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The relationship between multicultural education, reading achievement, and self concept

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Title:
The relationship between multicultural education, reading achievement, and self concept
Creator:
Griego, Irene Carol
Publication Date:
Language:
English
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xv, 303 leaves : illustrations ; 29 cm

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Subjects / Keywords:
Multicultural education ( lcsh )
Reading (Elementary) ( lcsh )
School children ( lcsh )
Self-perception in children ( lcsh )
Multicultural education ( fast )
Reading (Elementary) ( fast )
School children ( fast )
Self-perception in children ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 296-303).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Doctor of Philosophy, Educational Leadership and Innovation.
General Note:
School of Education and Human Development
Statement of Responsibility:
by Irene Carol Griego.

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Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
37822209 ( OCLC )
ocm37822209
Classification:
LD1190.E3 l996d .G75 ( lcc )

Full Text
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MULTICULTURAL
EDUCATION, READING ACHIEVEMENT,
AND SELF-CONCEPT
by
Irene Carol Griego
B.A., University of Colorado, 1973
M. A., University of Northern Colorado, 1983
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Educational Leadership and Innovation
1996


This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy
degree by
Irene Carol Griego
has been approved
by
Michael Martin
Fernie Baca
! 2-3-9
Date


Griego, Irene Carol (Ph.D., Educational Leadership and Innovation)
The Relationship Between Multicultural Education, Reading Achievement,
and Self-Concept
Thesis directed by Professor Michael Martin
ABSTRACT
This study examined the Relationship between Multicultural
Education, Reading Achievement, and Self-Concept while integrating
multicultural education into the sixth-grade reading curriculum in a suburban
elementary school.
Research Questions
Do changes occur in students self-concept as a result of integrating
multicultural education in the reading curriculum?
Is students academic achievement in reading affected when
multicultural education is integrated in the reading curriculum?


Experimental groups included 49 students. Control groups included
48 students. A pool of students was established in the event that mobility
disproportionately reduced any group.
Treatment of Data
The Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for
analysis. Three different types of data analysis were employed. Analysis of
Variance (ANOVA) served as the experimental design control. Analysis of
Covariance (ANCOVA) served as statistical control to reduce uncontrolled
variation. Interactions and a multiple comparison procedure were also used
to accept or reject the null hypotheses.
Results
Data analysis revealed the following:
1. The effects of integrating multicultural education into the
reading curriculum produced a significant difference at the
0.000 level in academic achievement.
2. The effects of integrating multicultural education into the
reading curriculum produced a significant difference at the
0.001 level in reading for information and at the 0.008 level for
reading comprehension.
IV


thesis.
3. The effects of integrating multicultural education into the
reading curriculum produced significant differences for girls and
boys, and all ethnic groups in reading for information at the
0.001 level and at the 0.008 level for reading comprehension.
4. The effects of integrating multicultural education into the
reading curriculum did not produce a significant difference in
self-concept.
5. The effects of integrating multicultural education into the
reading curriculum did not produce a significant difference in
attitudes toward other races and cultures.
6. The effects of integrating multicultural education into the
reading curriculum produced significant interactions in self-
concept. This is an area for future study.
7. Data presented on the external group was analyzed and results
indicated that the independent variable produced significant
differences at the 0.000 level for comprehension and
information.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates
I recommend its publication.
Signed
Michael Martin
v


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to extend her sincere appreciation to the many
individuals who have contributed support, guidance, and insight so
necessary to bring this research study to fruition. Dr. Michael Martin, as
Chairman of the Dissertation Committee, was the mentor who, together with
other members of the Committee, Dr. Femie Baca, Dr. Wayne Carle, Dr.
Kathy Escamilla, Dr. Willie Hill and Dr. Gary Hillman provided
encouragement, direction, assistance and pursuit of relevant concepts or
ideas.
Special thanks go to the parents or guardians of students who
voluntarily participated in the study. Also, special thanks go to participating
teachers Dick Eggleston, Barb Fuller, David Harris, and Teresa Karamigios,
who worked tirelessly to deliver instructional components specified in the
study. Computer assistance was provided by Dr. Emily Findlay.
Finally, the author wishes to thank her family for the special support
they provided. Al Aguayo, the authors husband, was always there to provide
guidance, statistical expertise, assistance with bugs relating to the
computer, and words of encouragement. Diego Griego-Ramos, the authors
vi


son has accompanied the author for many years sharing the trials and
tribulations relating to his mothers efforts while earning her Master of Arts
degree and developing this study which will be a part of the degree, Doctor of
Philosophy. The author also wishes to acknowledge her father, Lawrence
Griego, and her mother, Pauline Griego, for the encouragement and support
they have provided for so many years.
VII


CONTENTS
CHAPTER PAGE
1. INTRODUCTION..................................... 1
Multicultural Education................... 1
Approaches to Multicultural Education....... 3
Definition of Terms,...................... 8
Purpose of the Study...................... 12
Researchable Question..................... 13
Research Questions........................ 13
General Treatment Process................. 13
Summary................................... 15
2. REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE................. 16
Historical Development of Multicultural
Education.................................16
Multicultural Education: Characteristics
And Goals................................. 18
Conceptual and Philosophical Issues.......19
Culture, Ethnicity, and Education......... 20
Educational Equity........................23
Pluralism, Ideology, and Educational Reform... 25
viii


Multicultural Education Curriculum: Issues,
Approaches, and Models......................26
Self-Concept................................33
Reading.................................... 39
Summary.................................... 44
3. METHODS AND PROCEDURES............................46
Overview....................................46
Research Design............................51
Population Sample.......................... 53
Treatment Procedures........................55
Integration of Multicultural Education in
the Reading Curriculum......................57
Staff Development.......................... 62
Instruments and Measurements............... 63
Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ)....... 63
Multicultural Student Questionnaire (MSQ)..64
Michigan Educational Assessment Program
In Reading (MEAP)...........................66
Data Collection Procedures..................69
Limitations of the Study................... 71
Treatment of Data...........................72
Validity of Study...........................77


Summary................................ 78
4. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF DATA.................80
Hypotheses Testing.....................82
Summary of Findings.....................132
Summary................................ 136
5. SUMMARY, FINDINGS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS............................. 138
Summary................................ 138
Research Problem................. 138
Population Sample.................139
Treatment........................ 140
Results and Findings............. 142
Discussion....................... 145
Recommendations.................. 148
APPENDIX
A. Self Description Questionnaire............... 153
B. Michigan Educational Assessment Program
in Reading.................................. 158
C. Jefferson County Public Schools Sixth-Grade
Reading Curriculum.......................... 183
D. Multicultural Student Questionnaire.......... 194


E. Multicultural Assessment Interview
(Teacher Version).................................. 201
F. Sample School Instructional Day......................233
G. Staff Development....................................235
H. Analysis of Covariance Procedure.................... 239
I. Analysis of Variance Procedure...................... 244
J. University of Colorado Research Request............. 249
K. Example of Parent Permission To Do Research.......257
L. Multicultural Curriculum.............................259
M. Teacher Profiles.................................... 275
N. Three Groups, Three Novels, and No Chaos..........280
O. Multicultural Book List............................. 288
P. Dunns (Bonferroni) Post Hoc Molholm Data........... 293
REFERENCES...................................................... 296
XI


TABLES
TABLE PAGE
3.1 Factorial Design................................... 76
4.1. Analysis of Variance, Michigan Educational
Assessment Program. Information Reading Test...86
4.2. Analysis of Covariance, Michigan Educational
Assessment Program. Information Reading Test...89
4.3. Analysis of Covariance Interactions Analysis.
Michigan Educational Assessment Program.
Information Reading Test. Treatment by Ethnicity
By Sex............................................. 91
4.4. Mean Tabulations. Experimental and Control
Groups. Michigan Educational Assessment
Program. Story and Information Sections............92
4.5. Analysis of Variance, Michigan Educational
Assessment Program. Story Sub-test.................93
4.6. Analysis of Covariance, Michigan Educational
Assessment Program. Story Sub-test.................94
4.7. Analysis of Covariance Interaction Analysis.
Michigan Educational Assessment Program.
Story Sub-test. Treatment by Ethnicity By Sex......95
4.8. Analysis of Variance. Self-Description
Questionnaire. General School Sub-test.............97
4.9. Analysis of Covariance. Self-Description
Questionnaire. General School Sub-test.............98
xii


4.10. Analysis of Covariance. Interaction Analysis.
Self-Description Questionnaire. General
School Sub-test. Treatment by Ethnicity By Sex......99
4.11. Mean Tabulations. Experimental and Control
Groups. Self-Description Questionnaire. Total
Self and Total Academic Sub-Test....................101
4.12. Mean Tabulations. Experimental and Control
Groups. Self-Description Questionnaire. Non-
Academic and Peer Relationships Sub-Test............102
4.13. Mean Tabulations. Experimental and Control
Groups. Self-Description Questionnaire.
Reading and General School Sub-Test................. 103
4.14. Analysis of Variance. Self-Description
Questionnaire. Peer Relationships Sub-test.......... 104
4.15. Analysis of Covariance. Self-Description
Questionnaire. Peer Relationships Sub-test........... 104
4.16. Analysis of Covariance. Interaction Analysis.
Self-Description Questionnaire. Peer Relationships
Sub-test. Treatment by Ethnicity by Sex............. 106
4.17. Analysis of Variance. Self-Description
Questionnaire Reading Sub-test....................... 107
4.18. Analysis of Covariance. Self-Description
Questionnaire. Reading Sub-test...................... 108
4.19. Analysis of Covariance. Interaction Analysis.
Self-Description Questionnaire. Reading
Sub-test. Treatment by Ethnicity By Sex.............. 109
4.20. Analysis of Variance. Self-Description
Questionnaire. Academic Sub-test.................... 110
4.21. Analysis of Covariance. Self-Description
Questionnaire. Academic Sub-test......................111
xiii


4.22. Analysis of Covariance. Interaction Analysis.
Self-Description Questionnaire. Academic
Sub-test. Treatment by Ethnicity by Sex.............. 112
4.23. Analysis of Variance. Self-Description
Questionnaire. Non-Academic Sub-test................ 113
4.24. Analysis of Covariance. Self-Description
Questionnaire. Non-Academic Sub-test................ 114
4.25. Analysis of Covariance. Interaction Analysis.
Self-Description Questionnaire. Non-Academic
Sub-test. Treatment by Ethnicity by Sex............... 115
4.26. Analysis of Variance. Self-Description
Questionnaire. Total Self Sub-test.................. 116
4.27. Analysis of Covariance. Self-Description
Questionnaire. Total Self Sub-test.................. 117
4.28. Analysis of Covariance. Interaction
Analysis. Self-Description Questionnaire.
Total Self Sub-test. Treatment by Ethnicity
By Sex................................................ 118
4.29. Analysis of Variance. Multicultural Student
Questionnaire. Multicultural Sub-test............... 119
4.30. Analysis of Covariance. Multicultural Student
Questionnaire. Multicultural Sub-test............... 120
4.31. Analysis of Covariance. Interaction Analysis.
Multicultural Student Questionnaire.
Multicultural Sub-test. Treatment by Ethnicity
By Sex................................................ 121
4.32. Analysis of Variance. Multicultural Student
Questionnaire. Self-Concept Sub-test.................122
XIV


4.33. Analysis of Covariance. Multicultural
Student Questionnaire. Self-Concept Sub-test........ 123
4.34. Analysis of Covariance. Interaction Analysis.
Multicultural Student Questionnaire. Self-
Concept Sub-test. Treatment by Ethnicity
By Sex............................................... 124
4.35. Analysis of Variance. Multicultural Student
Questionnaire. Total Scores...........................125
4.36. Analysis of Covariance. Multicultural
Student Questionnaire. Total Scores.................. 126
4.37. Analysis of Covariance. Interaction
Analysis. Multicultural Student
Questionnaire. Total Scores.
Treatment by Ethnicity By Sex........................ 127
4.38. Mean Tabulations. Experimental and
Control Groups. Multicultural Student
Questionnaire. Self-Concept, Multicultural,
and Total Scores..................................... 129
xv


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Multicultural Education
Multicultural education is an education for freedom (Parekh, 1986). It
is a reform movement being discussed in todays Eurocentric, suburban
school districts struggling to cope with changing demographics. Multicultural
education has stirred a chorus of voices on both sides of the issue, in part
because of the divergent views of institutions and because of assumptions
about culture, power, diversity, equity, and community.
As the nations ethnic texture deepens, issues surrounding
multicultural education will broaden rather than diminish. While much of the
current debate over multicultural education has taken place in mass media
publications such as Time (Gray, 1993), the Wall Street Journal (Sirkin.
1990), and the New Republic (Howe, 1991), leaders and educators from all
political and ideological persuasions, need to discuss and exchange ideas
that might help to bridge the instructional gap in our schools by reformulating
and transforming the Western canon on curriculum so that all students can
perform to a higher standard. On one hand, the essence of this bitter debate
1


focuses on defending the existing curriculum and structures on public
education; on the other, the issue is that rather than excluding Western
civilization from the curriculum, multiculturalists want a more truthful, complex
and diverse version of the West taught in schools (Banks, 1994).
African Americans, Hispanics, the poor, women, and other victimized

groups are insisting that there is a need to deconstruct the myth that the
West is uniform. They ask that their voices, visions, contributions, and
perspectives be included in the curriculum. Weathford (1992) describes the
debt the West owes to the first Americans. Bernal (1987), Drake (1987), Van
Sertina (1983), Clarke (1990), and Banks (1993) document historical and
cultural data that people of color, women, and other marginalized groups
influenced the development of Western civilizations and it is these data that
hold hope for successful inclusion of these individuals in curriculum and for
their societal success.
Such perspectives should be shared with students in our schools and
could serve to strengthen our curriculum so as to reflect that knowledge as a
social construction, that it is dynamic and changing, and that it reflects the
perspectives, experiences, and values of people and cultures that comprise
the heterogeneous mosaic known as America. It must be an on-going debate
and the classroom must be the forum for such a debate. The voices of
Western traditionalists, multiculturalists, text book authors, and other
2


theorists should be heard and legitimized in those classrooms.
Approaches to Multicultural Education
Multicultural education is an educational reform movement designed
to restructure schools and other educational institutions so that students from
all social-class, racial, cultural, and gender groups will have an equal
opportunity to learn (Banks, 1993). While many different strategies,
definitions and approaches to multicultural education exist, three major
cluster areas can be discussed: curriculum reform, student achievement, and
interqroup education (Banks, 1993). At least one author (Banks, 1993),
believes that this typology approximates, but does not describe, the total
complexity of multicultural education. Thus, a theoretical orientation toward
these three approaches is included for initial discussion.
Banks (1994) conceptualizes curriculum reform approaches as a
process that involves additions to, or changes in, the content of a school
curriculum. Banks claims that his three approaches to multicultural education
include the inter-related factors of cultural contributions, additive factors
which strengthen the curriculum decision making, social action of those
delivering the curriculum, and the transformation process that must occur
within the curriculum. Researchers hold that one of Banks concepts,
curriculum transformation, is the most important phenomenon, since students
3


and teachers make paradigm shifts and view American and world experience
from the perspectives of different racial, cultural, ethnic, and gender groups
(Golden, et al., 1991, Rouse, 1992, and Stannard, 1992). In this ideal
process, experiences are not viewed as an appendage to the experience of
the dominant society, but are viewed through a given groups eyes
(Armitage, 1987).
Bieger (1996) promotes multicultural education through a literature-
based approach. She points out that a basic premise of multicultural
education is that in some degree most people have experienced a variety of
cultural influences and are, therefore, multicultural since these influences
include ethnic, racial, linguistic, socioeconomic, gender, and religious
differences. The more people are encouraged to appreciate their own
uniqueness (Rudman, 1984) the more they should be able to value the
diversity of others. Further, this author states,
that schools are a microcosm of global society. Within a
country like the United States (U.S.) that is so culturally and
linguistically diverse, the need for intergroup knowledge,
understanding, and respect is critical. Multicultural education is
an attempt to develop islands of understanding within which can
be a very hostile and inconsiderate society.
Unfortunately, multicultural education has generally been
superficial. Holidays, heroes, and festivals are celebrated, but
not integrated into, the curriculum. Quality multicultural
education in a school requires leadership, commitment, and
continuity. Teachers must be responsible for curriculum
integration.
4


Therefore, multicultural education should not focus on any one culture
to the exclusion of others. Students who are taught to appreciate and
understand their own heritage learn to understand the heritages of others in
the process. This type of philosophy promotes recognition, understanding,
and acceptance of cultural diversity and individual uniqueness with an
emphasis on intergroup understanding and human relations (American
Federation of School Administrators. 1993).
Bieger (1996) proposed a theoretical framework based on creating a
multicultural classroom using literature. She pointed out that children cannot
be sensitized to the existence of people who are not like them by merely
being told to like others. Attitudes are hard to change, barriers of prejudice
must be broken down. What cannot be taught through facts may be taught
through the heart. Literature can help effect multicultural understanding.
Through reading, people briefly share in the lives and feelings of the
characters rather than dealing only with facts. Literature provides food for
both the head and the heart. Books may be used as agents for change,
vehicles for introducing concepts, and catalysts for activities. Texts should
present all groups in a variety of roles and situations (Norton, 1995). Thus,
this research focused on the concept that stories and historical incidents
should be presented from the point of view of people concerned.
Bishop (1993) reinforces Nortons concepts when he proposes that
5


people who find their own life experiences mirrored in books, receive
affirmation of themselves and their culture. They feel pride and self-worth.
Books can deepen childrens understanding for cultures that are
different than their own (Huck, Hepler, and Hickman, 1987).
Lintz, Mehan, and Okamota (1995) pointed out that it is important to
understand the various strategies that educators have employed to
incorporate diversity into the school curriculum. They reviewed ethnographic
studies of multicultural education in the areas of: (a) classroom interaction by
modifying discourse patterns and participation structures, (b) curriculum
implementation that stresses the contributions of previously under
represented ethnic groups and women, and those that describe attempts to
build an ethnoracial identity. Thus, conceptualizing multicultural education
as a vehicle for curriculum reform may be a key.
Researchers Moll and Diaz (1987), support such reform as they
stressed that instead of denying the coherence and personal significance of
the language and culture of the home by trying to eradicate their expression
within the school, research suggests employing the knowledge and
experiences that students bring to school with them as resources for
instruction. When classroom discourse and curriculum have been modified
to incorporate students fund of knowledge and everyday experience,
students are more engaged and more productive. This process to establish
6


' a relevant developmental sequence of instruction for students, builds a
conceptual bridge of ones cultural knowledge and language to achieve a
conceptualized multicultural educational foundation.
However, before continuing a compelling consideration, the changing
of school demographics must be addressed albeit briefly.
Gay (1994) discusses changing school demographics as the
percentage of students of color in the U.S. schools has increased steadily
since the 1960s. Those students now comprise 30% of the total population
of elementary and secondary schools. During the 1980s, Hispanics and
Asians/Pacific Islanders accounted for the greatest increases, by 44.7% and
116.4% respectively. Although their percentages are not evenly distributed
throughout the U.S., the trend of increasing numbers of children of color in all
school districts across the country is growing. Already, in at least 18 states
and Washington, D.C., between 30% and 96% of the public school students
in grades K-12 are children of color.
Banks (1994) states that the desertion of inner-city communities is not
by Anglos alone. Middle-class African American and Hispanics have joined
the exodus to suburbs and private schools. A similar phenomenon is
occurring in the Jefferson County Public Schools where children of color are
crossing the highways and byways of the city to enroll in ever-increasing
numbers in its suburban schools, especially in those schools along the
7


eastern corridor of the District.
Stein Elementary School, the school used as a research site in this
study, currently has a student enrollment that is 1.06% American Indian,
5.9% Asian, 2.27% African American, 62.03% Anglo, and 28.74% Hispanic.
For such a diverse population, multicultural approaches may increase
academic success in reading and improve self-concept for students in this
sample population.
Briefly, achievement approaches conceptualize multicultural education
as a set of goals, theories, and strategies designed to increase the academic
achievement of low-income students, students of color, women, and students
with disabilities (Banks, 1986). Second, the primary goal of interaroup
education is to help students develop more positive attitudes toward people
from different racial, cultural, and gender groups. Finally, although it is a
slow and painful process, elements of each of those three approaches
conceptualized by Banks are to become institutionalized within schools
(Banks and Lynch, 1986 and Verma, 1989).
Definition of Terms
The following definitions were used in this study:
Attitude: a way of acting, feeling or thinking; ones disposition, mental
set, etc. (Websters New World Dictionary, 1978).
8


Community: the people living in a particular district, city, etc. The
district, city, etc. where they live. A group of people living together as a
smaller social unit within a larger one, having interests, work, etc. in common.
(Websters New World Dictionary, 1978).
Content Integration: the extent to which teachers use examples, data,
and information from a variety of cultures and groups to illustrate the key
concepts, principles, generalizations, and theories in their subject area of
discipline (Banks, 1993).
Culture: the ideas, symbols, behaviors, values, and beliefs that are
shared by a human group. Culture may also be defined as the symbols,
institutions or other components of human societies that are created by
human groups to meet their survival needs, as well as, humanitarian needs
such as art, music, etc. (Banks, 1994).
Curriculum reform: a process that involves additions to, or changes in,
the content of the curriculum (Banks, 1994).
Demographics: the texture of a society. Its ethnic, economic, social,
religious, or other descriptive population variable reflecting the different kinds
of people who live and work in a given social structure.
Educational Equity: a concept that embraces legal and legislative
incentives regarding the importance of education into a form of direct
relevance to culturally diverse populations. In essence, any child, regardless
9


of race, color, national origin, and language is equally entitled to the benefits
of educational endeavors. This equal educational approach to the growing
number of culturally diverse students is the part of what drives educational
initiatives for these students (Garcia, 1995).
Ethnic Diversity: the belief that there are many different ethnic cultures
in our society, and that these differences are not likely to vanish. Events
cause them to emerge in each new generation. The wide diversity between
and within various ethnic groups. The extent of group identification by
members of ethnic groups that varies greatly and is influenced by many
factors, such as skin color, social class, and personal experiences. (Banks,
1991).
Equality: equal access to the best quality substance of schooling for
all students (Gay, 1988).
Equity: the ability to acknowledge that, even though ones actions
might be in accord with a set of rules, results may be unjust. Equity goes
beyond following the rules, even if some have agreed that they are intended
to achieve justice ... educational equity ... should be construed as a check on
justice of specific actions that are carried out within the educational arena
and the arrangements that result from those actions (Pignatelli and Pflaum,
1992, p. lx). In essence, any child, regardless of race, color, national origin,
and language, is equally entitled to the benefits of educational endeavors
10


(Garcia, 1994).
Knowledge Construction: a process that encompasses the procedures
by which social, behavioral, and natural scientists create knowledge in their
disciplines (Bank, 1993).
Multicultural Education: a field of study designed to increase
educational equity for all students that incorporates, for this purpose, content,
concepts, principles, theories, and paradigms from history, the social and
behavioral sciences, and particularly from ethnic and women studies;
multicultural education has emerged as an umbrella concept that deals with
race, culture, language, social class, gender, and disabilities. Although many
educators still apply it only to race, it is the term most frequently extended to
include additional forms of diversity. For this reason, we will use the term
multicultural education to refer to educational practices directed toward race,
culture, language, social class, gender, and disabilities. In selecting the
term, however, we do not imply that race is a primary form of social
inequalities that needs to be addressed. We see racism, classism, and
sexism as equally important (Grant and Sleeter, 1994). Multi-education is a
popular term that educators increasingly use to describe educational policies
and practices that recognize, accept, and affirm human differences and
similarities related to gender, race, disabilities, class, and (increasingly)
sexual preference; (Grant and Sleeter, 1994) multicultural education is a
11


process ... a philosophy ... a concept. It is a way of thinking. It is a strategy
to accomplish a goal. The concept is based upon a fundamental belief that
all people should be respected, regardless of age, race, gender, economic
class, religion, or physical and mental ability (Grant and Sleeter, 1989).
Standard: a level of excellence, attainment, etc. regarded as a
measure of accuracy; something established for use as a rule or basis of
comparison in measuring or judging content, extent, and quality.
Quality: the degree to which learning experiences determine minority
students interest and involvement and empower them with personal
development (Gay, 1988).
Western Traditionalists: the social scientists, historians, and other
scholars who argue that the European Western tradition should be at the
center of the curriculum in U.S. schools, colleges, and universities because
of the cogent influence that Western ideals have had on the development of
the U.S. (Banks, 1994).
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of multicultural
education, when integrated in the reading curriculum, on students self-
concept and achievement in reading of sixth-grade students and comparable
groups of students receiving traditional reading instruction in a suburban
12


school district.
Researchable Question
The debate over whether multicultural education is an education for
freedom or a movement to disunite America goes on, but so far little hard
evidence supports either of these claims. As a woman and ethnic minority, I
might have strong views about whether multiculturalism is a good or bad
idea. However, as an educator and a researcher, the most important
question about multiculturalism and diversity is how suburban, elementary
school children are affected when multiculturalism is integrated into the
reading curriculum. Reading, then, was the chosen focus given the scope of
the study.
Research Questions
Do changes occur in students self-concept as a result of integrating
multicultural education in the reading curriculum? Is students academic
achievement in reading affected when multicultural education is integrated in
the reading curriculum?
General Treatment Process
Multicultural education as defined in the study conducted, focused on
13


integrating multicultural education into the sixth-grade reading curriculum.
That reading curriculum has been adopted by the Jefferson County Public
Schools.
The treatment consisted of establishing four classroom groups. Two
of those classroom groups comprised the control group, a group not exposed
to multicultural education. A third control group from Molholm Elementary
School was added late in the study at the request of this researchers
committee. The essence of this request was that this addition might minimize
contamination, if any, in the study.
The other two classroom groups comprised the experimental groups,
classrooms where multicultural concepts and cultural activities were
integrated throughout the school day. Multicultural education consisted of
daily instruction in seven major categories. Those categories related to the
integration of multicultural education into the reading curriculum. A detailed
description of multicultural activities used in this study is explained in
Chapter 3.
The basic purpose of the research study was to employ a quasi-
experimental design to determine how various student outcomes are affected
by integrating multiculturalism into the schools reading curriculum.
14


Summary
This chapter defines the concept of multicultural education and
presents a brief overview of three major approaches to multicultural
education. Those theoretical constructs are related to the purpose and
scope of the study as they related to the integration of multicultural education
into the reading curriculum at the sixth-grade level. The Jefferson County
Public Schools, a suburban metropolitan school district experiencing
changing pupil demographics, has utilized this basic reading curriculum.
In this era of such population shifts, it would appear that curriculum
reform must be undertaken if equity and equal access to educational
opportunities for children of color is to result.
Chapter 2 will present a review of related literature in the field.
Chapter 3 will delineate specific methods and procedures used in the study
including hypotheses to be tested, research design, population sample, and
treatment procedures. Chapter 4 will include results and analysis of data and
Chapter 5 will focus on a summary of the study, results presented in a
narrative form, findings drawn from the data analysis and recommendations.
To that end, this study compared four suburban classrooms, two that
delivered the basic reading curriculum to students without modification and
two that integrated multicultural concepts and cultural activities into the
reading strand of that curriculum for students participating in the study.
15


CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
This literature review will begin with the historical development of
multicultural education. An analysis of the characteristics and goals of this
educational movement will follow. Then, conceptual and philosophical issues
will be outlined. The most recent research relating to culture, ethnicity, and
education will be presented in the fourth section of this review. A
presentation of issues relating to educational equity follows. Issues relating
to pluralism, ideology, and educational reform complete the sixth category
reviewed. Finally, multicultural education curriculum: issues, approaches,
and models will be outlined, completing a base of literature and information
used as a reference point for the implementation of multicultural education in
the reading curriculum at the elementary school level identified in this study.
Historical Development of Multicultural Education
The major purpose for a review of the literature was to provide a
sequential analysis for investigating the evolution of multicultural education
as a vehicle for curriculum transformation, a process that could maximize
educational opportunities for children of color, females, and other
16


disenfranchised groups. Such groups are represented more and more in
student populations attending suburban schools and efforts need to be made
to enrich the traditional curriculum. Thus, a logical starting point for this
analysis was the historical development of multicultural education.
Most of the European immigrants who came to North America before
1890 were from nations in Northern and Western Europe, such as the United
Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.
As a way of surviving the first few years of transition, (Kierstead and
Wagner, 1993), many European immigrants found refuge by forming ethnic
neighborhoods. There was a Black ghetto, a Jewish ghetto, a Chinatown,
and possibly a Little Italy in almost every major American city. Many of our
largest cities still have remnants of such neighborhoods today.
Although conflicts developed between these various immigrant groups,
they began to perceive themselves, as time passed, as the old immigrants
and rightful inhabitants of America. They saw new immigrants as a threat
and a movement discussed by Higham (1972) as nativism, arose to stop this
new flood.
In time, other ethnic groups entered the U.S. and made demands on
schools and colleges. Those institutions responded by establishing courses
on specific ethnic groups, such as African American and Mexican American
history and literature. This phase, according to Banks (1981), may be
17


considered as Phase I in the development of multicultural education.
Multicultural Education: Characteristics and Goals
Multicultural education is at least three things: an idea or concept, an
educational reform movement, and a process. According to Banks (1989)
multicultural education incorporates the idea that all students ... regardless of
their gender and social class, and their ethnic, racial, or cultural
characteristics ... should have an equal opportunity to learn in school.
Green (1988) in The Dialect of Freedom asks, What does it mean to
be a citizen of the free world? Green answers her own question as she
affirms Banks position when she concludes that it means having the capacity
to choose, the power to act to attain ones purposes, and the ability to help
transform a world lived in common with others.
An important factor for consideration that may limit human potential in
our schools is the curriculum encapsulation into which all students are
imbued. That is, in schools, they must learn only the values, beliefs, and
stereotypes of the organizational culture if they are to experience freedom
and survive.
Multicultural education is education for freedom, (Parekh, 1986) a
concept that is essential in todays ethnically polarized and troubled world.
Moreover, within that concept lies diversity and diversity is for everyone!
18


Teaching in a modern society like America would itself be a challenge,
without adding its cultural and ethnic diversity to the list of elements affecting
learning. Yet, many aspire to produce a better informed citizenry, capable of
competing on the international job market, U.S. Department of Education: A
Nation Prepared: Teachers For The 21st Century (1986), but minorities
continue to fail in our schools because of unequal educational practices.
Conceptual and Philosophical Issues
The literature is replete with references to the divergent views that
citizens hold about what constitutes an American identity and about the roots
and nature of American civilization. Such issues have evoked a divisive
national debate, especially around conceptual and philosophical issues
concerning multicultural education. Some of those issues were discussed
briefly in Chapter 1, yet there are others that one encounters in the literature.
DSouza (1991) defends the existing curriculum and structures in
higher education in his work. Illiberal Education, while presenting an alarming
picture of where multiculturalism is taking the nation. That position is
supported by Schlesinger (1991) who argues that multiculturalism is
disuniting America.
This phenomenon concludes Banks (1994), is not as simple as the
conflict described since during the 1940s and 1950s, social scientists
19


predicted that ethnic groups would fade from modern societies as people
became culturally assimilated and acculturated. The Black civil rights
movements in the 1960s and other ethnic revival movements in the U.S. and
other parts of the world contravened those predictions. Glazer and Moynihan
(1975), Park (1950), and Wirth (1945), supported this position since they
believed that concepts and theories formulated early in our history do not
adequately describe ethnic groups.
Greeley (1971) suggests:
Many ethnic groups have emerged in this country
because members of various ethnic groups have tried to
preserve something of the intimacy and familiarity of the
peasant village during the transition into urban industrial living.
These groups have persisted after the immigrant experience
because of apparently very powerful drive in many toward
associating with those who, they believe, possess the same
blood and the same beliefs they do. The inclination toward
such homogeneous groupings simultaneously enriches the
culture, provides for diversity within the social structure, and
considerably increases the potential for conflict.
Culture. Ethnicity, and Education
One could possibly say with some security that there are many roads
to the American Dream. Aristotle began his deliberations of the origins of
cultural considerations by noting that the natural feature of human nature is
to be social. Adler (1994) advocated that everyone be taught the sort of
things the establishment wanted, namely reading, writing, arithmetic, the arts
20


and sciences, and something approximating character education. He
reasoned that we could remove the barriers that prevent ethnic and cultural
groups from sharing freely in the American Dream, his version of the
American Dream. Such a dream has many faced, depending on ones
culture.
Rodriguez (1981) defines culture as the framework that guides and
bounds life practices, it shapes everything we do. There is no question that
all of us are cultural beings, with culture influencing the development of our
beliefs, perspectives, and behaviors. Anderson and Fenichel (1989) expand
on this position as they state that our cultural framework must be viewed as
a set of tendencies or possibilities from which to choose, not a rigidly
prescribed set of assumptions.
Once upon a time, I was a socially disadvantaged child. An
enchantedly happy child. Mine was a childhood of intense
family closeness. And extreme public alienation.
Culture, Bullivant (1984) believes, is a term used freely in numerous
contexts. He makes an important point that culture forms a part of the terms
multiculturalism and multicultural education, and that when used in these two
approaches to pluralistic education, culture is a defining concept.
Cultural self-awareness according to Adams and Welsch (1994)
begins with an exploration of our own heritage, encounters, and experiences.
They believe that place of origin, language(s) spoken, time, and reason for
21


immigration, relocation, or colonization, and the place of the familys first
settlement, as well as, geographic relocations and movement within the U.S.
all help to define ones cultural heritage.
It is not uncommon today to encounter schools where children bring
20 to 30 languages and cultures to the school. This is true more and more
each day even in suburban schools. While it is impossible for us as
educators to be experts in each groups history, values, traditions, rituals,
behavior, and language, Gay (1988) believes that we need to allow children
the opportunity to work in classrooms that enable and encourage them to use
their language, personal beliefs, metaphors, and preferred learning styles for
learning new information.
Culture has several variants that impact ones behavior: race or
ethnicity; gender; social class, exceptionality, and other subvarients too
numerous to detail. Social scientists do not completely agree on one
definition of an ethnic group, but Banks, et al. (1992) propose that an ethnic
group is primarily an involuntary group, although identification with the group
may be optional. They point out that an ethnic group may be economic,
political, cultural, or holistic.
The concept of multicultural education for America is on the surface a
good idea, Kierstead and Wagner (1993). However, educator James Banks
(1993) recommends an intermediate step toward a true multicultural society:
22


a policy of multiethnic education. He argues that if nations want to truly
promote the integration of structurally excluded ethnic groups into the
mainstream of society ... a curriculum that reflects cultures, ethos, and
experience of diverse groups within a nation will reduce polarization and
weaken ethnic revival movements.
Educational Equity
What is equity? How should it be defined within a democratic,
pluralistic society? Secada (1992) characterizes equity in the following way:
The heart of equity lies in our ability to acknowledge that, even
though our actions might be in accord with a set of rules, their
results may be unjust.
Equity, according to Pignatelli and Pflaum (1992) goes beyond
following the rules, even if we agreed that they are intended to achieve
justice ... educational equity ... should be construed as a check on the justice
of specific actions that are carried out within the educational arena and the
arrangements that result from those actions.
Persell (1987) believes that the education received by three babies,
each from different background, is likely to be quite different. Picture the
three babies born at the same time, but to parents of different social-class
backgrounds. The first baby is born into a wealthy, well-educated, business
or professional family. The second is born to a middle-class family in which
both parents attended college and have managerial jobs. The third is born
23


into a poor family in which neither parent finished high school or has a steady
job. Will these babies receive the same education? She argues that three
things contribute a great deal to the unequal educational results so often
documented by social researchers. (1) The structure of schooling in the U.S.
(2) The beliefs held by U.S. educators. (3) The curricular and teaching
practices in the public schools. These are results beyond the influence of
family, environment, and the like, that are the focus of Persells research.
The College Entrance Examination Board (1993), in its report, Equity
and Excellence: The Educational Status of Black Americans, concluded that
although many legal barriers to educational opportunity have been removed,
education ... to a large extent... remains separate and unequal in the U.S.
Gay (1974) shows similar findings show that minority students are
disproportionally enrolled in special-education programs, vocational
education, and low-track programs, and are under represented in high-track
and college prepatory programs.
Culture, ethnicity, and education seem to be inextricably linked when
one searches for reasons as to why educational inequality exists for ethnic
minorities. One sees that wherever ethnic minorities attend school, whether
in minority or racially mixed settings, in urban or suburban environments, in
poor or middle-class communities, in different geographic locations, the
issues of educational equity prevail. These issues concern access to
24


excellence and equity of educational opportunities and experiences with the
focus of access being the substance of the educational process.
Pluralism. Ideology and Educational Reform
Since the 1960s, educational institutions throughout the U.S. and
other Western nations have implemented a variety of programs and projects
related to ethnic and cultural diversity. Many of these efforts lack clear goals,
definitions, and effective staff development components. Some problems
relating to pluralism, ideology, and educational reform result from conceptual
ambiguity and ideological polarization. A number of important questions
concerning the relationship of the educational institution and ethnicity have
not been satisfactorily clarified or resolved. One key question needs to be
asked: should schools promote, remain neutral to, or ignore the ethnic
characteristics of its students and the ethnic diversity within a society?
Because America remains ethnically diverse and yet espouses equal
opportunity, the issues of cultural pluralism, diversity in goals, values, and
learning remain important topics for the future. Huang (1981), supports this
position as she says that the continued existence of cultural enclaves in
America is partly due to historical precedent and discrimination initiated by
the establishment culture.
25


DSouza (1991); Hilliard, Payton-Stewart and Williams (1990); Modgil,
Verma, Mallick and Modgil (1986); and Verma (1989); reflect the wide
diversity of positions held by researchers. Such views on ethnicity and the
schools range from beliefs that ethnicity should be an integral and salient
part of the school curriculum, but cautions that too much emphasis on
ethnicity in the schools might be inimical to the shared national culture and
might promote divisiveness in society.
However, the multicultural ideology, when related to ethnicity and
pluralism in Western societies, lies midpoint along the continuum between
the cultural pluralist ideology and the assimilationist ideology. On the one
hand, a cultural pluralist would support separatism, and on the other, an
assimilationist would propose total integration. A multiculturist such as
Banks (1994) would support an open society.
Multicultural Education Curriculum: Issues
Approaches and Models
According to Banks (1994) it is important to distinguish curriculum
infusion and curriculum transformation. When the curriculum is infused with
ethnic and gender content without curriculum transformation, the students
view the experiences of ethnic groups and women from the perspectives and
conceptual frameworks of the traditional Western canon. When curriculum
26


transformation occurs, students and teachers make paradigm shifts and view
America and the world experience from the perspectives of different racial,
ethnic, cultural, and gender groups.
Addressing the gap between theory and practice in multicultural
teaching is a difficult challenge. Kierstead and Wagner (1993), cite at least
seven major problems; (1) Real educational equality of opportunity is
needed. The problem focus for this area is to allocate more time, effort, and
resources for at-risk students. (2) Success in education is too narrowly
defined. Assessment, not testing, is the issue in this problem area. (3)
Multicultural education should not be for minority students alone. The
authors propose several approaches that include options for all students to
learn a second language, develop integrative curriculum, insist on
multicultural approaches in textbooks and curriculum guides, and teachers
should consider what they can do to make their classroom a transcultural
environment. (4) Special programs discriminate. To address this concern,
teachers should be aware of bias in testing and encourage curriculum
development that has a transcultural point of view or approach. (5) Plurality
and diversity thinking are discouraged. The problem focus should be to
integrate curriculum goals, core courses, and assessment practices to
evaluate student skills and divergent thinking. (6) Present purposes and
meaning of multicultural education are lacking. There are several
27


suggestions advanced by the authors to address this problem area, but
foremost is the need to lead and require students to participate in classroom
experiences that compare and contrast cultural perspectives. (7) The moral
basis for multicultural education is lacking. Again, a major key toward
addressing this problem area is teachers. Teachers must help students
discriminate among cultures in their treatment of humankind and as they
make conscious choices.
There is no question that problems exist as one considers multicultural
education, yet rapidly-changing student demographics according to The
Condition of Education (1992), indicates that the percentage of students of
color in U.S. schools has increased steadily since the 1960s. They now
comprise 30% of the total population of elementary and secondary schools.
Although their percentages are not evenly distributed throughout the
U.S., the trend of increasing numbers of children of color in all school
districts across the country is (Digest of Education Statistics. 1992).
Tetreault (1993) in her article, Classrooms for Diversity: Rethinking
Curriculum and Pedagogy, states that we are presently in a period of
rethinking the aims of public education. Moreover, that new directions are
emerging that envision a curriculum that includes content about women and
gender, one that interweaves issues of gender with ethnicity, race, and class.
28


Models and approaches to curriculum reform that focus on
multicultural education are more specific when one considers the work of
James A. Banks. Banks (1993) is a prolific writer in this area and his works
include several conceptual models. One such model presents four levels of
integration of multicultural content. The first level of his model is The
Contributions Approach. Here the focus is on heroes, holidays, and discrete
cultural events. Next is The Additive Approach where content, concepts,
themes, and perspective are added to the curriculum without changing its
structure. A third level deals with The Transformation Approach, a level
where the structure of the curriculum is changed to enable students to view
concepts, issues, events, and themes from the perspectives of diverse ethnic
and cultural groups. The Social Action Approach is the fourth and final
approach to Banks hierarchical model, a level where students make
decisions on important social issues and take actions to solve them.
Gloria Ladson-Billings (1995) presents a comprehensive point of view
regarding the development of relevant curriculum for diversity. She offers a
variety of curriculum conceptions, a useful definition for curriculum outlines
the national curriculum debate, and suggests some relevant curriculum for
diversity. She supports Banks when she says that the highest aims of a
multicultural curriculum is connecting childrens lives and experiences in
meaningful ways, empowering and encouraging social action, and working
29


for social change.
Curriculum reform is affected by the stages of ethnicity. Ford (1979)
developed an instrument to measure the first five of the six stages of
ethnicity: Stage 1, Ethnic Psychological Captivity. During this stage the
individual absorbs the negative ideologies and beliefs about their ethnic
group that are institutionalized within the society. Stage 2, Ethnic
Encapsulation. Characterized by encapsulation, exclusiveness, and
voluntary separatism. Stage 3, Ethnic Identity Clarification. At this stage, the
individual is able to clarify personal attitudes and ethnic identity to reduce
inter psychic conflict, and to develop clarified positive attitudes toward their
ethnic group. Stage 4, Biethnicity. The individual within this stage has a
healthy sense of ethnic identity and the psychological characteristics and
skills needed to participate successfully in their own ethnic culture, as well
as, in another ethnic culture. Stage 5, Multiethnicity and Reflective
Nationalism. A stage five individual has clarified reflective and positive
personal, ethnic, and national identifications; positive attitudes toward other
racial and ethnic groups; and is self-actualized. Stage 6, Globalism and
Global Competency. A stage where the individual has clarified, reflective
and positive ethnic, national, and global identifications and the knowledge,
skills, attitudes, and abilities needed to function within their own culture, as
well as, in other cultures in their nation and beyond.
30


Banks (1994) believes that three major factors make multicultural
education a necessity: (1) ethnic pluralism is a growing social reality that
influences the lives of young people; (2) in one way or another, individuals
acquire knowledge or beliefs, sometimes invalid, about ethnic and cultural
groups; and (3) beliefs and knowledge about ethnic groups limit the
perspectives of many and make a difference, often a negative difference, in
opportunities and options available to members of ethnic and cultural groups.
One of the best conceptual curriculums for multicultural education
developed (Taba, et al. 1971) was a social studies curriculum for grades 1
through 8. The powerful Taba curriculum is organized around eleven
powerful concepts. Those concepts include causality, conflict, cooperation,
cultural change, differences, interdependence, modification, power, societal
control, tradition, and values. Banks (1994) supports this curriculum
development framework since he believes that to build a multicultural
curriculum, it is necessary to chose higher-level, powerful concepts like
culture, power, socialization, protest, and values as organizing concepts.
Banks with Clegg (1990) state that the multicultural curriculum should
help students identify, examine, and clarify their values; consider value
alternatives, and make reflective value choices they can defend within a
society in which human dignity is a shared value. Their value inquiry model
consists of these steps.
31


1. Defining and recognizing value problems.
2. Describing value-relevant behavior.
3. Naming values exemplified by the behavior.
4. Determining conflicting values in behavior described.
5. Hypothesizing about the possible consequences of the values
analyzed.
6. Naming alternative values to those exemplified by behavior
observed.
7. Hypothesizing about the possible consequences of values
analyzed.
8. Declaring value preferences: Choosing.
9. Stating reasons, sources, and possible consequences of value
choices: justifying, hypothesizing, and predicting.
Amid debates over multiculturalism, diversity, and political correctness
by academics and the news media, claims and counterclaims about the
dangers and benefits of multiculturalism have abounded, but so far little hard
evidence has been produced to support these claims. Astin (1993) supports
this researchers belief that a systematic analysis of the effects of
multicultural education on student achievement, attitudes and beliefs will do
much to clarify these debates. But what about the traditional approaches?
Should they also be subjected to a similar analysis?
32


Self Concept
The influence of self-esteem may affect student achievement for
children of color in reading and their general attitude toward learning. Thus,
a central question considered in this study was: do changes occur in student
self-concept as a result of integrating multicultural education in the reading
curriculum? And, given that research question, research articles that
addressed theoretical frameworks in the area of self-concept were reviewed.
Among those research articles reviewed were those of Tajfel (1978)
who incorporated aspects of Festingers (1954) theories about social
comparison and group identities as those theories relate to a persons self-
esteem and their social identifies. These researchers found that, when given
a choice, people seek membership in groups associated with positive social
identity in order to boost their self-esteem.
However, the problem according to Garza and Herringer (1986) is that
the larger society imposes a lower minority status on some of those group
memberships that are identified by ethnic characteristics. Ethnic minorities
then are often characterized as being subordinate groups that are held in low
esteem by the dominant majority.
Those issues carry over into the area of academic achievement.
Wylie (1979) noted that many persons, especially educators, have
unhesitatingly assumed that achievement and/or ability measures will be
33


strongly related to self-conception of achievement and ability and to over-all
self-regard as well. Not surprisingly, particularly in studies of school-aged
children some measure of academic achievement is one of the most
frequently posited criteria used to make self-concept interpretations.
In her review of studies refating to self-concept to academic
achievement, Byrne (1984) found that nearly all studies report that self-
concept is positively correlated with achievement, and many find
achievement to be more strongly correlated with academic self-concept than
with general self-concept. So, it may come as no surprise that if one self-
assigns oneself to a group identifiable by ethnic characteristics, and if it
follows that the dominant society holds such groups in a lower position then
low self-esteem can be correlated with low academic achievement for
children of color.
Hoffman and Schwarzwald (1992) support that position in their study
that produced results suggesting that individuals with high self-esteem may
be more likely to see themselves as equal to higher status of others and seek
out their company than would their low self-esteem counterparts. Alternately,
those with high self-esteem may be more motivated by social ambition and
less by fear of rejection.
Such a cultural mismatch surfaces theories that emphasize micro level
sociological variables, including disparities between home and school
34


environments as causes of under achievement. However, Ogbu (1987) has
referred to these disparities as primary cultural discontinuities that are
generated from pre-existing differences between immigrant and host
societies. Primary cultural discontinuities cause conflict between students
and school and lead to academic failures. Does it not follow, then, that
minimizing such cultural continuities when people are encouraged to
appreciate their own uniqueness, the more they should be able to value the
diversity of others. Such valuing could lead to positive academic
achievement for both groups.
These issues, in search of a solution, are addressed in part by Bernal
Saenz, and Knight (1991) as they propose a social identity framework for
achieving a synthesis of cultures and for promoting the understanding of
ethnic and other social identity changes as mediators of the effects of
environment and individual variable on student achievement. Their
framework takes available theory and findings and reconceptualizes them in
terms of social identity theory and development issues. Of special interest
was the finding that language minority youth of Hispanic backgrounds aged
14 years were much more likely to drop out if they had recently resided
outside the U.S. than if they were longtime residents.
Ethnic identity and adaptation of Mexican American youth in school
settings is a vast area of research and although critical issues such as
35


cutting classes, suspensions, heavy dating, being older, being female, and
the like negatively affect student achievement more predictive studies
relating to student achievement in reading must be undertaken.
One such study by Howard (1994) directly related to this research
study. In that research Howard finds that a chosen solution / strategy to
improve reading and communication skills of ninth-grade language minority
students. Cooperative learning was the main focus of the intervention. Of
particular importance was that the reading scores of the target group
improved according to data obtained from standardized tests.
Equally relevant to this study is the study conducted by Gross (1994).
That study focused on specific strategies implemented over a 12-week period
through various classroom activities and individualized projects. Academic
achievement, discipline problems, growth, and self-esteem were evaluated to
determine the effectiveness of the intervention. It was found that student
achievement scores were significantly higher for fifth-graders exposed to a
six-part strategy that (1) built realistic self-esteem, (2) increased cultural and
ethnic awareness, (3) enhanced cooperative learning, (4) taught conflict
resolution skills, (5) improved language arts, and (6) presented opportunities
for students to share talents with others.
Beane and Lipka (1986) recommended four dimensions to the self-
concept of a young person: self as a member of a family, self as a peer, self
36


as a student, and self as a person with attributes. They also distinguish
between self-concept and self-esteem: self-concept is the description an
individual attaches to himself or herself, and self-esteem refers to the
valuation one makes of the self-concept description. For example, although
the childs behavior in a particular setting, such as a classroom, may reflect
the childs self-esteem developed in other contexts, it may also reflect a
direct response to that setting itself.
Grant and Sleeter (1994) stated that children develop their self-
concepts through interactions with other people in various contexts. The
home and neighborhood provide contexts, as does the school. Children gain
feedback from teachers and peers regarding their likability. Schools transmit
images of various sociocultural groups with images that can act like mirrors in
which children view people like themselves.
Martinez and Dukes (1987) suggest that ethnic minority students may
evaluate themselves differentially along two major domains. They
hypothesized that ethnic minority students would evaluate themselves lower
than majority group members on public aspects of self-esteem, but rate
themselves high in the private domains. The rationale for this hypothesis
was that in the public domain of self-esteem the majority group is the
standard, whereas in the private domain the individual and the ethnic group
is the standard. The private domain self-esteem ratings of African American
37


and Hispanic students were higher than those of Anglos, while in the public
domain of intelligence, measured in terms of the majority culture, Hispanic
and African American students rated themselves lower than Anglo students.
A study of Chinese children in Taiwan using the Perceived
Competence Scale for children reported the factorial validity of the scale for
Chinese sample, (Stigler, Smith, and Mao, 1985). White American samples
were highly correlated between the perceived cognitive competence and
actual achievement. Chinese children tended to underrate their competence
compared to White American children. The Chinese children, unlike the
White American children, differentiated satisfaction with self from the desire
to change for the better. Stigler, et al. concluded that:
Whereas idealized perceptions of the self might reflect social
desirability bias among American children, this same bias might
produce self-effacement among Chinese children.
Rotenberg and Cranwell (1989) assessed the self-concept of Native
American and White American children using the 20 statements test, an
open self-description measure. They found that Native American children
referred more frequently in their open descriptions to kinship roles, traditional
customs and beliefs, and moral worth than did White American children.
Drawing on concepts, theories, and methodologies from research
studies, ethnic studies, women studies, and behavioral science the field of
multicultural education and its relationship to self-concept is a metadiscipline
38


designed to increase educational equity for all students. An analysis of these
research studies relating to self-concept and its link to achievement when
multicultural education is integrated into the reading curriculum most
certainly impacts educational equity and equal access to all that an
educational system can offer.
Specifically, according to Clark (1993) and Cross (1991) two major
goals that educators express during the first phase of ethnic revitalization are
to raise the self-concepts of students of color and to increase their racial
pride. These goals develop because leaders of ethnic movements try to
shape new and positive ethnic identities and because educators assume that
members of the ethnic groups who have experienced discrimination and
structural exclusion have negative self-concepts and negative attitudes
toward their own racial and ethnic groups.
Asante (1991) supports this position and focus of this study in that
Clark and Cross advance the belief that students need healthy self-concepts
in order to do well in school. This focus relationship to achievement in
reading is the essence of this study.
Reading
Grant and Sleeter (1989) suggest that multicultural education is a
process ... a philosophy ... a concept. That it is a strategy to accomplish a
39


goal and that the concept is based on the fundamental belief that all people
should be respected regardless of age, race, gender, economic class,
religion, or physical or mental ability. Rudman (1984) supports those
concepts by stating that more people are encouraged to appreciate their own
uniqueness, the more they should be able to value the diversity of others.
Bieger (1996) goes a step further. She proposed the promotion of
multicultural education through a literature-based approach. Specifically, she
proposes a theoretical framework for using literature to create a multicultural
classroom. That concept focuses on a four-level hierarchical model for
integrating ethnic content into the curriculum. Children, states the author of
this approach, cannot be sensitized to the existence of people who are not
like them by merely being told to act like others. What cannot be taught
through facts may be taught through the heart, and literature may be the
vehicle for it provided food for both the heart and mind.
Livdhal (1993) adds zest to Bieger in her article to read it is to live it,
different from just knowing it.
Literature then may be the vehicle for change, but training is the
enabler of change. Dane and Lunch-Brown (1992) support this statement in
their research that focuses on presenting pre-service in the area of childrens
literature for teachers planning to work in multicultural classrooms. They
believe that only through stories can you fully enter anothers life and they
40


suggest that literature selections address basic points such as: (1) to whom
are multicultural books addressed? (2) social conscious books are ones that
focus on racial conflicts, and (3) literature can help develop an understanding
and appreciation for the diversity of cultures not only from the outside of, but
within the country.
A review of the literature as presented in this chapter is organized to
show a relationship to the focus of this study. That organization ... from the
historical development of multicultural education through conceptual and
philosophical issues, as well as, reading and self-concept research ...
provides a clear relationship of variables that impact reading achievement
and self-concept in elementary students in suburban schools.
Yet there has been a censorship of neglect (Anaya 1992). This
censorship has been real for Anaya over the past twenty-five years. As an
educator, he was told that he had the freedom to teach and to learn, but that
has not been the case. The literary history of this country has been shaped
by forces far beyond the control of the classroom teacher. Our curriculum
has been controlled by groups with a parochial view of what the curriculum
should and should not include. Sadly, teachers who hold a narrow view of
what literature should be, are included in those groups. These groups
represent the status quo and call themselves universalists. But these views
must be challenged for the literature of the barrio, of the neighborhood, of the
41


region, of the ethnic groups, and can be a useful tool of engagement, a way
to put students in touch with social reality. What is pertinent to our personal
background is pertinent to our process of learning.
Hillard (1995) adds to Anayas position. He supports the use of
multicultural literature since it can introduce children to unfamiliar practices
and concepts inherent to different cultures.
The selection of literature is critical and must include books that mix
narrative and exposition (Leal, 1993) since there are opportunities for groups
of students to being involved in literary peer-group discussions. In such
discussions, major benefits emerge for students and for their teachers.
Among those benefits is improved academic achievement when children are
provided opportunities to share their own ideas with peers.
Hoskyn (1994) trains teachers in state-of-the-art alternative
assessment approaches for evaluating student progress. These approaches
emphasize the importance of instruction that includes intercultural concepts
as meaningful context for the application of thinking and problem-solving
strategies.
Making informed choices in multicultural literature for children includes
that most important concept, cultural authenticity (Bishop, 1993). Becoming
informed is the most helpful advice proposed since Bishop suggests that it is
not possible to create a tidy checklist that can be applied to every book from
42


a parallel culture. There are, nevertheless, two general strategies that can
prove helpful: be aware of various types of multicultural literature and read
extensively in literature written by insiders.
Also helpful is the advice that multicultural literature includes
informational books, folktales, biographies, poetry, fantasy, and picture
books. These culturally specific books illuminate the experience of growing
up a member of a particular, non-white cultural group. Such books often
delineate character, setting, and theme in part by detailing specifics of daily
living that will be recognizable to members of a given culture. Examples of
such specific details might include language styles and patterns, religious
beliefs and practices, musical preferences, family configuration and
relationships, social mores, and numerous other behaviors, attitudes, and
values shared by a given cultural group. One should also be aware of the
authors point of view. Is the author paternalistic or does the author attempt
to portray characters in an authentic fashion? Moreover, do characters lead
as well as follow? Are they non stereotypical?
Following these and other guidelines will help teachers, researchers,
or other interested individuals make informed selection about new and recent
multicultural literature for the classroom.
43


Summary
A review of the related literature has been presented in Chapter 2.
Ten major research categories are presented: historical development of
multicultural education; multicultural education; characteristics and goals;
conceptual and philosophical issues in the field; culture, ethnicity, and
education; educational equity; pluralism, ideology and educational reform;
multicultural education curriculum; issues, approaches, and models; self-
concept and reading. The issues dealing with achievement in reading and
self-concept will be linked to, or developed in greater depth, in this study as
multicultural education is integrated into the reading curriculum and results of
that intervention are analyzed.
The literature review began with the historical development of
multicultural education. An analysis of the characteristics and goals of this
educational movement followed. Then, conceptual and philosophical issues
were outlined. The most recent research relating to culture, ethnicity, and
education were presented in the literature review. A presentation of issues
relating to educational equity followed. Issues relating to pluralism, ideology,
and educational reform were also summarized. Finally, multicultural
education curriculum: issues, approaches, and models were outlined,
completing a base of literature and information used as a reference point for
the implementation of multicultural education in the reading curriculum at the
44


elementary school level identified in this study.
45


CHAPTER 3
METHODS AND PROCEDURES
Overview
The basic purpose of the research study was to employ a quasi-
experimental design to determine how self-concept and achievement were
affected by integrating multicultural education into the schools reading
curriculum. Banks (1994) states that additive factors which strengthen the
curriculum must occur within the curriculum. Thus, the independent variable
identified in this chapter focuses on that component of Banks theory. The
experimental group included 49 sixth-grade students in two classrooms, 25 in
one classroom and 24 in the second experimental classroom. Two reading
teachers at Stein Elementary School participated in the experimental groups.
A brief profile of Stein Elementary School including the student
population, location, instructional programs, and school resources is as
follows:
Student Population:
605 students in grades K-6.
65% free and reduced lunch.
46


55% minority students.
High mobility.
Location:
One of 5 elementary schools in the Alameda articulation area,
an area located in the central part of the Jefferson County
Public Schools. The specific boundaries for Steins attendance
area lie west of Sheridan Boulevard and east of Wadsworth
Boulevard. The north / south boundaries are bounded by Sixth
Avenue on the north and Alameda Avenue on the south.
Instructional Programs:
Bilingual Education.
English As A Second Language.
Title I Reading and Mathematics.
Special Education: Significantly Identifiable Education Disorder.
Educational Handicapped Support Staff.
School Resources:
Preschool.
Head Start.
Early Start.
Multicultural Learning Center (serves total District).
Stein Community Wellness Center.
47


Jeffco Mental Health Partnership.
Professional Development School.
Child Care.
Adult Education.
After School Sports Program.
Stein Elementary School is one of more than 100 schools that make
up the Jefferson County Public Schools. This Pre/K 6 elementary school is
situated in Lakewood, Colorado or the central section of the school district
that adjoins the far west side of the city and county of Denver, Colorado.
The specific population that participated in this research study
consisted of 29 girls and 20 boys in the experimental group and their ethnic
breakdown included 11 Anglo and 9 Hispanic male subjects. Female
ethnicity in the experimental group included 14 Anglo, 12 Hispanic, and 3
Asian female subjects. The school used a rotational system as students
traveled from classroom to classroom. A control sample of 48 students
included two other sixth-grade reading groups, 24 students in each
classroom. Two other reading teachers at Stein Elementary School
volunteered to participate in the control groups. The ethnic breakdown for
males in the control group included 11 Anglo, 9 Hispanic, and 2 Asian
subjects. The ethnic distribution for females in the control group included 19
Anglo, 5 Hispanic, and 2 Asian female subjects. A total of four Stein
48


Elementary School teachers were involved in the study.
An external control group of 28 students from Molholm Elementary
School was added to minimize contamination, if any, in the study.
A pool of students to be accessed in the event that mobility
disproportionately reduced any group was also established. The pool of
students included 20 students, 5 Anglo males and 5 Anglo females, as well
as, 5 Hispanic males and 5 Hispanic females. Hispanic subjects in the pool
differed from Anglo subjects since that disparity was needed to balance the
experimental and control groups in a more equitable fashion.
Although different reading teachers instructed each group, teaching
differences such as years of experience, models of teaching used in the
classroom, and curriculum expertise were controlled via structured inservice
designed to balance" expertise beyond multicultural education expertise.
Such a pre-research staff development plan was structured to control
teacher effects and was developed before the study was initiated. Teacher
profiles are included in Appendix M.
An important consideration was that the researcher control the
application of multicultural education that was hypothesized to cause an
effect and take necessary steps to equalize or control other factors such as
years of experience between teachers and experience in multicultural
education that might impact any results. That application was called
49


treatment, or the integration of multicultural education into the reading
curriculum. Thus, this configuration allowed the researcher to control who
received the treatment, under what conditions, and when. The matched
population, both within experimental groups and the control groups, included
male and female students, ethnic minorities, and transient and less mobile
students. Demographic data available at Stein Elementary School including
grade level, number of years at the school, teacher preparation and training,
instructional materials used, and teacher knowledge on multiculturalism was
collected for participating reading teachers in order to match teacher
populations as closely as possible prior to the initiation of the study.
Specific procedures were employed in order to determine if selected .
strategies of multicultural education were effective (a) in changing students
self-concept and (b) in students academic achievement in reading as
affected by direct involvement in multicultural education. Basic proficiency in
reading skills, self-concept, general school attitude, and general self attitude
was established in October, 1995 and again in April, 1996 to determine the
effect of multicultural education, if any.
To test the validity of implementing multicultural education in the area
of reading, as it might impact the two research questions specified in this
study, certain specific hypotheses, stated in the null form, were formulated:
Ho1 There will be no significant difference between the experimental
50


and control groups with respect to students self- concept as
evidenced by results on the Self-Description Questionnaire
(SDQ).
Ho2 There will be no significant difference between the experimental
and control groups with respect to student achievement in
reading as evidenced by results on the Michigan Educational
Assessment Program (MEAP).
Research Design
The design for this study included the treatment groups (T-1 and T-2:
sixth-grade experimental groups ... integration of multicultural education in
the reading curriculum) and the control groups (T-3 and T-4: sixth-grade
control groups ... no multicultural education). A third external control group
T-5 was added to minimize contamination, if any, in the study. Because T-3
and T-4 received no multicultural education, they were used as a comparison
for the experimental groups (T-1 and T-2) so as to evaluate the integration of
multicultural education in the schools reading curriculum.
51


Symbolically, the research design was as follows:
T-1 0 X1 0
T-2 0 X1 0
T-3 0 X2 0
T-4 0 X2 0
According to this design (Krathwohl, 1993) T-1 and T-2 represent the
experimental groups that received multicultural education as an integrated
component of their day-to-day reading instruction. T-3 and T-4 represent the
control groups that did not receive multicultural education as a part of their
reading program. The 0 preceding X1 and X2 refers to the measure of the
dependent variable utilized for the experimental groups. X1 refers to the
manipulation of the independent variable, multicultural education. X2 refers .
to the basic reading curriculum that is the reading curriculum for all sixth-
grade students at Stein Elementary School including students in both the
experimental and the control groups used in this study. The 0 following X1
and X2 represents the measurement of the dependent variables (students
self-concept and reading achievement). Multicultural education in reading
was the independent treatment variable, and dependent variables were the
effects on students self-concept and their achievement in reading. The
result was that two null hypotheses were tested. Finally, along with the
52


graphic conventions described goes another explanation. The parallel rows
separated by dashed lines represent comparison groups equated prior to the
treatment by using pre-test scores on specified research instruments as
covariates and computing an analysis of covariance on each dependent
variable to statistically equate groups T-1, T-2, T-3, and T-4. This procedure
was completed prior to the introduction of the independent variable,
multicultural education. Such a statistical technique allowed the researcher
to control for possible contamination between groups.
Pre-test data and post-test data was utilized to compare the groups on
the two dependent variables: students self-concept and their achievement in
reading.
Population Sample
The study was conducted using 4 sixth-grade classrooms from Stein
Elementary School, an elementary school in the Jefferson County Public
Schools, Lakewood, Colorado. A third control group T-5 was used to
minimize contamination, if any, in the study. That group of 28 students was
from Molholm Elementary School in the Jefferson County Public Schools.
In May, 1995, two classroom reading groups of 25 sixth-grade
students in each group were identified at Stein Elementary School. These
students were considered the experimental groups (T-1 and T-2). Two
53


other classroom reading groups of 25 sixth-grade students in each group at
Stein Elementary School were considered the control groups (T-3 and T-4).
The MEAP reading test was administered in October, 1995 and was
administered as a post-test in April, 1996 following the completion of
integrating multicultural education into the reading curriculum for two reading
groups at Stein Elementary School. Students in T-5, an external control
group added in the Spring of 1966 at the request of the researchers
committee, took tests selected for this study near the end of the study, thus
only post-test data is available for T-5.
MEAP publishers indicate that if the same MEAP version be used with
students, it must be given no earlier than ninety days after it is first
administered, if test-retest contamination of data is to be minimized. This
issue was addressed since there were more than 100 days separating the
first MEAP from the second. (Michigan Educational Assessment Program.
Appendix B).
The SDQ and the Multicultural Student Questionnaire (MSQ) were
also administered within those time frames. Student data on all instruments
used was coded to ensure anonymity. Independent graders validated
numerical compilation of test scores gathered to ensure correct mathematical
tabulations of test scores. Data was compared on a pre post- test basis in an
effort to test the research hypotheses.
54


Treatment Procedures
The treatment for the experimental group (T-1 and T-2: integration of
multicultural education into the reading curriculum) was a structured
sequence of activities, including exposure to multicultural events and use of
supplementary multicultural materials. A description of multicultural
education integrated into the reading curriculum that was delivered to
students in the experimental group is included in this section. Multicultural
curriculum contained in Appendix L provides additional information relating to
multicultural concepts and materials used in the study. A description of the
regular reading curriculum referenced above was delivered to students in the
control groups and is included in Appendix C.
Selection of a control group was considered problematic since
differences between the control groups and experimental groups had to be
carefully documented and controlled. Therefore, to minimize such
differences while maintaining the power of a statistical test (choosing very
homogeneous samples, like curriculum areas, eliminating extraneous factors,
and controlling distracting variables), this researcher chose to use 4 sixth-
grade reading teachers at Stein Elementary School. Differences in training,
years of experience, use of basic classroom reading materials, instructional
techniques, and the like were balanced to the extent possible so as to control
for teacher effects. Remaining differences were controlled through a
55


structured inservice training program involving the four teachers prior to the
initiation of the study, one that equalized teacher skills in areas such as
knowledge of district excursion procedures and understanding of community
resources. Those four teachers delivered regular reading instruction to
students assigned to research groups T-1, T-2, T-3, and T-4. Teachers
assigned to the T-1 and T-2 experimental groups were trained so that they
could integrate multicultural education into the basic reading curriculum as
an added component. Teachers assigned to the T-3 and T-4 control groups
delivered the Districts established reading curriculum, but did not participate
in multicultural training. This was also true for T-5, the external control group
added in the Spring of 1996 so as to minimize contamination, if any, in the
study. Although all of the teachers were informed that some kind of study
was conducted, they were unaware of its exact focus.
Forty-nine subjects, 25 in one classroom and 24 in the second
experimental classroom, including males and females whose average age
was 11.87, and who represented both minority and Anglo pupils from a
variety of social and economic backgrounds in a school that represented a
predominantly working-class, transient population were exposed to
multicultural education in reading for approximately one hour per day from
October, 1995 to April, 1996.
56


Additional activities such as attending cultural events were included
and re-delineated in multicultural scope and sequence presented below.
Integration of Multicultural Education
in the Reading Curriculum
Students in the experimental groups were instructed using the basic
Jefferson County Public Schools reading curriculum. That curriculum
consisted of four goal areas: the student gains meaning for listening, oral
reading, and silent reading; the student uses vocabulary development skills;
the student understands the strategies used for different reading tasks; and
the student develops fluency with language and print.
Next, Mosaics, a reading series developed by Curriculum Associates,
Inc. (1993), was integrated into the Jefferson County Public Schools reading
curriculum. Mosaics introduces seven multicultural themes: Celebrations
from the Around the World, Food from Around the World, Legendary Leaders
from Around the World, Everyday Life Around the World, Sports from Around
the World, Arts and Music from Around the World, and Folktales from Around
the World. Sample units are included in Appendix L. These seven themes
complement the four goal areas in the basic reading curriculum for the
Jefferson County Public Schools.
57


Students in the control groups had, as a part of their reading
instruction, a sixth grade book list. That book list was used for silent and
independent reading and is a component of the Jefferson County Public
Schools reading curriculum at the sixth-grade level.
The students in the experimental groups did not use the traditional
book list used by students in the control groups.
Students in the experimental groups did not use the traditional book
list used by students in the control groups.
Students in the experimental groups used a multicultural book list for
silent and independent reading (Appendix 0). Students were required to
maintain a log of books read. Teachers matched Mosaics and books read by
students during silent and independent reading to geography units. For
example, when students studied a certain continent, books read
independently were matched to a given geographical area. Mosaics units
were also matched to those books read and to geographical areas. Students
also made scrapbooks that incorporated the geography of countries and
reading. Written reports reflecting their silent or independent reading were
included in those scrapbooks.
Moreover, students in the experimental groups used an organizational
plan for using literature in the reading classroom. That plan was entitled
Three Groups, Three Novels, and No Chaos (Appendix N).
58


Day-to-day instruction for students in experimental groups also
included exposure to authors, role models or groups representing various
cultures, and participation in cultural field trips.
Students in experimental groups also received training in 'Kuitural
Kids (Brown, 1994). Kuitural Kids is a self-esteem program (Appendix L).
Students also attended a second self-esteem training program, World of
Difference (Anti-Defamation League, 1989).
The two teachers who delivered day-to-day instruction, including field
trips, speakers, and school-wide assemblies to students in the experimental
group also used other multicultural references. A synopsis of those
references and activities is as follows:
1. The integration of multicultural education in the reading
curriculum with cultural diversity included resource
materials that were available for students that provided
accurate information on the diverse aspects of the
histories and cultures of various racial, ethnic, and
cultural groups. Learning centers, libraries, and
resource centers included a variety of resources on the
history, literature, geography, music folklore, views of
life, and art of different ethnic and cultural groups.
Multicultural Reading Materials
Mosaics, 1993. Curriculum Associates, Inc. North Billerica,
MA.
Cultures of America, 1995. Marshal Cavendish Corporation.
North Bellmore, NY.
Cultures of the World, 1991. Marshall Cavendish Corporation.
North Bellmore, NY.
59



2.
3.
A Multicultural Portrait of World War II, 1994. Marshall
Cavendish Corporation. North Bellmore, NY.
Women in Society, 1994. Marshall Cavendish Corporation.
North Bellmore, New York.
Library of Famous Women, 1992. Blackbirch Press, Inc.
Woodbridge, CT.
Growing Up Around the World, 1995. Blackbirch Press, Inc.
Woodbridge, CT.
Lessons for Life, 1996. Blackbirch Press, Inc. Woodbridge,
CT.
Multicultural Booklist References accessed by teachers
included books reflecting nine cultural groups: African-
American, Asian-American, Caribbean Islanders, Hispanic,
Jewish, Native American, Norwegian, Polish, and Russian.
The curriculum enrichment in the reading curriculum as it
related to multicultural education provided students with
continuous opportunities to develop a better sense of self in the
following areas:
Self-identity.
Self-concept.
Self-understanding.
Inter-group understanding.
Resources
Lessons for Life: Education and Learning Marianne Pickering.
Growing up Around the World Patricia Lakin.
Conflict Center Peer Relation Workshops.
Kultural Kids Workshops.
The integration of multicultural education in the reading
curriculum helped students understand and appreciate their
personal backgrounds and family heritages.
Mosaics: Everyday Life Around the World.
Mosaics: Art and Music from Around the World.
Mosaics: Legendary Leaders from Around the World.
Mosaics: Folktales from Around the World.
60


Mosaics: Celebrations from Around the World.
4. Reading was an essential strain of the curriculum. Included
was the integration of multicultural education by providing
continuous study of the cultures, historical experience, folklore,
and geography of ethnic and cultural groups.
Cultures of the World.
A Multicultural Portrait of World War II.
5. Students were taught that persons from all cultural groups have
common characteristics and needs, although they are affected
differently by certain social situations and may use different
means to respond to their needs and to achieve their
objectives.
Cultures of America.
The Library of Famous Women.
6. The integration of Multicultural. Education in the Reading
curriculum consistently addressed the development of the entire
geo-cultural U.S. The flow of cultures into the U.S.
Immigration Video Series
Geography / Writers Workshop
Guest Speakers: Eric Cahn (Jewish), Wit Downing (Southwest),
Kevin Haight (Inca), Michiko Fukui (Japanese), Patty
Foshi (Native American), Hoan Mai (Vietnamese), and
Tomas Romero (Hispanic).
Story Tellers: Pat Faro, Multicultural Stories.
Field Trips: Art Museum (African American), Buddhist Temple
(Asian Art), Mizel Museum (Bridges of Understanding),
and Natural History Museum (Native Americans).
Cultural Assemblies: Aztec Dancers, Japanese International
Assembly, Mexican Dancers, Peruvian Flute Players,
and Spanish Dancers.
Cultural Inservices: World of Difference Training and Anti-
Defamation League.
61


Staff Development
Staff training was conducted for all participating teachers prior to the
initiation of the study. This staff training was embedded in the pre-service
training sessions provided for ail teachers at Stein Elementary School so as
to minimize any Hawthorne effect. That is, the study was structured to
ensure than any improvement was due to the introduction of the independent
variable, multicultural education, and not for any other reason. Training
focused on District excursion procedures, community resources available to
teachers, school, and District procedures relating to the use of speakers and
experimental sets of instructional materials, and on a review of curriculum
strands including the reading curriculum.
Teachers assigned to experimental groups participated in four hours
of inservice training in the area of inter-cultural understanding with Joe
Cooper.
Multicultural education training was also provided in a four-hour
session conducted by Leonard Baca and Rocky Hill from the Bueno Center,
University of Colorado. A third four-hour session dealing with multicultural
literature was also provided by six authors from the metropolitan area of
Denver (Appendix G). Teachers also attended the Colorado Association of
Bilingual Education (CABE) conference in the Fall of 1995.
62


Instruments and Measurements
Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ^
One research question formulated is as follows:
Do changes occur in students self-concept as a result of integrating
multicultural education in the reading curriculum?
Marsh (1985) designed and tested a 76 item, SDQ that was used to
gather data to address the research question relating to self-concept. Self-
concept, according to Shavelson, Hubner, and Stanton (1976) has been used
to explain a wide variety of behaviors and the goal of fostering positive self-
concept has been the subject of a variety of educational and clinical
interventions. Moreover, despite its importance, reviews of the literature on
self-concept indicate that important shortcomings have been noted,
especially the lack of a strong theoretical basis and the poor quality of
instrumentation. To remedy this situation, the authors of the SDQ conducted
a specific criteria for evaluating self-concept and proposed a multifaceted,
hierarchial model. This model served as a basis for the current form of the
SDQ used in this study. Among the areas tested using that SDQ were the
areas of reading, mathematics, general self, and general school attitudes.
Sub-test scores for males, as well as, females were analyzed. A factorial
design allowed the researcher to test interactions of ethnicity, gender, and
63


treatment.
Also, given the non-existence of test instruments designed to measure
students attitudes toward other cultures, this researcher administered, in a
parallel fashion, an instrument designed to measure students attitudes
toward other cultures. Data obtained from that instrument developed by this
researcher, the MSQ was correlated with data obtained from the SDQ. A
long range effort needs to be initiated to establish the reliability and validity
of the MSQ as it relates to populations such as those used in the
experimental and control group populations specified in this study. That
extensive process was considered to be beyond the parameters of this study.
Multicultural Student Questionnaire (MSQ)
Griego (1995) designed a 63 item, MSQ developed to measure
students attitudes toward other cultures. Attitudes toward reading and
students self-concept were interwoven into the questionnaire items, yet
attitudes toward other cultures were of primary concern when data gathered
in the study was tabulated.
Accordingly, this researcher coded questions so as to categorize
students responses in two categories: attitude toward culture and self-
concept.
64


An initial identification of theoretically consistent and distinct facets of
multicultural education and its precepts initially guided the development of
the MSQ. More specifically, rather than focusing on the multiple variables
relating to self-concept, particularly its complexity and organization, Griego
focused on the relationships between specific cultural facets and other
constructs. That relationship centered on academic achievement in reading
and attitudes about other cultures when students were exposed to
multicultural education in reading. It is in that area where the effects of
multicultural education, when integrated into reading, were tested.
However, it is important once again to point out that significant work
beyond the parameters of this study must be undertaken to deal with issues
such as reliability, validity of the MSQ, and other test and measurement
considerations relating to the complete development of this pilot instrument.
Thus, data obtained from the MSQ were not used to accept or reject
the null hypotheses presented in the study.
Nevertheless, recommendations developed as a result of data
gathered from the administration of the MSQ are included in Chapter Five of
this study and could relate to recommendations for further study as proposed
by this researcher.
65


Michigan Educational Assessment Program in Reading (MEAP1
A second research question specified in the study addressed students
achievement in reading. That question was tested through the use of the
MEAP.
The emerging adoption of standards in the State of Colorado indicate
that there needs to be a consideration for assessment strategies that will
provide the most useful and accurate information about student achievement.
In some cases, assessment of study progress remains as a traditional testing
process within some school systems, while in others assessment is emerging
as performance assessment of progress toward identified performance
standards. This is the assessment process in Weld County School District
Six (Greeley, Colorado) a rural school district in northern Colorado.
There the school system uses the MEAP which requires students to
demonstrate their ability to read and comprehend both narrative and
informational text.
Topic familiarity is incorporated into the MEAP. The purpose and
rationale of the MEAP is supported by the national Report of the Commission
on Reading (Anderson, et al., 1985) which indicates that readers knowledge
about people, places, and things; and knowledge about texts and their
organization" are reading performance factors. Also, that the test measures
how well students apply their knowledge, skills, and strategies to reading
66


situations that are representative of those they encounter in their classroom.
The research also stresses that good readers are those who have developed
positive attitudes about reading and positive self-perceptions about
themselves. Reading selections are stories and informational selections
taken from childrens magazines, literature anthologies, and content area
textbooks appropriate for each grade level.
Also, the Commission states that the knowledge and experience an
individual brings to their reading are critical factors in comprehension, as well
as, considerations of the readers prior knowledge about information to
determine performance. The topic familiarity items are designed to measure
a students knowledge of the key concepts that are important to understand
and relate to the reading selections.
Thus, the particular section of that test battery used in the study
addressed the second research question presented in the study.
Is students academic achievement affected when multicultural
education is integrated in the reading curriculum?
MEAP data was used to accept or reject the null hypothesis related to
this research question.
The MEAP includes a test battery that includes an informational
section that addresses people and culture. There are five sections. Section
One deals with culture and the remaining four sections relate to beliefs, tools
67


and skills, organization (family and religion), and communication (language).
There are 34 multiple choice questions to test student progress toward the
five sections of the test.
The MEAP was administered in October, 1995 to students in 4 sixth-
grade reading groups at Stein Elementary School. Data from such MEAP
assessments administered to 97 students, 49 in two experimental groups T-1
and T-2, and 50 each in two control groups T-3 and T-4, was used to
determine how the integration of multicultural education into the reading
curriculum affected students academic progress in reading.
MEAP assessments provide system and individual student
accountability and have been used by Weld County School District Six in
Greeley, Colorado, with significant success since 1988. These assessments
accurately assess progress toward content standards now being specified by
Colorados Standards and Assessment Council established in 1993 by
House Bill 1313. Each assessment has inter-rater correlations or inter-rater
agreement above 0.85 or 85%. Assessment scores (pre-test, as well as,
post-test) were subjected to statistical procedures specified in this study.
Students with special needs were exempted if they were in the experimental .
or control group. Monolingual students whose language is other than English
were also exempted since assessments were offered only in English. A
sample of the MEAP which includes a partial sample of a Reading
68


Informational Selection at the sixth-grade level, one that deals with people
and culture, is included in Appendix B. A process was established to code
teacher and student data to insure anonymity of respondents. Parents or
guardians of participating students signed a consent form as required by the<
University of Colorado at Denver (Appendix K).
Data Collection Procedures
In the first stage of the study, teachers and administrators assigned to
Stein Elementary School were invited to complete a MSQ based on James A.
Banks model. This administration was helpful in understanding and
controlling teacher effects relative to multicultural education, the independent
variable specified in the study.
Question categories developed by Banks were modified by this
researcher so that a multicultural awareness interview protocol used with
teachers could be established by October, 1995. Also, prior to conducting
research in the Jefferson County Public Schools, this researcher complied
with the Districts Board Policy LC, a policy detailing the process for
conducting research within the school system. Compliance with the
University of Colorados research requirements was also an integral part of
the process. Appropriate documentation is included in Appendix J.
69


Early in May of 1995, the study was discussed with teachers and deans
(assistant administrative staff) at Stein Elementary School. Participants
volunteering to take part in the study were sent a copy of the MSQ for
information and a data sheet requesting demographic data including gender,
age, total years of teaching experience, and number of multicultural courses
taken as a university or an inservice course in the area of multiculturalism.
Deans were sent a form describing the student achievement phase of
the study and were informed by the Principal as to the sixth-grade teachers
participating in the study. Research parameters relating to student
participation in any research study were explained and followed. Samples of
parent permission forms are included in Appendix K.
In May, 1995 two classroom reading groups of 25 sixth-grade students
in each group were identified at Stein Elementary School. These students
were considered the experimental groups (T-1 and T-2). Two other
classroom reading groups of 25 sixth-grade students in each group at Stein
Elementary School were considered the control groups (T-3 and T-4).
Mobility within Stein Elementary School changed numbers somewhat in both
the experimental and control groups and the actual number of participants
was presented in an earlier section of this Chapter.
The MEAP reading test was administered in October, 1995 and was
administered on a post-test basis in April, 1996 following the completion of
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multicultural education intervention in two reading groups at Stein
Elementary School. A third control group, T-5 was added in the Spring of
1996 at the request of this researchers committee in an effort to minimize
contamination, if any, in the study.
MEAP publishers indicate that if the same MEAP version is to be used
with students, it must be given no earlier than ninety days after it is first
administered if test-retest contamination of data is to be minimized. This
issue was addressed since there were more than 100 days separating the
first MEAP administration from the second. The SDQ and the MSQ were
also administered within those time frames.
Student data on all instruments used was coded to ensure anonymity.
Data was compared on a pre-post test basis in an effort to test the research
hypotheses.
Limitations of the Study
The nature of the study suggests several limiting factors. By selecting
sixth-grade students from two reading groups as the experimental groups,
while it does minimize differences enough to ensure comparability,
generalizability to other grades, subject areas, and other school districts is
restricted.
However, four reading groups of sixth-grade students with similar
71


demographics were selected because they provided opportunity to closely
control dependent and independent variables. A third control group (T-5)
was added late in the study to minimize any possible contamination.
Also, the complete study was conducted in only one school so that the
researcher could closely control selected variables. If there had been
different schools involved, differences between sites could have been
problematic and would have needed to be carefully documented. This may
be a consideration should a similar study be initiated in the future by this
researcher or other interested colleagues.
Nevertheless, the study provides a basis for examining how students
are affected with multicultural education is integrated into the reading
curriculum.
Treatment of Data
Data from the instruments used in the study, together with teacher and
student biographical information, was coded for anonymity and stored for the
purpose of analysis. The SPSS was the computer program used for analysis.
An analysis of covariance, one-way analysis of variance, and the various
interactions for treatment, gender, and ethnicity were used.
Since mobility was not addressed given the logistical limitations of the
study, data gathered for students entering or exiting the identified reading
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groups during the time period from October, 1995 to April, 1996 was
excluded. Instead, there was a pool of students to be accessed in the
event that mobility disproportionately reduced any group. That pool of
students included 24 students: 5 Anglo males and 5 Anglo females, as well
as, 7 Hispanic males and 7 Hispanic females. Hispanic subjects in the pool
differed from Anglo subjects since that disparity was needed to balance the
experimental and control groups in a more equitable fashion given student
mobility.
Three different types of data analysis were employed. The first type
utilized reading information and reading comprehension scores on the
standardized instrument, the MEAP. Pre-test scores on this instrument were
used as a covariate, and for each dependent variable, an analysis of
covariance was computed. Pre-test data gathered for each dependent
variable was used in lieu of random assignment to groups as a basis for
equating the experimental groups T-1 and T-2 with the control groups T-3
and T-4, prior to the treatment.
A second type of analysis focused on an analysis of total scores on
the pre-test as a covariate and utilized data obtained from the SDQ. Total
self-concept, as well as, total academic scores were analyzed. Sub-test
scores in reading, genera! school attitude, and general self attitude were also
used for purposes of analysis.
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A parallel analysis included a process designed to correlate self-
concept and multicultural awareness on data obtained from the MSQ, with
data obtained from the SDQ, in order to begin establishing the validity and
reliability of the MSQ but, more importantly, to gain some initial insights
relating to students attitude about other races and culture.
Since other dependent variables ... general self attitude and general
school attitude ... beyond the variables of self-concept and reading were
isolated and tested by the SDQ, it was necessary to perform appropriate
analysis of variance (ANOVAS).
Statistical procedures were also necessary to test differences over the
level of factors as they related to gender and ethnicity and whether there
were any interactions among gender, ethnicity, and treatment. Such
differences were also subjected to an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).
Adding the variables of gender and ethnicity to the study necessitated
the use of a three-factor design. Such a design was considered as a factorial
design that reduced the number of groups to the combinations in which the
researcher was particularly interested in and allowed for an analysis of all the
interactions of the variables. There were several cells in such that design
(Krathwohl, 1993).
Moreover, to test accurately for interactions, a balanced design of
equal sized cells was established. Thus, for example, in the study of
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variables of ethnicity, by experimental and control group, were nested
across gender. The constraints of such a nested design allowed the
researcher to estimate only for the following effects:
Main effects for treatment.
Main effects for gender.
Main effects for ethnicity.
Interaction of gender X treatment.
Interaction of gender X ethnicity.
Interaction of ethnicity X treatment.
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TABLE 3.1
FACTORIAL DESIGN
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Symbols (A, B, H and 0) in the factorial design presented on page 77
relate to ethnicity of participants. Asian = A, Black = B, Hispanic = H, and
Other (Anglo) = O.
Also, in order to deal with questions as to external validity, the
following procedures were employed:
1. There was a clear definition of the participants in the study.
2. There was a clear definition of the independent variable and the
treatment so that replication across time and subjects related to
the study could be repeated in an exact manner.
3. There was a factorial analysis used to allow the detection of
interaction among the variables of treatment by gender by
ethnicity.
4. There was an analysis of covariance employed in order to
equalize research groups prior to the study.
Validity of Study
The nature of the study suggests several limiting factors. By selecting
sixth-grade students from two reading groups as the experimental groups,
while it does minimize differences enough to ensure comparability,
generalizability to other grades, subject areas, and school districts is
restricted. Adding a third control group (T-5) late in the study may have been
77


an important consideration to minimize contamination, if any, in the study.
However, four reading groups of sixth-grade students with similar
demographics were selected because they provided opportunity to closely
control dependent and independent variables. If there had been different
schools involved, differences between sites could have been problematic and
would need to be carefully documented if further research is to be conducted.
Nevertheless, the study serves as a basis for examining how students
are affected when multicultural education is integrated into the reading
curriculum.
In general, the study yielded results that could be generalizable to
reading teachers at the elementary level who are monolingual in English and
who instruct sixth-grade students, minority and Caucasian, in a suburban,
predominately working-class area with high mobility. Ultimately, the design
of the study, control of the dependent and independent variables, data
gathered, and an analysis of that data could be helpful in determining the
generalizability of the study to other particular settings.
Summary
This chapter described the methods and procedures that were utilized
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in the research study. Specific sections are included that deal with research
questions and related hypotheses stated in the null form, research design,
selection and description of the sample, treatment procedures, a description
of the experimental and control groups, instruments used in the study, data
collection procedures, treatment of the data, and validity of the study.
There were two major hypotheses, each of which was treated
separately for groups T-1, T-2, T-3, and T-4. Statistical tests employed
included the analysis of variance and analysis of covariance procedures.
These tests were used to determine the significance of difference, if any,
between the four groups as evidenced by results on the SDQ and the MEAP.
A third control group (T-5) was added late in the study to minimize
contamination, if any, in the study.
A secondary research component, although not used to accept or
reject the two null hypotheses presented in this study, utilized data obtained
from the MSQ to test students self-concept and attitudes toward other races
and cultures.
In addition, a factorial design was developed that related to data
analysis obtained, one that allowed for the detection of interactions among
the variables of treatment by gender by ethnicity.
The criterion for accepting or rejecting the null hypotheses was set at
the 0.05 level of significance.
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CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
The results of this study are presented in this chapter and include: (1)
brief statements of research questions and theoretical hypotheses; (2) a
synopsis of the instruments used to obtain the data; and (3) a detailed
analysis of the findings.
The research questions which this study attempted to answer were:
(1) Do changes occur in students self-concept as a result of
integrating multicultural education in the reading curriculum?
(2) Is students reading achievement affected when multicultural
education is integrated in the reading curriculum?
The data for this study were obtained from scores of participating
subjects on the SDQ and the MEAP in reading. Pilot data was also obtained
on participating students with the MSQ, but data gathered with this third
instrument was not used to accept or reject null hypotheses formulated for
this study. Should the MSQ be used in further research, that instrument must
be subjected to all parameters associated with the field of tests and
measurement. Post-test data was collected using the SDQ, MEAP, and MSQ
for all participating students.
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The statistical procedure, analysis of covariance, was used to
statistically equate experimental and control groups prior to the study since
the 97 subjects who participated in this study could not be randomly selected
given the logistical parameters of the study.
Therefore, analysis of covariance using the pre-test scores on the
SDQ and the MEAP as covariates, was conducted so that any differences in
self-concept and achievement in reading among the participating students
prior to the introduction of the independent variable, multicultural education,
could be removed from the analysis.
A similar statistical procedure was initiated using students pre-test
scores on the MSQ, yet that data did not impact research questions or null
hypotheses. Data obtained from the MSQ is included for discussion only.
The statistical procedures employed which impacted data obtained
from the SDQ, MEAP, and MSQ and the analysis of that data include:
Analysis One Analysis of Covariance.
Analysis Two Analysis of Variance.
Analysis Three Interaction Analysis: Factorial Design with crossed
and nested factors.
The research questions formulated for this study then led to the
development of null hypotheses to be accepted or rejected based on data
obtained from selected instruments. In order that these hypotheses be tested
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empirically, they were stated in the null form.
The significance level for rejecting the two null hypotheses developed
for this study was set at the 0.05 level. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)
and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze data and test the
null hypotheses.
Hypotheses Testing
Two null hypotheses were developed for purpose of analysis. Results
obtained relative to the second null hypothesis concerned student
achievement, and achievement results will be presented first given that
student achievement in reading was, of the two areas tested, the most
significant area.
Hypothesis 2 related to the second research question formulated for
this study. That research question was as follows:
(2) Is students reading achievement affected when multicultural
education is integrated in the reading curriculum?
Hypothesis 2, stated in the null form and developed for the purpose of
analysis, was stated as follows:
Ho2 There will be no significant difference between the experimental
and control groups with respect to student achievement in
reading as evidenced by results on the MEAP.
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Results of the analysis of variance procedures performed on the two
major tests presented in the MEAP: informational reading (Information Sub-
test) and reading comprehension (Story Sub-test) related to reading
variables measured by the MEAP.
Table 4.1, analysis of variance, MEAP Information Sub-test begins the
presentation of data obtained in this study. Data presented in this first table
reveals that scores for the experimental group and the control group were
statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance. An inspection of the
F-ratio between group variance reveals that results exceeded the alpha level
required in this study and null Hypothesis 2 was rejected.
It is important to point out that an explanation of the analysis of
variance and analysis of covariance procedures are presented in Appendix
H and I.
Nevertheless, this researcher has included a brief narrative
explanation in this section of those procedures beginning with the analysis of
variance procedure and its relationship to data presented in Table 4.1. A
subsequent explanation of the analysis of covariance and its relationship to
data presented beginning with Table 4.2, has also been provided for the
reader. These explanations will apply to all subsequent ANOVA and
ANCOVA tables except that each of the tables that follow that relate to both
the ANOVA and ANCOVA statistical techniques will have narrative
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explanations that apply to data presented in a given table.
Suffice to say that these explanations are for clarification only and
should not be considered as complete explanations of this statistical
technique. What is important for researchers to know is what statistical
technique to use? Why one uses a given statistical technique? How to use
a given technique?
ANOVA then was the appropriate statistical technique to use when
there is more than one group in a study. This was the case in this research
study, a study with two groups.
In such a situation one will usually want to use an analysis of variance
(ANOVA) as a way to analyze for statistical significance of the differences
among the means of the groups. ANOVA looks at the amount of variability
(differences) between the means of the group compared with the amount of
variability among the individual scores within each group. That is, the
variance between groups versus the variance within groups. The questions
that ANOVA answers is whether the populations that the samples come from
have the same mean or whether at least one population has a different
mean.
The ANOVA summary table in this study, Table 4.1, simply
summarizes the analysis of variance procedure as explained by Lomax
(1992).
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The first column lists the sources of variation in the model. In this
model of a one-factor ANOVA, the total variation is partitioned into treatment
(between group variation) and within group variation.
The second column notes the sums of squares for each source, i.e.,
Ssbetw, Sswith, and Sstotal while the third column given the degrees of
freedom for each source.
That is, in general degrees of freedom has to do with the number of
observations that are free to vary. For the between groups variation, in a
definitional formula, researchers deal with the deviation of each group mean
from the overall mean.
In this study, there were two group means (described as J) so the
degrees of freedom between groups must be J-1 or 1 degree of freedom.
Column four presents mean squares between (treatment) and mean
squares within groups while the fifth column presents the F-ratio.
The F-ratio is computed by taking the ratio of the two mean squares or
variance terms (F=MS betw/MSwith).
This F-ratio tells a researcher whether there is more variation between
groups than there is within groups, which must be the case if one is to reject
the null hypothesis.
Next, the F-ratio is then compared with the F critical value so as to
make a decision about the null hypothesis.
85