within a tight circle of individuals
from the same background. This enables the traffickers access to the victim, so many
times the victims to come with them willingly. Government corruption is a major
impediment in the fight against trafficking for many countries. The scale of
government corruption relating to trafficking in persons can range from localized to
endemic.81 Victims many times know their attacker it is someone from the
community, or even a parent. This helps to control and manipulate the victims, and
78 Loff, 567
79 The Lancet, 1598
80 Harrison, 12
81 httD:// 8

frequently using their family as leverage. The traffickers recruit their victims through
many means; they do it through casual acquaintances, family, fake employment
agencies, newspaper ads, word of mouth, and abduction. All of these tracts are used
for the same reason, to bait, them use and manipulate victims of sex trafficking.
Traffickers do not see themselves as criminals; they see themselves as business
people. The fact that rape and use psychological fear and manipulation to keep there
victims from escaping they justify as good business practices. They are veiy powerful
people and are seen as unstoppable in the victims eyes. They will use the victims
family, their body, and their culture to control the sex workers. Movement to the new
location is incidental. The force, fraud or coercion exercised or the person to perform
on remain in service to a master is the defining element of trafficking in modem
usage. It is a brutal reality of the modem-day slave trade that its victims are
frequently bought and sold many times over-often sold initially by family members.
On the demand side, persons who exploit trafficked persons must be identified
and prosecuted. Employers of forced labor and exploiters of victims trafficked for
sexual exploitation must be named and shamed.82 83 84 Regarding traffickers, law
enforcement must vigorously prosecute traffickers and those who aid and abet them;
fight public corruption which facilitates and profits form the trade; identify and
interdict trafficking routes thought better intelligence gathering and coordination law
enforcement responsibility; and train personnel to identify and direct trafficking
82 http://www.state.gOv/g/tiD/rls/tiprpt/2006/. 10
83 http://www. state. gov/g/tip/rls/tiDrpt/2006/. 12
84 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprDt/2005/. 20

victims to appropriate care. On the supply side, the conditions that drive trafficking
must be dealt with though programs that alert communities to the dangers of
trafficking, improve and expand educational and economic opportunities to vulnerable
groups, promote equal access to education, educate people regarding their legal rights,
and creates better and broader life opportunities. 85 86
85 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2005/. 20
86 http://www.state.gOv/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2005/. 20

The trafficking of sex and violence comes after the demand for ratings.
-Norman Lear

There are many criminological theories that would work in helping explain and
predict the effects and the reasoning of human trafficking although I think that Trauma
and Social Conflict Theory best represents human trafficking in the realm of theories.
Sex trafficking proved to be a highly controversial issue among feminists and human
rights activists.87 Many people are affected by trafficking and it is a very cause and
effect crime. There needs to be an imbalance in power, the traffickers have to be in
control, and traffickers manipulate to control not only the victims of trafficking, but all
players involved in this terrible crime.
Conflict Theory
Conflict Theory is based on the sociological fundamental idea that crime is
caused by the economic and social drives within society. Conflict Theory is a theory
that can help explain the thoughts and reasoning behind human trafficking. In
Conflict Theory each group tries to maximize the benefits of their group. What could
better explain the struggle between classes, human trafficking, and the victims vs. the
traffickers, than Conflict Theory. A conflict perspective of society stressed the
existence of different value systems and norms that influence the efforts of people to
establish rules and to regulate behaviors.88 Karl Marxs concepts surrounding social
conflict theory is that there is a constant conflict between two groups. I can not think
of more conflict than that of a victim and the perpetrator. In all societies one of the
most important status groups for determining peoples life chances in life has been
87 Soderlund, 68
88 Shoemaker, 228

their gender. In almost every case women are markedly inferior to men in their access
to wealth, power, autonomy, and other valued resource; in no known cause are they
actually superior. Conflict theory explains that the powerful and the haves are able
to take thing from the have-nots with economic ways or with force. Human
trafficking is able to do both.
In most all trafficking scenario the traffickers are the men and the victims are
women, and most likely children. Focus is on separating the powerful from the have-
nots, taking way their family, their tradition and all their connection to their
community, as power would be looked at in human trafficking. The general thoughts
behind social conflict theory are the general premise that is surrounding human
trafficking. The more powerful groups, the traffickers, use their power to exploit
groups with less power than themselves, the victims of the trafficking, or the workers.
The power is peoples main objective and the primary feature of social relationships,89 90
weather they are forced relationships or not. With the constant separation between the
classes, society has only driven a further division between the classes. This theory
works on both the micro and the macro level. The theory can be applied to the fact
that society is not doing anything to stop trafficking do to the fact that trafficking can
not stop until poverty and other classes divisions are rectified. On a much smaller
scale, the traffickers have the money, the victims passports and other documentation,
and there is no way for the victim to get out, without money, so they try and work
89 Wallace, 142
90 Wallace,151

their way out with prostitution and the cycle is on a continuum do to the traffickers
making the rule and having control over all the finances. Conflict theory is a perfect
example of a theory that explains human trafficking, although a much less know
theory that is very closely connected is trauma theory, this will be connected to the
data and lecturer to give further support to the terrible crime human trafficking.
Trauma Theory
Fear and trauma is one of the primary tools that is used in control of the victim
in human trafficking, that is also the name of one of the theories that is closely
connected to this study. Trauma Theory is based off being a victim of a crime, or a
natural disaster of another act of god. The theory was discovered and explained by
trauma theory posits that there is a social utility in remaining unaware of abuse when
the perpetrator is a caregiver.91 Freyd (2001) notes that traumatic events differ
orthogonally in degree of fear and betrayal, depending on the context and
characteristics of the event.92 Research suggests that the distinction between fear and
betrayal may be important to posttraumatic outcomes. Human trafficking is all about
betrayal, pain, and punishment of the victim. The victims entire experience is about
trauma. Of being trafficked. If they survive and are rescued, they will not be able to
just forget about their experiences, they will re-experience this trauma and the crime
over and over the rest of their life. The fundamental problems associated with
91 Freyd, 1994, 1996
92 Freyd 2001

traumatic experience is that victims keep repeating the same destructive interpersonal
behaviors without even recognizing the pattern of repartition and without developing
the skills for managing the extremely distressing emotions associated with change.

Prostitution, when unmotivated by economic need, might well be defined as a
species of psychological addiction, built on self-hatred through repetitions of
the act of sale by which a whore is defined.
-Kate Millett

The research question is: Poverty is associated with engaging in prostitution for
reasons of survival. This hypothesis will be tested using a 2X2 chi-square test. The
two variables that were used: first poverty as the independent variable and, second
victims involved in prostitution for reasons of survival as the dependent variable.
Data Sampling used
The secondary data that I used was Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children
in the United States, 1997-2000. The following description was from the codebook
and data collection instruments:
Richard J. Estes and Neil Alan Weiner Commercial Sexual
Exploitation of Children in the United States, 1997-2000 (ICPSR
3366) SUMMARY: This project undertook the systematic collection
of first-generation data concerning the nature, extent, and seriousness
of child sexual exploitation (CSE) in the United States. The project
was organized around the following research objectives: (1)
identification of the nature, extent, and underlying causes of CSE and
the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) occurring in
the United States, (2) identification of those subgroups of children that
were at the greatest risk of being sexually exploited, (3) identification
of subgroups of adult perpetrators of sex crimes against children, and
(4) identification of the modes of operation and other methods used by
organized criminal units to recruit children into sexually exploitative

activities. The study involved surveying senior staff members of
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and government organizations
(NGOs) in the United States known to be dealing with persons
involved in the transnational trafficking of children for sexual
purposes. Part 1 consists of survey data from nongovernmental
organizations. These were local child and family agencies serving
runaway and homeless youth. Part 2 consists of survey data from
government organizations.
I chose to only use the data collected from part 1, the nongovernmental data. Most of
the data and the information about human trafficking come from NGOs and I thought
it more pertinent to only using NGO statistics. In doing this, I was also able to
distinguish what these organizations are doing to help stop human trafficking, and
what indicators are leading to the increase in child sex trafficking.
I used a subset of variables to narrow down my research to the exact variable I
needed to defend my hypothesis. The data set used stratified random sampling, the
researchers looked at the variable of sexual exploitation of children, the organizations
that provide services for this type of crime were than given a questionnaire discussing
and looking at only pertaining to Non-governmental organizations. The data set that
was used was collected with survey data, and was collected from 89 cases and 466
variables. The sub-set that I used only consisted of 30 variables; I was attempting to
determine the most significant variables and those that most contributed to the
increase in child sex exploitation. The validity of this data was strong, the questions 94
94 Estes, 7

were valid at face value, and the questions were asked in such a manor that they were
measuring what they wanted to measure. The data codebook did not include the
conceptualization, although in looking at all the variable and the questions, they were
the primarily questions that a person that did not experience the crime first hand would
be able to answer. The research would have been stronger if the data was directly
collected on the victims themselves, although that would have been difficult with the
nature of the crime and the fact that the research was studying children.
I used the data sample to attempt to show that poverty has a direct cause and
effect correlation to the amount of sexual exploitation of children that happens in the
United States. I used the variable of poverty; the importance poverty seen to have on
the victims of this crime. The other variable used the involvement by a child in
prostitution for the reason of survival. They are not doing so under consent, it is one
of the laws of sex trafficking of individuals under the age of 18.

Most trafficking victims are in intensely vulnerable situations; they come from very
disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds, may not speak English, may be illiterate,
have been subjected to severe forms of violence and abuse and suffer from ill-health.
-Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for the Status of Women and Minister for Family
and Community Services, Senator Kay Patterson media release, 15 October 2003

Statistical Outcome
In analyzing the dependent variable, Servpost, the stimulus, to the independent
variable, poverty, with the use of cross-tabulation, in hopes to answer the research
question to better understand childrens involvement in prostitution, one of the most
common affiliations with human trafficking. Is there a correlation between the
perceived effect ones poverty level related to Commercial Sexual exploitation of
children in the United States and their affiliation in prostitution? I used the data set
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the United States, 1997-2000 (ICPSR
3366).95. This statistical analysis will help examine if there is a direct correlation
between poverty and a childs involvement in prostitution for the means of survival.
In the analysis of the chi square test, >80% of the cells have an expected count greater
than 5. The phi measures the strength of association in 2 X 2 cross tabs, the effect size
should be considered medium or typical.
The variable poverty2 has been manipulated from the original data to enable
the use of a 2X2 statistically analysis on two dichotomous variables. Poverty is an
important variable to use because it looks at the importance that this variable has on
the effect of childhood sexual exploitation. I chose poverty2 (number of cases
influenced by poverty), as my independent variable and serprost (children that were
involved in prostitution in 1999 for reasons of survival).
95 Estes, 2001

In table 2, the column variable consists of whether or not a childs poverty is
considered important in the correlation with exploitation of children or not. The row
variable consists of the victims involvement in prostitution for the reason of survival.
The reasoning behind my using these variables is to show that if poverty is a
contributor to childhood sexual exploitation it will also be a strong indicator of
childhood prostitution. I will show that the greater poverty is as an influence to the
number of cases involved in childhood sexual exploitation of children the more effect
it will have on children being victims prostitution to survive.
In Table 3, the Chi-Square test supports that there is a high association
between and the two variables are affected by each other. Thus I should reject the null
hypothesis, further supporting the connection between poverty and prostitution.

Statistical Tables
Table 1
Case Processing Summary
1999 Victims of Cases
Prostitution Valid Missing Total
To survive* Number of Cases N Percent N Percent N Percent
Influenced by poverty 74 83.1% 15 16.9% 89 100.0%
Table 2
Cross tabulation of Variance of victims involved in prostitution to survive by the number of cases
influenced by poverty.________________________________________________________________
Poverty: number of cases influenced
by poverty
Important 1 Important 9 Missing Total
Victims involved 0 No Count 11 6 3 20
in prostitution Expected Count 6.5 11.1 2.4 20.0
to survive % of Total 14.9% 8.1% 4.1% 27.0%
1 Yes Count 13 35 6 54
Expected Count 17.5 29.9 6.6 54.0
% of Total 17.6% 47.3% 8.1% 73.0%
Total Count 24 41 9 74
Expected Count 24.0 41.0 9.0 74.0
% of Total 32.4% 55.4% 12.2% 100.0%

Table 3
Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymp. Sig
Pearson Chi-Square 7.678a 2 .022
Likelihood Ratio 7.663 2 .022
N of Valid Cases 74
a. 1 cells (16.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.43.
Table 4
Symmetric Measures (phi)
Value Approx. Sig.
Nominal by Phi .322 .022
Nominal Cramers V .322 .022
N of Valid Cases 74
a. Not assuming the null hypothesis
b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis

Trafficking of persons is a modern-day form of slavery, threatening the dignity and
security of millions of people throughout the world.
Australian Democrats Status for Women spokesperson, Senator Natasha Stott Despoja -
media release, 23 September 2003

With any study there are still many unanswered questions along with
weaknesses and strengths within the research. I chose to use secondary data do to the
lack of research availably. I do intend doing additional research in human trafficking
in the future. This is a field of study that sadly is constantly growing and will always
be at the foreground of crime until law enforcement is able to stop modem day
slavery. The lack of research and information available publicly, was a constant
problem for my research. There is not an abundance of data, or other research on
human trafficking, and most of the research stated roughly the same information. This
was a unique challenge for me to incorporated new and important data and to make
sure to not only rewrite the research that is already out their, but to also contribute to
the field of study further, with a new interpretations and way of looking at this
The use of secondary data is the primary weakness. This along with having no
control over the variables and the way the questions were asked including the way that
these variables were operazationalized, added to the frustration of working on this
research. There are also many more questions that I would have asked if it would
have been my research. Examples of this are: general clarifying statistics such as
where the victim was from and how they were recruited in to sexual exploitation.

These are both very general questions that could have made a large difference in the
outcome of the data. Overall this data was very useful and one of a few data sets that
incorporate human trafficking.
The study and research of human trafficking is a very new and innovative
research, few people are studying and researching this subject this is in part do to the
lack of information available. This makes my study and examination of the data
special and important. The hypothesis that I presented in my study was well
supported. This is very important to understanding that with more resources more
children will come forward and reports this tragic crime, it is also important to know
that poverty is an important contributor in this crime, as it is in many crimes. This is
very important to know because we know what will help lead more people to reporting
this crime education. The hypothesis if poverty effects sexual exportation of children
was also supported further proof that poverty is a factor in fuelling the problem.
Poverty and sexual explanation of children are proof that poverty ridden countries are
more subject to human trafficking victims. My research is another tool in helping stop
and combat human trafficking, without knowledge and further studies such as mine
this problem will only escalate.

Further Research
Human trafficking was not been studied for a long time: The U.S. Department of
State began monitoring trafficking in person in 1994.96 These just shows that human
trafficking has only been be monitored for a little over 10 years; that is not a long time
in the realm of research. In the coming years their needs to be more research and
more data conducted on human trafficking; because without more information and
data about this problem, the harder it is to stop. My prediction for meaningful results
will be predicated on all those individuals involved in human trafficking will be
prosecuted for crimes against women and children. This is the highest documented
and easiest for researchers to study. Women are also the primary target in human
trafficking. Within continents and across oceans, woman and children are bought and
sold to serve the demands for exploitative sex or cheap labor.97 I also think the
literature will show that citizens of the same nationality tend to be convicted of crime
of this nature against member of their same nationality. I also think that the persons
convicted of this crime will tend to be married. In a large percentage of the literature,
woman are often used to lure in other woman, many time they even run the brothels.
The importance of other research will be to focus of victim-centered advocacy. It is
very important to focus on the needs of each individual victim. With more research
96 http://www. state. gov/ g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2001/. 3
97 Shifman 125

there will hopefully be less crimes of trafficking committed and more individuals
arrested for their crimes. There is an estimated total annual profit of US $7 billion in
the market of trafficking in woman and children for the purposes of sexual
exploitation, and these profits are used by traffickers of finance other types of crime,
such as drug trafficking and money-laundering. Until we can stop the desire or
demand for this crime, and expose these clients for these victims there will always be
people to run the brothels and people to manipulate parents into selling their children.
98 Tomasi, 4

A special evil in the abuse and exploitation of the most innocent and vulnerable.
-President Bush

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Journal Articles
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Phenomenon, The markets that drive it and the organizations that promote it.
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labor: an empirical assessment. International Labor Review. 142.1, 49-72.
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women working in the sex industry: study design, ethics, and methodology. The
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7. Ditmore, Melissa. (2005). New U.S. funding policies on trafficking affect sex work
and HIV-prevention efforts world wide. 33.2, 26-30.

8. Domestic & Sexual Violence Advocate, Handbook on Human Trafficking:
Collaborating to end modern-day slavery.
9. Flatt, Steve. (2003). Risky business: Steven Flass advocates a pragmatic approach
to the worlds oldest profession after investigating a well-regulated brothel in Western
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childhood abuse. Ethics & Behavior, 4, 307-329.
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The Harvard Mental Health Letter, 15 (12) 4-6.
12. Freyd, J.J. (2001). Memory and Dimensions of Trauma: Terror May be 'All-Too-
Well Remembered' and Betrayal Buried. In J.R. Conte (Ed), Critical Issues in Child
Sexual Abuse: Historical, Legal, and Psychological Perspectives. (pp 139-173) Sage
Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.
13. Glonti, Georgi. (2001). Trafficking in human beings in Georgia and the CIS.
Demokratizatsiya, 9.3, 382-399.
14. Goodey, Jo. (2003). Migration, Crime and Victimhood: Responses to sex
trafficking in the EU. Punishment &Society, 5:4.
15. Harrison, Sarah. (2005). Meeting of professions: with the legalization of
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approach for nurses. Nursing Standard, 19.21, 12-5.

16. Haynes, Dina Francesca. (2004). Used, Abused, Arrested and Deported: Extending
Immigration Benefits to protect the victims of trafficking and to Secure the
Prosecution of Traffickers. Human Rights Quarterly, 26, 221-272.
17. Hughes, Donna M. (2001). The Natasha Trade: Transnational Sex Trafficking.
National Institute of Justice Journal, January, 8-15.
18. Human Trafficking: A Wave of Illegal Migration across the globe. Migration
World Magazine 28.4 (May 2000): 8.
19. Icduygu, Ahmet, Sule Toktas. (2002). How do Smuggling the Trafficking Operate
Via Irregular Border Crossings In the Middle East?: Evidence from Fieldwork in
Turkey. International Migration 40:6. 25-54.
20. Impe, Kristof Van. (2000). People for Sale: The Need for a Multidisciplinary
Approach towards Human Trafficking. International Migration. 113-131.
21. Jordan, Ann D. Human rights or wrongs? The struggle for a rights-based response
to trafficking inhuman beings. Gender and Development. 10, 28-37.
22. Leuchtag, Alice. Human rights sex trafficking and prostitution. The Humanist.
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23. Loff, Bebe and Jyoti Sanghera. (2004). Distortions and difficulties in data for
trafficking. (Health and Human rights.) The Lancet 566-569.
24. Lee, Maggy. (2005). Human trade and criminalization of irregular migration.
International Journal of Sociology of Law, 1, 1-15.

25. Mameli, Peter A. (2002). Stopping the illegal trafficking of human beings. Crime,
Law & Social Change. 28, 67-80.
26. Miles, Angela. (2003). Prostitution, trafficking and the global sex industry: a
conversation with Janice Raymond. Canadian Woman Studies. 22.3-4. 26-38.
27. Monto, Martin A.(2004). Female Prostitution, Customers and Violence. Violence
Against Women. 10-2.
28. Rekart, Michael L. (2005). Sex-work harm reduction. The Lancet. 2123-2135.
29. Saunders, Penelope. (2005). Traffic Violations: Determining the Meaning of
Violence in Sex Trafficking Versus Sex Work. NWSA Journal. 20:3.
30. Shifman, Pamela. (2003). Trafficking and womens human rights in a globalised
world. Gender and Development. 11, 125-132.
31. Soderlund, Gretchen. (2005). Running from the rescuers: new U.S. crusades
against sex trafficking and the rhetoric of abolition. 17.3, 64-88.
32. Stoecker, Sally. (2000) The Rise in Human Trafficking and Roles of Organized
Crime. Demokratizatsiya, 8.1,129-143.
33. Tomasi, Lydio F. (2000) Globalization and human trafficking. Migration world
Magazine. 28.4, 4-6.
34. Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, Public Law 106-386,
October.28, 2000.

Data Set
1. Estes, Richard J., and Neil Alan Weiner. "The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of
children in the U.S., Canada and Mexico" (Full Report). Philadelphia, PA: University
of Pennsylvania School of Social Work, Center for the Study of Youth Policy,
September 18, 2001.

Web Sight
1. "Human Trafficking." Web Resource for Combating Human Trafficking. 18 Feb.
2. Raymond, Janice. Sex Trafficking is Not Sex Work. Vol. XXVI, No. 1. Issue of
Conscience. 15 Apr. 2006
3. The Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center, Fact Sheet: Distinctions Between
Human Smuggling and Human Trafficking; January 2005.
4. "U.S Department of Health and Human Services." Administration for Children and
5. Web site: Polaris Project, Non-Governmental organization. p3/InfoPkt/GN InfoPkt.htm
6. Web Site: Federal Prosecution of Human trafficking 2001-2005,
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Persons Report. Report Cover: Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2006 "Human...

8. Web site: Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000: Trafficking in
Persons Report. Report Cover: Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2005 "Human ...
9. Web site: Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000: Trafficking in
Persons Report. Report Cover: Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2004 "Human ...
www. state, go v/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2004
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in Persons Report. Report Cover: Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2003 "Human ...
11. Web site: Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000: Trafficking
in Persons Report. Report Cover: Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2002 "Human ...
12. Web site: Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000: Trafficking
in Persons Report. Report Cover: Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2001 "Human ...
13. Web site: U.S. Department of State: